R&S ESR EMI Test Receiver - Rohde & Schwarz Middle East and

R&S ESR EMI Test Receiver - Rohde & Schwarz Middle East and
R&S®ESR
EMI Test Receiver
User Manual
(;ÙÔÒ2)
User Manual
Test & Measurement
1175.7068.02 ─ 05
This manual covers the following products:
● R&S ESR3
●
R&S ESR7
●
R&S FSV-B9
●
R&S ESR-B50
●
R&S ESR-K53
●
R&S ESR-K56
The contents of this manual correspond to firmware version 1.78SP1 or higher.
© 2013 Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG
Mühldorfstr. 15, 81671 München, Germany
Phone: +49 89 41 29 - 0
Fax: +49 89 41 29 12 164
E-mail: [email protected]
Internet: www.rohde-schwarz.com
Printed in Germany – Subject to change – Data without tolerance limits is not binding.
R&S® is a registered trademark of Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG.
Trade names are trademarks of the owners.
The following abbreviations are used throughout this manual: R&S®ESR is abbreviated as R&S ESR.
Basic Safety Instructions
Always read through and comply with the following safety instructions!
All plants and locations of the Rohde & Schwarz group of companies make every effort to keep the safety
standards of our products up to date and to offer our customers the highest possible degree of safety. Our
products and the auxiliary equipment they require are designed, built and tested in accordance with the
safety standards that apply in each case. Compliance with these standards is continuously monitored by
our quality assurance system. The product described here has been designed, built and tested in
accordance with the EC Certificate of Conformity and has left the manufacturer’s plant in a condition fully
complying with safety standards. To maintain this condition and to ensure safe operation, you must
observe all instructions and warnings provided in this manual. If you have any questions regarding these
safety instructions, the Rohde & Schwarz group of companies will be happy to answer them.
Furthermore, it is your responsibility to use the product in an appropriate manner. This product is designed
for use solely in industrial and laboratory environments or, if expressly permitted, also in the field and must
not be used in any way that may cause personal injury or property damage. You are responsible if the
product is used for any purpose other than its designated purpose or in disregard of the manufacturer's
instructions. The manufacturer shall assume no responsibility for such use of the product.
The product is used for its designated purpose if it is used in accordance with its product documentation
and within its performance limits (see data sheet, documentation, the following safety instructions). Using
the product requires technical skills and, in some cases, a basic knowledge of English. It is therefore
essential that only skilled and specialized staff or thoroughly trained personnel with the required skills be
allowed to use the product. If personal safety gear is required for using Rohde & Schwarz products, this
will be indicated at the appropriate place in the product documentation. Keep the basic safety instructions
and the product documentation in a safe place and pass them on to the subsequent users.
Observing the safety instructions will help prevent personal injury or damage of any kind caused by
dangerous situations. Therefore, carefully read through and adhere to the following safety instructions
before and when using the product. It is also absolutely essential to observe the additional safety
instructions on personal safety, for example, that appear in relevant parts of the product documentation. In
these safety instructions, the word "product" refers to all merchandise sold and distributed by the Rohde &
Schwarz group of companies, including instruments, systems and all accessories. For product-specific
information, see the data sheet and the product documentation.
Safety labels on products
The following safety labels are used on products to warn against risks and dangers.
Symbol
Meaning
Notice, general danger location
Symbol
Meaning
ON/OFF supply voltage
Observe product documentation
Caution when handling heavy equipment
Standby indication
Danger of electric shock
Direct current (DC)
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Basic Safety Instructions
Symbol
Meaning
Symbol
Meaning
Warning! Hot surface
Alternating current (AC)
Protective conductor terminal
Direct/alternating current (DC/AC)
Ground
Device fully protected by double (reinforced)
insulation
Ground terminal
EU labeling for batteries and accumulators
For additional information, see section "Waste
disposal/Environmental protection", item 1.
Be careful when handling electrostatic sensitive
devices
EU labeling for separate collection of electrical
and electronic devices
For additonal information, see section "Waste
disposal/Environmental protection", item 2.
Warning! Laser radiation
For additional information, see section
"Operation", item 7.
Signal words and their meaning
The following signal words are used in the product documentation in order to warn the reader about risks
and dangers.
Indicates a hazardous situation which, if not avoided, will result in death or
serious injury.
Indicates a hazardous situation which, if not avoided, could result in death or
serious injury.
Indicates a hazardous situation which, if not avoided, could result in minor or
moderate injury.
Indicates information considered important, but not hazard-related, e.g.
messages relating to property damage.
In the product documentation, the word ATTENTION is used synonymously.
These signal words are in accordance with the standard definition for civil applications in the European
Economic Area. Definitions that deviate from the standard definition may also exist in other economic
areas or military applications. It is therefore essential to make sure that the signal words described here
are always used only in connection with the related product documentation and the related product. The
use of signal words in connection with unrelated products or documentation can result in misinterpretation
and in personal injury or material damage.
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Basic Safety Instructions
Operating states and operating positions
The product may be operated only under the operating conditions and in the positions specified by the
manufacturer, without the product's ventilation being obstructed. If the manufacturer's specifications are
not observed, this can result in electric shock, fire and/or serious personal injury or death. Applicable local
or national safety regulations and rules for the prevention of accidents must be observed in all work
performed.
1. Unless otherwise specified, the following requirements apply to Rohde & Schwarz products:
predefined operating position is always with the housing floor facing down, IP protection 2X, use only
indoors, max. operating altitude 2000 m above sea level, max. transport altitude 4500 m above sea
level. A tolerance of ±10 % shall apply to the nominal voltage and ±5 % to the nominal frequency,
overvoltage category 2, pollution severity 2.
2. Do not place the product on surfaces, vehicles, cabinets or tables that for reasons of weight or stability
are unsuitable for this purpose. Always follow the manufacturer's installation instructions when
installing the product and fastening it to objects or structures (e.g. walls and shelves). An installation
that is not carried out as described in the product documentation could result in personal injury or
even death.
3. Do not place the product on heat-generating devices such as radiators or fan heaters. The ambient
temperature must not exceed the maximum temperature specified in the product documentation or in
the data sheet. Product overheating can cause electric shock, fire and/or serious personal injury or
even death.
Electrical safety
If the information on electrical safety is not observed either at all or to the extent necessary, electric shock,
fire and/or serious personal injury or death may occur.
1. Prior to switching on the product, always ensure that the nominal voltage setting on the product
matches the nominal voltage of the AC supply network. If a different voltage is to be set, the power
fuse of the product may have to be changed accordingly.
2. In the case of products of safety class I with movable power cord and connector, operation is
permitted only on sockets with a protective conductor contact and protective conductor.
3. Intentionally breaking the protective conductor either in the feed line or in the product itself is not
permitted. Doing so can result in the danger of an electric shock from the product. If extension cords
or connector strips are implemented, they must be checked on a regular basis to ensure that they are
safe to use.
4. If there is no power switch for disconnecting the product from the AC supply network, or if the power
switch is not suitable for this purpose, use the plug of the connecting cable to disconnect the product
from the AC supply network. In such cases, always ensure that the power plug is easily reachable and
accessible at all times. For example, if the power plug is the disconnecting device, the length of the
connecting cable must not exceed 3 m. Functional or electronic switches are not suitable for providing
disconnection from the AC supply network. If products without power switches are integrated into
racks or systems, the disconnecting device must be provided at the system level.
5. Never use the product if the power cable is damaged. Check the power cables on a regular basis to
ensure that they are in proper operating condition. By taking appropriate safety measures and
carefully laying the power cable, ensure that the cable cannot be damaged and that no one can be
hurt by, for example, tripping over the cable or suffering an electric shock.
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Basic Safety Instructions
6. The product may be operated only from TN/TT supply networks fuse-protected with max. 16 A (higher
fuse only after consulting with the Rohde & Schwarz group of companies).
7. Do not insert the plug into sockets that are dusty or dirty. Insert the plug firmly and all the way into the
socket provided for this purpose. Otherwise, sparks that result in fire and/or injuries may occur.
8. Do not overload any sockets, extension cords or connector strips; doing so can cause fire or electric
shocks.
9. For measurements in circuits with voltages Vrms > 30 V, suitable measures (e.g. appropriate
measuring equipment, fuse protection, current limiting, electrical separation, insulation) should be
taken to avoid any hazards.
10. Ensure that the connections with information technology equipment, e.g. PCs or other industrial
computers, comply with the IEC60950-1/EN60950-1 or IEC61010-1/EN 61010-1 standards that apply
in each case.
11. Unless expressly permitted, never remove the cover or any part of the housing while the product is in
operation. Doing so will expose circuits and components and can lead to injuries, fire or damage to the
product.
12. If a product is to be permanently installed, the connection between the protective conductor terminal
on site and the product's protective conductor must be made first before any other connection is
made. The product may be installed and connected only by a licensed electrician.
13. For permanently installed equipment without built-in fuses, circuit breakers or similar protective
devices, the supply circuit must be fuse-protected in such a way that anyone who has access to the
product, as well as the product itself, is adequately protected from injury or damage.
14. Use suitable overvoltage protection to ensure that no overvoltage (such as that caused by a bolt of
lightning) can reach the product. Otherwise, the person operating the product will be exposed to the
danger of an electric shock.
15. Any object that is not designed to be placed in the openings of the housing must not be used for this
purpose. Doing so can cause short circuits inside the product and/or electric shocks, fire or injuries.
16. Unless specified otherwise, products are not liquid-proof (see also section "Operating states and
operating positions", item 1). Therefore, the equipment must be protected against penetration by
liquids. If the necessary precautions are not taken, the user may suffer electric shock or the product
itself may be damaged, which can also lead to personal injury.
17. Never use the product under conditions in which condensation has formed or can form in or on the
product, e.g. if the product has been moved from a cold to a warm environment. Penetration by water
increases the risk of electric shock.
18. Prior to cleaning the product, disconnect it completely from the power supply (e.g. AC supply network
or battery). Use a soft, non-linting cloth to clean the product. Never use chemical cleaning agents such
as alcohol, acetone or diluents for cellulose lacquers.
Operation
1. Operating the products requires special training and intense concentration. Make sure that persons
who use the products are physically, mentally and emotionally fit enough to do so; otherwise, injuries
or material damage may occur. It is the responsibility of the employer/operator to select suitable
personnel for operating the products.
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Basic Safety Instructions
2. Before you move or transport the product, read and observe the section titled "Transport".
3. As with all industrially manufactured goods, the use of substances that induce an allergic reaction
(allergens) such as nickel cannot be generally excluded. If you develop an allergic reaction (such as a
skin rash, frequent sneezing, red eyes or respiratory difficulties) when using a Rohde & Schwarz
product, consult a physician immediately to determine the cause and to prevent health problems or
stress.
4. Before you start processing the product mechanically and/or thermally, or before you take it apart, be
sure to read and pay special attention to the section titled "Waste disposal/Environmental protection",
item 1.
5. Depending on the function, certain products such as RF radio equipment can produce an elevated
level of electromagnetic radiation. Considering that unborn babies require increased protection,
pregnant women must be protected by appropriate measures. Persons with pacemakers may also be
exposed to risks from electromagnetic radiation. The employer/operator must evaluate workplaces
where there is a special risk of exposure to radiation and, if necessary, take measures to avert the
potential danger.
6. Should a fire occur, the product may release hazardous substances (gases, fluids, etc.) that can
cause health problems. Therefore, suitable measures must be taken, e.g. protective masks and
protective clothing must be worn.
7. Laser products are given warning labels that are standardized according to their laser class. Lasers
can cause biological harm due to the properties of their radiation and due to their extremely
concentrated electromagnetic power. If a laser product (e.g. a CD/DVD drive) is integrated into a
Rohde & Schwarz product, absolutely no other settings or functions may be used as described in the
product documentation. The objective is to prevent personal injury (e.g. due to laser beams).
8. EMC classes (in line with EN 55011/CISPR 11, and analogously with EN 55022/CISPR 22,
EN 55032/CISPR 32)
Class A equipment:
Equipment suitable for use in all environments except residential environments and environments
that are directly connected to a low-voltage supply network that supplies residential buildings
Note: Class A equipment is intended for use in an industrial environment. This equipment may
cause radio disturbances in residential environments, due to possible conducted as well as
radiated disturbances. In this case, the operator may be required to take appropriate measures to
eliminate these disturbances.
Class B equipment:
Equipment suitable for use in residential environments and environments that are directly
connected to a low-voltage supply network that supplies residential buildings
Repair and service
1. The product may be opened only by authorized, specially trained personnel. Before any work is
performed on the product or before the product is opened, it must be disconnected from the AC supply
network. Otherwise, personnel will be exposed to the risk of an electric shock.
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Basic Safety Instructions
2. Adjustments, replacement of parts, maintenance and repair may be performed only by electrical
experts authorized by Rohde & Schwarz. Only original parts may be used for replacing parts relevant
to safety (e.g. power switches, power transformers, fuses). A safety test must always be performed
after parts relevant to safety have been replaced (visual inspection, protective conductor test,
insulation resistance measurement, leakage current measurement, functional test). This helps ensure
the continued safety of the product.
Batteries and rechargeable batteries/cells
If the information regarding batteries and rechargeable batteries/cells is not observed either at all or to the
extent necessary, product users may be exposed to the risk of explosions, fire and/or serious personal
injury, and, in some cases, death. Batteries and rechargeable batteries with alkaline electrolytes (e.g.
lithium cells) must be handled in accordance with the EN 62133 standard.
1. Cells must not be taken apart or crushed.
2. Cells or batteries must not be exposed to heat or fire. Storage in direct sunlight must be avoided.
Keep cells and batteries clean and dry. Clean soiled connectors using a dry, clean cloth.
3. Cells or batteries must not be short-circuited. Cells or batteries must not be stored in a box or in a
drawer where they can short-circuit each other, or where they can be short-circuited by other
conductive materials. Cells and batteries must not be removed from their original packaging until they
are ready to be used.
4. Cells and batteries must not be exposed to any mechanical shocks that are stronger than permitted.
5. If a cell develops a leak, the fluid must not be allowed to come into contact with the skin or eyes. If
contact occurs, wash the affected area with plenty of water and seek medical aid.
6. Improperly replacing or charging cells or batteries that contain alkaline electrolytes (e.g. lithium cells)
can cause explosions. Replace cells or batteries only with the matching Rohde & Schwarz type (see
parts list) in order to ensure the safety of the product.
7. Cells and batteries must be recycled and kept separate from residual waste. Rechargeable batteries
and normal batteries that contain lead, mercury or cadmium are hazardous waste. Observe the
national regulations regarding waste disposal and recycling.
Transport
1. The product may be very heavy. Therefore, the product must be handled with care. In some cases,
the user may require a suitable means of lifting or moving the product (e.g. with a lift-truck) to avoid
back or other physical injuries.
2. Handles on the products are designed exclusively to enable personnel to transport the product. It is
therefore not permissible to use handles to fasten the product to or on transport equipment such as
cranes, fork lifts, wagons, etc. The user is responsible for securely fastening the products to or on the
means of transport or lifting. Observe the safety regulations of the manufacturer of the means of
transport or lifting. Noncompliance can result in personal injury or material damage.
3. If you use the product in a vehicle, it is the sole responsibility of the driver to drive the vehicle safely
and properly. The manufacturer assumes no responsibility for accidents or collisions. Never use the
product in a moving vehicle if doing so could distract the driver of the vehicle. Adequately secure the
product in the vehicle to prevent injuries or other damage in the event of an accident.
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Instrucciones de seguridad elementales
Waste disposal/Environmental protection
1. Specially marked equipment has a battery or accumulator that must not be disposed of with unsorted
municipal waste, but must be collected separately. It may only be disposed of at a suitable collection
point or via a Rohde & Schwarz customer service center.
2. Waste electrical and electronic equipment must not be disposed of with unsorted municipal waste, but
must be collected separately.
Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG has developed a disposal concept and takes full responsibility for
take-back obligations and disposal obligations for manufacturers within the EU. Contact your
Rohde & Schwarz customer service center for environmentally responsible disposal of the product.
3. If products or their components are mechanically and/or thermally processed in a manner that goes
beyond their intended use, hazardous substances (heavy-metal dust such as lead, beryllium, nickel)
may be released. For this reason, the product may only be disassembled by specially trained
personnel. Improper disassembly may be hazardous to your health. National waste disposal
regulations must be observed.
4. If handling the product releases hazardous substances or fuels that must be disposed of in a special
way, e.g. coolants or engine oils that must be replenished regularly, the safety instructions of the
manufacturer of the hazardous substances or fuels and the applicable regional waste disposal
regulations must be observed. Also observe the relevant safety instructions in the product
documentation. The improper disposal of hazardous substances or fuels can cause health problems
and lead to environmental damage.
For additional information about environmental protection, visit the Rohde & Schwarz website.
Instrucciones de seguridad elementales
¡Es imprescindible leer y cumplir las siguientes instrucciones e informaciones de seguridad!
El principio del grupo de empresas Rohde & Schwarz consiste en tener nuestros productos siempre al día
con los estándares de seguridad y de ofrecer a nuestros clientes el máximo grado de seguridad. Nuestros
productos y todos los equipos adicionales son siempre fabricados y examinados según las normas de
seguridad vigentes. Nuestro sistema de garantía de calidad controla constantemente que sean cumplidas
estas normas. El presente producto ha sido fabricado y examinado según el certificado de conformidad
de la UE y ha salido de nuestra planta en estado impecable según los estándares técnicos de seguridad.
Para poder preservar este estado y garantizar un funcionamiento libre de peligros, el usuario deberá
atenerse a todas las indicaciones, informaciones de seguridad y notas de alerta. El grupo de empresas
Rohde & Schwarz está siempre a su disposición en caso de que tengan preguntas referentes a estas
informaciones de seguridad.
Además queda en la responsabilidad del usuario utilizar el producto en la forma debida. Este producto
está destinado exclusivamente al uso en la industria y el laboratorio o, si ha sido expresamente
autorizado, para aplicaciones de campo y de ninguna manera deberá ser utilizado de modo que alguna
persona/cosa pueda sufrir daño. El uso del producto fuera de sus fines definidos o sin tener en cuenta las
instrucciones del fabricante queda en la responsabilidad del usuario. El fabricante no se hace en ninguna
forma responsable de consecuencias a causa del mal uso del producto.
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Instrucciones de seguridad elementales
Se parte del uso correcto del producto para los fines definidos si el producto es utilizado conforme a las
indicaciones de la correspondiente documentación del producto y dentro del margen de rendimiento
definido (ver hoja de datos, documentación, informaciones de seguridad que siguen). El uso del producto
hace necesarios conocimientos técnicos y ciertos conocimientos del idioma inglés. Por eso se debe tener
en cuenta que el producto solo pueda ser operado por personal especializado o personas instruidas en
profundidad con las capacidades correspondientes. Si fuera necesaria indumentaria de seguridad para el
uso de productos de Rohde & Schwarz, encontraría la información debida en la documentación del
producto en el capítulo correspondiente. Guarde bien las informaciones de seguridad elementales, así
como la documentación del producto, y entréguelas a usuarios posteriores.
Tener en cuenta las informaciones de seguridad sirve para evitar en lo posible lesiones o daños por
peligros de toda clase. Por eso es imprescindible leer detalladamente y comprender por completo las
siguientes informaciones de seguridad antes de usar el producto, y respetarlas durante el uso del
producto. Deberán tenerse en cuenta todas las demás informaciones de seguridad, como p. ej. las
referentes a la protección de personas, que encontrarán en el capítulo correspondiente de la
documentación del producto y que también son de obligado cumplimiento. En las presentes
informaciones de seguridad se recogen todos los objetos que distribuye el grupo de empresas
Rohde & Schwarz bajo la denominación de "producto", entre ellos también aparatos, instalaciones así
como toda clase de accesorios. Los datos específicos del producto figuran en la hoja de datos y en la
documentación del producto.
Señalización de seguridad de los productos
Las siguientes señales de seguridad se utilizan en los productos para advertir sobre riesgos y peligros.
Símbolo
Significado
Aviso: punto de peligro general
Observar la documentación del producto
Símbolo
Significado
Tensión de alimentación de PUESTA EN
MARCHA / PARADA
Atención en el manejo de dispositivos de peso
elevado
Indicación de estado de espera (standby)
Peligro de choque eléctrico
Corriente continua (DC)
Advertencia: superficie caliente
Corriente alterna (AC)
Conexión a conductor de protección
Corriente continua / Corriente alterna (DC/AC)
Conexión a tierra
El aparato está protegido en su totalidad por un
aislamiento doble (reforzado)
Conexión a masa
Distintivo de la UE para baterías y
acumuladores
Más información en la sección
"Eliminación/protección del medio ambiente",
punto 1.
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Instrucciones de seguridad elementales
Símbolo
Significado
Símbolo
Aviso: Cuidado en el manejo de dispositivos
sensibles a la electrostática (ESD)
Significado
Distintivo de la UE para la eliminación por
separado de dispositivos eléctricos y
electrónicos
Más información en la sección
"Eliminación/protección del medio ambiente",
punto 2.
Advertencia: rayo láser
Más información en la sección
"Funcionamiento", punto 7.
Palabras de señal y su significado
En la documentación del producto se utilizan las siguientes palabras de señal con el fin de advertir contra
riesgos y peligros.
Indica una situación de peligro que, si no se evita, causa lesiones
graves o incluso la muerte.
Indica una situación de peligro que, si no se evita, puede causar
lesiones graves o incluso la muerte.
Indica una situación de peligro que, si no se evita, puede causar
lesiones leves o moderadas.
Indica información que se considera importante, pero no en relación
con situaciones de peligro; p. ej., avisos sobre posibles daños
materiales.
En la documentación del producto se emplea de forma sinónima el
término CUIDADO.
Las palabras de señal corresponden a la definición habitual para aplicaciones civiles en el área
económica europea. Pueden existir definiciones diferentes a esta definición en otras áreas económicas o
en aplicaciones militares. Por eso se deberá tener en cuenta que las palabras de señal aquí descritas
sean utilizadas siempre solamente en combinación con la correspondiente documentación del producto y
solamente en combinación con el producto correspondiente. La utilización de las palabras de señal en
combinación con productos o documentaciones que no les correspondan puede llevar a interpretaciones
equivocadas y tener por consecuencia daños en personas u objetos.
Estados operativos y posiciones de funcionamiento
El producto solamente debe ser utilizado según lo indicado por el fabricante respecto a los estados
operativos y posiciones de funcionamiento sin que se obstruya la ventilación. Si no se siguen las
indicaciones del fabricante, pueden producirse choques eléctricos, incendios y/o lesiones graves con
posible consecuencia de muerte. En todos los trabajos deberán ser tenidas en cuenta las normas
nacionales y locales de seguridad del trabajo y de prevención de accidentes.
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Instrucciones de seguridad elementales
1. Si no se convino de otra manera, es para los productos Rohde & Schwarz válido lo que sigue:
como posición de funcionamiento se define por principio la posición con el suelo de la caja para
abajo, modo de protección IP 2X, uso solamente en estancias interiores, utilización hasta 2000 m
sobre el nivel del mar, transporte hasta 4500 m sobre el nivel del mar. Se aplicará una tolerancia de
±10 % sobre el voltaje nominal y de ±5 % sobre la frecuencia nominal. Categoría de sobrecarga
eléctrica 2, índice de suciedad 2.
2. No sitúe el producto encima de superficies, vehículos, estantes o mesas, que por sus características
de peso o de estabilidad no sean aptos para él. Siga siempre las instrucciones de instalación del
fabricante cuando instale y asegure el producto en objetos o estructuras (p. ej. paredes y estantes). Si
se realiza la instalación de modo distinto al indicado en la documentación del producto, se pueden
causar lesiones o, en determinadas circunstancias, incluso la muerte.
3. No ponga el producto sobre aparatos que generen calor (p. ej. radiadores o calefactores). La
temperatura ambiente no debe superar la temperatura máxima especificada en la documentación del
producto o en la hoja de datos. En caso de sobrecalentamiento del producto, pueden producirse
choques eléctricos, incendios y/o lesiones graves con posible consecuencia de muerte.
Seguridad eléctrica
Si no se siguen (o se siguen de modo insuficiente) las indicaciones del fabricante en cuanto a seguridad
eléctrica, pueden producirse choques eléctricos, incendios y/o lesiones graves con posible consecuencia
de muerte.
1. Antes de la puesta en marcha del producto se deberá comprobar siempre que la tensión
preseleccionada en el producto coincida con la de la red de alimentación eléctrica. Si es necesario
modificar el ajuste de tensión, también se deberán cambiar en caso dado los fusibles
correspondientes del producto.
2. Los productos de la clase de protección I con alimentación móvil y enchufe individual solamente
podrán enchufarse a tomas de corriente con contacto de seguridad y con conductor de protección
conectado.
3. Queda prohibida la interrupción intencionada del conductor de protección, tanto en la toma de
corriente como en el mismo producto. La interrupción puede tener como consecuencia el riesgo de
que el producto sea fuente de choques eléctricos. Si se utilizan cables alargadores o regletas de
enchufe, deberá garantizarse la realización de un examen regular de los mismos en cuanto a su
estado técnico de seguridad.
4. Si el producto no está equipado con un interruptor para desconectarlo de la red, o bien si el
interruptor existente no resulta apropiado para la desconexión de la red, el enchufe del cable de
conexión se deberá considerar como un dispositivo de desconexión.
El dispositivo de desconexión se debe poder alcanzar fácilmente y debe estar siempre bien accesible.
Si, p. ej., el enchufe de conexión a la red es el dispositivo de desconexión, la longitud del cable de
conexión no debe superar 3 m).
Los interruptores selectores o electrónicos no son aptos para el corte de la red eléctrica. Si se
integran productos sin interruptor en bastidores o instalaciones, se deberá colocar el interruptor en el
nivel de la instalación.
5. No utilice nunca el producto si está dañado el cable de conexión a red. Compruebe regularmente el
correcto estado de los cables de conexión a red. Asegúrese, mediante las medidas de protección y
de instalación adecuadas, de que el cable de conexión a red no pueda ser dañado o de que nadie
pueda ser dañado por él, p. ej. al tropezar o por un choque eléctrico.
1171.0000.42 - 07
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Instrucciones de seguridad elementales
6. Solamente está permitido el funcionamiento en redes de alimentación TN/TT aseguradas con fusibles
de 16 A como máximo (utilización de fusibles de mayor amperaje solo previa consulta con el grupo de
empresas Rohde & Schwarz).
7. Nunca conecte el enchufe en tomas de corriente sucias o llenas de polvo. Introduzca el enchufe por
completo y fuertemente en la toma de corriente. La no observación de estas medidas puede provocar
chispas, fuego y/o lesiones.
8. No sobrecargue las tomas de corriente, los cables alargadores o las regletas de enchufe ya que esto
podría causar fuego o choques eléctricos.
9. En las mediciones en circuitos de corriente con una tensión Ueff > 30 V se deberán tomar las medidas
apropiadas para impedir cualquier peligro (p. ej. medios de medición adecuados, seguros, limitación
de tensión, corte protector, aislamiento etc.).
10. Para la conexión con dispositivos informáticos como un PC o un ordenador industrial, debe
comprobarse que éstos cumplan los estándares IEC60950-1/EN60950-1 o IEC61010-1/EN 61010-1
válidos en cada caso.
11. A menos que esté permitido expresamente, no retire nunca la tapa ni componentes de la carcasa
mientras el producto esté en servicio. Esto pone a descubierto los cables y componentes eléctricos y
puede causar lesiones, fuego o daños en el producto.
12. Si un producto se instala en un lugar fijo, se deberá primero conectar el conductor de protección fijo
con el conductor de protección del producto antes de hacer cualquier otra conexión. La instalación y
la conexión deberán ser efectuadas por un electricista especializado.
13. En el caso de dispositivos fijos que no estén provistos de fusibles, interruptor automático ni otros
mecanismos de seguridad similares, el circuito de alimentación debe estar protegido de modo que
todas las personas que puedan acceder al producto, así como el producto mismo, estén a salvo de
posibles daños.
14. Todo producto debe estar protegido contra sobretensión (debida p. ej. a una caída del rayo) mediante
los correspondientes sistemas de protección. Si no, el personal que lo utilice quedará expuesto al
peligro de choque eléctrico.
15. No debe introducirse en los orificios de la caja del aparato ningún objeto que no esté destinado a ello.
Esto puede producir cortocircuitos en el producto y/o puede causar choques eléctricos, fuego o
lesiones.
16. Salvo indicación contraria, los productos no están impermeabilizados (ver también el capítulo
"Estados operativos y posiciones de funcionamiento", punto 1). Por eso es necesario tomar las
medidas necesarias para evitar la entrada de líquidos. En caso contrario, existe peligro de choque
eléctrico para el usuario o de daños en el producto, que también pueden redundar en peligro para las
personas.
17. No utilice el producto en condiciones en las que pueda producirse o ya se hayan producido
condensaciones sobre el producto o en el interior de éste, como p. ej. al desplazarlo de un lugar frío a
otro caliente. La entrada de agua aumenta el riesgo de choque eléctrico.
18. Antes de la limpieza, desconecte por completo el producto de la alimentación de tensión (p. ej. red de
alimentación o batería). Realice la limpieza de los aparatos con un paño suave, que no se deshilache.
No utilice bajo ningún concepto productos de limpieza químicos como alcohol, acetona o diluyentes
para lacas nitrocelulósicas.
1171.0000.42 - 07
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Instrucciones de seguridad elementales
Funcionamiento
1. El uso del producto requiere instrucciones especiales y una alta concentración durante el manejo.
Debe asegurarse que las personas que manejen el producto estén a la altura de los requerimientos
necesarios en cuanto a aptitudes físicas, psíquicas y emocionales, ya que de otra manera no se
pueden excluir lesiones o daños de objetos. El empresario u operador es responsable de seleccionar
el personal usuario apto para el manejo del producto.
2. Antes de desplazar o transportar el producto, lea y tenga en cuenta el capítulo "Transporte".
3. Como con todo producto de fabricación industrial no puede quedar excluida en general la posibilidad
de que se produzcan alergias provocadas por algunos materiales empleados Slos llamados
alérgenos (p. ej. el níquel)S. Si durante el manejo de productos Rohde & Schwarz se producen
reacciones alérgicas, como p. ej. irritaciones cutáneas, estornudos continuos, enrojecimiento de la
conjuntiva o dificultades respiratorias, debe avisarse inmediatamente a un médico para investigar las
causas y evitar cualquier molestia o daño a la salud.
4. Antes de la manipulación mecánica y/o térmica o el desmontaje del producto, debe tenerse en cuenta
imprescindiblemente el capítulo "Eliminación/protección del medio ambiente", punto 1.
5. Ciertos productos, como p. ej. las instalaciones de radiocomunicación RF, pueden a causa de su
función natural, emitir una radiación electromagnética aumentada. Deben tomarse todas las medidas
necesarias para la protección de las mujeres embarazadas. También las personas con marcapasos
pueden correr peligro a causa de la radiación electromagnética. El empresario/operador tiene la
obligación de evaluar y señalizar las áreas de trabajo en las que exista un riesgo elevado de
exposición a radiaciones.
6. Tenga en cuenta que en caso de incendio pueden desprenderse del producto sustancias tóxicas
(gases, líquidos etc.) que pueden generar daños a la salud. Por eso, en caso de incendio deben
usarse medidas adecuadas, como p. ej. máscaras antigás e indumentaria de protección.
7. Los productos con láser están provistos de indicaciones de advertencia normalizadas en función de la
clase de láser del que se trate. Los rayos láser pueden provocar daños de tipo biológico a causa de
las propiedades de su radiación y debido a su concentración extrema de potencia electromagnética.
En caso de que un producto Rohde & Schwarz contenga un producto láser (p. ej. un lector de
CD/DVD), no debe usarse ninguna otra configuración o función aparte de las descritas en la
documentación del producto, a fin de evitar lesiones (p. ej. debidas a irradiación láser).
8. Clases de compatibilidad electromagnética (conforme a EN 55011 / CISPR 11; y en analogía con EN
55022 / CISPR 22, EN 55032 / CISPR 32)
Aparato de clase A:
Aparato adecuado para su uso en todos los entornos excepto en los residenciales y en aquellos
conectados directamente a una red de distribución de baja tensión que suministra corriente a
edificios residenciales.
Nota: Los aparatos de clase A están destinados al uso en entornos industriales. Estos aparatos
pueden causar perturbaciones radioeléctricas en entornos residenciales debido a posibles
perturbaciones guiadas o radiadas. En este caso, se le podrá solicitar al operador que tome las
medidas adecuadas para eliminar estas perturbaciones.
Aparato de clase B:
Aparato adecuado para su uso en entornos residenciales, así como en aquellos conectados
directamente a una red de distribución de baja tensión que suministra corriente a edificios
residenciales.
1171.0000.42 - 07
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Instrucciones de seguridad elementales
Reparación y mantenimiento
1. El producto solamente debe ser abierto por personal especializado con autorización para ello. Antes
de manipular el producto o abrirlo, es obligatorio desconectarlo de la tensión de alimentación, para
evitar toda posibilidad de choque eléctrico.
2. El ajuste, el cambio de partes, el mantenimiento y la reparación deberán ser efectuadas solamente
por electricistas autorizados por Rohde & Schwarz. Si se reponen partes con importancia para los
aspectos de seguridad (p. ej. el enchufe, los transformadores o los fusibles), solamente podrán ser
sustituidos por partes originales. Después de cada cambio de partes relevantes para la seguridad
deberá realizarse un control de seguridad (control a primera vista, control del conductor de
protección, medición de resistencia de aislamiento, medición de la corriente de fuga, control de
funcionamiento). Con esto queda garantizada la seguridad del producto.
Baterías y acumuladores o celdas
Si no se siguen (o se siguen de modo insuficiente) las indicaciones en cuanto a las baterías y
acumuladores o celdas, pueden producirse explosiones, incendios y/o lesiones graves con posible
consecuencia de muerte. El manejo de baterías y acumuladores con electrolitos alcalinos (p. ej. celdas de
litio) debe seguir el estándar EN 62133.
1. No deben desmontarse, abrirse ni triturarse las celdas.
2. Las celdas o baterías no deben someterse a calor ni fuego. Debe evitarse el almacenamiento a la luz
directa del sol. Las celdas y baterías deben mantenerse limpias y secas. Limpiar las conexiones
sucias con un paño seco y limpio.
3. Las celdas o baterías no deben cortocircuitarse. Es peligroso almacenar las celdas o baterías en
estuches o cajones en cuyo interior puedan cortocircuitarse por contacto recíproco o por contacto con
otros materiales conductores. No deben extraerse las celdas o baterías de sus embalajes originales
hasta el momento en que vayan a utilizarse.
4. Las celdas o baterías no deben someterse a impactos mecánicos fuertes indebidos.
5. En caso de falta de estanqueidad de una celda, el líquido vertido no debe entrar en contacto con la
piel ni los ojos. Si se produce contacto, lavar con agua abundante la zona afectada y avisar a un
médico.
6. En caso de cambio o recarga inadecuados, las celdas o baterías que contienen electrolitos alcalinos
(p. ej. las celdas de litio) pueden explotar. Para garantizar la seguridad del producto, las celdas o
baterías solo deben ser sustituidas por el tipo Rohde & Schwarz correspondiente (ver lista de
recambios).
7. Las baterías y celdas deben reciclarse y no deben tirarse a la basura doméstica. Las baterías o
acumuladores que contienen plomo, mercurio o cadmio deben tratarse como residuos especiales.
Respete en esta relación las normas nacionales de eliminación y reciclaje.
Transporte
1. El producto puede tener un peso elevado. Por eso es necesario desplazarlo o transportarlo con
precaución y, si es necesario, usando un sistema de elevación adecuado (p. ej. una carretilla
elevadora), a fin de evitar lesiones en la espalda u otros daños personales.
1171.0000.42 - 07
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Instrucciones de seguridad elementales
2. Las asas instaladas en los productos sirven solamente de ayuda para el transporte del producto por
personas. Por eso no está permitido utilizar las asas para la sujeción en o sobre medios de transporte
como p. ej. grúas, carretillas elevadoras de horquilla, carros etc. Es responsabilidad suya fijar los
productos de manera segura a los medios de transporte o elevación. Para evitar daños personales o
daños en el producto, siga las instrucciones de seguridad del fabricante del medio de transporte o
elevación utilizado.
3. Si se utiliza el producto dentro de un vehículo, recae de manera exclusiva en el conductor la
responsabilidad de conducir el vehículo de manera segura y adecuada. El fabricante no asumirá
ninguna responsabilidad por accidentes o colisiones. No utilice nunca el producto dentro de un
vehículo en movimiento si esto pudiera distraer al conductor. Asegure el producto dentro del vehículo
debidamente para evitar, en caso de un accidente, lesiones u otra clase de daños.
Eliminación/protección del medio ambiente
1. Los dispositivos marcados contienen una batería o un acumulador que no se debe desechar con los
residuos domésticos sin clasificar, sino que debe ser recogido por separado. La eliminación se debe
efectuar exclusivamente a través de un punto de recogida apropiado o del servicio de atención al
cliente de Rohde & Schwarz.
2. Los dispositivos eléctricos usados no se deben desechar con los residuos domésticos sin clasificar,
sino que deben ser recogidos por separado.
Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co.KG ha elaborado un concepto de eliminación de residuos y asume
plenamente los deberes de recogida y eliminación para los fabricantes dentro de la UE. Para
desechar el producto de manera respetuosa con el medio ambiente, diríjase a su servicio de atención
al cliente de Rohde & Schwarz.
3. Si se trabaja de manera mecánica y/o térmica cualquier producto o componente más allá del
funcionamiento previsto, pueden liberarse sustancias peligrosas (polvos con contenido de metales
pesados como p. ej. plomo, berilio o níquel). Por eso el producto solo debe ser desmontado por
personal especializado con formación adecuada. Un desmontaje inadecuado puede ocasionar daños
para la salud. Se deben tener en cuenta las directivas nacionales referentes a la eliminación de
residuos.
4. En caso de que durante el trato del producto se formen sustancias peligrosas o combustibles que
deban tratarse como residuos especiales (p. ej. refrigerantes o aceites de motor con intervalos de
cambio definidos), deben tenerse en cuenta las indicaciones de seguridad del fabricante de dichas
sustancias y las normas regionales de eliminación de residuos. Tenga en cuenta también en caso
necesario las indicaciones de seguridad especiales contenidas en la documentación del producto. La
eliminación incorrecta de sustancias peligrosas o combustibles puede causar daños a la salud o
daños al medio ambiente.
Se puede encontrar más información sobre la protección del medio ambiente en la página web de
Rohde & Schwarz.
1171.0000.42 - 07
Page 14
Customer Support
Technical support – where and when you need it
For quick, expert help with any Rohde & Schwarz equipment, contact one of our Customer Support
Centers. A team of highly qualified engineers provides telephone support and will work with you to find a
solution to your query on any aspect of the operation, programming or applications of Rohde & Schwarz
equipment.
Up-to-date information and upgrades
To keep your instrument up-to-date and to be informed about new application notes related to your
instrument, please send an e-mail to the Customer Support Center stating your instrument and your wish.
We will take care that you will get the right information.
Europe, Africa, Middle East
Phone +49 89 4129 12345
[email protected]
North America
Phone 1-888-TEST-RSA (1-888-837-8772)
[email protected]
Latin America
Phone +1-410-910-7988
[email protected]
Asia/Pacific
Phone +65 65 13 04 88
[email protected]
China
Phone +86-800-810-8228 /
+86-400-650-5896
[email protected]
1171.0200.22-06.00
R&S®ESR
Contents
Contents
1 Measurement Modes..............................................................................9
1.1
Receiver Mode...............................................................................................................9
1.2
Spectrum Mode.............................................................................................................9
1.3
I/Q Analyzer Mode.......................................................................................................10
1.4
Real Time Mode...........................................................................................................10
1.5
Measurement Mode Root Menus (HOME Key).........................................................10
2 Receiver Mode......................................................................................11
2.1
Measurements and Result Displays..........................................................................11
2.1.1
Bargraph.......................................................................................................................11
2.1.2
Scans............................................................................................................................13
2.1.3
Peak Search..................................................................................................................16
2.1.4
Final Measurement.......................................................................................................18
2.1.5
Automated Test Sequences..........................................................................................19
2.1.6
Time Domain Scans......................................................................................................21
2.1.7
Fixed Frequency Scans................................................................................................21
2.1.8
IF Analysis.....................................................................................................................22
2.1.9
Measurement Control....................................................................................................23
2.2
Measurement Basics..................................................................................................29
2.2.1
Resolution Bandwidth...................................................................................................29
2.2.2
Defining the Measurement Time...................................................................................30
2.2.3
Selecting a Detector......................................................................................................31
2.2.4
Trace Modes.................................................................................................................35
2.2.5
AF Demodulation..........................................................................................................36
2.2.6
Controlling V-Networks (LISN)......................................................................................36
2.2.7
Transducers..................................................................................................................38
2.2.8
Preamplifier...................................................................................................................39
2.2.9
Exported Peak List........................................................................................................39
2.2.10
Formats for Returned Values: ASCII Format and Binary Format..................................41
2.3
Common Measurement Settings...............................................................................42
2.3.1
Defining the Frequency and Span.................................................................................42
2.3.2
Configuring the Vertical Axis.........................................................................................44
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2.3.3
Selecting the Bandwidth................................................................................................46
2.3.4
Configuring the Measurement.......................................................................................47
2.3.5
Trigger Configuration....................................................................................................48
2.3.6
Controlling Inputs and Outputs......................................................................................49
2.3.7
Test Automation............................................................................................................50
2.4
Common Analysis Functions.....................................................................................60
2.4.1
Trace Configuration.......................................................................................................60
2.4.2
Markers.........................................................................................................................62
2.4.3
(Limit) Lines...................................................................................................................69
3 Spectrum Measurements....................................................................81
3.1
Measurements.............................................................................................................81
3.1.1
Power Measurements – MEAS Key..............................................................................81
3.1.2
Measurement Configuration – MEAS CONFIG Key...................................................198
3.1.3
Performing Measurements – RUN SINGLE/RUN CONT Keys...................................198
3.2
Configuration.............................................................................................................199
3.2.1
Initializing the Configuration – PRESET Key..............................................................199
3.2.2
Selecting the Frequency and Span – FREQ Key........................................................201
3.2.3
Setting the Frequency Span – SPAN Key...................................................................206
3.2.4
Setting the Level Display and Configuring the RF Input – AMPT Key........................208
3.2.5
Defining Automatic Settings – AUTO SET Key...........................................................213
3.2.6
Setting the Bandwidths and Sweep Time – BW Key..................................................217
3.2.7
Configuring the Sweep Mode – SWEEP Key..............................................................225
3.2.8
Triggering the Sweep – TRIG Key..............................................................................231
3.2.9
Input/Output Configuration – INPUT/OUTPUT Key....................................................240
3.3
Analysis.....................................................................................................................244
3.3.1
Trace Configuration.....................................................................................................244
3.3.2
Spectrogram................................................................................................................257
3.3.3
Markers.......................................................................................................................266
3.3.4
Lines............................................................................................................................289
3.4
Advanced Measurement Examples.........................................................................290
3.4.1
Test Setup...................................................................................................................290
3.4.2
Measurement of Harmonics........................................................................................291
3.4.3
Measuring the Spectra of Complex Signals................................................................293
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3.4.4
Measuring Signals in the Vicinity of Noise..................................................................296
3.4.5
Noise Measurements..................................................................................................301
3.4.6
Measurements on Modulated Signals.........................................................................308
4 I/Q Analyzer........................................................................................318
4.1
Softkeys and Parameters of the I/Q Analyzer Menu..............................................319
4.2
Softkeys of the Amplitude Menu in I/Q Analyzer Mode.........................................323
4.3
Softkeys of the Marker To Menu in I/Q Analyzer Mode.........................................327
4.4
Softkeys of the Trigger Menu in I/Q Analyzer Mode..............................................327
4.5
Working with I/Q Data...............................................................................................331
4.5.1
Sample Rate and Maximum Usable Bandwidth (RF Input).........................................332
5 Tracking Generator............................................................................334
5.1
Softkeys of the Tracking Generator Menu..............................................................334
5.2
Configuring Tracking Generators............................................................................338
5.2.1
Internal Tracking Generator........................................................................................339
5.3
Tracking Generator Functions.................................................................................340
5.3.1
Calibration mechanism................................................................................................340
5.3.2
Calibrating for transmission and reflection measurement...........................................341
5.3.3
Transmission measurement........................................................................................342
5.3.4
Reflection measurement.............................................................................................342
5.3.5
Normalization..............................................................................................................343
5.3.6
Modulation (internal Tracking Generator only)............................................................346
5.4
Displayed Information and Errors...........................................................................348
6 System Configuration........................................................................350
6.1
Manual Operation – Local Menu..............................................................................350
6.2
User-Defined Menu – USER key..............................................................................351
6.3
Instrument Setup and Interface Configuration – SETUP Key...............................352
6.3.1
Softkeys of the Setup Menu........................................................................................352
6.3.2
Activating or Deactivating the LXI Class C Functionality............................................375
6.3.3
LXI Class C Functionality............................................................................................376
7 Data Management..............................................................................377
7.1
Saving and Recalling Settings Files – SAVE/RCL Key..........................................377
7.1.1
Softkeys of the SAVE/RCL Menu................................................................................377
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7.1.2
File Selection Dialog Boxes........................................................................................383
7.1.3
Importing and Exporting I/Q Data................................................................................386
7.2
Measurement Documentation – PRINT Key...........................................................391
8 Remote Control..................................................................................394
8.1
Remote Control - Basics..........................................................................................394
8.1.1
Remote Control Interfaces and Protocols...................................................................394
8.1.2
Starting a Remote Control Session.............................................................................402
8.1.3
Returning to Manual Operation...................................................................................402
8.1.4
SCPI Command Structure...........................................................................................403
8.1.5
Command Sequence and Synchronization.................................................................411
8.1.6
Status Reporting System............................................................................................414
8.1.7
General Programming Recommendations..................................................................430
8.1.8
The IECWIN Tool........................................................................................................430
8.2
Selecting the Operating Mode.................................................................................432
8.3
Remote Commands in Receiver Mode....................................................................433
8.3.1
Measurements and Result Displays............................................................................433
8.3.2
Defining the Frequency...............................................................................................444
8.3.3
Configuring the Vertical Axis.......................................................................................446
8.3.4
Selecting the Bandwidth..............................................................................................448
8.3.5
Controlling Inputs and Outputs....................................................................................450
8.3.6
Test Automation..........................................................................................................450
8.3.7
Working with Markers..................................................................................................464
8.3.8
Limit Lines...................................................................................................................478
8.4
Remote Commands in Spectrum Analyzer Mode..................................................493
8.4.1
Measurements and Result Displays............................................................................493
8.4.2
Configuring Spectrum Measurements.........................................................................590
8.4.3
Analyzing Spectrum Measurements...........................................................................613
8.5
Remote Commands in I/Q Analyzer Mode..............................................................664
8.5.1
Using the I/Q Analyzer................................................................................................664
8.5.2
I/Q Gating....................................................................................................................675
8.6
Remote Commands to Control the Tracking Generator........................................676
8.7
Common Commands................................................................................................682
8.8
System Configuration...............................................................................................686
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8.8.1
General System Configuration....................................................................................686
8.8.2
Checking the System Configuration............................................................................691
8.8.3
Controlling In- and Ouputs..........................................................................................693
8.8.4
Configuring the Reference Frequency........................................................................696
8.8.5
Calibrating the R&S ESR............................................................................................697
8.8.6
Using Service Functions.............................................................................................700
8.9
Data Management.....................................................................................................701
8.9.1
Managing Data Files...................................................................................................702
8.9.2
Saving and Restoring Customized Data.....................................................................707
8.10
Using Transducers....................................................................................................710
8.11
Documentation..........................................................................................................717
8.12
Display Configuration...............................................................................................725
8.12.1
Controlling Display Elements......................................................................................725
8.12.2
Managing Display Items..............................................................................................731
8.13
Network Connection.................................................................................................733
8.13.1
Configuring Network Connections...............................................................................733
8.13.2
Emulating HP Instruments..........................................................................................736
8.14
Status Register..........................................................................................................739
8.14.1
General Status Register Commands..........................................................................739
8.14.2
Reading out the EVENt Part.......................................................................................740
8.14.3
Reading Out the CONDition Part................................................................................740
8.14.4
Controlling the ENABle Part........................................................................................741
8.14.5
Controlling the Negative Transition Part.....................................................................741
8.14.6
Controlling the Positive Transition Part.......................................................................742
8.15
Remote Control – Programming Examples............................................................742
8.15.1
Service Request..........................................................................................................744
8.15.2
Using Marker and Delta Marker..................................................................................751
8.15.3
Limit Lines and Limit Test...........................................................................................753
8.15.4
Measuring the Channel and Adjacent Channel Power...............................................755
8.15.5
Occupied Bandwidth Measurement............................................................................758
8.15.6
Time Domain Power Measurement.............................................................................759
8.15.7
Fast Power Measurement on Power Ramps..............................................................760
8.15.8
Fast Level Measurement Using Frequency Lists........................................................763
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8.15.9
Level Correction of Transducers.................................................................................765
8.15.10
Measuring the Magnitude and Phase of a Signal.......................................................766
8.15.11
Reading and Writing Files...........................................................................................768
8.15.12
Spectrum Emission Mask Measurement.....................................................................769
8.15.13
Spurious Emissions Measurement..............................................................................773
8.15.14
Averaging I/Q Data......................................................................................................776
8.15.15
Using IQ Gating...........................................................................................................777
8.15.16
Usage of Four Spectrum Instances.............................................................................782
8.16
GPIB Commands of HP Models 856xE, 8566A/B, 8568A/B and 8594E................784
8.16.1
GPIB Languages.........................................................................................................785
8.16.2
Command Set of Models 8560E, 8561E, 8562E, 8563E, 8564E, 8565E, 8566A/B, 8568A/
B, 8591E, 8594E, 71100C, 71200C, and 71209A......................................................786
8.16.3
Special Features of the Syntax Parsing Algorithms for 8566A and 8568A Models
....................................................................................................................................810
8.16.4
Special Behavior of Commands..................................................................................811
8.16.5
Model-Dependent Default Settings.............................................................................812
8.16.6
Data Output Formats...................................................................................................813
8.16.7
Trace Data Output Formats........................................................................................813
8.16.8
Trace Data Input Formats...........................................................................................813
8.16.9
GPIB Status Reporting................................................................................................813
List of Commands..............................................................................815
Index....................................................................................................831
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Measurement Modes
Receiver Mode
1 Measurement Modes
The R&S ESR provides several measurement modes for different analysis tasks. When
you activate a measurement mode, a new measurement channel is created. The channel
determines the settings for that measurement mode. Each channel is displayed in a separate tab on the screen.
SCPI command:
​INSTrument[:​SELect]​ on page 433
To change the measurement mode
1. Press the MODE key.
A menu with the currently available measurement modes is displayed.
2. To activate a different mode, press the corresponding softkey.
1.1 Receiver Mode
In Receiver mode, the R&S ESR measures the signal level at a particular frequency. It
also provides tools (e.g. detectors or bandwidths) necessary to measure the signal
according to EMC standards. The Receiver mode is the default mode of the R&S ESR.
The R&S ESR also provides function for IF analysis if you have equipped your R&S ESR
with firmware application R&S ESR-K53. IF analysis is not a separate measurement
mode but is integrated into the Receiver mode.
For more information on functionality available for the Receiver mode see ​chapter 2,
"Receiver Mode", on page 11.
SCPI command:
​INST REC
1.2 Spectrum Mode
In Spectrum mode the provided functions correspond to those of a conventional spectrum
analyzer. The analyzer measures the frequency spectrum of the RF input signal over the
selected frequency range with the selected resolution and sweep time, or, for a fixed
frequency, displays the waveform of the video signal.
The Spectrum mode also provides spectrogram measurements. The spectrogram is not
a separate measurement mode, but rather a trace evaluation mode. Note also that the
Spectrogram available in Spectrum mode is independent of that available in real time
mode. It provides similar functionality but uses different data acquisition methods.
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Measurement Modes
I/Q Analyzer Mode
For more information on functionality available for the Spectrum mode see ​chapter 3,
"Spectrum Measurements", on page 81.
SCPI command:
​INST SAN
1.3 I/Q Analyzer Mode
The I/Q Analyzer mode provides measurement and display functions for digital I/Q signals.
For more information on functionality available for the I/Q Analyzer see ​chapter 4, "I/Q
Analyzer", on page 318.
SCPI command:
​TRACe<n>:​IQ[:​STATe]​ on page 674
1.4 Real Time Mode
In Real Time mode, the R&S ESR performs measurements in the frequency spectrum of
a test signal without losing any signal data. You can evaluate the measurement results
in several result displays that are designed for the realtime analysis and complement one
another.
Real Time analysis is available with firmware application R&S ESR-K55 and hardware
option R&S ESR-B50.
For more information on functionality available for the Real Time mode see the separate
User Manual available for download on the internet (http://www2.rohde-schwarz.com/
product/ESR.html).
SCPI command:
​INST RTIM
1.5 Measurement Mode Root Menus (HOME Key)
The HOME key provides a quick access to the root menu of the current measurement
mode.
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R&S®ESR
Receiver Mode
Measurements and Result Displays
2 Receiver Mode
In receiver mode, the R&S ESR measures the signal level of a particular frequency or a
customized set of frequencies instead of sweeping over (parts of) the frequency spectrum. The R&S ESR shows the results in result displays that have been designed for just
such measurement tasks.
The receiver mode also provides the necessary functions like bandwidths, detectors or
the control over line impedance networks (LISN) to perform EMI tests and measurements.
2.1 Measurements and Result Displays
The R&S ESR provides several types of measurements that are designed to optimize
processes that are necessary to successfully perform EMI tests and measurements.
The display of the receiver mode consists of two windows. The upper one contains the
bargraph, the lower one contains the scan results. You can view the results in full screen
key.
mode with the
When you are using IF analysis, you can change the contents of the display. For more
information see ​chapter 2.1.8, "IF Analysis", on page 22.
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
Bargraph.................................................................................................................11
Scans......................................................................................................................13
Peak Search............................................................................................................16
Final Measurement.................................................................................................18
Automated Test Sequences....................................................................................19
Time Domain Scans................................................................................................21
Fixed Frequency Scans..........................................................................................21
IF Analysis...............................................................................................................22
Measurement Control..............................................................................................23
2.1.1 Bargraph
The bargraph result display is designed for measurements on a single frequency. It is a
basic result display that shows the signal level at a particular frequency numerically and
as an analog bargraph. The height of the bar depends on the signal level at the current
receiver frequency. If necessary, you can control the displayed signal level by selecting
different detectors and thus selecting different signal evaluation methods.
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Measurements and Result Displays
1
2
3
4
5
=
=
=
=
=
current level unit
current receiver frequency
detectors
measured levels (numerically)
measured levels (graphically)
The results in the bargraph are shown as soon as you enter the receiver mode (for the
frequency that has been previously selected) and are updated continuously. The unit of
the displayed signal level is variable and depends on the unit you have set (by default, it
is dBµV).
The bargraph range is always 100 dB, the minimum and maximum level values that are
displayed are automatically adjusted and depend on the signal level.
The R&S ESR supports the simultaneous use of up to four different detectors in the
bargraph result display. If you select an additional detector, the R&S ESR adds the corresponding number of bargraphs to the result display. This way to display the power levels
provides an easy way to compare the signal level with different weighting factors.
You can also turn on the display of the highest signal levels that have been measured
since the moment you have started the measurement. If the maxhold function is on, the
R&S ESR shows the peak level that has been measured for each active detector in addition to the live results. If a new peak has been found, the peak result is updated accordingly.
Min Peak detector levels
Note that in case of the Min Peak detector, the peak level is not the highest signal level,
but the lowest.
The maxhold level that the R&S ESR shows does not necessarily have to correspond to
the current receiver frequency. If you have changed the frequency, and the peak has
been measured for a previously selected frequency, the display keeps the overall peak
level. If you'd like to see the peak level for the current receiver frequency, you have to
reset the maxhold.
1 = peak levels; note that the maximum and quasipeak peaks have been measured at frequency different to
the current receiver frequency
SCPI commands:
Selecting continuous and single bargraph measurements:
​INITiate<n>:​CONTinuous​ on page 436
Querying the signal level:
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Measurements and Result Displays
​TRACe[:​DATA]​ on page 441
Querying the bargraph width:
​DISPlay:​BARGraph:​LEVel:​LOWer??​ on page 434
​DISPlay:​BARGraph:​LEVel:​UPPer?​ on page 434
Turning maxhold on:
​DISPlay:​BARGraph:​PHOLd​ on page 434
Querying maxhold results:
​TRACe[:​DATA]​ on page 441
2.1.2 Scans
A frequency scan is designed to determine the signal level over a particular frequency
range in one measurement. A scan could consider the frequency range you have defined
completely, consider a few selected parts of the frequency spectrum or consider a set of
single frequencies only.
You can use the scan for the measurement itself with a configuration that already complies to the standard against which you are testing or as a preliminary measurement to
reduce the amount of data (and thus time) for the actual (and final) measurement.
The R&S ESR shows the results of a frequency scan in a graphical result display. The
horizontal axis in that display represents the frequency range covered by the scan. The
vertical axis represents the signal level.
When you start a basic scan, the result would be a continuous trace from the displayed
start to the displayed stop frequency. If you include selected frequencies or frequency
ranges, the trace may have gaps because it shows results for the selected frequency
ranges only.
Like the bargraph, you can display several differently weighted results simultaneously.
You can assign a different detector to each of the six available traces. Each trace is
displayed in a different color.
Note that the displayed frequency range is not necessarily the actual scan range, with
the scan range being the frequency range that is actually considered in the scan and for
which results are displayed. The displayed frequency range is defined by the start and
stop frequency while the scan range is defined in the scan table. Frequencies not covered
by the scan table are not scanned. In the default state, however, the displayed frequency
range is the same as the scan range. The contents of the scan table are valid for all active
traces.
Interrupting a scan
The R&S ESR allows to interrupt a scan any time. If you interrupt it, the scan stops
immediately. When interrupted, you can change settings that have a direct effect on the
scan. When you are finished changing the configuration, you have several options on
how to proceed.
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Receiver Mode
Measurements and Result Displays
2.1.2.1
●
Continue at the receiver frequency
Resumes the scan at the receiver frequency the R&S ESR is currently tuned to. The
current receiver frequency depends on the frequency step size you have defined for
the scan. For example, if you have interrupted the scan at a frequency of 35.487 MHz
with a stepsize of 1 MHz, the scan would continue at a frequency of 35 MHz.
●
Continue at the hold frequency
Resumes the scan at the frequency it has been interrupted. For example, if you have
interrupted the scan at a frequency of 35.487 MHz, the scan would continue at exactly
this frequency.
●
Stop the scan
Aborts the scan altogether.
Preliminary Scans
A preliminary scan is a possible stage in a test sequence whose purpose is to reduce the
data included in the final measurement and thus reduce the measurement time in the
final measurement.
Measurements with configurations that comply to one of the EMC standards may, for a
number of reasons, take a long time to finish.
●
High time constants required for signal weighting.
●
Using different detectors.
●
Mechanical procedures to find local EMI; mechanical procedures are for example the
shifting of an absorbing clamp, the rotation of the DUT or a change of the position of
the test antenna.
If you want to avoid long measurement times, you can use the scan as a preliminary
measurement to find the general location of signal peaks or interference quickly. To do
so, use a scan configuration that allows for short measurement times, perform the scan
and locate signal peaks that are of interest in some way. After you have these locations,
you can configure the final measurements with the appropriate detectors and measurement times.
To find signal peaks, you can either use the peak search, use markers or select the
frequencies manually. For more information see ​chapter 2.1.3, "Peak Search",
on page 16.
SCPI commands:
Querying trace data:
​TRACe[:​DATA]​ on page 441
2.1.2.2
The Scan Table
The scan table is a tool that reduces the effort of performing a scan. It divides a given
scan range into smaller portions.
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Measurements and Result Displays
In that way you are able to
●
keep the measurement times as low as possible by creating several frequency ranges
and configuring each one accordingly
●
configure some frequency ranges differently than others if the test scenario requires
so and still run one measurement only
●
skip parts of the spectrum that are of no interest for the measurement.
If you do not use the scan table, the R&S ESR uses the current instrument settings for
the scan.
You can define up to 10 scan subranges within the complete scan range. The size of
each subrange is arbitrary, depending on the measurement requirements. Just make
sure that the ranges are within the overall scan range defined by the start and stop frequencies. If the scan table defines a frequency range greater than the scan range, frequencies outside the scan range are not considered in the measurement.
Example:
In the picture below, the frequency range highlighted in red is covered by the scan table,
but not by the overall scan range. Thus, it would not be considered in the scan.
There may be gaps between the stop frequency of one range and the start frequency of
the next, e.g. if parts of the spectrum are not necessary to be tested. Gaps between
ranges are not considered in the scan. However, it is recommended that ranges do not
overlap, either.
Each range may also have a custom configuration for some scan parameters that will
take effect within a particular range instead of the overall scan configuration. Thus, you
can, for example, define a particular scan stepsize for one range and another for the next.
For more information on the available range parameters see ​chapter 2.3.7.2, "Scan
Table", on page 52.
●
Range Start
Start frequency of the scan range. To avoid overlapping scan ranges, the stop frequency of the previous scan range is adjusted if necessary.
●
Range Stop
Stop frequency of the scan range. To avoid overlapping scan ranges, the start range
of the next scan range is adjusted if necessary.
●
Stepsize
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Measurements and Result Displays
Frequency stepsize within the scan range. If you define a stepsize that is larger than
the range itself, the R&S ESR only measures the start and stop frequencies of the
scan range.
●
Res BW
Resolution bandwidth used within the scan range. For more information see ​chapter 2.2.1, "Resolution Bandwidth", on page 29.
●
Meas Time
Measurement time for the scan range. For more information see ​chapter 2.2.2,
"Defining the Measurement Time", on page 30.
●
Auto Ranging
Turns automatic selection of the input attenuation on and off. For more information
see ​Auto Range (On Off).
●
RF Attenuation
Attenuation level at the RF input.
●
Preamplifier
Turns the preamplifier on and off. If you select "Auto", the preamplifier is also considered in the auto ranging process.
SCPI commands:
See ​chapter 8.3.6.2, "Scan Table", on page 452.
2.1.3 Peak Search
A peak search can be part of the measurement process. Like the scan, its purpose is to
make a final measurement as quick as possible but still comply to the requirements of an
EMC standard by testing only a few selected frequencies.
During an (automatic) peak search, the R&S ESR looks for the location of signal levels
that meet certain conditions. If successful, it adds the corresponding frequencies to a
peak list. In the result diagram, peak positions are labeled with a colored symbol (color
and type of symbol depend on the trace the peak is on).
The contents of the peak list in turn are the basis for the final measurement.
Peak search and Min Peak detector
Typically, the peak list contains the frequencies with the highest signal levels.
If you use the Min Peak detector, however, the peak search does not actually determine
peaks, but the minimum peak levels.
The size of the peak list is limited to 500 entries (frequencies). If there are more peaks
than the size of the peak list allows for, the R&S ESR removes the frequencies with the
smallest signal levels.
The R&S ESR provides two methods of finding peaks.
●
"Peak" search
In a peak search, the R&S ESR looks for a particular number of peaks in the complete
scan range, regardless of the location of the peaks.
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Receiver Mode
Measurements and Result Displays
●
"Subrange" search
In a subrange search, you can split the scan range into several equidistant subranges.
The R&S ESR looks for a particular number of peaks in each subrange with the result
that peak list entries are distributed equally over the scan range.
In the automatic peak search, a peak is identifed as a peak if the signal level is above
the peak excursion and, optionally, below a particular level margin.
●
The peak excursion is a relative threshold. The signal level must increase by the
threshold value before falling again before a peak is detected. To avoid identifying
noise peaks as maxima or minima, enter a peak excursion that is higher than the
difference between the highest and the lowest value measured for the displayed
inherent noise.
●
The level margin defines the distance relative to a limit line that a signal may at most
have so that it will be identified as a peak.
Working with a peak list
The results of the peak search are written to the peak list. The peak list is a table that
contains information about each peak that was found.
As an addition to the automatic peak search, the R&S ESR allows you to edit peak lists
and manually add or delete frequencies.
To create a custom peak list, you can, for example, use markers to search for peaks, or,
if you already know the receiver frequencies that the measurement requires, add each
frequency individually.
Multiple detection
If you are using several different detector at the same time, you are using multiple detection. In the case of multiple detection, the application searches for peaks on all traces
separately, given that you have assigned at least one marker to that trace.
A typical selection for EMI measurements is to use the peak and the average detector.
The application would look for peaks on the peak trace and the average trace separately
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Receiver Mode
Measurements and Result Displays
so that the distribution of narrowband and wideband sources of interference can be taken
into account.
For example, the frequency of the maximum determined with the average detector can
be used for the final measurement performed with this detector and the frequency found
during the peak search with the peak detector is taken for the final measurement using
the quasipeak detector.
2.1.4 Final Measurement
In case of measurements with several test stages, the final measurement yields the actual
measurement results. It analyzes only the data that still remains after the preliminary
measurement stages, in other words those frequencies that have been collected in the
peak list. Because the peak list contains a manageable set of frequencies only, the final
measurement is also usable in combination with a configuration that requires long measurement times and still be able to perform the measurement in a reasonable time frame.
During the final measurement, the R&S ESR performs a measurement on each frequency
in the peak list. When done, it updates the preliminary results in the peak list with those
found during the final measurement. To avoid several tests with different detection, multiple detection is also possible for the final measurement.
Automatic vs interactive final measurements
The R&S ESR provides two methods to perform a final measurement: an automatic final
measurement and an interactive one.
An automatic final measurement measures all frequencies in the peak list automatically
with limited means of interaction. During an automatic measurement, you can still interrupt and resume the measurement or abort it completely. But you won't be able to change
the measurement configuration. The advantage is that you can let the measurement run
on its own and do not have to operate the R&S ESR.
If you want to be able to control the final measurement, e.g. to change the configuration
during the measurement, the R&S ESR also provides an interactive final measurement.
When you use the interactive final measurement, the R&S ESR interrupts the measurement before it measures a frequency part of the peak list. In this way, you can customize
the measurement configuration for each frequency.
Availablity of measurement parameters
When you interrupt the scan or the final measurement, you can change only parameters
that have an immediate effect on the measurement. All other parameters (e.g. trigger
settings) are unavailable.
If you perform an interactive final measurement, the R&S ESR initiates the following
sequence.
1. The R&S ESR tunes to the first frequency in the peak list (or the next frequency). The
measurement configuration is as defined previously.
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Measurements and Result Displays
2. The R&S ESR positions a marker on that frequency and interrupts the measurement.
3. While the measurement is interrupted, you can change any setting that is available.
In addition, you have several options on how to proceed.
●
●
●
●
Skip the current frequency
Positions the marker on the next frequency in the peak list without performing a
final measurement.
Get maxhold result for the current frequency
Writes the highest level that has been measured during the scan to the final peak
list without performing a final measurement.
Stop the final measurement
Perform a measurement on the current frequency
4. When the final measurement for the current frequency is done, the R&S ESR replaces
the scan result in the peak list with the result of the final measurement. If the frequency
has drifted compared to the one of the scan, it also updates the frequency in the peak
list.
5. The R&S ESR to the next frequency in the peak list, positions the marker on that
frequency etc.
6. When all frequencies in the peak list are finished, the R&S ESR opens the "Final Peak
List", a table that contains the results for the final measurement.
Note that it is possible to start with an automatic measurement and later change into
interactive mode. Likewise, it is possible to start measuring in interactive mode and later
change into automatic mode.
2.1.5 Automated Test Sequences
A typical measurement sequence for EMC testing is to run a quick preliminary scan to
find signal peaks or interferences and then perform a final measurement with the configuration defined by a standard. Instead of performing each stage one by one, you can
combine one or more of the stages in a single and automated test sequence.
Possible combinations of an automated test sequence are:
●
Perform a scan only.
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Measurements and Result Displays
●
Perform a scan with a subsequent peak search and export of the peak list.
●
Perform a scan with a subsequent peak search and a final measurement including
the export of a final peak list.
► To start an automated test sequence, press the RUN SINGLE or RUN CONT key.
The R&S ESR starts the test sequence. It stops the test sequence at the point you
have defined (either after the scan, the peak search or the final measurement).
Individual peak search or final measurement
► To start a peak search only, press the
button.
The R&S ESR starts a peak search on the current trace(s) of the scan diagram. When
it is done, it opens the peak list.
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If you have not yet performed a scan, the peak search is unavailable.
► To start a final measurement only, press the
button.
The R&S ESR starts a final measurement based on the contents of the peak list.
When it is done, it opens the final peak list.
The R&S ESR provides the "Test Automation" dialog box that contains all functions necessary to control automated test sequences. For a detailed description of all parameters
available in that dialog box see ​chapter 2.3.7, "Test Automation", on page 50.
2.1.6 Time Domain Scans
Equipped with firmware application R&S ESR-K53 and hardware option R&S ESR-B50,
you can perform time domain scans in the frequency domain.
Time domain scans are an alternate way to perform preliminary scans and thus a way to
reduce measurement times even more than would be possible with conventional scans
based on data reduction whose overall measurement times literally could take hours.
In conventional EMI measurement systems, the R&S ESR scans only the spectrum within
the resolution filter for a particular period of time. In case of time domain scans, on the
other hand, you are able to measure large parts of the spectrum in the same time period.
The quality of the results in that case depends on the dynamic range and the resolution
of the A/D conversion system. The higher the system resolution, the better the dynamic
range.
When performing a scan in the time domain, the R&S ESR uses partial Fast Fourier
Transformation (FFT) to calculate the signal levels. Using FFT reduces the measurement
time by factors, which is especially useful for long lasting scans that result in an overview
of the interference spectrum, but do not yet comply to any EMC standard.
If further analysis with optimized antenna position, turntable movement or a configuration
that complies to an EMC standard is required, you can still perform a final measurement
in the frequency domain as described above.
2.1.7 Fixed Frequency Scans
Fixed frequency scans are scans in the time domain. They are similar to oscilloscope
measurements in that they evaluate the level characteristics on a single frequency over
a particular period of time.
In case of EMI measurements, the typical application is to examine the characteristics of
interference in time. Thus, you can, for example, determine if and how strong a narrowband interference fluctuates. In addition, it is possible to see if the interference is a pulse
or if it is amplitude modulated. In case of a broadband interference, it is also possible to
determine the pulse rate and define an ideal measurement time that is greater or equal
to the reciprocal of the pulse rate.
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Click rate analysis
A special application for fixed frequency scans is click rate analysis. Clicks are short and
occasional interferences or pulses that usually occur in thermostat-controlled, softwarecontrolled or other electrically controlled devices like washing machines or air conditioning devices.
The click characteristics of such a device are subject to the occurence of successive
pulses whose individual pulse heights cannot be assigned exactly by using the time constants of quasipeak weighting. This can be critical for these measurements, because it
can lead to limits being exceeded. Using time domain analysis, you are able to determine
the length, repition rate and level of the clicks.
Because of their irregularity, different limits have to be applied than for periodic interferences. These limits are defined by the CISPR 14-1 and EN 55014-1 standards. Both
standards define limits for RFI voltage with click rate weighting in the range from 150 kHz
to 30 MHz.
You can perform this task according to the standards with the R&S ESR. It meets the
requirements of the standards regarding the accuracy of pulse length measurements with
pulse lengths of 10 ms or more. With a memory capacity of 2 million values per trace, it
also has a large enough memory to completely record maximum peak and quasipeak
data for at least 2 hours with a measurement time of 5 ms for each value that has been
measured.
2.1.8 IF Analysis
Equipped with firmware application R&S ESR-K56, you can perform IF analysis with your
R&S ESR.
In IF spectrum analysis, the spectrum of the RF input signal is displayed in the vicinity of
the receiver frequency. The center frequency of the displayed spectrum is always the
current receive frequency.
The IF analysis provides a fast overview of the assignment of the spectrum adjacent to
the measuring channel proper, or, with a large IF bandwidth, the spectral distribution of
a modulated signal in the channel. Interference of the received useful signal can also be
detected quickly, whether it is CW interference appearing as unmodulated carrier or
pulse-like interference which is represented in the form of narrow horizontal lines on the
screen.
The IF spectrum analysis is a very comfortable means for exact frequency tuning of the
receiver and for identification of signals and of their bandwidth. The accuracy of the frequency axis corresponds to the reference used (internal or external). The frequency display range (span) can be selected with a accuracy of two digits (for example 230 kHz or
3.4 MHz, but not 231 kHz or 3.42 MHz). With the bandwidths 10 Hz to 100 kHz in steps
of 1, 2, 3, 5, 10 the frequency resolution can be matched to the span.
In contrast to normal spectrum analyzer operation, the measured values are determined
using FFT from samples recorded from the A/D-converter. Thus the receiver stays tuned
to the center frequency. It may continue to measure with the selected measurement time
and display the signal level with the bar graph. For example, the quasipeak level mea-
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Measurements and Result Displays
sured with one second measurement time may be displayed in the upper half of the
display while in the lower half the spectrum may be refreshed every few milliseconds.
The measurement time of the bar graph may be longer than the measurement time of
the IF analysis. If the measurement time of the bar graph is set to a smaller value then
the measurement time of the IF analysis, the bar graph will as often be refreshed as the
display of the IF analysis.
The level display of the IF analysis is unweighted. It is independent of the selected detector for the bargraph measurement, e.g. average or quasi peak. This is indicated by the
label SA (for sample detector) on the left side of the IF analysis display. A maximum of
three traces can be displayed in parallel. The trace mode may be selected independent
for each trace.
The displayed level values do have the full accuracy of the instrument only at the center
frequency. At all other frequencies, the level is typically lower due to the frequency
response of the IF filter and the preselector.
Configuring the display layout
Equipped with firmware application R&S ESR-K56 (IF Analysis), the R&S ESR provides
different combinations of result displays for the user interface.
By default, the R&S ESR shows the Bargraph and Scan diagrams.
► In the "Measurement" or "Measurement Configuration" menu, press the "Bargraph +
Scan", "Bargraph + IF Analysis" or "IF Analysis + Scan" softkeys.
The R&S ESR changes the layout of the display accordingly.
2.1.9 Measurement Control
Measurements in receiver mode allow you to control the course of the measurement.
This way, you can take advantage of the automated test sequences but still be able to
change the setup once the test sequence is already running.
●
●
●
●
●
2.1.9.1
Running Scans and Measurements........................................................................23
Bargraph Control.....................................................................................................24
Scan Control...........................................................................................................24
Final Measurement Control.....................................................................................25
Measurement Configuration....................................................................................27
Running Scans and Measurements
The RUN SINGLE and RUN CONT keys initiate scans and measurements.
●
RUN SINGLE starts a single scan or measurement. A single measurement lasts until
the defined frequency range has been measured once under the conditions you have
configured. When it has finished, the measurement stops.
In case of measurements in the time domain, a single measurement lasts until the
measurement time you have defined has passed.
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●
RUN CONT starts a continuous scan or measurement. A continuous measurement
lasts until you interrupt or stop it deliberately.
For more information see ​chapter 2.1, "Measurements and Result Displays",
on page 11.
SCPI command:
​INITiate<n>:​CONTinuous​ on page 436
​INITiate<n>[:​IMMediate]​ on page 437
2.1.9.2
Bargraph Control
The "Measurement Configuration" menu contains functionality to configure the bargraph.
► Press the MEAS CONFIG key.
The R&S ESR opens the "Measurement Configuration" menu.
For information on softkeys of the "Measurement Configuration" menu not described here
see ​chapter 2.1.9.5, "Measurement Configuration", on page 27.
Continuous Bargraph / Single Bargraph.......................................................................24
Bargraph Maxhold.........................................................................................................24
Maxhold Reset..............................................................................................................24
Continuous Bargraph / Single Bargraph
Selects single or continuous bargraph measurements.
Continuous bargraph measurements continuously evaluate the signal level at the
receiver frequency.
A single bargraph measurement evaluates the signal level at the receiver frequency once
and then stops.
Bargraph Maxhold
Turns the maxhold bargraph on and off. The maxhold bargraph shows the highest level
that has been measured.
Maxhold Reset
Resets the maxhold bargraph.
After you have reset the bargraph, it starts to collect maximum values again.
2.1.9.3
Scan Control
When you begin a scan, the R&S ESR opens a softkey menu to control the course of the
measurement.
Hold Scan......................................................................................................................25
Continue at Rec Frequency..........................................................................................25
Continue at Hold...........................................................................................................25
Stop Scan......................................................................................................................25
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Hold Scan
Interrupts the scan and opens a submenu that contains functionality to control the scan.
Results that have already been collected are kept.
For more information see ​chapter 2.1.2, "Scans", on page 13.
Remote command:
​HOLD​ on page 436
Continue at Rec Frequency
Resumes the scan at the receiver frequency.
Note that the receiver frequency is not necessarily the frequency at which the scan was
interrupted. In that case, the scan is resumed at the last receiver frequency that was
measured.
For more information see ​chapter 2.1.2, "Scans", on page 13.
Remote command:
​INITiate<n>[:​IMMediate]​ on page 437
Continue at Hold
Resumes the scan at the frequency it was interrupted.
For more information see ​chapter 2.1.2, "Scans", on page 13.
Remote command:
​INITiate<n>:​CONMeas​ on page 436
Stop Scan
Aborts the scan.
Results that have already been collected are lost.
For more information see ​chapter 2.1.2, "Scans", on page 13.
Remote command:
​ABORt ​ on page 436
2.1.9.4
Final Measurement Control
When you begin a final measurement, the R&S ESR opens a softkey menu to control the
course of the measurement.
Hold Final Measurement...............................................................................................25
Automatic Final.............................................................................................................26
Interactive Final.............................................................................................................26
Skip Frequency.............................................................................................................26
Get Maxhold..................................................................................................................26
Measure........................................................................................................................26
Stop Final Measurement...............................................................................................26
Hold Final Measurement
Interrupts the final measurement and opens a submenu that contains functionality to
control the final measurement.
Results that have already been collected are kept.
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For more information see ​chapter 2.1.4, "Final Measurement", on page 18.
Remote command:
​HOLD​ on page 436
Automatic Final
Selects an automatic final measurement.
For more information see ​chapter 2.1.4, "Final Measurement", on page 18.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]FMEasurement:​AUTO​ on page 438
Interactive Final
Selects interactive final measurements.
For more information see ​chapter 2.1.4, "Final Measurement", on page 18.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]FMEasurement:​AUTO​ on page 438
Skip Frequency
Skips the peak the final measurement is due to measure next and proceeds with the next
peak.
Available for interactive final measurements.
For more information see ​chapter 2.1.4, "Final Measurement", on page 18.
Remote command:
not supported
Get Maxhold
Uses the highest level that was measured during the scan for the final results instead of
the signal level measured during the final measurement.
For more information see ​chapter 2.1.4, "Final Measurement", on page 18.
Measure
Initiates a final measurement on the current peak.
Available for interactive final measurements.
For more information see ​chapter 2.1.4, "Final Measurement", on page 18.
Remote command:
not supported
Stop Final Measurement
Aborts the final measurement.
Results that have already been collected are lost.
For more information see ​chapter 2.1.4, "Final Measurement", on page 18.
Remote command:
​ABORt ​ on page 436
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2.1.9.5
Measurement Configuration
The "Measurement" menu contains functionality to configure the measurement and result
displays.
► Press the MEAS key.
The R&S ESR opens the "Measurement" menu.
Receiver Frequency......................................................................................................27
Bargraph Detector.........................................................................................................27
└ Couple to Scan Trace.....................................................................................27
Measurement Time.......................................................................................................28
Demod...........................................................................................................................28
└ Demod (On Off)..............................................................................................28
└ AM / FM..........................................................................................................28
└ Squelch...........................................................................................................28
Add To Peak List...........................................................................................................28
Bargraph + Scan / Bargraph + IF Analysis / IF Analysis + Scan...................................28
Test Automation............................................................................................................29
Receiver Frequency
Defines the receiver frequency.
Make sure to define a frequency that is at least twice as large as the IF bandwidth. If you
use a frequency that is lower, the R&S ESR automatically reduces the bandwidth.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]FREQuency:​CENTer​ on page 444
Bargraph Detector
Opens a submenu to select the detector for the bargraph result display.
Each detector you select adds another bargraph to the result display. Up to four bargraphs at the same time are possible.
For more information see ​chapter 2.2.3, "Selecting a Detector", on page 31.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]DETector:​RECeiver[:​FUNCtion]​ on page 435
Couple to Scan Trace ← Bargraph Detector
Couples or decouples the bargraph detector and scan detectors.
If on, the R&S ESR does as follows.
●
●
●
Turns on a scan detector for every active bargraph.
If you add a new bargraph detector, the corresponding scan trace is automatically
turned on.
Matches the scan trace number to the number of the bargraph.
Matches the color of the bargraph detector and bargraph detector.
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If you couple bargraph and scan trace, the R&S ESR replaces the detectors of all other
active scan traces with the new detector type.
Remote command:
​DISPlay:​BARGraph:​TCOupling​ on page 434
Measurement Time
Defines the measurement time for a scan and the bargraph.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​TIME​ on page 435
Demod
Opens a submenu to configure AM or FM demodulation.
Demod (On Off) ← Demod
Turns demodulation at the receiver frequency on and off.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]DEMod​ on page 443
AM / FM ← Demod
Selects AM or FM demodulation.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]DEMod​ on page 443
Squelch ← Demod
Defines the minimum level for the signal level to be demodulated.
For more information see ​chapter 2.2.5, "AF Demodulation", on page 36.
Remote command:
Turning on the squelch:
​[SENSe:​]DEMod:​SQUelch[:​STATe]​ on page 443
Defining a squelch level:
​[SENSe:​]DEMod:​SQUelch:​LEVel​ on page 443
Add To Peak List
Adds the current receiver frequency to the peak list.
Remote command:
not supported
Bargraph + Scan / Bargraph + IF Analysis / IF Analysis + Scan
Selects the contents of the display.
For more information see ​chapter 2.1.8, "IF Analysis", on page 22.
●
●
Bargraph + Scan
The upper measurement window contains the bargraph, the lower one the scan diagram.
Bargraph + IF Analysis
The upper measurement window contains the bargraph, the lower one the diagram
for IF analysis.
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●
IF Analysis + Scan
The upper measurement window contains the diagram for IF analysis, the lower on
the scan diagram.
The softkeys are available with firmware application R&S ESR-K56 (IF Analysis).
Test Automation
Opens a dialog box to configure automated test sequences.
For more information see ​chapter 2.3.7, "Test Automation", on page 50.
2.2 Measurement Basics
Measurement basics explain various terms and principles used in the context of EMI
measurements. They also assist you in finding the right configuration for your measurement tasks.
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
Resolution Bandwidth.............................................................................................29
Defining the Measurement Time.............................................................................30
Selecting a Detector................................................................................................31
Trace Modes...........................................................................................................35
AF Demodulation....................................................................................................36
Controlling V-Networks (LISN)................................................................................36
Transducers............................................................................................................38
Preamplifier.............................................................................................................39
Exported Peak List..................................................................................................39
Formats for Returned Values: ASCII Format and Binary Format............................41
2.2.1 Resolution Bandwidth
The resolution bandwidth defines the bandwidth of the resolution filter. The RF signal is
evaluated and displayed according to the passband characteristics of the resolution filter.
The receiver mode supports the following types of resolution filter.
●
Filters with a 3 dB bandwidth (normal filters).
The R&S ESR provides bandwidths from 10 Hz to 10 MHz with a stepsize of
1-2-3-5-10-...
●
Filters with a 6 dB bandwidth (EMI filters).
The 6 dB bandwidths are designed and required for EMI tests and measurements.
The R&S ESR provides the following bandwidths that comply to civil and military
standards:
– 10 Hz (with option R&S ESR-B29)
–
100 Hz (with option R&S ESR-B29)
–
200 Hz (CISPR bandwidth)
–
1 kHz (with option R&S ESR-B29)
–
9 kHz (CISPR bandwidth)
–
100 kHz (with option R&S ESR-B29)
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–
120 kHz (CISPR bandwidth)
–
1 MHz (CISPR bandwidth)
Additional 6 dB bandwidths
Installing option R&S ESR-B29 adds additional 6 dB bandwidths that are specified for
and comply to MIL, DO and automotive standards.
Bandwidths are implemented as digital Gaussian bandpass filters. The attenuation characteristics of these filters are like those of analog filters. The measurement speed of digital
filters is, however, much faster compared to analog filters.
The highest sensitivity is obtained at the smallest bandwidth (10 Hz). If the bandwidth is
increased, the reduction in sensitivity is proportional to the change in bandwidth. Increasing the bandwidth by a factor of 3 increases the displayed noise by approx. 5 dB
(4.77 dB precisely). If the bandwidth is increased by a factor of 10, the displayed noise
increases by a factor of 10, i.e. 10 dB.
The higher spectral resolution with smaller bandwidths is won by longer measurement
times at a particular frequency, because the measurement time has to allow the resolution
filters to settle during a sweep at all signal levels and frequencies to be displayed.
If the RBW is too large, signal parts that are very far away (e.g. from a different signal)
are considered in the measurement and distort the results. The displayed noise increases.
If the RBW is too small, the measurement time increases.
Bandwidths and detectors
If you use the Quasipeak, CISPR-AV or CISPR-RMS detector, the R&S ESR by default
couples the resolution bandwidth to the receiver frequency.
If you need a different bandwidth, you can decouple the bandwidth from the frequency.
When decoupled, you can select any of the supported CISPR bandwidths.
2.2.2 Defining the Measurement Time
The measurement time defines the time that the R&S ESR takes to measure the input
signal and calculate a result that includes the characteristics of the detector. You can set
a measurement time from 50 µs to 100 s.
The measurement time has the following restrictions.
●
When you use the Quasipeak detector, the measurement time must be at least
0.5 ms.
●
When you use the CISPR Average or RMS Average detector, the minimum measurement time depends on the CISPR band.
– 50 ms for Band A
–
1 ms for Band B
–
100 µs for Bands C/D/E
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●
When you use the Max Peak, Min Peak, Average or RMS detectors, the smallest
possible measurement time depends on the selected resolution bandwidth.
Table 2-1: Smallest possible measurement time for Max Peak, min Peak, Average or RMS detectors
Bandwidth
Max and Min Peak
Average and RMS
≤ 100 Hz
10 ms
1s
100 Hz
1 ms
100 ms
200 Hz to 500 Hz
1 ms
50 ms
1 kHz to 5 kHz
100 µs
10 ms
9 kHz to 50 kHz
100 µs
1 ms
≥ 100 kHz
50 µs
100 µs
Note that the measurement time does not include settling times of the synthesizer and
the IF filter. The R&S ESR automatically waits until the synthesizer and IF filter are settled.
2.2.3 Selecting a Detector
The task of the detector is to determine which of the samples that have been recorded
are displayed for each sweep point. The result obtained from the selected detector for a
sweep point is displayed as the power value at this frequency point in the trace.
The detectors of the R&S ESR are implemented as pure digital devices. All detectors
work in parallel in the background, which means that the measurement speed is independent of the detector combination used for different traces.
The combined use of several detectors is especially useful for EMI measurements to
avoid long measurement times when limit tests for more than one evaluation method are
required. In case of measurements with more than one detector, make sure to select a
measurement time that is based on the slowest detector in use. Otherwise, results may
not be valid.
The receiver mode of the R&S ESR provides several detectors, including detectors that
are especially designed for and required by EMI applications.
The R&S ESR allows you to use different detectors for the bargraph, scan and final measurement.
Positive and negative peak detector
The maximum and minimum peak detectors displays the maximum and minimum signal
level that was detected during the specified measurement time.
Regarding measurement time,
●
you can use the shortest time possible when measuring unmodulated signals
●
you should set a time that is long enough to capture at least one complete pulse when
measuring pulsed signals
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The peak detectors are digital detectors. Therefore, discharging is no issue even in case
of long measurement times.
Average detector
The average detector displays the average signal level of the samples that were collected
during the specified measurement time.
The average is calculated from the video voltage (or envelope of the IF signal). In the
process, the digitized values of the video voltage are summed up and divided by the
number of samples that were captured during the measurement time. In the time domain,
this corresponds to a filter with a rectangular window. In the frequency domain, it corresponds to a filter with sin x/x characteristics.
Regarding measurement time,
●
you can use shortest time possible when measuring unmodulated signals
●
you should set a time that is long enough to capture several complete pulses (at least
10) when measuring pulsed signals
●
you should be aware that the time is determined by the lowest modulation frequency
to be averaged
RMS detector
The RMS detector evaluates the root mean square (RMS) value over the specified measurement time and displays the resulting value. The integration time is the specified
measurement time.
Regarding measurement time, you can follow the guidelines of the average detector.
RMS detector and VBW
If the RMS detector is selected, the video bandwidth in the hardware is bypassed. Thus,
duplicate trace averaging with small VBWs and RMS detector no longer occurs. However,
the VBW is still considered when calculating the measurement time. This leads to a longer
sweep time for small VBW values. Thus, you can reduce the VBW value to achieve more
stable trace curves even when using an RMS detector. Normally, if the RMS detector is
used the measurement time should be increased to get more stable traces.
Sample detector
The sample detector displays the last value from the samples allocated to a pixel.
The sample detector is used for noise or phase noise marker calculation. However, it is
unreliable if the displayed span is much greater then the resolution bandwidth or if the
tuning steps of the local oscillator are too large.
Quasipeak detector
The quasipeak detector displays the maximum signal level weighted to CISPR 16-1-1
that was detected during the measurement time.
The filter bandwidth and time constants of the detector are coupled to the receiver frequency.
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Table 2-2:
Band A
Band B
Band C/D
Frequency range
< 150 kHz
150 kHz to 30 MHz
> 30 MHz
Resolution bandwidth
200 Hz
9 kHz
120 kHz
Charge time constant
45 ms
1 ms
1 ms
Discharge time constant
500 ms
160 ms
550 ms
Time constant of the
R&S ESR
160 ms
160 ms
100 ms
Regarding measurement time,
●
you should, because of the long time constants of the detector, always define a sufficiently high measurement time to get valid results
●
you should select a measurement time of at least 1 second when measuring unknown
signals. This value makes sure that pulses down to a frequency of 5 Hz are weighted
correctly.
●
you can select a shorter time when measuring known signals as the signal level does
not change during the sweep.
After an internal switch, the R&S ESR waits until the measurement result has stabilized
before it starts the actual measurement.
Note that the bandwidth of the resolution filter is coupled to the current receiver frequency
if you use the Quasipeak detector. When you decouple the filter bandwidth from the frequency, you can use any CISPR bandwidth in the measurement.
CISPR Average detector
The CISPR Average detector displays a weighted average signal level according to
CISPR 16-1-1.
The average value according to CISPR 16-1-1 is the maximum value of the linear average
value that was detected during the specified measurement time.
The CISPR Average detector is applied to measure pulsed sinusoidal signals with a low
pulse frequency, for example. It is calibrated with the RMS value of an unmodulated
sinusoidal signal. The average value is determined by lowpass filters of the 2nd order
(the simulation of a mechanical instrument).
The filter bandwidth and time constants of the detector are coupled to the receiver frequency.
Band A
Band B
Band C/D
Band E
Frequency range
< 150 kHz
150 kHz to 30 MHz
30 MHz to 1 GHz
> 1 GHz
Resolution bandwidth
200 Hz
9 kHz
120 kHz
1 MHz
160 ms
100 ms
100 ms
Time constant of the 160 ms
mechanical device
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Regarding measurement time,
●
you should, because of the long time constants of the detector, always define a sufficiently high measurement time to get valid results
●
you should select a measurement time of at least 1 second when measuring unknown
signals. This time makes sure that pulses down to a frequency of 5 Hz are weighted
correctly.
●
you should select a long time for measurement on pulsed signals or signals that
fluctuate slowly.
●
you can select a short time when measuring unmodulated signals or signals with a
high modulation frequency.
Measurement times shorter than 20 ms
Note that if you define a measurement time shorter than 20 ms, the detector weighting
changes to plain average weighting.
When you change the receiver frequency or the attenuation, the R&S ESR waits until the
the lowpass filter has settled before starting the measurement. The measurement time
in that case depends on the resolution bandwidth and the characteristics of the signal.
Note that the bandwidth of the resolution filter is coupled to the current receiver frequency
if you use the CISPR Average detector. When you decouple the filter bandwidth from the
frequency, you can use any CISPR bandwidth in the measurement.
RMS Average detector
The RMS Average detector is a combination of the RMS detector (for pulse repetition
frequencies above a corner frequency) and the Average detector (for pulse repetition
frequencies below the corner frequency). It thus achieves a pulse response curve with
the following characteristics: 10 dB/decade above the corner frequency and 20 dB/decade below the corner frequency. The average value is determined by lowpass filters of
the 2nd order (simulation of a mechanical instrument).
The detector is used, for example, to measure broadband emissions and may replace
the quasipeak detector in the future.
The filter bandwidth and time constants of the detector are coupled to the receiver frequency.
Band A
Band B
Band C/D
Band E
Frequency range
< 150 kHz
150 kHz to 30 MHz
30 MHz to 1 GHz
> 1 GHz
Resolution bandwidth
200 Hz
9 kHz
120 kHz
1 MHz
Time constant of the 160 ms
R&S ESR
160 ms
100 ms
100 ms
Corner frequency
100 Hz
100 Hz
1 kHz
10 Hz
Regarding measurement time, you can follow the guidelines of the CISPR Average
detector.
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Measurement times shorter than 20 ms
Note that if you define a measurement time shorter than 20 ms, the detector weighting
changes to plain RMS weighting.
Note that the bandwidth of the resolution filter is coupled to the current receiver frequency
if you use the RMS Average detector. When you decouple the filter bandwidth from the
frequency, you can use any CISPR bandwidth in the measurement.
2.2.4 Trace Modes
The traces can be activated individually for a measurement or frozen after a measurement has been done. Traces that are not active not visible. Each time the trace mode is
changed, the selected trace memory is cleared.
Note that in Spectrum mode, the Max Hold and Min Hold modes are unavailable for
statistics measurements.
Clear Write
Overwrite mode: the trace is overwritten by each sweep. This is the default setting.
All available detectors can be selected.
Remote command:
DISP:TRAC:MODE WRIT, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​MODE​
on page 460
Max Hold
The maximum value is determined over several sweeps and displayed. The R&S ESR
saves the sweep result in the trace memory only if the new value is greater than the
previous one.
This mode is especially useful with modulated or pulsed signals. The signal spectrum is
filled up upon each sweep until all signal components are detected in a kind of envelope.
Remote command:
DISP:TRAC:MODE MAXH, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​MODE​
on page 460
Min Hold
The minimum value is determined from several measurements and displayed. The
R&S ESR saves the smallest of the previously stored/currently measured values in the
trace memory.
This mode is useful e.g. for making an unmodulated carrier in a composite signal visible.
Noise, interference signals or modulated signals are suppressed whereas a CW signal
is recognized by its constant level.
Remote command:
DISP:TRAC:MODE MINH, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​MODE​
on page 460
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View
The current contents of the trace memory are frozen and displayed.
Note: If a trace is frozen, the instrument settings, apart from level range and reference
level (see below), can be changed without impact on the displayed trace. The fact that
the displayed trace no longer matches the current instrument setting is indicated by the
icon on the tab label.
If the level range or reference level is changed, the R&S ESR automatically adapts the
measured data to the changed display range. This allows an amplitude zoom to be made
after the measurement in order to show details of the trace.
Remote command:
DISP:TRAC:MODE VIEW, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​MODE​
on page 460
Blank
Hides the selected trace.
Remote command:
DISP:TRAC OFF, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>[:​STATe]​ on page 615
2.2.5 AF Demodulation
The R&S ESR provides demodulators for AM and FM signals. The R&S ESR demodulates the signal of the receiver frequency in a bandwidth corresponding to the resolution
bandwidth to the audio output.
A squelch function that is linked to the video trigger defines the level that the signal must
at least have to be demodulated. If you turn the squelch on, the R&S ESR automatically
turns on the video trigger. The squelch level and trigger level are the sam.
You can listen to the signal using the internal speaker or headphones.
Risk of hearing damage when using headphones
To protect your hearing, make sure that the volume setting is not too high before putting
on the headphones.
The volume for the headphones is controlled using the rotary knob next to the "AF Output" interface on the front panel of the instrument or with the ​SYSTem:​SPEaker:​
VOLume​ command.
2.2.6 Controlling V-Networks (LISN)
For measurements with power lines, the R&S ESR provides functionality to directly control a line impedance stabilization network (LISN). The configuration is then taken into
account in the automatic measurement sequences.
You can connect the LISN to the userport. The R&S ESR supports several V-networks.
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●
Four-line V-networks
– ESH2-Z5
–
●
ENV4200
Two-line V-networks
– ESH3-Z5
–
ENV216
For the ENV 216 network, a 150 kHz high pass filter is available for protection of the input.
After selecting the type of network, you can define the phase you want to test for interferences. Phase N and L1 are available for two-line networks. Four-line networks in addition have access to phase L2 and L3. During the peak search, you can test one phase
at a time.
During final measurements the R&S ESR supports the control of several phases. When
you select more than one phase, the R&S ESR measures all phase combinations and
determines the maximum value.
For an automatic phase selection with the networks, a connection between the R&S ESR
and network has to be established with a control line. The following illustrations show the
right PIN assignment.
Fig. 2-1: Connection from R&S ESR to R&S ESH2-Z5
Fig. 2-2: Connection from R&S ESR to R&S ESH3-Z5 or ENV216
Fig. 2-3: Connection from R&S ESR to R&S ENV4200
To control the phase selection and PE simulating network of the V-Networks R&S ESH2Z5, R&S ESH3-Z5 and R&S ENV4200, the +5 V supply voltage and some control lines
have to be routed through the wall of the shielded room.
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You can also use a direct connection without a filter, e.g. when you use the R&S ESR in
a shielded room. In that case, you can use the following cables.
●
R&S ESH2-Z5: EZ-5, EZ-13, EZ14
●
R&S ESH3-Z5: EZ-6, EZ-14
●
R&S ENV216: EZ14
●
R&S ENV4200: EZ-14, EZ-21
2.2.7 Transducers
Many EMI test setups contain a transducer (for example antennas, cables, probes or
current probes). The transducer converts the interference variables like field strength,
current or RFI voltage into a voltage across 50 Ω. Because most transducers have a
characteristic frequency response, it is necessary to correct the measurement results by
the frequency characteristics of the transducer. These characteristics are defined in a
transducer factor or transducer sets.
The visible effect of a transducer is therefore a vertical shift of the results by the amount
defined in the transducer factor for each frequency point.
Transducer factors
A transducer factor takes the frequency response of a single transfer element into
account. It consists of a series of reference values. Each reference value in turn consists
of a frequency and the corresponding level (correction) value. The transducer factor may
consist of up to 625 reference values. Measurement points between the reference values
are interpolated either linearily or logarithmically.
Note that the unit of the transducer overrides the unit you have selected for the measurement, because the R&S ESR is seen as the same device as the transducer itself.
Measurement results are automatically converted into the unit of the transducer factor.
Inputs are only possible in the unit of the transducer. If you want to have access to other
units as well, the correction values must be defined in dB. When you turn the transducer
off, the R&S ESR again uses the unit that was selected before.
Transducer factors are always applied to all active measurement windows.
Transducer sets
A transducer set consists of several transducer factors and thus takes the frequency
response of several transducers into account. Using transducer sets is recommended if
you are using different transducers in the measurement range or if cable attenuation or
an amplifier has to be taken into account.
If you are using a transducer set, you can divide the complete frequency range defined
for the transducer set into 10 smaller frequency ranges. Make sure, however, that the
ranges have no gaps in between each other. The stop frequency of one range must
always be the start frequency of the next one.
You can assign up to eight transducer factors to each subrange. Make sure that the
frequency range of a particular (sub)range is covered completely by the frequency range
defined for the transducer factor. In addition, the unit of all transducer factors that are part
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of a set has to be the same (or, alternatively, "dB"). Transducer factors that do not meet
this condition won't be available for selection.
If necessary, you can configure the R&S ESR to interrupt the scan when it reaches a
range boundary. This interruption is called transducer break. While the scan is interrupted, exchange the transducer and continue the scan with the transducer factor assigned
to the new range or turn off transducer use and continue the measurement without a
transducer factor.
Transducer management
The R&S ESR provides functionality to store and use the transducer factors during a
measurement.
For more information on creating and managing transducer factors see ​"Transducer"
on page 355.
2.2.8 Preamplifier
The R&S ESR is equipped with a preamplifier that works in the frequency range from
100 Hz to 7 GHz. The preamplifier results in a 20 dB gain of the signal.
Using the preamplifer reduces the total mark figure of the R&S ESR and thus improves
the sensitivity.
The disadvantage of a poorer large-signal immunity (intermodulation) is reduced by the
connected preselector. The signal level of the subsequent mixer is 20 dB higher so that
the maximum input level is reduced by the gain of the preamplifier. The use of the preamplifier is recommended when measurements with a maximum sensitivity are to be
performed. On the other hand, if the measurement should be performed at maximum
dynamic range, the preamplifier should be switched off.
The gain of the preamplifier is automatically considered in the level display. The preamplifier follows the preselection filters so that the risk of overdriving by strong out-of-band
signals is reduced to a minimum.
2.2.9 Exported Peak List
When you export the peak list, the results are saved in an ASCII file. The contents of the
file are split into several section.
●
The header contains general information about the measurement and instrument
settings and characteristics.
It consists of three columns, separated by a semicolon: parameter name; numeric
value; unit
●
The data section contains information about the evaluation of the data and the contents of the peak list.
The data section always starts with Trace <n> [Final]:.
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Table 2-3: Example of an exported peak list with a description of the contents
Type;ESR-7;
instrument model and type
Version;1.76;
Firmware version
Date;07.May 12;
Date of the export
Mode;Receiver;
Operating mode
Start;150000.000000;Hz
Start frequency
Stop;1000000000.000000;Hz
Stop frequency
x-axis;log;
X-axis scaling
Scan count;1;
Number of scans in a single measurement
Transducer;Antenna;;;;;;;
Active transducer(s)
Scan <x>:
Results for scan range <x>
Start;150000.000000;Hz
Start frequency of scan range <x>
Stop;30000000.000000;Hz
Stop frequency of scan range <x>
Step;4000.000000;Hz
Frequency stepsize in scan range <x>
RBW;9000.000000;Hz
Resolution bandwidth in scan range <x>
Meas time;0.001000;s
Measurement time in scan range <x>
Auto ranging;OFF;
Autoranging state for scn range <x>
RF Att;10.000000;dB
RF attenuation level in scan range <x>
Auto Preamp;OFF;
Auto preamplification state for scan range <x>
Preamp;0.000000;dB
Preamplification state for scan range <x>
TRACE <x> FINAL
Peak list contents for trace <x> after scan [or final
measurement]
Trace Mode;CLR/WRITE;
Trace mode for trace <x>
Detector;QUASI PEAK;
Detector for trace <x>
x-Unit;Hz;
Unit of the x-axis
y-Unit;dBµV;
Unit of the y-axis
Final Meas Time;1.000000;s
Final measurement time
Margin;6.000000;dB
Margin of the peaks
Value;26;
Number of result values
1;2150000.000000;84.210000;;;
Peak list entries:
1;6150000.000000;84.210000;;;
<Trace>;<Frequency>;<Level>;<DeltaLimit>;<Phase>;<Unused>
etc.
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2.2.10 Formats for Returned Values: ASCII Format and Binary Format
ASCII Format (FORMat ASCII)
The command reads out a list of comma separated values (CSV) of the measured values
in floating point format.
Reading out data in binary format is quicker than in ASCII format. Thus, binary format is
recommended for large amounts of data.
Binary Format (FORMat REAL,32)
The command reads out binary data (Definite Length Block Data according to IEEE
488.2), each measurement value being formatted in 32 Bit IEEE 754 Floating-Point-Format.
Depending on the number of samples to be transferred, 2 different kinds of syntax are
used:
For <1010 samples:
The schema of the result string is as follows:
#<NoOfDigits><NoOfDataBytes><value1><value2>…<value n>, with
#
Header prefix, 1 byte
<NoOfDigits>
Number of digits of the following number of data bytes (= 4 in the example), 1 byte
<NoOfDataBytes>
Number of following data bytes in decimal form (= 1024 in the example), 1...9 bytes
<Value>
Data values, each one is a 4-byte floating point value
Example:
#41024<value1><value2>…<value 256>
4: the following number of data bytes has 4 digits
1024: 1024 Bytes of following data; float: 4 Bytes / value => 1024 / 4 = 256 values (128
I and 128 Q values)
<value x>: 4 Byte values, must be interpreted as float
For ≧1010 samples:
The schema of the result string is as follows:
#(<NoOfDataBytes>)<value1><value2>…<value n>, with
#
Header prefix, 1 byte
(
1 byte
<NoOfDataBytes>
number of following data bytes (= 1024 in the example), 10 bytes
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)
1 byte
<Value>
Data values, each one is a 4-byte floating point value
Example:
#(1677721600)<value 1><value 2> ... <value 419430400>
(1677721600): 1677721600 Bytes of following data; float: 4 Bytes / value ==>
1677721600/ 4 = 419430400 values (200Ms I and 200Ms Q values)
<value x>: 4 Byte values, must be interpreted as float
2.3 Common Measurement Settings
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
Defining the Frequency and Span...........................................................................42
Configuring the Vertical Axis...................................................................................44
Selecting the Bandwidth..........................................................................................46
Configuring the Measurement.................................................................................47
Trigger Configuration..............................................................................................48
Controlling Inputs and Outputs................................................................................49
Test Automation......................................................................................................50
2.3.1 Defining the Frequency and Span
The frequency and span settings define the scope of the signal to be analyzed.
Span settings and signal tracking are only available for IF Analysis (firmware application
R&S ESR-K56).
Receiver Frequency......................................................................................................42
Stepsize........................................................................................................................42
Start / Stop Frequency..................................................................................................43
IF Span Manual.............................................................................................................43
Full Span.......................................................................................................................43
Last Span......................................................................................................................43
Signal Tracking.............................................................................................................43
Receiver Frequency
Defines the receiver frequency.
Make sure to define a frequency that is at least twice as large as the IF bandwidth. If you
use a frequency that is lower, the R&S ESR automatically reduces the bandwidth.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]FREQuency:​CENTer​ on page 444
Stepsize
Opens a submenu to define the receiver frequency stepsize.
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By default, the frequency stepsize is coupled to the receiver frequency. Alternatively, you
can define a custom stepsize.
"Auto Coarse"
The stepsize is coupled to the receiver frequency.
When you change the frequency, the R&S ESR changes the 4th digit
of the current receiver frequency.
"Fine Coarse"
The stepsize is coupled to the receiver frequency.
When you change the frequency, the R&S ESR changes the 7th digit
of the current receiver frequency.
"Stepsize Man- The stepsize is a fixed custom value.
ual"
"Stepsize =
Freq"
The stepsize is equal to the current receiver frequency.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]FREQuency:​CENTer:​STEP​ on page 444
Start / Stop Frequency
Defines the start and stop frequency for the scan.
The range for the start frequency is fmin to (fmax - 10 Hz).
The range for the stop frequency is (fmin + 10 Hz) to fmax.
fmin and fmax are defined in the datasheet.
Remote command:
Start frequency:
​[SENSe:​]FREQuency:​STARt​ on page 445
Stop frequency:
​[SENSe:​]FREQuency:​STOP​ on page 445
IF Span Manual
Defines the span for IF spectrum analysis.
The receiver frequency remains the same when you change the span. Possible span
values are in the range from 10 kHz to 10 MHz.
Available for IF Analysis (firmware application R&S ESR-K56).
Full Span
Restores the span to the full available frequency range.
The full span is specified in the data sheet.
In receiver mode, full span is available for IF Analysis and is limited to 10 MHz.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]FREQuency:​SPAN:​FULL​ on page 593
Last Span
Sets the span to the previous value. With this function e.g. a fast change between overview measurement and detailed measurement is possible.
Signal Tracking
Opens a submenu to control signal tracking.
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Signal tracking is available for IF analysis. It changes the center frequency after each
scan or measurement to the maximum signal found within a particular bandwidth. If no
maximum signal above the set threshold value is found in the searched bandwidth, the
track mechanism stops.
For more information see ​chapter 3.2.2, "Selecting the Frequency and Span – FREQ
Key", on page 201.
2.3.2 Configuring the Vertical Axis
RF Atten Manual...........................................................................................................44
Preamp On/Off..............................................................................................................44
10 dB Min......................................................................................................................44
Auto Range (On Off).....................................................................................................45
Auto Preamp (On Off)...................................................................................................45
Unit................................................................................................................................45
Grid Range / Grid Min Level..........................................................................................46
Input 50 Ω/75 Ω ............................................................................................................46
RF Atten Manual
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the attenuation, irrespective of the reference level.
The RF attenuation defines the level at the input mixer according to the formula:
levelmixer = levelinput – RF attenuation + RF preamplifier gain
You can attenuate the signal in 5 dB steps. The range is specified in the data sheet. If
the current reference level is not comaptible to the RF attenuation, the reference level is
adjusted accordingly.
Note that receiver mode, an attenuation of 10 dB or less is possible only if you turn ​10
dB Min off.
Note: The maximum mixer level allowed is 0 dBm. Mixer levels above this value may
lead to incorrect measurement results, which are indicated by the "OVLD" status display.
The increased mixer level allows for an improved signal, but also increases the risk of
overloading the instrument.
When measuring spurious emissions in spectrum mode, this softkey automatically opens
the "Sweep List" dialog box, see ​"Sweep List dialog box" on page 146.
Remote command:
​INPut:​ATTenuation​ on page 447
Preamp On/Off
Switches the preamplifier on and off.
Remote command:
​INPut:​GAIN:​STATe ​ on page 448
10 dB Min
Turns the availability of attenuation levels of 10 dB or less on and off.
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If on, the attenuation level is always at least 10 dB to protect the input mixer and avoid
accidental setting of 0 dB, especially if you measure DUTs with high RFI voltage.
Remote command:
​INPut:​ATTenuation:​PROTection[:​STATe]​ on page 447
Auto Range (On Off)
Turns automatic configuration of the attenuation level on and off.
If off, the R&S ESR uses the manual RF attenuation that you have defined.
If on, the R&S ESR defines an attenuation level that results in a good S/N ration without
overdriving the receiver stages. Note that it is possible that the R&S ESR does not utilize
the maximum possible dynamic range. However, measurement results are still valid in
that case, because it is ensured that performing scans does not result in an overload.
NOTICE! Risk of damage to the input mixer. If you apply a 0 dB RF attenuation in combination with auto ranging, make sure that the signal level at the RF input does not exceed
the allowed limits.
Exceeding the limit might damage the input mixer.
Do not use a 0 dB attenuation under any circumstances when you measure RFI voltage
(or unknown signals) in combination with an artificial network, because such a test setup
generates very high pulses during phase switching.
Remote command:
​INPut:​ATTenuation:​AUTO​ on page 447
Auto Preamp (On Off)
Turns automatic selection of the preamplifier state on and off.
If on, the R&S ESR considers the preamplifier in the autorange process. When the
attenuation level is at its lowest possible value, the autorange process turns the preamplifier on.
Remote command:
​INPut:​GAIN:​AUTO​ on page 448
Unit
Opens a submenu to select the display unit.
The receiver mode supports the following units.
●
●
●
●
●
●
dBm
dBpW
dBmV
dBµV
dBµA
dBpT
The default unit is dBµV.
In general, the R&S ESR measures the signal voltage at the RF input. The level display
is calibrated in RMS values of an unmodulated sine wave signal. Via the known input
impedance (50 Ω or 75 Ω), conversion to other units is possible. The conversion to 1 MHz
is done with the pulse bandwidth of the selected resolution bandwidth according to the
following equation.
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Bimp MHz 
 dBV 
P
 20  log
 PdBV 

1MHz 
 MHz 
with
P  display level
Bimp  resolution bandwidth
The conversion from one unit to another is also possible if you are using a transducer.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​UNIT:​POWer​ on page 446
Grid Range / Grid Min Level
Defines the scale of the vertical diagram axis.
By default, the diagram shows a range of 100 dB with a 100 dB representing the top of
the diagram. The unit depends on the one you have selected.
"Grid Range"
Defines the value range that the vertical axis covers.
"Grid Min
Level"
Defines the level represented by the bottom of the diagram.
Remote command:
Defining the range of the axis:
Defining the minimum level displayed on the axis:
​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y[:​SCALe]:​BOTTom​ on page 446
Input 50 Ω/75 Ω
Uses 50 Ω or 75 Ω as reference impedance for the measured levels. Default setting is
50 Ω.
The setting 75 Ω should be selected if the 50 Ω input impedance is transformed to a higher
impedance using a 75 Ω adapter of the RAZ type (= 25 Ω in series to the input impedance
of the instrument). The correction value in this case is 1.76 dB = 10 log (75 Ω/50 Ω).
All levels specified in this Operating Manual refer to the default setting of the instrument
(50 Ω).
Remote command:
​INPut:​IMPedance​ on page 448
2.3.3 Selecting the Bandwidth
Res BW Manual............................................................................................................46
CISPR RBW Uncoupled................................................................................................47
Filter Type.....................................................................................................................47
IF Analysis Bandwidth...................................................................................................47
Res BW Manual
Opens an input field to define the measurement or resolution bandwidth.
The R&S ESR supports a selected set of resolution bandwidths. If you enter a number
that is not supported, the R&S ESR rounds the value up to next available bandwidth.
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You can also select some bandwidths directly with the corresponding softkeys in the
"Bandwidth" menu.
For more information see ​chapter 2.2.1, "Resolution Bandwidth", on page 29.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]BANDwidth|BWIDth[:​RESolution]​ on page 448
CISPR RBW Uncoupled
Decouples the CISPR bandwidth from the receive frequency if you are using the Quasipeak, CISPR-AV or CISPR-RMS detector.
For more information see ​chapter 2.2.1, "Resolution Bandwidth", on page 29.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]BANDwidth|BWIDth[:​RESolution]:​AUTO​ on page 449
Filter Type
Selects the filter type.
The available resolution bandwidths depend on the filter selection you make.
The R&S ESR provides the following filter options:
●
●
●
●
EMI CISPR / MIL
Gaussian filter with a 6 bandwidth. 6 dB bandwidths that comply to CISPR and MIL
standards are available.
CISPR only
Gaussian filter with a 6 bandwidth. 6 dB bandwidths that comply to CISPR standards
are available.
MIL Std only
Gaussian filter with a 6 bandwidth. 6 dB bandwidths that comply to military standards
are available.
3 dB Bandwidth
Gaussian filter with a 3 dB bandwidth.
6 dB bandwidths are comparable to the bandwidth of a pulse.
3 dB bandwidths are comparable to the bandwidth of noise.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]BANDwidth|BWIDth[:​RESolution]:​TYPE​ on page 449
IF Analysis Bandwidth
Selects the bandwidth for IF spectrum analysis
Available for IF Analysis (firmware application R&S ESR-K56).
2.3.4 Configuring the Measurement
Functions to configure measurements described elsewhere:
●
​"Fixed Frequency" on page 51
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Run Continuous / Run Single........................................................................................48
Edit Scan Table.............................................................................................................48
Freq Axis (Lin Log)........................................................................................................48
Run Continuous / Run Single
Initiates a continuous or single measurement.
For more information see .​chapter 2.1, "Measurements and Result Displays",
on page 11
Remote command:
Selecting single and continuous measurements:
​INITiate<n>:​CONTinuous​ on page 436
Initiating a measurement:
​INITiate<n>[:​IMMediate]​ on page 437
Edit Scan Table
Opens a dialog box to create or edit a scan table.
For more information see ​chapter 2.1.2.2, "The Scan Table", on page 14.
Remote command:
See ​chapter 8.3.6.2, "Scan Table", on page 452.
Freq Axis (Lin Log)
Selects the scale of the frequency axis.
Logarithmic scaling of the frequency axis, however, is common for EMI measurements
over large frequency ranges as it enhances the resolution of the lower frequencies. On
the other hand, high frequencies get more crowded and become harder to distinguish.
Because it shows the lower frequencies more clearly, logarithmic scaling is used for tests
that focus on those frequencies, for example acoustic tests and measurements.
Remote command:
​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​X:​SPACing​ on page 444
2.3.5 Trigger Configuration
External.........................................................................................................................48
Free Run.......................................................................................................................49
Video.............................................................................................................................49
Trigger Polarity..............................................................................................................49
External
Selects an external trigger source.
The external trigger source is a TTL signal fed in at the EXT TRIG/GATE IN interface on
the rear panel.
Remote command:
​TRIGger<n>[:​SEQuence]:​SOURce​ on page 605
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Free Run
Selects free run mode. In free run mode, a measurement is not triggered. Once a measurement is completed, another is started immediately.
Remote command:
​TRIGger<n>[:​SEQuence]:​SOURce​ on page 605
Video
Selects the video trigger. The trigger event is a certain voltage level.
A horizontal trigger line is shown in the diagram. It is used to set the trigger threshold
from 0 % to 100 % of the diagram height.
Video mode is only available in the time domain.
Remote command:
​TRIGger<n>[:​SEQuence]:​SOURce​ on page 605
Trigger Polarity
Selects the polarity of the trigger source.
The sweep starts after a positive or negative edge of the trigger signal. The default setting
is "Pos".
The trigger polarity is unavailable for the free run trigger source.
"Pos"
Level triggering: the sweep is stopped by the logic "0" signal and restarted by the logical "1" signal after the gate delay time has elapsed.
"Neg"
Edge triggering: the sweep is continued on a "0" to "1" transition for the
gate length duration after the gate delay time has elapsed.
Remote command:
​TRIGger<n>[:​SEQuence]:​SLOPe​ on page 605
2.3.6 Controlling Inputs and Outputs
The Input/Output menu contains functionality to control the inputs and outputs available
on the R&S ESR.
For more information on the LISN control see ​chapter 2.3.7.6, "LISN Settings",
on page 58.
Input (AC/DC)................................................................................................................49
Input (1 2)......................................................................................................................49
Input (AC/DC)
Toggles the RF input of the R&S ESR between AC and DC coupling.
Remote command:
​INPut:​COUPling​ on page 450
Input (1 2)
Selects the RF input the signal is applied to.
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The first RF Input supports a frequency range from 9 kHz to fmax and an attenuation range
from 0 dB to 75 dB. The second RF Input supports a frequency range from 9 kHz to
1 GHz and an attenuation range from 10 dB to 75 dB. Attenuation levels smaller than
10 dB are not possible at RF Input 2.
With option R&S ESR-B29, the minimum frequency is extended to 20 Hz at both RF
inputs.
Remote command:
​INPut:​TYPE​ on page 450
2.3.7 Test Automation
The Test Automation dialog box contains functionality to configure automated test
sequences.
It is made up out of several tabs, each of which contains the settings for one of the stages
in an automated test sequence. For more information on automated test sequences in
general see ​chapter 2.1.5, "Automated Test Sequences", on page 19.
The "Peak Search" and "Run Final Test" buttons at the bottom of each of the tabs initiate
the corresponding measurement function.
SCPI command:
​CALCulate<n>:​PEAKsearch|PSEarch[:​IMMediate]​ on page 457
​INITiate<n>:​FMEasurement​ on page 438
Peak Search
In addition to the "Peak Search" button, you can initiate a peak search with the PEAK
SEARCH key on the R&S ESR front panel.
2.3.7.1
Overview
The "Overview" tab in the "Test Automation" dialog box contains general functions to
configure automated test sequences.
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The main part of the "Overview" tab is a representation of a complete test sequence
(scan, peak search and final measurement). In it, you can define the stages you want to
include in the test sequence.
item opens the ​Scan Table tab.
●
The
●
item includes (blue state) or excludes (grey state) the peak search and later
The
stages from the test sequence.
●
The
●
The item includes (blue state) or excludes (grey state) the final measurement from
the test sequence. Note that if you include the final measurement, the R&S ESR
automatically includes the peak search in the test sequence.
●
The
item opens the ​Trace / Final Meas tab.
●
The
item opens the peak list after the scan or the final measurement.
item opens the ​Peak Search tab.
For more information on the stages of a test sequence see ​chapter 2.1, "Measurements
and Result Displays", on page 11.
Fixed Frequency
Selects the fixed frequency measurement mode.
In this measurement mode, the R&S ESR performs a scan in the time domain on a single
frequency. The horizontal diagram axis changes its scale from Hz to s.
For more information see ​chapter 2.1.7, "Fixed Frequency Scans", on page 21.
The "Fixed Frequency" softkey also opens an input field to define the overall scan time.
The R&S ESR supports a scan time in the range from 10 ms to 10000 s. Note however,
that the actual range available depends on the measurement time that you have set for
the bargraph.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]FREQuency:​MODE​ on page 445
​[SENSe:​]SCAN:​TDOMain​ on page 442
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Scan Count
Defines the number of scans performed in a single scan or the number of scans included
in calculating the moving average in a continuous scan.
Remote command:
Defining the scan count:
​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​COUNt​ on page 451
Querying the scan that is currently being measured:
​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​COUNt:​CURRent​ on page 451
Scan Parameter
Selects the configuration the scan is based on.
2.3.7.2
"Scan Table"
The scan is performed based on the contents of the scan table.
"Current"
The scan is performed based on the general configuration of the
R&S ESR.
Scan Table
The "Scan Table" tab in the "Test Automation" dialog box contains functionality to control
and define the scan.
Start / Stop Frequency..................................................................................................53
Step Mode.....................................................................................................................53
Time Domain Scan (On Off)..........................................................................................53
Adjust Axis....................................................................................................................53
Insert Range Before / After...........................................................................................53
Delete Range................................................................................................................54
Range 1 to 10................................................................................................................54
Prev / Next Range.........................................................................................................54
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Start / Stop Frequency
Defines the start and stop frequency for the scan.
The range for the start frequency is fmin to (fmax - 10 Hz).
The range for the stop frequency is (fmin + 10 Hz) to fmax.
fmin and fmax are defined in the datasheet.
Remote command:
Start frequency:
​[SENSe:​]FREQuency:​STARt​ on page 445
Stop frequency:
​[SENSe:​]FREQuency:​STOP​ on page 445
Step Mode
Selects the mode for frequency steps.
Note that the frequency stepsize for time domain scans (R&S ESR-K53) is always
selected automatically.
"AUTO"
Linear frequency steps.
The stepsize is coupled to the current resolution bandwidth and is about
a third of the resolution bandwidth. In this way, the probability to detect
all signals in the scan range is very good.
"LIN"
Linear frequency steps.
The stepsize is fix and depends on the ​Stepsize.
"LOG"
Logarithmic frequency steps.
The stepsize is a percentage of the current frequency.
Remote command:
​[[SENSe:​]SWEep:​SPACing​ on page 456
Time Domain Scan (On Off)
Turns the time domain scan on and off.
For more information see ​chapter 2.1.6, "Time Domain Scans", on page 21.
Note that time domain scans are available with option R&S ESR-K53.
Adjust Axis
Adjusts the scale of the horizontal axis if the overall scan range is different than the scan
range defined by the scan subranges.
Insert Range Before / After
Inserts a new scan range before or after the currently selected range.
Except for the start and stop frequencies, the configuration of the new scan range is the
same as the one that has been selected previously. The selected range is highlighted in
orange.
Remote command:
Range control done by the suffix at SCAN<range> of the commands listed in ​chapter 8.3.6.2, "Scan Table", on page 452.
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Delete Range
Deletes the currently selected scan range.
Range 1 to 10
Configures the currently selected scan range.
You can use and configure up to 10 individual scan ranges. For each range you can
customize the following parameters.
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
Range Start / Range Stop
Frequency Stepsize
Resolution Bandwidth
Meas Time
Auto Ranging
RF Attenuation
Preamplifier
Receiver Input
For more information see ​chapter 2.1.2.2, "The Scan Table", on page 14.
Remote command:
See ​chapter 8.3.6.2, "Scan Table", on page 452
RF input:
​INPut:​TYPE​ on page 450
Prev / Next Range
Selects the scan range to the left or right of the currently selected scan range.
2.3.7.3
Peak Search
The "Peak Search" tab in the "Test Automation" dialog box contains functionality to control the peak search.
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Peak Search Mode (Peaks Subranges)........................................................................55
No Of Peaks..................................................................................................................55
No of Subranges / Peaks per Subrange.......................................................................55
Peak Excursion.............................................................................................................55
Margin...........................................................................................................................55
Select Limit Line............................................................................................................56
Peak Search Mode (Peaks Subranges)
Selects the peak search mode.
"Peaks"
Looks for a particular number of peaks over the complete scan range.
"Subranges"
Divides the scan range into smaller subranges and looks for a particular
number of peaks in each subrange.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​PEAKsearch|PSEarch:​METHod​ on page 458
No Of Peaks
Defines the number of peaks the R&S ESR looks for during a peak search.
The range is from 1 to 500 peaks.
The number of peaks only takes effect if the peak search mode is "Peaks".
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​PEAKsearch|PSEarch:​SUBRanges​ on page 458
No of Subranges / Peaks per Subrange
Defines the number of subranges for a subrange peak search and the number of peaks
that the R&S ESR looks for in each subrange.
Note that the maximum number of peaks is 500. Thus, the maximum number of peaks
per subrange depends on the number of subranges you have defined.
These parameters only take effect if the peak search mode is "Subranges".
Remote command:
Number of subranges:
​CALCulate<n>:​PEAKsearch|PSEarch:​SUBRanges​ on page 458
Peaks per subrange:
​CALCulate<n>:​PEAKsearch|PSEarch:​SUBRanges:​PCOunt​ on page 458
Peak Excursion
Defines the relative signal level to determine a peak during a peak search.
For more information see ​chapter 2.1.3, "Peak Search", on page 16.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​PEXCursion​ on page 456
Margin
Defines an additional level margin relative to a limit line that is considered during a peak
search.
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For more information see ​chapter 2.1.3, "Peak Search", on page 16.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​PEAKsearch|PSEarch:​MARGin​ on page 457
Select Limit Line
Applies one or more limit lines for the peak search.
For more information on limit lines see ​chapter 2.4.3, "(Limit) Lines", on page 69.
"Assign to
Trace"
Assigns the limit line to one or more traces.
"Deselect all
Traces"
"Limitcheck
(On Off)"
2.3.7.4
Turns the limit check on and off.
Peak Lists
The peak list dialog box is available for the prescan results and the final measurement
results. Both dialog boxes contain the same elements.
Peak List.......................................................................................................................56
Insert Frequency...........................................................................................................57
Delete Frequency..........................................................................................................57
Sort by Delta Limit.........................................................................................................57
Symbols (On Off)..........................................................................................................57
Peak List Export............................................................................................................57
Peak List
Contains information about the peaks that were found during the peak search.
●
●
Trace / Detector
Shows the number of trace that the peak is on and the detector with which the peak
has been measured.
Frequency
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●
●
Shows the frequency of the peak level.
Level
Shows the signal level of the peak. The unit depends on the one you have selected.
Delta Limit
Shows the distance of the peak to a limit line. The delta limit is only calculated if you
have activated a limit line and have assigned it to one more traces.
Insert Frequency
Adds a new frequency to the peak list that is considered in the next scan.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​PEAKsearch|PSEarch:​ADD​ on page 457
Delete Frequency
Deletes the currently selected peak list table row (grey highlighting).
Sort by Delta Limit
Sort the entries of the peak list according to the delta limit results.
The delta limit is the distance of a peak to a limit line, if one has been assigned.
Symbols (On Off)
Turns the labels on the peak position in the diagram on and off.
The peak labels have a different color and shape depending on the trace they are on.
Trace 1, for example, has red crosses as the peak label. By default they are on.
Remote command:
​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​SYMBol​ on page 459
Peak List Export
Opens a dialog box to export and save the contents of the peak list in ASCII format to a
*.dat file.
The file consists of a header and the results of the scan or the final measurement.
●
●
The header is a list of general instrument settings and characteristics. It consists of
three columns, each column separated by a semicolon: <parameter>;<value>;<unit>.
The results are split into several data sections, one for each active trace. The data
section begins with the entry Trace <x> [Final]:, followed by the trace charactersistics and the peak list data itself.
For a description of the data see ​chapter 3.3.1.6, "ASCII File Export Format",
on page 257 .
By default, decimal places are separated by a point in the exported list. If required, you
can use a comma instead of a point as the decimal separator.
Remote command:
Export the peak list of the scan results:
​MMEMory:​STORe:​PEAKlist​ on page 460
Export the peak list of the final measurement:
​MMEMory:​STORe:​FINal​ on page 459
Select the decimal separator:
​FORMat:​DEXPort:​DSEParator​ on page 616
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2.3.7.5
Trace / Final Meas
The Trace / Final Meas tab in the Test Automation dialog box contains functionality to
configure the traces for the scan and the final measurement.
Final Measurement Time..............................................................................................58
Interactive Mode............................................................................................................58
Trace 1 to 6...................................................................................................................58
Final Measurement Time
Defines the measurement time for the final measurement.
For more information see ​chapter 2.2.2, "Defining the Measurement Time", on page 30.
Interactive Mode
Turns interactive final measurements on and off.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]FMEasurement:​AUTO​ on page 438
Trace 1 to 6
Selects the characteristics of each trace.
In addition to the trace mode, you can select a detector for the scan and the final measurement. For more information see
●
●
●
●
​chapter 2.1.2, "Scans", on page 13
​chapter 2.1.4, "Final Measurement", on page 18
​chapter 2.2.4, "Trace Modes", on page 35
​chapter 2.2.3, "Selecting a Detector", on page 31
Remote command:
Trace mode:
​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​MODE​ on page 460
Scan detector:
​[SENSe:​][WINDow:​]DETector<trace>[:​FUNCtion]​ on page 460
Final measurement detector:
​[SENSe:​]DETector<t>:​FMEasurement​ on page 438
2.3.7.6
LISN Settings
The "LISN Settings" tab in the "Test Automation" dialog box contains functionality to control line impedance networks.
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LISN Type.....................................................................................................................59
Prescan Phase..............................................................................................................59
Final Test Phase...........................................................................................................59
150 kHz Highpass Filter................................................................................................60
LISN Type
Selects the V-network to be controlled via the user port.
For more information see ​chapter 2.2.6, "Controlling V-Networks (LISN)", on page 36.
Remote command:
For the scan:
​INPut:​LISN[:​TYPE]​ on page 463
For the final measurement:
​[SENSe:​]FMEasurement:​LISN[:​TYPE]​ on page 462
Prescan Phase
Selects the phase of the network you want to control during the scan.
During the scan, you can control one phase at a time.
For more information see ​chapter 2.2.6, "Controlling V-Networks (LISN)", on page 36.
Remote command:
​INPut:​LISN:​PHASe​ on page 463
Final Test Phase
Selects the phase of the network you want to control during the final measurement.
During the final measurement you can control more than one phase.
For more information see ​chapter 2.2.6, "Controlling V-Networks (LISN)", on page 36.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]FMEasurement:​LISN:​PHASe​ on page 462
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150 kHz Highpass Filter
Turns the highpass filter avaiable with the R&S ENV216 network on and off.
For more information see ​chapter 2.2.6, "Controlling V-Networks (LISN)", on page 36.
Remote command:
Highpass filter for the scan:
​INPut:​LISN:​FILTer:​HPAS[:​STATe]​ on page 462
Highpass filter for the final measurement:
​[SENSe:​]FMEasurement:​LISN:​FILTer:​HPAS[:​STATe]​ on page 461
2.4 Common Analysis Functions
2.4.1 Trace Configuration
The TRACE key is used to configure the data acquisition for measurement and the
analysis of the measurement data.
The R&S ESR is capable of displaying up to six different traces at a time in a diagram. A
trace consists of a maximum of 691 displayed measurement points on the horizontal axis
(frequency or time). If more measured values than measurement points are available,
several measured values are combined in one displayed measurement point.
The trace functions include the following:
●
Display mode of the trace
For details on trace modes see ​chapter 2.2.4, "Trace Modes", on page 35.
●
Evaluation of individual measurement points of a trace. For details on detectors see
​chapter 2.2.3, "Selecting a Detector", on page 31.
To open the Trace menu
●
Press the TRACE key.
The "Trace" menu is displayed.
Further information
●
​chapter 2.2.4, "Trace Modes", on page 35
●
​chapter 2.2.3, "Selecting a Detector", on page 31
●
​chapter 3.3.1.6, "ASCII File Export Format", on page 257
Tasks
●
​chapter 3.3.1.2, "Configuring Traces", on page 252
●
​chapter 3.3.1.3, "Specifying the Trace Settings", on page 254
The following table shows all softkeys available in the "Trace" menu. It is possible that
your instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is only available
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with a special option, model or (measurement) mode, this information is provided in the
corresponding softkey description.
Trace 1 - 6.....................................................................................................................61
More Traces..................................................................................................................61
Copy Trace....................................................................................................................61
Trace Wizard.................................................................................................................61
ASCII Trace Export.......................................................................................................61
Decim Sep.....................................................................................................................62
Trace 1 - 6
Opens a submenu to select the trace mode and detector (for both scan and final measurement).
For more information see ​chapter 2.2.3, "Selecting a Detector", on page 31 and ​chapter 2.2.4, "Trace Modes", on page 35.
Remote command:
Selecting the trace mode:
​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​MODE​ on page 460
Selecting the detector for the scan:
​[SENSe:​][WINDow:​]DETector<trace>[:​FUNCtion]​ on page 618
Selecting the detector for the final measurement:
​[SENSe:​]DETector<t>:​FMEasurement​ on page 438
More Traces
Opens a submenu to select one of the traces not currently displayed in the main menu.
Copy Trace
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the number of the trace memory in which the currently
selected trace will be copied.
Remote command:
​TRACe<n>:​COPY​ on page 619
Trace Wizard
Opens the "Trace Wizard" dialog box.
For more information see ​chapter 2.3.7.5, "Trace / Final Meas", on page 58.
ASCII Trace Export
Opens the "ASCII Trace Export Name" dialog box and saves the active trace in ASCII
format to the specified file and directory.
The file consists of the header containing important scaling parameters and a data section
containing the trace data. For details on an ASCII file see ​chapter 3.3.1.6, "ASCII File
Export Format", on page 257.
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This format can be processed by spreadsheet calculation programs, e.g. MS-Excel. It is
necessary to define ';' as a separator for the data import. Different language versions of
evaluation programs may require a different handling of the decimal point. It is therefore
possible to select between separators '.' (decimal point) and ',' (comma) using the "Decim
Sep" softkey (see ​"Decim Sep" on page 62).
Remote command:
​FORMat:​DEXPort:​DSEParator​ on page 616
​MMEMory:​STORe<n>:​TRACe​ on page 616
Decim Sep
Selects the decimal separator with floating-point numerals for the ASCII Trace export to
support evaluation programs (e.g. MS-Excel) in different languages. The values '.' (decimal point) and ',' (comma) can be set.
Remote command:
​FORMat:​DEXPort:​DSEParator​ on page 616
2.4.2 Markers
2.4.2.1
Controlling Markers
The markers are used for marking points on traces, reading out measurement results and
for selecting a display section quickly. The R&S ESR provides 16 markers per trace.
Fig. 2-4: Marker types
All markers can be used either as markers or delta markers. The marker that can be
moved by the user is defined in the following as the active marker. Temporary markers
are used in addition to the markers and delta markers to evaluate the measurement
results. They disappear when the associated function is deactivated.
The measurement results of the active marker (also called marker values) are displayed
in the marker field, which is located at the upper right corner of the diagram, or in a
separate table beneath the diagram. The marker information includes the following:
●
marker type (M1 in the example)
●
trace in square brackets ([1] in the example)
●
level (-33.09 dBm in the example)
●
marker location (3 GHz in the example)
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Fig. 2-5: Marker values
The MKR key is used to select and position the absolute and relative measurement
markers (markers and delta markers). In addition, the functions for the frequency counter,
a fixed reference point for relative measurement markers, and for enlargement of the
measurement area are assigned to this key.
To open the Marker menu
●
Press the MKR key.
The "Marker" menu is displayed. If no marker is active, marker 1 is activated and a
peak search on the trace is carried out. Otherwise, the edit dialog box for the last
activated marker is opened and the current frequency/time value is displayed.
Further information
●
​"Displayed Marker Information" on page 270
●
​chapter 2.4.2.2, "Positioning Markers", on page 66.
Tasks
●
​"Basic Marker Functions" on page 268
Marker 1 / Marker 2 / Marker 3 / … Marker 16,/ Marker Norm/Delta
The "Marker X" softkey activates the corresponding marker and opens an edit dialog box
to enter a value for the marker to be set to. Pressing the softkey again deactivates the
selected marker.
If a marker value is changed using the rotary knob, the step size is defined via the ​Stepsize
Standard or ​Stepsize Sweep Points softkeys.
Marker 1 is always the reference marker for relative measurements. If activated, markers
2 to 16 are delta markers that refer to marker 1. These markers can be converted into
markers with absolute value display using the "Marker Norm/Delta" softkey. If marker 1
is the active marker, pressing the "Marker Norm/Delta" softkey switches on an additional
delta marker.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>[:​STATe]​ on page 470
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​X​ on page 471
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​Y​ on page 472
​CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>[:​STATe]​ on page 476
​CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​X​ on page 477
​CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​X:​RELative​ on page 477
​CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​Y​ on page 477
More Markers
Opens a sub-menu to select one of up to 16 available markers. See ​"Marker 1 / Marker
2 / Marker 3 / … Marker 16,/ Marker Norm/Delta" on page 63.
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Marker to Trace
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the number of the trace on which the marker is to be
placed.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​TRACe​ on page 471
​CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​TRACe​ on page 476
Marker Wizard
Opens a configuration dialog for markers. The marker wizard allows you to configure and
activate up to 16 different markers in one dialog. The first 8 markers are displayed on one
tab, the last 8 markers on a second tab. For each marker, the following settings are
available:
"Selected/
State"
When you press the "Selected" or "State" field the corresponding
marker is activated and the marker row is highlighted.
"Normal/Delta"
Defines whether it is a normal marker or delta marker. For delta markers
you can define a reference marker.
"Ref. Marker"
Reference marker for delta markers. The marker values for the delta
marker are indicated relative to the specified reference marker.
The reference marker can either be another active marker, or a fixed
reference marker ("FXD", see ​"Ref Fixed" on page 279).
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"Trace"
Trace for which the marker is to be set.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>[:​STATe]​ on page 470
​CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>[:​STATe]​ on page 476
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​TRACe​ on page 471
​CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​TRACe​ on page 476
​CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​MREF​ on page 645
All Marker Off ← Marker Wizard
Switches all markers off. It also switches off all functions and displays that are associated
with the markers/delta markers.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​AOFF​ on page 467
All Marker Off
Switches all markers off. It also switches off all functions and displays that are associated
with the markers/delta markers.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​AOFF​ on page 467
Marker Table
Defines how the marker information is displayed.
For more information, see ​Displayed Marker Information.
"On"
Displays the marker information in a table in a separate area beneath
the diagram.
"Off"
Displays the marker information within the diagram area.
"Aut"
(Default) The marker table is displayed automatically if more than 2
markers are active, and removed if only 1 or 2 markers are active. This
helps keep the information in the display clear.
Remote command:
​DISPlay:​MTABle​ on page 644
Marker Info (On Off)
Turns the numerical marker information in the diagram area on and off.
Remote command:
​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​MINFo:​STATe​ on page 467
Tune to Marker
Defines the marker frequency as the new center frequency.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​CENTer​ on page 464
Marker Track
Turns marker frequency tracking on and off.
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If on, the R&S ESR changes the center frequency to the marker frequency when you
change the marker position.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​COUPled[:​STATe]​ on page 464
Settings Coupled
Couples or decouples the receiver settings to the scan range settings when you use
"Marker Tracking".
If on, the R&S ESR changes the receiver settings according to the scan range the marker
frequency is currently in.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​SCOupled[:​STATe]​ on page 465
2.4.2.2
Positioning Markers
The MKR ➙ key is used for search functions of measurement markers, assignment of
the marker frequency as center frequency, restriction of the search area and characterization of maxima and minima. For details on markers in general, see ​chapter 2.4.2.1,
"Controlling Markers", on page 62.
To open the Marker To menu
●
Press the MKR -> key.
The "Marker To" menu is displayed. If no marker is active, marker 1 will be activated
and a peak search on the trace carried out. Otherwise, the edit dialog box for the last
activated marker is opened and the current frequency/time value is displayed.
Further information
●
​"Effect of Different Peak Excursion Settings (Example)" on page 274
Tasks
●
​"Searching for a Maximum" on page 272
●
​"Searching for a Minimum" on page 273
●
​"Specifying the Search Limits" on page 273
●
​"Specifying the Search Range" on page 273
●
​"Examining a Signal at the Center in Detail" on page 273
●
​"Specifying the Suitable Peak Excursion" on page 274
Select Marker (No)
Opens a submenu to select one of 16 markers and define whether the marker is a normal
or a delta marker (see ​"Marker 1 / Marker 2 / Marker 3 / … Marker 16,/ Marker Norm/
Delta" on page 63). "(No)" indicates the number of the currently active marker.
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Peak
Sets the active marker/delta marker to the highest maximum of the trace.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​MAXimum[:​PEAK]​ on page 468
​CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​MAXimum[:​PEAK]​ on page 474
Next Peak
Sets the active marker/delta marker to the next maximum of the selected trace.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​MAXimum:​NEXT​ on page 468
​CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​MAXimum:​NEXT​ on page 474
Min
Sets the active marker/delta marker to the minimum of the selected trace.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​MINimum[:​PEAK]​ on page 470
​CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​MINimum[:​PEAK]​ on page 475
Next Min
Sets the active marker/delta marker to the next minimum of the selected trace.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​MINimum:​NEXT​ on page 469
​CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​MINimum:​NEXT​ on page 475
Next Mode
Selects the mode of the ​Next Peak or ​Next Min softkey.
Three settings are available:
"<"
Sets the active marker/delta marker to the next maximum/minimum left
to the marker of the selected trace.
"abs"
Sets the active marker/delta marker to the next lower maximum/higher
minimum of the selected trace.
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">"
Sets the active marker/delta marker to the next maximum/minimum
right to the marker of the selected trace.
Remote command:
Next Peak:
CALC:MARK:MAX:LEFT (<): ​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​MAXimum:​LEFT​
on page 468
​CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​MAXimum:​LEFT​ on page 473
CALC:MARK:MAX:RIGH (>): ​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​MAXimum:​RIGHt​
on page 469
​CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​MAXimum:​RIGHt​ on page 474
CALC:DELT:MAX:NEXT (abs): ​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​MAXimum:​NEXT​
on page 468
​CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​MAXimum:​NEXT​ on page 474
Next Min:
CALC:MARK:MIN:LEFT (>): ​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​MINimum:​LEFT​
on page 469
​CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​MINimum:​LEFT​ on page 474
CALC:MARK:MIN:RIGH (>): ​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​MINimum:​RIGHt​
on page 470
​CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​MINimum:​RIGHt​ on page 475
CALC:MARK:MIN:NEXT (abs): ​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​MINimum:​NEXT​
on page 469
​CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​MINimum:​NEXT​ on page 475
Search Limits
Opens a submenu to set the limits for maximum or minimum search in the x and y direction.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​X:​SLIMits[:​STATe]​ on page 466
Left Limit ← Search Limits
Opens an edit dialog box to enter a value for the lower limit (left vertical line: S1 for span
> 0; T1 for zero span). The search is performed between the lines of the left and right
limit (see also ​Right Limit softkey).
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​X:​SLIMits:​LEFT​ on page 465
Right Limit ← Search Limits
Opens an edit dialog box to enter a value for the upper limit (left vertical line: S2 for span
> 0; T2 for zero span). The search is performed between the lines of the left and right
limit (see also ​Left Limit softkey). If no value is set, the upper limit corresponds to the stop
frequency.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​X:​SLIMits:​RIGHT​ on page 466
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Threshold ← Search Limits
Opens an edit dialog box to define the threshold line. The threshold line represents the
lower level limit for a "Peak" search and the upper level limit for a "Min" search.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​THReshold:​STATe​ on page 644
​CALCulate<n>:​THReshold​ on page 643
Use Zoom Limits ← Search Limits
Restricts the marker search to the zoomed area.
Note that the marker zoom is only available in Spectrum mode.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​X:​SLIMits:​ZOOM​ on page 642
Search Lim Off ← Search Limits
Deactivates all limits of the search range.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​X:​SLIMits[:​STATe]​ on page 466
​CALCulate<n>:​THReshold:​STATe​ on page 644
Peak Excursion
Opens an edit dialog box for level measurements to enter the minimum level value by
which a signal must rise or fall so that it will be identified as a maximum or a minimum by
the search functions. Entries from 0 dB to 80 dB are allowed; the resolution is 0.1 dB.
The default setting for the peak excursion is 6 dB.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​PEXCursion​ on page 456
2.4.3 (Limit) Lines
The LINES key is used to configure limit and display lines.
To open the Lines menu
●
Press the LINES key.
The "Lines" menu and the "Select Limit Line" dialog box are displayed. For details on the
"Select Limit Line" dialog box refer to ​chapter 2.4.3.5, "Selecting a Limit Line",
on page 76.
Menu and softkey description
●
​chapter 2.4.3.1, "Softkeys of the Lines Menu", on page 70
Further information
●
​chapter 2.4.3.2, "Display Lines", on page 74
●
​chapter 2.4.3.3, "Limit Lines (Frequency/Time Lines)", on page 74
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Tasks
2.4.3.1
●
​chapter 2.4.3.4, "Working with Lines", on page 75
●
​chapter 2.4.3.5, "Selecting a Limit Line", on page 76
●
​chapter 2.4.3.6, "Creating a New Limit Line", on page 76
●
​chapter 2.4.3.7, "Editing an Existing Limit Line", on page 79
●
​chapter 2.4.3.8, "Creating a New Limit Line Based upon an Existing Limit Line",
on page 79
●
​chapter 2.4.3.9, "Activating/Deactivating a Limit Line", on page 80
Softkeys of the Lines Menu
The following table shows all softkeys available in the "Lines" menu.
Further information
●
​chapter 2.4.3.2, "Display Lines", on page 74
●
​chapter 2.4.3.3, "Limit Lines (Frequency/Time Lines)", on page 74
Tasks
●
​chapter 2.4.3.4, "Working with Lines", on page 75
●
​chapter 2.4.3.5, "Selecting a Limit Line", on page 76
●
​chapter 2.4.3.6, "Creating a New Limit Line", on page 76
●
​chapter 2.4.3.7, "Editing an Existing Limit Line", on page 79
●
​chapter 2.4.3.8, "Creating a New Limit Line Based upon an Existing Limit Line",
on page 79
●
​chapter 2.4.3.9, "Activating/Deactivating a Limit Line", on page 80
Select Traces to check..................................................................................................71
Deselect All...................................................................................................................71
New...............................................................................................................................71
└ Edit Name.......................................................................................................71
└ Edit Comment.................................................................................................71
└ Edit Margin......................................................................................................71
└ Edit Value........................................................................................................71
└ Insert Value.....................................................................................................72
└ Delete Value...................................................................................................72
└ Save Limit Line...............................................................................................72
Edit................................................................................................................................72
Copy to..........................................................................................................................72
Delete............................................................................................................................72
X Offset.........................................................................................................................72
Y Offset.........................................................................................................................73
Display Lines.................................................................................................................73
└ Display Line 1 / Display Line 2........................................................................73
└ Frequency Line 1 / Frequency Line 2 ............................................................73
└ Time Line 1 / Time Line 2...............................................................................74
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Select Traces to check
Opens a dialog box to activate the selected limit line for a trace. One limit line can be
activated for several traces simultaneously. For details see also ​chapter 2.4.3.9, "Activating/Deactivating a Limit Line", on page 80.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​LIMit<k>:​TRACe​ on page 481
​CALCulate<n>:​LIMit<k>:​STATe​ on page 492
Deselect All
Deactivates the selected limit line for all assigned traces. For details see also ​chapter 2.4.3.9, "Activating/Deactivating a Limit Line", on page 80.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​LIMit<k>:​STATe​ on page 492
New
Opens the "Edit Limit Line" dialog box and a submenu to define a new limit line. For details
see also ​chapter 2.4.3.3, "Limit Lines (Frequency/Time Lines)", on page 74 and ​chapter 2.4.3.5, "Selecting a Limit Line", on page 76.
Edit Name ← New
Sets the focus on the "Name" field to enter or change the limit line name. All names must
be compatible with the Windows XP conventions for file names. The limit line data are
stored under this name. The instrument stores all limit lines with LIM as extension.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​LIMit<k>:​LOWer:​MODE​ on page 486
Edit Comment ← New
Sets the focus on the "Comment" field to enter or change a comment for the limit line.
The text must not exceed 40 characters.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​LIMit<k>:​COMMent​ on page 480
Edit Margin ← New
Sets the focus on the "Margin" field to enter or change a margin for the limit line. The
default setting is 0 dB (i.e. no margin).
Edit Value ← New
Opens an edit dialog box to change an existing x or y value, depending on the selected
column. The softkey is only available if an existing value is selected.
The desired data points are entered in ascending order (two repeated frequencies/time
values are permitted).
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​LIMit<k>:​CONTrol[:​DATA]​ on page 483
​CALCulate<n>:​LIMit<k>:​UPPer[:​DATA]​ on page 488
​CALCulate<n>:​LIMit<k>:​LOWer[:​DATA]​ on page 485
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Insert Value ← New
Creates an empty line above the selected data point to enter a new data point.
It is also possible to add a data point at the end of the list, if the focus is set below the
last entry line of the list.
The data points are entered in ascending order (two repeated frequencies/time values
are permitted). If the entered values are not in accordance with the ascending order rule,
an error message is displayed and the values are discarded.
Delete Value ← New
Deletes the selected data point (x and y value). All succeeding data points are shifted up
accordingly. This softkey is only available if an existing value is selected.
Save Limit Line ← New
Saves the currently edited limit line under the name defined in the "Name" field.
Edit
Opens a submenu to edit limit lines. For details see also ​chapter 2.4.3.3, "Limit Lines
(Frequency/Time Lines)", on page 74 and ​chapter 2.4.3.7, "Editing an Existing Limit
Line", on page 79.
The submenu contains the same commands as the "New" menu, see ​"New"
on page 71.
Remote command:
see ​"Using Display Lines" on page 639
Copy to
Copies the data of the selected limit line and displays it in the "Edit Limit Line" dialog box.
If the limit line is edited and saved under a new name, a new limit line can be easily
generated by parallel translation or editing of an existing limit line.
For details see also ​chapter 2.4.3.3, "Limit Lines (Frequency/Time Lines)",
on page 74 and ​chapter 2.4.3.8, "Creating a New Limit Line Based upon an Existing
Limit Line", on page 79.
The submenu contains the same commands as the "New" menu, see ​"New"
on page 71.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​LIMit<k>:​COPY​ on page 480
Delete
Deletes the selected limit line.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​LIMit<k>:​DELete​ on page 481
X Offset
Horizontally shifts a limit line that has been specified for relative frequencies or times (xaxis). The softkey opens an edit dialog box in which the value for shifting can be entered
numerically or via the rotary knob.
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Note: This softkey does not have any effect on limit lines that represent absolute values
for the x-axis.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​LIMit<k>:​CONTrol:​OFFSet​ on page 484
Y Offset
Vertically shifts a limit line that has relative values for the y-axis (levels or linear units such
as volt). The softkey opens an edit dialog box in which the value for shifting can be entered
numerically or via the rotary knob.
Note: This softkey does not have any effect on limit lines that represent absolute values
for the y-axis.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​LIMit<k>:​LOWer:​OFFSet​ on page 486
​CALCulate<n>:​LIMit<k>:​UPPer:​OFFSet​ on page 489
Display Lines
Opens a submenu to enable, disable and set display lines. Which softkeys are available
depends on the display mode (frequency or time range).
For details see also ​chapter 2.4.3.2, "Display Lines", on page 74 and ​chapter 2.4.3.4,
"Working with Lines", on page 75.
The submenu contains the following commands:
●
●
●
●
●
●
​"Display Line 1 / Display Line 2" on page 73
​"Display Line 1 / Display Line 2" on page 73
​"Frequency Line 1 / Frequency Line 2 " on page 73
​"Frequency Line 1 / Frequency Line 2 " on page 73
​"Time Line 1 / Time Line 2" on page 74
​"Time Line 1 / Time Line 2" on page 74
Display Line 1 / Display Line 2 ← Display Lines
Enables or disables the level lines 1/2 and opens an edit dialog box to enter the position
of the lines.
For details see also ​chapter 2.4.3.2, "Display Lines", on page 74 and ​chapter 2.4.3.4,
"Working with Lines", on page 75.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​DLINe<k>​ on page 478
​CALCulate<n>:​DLINe<k>:​STATe​ on page 479
Frequency Line 1 / Frequency Line 2 ← Display Lines
Enables or disables the frequency lines 1/2 (span > 0) and opens an edit dialog box to
enter the position of the lines.
For details see also ​chapter 2.4.3.2, "Display Lines", on page 74 and ​chapter 2.4.3.4,
"Working with Lines", on page 75.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​FLINe<k>​ on page 479
​CALCulate<n>:​FLINe<k>:​STATe​ on page 479
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Time Line 1 / Time Line 2 ← Display Lines
Enables or disables the time lines 1/2 (zero span) and opens an edit dialog box to enter
the position of the lines.
For details see also ​chapter 2.4.3.2, "Display Lines", on page 74 and ​chapter 2.4.3.4,
"Working with Lines", on page 75.
Note that time lines are only available in Spectrum mode.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​TLINe<Line>​ on page 639
​CALCulate<n>:​TLINe<Line>:​STATe​ on page 639
2.4.3.2
Display Lines
Display lines help to evaluate a trace – as do markers. The function of a display line is
comparable to that of a ruler that can be shifted on the trace in order to mark absolute
values. They are used exclusively to visually mark relevant frequencies or points in time
(span = 0), as well as constant level values. It is not possible to check automatically
whether the points are below or above the marked level values.
For details on setting and switching the display lines on/off see ​chapter 2.4.3.4, "Working
with Lines", on page 75.
Two different types of display lines are provided:
●
Two horizontal level lines for marking levels – Display Line 1 and 2
The level lines are continuous horizontal lines across the entire width of a diagram
and can be shifted in y direction.
●
Two vertical frequency or time lines for marking frequencies or points in time – Frequency/Time Line 1 and 2
The frequency or time lines are continuous vertical lines across the entire height of
the diagram and can be shifted in x direction.
Lables
Each line is identified by one of the following abbreviations in the display:
2.4.3.3
●
D1: Display Line 1
●
D2: Display Line 2
●
F1: Frequency Line 1
●
F2: Frequency Line 2
●
T1: Time Line 1
●
T2: Time Line 2
Limit Lines (Frequency/Time Lines)
Limit lines are used to define amplitude curves or spectral distribution boundaries on the
display screen which are not to be exceeded. They indicate, for example, the upper limits
for interference radiation or spurious waves which are allowed from a device under test
(DUT). For transmission of information in TDMA systems (e.g. GSM), the amplitude of
the bursts in a timeslot must adhere to a curve that falls within a specified tolerance band.
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The lower and upper limits may each be specified by a limit line. Then, the amplitude
curve can be controlled either visually or automatically for any violations of the upper or
lower limits (GO/NOGO test).
The instrument supports limit lines with a maximum of 50 data points. 8 of the limit lines
stored in the instrument can be activated simultaneously. The number of limit lines stored
in the instrument is only limited by the capacity of the flash disk used. Which softkeys are
available depends on the display mode (frequency or time range). For details see also ​
chapter 2.4.3.5, "Selecting a Limit Line", on page 76.
Limit lines are compatible with the current measurement settings, if the following applies:
●
The x unit of the limit line has to be identical to the current setting.
●
The y unit of the limit line has to be identical to the current setting with the exception
of dB based units; all dB based units are compatible with each other.
At the time of entry, the R&S ESR immediately checks that all limit lines are in accordance
with the following guidelines:
2.4.3.4
●
The frequencies/times for each data point must be entered in ascending order, however, for any single frequency/time, two data points may be entered (vertical segment
of a limit line).
●
The data points are allocated in order of ascending frequency/time. Gaps are not
allowed. If gaps are desired, two separate limit lines must be defined and then both
enabled.
●
The entered frequencies/times need not necessarily be selectable in R&S ESR. A
limit line may also exceed the specified frequency or time range. The minimum frequency for a data point is -200 GHz, the maximum frequency is 200 GHz. For the
time range representation, negative times may also be entered. The allowed range
is -1000 s to +1000 s.
Working with Lines
If a line is switched on, the softkey is highlighted.
Switching a line on or off
1. Press the ​Display Lines softkey.
2. Press the softkey for the required line, e.g. ​Display Line 1 / Display Line 2.
An edit dialog box is opened to enter the position of the line. If the line was switched
off, it is switched on. If it was switched on, it remains switched on.
3. If another softkey is pressed, the edit dialog box for the line is closed, but the line
remains switched on (softkey with highlighted background).
4. When you press the ​Display Line 1 / Display Line 2 softkey for the second time, the
edit dialog box for the line is opened again.
5. When you press the ​Display Line 1 / Display Line 2 softkey the third time, the line is
switched off (softkey without highlighted background).
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2.4.3.5
Selecting a Limit Line
●
To display the "Select Limit Line" dialog box, press the LINES key.
All limit lines saved in the default directory and all subdirectories are displayed. For each
limit line, the following information is given:
"Unit"
unit of the y-axis
"Traces"
selected traces to check
"Show"
limit line displayed in the measurement diagram or hidden
"Compatible"
compatibility of the limit line to the current measurement settings
"Offset"
user-definable X- and Y-offset for the limit line
●
2.4.3.6
To display only the limit lines that are compatible, activate the "Show compatible"
option. For details on compatibility refer to ​chapter 2.4.3.3, "Limit Lines (Frequency/
Time Lines)", on page 74.
Creating a New Limit Line
Press the ​New softkey to define a new limit line.
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The "Edit Limit Line" dialog box is displayed. For more details on limit lines refer also to ​
chapter 2.4.3.3, "Limit Lines (Frequency/Time Lines)", on page 74. The following settings
can be defined:
Setting
Description
Name
The name under which the limit line is to be stored in the main directory.
To save the limit line in an existing subdirectory, enter the relative path. A new
subdirectory can only be created using the FILE key (for details refer to ​"Save
File / Recall File" on page 378.
Comment
Optional description
Threshold
Absolute threshold value that works as a lower limit for the relative limit values
(only for relative scaling of the y-axis).
Margin
A fixed distance to the limit line.
Margins are not as strict as limits and belong to the valid value range, but violation
is also indicated in the display.
Position
Position of data point
Value
Value of data point
X-Axis:
Span setting
●
●
"Hz" for span > 0 Hz
"s" for zero span
Scale mode
●
Absolute: The frequencies or times are interpreted as absolute physical
units.
Relative: In the data point table, the frequencies are referred to the currently
set center frequency. In the zero span mode, the left boundary of the diagram
constitutes the reference.
Relative scaling is always suitable if masks for bursts are to be defined in
zero span or if masks for modulated signals are required for span > 0 Hz.
●
Scale
●
●
Linear
Logarithmic
Y-Axis:
Scale unit
Unit of the y-axis
Scale mode
●
●
Absolute: The limit values refer to absolute levels or voltages.
Relative: The limit values refer to the reference level (Ref Level). Limit values
with the unit dB are always relative values.
Limit type
●
●
Upper limit
Lower limit
In addition, the following functions are available for the limit line:
Defining a threshold
If the scaling of the y-axis is relative, you can define an absolute threshold value that
works as a lower limit for the relative limit values (see figure below).
► Enter a value in the "Threshold" field of the "Edit Limit Line" dialog box.
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The function is especially useful for mobile radio applications provided the limit values
are defined in relation to the carrier power as long as they are above an absolute limit
value.
Defining a margin
A margin is similar to a limit, but less strict and it still belongs to the valid data range. It
can be used as a warning that the limit is almost reached. The margin is not indicated by
a separate line in the display.
► Enter a value in the "Margin" field of the "Edit limit Line" dialog box.
If the limit line is defined as an upper limit, the margin is below the limit line. If the limit
line is defined as a lower limit, the margin is above the limit line.
Entering a new data point
1. Press the "Insert value" button in the dialog, or select an existing data point in the
table and press the ​Insert Value softkey.
2. Enter the new position (x) and value (y) in the edit dialog box.
Changing a data point
1. Press on the data point to be changed in the table.
2. Enter the new position (x) and value (y) in the edit dialog box.
Deleting a data point
1. Press on the data point to be deleted in the table.
2. Press the "Delete" button in the dialog.
Shifting a limit line horizontally
► Select the "Shift x" button and enter a shift width for the x value in the edit dialog box.
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Shifting a limit line vertically
► Select the "Shift y" button and enter a shift width for the y value in the edit dialog box.
Saving the limit line settings
► Press the "Save" button in the dialog.
If an existing name is used, a message box is displayed. You have to confirm before
the limit line is overwritten.
2.4.3.7
Editing an Existing Limit Line
In the "Select Limit Line" dialog box, select the limit line you want to change. For details
see also ​chapter 2.4.3.5, "Selecting a Limit Line", on page 76.
Note that any changes to the special limit lines for spurious and SEM measurements are
automatically overwritten when the sweep list settings are changed.
1. Press the ​"Edit" on page 72 softkey.
2. Edit the data as described in ​chapter 2.4.3.6, "Creating a New Limit Line",
on page 76.
3. Save the limit line ( ​"Save Limit Line" on page 72 softkey).
2.4.3.8
Creating a New Limit Line Based upon an Existing Limit Line
1. In the "Select Limit Line" dialog box, select the limit line you want to use as a basis
for a new limit line. For details see also ​chapter 2.4.3.5, "Selecting a Limit Line",
on page 76.
2. Press the ​Copy to softkey to transfer the data of the limit line into the "Edit Limit
Line" dialog box.
3. Press the ​Edit Name softkey and enter a new name.
4. To shift the complete limit line parallel in the horizontal direction, select the "Shift x"
button and enter an x shift value. In this manner, a new limit line can be easily generated based upon an existing limit line which has been shifted horizontally.
5. To shift the complete limit line parallel in the vertical direction, select the "Shift y"
button and enter a y shift value. In this manner, a new limit line can be easily generated based upon an existing limit line which has been shifted vertically.
6. If required, edit the data as described in ​chapter 2.4.3.5, "Selecting a Limit Line",
on page 76.
7. Save the limit line ( ​Save Limit Line softkey).
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2.4.3.9
Activating/Deactivating a Limit Line
Prerequisites:
The x- and y-units of limit line and current measurement setting have to be compatible.
For details refer to ​chapter 2.4.3.3, "Limit Lines (Frequency/Time Lines)", on page 74.
The limit line has to consist of 2 or more data points.
1. In the "Select Limit Line" dialog box, select the limit line you want to activate/deactivate. For details see also ​chapter 2.4.3.5, "Selecting a Limit Line", on page 76.
2. To activate or deactivate a limit line for a trace, press the ​"Select Traces to check"
on page 71 softkey and select or deselect the trace(s) to which this limit line applies.
3. To deactivate the limit line for all traces, press the ​"Deselect All" on page 71 softkey.
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Measurements
3 Spectrum Measurements
You can also perform conventional spectrum analysis with the R&S ESR.
When you start the R&S ESR for the first time or after a preset, it starts in receiver mode.
If it is inactive, press the MODE key and select the "Spectrum" softkey in the corresponding menu to enter the spectrum mode.
This chapter of the manual describes all functionality that is available in spectrum mode.
●
​chapter 3.1, "Measurements", on page 81
This section describes how to configure and perform specific measurements that are
available in Spectrum mode.
Measurement examples are provided in the Quick Start Guide, chapter 5 "Basic
Measurement Examples" and the Operating Manual, chapter "Advanced Measurement Examples".
●
​chapter 3.3, "Analysis", on page 244
This section decribes the tools that are available to analyze measurement results.
●
​chapter 3.2, "Configuration", on page 199
This section describes general measurement parameters. The general measurement
parameters apply to all measurements performed in Spectrum mode.
3.1 Measurements
In the Spectrum mode, the R&S ESR provides a variety of different measurement functions.
The individual functions are described in detail in the following sections.
3.1.1 Power Measurements – MEAS Key
With its power measurement functions, the R&S ESR is able to measure all the necessary
parameters with high accuracy in a wide dynamic range.
A modulated carrier is almost always used (except e.g. SSB-AM) for high-frequency
transmission of information. Due to the information modulated upon the carrier, the latter
covers a spectrum which is defined by the modulation, the transmission data rate and
the signal filtering. Within a transmission band each carrier is assigned a channel taking
into account these parameters. In order to ensure error-free transmission, each transmitter must be conforming to the specified parameters. These include among others:
●
the output power
●
the occupied bandwidth, i.e. the bandwidth which must contain a defined percentage
of the power
●
the power dissipation allowed in the adjacent channels
The MEAS key is used for complex measurement functions as power measurements,
occupied bandwidth, signal statistic, carrier to noise spacing, AM modulation depth, third-
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Measurements
order intercept point, harmonics and spurious emissions. For measurement examples
refer to the Quick Start Guide, "Basic Measurement Examples".
The following measurements can be performed:
●
Channel power and adjacent-channel power with span > 0 and with a single or several
carriers ("CH Power ACLR" softkey, for details see ​chapter 3.1.1.2, "Measuring
Channel Power and Adjacent-Channel Power", on page 85)
●
Carrier-to-noise ratio ("C/N C/NO" softkey, for details see ​chapter 3.1.1.3, "Measuring
the Carrier-to-Noise Ratio", on page 108)
●
Occupied bandwidth ("OBW" softkey, for details see ​chapter 3.1.1.4, "Measuring the
Occupied Bandwidth", on page 111)
●
Spectrum Emission Mask measurements ("Spectrum Emission Mask" softkey, for
details see ​chapter 3.1.1.5, "Measuring with Spectrum Emission Masks",
on page 113)
●
Spurious Emissions measurements ("Spurious Emissions" softkey, for details see ​
chapter 3.1.1.6, "Measuring Spurious Emissions", on page 140)
●
Power in zero span ("Time Domain Power" softkey, for details see ​chapter 3.1.1.7,
"Measuring the Power in Zero Span", on page 151).
●
EMI Measurement softkey, for details see ​chapter 3.1.1.8, "Performing EMI Measurements", on page 154
●
CISPR APD softkey, for details see ​chapter 3.1.1.9, "CISPR APD Measurement
(Amplitude Probability Distribution)", on page 164
●
Amplitude probability distribution ("APD" and "CCDF" softkeys, for details see ​chapter 3.1.1.10, "Calculating Signal Amplitude Statistics", on page 168)
●
3rd order intercept ("TOI" softkey, for details see ​chapter 3.1.1.11, "Measuring the
Third Order Intercept Point (TOI)", on page 187)
●
Modulation depth ("AM Mod Depth" softkey, for details see ​chapter 3.1.1.12, "Measuring the AM Modulation Depth", on page 193)
●
Harmonic Distortion measurements ("Harmonic Distortion" softkey, for details see ​
chapter 3.1.1.13, "Measuring Harmonic Distortion", on page 194)
To open the power measurement menu
●
3.1.1.1
Press the MEAS key.
The measurement menu for spectrum analysis is displayed (see ​chapter 3.1.1.1,
"Softkeys of the Power Measurement Menu", on page 82).
Softkeys of the Power Measurement Menu
The following table shows all softkeys available in the power measurement menu. It is
possible that your instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is
only available with a special option, model or (measurement) mode, this information is
provided in the corresponding softkey description.
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Ch Power ACLR............................................................................................................83
C/N, C/No (span > 0).....................................................................................................83
OBW (span > 0)............................................................................................................83
Spectrum Emission Mask..............................................................................................83
Spurious Emissions.......................................................................................................84
Time Domain Power (zero span)..................................................................................84
All Functions Off............................................................................................................84
APD...............................................................................................................................84
CCDF............................................................................................................................84
TOI................................................................................................................................84
AM Mod Depth..............................................................................................................84
Harmonic Distortion.......................................................................................................85
All Functions Off............................................................................................................85
Ch Power ACLR
Activates the active channel or adjacent-channel power measurement either for a single
carrier signal or for several carrier signals, depending on the current measurement configuration, and opens a submenu to configure the channel power measurement.
For details see ​chapter 3.1.1.2, "Measuring Channel Power and Adjacent-Channel
Power", on page 85.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​POWer:​SELect​ on page 493
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​POWer:​RESult?​ on page 494
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​POWer[:​STATe]​ on page 497
C/N, C/No (span > 0)
Opens a submenu to configure the carrier/noise ratio measurement. Measurements
without (C/N) and measurements with reference to the bandwidth (C/No) are possible.
For details see ​chapter 3.1.1.3, "Measuring the Carrier-to-Noise Ratio", on page 108.
OBW (span > 0)
Activates measurement of the occupied bandwidth according to the current configuration
and opens a submenu to configure the measurement. For details see ​chapter 3.1.1.4,
"Measuring the Occupied Bandwidth", on page 111.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​POWer:​SELect​ on page 493
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​POWer:​RESult?​ on page 494
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​POWer[:​STATe]​ on page 497
Spectrum Emission Mask
Opens a submenu to configure the Spectrum Emission Mask measurement.
The Spectrum Emission Mask (SEM) measurement defines a measurement that monitors compliance with a spectral mask.
For details see ​chapter 3.1.1.5, "Measuring with Spectrum Emission Masks",
on page 113.
Remote command:
SENS:SWE:MODE ESP, see ​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​MODE​ on page 533
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Spurious Emissions
Opens a submenu to configure the Spurious Emissions measurement.
The Spurious Emissions measurement defines a measurement that monitors unwanted
RF products outside the assigned frequency band generated by an amplifier.
For details see ​chapter 3.1.1.6, "Measuring Spurious Emissions", on page 140.
Remote command:
SENS:SWE:MODE LIST, see ​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​MODE​ on page 533
Time Domain Power (zero span)
Activates the power measurement in zero span and opens a submenu to configure the
power measurement. For details see ​chapter 3.1.1.7, "Measuring the Power in Zero
Span", on page 151.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​SUMMary[:​STATe]​ on page 570
All Functions Off
Switches off all power measurement functions.
APD
Activates the function to measure the amplitude probability density (APD) and opens a
submenu.
For details see ​chapter 3.1.1.10, "Calculating Signal Amplitude Statistics",
on page 168.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​STATistics:​APD[:​STATe]​ on page 561
CCDF
Activates the function to measure the complementary cumulative distribution function
(CCDF) and opens a submenu.
For details see ​chapter 3.1.1.10, "Calculating Signal Amplitude Statistics",
on page 168.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​STATistics:​CCDF[:​STATe]​ on page 562
TOI
Opens a submenu and activates the measurement of the 3rd order intercept point.
For details see ​chapter 3.1.1.11, "Measuring the Third Order Intercept Point (TOI)",
on page 187.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​TOI[:​STATe]​ on page 560
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​TOI:​RESult?​ on page 561
AM Mod Depth
Opens a submenu and activates the measurement of the AM modulation depth. An AMmodulated carrier is required on the screen to ensure correct operation.
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For details see ​chapter 3.1.1.12, "Measuring the AM Modulation Depth", on page 193.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​MDEPth[:​STATe]​ on page 555
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​MDEPth:​RESult?​ on page 555
Harmonic Distortion
Opens a submenu to determine the settings for harmonics measurement and activates
the harmonic distortion measurement.
For details see ​chapter 3.1.1.13, "Measuring Harmonic Distortion", on page 194.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​HARMonics[:​STATe]​ on page 559
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​HARMonics:​DISTortion?​ on page 557
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​HARMonics:​LIST?​ on page 557
All Functions Off
Switches off all power measurement functions.
3.1.1.2
Measuring Channel Power and Adjacent-Channel Power
Measuring the power in channels adjacent to the carrier or transmission channel is useful
to detect interference. The results are displayed as a bar chart for the individual channels.
●
●
●
●
●
●
About Channel Power Measurements....................................................................85
Channel Power Measurement Results....................................................................89
Configuring and Performing Channel Power Measurements..................................90
Softkeys for Channel and Adjacent-Channel Power Measurements......................95
Predefined CP/ACLR Standards...........................................................................105
Optimized Settings for CP/ACLR Test Parameters...............................................106
About Channel Power Measurements
Measuring channel power and adjacent channel power is one of the most important tasks
in the field of digital transmission for a signal analyzer with the necessary test routines.
While, theoretically, channel power could be measured at highest accuracy with a power
meter, its low selectivity means that it is not suitable for measuring adjacent channel
power as an absolute value or relative to the transmit channel power. The power in the
adjacent channels can only be measured with a selective power meter.
A signal analyzer cannot be classified as a true power meter, because it displays the IF
envelope voltage. However, it is calibrated such as to correctly display the power of a
pure sine wave signal irrespective of the selected detector. This calibration cannot be
applied for non-sinusoidal signals. Assuming that the digitally modulated signal has a
Gaussian amplitude distribution, the signal power within the selected resolution bandwidth can be obtained using correction factors. These correction factors are normally
used by the signal analyzer's internal power measurement routines in order to determine
the signal power from IF envelope measurements. These factors apply if and only if the
assumption of a Gaussian amplitude distribution is correct.
Apart from this common method, the R&S ESR also has a true power detector, i.e. an
RMS detector. It correctly displays the power of the test signal within the selected reso-
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lution bandwidth irrespective of the amplitude distribution, without additional correction
factors being required. The absolute measurement uncertainty of the R&S ESR is < 1.5
dB and a relative measurement uncertainty of < 0.5 dB (each with a confidence level of
95 %).
Measurement Methods
The channel power is defined as the integration of the power across the channel bandwidth.
The Adjacent Channel Power Ratio (ACPR), also known as the Adjacent Channel
Leakage Power Ratio (ACLR), is defined as the ratio between the total power of the
adjacent channel to the carrier channel's power. An ACLR measurement with several
carrier (transmission) channels (TX channels) is also possible and is referred to as a
"multi-carrier ACLR measurement".
There are two possible methods for measuring channel and adjacent channel power with
a signal analyzer:
●
IBW method (Integration Bandwidth Method)
●
Zero-span method (Fast ACLR), i.e. using a channel filter
●
●
IBW method............................................................................................................86
Fast ACLR...............................................................................................................87
IBW method
When measuring the channel power, the R&S ESR integrates the linear power which
corresponds to the levels of the pixels within the selected channel. The signal analyzer
uses a resolution bandwidth which is far smaller than the channel bandwidth. When
sweeping over the channel, the channel filter is formed by the passband characteristics
of the resolution bandwidth (see ​figure 3-1).
Fig. 3-1: Approximating the channel filter by sweeping with a small resolution bandwidth
The following steps are performed:
1. The linear power of all the trace pixels within the channel is calculated.
Pi = 10(Li/10)
where Pi = power of the trace pixel i
Li = displayed level of trace point i
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2. The powers of all trace pixels within the channel are summed up and the sum is
divided by the number of trace pixels in the channel.
3. The result is multiplied by the quotient of the selected channel bandwidth and the
noise bandwidth of the resolution filter (RBW).
Since the power calculation is performed by integrating the trace within the channel
bandwidth, this method is called the IBW method (Integration Bandwidth method).
Fast ACLR
Using Fast ACLR, the R&S ESR sets the center frequency to the different channel center
frequencies consecutively and measures the power with the selected measurement time
(= sweep time/number of channels).
The RBW filters suitable for the selected standard and frequency offset are automatically
used (e.g. root raised cos with IS 136).
The RMS detector is used for obtaining correct power measurement results. Therefore
no software correction factors are required.
Measurement Repeatability
The repeatability of the results, especially in the narrow adjacent channels, strongly
depends on the measurement time for a given resolution bandwidth. A longer sweep time
may increase the probability that the measured value converges to the true value of the
adjacent channel power, but obviously increases measurement time.
The integrated bandwidth method (IBW) calculates channel power and ACLR from the
trace data obtained during a continuous sweep over the selected span. Most parts of this
sweep are neither part of the channel itself nor the defined adjacent channels. Therefore,
most of the samples taken during the sweeptime cannot be used for channel power or
ACLR calculation.
To obtain a high repeatability with short measurement times, the R&S ESR offers a "Fast
ACLR" mode. In the Fast ACLR mode, the R&S ESR measures the power of each channel at the defined channel bandwidth, while being tuned to the center frequency of the
channel in question. The digital implementation of the resolution bandwidths makes it
possible to select filter characteristics that are precisely tailored to the signal. In case of
CDMA2000, the power in the useful channel is measured with a bandwidth of 1.23 MHz
and that of the adjacent channels with a bandwidth of 30 kHz. Therefore the R&S ESR
changes from one channel to the other and measures the power at a bandwidth of 1.23
MHz or 30 kHz using the RMS detector. The power of the frequency range between the
channels of interest is not measured in Fast ACLR mode, because it is not required for
channel power or ACLR calculation. The measurement time per channel is set with the
sweep time. It is equal to the selected measurement time divided by the selected number
of channels.
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Fig. 3-2: Measuring the channel power and adjacent channel power ratio for CDMA2000 1X signals with
zero span (Fast ACP)
Assuming a measurement with five channels (1 channel plus 2 lower and 2 upper adjacent channels) and a sweep time of 100 ms, a measurement time per channel of 20 ms
is required. The number of effective samples taken into account for power calculation in
one channel is the product of sweeptime in channel times the selected resolution bandwidth.
Assuming a sweeptime of 100 ms, there are (30 kHz / 4.19 MHz) * 100 ms * 10 kHz ≈ 7
samples. Whereas in Fast ACLR mode, there are (100 ms / 5) * 30 kHz ≈ 600 samples.
Comparing these numbers explains the increase of repeatability with a 95% confidence
level (2δ) from ± 2.8 dB to ± 0.34 dB for a sweeptime of 100 ms (as shown in ​figure 3-3
and ).
For the same repeatability, the sweep time would have to be set to 8.5 s with the integration method. The ​figure 3-4 shows the standard deviation of the results as a function
of the sweep time.
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Fig. 3-3: Repeatability of adjacent channel power measurement on CDMA2000 standard signals if the
integration bandwidth method is used
The ​figure 3-4 shows the repeatability of power measurements in the transmit channel
and of relative power measurements in the adjacent channels as a function of sweep
time. The standard deviation of measurement results is calculated from 100 consecutive
measurements. Take scaling into account if comparing power values.
Fig. 3-4: Repeatability of adjacent channel power measurements on CDMA2000 signals in the fast ACP
mode
Channel Power Measurement Results
For channel or adjacent-channel power measurements, the individual channels are indicated by different colored bars in the diagram. The height of each bar corresponds to the
measured power of that channel. In addition, the name of the channel ("Adj", "Alt1",
"TX1", etc. or a user-defined name) is indicated above the bar (separated by a line which
has no further meaning).
Results are provided for the TX channel and the number of defined adjacent channels
above and below the TX channel. If more than one TX channel is defined, the carrier
channel to which the relative adjacent-channel power values should be referenced must
be defined.
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The measured power values for the TX and adjacent channels are also output as a table
in the second screen. Which powers are measured depends on the number of configured
channels, see ​"# of Adj Chan" on page 96.
For each channel, the following values are displayed:
Label
Description
Channel
Channel name as specified in the "Channel Settings" (see ​"Names" on page 100).
Bandwidth
Configured channel bandwidth (see ​"Bandwidth" on page 98)
Offset
Offset of the channel to the TX channel (Configured channel spacing, see ​"Spacing"
on page 99)
Power
The measured power values for the TX and lower and upper adjacent channels. The
powers of the transmission channels are output in dBm or dBm/Hz, or in dBc, relative
to the specified reference TX channel.
(Lower/Upper)
Retrieving Results via Remote Control
All or specific channel power measurement results can be retrieved using the ​
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​POWer:​RESult?​ command from a remote
computer.
Alternatively, the results can be output as channel power density, i.e. in reference to the
measurement bandwidth (see ​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​POWer:​
RESult:​PHZ​ on page 519).
In addition, the ​TRACe<n>:​DATA​ command queries the trace data. In case of channel
power measurements, the trace data is the power levels that have been measured for
each sweep point (max. 691).
Configuring and Performing Channel Power Measurements
Predefined standards contain the main measurement settings for standard measurements. When such a standard is loaded, the required channel settings are automatically
set on the R&S ESR. However, the settings can be changed, and measurements with
user-defined configurations are also possible.
Once the channels have been set up, other instrument settings such as the used filter
bandwidths, frequency span and detector and trace settings can be optimized automatically (see ​"Adjust Settings" on page 102).
For an overview of the softkeys and menus see ​"Softkeys for Channel and AdjacentChannel Power Measurements" on page 95.
Selecting a Predefined Standard
Predefined standards contain the main measurement settings for standard measurements. When such a standard is loaded, the required channel settings are automatically
set on the R&S ESR.
The selected standard defines the following settings:
●
​"Bandwidth" on page 98
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​"Spacing" on page 99
●
Detector, see ​"Optimized Settings for CP/ACLR Test Parameters" on page 106
●
Trace averaging, see ​"Average Mode" on page 250
●
RBW, see ​"Optimized Settings for CP/ACLR Test Parameters" on page 106
●
​"Weighting Filter" on page 100
► Select a predefined standard via the ​CP/ACLR Standard softkey.
Setting up the Channels
Channel definition is the basis for measuring power levels in certain frequency ranges.
Usually, the power levels in one or more carrier (TX) channels and possibly the adjacent
channels are of interest. Up to 18 carrier channels and up to 12 adjacent channels can
be defined.
In the R&S ESR's display, only the first neighboring channel of the carrier (TX) channel
is labelled "Adj" (adjacent) channel; all others are labelled "Alt" (alternate) channels. In
this manual, "adjacent" refers to both adjacent and alternate channels.
When an ACLR measurement is started by pressing the "Ch Power ACLR" softkey, all
settings including the channel bandwidths and channel spacings are set according to the
selected standard and can be adjusted afterwards.
Channel setup consists of the following settings:
●
The number of transmission (TX) and adjacent channels
●
The bandwidth of each channel
●
For multi-carrier ACLR measurements: which TX channel is used as a reference
("ACLR Reference")
●
The spacing between the individual channels
●
Optionally: the names of the channels displayed in the diagram and result table
●
Optionally: the influence of individual channels on the total measurement result
("Weighting Filter")
●
Optionally: limits for a limit check on the measured power levels
Changes to an existing standard can be stored as a user-defined standard, see ​"UserDefined Configurations" on page 94.
► In the "Ch Power" menu, press ​Channel Setup, then press the ​Channel Setup softkey
to configure the channels in the "Channel Setup" dialog box.
In the "Channel Setup" dialog box you define the channel settings for all channels, independent of the defined number of used TX or adjacent channels.
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●
●
●
Defining Channel Bandwidths.................................................................................92
Defining Channel Spacings.....................................................................................92
Configuring a Limit Check.......................................................................................93
Defining Channel Bandwidths
The transmission-channel bandwidth is normally defined by the transmission standard.
The correct bandwidth is set automatically for the selected standard (see ​"Optimized
Settings for CP/ACLR Test Parameters" on page 106).
For measurements that require channel bandwidths which deviate from those defined in
the selected standard, use the IBW method (see ​Fast ACLR (On/Off) softkey). With the
IBW method, the channel bandwidth borders are right and left of the channel center frequency. Thus, you can visually check whether the entire power of the signal under test
is within the selected channel bandwidth.
► In the "Channel Setup" dialog box, select the "Bandwidth" tab to define the channel
bandwidths.
The value entered for any TX channel is automatically also defined for all subsequent
TX channels. Thus, only one value needs to be entered if all TX channels have the
same bandwidth.
The value entered for any ADJ or ALT channel is automatically also defined for all
alternate (ALT) channels. Thus, only one value needs to be entered if all adjacent
channels have the same bandwidth.
Defining Channel Spacings
Channel spacings are normally defined by the selected standard but can be changed.
If the spacings are not equal, the channel distribution according to the center frequency
is as follows:
Odd number of TX channels
The middle TX channel is centered to center frequency.
Even number of TX channels
The two TX channels in the middle are used to calculate the frequency
between those two channels. This frequency is aligned to the center
frequency.
► In the "Channel Setup" dialog box, select the "Spacing" tab to define the channel
spacings.
The value entered for any TX channel is automatically also defined for all subsequent
TX channels. Thus, only one value needs to be entered if all TX channels have the
same spacing.
If the channel spacing for the adjacent or an alternate channel is changed, all higher
alternate channel spacings are multiplied by the same factor (new spacing value/old
spacing value). The lower adjacent-channel spacings remain unchanged. Only one
value needs to be entered for equal channel spacing.
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Example: Defining channel spacing
In the default setting, the adjacent channels have the following spacing: 20 kHz ("ADJ"),
40 kHz ("ALT1"), 60 kHz ("ALT2"), 80 kHz ("ALT3"), 100 kHz ("ALT4"), …
If the spacing of the first adjacent channel ("ADJ") is set to 40 kHz, the spacing of all other
adjacent channels is multiplied by factor 2 to result in 80 kHz ("ALT1"), 120 kHz ("ALT2"),
160 kHz ("ALT3"), …
If, starting from the default setting, the spacing of the 5th adjacent channel ("ALT4") is
set to 150 kHz, the spacing of all higher adjacent channels is multiplied by factor 1.5 to
result in 180 kHz ("ALT5"), 210 kHz ("ALT6"), 240 kHz ("ALT7"), …
For the R&S ESR, the channel spacing is defined as the distance between the center
frequency of the adjacent channel and the center frequency of the transmission channel.
The definition of the adjacent-channel spacing in standards IS95C and CDMA 2000 is
different. These standards define the adjacent-channel spacing from the center of the
transmission channel to the closest border of the adjacent channel. This definition is also
used for the R&S ESR if the standards marked with an asterisk *) are selected.
Configuring a Limit Check
During an ACLR measurement, the power values can be checked whether they exceed
user-defined limits. A relative or absolute limit can be defined, or both. Both limit types
are considered, regardless whether the measured levels are absolute or relative values.
The check of both limit values can be activated independently. If any active limit value is
exceeded, the measured value is displayed in red and marked by a preceding asterisk
in the result table.
To configure a limit check
1. In the "Channel Setup" dialog box, select the "Limits" tab to define a limit check.
2. For each channel, define a relative or absolute value that should not be exceeded.
3. Select the channels to be included in the limit check by activating the "Check" option.
4. Activate limit checking for the selected channels by setting "Limit Checking" to On.
Performing a Channel Power Measurement
A channel power measurement is started automatically according to the currently
selected standard when you press the "Ch Power ACLR" softkey in the MEAS menu.
► To start a new measurement after changing the settings, press the RUN SINGLE or
RUN CONT hardkeys.
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Alternatively, you can save your settings as a user standard (see ​"User-Defined
Configurations" on page 94), then select that standard and start the measurement
as usual by pressing the "Ch Power ACLR" softkey.
The configured measurement is performed (depending on the number of defined channels, see ​"# of Adj Chan" on page 96) and the results are displayed in the graphic and
the result table.
User-Defined Configurations
You can define measurement configurations independently of a predefinded standard
and save the current ACLR configuration as a "user standard" in an xml file. You can then
load the file and thus the settings again at a later time.
User-defined standards are not supported for "Fast ACLR" and Multi-Carrier ACLR
measurements.
Compatibility to R&S FSP
User standards created on an analyzer of the R&S FSP family are compatible to the
R&S ESR. User standards created on an R&S ESR, however, are not necessarily compatible to the analyzers of the R&S FSP family and may not work there.
To store a user-defined configuration
1. Select the "User Standard" softkey in the "Ch Power" menu.
2. Press "Save".
3. Define a file name for the user standard and select its storage location.
By default, the xml file is stored in C:\R_S\Instr\acp_std\. However, you can
define any other storage location.
4. Press "Save".
The following parameter definitions are saved:
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
​"# of Adj Chan" on page 96
Channel spacing and adjacent-channel spacing, see ​"Spacing" on page 99
Channel bandwidth of transmission (Tx), adjacent (Adj) and alternate (Alt) channels, see ​"Bandwidth" on page 98
Resolution bandwidth, see ​"Res BW Auto" on page 218
Video bandwidth, see ​"Video BW Auto" on page 219
Detector, see ​"Detector" on page 248
ACLR limits and their state, see ​"Limits" on page 100
Sweep time and sweep time coupling, see ​"Sweep Time" on page 103
Trace and power mode, see ​"Select Trace" on page 102 and ​"Power Mode"
on page 102
To load a user-defined configuration
► Press "User Standard > Load" and select the user standard file.
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Softkeys for Channel and Adjacent-Channel Power Measurements
Ch Power ACLR............................................................................................................95
└ CP/ACLR Standard.........................................................................................96
└ CP/ACLR Settings..........................................................................................96
└ # of TX Chan.........................................................................................96
└ # of Adj Chan........................................................................................96
└ Channel Setup......................................................................................97
└ Bandwidth...................................................................................98
└ ACLR Reference..............................................................98
└ Spacing.......................................................................................99
└ Names......................................................................................100
└ Weighting Filter.........................................................................100
└ Limits........................................................................................100
└ Limit Checking................................................................100
└ Relative Limit..................................................................101
└ Absolute Limit.................................................................101
└ Check.............................................................................101
└ Chan Pwr/Hz.......................................................................................101
└ Power Mode........................................................................................102
└ Clear/Write................................................................................102
└ Max Hold..................................................................................102
└ Select Trace........................................................................................102
└ ACLR (Abs/Rel)..................................................................................102
└ Adjust Settings....................................................................................102
└ Sweep Time..................................................................................................103
└ Fast ACLR (On/Off)......................................................................................103
└ Set CP Reference.........................................................................................103
└ User Standard...............................................................................................104
└ Load....................................................................................................104
└ Save....................................................................................................104
└ Delete.................................................................................................104
└ Noise Correction...........................................................................................104
└ Adjust Ref Lvl................................................................................................105
Ch Power ACLR
Activates the active channel or adjacent-channel power measurement either for a single
carrier signal or for several carrier signals, depending on the current measurement configuration, and opens a submenu to configure the channel power measurement. With
default settings the measurement is performed by integrating the powers at the display
points within the specified channels (IBW method).
If several TX cahnnels (carriers) are activated, the number of measured values is
increased to ensure that adjacent-channel powers are measured with adequate accuracy.
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For general information on performing channel or adjacent-channel power measurements, see ​chapter 3.1.1.2, "Measuring Channel Power and Adjacent-Channel Power",
on page 85.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​POWer:​SELect​ on page 493
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​POWer:​RESult?​ on page 494
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​POWer[:​STATe]​ on page 497
CP/ACLR Standard ← Ch Power ACLR
Opens an edit dialog box to select the settings according to predefined standards. For
details on the available standards see ​"Predefined CP/ACLR Standards" on page 105.
By default no standard is set.
The selection of the standard influences the following parameters (see ​"Optimized Settings for CP/ACLR Test Parameters" on page 106):
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
channel spacing and adjacent-channel spacing
channel bandwidth, adjacent-channel bandwidth, and type of filtering
resolution bandwidth
video bandwidth
detector
# of adjacent channels
trace averaging (switched off)
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​POWer:​PRESet​ on page 501
CP/ACLR Settings ← Ch Power ACLR
Opens a submenu to configure the channel power and adjacent channel power measurement independently of the predefined standards (for details see also ​"Predefined CP/
ACLR Standards" on page 105 and ​"Optimized Settings for CP/ACLR Test Parameters" on page 106).
# of TX Chan ← CP/ACLR Settings ← Ch Power ACLR
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the number of carrier signals to be taken into account
in channel and adjacent-channel power measurements. Values from 1 to 18 are allowed.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]POWer:​ACHannel:​TXCHannel:​COUNt​ on page 506
# of Adj Chan ← CP/ACLR Settings ← Ch Power ACLR
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the number of adjacent channels to be considered in
the adjacent-channel power measurement. Values from 0 to 12 are allowed.
The following measurements are performed depending on the number of the channels:
0
Only the channel powers are measured.
1
The channel powers and the power of the upper and lower adjacent channel are measured.
2
The channel powers, the power of the upper and lower adjacent channel, and of the next higher
and lower channel (alternate channel 1) are measured.
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3
The channel power, the power of the upper and lower adjacent channel, the power of the next
higher and lower channel (alternate channel 1), and of the next but one higher and lower adjacent
channel (alternate channel 2) are measured.
…
…
12
The channel power, the power of the upper and lower adjacent channel, and the power of the all
higher and lower channels (alternate channel 1 to 11) are measured.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]POWer:​ACHannel:​ACPairs​ on page 503
Channel Setup ← CP/ACLR Settings ← Ch Power ACLR
Opens a dialog to define the channel settings for all channels, independant of the defined
number of used TX or adjacent channels.
The dialog contains the following tabs:
●
●
●
●
●
​"Bandwidth" on page 98
​"Spacing" on page 99
​"Names" on page 100
​"Weighting Filter" on page 100
​"Limits" on page 100
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Bandwidth ← Channel Setup ← CP/ACLR Settings ← Ch Power ACLR
Define the channel bandwidths for the transmission channels and the adjacent channels.
"TX" is only available for the multi-carrier ACLR measurement. When you change the
bandwidth for one channel, the value is automatically also defined for all subsequent
channels of the same type.
The transmission-channel bandwidth is normally defined by the transmission standard.
The correct bandwidth is set automatically for the selected standard (see ​"Optimized
Settings for CP/ACLR Test Parameters" on page 106).
●
●
Measurements in zero span (see ​Fast ACLR (On/Off) softkey) are performed in the
zero span mode. The channel limits are indicated by vertical lines. For measurements
requiring channel bandwidths deviating from those defined in the selected standard
the IBW method is to be used.
With the IBW method (see ​Fast ACLR (On/Off) softkey), the channel bandwidth limits
are marked by two vertical lines right and left of the channel center frequency. Thus
you can visually check whether the entire power of the signal under test is within the
selected channel bandwidth.
If measuring according to the IBW method ("Fast ACLR Off"), the bandwidths of the
different adjacent channels are to be entered numerically. Since all adjacent channels
often have the same bandwidth, the other alternate channels are set to the bandwidth
of the adjacent channel when it is changed. Thus, only one value needs to be entered
in case of equal adjacent channel bandwidths.
For details on available channel filters see ​chapter 3.2.6.3, "Selecting the Appropriate
Filter Type", on page 223.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]POWer:​ACHannel:​BANDwidth|BWIDth[:​CHANnel<channel>]​
on page 504
​[SENSe:​]POWer:​ACHannel:​BANDwidth|BWIDth:​ACHannel​ on page 503
​[SENSe:​]POWer:​ACHannel:​BANDwidth|BWIDth:​ALTernate<channel>​
on page 504
ACLR Reference ← Bandwidth ← Channel Setup ← CP/ACLR Settings ← Ch Power
ACLR
Select the transmission channel to which the relative adjacent-channel power values
should be referenced.
TX Channel 1
Transmission channel 1 is used.
Min Power TX Channel
The transmission channel with the lowest power is used as a reference
channel.
Max Power TX Channel
The transmission channel with the highest power is used as a reference channel.
Lowest & Highest Channel
The outer left-hand transmission channel is the reference channel for
the lower adjacent channels, the outer right-hand transmission channel that for the upper adjacent channels.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]POWer:​ACHannel:​REFerence:​TXCHannel:​MANual​ on page 510
​[SENSe:​]POWer:​ACHannel:​REFerence:​TXCHannel:​AUTO​ on page 509
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Spacing ← Channel Setup ← CP/ACLR Settings ← Ch Power ACLR
Define the channel spacings for the TX channels and for the adjacent channels.
●
TX channels (left column)
TX1-2
spacing between the first and the second carrier
TX2-3
spacing between the second and the third carrier
…
…
The spacings between all adjacent TX channels can be defined separately. When you
change the spacing for one channel, the value is automatically also defined for all subsequent TX channels in order to set up a system with equal TX channel spacing quickly.
For different spacings, a setup from top to bottom is necessary.
If the spacings are not equal, the channel distribution according to the center frequency
is as follows:
Odd number of TX channels
The middle TX channel is centered to center frequency.
Even number of TX channels
The two TX channels in the middle are used to calculate the frequency
between those two channels. This frequency is aligned to the center
frequency.
●
Adjacent channels (right column)
Since all the adjacent channels often have the same distance to each other, the
modification of the adjacent-channel spacing (ADJ) causes a change in all higher
adjacent-channel spacings (ALT1, ALT2, …): they are all multiplied by the same factor (new spacing value/old spacing value). Thus only one value needs to be entered
in case of equal channel spacing. A modification of a higher adjacent-channel spacing
(ALT1, ALT2, …) causes a change by the same factor in all higher adjacent-channel
spacings, while the lower adjacent-channel spacings remain unchanged.
Example:
In the default setting, the adjacent channels have the following spacing: 20 kHz
("ADJ"), 40 kHz ("ALT1"), 60 kHz ("ALT2"), 80 kHz ("ALT3"), 100 kHz ("ALT4"), …
If the spacing of the first adjacent channel ("ADJ") is set to 40 kHz, the spacing of all
other adjacent channels is multiplied by factor 2 to result in 80 kHz ("ALT1"), 120 kHz
("ALT2"), 160 kHz ("ALT3"), …
If, starting from the default setting, the spacing of the 5th adjacent channel ("ALT4")
is set to 150 kHz, the spacing of all higher adjacent channels is multiplied by factor
1.5 to result in 180 kHz ("ALT5"), 210 kHz ("ALT6"), 240 kHz ("ALT7"), …
If a ACLR or MC-ACLR measurement is started, all settings according to the standard
including the channel bandwidths and channel spacings are set and can be adjusted
afterwards.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]POWer:​ACHannel:​SPACing:​CHANnel<channel>​ on page 506
​[SENSe:​]POWer:​ACHannel:​SPACing[:​ACHannel]​ on page 505
​[SENSe:​]POWer:​ACHannel:​SPACing:​ALTernate<channel>​ on page 505
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Names ← Channel Setup ← CP/ACLR Settings ← Ch Power ACLR
Define user-specific channel names for each channel. The names defined here are displayed in the result diagram and result table.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]POWer:​ACHannel:​NAME:​ACHannel​ on page 504
​[SENSe:​]POWer:​ACHannel:​NAME:​ALTernate<channel>​ on page 505
​[SENSe:​]POWer:​ACHannel:​NAME:​CHANnel<channel>​ on page 505
Weighting Filter ← Channel Setup ← CP/ACLR Settings ← Ch Power ACLR
Define weighting filters for all channels. Weighting filters are not available for all supported
standards and cannot always be defined manually where they are available.
The dialog contains the following fields:
Field
Description
Channel
●
●
●
Active
Activates/Deactivates the weighting filter for the selected and any subsequent channels of
the same type
Alpha
Defines the alpha value for the weighting filter for the selected and any subsequent channels
of the same type
TX 1-18: TX channels
ADJ: Adjacent channel
ALT1-11: Alternate channels
Remote command:
POW:ACH:FILT:CHAN1 ON, see ​[SENSe:​]POWer:​ACHannel:​FILTer[:​STATe]:​
CHANnel<channel>​ on page 508
Activates the weighting filter for TX channel 1.
POW:ACH:FILT:ALPH:CHAN1 0,35 see ​[SENSe:​]POWer:​ACHannel:​FILTer:​
ALPHa:​CHANnel<channel>​ on page 507
Sets the alpha value for the weighting filter for TX channel 1 to 0,35.
POW:ACH:FILT:ACH ON see ​[SENSe:​]POWer:​ACHannel:​FILTer[:​STATe]:​
ACHannel​ on page 508
Activates the weighting filter for the adjacent channel.
POW:ACH:FILT:ALPH:ACH 0,35 see ​[SENSe:​]POWer:​ACHannel:​FILTer:​
ALPHa:​ACHannel​ on page 507
Sets the alpha value for the weighting filter for the adjacent channel to 0,35.
POW:ACH:FILT:ALT1 ON see ​[SENSe:​]POWer:​ACHannel:​FILTer[:​STATe]:​
ALTernate<channel>​ on page 508
Activates the alpha value for the weighting filter for the alternate channel 1.
POW:ACH:FILT:ALPH:ALT1 0,35 see ​[SENSe:​]POWer:​ACHannel:​FILTer:​
ALPHa:​ALTernate<channel>​ on page 507
Sets the alpha value for the weighting filter for the alternate channel 1 to 0,35.
Limits ← Channel Setup ← CP/ACLR Settings ← Ch Power ACLR
Activate and define the limits for the ACLR measurement.
Limit Checking ← Limits ← Channel Setup ← CP/ACLR Settings ← Ch Power ACLR
Activate or deactivate limit checking for the ACLR measurement.
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The following rules apply for the limits:
●
●
●
A separate limit can be defined for each adjacent channel. The limit applies to both
the upper and the lower adjacent channel.
A relative and/or absolute limit can be defined. The check of both limit values can be
activated independently.
The R&S ESR checks adherence to the limits irrespective of whether the limits are
absolute or relative or whether the measurement is carried out with absolute or relative levels. If both limits are active and if the higher of both limit values is exceeded,
the measured value is marked by a preceding asterisk.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​LIMit<k>:​ACPower[:​STATe]​ on page 518
​CALCulate<n>:​LIMit<k>:​ACPower:​ACHannel:​RESult​ on page 513
​CALCulate<n>:​LIMit<k>:​ACPower:​ALTernate<channel>[:​RELative]​
on page 515
Relative Limit ← Limits ← Channel Setup ← CP/ACLR Settings ← Ch Power ACLR
Defines a limit relative to the carrier signal.
Remote command:
CALC:LIM:ACP ON, see ​CALCulate<n>:​LIMit<k>:​ACPower[:​STATe]​
on page 518
CALC:LIM:ACP:<adjacent-channel> 0dBc,0dBc
CALC:LIM:ACP:<adjacent-channel>:STAT ON
Absolute Limit ← Limits ← Channel Setup ← CP/ACLR Settings ← Ch Power ACLR
Defines an absolute limit.
Remote command:
CALC:LIM:ACP ON, see ​CALCulate<n>:​LIMit<k>:​ACPower[:​STATe]​
on page 518
CALC:LIM:ACP:<adjacent-channel>:ABS -10dBm,-10dBm
CALC:LIM:ACP:<adjacent-channel>:ABS:STAT ON, see ​CALCulate<n>:​
LIMit<k>:​ACPower:​ACHannel:​ABSolute:​STATe​ on page 511
Check ← Limits ← Channel Setup ← CP/ACLR Settings ← Ch Power ACLR
Activate or deactivate the limit to be considered during a limit check. The check of both
limit values can be activated independently.
Chan Pwr/Hz ← CP/ACLR Settings ← Ch Power ACLR
If deactivated, the channel power is displayed in dBm. If activated, the channel power
density is displayed instead. Thus, the absolute unit of the channel power is switched
from dBm to dBm/Hz. The channel power density in dBm/Hz corresponds to the power
inside a bandwidth of 1 Hz and is calculated as follows:
"channel power density = channel power – log10(channel bandwidth)"
By means of this function it is possible e.g. to measure the signal/noise power density or
use the additional functions ​"ACLR (Abs/Rel)" on page 102 and ​"ACLR Reference"
on page 98 to obtain the signal to noise ratio.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​POWer:​RESult:​PHZ​ on page 519
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Power Mode ← CP/ACLR Settings ← Ch Power ACLR
Opens a submenu to select the power mode.
Clear/Write ← Power Mode ← CP/ACLR Settings ← Ch Power ACLR
If this mode is activated, the channel power and the adjacent channel powers are calculated directly from the current trace (default mode).
Remote command:
CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW:MODE WRIT, see ​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​
POWer:​MODE​ on page 498
Max Hold ← Power Mode ← CP/ACLR Settings ← Ch Power ACLR
If this mode is activated, the power values are calculated from the current trace and
compared with the previous power value using a maximum algorithm. The higher value
is retained. If activated, the enhancement label "Pwr Max" is displayed.
Remote command:
CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW:MODE MAXH, see ​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​
POWer:​MODE​ on page 498
Select Trace ← CP/ACLR Settings ← Ch Power ACLR
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the trace number on which the CP/ACLR measurement
is to be performed. Only activated traces can be selected.
For details on trace modes see ​chapter 2.2.4, "Trace Modes", on page 35.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]POWer:​TRACe​ on page 498
ACLR (Abs/Rel) ← CP/ACLR Settings ← Ch Power ACLR
Switches between absolute and relative power measurement in the adjacent channels.
Abs
The absolute power in the adjacent channels is displayed in the unit of the y-axis, e.g. in dBm,
dBµV.
Rel
The level of the adjacent channels is displayed relative to the level of the transmission channel in
dBc.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]POWer:​ACHannel:​MODE​ on page 519
Adjust Settings ← CP/ACLR Settings ← Ch Power ACLR
Automatically optimizes all instrument settings for the selected channel configuration
(channel bandwidth, channel spacing) within a specific frequency range (channel bandwidth). The adjustment is carried out only once. If necessary, the instrument settings can
be changed later.
For details on the settings of span, resolution bandwidth, video bandwidth, detector and
trace averaging see ​"Optimized Settings for CP/ACLR Test Parameters" on page 106.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]POWer:​ACHannel:​PRESet​ on page 499
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Sweep Time ← Ch Power ACLR
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the sweep time. With the RMS detector, a longer sweep
time increases the stability of the measurement results.
The function of this softkey is identical to the ​Sweeptime Manual softkey in the "Bandwidth" menu.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​TIME​ on page 601
Fast ACLR (On/Off) ← Ch Power ACLR
Switches between the IBW method ("Fast ACLR Off") and the zero span method ("Fast
ACLR On").
When switched on, the R&S ESR sets the center frequency consecutively to the different
channel center frequencies and measures the power with the selected measurement time
(= sweep time/number of channels). The RBW filters suitable for the selected standard
and frequency offset are automatically used (e.g. root raised cos with IS 136). For details
on available channel filters see ​chapter 3.2.6.3, "Selecting the Appropriate Filter Type",
on page 223.
The RMS detector is used for obtaining correct power measurement results. Therefore
this requires no software correction factors.
Measured values are output as a list. The powers of the transmission channels are output
in dBm, the powers of the adjacent channels in dBm.
The sweep time is selected depending on the desired reproducibility of results. Reproducibility increases with sweep time since power measurement is then performed over a
longer time period. As a general approach, it can be assumed that approx. 500 noncorrelated measured values are required for a reproducibility of 0.5 dB (99 % of the
measurements are within 0.5 dB of the true measured value). This holds true for white
noise. The measured values are considered as non-correlated if their time interval corresponds to the reciprocal of the measured bandwidth.
With IS 136 the measurement bandwidth is approx. 25 kHz, i.e. measured values at an
interval of 40 µs are considered as non-correlated. A measurement time of 40 ms is thus
required per channel for 1000 measured values. This is the default sweep time which the
R&S ESR sets in coupled mode. Approx. 5000 measured values are required for a reproducibility of 0.1 dB (99 %), i.e. the measurement time is to be increased to 200 ms.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]POWer:​HSPeed​ on page 520
Set CP Reference ← Ch Power ACLR
Defines the currently measured channel power as the reference value if channel power
measurement is activated. The reference value is displayed in the "Tx1 (Ref) Power" field;
the default value is 0 dBm.
The softkey is available only for multi carrier ACLR measurements.
In adjacent-channel power measurement with one or several carrier signals, the power
is always referenced to a transmission channel, i.e. no value is displayed for "Tx1 (Ref)
Power".
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]POWer:​ACHannel:​REFerence:​AUTO ONCE​ on page 509
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User Standard ← Ch Power ACLR
Opens a submenu to configure customized standards.
Load ← User Standard ← Ch Power ACLR
Opens a dialog to select and load a user defined ACLR standard.
Note: Compatibility to R&S FSP. User standards created on an analyzer of the R&S FSP
family are compatible to the R&S FSV. User standards created on an R&S FSV, however,
are not necessarily compatible to the analyzers of the R&S FSP family and may not work
there.
Remote command:
Querying available standards:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​POWer:​STANdard:​CATalog?​
on page 502
Loading a standard:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​POWer:​PRESet​ on page 501
Save ← User Standard ← Ch Power ACLR
Saves the current ACLR configuration in an xml file in order for you to use it again at a
later time. You can define the drive, path and file name in the corresponding dialog. The
default location is C:\R_S\Instr\acp_std\.
Note that the ACLR user standard is not supported by Fast ACLR and Multi Carrier ACLR
measurements.
If you create your own standard, you can customize the following parameters:
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
number of adjacent channels
channel bandwidth of transmission (Tx), adjacent (Adj) and alternate (Alt) channels
channel spacings
resolution and video bandwidth
ACLR limits and their state
sweep time and sweep time coupling
detector
trace mode
Remote command:
Configuring channels:
see ​"Configuring ACLR Channels" on page 503 and ​"Defining Weighting Filters"
on page 506
Saving custom channel configurations:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​POWer:​STANdard:​SAVE​ on page 502
Delete ← User Standard ← Ch Power ACLR
Deletes the user standard that you select in the corresponding dialog box. Note that the
R&S ESR deletes the file without further notice.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​POWer:​STANdard:​DELete​ on page 502
Noise Correction ← Ch Power ACLR
If activated, the results are corrected by the instrument's inherent noise, which increases
the dynamic range.
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"ON"
A reference measurement of the instrument's inherent noise is carried
out. The noise power measured is then subtracted from the power in
the channel that is being examined.
The inherent noise of the instrument depends on the selected center
frequency, resolution bandwidth and level setting. Therefore, the correction function is disabled whenever one of these parameters is
changed. A disable message is displayed on the screen. Noise correction must be switched on again manually after the change.
"OFF"
No noise correction is performed.
"AUTO"
Noise correction is performed. After a parameter change, noise correction is restarted automatically and a new correction measurement is
performed.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]POWer:​NCORrection​ on page 520
Adjust Ref Lvl ← Ch Power ACLR
Adjusts the reference level to the measured channel power. This ensures that the settings
of the RF attenuation and the reference level are optimally adjusted to the signal level
without overloading the R&S ESR or limiting the dynamic range by a too small S/N ratio.
For details on manual settings see ​"Optimized Settings for CP/ACLR Test Parameters"
on page 106.
The reference level is not influenced by the selection of a standard. To achieve an optimum dynamic range, the reference level has to be set in a way that places the signal
maximum close to the reference level without forcing an overload message. Since the
measurement bandwidth for channel power measurements is significantly lower than the
signal bandwidth, the signal path may be overloaded although the trace is still significantly
below the reference level.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]POWer:​ACHannel:​PRESet:​RLEVel​ on page 499
Predefined CP/ACLR Standards
When using predefined standards for ACLR measurement, the test parameters for the
channel and adjacent-channel measurements are configured automatically. The available standards are listed below.
Predefined standards are selected using the "CP/ACLR Standard" softkey or the
CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW:PRES command.
Standard
GUI-Parameter
SCPI-Parameter
EUTRA/LTE Square
EUTRA/LTE Square
EUTRa
EUTRA/LTE Square/RRC
EUTRA/LTE Square/RRC
REUTRa
W-CDMA 3.84 MHz forward
W-CDMA 3GPP FWD
FW3G
W-CDMA 3.84 MHz reverse
W-CDMA 3GPP REV
RW3G
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Standard
GUI-Parameter
SCPI-Parameter
CDMA IS95A forward
CDMA IS95A FWD
F8CD | FIS95a
CDMA IS95A reverse
CDMA IS95A REV
R8CD | RIS95a
CDMA IS95C Class 0 forward*)
CDMA IS95C Class 0 FWD
FIS95c0
CDMA IS95C Class 0 reverse*)
CDMA IS95C Class 0 REV
RIS95c0
CDMA J-STD008 forward
CDMA J-STD008 FWD
F19C | FJ008
CDMA J-STD008 reverse
CDMA J-STD008 REV
R19C | RJ008
CDMA IS95C Class 1 forward*)
CDMA IS95C Class 1 FWD
FIS95c1
CDMA IS95C Class 1 reverse*)
CDMA IS95C Class 1 REV
RIS95c1
CDMA 2000
CDMA 2000
S2CD
TD-SCDMA forward
TD SCDMA FWD
FTCD | TCDMa
TD-SCDMA reverse
TD SCDMA REV
RTCD
WLAN 802.11A
WLAN 802.11A
AWLan
WLAN 802.11B
WLAN 802.11B
BWLan
WiMAX
WiMAX
WiMAX
WIBRO
WIBRO
WIBRO
GSM
GSM
GSM
RFID 14443
RFID 14443
RFID14443
TETRA
TETRA
TETRA
PDC
PDC
PDC
PHS
PHS
PHS
CDPD
CDPD
CDPD
APCO-25 Phase 2
APCO-25 P2
PAPCo25
For the R&S ESR, the channel spacing is defined as the distance between the center
frequency of the adjacent channel and the center frequency of the transmission channel.
The definition of the adjacent-channel spacing in standards IS95C and CDMA 2000 is
different. These standards define the adjacent-channel spacing from the center of the
transmission channel to the closest border of the adjacent channel. This definition is also
used for the R&S ESR if the standards marked with an asterisk *) are selected.
Optimized Settings for CP/ACLR Test Parameters
The "Adjust Settings" softkey (see ​"Adjust Settings" on page 102) automatically optimizes
all instrument settings for the selected channel configuration, as described in the following:
●
Frequency span
The frequency span must at least cover the channels to be measured plus a measurement margin of approx. 10 %.
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If the frequency span is large in comparison to the channel bandwidth (or the adjacent-channel bandwidths) being examined, only a few points on the trace are available per channel. This reduces the accuracy of the waveform calculation for the
channel filter used, which has a negative effect on the measurement accuracy. It is
therefore strongly recommended that the formulas mentioned be taken into consideration when selecting the frequency span.
For channel power measurements the ​Adjust Settings softkey sets the frequency
span as follows:
"(No. of transmission channels – 1) x transmission channel spacing + 2 x transmission
channel bandwidth + measurement margin"
For adjacent-channel power measurements, the ​Adjust Settings softkey sets the frequency span as a function of the number of transmission channels, the transmission
channel spacing, the adjacent-channel spacing, and the bandwidth of one of adjacent-channels ADJ, ALT1 or ALT2, whichever is furthest away from the transmission
channels:
"(No. of transmission channels – 1) x transmission channel spacing + 2 x (adjacentchannel spacing + adjacent-channel bandwidth) + measurement margin"
The measurement margin is approx. 10 % of the value obtained by adding the channel
spacing and the channel bandwidth.
●
Resolution bandwidth (RBW)
To ensure both, acceptable measurement speed and required selection (to suppress
spectral components outside the channel to be measured, especially of the adjacent
channels), the resolution bandwidth must not be selected too small or too large. As
a general approach, the resolution bandwidth is to be set to values between 1% and
4% of the channel bandwidth.
A larger resolution bandwidth can be selected if the spectrum within the channel to
be measured and around it has a flat characteristic. In the standard setting, e.g. for
standard IS95A REV at an adjacent channel bandwidth of 30 kHz, a resolution bandwidth of 30 kHz is used. This yields correct results since the spectrum in the neighborhood of the adjacent channels normally has a constant level.
With the exception of the IS95 CDMA standards, the ​Adjust Settings softkey sets the
resolution bandwidth (RBW) as a function of the channel bandwidth:
"RBW ≤ 1/40 of channel bandwidth"
The maximum possible resolution bandwidth (with respect to the requirement RBW
≤ 1/40) resulting from the available RBW steps (1, 3) is selected.
●
Video bandwidth (VBW)
For a correct power measurement, the video signal must not be limited in bandwidth.
A restricted bandwidth of the logarithmic video signal would cause signal averaging
and thus result in a too low indication of the power (-2.51 dB at very low video bandwidths). The video bandwidth should therefore be selected at least three times the
resolution bandwidth:
"VBW ≥ 3 x RBW"
The ​Adjust Settings softkey sets the video bandwidth (VBW) as a function of the
channel bandwidth (see formula above) and the smallest possible VBW with regard
to the available step size will be selected.
●
Detector
The ​Adjust Settings softkey selects the RMS detector. This detector is selected since
it correctly indicates the power irrespective of the characteristics of the signal to be
measured. The whole IF envelope is used to calculate the power for each measure-
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ment point. The IF envelope is digitized using a sampling frequency which is at least
five times the resolution bandwidth which has been selected. Based on the sample
values, the power is calculated for each measurement point using the following formula:
where:
"si = linear digitized video voltage at the output of the A/D converter"
"N = number of A/D converter values per measurement point"
"PRMS = power represented by a measurement point"
When the power has been calculated, the power units are converted into decibels
and the value is displayed as a measurement point.
In principle, the sample detector would be possible as well. Due to the limited number
of measurement points used to calculate the power in the channel, the sample detector would yield less stable results.
3.1.1.3
●
Trace averaging
The ​Adjust Settings softkey switches off this function. Averaging, which is often performed to stabilize the measurement results, leads to a too low level indication and
should therefore be avoided. The reduction in the displayed power depends on the
number of averages and the signal characteristics in the channel to be measured.
●
Reference level
The ​Adjust Settings softkey does not influence the reference level. It can be adjusted
separately using the "Adjust Ref Lvl" softkey (see ​"Adjust Ref Lvl" on page 105).
Measuring the Carrier-to-Noise Ratio
The R&S ESR can easily determine the carrier-to-noise ratio, also normalized to a 1 Hz
bandwidth.
The largest signal in the frequency span is the carrier. It is searched when the C/N or C/
NO function is activated (see ​"C/N, C/No" on page 110) and is marked using a fixed
reference marker ("FXD").
To determine the noise power, a channel at the defined center frequency is examined.
The bandwidth of the channel is defined by the "Channel Bandwidth" setting. The power
within this channel is integrated to obtain the noise power level. (If the carrier is within
this channel, an extra step is required to determine the correct noise power level, see
below.)
The noise power of the channel is subtracted from the maximum carrier signal level, and
in the case of a C/NO measurement, it is referred to a 1 Hz bandwidth.
For this measurement, the RMS detector is activated.
The carrier-to-noise measurements are only available in the frequency domain (span >0).
There are two methods to measure the carrier-to-noise ratio:
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●
The carrier is outside the examined channel: In this case, it is sufficient to switch on
the desired measurement function and to set the channel bandwidth. The carrier/
noise ratio is displayed on the screen.
●
The carrier is inside the examined channel: In this case, the measurement must be
performed in two steps:
– First, perform the reference measurement by switching on either the C/N or the
C/NO measurement and waiting for the end of the next measurement run. The
fixed reference marker is set to the maximum of the measured carrier signal.
–
Then, switch off the carrier so that only the noise of the test setup is active in the
channel. The carrier-to-noise ratio is displayed after the subsequent measurement has been completed.
The frequency span should be set to approximately 4 times the channel bandwidth in
order to measure the carrier-to-noise ratio correctly. This setting is defined automatically
by the "Adjust Settings" function.
To determine the carrier-to-noise ratio
1. Press the "C/N, C/NO" softkey to configure the carrier-to-noise ratio measurement.
2. To change the channel bandwidth to be examined, press the "Channel Bandwidth"
softkey.
3. To optimize the settings for the selected channel configuration, press the "Adjust
Settings" softkey.
4. To activate the measurements without reference to the bandwidth, press the "C/N"
softkey.
To activate the measurements with reference to the bandwidth, press the "C/NO"
softkey .
5. If the carrier signal is located within the examined channel bandwidth, switch off the
carrier signal so that only the noise is displayed in the channel and perform a second
measurement.
The carrier-to-noise ratio is displayed after the measurement has been completed.
Measurement results
As a result of the carrier-to-noise measurement the evaluated bandwidth and the calculated C/N ratio are indicated beneath the diagram.
You can also query the determined carrier-to-noise ratio via the remote command
CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW:RES? CN or CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW:RES? CN0, see ​
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​POWer:​RESult?​ on page 494.
Softkeys for Carrier-to-Noise Ratio Measurements
C/N, C/No....................................................................................................................110
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└
└
└
└
C/N................................................................................................................110
C/No..............................................................................................................110
Channel Bandwidth ......................................................................................110
Adjust Settings .............................................................................................110
C/N, C/No
Opens a submenu to configure the carrier/noise ratio measurement. Measurements
without (C/N) and measurements with reference to the bandwidth (C/No) are possible.
Carrier-to-noise measurements are not available in zero span mode.
For general information on performing carrier-to-noise ratio measurements see ​chapter 3.1.1.3, "Measuring the Carrier-to-Noise Ratio", on page 108.
C/N ← C/N, C/No
Switches the measurement of the carrier/noise ratio on or off. If no marker is active,
marker 1 is activated.
The measurement is performed on the trace that marker 1 is assigned to. To shift marker
1 and measure another trace, use the ​Marker to Trace softkey in the "Marker To" menu.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​POWer:​SELect​ on page 493
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​POWer:​RESult?​ on page 494
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​POWer[:​STATe]​ on page 497
C/No ← C/N, C/No
Switches the measurement of the carrier/noise ratio with reference to a 1 Hz bandwidth
on or off. If no marker is active, marker 1 is activated.
The measurement is performed on the trace that marker 1 is assigned to. To shift marker
1 and measure another trace, use the ​Marker to Trace softkey in the "Marker To" menu.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​POWer:​SELect​ on page 493
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​POWer:​RESult?​ on page 494
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​POWer[:​STATe]​ on page 497
Channel Bandwidth ← C/N, C/No
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the measurement channel bandwidth for each channel.
The default setting is 14 kHz.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]POWer:​ACHannel:​ACPairs​ on page 503
Adjust Settings ← C/N, C/No
Enables the RMS detector (see also ​chapter 3.3.1.5, "Detector Overview",
on page 256) and adjusts the span to the selected channel bandwidth according to:
"4 x channel bandwidth + measurement margin"
The adjustment is performed once; if necessary, the setting can be changed later on.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]POWer:​ACHannel:​PRESet​ on page 499
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3.1.1.4
Measuring the Occupied Bandwidth
An important characteristic of a modulated signal is its occupied bandwidth. In a radio
communications system for instance the occupied bandwidth must be limited to enable
distortion-free transmission in adjacent channels. The occupied bandwidth is defined as
the bandwidth containing a defined percentage of the total transmitted power. A percentage between 10 % and 99.9 % can be set.
The measurement principle is the following: The bandwidth containing 99% of the signal
power is to be determined, for example. The routine first calculates the total power of all
displayed points of the trace. In the next step, the points from the right edge of the trace
are summed up until 0.5 % of the total power is reached. Auxiliary marker 1 is positioned
at the corresponding frequency. Then the points from the left edge of the trace are summed up until 0.5 % of the power is reached. Auxiliary marker 2 is positioned at this point.
99 % of the power is now between the two markers. The distance between the two frequency markers is the occupied bandwidth which is displayed in the marker field.
To ensure correct power measurement, especially for noise signals, and to obtain the
correct occupied bandwidth, the following prerequisites and settings are necessary:
●
Only the signal to be measured is displayed on the screen. An additional signal would
falsify the measurement.
●
RBW << occupied bandwidth
(approx. 1/20 of occupied bandwidth, for voice communication type 300 Hz or 1 kHz)
●
VBW ≥ 3 x RBW
●
RMS detector
●
Span ≥ 2 to 3 x occupied bandwidth
Some of the measurement specifications (e.g. PDC, RCR STD-27B) require measurement of the occupied bandwidth using a peak detector. The detector setting of the
R&S ESR has to be changed accordingly then.
A remote control programming example is described in ​chapter 8.15.5, "Occupied Bandwidth Measurement", on page 758.
To determine the occupied bandwidth
1. Press the ​OBW softkey to activate the measurement of the occupied bandwidth.
The corresponding submenu is displayed.
2. Press the "% Power Bandwidth" softkey to enter the percentage of power (see ​"%
Power Bandwidth (span > 0)" on page 112).
3. To change the channel bandwidth for the transmission channel, press the "Channel
Bandwidth" softkey (see ​"Channel Bandwidth (span > 0)" on page 113).
4. To optimize the settings for the selected channel configuration, press the ​Adjust Settings softkey. For details see also ​"Optimized Settings for CP/ACLR Test Parameters" on page 106.
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5. To adjust the reference level to the measured total power after the first sweep, press
the ​Adjust Ref Lvl softkey.
Measurement results
As a result of the OBW measurement the occupied bandwidth ("Occ BW") is indicated in
the marker results. Furthermore, the marker at the center frequency and the temporary
markers are indicated.
The OBW calculation is repeated if the ​Search Limits are changed, without performing a
new sweep. Thus, the OBW for a multi-carrier signal can be determined using only one
sweep.
The determined occupied bandwidth can also be queried using the remote command
CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW:RES? OBW or CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW:RES? AOBW. While
the OBW parameter returns only the occupied bandwidth, the AOBW parameter also returns
the position and level of the temporary markers T1 and T2 used to calculate the occupied
bandwidth.
Softkeys for Occupied Bandwidth (OBW) Measurements
OBW............................................................................................................................112
└ % Power Bandwidth (span > 0)....................................................................112
└ Channel Bandwidth (span > 0).....................................................................113
└ Adjust Ref Lvl (span > 0)..............................................................................113
└ Adjust Settings..............................................................................................113
OBW
Activates measurement of the occupied bandwidth according to the current configuration
and opens a submenu to configure the measurement. The occupied bandwidth is displayed in the marker display field and marked on the trace by temporary markers. For
details see ​chapter 3.1.1.4, "Measuring the Occupied Bandwidth", on page 111.
This measurement is not available in zero span.
The measurement is performed on the trace with marker 1. In order to evaluate another
trace, marker 1 must be placed on another trace (see the ​Marker to Trace softkey in the
"Marker" menu).
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​POWer:​SELect​ on page 493
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​POWer:​RESult?​ on page 494
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​POWer[:​STATe]​ on page 497
% Power Bandwidth (span > 0) ← OBW
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the percentage of total power in the displayed frequency
range which defines the occupied bandwidth. Values from 10% to 99.9% are allowed.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]POWer:​BANDwidth|BWIDth​ on page 522
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Channel Bandwidth (span > 0) ← OBW
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the channel bandwidth for the transmission channel.
The specified channel bandwidth is used for optimization of the test parameters (for
details see ​"Optimized Settings for CP/ACLR Test Parameters" on page 106). The default
setting is 14 kHz.
For measurements in line with a specific transmission standard, the bandwidth specified
by the standard for the transmission channel must be entered.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]POWer:​ACHannel:​BANDwidth|BWIDth[:​CHANnel<channel>]​
on page 504
Adjust Ref Lvl (span > 0) ← OBW
Adjusts the reference level to the measured total power of the signal. the softkey is activated after the first sweep with active measurement of the occupied bandwidth has been
completed and the total power of the signal is thus known.
Adjusting the reference level ensures that the signal path will not be overloaded and the
dynamic range not limited by too low a reference level. Since the measurement bandwidth
for channel power measurements is significantly lower than the signal bandwidth, the
signal path may be overloaded although the trace is distinctly below the reference level.
If the measured channel power is equal to the reference level, the signal path cannot be
overloaded.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]POWer:​ACHannel:​PRESet:​RLEVel​ on page 499
Adjust Settings ← OBW
Automatically optimizes all instrument settings for the selected channel configuration
(channel bandwidth, channel spacing) within a specific frequency range (channel bandwidth). The adjustment is carried out only once. If necessary, the instrument settings can
be changed later.
For details on the settings of span, resolution bandwidth, video bandwidth, detector and
trace averaging see ​"Optimized Settings for CP/ACLR Test Parameters" on page 106.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]POWer:​ACHannel:​PRESet​ on page 499
3.1.1.5
Measuring with Spectrum Emission Masks
The Spectrum Emission Mask (SEM) measurement defines a measurement that monitors compliance with a spectral mask. The SEM measurement is used to measure the
excess emissions of a TX channel that would interfere to other channels or to other systems.
The SEM measurement of the base unit allows a flexible definition of all parameters in
the SEM measurement. It is performed using the ​Spectrum Emission Mask softkey in the
"Measurement" menu. Most parameters are defined in the "Sweep List" dialog box (see
​"Sweep List dialog box" on page 116). After a preset, the sweep list contains a set of
default ranges and parameters. For each range, you can change the parameters. For
information on other SEM settings, see the description of the corresponding softkeys (​
"Spectrum Emission Mask" on page 115).
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If you want a parameter set to be available permanently, you can create an XML file for
this configuration and, if necessary, export this file to another application (for details refer
to ​"Format Description of Spectrum Emission Mask XML Files" on page 133 and ​"ASCII
File Export Format (Spectrum Emission Mask)" on page 138).
Some predefined XML files are provided that contain ranges and parameters according
to the selected standard (see ​"Provided XML Files for the Spectrum Emission Mask
Measurement" on page 130).
In order to improve the performance of the FSV for spectrum emission mask measurements, a "Fast SEM" mode is available. For details see ​"Fast Spectrum Emission Mask
Measurements" on page 139.
Monitoring compliance of the spectrum is supported by a special limit check for SEM
measurements, see ​"Working with Limit Lines in SEM Measurements" on page 128.
A remote control programming example is described in ​chapter 8.15.12, "Spectrum
Emission Mask Measurement", on page 769.
Softkeys for Spectrum Emission Mask (SEM) Measurements....................................114
Result Evaluation........................................................................................................125
Ranges and Range Settings.......................................................................................127
Working with Limit Lines in SEM Measurements........................................................128
Provided XML Files for the Spectrum Emission Mask Measurement.........................130
Format Description of Spectrum Emission Mask XML Files.......................................133
ASCII File Export Format (Spectrum Emission Mask)................................................138
Fast Spectrum Emission Mask Measurements...........................................................139
Softkeys for Spectrum Emission Mask (SEM) Measurements
Spectrum Emission Mask............................................................................................115
└ Sweep List....................................................................................................116
└ Sweep List dialog box.........................................................................116
└ Range Start / Range Stop........................................................117
└ Fast SEM..................................................................................117
└ Filter Type.................................................................................117
└ RBW.........................................................................................117
└ VBW.........................................................................................117
└ Sweep Time Mode....................................................................118
└ Sweep Time..............................................................................118
└ Ref. Level.................................................................................118
└ RF Att. Mode............................................................................118
└ RF Attenuator...........................................................................118
└ Preamp.....................................................................................118
└ Transd. Factor..........................................................................118
└ Limit Check 1-4.........................................................................118
└ Abs Limit Start..........................................................................119
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└
└
└
└
└
└
└
└ Abs Limit Stop..........................................................................119
└ Rel Limit Start...........................................................................119
└ Rel Limit Stop...........................................................................119
└ Close Sweep List................................................................................119
└ Insert before Range............................................................................120
└ Insert after Range...............................................................................120
└ Delete Range......................................................................................120
└ Symmetric Setup................................................................................120
└ Edit Reference Range........................................................................120
List Evaluation...............................................................................................121
└ List Evaluation (On/Off)......................................................................121
└ Margin.................................................................................................122
└ Show Peaks........................................................................................122
└ Save Evaluation List...........................................................................122
└ ASCII File Export......................................................................122
└ Decim Sep................................................................................122
Edit Reference Range...................................................................................122
Edit Power Classes.......................................................................................123
└ Used Power Classes..........................................................................124
└ PMin/PMax.........................................................................................124
└ Sweep List..........................................................................................125
└ Add/Remove.......................................................................................125
Load Standard..............................................................................................125
Save As Standard.........................................................................................125
Meas Start/Stop............................................................................................125
Restore Standard Files.................................................................................125
Spectrum Emission Mask
Opens a submenu to configure the Spectrum Emission Mask measurement.
The Spectrum Emission Mask (SEM) measurement defines a measurement that monitors compliance with a spectral mask. The SEM measurement of the base unit allows a
flexible definition of all parameters in the SEM measurement.
For general information on performing SEM measurements, see ​chapter 3.1.1.5, "Measuring with Spectrum Emission Masks", on page 113.
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Remote command:
SENS:SWE:MODE ESP, see ​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​MODE​ on page 533
Sweep List ← Spectrum Emission Mask
Opens a submenu to edit the sweep list and displays the "Sweep List" dialog box.
Sweep List dialog box ← Sweep List ← Spectrum Emission Mask
After a preset, the sweep list contains a set of default ranges and parameters. For each
range, you can change the parameters listed below. To insert or delete ranges, use the
"Insert Before Range", "Insert After Range", "Delete Range" softkeys. The measurement
results are not updated during editing but on closing the dialog box ("Edit Sweep List/
Close Sweep List" softkey, see ​"Close Sweep List" on page 119).
The changes of the sweep list are only kept until you load another parameter set (by
pressing PRESET or by loading an XML file). If you want a parameter set to be available
permanently, create an XML file for this configuration (for details refer to ​"Format Description of Spectrum Emission Mask XML Files" on page 133).
If you load one of the provided XML files ("Load Standard" softkey, see ​"Load Standard" on page 125), the sweep list contains ranges and parameters according to the
selected standard. For further details refer also to ​"Provided XML Files for the Spectrum
Emission Mask Measurement" on page 130.
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Note: If you edit the sweep list, always follow the rules and consider the limitations
described in ​"Ranges and Range Settings" on page 127.
Range Start / Range Stop ← Sweep List dialog box ← Sweep List ← Spectrum
Emission Mask
Sets the start frequency/stop frequency of the selected range. Follow the rules described
in ​"Ranges and Range Settings" on page 127.
In order to change the start/stop frequency of the first/last range, select the appropriate
span with the SPAN key. If you set a span that is smaller than the overall span of the
ranges, the measurement includes only the ranges that lie within the defined span and
have a minimum span of 20 Hz. The first and last ranges are adapted to the given span
as long as the minimum span of 20 Hz is not violated.
Frequency values for each range have to be defined relative to the center frequency. The
reference range has to be centered on the center frequency. The minimum span of the
reference range is given by the current TX Bandwidth.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]ESPectrum:​RANGe<range>[:​FREQuency]:​STARt​ on page 536
​[SENSe:​]ESPectrum:​RANGe<range>[:​FREQuency]:​STOP​ on page 537
Fast SEM ← Sweep List dialog box ← Sweep List ← Spectrum Emission Mask
Activates "Fast SEM" mode for all ranges in the sweep list. For details see ​"Fast Spectrum
Emission Mask Measurements" on page 139.
Note: If "Fast SEM" mode is deactivated while ​Symmetric Setup mode is on, "Symmetrical Setup" mode is automatically also deactivated.
If "Fast SEM" mode is activated while "Symmetrical Setup" mode is on, not all range
settings can be set automatically.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]ESPectrum:​HighSPeed​ on page 534
Filter Type ← Sweep List dialog box ← Sweep List ← Spectrum Emission Mask
Sets the filter type for this range. For details on filters see also ​chapter 3.2.6.3, "Selecting
the Appropriate Filter Type", on page 223.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]ESPectrum:​RANGe<range>:​FILTer:​TYPE​ on page 536
RBW ← Sweep List dialog box ← Sweep List ← Spectrum Emission Mask
Sets the RBW value for this range.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]ESPectrum:​RANGe<range>:​BANDwidth[:​RESolution]​ on page 535
VBW ← Sweep List dialog box ← Sweep List ← Spectrum Emission Mask
Sets the VBW value for this range.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]ESPectrum:​RANGe<range>:​BANDwidth:​VIDeo​ on page 535
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Sweep Time Mode ← Sweep List dialog box ← Sweep List ← Spectrum Emission
Mask
Activates or deactivates the auto mode for the sweep time.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]ESPectrum:​RANGe<range>:​SWEep:​TIME:​AUTO​ on page 541
Sweep Time ← Sweep List dialog box ← Sweep List ← Spectrum Emission Mask
Sets the sweep time value for the range.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]ESPectrum:​RANGe<range>:​SWEep:​TIME​ on page 541
Ref. Level ← Sweep List dialog box ← Sweep List ← Spectrum Emission Mask
Sets the reference level for the range.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]ESPectrum:​RANGe<range>:​RLEVel​ on page 540
RF Att. Mode ← Sweep List dialog box ← Sweep List ← Spectrum Emission Mask
Activates or deactivates the auto mode for RF attenuation.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]ESPectrum:​RANGe<range>:​INPut:​ATTenuation:​AUTO​ on page 538
RF Attenuator ← Sweep List dialog box ← Sweep List ← Spectrum Emission Mask
Sets the attenuation value for that range.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]ESPectrum:​RANGe<range>:​INPut:​ATTenuation​ on page 537
Preamp ← Sweep List dialog box ← Sweep List ← Spectrum Emission Mask
Switches the preamplifier on or off.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]ESPectrum:​RANGe<range>:​INPut:​GAIN:​STATe​ on page 538
Transd. Factor ← Sweep List dialog box ← Sweep List ← Spectrum Emission Mask
Sets a transducer for the specified range. You can only choose a transducer that fulfills
the following conditions:
●
●
●
The transducer overlaps or equals the span of the range.
The x-axis is linear.
The unit is dB.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]ESPectrum:​RANGe<range>:​TRANsducer​ on page 541
Limit Check 1-4 ← Sweep List dialog box ← Sweep List ← Spectrum Emission Mask
Sets the type of limit check for all ranges.
For details on limit checks see ​"Working with Limit Lines in SEM Measurements"
on page 128.
For details on limit checks see the base unit description "Working with Lines in SEM".
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The limit state affects the availability of all limit settings (​"Abs Limit Start" on page 119, ​
"Abs Limit Stop" on page 119, ​"Rel Limit Start" on page 119, ​"Rel Limit Stop"
on page 119).
Depending on the number of active power classes (see "Power Class" dialog box), the
number of limits that can be set varies. Up to four limits are possible. The sweep list is
extended accordingly.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]ESPectrum:​RANGe<range>:​LIMit<source>:​STATe​ on page 540
​CALCulate<n>:​LIMit<k>:​FAIL?​ on page 492
Abs Limit Start ← Sweep List dialog box ← Sweep List ← Spectrum Emission Mask
Sets an absolute limit value at the start frequency of the range [dBm].
This parameter is only available if the limit check is set accordingly (see ​"Limit Check
1-4" on page 118).
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]ESPectrum:​RANGe<range>:​LIMit<source>:​ABSolute:​STARt​
on page 539
Abs Limit Stop ← Sweep List dialog box ← Sweep List ← Spectrum Emission Mask
Sets an absolute limit value at the stop frequency of the range [dBm].
This parameter is only available if the limit check is set accordingly (see ​"Limit Check
1-4" on page 118).
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]ESPectrum:​RANGe<range>:​LIMit<source>:​ABSolute:​STOP​
on page 539
Rel Limit Start ← Sweep List dialog box ← Sweep List ← Spectrum Emission Mask
Sets a relative limit value at the start frequency of the range [dBc].
This parameter is only available if the limit check is set accordingly (see ​"Limit Check
1-4" on page 118).
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]ESPectrum:​RANGe<range>:​LIMit<source>:​RELative:​STARt​
on page 539
Rel Limit Stop ← Sweep List dialog box ← Sweep List ← Spectrum Emission Mask
Sets a relative limit value at the stop frequency of the range [dBc].
This parameter is only available if the limit check is set accordingly (see ​"Sweep List
dialog box" on page 116).
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]ESPectrum:​RANGe<range>:​LIMit<source>:​RELative:​STOP​
on page 540
Close Sweep List ← Sweep List ← Spectrum Emission Mask
Closes the "Sweep List" dialog box and updates the measurement results.
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Insert before Range ← Sweep List ← Spectrum Emission Mask
Inserts a new range to the left of the currently focused range. The range numbers of the
currently focused range and all higher ranges are increased accordingly. The maximum
number of ranges is 20.
For further details refer to ​"Ranges and Range Settings" on page 127.
Remote command:
ESP:RANG3:INS BEF, see ​[SENSe:​]ESPectrum:​RANGe<range>:​INSert​
on page 538
Insert after Range ← Sweep List ← Spectrum Emission Mask
Inserts a new range to the right of the currently focused range. The range numbers of all
higher ranges are increased accordingly. The maximum number of ranges is 20.
For further details refer to ​"Ranges and Range Settings" on page 127.
Remote command:
ESP:RANG1:INS AFT, see ​[SENSe:​]ESPectrum:​RANGe<range>:​INSert​
on page 538
Delete Range ← Sweep List ← Spectrum Emission Mask
Deletes the currently focused range, if possible. The range numbers are updated accordingly. For further details refer to ​"Ranges and Range Settings" on page 127.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]ESPectrum:​RANGe<range>:​DELete​ on page 536
Symmetric Setup ← Sweep List ← Spectrum Emission Mask
If activated, the current sweep list configuration is changed to define a symmetrical setup
regarding the reference range. The number of ranges to the left of the reference range
is reflected to the right, i.e. any missing ranges on the right are inserted, while superfluous
ranges are removed. The values in the ranges to the right of the reference range are
adapted symmetrically to those in the left ranges.
Any changes to the range settings in active "Symmetric Setup" mode lead to symmetrical
changes in the other ranges (where possible). In particular, this means:
●
●
●
Inserting ranges: a symmetrical range is inserted on the other side of the reference
range
Deleting ranges: the symmetrical range on the other side of the reference range is
also deleted
Editing range settings: the settings in the symmetrical range are adapted accordingly
Note: If "Fast SEM" mode is deactivated while "Symmetric Setup" mode is on, "Sym
Setup" mode is automatically also deactivated.
If "Fast SEM" mode is activated while "Symmetric Setup" mode is on, not all range settings can be set automatically.
Edit Reference Range ← Sweep List ← Spectrum Emission Mask
Opens the "Reference Range" dialog box to edit the additional settings used for SEM
measurements.
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Two different power reference types are supported:
●
●
●
●
●
"Peak Power"
Measures the highest peak within the reference range.
"Channel Power"
Measures the channel power within the reference range (integral bandwidth method).
If the "Channel Power" reference power type is activated, the dialog box is extended
to define additional settings:
"Tx Bandwidth"
Defines the bandwidth used for measuring the channel power:
minimum span ≤ value ≤ span of reference range
"RRC Filter State"
Activates or deactivates the use of an RRC filter.
"RRC Filter Settings"
Sets the alpha value of the RRC filter. This window is only available if the RRC filter
is activated.
For further details refer to ​"Ranges and Range Settings" on page 127.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]ESPectrum:​RTYPe​ on page 543
​[SENSe:​]ESPectrum:​BWID​ on page 542
​[SENSe:​]ESPectrum:​FILTer[:​RRC][:​STATe]​ on page 543
​[SENSe:​]ESPectrum:​FILTer[:​RRC]:​ALPHa​ on page 542
List Evaluation ← Spectrum Emission Mask
Opens a submenu to edit the list evaluation settings.
List Evaluation (On/Off) ← List Evaluation ← Spectrum Emission Mask
Activates or deactivates the list evaluation.
Remote command:
Turning list evaluation on and off:
​CALCulate<n>:​PEAKsearch|PSEarch:​AUTO​ on page 530
Querying list evaluation results:
​TRACe<n>:​DATA​ on page 499
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Margin ← List Evaluation ← Spectrum Emission Mask
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the margin used for the limit check/peak search.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​PEAKsearch|PSEarch:​MARGin​ on page 457
Show Peaks ← List Evaluation ← Spectrum Emission Mask
In the diagram, marks all peaks with blue squares that have been listed during an active
list evaluation.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​ESPectrum:​PSEarch|:​PEAKsearch:​PSHow​ on page 548
Save Evaluation List ← List Evaluation ← Spectrum Emission Mask
Opens the "ASCII File Export Name" dialog box to save the result in ASCII format to a
specified file and directory. For further details refer also to the "ASCII File Export" softkey
(​"ASCII File Export" on page 122).
Remote command:
​MMEMory:​STORe<n>:​LIST​ on page 547
ASCII File Export ← Save Evaluation List ← List Evaluation ← Spectrum Emission
Mask
Opens the "ASCII File Export Name" dialog box and saves the active peak list in ASCII
format to the specified file and directory.
The file consists of the header containing important scaling parameters and a data section
containing the marker data. For details on an ASCII file see ​chapter 3.3.1.6, "ASCII File
Export Format", on page 257.
This format can be processed by spreadsheet calculation programs, e.g. MS-Excel. It is
necessary to define ';' as a separator for the data import. Different language versions of
evaluation programs may require a different handling of the decimal point. It is therefore
possible to select between separators '.' (decimal point) and ',' (comma) using the "Decim
Sep" softkey (see ​"Decim Sep" on page 62).
An example of an output file for Spectrum Emission Mask measurements is given in ​
"ASCII File Export Format (Spectrum Emission Mask)" on page 138.
Remote command:
​FORMat:​DEXPort:​DSEParator​ on page 616
​MMEMory:​STORe<n>:​LIST​ on page 547
Decim Sep ← Save Evaluation List ← List Evaluation ← Spectrum Emission Mask
Selects the decimal separator with floating-point numerals for the ASCII Trace export to
support evaluation programs (e.g. MS-Excel) in different languages. The values '.' (decimal point) and ',' (comma) can be set.
Remote command:
​FORMat:​DEXPort:​DSEParator​ on page 616
Edit Reference Range ← Spectrum Emission Mask
Opens the "Reference Range" dialog box to edit the additional settings used for SEM
measurements.
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Two different power reference types are supported:
●
●
●
●
●
"Peak Power"
Measures the highest peak within the reference range.
"Channel Power"
Measures the channel power within the reference range (integral bandwidth method).
If the "Channel Power" reference power type is activated, the dialog box is extended
to define additional settings:
"Tx Bandwidth"
Defines the bandwidth used for measuring the channel power:
minimum span ≤ value ≤ span of reference range
"RRC Filter State"
Activates or deactivates the use of an RRC filter.
"RRC Filter Settings"
Sets the alpha value of the RRC filter. This window is only available if the RRC filter
is activated.
For further details refer to ​"Ranges and Range Settings" on page 127.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]ESPectrum:​RTYPe​ on page 543
​[SENSe:​]ESPectrum:​BWID​ on page 542
​[SENSe:​]ESPectrum:​FILTer[:​RRC][:​STATe]​ on page 543
​[SENSe:​]ESPectrum:​FILTer[:​RRC]:​ALPHa​ on page 542
Edit Power Classes ← Spectrum Emission Mask
Opens a dialog box to modify the power class settings.
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Used Power Classes ← Edit Power Classes ← Spectrum Emission Mask
Choose the power classes to be used from this dropdown menu. It is only possible to
select either one of the defined power classes or all of the defined power classes together.
Only power classes for which limits are defined are available for selection.
If "All" is selected, the power class that corresponds to the currently measured power in
the reference range is used. The limits assigned to that power class are applied (see ​
"PMin/PMax" on page 124).
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​LIMit<k>:​ESPectrum:​PCLass<Class>[:​EXCLusive]​
on page 545
To define all limits in one step:
​CALCulate<n>:​LIMit<k>:​ESPectrum:​PCLass<Class>:​LIMit[:​STATe]​
on page 545
PMin/PMax ← Edit Power Classes ← Spectrum Emission Mask
Defines the level limits for each power class. The range always starts at -200 dBm (-INF)
and always stops at 200 dBm (+INF). These fields cannot be modified. If more than one
Power Class is defined, the value of "PMin" must be equal to the value of "PMax" of the
last Power Class and vice versa.
Note that the power level may be equal to the lower limit, but must be lower than the
upper limit:
Pmin≦P<Pmax
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​LIMit<k>:​ESPectrum:​PCLass<Class>:​MINimum​ on page 546
​CALCulate<n>:​LIMit<k>:​ESPectrum:​PCLass<Class>:​MAXimum​ on page 546
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Sweep List ← Edit Power Classes ← Spectrum Emission Mask
See ​"Sweep List" on page 116
Add/Remove ← Edit Power Classes ← Spectrum Emission Mask
Activates or deactivates power classes to be defined. Up to four power classes can be
defined. The number of active power classes affects the availability of the items of the
Used Power Classes dropdown menu.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​LIMit<k>:​ESPectrum:​PCLass<Class>[:​EXCLusive]​
on page 545
Load Standard ← Spectrum Emission Mask
Opens a dialog box to select an XML file which includes the desired standard specification. For details on the provided XML files refer to ​"Provided XML Files for the Spectrum
Emission Mask Measurement" on page 130.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]ESPectrum:​PRESet[:​STANdard]​ on page 532
Save As Standard ← Spectrum Emission Mask
Opens the "Save As Standard" dialog box, in which the currently used SEM settings and
parameters can be saved and exported into an *.xml file. Enter the name of the file in the
"File name" field. For details on the structure and contents of the XML file refer to ​"Format
Description of Spectrum Emission Mask XML Files" on page 133.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]ESPectrum:​PRESet:​STORe​ on page 532
Meas Start/Stop ← Spectrum Emission Mask
Aborts/restarts the current measurement and displays the status:
"Start"
The measurement is currently running.
"Stop"
The measurement has been stopped, or, in single sweep mode, the end
of the sweep has been reached.
Remote command:
​ABORt ​ on page 436
​INITiate<n>:​ESPectrum​ on page 533
Restore Standard Files ← Spectrum Emission Mask
Copies the XML files from the C:\R_S\instr\sem_backup folder to the C:
\R_S\instr\sem_std folder. Files of the same name are overwritten.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]ESPectrum:​PRESet:​RESTore​ on page 532
Result Evaluation
As a result of the Spectrum Emission Mask measurement, the measured signal levels,
the result of the limit check (mask monitoring) and the defined limit line are displayed in
a diagram (see also ​"Working with Limit Lines in SEM Measurements" on page 128).
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Furthermore, the TX channel power "P" is indicated in relation to the defined power class
ranges.
Example:
For example, "P<31" is indicated if the lowest power class is defined from infinity to 31
and the power is currently 17 dBm.
In addition to the graphical results of the SEM measurement displayed in the diagram, a
result table is displayed to evaluate the limit check results (see also ​"Working with Limit
Lines in SEM Measurements" on page 128).
The following information is provided in the result table:
Label
Description
General Information
Standard
Loaded standard settings
Tx Power
Tx channel power
Tx Bandwidth
Tx channel bandwidth
RBW
RBW for the Tx channel
Range results
Range Low
Frequency range start for range the peak value belongs to
Range Up
Frequency range stop for range the peak value belongs to
RBW
RBW of the range
Frequency
Frequency
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Label
Description
Power Abs
Absolute power level
Power Rel
Power level relative to the TX channel power
ΔLimit
Deviation of the power level from the defined limit
In which detail the data is displayed in the result table can be defined in the ​List Evaluation menu. By default, one peak per range is displayed. However, you can change the
settings to display only peaks that exceed a threshold ("Margin").
In addition to listing the peaks in the list evaluation, detected peaks can be indicated by
blue squares in the diagram ("Show Peaks").
Furthermore, you can save the evaluation list to a file ("Save Evaluation List").
Retrieving Results via Remote Control
The measurement results of the spectrum emission mask test can be retrieved using the
​CALCulate<n>:​LIMit<k>:​FAIL?​ command from a remote computer.
The power result for the reference range can be queried using
CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW:RES? CPOW, the peak power for the reference range using
CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW:RES? PPOW.
For details see ​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​POWer:​RESult?​
on page 494.
Ranges and Range Settings
In the Spectrum Emission Mask measurements, a range defines a segment for which
you can define the following parameters separately:
●
Start and stop frequency
●
RBW
●
VBW
●
Sweep time
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●
Sweep points
●
Reference level
●
Attenuator settings
●
Limit values
Via the sweep list, you define the ranges and their settings. For details on settings refer
to ​"Sweep List dialog box" on page 116.
For details on defining the limits (masks) see ​"Working with Limit Lines in SEM Measurements" on page 128.
For details on defining the limits (masks) see the base unit description "Working with
Lines in SEM".
The following rules apply to ranges:
●
The minimum span of a range is 20 Hz.
●
The individual ranges must not overlap (but need not directly follow one another).
●
The maximum number of ranges is 20.
●
A minimum of three ranges is mandatory.
●
The reference range cannot be deleted (it is marked in blue color).
●
The reference range has to be centered on the center frequency.
●
The minimum span of the reference range is given by the current TX Bandwidth.
●
Frequency values for each range have to be defined relative to the center frequency.
In order to change the start frequency of the first range or the stop frequency of the last
range, select the appropriate span with the SPAN key. If you set a span that is smaller
than the overall span of the ranges, the measurement includes only the ranges that lie
within the defined span and have a minimum span of 20 Hz. The first and last ranges are
adapted to the given span as long as the minimum span of 20 Hz is not violated.
Symmetrical ranges
You can easily define a sweep list with symmetrical range settings, i.e. the ranges to the
left and right of the center range are defined symmectrically. In the "Sweep List" menu,
select the "Symmetrical Setup" softkey to activate symmetrical setup mode. The current
sweep list configuration is changed to define a symmetrical setup regarding the reference
range. The number of ranges to the left of the reference range is reflected to the right,
i.e. any missing ranges on the right are inserted, while superfluous ranges are removed.
The values in the ranges to the right of the reference range are adapted symmetrically
to those in the left ranges.
For details see ​"Symmetric Setup" on page 120.
Symmetrical ranges fulfull the conditions required for "Fast SEM" mode (see ​"Fast Spectrum Emission Mask Measurements" on page 139).
Working with Limit Lines in SEM Measurements
Using the R&S ESR, the spectrum emission mask is defined using limit lines. Limit lines
allow you to check the measured data against specified limit values. Generally, it is possible to define limit lines for any measurement in Spectrum mode using the LINES key.
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For SEM measurements, however, special limit lines are available via the "Sweep List",
and it is strongly recommended that you use only these limit line definitions.
In the "Sweep List" you can define a limit line for each power class that varies its level
according to the specified frequency ranges. Distinguished limit lines
("_SEM_LINE_ABS<0...3>"/"_SEM_LINE_REL<0...3>") are automatically defined for
each power class according to the current "Sweep List" settings every time the settings
change.
The limit line defined for the current power class is indicated by a red line in the display,
and the result of the limit check is indicated at the top of the diagram. Note that only
"Pass" or "Fail" is indicated; a "margin" function as for general limit lines is not available.
The indicated limit line depends on the settings in the "Sweep List". Several types of limit
checks are possible:
Limit check type
Pass/fail criteria
Absolute
Absolute power levels may not exceed Defined by the "Abs Limit Start"/ "Abs Limit
limit line
Stop" values for each range
Relative
Power deviations relative to the TX
channel power may not exceed limit
line
Defined by the "Rel Limit Start"/ "Rel Limit
Stop" values (relative to the center frequency)
for each range
Abs and Rel
Only if the power exceeds both the
absolute and the relative limits, the
check fails.
The less strict (higher) limit line is displayed for
each range.
Abs or Rel
If the power exceeds either the abso- The stricter (lower) limit line is displayed for
lute or the relative limits, the check
each range.
fails.
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The largest deviations of the power from the limit line for each range are displayed in the
evaluation list. Furthermore, the absolute powers for those values, as well as the relative
deviation from the TX channel power are displayed. Values that exceed the limit are
indicated in red and by an asterisk (*).
Although a margin functionality is not available for the limit check, a margin (threshold)
for the peak values to be displayed in the evaluation list can be defined in the list evaluation settings. For details see ​"Result Evaluation" on page 125.
Provided XML Files for the Spectrum Emission Mask Measurement
You can change the settings manually or via XML files. The XML files offer a quick way
to change the configuration. A set of ready-made XML files for different standards is
already provided. For details see ​table 3-1. You can also create and use your own XML
files (for details see ​"Format Description of Spectrum Emission Mask XML Files"
on page 133). All XML files are stored under "C:\r_s\instr\sem_std". Use the "Load
Standard" softkey for quick access to the available XML files (see ​"Load Standard"
on page 125).
Table 3-1: Provided XML files
Path
XML file name
Displayed standard characteristics*
cdma2000\DL
default0.xml
CDMA2000 BC0 DL
default1.xml
CDMA2000 BC1 DL
default0.xml
CDMA2000 BC0 UL
default1.xml
CDMA2000 BC1 UL
PowerClass_31_39.xml
W-CDMA 3GPP (31,39)dBm DL
cdma2000\UL
WCDMA\3GPP\DL
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Path
XML file name
Displayed standard characteristics*
PowerClass_39_43.xml
W-CDMA 3GPP (39,43)dBm DL
PowerClass_43_INF.xml
W-CDMA 3GPP (43,INF)dBm DL
PowerClass_negINF_31.xml
W-CDMA 3GPP (-INF,31)dBm
DL
PowerClass_29_40.xml
WiBro TTA (29,40)dBm DL
PowerClass_40_INF.xml
WiBro TTA (40,INF)dBm DL
PowerClass_negINF_29.xml
WiBro TTA (-INF,29)dBm DL
PowerClass_23_INF.xml
WiBro TTA (23,INF)dBm UL
PowerClass_negINF_23.xml
WiBro TTA (23,INF)dBm UL
System_Type_E.xml
WIMAX System Type E DL
System_Type_F.xml
WIMAX System Type F DL
System_Type_G.xml
WIMAX System Type G DL
10MHz.xml
WIMAX 10MHz DL
20MHz.xml
WIMAX 20MHz DL
System_Type_E.xml
WIMAX System Type E UL
System_Type_F.xml
WIMAX System Type F UL
System_Type_G.xml
WIMAX System Type G UL
10MHz.xml
WIMAX 10MHz UL
20MHz.xml
WIMAX 20MHz UL
ETSI.xml
IEEE 802.11
IEEE.xml
IEEE 802.11
ETSI.xml
IEEE 802.11a
IEEE.xml
IEEE 802.11a
WLAN\802_11b
IEEE.xml
IEEE 802.11b
WLAN\802_11j_10MHz
ETSI.xml
IEEE.802.11j
IEEE.xml
IEEE.802.11j
ETSI.xml
IEEE 802.11j
IEEE.xml
IEEE 802.11j
WIBRO\DL
WIBRO\UL
WIMAX\DL\ETSI\…MHz (1.75
MHz, 2.00 MHz, 3.5 MHz, 7.00
MHz, 14.00 MHz, 28 MHz)
WIMAX\DL\IEEE
WIMAX\UL\ETSI…MHz (1.75
MHz, 2.00 MHz, 3.5 MHz, 7.00
MHz, 14.00 MHz, 28 MHz)
WIMAX\UL\IEEE
WLAN\802_11_TURBO
WLAN\802_11a
WLAN\802_11j_20MHz
EUTRA-LTE\DL\CategoryA\
BW_01_4_MHz__CFhigher1GHz.xm LTE Cat. A >1GHz DL
l
EUTRA-LTE\DL\CategoryA\
BW_01_4_MHz__CFlower1GHz.xml
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Path
XML file name
Displayed standard characteristics*
EUTRA-LTE\DL\CategoryA\
BW_03_0_MHz__CFhigher1GHz.xm LTE Cat. A >1GHz DL
l
EUTRA-LTE\DL\CategoryA\
BW_03_0_MHz__CFlower1GHz.xml
EUTRA-LTE\DL\CategoryA\
BW_05_0_MHz__CFhigher1GHz.xm LTE Cat. A >1GHz DL
l
EUTRA-LTE\DL\CategoryA\
BW_05_0_MHz__CFlower1GHz.xml
LTE Cat. A <1GHz DL
EUTRA-LTE\DL\CategoryA\
BW_10_0_MHz__Cfhigher1GHz.xml
LTE Cat. A >1GHz DL
EUTRA-LTE\DL\CategoryA\
BW_10_0_MHz__Cflower1GHz.xml
LTE Cat. A >1GHz DL
EUTRA-LTE\DL\CategoryA\
BW_15_0_MHz__CFhigher1GHz.xm LTE Cat. A >1GHz DL
l
EUTRA-LTE\DL\CategoryA\
BW_15_0_MHz__CFlower1GHz.xml
EUTRA-LTE\DL\CategoryA\
BW_20_0_MHz__CFhigher1GHz.xm LTE Cat. A >1GHz DL
l
EUTRA-LTE\DL\CategoryA\
BW_20_0_MHz__CFlower1GHz.xml
EUTRA-LTE\DL\CategoryB\
BW_01_4_MHz__CFhigher1GHz.xm LTE Cat. B >1GHz DL
l
EUTRA-LTE\DL\CategoryB\
BW_01_4_MHz__CFlower1GHz.xml
EUTRA-LTE\DL\CategoryB\
BW_03_0_MHz__CFhigher1GHz.xm LTE Cat. B >1GHz DL
l
EUTRA-LTE\DL\CategoryB\
BW_03_0_MHz__CFlower1GHz.xml
EUTRA-LTE\DL\CategoryB\
BW_05_0_MHz__CFhigher1GHz.xm LTE Cat. B >1GHz DL
l
EUTRA-LTE\DL\CategoryB\
BW_05_0_MHz__CFlower1GHz.xml
LTE Cat. B <1GHz DL
EUTRA-LTE\DL\CategoryB\
BW_10_0_MHz__Cfhigher1GHz.xml
LTE Cat. B >1GHz DL
EUTRA-LTE\DL\CategoryB\
BW_10_0_MHz__Cflower1GHz.xml
LTE Cat. B >1GHz DL
EUTRA-LTE\DL\CategoryB\
BW_15_0_MHz__CFhigher1GHz.xm LTE Cat. B >1GHz DL
l
EUTRA-LTE\DL\CategoryB\
BW_15_0_MHz__CFlower1GHz.xml
EUTRA-LTE\DL\CategoryB\
BW_20_0_MHz__CFhigher1GHz.xm LTE Cat. B >1GHz DL
l
EUTRA-LTE\DL\CategoryB\
BW_20_0_MHz__CFlower1GHz.xml
LTE Cat. B <1GHz DL
EUTRA-LTE\UL\Standard\
BW_05_0_MHz.xml
LTE UL
EUTRA-LTE\UL\Standard\
BW_10_0_MHz.xml
LTE UL
EUTRA-LTE\UL\Standard\
BW_15_0_MHz.xml
LTE UL
EUTRA-LTE\UL\Standard\
BW_20_0_MHz.xml
LTE UL
LTE Cat. A <1GHz DL
LTE Cat. A <1GHz DL
LTE Cat. A <1GHz DL
LTE Cat. B <1GHz DL
LTE Cat. B <1GHz DL
LTE Cat. B <1GHz DL
*Used abbreviations:
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BC: band class
UL: uplink
DL: downlink
TTA: Telecommunications Technology Association
Format Description of Spectrum Emission Mask XML Files
The files for importing range settings are in XML format and therefore obey the rules of
the XML standard. Below, the child nodes, attributes, and structure defined for the data
import is described. Build your own XML files according to these conventions because
the R&S ESR can only interpret XML files of a known structure. For example files look in
the C:\r_s\instr\sem_std directory.
Fig. 3-5: Example Spectrum emission mask standard file (PowerClass_39_43.xml)
Be sure to follow the structure exactly as shown below or else the R&S ESR is not able
to interpret the XML file and error messages are shown on the screen. Therefore, we
recommend you make a copy of an existing file (see ​Save As Standard softkey) and edit
the copy of the file.
Alternatively, edit the settings using the "Spectrum Emission Mask" softkey and the ​
Sweep List dialog box and save the XML file with the ​Save As Standard softkey afterwards. This way, no modifications have to be done in the XML file itself.
Basically, the file consists of three elements that can be defined:
●
The "BaseFormat" element
●
The "PowerClass" element
●
The "Range" element
The "BaseFormat" element
It carries information about basic settings. In this element only the "ReferencePower"
child node has any effects on the measurement itself. The other attributes and child nodes
are used to display information about the Spectrum Emission Mask Standard on the
measurement screen. The child nodes and attributes of this element are shown in ​
table 3-2.
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In the example above (PowerClass_39_43.xml under
C:\r_s\instr\sem_std\WCDMA\3GPP, see ​figure 3-5), these attributes are defined
as follows:
●
Standard="W-CDMA 3GPP"
●
LinkDirection="DL"
●
PowerClass="(39,43)dBm"
The "PowerClass" element
It is embedded in the "BaseFormat" element and contains settings information about the
power classes. Up to four different power classes can be defined. For details refer to the
"Sweep List" softkey (​"Sweep List" on page 116) and the corresponding parameter
description. The child nodes and attributes of this element are shown in ​table 3-3.
The "Range" element
This element is embedded in the "PowerClass" element. It contains the settings information of the range. There have to be at least three defined ranges: one reference range
and at least one range to either side of the reference range. The maximum number of
ranges is 20. Note that the R&S ESR uses the same ranges in each power class. Therefore, the contents of the ranges of each defined power class have to be identical to the
first power class. An exception are the Start and Stop values of the two Limit nodes that
are used to determine the power class. Note also, that there are two Limit nodes to be
defined: one that gives the limit in absolute values and one in relative values. Make sure
units for the Start and Stop nodes are identical for each Limit node.
For details refer to the "Sweep List" softkey (​"Sweep List" on page 116) and the corresponding parameter description. The child nodes and attributes of this element are shown
in ​table 3-4.
The following tables show the child nodes and attributes of each element and show if a
child node or attribute is mandatory for the R&S ESR to interpret the file or not. Since the
hierarchy of the XML can not be seen in the tables, either view one of the default files
already stored on the R&S ESR in the "C:\r_s\instr\sem_std" directory or check
the structure as shown below.
Below, a basic example of the structure of the file is shown, containing all mandatory
attributes and child nodes. Note that the "PowerClass" element and the range element
are themselves elements of the "BaseFormat" element and are to be inserted where
noted. The separation is done here simply for reasons of a better overview. Also, no
example values are given here to allow a quick reference to the tables above. Italic font
shows the placeholders for the values.
●
The "BaseFormat" element is structured as follows:
– <RS_SEM_ACP_FileFormat Version=""1.0.0.0"">
<Name>"Standard"</Name>
<Instrument>
<Type>"Instrument Type"</Type>
<Application>"Application"</Application>
</Instrument>
<LinkDirection Name=""Name"">
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<ReferencePower>
<Method>"Method"</Method>
</ReferencePower>
<PowerClass Index=""n"">
<!-- For contents of the PowerClass node see
​table 3-3 -->
<!-- Define up to four PowerClass nodes -->
</PowerClass>
</LinkDirection>
</RS_SEM_ACP_File>
●
The "PowerClass" element is structured as follows:
– <PowerClass Index=""n"">
<StartPower Unit=""dBm"" InclusiveFlag=""true"" Value=""StartPowerValue""/>
<StopPower Unit=""dBm"" InclusiveFlag=""false"" Value=""StopPowerValue""/>
<DefaultLimitFailMode>"Limit Fail Mode"</DefaultLimitFailMode>
<Range Index=""n"">
<!-- For contents of the Range node see ​table 3-4 -->
<!-- Define up to twenty Range nodes -->
</Range>
…
</PowerClass>
●
The "Range" element is structured as follows:
– <Range Index=""n"">
<Name=""Name"">
<ChannelType>"Channel Type"</Channel Type>
<WeightingFilter>
<Type>"FilterType"</Type>
<RollOffFactor>"Factor"</RollOffFactor>
<Bandwith>"Bandwidth"</Bandwidth>
</WeightingFilter>
<FrequencyRange>
<Start>"RangeStart"</Start>
<Stop>"RangeStop"</Stop>
</FrequencyRange>
<Limit>
<Start Unit=""Unit"" Value=""Value""/>
<Stop Unit=""Unit"" Value=""Value""/>
</Limit>
<Limit>
<Start Unit=""Unit"" Value=""Value""/>
<Stop Unit=""Unit"" Value=""Value""/>
</Limit>
<RBW Bandwidth=""Bandwidth"" Type=""FilterType""/>
<VBW Bandwidth=""Bandwidth""/>
<Detector>"Detector"</Detector>
<Sweep Mode=""SweepMode"" Time=""SweepTime""/>
<Amplitude>
<ReferenceLevel Unit=""dBm"" Value=""Value""/>
<RFAttenuation Mode=""Auto"" Unit=""dB"" Value=""Value""/>
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<Preamplifier State=""State""/>
</Amplitude>
</Range>
Table 3-2: Attributes and child nodes of the BaseFormat element
Child Node
Attribute
Value
FileFormatVersion
1.0.0.0
Date
YYYY-MM-DD
HH:MM:SS
Date in ISO 8601 format
No
<string>
Name of the standard
Yes
Type
FSL
Name of the instrument
No
Application
SA | K72 | K82
Name of the application
No
Name
Downlink | Uplink |
None
Yes
ShortName
DL | UL
No
Name
Instrument
LinkDirection
Parameter Description
Yes
ReferencePower
Method
Mand.
Yes
TX Channel Power |
Yes
TX Channel Peak
Power
ReferenceChannel
<string>
No
Table 3-3: Attributes and child nodes of the PowerClass element
Child Node
Attribute
Value
Parameter Description
StartPower
Value
<power in dBm>
The start power must be equal Yes
to the stop power of the previous power class. The StartPower value of the first range is
-200
Unit
dBm
Yes
InclusiveFlag
true
Yes
Value
<power in dBm>
Unit
dBm
InclusiveFlag
false
Yes
Absolute | Relative |
Absolute and Relative | Absolute or
Relative
Yes
StopPower
DefaultLimitFailMode
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to the start power of the next
power class. The StopPower
value of the last range is 200
Mand.
Yes
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Table 3-4: Attributes and child nodes of the Range element (normal ranges)
Child Node
Attribute
Value
Parameter Description
Mand.
Index
0…19
Inde XE s are continuous
and have to start with 0
Yes
Name
<string>
Name of the range
Only if ReferenceChannel contains a name and
the range is the
reference range
ShortName
<string>
Short name of the range
No
ChannelType
TX | Adjacent
Yes
WeightingFilter
Only if ReferencePower method
is TX Channel
Power and the
range is the reference range
Type
RRC | CFilter
Type of the weighting filter
Yes
Roll Off Factor
0…1
Excess bandwidth of the filter
Only if the filter
type is RRC
Bandwidth
<bandwidth in Hz>
Filter bandwidth
Only if the filter
type is RRC
FrequencyRange
Yes
Start
<frequency in Hz>
Start value of the range
Yes
Stop
<frequency in Hz>
Stop value of the range
Yes
Limit
dBm/Hz | dBm | dBc A Range must contain
Yes
| dBr | dB
exactly two limit nodes; one
of the limit nodes has to have
a relative unit (e.g. dBc), the
other one must have an
absolute unit (e.g. dBm)
Start
Stop
Value
<numeric_value>
Unit
dBm/Hz | dBm | dBc Sets the unit of the start
| dBr | dB
value
Value
<numeric_value>
Unit
dBm/Hz | dBm | dBc Sets the unit of the stop value
| dBr | dB
LimitFailMode
RBW
VBW
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Power limit at stop frequency
Absolute | Relative | If used, it has to be identical
Absolute and Rela- to DefaultLimitFailMode
tive | Absolute or
Relative
Bandwidth
<bandwidth in Hz>
Type
NORM | PULS |
CFIL | RRC
Bandwidth
<bandwidth in Hz>
​"RBW" on page 117
No
Yes
No
​"VBW" on page 117
Yes
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Child Node
Attribute
Detector
Sweep
Value
Parameter Description
NEG | POS | SAMP If used, it has to be identical
| RMS | AVER |
in all ranges.
QUAS
RFAttenuation
No
Mode
Manual | Auto
​"Sweep Time Mode"
on page 118
Yes
Time
<time in sec>
​"Sweep Time" on page 118
No
Amplitude
ReferenceLevel
Mand.
No
Value
<power in dBm>
​"Ref. Level" on page 118
Yes, if the ReferenceLevel child
node is used
Unit
dBm
Defines dBm as unit
Yes, if the ReferenceLevel node
is used
Mode
Manual | Auto
​"RF Att. Mode" on page 118
Yes, if the ReferenceLevel child
node is used
ON | OFF
​"Preamp" on page 118
Yes
Preamplifier
ASCII File Export Format (Spectrum Emission Mask)
The first part of the file lists information about the signal analyzer and the general setup.
For a detailed description refer to ​chapter 3.3.1.6, "ASCII File Export Format",
on page 257.
File contents
Description
RefType; CPOWER;
reference range setup, for details see ​"Edit Reference Range" on page 120
TxBandwidth;9540000;Hz
Filter State; ON;
Alpha;0.22;
PeaksPerRange;1;
evaluation list information
Values;4;
0;-22500000;-9270000;1000000;2986455000;-74.762840
270996094;
information about each peak:
-10.576210021972656;-45.762840270996094;PASS;
<start frequency>;
1;-9270000;-4770000;100000;2991405000;-100.1769561
7675781;
<stop frequency>;
-35.990325927734375;-1.490325927734375;PASS
3;4770000;9270000;100000;3005445000;-100.17695617
675781;
<range number>;
<resolution bandwidth of range>;
<frequency of peak>;
<absolute power in dBm of peak>;
-35.990325927734375;-1.490325927734375;PASS;
<relative power in dBc of peak
4;9270000;22500000;1000000;3018225000;-74.7628402
70996094;
(related to the channel power)>;
-10.576210021972656;-45.762840270996094;PASS;
(positive value means above the limit)>;
<distance to the limit line in dB
<limit fail (pass = 0, fail =1)>;
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Fast Spectrum Emission Mask Measurements
In order to improve the performance of the R&S ESR for spectrum emission mask measurements, a "Fast SEM" mode is available. If this mode is activated, several consecutive
ranges with identical sweep settings are combined to one sweep internally, which makes
the measurement considerably more efficient. The displayed results remain unchanged
and still consist of several ranges. Thus, measurement settings that apply only to the
results, such as limits or transducer factors, can nevertheless be defined individually for
each range.
Prerequisites
"Fast SEM" mode is available if the following criteria apply:
●
The frequency ranges are consecutive, without frequency gaps
●
The following sweep settings are identical:
– "Filter Type", see ​"Filter Type" on page 117
–
"RBW", see ​"RBW" on page 117
–
"VBW", see ​"VBW" on page 117
–
"Sweep Time Mode", see ​"Sweep Time Mode" on page 118
–
"Ref Level", see ​"Ref. Level" on page 118
–
"Rf Att. Mode", see ​"RF Att. Mode" on page 118
–
"RF Attenuator", see ​"RF Att. Mode" on page 118
–
"Preamp", see ​"Preamp" on page 118
Activating Fast SEM mode
"Fast SEM" mode is activated in the sweep list (see ​"Fast SEM" on page 117) or using
a remote command. Activating the mode for one range automatically activates it for all
ranges in the sweep list.
In the provided XML files for the Spectrum Emission Mask measurement, "Fast SEM"
mode is activated by default.
SCPI command:
​[SENSe:​]ESPectrum:​HighSPeed​ on page 534
Consequences
When the "Fast SEM" mode is activated, the ranges for which these criteria apply are
displayed as one single range. The sweep time is defined as the sum of the individual
sweep times, initially, but can be changed. When the "Fast SEM" mode is deactivated,
the originally defined individual sweep times are reset.
If "Symmetrical Setup" mode is active when "Fast SEM" mode is activated, not all sweep
list settings can be configured symmetrically automatically (see also ​"Symmetric
Setup" on page 120).
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Any other changes to the sweep settings of the combined range are applied to each
included range and remain changed even after deactivating "Fast SEM" mode.
Example
Fig. 3-6: Sweep list using Fast SEM mode
In ​figure 3-6, a sweep list is shown for which Fast SEM is activated. The formerly 5
separately defined ranges are combined to 2 sweep ranges internally.
3.1.1.6
Measuring Spurious Emissions
The Spurious Emissions measurement defines a measurement that monitors unwanted
RF products outside the assigned frequency band generated by an amplifier. The spurious emissions are usually measured across a wide frequency range. The Spurious Emissions measurement allows a flexible definition of all parameters. A result table indicates
the largest deviations of the absolute power from the limit line for each range, and the
results can be checked against defined limits automatically.
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Spurious Emissions measurements are performed using the "Spurious Emissions" softkey in the "Measurement" menu (see ​"Spurious Emissions" on page 146).
Most parameters are defined in the "Sweep List" dialog box (see ​"Sweep List dialog
box" on page 146). For information on other parameters, see the corresponding softkeys
(​"Spurious Emissions" on page 146).
Conditions for ranges
The following rules apply to ranges:
●
The minimum span of a range is 20 Hz.
●
The individual ranges must not overlap (but need not directly follow one another).
●
The maximum number of ranges is 20.
●
The maximum number of sweep points in all ranges is limited to 100001.
In order to change the start/stop frequency of the first/last range, select the appropriate
span with the SPAN key. If you set a span that is smaller than the overall span of the
ranges, the measurement includes only the ranges that lie within the defined span and
have a minimum span of 20 Hz. The first and last ranges are adapted to the given span
as long as the minimum span of 20 Hz is not violated.
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Defining ranges by remote control
In Spurious Emissions measurements, there are no remote commands to insert new
ranges between existing ranges directly. However, you can delete or re-define the existing ranges to create the required order.
A remote command example for defining parameters and ranges in spurious emissions
measurements can be found in chapter 7 "Remote Control – Programming Examples" of
the Operating manual on the CD-ROM.
Result Evaluation
In addition to the graphical results of the spurious measurement displayed in the diagram,
a result table can be displayed to evaluate the limit check results (see also ​"Working with
Limit Lines in Spurious Measurements" on page 143). Which data is displayed in the
evaluation list can be defined in the "List Evaluation" menu (see ​"List Evaluation"
on page 149).
The following information is provided in the evaluation list:
Column
Description
Range Low
Frequency range start for range the peak value
belongs to
Range Up
Frequency range stop for range the peak value
belongs to
RBW
RBW of the range
Frequency
Frequency at the peak value
Power Abs
Absolute power level at the peak value
ΔLimit
Deviation of the absolute power level from the defined
limit for the peak value
By default, one peak per range is displayed. However, you can change the settings to:
●
Display all peaks ("Details ON")
●
Display a certain number of peaks per range ("Details ON" + "Peaks per Range")
●
Display only peaks that exceed a threshold ("Margin")
In addition to listing the peaks in the list evaluation, detected peaks can be indicated by
blue squares in the diagram ("Show Peaks").
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Furthermore, you can save the evaluation list to a file ("Save Evaluation List").
Retrieving Results via Remote Control
The spurious measurement results can be retrieved using the CALC:PSE? command
from a remote computer (see ​CALCulate<n>:​PEAKsearch|PSEarch[:​
IMMediate]​ for a detailed description).
In addition, the ​TRACe<n>:​DATA​ command queries the trace data. In case of spurious
emission measurements, the trace data is the power levels that have been measured for
each sweep point (max. 691).
Working with Limit Lines in Spurious Measurements
Limit lines allow you to check the measured data against specified limit values. Generally,
it is possible to define limit lines for any measurement in Spectrum mode using the
LINES key. For Spurious measurements, however, a special limit line is available via the
"Sweep List", and it is strongly recommended that you use only this limit line definition.
In the "Sweep List" you can define a limit line that varies its level according to the specified
frequency ranges. A distinguished limit line ("_SPURIOUS_LINE_ABS") is automatically
defined according to the current "Sweep List" settings every time the settings change.
If a limit check is activated in the "Sweep List", the "_SPURIOUS_LINE_ABS" limit line
is indicated by a red line in the display, and the result of the limit check is indicated at the
top of the diagram. Note that only "Pass" or "Fail" is indicated; a "margin" function as for
general limit lines is not available. Also, only absolute limits can be checked, not relative
ones.
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As for general limit lines, the results of each limit line check are displayed (here: "_SPURIOUS_LINE_ABS"), as well as the combined result for all defined limit lines ("Limit
Check").
In addition to the limit line itself, the largest deviations of the absolute power from the limit
line for each range are displayed in the evaluation list if the limit check is activated. Values
that exceed the limit are indicated in red and by an asterisk (*).
Although a margin functionality is not available for the limit check, a margin (threshold)
for the peak values to be displayed in the evaluation list can be defined in the list evaluation settings. Furthermore, you can define how many peaks per range are listed. For
details see ​"Result Evaluation" on page 142.
To define a limit check for spurious measurements
The limit check is defined in the "Sweep List" dialog box, see ​"Sweep List dialog box"
on page 146 for details.
1. Press the MEAS CONFIG key to open the main "Spurious" menu.
2. Press the "Sweep List" softkey to open the "Sweep List" dialog box.
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3. In the "Sweep List" dialog box, define the limit line for each range using the "Abs Limit
Start" and "Abs Limit Stop" settings.
The limit values are absolute values for the absolute power level.
4. Set the "Limit Check" setting to "Absolute" to activate the limit check.
5. Close the "Sweep List" dialog box.
The limit line and the result of the limit check are displayed in the diagram and the
result table displays the largest deviations from the limit for each range.
6. To reduce the number of displayed delta values, change the margin (threshold) for
peak detection in the list evaluation. By default, this value is very high (200 dB), so
that initially all peaks are detected.
In the "Spurious" menu, press "List Evaluation > Margin" and enter a value in dB.
Only delta values that exceed this margin are displayed in the result table.
Softkeys for Spurious Emissions Measurement
Spurious Emissions.....................................................................................................146
└ Sweep List....................................................................................................146
└ Sweep List dialog box.........................................................................146
└ Range Start / Range Stop........................................................146
└ Filter Type.................................................................................147
└ RBW.........................................................................................147
└ VBW.........................................................................................147
└ Sweep Time Mode....................................................................147
└ Sweep Time..............................................................................147
└ Detector....................................................................................147
└ Ref. Level.................................................................................147
└ RF Att. Mode............................................................................147
└ RF Attenuator...........................................................................147
└ Preamp.....................................................................................148
└ Sweep Points............................................................................148
└ Stop After Sweep......................................................................148
└ Transd. Factor..........................................................................148
└ Limit Check 1-4.........................................................................148
└ Abs Limit Start..........................................................................148
└ Abs Limit Stop..........................................................................149
└ Close Sweep List................................................................................149
└ Insert before Range............................................................................149
└ Insert after Range...............................................................................149
└ Delete Range......................................................................................149
└ Adjust Ref Lvl (span > 0)....................................................................149
└ Adjust X-Axis......................................................................................149
└ List Evaluation...............................................................................................149
└ List Evaluation (On/Off)......................................................................150
└ Details On/Off.....................................................................................150
└ Margin.................................................................................................150
└ Peaks per Range................................................................................150
└ Show Peaks........................................................................................150
└ Save Evaluation List...........................................................................150
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└ ASCII File Export......................................................................150
└ Decim Sep................................................................................151
└ Adjust Ref Lvl (span > 0)..............................................................................151
└ Adjust X-Axis.................................................................................................151
└ Meas Start/Stop............................................................................................151
Spurious Emissions
Opens a submenu to configure the Spurious Emissions measurement and immediately
starts a measurement.
For general information on performing Spurious Emissions measurements see ​chapter 3.1.1.6, "Measuring Spurious Emissions", on page 140.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​MODE​ on page 533
Sweep List ← Spurious Emissions
Opens a submenu to edit the sweep list and displays the "Sweep List" dialog box.
Note: If you edit the sweep list, always follow the rules described in ​chapter 3.1.1.6,
"Measuring Spurious Emissions", on page 140.
Sweep List dialog box ← Sweep List ← Spurious Emissions
After a preset, the sweep list contains a set of default ranges and parameters. For each
range, you can change the parameters listed below. To insert or delete ranges, use the
"Insert Before Range", "Insert After Range", "Delete Range" softkeys. The measurement
results are not updated during editing but on closing the dialog box.
For details and limitations regarding spurious emissions configuration, see ​chapter 3.1.1.6, "Measuring Spurious Emissions", on page 140.
Range Start / Range Stop ← Sweep List dialog box ← Sweep List ← Spurious
Emissions
Sets the start frequency/stop frequency of the selected range. Follow the rules described
in ​chapter 3.1.1.6, "Measuring Spurious Emissions", on page 140.
In order to change the start/stop frequency of the first/last range, select the appropriate
span with the SPAN key. If you set a span that is smaller than the overall span of the
ranges, the measurement includes only the ranges that lie within the defined span and
have a minimum span of 20 Hz. The first and last ranges are adapted to the given span
as long as the minimum span of 20 Hz is not violated.
Frequency values for each range have to be defined relative to the center frequency. The
reference range has to be centered on the center frequency. The minimum span of the
reference range is given by the current TX Bandwidth.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]LIST:​RANGe<range>[:​FREQuency]:​STARt​ on page 526
​[SENSe:​]LIST:​RANGe<range>[:​FREQuency]:​STOP​ on page 526
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Filter Type ← Sweep List dialog box ← Sweep List ← Spurious Emissions
Sets the filter type for this range. For details on filters see also ​chapter 3.2.6.3, "Selecting
the Appropriate Filter Type", on page 223.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]LIST:​RANGe<range>:​FILTer:​TYPE​ on page 525
RBW ← Sweep List dialog box ← Sweep List ← Spurious Emissions
Sets the RBW value for this range.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]LIST:​RANGe<range>:​BANDwidth[:​RESolution]​ on page 523
VBW ← Sweep List dialog box ← Sweep List ← Spurious Emissions
Sets the VBW value for this range.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]LIST:​RANGe<range>:​BANDwidth:​VIDeo​ on page 523
Sweep Time Mode ← Sweep List dialog box ← Sweep List ← Spurious Emissions
Activates or deactivates the auto mode for the sweep time.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]LIST:​RANGe<range>:​SWEep:​TIME:​AUTO​ on page 529
Sweep Time ← Sweep List dialog box ← Sweep List ← Spurious Emissions
Sets the sweep time value for the range.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]LIST:​RANGe<range>:​SWEep:​TIME​ on page 529
Detector ← Sweep List dialog box ← Sweep List ← Spurious Emissions
Sets the detector for the range. For details refer to ​chapter 3.3.1.5, "Detector Overview", on page 256.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]LIST:​RANGe<range>:​DETector​ on page 525
Ref. Level ← Sweep List dialog box ← Sweep List ← Spurious Emissions
Sets the reference level for the range.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]LIST:​RANGe<range>:​RLEVel​ on page 529
RF Att. Mode ← Sweep List dialog box ← Sweep List ← Spurious Emissions
Activates or deactivates the auto mode for RF attenuation.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]LIST:​RANGe<range>:​INPut:​ATTenuation:​AUTO​ on page 527
RF Attenuator ← Sweep List dialog box ← Sweep List ← Spurious Emissions
Sets the attenuation value for that range.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]LIST:​RANGe<range>:​INPut:​ATTenuation​ on page 526
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Preamp ← Sweep List dialog box ← Sweep List ← Spurious Emissions
Switches the preamplifier on or off.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]LIST:​RANGe<range>:​INPut:​GAIN:​STATe​ on page 527
Sweep Points ← Sweep List dialog box ← Sweep List ← Spurious Emissions
Sets the number of sweep points for the specified range.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]LIST:​RANGe<range>:​POINts​ on page 528
Stop After Sweep ← Sweep List dialog box ← Sweep List ← Spurious Emissions
This command configures the sweep behavior.
"ON"
The R&S ESR stops after one range is swept and continues only if you
confirm (a message box is displayed).
"OFF"
The R&S ESR sweeps all ranges in one go.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]LIST:​RANGe<range>:​BREak​ on page 524
Transd. Factor ← Sweep List dialog box ← Sweep List ← Spurious Emissions
Sets a transducer for the specified range. You can only choose a transducer that fulfills
the following conditions:
●
●
●
The transducer overlaps or equals the span of the range.
The x-axis is linear.
The unit is dB.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]LIST:​RANGe<range>:​TRANsducer​ on page 529
Limit Check 1-4 ← Sweep List dialog box ← Sweep List ← Spurious Emissions
Sets the type of limit check for all ranges. Possible states are:
Absolute
Checks the absolute limits defined.
None
No limit check performed.
The limit settings are only available if limit check is activated ("Absolute"). If activated,
the limit line and the results of the check are indicated in the diagram.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]LIST:​RANGe<range>:​LIMit:​STATe​ on page 528
​CALCulate<n>:​LIMit<k>:​FAIL?​ on page 492
Abs Limit Start ← Sweep List dialog box ← Sweep List ← Spurious Emissions
Sets an absolute limit value at the start frequency of the range [dBm].
This parameter is only available if the limit check is set to "Absolute" (see ​"Limit Check
1-4" on page 148).
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]LIST:​RANGe<range>:​LIMit:​STARt​ on page 527
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Abs Limit Stop ← Sweep List dialog box ← Sweep List ← Spurious Emissions
Sets an absolute limit value at the stop frequency of the range [dBm].
This parameter is only available if the limit check is set to "Absolute" (see ​"Limit Check
1-4" on page 148).
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]LIST:​RANGe<range>:​LIMit:​STOP​ on page 528
Close Sweep List ← Sweep List ← Spurious Emissions
Closes the "Sweep List" dialog box and updates the measurement results.
Insert before Range ← Sweep List ← Spurious Emissions
Inserts a new range to the left of the currently focused range. The range numbers of the
currently focused range and all higher ranges are increased accordingly. The maximum
number of ranges is 20.
For further details refer to ​"Ranges and Range Settings" on page 127.
Insert after Range ← Sweep List ← Spurious Emissions
Inserts a new range to the right of the currently focused range. The range numbers of all
higher ranges are increased accordingly. The maximum number of ranges is 20.
For further details refer to ​"Ranges and Range Settings" on page 127.
Delete Range ← Sweep List ← Spurious Emissions
Deletes the currently focused range, if possible. The range numbers are updated accordingly. For further details refer to ​"Ranges and Range Settings" on page 127.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]LIST:​RANGe<range>:​DELete​ on page 524
Adjust Ref Lvl (span > 0) ← Sweep List ← Spurious Emissions
Adjusts the reference level to the measured total power of the signal. The softkey is
activated after the first sweep with active measurement of the occupied bandwidth has
been completed and the total power of the signal is thus known.
Adjusting the reference level ensures that the signal path will not be overloaded and the
dynamic range not limited by too low a reference level. Since the measurement bandwidth
for channel power measurements is significantly lower than the signal bandwidth, the
signal path may be overloaded although the trace is distinctly below the reference level.
If the measured channel power is equal to the reference level, the signal path cannot be
overloaded.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]POWer:​ACHannel:​PRESet:​RLEVel​ on page 499
Adjust X-Axis ← Sweep List ← Spurious Emissions
Adjusts the frequency axis of measurement diagram automatically so that the start frequency matches the start frequency of the first sweep range, and the stop frequency of
the last sweep range.
List Evaluation ← Spurious Emissions
Opens a submenu to edit the list evaluation settings.
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For more information on list evaluation see ​"Result Evaluation" on page 142.
List Evaluation (On/Off) ← List Evaluation ← Spurious Emissions
Activates or deactivates the list evaluation.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​PEAKsearch|PSEarch:​AUTO​ on page 530
​TRACe<n>:​DATA​ on page 499
Details On/Off ← List Evaluation ← Spurious Emissions
Configures the list contents.
On
Displays the whole list contents.
Off
Displays only the highest peaks (one peak per range).
Margin ← List Evaluation ← Spurious Emissions
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the margin used for the limit check/peak search. Only
peaks that exceed the limit and are larger than the specified margin are indicated in the
evaluation list.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​PEAKsearch|PSEarch:​MARGin​ on page 457
Peaks per Range ← List Evaluation ← Spurious Emissions
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the number of peaks per range that are stored in the
list. Once the selected number of peaks has been reached, the peak search is stopped
in the current range and continued in the next range. The maximum value is 50.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​PEAKsearch|PSEarch:​SUBRanges​ on page 531
Show Peaks ← List Evaluation ← Spurious Emissions
In the diagram, marks all peaks with blue squares that have been listed during an active
list evaluation.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​PEAKsearch|PSEarch:​PSHow​ on page 531
Save Evaluation List ← List Evaluation ← Spurious Emissions
Opens the "ASCII File Export Name" dialog box and a submenu to save the result in
ASCII format to a specified file and directory.
Remote command:
​MMEMory:​STORe<n>:​LIST​ on page 547
ASCII File Export ← Save Evaluation List ← List Evaluation ← Spurious Emissions
Saves the evaluation list in ASCII format to a specified file and directory.
Remote command:
​MMEMory:​STORe<n>:​LIST​ on page 547
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Decim Sep ← Save Evaluation List ← List Evaluation ← Spurious Emissions
Selects the decimal separator with floating-point numerals for the ASCII Trace export to
support evaluation programs (e.g. MS-Excel) in different languages. The values '.' (decimal point) and ',' (comma) can be set.
Remote command:
​FORMat:​DEXPort:​DSEParator​ on page 616
Adjust Ref Lvl (span > 0) ← Spurious Emissions
Adjusts the reference level to the measured total power of the signal. The softkey is
activated after the first sweep with active measurement of the occupied bandwidth has
been completed and the total power of the signal is thus known.
Adjusting the reference level ensures that the signal path will not be overloaded and the
dynamic range not limited by too low a reference level. Since the measurement bandwidth
for channel power measurements is significantly lower than the signal bandwidth, the
signal path may be overloaded although the trace is distinctly below the reference level.
If the measured channel power is equal to the reference level, the signal path cannot be
overloaded.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]POWer:​ACHannel:​PRESet:​RLEVel​ on page 499
Adjust X-Axis ← Spurious Emissions
Adjusts the frequency axis of measurement diagram automatically so that the start frequency matches the start frequency of the first sweep range, and the stop frequency of
the last sweep range.
Meas Start/Stop ← Spurious Emissions
Aborts/restarts the current measurement and displays the status:
3.1.1.7
"Start"
The measurement is currently running.
"Stop"
The measurement has been stopped, or, in single sweep mode, the end
of the sweep has been reached.
Measuring the Power in Zero Span
Using the power measurement function, the R&S ESR determines the power of the signal
in zero span by summing up the power at the individual measurement points and dividing
the result by the number of measurement points. Thus it is possible to measure the power
of TDMA signals during transmission, for example, or during the muting phase. Both the
mean power and the RMS power can be measured.
For this measurement, the sample detector is activated.
Measurement results
Several different power results can be determined simultaneously:
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Mode
Description
Peak
Peak value from the points of the displayed trace or a segment thereof.
RMS
RMS value from the points of the displayed trace or a segment thereof.
Mean
Mean value from the points of the displayed trace or a segment thereof.
The linear mean value of the equivalent voltages is calculated.
For example to measure the mean power during a GSM burst
Std Dev
The standard deviation of the measurement points from the mean value.
The result is displayed in the marker results, indicated by "Power" and the selected power
mode, e.g. "RMS". The measured values are updated after each sweep or averaged over
a user-defined number of sweeps (trace averaging).
You can query the measurement results with the commands described in ​"Retrieving
Measurement Results" on page 571.
Restricting the measurement range using limit lines
The range of the measured signal to be evaluated for the power measurement can be
restricted using limit lines. The left and right limit lines (S1, S2) define the evaluation range
and are indicated by vertical red lines in the diagram. If activated, the power results are
only calculated from the levels within the limit lines.
For example, if both the on and off phase of a burst signal are displayed, the measurement
range can be limited to the transmission or to the muting phase. The ratio between signal
and noise power of a TDMA signal for instance can be measured using a measurement
as a reference value and then varying the measurement range.
To measure the power in the time domain
1. Press the "Time Domain Power" softkey to activate the power measurement.
2. Select the type of power measurement using the "Peak","Mean","RMS" or "Std
Dev" softkeys.
3. To limit the power evaluation range, switch on the limits ("Limits (On/Off)" softkey)
and enter the limits using the "Left Limit" and "Right Limit" softkeys.
Softkeys for Time Domain Power Measurements
Time Domain Power....................................................................................................153
└ Peak..............................................................................................................153
└ RMS..............................................................................................................153
└ Mean.............................................................................................................153
└ Std Dev.........................................................................................................153
└ Limits (On/Off)...............................................................................................153
└ Left Limit.......................................................................................................154
└ Right Limit.....................................................................................................154
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Time Domain Power
Activates the power measurement in zero span and opens a submenu to configure the
power measurement. For more details see also ​chapter 3.1.1.7, "Measuring the Power
in Zero Span", on page 151.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​SUMMary[:​STATe]​ on page 570
Peak ← Time Domain Power
Activates the calculation of the peak value from the points of the displayed trace or a
segment thereof.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​SUMMary:​PPEak[:​STATe]​ on page 575
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​SUMMary:​PPEak:​RESult?​ on page 574
RMS ← Time Domain Power
Activates the calculation of the RMS value from the points of the displayed trace or a
segment thereof.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​SUMMary:​RMS[:​STATe]​ on page 577
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​SUMMary:​RMS:​RESult?​ on page 576
Mean ← Time Domain Power
Activates the calculation of the mean value from the points of the displayed trace or a
segment thereof. The linear mean value of the equivalent voltages is calculated.
This can be used for instance to measure the mean power during a GSM burst.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​SUMMary:​MEAN[:​STATe]​ on page 573
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​SUMMary:​MEAN:​RESult?​ on page 572
Std Dev ← Time Domain Power
Activates the calculation of the standard deviation of measurement points from the mean
value and displays them as measured value. The measurement of the mean power is
automatically switched on at the same time.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​SUMMary:​SDEViation[:​STATe]​
on page 579
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​SUMMary:​SDEViation:​RESult?​
on page 579
Limits (On/Off) ← Time Domain Power
Switches the limitation of the evaluation range on or off. Default setting is off.
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If switched off, the evaluation range is not limited. If switched on, the evaluation range is
defined by the left and right limit. If only one limit is set, it corresponds to the left limit and
the right limit is defined by the stop frequency. If the second limit is also set, it defines the
right limit.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​X:​SLIMits[:​STATe]​ on page 466
Left Limit ← Time Domain Power
Opens an edit dialog box to enter a value for line 1.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​X:​SLIMits:​LEFT​ on page 465
Right Limit ← Time Domain Power
Opens an edit dialog box to enter a value for line 2.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​X:​SLIMits:​RIGHT​ on page 466
3.1.1.8
Performing EMI Measurements
The R&S ESR features EMI measurement functionality in Spectrum mode. This functionality is suitable for measurements according to EMS standards.
The EMI functionality is integrated into the measurement and marker functions that are
available in Spectrum mode.
Measurement Background
EMI measurements can be very time-consuming, especially if weighting detectors are
required by the standard. In addition, EMC standards specify various procedures to locate
local EMI maxima. Such procedures include movements of an absorbing clamp, variations in the height of the test antenna or the rotation of the DUT.
Covering all test setups with one of the (slow) EMI weighting detectors over the required
frequency range would lead to unacceptable measurement times.
Splitting the measurement procedure into several stages eliminates this problem.
The first stage, or peak search, is used to get a rough idea about the location of peak
powers that may indicate interference over the required frequency range. You can use a
detector that allows for a fast sweep time, e.g. the peak detector.
During the second stage, or final evaluation, the analyzer performs the actual EMC test,
with detectors designed for and required by EMC standards. To keep measurement times
brief, the analyzer measures only those frequencies you have marked with markers or
delta markers. You can assign a different detector to every marker and thus test a particular frequency easily for compliance.
Selecting a Detector
For more information on EMI detectors see ​chapter 2.2.3, "Selecting a Detector",
on page 31.
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Selecting the Measurement Bandwidth
For more information on the measurement bandwidth in EMI test setups see ​chapter 2.2.1, "Resolution Bandwidth", on page 29.
Setting the Number of Sweep Points
The number of sweep points defines the number of measurement values collected during
one sweep. Thus, increasing the sweep points also increases the accuracy of the results
regarding the frequency resolution.
Because EMI measurements often cover a large frequency range you should define an
adequate number of sweep points, especially when performing the measurement on a
logarithmic axis. Like on a linear axis, the distance from one sweep point to the next is
calculated graphically on a logarithmic axis, and is not based on the frequency itself.
Thus, the frequency resolution between two sweep points deteriorates with higher frequencies.
The resolution bandwidth should cover at least one sweep point (more is better). If this
condition is not met, signals or interferences could be missed during final evaluation of
narrowband interferers.
Example:
Linear axis:
In case of a linear axis, the distance between the sweep points is equal, e.g. 200 kHz.
Logarithmic axis:
In case of a logarithmic axis, the distance between sweep points is variable. In the spectrum from 10 Hz to 100 Hz, the distance is a few Hz. Between 100 MHz and 1 GHz, the
distance is several MHz.
The R&S ESR supports a maximum of 200000 sweep points. This number is based on
typical bands measured with a single resolution bandwidth. There are sufficient sweep
points to make sure that a signal is found when doing the final evaluation. Even when
covering 30 MHz to 1 GHz with logarithmic scaling and 120 kHz RBW.
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Controlling V-Networks
For more information on Line Impedance Stability Networks see ​chapter 2.2.6, "Controlling V-Networks (LISN)", on page 36.
Using Transducer Factors
For more information on transducer factors see ​chapter 2.2.7, "Transducers",
on page 38.
Performing a Peak Search
The purpose of a peak search is to find signals with a high interference level quickly.
Usually the peak search is done with a fast detector like the peak or average detector.
The marker peak search is the basis for a possible final evaluation of interferences with
the detectors specific to EMI measurements.
You can control markers in the ​Marker Configuration dialog box or turn them on with the
"Marker <x>" softkey. The results of the peak search are summarized in the ​Marker
Table.
There are two ways to perform a peak search, automatic and manual.
Automatic peak search
By default, the automatic peak search starts as soon as you turn on the EMI measurement
marker. During the peak search, the application looks for the strongest peaks in the frequency range you are measuring and positions a marker on those peaks. When a limit
line is assigned to the trace, the level difference between the trace and the limit line
determines the peak search. The number of peaks it will find during the search depends
on the number of markers you have turned on. You can use up to 16 markers simultaneously.
The first marker is always on the most powerful peak while the last marker is always on
the least powerful peak. If the application finds a more powerful peak, it will move one of
the markers to that position and adjust the order of the other markers.
The application allows you to distribute markers among several traces. If you do so, the
marker with the lowest number assigned to a particular trace will be positioned on the
most powerful peak of the corresponding trace.
Manual peak search
If you turn the automatic peak search off, you can put the markers manually to any frequency you need more information about. You can change the marker position with the
rotary knob, the cursor keys or position it to a particular frequency with the number keys.
Setting markers is the same as setting markers in normal spectrum mode. For more
information see the manual of the base unit.
Searching for peaks over several traces
You can measure on six traces with a different weighting detector simultaneously.
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In that case, the application searches for peaks on all traces separately, given that you
have assigned at least one marker to that trace.
A typical selection for EMI measurement is to use the peak and the average detector. If
the premeasurement is done, the application would look for peaks on the peak trace and
the average trace separately so that the distribution of narrowband and wideband sources
of interference can be taken into account.
For example, the frequency of the maximum determined with the average detector can
be used for the final measurement performed with this detector and the frequency found
in the premeasurement carried out with the peak detector is taken for the final measurement using the quasipeak detector.
Measuring at the Marker Position
Finding peaks with the help of a peak search reduces data to be evaluated and thus
measurement time.
The R&S ESR performs the final evaluation automatically if the EMI measurement marker
is turned on. The measurement at the marker frequency starts immediately after the
marker has been set. The advantage of an immediate final evaluation is that it eliminates
the risk of measurement errors based on frequency drifts of the disturbance signal.
The measurement at the marker frequency may have a different detector during the peak
search. This way, the measurement consumes much less time because detectors with a
long measurement time are needed only at the critical frequency.
The application also allows you to use multiple detectors for the final evaluation. The
advantage of multiple detection is that you will only need one test run to see if the results
comply with the limits specified in a standard. You can select and assign detectors for
EMI markers in the ​"Marker Configuration" on page 160 dialog box.
As EMC tests often require special measurement times, you can also specify a dwell time
for the measurement with the EMI markers.
The application shows the results in the ​Marker Table.
Defining a Dwell Time for the Final Measurement
The dwell time defines for how long the R&S ESR measures the signal at the frequencies
of the marker positions. Thus the dwell time defines the amount of data that is included
in the detection of the displayed results. As each detector needs a different period of time
to fully charge and discharge, the minimum dwell time should not be shorter than the
slowest detector in use.
Evaluating the Results
For more information on functionality to evaluate measurement results see ​chapter 2.2.5,
"AF Demodulation", on page 36 and ​chapter 2.4.3, "(Limit) Lines", on page 69.
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Configuration and Analysis
Measurement Configuration
The reference section contains an overview of all functions that are part of the chapter
and lists the associated elements of the user interface.
For a list and description of supported detectors see ​chapter 2.2.3, "Selecting a Detector", on page 31.
Filter Type
Opens a submenu to select the filter type.
When measuring Spurious Emissions, using this softkey automatically opens the "Sweep
List" dialog (see ​"Sweep List dialog box" on page 146).
The submenu contains the following softkeys:
●
●
●
●
●
●
Normal (3 dB)
CISPR (6 dB)
MIL Std (6 dB)
Note that the 6 dB bandwidths are available only with option R&S FSV-K54.
Channel
RRC
5-Pole (not available for sweep type "FFT")
For detailed information on filters see ​chapter 3.2.6.3, "Selecting the Appropriate Filter
Type", on page 223 and ​chapter 3.2.6.4, "List of Available RRC and Channel Filters",
on page 224.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]BANDwidth|BWIDth[:​RESolution]:​TYPE​ on page 449
Res BW CISPR / CISPR (6 dB)
Selects the measurement bandwidth for commercial EMC standards according to CISPR.
If you select the bandwidth with the "Res BW CISPR" softkey, the R&S ESR automatically
changes the filter type to a 6 dB bandwidth.
For more information see ​chapter 2.2.1, "Resolution Bandwidth", on page 29.
Remote command:
Filter type:
​[SENSe:​]BANDwidth|BWIDth[:​RESolution]:​TYPE​ on page 449
Filter bandwidth:
​[SENSe:​]BANDwidth|BWIDth[:​RESolution]​ on page 448
Res BW Mil Std / MIL Std (6 dB)
Selects the measurement bandwidths for military EMC standards.
If you select the bandwidth with the "Res BW Mil Std" softkey, the R&S ESR automatically
changes the filter type to a 6 dB bandwidth.
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For more information see ​chapter 2.2.1, "Resolution Bandwidth", on page 29.
Remote command:
Filter type:
​[SENSe:​]BANDwidth|BWIDth[:​RESolution]:​TYPE​ on page 449
Filter bandwidth:
​[SENSe:​]BANDwidth|BWIDth[:​RESolution]​ on page 448
Sweep Points
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the number of measured values collected during a
single measurement.
For more information see ​"Setting the Number of Sweep Points" on page 155.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​POINts​ on page 601
Freq (Lin Log)
Turns logarithmic scaling of the frequency axis on and off.
By default, the frequency axis has linear scaling. Logarithmic scaling of the frequency
axis, however, is common for EMI measurements over large frequency ranges as it
enhances the resolution of the lower frequencies. On the other hand, high frequencies
get more crowded and become harder to distinguish.
Because it shows the lower frequencies more clearly, logarithmic scaling is used for tests
that focus on those frequencies, for example acoustic tests and measurements.
Remote command:
​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​X:​SPACing​ on page 444
LISN Control
Opens a dialog box to control a LISN.
The dialog box contains the following elements.
●
●
LISN
Selects the V-network that you have in use. The R&S FSV-K54 supports
– two two-line networks (ESH3-Z5 and ENV 216)
– two four line nwtworks (ESH2-Z5 and ENV 4200)
Phase
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●
Selects the phase to be measured. Phase N and L1 are included in all four LISN.
Phase L2 and L3 are only included in four-line networks.
You can select one phase for a measurement only.
150 kHz HP
Turns on a 150 kHz highpass filter. The filter is available for the ENV 216 network
only.
For more information see ​chapter 2.2.6, "Controlling V-Networks (LISN)", on page 36.
Remote command:
LISN type:
​INPut:​LISN[:​TYPE]​ on page 463
Phase:
​INPut:​LISN:​PHASe​ on page 463
Highpass filter:
​INPut:​LISN:​FILTer:​HPAS[:​STATe]​ on page 462
Peak Search
The reference section contains an overview of all functions that are part of the chapter
and lists the associated elements of the user interface.
Auto Peak Search
Turns the automatic marker peak search on and off.
For more information see ​"Performing a Peak Search" on page 156.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​FMEasurement:​PSEarch:​AUTO​
on page 551
Marker Configuration
To make the process of configuring markers as easy as possible, the R&S FSV-K54
features a "Marker Configuration" dialog box that contains all marker characteristics necessary to perform successful EMI measurements.
The dialog box is made up out of two tabs. The first tab controls markers 1 to 8, the second
tab controls markers 9 to 16.
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●
●
●
●
●
Selected
Selects one of the markers. The currently selected marker is highlighted in orange
color. The label indicates the marker type and its number.
State
Turns the marker on and off.
Type
Selects the marker type.
The first marker always is a normal marker (abbreviated 'N'). Normal markers determine absolute signal levels. In the diagram area, they are drawn as a triangle pointing
up ( ).
If you add more markers, these will be delta markers by default (abbreviated 'D').
Delta markers show signal levels in relation to another (normal) marker, by default in
relation to the first marker. If necessary, you can still change the reference marker in
the "Ref" column. In the diagram area, delta markers are drawn as a triangle pointing
down ( ).
When performing EMI measurements however, you usually want to have absolute
marker readouts for all markers that you are using.
Ref
Selects the reference marker for delta markers.
By default, the reference marker for all delta markers is the first marker.
This is active only for delta markers.
Trace
Selects the trace number the marker is positioned on.
You can place markers on any of the active traces. The R&S FSV-K54 supports the
use of up to four traces.
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●
●
●
●
Detector
Selects the detector for the final measurement.
For more information see ​chapter 2.2.3, "Selecting a Detector", on page 31.
Auto Peak
Turns automatic peak search for all markers on and off.
For more information see ​"Performing a Peak Search" on page 156.
Dwell Time
Sets the dwell time for all markers.
For more information see ​"Measuring at the Marker Position" on page 157.
All Markers Off
Turns all markers off.
Remote command:
Reference marker:
CALCulate<n>:DELTamarker<m>:MREF
Trace:
​CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​TRACe​ on page 476
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​TRACe​ on page 471
Detector:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​FMEasurement:​DETector​ on page 550
​CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​FUNCtion:​FMEasurement:​DETector​
on page 550
Auto peak:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​FMEasurement:​PSEarch:​AUTO​
on page 551
Dwell time:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​FMEasurement:​DWELl​ on page 551
All marker off:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​AOFF​ on page 467
​CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​AOFF​ on page 473
See also the documentation of the base unit for information on how to remotely work with
markers in general.
Final Evaluation
The reference section contains an overview of all functions that are part of the chapter
and lists the associated elements of the user interface.
Dwell Time
Sets the dwell time for the EMI marker measurement.
For more information see ​"Measuring at the Marker Position" on page 157.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​FMEasurement:​DWELl​ on page 551
Marker Table
If more than two markers have been activated, the application adds a marker table to the
display below the diagram area. The size of the table depends on the number of markers
that are active. It contains the following information for every marker.
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●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
Type
Shows the marker type. The marker type is either a normal marker (N) or delta marker
(D).
Ref
Shows the reference marker. Applicable only for delta markers.
Trace
Trace number the marker is positioned on. You can turn on a maximum of six traces
at the same time. Each trace has a different color.
Frequency
Frequency of a peak that was detected during the peak search. For normal markers
this is a absolute value, for delta markers this is a relative value. The corresponding
reference marker for delta markers is indicated in the "Ref" column.
Level
Signal level at the marker position according to the trace detector. For normal markers
this is an absolute value, for delta markers this is a relative value. The corresponding
reference marker for delta markers is indicated in the "Ref" column. The unit for
absolute markers depends on the selected unit. The unit for relative markers is dB.
Detector
Detector that has been assigned to the EMI measurement marker.
ΔLimit
Shows the distance of the marker level to all active limit lines.
The order of results depends on the order in that you have loaded the limit lines and
is the same as the order in the status register.
The result is either a relative value in dB or three dashes (- - -). In case of three dashes
the marker is either
– on a different trace than the limit line or
– on a horizontal position that is not covered by the limit line.
The delta limit is shown only if you have assigned a detector to the measurement
marker.
Result
Shows the signal level at the marker position according to the detector assigned to
the corresponding marker. The result is only displayed after the final measurement
is done. The overall measurement time depends on the dwell time.
If a limit line is active, the result can have three colors.
– green indicates that the marker has passed the limit check.
– yellow indicates that the marker is in the margins of the limit line.
– red and a star (*) indicate that the marker has failed the limit check.
For more information on limit lines see the documentation of the base unit.
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The result is shown only if you have assigned a detector to the measurement marker.
Remote command:
Detector:
ΔLimit:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​FMEasurement:​LIMit<k>:​DELTa?​
on page 553
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​FMEasurement:​LIMit<k>:​
CONDition ?​ on page 553
​CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​FUNCtion:​FMEasurement:​LIMit<k>:​
DELTa?​ on page 552
​CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​FUNCtion:​FMEasurement:​LIMit<k>:​
CONDition ?​ on page 552
Result:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​FMEasurement:​RESult?​ on page 554
​CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​FUNCtion:​FMEasurement:​RESult?​
on page 553
3.1.1.9
CISPR APD Measurement (Amplitude Probability Distribution)
The Amplitude Probability Distribution (APD) is a statistical measurement that shows the
"cumulative distribution of the probability of time that the amplitude of disturbance
exceeds a specified level" (CISPR 16-1-1, Amendement 1:2005). So, basically, the measurement determines the likelihood that a disturbance is above a specified level at a
particular frequency (the measurement is usually performed on a fixed frequency).
The amplitude of the disturbance is expressed in terms of the corresponding field strength
or voltage at the receiver input.
The APD is measured at the output of the envelope detector. Therefore, the APD yields
the probability information over the entire disturbance envelope within the measurement
bandwidth and a particular period of time.
The APD function has the following advantages.
●
It provides an alternative way to present peak and average measurements (for example for microwave ovens in accordance with CISPR 11).
●
It is able to calculate true average values.
●
It shows high sensitivity and allows you to measure, for example, a single impulse.
●
It allows you to measure unsteady levels.
APD vs CISPR APD
Note that the R&S ESR also provides an APD measurement for general purposes.
This general APD function does not comply with CISPR 16-1-1 in various aspects and
cannot be used for CISPR APD measurements.
●
●
●
CISPR specifications vs R&S ESR specifications.................................................165
Examples of CISPR APD......................................................................................165
Softkeys for CISPR APD Measurements..............................................................168
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CISPR specifications vs R&S ESR specifications
The following table compares the characteristics of the R&S ESR against the CISPR
specifications for APD measurements.
CISPR 16-1-1
R&S ESR
Dynamic range of the amplitude
> 60 dB
> 75 dB
Amplitude accuracy
better than ±2.7 dB
< 0.2 dB (typical)
Maximum measurement time
≥ 2 min
2 min (no dead time)
Minimum measurable probability
10-7
10-7
Amplitude level assignment
min. 2 amplitude levels with a resolution of 0.25 dB or better
691 levels with a resolution of
0.145 dB
Sampling rate
≥10 MSamples
16 MSamples (with RBW = 1 MHz)
(using an RBW of 1 MHz)
4.0 MSamples (with RBW = 120
kHz)
0.26 MSamples (with RBW = 9 kHz
5.8 kSamples (with RBW = 200 Hz)
Display resolution of APD measurement data
< 0.25 dB
Default: 0.145 dB for range = 100
dB
Min. 0.00145 dB for range = 1 dB
●
Use the intermittent measurement if the dead time is < 1 % of the total measurement
time.
●
Measure the probabilities corresponding to all pre-assigned levels simultaneously.
●
The R&S ESR records the probability of time for each of the 625 disturbance levels.
Examples of CISPR APD
APD of the inherent noise of the R&S ESR
The following example shows the APD of the inherent noise of the R&S ESR (input terminated by 50 Ω.
The example is based on the following configuration.
Center frequency
100 MHz
Span
Zero span (0 Hz)
Unit
dBm
Reference Level
-30 dBm
Attenuation
20 dB
RBW
1 MHz (EMI)
VBW
10 MHz
Sweep time
100 ms
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Detector
Auto Peak
All other settings are in their default (preset) state.
The first picture shows the resulting noise characteristics in the time domain (zero span).
The x-axis shows the time. The y-axis shows the level of the "signal" in dBm. Pmax is the
highest level that has been measured, Pmin is the lowest level.
The second picture shows the corresponding CISPR APD function. Here, the x-axis represents the disturbance levels in dBm. The scale of the axis is arbitrary. By default, its
range is a 100 of the unit you are working with. The end point of the x-axis represents
the reference level.
The y-axis represents the statistical frequency that a particular level value will turn up
with. The y-axis is a logarithmic axis by default. Like the x-axis, its scale is arbitrary.
As you can see, the probability that levels above Pmax will occur is zero. With falling level
values, the probability that a particular level occurs increases (until Pmin has been
reached). Because the noise has no spikes, the APD curve is falling (more or less)
smoothly.
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APD of a pulse signal
The following example shows the APD of a pulse signal. The pulse period is 100 ms and
the pulse width is 1 ms, so the pulse is transmitted within 1 % of the time.
The example is based on the following configuration.
Center frequency
200 MHz
Span
Zero span (0 Hz)
Unit
dBm
Reference Level
-10 dBm
Attenuation
20 dB
RBW
1 MHz (EMI)
VBW
10 MHz
Sweep time
100 ms
Detector
Auto Peak
All other settings are in their default (preset) state.
Again, the first picture shows the resulting signal characteristics in the time domain (zero
span). The x-axis shows the time. The y-axis shows the level of the signal. Pmax is the
highest level that has been measured, Pmin is the lowest level (not shown completely).
The second picture shows the corresponding CISPR APD function.
The probability of time at 10e-2 corresponds to the duty cycle of 1 %. The maximum level
of -20.145 dBm corresponds to the peak level that has been measured in spectrum mode.
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Softkeys for CISPR APD Measurements
Functions to configure CISPR APD measurements described elsewhere:
●
​"Percent Marker" on page 179
●
​"Res BW Manual" on page 46
●
​"Scaling" on page 174
●
​"Adjust Settings" on page 177
Acquisition Time..........................................................................................................168
Acquisition Time
Defines the measurement time for CISPR APD measurements.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​TIME​ on page 435
3.1.1.10
Calculating Signal Amplitude Statistics
To measure the amplitude distribution, the R&S ESR has simple measurement functions
to determine both the APD = Amplitude Probability Distribution and CCDF = Complementary Cumulative Distribution Function.
To determine the amplitude distribution
► To activate and configure the measurement of the amplitude probability distribution
(APD), press the "APD" softkey (see ​"APD" on page 84).
To activate and configure the measurement of the complementary cumulative distribution (CCDF), press the "CCDF" softkey (see ​"CCDF" on page 84).
Only one of the signal statistic functions can be switched on at a time. When a statistic
function is switched on, the R&S ESR is set into zero span mode automatically. The
R&S ESR measures the statistics of the signal applied to the RF input with the defined
resolution bandwidth. To avoid affecting the peak amplitudes the video bandwidth is
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automatically set to 10 times the resolution bandwidth. The sample detector is used for
detecting the video voltage.
About the Statistical Measurements............................................................................169
Result Evaluation........................................................................................................170
Softkeys for APD Measurements................................................................................173
Softkeys for CCDF Measurements.............................................................................178
Defining Gated Triggering for APD and CCDF...........................................................184
About the Statistical Measurements
Digital modulated signals are similar to white noise within the transmit channel, but are
different in their amplitude distribution. In order to transmit the modulated signal without
distortion all amplitudes of the signal have to be transmitted linearly, e.g. from the output
power amplifier. Most critical are the peak amplitude values. Degradation in transmit
quality caused by a transmitter two port network is dependent on the amplitude of the
peak values as well as on their probability.
If modulation types are used that do not have a constant zero span envelope, the transmitter has to handle peak amplitudes that are greater than the average power. This
includes all modulation types that involve amplitude modulation, QPSK for example.
CDMA transmission modes in particular may have power peaks that are large compared
to the average power.
For signals of this kind, the transmitter must provide large reserves for the peak power
to prevent signal compression and thus an increase of the bit error rate at the receiver.
The peak power or the crest factor of a signal is therefore an important transmitter design
criterion. The crest factor is defined as the peak power/mean power ratio or, logarithmically, as the peak level minus the average level of the signal. To reduce power consumption and cut costs, transmitters are not designed for the largest power that could
ever occur, but for a power that has a specified probability of being exceeded (e.g. 0.01
%).
The probability of amplitude values can be measured with the APD function (Amplitude
Probability Distribution). During a selectable measurement time all occurring amplitude
values are assigned to an amplitude range. The number of amplitude values in the specific ranges is counted and the result is displayed as a histogram.
Alternatively, the Complementary Cumulative Distribution Function (CCDF) can be displayed. It shows the probability that the mean signal power amplitude will be exceeded
in percent.
Bandwidth selection
When the amplitude distribution is measured, the resolution bandwidth must be set so
that the complete spectrum of the signal to be measured falls within the bandwidth. This
is the only way of ensuring that all the amplitudes will pass through the IF filter without
being distorted. If the selected resolution bandwidth is too small for a digitally modulated
signal, the amplitude distribution at the output of the IF filter becomes a Gaussian distribution according to the central limit theorem and thus corresponds to a white noise signal.
The true amplitude distribution of the signal therefore cannot be determined.
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Selecting the number of samples
For statistics measurements with the R&S ESR, the number of samples to be measured
is defined instead of the sweep time. Since only statistically independent samples contribute to statistics, the acquisition or sweep time is calculated automatically and displayed in the channel bar (AQT). The samples are statistically independent if the time
difference is at least 1/RBW. The acquisition time AQT is, therefore, expressed as follows:
AQT = NSamples/RBW
Statistic measurements on pulsed signals
Statistic measurements on pulsed signals can be performed using a gated trigger. An
external frame trigger is required as a time (frame) reference. For details see ​"Defining
Gated Triggering for APD and CCDF" on page 184.
Result Evaluation
Amplitude Probability Distribution (APD)
As a result of the APD function (Amplitude Probability Distribution), the probability of
measured amplitude values is displayed. During a selectable measurement time all
occurring amplitude values are assigned to an amplitude range. The number of amplitude
values in the specific ranges is counted and the result is displayed as a histogram. Each
bar of the histogram represents the percentage of measured amplitudes within the specific amplitude range. The x-axis is scaled in absolute values in dBm.
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Fig. 3-7: Amplitude probability distribution of white noise
In addition to the histogram, a result table is displayed containing the following information:
●
Number of samples used for calculation
●
For each displayed trace:
– Mean amplitude
–
Peak amplitude
–
Crest factor
Complementary Cumulative Distribution Function (CCDF)
The Complementary Cumulative Distribution Function (CCDF) shows the probability that
the mean signal power amplitude will be exceeded in percent. The level above the mean
power is plotted along the x-axis of the graph. The origin of the axis corresponds to the
mean power level. The probability that a level will be exceeded is plotted along the y-axis.
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Fig. 3-8: CCDF of white noise
A red line indicates the ideal Gaussian distribution for the measured amplitude range
(white noise).
The displayed amplitude range is indicated as "Mean Pwr + <x dB>"
In addition to the histogram, a result table is displayed containing the following information:
●
Number of samples used for calculation
●
For each displayed trace:
Mean
Mean power
Peak
Peak power
Crest
Crest factor (peak power – mean power)
0,01 %
Level values over 0,01 % above mean power
0,1 %
Level values over 0,1 % above mean power
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1%
Level values over 1 % above mean power
10 %
Level values over 10 % above mean power
Softkeys for APD Measurements
APD.............................................................................................................................173
└ Res BW.........................................................................................................173
└ # of Samples.................................................................................................173
└ Scaling..........................................................................................................174
└ x-Axis Ref Level..................................................................................174
└ x-Axis Range......................................................................................174
└ Range Log 100 dB....................................................................174
└ Range Log 50 dB......................................................................174
└ Range Log 10 dB......................................................................175
└ Range Log 5 dB........................................................................175
└ Range Log 1 dB........................................................................175
└ Range Log Manual...................................................................175
└ Range Linear %........................................................................175
└ Range Lin. Unit.........................................................................176
└ y-Axis Max Value................................................................................176
└ y-Axis Min Value.................................................................................176
└ y-Unit % / Abs.....................................................................................176
└ Default Settings..................................................................................176
└ Adjust Settings....................................................................................177
└ Gated Trigger (On/Off)..................................................................................177
└ Gate Ranges.................................................................................................177
└ Adjust Settings..............................................................................................178
APD
Activates the function to measure the amplitude probability density (APD) and opens a
submenu.
For general information on calculating signal statistics see ​chapter 3.1.1.10, "Calculating
Signal Amplitude Statistics", on page 168.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​STATistics:​APD[:​STATe]​ on page 561
Res BW ← APD
Opens an edit dialog box to set the resolution bandwidth directly.
For correct measurement of the signal statistics the resolution bandwidth has to be wider
than the signal bandwidth in order to measure the actual peaks of the signal amplitude
correctly. In order not to influence the peak amplitudes the video bandwidth is automatically set to 10 MHz. The sample detector is used for detecting the video voltage.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]BANDwidth|BWIDth[:​RESolution]​ on page 448
# of Samples ← APD
Opens an edit dialog box to set the number of power measurements that are taken into
account for the statistics.
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Apart from the number of measurements the overall measurement time depends also on
the set resolution bandwidth as the resolution bandwidth directly influences the sampling
rate.
For details see ​"Selecting the number of samples" on page 170.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​STATistics:​NSAMples​ on page 562
Scaling ← APD
Opens a submenu to change the scaling parameters of x- and y-axis.
x-Axis Ref Level ← Scaling ← APD
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the reference level in the currently active unit (dBm,
dBµV, etc). The function of this softkey is identical to the "Ref Level" softkey in the
"Amplitude" menu (see ​"Ref Level" on page 209).
For the APD function this value is mapped to the right diagram border. For the CCDF
function there is no direct representation of this value on the diagram as the x-axis is
scaled relatively to the measured mean power.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​STATistics:​SCALe:​X:​RLEVel​ on page 567
x-Axis Range ← Scaling ← APD
Opens the "Range" submenu to select a value for the level range to be covered by the
statistics measurement selected.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​STATistics:​SCALe:​X:​RANGe​ on page 566
Range Log 100 dB ← x-Axis Range ← Scaling ← APD
Sets the level display range to 100 dB.
Remote command:
Logarithmic scaling:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:SPAC LOG, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y:​
SPACing​ on page 446
Display range:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y 100DB, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y[:​SCALe]​
on page 610
Range Log 50 dB ← x-Axis Range ← Scaling ← APD
Sets the level display range to 50 dB.
Remote command:
Logarithmic scaling:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:SPAC LOG, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y:​
SPACing​ on page 446
Display range:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y 50DB, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y[:​SCALe]​
on page 610
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Range Log 10 dB ← x-Axis Range ← Scaling ← APD
Sets the level display range to 10 dB.
Remote command:
Logarithmic scaling:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:SPAC LOG, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y:​
SPACing​ on page 446
Display range:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y 10DB, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y[:​SCALe]​
on page 610
Range Log 5 dB ← x-Axis Range ← Scaling ← APD
Sets the level display range to 5 dB.
Remote command:
Logarithmic scaling:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:SPAC LOG, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y:​
SPACing​ on page 446
Display range:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y 5DB, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y[:​SCALe]​
on page 610
Range Log 1 dB ← x-Axis Range ← Scaling ← APD
Sets the level display range to 1 dB.
Remote command:
Logarithmic scaling:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:SPAC LOG, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y:​
SPACing​ on page 446
Display range:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y 1DB, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y[:​SCALe]​
on page 610
Range Log Manual ← x-Axis Range ← Scaling ← APD
Opens an edit dialog box to define the display range of a logarithmic level axis manually.
Remote command:
Logarithmic scaling:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:SPAC LOG, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y:​
SPACing​ on page 446
Display range:
​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y[:​SCALe]​ on page 610
Range Linear % ← x-Axis Range ← Scaling ← APD
Selects linear scaling for the level axis in %.
The grid is divided into decadal sections.
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Markers are displayed in the selected unit ("Unit" softkey). Delta markers are displayed
in % referenced to the voltage value at the position of marker 1. This is the default setting
for linear scaling.
Remote command:
DISP:TRAC:Y:SPAC LIN, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y:​SPACing​
on page 446
Range Lin. Unit ← x-Axis Range ← Scaling ← APD
Selects linear scaling in dB for the level display range, i.e. the horizontal lines are labeled
in dB.
Markers are displayed in the selected unit ("Unit" softkey). Delta markers are displayed
in dB referenced to the power value at the position of marker 1.
Remote command:
DISP:TRAC:Y:SPAC LDB, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y:​SPACing​
on page 446
y-Axis Max Value ← Scaling ← APD
Opens an edit dialog box to define the upper limit of the displayed probability range.
Values on the y-axis are normalized which means that the maximum value is 1.0. The yaxis scaling is defined via the ​y-Unit % / Abs softkey. The distance between max and min
value must be at least one decade.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​STATistics:​SCALe:​Y:​UPPer​ on page 568
y-Axis Min Value ← Scaling ← APD
Opens an edit dialog box to define the lower limit of the displayed probability range. Values in the range 1e-9 < value < 0.1 are allowed. The y-axis scaling is defined via the ​yUnit % / Abs softkey. The distance between max and min value must be at least one
decade.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​STATistics:​SCALe:​Y:​LOWer​ on page 567
y-Unit % / Abs ← Scaling ← APD
Defines the scaling type of the y-axis. The default value is absolute scaling.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​STATistics:​SCALe:​Y:​UNIT​ on page 567
Default Settings ← Scaling ← APD
Resets the x- and y-axis scalings to their preset values.
x-axis ref level:
-10 dBm
x-axis range APD:
100 dB
x-axis range CCDF:
20 dB
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y-axis upper limit:
1.0
y-axis lower limit:
1E-6
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​STATistics:​PRESet​ on page 566
Adjust Settings ← Scaling ← APD
Adjusts the level settings according to the measured difference between peak and minimum power for APD measurement or peak and mean power for CCDF measurement in
order to obtain maximum power resolution. Adjusts the reference level to the current input
signal. For details see also the ​Adjust Ref Lvl softkey.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​STATistics:​SCALe:​AUTO ONCE​ on page 566
Gated Trigger (On/Off) ← APD
Activates and deactivates the gating for statistics functions for the ACP and the CCDF
channel. The trigger source is changed to "EXTERN" if this function is switched on. The
gate ranges are defined using the ​"Gate Ranges" on page 177 softkey.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​EGATe​ on page 607
​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​EGATe:​SOURce​ on page 608
Gate Ranges ← APD
Opens a dialog to configure up to 3 gate ranges for each trace.
For details on configuration, see ​"Defining Gated Triggering for APD and CCDF"
on page 184.
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Remote command:
SWE:EGAT ON (see ​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​EGATe​ on page 607)
Switches on the external gate mode.
SWE:EGAT:TRAC1:COMM "SlotA" (see ​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​EGATe:​TRACe<k>:​
COMMent​ on page 564)
Adds a comment to trace 1.
SWE:EGAT:TRAC1:STAT1 ON (see ​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​EGATe:​TRACe<k>[:​
STATe<range>]​ on page 565)
Activates tracing for range 1 of trace 1.
SWE:EGAT:TRAC1:STAR1 3ms (see ​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​EGATe:​TRACe<k>:​
STARt<range>​ on page 564)
Sets the starting point for range 1 on trace 1 at 3 ms.
SWE:EGAT:TRAC1:STop1 5ms (see ​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​EGATe:​TRACe<k>:​
STOP<range>​ on page 565)
Sets the stopping point for range 1 on trace 1 at 5 ms.
SWE:EGAT:TRAC1:PER 5ms (see ​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​EGATe:​TRACe<k>:​ PERiod​
on page 564)
Defines the period for gated triggering to 5 ms.
Adjust Settings ← APD
Adjusts the level settings according to the measured difference between peak and minimum power for APD measurement or peak and mean power for CCDF measurement in
order to obtain maximum power resolution. Adjusts the reference level to the current input
signal. For details see also the ​Adjust Ref Lvl softkey.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​STATistics:​SCALe:​AUTO ONCE​ on page 566
Softkeys for CCDF Measurements
CCDF..........................................................................................................................179
└ Percent Marker.............................................................................................179
└ Res BW.........................................................................................................180
└ # of Samples.................................................................................................180
└ Scaling..........................................................................................................180
└ x-Axis Ref Level..................................................................................180
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└ x-Axis Range......................................................................................180
└ Range Log 100 dB....................................................................181
└ Range Log 50 dB......................................................................181
└ Range Log 10 dB......................................................................181
└ Range Log 5 dB........................................................................181
└ Range Log 1 dB........................................................................182
└ Range Log Manual...................................................................182
└ Range Linear %........................................................................182
└ Range Lin. Unit.........................................................................182
└ y-Axis Max Value................................................................................182
└ y-Axis Min Value.................................................................................183
└ y-Unit % / Abs.....................................................................................183
└ Default Settings..................................................................................183
└ Adjust Settings....................................................................................183
└ Gated Trigger (On/Off)..................................................................................183
└ Gate Ranges.................................................................................................183
└ Adjust Settings..............................................................................................184
CCDF
Activates the function to measure the complementary cumulative distribution function
(CCDF) and opens a submenu.
After a CCDF measurement, the results are displayed in a table beneath the diagram.
Mean
Mean power
Peak
Peak power
Crest
Crest factor (peak power – mean power)
0,01 %
Level values over 0,01 % above mean power
0,1 %
Level values over 0,1 % above mean power
1%
Level values over 1 % above mean power
10 %
Level values over 10 % above mean power
In addition, a red reference line indicating the calculated Gauss distribution is displayed.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​STATistics:​CCDF[:​STATe]​ on page 562
Activates the CCDF measurement.
​CALCulate<n>:​STATistics:​CCDF:​X<Trace>​ on page 563
Reads out the level values for 1 % probability.
Percent Marker ← CCDF
Opens an edit dialog box to enter a probability value and to position marker 1. Thus, the
power which is exceeded with a given probability can be determined very easily. If marker
1 is deactivated, it will be switched on automatically.
As all markers, the percent marker can be moved simply by touching it with a finger or
mouse cursor and dragging it to the desired position.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​Y:​PERCent​ on page 643
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Res BW ← CCDF
Opens an edit dialog box to set the resolution bandwidth directly.
For correct measurement of the signal statistics the resolution bandwidth has to be wider
than the signal bandwidth in order to measure the actual peaks of the signal amplitude
correctly. In order not to influence the peak amplitudes the video bandwidth is automatically set to 10 MHz. The sample detector is used for detecting the video voltage.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]BANDwidth|BWIDth[:​RESolution]​ on page 448
# of Samples ← CCDF
Opens an edit dialog box to set the number of power measurements that are taken into
account for the statistics.
Apart from the number of measurements the overall measurement time depends also on
the set resolution bandwidth as the resolution bandwidth directly influences the sampling
rate.
For details see ​"Selecting the number of samples" on page 170.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​STATistics:​NSAMples​ on page 562
Scaling ← CCDF
Opens a submenu to change the scaling parameters of x- and y-axis.
x-Axis Ref Level ← Scaling ← CCDF
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the reference level in the currently active unit (dBm,
dBµV, etc). The function of this softkey is identical to the "Ref Level" softkey in the
"Amplitude" menu (see ​"Ref Level" on page 209).
For the APD function this value is mapped to the right diagram border. For the CCDF
function there is no direct representation of this value on the diagram as the x-axis is
scaled relatively to the measured mean power.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​STATistics:​SCALe:​X:​RLEVel​ on page 567
x-Axis Range ← Scaling ← CCDF
Opens the "Range" submenu to select a value for the level range to be covered by the
statistics measurement selected.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​STATistics:​SCALe:​X:​RANGe​ on page 566
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Range Log 100 dB ← x-Axis Range ← Scaling ← CCDF
Sets the level display range to 100 dB.
Remote command:
Logarithmic scaling:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:SPAC LOG, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y:​
SPACing​ on page 446
Display range:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y 100DB, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y[:​SCALe]​
on page 610
Range Log 50 dB ← x-Axis Range ← Scaling ← CCDF
Sets the level display range to 50 dB.
Remote command:
Logarithmic scaling:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:SPAC LOG, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y:​
SPACing​ on page 446
Display range:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y 50DB, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y[:​SCALe]​
on page 610
Range Log 10 dB ← x-Axis Range ← Scaling ← CCDF
Sets the level display range to 10 dB.
Remote command:
Logarithmic scaling:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:SPAC LOG, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y:​
SPACing​ on page 446
Display range:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y 10DB, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y[:​SCALe]​
on page 610
Range Log 5 dB ← x-Axis Range ← Scaling ← CCDF
Sets the level display range to 5 dB.
Remote command:
Logarithmic scaling:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:SPAC LOG, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y:​
SPACing​ on page 446
Display range:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y 5DB, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y[:​SCALe]​
on page 610
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Range Log 1 dB ← x-Axis Range ← Scaling ← CCDF
Sets the level display range to 1 dB.
Remote command:
Logarithmic scaling:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:SPAC LOG, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y:​
SPACing​ on page 446
Display range:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y 1DB, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y[:​SCALe]​
on page 610
Range Log Manual ← x-Axis Range ← Scaling ← CCDF
Opens an edit dialog box to define the display range of a logarithmic level axis manually.
Remote command:
Logarithmic scaling:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:SPAC LOG, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y:​
SPACing​ on page 446
Display range:
​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y[:​SCALe]​ on page 610
Range Linear % ← x-Axis Range ← Scaling ← CCDF
Selects linear scaling for the level axis in %.
The grid is divided into decadal sections.
Markers are displayed in the selected unit ("Unit" softkey). Delta markers are displayed
in % referenced to the voltage value at the position of marker 1. This is the default setting
for linear scaling.
Remote command:
DISP:TRAC:Y:SPAC LIN, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y:​SPACing​
on page 446
Range Lin. Unit ← x-Axis Range ← Scaling ← CCDF
Selects linear scaling in dB for the level display range, i.e. the horizontal lines are labeled
in dB.
Markers are displayed in the selected unit ("Unit" softkey). Delta markers are displayed
in dB referenced to the power value at the position of marker 1.
Remote command:
DISP:TRAC:Y:SPAC LDB, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y:​SPACing​
on page 446
y-Axis Max Value ← Scaling ← CCDF
Opens an edit dialog box to define the upper limit of the displayed probability range.
Values on the y-axis are normalized which means that the maximum value is 1.0. The yaxis scaling is defined via the ​y-Unit % / Abs softkey. The distance between max and min
value must be at least one decade.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​STATistics:​SCALe:​Y:​UPPer​ on page 568
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y-Axis Min Value ← Scaling ← CCDF
Opens an edit dialog box to define the lower limit of the displayed probability range. Values in the range 1e-9 < value < 0.1 are allowed. The y-axis scaling is defined via the ​yUnit % / Abs softkey. The distance between max and min value must be at least one
decade.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​STATistics:​SCALe:​Y:​LOWer​ on page 567
y-Unit % / Abs ← Scaling ← CCDF
Defines the scaling type of the y-axis. The default value is absolute scaling.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​STATistics:​SCALe:​Y:​UNIT​ on page 567
Default Settings ← Scaling ← CCDF
Resets the x- and y-axis scalings to their preset values.
x-axis ref level:
-10 dBm
x-axis range APD:
100 dB
x-axis range CCDF:
20 dB
y-axis upper limit:
1.0
y-axis lower limit:
1E-6
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​STATistics:​PRESet​ on page 566
Adjust Settings ← Scaling ← CCDF
Adjusts the level settings according to the measured difference between peak and minimum power for APD measurement or peak and mean power for CCDF measurement in
order to obtain maximum power resolution. Adjusts the reference level to the current input
signal. For details see also the ​Adjust Ref Lvl softkey.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​STATistics:​SCALe:​AUTO ONCE​ on page 566
Gated Trigger (On/Off) ← CCDF
Activates and deactivates the gating for statistics functions for the ACP and the CCDF
channel. The trigger source is changed to "EXTERN" if this function is switched on. The
gate ranges are defined using the ​"Gate Ranges" on page 177 softkey.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​EGATe​ on page 607
​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​EGATe:​SOURce​ on page 608
Gate Ranges ← CCDF
Opens a dialog to configure up to 3 gate ranges for each trace.
For details on configuration, see ​"Defining Gated Triggering for APD and CCDF"
on page 184.
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Remote command:
SWE:EGAT ON (see ​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​EGATe​ on page 607)
Switches on the external gate mode.
SWE:EGAT:TRAC1:COMM "SlotA" (see ​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​EGATe:​TRACe<k>:​
COMMent​ on page 564)
Adds a comment to trace 1.
SWE:EGAT:TRAC1:STAT1 ON (see ​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​EGATe:​TRACe<k>[:​
STATe<range>]​ on page 565)
Activates tracing for range 1 of trace 1.
SWE:EGAT:TRAC1:STAR1 3ms (see ​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​EGATe:​TRACe<k>:​
STARt<range>​ on page 564)
Sets the starting point for range 1 on trace 1 at 3 ms.
SWE:EGAT:TRAC1:STop1 5ms (see ​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​EGATe:​TRACe<k>:​
STOP<range>​ on page 565)
Sets the stopping point for range 1 on trace 1 at 5 ms.
SWE:EGAT:TRAC1:PER 5ms (see ​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​EGATe:​TRACe<k>:​ PERiod​
on page 564)
Defines the period for gated triggering to 5 ms.
Adjust Settings ← CCDF
Adjusts the level settings according to the measured difference between peak and minimum power for APD measurement or peak and mean power for CCDF measurement in
order to obtain maximum power resolution. Adjusts the reference level to the current input
signal. For details see also the ​Adjust Ref Lvl softkey.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​STATistics:​SCALe:​AUTO ONCE​ on page 566
Defining Gated Triggering for APD and CCDF
Statistic measurements on pulsed signals can be performed using GATED TRIGGER.
An external frame trigger is required as a time (frame) reference.
The gate ranges define the part of the I/Q capture data taken into account for the statistics
calculation. These ranges are defined relative to a reference point T=0. The gate interval
is repeated for each period until the end of the I/Q capture buffer.
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The reference point T=0 is defined by the external trigger event and the instrument's
trigger offset.
For each trace you can define up to 3 separate ranges of a single period to be traced.
Defining gated triggering
1. Press the "Gated Trigger" softkey to activate gated triggering (see ​"Gated Trigger
(On/Off)" on page 177).
2. Press the "Gate Ranges" softkey to open the "Gate Ranges" dialog (see ​"Gate
Ranges" on page 177).
3. Define the length of the period to be analyzed in the "Period" field.
Note: The period is the same for all traces. If you change the period for one trace, it
is automatically changed for all traces.
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Make sure the defined period is not longer than the acquisition time of the current
measurement. Keep in mind that the acquisition time depends on the bandwidth and
the number of samples settings (see ​"Selecting the number of samples"
on page 170). The current acquisition time is indicated as "AQT" in the channel bar.
4. Optionally, define a description of the trace in the "Comment" field.
5. Activate tracing for the range by selecting "On" in the "Range <number> Use" field
for the corresponding range and trace.
The start and stop time edit fields are ready for input.
Note: The time values have full numerical resolution and are only rounded for display.
6. Define the starting point of the range within the period.
7. Define the stopping point for the range within the period. Make sure the value for the
stopping time is smaller than the length of the period.
8. To define further ranges for the same period in the same trace, repeat steps 5- 7 for
the same trace.
To define further ranges for the same period in a different trace, repeat steps 4- 7 for
a different trace.
9. If necessary, activate the configured traces in the "Trace" menu.
Gated statistics configuration example
A statistics evaluation has to be done over the useful part of the signal between t3 and
t4. The period of the GSM signal is 4.61536 ms
t1: External positive trigger slope
t2: Begin of burst (after 25 µs)
t3: Begin of useful part, to be used for statistics (after 40 µs)
t4: End of useful part, to be used for statistics (after 578 µs)
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t5: End of burst (after 602 µs)
The instrument has to be configured as follows:
3.1.1.11
Trigger Offset
t2 – t1 = 25 µs
now the gate ranges are relative to t2
Range1 Start
t3 – t2 = 15 µs
start of range 1 relative to t2
Range1 End
t4 – t2 = 553 µs
end of range 1 relative to t2
Measuring the Third Order Intercept Point (TOI)
In order to measure the third order intercept point (TOI), a two-tone signal with equal
carrier levels is expected at the R&S ESR input. Marker 1 and marker 2 (both normal
markers) are set to the maximum of the two signals. Marker 3 and marker 4 are placed
on the intermodulation products.
The R&S ESR calculates the third order intercept point from the level difference between
the first 2 markers and the markers 3 and 4 and displays it in the marker field.
The third order intercept point is measured using the "TOI" softkey, see ​"TOI"
on page 84.
About TOI Measurement
If several signals are applied to a transmission two-port device with nonlinear characteristic, intermodulation products appear at its output at the sums and differences of the
signals. The nonlinear characteristic produces harmonics of the useful signals which
intermodulate at the characteristic. The intermodulation products of lower order have a
special effect since their level is largest and they are near the useful signals. The intermodulation product of third order causes the highest interference. It is the intermodulation
product generated from one of the useful signals and the 2nd harmonic of the second
useful signal in case of two-tone modulation.
The frequencies of the intermodulation products are above and below the useful signals.
The ​figure 3-9 shows intermodulation products PI1 and PI2 generated by the two useful
signals PU1 and PU2.
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Fig. 3-9: Intermodulation products PU1 and PU2
The intermodulation product at fI2 is generated by mixing the 2nd harmonic of useful signal
PU2 and signal PU1, the intermodulation product at fI1 by mixing the 2nd harmonic of useful
signal PU1 and signal PU2.
fi1 = 2 × fu1 – fu2 (6)
fi2 = 2 × fu2 – fu1 (7)
Dependency on level of useful signals
The level of the intermodulation products depends on the level of the useful signals. If
the two useful signals are increased by 1 dB, the level of the intermodulation products
increases by 3 dB, which means that spacing aD3 between intermodulation signals and
useful signals are reduced by 2 dB. This is illustrated in ​figure 3-10.
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Fig. 3-10: Dependency of intermodulation level on useful signal level
The useful signals at the two-port output increase proportionally with the input level as
long as the two-port is in the linear range. A level change of 1 dB at the input causes a
level change of 1 dB at the output. Beyond a certain input level, the two-port goes into
compression and the output level stops increasing. The intermodulation products of the
third order increase three times as much as the useful signals. The intercept point is the
fictitious level where the two lines intersect. It cannot be measured directly since the
useful level is previously limited by the maximum two-port output power.
Calculation method
It can be calculated from the known line slopes and the measured spacing aD3 at a given
level according to the following formula:
IP3 
aD 3
 PN
2
The 3rd order intercept point (TOI), for example, is calculated for an intermodulation of 60
dB and an input level PU of -20 dBm according to the following formula:
IP3 
60
 (20dBm)  10dBm
2
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Intermodulation-free dynamic range
The "Intermodulation-free dynamic range", i.e. the level range in which no internal intermodulation products are generated if two-tone signals are measured, is determined by
the 3rd order intercept point, the phase noise and the thermal noise of the signal analyzer.
At high signal levels, the range is determined by intermodulation products. At low signal
levels, intermodulation products disappear below the noise floor, i.e. the noise floor and
the phase noise of the signal analyzer determine the range. The noise floor and the phase
noise depend on the resolution bandwidth that has been selected. At the smallest resolution bandwidth, the noise floor and phase noise are at a minimum and so the maximum
range is obtained. However, a large increase in sweep time is required for small resolution
bandwidths. It is, therefore, best to select the largest resolution bandwidth possible to
obtain the range that is required. Since phase noise decreases as the carrier-offset
increases, its influence decreases with increasing frequency offset from the useful signals.
The following diagrams illustrate the intermodulation-free dynamic range as a function of
the selected bandwidth and of the level at the input mixer (= signal level – set RF attenuation) at different useful signal offsets.
Fig. 3-11: Intermodulation-free range of the R&S ESR as a function of level at the input mixer and the
set resolution bandwidth
(Useful signal offset = 1 MHz, DANL = -145 dBm/Hz, TOI = 15 dBm; typical values at 2
GHz)
The optimum mixer level, i.e. the level at which the intermodulation distance is at its
maximum, depends on the bandwidth. At a resolution bandwidth of 10 Hz, it is approx.
-35 dBm and at 1 kHz increases to approx. -30 dBm.
Phase noise has a considerable influence on the intermodulation-free range at carrier
offsets between 10 and 100 kHz ( ​figure 3-11). At greater bandwidths, the influence of
the phase noise is greater than it would be with small bandwidths. The optimum mixer
level at the bandwidths under consideration becomes almost independent of bandwidth
and is approx. -40 dBm.
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Fig. 3-12: Intermodulation-free dynamic range of the R&S ESR as a function of level at the input mixer
and of the selected resolution bandwidth
(Useful signal offset = 10 to 100 kHz, DANL = -145 dBm/Hz, TOI = 15 dBm; typical values
at 2 GHz).
If the intermodulation products of a DUT with a very high dynamic range are to be measured and the resolution bandwidth to be used is therefore very small, it is best to measure
the levels of the useful signals and those of the intermodulation products separately using
a small span. The measurement time will be reduced- in particular if the offset of the
useful signals is large. To find signals reliably when frequency span is small, it is best to
synchronize the signal sources and the R&S ESR.
Measurement Results
As a result of the TOI measurement, the following values are displayed in the marker
area of the diagram:
Label
Description
TOI
Third-order intercept point
M1
Maximum of first useful signal
M2
Maximum of second useful signal
M3
First intermodulation product
M4
Second intermodulation product
Remote command
The TOI can also be queried using the remote command ​CALCulate<n>:​
MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​TOI:​RESult?​ on page 561.
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Softkeys for TOI Measurements
TOI..............................................................................................................................192
└ Marker 1 / Marker 2 / Marker 3 / … Marker 16,/ Marker Norm/Delta............192
└ Search Signals..............................................................................................192
TOI
Opens a submenu and activates the measurement of the 3rd order intercept point.
A two-tone signal with equal carrier levels is expected at the R&S ESR input. Marker 1
and marker 2 (both normal markers) are set to the maximum of the two signals. Marker
3 and marker 4 are placed on the intermodulation products.
The R&S ESR calculates the third order intercept point from the level difference between
the first 2 markers and the markers 3 and 4 and displays it in the marker field.
For general information on measuring the TOI see ​chapter 3.1.1.11, "Measuring the Third
Order Intercept Point (TOI)", on page 187.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​TOI[:​STATe]​ on page 560
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​TOI:​RESult?​ on page 561
Marker 1 / Marker 2 / Marker 3 / … Marker 16,/ Marker Norm/Delta ← TOI
The "Marker X" softkey activates the corresponding marker and opens an edit dialog box
to enter a value for the marker to be set to. Pressing the softkey again deactivates the
selected marker.
If a marker value is changed using the rotary knob, the step size is defined via the ​Stepsize
Standard or ​Stepsize Sweep Points softkeys.
Marker 1 is always the reference marker for relative measurements. If activated, markers
2 to 16 are delta markers that refer to marker 1. These markers can be converted into
markers with absolute value display using the "Marker Norm/Delta" softkey. If marker 1
is the active marker, pressing the "Marker Norm/Delta" softkey switches on an additional
delta marker.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>[:​STATe]​ on page 470
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​X​ on page 471
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​Y​ on page 472
​CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>[:​STATe]​ on page 476
​CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​X​ on page 477
​CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​X:​RELative​ on page 477
​CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​Y​ on page 477
Search Signals ← TOI
Activates all markers.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​TOI:​SEARchsignal ONCE​ on page 560
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3.1.1.12
Measuring the AM Modulation Depth
The AM modulation depth, also known as a modulation index, indicates by how much the
modulated signal varies around the carrier amplitude. It is defined as:
MDepth = peak signal amplitude / unmodulated carrier amplitude
So for MDepth = 0.5, for example, the carrier amplitude varies by 50% above and below
its unmodulated level, and for h = 1.0 it varies by 100%.
You can measure the modulation depth of a modulated signal using the ​AM Mod Depth
function.
When this function is activated, marker 1 is set to the peak level, which is considered to
be the carrier level. Deltamarkers 2 and 3 are automatically set symmetrically to the carrier on the adjacent peak values of the trace. The markers can be adjusted manually, if
necessary.
The R&S ESR calculates the power at the marker positions from the measured levels.
The AM modulation depth is calculated as the ratio between the power values at the
reference marker and at the delta markers. If the powers of the two AM side bands are
unequal, the mean value of the two power values is used for AM modulation depth calculation.
A remote control programming example is described in ​chapter 8.15.2.3, "Measuring the
AM Modulation Depth", on page 753 and a example of how to perform the measurement
manually in the Quick Start Guide in chapter "Measurement Examples".
Measurement results
The AM modulation depth in percent is displayed as a result of the measurement, indicated in the marker results as "MDepth".
It can also be queried using the remote command ​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​
FUNCtion:​MDEPth:​RESult?​ on page 555.
Softkeys for AM Modulation Depth Measurements
AM Mod Depth............................................................................................................193
└ Marker 1 / Marker 2 / Marker 3 / … Marker 16,/ Marker Norm/Delta............194
└ Search Signals..............................................................................................194
AM Mod Depth
Activates the measurement of the AM modulation depth. An AM-modulated carrier is
required on the screen to ensure correct operation.
When this function is activated, marker 1 is set to the peak level, which is considered to
be the carrier level. Deltamarkers 2 and 3 are automatically set symmetrically to the carrier on the adjacent peak values of the trace. An edit dialog box is displayed for deltamarker 2 in order to adjust the position manually.
When the position of deltamarker 2 is changed, deltamarker 3 is moved symmetrically
with respect to the reference marker 1.
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Deltamarker 3, on the other hand, can be moved for fine adjustment irrespective of marker
2.
Marker 1 can also be moved manually for re-adjustment without affecting the position of
the deltamarkers.
For general information on measuring the AM modulation depth see ​chapter 3.1.1.12,
"Measuring the AM Modulation Depth", on page 193.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​MDEPth[:​STATe]​ on page 555
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​MDEPth:​RESult?​ on page 555
Marker 1 / Marker 2 / Marker 3 / … Marker 16,/ Marker Norm/Delta ← AM Mod Depth
The "Marker X" softkey activates the corresponding marker and opens an edit dialog box
to enter a value for the marker to be set to. Pressing the softkey again deactivates the
selected marker.
If a marker value is changed using the rotary knob, the step size is defined via the ​Stepsize
Standard or ​Stepsize Sweep Points softkeys.
Marker 1 is always the reference marker for relative measurements. If activated, markers
2 to 16 are delta markers that refer to marker 1. These markers can be converted into
markers with absolute value display using the "Marker Norm/Delta" softkey. If marker 1
is the active marker, pressing the "Marker Norm/Delta" softkey switches on an additional
delta marker.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>[:​STATe]​ on page 470
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​X​ on page 471
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​Y​ on page 472
​CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>[:​STATe]​ on page 476
​CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​X​ on page 477
​CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​X:​RELative​ on page 477
​CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​Y​ on page 477
Search Signals ← AM Mod Depth
Activates all markers.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​MDEPth:​SEARchsignal ONCE​
on page 554
3.1.1.13
Measuring Harmonic Distortion
The harmonics and their distortion can be measured using the ​"Harmonic Distortion"
on page 85 function.
With this measurement it is possible to measure the harmonics e.g. from a VCO easily.
In addition the THD (total harmonic distortion) is calculated in % and dB.
With span > 0 Hz, an automatic search for the first harmonic is carried out within the set
frequency range. Also the level is adjusted. In zero span, the center frequency is
unchanged.
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As a result, the zero span sweeps on all harmonics are shown, as well as the RMS values
and the THD (total harmonic distortion).
About Harmonics Distortion Measurement
Measuring the harmonics of a signal is a frequent problem which can be solved best using
a signal analyzer. In general, every signal contains harmonics which are larger than others. Harmonics are particularly critical regarding high-power transmitters such as transceivers because large harmonics can interfere with other radio services.
Harmonics are generated by nonlinear characteristics. They can often be reduced by low
pass filters. Since the signal analyzer has a nonlinear characteristic, e.g. in its first mixer,
measures must be taken to ensure that harmonics produced in the signal analyzer do
not cause spurious results. If necessary, the fundamental wave must be selectively attenuated with respect to the other harmonics with a high pass filter.
Obtainable dynamic range
When harmonics are being measured, the obtainable dynamic range depends on the
second harmonic intercept of the signal analyzer. The second harmonic intercept is the
virtual input level at the RF input mixer at which the level of the 2nd harmonic becomes
equal to the level of the fundamental wave. In practice, however, applying a level of this
magnitude would damage the mixer. Nevertheless, the available dynamic range for
measuring the harmonic distance of a DUT can be calculated relatively easily using the
second harmonic intercept.
As shown in ​figure 3-13, the level of the 2nd harmonic drops by 20 dB if the level of the
fundamental wave is reduced by 10 dB.
Fig. 3-13: Extrapolation of the 1st and 2nd harmonics to the 2nd harmonic intercept at 40 dBm
The following formula for the obtainable harmonic distortion d2 in dB is derived from the
straight-line equations and the given intercept point:
d2 = S.H.I – PI (1)
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where:
d2
=
harmonic distortion
PI
=
mixer level/dBm
S.H.I.
=
second harmonic intercept
The mixer level is the RF level applied to the RF input minus the set RF attenuation.
The formula for the internally generated level P1 at the 2nd harmonic in dBm is:
P1 = 2 * PI – S.H.I. (2)
The lower measurement limit for the harmonic is the noise floor of the signal analyzer.
The harmonic of the measured DUT should – if sufficiently averaged by means of a video
filter – be at least 4 dB above the noise floor so that the measurement error due to the
input noise is less than 1 dB.
The following rules for measuring high harmonic ratios can be derived:
●
Select the smallest possible IF bandwidth for a minimal noise floor.
●
Select an RF attenuation which is high enough to just measure the harmonic ratio.
The maximum harmonic distortion is obtained if the level of the harmonic equals the
intrinsic noise level of the receiver. The level applied to the mixer, according to (2), is:
At a resolution bandwidth of 10 Hz (noise level -143 dBm, S.H.I. = 40 dBm), the optimum
mixer level is – 51.5 dBm. According to (1) a maximum measurable harmonic distortion
of 91.5 dB minus a minimum S/N ratio of 4 dB is obtained.
If the harmonic emerges from noise sufficiently (approx. >15 dB), it is easy to check (by
changing the RF attenuation) whether the harmonics originate from the DUT or are generated internally by the signal analyzer. If a harmonic originates from the DUT, its level
remains constant if the RF attenuation is increased by 10 dB. Only the displayed noise
is increased by 10 dB due to the additional attenuation. If the harmonic is exclusively
generated by the signal analyzer, the level of the harmonic is reduced by 20 dB or is lost
in noise. If both – the DUT and the signal analyzer – contribute to the harmonic, the
reduction in the harmonic level is correspondingly smaller.
High-Sensitivity Harmonics Measurements
If harmonics have very small levels, the resolution bandwidth required to measure them
must be reduced considerably. The sweep time is, therefore, also increased considerably. In this case, the measurement of individual harmonics is carried out with the
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R&S ESR set to a small span. Only the frequency range around the harmonics will then
be measured with a small resolution bandwidth.
Measurement Results
As a result of the harmonics distortion measurement, the zero span sweeps on all detected harmonics are shown in the diagram, separated by red display lines. This provides a
very good overview of the measurement.
In addition, a result table is displayed providing the following information:
●
1st harmonic frequency
●
THD (total harmonic distortion), relative and absolute values
●
For each detected harmonic:
– Frequency
–
RBW
–
Power
The results can also be queried using the remote commands:
THD: ​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​HARMonics:​DISTortion?​
on page 557
List of harmonics: ​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​HARMonics:​LIST?​
on page 557
Softkeys for Harmonic Distortion Measurements
Harmonic Distortion.....................................................................................................197
└ No. of Harmonics..........................................................................................198
└ Harmonic Sweep Time..................................................................................198
└ Harmonic RBW Auto.....................................................................................198
└ Adjust Settings..............................................................................................198
Harmonic Distortion
Opens a submenu to determine the settings for harmonics measurement and activates
the harmonic distortion measurement.
With this measurement you can measure the harmonics of a signal. In addition the THD
(total harmonic distortion) is calculated in % and dB.
With span > 0 Hz, an automatic search for the first harmonic is carried out within the set
frequency range. Also the level is adjusted. In zero span, the center frequency is
unchanged.
In the upper window, the zero span sweeps on all harmonics are shown, separated by
display lines. In the lower window, the mean RMS results are displayed in numerical
values. The THD values are displayed in the marker field.
For details see ​chapter 3.1.1.13, "Measuring Harmonic Distortion", on page 194.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​HARMonics[:​STATe]​ on page 559
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​HARMonics:​DISTortion?​ on page 557
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​HARMonics:​LIST?​ on page 557
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No. of Harmonics ← Harmonic Distortion
Sets the number of harmonics that shall be measured. The range is from 1 to 26.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​HARMonics:​NHARmonics​ on page 558
Harmonic Sweep Time ← Harmonic Distortion
For details refer to the ​Sweeptime Manual softkey in the "Bandwidth" menu.
Harmonic RBW Auto ← Harmonic Distortion
Enables/disables the automatic adjustment of the resolution bandwidth for filter types
Normal (3dB) (Gaussian) and 5-Pole filters. The automatic adjustment is carried out
according to:
"RBWn = RBW1 * n"
If RBWn is not available, the next higher value is used.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​HARMonics:​BANDwidth:​AUTO​
on page 556
Adjust Settings ← Harmonic Distortion
Activates the frequency search in the frequency range that was set before starting the
harmonic measurement (if harmonic measurement was with span > 0) and adjusts the
level.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​HARMonics:​PRESet​ on page 558
3.1.2 Measurement Configuration – MEAS CONFIG Key
The MEAS CONFIG key displays the submenu of the currently activated and running
measurement function, e.g. the submenu of "TOI" or "Harmonic Distortion" (see ​chapter 3.1.1, "Power Measurements – MEAS Key", on page 81, for quick access to the measurement configuration. If no measurement function is activated, this key has no effect.
3.1.3 Performing Measurements – RUN SINGLE/RUN CONT Keys
The RUN SINGLE and RUN CONT keys are used to start measurement tasks.
●
RUN SINGLE switches to single sweep mode and performs a single sweep, just as
the ​Single Sweep softkey in the "Sweep" menu does.
●
RUN CONT switches to continuous sweep mode and starts sweeping, just as the ​
Continuous Sweep softkey in the "Sweep" menu does.
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3.2 Configuration
Basic measurement settings that are common to many measurement tasks are described
here. If you are performing a specific measurement task or using an operating mode other
than Spectrum mode, be sure to check the specific measurement or mode description
for settings that may deviate from these common settings.
3.2.1 Initializing the Configuration – PRESET Key
The PRESET key resets the instrument to the default setting and therefore provides a
defined initial state as a known starting point for measurements.
If the "local lockout" function is active in the remote control mode, the PRESET key is
disabled.
Further information
●
​chapter 3.2.1.2, "Initial Configuration", on page 200
Task
●
3.2.1.1
​chapter 3.2.1.1, "Presetting the Instrument", on page 199
Presetting the Instrument
1. Define the data set for the presetting:
a) To retrieve the originally provided settings file (see ​chapter 3.2.1.2, "Initial Configuration", on page 200), deactivate the "Startup Recall" softkey in the "SAVE/
RCL" menu.
b) To retrieve a customized settings file, in the "File" menu, activate the "Startup
Recall" softkey, press the "Startup Recall Setup" softkey, and select the corresponding file.
For details refer to ​chapter 7.1, "Saving and Recalling Settings Files – SAVE/RCL
Key", on page 377.
2. Press the PRESET key to perform a preset.
Remote: *RST or ​SYSTem:​PRESet​
After you use the PRESET function, the history of previous actions is deleted, i.e. any
actions performed previously cannot be undone or redone using the UNDO/REDO keys.
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3.2.1.2
Initial Configuration
The initial configuration is selected such that the RF input is always protected against
overload, provided that the applied signal levels are in the allowed range for the instrument.
The parameter set of the initial configuration can be customized using the "Startup Recall"
softkey in the "Save/Rcl" menu. For further information refer to ​chapter 7.1, "Saving and
Recalling Settings Files – SAVE/RCL Key", on page 377.
Table 3-5: Initial configuration
Parameter
Setting
mode
Spectrum
sweep mode
auto
center frequency
fmax/2
center frequency step size
0.1 * span
span
R&S ESR3: 3.6 GHz
R&S ESR7: 7 GHz
RF attenuation
0 dB
reference level
-10 dBm
level range
100 dB log
level unit
dBm
sweep time
auto
resolution bandwidth
auto (3 MHz)
video bandwidth
auto (3 MHz)
FFT filters
off
span/RBW
100
RBW/VBW
1
sweep
cont
trigger
free run
trace 1
clr write
trace 2/3/4/5/6
blank
detector
auto peak
frequency offset
0 Hz
reference level offset
0 dB
reference level position
100 %
grid
abs
cal correction
on
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Parameter
Setting
noise source
off
input
RF
3.2.2 Selecting the Frequency and Span – FREQ Key
The FREQ key is used to configure the frequency axis, to set the frequency offset and
the signal track function. You can configure the frequency axis either by the start and stop
frequency or the center frequency and the span.
To open the Frequency menu
●
Press the FREQ key.
The "Frequency" menu is displayed. The "Frequency Center" edit dialog box is displayed.
Menu and softkey description
●
​chapter 3.2.2.1, "Softkeys of the Frequency Menu", on page 201
Tasks
3.2.2.1
●
​chapter 3.2.2.2, "Specifying the Frequency Axis by the Start and Stop Frequency",
on page 205
●
​chapter 3.2.2.3, "Specifying the Frequency Axis by the Center Frequency and the
Span", on page 205
●
​chapter 3.2.2.4, "Specifying the Step Size for the Arrow Keys and the Rotary Knob",
on page 205
●
​chapter 3.2.2.5, "Modifying the Frequency Axis by an Offset", on page 206
●
​chapter 3.2.2.6, "Tracking Signals (Span > 0)", on page 206
Softkeys of the Frequency Menu
The following chapter describes all softkeys available in the "Frequency" menu. It is possible that your instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is only
available with a special option, model or (measurement) mode, this information is provided in the corresponding softkey description.
Center.........................................................................................................................202
CF Stepsize.................................................................................................................202
└ 0.1*Span (span > 0)......................................................................................202
└ 0.1*RBW (span > 0)......................................................................................202
└ 0.5*Span (span > 0)......................................................................................203
└ 0.5*RBW (span > 0)......................................................................................203
└ x*Span (span > 0).........................................................................................203
└ x*RBW (span > 0).........................................................................................203
└ =Center.........................................................................................................203
└ =Marker.........................................................................................................203
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└ Manual..........................................................................................................204
Start.............................................................................................................................204
Stop.............................................................................................................................204
Frequency Offset.........................................................................................................204
Signal Track (span > 0)...............................................................................................204
└ Track On/Off (span > 0)................................................................................205
└ Track BW (span > 0).....................................................................................205
└ Track Threshold (span > 0)...........................................................................205
└ Select Trace (span > 0)................................................................................205
Center
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the center frequency. The allowed range of values for
the center frequency depends on the frequency span.
span > 0: spanmin/2 ≤ fcenter ≤ fmax – spanmin/2
span = 0: 0 Hz ≤ fcenter ≤ fmax
fmax and spanmin are specified in the data sheet.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]FREQuency:​CENTer​ on page 591
CF Stepsize
Opens a submenu to set the step size of the center frequency.
The step size defines the value by which the center frequency is increased or decreased
when the arrow keys are pressed. When you use the rotary knob the center frequency
changes in steps of 10% of the "Center Frequency Stepsize".
The step size can be set to a fraction of the span (span > 0) or a fraction of the resolution
bandwidth (span = 0) or it can be set to a fixed value manually.
Apart from the ​=Center, ​=Marker and ​Manual softkeys, the other softkeys are displayed
depending on the selected frequency span.
0.1*Span (span > 0) ← CF Stepsize
Sets the step size for the center frequency to 10 % of the span.
Remote command:
FREQ:CENT:STEP:LINK SPAN, see ​[SENSe:​]FREQuency:​CENTer:​STEP:​LINK​
on page 591
FREQ:CENT:STEP:LINK:FACT 10PCT, see ​[SENSe:​]FREQuency:​CENTer:​STEP:​
LINK:​FACTor​ on page 591
0.1*RBW (span > 0) ← CF Stepsize
Sets the step size for the center frequency to 10 % of the resolution bandwidth.
This is the default setting.
Remote command:
FREQ:CENT:STEP:LINK RBW, see ​[SENSe:​]FREQuency:​CENTer:​STEP:​LINK​
on page 591
FREQ:CENT:STEP:LINK:FACT 10PCT, see ​[SENSe:​]FREQuency:​CENTer:​STEP:​
LINK:​FACTor​ on page 591
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0.5*Span (span > 0) ← CF Stepsize
Sets the step size for the center frequency to 50 % of the span.
Remote command:
FREQ:CENT:STEP:LINK SPAN, see ​[SENSe:​]FREQuency:​CENTer:​STEP:​LINK​
on page 591
FREQ:CENT:STEP:LINK:FACT 50PCT, see ​[SENSe:​]FREQuency:​CENTer:​STEP:​
LINK:​FACTor​ on page 591
0.5*RBW (span > 0) ← CF Stepsize
Sets the step size for the center frequency to 50 % of the resolution bandwidth.
Remote command:
FREQ:CENT:STEP:LINK RBW, see ​[SENSe:​]FREQuency:​CENTer:​STEP:​LINK​
on page 591
FREQ:CENT:STEP:LINK:FACT 50PCT, see ​[SENSe:​]FREQuency:​CENTer:​STEP:​
LINK:​FACTor​ on page 591
x*Span (span > 0) ← CF Stepsize
Opens an edit dialog box to set the step size for the center frequency as a percentage
(%) of the span.
Remote command:
FREQ:CENT:STEP:LINK SPAN, see ​[SENSe:​]FREQuency:​CENTer:​STEP:​LINK​
on page 591
FREQ:CENT:STEP:LINK:FACT 20PCT, see ​[SENSe:​]FREQuency:​CENTer:​STEP:​
LINK​ on page 591
x*RBW (span > 0) ← CF Stepsize
Opens an edit dialog box to set the step size for the center frequency as a percentage
(%) of the resolution bandwidth. Values between 1 % and 100 % in steps of 1 % are
allowed. The default setting is 10 %.
Remote command:
FREQ:CENT:STEP:LINK RBW, see ​[SENSe:​]FREQuency:​CENTer:​STEP:​LINK​
on page 591
FREQ:CENT:STEP:LINK:FACT 20PCT, see ​[SENSe:​]FREQuency:​CENTer:​STEP:​
LINK​ on page 591
=Center ← CF Stepsize
Sets the step size to the value of the center frequency and removes the coupling of the
step size to span or resolution bandwidth.
This function is especially useful for measurements of the signal harmonics. In this case,
each stroke of the arrow key selects the center frequency of another harmonic.
=Marker ← CF Stepsize
Sets the step size to the value of the current marker and removes the coupling of the step
size to span or resolution bandwidth.
This function is especially useful for measurements of the signal harmonics. In this case,
each stroke of the arrow key selects the center frequency of another harmonic.
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Manual ← CF Stepsize
Opens an edit dialog box to enter a fixed step size for the center frequency.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]FREQuency:​CENTer:​STEP​ on page 444
Start
Opens an edit dialog box to define the start frequency. The following range of values is
allowed:
fmin ≤ fstart ≤ fmax – spanmin
fmin, fmax and spanmin are specified in the data sheet.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]FREQuency:​STARt​ on page 592
Stop
Opens an edit dialog box to define the stop frequency. The following range of values for
the stop frequency is allowed:
fmin + spanmin ≤ fstop ≤ fmax
f min , f max and spanmin are specified in the data sheet.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]FREQuency:​STOP​ on page 593
Frequency Offset
Opens an edit dialog box to enter a frequency offset that shifts the displayed frequency
range by the specified offset.
The softkey indicates the current frequency offset. The allowed values range from
-100 GHz to 100 GHz. The default setting is 0 Hz.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]FREQuency:​OFFSet​ on page 592
Signal Track (span > 0)
Opens a submenu to define the signal tracking characteristics:
●
●
●
search bandwidth
threshold value
trace
The search bandwidth and the threshold value are shown in the diagram by two vertical
lines and one horizontal line, which are labeled as "TRK". After each sweep the center
frequency is set to the maximum signal found within the searched bandwidth. If no maximum signal above the set threshold value is found in the searched bandwidth, the track
mechanism stops.
The submenu contains the following softkeys:
●
●
●
●
​"Track On/Off (span > 0)" on page 205
​"Track BW (span > 0)" on page 205
​"Track Threshold (span > 0)" on page 205
​"Select Trace (span > 0)" on page 205
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Track On/Off (span > 0) ← Signal Track (span > 0)
Switches the signal tracking on and off.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​STRack[:​STATe]​ on page 594
Track BW (span > 0) ← Signal Track (span > 0)
Opens an edit dialog box to set the search bandwidth for signal tracking. The frequency
range is calculated as a function of the center frequency.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​STRack:​BANDwidth|BWIDth​
on page 593
Track Threshold (span > 0) ← Signal Track (span > 0)
Opens an edit dialog box to set the threshold value for signal tracking.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​STRack:​THReshold​ on page 594
Select Trace (span > 0) ← Signal Track (span > 0)
Opens an edit dialog box to select the trace on which the signal is tracked.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​STRack:​TRACe​ on page 594
3.2.2.2
Specifying the Frequency Axis by the Start and Stop Frequency
1. Press the ​Start softkey and enter a start frequency.
2. Press the ​Stop softkey and enter a stop frequency.
3.2.2.3
Specifying the Frequency Axis by the Center Frequency and the Span
1. Press the FREQ key and enter a center frequency in the "Frequency Center" edit
dialog box.
2. Press the SPAN key and enter the bandwidth you want to analyze.
Entering a value of 0 Hz causes a change to the zero span analysis mode.
3.2.2.4
Specifying the Step Size for the Arrow Keys and the Rotary Knob
1. Press the ​CF Stepsize softkey.
The available softkeys depend on the selected frequency span (zero span or
span > 0).
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2. To define the step size of the center frequency:
a) If span > 0:
Press "0.1*Span", "0.5*Span" or "x*Span" to define the step size for the center
frequency as percentage of the span (see ​CF Stepsize).
b) If span = 0:
Press "0.1*RBW", "0.5*RBW", or "x*RBW" to define the step size for the center
frequency as percentage of the resolution bandwidth (see ​CF Stepsize).
c) Press the ​=Center softkey to set the step size to the value of the center frequency
and remove the dependency of the step size to span or resolution bandwidth.
d) Press the ​=Marker softkey to set the step size to the value of the marker and
remove the dependency of the step size to span or resolution bandwidth.
e) Press the ​Manual softkey and enter a fixed step size for the center frequency.
The step size assigned to arrow keys corresponds to the selected value.
The step size of the rotary knob is always 10 % of it.
3.2.2.5
Modifying the Frequency Axis by an Offset
●
3.2.2.6
Press the ​Frequency Offset softkey and enter the offset to shift the displayed frequency span.
Tracking Signals (Span > 0)
Note that signal tracking is available for frequency spans > 0.
●
Press the ​Signal Track (span > 0) softkey to open the submenu and start and stop
signal tracking with specified parameters.
●
Press the ​Track On/Off (span > 0) softkey to switch signal tracking on or off.
●
Press the ​Track BW (span > 0) softkey and enter a bandwidth for signal tracking.
●
Press the ​Track Threshold (span > 0) softkey and enter the threshold for signal
tracking.
●
Press the ​Select Trace (span > 0) softkey and select the trace for signal tracking.
3.2.3 Setting the Frequency Span – SPAN Key
The SPAN key is used to set the frequency span to be analyzed.
To open the Span menu
●
Press the SPAN key.
The "Span" menu is displayed. For span > 0 an edit dialog box to enter the frequency
is displayed. For zero span, an edit dialog box to enter the sweep time is displayed.
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Menu and softkey description
●
​chapter 3.2.3.1, "Softkeys of the Span Menu", on page 207
Task
●
3.2.3.1
​chapter 3.2.3.2, "Specifying the Span (Alternatives)", on page 207
Softkeys of the Span Menu
The following chapter describes all softkeys available in the "Span" menu. It is possible
that your instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is only available with a special option, model or (measurement) mode, this information is provided in
the corresponding softkey description.
Functions to configure the span described elsewhere:
●
​"Last Span" on page 43
●
​"Full Span" on page 43
Span Manual...............................................................................................................207
Zero Span...................................................................................................................207
Span Manual
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the frequency span. The center frequency remains the
same when you change the span.
The following range is allowed:
span = 0: 0 Hz
span >0: spanmin ≤ f span ≤ f max
fmax and spanmin are specified in the data sheet.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]FREQuency:​SPAN​ on page 593
Zero Span
Sets the span to 0 Hz (zero span). The x-axis becomes the time axis with the grid lines
corresponding to 1/10 of the current sweep time ("SWT").
Remote command:
FREQ:SPAN 0Hz, see ​[SENSe:​]FREQuency:​SPAN​ on page 593
3.2.3.2
Specifying the Span (Alternatives)
1. To set the span, use the ​Span Manual, ​Full Span, ​Zero Span and ​Last Span softkeys.
2. To define a frequency range, use the ​Start and ​Stop softkeys of the "Frequency"
menu.
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3. In zero span, the span corresponds to the sweep time. In that case, press the ​
Sweeptime Manual softkey and enter a sweep time.
3.2.4 Setting the Level Display and Configuring the RF Input – AMPT Key
The AMPT key is used to set the reference level, the level range and unit, the scaling and
the RF attenuation.
To open the amplitude menu
●
Press the AMPT key.
The "Amplitude" menu is displayed. The "Reference Level" dialog box is displayed.
Menu and softkey description
●
​chapter 3.2.4.1, "Softkeys of the Amplitude Menu", on page 208
Tasks
●
3.2.4.1
​chapter 3.2.4.2, "Specifying the Amplitude", on page 213
Softkeys of the Amplitude Menu
The following table shows all softkeys available in the "Amplitude" menu. It is possible
that your instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is only available with a special option, model or (measurement) mode, this information is provided in
the corresponding softkey description.
Functions to configure the amplitude described elsewhere:
●
​"RF Atten Manual" on page 44
Ref Level.....................................................................................................................209
Range..........................................................................................................................209
└ Range Log 100 dB........................................................................................209
└ Range Log 50 dB..........................................................................................209
└ Range Log 10 dB..........................................................................................210
└ Range Log 5 dB............................................................................................210
└ Range Log 1 dB............................................................................................210
└ Range Log Manual........................................................................................210
└ Range Linear %............................................................................................210
└ Range Lin. Unit.............................................................................................211
Unit..............................................................................................................................211
Preamp On/Off............................................................................................................211
RF Atten Auto..............................................................................................................211
Ref Level Offset..........................................................................................................212
Ref Level Position.......................................................................................................212
Grid Abs/Rel ...............................................................................................................212
Noise Correction.........................................................................................................212
Input (AC/DC)..............................................................................................................213
Input 50 Ω/75 Ω ..........................................................................................................213
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Ref Level
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the reference level in the current unit (dBm, dBµV, etc).
The reference level is the maximum value the AD converter can handle without distortion
of the measured value. Signal levels above this value will not be measured correctly,
which is indicated by the "IFOVL" status display.
Remote command:
​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y[:​SCALe]:​RLEVel​ on page 611
Range
Opens a submenu to define the display range of the level axis.
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
​Range Log 100 dB
​Range Log 50 dB
​Range Log 10 dB
​Range Log 5 dB
​Range Log 1 dB
​Range Log Manual
​Range Linear %
​Range Lin. Unit
Range Log 100 dB ← Range
Sets the level display range to 100 dB.
Remote command:
Logarithmic scaling:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:SPAC LOG, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y:​
SPACing​ on page 446
Display range:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y 100DB, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y[:​SCALe]​
on page 610
Range Log 50 dB ← Range
Sets the level display range to 50 dB.
Remote command:
Logarithmic scaling:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:SPAC LOG, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y:​
SPACing​ on page 446
Display range:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y 50DB, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y[:​SCALe]​
on page 610
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Range Log 10 dB ← Range
Sets the level display range to 10 dB.
Remote command:
Logarithmic scaling:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:SPAC LOG, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y:​
SPACing​ on page 446
Display range:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y 10DB, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y[:​SCALe]​
on page 610
Range Log 5 dB ← Range
Sets the level display range to 5 dB.
Remote command:
Logarithmic scaling:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:SPAC LOG, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y:​
SPACing​ on page 446
Display range:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y 5DB, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y[:​SCALe]​
on page 610
Range Log 1 dB ← Range
Sets the level display range to 1 dB.
Remote command:
Logarithmic scaling:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:SPAC LOG, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y:​
SPACing​ on page 446
Display range:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y 1DB, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y[:​SCALe]​
on page 610
Range Log Manual ← Range
Opens an edit dialog box to define the display range of a logarithmic level axis manually.
Remote command:
Logarithmic scaling:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:SPAC LOG, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y:​
SPACing​ on page 446
Display range:
​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y[:​SCALe]​ on page 610
Range Linear % ← Range
Selects linear scaling for the level axis in %.
The grid is divided into decadal sections.
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Markers are displayed in the selected unit ("Unit" softkey). Delta markers are displayed
in % referenced to the voltage value at the position of marker 1. This is the default setting
for linear scaling.
Remote command:
DISP:TRAC:Y:SPAC LIN, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y:​SPACing​
on page 446
Range Lin. Unit ← Range
Selects linear scaling in dB for the level display range, i.e. the horizontal lines are labeled
in dB.
Markers are displayed in the selected unit ("Unit" softkey). Delta markers are displayed
in dB referenced to the power value at the position of marker 1.
Remote command:
DISP:TRAC:Y:SPAC LDB, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y:​SPACing​
on page 446
Unit
Opens the "Unit" submenu to select the unit for the level axis.
The default setting in spectrum mode is dBm.
If a transducer is switched on, the softkey is not available.
In general, the signal analyzer measures the signal voltage at the RF input. The level
display is calibrated in RMS values of an unmodulated sine wave signal. In the default
state, the level is displayed at a power of 1 mW (= dBm). Via the known input impedance
(50 Ω or 75 Ω), conversion to other units is possible. The following units are available and
directly convertible:
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
dBm
dBmV
dBμV
dBμA
dBpW
Volt
Ampere
Watt
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​UNIT:​POWer​ on page 610
Preamp On/Off
Switches the preamplifier on and off.
Remote command:
​INPut:​GAIN:​STATe ​ on page 448
RF Atten Auto
Sets the RF attenuation automatically as a function of the selected reference level. This
ensures that the optimum RF attenuation is always used. It is the default setting.
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When measuring spurious emissions, using this softkey automatically opens the "Sweep
List" dialog, see ​"Sweep List dialog box" on page 146.
Remote command:
​INPut:​ATTenuation:​AUTO​ on page 612
Ref Level Offset
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the arithmetic level offset. This offset is added to the
measured level irrespective of the selected unit. The scaling of the y-axis is changed
accordingly. The setting range is ±200 dB in 0.1 dB steps.
Remote command:
​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y[:​SCALe]:​RLEVel:​OFFSet​ on page 611
Ref Level Position
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the reference level position, i.e. the position of the
maximum AD converter value on the level axis. The setting range is from -200 to
+200 %, 0 % corresponding to the lower and 100 % to the upper limit of the diagram.
Grid Abs/Rel
Switches between absolute and relative scaling of the level axis (not available with
"Linear" range).
"Abs"
Absolute scaling: The labeling of the level lines refers to the absolute
value of the reference level. Absolute scaling is the default setting.
"Rel"
Relative scaling: The upper line of the grid is always at 0 dB. The scaling
is in dB whereas the reference level is always in the set unit (for details
on unit settings see the "Unit" softkey).
Remote command:
​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y[:​SCALe]:​MODE​ on page 610
Noise Correction
If activated, the results are corrected by the instrument's inherent noise, which increases
the dynamic range.
"ON"
A reference measurement of the instrument's inherent noise is carried
out. The noise power measured is then subtracted from the power in
the channel that is being examined.
The inherent noise of the instrument depends on the selected center
frequency, resolution bandwidth and level setting. Therefore, the correction function is disabled whenever one of these parameters is
changed. A disable message is displayed on the screen. Noise correction must be switched on again manually after the change.
"OFF"
No noise correction is performed.
"AUTO"
Noise correction is performed. After a parameter change, noise correction is restarted automatically and a new correction measurement is
performed.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]POWer:​NCORrection​ on page 520
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Input (AC/DC)
Toggles the RF input of the R&S ESR between AC and DC coupling.
Remote command:
​INPut:​COUPling​ on page 450
Input 50 Ω/75 Ω
Uses 50 Ω or 75 Ω as reference impedance for the measured levels. Default setting is
50 Ω.
The setting 75 Ω should be selected if the 50 Ω input impedance is transformed to a higher
impedance using a 75 Ω adapter of the RAZ type (= 25 Ω in series to the input impedance
of the instrument). The correction value in this case is 1.76 dB = 10 log (75 Ω/50 Ω).
All levels specified in this Operating Manual refer to the default setting of the instrument
(50 Ω).
Remote command:
​INPut:​IMPedance​ on page 448
3.2.4.2
Specifying the Amplitude
1. Set the reference level, offset and position using the "Ref Level", "Ref Level Offset"
and "Ref Level Position" softkeys (see ​"Ref Level" on page 209, ​"Ref Level Offset"
on page 212 and ​"Ref Level Position" on page 212).
2. Select the level range and the unit for the level axis using the "Range" and "Unit"
softkeys (see ​"Range" on page 209 and ​"Unit" on page 211).
3. Set the scaling using the "Ref Level Position" and/or "Grid Abs/Rel" softkeys (see ​
"Ref Level Position" on page 212 and ​"Grid Abs/Rel " on page 212).
4. Set the attenuation using the "RF Atten Manual" or "RF Atten Auto" (see ​"RF Atten
Manual" on page 44 and ​"RF Atten Auto" on page 211.
5. Define the RF input coupling using the "Input (AC/DC)" softkey, or a reference impedance using the "Input (50Ω/75Ω)" softkey (see ​"Input (AC/DC)" on page 49, ​"Input
50 Ω/75 Ω " on page 46).
6. Activate or deactivate the RF Preamplifier using the "Preamp" softkey (see ​"Preamp
On/Off" on page 44).
3.2.5 Defining Automatic Settings – AUTO SET Key
The "Auto Set" menu allows you define automatic settings for measurements quickly.
To open the Auto Set menu
●
Press the AUTO SET key.
The "Auto Set" menu is displayed.
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Menu and softkey description
●
3.2.5.1
​chapter 3.2.5.1, "Softkeys of the Auto Set Menu", on page 214
Softkeys of the Auto Set Menu
The following table shows all softkeys available in the "Auto Set" menu. It is possible that
your instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is only available
with a special option, model or (measurement) mode, this information is provided in the
corresponding softkey description.
Adjusting settings automatically during triggered measurements
When you select an auto adjust function a measurement is performed to determine the
optimal settings. If you select an auto adjust funtion for a triggered measurement, you
can select how the R&S ESR should behave:
●
(default:) The measurement for adjustment waits for the next trigger
●
The measurement for adjustment is performed without waiting for a trigger.
The trigger source is temporarily set to "Free Run". After the measurement is completed, the original trigger source is restored. The trigger level is adjusted as follows:
– For IF Power and RF Power triggers:
Trigger Level = Reference Level - 15 dB
–
For Video trigger:
Trigger Level = 85 %
SCPI command:
​[SENSe:​]ADJust:​CONFigure:​TRIG​ on page 596
Auto All........................................................................................................................214
Auto Freq....................................................................................................................215
Auto Level...................................................................................................................215
Settings.......................................................................................................................215
└ Meas Time Manual.......................................................................................215
└ Meas Time Auto............................................................................................215
└ Upper Level Hysteresis.................................................................................215
└ Lower Level Hysteresis.................................................................................216
Sweep Type................................................................................................................216
└ FFT...............................................................................................................216
└ Auto...............................................................................................................216
└ FFT Filter Mode............................................................................................216
└ Auto....................................................................................................216
└ Narrow................................................................................................216
Auto All
Performs all automatic settings.
●
​"Auto Freq" on page 215
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●
​"Auto Level" on page 215
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]ADJust:​ALL​ on page 595
Auto Freq
Defines the center frequency automatically by determining the highest frequency level in
the frequency span. This function uses the signal counter; thus it is intended for use with
sinusoidal signals.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]ADJust:​FREQuency​ on page 597
Auto Level
Defines the optimal reference level for the current measurement automatically.
The measurement time for automatic leveling can be defined using the ​Settings softkey.
You can define a threshold that the signal must exceed before the reference level is
adjusted, see ​"Upper Level Hysteresis" on page 215 and ​"Lower Level Hysteresis"
on page 216.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]ADJust:​LEVel​ on page 597
Settings
Opens a submenu to define settings for automatic leveling.
Possible settings are:
●
●
​"Meas Time Manual" on page 215
​"Meas Time Auto" on page 215
Meas Time Manual ← Settings
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the duration of the level measurement in seconds. The
level measurement is used to determine the optimal reference level automatically (see
the "Auto Level" softkey, ​"Auto Level" on page 215). The default value is 1 ms.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]ADJust:​CONFigure:​LEVel:​DURation​ on page 596
Meas Time Auto ← Settings
The level measurement is used to determine the optimal reference level automatically
(see the ​Auto Level softkey).
Upper Level Hysteresis ← Settings
Defines an upper threshold the signal must exceed before the reference level is automatically adjusted when the "Auto Level" function is performed.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]ADJust:​CONFiguration:​HYSTeresis:​UPPer​ on page 596
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Lower Level Hysteresis ← Settings
Defines a lower threshold the signal must exceed before the reference level is automatically adjusted when the "Auto Level" function is performed.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]ADJust:​CONFiguration:​HYSTeresis:​LOWer​ on page 595
Sweep Type
Opens a submenu to define the sweep type.
Selecting the sweep type is not available for the I/Q analyzer.
In frequency sweep mode, the analyzer provides several possible methods of sweeping:
●
●
​"FFT" on page 216 (not available with 5-Pole filters, channel filters or RRC filters,
see ​chapter 3.2.6.3, "Selecting the Appropriate Filter Type", on page 223)
​"Auto" on page 216
FFT ← Sweep Type
Sets the ​Sweep Type to FFT mode.
The FFT sweep mode samples on a defined frequency value and transforms it to the
spectrum by fast Fourier transformation (FFT).
FFT is not available when using 5-Pole filters, Channel filters or RRC filters. In this case,
sweep mode is used.
Remote command:
SWE:TYPE FFT, see ​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​TYPE​ on page 602
Auto ← Sweep Type
Selects the sweep type automatically. Supported sweep types are either FFT sweeps or
analog frequency sweeps.
Remote command:
SWE:TYPE AUTO, see ​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​TYPE​ on page 602
FFT Filter Mode ← Sweep Type
Defines the filter mode to be used for FFT filters by defining the partial span size. The
partial span is the span which is covered by one FFT analysis.
Auto ← FFT Filter Mode ← Sweep Type
The firmware determines whether to use wide or narrow filters to obtain the best measurement results.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]BANDwidth|BWIDth[:​RESolution]:​FFT​ on page 598
Narrow ← FFT Filter Mode ← Sweep Type
For an RBW ≤ 10kHz, the FFT filters with the smaller partial span are used. This allows
you to perform measurements near a carrier with a reduced reference level due to a
narrower analog prefilter.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]BANDwidth|BWIDth[:​RESolution]:​FFT​ on page 598
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3.2.6 Setting the Bandwidths and Sweep Time – BW Key
The BW key is used to set the resolution bandwidth, video bandwidth (VBW) and sweep
time (SWT). The values available for resolution bandwidth and video bandwidth depend
on the selected filter type. For details on channel filters see also ​chapter 3.2.6.4, "List of
Available RRC and Channel Filters", on page 224 .
To open the bandwidth menu
●
Press the BW key.
The "Bandwidth" menu is displayed.
Menu and softkey description
●
​chapter 3.2.6.1, "Softkeys of the Bandwidth Menu", on page 217
Further information
●
​chapter 3.2.6.4, "List of Available RRC and Channel Filters", on page 224
●
​table 3-6
Tasks
3.2.6.1
●
​chapter 3.2.6.2, "Specifying the Bandwidth", on page 223
●
​chapter 3.2.6.3, "Selecting the Appropriate Filter Type", on page 223
Softkeys of the Bandwidth Menu
The following table shows all softkeys available in the "Bandwidth" menu. It is possible
that your instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is only available with a special option, model or (measurement) mode, this information is provided in
the corresponding softkey description.
For Spurious Emission Measurements, the settings are defined in the "Sweep List" dialog,
see ​"Sweep List dialog box" on page 146.
Res BW Manual..........................................................................................................218
Res BW Auto...............................................................................................................218
Video BW Manual.......................................................................................................218
Video BW Auto............................................................................................................219
Sweeptime Manual......................................................................................................219
Sweeptime Auto..........................................................................................................220
Sweep Type................................................................................................................220
└ FFT...............................................................................................................220
└ Auto...............................................................................................................220
└ FFT Filter Mode............................................................................................220
└ Auto....................................................................................................220
└ Narrow................................................................................................221
Coupling Ratio.............................................................................................................221
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└ RBW/VBW Sine [1/1]....................................................................................221
└ RBW/VBW Pulse [.1]....................................................................................221
└ RBW/VBW Noise [10]...................................................................................221
└ RBW/VBW Manual........................................................................................222
└ Span/RBW Auto [100]...................................................................................222
└ Span/RBW Manual.......................................................................................222
└ Default Coupling...........................................................................................222
Filter Type...................................................................................................................222
Res BW Manual
Opens an edit dialog box to enter a value for the resolution bandwidth. The available
resolution bandwidths are specified in the data sheet.
For details on the correlation between resolution bandwidth and filter type refer to ​chapter 3.2.6.3, "Selecting the Appropriate Filter Type", on page 223.
Numeric input is always rounded to the nearest possible bandwidth. For rotary knob or
UP/DNARROW key inputs, the bandwidth is adjusted in steps either upwards or downwards.
The manual input mode of the resolution bandwidth is indicated by a green bullet next to
the "RBW" display in the channel bar.
When measuring Spurious Emissions, using this softkey automatically opens the "Sweep
List" dialog (see ​"Sweep List dialog box" on page 146).
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]BANDwidth|BWIDth[:​RESolution]:​AUTO​ on page 597
​[SENSe:​]BANDwidth|BWIDth[:​RESolution]​ on page 448
Res BW Auto
Couples the resolution bandwidth to the selected span (for span > 0). If you change the
span, the resolution bandwidth is automatically adjusted.
This setting is recommended if you need the ideal resolution bandwidth in relation to a
particular span.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]BANDwidth|BWIDth[:​RESolution]:​AUTO​ on page 597
Video BW Manual
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the video bandwidth. The available video bandwidths
are specified in the data sheet.
Numeric input is always rounded to the nearest possible bandwidth. For rotary knob or
UP/DOWN key inputs, the bandwidth is adjusted in steps either upwards or downwards.
The manual input mode of the video bandwidth is indicated by a green bullet next to the
"VBW" display in the channel bar.
Note: RMS detector and VBW.
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If an RMS detector is used, the video bandwidth in the hardware is bypassed. Thus,
duplicate trace averaging with small VBWs and RMS detector no longer occurs. However,
the VBW is still considered when calculating the sweep time. This leads to a longer sweep
time for small VBW values. Thus, you can reduce the VBW value to achieve more stable
trace curves even when using an RMS detector. Normally, if the RMS detector is used
the sweep time should be increased to get more stable trace curves. For details on
detectors see ​chapter 3.3.1.5, "Detector Overview", on page 256.
When measuring Spurious Emissions, using this softkey automatically opens the "Sweep
List" dialog (see ​"Sweep List dialog box" on page 146).
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]BANDwidth|BWIDth:​VIDeo:​AUTO​ on page 599
​[SENSe:​]BANDwidth|BWIDth:​VIDeo​ on page 599
Video BW Auto
Couples the video bandwidth to the resolution bandwidth. If you change the resolution
bandwidth, the video bandwidth is automatically adjusted.
This setting is recommended if a minimum sweep time is required for a selected resolution
bandwidth. Narrow video bandwidths result in longer sweep times due to the longer settling time. Wide bandwidths reduce the signal/noise ratio.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]BANDwidth|BWIDth:​VIDeo:​AUTO​ on page 599
Sweeptime Manual
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the sweep time.
Sweep time
absolute max. sweep time value:
16000 s
absolute min. sweep time value:
zero span: 1 μs
span > 0: depends on device model (refer to data sheet)
Allowed values depend on the ratio of span to RBW and RBW to VBW. For details refer
to the data sheet.
Numeric input is always rounded to the nearest possible sweep time. For rotary knob or
UPARROW/DNARROW key inputs, the sweep time is adjusted in steps either downwards or upwards.
The manual input mode of the sweep time is indicated by a green bullet next to the "SWT"
display in the channel bar. If the selected sweep time is too short for the selected bandwidth and span, level measurement errors will occur due to a too short settling time for
the resolution or video filters. In this case, the R&S ESR displays the error message
"UNCAL" and marks the indicated sweep time with a red bullet.
When measuring Spurious Emissions, using this softkey automatically opens the "Sweep
List" dialog, see ​"Sweep List dialog box" on page 146.
Remote command:
SWE:TIME:AUTO OFF, see ​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​TIME:​AUTO​ on page 602
​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​TIME​ on page 601
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Sweeptime Auto
Couples the sweep time to the span, video bandwidth (VBW) and resolution bandwidth
(RBW) (not available for zero span). If you change the span, resolution bandwidth or
video bandwidth, the sweep time is automatically adjusted.
The R&S ESR always selects the shortest sweep time that is possible without falsifying
the signal. The maximum level error is < 0.1 dB, compared to using a longer sweep time.
When measuring Spurious Emissions, using this softkey automatically opens the "Sweep
List" dialog, see ​"Sweep List dialog box" on page 146.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​TIME:​AUTO​ on page 602
Sweep Type
Opens a submenu to define the sweep type.
Selecting the sweep type is not available for the I/Q analyzer.
In frequency sweep mode, the analyzer provides several possible methods of sweeping:
●
●
​"FFT" on page 216 (not available with 5-Pole filters, channel filters or RRC filters, see
​chapter 3.2.6.3, "Selecting the Appropriate Filter Type", on page 223)
​"Auto" on page 216
FFT ← Sweep Type
Sets the ​Sweep Type to FFT mode.
The FFT sweep mode samples on a defined frequency value and transforms it to the
spectrum by fast Fourier transformation (FFT).
FFT is not available when using 5-Pole filters, Channel filters or RRC filters. In this case,
sweep mode is used.
Remote command:
SWE:TYPE FFT, see ​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​TYPE​ on page 602
Auto ← Sweep Type
Selects the sweep type automatically. Supported sweep types are either FFT sweeps or
analog frequency sweeps.
Remote command:
SWE:TYPE AUTO, see ​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​TYPE​ on page 602
FFT Filter Mode ← Sweep Type
Defines the filter mode to be used for FFT filters by defining the partial span size. The
partial span is the span which is covered by one FFT analysis.
Auto ← FFT Filter Mode ← Sweep Type
The firmware determines whether to use wide or narrow filters to obtain the best measurement results.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]BANDwidth|BWIDth[:​RESolution]:​FFT​ on page 598
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Narrow ← FFT Filter Mode ← Sweep Type
For an RBW ≤ 10kHz, the FFT filters with the smaller partial span are used. This allows
you to perform measurements near a carrier with a reduced reference level due to a
narrower analog prefilter.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]BANDwidth|BWIDth[:​RESolution]:​FFT​ on page 598
Coupling Ratio
Opens a submenu to select the coupling ratios for functions coupled to the bandwidth.
RBW/VBW Sine [1/1] ← Coupling Ratio
Sets the following coupling ratio:
"video bandwidth = resolution bandwidth"
This is the default setting for the coupling ratio resolution bandwidth/video bandwidth.
This is the coupling ratio recommended if sinusoidal signals are to be measured.
This setting takes effect if you define the video bandwidth automatically (​Video BW
Auto).
Remote command:
BAND:VID:RAT 1, see ​[SENSe:​]BANDwidth|BWIDth:​VIDeo:​RATio​
on page 599
RBW/VBW Pulse [.1] ← Coupling Ratio
Sets the following coupling ratio:
"video bandwidth = 10 × resolution bandwidth or"
"video bandwidth = 10 MHz (= max. VBW)."
This coupling ratio is recommended whenever the amplitudes of pulsed signals are to be
measured correctly. The IF filter is exclusively responsible for pulse shaping. No additional evaluation is performed by the video filter.
This setting takes effect if you define the video bandwidth automatically (​Video BW
Auto).
Remote command:
BAND:VID:RAT 10, see ​[SENSe:​]BANDwidth|BWIDth:​VIDeo:​RATio​
on page 599
RBW/VBW Noise [10] ← Coupling Ratio
Sets the following coupling ratio:
"video bandwidth = resolution bandwidth/10"
At this coupling ratio, noise and pulsed signals are suppressed in the video domain. For
noise signals, the average value is displayed.
This setting takes effect if you define the video bandwidth automatically (​Video BW
Auto).
Remote command:
BAND:VID:RAT 0.1, see ​[SENSe:​]BANDwidth|BWIDth:​VIDeo:​RATio​
on page 599
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RBW/VBW Manual ← Coupling Ratio
Activates the manual input of the coupling ratio.
The resolution bandwidth/video bandwidth ratio can be set in the range 0.001 to 1000.
This setting takes effect if you define the video bandwidth automatically (​Video BW
Auto).
Remote command:
BAND:VID:RAT 10, see ​[SENSe:​]BANDwidth|BWIDth:​VIDeo:​RATio​
on page 599
Span/RBW Auto [100] ← Coupling Ratio
Sets the following coupling ratio:
"resolution bandwidth = span/100"
This coupling ratio is the default setting of the R&S ESR.
This setting takes effect if you define the resolution bandwidth automatically (​Res BW
Auto).
Remote command:
BAND:VID:RAT 0.001, see ​[SENSe:​]BANDwidth|BWIDth:​VIDeo:​RATio​
on page 599
Span/RBW Manual ← Coupling Ratio
Activates the manual input of the coupling ratio.
This setting takes effect if you define the resolution bandwidth automatically (​Res BW
Auto).
The span/resolution bandwidth ratio can be set in the range 1 to 10000.
Remote command:
BAND:RAT 0.1, see ​[SENSe:​]BANDwidth|BWIDth[:​RESolution]:​RATio​
on page 598
Default Coupling ← Coupling Ratio
Sets all coupled functions to the default state ("AUTO").
In addition, the ratio "RBW/VBW" is set to "SINE [1/1]" and the ratio "SPAN/RBW" to 100.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]BANDwidth|BWIDth[:​RESolution]:​AUTO​ on page 597
​[SENSe:​]BANDwidth|BWIDth:​VIDeo:​AUTO​ on page 599
​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​TIME:​AUTO​ on page 602
Filter Type
Opens a submenu to select the filter type.
When measuring Spurious Emissions, using this softkey automatically opens the "Sweep
List" dialog (see ​"Sweep List dialog box" on page 146).
The submenu contains the following softkeys:
●
●
●
Normal (3 dB)
CISPR (6 dB)
MIL Std (6 dB)
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●
●
●
Note that the 6 dB bandwidths are available only with option R&S FSV-K54.
Channel
RRC
5-Pole (not available for sweep type "FFT")
For detailed information on filters see ​chapter 3.2.6.3, "Selecting the Appropriate Filter
Type", on page 223 and ​chapter 3.2.6.4, "List of Available RRC and Channel Filters",
on page 224.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]BANDwidth|BWIDth[:​RESolution]:​TYPE​ on page 449
3.2.6.2
Specifying the Bandwidth
1. Set the resolution bandwidth using the ​Res BW Manual or ​Res BW Auto softkey.
2. Set the video bandwidth using the ​Video BW Manual or ​Video BW Auto softkey.
3. Set the sweep time using the ​Sweeptime Manual or ​Sweeptime Auto softkey.
4. Press the ​Filter Type softkey and select the appropriate filters.
3.2.6.3
Selecting the Appropriate Filter Type
All resolution bandwidths are realized with digital filters.
The video filters are responsible for smoothing the displayed trace. Using video bandwidths that are small compared to the resolution bandwidth, only the signal average is
displayed and noise peaks and pulsed signals are repressed. If pulsed signals are to be
measured, it is advisable to use a video bandwidth that is large compared to the resolution
bandwidth (VBW * 10 x RBW) for the amplitudes of pulses to be measured correctly.
The following filter types are available:
●
Normal (3dB) (Gaussian) filters
The Gaussian filters are set by default. The available bandwidths are specified in the
data sheet.
●
CISPR (6 dB) filters
For more information see ​chapter 2.2.1, "Resolution Bandwidth", on page 29.
●
MIL Std (6 dB) filters
For more information see ​chapter 2.2.1, "Resolution Bandwidth", on page 29.
●
Channel filters
For details see ​chapter 3.2.6.4, "List of Available RRC and Channel Filters",
on page 224 .
Channel filters do not support FFT mode.
●
RRC filters
For details see ​chapter 3.2.6.4, "List of Available RRC and Channel Filters",
on page 224 .
RRC filters do not support FFT mode.
●
5-Pole filters
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The available bandwidths are specified in the data sheet.
5-Pole filters do not support FFT mode.
3.2.6.4
List of Available RRC and Channel Filters
For power measurement a number of especially steep-edged channel filters are available
(see the following table). The indicated filter bandwidth is the 3 dB bandwidth. For RRC
filters, the fixed roll-off factor (a) is also indicated.
Table 3-6: Filter types
Filter Bandwidth
Filter Type
100 Hz
CFILter
200 Hz
CFILter
300 Hz
CFILter
500 Hz
CFILter
1 kHz
CFILter
1.5 kHz
CFILter
2 kHz
CFILter
2.4 kHz
CFILter
2.7 kHz
CFILter
3 kHz
CFILter
3.4 kHz
CFILter
4 kHz
CFILter
4.5 kHz
CFILter
5 kHz
CFILter
6 kHz
CFILter
6 kHz, a=0.2
RRC
APCO
8.5 kHz
CFILter
ETS300 113 (12.5 kHz channels)
9 kHz
CFILter
AM Radio
10 kHz
CFILter
12.5 kHz
CFILter
CDMAone
14 kHz
CFILter
ETS300 113 (20 kHz channels)
15 kHz
CFILter
16 kHz
CFILter
ETS300 113 (25 kHz channels)
18 kHz, a=0.35
RRC
TETRA
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Filter Bandwidth
Filter Type
Application
20 kHz
CFILter
21 kHz
CFILter
PDC
24.3 kHz, a=0.35
RRC
IS 136
25 kHz
CFILter
30 kHz
CFILter
50 kHz
CFILter
100 kHz
CFILter
150 kHz
CFILter
FM Radio
192 kHz
CFILter
PHS
200 kHz
CFILter
300 kHz
CFILter
500 kHz
CFILter
J.83 (8-VSB DVB, USA)
1 MHz
CFILter
CDMAone
1.228 MHz
CFILter
CDMAone
1.28 MHz, a=0.22
RRC
1.5 MHz
CFILter
2 MHz
CFILter
3 MHz
CFILter
3.75 MHz
CFILter
3.84 MHz, a=0.22
RRC
W-CDMA 3GPP
4.096 MHz, a=0.22
RRC
W-CDMA NTT DOCoMo
5 MHz
CFILter
20 MHz
CFILter
28 MHz
CFILter
40 MHz
CFILter
CDPD, CDMAone
DAB
3.2.7 Configuring the Sweep Mode – SWEEP Key
The SWEEP key is used to configure the sweep mode. Continuous sweep or single
sweep is possible. The sweep time and the number of measured values are set.
To open the Sweep menu
●
Press the SWEEP key.
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The "Sweep" menu is displayed.
Menu and softkey description
●
​chapter 3.2.7.1, "Softkeys of the Sweep Menu", on page 226
Task
●
3.2.7.1
​chapter 3.2.7.2, "Specifying the Sweep Settings", on page 230
Softkeys of the Sweep Menu
The following table shows all softkeys available in the "Sweep" menu. It is possible that
your instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is only available
with a special option, model or (measurement) mode, this information is provided in the
corresponding softkey description.
Continuous Sweep......................................................................................................226
Single Sweep..............................................................................................................226
Continue Single Sweep...............................................................................................227
Sweeptime Manual......................................................................................................227
Sweeptime Auto..........................................................................................................227
Sweep Type................................................................................................................228
└ FFT...............................................................................................................228
└ Auto...............................................................................................................228
└ FFT Filter Mode............................................................................................228
└ Auto....................................................................................................228
└ Narrow................................................................................................228
Sweep Count...............................................................................................................228
Sweep Points..............................................................................................................229
Select Frame...............................................................................................................229
Continue Frame (On Off)............................................................................................229
Frame Count...............................................................................................................230
Spectrogram Clear......................................................................................................230
Continuous Sweep
Sets the continuous sweep mode: the sweep takes place continuously according to the
trigger settings. This is the default setting.
The trace averaging is determined by the sweep count value (see the "Sweep Count"
softkey, ​"Sweep Count" on page 228).
Remote command:
​INITiate<n>:​CONTinuous​ on page 436
Single Sweep
Sets the single sweep mode: after triggering, starts the number of sweeps that are defined
by using the ​Sweep Count softkey. The measurement stops after the defined number of
sweeps has been performed.
Remote command:
​INITiate<n>:​CONTinuous​ on page 436
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Continue Single Sweep
Repeats the number of sweeps set by using the ​Sweep Count softkey, without deleting
the trace of the last measurement.
This is particularly of interest when using the trace configurations "Average" or "Max
Hold" to take previously recorded measurements into account for averaging/maximum
search.
For details on trace configuration refer to ​chapter 3.3.1, "Trace Configuration",
on page 244.
Remote command:
​INITiate<n>:​CONMeas​ on page 600
Sweeptime Manual
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the sweep time.
Sweep time
absolute max. sweep time value:
16000 s
absolute min. sweep time value:
zero span: 1 μs
span > 0: depends on device model (refer to data sheet)
Allowed values depend on the ratio of span to RBW and RBW to VBW. For details refer
to the data sheet.
Numeric input is always rounded to the nearest possible sweep time. For rotary knob or
UPARROW/DNARROW key inputs, the sweep time is adjusted in steps either downwards or upwards.
The manual input mode of the sweep time is indicated by a green bullet next to the "SWT"
display in the channel bar. If the selected sweep time is too short for the selected bandwidth and span, level measurement errors will occur due to a too short settling time for
the resolution or video filters. In this case, the R&S ESR displays the error message
"UNCAL" and marks the indicated sweep time with a red bullet.
When measuring Spurious Emissions, using this softkey automatically opens the "Sweep
List" dialog, see ​"Sweep List dialog box" on page 146.
Remote command:
SWE:TIME:AUTO OFF, see ​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​TIME:​AUTO​ on page 602
​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​TIME​ on page 601
Sweeptime Auto
Couples the sweep time to the span, video bandwidth (VBW) and resolution bandwidth
(RBW) (not available for zero span). If you change the span, resolution bandwidth or
video bandwidth, the sweep time is automatically adjusted.
The R&S ESR always selects the shortest sweep time that is possible without falsifying
the signal. The maximum level error is < 0.1 dB, compared to using a longer sweep time.
When measuring Spurious Emissions, using this softkey automatically opens the "Sweep
List" dialog, see ​"Sweep List dialog box" on page 146.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​TIME:​AUTO​ on page 602
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Sweep Type
Opens a submenu to define the sweep type.
Selecting the sweep type is not available for the I/Q analyzer.
In frequency sweep mode, the analyzer provides several possible methods of sweeping:
●
●
​"FFT" on page 216 (not available with 5-Pole filters, channel filters or RRC filters, see
​chapter 3.2.6.3, "Selecting the Appropriate Filter Type", on page 223)
​"Auto" on page 216
FFT ← Sweep Type
Sets the ​Sweep Type to FFT mode.
The FFT sweep mode samples on a defined frequency value and transforms it to the
spectrum by fast Fourier transformation (FFT).
FFT is not available when using 5-Pole filters, Channel filters or RRC filters. In this case,
sweep mode is used.
Remote command:
SWE:TYPE FFT, see ​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​TYPE​ on page 602
Auto ← Sweep Type
Selects the sweep type automatically. Supported sweep types are either FFT sweeps or
analog frequency sweeps.
Remote command:
SWE:TYPE AUTO, see ​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​TYPE​ on page 602
FFT Filter Mode ← Sweep Type
Defines the filter mode to be used for FFT filters by defining the partial span size. The
partial span is the span which is covered by one FFT analysis.
Auto ← FFT Filter Mode ← Sweep Type
The firmware determines whether to use wide or narrow filters to obtain the best measurement results.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]BANDwidth|BWIDth[:​RESolution]:​FFT​ on page 598
Narrow ← FFT Filter Mode ← Sweep Type
For an RBW ≤ 10kHz, the FFT filters with the smaller partial span are used. This allows
you to perform measurements near a carrier with a reduced reference level due to a
narrower analog prefilter.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]BANDwidth|BWIDth[:​RESolution]:​FFT​ on page 598
Sweep Count
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the number of sweeps to be performed in the single
sweep mode. Values from 0 to 32767 are allowed. If the values 0 or 1 are set, one sweep
is performed. The sweep count is applied to all the traces in a diagram.
If the trace configurations "Average", "Max Hold" or "Min Hold" are set, the sweep count
value also determines the number of averaging or maximum search procedures.
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In continuous sweep mode, if sweep count = 0 (default), averaging is performed over 10
sweeps. For sweep count =1, no averaging, maxhold or minhold operations are performed.
For details on trace configuration see ​chapter 3.3.1, "Trace Configuration",
on page 244.
Example:
●
●
●
●
Press the TRACE key > ​Trace 1/Trace 2/Trace 3/Trace 4/Trace 5/Trace 6 softkey >
​"Max Hold" on page 35 softkey.
Press the SWEEP key > "Sweep Count" softkey.
In the "Average Sweep Count" dialog box, enter 10.
Press the ​"Single Sweep" on page 226 softkey:
R&S ESR performs the "Max Hold" function over 10 sweeps.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​COUNt​ on page 601
Sweep Points
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the number of measured values to be collected during
one sweep.
●
●
Entry via rotary knob:
– In the range from 101 to 1001, the sweep points are increased or decreased in
steps of 100 points.
– In the range from 1001 to 32001, the sweep points are increased or decreased
in steps of 1000 points.
Entry via keypad:
All values in the defined range can be set.
The default value is 691 sweep points.
When measuring spurious emissions, using this softkey automatically opens the "Sweep
List" dialog, see ​"Sweep List dialog box" on page 146.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​POINts​ on page 601
Select Frame
For spectrogram measurements only.
Opens a dialog box to select a specific frame and loads the corresponding trace from the
memory.
Note that activating a marker or changing the position of the active marker automatically
selects the frame that belongs to that marker.
This softkey is available in single sweep mode or if the sweep is stopped.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​SGRam:​FRAMe:​SELect​ on page 623
Continue Frame (On Off)
For spectrogram measurements only.
Determines whether the results of the last measurement are deleted before starting a
new measurement.
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●
●
On
Repeats the single sweep measurement without deleting the spectrogram results of
the last measurement. One of the following trace modes is to be used: Max Hold, Min
Hold, Average.
Off
Deletes the last measurement results before performing a single sweep measurement.
This softkey is available in single sweep mode.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​SGRam:​CONT​ on page 622
Frame Count
For spectrogram measurements only.
Opens a dialog box to set the number of frames to be captured in a single sweep.
Therefore, the frame count defines the number of traces the R&S ESR plots in the Spectrogram result display in a single sweep. The maximum number of possible frames
depends on the history depth (see ​CALCulate<n>:​SGRam:​HDEPth​ on page 624).
The sweep count, on the other hand, determines how many sweeps are combined in one
frame in the Spectrogram, i.e. how many sweeps the R&S ESR performs to plot one trace
in the Spectrogram result display (see ​"Sweep Count" on page 228).
This softkey is available in single sweep mode.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​SGRam:​FRAMe:​COUNt​ on page 623
Spectrogram Clear
For spectrogram measurements only.
Resets the Spectrogram result display and clears its history buffer.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​SGRam:​CLEar[:​IMMediate]​ on page 622
3.2.7.2
Specifying the Sweep Settings
1. Press the ​Sweep Count softkey and enter the sweep count.
2. Press the ​Sweeptime Manual or ​Sweeptime Auto softkey to set the sweep time.
3. Press the ​Sweep Type softkey to select the sweep type.
4. Press the ​Sweep Points softkey and enter the number of sweep points.
5. Press the ​Continuous Sweep or ​Single Sweep softkey to select the sweep mode.
6. Press the ​Continue Single Sweep softkey to repeat the single sweep.
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3.2.8 Triggering the Sweep – TRIG Key
The TRIG key is used to select trigger mode, trigger threshold, trigger delay, trigger
polarity and for gated sweep the gate configuration.
To open the Trigger menu
●
Press the TRIG key.
The "Trigger" menu is displayed.
Menu and softkey description
●
​chapter 3.2.8.1, "Softkeys of the Trigger Menu", on page 231
Tasks
3.2.8.1
●
​chapter 3.2.8.2, "Specifying the Trigger Settings", on page 237
●
​chapter 3.2.8.3, "Using Gated Sweep Operation", on page 237
Softkeys of the Trigger Menu
The following table shows all softkeys available in the "Trigger" menu. It is possible that
your instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is only available
with a special option, model or (measurement) mode, this information is provided in the
corresponding softkey description.
Trg/Gate Source..........................................................................................................232
└ Free Run.......................................................................................................232
└ External.........................................................................................................232
└ Video.............................................................................................................232
└ RF Power......................................................................................................232
└ IF Power/BB Power.......................................................................................233
└ Time..............................................................................................................233
Trg/Gate Level............................................................................................................233
Trg/Gate Polarity.........................................................................................................234
Trigger Offset..............................................................................................................234
Repetition Interval.......................................................................................................235
Trigger Hysteresis.......................................................................................................235
Trigger Holdoff............................................................................................................235
Gated Trigger..............................................................................................................235
Gate Settings..............................................................................................................235
└ Gate Mode (Lvl/Edge)...................................................................................236
└ Gate Delay....................................................................................................236
└ Gate Length (Gate Mode Edge)....................................................................236
└ Trg/Gate Source...........................................................................................236
└ Trg/Gate Level..............................................................................................236
└ Trg/Gate Polarity...........................................................................................236
└ Sweep Time..................................................................................................237
└ Res BW Manual............................................................................................237
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Trg/Gate Source
Opens the "Trigger/Gate Source" dialog box to select the trigger/gate mode.
As gate modes, all modes except "Power Sensor" are available. For details see also ​
chapter 3.2.8.3, "Using Gated Sweep Operation", on page 237.
The default setting is "Free Run". If a trigger mode other than "Free Run" has been set,
the enhancement label "TRG" is displayed and the trigger source is indicated.
Note: When triggering or gating is activated, the squelch funciton is automatically disabled (see ​"Squelch" on page 281).
Remote command:
​TRIGger<n>[:​SEQuence]:​SOURce​ on page 605
​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​EGATe:​SOURce​ on page 608
Free Run ← Trg/Gate Source
The start of a sweep is not triggered. Once a measurement is completed, another is
started immediately.
Remote command:
TRIG:SOUR IMM, see ​TRIGger<n>[:​SEQuence]:​SOURce​ on page 605
External ← Trg/Gate Source
Defines triggering via a TTL signal at the "EXT TRIG/GATE IN" input connector on the
rear panel.
Remote command:
TRIG:SOUR EXT, see ​TRIGger<n>[:​SEQuence]:​SOURce​ on page 605
SWE:EGAT:SOUR EXT for gated triggering, see ​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​EGATe:​SOURce​
on page 608
Video ← Trg/Gate Source
Defines triggering by the displayed voltage.
A horizontal trigger line is shown in the diagram. It is used to set the trigger threshold
from 0 % to 100 % of the diagram height.
Video mode is only available in the time domain.
Remote command:
TRIG:SOUR VID, see ​TRIGger<n>[:​SEQuence]:​SOURce​ on page 605
SWE:EGAT:SOUR VID for gated triggering, see ​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​EGATe:​SOURce​
on page 608
RF Power ← Trg/Gate Source
Defines triggering of the measurement via signals which are outside the measurement
channel.
In RF Power trigger mode the instrument uses a level detector at the first intermediate
frequency. The detector threshold can be selected in a range between - 50 dBm and
-10 dBm at the input mixer. The resulting trigger level at the RF input lies within the
following range:
(-24dBm + RF Att ) ≤ Triggerlevel ≤ (+5dBm + RF Att), max. 30 dBm, for Preamp = OFF
(-40dBm + RF Att ) ≤ Triggerlevel ≤ (-11dBm + RF Att), max. 30 dBm, for Preamp = ON
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with
500 MHz ≤ InputSignal ≤ 7 GHz
Note: If input values outside of this range occur (e.g. for fullspan measurements), the
sweep may be aborted and a message indicating the allowed input values is displayed
in the status bar.
A ​Trigger Offset, ​Trg/Gate Polarity and ​Trigger Holdoff can be defined for the RF trigger
to improve the trigger stability, but no hysteresis.
Remote command:
TRIG:SOUR RFP, see ​TRIGger<n>[:​SEQuence]:​SOURce​ on page 605
SWE:EGAT:SOUR RFP for gated triggering, see ​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​EGATe:​SOURce​
on page 608
IF Power/BB Power ← Trg/Gate Source
Defines triggering of the measurement using the second intermediate frequency.
For this purpose, the R&S ESR uses a level detector at the second intermediate frequency. Its threshold can be set in a range between -50 dBm and -10 dBm at the input
mixer. The resulting trigger level at the RF input is calculated via the following formula:
"mixerlevelmin + RFAtt – PreampGain ≤ Input Signal ≤ mixerlevelmax + RFAtt – PreampGain"
The bandwidth at the intermediate frequency depends on the RBW and sweep type:
Sweep mode:
● RBW > 500 kHz: 40 MHz, nominal
● RBW ≤ 500 kHz: 6 MHz, nominal
FFT mode:
● RBW > 20 kHz: 40 MHz, nominal
● RBW ≤ 20 kHz: 6 MHz, nominal
Note: Be aware that in auto sweep type mode, due to a possible change in sweep types,
the bandwidth may vary considerably for the same RBW setting.
The R&S ESR is triggered as soon as the trigger threshold is exceeded around the
selected frequency (= start frequency in the frequency sweep).
Thus, the measurement of spurious emissions, e.g. for pulsed carriers, is possible even
if the carrier lies outside the selected frequency span.
Remote command:
TRIG:SOUR IFP, see ​TRIGger<n>[:​SEQuence]:​SOURce​ on page 605
SWE:EGAT:SOUR IFP for gated triggering, see ​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​EGATe:​SOURce​
on page 608
Time ← Trg/Gate Source
Opens an edit dialog box to define a repetition interval in which the measurement is
triggered. The shortest interval is 2 ms.
Remote command:
TRIG:SOUR TIME​TRIGger<n>[:​SEQuence]:​SOURce​ on page 605
Trg/Gate Level
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the trigger/gate level.
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For details see also ​chapter 3.2.8.3, "Using Gated Sweep Operation", on page 237.
In the trigger modes "Time" and "Power Sensor", this softkey is not available.
Remote command:
​TRIGger<n>[:​SEQuence]:​LEVel:​IFPower​ on page 604
​TRIGger<n>[:​SEQuence]:​LEVel:​VIDeo​ on page 605
Trg/Gate Polarity
Sets the polarity of the trigger/gate source.
The sweep starts after a positive or negative edge of the trigger signal. The default setting
is "Pos". The setting applies to all trigger modes with the exception of the "Free Run",
"Power Sensor" and "Time" mode.
For details also see ​chapter 3.2.8.3, "Using Gated Sweep Operation", on page 237.
"Pos"
Level triggering: the sweep is stopped by the logic "0" signal and restarted by the logical "1" signal after the gate delay time has elapsed.
"Neg"
Edge triggering: the sweep is continued on a "0" to "1" transition for the
gate length duration after the gate delay time has elapsed.
Remote command:
​TRIGger<n>[:​SEQuence]:​SLOPe​ on page 605
​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​EGATe:​POLarity​ on page 608
Trigger Offset
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the time offset between the trigger signal and the start
of the sweep.
offset > 0:
Start of the sweep is delayed
offset < 0:
Sweep starts earlier (pre-trigger)
Only possible for span = 0 (e.g. I/Q Analyzer mode) and gated trigger
switched off
Maximum allowed range limited by the sweep time:
pretriggermax = sweep time
In the "External" or "IF Power" trigger mode, a common input signal is used for both trigger
and gate. Therefore, changes to the gate delay will affect the trigger delay (trigger offset)
as well.
Tip: To determine the trigger point in the sample (for "External" or "IF Power" trigger
mode), use the ​TRACe<n>:​IQ:​TPISample?​ command.
In the "Time" trigger mode, this softkey is not available.
Remote command:
​TRIGger<n>[:​SEQuence]:​HOLDoff[:​TIME]​ on page 603
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Repetition Interval
Opens an edit dialog box to define a repetition interval in which the measurement is
triggered. The shortest interval is 2 ms. This softkey is only available if the trigger source
"Time" is selected (see ​"Time" on page 233).
Remote command:
​TRIGger<n>[:​SEQuence]:​TIME:​RINTerval​ on page 607
Trigger Hysteresis
Defines the value for the trigger hysteresis for "IF power" or "RF Power" trigger sources.
The hysteresis in dB is the value the input signal must stay below the power trigger level
in order to allow a trigger to start the measurement. The range of the value is between 3
dB and 50 dB with a step width of 1 dB.
Remote command:
​TRIGger<n>[:​SEQuence]:​IFPower:​HYSTeresis​ on page 604
Trigger Holdoff
Defines the value for the trigger holdoff. The holdoff value in s is the time which must
pass before triggering, in case another trigger event happens.
This softkey is only available if "IFPower", "RF Power" or "BBPower" is the selected trigger source.
Remote command:
​TRIGger<n>[:​SEQuence]:​IFPower:​HOLDoff​ on page 603
Gated Trigger
Switches the sweep mode with gate on or off.
This softkey requires the following "Trigger Mode" (see ​"Trg/Gate Source" on page 232):
span > 0
​External or ​IF Power/BB PowerIF Power
span = 0
​External or ​IF Power/BB PowerIF Power or ​Video
If a different mode is active, the ​IF Power/BB Power trigger mode is automatically
selected.
Note: When triggering or gating is activated, the squelch function is automatically disabled (see ​"Squelch" on page 281).
If the gate is switched on, a gate signal applied to the rear panel connector "EXT TRIGGER/GATE" or the internal IF power detector controls the sweep of the analyzer.
In the trigger mode ​Time, this softkey is not available.
For details also see ​chapter 3.2.8.3, "Using Gated Sweep Operation", on page 237.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​EGATe​ on page 607
​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​EGATe:​SOURce​ on page 608
Gate Settings
Opens a submenu to make all the settings required for gated sweep operation.
In the "Time" trigger mode, this softkey is not available.
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For details also see ​chapter 3.2.8.3, "Using Gated Sweep Operation", on page 237.
Gate Mode (Lvl/Edge) ← Gate Settings
Sets the gate mode. As settings level-triggered or edge-triggered gate mode can be
selected.
For details also see ​chapter 3.2.8.3, "Using Gated Sweep Operation", on page 237.
"Edge"
Edge-triggered gate mode
"Lvl"
Level-triggered gate mode
This mode is not supported when using R&S Power Sensors as power
triggers ("Trg/Gate Source" = Power Sensor or External).
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​EGATe:​TYPE​ on page 609
Gate Delay ← Gate Settings
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the gate delay time between the gate signal and the
continuation of the sweep. The delay position on the time axis in relation to the sweep is
indicated by a line labeled "GD".
This is useful for e.g. taking into account a delay between the gate signal and the stabilization of an RF carrier.
As a common input signal is used for both trigger and gate when selecting the "External"
or "IF Power" trigger mode, changes to the gate delay will affect the trigger delay (trigger
offset) as well.
For details also see ​chapter 3.2.8.3, "Using Gated Sweep Operation", on page 237.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​EGATe:​HOLDoff​ on page 608
Gate Length (Gate Mode Edge) ← Gate Settings
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the gate length. The gate length in relation to the sweep
is indicated by a line labeled "GL".
The length of the gate signal defines if the sweep is to be interrupted. Only in the edgetriggered mode the gate length can be set, while in the level-triggered the gate length
depends on the length of the gate signal.
For details also see ​chapter 3.2.8.3, "Using Gated Sweep Operation", on page 237.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​EGATe:​LENGth​ on page 608
Trg/Gate Source ← Gate Settings
See ​"Trg/Gate Source" on page 232.
Trg/Gate Level ← Gate Settings
See ​"Trg/Gate Level" on page 233.
Trg/Gate Polarity ← Gate Settings
See ​"Trg/Gate Polarity" on page 234.
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Sweep Time ← Gate Settings
Opens an edit dialog box to change the sweep time in order to obtain a higher resolution
for positioning gate delay and gate length. When leaving the "Gate Settings" submenu,
the original sweep time is retrieved.
For details also see ​chapter 3.2.8.3, "Using Gated Sweep Operation", on page 237.
Res BW Manual ← Gate Settings
Opens an edit dialog box to enter a value for the resolution bandwidth. The available
resolution bandwidths are specified in the data sheet.
For details on the correlation between resolution bandwidth and filter type refer to ​chapter 3.2.6.3, "Selecting the Appropriate Filter Type", on page 223.
Numeric input is always rounded to the nearest possible bandwidth. For rotary knob or
UP/DNARROW key inputs, the bandwidth is adjusted in steps either upwards or downwards.
The manual input mode of the resolution bandwidth is indicated by a green bullet next to
the "RBW" display in the channel bar.
When measuring Spurious Emissions, using this softkey automatically opens the "Sweep
List" dialog (see ​"Sweep List dialog box" on page 146).
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]BANDwidth|BWIDth[:​RESolution]:​AUTO​ on page 597
​[SENSe:​]BANDwidth|BWIDth[:​RESolution]​ on page 448
3.2.8.2
Specifying the Trigger Settings
1. Press the "Trg/Gate Source" softkey to select the trigger mode (for details see ​"Trg/
Gate Source" on page 232.
2. Press the ​Trg/Gate Level softkey to set the trigger level.
3. Press the ​Trigger Offset softkey to set the trigger offset. In addition, a ​Trigger Hysteresis and ​Trigger Holdoff can be defined via the corresponding softkeys.
For details on gated sweep operation, see ​chapter 3.2.8.3, "Using Gated Sweep Operation", on page 237.
3.2.8.3
Using Gated Sweep Operation
By using a gate in sweep mode and stopping the measurement while the gate signal is
inactive, the spectrum for pulsed RF carriers can be displayed without the superposition
of frequency components generated during switching. Similarly, the spectrum can also
be examined for an inactive carrier. The sweep can be controlled by an external gate or
by the internal power trigger.
Gated sweep operation is also possible for span = 0. This enables – e.g. in burst signals
– level variations of individual slots to be displayed versus time.
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1. Press the ​Gate Settings softkey to define the settings of the gate mode.
At the center frequency a transition to zero span is made and the time parameters
gate delay and gate length are displayed as vertical lines to adjust them easily.
When quitting the ​Gate Settings submenu, the original span is retrieved so the desired
measurement can be performed with the accurately set gate.
2. Setting the parameters gate delay and gate length highly accurate, press the ​Sweep
Time softkey to alter the x-axis in a way that the signal range concerned (e.g. one full
burst) is displayed.
3. Press the ​Gate Delay softkey to set the sampling time in a way that the desired portion
of the signal is shown.
4. Press the ​Gate Mode (Lvl/Edge) softkey to set the gate mode.
5. If the "Edge" gate mode has been selected, press the ​Gate Length (Gate Mode
Edge) softkey to set the sampling duration in a way that the desired portion of the
signal is shown.
6. Press the ​Trg/Gate Polarity softkey to set the polarity of the trigger source.
7. Press the ​Gated Trigger softkey to activate the gated sweep mode.
To indicate that a gate is used for the sweep, the enhancement label "GAT" is displayed on the screen. This label appears to the right of the window for which the gate
is configured.
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Fig. 3-14: TDMA signal with GATE OFF
Fig. 3-15: Timing diagram for GATE, GATE DELAY and GATE LENGTH
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Fig. 3-16: TDMA signal with GATE ON
3.2.9 Input/Output Configuration – INPUT/OUTPUT Key
The INPUT/OUTPUT key is used to configure input and output sources for measurement
functions.
3.2.9.1
Softkeys of the Input/Output Menu
The following table shows all softkeys available in the "Input/Output" menu. It is possible
that your instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is only available with a special option, model or (measurement) mode, this information is provided in
the corresponding softkey description.
Input (AC/DC)..............................................................................................................241
Preselector (On Off)....................................................................................................241
Noise Source...............................................................................................................241
Video Output...............................................................................................................241
Trigger Out..................................................................................................................241
Probe Config...............................................................................................................241
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Input (AC/DC)
Toggles the RF input of the R&S ESR between AC and DC coupling.
Remote command:
​INPut:​COUPling​ on page 450
Preselector (On Off)
Turns the preselector on and off.
Remote command:
​INPut:​PRESelection:​STATe​ on page 696
Noise Source
Switches the supply voltage for an external noise source on or off. For details on connectors refer to the Quick Start Guide, "Front and Rear Panel" chapter.
Remote command:
​DIAGnostic<n>:​SERVice:​NSOurce​ on page 694
Video Output
Sends a video output signal according to the measured level to the connector on the rear
panel of the R&S ESR.
Note: Video output does not return valid values in IQ or FFT mode.
Remote command:
OUTP:IF VID , see ​OUTPut:​IF[:​SOURce]​ on page 694
Trigger Out
Sets the Trigger Out port to low or high. Thus, you can trigger an additional device via
the external trigger port, for example.
Remote command:
​OUTPut:​TRIGger​ on page 695
Probe Config
Opens an edit dialog box to activate and configure a connected probe which is to provide
an input signal. It is only available if a probe is connected to the instrument's RF INPUT
and USB connectors.
For details see ​chapter 3.2.9.2, "Using Active Probes for Input", on page 241.
Remote command:
​PROBe[:​STATe]​ on page 590
​PROBe:​SETup:​MODE​ on page 589
3.2.9.2
Using Active Probes for Input
When the input from the device under test requires high impedance, an active probe can
be connected between the device and the R&S ESR.
The R&S ESR supports active probes from the R&S RT-ZS series when using the new
probe adapter RT-ZA9.
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When the probe has been connected to and recognized by the R&S ESR, a pre-defined
"Generic Probe" transducer factor with 20 dB is automatically activated and the unit of
the spectrum analyzer is changed to dBμV. (The same applies after presetting the instrument.) Then the system is ready to analyze circuit points that cannot be loaded with the
50 Ω of the analyzer input, but require a higher impedance.
Optionally, the probe can be deactivated while remaining connected to the R&S ESR, for
instance to analyze the digital input from the probe without considering the transducer
factor.
All RT probes (except for ZS10E) have a micro button. The action for the micro button
can be defined. Currently, either a single sweep or no action can be performed when the
button is pressed. By default, when you press the probe's micro button, the R&S ESR is
set to single sweep mode and a single sweep is performed. This allows you to start a
measurement whilst applying the probe to a certain pin on the board under test.
When using RT probes, consider the following:
●
Active probes require operating power from the instrument and have a proprietary
interface to the instrument.
●
The probe is automatically recognized by the instrument, no adjustment is required.
●
Connections should be as short as possible to keep the usable bandwidth high.
●
Observe the operating voltage range.
For more information on RT probes, refer to the probe's documentation.
Connecting Active Probes
In order to use active probes with an R&S ESR, an RT-ZA9 adapter is required. The RTZA9 provides an interface between the probe's BNC socket and and the analyzer's Nsocket and provides the necessary supply voltages for the probe via the USB connection.
Using this adapter, the following probes are currently supported:
●
R&S RT-ZS10
●
RT-ZS10E
●
RT-ZS20
●
RT-ZS30
To connect an active probe, proceed as follows:
1. Connect the adapter to the RF Input connector on the R&S ESR.
2. Connect the adapter's USB cable to a USB connector on the R&S ESR.
3. Connect the probe to the adapter.
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Once the probe and adapter have been connected to the R&S ESR correctly and the
analyzer has recognized the probe, the "Generic Probe" transducer is activated and you
can start a measurement.
To determine whether the probe has been connected properly and recognized by the
R&S ESR, use the remote control command PROB:SET:STAT? (see ​PROBe:​SETup:​
STATe?​ on page 590).
To perform a measurement with the probe
► Place the probe on the required position on the test equipment, then press the micro
button on the probe to perform a single sweep measurement.
Probe Configuration
Principally, the probe is automatically recognized by the instrument and no further adjustment is required. However, you can switch off the probe while leaving it connected, and
you can configure which action is to be performed when the probe's micro button is
pressed.
To display the "Probe Configuration" dialog box, select the INPUT/OUTPUT key and then
the "Probe Config" softkey.
The following settings are available:
State............................................................................................................................244
Name...........................................................................................................................244
Serial Number.............................................................................................................244
Part number................................................................................................................244
Micro Button Action.....................................................................................................244
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State
Activates a connected probe. Use this command to switch off the probe and measure the
digital input without considering the transducer factor of the probe.
Remote command:
​PROBe[:​STATe]​ on page 590
Name
Indicates the name of the connected probe.
Remote command:
​PROBe:​SETup:​NAME?​ on page 589
Serial Number
Indicates the serial number of the connected probe.
Remote command:
​PROBe:​ID:​SRNumber?​ on page 589
Part number
Indicates the material part number of the connected probe.
Remote command:
​PROBe:​ID:​PARTnumber?​ on page 589
Micro Button Action
Defines which action is taken when the probe's micro button is pressed.
"RunSingle"
A single sweep is performed.
"No Action"
No action is taken.
Remote command:
​PROBe:​SETup:​MODE​ on page 589
3.3 Analysis
General methods and basic settings to display and analyze measurements. If you are
performing a specific measurement task or using an operating mode other than Spectrum
mode, be sure to check the specific measurement or mode description for settings and
functions that may deviate from these general ones.
●
●
●
●
Trace Configuration...............................................................................................244
Spectrogram..........................................................................................................257
Markers.................................................................................................................266
Lines......................................................................................................................289
3.3.1 Trace Configuration
The TRACE key is used to configure the data acquisition for measurement and the
analysis of the measurement data.
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The R&S ESR is capable of displaying up to six different traces at a time in a diagram. A
trace consists of a maximum of 691 displayed measurement points on the horizontal axis
(frequency or time). If more measured values than measurement points are available,
several measured values are combined in one displayed measurement point.
The trace functions include the following:
●
Display mode of the trace
For details on trace modes see ​chapter 2.2.4, "Trace Modes", on page 35.
●
Evaluation of the trace as a whole
For details on averaging see ​chapter 3.3.1.4, "Description of the Averaging
Method", on page 255.
●
Evaluation of individual measurement points of a trace. For details on detectors see
​chapter 3.3.1.5, "Detector Overview", on page 256.
To open the Trace menu
●
Press the TRACE key.
The "Trace" menu is displayed. The "Trace Configuration" dialog box is displayed.
Menu and softkey description
●
​chapter 3.3.1.1, "Softkeys of the Trace Menu", on page 245
Further information
●
​chapter 2.2.4, "Trace Modes", on page 35
●
​chapter 3.3.1.5, "Detector Overview", on page 256
●
​chapter 3.3.1.6, "ASCII File Export Format", on page 257
Tasks
3.3.1.1
●
​chapter 3.3.1.2, "Configuring Traces", on page 252
●
​chapter 3.3.1.3, "Specifying the Trace Settings", on page 254
Softkeys of the Trace Menu
The following table shows all softkeys available in the "Trace" menu. It is possible that
your instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is only available
with a special option, model or (measurement) mode, this information is provided in the
corresponding softkey description.
Functions to configure traces described elsewhere:
●
​"More Traces" on page 61
●
​"Copy Trace" on page 61
●
​"Trace Wizard" on page 61
●
​"ASCII Trace Export" on page 61
●
​"Decim Sep" on page 62
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Functions to configure traces exclusive in Spectrum mode
Trace 1/Trace 2/Trace 3/Trace 4/Trace 5/Trace 6......................................................246
└ Clear Write....................................................................................................246
└ Max Hold.......................................................................................................247
└ Min Hold........................................................................................................247
└ Average.........................................................................................................247
└ View..............................................................................................................247
└ Blank.............................................................................................................248
└ Hold/Cont......................................................................................................248
└ Detector........................................................................................................248
└ Auto Select.........................................................................................248
└ Auto Peak...........................................................................................249
└ Positive Peak......................................................................................249
└ Negative Peak....................................................................................249
└ Sample................................................................................................249
└ RMS....................................................................................................249
└ Average..............................................................................................249
└ Quasipeak...........................................................................................249
└ CISPR Average..................................................................................250
└ RMS Average.....................................................................................250
Average Mode.............................................................................................................250
└ Lin.................................................................................................................250
└ Log................................................................................................................250
└ Power............................................................................................................251
Trace Math..................................................................................................................251
Trace Math Mode........................................................................................................251
└ Lin.................................................................................................................251
└ Log................................................................................................................252
└ Power............................................................................................................252
Trace Math Position....................................................................................................252
Trace Math Off............................................................................................................252
Trace 1/Trace 2/Trace 3/Trace 4/Trace 5/Trace 6
Selects the active trace (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6) and opens the "Trace Mode" submenu for the
selected trace.
In the default state, trace 1 is in ​Clear Write mode. The other traces are turned off. For
details see ​chapter 2.2.4, "Trace Modes", on page 35.
Tip: To configure several traces in one step, use the functionality of the Trace Configuration dialog box. To access the dialog box, press the ​Trace Wizard softkey.
Remote command:
Selected via numeric suffix of:TRACe<1...6> commands
Clear Write ← Trace 1/Trace 2/Trace 3/Trace 4/Trace 5/Trace 6
Overwrite mode: the trace is overwritten by each sweep. This is the default setting.
All available detectors can be selected.
Remote command:
DISP:TRAC:MODE WRIT, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​MODE​
on page 460
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Max Hold ← Trace 1/Trace 2/Trace 3/Trace 4/Trace 5/Trace 6
The maximum value is determined over several sweeps and displayed. The R&S ESR
saves the sweep result in the trace memory only if the new value is greater than the
previous one.
This mode is especially useful with modulated or pulsed signals. The signal spectrum is
filled up upon each sweep until all signal components are detected in a kind of envelope.
Remote command:
DISP:TRAC:MODE MAXH, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​MODE​
on page 460
Min Hold ← Trace 1/Trace 2/Trace 3/Trace 4/Trace 5/Trace 6
The minimum value is determined from several measurements and displayed. The
R&S ESR saves the smallest of the previously stored/currently measured values in the
trace memory.
This mode is useful e.g. for making an unmodulated carrier in a composite signal visible.
Noise, interference signals or modulated signals are suppressed whereas a CW signal
is recognized by its constant level.
Remote command:
DISP:TRAC:MODE MINH, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​MODE​
on page 460
Average ← Trace 1/Trace 2/Trace 3/Trace 4/Trace 5/Trace 6
The average is formed over several sweeps. The ​Sweep Count determines the number
of averaging procedures.
All available detectors can be selected. If the detector is automatically selected, the sample detector is used (see ​chapter 3.3.1.5, "Detector Overview", on page 256).
This mode is not available for statistics measurements.
Remote command:
DISP:TRAC:MODE AVER, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​MODE​
on page 460
View ← Trace 1/Trace 2/Trace 3/Trace 4/Trace 5/Trace 6
The current contents of the trace memory are frozen and displayed.
Note: If a trace is frozen, the instrument settings, apart from level range and reference
level (see below), can be changed without impact on the displayed trace. The fact that
the displayed trace no longer matches the current instrument setting is indicated by the
icon on the tab label.
If the level range or reference level is changed, the R&S ESR automatically adapts the
measured data to the changed display range. This allows an amplitude zoom to be made
after the measurement in order to show details of the trace.
Remote command:
DISP:TRAC:MODE VIEW, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​MODE​
on page 460
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Blank ← Trace 1/Trace 2/Trace 3/Trace 4/Trace 5/Trace 6
Hides the selected trace.
Remote command:
DISP:TRAC OFF, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>[:​STATe]​ on page 615
Hold/Cont ← Trace 1/Trace 2/Trace 3/Trace 4/Trace 5/Trace 6
Switches the reset of the traces in Min Hold, Max Hold and Average mode after some
specific parameter changes have been made on and off. The default setting is off.
Normally, the measurement is started anew after parameter changes, before the measurement results are evaluated (e.g. using a marker). In all cases that require a new
measurement after parameter changes, the trace is reset automatically to avoid false
results (e.g. with span changes). For applications that require no reset after parameter
changes, the automatic reset can be switched off.
Remote command:
​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​MODE:​HCONtinuous​ on page 615
Detector ← Trace 1/Trace 2/Trace 3/Trace 4/Trace 5/Trace 6
Opens a submenu to select the detector manually, or activate automatic selection.
Note: When measuring spurious emissions, using this softkey automatically opens the
Sweep List dialog, see ​"Sweep List dialog box" on page 146.
If a detector was selected manually, the "MAN" indicator is highlighted.
If "AUTO" is selected, the detector is defined automatically, depending on the selected
trace mode:
Trace mode
Detector
Clear Write
Auto Peak
Max Hold
Positive Peak
Min Hold
Negative Peak
Average
Sample Peak
View
–
Blank
–
Auto Select ← Detector ← Trace 1/Trace 2/Trace 3/Trace 4/Trace 5/Trace 6
Selects the best detector for the selected trace and filter mode. This is the default setting.
Trace mode
Detector
Clear/Write
Auto Peak
Average
Sample
Max Hold
Max Peak
Min Hold
Min Peak
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​][WINDow:​]DETector<trace>[:​FUNCtion]:​AUTO​ on page 619
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Auto Peak ← Detector ← Trace 1/Trace 2/Trace 3/Trace 4/Trace 5/Trace 6
Selects the "Auto Peak" detector.
The "Auto Peak" detector determines the maximum and minimum value within a measurement point. The Auto Peak detector is not available for SEM measurements.
Remote command:
DET APE, see ​[SENSe:​][WINDow:​]DETector<trace>[:​FUNCtion]​
on page 618
Positive Peak ← Detector ← Trace 1/Trace 2/Trace 3/Trace 4/Trace 5/Trace 6
Selects the "Positive Peak" detector.
Remote command:
DET POS, see ​[SENSe:​][WINDow:​]DETector<trace>[:​FUNCtion]​
on page 618
Negative Peak ← Detector ← Trace 1/Trace 2/Trace 3/Trace 4/Trace 5/Trace 6
Selects the "Negative Peak" detector.
Remote command:
DET NEG, see ​[SENSe:​][WINDow:​]DETector<trace>[:​FUNCtion]​
on page 618
Sample ← Detector ← Trace 1/Trace 2/Trace 3/Trace 4/Trace 5/Trace 6
Selects the "Sample" detector.
Remote command:
DET SAMP, see ​[SENSe:​][WINDow:​]DETector<trace>[:​FUNCtion]​
on page 618
RMS ← Detector ← Trace 1/Trace 2/Trace 3/Trace 4/Trace 5/Trace 6
Selects the "RMS" detector.
Remote command:
DET RMS, see ​[SENSe:​][WINDow:​]DETector<trace>[:​FUNCtion]​
on page 618
Average ← Detector ← Trace 1/Trace 2/Trace 3/Trace 4/Trace 5/Trace 6
Selects the "Average" detector.
Remote command:
DET AVER, see ​[SENSe:​][WINDow:​]DETector<trace>[:​FUNCtion]​
on page 618
Quasipeak ← Detector ← Trace 1/Trace 2/Trace 3/Trace 4/Trace 5/Trace 6
Selects the "Quasipeak" detector.
Remote command:
DET QPE, see ​[SENSe:​][WINDow:​]DETector<trace>[:​FUNCtion]​
on page 618
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CISPR Average ← Detector ← Trace 1/Trace 2/Trace 3/Trace 4/Trace 5/Trace 6
Selects the "CISPR Average" detector.
Remote command:
DET CAV, see ​[SENSe:​][WINDow:​]DETector<trace>[:​FUNCtion]​
on page 618
RMS Average ← Detector ← Trace 1/Trace 2/Trace 3/Trace 4/Trace 5/Trace 6
Selects the "RMS Average" detector.
Remote command:
DET CRMS, see ​[SENSe:​][WINDow:​]DETector<trace>[:​FUNCtion]​
on page 618
Average Mode
Opens a submenu to select the averaging method for the average trace mode. The following methods are available:
●
●
●
​Lin
​Log
​Power
Logarithmic averaging is recommended to display signals with a low signal to noise ratio.
While positive peak values are decreased in logarithmic averaging due to the characteristics involved, it is also true that negative peaks are increased relative to the average
value. If the distorted amplitude distribution is averaged, a value is obtained that is smaller
than the actual average value. The difference is -2.5 dB.
This low average value is usually corrected in noise power measurements by a 2.5 dB
factor. Therefore the R&S ESR offers the selection of linear averaging. The trace data is
converted to linear values prior to averaging, then averaged and reconverted to logarithmic values. After these conversions the data is displayed on the screen. The average
value is always correctly displayed irrespective of the signal characteristic.
In case of stationary sinusoidal signals both logarithmic and linear averaging has the
same results.
Lin ← Average Mode
Activates linear averaging. Linear averaging means that the power level values are converted into linear units prior to averaging. After the averaging, the data is converted back
into its original unit.
This softkey takes effect if the grid is set to a linear scale (see "Range Linear" softkey, ​
"Range Linear %" on page 175). In this case, the averaging is done in two ways (depending on the set unit – see "Unit" softkey):
●
●
The unit is set to either W or dBm: the data is converted into W prior to averaging,
i.e. averaging is done in W.
The unit is set to either V, A, dBmV, dBµV, dBµA or dBpW: the data is converted into
V prior to averaging, i.e. averaging is done in V.
Remote command:
SENS:AVER1:TYPE LIN, see ​[SENSe:​]AVERage<n>:​TYPE​ on page 618
Log ← Average Mode
Activates logarithmic averaging.
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This averaging method only takes effect if the grid is set to a logarithmic scale
("Range" softkey), i.e. the unit of the data is dBm. In this case the values are averaged
in dBm. Otherwise (i.e. with linear scaling), the behavior is the same as with linear averaging (see ​Lin softkey). For further information on logarithmic scaling refer to the "Average Mode" softkey.
Remote command:
SENS:AVER1:TYPE VID, see ​[SENSe:​]AVERage<n>:​TYPE​ on page 618
Power ← Average Mode
Activates linear power averaging.
The power level values are converted into unit Watt prior to averaging. After the averaging, the data is converted back into its original unit.
Unlike the linear mode, the averaging is always done in W.
Remote command:
SENS:AVER1:TYPE POW, see ​[SENSe:​]AVERage<n>:​TYPE​ on page 618
Trace Math
Opens the "Trace Mathematics" dialog box to define which trace is subtracted from trace
1. The result is displayed in trace 1 and refers to the zero point defined with the ​Trace
Math Position softkey. The following subtractions can be performed:
"T1"->"T1"-"T2"
Subtracts trace 2 from trace 1.
"T1"->"T1"-"T3"
Subtracts trace 3 from trace 1
"T1"->"T1"-"T4"
Subtracts trace 4 from trace 1
"T1"->"T1"-"T5"
Subtracts trace 5 from trace 1
"T1"->"T1"-"T6"
Subtracts trace 6 from trace 1
To switch off the trace math, use the ​Trace Math Off softkey.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MATH[:​EXPression][:​DEFine]​ on page 613
​CALCulate<n>:​MATH:​STATe​ on page 614
Trace Math Mode
Opens a submenu to select the mode for the trace math calculations.
Lin ← Trace Math Mode
Activates linear subtraction, which means that the power level values are converted into
linear units prior to subtraction. After the subtraction, the data is converted back into its
original unit.
This softkey takes effect if the grid is set to a linear scale (see ​Range softkey). In this
case, subtraction is done in two ways (depending on the set unit – see ​Unit softkey):
●
The unit is set to either W or dBm: the data is converted into W prior to subtraction,
i.e. averaging is done in W.
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●
The unit is set to either V, A, dBmV, dBµV, dBµA or dBpW: the data is converted into
V prior to subtraction, i.e. subtraction is done in V.
Remote command:
CALC:MATH:MODE LIN, see ​CALCulate<n>:​MATH:​MODE​ on page 614
Log ← Trace Math Mode
Activates logarithmic subtraction.
This subtraction method only takes effect if the grid is set to a logarithmic scale (see ​
Range softkey), i.e. the unit of the data is dBm. In this case the values are subtracted in
dBm. Otherwise (i.e. with linear scaling) the behavior is the same as with linear subtraction (see ​Lin softkey). For further information on logarithmic scaling refer to the ​Average
Mode softkey.
Remote command:
CALC:MATH:MODE LOG, see ​CALCulate<n>:​MATH:​MODE​ on page 614
Power ← Trace Math Mode
Activates linear power subtraction.
The power level values are converted into unit Watt prior to subtraction. After the subtraction, the data is converted back into its original unit.
Unlike the linear mode, the subtraction is always done in W.
Remote command:
CALC:MATH:MODE POW, see ​CALCulate<n>:​MATH:​MODE​ on page 614
Trace Math Position
Opens an edit dialog box to define the zero point in % of the diagram height. The range
of values extends from -100 % to +200 %.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MATH:​POSition​ on page 614
Trace Math Off
Deactivates any previously selected trace math functions.
Remote command:
CALC:MATH:STAT OFF, see ​CALCulate<n>:​MATH:​STATe​ on page 614
3.3.1.2
Configuring Traces
1. To open the trace wizard, press the TRACE key and then the "Trace Wizard" softkey
(see ​"Trace Wizard" on page 61).
Tip: Context-sensitive menus for traces. Traces have context-sensitive menus. If you
right-click on a trace in the display or a trace setting in the information channel bar
(or touch it for about 1 second), a menu is displayed which corresponds to the softkey
functions available for traces. This is useful, for example, when the softkey display is
hidden.
If a menu entry contains an arrow to the right of it, a submenu is available for that
entry.
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To close the menu, press the ESC key or click in the display outside of the menu.
2. For each trace you can define the following settings:
Display Mode
●
●
●
●
●
●
​Clear Write
​Max Hold
​Min Hold
​Average
​View
​Blank
For details see ​chapter 2.2.4, "Trace Modes", on page 35.
Detector Auto Select
Activates automatic detector selection (see ​Auto Select softkey). If activated, the "Trace Detector" setting is ignored.
Trace Detector
Defines a specific trace detector. If one of the following settings is
defined, the "Detector Auto Select" option is deactivated.
●
​"Auto Select" on page 248
●
​"Auto Peak" on page 249
●
​"Positive Peak" on page 249
●
​"Negative Peak" on page 249
●
​"Sample" on page 249
●
​"RMS" on page 249
●
​"Average" on page 249
3. To configure several traces to predefined display modes in one step, press the button
for the required function:
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Preset All Traces
Trace 1: ​Clear Write
Trace 2-6: ​Blank
Select Max | Avg | Min
Trace 1: ​Max Hold
Trace 2: ​Average
Trace 3: ​Min Hold
Trace 4-6: ​Blank
Select Max | ClrWrite | Min
Trace 1: ​Max Hold
Trace 2: ​Clear Write
Trace 3: ​Min Hold
Trace 4-6: ​Blank
For details see ​chapter 2.2.4, "Trace Modes", on page 35.
3.3.1.3
Specifying the Trace Settings
1. To configure one or more traces, see ​chapter 3.3.1.2, "Configuring Traces",
on page 252.
2. To select the trace mode for the selected trace, press the softkey for the corresponding trace (for details see ​chapter 2.2.4, "Trace Modes", on page 35).
3. To select a detector, press the ​Auto Select softkey for automatic detector selection,
or press the ​Detector softkey (for details see ​chapter 3.3.1.5, "Detector Overview",
on page 256).
4. To change the sweep count setting, which also determines trace averaging, press
the ​Sweep Count softkey.
5. To deactivate the reset of the traces in "Min Hold" and "Max Hold" mode after some
specific parameter changes, press the ​Trace Math softkey.
6. To copy a trace into another trace memory, press the ​Copy Trace softkey.
Upon copying, the contents of the selected memory are overwritten and the new
contents are displayed in the View mode.
7. To export the active trace in ASCII format:
a) Press the "More" softkey.
b) If necessary, press the ​Decim Sep softkey to change the decimal separator with
floating-point numerals.
c) Press the ​ASCII File Export softkey to enter the ASCII file export name.
The active trace is saved in ASCII format on the harddisk on or an external storage
device.
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3.3.1.4
Description of the Averaging Method
Averaging is carried out over the measurement points derived from the measurement
samples. Several measured values may be combined in a measurement point. This
means that with linear level display the average is formed over linear amplitude values.
The sweep mode (continuous or single sweep, for details see ​chapter 3.2.7, "Configuring
the Sweep Mode – SWEEP Key", on page 225) and running averaging apply to the average display analogously. In principle, two methods for calculating the average are used:
continuous averaging and averaging over the selected number of sweeps.
●
sweep count > 1
Depending on the relation of the following two parameters, two different situations
exist:
n = number of sweeps performed since measurement start
c = sweep count (number of sweeps forming one statistics cycle)
– n≤c
In single sweep or continuous sweep mode during the first statistics cycle, averaging over the selected number of sweeps is performed. The average trace "n"
is calculated at each measurement point according to:
Fig. 3-17: Equation 1
with Avg = average trace; Curr = current trace
Until the first statistics cycle is completed (n < c), a preliminary average is displayed which represents the arithmetic mean value over all measured sweeps.
With n increasing, the displayed trace is increasingly smoothed since there are
more single sweeps for averaging.
When the first statistics cycle is completed (n = c), the average trace is saved in
the trace memory.
–
n>c
In continuous sweep mode after the first statistics cycle, continuous averaging is
performed. The average trace "n" is calculated at each measurement point
according to:
Fig. 3-18: Equation 2
with Avg = average trace; Curr = current trace
In single sweep mode, the same formula is valid if the ​Continue Single Sweep
softkey is pressed.
●
sweep count = 0
In continuous sweep mode, a continuous average is calculated according to ​figure 3-18 with c = 10:
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Fig. 3-19: Equation 3
with Avg = average trace; Curr = current trace
Due to the weighting between the current trace and the average trace, past values
have practically no influence on the displayed trace after about ten sweeps. With this
setting, signal noise is effectively reduced without need for restarting the averaging
process after a change of the signal.
●
3.3.1.5
sweep count = 1
The current trace is displayed. No averaging is performed. This is a special case of ​
figure 3-17 with n = 0.
Detector Overview
The measurement detector for the individual display modes can be selected directly by
the user or set automatically by the R&S ESR. The detector activated for the specific
trace is indicated in the corresponding trace display field by an abbreviation.
For more information on available detectors see ​chapter 2.2.3, "Selecting a Detector",
on page 31.
All detectors work in parallel in the background, which means that the measurement
speed is independent of the detector combination used for different traces.
Number of measured values
During a frequency sweep, the R&S ESR increments the first local oscillator in steps that
are smaller than approximately 1/10 of the bandwidth. This ensures that the oscillator
step speed is conform to the hardware settling times and does not affect the precision of
the measured power.
The number of measured values taken during a sweep is independent of the number of
oscillator steps. It is always selected as a multiple or a fraction of 691 (= default number
of trace points displayed on the screen). Choosing less then 691 measured values (e.g.
125 or 251) will lead to an interpolated measurement curve, choosing more than 691
points (e.g. 1001, 2001 …) will result in several measured values being overlaid at the
same frequency position.
RMS detector and VBW
If the RMS detector is selected, the video bandwidth in the hardware is bypassed. Thus,
duplicate trace averaging with small VBWs and RMS detector no longer occurs. However,
the VBW is still considered when calculating the sweep time. This leads to a longer sweep
time for small VBW values. Thus, you can reduce the VBW value to achieve more stable
trace curves even when using an RMS detector. Normally, if the RMS detector is used
the sweep time should be increased to get more stable trace curves.
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3.3.1.6
ASCII File Export Format
The data of the file header consist of three columns, each separated by a semicolon:
parameter name; numeric value; basic unit. The data section starts with the keyword
"Trace <n>" (<n> = number of stored trace), followed by the measured data in one or
several columns (depending on measurement) which are also separated by a semicolon.
File contents: header and data section
Description
Date;01.Apr 2010;
Date of data set storage
Screen;A;
Instrument mode
Points per Symbol;4;
Points per symbol
x Axis Start;-13;sym;
Start value of the x axis
x Axis Stop;135;sym;
Stop value of the x axis
Ref value y axis;-10.00;dBm;
Y axis reference value
Ref value position;100;%;
Y axis reference position
Trace;1;
Trace number
Meas;Result;
Result type
Meas Signal;Magnitude;
Result display
Demodulator;Offset QPSK;
Demodulation type
ResultMode;Trace;
Result mode
x unit;sym;
Unit of the x axis
y unit;dBm;
Unit of the y axis
Trace Mode;Clear Write;
Trace mode
Values;592;
Number of results
<values>
List of results
3.3.2 Spectrogram
The spectrogram is a graphical overview of changes in the frequency and amplitude over
time.
The spectrogram uses the configuration of the Spectrum mode and vice versa.
Note that not all measurements of the Spectrum mode support a spectrogram result display.
Menus and softkeys
The main menu of the Spectrogram result display is part of the "Trace" menu in Spectrum
mode. For more information see .
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Some special functions supported by the spectrogram are available in the "Sweep" menu
in Spectrum mode. For more information see ​chapter 3.2.7.1, "Softkeys of the Sweep
Menu", on page 226.
3.3.2.1
Working with Spectrograms
General Information
This section provides some basic information about using the firmware application and
about performing measurements with the firmware application.
Screen Layout
The Spectrogram view is divided into two screens: the spectrum analyzer result display
(upper screen) and the spectrogram result display (lower screen).
Fig. 3-20: Screen layout of the spectrogram result display
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
●
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
Spectrum result display
Spectrogram result display
Frame indicator
Time stamp / frame number
Color map
Marker
Deltamarker
Marker list
Spectrum Analyzer result display (1 in ​figure 3-20)
This result display is the same as the Spectrum Analyzer with the x-axis representing
the frequency span or time (span = 0) and the y-axis the power level. Configure and
use this display in the same way as you would in Spectrum Analyzer mode.
All traces are available and you can view those traces just like in the base unit (see ​
chapter 2.2.4, "Trace Modes", on page 35). The trace modes View and Blank are not
available for trace 1.
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While performing a measurement the trace is updated continuously. You can also
restore the trace to a point that has already been recorded by selecting a specific
frame (see ​"Select Frame" on page 229). This is possible in Single Sweep mode or
if the sweep has been stopped.
●
Spectrogram result display (2)
The data displayed in the Spectrogram is always based on the data of trace 1 in the
Spectrum Analyzer result display. The Spectrogram can handle measurements in the
frequency domain (span > 0) as well as measurements in the time domain
(span = 0)
The Spectrogram is a cartesian diagram. The x-axis shows the power distribution of
a measured signal over a specified frequency or time range. Different power levels
are displayed in different colors. The y-axis represents the time with the top of the
diagram being the current timeframe (the measurement runs from top to bottom).
Each line (or trace) of the y-axis represents one captured frame. The frames are
sorted in chronological order. One frame is equal to a certain number of sweep points,
depending on the dimension of the x-axis. If there are more measurement values
than measurement points, several measured values are combined in one measurement point using the selected detector (see ​chapter 3.3.1.5, "Detector Overview",
on page 256). Frames are sorted in chronological order, beginning with the most
recently recorded frame or frame number 0 at the top of the diagram. After that and
below frame 0 is the frame recorded before the current frame (frame -1) and so on
until the maximum number of captured frames is reached. The maximum number of
frames that you can capture is summarized in the table below (see ​table 3-7. A marker
in the form of an arrow (3) on the left and right border of the Spectrogram indicates
the currently selected frame.
The actual number of the currently selected frame is shown below the diagram (4).
If the time stamp is active, the R&S ESR shows the time stamp instead of the frame
number (see ​Time Stamp (On Off).
Below the diagram there is also a color map (5) that shows the power levels corresponding to the displayed colors. The minimum value of the y-axis is on the left of
the color map. The maximum value is on the right of the map. You can also change
the color scheme in use (see ​Color Mapping. The colors corresponding to the power
levels, however, are always assigned automatically.
Markers and deltamarkers (6) (7) take the form of diamonds in the Spectrogram. They
are only displayed in the Spectrogram, if the marker position is inside the visible area
of the spectrogram. If more than two markers are active, it is possible to display a ​
Marker Table at the bottom of the display (8).
Table 3-7: Correlation between number of sweep points and number of frames stored in the history
buffer
Sweep Points
Max. History Depth
≤1250
20000
2001
12488
4001
6247
8.001
3124
16.001
1562
32.001
781
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Markers and Marker Values
In the Spectrum Analyzer result display, the markers and their frequency and level values
(1) are displayed in the marker field just like in the base unit (see ​chapter 2.4.2, "Markers", on page 62). In addition to the base unit functionality, the frame number is displayed
to indicate the position of the marker in time (2).
In the Spectrogram result display, you can activate up to 16 markers or deltamarkers at
the same time. Any marker can be assigned to a different frame. Therefore, in addition
to the frequency (1) you can set the frame number (2) when activating a new marker. If
no frame number is specified, the marker is positioned on the currently selected frame.
In the Spectrogram result display all markers are visible that are positioned on a visible
frame.
In the Spectrum Analyzer result display, only the markers positioned on the currently
selected frame are visible. In Continuous Sweep mode this means that only markers
positioned on frame 0 are visible. To view markers that are positioned on a frame other
than frame 0 in the Spectrum Analyzer result display, it is necessary to stop the measurement and select the corresponding frame.
Customizing the Color Mapping
Colors are an important part of the both the persistence spectrum and the spectrogram.
Therefore, the R&S ESR provides various ways to customize the display for best viewing
results.
You can access the Color Mapping dialog via the "Color Mapping" softkey or by tapping
on the color map. The dialog looks and works similar for the histogram and the spectrogram, only the the scaling or unit of the color map is different. For the persistence spectrum the R&S ESR maps the colors to percentages, for the spectrogram it maps power
levels (dBm). In addition, the dialog box of the persistence spectrum offers a truncate
function.
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1 = Color map: shows the current color distribution
2 = Preview pane: shows a preview of the histogram / spectrogram with any changes that you make to the
color scheme
3 = Color curve pane: graphic representation of all settings available to customize the color scheme
4 = Color curve in its linear form
5 = Color range start and stop sliders: define the range of the color map; percentages for the histogram or
amplitudes for the spectrogram
6 = Color curve slider: adjusts the focus of the color curve
7 = Histogram: shows the distribution of measured values
8 = Scale of the horizontal axis (value range): in the spectrogram this is linear, in the histogram it is the function
of the density
9 = Color range start and stop: numerical input to define the range of the color map
10 = Color curve: numerical input to define the shape of the color curve
11 = Color scheme selection
12 = Truncate: if active, only shows the results inside the value range; only available for the persistence spectrum
13 = Auto button: automatically sets the value range of the color map
14 = Default button: resets the color settings
15 = Close button: closes the dialog box
Setting the Color Scheme
Before adjusting the details of the color map, you should select the color scheme you are
most comfortable with. You can select from four different color schemes:
●
The "Hot" color scheme shows the results in colors ranging from blue to red. Blue
colors indicate low probabilities or levels respectively. Red colors indicate high ones.
●
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The "Cold" color scheme shows the results in colors ranging from red to blue. Red
colors indicate low probabilities or levels respectively. Blue colors indicate high ones.
The "Cold" color scheme is the inverse "Hot" color scheme.
●
The "Radar" color scheme shows the colors ranging from black over green to light
turquoise with shades of green in between. Dark colors indicate low probabilities or
levels respectively. Light colors indicate high ones.
●
The "Grayscale" color scheme shows the results in shades of gray. Dark grays indicate low probabilities or levels respectively. Light grays indicate high ones.
If a result lies outside the defined range of the color map, it is colored in black at the lower
end of the color range. On the upper end of the color range it is always the lightest color
possible, regardless of differences in amplitude (e.g. black and blue in case of the
"Cold" scheme).
​DISPlay:​WINDow:​SGRam:​COLor[:​STYLe]​ on page 626
​DISPlay:​WINDow:​SGRam:​COLor:​DEFault​ on page 625
Defining the Range of the Color Map
The current configuration could be a color map that you can optimize for better visualization of the measured signal, e.g. if the results cover only a small part of the color map.
In the resulting trace, it would be hard to distinguish between values that are close
together.
There are several ways to optimize the distribution of the colors over the results and then
get the best viewing results.
Note that the following examples are based on the "Hot" color scheme and the spectrogram. Color settings in the histogram are the same with the exception of the unit of the
color map that is % in the histogram. If something applies to the spectrogram only, you'll
find a note at that place.
The easiest way to adjust the colors is to use the color range sliders in the "Color Mapping" dialog.
In the histogram that is in the background of the color curve pane (grey bars), you can
observe the distribution of measurement results. If no significant shifts in result distribution occur after evaluating this for a time, you can adjust the color map to the overall
shape of the measurement results. To do so and still cover the whole signal, move the
sliders in a way that the first and last bar of the histogram are still inside the range. You
can optimize the display further, if you suppress the noise by excluding the lower 10 to
20 dB of the distribution. Note that the color map has to cover at least 10% of the range
of the horizontal axis.
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Alternatively, you can set the range in the numeric input field. For the spectral histogram,
you enter the percentages as they are plotted on the horizontal axis and displayed in the
spectral histogram itself. For the spectrogram however, you have to enter the distance
from the right and left border as a percentage.
Example:
The color map starts at -100 dBm and ends at 0 dBm (i.e. a range of 100 dB). You,
however, want the color map to start at -90 dBm. To do so, you have to enter 10% in the
Start field. The FSVR shifts the start point 10% to the right, to -90 dBm.
In the spectrogram, cutting the range as far as possible is also a good way if you want to
observe and put the focus on signals with a certain amplitude only. Then, only those
signal amplitudes that you really want see are displayed. The rest of the display remains
dark (or light, depending on the color scheme). It is also a good way to eliminate noise
from the display. In the spectrogram you can do this easily by excluding the corresponding
power levels at the low end of the power level distribution.
In the histogram, cutting down the color range is also a good way to eliminate unwanted
signal parts. Very frequent level and frequency combinations are most likely noise, so
cutting them away means that the color resolution for all other combinations is enhanced
and makes it more easy to detect, for example, weak and rare signals.
The persistence spectrum provides an additional truncate function. If active, all values
that are outside the color range are no longer displayed in the histogram.
Fig. 3-21: Spectrogram that shows the peaks of a pulsed signal only
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Adjusting the reference level and level range
Changing the reference level and level range also affects the color scheme in the spectrogram.
Make sure, however, that you never adjust in a way that could overload the R&S ESR.
For more information, see AMPT menu
​DISPlay:​WINDow:​SGRam:​COLor:​LOWer​ on page 626
​DISPlay:​WINDow:​SGRam:​COLor:​UPPer​ on page 626
Defining the Shape of the Color Curve
Now that the color scheme and range of the color map suit your needs, you can improve
the color map even more by changing the shape of the color curve.
The color curve is a tool to shift the focus of the color distribution on the color map. By
default, the color curve is linear. The color curve is linear, i.e. the colors on the color map
are distributed evenly. If you shift the curve to the left or right, the distribution becomes
non-linear. The slope of the color curve increases or decreases. One end of the color
palette then covers a large amount results while the the other end distributes a lot of
colors on relatively small result range.
You can use this feature to put the focus on a particular region in the diagram and to be
able to detect small variations of the signal.
Example:
Fig. 3-22: Linear color curve shape = 0
The color map above is based on a linear color curve. Colors are distributed evenly over
the complete result range.
Fig. 3-23: Non-linear color curve shape = -0.5
After shifting the color curve to the left (negative value), more colors cover the range from
-105.5 dBm to -60 dBm (blue, green and yellow). In the color map based on the linear
color curve, the same range is covered by blue and a few shades of green only. The
range from -60 dBm to -20 dBm on the other hand is dominated by various shades of
red, but no other colors. In the linear color map, the same range is covered by red, yellow
and a few shades of green.
The result of shifting the color curve is that results in a particular result range (power
levels in case of the spectrogram and densities in the case of the spectral histogram)
become more differentiated.
You can adjust the color curve by moving the middle slider in the color curve pane to a
place you want it to be. Moving the slider to the left shifts the focus in the direction of low
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values. Most of the colors in the color map are then concentrated on the low power levels
(spectrogram) or densities (histogram), while only a few colors cover the upper end of
the color map or high power levels or densities. Moving the slider to the right shifts the
focus to the higher amplitudes or densities.
Alternatively, you can enter the shape of the color curve in the corresponding input field
below the color curve pane. A value of 0 corresponds to a linear shape, negative values
up to -1 shift the curve to the left, positive values up to 1 shift the curve to the right.
​DISPlay:​WINDow:​SGRam:​COLor:​SHAPe​ on page 626
3.3.2.2
Softkeys of the Spectrogram Menu
Softkeys of the Spectrogram Menu
The following chapter describes all softkeys available in the "Spectrogram" menu. It is
possible that your instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is
only available with a special option, model or (measurement) mode, this information is
delivered in the corresponding softkey description.
To display the "Spectrogram" menu, press the TRACE key and then select the "Spectogram" softkey.
Spectrogram................................................................................................................265
└ Spectrogram (On Off)...................................................................................265
└ History Depth................................................................................................265
└ Color Mapping...............................................................................................265
└ Time Stamp (On Off).....................................................................................266
└ Clear Spectrogram........................................................................................266
Spectrogram
Opens the submenu for the spectrogram view.
Spectrogram (On Off) ← Spectrogram
Activates and deactivates the Spectrogram result display
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​SGRam[:​STATe]​ on page 625
History Depth ← Spectrogram
Sets the number of frames that the R&S ESR stores in its memory. The maximum number
of frames depends on the Sweep Points (see ​"General Information" on page 258).
If the memory is full, the R&S ESR deletes the oldest frames stored in the memory and
replaces them with the new data.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​SGRam:​HDEPth​ on page 624
Color Mapping ← Spectrogram
Displays the "Color Mapping" dialog box to configure the display of the spectrogram
(assignment of colors to power levels).
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For more information see ​"Customizing the Color Mapping" on page 260.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​SGRam:​COLor​ on page 622
​DISPlay:​WINDow:​SGRam:​COLor:​LOWer​ on page 626
​DISPlay:​WINDow:​SGRam:​COLor:​UPPer​ on page 626
Time Stamp (On Off) ← Spectrogram
Activates and deactivates the time stamp. The time stamp shows the system time while
the measurement is running. In single sweep mode or if the sweep is stopped, the time
stamp shows the time and date of the end of the sweep.
When active, the time stamp replaces the display of the frame number.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​SGRam:​TSTamp[:​STATe]​ on page 625
Clear Spectrogram ← Spectrogram
Resets the Spectrogram result display and clears the history buffer.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​SGRam:​CLEar[:​IMMediate]​ on page 622
3.3.3 Markers
3.3.3.1
Controlling Markers
The markers are used for marking points on traces, reading out measurement results and
for selecting a display section quickly. The R&S ESR provides 16 markers per trace.
To open the Marker menu
●
Press the MKR key.
The "Marker" menu is displayed. If no marker is active, marker 1 is activated and a
peak search on the trace is carried out. Otherwise, the edit dialog box for the last
activated marker is opened and the current frequency/time value is displayed.
Further information
●
​"Displayed Marker Information" on page 270
●
​chapter 2.4.2.2, "Positioning Markers", on page 66.
Tasks
●
​"Basic Marker Functions" on page 268
Softkeys of the Marker Menu
Functions to control markers described elsewhere:
●
​"Marker 1 / Marker 2 / Marker 3 / … Marker 16,/ Marker Norm/Delta" on page 63
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●
​"Marker to Trace" on page 64
●
​"Marker Wizard" on page 64
●
​"All Marker Off" on page 65
●
​"Marker Table" on page 65
●
​"Marker Info (On Off)" on page 65
Functions to control markers exclusive in Spectrum mode
Marker Stepsize..........................................................................................................267
└ Stepsize Standard.........................................................................................267
└ Stepsize Sweep Points.................................................................................267
Marker Zoom (span > 0)..............................................................................................267
Link Mkr1 and Delta1..................................................................................................268
Marker Stepsize
Opens a submenu to set the step size of all markers and delta markers.
Default value for the marker step size is ​Stepsize Sweep Points.
Stepsize Standard ← Marker Stepsize
Moves the marker or delta marker from one measurement point to the next, if the marker
or delta marker value is changed via the rotary knob ( "Marker 1 / Marker 2 / Marker 3 /
… Marker 16,/ Marker Norm/Delta" softkeys, see ​"Marker 1 / Marker 2 / Marker 3 / …
Marker 16,/ Marker Norm/Delta" on page 63). If more measured values than measurement points exist, it is not possible to read out all measured values. In this case, use the
​Stepsize Sweep Points softkey.
Remote command:
CALC:MARK:X:SSIZ STAN (see ​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​X:​SSIZe​
on page 643)
Stepsize Sweep Points ← Marker Stepsize
Moves the marker or delta marker from one measured value to the next, if the marker or
delta marker value is changed via the rotary knob ( "Marker 1 / Marker 2 / Marker 3 / …
Marker 16,/ Marker Norm/Delta" softkeys, see ​"Marker 1 / Marker 2 / Marker 3 / … Marker
16,/ Marker Norm/Delta" on page 63). If more measured values than measurement points
exist, every single measured value is accessible and its value is displayed in the marker
field.
The number of measured values is defined in the ""Sweep"" menu via the ​Sweep
Points softkey.
This functionality is not available for statistical measurements (APD and CCDF).
Remote command:
CALC:MARK:X:SSIZ POIN (see ​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​X:​SSIZe​
on page 643)
Marker Zoom (span > 0)
Opens an edit dialog box to enter a display range for the zoom. The area around marker
1 is expanded accordingly and more details of the result can be seen. If no marker is
activated, marker 1 is switched on and set on the largest signal.
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The following sweep is stopped at the position of the reference marker. The frequency
of the signal is counted and the measured frequency becomes the new center frequency.
The zoomed display range is then configured and the new settings are used by the
R&S ESR for further measurements.
If the display has not yet been switched to the new frequency display range and you press
the softkey, the procedure is aborted. If an instrument setting is changed during this
operation, the procedure is also aborted.
This function is not available in I/Q Analyzer mode.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​ZOOM​ on page 465
Link Mkr1 and Delta1
The delta marker 1 is linked to marker 1, so if the x-axis value of the marker 1 is changed,
the delta marker 1 will follow on the same x-position. The link is off by default.
You can set the two markers on different traces to measure the difference (e.g. between
a max hold trace and a min hold trace or between a measurement and a reference trace).
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​LINK​ on page 473
Basic Marker Functions
●
To open the "Marker" menu, press the MKR key.
Marker 1 is activated and positioned on the maximum value of the trace as a normal
marker. If several traces are displayed, the marker is set to the maximum value (peak)
of the trace which has the lowest number (1 to 3) and is not frozen (View mode). In
case a marker is already located there, the new marker is set to the frequency of the
next lowest level (next peak).
●
To change marker settings quickly, right-click on the marker in the display (or touch
it for about 1 second). A context-sensitive menu is displayed which corresponds to
the softkey functions available for markers.
●
To configure and activate several markers at once, select the "Marker Wizard" to
open a configuration dialog for all markers.
●
To change to another trace, press the "Marker to Trace" softkey (​"Marker to Trace"
on page 64) and enter the number of the trace on which the marker is to be placed.
The marker changes to the selected trace, but remains on the previous frequency or
time. If a trace is turned off, the corresponding markers and marker functions are also
deactivated.
●
To switch to another marker, click on the marker label in the diagram. Alternatively,
select the corresponding softkey. If necessary, select the ​More Markers softkey first
to open a submenu that contains all marker numbers.
●
To move the marker to a different position, click the marker label in the diagram and
then drag it to the new position. When a marker label is selected, a vertical line is
displayed which indicates the marker's current x-value.
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●
To switch on a delta marker, select the softkey for the corresponding marker, then
press the "Marker 1 / Marker 2 / Marker 3 / … Marker 16,/ Marker Norm/Delta" (​
"Marker 1 / Marker 2 / Marker 3 / … Marker 16,/ Marker Norm/Delta" on page 63) until
"Delta" is highlighted.
The selected marker is switched on as a delta marker. The frequency and level of
the marker are displayed in relation to marker 1 in the marker field.
●
To change the marker type of a marker, select the softkey for the corresponding
marker, then press the "Marker 1 / Marker 2 / Marker 3 / … Marker 16,/ Marker Norm/
Delta" softkey (​"Marker 1 / Marker 2 / Marker 3 / … Marker 16,/ Marker Norm/
Delta" on page 63).
For a normal marker, the frequency and level are displayed as absolute values in the
marker field. For a delta marker, the frequency and level of the marker are displayed
in relation to marker 1 in the marker field.
●
To switch off a marker, press the corresponding softkey again.
The marker is deactivated. Marker 1 becomes the active marker for entry. The frequency and level of marker 1 are displayed in the marker field.
●
To switch off all markers, press the ​All Marker Off softkey.
●
To change the stepsize between one measured value and the next when the marker
or delta marker value is changed via the rotary knob, press either the ​Stepsize
Standard softkey or the ​Stepsize Sweep Points softkey.
●
To zoom into the display around a marker, press the ​"Marker Zoom (span > 0)"
on page 267 softkey and enter a span.
●
To link the delta marker1 to marker1, so if the x-axis value of the marker 1 is changed,
the delta marker 1 follows on the same x-position, press the ​Link Mkr1 and Delta1
softkey.
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Displayed Marker Information
The following additional information is displayed within the diagram grid or in a marker
table beneath the diagram. The marker table is displayed automatically if more than 2
markers are active. You can hide or show the table using the ​Marker Table softkey.
Marker information in Diagram Grid
The x and y axis positions of the last 2 markers or delta markers that were set, as well
as their index, are displayed within the diagram grid, if available. The value in the square
brackets after the index indicates the trace to which the marker is assigned. (Example:
M1[1) defines marker 1 on trace 1.) For more than 2 markers, a separate marker table is
displayed beneath the diagram.
If applicable, the active measurement function for the marker and its main results are
indicated, as well. The functions are indicated with the following abbreviations:
FXD
Reference fixed marker active
PHNoise
Phase noise measurement active
CNT
Frequency counter active
TRK
Signal track active
NOIse
Noise measurement active
MDepth
Measurement of the AM modulation depth active
TOI
TOI measurement active
Occ BW
Occupied bandwidth
Marker Information in Marker Table
In addition to the marker information displayed within the diagram grid, a separate marker
table may be displayed beneath the diagram. This table provides the following information
for all active markers:
No.
Serial number
Type
Marker type: N (normal), D (delta), T (temporary, internal)
Dgr
Diagram number
Trc
Trace to which the marker is assigned
Stimulus
x-value of the marker
Response
y-value of the marker
Func
Activated marker or measurement function
Func.Result
Result of the active marker or measurement function
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3.3.3.2
Positioning Markers (MKR➙ Key)
The MKR➙ key is used for search functions of measurement markers, assignment of the
marker frequency as center frequency, restriction of the search area and characterization
of maxima and minima. For details on markers in general, see ​chapter 3.3.3.1, "Controlling Markers", on page 266.
To open the Marker To menu
●
Press the MKR➙ key.
The "Marker To" menu is displayed. If no marker is active, marker 1 will be activated
and a peak search on the trace carried out. Otherwise, the edit dialog box for the last
activated marker is opened and the current frequency/time value is displayed.
Menu and softkey description
●
​"Softkeys of the Marker To Menu" on page 271
Further information
●
​"Effect of Different Peak Excursion Settings (Example)" on page 274
Tasks
●
​"Searching for a Maximum" on page 272
●
​"Searching for a Minimum" on page 273
●
​"Specifying the Search Limits" on page 273
●
​"Specifying the Search Range" on page 273
●
​"Examining a Signal at the Center in Detail" on page 273
●
​"Specifying the Suitable Peak Excursion" on page 274
Softkeys of the Marker To Menu
The following table shows all softkeys available in the "Marker To" menu. It is possible
that your instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is only available with a special option, model or (measurement) mode, this information is provided in
the corresponding softkey description.
Functions to position markers decribed elsewhere:
●
​"Select Marker (No)" on page 66
●
​"Peak" on page 67
●
​"Next Peak" on page 67
●
​"Marker to Trace" on page 64
●
​"Min" on page 67
●
​"Next Min" on page 67
●
​"Next Mode" on page 67
●
​"Search Limits" on page 68
●
​"Peak Excursion" on page 69
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Functions to position markers exclusive in Spectrum mode
Center =Mkr Freq (span > 0).......................................................................................272
Ref Lvl =Mkr Lvl..........................................................................................................272
Auto Max Peak/Auto Min Peak...................................................................................272
Exclude LO..................................................................................................................272
Center =Mkr Freq (span > 0)
Sets the center frequency to the current marker or delta marker frequency. A signal can
thus be set to as center frequency, for example to examine it in detail with a smaller span.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​CENTer​ on page 464
Ref Lvl =Mkr Lvl
Sets the reference level to the current marker level.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​REFerence​ on page 641
Auto Max Peak/Auto Min Peak
Adds an automatic peak search action for marker 1 at the end of each particular sweep.
This function may be used during adjustments of a device under test to keep track of the
current peak marker position and level.
The current marker search limit settings (​Left Limit, ​Right Limit, ​Threshold softkeys) are
taken into account.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​MAXimum:​AUTO​ on page 641
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​MINimum:​AUTO​ on page 642
Exclude LO
Switches the frequency range limit for the marker search functions on or off.
"ON"
The minimum frequency included in the peak search range is ≥ 5 ×
resolution bandwidth (RBW).
Due to the interference by the first local oscillator to the first intermediate
frequency at the input mixer, the LO is represented as a signal at 0 Hz.
To avoid the peak marker jumping to the LO signal at 0 Hz, this frequency is excluded from the peak search.
"OFF"
No restriction to the search range. The frequency 0 Hz is included in
the marker search functions.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​LOEXclude​ on page 641
Searching for a Maximum
●
To search for the highest maximum, press the ​Peak softkey.
●
To define the search mode for the next maximum, use the ​Next Mode softkey.
●
To start the search, press the ​Next Peak softkey.
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You can define an automatic peak search action for marker 1 at the end of each particular
sweep using the ​Auto Max Peak/Auto Min Peak softkey.
Searching for a Minimum
●
To search for the minimum, press the ​Min softkey.
●
To define the search mode for the next minimum, use the ​Next Mode softkey.
●
To start the search, press the ​Next Min softkey.
You can define an automatic peak search action for marker 1 at the end of each particular
sweep using the ​Auto Max Peak/Auto Min Peak softkey.
Specifying the Search Limits
●
To define the lower limit, press the ​Left Limit softkey.
●
To define the upper limit, press the ​Right Limit softkey.
●
To define the threshold, press the ​Threshold softkey.
●
To switch the search limits off, press the ​Search Lim Off softkey.
Specifying the Search Range
●
Press the ​Exclude LO softkey to deactivate the "Exclude LO" mode in order to include
the frequency down to 0 Hz in the marker search functions.
Examining a Signal at the Center in Detail
1. Press the PRESET key to set the R&S ESR to the default setting.
2. Press the MKR -> key to open the "Marker To" menu.
3. Marker 1 is activated and set to the largest signal of the trace.
4. Press the ​Center =Mkr Freq (span > 0) softkey to set to the marker frequency.
5. The span is adapted in such a way that the minimum frequency (= 0 Hz) or the maximum frequency is not exceeded.
6. Press the ​Ref Lvl =Mkr Lvl softkey to set the reference level to the measured marker
level.
7. Press the SPAN key.
8. The edit dialog box to enter a frequency span is displayed.
9. Reduce the span, e.g. using the rotary knob.
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Specifying the Suitable Peak Excursion
1. If the ​Peak Excursion softkey is used, the default value is sufficient, since, in this
mode, the next lower maximum or next higher minimum will always be detected.
2. If the < or > of the softkey ​Next Mode is used, the 6 dB level change set as a default
value may already be attained by the inherent noise of the instrument. To avoid identifying noise peaks as maxima or minima, enter a peak excursion value that is higher
than the difference between the highest and the lowest value measured for the displayed inherent noise.
Effect of Different Peak Excursion Settings (Example)
The following figure shows a trace to be examined.
Fig. 3-24: Trace example
The following table lists the signals as indicated by the marker numbers in the diagram
above, as well as the minimum of the amplitude decrease to both sides of the signal:
Signal #
Min. amplitude decrease to both sides of the signal
1
30 dB
2
29.85 dB
3
7 dB
4
7 dB
The detected signals and their order are different depending on the peak excursion setting and the peak search method (whether the next lower maximum or the next relative
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maximum is searched). The following results are obtained. All tests start with the marker
set to signal 1 by pressing the ​Peak softkey.
●
40 dB peak excursion
Result: With both methods apart from signal 1 no signal is detected, as the signal
level does not decrease by more than 30 dB to either side of any signal.
Next lower maximum
Next relative maximum
Next Mode abs: signal 1
Next Mode <: signal 1
(no further signal detected)
(no further signal detected)
Next Mode >: signal 1
(no further signal detected)
●
20 dB peak excursion
Result: With both methods apart from signal 1 signal 2 is detected, as the signal level
decreases at least by 29.85 dB to either side of this signal, which is now greater than
the peak excursion.
Next lower maximum
Next relative maximum
Next Mode abs: signal 2
Next Mode <: signal 1
(no further signal detected)
Next Mode abs: signal 2
Next Mode >: signal 2
(no further signal detected)
Next Mode >: signal 2
(no further signal detected)
●
6 dB peak excursion
Result: With both methods all signals are detected.
Next lower maximum
Next relative maximum
Next Mode abs: signal 2
Next Mode <: signal 3
Next Mode abs: signal 3
Next Mode >: signal 1
Next Mode abs: signal 4
Next Mode >: signal 2
Next Mode >: signal 4
3.3.3.3
Performing Peak Searches with Markers – PEAK SEARCH Key
The PEAK SEARCH key is used to perform a peak search with the currently active
marker. If no marker is active, marker 1 is activated in normal mode and set as the peak.
If the selected diagram does not support markers, this key is ignored.
3.3.3.4
Measuring with Markers (MKR FUNC Key)
The MKR FUNC key provides various functions for markers, e.g.
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●
Phase Noise measurements
●
Setting reference points
●
Marker demodulation
●
Defining Marker peak lists
●
Signal counts
●
Measuring the power for a band around the marker
To open the marker function menu
●
Press the MKR FUNC key.
The "Mkr Func" (marker function) menu is displayed.
Menu and softkey description
●
​"Softkeys of the Marker Function Menu" on page 276
Further information
●
​"AF Demodulation" on page 285
●
​"Frequency Measurement with the Frequency Counter" on page 286
●
​"Measurement of Noise Density" on page 286
●
​"Measurement example for Phase Noise Auto Peak Search" on page 288
Tasks
●
​"Setting a Fixed Reference Point (Phase Noise Measurement)" on page 285
●
​"Setting the Demodulation Mode and Duration" on page 285
●
​"Performing Band Power Measurements" on page 288
Softkeys of the Marker Function Menu
The following table shows all softkeys available in the marker function menu. It is possible
that your instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is only available with a special option, model or (measurement) mode, this information is provided in
the corresponding softkey description.
Select Marker (No)......................................................................................................277
Signal Count................................................................................................................277
Noise Meas On/Off......................................................................................................278
Phase Noise................................................................................................................278
└ Phase Noise On/Off......................................................................................278
└ Ref Point Level..............................................................................................278
└ Ref Point Frequency (span > 0)/Ref Point Time (zero span)........................278
└ Peak Search.................................................................................................278
└ Ph. Noise Auto Peak Search........................................................................278
└ Select Marker (No)........................................................................................279
Ref Fixed.....................................................................................................................279
└ Ref. Fixed On/Off..........................................................................................279
└ Ref Point Level..............................................................................................279
└ Ref Point Frequency (span > 0)/Ref Point Time (zero span)........................279
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└ Peak Search.................................................................................................280
Marker Demod............................................................................................................280
└ Mkr Demod On/Off........................................................................................280
└ AM.................................................................................................................280
└ FM.................................................................................................................280
└ Mkr Stop Time...............................................................................................280
└ Continuous Demod (span > 0)......................................................................280
└ Squelch.........................................................................................................281
└ Squelch Level...............................................................................................281
n dB down...................................................................................................................281
Marker Peak List.........................................................................................................282
└ Peak List On/Off............................................................................................282
└ Sort Mode Freq/Lvl.......................................................................................282
└ Max Peak Count...........................................................................................282
└ Peak Excursion.............................................................................................283
└ Left Limit.......................................................................................................283
└ Right Limit.....................................................................................................283
└ Threshold......................................................................................................283
└ ASCII File Export..........................................................................................283
└ Decim Sep....................................................................................................284
└ Marker Number.............................................................................................284
Band Power.................................................................................................................284
└ Select Marker (No)........................................................................................284
└ Band Power On/Off.......................................................................................284
└ Span..............................................................................................................284
└ Power............................................................................................................284
└ Density..........................................................................................................285
Select Marker (No)
Opens a submenu to select one of 16 markers and define whether the marker is a normal
or a delta marker (see ​"Marker 1 / Marker 2 / Marker 3 / … Marker 16,/ Marker Norm/
Delta" on page 63). "(No)" indicates the number of the currently active marker.
See ​"Marker 1 / Marker 2 / Marker 3 / … Marker 16,/ Marker Norm/Delta" on page 63.
Signal Count
Switches the frequency counter on or off, and opens an edit dialog box to define the
resolution of the frequency counter, if enabled. The frequency is counted at the position
of the reference marker (marker 1). If no marker is activate, marker 1 is switched on and
positioned on the largest signal.
The sweep stops at the reference marker until the frequency counter has delivered a
result. The result is displayed in the marker field (see ​figure 2-4), labeled with [Tx CNT].
For more information see ​"Frequency Measurement with the Frequency Counter"
on page 286.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​COUNt​ on page 648
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​COUNt:​FREQuency?​ on page 648
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Noise Meas On/Off
Switches the noise measurement for the active marker on or off. The corresponding
marker becomes the normal marker.
For more information on noise measurement see ​"Measurement of Noise Density"
on page 286.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​NOISe[:​STATe]​ on page 650
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​NOISe:​RESult​ on page 649
Phase Noise
This softkey opens a submenu that contains functionality to configure and perform phase
noise measurements.
Phase Noise On/Off ← Phase Noise
Switches the phase noise measurement with all active delta markers on and off. The
correction values for the bandwidth and the log amplifier are taken into account in the
measurement.
Marker 1 is activated, if necessary, and a peak search is performed. If marker 1 is activated, its position becomes the reference point for the measurement.
Deltamarker 2 is activated and can be used to read out the phase noise value at a given
frequency offset.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​FUNCtion:​PNOise[:​STATe]​ on page 651
​CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​FUNCtion:​PNOise:​RESult?​ on page 651
Ref Point Level ← Phase Noise
Opens an edit dialog box to enter a reference level value. All relative level values of the
delta markers refer to this reference level.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​FUNCtion:​FIXed:​RPOint:​Y​ on page 646
Ref Point Frequency (span > 0)/Ref Point Time (zero span) ← Phase Noise
Opens an edit dialog box to enter a frequency reference or time value. All relative frequency or time values of the delta markers refer to this frequency reference. For phase
noise measurement, input of reference time is not possible.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​FUNCtion:​FIXed:​RPOint:​X​ on page 646
Peak Search ← Phase Noise
Sets the maximum value of the selected trace as the reference point.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​FUNCtion:​FIXed:​RPOint:​MAXimum[:​PEAK]​
on page 645
Ph. Noise Auto Peak Search ← Phase Noise
Activates an automatic peak search for the reference fixed marker 1 at the end of each
particular sweep.
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This function can be used to track a drifting source during a phase noise measurement.
The delta marker 2, which shows the phase noise measurement result, keeps the delta
frequency value. Therefore the phase noise measurement leads to reliable results in a
certain offset although the source is drifting. Only if the marker 2 reaches the border of
the span, the delta marker value is adjusted to be within the span. In these cases, select
a larger span.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​FUNCtion:​PNOise:​AUTO​ on page 650
Select Marker (No) ← Phase Noise
Opens a submenu to select one of 16 markers and define whether the marker is a normal
or a delta marker (see ​"Marker 1 / Marker 2 / Marker 3 / … Marker 16,/ Marker Norm/
Delta" on page 63). "(No)" indicates the number of the currently active marker.
See ​"Marker 1 / Marker 2 / Marker 3 / … Marker 16,/ Marker Norm/Delta" on page 63.
Ref Fixed
Opens a submenu to set all values of a reference point. Instead of using the current values
of the reference marker (marker 1) as reference point for the delta markers, level and
frequency or time are set to fixed values and used as reference point.
Ref. Fixed On/Off ← Ref Fixed
Switches the relative measurement to a fixed reference value on or off. The level and
frequency or time values of marker 1 immediately become the reference point, but can
be altered using the corresponding softkeys (​"Ref Point Level" on page 278, ​"Ref Point
Frequency (span > 0)/Ref Point Time (zero span)" on page 278 and ​"Peak Search"
on page 278).
When set to ON, all delta markers which previously referenced marker 1 are automatically
set to reference the fixed marker.
The reference marker assignment can be changed using the "Marker Wizard" (see ​
"Marker Wizard" on page 64).
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​FUNCtion:​FIXed[:​STATe]​ on page 647
Ref Point Level ← Ref Fixed
Opens an edit dialog box to enter a reference level value. All relative level values of the
delta markers refer to this reference level.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​FUNCtion:​FIXed:​RPOint:​Y​ on page 646
Ref Point Frequency (span > 0)/Ref Point Time (zero span) ← Ref Fixed
Opens an edit dialog box to enter a frequency reference or time value. All relative frequency or time values of the delta markers refer to this frequency reference. For phase
noise measurement, input of reference time is not possible.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​FUNCtion:​FIXed:​RPOint:​X​ on page 646
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Peak Search ← Ref Fixed
Sets the maximum value of the selected trace as the reference point.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​FUNCtion:​FIXed:​RPOint:​MAXimum[:​PEAK]​
on page 645
Marker Demod
The marker demodulation function sends the AM data at the current marker frequency
(in a bandwidth corresponding to the RBW) to the audio output. The "Marker Demod"
softkey opens a submenu to set the demodulation output settings.
For more information see ​"AF Demodulation" on page 285.
Marker demodulation is not available for Spectrum Emission Mask measurements.
Mkr Demod On/Off ← Marker Demod
Switches the demodulation output on or off.
For more information see ​"AF Demodulation" on page 285.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​DEModulation[:​STATe]​ on page 653
AM ← Marker Demod
Sets AM as the output demodulation mode. This is the default setting.
For more information see ​"AF Demodulation" on page 285.
Remote command:
CALC:MARK1:FUNC:DEM:SEL AM, see ​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​
DEModulation:​SELect​ on page 653
FM ← Marker Demod
Sets FM as the output demodulation mode. Default setting is AM.
For more information see ​"AF Demodulation" on page 285.
Remote command:
CALC:MARK1:FUNC:DEM:SEL FM, see ​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​
DEModulation:​SELect​ on page 653
Mkr Stop Time ← Marker Demod
Opens an edit dialog box to define how long demodulation should be output for span >
0.
For more information see ​"AF Demodulation" on page 285.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​DEModulation:​HOLDoff​ on page 652
Continuous Demod (span > 0) ← Marker Demod
Switches the continuous demodulation on or off. If the sweep time is long enough, the
set frequency range can be monitored acoustically.
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For more information see ​"AF Demodulation" on page 285.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​DEModulation:​CONTinuous​
on page 652
Squelch ← Marker Demod
Activates the squelch function, i.e. the audible AF is cut off below a defined threshold
level. Thus, you avoid hearing noise at the audio output when no signal is available.
The squelch function activates the video trigger function (see ​"Video" on page 232) and
deactivates any other trigger or gating settings. The squelch level and trigger level are
set to the same value.
The trigger source in the channel information bar is indicated as "SQL" for squelch. The
squelch level is indicated by a red line in the diagram.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]DEMod:​SQUelch[:​STATe]​ on page 443
Squelch Level ← Marker Demod
Defines the level threshold below which the audible AF is cut off if squelching is enabled.
The video trigger level is set to the same value.
The squelch level is indicated by a red line in the diagram.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]DEMod:​SQUelch:​LEVel​ on page 443
n dB down
Opens an edit dialog box to enter a value to define the level spacing of the two temporary
markers to the right and left of marker 1 (default setting: 3 dB). Activates the temporary
markers T1 and T2. The values of the temporary markers (T1, T2) and the entered value
(ndB) are displayed in the marker field.
If a positive value is entered, the markers T1 and T2 are placed below the active reference
marker. If a negative value (e.g. for notch filter measurements) is entered, the markers
T1 and T2 are placed above the active reference marker. Marker T1 is placed to the left
and marker T2 to the right of the reference marker.
In the marker table, the following results are displayed:
Span setting
Parameter name
Description
span > 0
Bw
frequency spacing of the two temporary markers
Q factor
quality of the displayed bandwidth value (Bw)
PWid
pulse width between the two temporary markers
span = 0
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If it is not possible to form the frequency spacing for the n dB value (e.g. because of noise
display), dashes instead of a measured value are displayed.
Remote command:
CALC:MARK1:FUNC:NDBD:STAT ON, see ​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​
NDBDown:​STATe​ on page 655
CALC:MARK1:FUNC:NDBD 3dB, see ​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​
NDBDown​ on page 653
CALC:MARK1:FUNC:NDBD:RES? , see ​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​
NDBDown:​RESult?​ on page 655
CALC:MARK:FUNC:NDBD:QFAC?, see ​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​
NDBDown:​QFACtor​ on page 655
CALC:MARK1:FUNC:NDBD:FREQ? (span > 0), see ​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​
FUNCtion:​NDBDown:​FREQuency?​ on page 654
CALC:MARK1:FUNC:NDBD:TIME? (span = 0), see ​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​
FUNCtion:​NDBDown:​TIME?​ on page 656
Marker Peak List
Opens the "Peak List" submenu to define criteria for the sort order and the contents of
the peak list. For each listed peak the frequency ("Stimulus") and level ("Response")
values are given. In addition, the peaks are indicated in the trace display. A maximum of
50 entries are listed.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​FPEaks:​COUNt?​ on page 657
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​FPEaks:​X​ on page 660
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​FPEaks:​Y?​ on page 660
Peak List On/Off ← Marker Peak List
Activates/deactivates the marker peak list. If activated, the peak list is displayed and the
peaks are indicated in the trace display.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​FPEaks:​STAT​ on page 659
Sort Mode Freq/Lvl ← Marker Peak List
Defines the criteria for sorting:
"Freq"
sorting in ascending order of frequency values (span > 0) or time values
(span = 0)
"Lvl"
sorting in ascending order of the level
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​FPEaks:​SORT​ on page 659
Max Peak Count ← Marker Peak List
Defines the maximum number of peaks to be determined and displayed.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​FPEaks:​LIST:​SIZE​ on page 658
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Peak Excursion ← Marker Peak List
Opens an edit dialog box for level measurements to enter the minimum level value by
which a signal must rise or fall so that it will be identified as a maximum or a minimum by
the search functions. Entries from 0 dB to 80 dB are allowed; the resolution is 0.1 dB.
The default setting for the peak excursion is 6 dB.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​PEXCursion​ on page 456
Left Limit ← Marker Peak List
Opens an edit dialog box to enter a value for the lower limit (left vertical line: S1 for span
> 0; T1 for zero span). The search is performed between the lines of the left and right
limit (see also ​Right Limit softkey).
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​X:​SLIMits:​LEFT​ on page 465
Right Limit ← Marker Peak List
Opens an edit dialog box to enter a value for the upper limit (left vertical line: S2 for span
> 0; T2 for zero span). The search is performed between the lines of the left and right
limit (see also ​Left Limit softkey). If no value is set, the upper limit corresponds to the stop
frequency.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​X:​SLIMits:​RIGHT​ on page 466
Threshold ← Marker Peak List
Opens an edit dialog box to define the threshold line. The threshold line represents the
lower level limit for a "Peak" search and the upper level limit for a "Min" search.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​THReshold:​STATe​ on page 644
​CALCulate<n>:​THReshold​ on page 643
ASCII File Export ← Marker Peak List
Opens the "ASCII File Export Name" dialog box and saves the active peak list in ASCII
format to the specified file and directory.
The file consists of the header containing important scaling parameters and a data section
containing the marker data. For details on an ASCII file see ​chapter 3.3.1.6, "ASCII File
Export Format", on page 257.
This format can be processed by spreadsheet calculation programs, e.g. MS-Excel. It is
necessary to define ';' as a separator for the data import. Different language versions of
evaluation programs may require a different handling of the decimal point. It is therefore
possible to select between separators '.' (decimal point) and ',' (comma) using the "Decim
Sep" softkey (see ​"Decim Sep" on page 62).
An example of an output file for Spectrum Emission Mask measurements is given in ​
"ASCII File Export Format (Spectrum Emission Mask)" on page 138.
Remote command:
​FORMat:​DEXPort:​DSEParator​ on page 616
​MMEMory:​STORe<n>:​LIST​ on page 547
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Decim Sep ← Marker Peak List
Selects the decimal separator with floating-point numerals for the ASCII Trace export to
support evaluation programs (e.g. MS-Excel) in different languages. The values '.' (decimal point) and ',' (comma) can be set.
Remote command:
​FORMat:​DEXPort:​DSEParator​ on page 616
Marker Number ← Marker Peak List
If enabled, the determined peaks are indicated by their corresponding marker number in
the trace display.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​FPEaks:​ANN:​LAB:​STAT​ on page 657
Band Power
Opens a submenu to activate and configure a band power marker. Band power markers
allow you to measure the integrated power for a defined span (band) around a marker.
The result can be displayed either as a power (dBm) or density (dBm/Hz). The span is
indicated by lines in the diagram.
Band power markers are only available for standard frequency measurements in Spectrum mode.
For more information see ​"Performing Band Power Measurements" on page 288.
Select Marker (No) ← Band Power
Opens a submenu to select one of 16 markers and define whether the marker is a normal
or a delta marker (see ​"Marker 1 / Marker 2 / Marker 3 / … Marker 16,/ Marker Norm/
Delta" on page 63). "(No)" indicates the number of the currently active marker.
See ​"Marker 1 / Marker 2 / Marker 3 / … Marker 16,/ Marker Norm/Delta" on page 63.
Band Power On/Off ← Band Power
Activates or deactivates the band power marker. When switched to on, if no marker is
active yet, marker 1 is activated. Otherwise, the currently active marker is used as a band
power marker (all other marker functions for this marker are deactivated). All markers
can be defined as band power markers, each with a different span.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​BPOWer[:​STATe]​ on page 662
Span ← Band Power
Defines the span (band) around the marker for which the power is measured. The span
is indicated by lines in the diagram.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​BPOWer:​SPAN​ on page 662
Power ← Band Power
Selects the power mode for the band power marker, i.e. the result is displayed in dBm.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​BPOWer:​MODE​ on page 661
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​BPOWer:​RESult?​ on page 661
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Density ← Band Power
Selects the density mode for the band power marker, i.e. the result is displayed in dBm/
Hz.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​BPOWer:​MODE​ on page 661
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​BPOWer:​RESult?​ on page 661
Setting a Fixed Reference Point (Phase Noise Measurement)
1. Press the ​Phase Noise softkey.
The submenu with the ​Phase Noise On/Off softkey switched on is displayed. The
level and frequency or time values of marker 1 immediately become the reference
point.
2. Setting the maximum of the selected trace as reference point, press the ​Peak
Search softkey.
3. To define the values for the reference point, proceed as follows:
a) Press the ​Ref Fixed softkey.
b) Press the ​Ref Point Level softkey and enter a reference level value.
c) If span > 0, press the ​Ref Point Frequency (span > 0)/Ref Point Time (zero
span) softkey and enter a frequency reference value.
d) If span = 0, press the "Ref Point Time" softkey and enter a reference time value
(see ​"Ref Point Frequency (span > 0)/Ref Point Time (zero span)" on page 278).
Setting the Demodulation Mode and Duration
1. Press the ​Marker Demod softkey.
The submenu with the ​Mkr Demod On/Off softkey switched on is displayed.
2. To change the demodulation mode, press the ​AM or ​FM softkey.
3. For details see ​"AF Demodulation" on page 285.
4. To modify the demodulation time for span > 0, press the ​Mkr Stop Time softkey.
5. To change to continuous demodulation for span > 0, press the ​Continuous Demod
(span > 0) softkey.
AF Demodulation
The R&S ESR provides demodulators for AM and FM signals. With these demodulators,
a displayed signal can be identified acoustically by using headphones.
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Risk of hearing damage
To protect your hearing, make sure that the volume setting is not too high before putting
on the headphones.
The volume for the headphones is controlled using the rotary knob next to the "AF Output" interface on the front panel of the instrument.
For span > 0, the demodulation is not continuous. The frequency at which the demodulation takes place is determined by the active marker. The demodulation bandwidth corresponds to the RBW. If the level of the selected frequency is above the threshold line,
the sweep stops for the selected time (stop time) and the RF signal is demodulated. For
span = 0, the demodulation is continuously active irrespective of the stop time set.
Frequency Measurement with the Frequency Counter
In order to accurately determine the frequency of a signal, the R&S ESR is equipped with
a frequency counter which measures the frequency of the RF signal at the intermediate
frequency. Using the measured IF, the R&S ESR calculates the frequency of the RF input
signal by applying the known frequency conversion factors.
The frequency measurement uncertainty depends only upon the accuracy of the frequency reference used (external or internal reference). Although the R&S ESR always
operates synchronously irrespective of the set span, the frequency counter delivers a
more exact result than a measurement performed with a marker. This is due to the following:
●
The marker measures only the position of the point on the trace and infers from this
value the signal frequency. The trace, however, contains only a limited number of
points. Depending upon the selected span, each point may contain many measurement values, which therefore limits the frequency resolution.
●
The resolution with which the frequency can be measured with a marker is dependant
on the selected resolution bandwidth, which in return affects the necessary measurement time. For this reason, the bandwidth is normally defined as wide as possible
and the sweep time as short as possible. This results in a loss of frequency resolution.
For the measurement with the frequency counter, the sweep is stopped at the reference marker, the frequency is counted with the desired resolution and then the sweep
is allowed to continue.
In I/Q Analyzer mode (see ​chapter 4, "I/Q Analyzer", on page 318), the resolution
with which the frequency can be measured with a marker is always the filter bandwidth, which is derived from the defined sample rate.
Measurement of Noise Density
During noise measurement, the noise power density is measured at the position of the
marker. For span = 0, all points of the trace are used to determine the noise power density.
For span > 0, two points to the right and left of the marker are used for the measurement
to obtain a stable result.
The noise power density is indicated in the marker field. With logarithmic amplitude units
(dBm, dBmV, dBmµV, dBµA), the noise power density is output in dBm/Hz, i.e. as level
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in 1 Hz bandwidth with reference to 1 mW. With linear amplitude units (V, A, W), the noise
voltage density is evaluated in µV/Hz, the noise current density in µA/Hz or the noise
power density in µW/Hz.
In the default setting, the R&S ESR uses the sample detector for the noise function.
With the sample detector, the trace can additionally be set to AVERAGE to stabilize the
measured values. With RMS detector used, trace averaging must not be used since in
this case it produces too low noise levels which cannot be corrected. Instead, the sweep
time can be increased to obtain stable measurement results.
Prerequisite settings
The following settings have to be made to ensure that the power density measurement
yields correct values:
●
Detector: Sample or RMS
●
Video bandwidth:
≤ 0.1 resolution bandwidth with sample detector
≥ 3 x resolution bandwidth with RMS detector
●
Trace averaging:
With the sample detector, the trace can additionally be set to average to stabilize the
measured values. With RMS detector used, trace averaging must not be used since
in this case it produces too low noise levels which cannot be corrected. Instead, the
sweep time can be increased to obtain stable measurement results.
Correction factors
The R&S ESR uses the following correction factors to evaluate the noise density from
the marker level:
●
Since the noise power is indicated with reference to 1 Hz bandwidth, the bandwidth
correction value is deducted from the marker level. It is 10 x lg (1 Hz/BWNoise), where
BWNoise is the noise or power bandwidth of the set resolution filter (RBW).
●
RMS detector: With the exception of bandwidth correction, no further corrections are
required since this detector already indicates the power with every point of the trace.
●
Sample detector: As a result of video filter averaging and trace averaging, 1.05 dB is
added to the marker level. This is the difference between the average value and the
RMS value of white noise. With a logarithmic level axis, 1.45 dB is added additionally.
Logarithmic averaging is thus fully taken into account which yields a value that is 1.45
dB lower than that of linear averaging.
●
To allow a more stable noise display the adjacent (symmetric to the measurement
frequency) points of the trace are averaged.
●
For span > 0, the measured values are averaged versus time (after a sweep).
The R&S ESR noise figure can be calculated from the measured power density level. It
is calculated by deducting the set RF attenuation (RF Att) from the displayed noise level
and adding 174 to the result.
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Measurement example for Phase Noise Auto Peak Search
The phase noise of a CW signal at 100 MHz with 0 dBm level is to be measured at 800
kHz from the carrier.
1. PRESET
The R&S FSP is set to the default setting.
2. FREQ > "CENTER": 100 MHz
The center frequency is set to 100 MHz.
3. SPAN: 2 MHz
The span is set to 2 MHz.
4. AMPT: 0 dBm
The reference level is set to 0 dBm.
5. MKR FCTN > "MARKER 1"
Marker 1 is switched on and positioned at the maximum of the displayed trace.
6. "PHASE NOISE": 800 kHz
The phase noise measurement is switched on. The delta marker is positioned on the
main marker and the measured phase noise value is displayed in the marker info
field. The sample detector is used and the video bandwidth is set to 3 × RBW. When
the phase noise measurement function is enabled, the entry of the delta marker frequency is activated. It can be entered directly.
Performing Band Power Measurements
Band power markers allow you to measure the integrated power (similar to ACP measurements) for a defined span (band) around a marker. By default, 5 % of the current span
is used. The span is indicated by colored lines in the diagram. The result can be displayed
either as a power (dBm) or density (dBm/Hz).
Band power markers are only available for standard frequency measurements in Spectrum mode (not zero span, I/Q Analyzer etc.).
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All markers can be defined as band power markers, each with a different span. When a
band power marker is activated, if no marker is active yet, marker 1 is activated. Otherwise, the currently active marker is used as a band power marker (all other marker functions for this marker are deactivated).
If the detector mode for the marker trace is set to "AutoSelect", the RMS detector is used.
1. In the MKR FUNC menu, press "Band Power".
2. In the "Band Power" menu, press "Span" and enter the width of the band around the
marker for which the power is to be measured.
3. To display the measurement result in dBm/Hz, press "Density". By default, the result
is displayed as a power in dBm.
4. Press "Band Power On" to activate the band power marker.
The measurement results are displayed as usual in the marker table or in the diagram.
3.3.4 Lines
The LINES key is used to configure limit and display lines.
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To open the Lines menu
●
Press the LINES key.
The "Lines" menu and the "Select Limit Line" dialog box are displayed. For details on the
"Select Limit Line" dialog box refer to ​chapter 2.4.3.5, "Selecting a Limit Line",
on page 76.
Menu and softkey description
●
​chapter 2.4.3.1, "Softkeys of the Lines Menu", on page 70
Further information
●
​chapter 2.4.3.2, "Display Lines", on page 74
●
​chapter 2.4.3.3, "Limit Lines (Frequency/Time Lines)", on page 74
Tasks
●
​chapter 2.4.3.4, "Working with Lines", on page 75
●
​chapter 2.4.3.5, "Selecting a Limit Line", on page 76
●
​chapter 2.4.3.6, "Creating a New Limit Line", on page 76
●
​chapter 2.4.3.7, "Editing an Existing Limit Line", on page 79
●
​chapter 2.4.3.8, "Creating a New Limit Line Based upon an Existing Limit Line",
on page 79
●
​chapter 2.4.3.9, "Activating/Deactivating a Limit Line", on page 80
3.4 Advanced Measurement Examples
This chapter explains how to operate the R&S ESR in spectrum mode using typical
measurements as examples. Additional background information on the settings is given.
For more detailed information on all available softkeys and the corresponding instrument
functions, see ​chapter 3, "Spectrum Measurements", on page 81.
●
●
●
●
●
●
Test Setup.............................................................................................................290
Measurement of Harmonics..................................................................................291
Measuring the Spectra of Complex Signals..........................................................293
Measuring Signals in the Vicinity of Noise............................................................296
Noise Measurements............................................................................................301
Measurements on Modulated Signals...................................................................308
3.4.1 Test Setup
All of the following examples are based on the standard settings of the R&S ESR. These
are set with the PRESET key. A complete listing of the standard settings can be found in
chapter "Instrument Functions", section "Initializing the Configuration – PRESET Key".
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In the following examples, a signal generator is used as a signal source. The RF output
of the signal generator is connected to the RF input of R&S ESR.
If a 64 MHz signal is required for the test setup, as an alternative to the signal generator,
the internal 64 MHz reference generator can be used:
1. Switch on the internal reference generator.
a)
b)
c)
d)
Press the SETUP key.
Press the "More" key.
Press the "Service" softkey.
Press the "Input RF/Cal" softkey, until "Cal" is highlighted.
The internal 64 MHz reference generator is now on. The R&S ESR's RF input is
switched off.
2. Switch on the RF input again for normal operation of the R&S ESR. Two ways are
possible:
a) Press the PRESET key.
or:
b) Press the SETUP key.
c) Press the "Service" softkey.
d) Press the "Input RF/Cal" softkey, until "RF" is highlighted.
The internal signal path of the R&S ESR is switched back to the RF input in order to
resume normal operation.
3.4.2 Measurement of Harmonics
Signal generator settings (e.g. R&S ESR SMU):
Frequency:
128 MHz
Level:
- 25 dBm
Procedure on the R&S ESR:
1. Set the R&S ESR to its default state by pressing the PRESET key.
2. Set the center frequency to 128 MHz and the span to 100 kHz.
3. Switch on the marker by pressing the MKR key.
The marker is positioned on the trace maximum.
4. Set the measured signal frequency and the measured level as reference values.
a) Press the MKR FUNC key
b) Press the "Ref Fixed" softkey.
The position of the marker becomes the reference point. The reference point level
is indicated by a horizontal line, the reference point frequency with a vertical line.
At the same time, the delta marker 2 is switched on.
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Fig. 3-25: Fundamental wave and the frequency and level reference point
5. Make the step size for the center frequency equal to the signal frequency
a) Press the FREQ key.
b) Press the "CF-Stepsize" softkey and press the "= Marker" softkey in the submenu.
The step size for the center frequency is now equal to the marker frequency.
6. Set the center frequency to the second harmonic of the signal.
a) Press the FREQ key.
b) Press the UPARROW key once.
The center frequency is set to the second harmonic.
7. Place the delta marker on the second harmonic.
a) Press the MKR -> key.
b) Press the "Peak" softkey.
The delta marker moves to the maximum of the second harmonic. The displayed level
result is relative to the reference point level (= fundamental wave level).
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Fig. 3-26: Measuring the level difference between the fundamental wave (= reference point level) and
the 2nd harmonic
The other harmonics are measured with steps 5 and 6, the center frequency being incremented or decremented in steps of 128 MHz using the UPARROW or DNARROW key.
3.4.3 Measuring the Spectra of Complex Signals
3.4.3.1
Separating Signals by Selecting an Appropriate Resolution Bandwidth
A basic feature of a signal analyzer is being able to separate the spectral components of
a mixture of signals. The resolution at which the individual components can be separated
is determined by the resolution bandwidth. Selecting a resolution bandwidth that is too
large may make it impossible to distinguish between spectral components, i.e. they are
displayed as a single component.
An RF sinusoidal signal is displayed by means of the passband characteristic of the resolution filter (RBW) that has been set. Its specified bandwidth is the 3 dB bandwidth of
the filter.
Two signals with the same amplitude can be resolved if the resolution bandwidth is
smaller than or equal to the frequency spacing of the signal. If the resolution bandwidth
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is equal to the frequency spacing, the spectrum display screen shows a level drop of 3
dB precisely in the center of the two signals. Decreasing the resolution bandwidth makes
the level drop larger, which thus makes the individual signals clearer.
If there are large level differences between signals, the resolution is determined by selectivity as well as by the resolution bandwidth that has been selected. The measure of
selectivity used for signal analyzers is the ratio of the 60 dB bandwidth to the 3 dB bandwidth (= shape factor).
For the R&S ESR, the shape factor for bandwidths is < 5, i.e. the 60 dB bandwidth of the
30 kHz filter is <150 kHz.
The higher spectral resolution with smaller bandwidths is won by longer sweep times for
the same span. The sweep time has to allow the resolution filters to settle during a sweep
at all signal levels and frequencies to be displayed.
3.4.3.2
Intermodulation Measurements
If several signals are applied to a transmission two-port device with nonlinear characteristic, intermodulation products appear at its output at the sums and differences of the
signals. The nonlinear characteristic produces harmonics of the useful signals which
intermodulate at the characteristic. The intermodulation products of lower order have a
special effect since their level is largest and they are near the useful signals. The intermodulation product of third order causes the highest interference. It is the intermodulation
product generated from one of the useful signals and the 2nd harmonic of the second
useful signal in case of two-tone modulation.
Measurement Example – Measuring the R&S ESR's Intrinsic Intermodulation
Test setup:
Signal generator settings (e.g. R&S ESR SMU):
Level
Frequency
Signal generator 1
-4 dBm
999.7 MHz
Signal generator 2
-4 dBm
1000.3 MHz
Setting up the measurement
1. Set the R&S ESR to its default settings by pressing the PRESET key.
The R&S ESR is in its default state.
2. Set center frequency to 1 GHz and the frequency span to 3 MHz.
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3. Set the reference level to -10 dBm and RF attenuation to 0 dB.
4. Set the resolution bandwidth to 10 kHz.
The noise is reduced, the trace is smoothed further and the intermodulation products
can be clearly seen.
5. Set the VBW to "1 kHz".
Measuring intermodulation using the 3rd order intercept (TOI)measurement function
1. Press the MEAS key and then the "TOI" softkey.
The R&S ESR activates four markers to measure the intermodulation distance. Two
markers are positioned on the useful signals and two on the intermodulation products.
The 3rd order intercept is calculated from the level difference between the useful signals and the intermodulation products. It is then displayed on the screen:
Fig. 3-27: Result of intrinsic intermodulation measurement on the R&S ESR.
The 3rd order intercept (TOI) is displayed at the top right corner of the grid.
2. The level of a signal analyzer's intrinsic intermodulation products depends on the RF
level of the useful signals at the input mixer. When the RF attenuation is added, the
mixer level is reduced and the intermodulation distance is increased. With an addi-
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tional RF attenuation of 10 dB, the levels of the intermodulation products are reduced
by 20 dB. The noise level is, however, increased by 10 dB.
Increase the RF attenuation to 20 dB to reduce intermodulation products.
The R&S ESR's intrinsic intermodulation products disappear below the noise floor.
3.4.4 Measuring Signals in the Vicinity of Noise
The minimum signal level a signal analyzer can measure is limited by its intrinsic noise.
Small signals can be swamped by noise and therefore cannot be measured. For signals
that are just above the intrinsic noise, the accuracy of the level measurement is influenced
by the intrinsic noise of the signal analyzer.
The displayed noise level of a signal analyzer depends on its noise figure, the selected
RF attenuation, the selected reference level, the selected resolution and video bandwidth
and the detector. The effect of the different parameters is explained in the following.
Impact of the RF attenuation setting
The sensitivity of a signal analyzer is directly influenced by the selected RF attenuation.
The highest sensitivity is obtained at a RF attenuation of 0 dB. The attenuation can be
set in 10 dB steps up to 70 dB. Each additional 10 dB step reduces the sensitivity by 10
dB, i.e. the displayed noise is increased by 10 dB.
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Impact of the resolution bandwidth
The sensitivity of a signal analyzer also directly depends on the selected bandwidth. The
highest sensitivity is obtained at the smallest bandwidth (1 Hz). If the bandwidth is
increased, the reduction in sensitivity is proportional to the change in bandwidth. The
R&S ESR has bandwidth settings in 1, 2, 3, 5 sequence. Increasing the bandwidth by a
factor of 3 increases the displayed noise by approx. 5 dB (4.77 dB precisely). If the bandwidth is increased by a factor of 10, the displayed noise increases by a factor of 10, i.e.
10 dB.
Impact of the video bandwidth
The displayed noise of a signal analyzer is also influenced by the selected video bandwidth. If the video bandwidth is considerably smaller than the resolution bandwidth, noise
spikes are suppressed, i.e. the trace becomes much smoother. The level of a sine wave
signal is not influenced by the video bandwidth. A sine wave signal can therefore be freed
from noise by using a video bandwidth that is small compared with the resolution bandwidth, and thus be measured more accurately.
Impact of the detector
Noise is evaluated differently by the different detectors. The noise display is therefore
influenced by the choice of detector. Sine wave signals are weighted in the same way by
all detectors, i.e. the level display for a sine wave RF signal does not depend on the
selected detector, provided that the signal-to-noise ratio is high enough. The measurement accuracy for signals in the vicinity of intrinsic signal analyzer noise is also influenced
by the detector which has been selected. For details on the detectors of the R&S ESR
refer to chapter "Instrument Functions", section "Detector overview" or the Online Help.
3.4.4.1
Measurement Example – Measuring Level at Low S/N Ratios
The example shows the different factors influencing the S/N ratio.
Signal generator settings (e.g. R&S ESR SMU):
Frequency:
128 MHz
Level:
- 90 dBm
Procedure:
1. Set the R&S ESR to its default state by pressing the PRESET key.
The R&S ESR is in its default state.
2. Set the center frequency to 128 MHz and the frequency span to 100 MHz:
a) Press the FREQ key and enter "128 MHz".
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b) Press the SPAN key and enter "100 MHz".
Fig. 3-28: Sine wave signal with low S/N ratio. The signal is measured with the auto peak
detector and is completely hidden in the intrinsic noise of the R&S ESR.
3. To suppress noise spikes the trace can be averaged.
a) Press the TRACE key.
b) Press the "Trace Wizard" softkey.
The Trace Wizard dialog box opens.
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c) Select "Average" in the "Trace Mode" drop-down menu of the selected trace.
The traces of consecutive sweeps are averaged. To perform averaging, the
R&S ESR automatically switches on the sample detector. The RF signal, therefore, can be more clearly distinguished from noise.
Fig. 3-29: RF sine wave signal with low S/N ratio if the trace is averaged.
4. Instead of trace averaging, a video filter that is narrower than the resolution bandwidth
can be selected:
a) Press the TRACE key.
b) Press the "Trace Wizard" softkey.
The Trace Wizard dialog box opens.
c) Select "Clear Write" in the "Trace Mode" drop-down menu of the selected trace.
d) Press the BW key.
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e) Press the "Video BW Manual" softkey and enter "10 kHz".
The RF signal can be more clearly distinguished from noise.
Fig. 3-30: RF sine wave signal with low S/N ratio if a smaller video bandwidth is selected.
5. By reducing the resolution bandwidth by a factor of 10, the noise is reduced by 10
dB:
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a) In the "Bandwidth" menu press the "Res BW Manual" softkey and enter "100
kHz".
The displayed noise is reduced by approx. 10 dB. The signal, therefore, emerges
from noise by about 10 dB. Compared to the previous setting, the video bandwidth
has remained the same, i.e. it has increased relative to the smaller resolution
bandwidth. The averaging effect of the video bandwidth is therefore reduced. The
trace will be noisier.
Fig. 3-31: Reference signal at a smaller resolution bandwidth
3.4.5 Noise Measurements
Noise measurements play an important role in signal analysis. Noise e.g. affects the
sensitivity of radio communication systems and their components.
Noise power is specified either as the total power in the transmission channel or as the
power referred to a bandwidth of 1 Hz. The sources of noise are, for example, amplifier
noise or noise generated by oscillators used for the frequency conversion of useful signals in receivers or transmitters. The noise at the output of an amplifier is determined by
its noise figure and gain.
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The noise of an oscillator is determined by phase noise near the oscillator frequency and
by thermal noise of the active elements far from the oscillator frequency. Phase noise
can mask weak signals near the oscillator frequency and make them impossible to detect.
3.4.5.1
Measuring Noise Power Density
To measure noise power referred to a bandwidth of 1 Hz at a certain frequency, the
R&S ESR provides marker function. This marker function calculates the noise power
density from the measured marker level.
Measurement Example – Measuring the Intrinsic Noise Power Density of the
R&S ESR at 1 GHz and Calculating the R&S ESR's Noise Figure
Test setup:
► Connect no signal to the RF input; terminate RF input with 50 Ω.
Procedure:
1. Set the R&S ESR to its default state by pressing the PRESET key.
The R&S ESR is in its default state.
2. Set the center frequency to 1.234 GHz and the span to 1 MHz.
a) Press the FREQ key and enter "1.234 GHz".
b) Press the SPAN key and enter "1 MHz".
3. Switch on the marker and set the marker frequency to 1.234 GHz by pressing the
MKR key and entering "1.234 GHz".
4. Switch on the noise marker function by switching on the "Noise Meas" softkey.
a) Press the MKR FUNC key.
b) Switch the "Noise Meas" softkey to "On"
The R&S ESR displays the noise power at 1 GHz in dBm (1Hz).
Note: Since noise is random, a sufficiently long measurement time has to be selected
to obtain stable measurement results. This can be achieved by averaging the trace
or by selecting a very small video bandwidth relative to the resolution bandwidth.
5. The measurement result is stabilized by averaging the trace.
a) Press the TRACE key.
b) Press the "Trace Wizard" softkey.
The Trace Wizard dialog box opens.
c) Select "Average" in the "Trace Mode" drop-down menu of the selected trace.
The R&S ESR performs sliding averaging over 10 traces from consecutive sweeps.
The measurement result becomes more stable.
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Conversion to other reference bandwidths
The result of the noise measurement can be referred to other bandwidths by simple conversion. This is done by adding 10 × log (BW) to the measurement result, BW being the
new reference bandwidth.
Example:
A noise power of -150 dBm (1 Hz) is to be referred to a bandwidth of 1 kHz.
P[1kHz] = -150 + 10 × log (1000) = -150 +30 = -120 dBm (1 kHz)
Calculation method for noise power
If the noise marker is switched on, the R&S ESR automatically activates the sample
detector. The video bandwidth is set to 1/10 of the selected resolution bandwidth (RBW).
To calculate the noise, the R&S ESR takes an average over 17 adjacent pixels (the pixel
on which the marker is positioned and 8 pixels to the left, 8 pixels to the right of the
marker). The measurement result is stabilized by video filtering and averaging over 17
pixels.
Since both video filtering and averaging over 17 trace points is performed in the log display mode, the result would be 2.51 dB too low (difference between logarithmic noise
average and noise power). The R&S ESR, therefore, corrects the noise figure by 2.51
dB.
To standardize the measurement result to a bandwidth of 1 Hz, the result is also corrected
by -10 × log (RBWnoise), with RBWnoise being the power bandwidth of the selected resolution filter (RBW).
Detector selection
The noise power density is measured in the default setting with the sample detector and
using averaging. Other detectors that can be used to perform a measurement giving true
results are the average detector or the RMS detector. If the average detector is used, the
linear video voltage is averaged and displayed as a pixel. If the RMS detector is used,
the squared video voltage is averaged and displayed as a pixel. The averaging time
depends on the selected sweep time (=SWT/501). An increase in the sweep time gives
a longer averaging time per pixel and thus stabilizes the measurement result. The
R&S ESR automatically corrects the measurement result of the noise marker display
depending on the selected detector (+1.05 dB for the average detector, 0 dΒ for the RMS
detector). It is assumed that the video bandwidth is set to at least three times the resolution bandwidth. While the average or RMS detector is being switched on, the R&S ESR
sets the video bandwidth to a suitable value.
The Pos Peak, Neg Peak, Auto Peak and Quasi Peak detectors are not suitable for
measuring noise power density.
Determining the noise figure
The noise figure of amplifiers or of the R&S ESR alone can be obtained from the noise
power display. Based on the known thermal noise power of a 50 Ω resistor at room tem-
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perature (-174 dBm (1Hz)) and the measured noise power Pnoise the noise figure (NF) is
obtained as follows:
NF = Pnoise + 174 – g,
where g = gain of DUT in dB
Example:
The measured internal noise power of the R&S ESR at an attenuation of 0 dB is found
to be -143 dBm/1 Hz. The noise figure of the R&S ESR is obtained as follows
NF = -143 + 174 = 31 dB
If noise power is measured at the output of an amplifier, for example, the sum of the
internal noise power and the noise power at the output of the DUT is measured. The noise
power of the DUT can be obtained by subtracting the internal noise power from the total
power (subtraction of linear noise powers). By means of the following diagram, the noise
level of the DUT can be estimated from the level difference between the total and the
internal noise level.
Fig. 3-32: Correction factor for measured noise power as a function of the ratio of total power to the
intrinsic noise power of the signal analyzer
3.4.5.2
Measurement of Noise Power within a Transmission Channel
Noise in any bandwidth can be measured with the channel power measurement functions. Thus the noise power in a communication channel can be determined, for example.
If the noise spectrum within the channel bandwidth is flat, the noise marker from the
previous example can be used to determine the noise power in the channel by considering the channel bandwidth. If, however, phase noise and noise that normally increases
towards the carrier is dominant in the channel to be measured, or if there are discrete
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spurious signals in the channel, the channel power measurement method must be used
to obtain correct measurement results.
Measurement Example – Measuring the Intrinsic Noise of the R&S ESR at 1 GHz in
a 1.23 MHz Channel Bandwidth with the Channel Power Function
Test setup:
► Leave the RF input of the R&S ESR open-circuited or terminate it with 50 Ω.
Procedure:
1. Set the R&S ESR to its default state by pressing the PRESET key.
The R&S ESR is in its default state.
2. Set the center frequency to 1 GHz and the span to 1 MHz.
3. To obtain maximum sensitivity, set RF attenuation on the R&S ESR to 0 dB.
4. Set the "Sweep Type" to "Sweep".
5. Switch on and configure the channel power measurement.
a) Press the MEAS key.
b) Press the "Ch Power/ACLR" softkey.
The R&S ESR activates the channel or adjacent channel power measurement
according to the currently set configuration.
c) Press the "CP/ACLR Settings" softkey.
d) Press the "Channel Settings" softkey.
e) Press the "Channel Bandwidth" softkey and enter 1.23 MHz.
The R&S ESR displays the 1.23 MHz channel as two vertical lines which are
symmetrical to the center frequency.
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f)
Press the "Adjust Settings" softkey.
The settings for the frequency span, the bandwidth (RBW and VBW) and the
detector are automatically set to the optimum values required for the measurement.
Fig. 3-33: Measurement of the R&S ESR's intrinsic noise power in a 1.23 MHz channel bandwidth.
6. Stabilize the measurement result by increasing the sweep time.
In the "Ch Power ACLR" menu, press the "Sweep Time" softkey and enter 1 s.
The trace becomes much smoother because of the RMS detector and the channel
power measurement display is much more stable.
3.4.5.3
Measuring Phase Noise
The R&S ESR has an easy-to-use marker function for phase noise measurements. This
marker function indicates the phase noise of an RF oscillator at any carrier in dBc in a
bandwidth of 1 Hz.
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Measurement Example – Measuring the Phase Noise of a Signal Generator at a
Carrier Offset of 10 kHz
Test setup:
Signal generator settings (e.g. R&S ESR SMU):
Frequency:
100 MHz
Level:
0 dBm
Procedure:
1. Set the R&S ESR to its default state by pressing the PRESET key.
R&S ESR is in its default state.
2. Set the center frequency to 100 MHz and the span to 50 kHz.
a) Press the FREQ key and enter "100 MHz".
b) Press the SPAN key and enter "50 kHz".
3. Set the R&S ESR's reference level to 0 dBm (=signal generator level) by pressing
the AMPT key and enter "0 dBm".
4. Enable phase noise measurement.
a) Press the MKR FUNC key.
b) Press the "Phase Noise" softkey.
The R&S ESR activates phase noise measurement. Marker 1 (=main marker)
and marker 2 (= delta marker) are positioned on the signal maximum. The position
of the marker is the reference (level and frequency) for the phase noise measurement. A horizontal line represents the level of the reference point and a vertical line the frequency of the reference point. The dialog box for the delta marker
is displayed so that the frequency offset at which the phase noise is to be measured can be entered directly.
5. Set the frequency offset to 10 kHz for determining phase noise by entering "10
kHz".
The R&S ESR displays the phase noise at a frequency offset of 10 kHz. The magnitude of the phase noise in dBc/Hz is displayed in the delta marker output field at
the top right of the screen (Phn2).
6. Stabilize the measurement result by activating trace averaging.
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Fig. 3-34: Measuring phase noise with the phase-noise marker function
The frequency offset can be varied by moving the marker with the rotary knob or by
entering a new frequency offset as a number.
3.4.6 Measurements on Modulated Signals
3.4.6.1
Measuring Channel Power and Adjacent Channel Power
Measuring channel power and adjacent channel power is one of the most important tasks
in the field of digital transmission for a signal analyzer with the necessary test routines.
While, theoretically, channel power could be measured at highest accuracy with a power
meter, its low selectivity means that it is not suitable for measuring adjacent channel
power as an absolute value or relative to the transmit channel power. The power in the
adjacent channels can only be measured with a selective power meter.
A signal analyzer cannot be classified as a true power meter, because it displays the IF
envelope voltage. However, it is calibrated such as to correctly display the power of a
pure sine wave signal irrespective of the selected detector. This calibration cannot be
applied for non-sinusoidal signals. Assuming that the digitally modulated signal has a
Gaussian amplitude distribution, the signal power within the selected resolution band-
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width can be obtained using correction factors. These correction factors are normally
used by the signal analyzer's internal power measurement routines in order to determine
the signal power from IF envelope measurements. These factors apply if and only if the
assumption of a Gaussian amplitude distribution is correct.
Apart from this common method, the R&S ESR also has a true power detector, i.e. an
RMS detector. It correctly displays the power of the test signal within the selected resolution bandwidth irrespective of the amplitude distribution, without additional correction
factors being required. The absolute measurement uncertainty of the FSV is < 1.5 dB
and a relative measurement uncertainty of < 0.5 dB (each with a confidence level of 95
%).
There are two possible methods for measuring channel and adjacent channel power with
a signal analyzer:
1. IBW method (Integration Bandwidth Method)
The signal analyzer measures with a resolution bandwidth that is less than the channel bandwidth and integrates the level values of the trace versus the channel bandwidth. This method is described in ​"Measurement Example – Measuring the Intrinsic
Noise of the R&S ESR at 1 GHz in a 1.23 MHz Channel Bandwidth with the Channel
Power Function" on page 305.
2. Using a channel filter
For a detailed description, refer to the following section.
Measurements using a channel filter
In this case, the signal analyzer makes zero span measurements using an IF filter that
corresponds to the channel bandwidth. The power is measured at the output of the IF
filter. Until now, this method has not been used for signal analyzers, because channel
filters were not available and the resolution bandwidths, optimized for the sweep, did not
have a sufficient selectivity. The method was reserved for special receivers optimized for
a particular transmission method.
The R&S ESR has test routines for simple channel and adjacent channel power measurements. These routines give quick results without any complex or tedious setting procedures.
Measurement Example 1 – ACPR Measurement on an CDMA2000 Signal
Test setup:
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Signal generator settings (e.g. R&S ESR SMU):
Frequency:
850 MHz
Level:
0 dBm
Modulation:
CDMA2000
Procedure:
1. Set the R&S ESR to its default state by pressing the PRESET key.
The R&S ESR is in its default state.
2. Press the FREQ key and enter "850 MHz" as the center frequency.
3. Press the SPAN key and enter "4 MHz".
4. Set the reference level to +10 dBm by pressing the AMPT key and enter "10 dBm".
5. Configure the adjacent channel power for the CDMA2000 standard (more precisely:
CDMA2000 1X).
a)
b)
c)
d)
Press the MEAS key.
Press the "Ch Power ACLR" softkey.
Press the "CP/ACLR Standard" softkey.
In the standards list, mark CDMA2000.
The R&S ESR sets the channel configuration according to the 2000 standard with 2
adjacent channels above and 2 below the transmit channel. The spectrum is displayed in the upper part of the screen, the numeric values of the results and the
channel configuration in the lower part of the screen. The various channels are represented by vertical lines on the graph.
The frequency span, resolution bandwidth, video bandwidth and detector are
selected automatically to give correct results. To obtain stable results – especially in
the adjacent channels (30 kHz bandwidth) which are narrow in comparison with the
transmission channel bandwidth (1.23 MHz) – the RMS detector is used.
6. Set the optimal reference level and RF attenuation for the applied signal level by
pressing the "Adjust Ref Level" softkey.
7. Activate "Fast ACP" mode to increase the repeatability of results by pressing the
"Fast ACP" softkey (for details see below).
The R&S ESR sets the optimal RF attenuation and the reference level based on the
transmission channel power to obtain the maximum dynamic range. The ​figure 3-35 shows the result of the measurement.
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Fig. 3-35: Adjacent channel power measurement on a CDMA2000 1x signal
Measurement Example 2 – Measuring Adjacent Channel Power of a W-CDMA
Uplink Signal
Test setup:
Signal generator settings (e.g. R&S ESR SMU):
Frequency:
1950 MHz
Level:
4 dBm
Modulation:
3 GPP W-CDMA Reverse Link
Procedure:
1. Set the R&S ESR to its default state by pressing the PRESET key.
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The R&S ESR is in its default state.
2. Set the center frequency to 1950 MHz by pressing the FREQ key and entering "1950
MHz".
3. Switch on the ACLR measurement for W-CDMA.
a)
b)
c)
d)
Press the MEAS key.
Press the "Ch Power ACLR" softkey.
Press the "CP/ACLR Standard" softkey.
In the standards list, select W-CDMA 3GPP REV.
The R&S ESR sets the channel configuration to the 3GPP W-CDMA standard for
mobiles with two adjacent channels above and below the transmit channel. The
frequency span, the resolution and video bandwidth and the detector are automatically set to the correct values. The spectrum is displayed in the upper part of
the screen and the channel power, the level ratios of the adjacent channel powers
and the channel configuration in the lower part of the screen. The individual
channels are displayed as vertical lines on the graph.
4. Set the optimum reference level and the RF attenuation for the applied signal level.
a) Press the "Adjust Ref Level" softkey.
The R&S ESR sets the optimum RF attenuation and the reference level for the
power in the transmission channel to obtain the maximum dynamic range. The
following figure shows the result of the measurement.
Fig. 3-36: Measuring the relative adjacent channel power on a W-CDMA uplink signal
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5. Set up the adjacent channel power measurement with the fast ACLR mode.
a) Set "Fast ACLR" softkey to "On".
b) Press the "Adjust Ref Level" softkey.
The R&S ESR measures the power of the individual channels with zero span. A
root raised cosine filter with the parameters α = 0.22 and chip rate 3.84 Mcps (=
receive filter for 3GPP W-CDMA) is used as channel filter.
Fig. 3-37: Measuring the adjacent channel power of a W-CDMA signal with the fast ACLR mode
Optimum Level Setting for ACP Measurements on W-CDMA Signals
The dynamic range for ACPR measurements is limited by the thermal noise floor, the
phase noise and the intermodulation (spectral regrowth) of the signal analyzer. The power
values produced by the R&S ESR due to these factors accumulate linearly. They depend
on the applied level at the input mixer. The three factors are shown in the figure below
for the adjacent channel (5 MHz carrier offset).
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Fig. 3-38: The R&S ESR's dynamic range for adjacent channel power measurements on W-CDMA uplink
signals is a function of the mixer level.
The level of the W-CDMA signal at the input mixer is shown on the horizontal axis, i.e.
the measured signal level minus the selected RF attenuation. The individual components
which contribute to the power in the adjacent channel and the resulting relative level (total
ACPR) in the adjacent channel are displayed on the vertical axis. The optimum mixer
level is -18 dBm. The relative adjacent channel power (ACPR) at an optimum mixer level
is -77 dBc. Since, at a given signal level, the mixer level is set in 5 dB steps with the 5
dB RF attenuator, the optimum 10 dB range spreads from -17 dBm to -22 dBm. In this
range, the obtainable dynamic range with noise correction is 77 dB.
To set the attenuation parameter manually, the following method is recommended:
► Set the RF attenuation so that the mixer level (= measured channel power – RF
attenuation) is between -16 dBm and -22 dBm.
This method is automated with the "Adjust Ref Level" function. Especially in remote control mode, e.g. in production environments, it is best to correctly set the attenuation
parameters prior to the measurement, as the time required for automatic setting can be
saved.
To measure the R&S ESR's intrinsic dynamic range for W-CDMA adjacent channel power
measurements, a filter which suppresses the adjacent channel power is required at the
output of the transmitter. A SAW filter with a bandwidth of 4 MHz, for example, can be
used.
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3.4.6.2
Amplitude Distribution Measurements
If modulation types are used that do not have a constant zero span envelope, the transmitter has to handle peak amplitudes that are greater than the average power. This
includes all modulation types that involve amplitude modulation –QPSK for example.
CDMA transmission modes in particular may have power peaks that are large compared
to the average power.
For signals of this kind, the transmitter must provide large reserves for the peak power
to prevent signal compression and thus an increase of the bit error rate at the receiver.
The peak power or the crest factor of a signal is therefore an important transmitter design
criterion. The crest factor is defined as the peak power/mean power ratio or, logarithmically, as the peak level minus the average level of the signal.
To reduce power consumption and cut costs, transmitters are not designed for the largest
power that could ever occur, but for a power that has a specified probability of being
exceeded (e.g. 0.01 %).
To measure the amplitude distribution, the R&S ESR has simple measurement functions
to determine both the APD = Amplitude Probability Distribution and CCDF = Complementary Cumulative Distribution Function.
In the APD display mode, the probability of occurrence of a certain level is plotted against
the level.
In the CCDF display mode, the probability that the mean signal power will be exceeded
is shown in percent.
Measurement Example – Measuring the APD and CCDF of White Noise Generated
by the R&S ESR
1. Set the R&S ESR to its default state by pressing the PRESET key.
The R&S ESR is in its default state.
2. Configure the R&S ESR for APD measurement
a) Press the AMPT key and enter "-60 dBm".
The R&S ESR's intrinsic noise is displayed at the top of the screen.
b) Press the MEAS key.
c) Press the "More" softkey.
d) Press the "APD" softkey.
The R&S ESR sets the frequency span to 0 Hz and measures the amplitude
probability distribution (APD). The number of uncorrelated level measurements
used for the measurement is 100000. The mean power and the peak power are
displayed in dBm. The crest factor (peak power – mean power) is output as well.
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Fig. 3-39: Amplitude probability distribution of white noise
3. Switch to the CCDF display mode.
a) Press the "UP" key.
b) Press the "CCDF" softkey.
The CCDF display mode is switched on.
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Fig. 3-40: CCDF of white noise
The CCDF trace indicates the probability that a level will exceed the mean power. The
level above the mean power is plotted along the x-axis of the graph. The origin of the axis
corresponds to the mean power level. The probability that a level will be exceeded is
plotted along the y-axis.
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4 I/Q Analyzer
The I/Q Analyzer provides functions to capture, visualize and evaluate I/Q data. These
functions include:
●
capturing data from the RF input
●
displaying I/Q data in various result types, e.g. separate Real/Imag diagrams or as
an I/Q-vector
Menu and softkey description
The "I/Q Analyzer" menu is displayed when you select the "I/Q Analyzer" softkey in the
MODE menu. The same menu is displayed when you press the MEAS or MEAS
CONFIG keys in "I/Q Analyzer" mode. For details see ​chapter 4.1, "Softkeys and Parameters of the I/Q Analyzer Menu", on page 319.
The "Amplitude" menu, which is displayed when you select the AMPT key, is described
in see ​chapter 4.2, "Softkeys of the Amplitude Menu in I/Q Analyzer Mode",
on page 323.
The "Input/Output" menu, which is displayed when you select the INPUT/OUTPUT key,
as well as the "Save/Recall" menu (SAVE/RCL key) contain the same functions in I/Q
Analyzer mode as in "Spectrum" mode (see ​chapter 3.2.9, "Input/Output Configuration –
INPUT/OUTPUT Key", on page 240).
The "Marker" menu is identical to the one in Spectrum mode for display modes "Magnitude","Real/Imag" and "Spectrum" (except for "Marker Zoom"), see ​"Display Config"
on page 320. For the other display modes this menu is not available.
The "Marker To" menu is identical to the one in Spectrum mode. For the "I/Q" display
mode, an additional function is available, see ​chapter 4.3, "Softkeys of the Marker To
Menu in I/Q Analyzer Mode", on page 327.
The "Trace" menu is identical to the one in Spectrum mode, except in "I/Q Vector" display
mode. In this case, only 1 trace is available and no detector can be selected (see ​chapter 3.3.1.1, "Softkeys of the Trace Menu", on page 245).
The "Trigger" menu, which is displayed when you select the TRIG key, is described in
see ​chapter 4.4, "Softkeys of the Trigger Menu in I/Q Analyzer Mode", on page 327.
The "Span", "BW", and "Lines" menus are not available in this mode. All other menus are
identical to those described for "Spectrum" mode (see ​chapter 3.2, "Configuration",
on page 199 and ​chapter 3.3, "Analysis", on page 244.
Remote Control
Measurements with the I/Q Analyzer can also be performed via remote control.
For more information see ​chapter 8.5, "Remote Commands in I/Q Analyzer Mode",
on page 664.
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Further information
●
Some general information on working with I/Q data can be found in ​chapter 4.5,
"Working with I/Q Data", on page 331.
4.1 Softkeys and Parameters of the I/Q Analyzer Menu
This section describes the softkeys and parameters of the "I/Q Analyzer" submenu which
is displayed when you select the "I/Q Analyzer" softkey in the MODE menu. The same
menu is displayed when you press the MEAS or MEAS CONFIG keys in "I/Q Analyzer"
mode.
I/Q Analyzer................................................................................................................319
└ Signal Source................................................................................................319
└ Input Path...........................................................................................319
└ Level.............................................................................................................319
└ Reference Level..................................................................................320
└ Preamp On/Off....................................................................................320
└ Data Acquisition............................................................................................320
└ Sample Rate.......................................................................................320
└ Filter BW.............................................................................................320
└ Meas Time..........................................................................................320
└ Record Length....................................................................................320
└ Display Config...............................................................................................320
I/Q Analyzer
Starts the I/Q Analyzer evaluation mode and opens the submenu for the I/Q analyzer,
which allows you to configure and display measurements of I/Q data, e.g. digital baseband signals.
Remote command:
Starting I/Q Analyzer:
​TRACe<n>:​IQ[:​STATe]​ on page 674
Selecting evaluation mode:
​TRACe<n>:​IQ:​EVAL​ on page 674
Selecting the I/Q Analyzer display configuration
​CALCulate<n>:​FORMat​ on page 665
Signal Source ← I/Q Analyzer
Opens a dialog box to select the signal source.
Input Path ← Signal Source ← I/Q Analyzer
The input path is always "RF Radio Frequency".
Level ← I/Q Analyzer
Opens a dialog box to define the level settings.
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Softkeys and Parameters of the I/Q Analyzer Menu
Reference Level ← Level ← I/Q Analyzer
Specifies the reference level for the I/Q measurement.
Remote command:
​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y[:​SCALe]:​RVALue​ on page 666
Preamp On/Off ← Level ← I/Q Analyzer
Switches the preamplifier on and off.
Remote command:
​INPut:​GAIN:​STATe ​ on page 448
Data Acquisition ← I/Q Analyzer
Opens a dialog box to configure data acquisition in I/Q Analyzer mode.
Sample Rate ← Data Acquisition ← I/Q Analyzer
Defines the I/Q data sample rate of the R&S ESR.
Remote command:
​TRACe<n>:​IQ:​SRATe​ on page 668
Filter BW ← Data Acquisition ← I/Q Analyzer
Displays the flat, usable bandwidth of the final I/Q data.
Remote command:
​TRACe<n>:​IQ:​BWIDth​ on page 666
Meas Time ← Data Acquisition ← I/Q Analyzer
Defines the I/Q acquisition time. By default, the measurement time is calculated as the
number of I/Q samples ("Record Length") divided by the sample rate. If you change the
measurement time, the ​Record Length is automatically changed, as well.
For details on the maximum number of samples see also ​chapter 4.5, "Working with I/Q
Data", on page 331.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​TIME​ on page 601
Record Length ← Data Acquisition ← I/Q Analyzer
Defines the number of I/Q samples to record. By default, the number of sweep points is
used. The record length is calculated as the measurement time multiplied by the sample
rate. If you change the record length, the ​Meas Time is automatically changed, as well.
Remote command:
​TRACe<n>:​IQ:​RLENgth​ on page 666
​TRACe<n>:​IQ:​SET​ on page 667
Display Config ← I/Q Analyzer
Opens a selection list to specify the result display configuration. The following displays
are available:
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Softkeys and Parameters of the I/Q Analyzer Menu
"Magnitude"
Shows the values in time domain
"Spectrum"
Displays the frequency spectrum of the captured I/Q samples.
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Softkeys and Parameters of the I/Q Analyzer Menu
"I/Q-Vector"
Displays the captured samples in an I/Q-plot. The samples are connected by a line.
"Real/Imag (I/
Q)"
Displays the I and Q values in separate diagrams.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​FORMat​ on page 665
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Softkeys of the Amplitude Menu in I/Q Analyzer Mode
4.2 Softkeys of the Amplitude Menu in I/Q Analyzer Mode
In I/Q Analyzer mode, the "Amplitude" menu, which is displayed when you select the
AMPT key, contains the following functions.
If the display configuration for the I/Q Analyzer is set to "I/Q Vector" or "Real/Imag (I/
Q)", the ​Range and ​Unit functions are not available.
Ref Level.....................................................................................................................323
Range..........................................................................................................................323
└ Range Log 100 dB........................................................................................324
└ Range Log 50 dB..........................................................................................324
└ Range Log 10 dB..........................................................................................324
└ Range Log 5 dB............................................................................................324
└ Range Log 1 dB............................................................................................325
└ Range Log Manual........................................................................................325
└ Range Linear %............................................................................................325
└ Range Lin. Unit.............................................................................................325
Unit..............................................................................................................................325
Y-Axis Max..................................................................................................................326
Ref Level Offset..........................................................................................................326
Ref Level Position.......................................................................................................326
Grid Abs/Rel ...............................................................................................................326
Ref Level
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the reference level in the current unit (dBm, dBµV, etc).
The reference level is the maximum value the AD converter can handle without distortion
of the measured value. Signal levels above this value will not be measured correctly,
which is indicated by the "IFOVL" status display.
Remote command:
​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y[:​SCALe]:​RLEVel​ on page 611
Range
Opens a submenu to define the display range of the level axis.
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
​Range Log 100 dB
​Range Log 50 dB
​Range Log 10 dB
​Range Log 5 dB
​Range Log 1 dB
​Range Log Manual
​Range Linear %
​Range Lin. Unit
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Softkeys of the Amplitude Menu in I/Q Analyzer Mode
Range Log 100 dB ← Range
Sets the level display range to 100 dB.
Remote command:
Logarithmic scaling:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:SPAC LOG, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y:​
SPACing​ on page 446
Display range:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y 100DB, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y[:​SCALe]​
on page 610
Range Log 50 dB ← Range
Sets the level display range to 50 dB.
Remote command:
Logarithmic scaling:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:SPAC LOG, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y:​
SPACing​ on page 446
Display range:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y 50DB, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y[:​SCALe]​
on page 610
Range Log 10 dB ← Range
Sets the level display range to 10 dB.
Remote command:
Logarithmic scaling:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:SPAC LOG, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y:​
SPACing​ on page 446
Display range:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y 10DB, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y[:​SCALe]​
on page 610
Range Log 5 dB ← Range
Sets the level display range to 5 dB.
Remote command:
Logarithmic scaling:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:SPAC LOG, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y:​
SPACing​ on page 446
Display range:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y 5DB, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y[:​SCALe]​
on page 610
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Softkeys of the Amplitude Menu in I/Q Analyzer Mode
Range Log 1 dB ← Range
Sets the level display range to 1 dB.
Remote command:
Logarithmic scaling:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:SPAC LOG, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y:​
SPACing​ on page 446
Display range:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y 1DB, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y[:​SCALe]​
on page 610
Range Log Manual ← Range
Opens an edit dialog box to define the display range of a logarithmic level axis manually.
Remote command:
Logarithmic scaling:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:SPAC LOG, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y:​
SPACing​ on page 446
Display range:
​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y[:​SCALe]​ on page 610
Range Linear % ← Range
Selects linear scaling for the level axis in %.
The grid is divided into decadal sections.
Markers are displayed in the selected unit ("Unit" softkey). Delta markers are displayed
in % referenced to the voltage value at the position of marker 1. This is the default setting
for linear scaling.
Remote command:
DISP:TRAC:Y:SPAC LIN, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y:​SPACing​
on page 446
Range Lin. Unit ← Range
Selects linear scaling in dB for the level display range, i.e. the horizontal lines are labeled
in dB.
Markers are displayed in the selected unit ("Unit" softkey). Delta markers are displayed
in dB referenced to the power value at the position of marker 1.
Remote command:
DISP:TRAC:Y:SPAC LDB, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y:​SPACing​
on page 446
Unit
Opens the "Unit" submenu to select the unit for the level axis.
The default setting in spectrum mode is dBm.
If a transducer is switched on, the softkey is not available.
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In general, the signal analyzer measures the signal voltage at the RF input. The level
display is calibrated in RMS values of an unmodulated sine wave signal. In the default
state, the level is displayed at a power of 1 mW (= dBm). Via the known input impedance
(50 Ω or 75 Ω), conversion to other units is possible. The following units are available and
directly convertible:
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
dBm
dBmV
dBμV
dBμA
dBpW
Volt
Ampere
Watt
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​UNIT:​POWer​ on page 610
Y-Axis Max
Opens an edit dialog box to specify the maximum value of the y-axis in either direction
(in Volts). Thus, the y-axis scale starts at -<Y-AxisMax> and ends at +<Y-AxisMax>.
This command is only available if the display configuration for the I/Q Analyzer is set to
"I/Q Vector" or "Real/Imag (I/Q)", see ​"Display Config" on page 320.
Ref Level Offset
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the arithmetic level offset. This offset is added to the
measured level irrespective of the selected unit. The scaling of the y-axis is changed
accordingly. The setting range is ±200 dB in 0.1 dB steps.
Remote command:
​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y[:​SCALe]:​RLEVel:​OFFSet​ on page 611
Ref Level Position
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the reference level position, i.e. the position of the
maximum AD converter value on the level axis. The setting range is from -200 to
+200 %, 0 % corresponding to the lower and 100 % to the upper limit of the diagram.
Grid Abs/Rel
Switches between absolute and relative scaling of the level axis (not available with
"Linear" range).
"Abs"
Absolute scaling: The labeling of the level lines refers to the absolute
value of the reference level. Absolute scaling is the default setting.
"Rel"
Relative scaling: The upper line of the grid is always at 0 dB. The scaling
is in dB whereas the reference level is always in the set unit (for details
on unit settings see the "Unit" softkey).
Remote command:
​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y[:​SCALe]:​MODE​ on page 610
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4.3 Softkeys of the Marker To Menu in I/Q Analyzer Mode
In I/Q Analyzer mode, The "Marker To" menu is identical to the one in Spectrum mode
(see ​"Softkeys of the Marker To Menu" on page 271). For the "Real/Imag (I/Q)" display
mode, however, an additional function is available.
Search Settings
Opens a dialog box to define which data is used for marker search functions.
Note: The search settings apply to all markers, not only the currently selected one.
"Search Real"
Marker search functions are performed on the real trace of the I/Q
measurement.
"Search Imag"
Marker search functions are performed on the imaginary trace of the I/
Q measurement.
"Search Magni- Marker search functions are performed on the magnitude of the I and
Q data.
tude"
Remote command:
​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​SEARch​ on page 665
4.4 Softkeys of the Trigger Menu in I/Q Analyzer Mode
In I/Q Analyzer mode, the "Trigger" menu, which is displayed when you select the
TRIG key, contains the following functions:
Trg/Gate Source..........................................................................................................327
└ Free Run.......................................................................................................328
└ External.........................................................................................................328
└ Video.............................................................................................................328
└ RF Power......................................................................................................328
└ IF Power/BB Power.......................................................................................329
└ Time..............................................................................................................329
Trigger Level...............................................................................................................329
Trigger Polarity............................................................................................................330
Trigger Offset..............................................................................................................330
Repetition Interval.......................................................................................................330
Trigger Hysteresis.......................................................................................................331
Trigger Holdoff............................................................................................................331
Trg/Gate Source
Opens the "Trigger/Gate Source" dialog box to select the trigger/gate mode.
As gate modes, all modes except "Power Sensor" are available. For details see also ​
chapter 3.2.8.3, "Using Gated Sweep Operation", on page 237.
The default setting is "Free Run". If a trigger mode other than "Free Run" has been set,
the enhancement label "TRG" is displayed and the trigger source is indicated.
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Softkeys of the Trigger Menu in I/Q Analyzer Mode
Note: When triggering or gating is activated, the squelch funciton is automatically disabled (see ​"Squelch" on page 281).
Remote command:
​TRIGger<n>[:​SEQuence]:​SOURce​ on page 605
​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​EGATe:​SOURce​ on page 608
Free Run ← Trg/Gate Source
The start of a sweep is not triggered. Once a measurement is completed, another is
started immediately.
Remote command:
TRIG:SOUR IMM, see ​TRIGger<n>[:​SEQuence]:​SOURce​ on page 605
External ← Trg/Gate Source
Defines triggering via a TTL signal at the "EXT TRIG/GATE IN" input connector on the
rear panel.
Remote command:
TRIG:SOUR EXT, see ​TRIGger<n>[:​SEQuence]:​SOURce​ on page 605
SWE:EGAT:SOUR EXT for gated triggering, see ​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​EGATe:​SOURce​
on page 608
Video ← Trg/Gate Source
Defines triggering by the displayed voltage.
A horizontal trigger line is shown in the diagram. It is used to set the trigger threshold
from 0 % to 100 % of the diagram height.
Video mode is only available in the time domain.
Remote command:
TRIG:SOUR VID, see ​TRIGger<n>[:​SEQuence]:​SOURce​ on page 605
SWE:EGAT:SOUR VID for gated triggering, see ​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​EGATe:​SOURce​
on page 608
RF Power ← Trg/Gate Source
Defines triggering of the measurement via signals which are outside the measurement
channel.
In RF Power trigger mode the instrument uses a level detector at the first intermediate
frequency. The detector threshold can be selected in a range between - 50 dBm and
-10 dBm at the input mixer. The resulting trigger level at the RF input lies within the
following range:
(-24dBm + RF Att ) ≤ Triggerlevel ≤ (+5dBm + RF Att), max. 30 dBm, for Preamp = OFF
(-40dBm + RF Att ) ≤ Triggerlevel ≤ (-11dBm + RF Att), max. 30 dBm, for Preamp = ON
with
500 MHz ≤ InputSignal ≤ 7 GHz
Note: If input values outside of this range occur (e.g. for fullspan measurements), the
sweep may be aborted and a message indicating the allowed input values is displayed
in the status bar.
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Softkeys of the Trigger Menu in I/Q Analyzer Mode
A ​Trigger Offset, ​Trg/Gate Polarity and ​Trigger Holdoff can be defined for the RF trigger
to improve the trigger stability, but no hysteresis.
Remote command:
TRIG:SOUR RFP, see ​TRIGger<n>[:​SEQuence]:​SOURce​ on page 605
SWE:EGAT:SOUR RFP for gated triggering, see ​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​EGATe:​SOURce​
on page 608
IF Power/BB Power ← Trg/Gate Source
Defines triggering of the measurement using the second intermediate frequency.
For this purpose, the R&S ESR uses a level detector at the second intermediate frequency. Its threshold can be set in a range between -50 dBm and -10 dBm at the input
mixer. The resulting trigger level at the RF input is calculated via the following formula:
"mixerlevelmin + RFAtt – PreampGain ≤ Input Signal ≤ mixerlevelmax + RFAtt – PreampGain"
The bandwidth at the intermediate frequency depends on the RBW and sweep type:
Sweep mode:
● RBW > 500 kHz: 40 MHz, nominal
● RBW ≤ 500 kHz: 6 MHz, nominal
FFT mode:
● RBW > 20 kHz: 40 MHz, nominal
● RBW ≤ 20 kHz: 6 MHz, nominal
Note: Be aware that in auto sweep type mode, due to a possible change in sweep types,
the bandwidth may vary considerably for the same RBW setting.
The R&S ESR is triggered as soon as the trigger threshold is exceeded around the
selected frequency (= start frequency in the frequency sweep).
Thus, the measurement of spurious emissions, e.g. for pulsed carriers, is possible even
if the carrier lies outside the selected frequency span.
Remote command:
TRIG:SOUR IFP, see ​TRIGger<n>[:​SEQuence]:​SOURce​ on page 605
SWE:EGAT:SOUR IFP for gated triggering, see ​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​EGATe:​SOURce​
on page 608
Time ← Trg/Gate Source
Opens an edit dialog box to define a repetition interval in which the measurement is
triggered. The shortest interval is 2 ms.
Remote command:
TRIG:SOUR TIME​TRIGger<n>[:​SEQuence]:​SOURce​ on page 605
Trigger Level
Defines the trigger level as a numeric value.
In the trigger mode "Time", this softkey is not available.
Remote command:
​TRIGger<n>[:​SEQuence]:​LEVel:​IFPower​ on page 604
​TRIGger<n>[:​SEQuence]:​LEVel:​VIDeo​ on page 605
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Softkeys of the Trigger Menu in I/Q Analyzer Mode
Trigger Polarity
Sets the polarity of the trigger source.
The sweep starts after a positive or negative edge of the trigger signal. The default setting
is "Pos". The setting applies to all modes with the exception of the "Free Run" and
"Time" mode.
"Pos"
Level triggering: the sweep is stopped by the logic "0" signal and restarted by the logical "1" signal after the gate delay time has elapsed.
"Neg"
Edge triggering: the sweep is continued on a "0" to "1" transition for the
gate length duration after the gate delay time has elapsed.
Remote command:
​TRIGger<n>[:​SEQuence]:​SLOPe​ on page 605
​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​EGATe:​POLarity​ on page 608
Trigger Offset
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the time offset between the trigger signal and the start
of the sweep.
offset > 0:
Start of the sweep is delayed
offset < 0:
Sweep starts earlier (pre-trigger)
Only possible for span = 0 (e.g. I/Q Analyzer mode) and gated trigger
switched off
Maximum allowed range limited by the sweep time:
pretriggermax = sweep time
In the "External" or "IF Power" trigger mode, a common input signal is used for both trigger
and gate. Therefore, changes to the gate delay will affect the trigger delay (trigger offset)
as well.
Tip: To determine the trigger point in the sample (for "External" or "IF Power" trigger
mode), use the ​TRACe<n>:​IQ:​TPISample?​ command.
In the "Time" trigger mode, this softkey is not available.
Remote command:
​TRIGger<n>[:​SEQuence]:​HOLDoff[:​TIME]​ on page 603
Repetition Interval
Opens an edit dialog box to define a repetition interval in which the measurement is
triggered. The shortest interval is 2 ms. This softkey is only available if the trigger source
"Time" is selected (see ​"Time" on page 233).
Remote command:
​TRIGger<n>[:​SEQuence]:​TIME:​RINTerval​ on page 607
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Trigger Hysteresis
Defines the value for the trigger hysteresis for "IF power" or "RF Power" trigger sources.
The hysteresis in dB is the value the input signal must stay below the power trigger level
in order to allow a trigger to start the measurement. The range of the value is between 3
dB and 50 dB with a step width of 1 dB.
Remote command:
​TRIGger<n>[:​SEQuence]:​IFPower:​HYSTeresis​ on page 604
Trigger Holdoff
Defines the value for the trigger holdoff. The holdoff value in s is the time which must
pass before triggering, in case another trigger event happens.
This softkey is only available if "IFPower", "RF Power" or "BBPower" is the selected trigger source.
Remote command:
​TRIGger<n>[:​SEQuence]:​IFPower:​HOLDoff​ on page 603
4.5 Working with I/Q Data
This section describes I/Q data processing of RF input, e.g. in the I/Q Analyzer.
The block diagram in ​figure 4-1 shows the analyzer hardware for active RF input from
the IF section to the processor.
The A/D converter samples the IF signal at a rate of 128 MHz. The digital signal is downconverted to the complex baseband, lowpass-filtered, and the sample rate is reduced.
The continuously adjustable sample rates are realized using an optimal decimation filter
and subsequent resampling on the set sample rate.
The I/Q data is written to a single memory, the data acquisition is hardware-triggered.
Fig. 4-1: Block diagram illustrating the R&S ESR signal processing (without B160)
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Maximum number of samples
The maximum number of samples for RF input is 200 MS.
4.5.1 Sample Rate and Maximum Usable Bandwidth (RF Input)
Definitions
●
Input sample rate (ISR): the sample rate of the useful data provided by the connected instrument to the R&S ESR input
●
(User, Output) Sample rate (SR): the sample rate that is defined by the user (e.g. in
the "Data Aquisition" dialog box in the "I/Q Analyzer" application) and which is used
as the basis for analysis or output
●
Usable I/Q (Analysis) bandwidth: the bandwidth range in which the signal remains
undistorted in regard to amplitude characteristic and group delay; this range can be
used for accurate analysis by the R&S ESR
For the I/Q data acquisition, digital decimation filters are used internally. The passband
of these digital filters determines the maximum usable I/Q bandwidth. In consequence,
signals within the usable I/Q bandwidth (passband) remain unchanged, while signals
outside the usable I/Q bandwidth (passband) are suppressed. Usually, the suppressed
signals are noise, artifacts, and the second IF side band. If frequencies of interest to you
are also suppressed, you should try to increase the output sample rate, since this increases the maximum usable I/Q bandwidth.
Relationship between sample rate and usable bandwidth
The diagram ​figure 4-2 shows the maximum usable I/Q bandwidths depending on the
user sample rates.
As a rule, the usable bandwidth is proportional to the output sample. Yet, when the I/Q
bandwidth reaches the bandwidth of the analog IF filter (at very high sample rates), the
curve breaks.
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Fig. 4-2: Relation between maximum usable bandwidth and sample rate (RF input)
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Softkeys of the Tracking Generator Menu
5 Tracking Generator
Equipped with option R&S FSV-B9, an internal tracking generator emits a signal at the
exact input frequency of the analyzer during operation. The generated signal is sent to
the DUT, thus allowing the analyzer to control the input frequency of the device directly.
Tracking generator control is available in "Spectrum" and "I/Q Analyzer" mode for frequency, time or I/Q measurements. Special measurement functions are not available with
tracking generator control. The corresponding softkeys in the "Measurement" menu are
deactivated in this case.
Menu and softkey description
●
​chapter 5.1, "Softkeys of the Tracking Generator Menu", on page 334
Further information
5.1 Softkeys of the Tracking Generator Menu
The "Tracking Generator" menu is displayed when you press the INPUT/OUPUT key and
then "Tracking Generator".
This softkey is only available if the R&S FSV option Tracking Generator (B9) is installed.
The following table shows all softkeys available in the "Tracking Generator" menu.
As long as a tracking generator is active, the HOME key also displays the "Tracking
Generator" menu.
Source RF Internal (On/ Off).......................................................................................335
Source Power..............................................................................................................335
Source Cal..................................................................................................................335
└ Calibrate Transmission.................................................................................335
└ Calibrate Reflection Short.............................................................................335
└ Calibrate Reflection Open.............................................................................335
└ Normalize......................................................................................................336
└ Reference Value Position.............................................................................336
└ Reference Value...........................................................................................336
└ Recall............................................................................................................336
Modulation...................................................................................................................336
└ External AM..................................................................................................337
└ External FM...................................................................................................337
└ External I/Q...................................................................................................337
└ Modulation OFF............................................................................................337
Power Sweep..............................................................................................................337
└ Power Sweep (On /Off).................................................................................338
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Softkeys of the Tracking Generator Menu
└ Power Sweep Start.......................................................................................338
└ Power Sweep Stop.......................................................................................338
Source Config.............................................................................................................338
Source RF Internal (On/ Off)
Switches the selected tracking generator on or off. Default setting is off. The currently
selected generator is indicated on the softkey.
Remote command:
​OUTPut[:​STATe]​ on page 677
Activates the internal tracking generator (B9).
Source Power
Opens an edit dialog box to quickly change the output power of the currently selected
tracking generator, alternatively to the "Tracking Generator configuration" dialog box (see
​"Source Config" on page 338 softkey).
The default output power is -20 dBm. The range is specified in the data sheet.
Remote command:
​SOURce<n>:​POWer[:​LEVel][:​IMMediate][:​AMPLitude]​ on page 681
Source Cal
Opens a submenu to configure calibration for transmission and reflection measurement
for tracking generators. For details on the test setups see ​chapter 5.3.2, "Calibrating for
transmission and reflection measurement", on page 341.
Calibrate Transmission ← Source Cal
Starts a sweep that records a reference trace. This trace is used to calculate the difference for the normalized values.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]CORRection:​METHod​ on page 678
Selects the transmission method and starts the sweep to record a reference trace.
Calibrate Reflection Short ← Source Cal
Starts a sweep as a reference trace for short-circuit calibration.
If both calibrations (open circuit, short circuit) are carried out, the calibration curve is
calculated by averaging the two measurements and stored in the memory. The order of
the two calibration measurements is irrelevant.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]CORRection:​METHod​ on page 678
Selects the reflection method.
​[SENSe:​]CORRection:​COLLect[:​ACQuire]​ on page 677
Starts the sweep for short-circuit calibration.
Calibrate Reflection Open ← Source Cal
Starts a sweep as a reference trace for the open-circuit calibration.
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Softkeys of the Tracking Generator Menu
If both calibrations (open circuit, short circuit) are carried out, the calibration curve is
calculated by averaging the two measurements and stored in the memory. The order of
the two calibration measurements is irrelevant.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]CORRection:​METHod​ on page 678
Selects the reflection method.
​[SENSe:​]CORRection:​COLLect[:​ACQuire]​ on page 677
Starts the sweep for open-circuit calibration.
Normalize ← Source Cal
Switches the normalization on or off. The softkey is only available if the memory contains
a reference trace. For details on normalization see ​chapter 5.3.5, "Normalization",
on page 343.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]CORRection[:​STATe]​ on page 678
Reference Value Position ← Source Cal
Switches the reference line on or off. The reference line marks the reference position at
which the normalization result (calculated difference to a reference trace) is displayed.
For details on the reference line see ​chapter 5.3.5, "Normalization", on page 343.
Remote command:
​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y[:​SCALe]:​RPOSition​ on page 612
Reference Value ← Source Cal
Opens an edit dialog box to enter a position value that shifts the reference line vertically.
By default, the reference line corresponds to a difference of 0 dB between the currently
measured trace and the reference trace.
If a 10 dB attenuation is inserted into the signal path between DUT and R&S ESR input,
for example after a source calibration, the measurement trace is moved down by 10 dB.
Entering a reference value of -10 dB will also shift the reference line down by 10 dB and
place the measurement trace on the reference line. The deviation from the nominal power
level can be displayed with higher resolution (e.g. 1 dB/div). The power is still displayed
in absolute values.
Remote command:
​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y[:​SCALe]:​RVALue​ on page 666
Recall ← Source Cal
Restores the settings that were used during source calibration. This can be useful if
instrument settings were changed after calibration (e.g. center frequency, frequency
deviation, reference level, etc).
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]CORRection:​RECall​ on page 678
Modulation
Opens a submenu to define modulation settings. This submenu contains the following
commands:
●
​"External AM" on page 337
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Softkeys of the Tracking Generator Menu
●
●
●
​"External FM" on page 337
​"External I/Q" on page 337
​"Modulation OFF" on page 337
External AM ← Modulation
Activates an AM modulation of the tracking generator output signal.
The modulation signal is applied to the TG IN I/AM connector. An input voltage of 1 V
corresponds to 100 % amplitude modulation.
Switching on an external AM disables the active I/Q modulation.
Remote command:
​SOURce<n>:​AM:​STATe​ on page 678
External FM ← Modulation
Activates the FM modulation of the tracking generator output signal. The modulation signal is applied to the TG IN Q/FM connector. Switching on an external FM disables the
active I/Q modulation.
Remote command:
​SOURce<n>:​FM:​STATe​ on page 680
​SOURce<n>:​FM:​DEViation​ on page 679
External I/Q ← Modulation
Activates the external I/Q modulation of the tracking generator output signal. The signals
for modulation are applied to the two input connectors TG IN I and TG IN Q at the rear
panel of the unit. The input voltage range is ±1 V into 50 Ω. Switching on an external I/Q
modulation disables the active AM or FM modulation.
Remote command:
​SOURce<n>:​DM:​STATe​ on page 679
Modulation OFF ← Modulation
Deactivates external modulation of the tracking generator output signal.
Remote command:
​SOURce<n>:​AM:​STATe​ on page 678
​SOURce<n>:​DM:​STATe​ on page 679
​SOURce<n>:​FM:​STATe​ on page 680
Power Sweep
Opens a submenu to define power sweep settings.
This submenu contains the following commands:
●
●
●
​"Power Sweep (On /Off)" on page 338
​"Power Sweep Start" on page 338
​"Power Sweep Stop" on page 338
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Configuring Tracking Generators
Power Sweep (On /Off) ← Power Sweep
Activates or deactivates the power sweep. If the power sweep is on, the analyzer is set
to zero span mode (span = 0Hz). During the sweep time of the zero span, the power at
the internal tracking generator is changed linearly from start power to stop power. The
start and stop power for the power sweep are displayed in the diagram header ("INT TG
<start power>… <stop power>", see also ​chapter 5.4, "Displayed Information and
Errors", on page 348.
The start power can be set between -30 dBm and +0 dBm.
The stop value can also be be set between -30 dBm and +0 dBm and may be smaller
than the start value.
The difference between the start and stop values may not exceed 10 dB.
Remote command:
​SOURce<n>:​POWer:​MODE​ on page 681
Power Sweep Start ← Power Sweep
Defines the start power of the power sweep.
The start power can be set between -30 dBm and +0 dBm.
The difference between the start and stop values may not exceed 10 dB.
Remote command:
​SOURce<n>:​POWer:​STARt​ on page 682
Power Sweep Stop ← Power Sweep
Defines the stop power of the power sweep.
The stop power can be set between -30 dBm and +0 dBm.
The difference between the start and stop values may not exceed 10 dB.
Remote command:
​SOURce<n>:​POWer:​STOP​ on page 682
Source Config
Opens the "Tracking Generator Configuration" dialog, see ​chapter 5.2, "Configuring
Tracking Generators", on page 338.
5.2 Configuring Tracking Generators
The "Tracking Generator Configuration" dialog box is opened via the "Source Config"
softkey in the "Tracking Generator" menu.
This dialox box allows you to define measurement settings.
●
​chapter 5.2.1, "Internal Tracking Generator", on page 339
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5.2.1 Internal Tracking Generator
The internal tracking generator is configured in the "Internal" tab of the "tracking Generator Configuration" dialog box.
In the top half of the dialog box, the measurement configurations can be defined. In the
lower half of the dialog box, the capabilities of the internal tracking generator are displayed for reference only.
The configuration dialog box contains the following fields:
Select
Selects the internal tracking generator as the current tracking generator source. "Internal"
is displayed as the source on the "Source RF" softkey. All tracking generator functions
are performed with the currently selected source.
Note: Note that the generator is not automatically activated when it is selected. To activate the currently selected generator, click the "Source RF On" softkey.
Source Power
The tracking generator output power. The default output power is -20 dBm. The range is
specified in the data sheet.
Remote command:
​SOURce<n>:​POWer[:​LEVel][:​IMMediate][:​AMPLitude]​ on page 681
Power Offset
Constant level offset for the tracking generator. Values from -200 dB to +200 dB in 1 dB
steps are allowed. The default setting is 0 dB. Offsets are indicated by the enhancement
label "LVL" in the diagram header (see also ​chapter 5.4, "Displayed Information and
Errors", on page 348).
With this offset, attenuators or amplifiers at the output connector of the tracking generator
can be taken into account for the displayed output power values on screen or during data
entry, for example. Positive offsets apply to an amplifier and negative offsets to an
attenuator subsequent to the tracking generator.
Remote command:
​SOURce<n>:​POWer[:​LEVel][:​IMMediate]:​OFFSet​ on page 681
Frequency Offset
Constant frequency offset between the output signal of the tracking generator and the
input frequency of the R&S ESR. Possible offsets are in a range of ±1 GHz in 0.1 Hz
steps.
The default setting is 0 Hz. Offsets <> 0 Hz are marked with the enhancement label "FRQ"
in the diagram header (see also ​chapter 5.4, "Displayed Information and Errors",
on page 348).
If a positive frequency offset is entered, the tracking generator generates an output signal
above the receive frequency of the R&S ESR. In case of a negative frequency offset it
generates a signal below the receive frequency of the R&S ESR. The output frequency
of the tracking generator is calculated as follows:
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Tracking generator frequency = receive frequency + frequency offset.
Remote command:
​SOURce<n>:​FREQuency:​OFFSet​ on page 680
Result Frequency Start
For reference only: The start frequency for the generator, calculated from the configured
generator frequency and the start value defined for the analyzer.
Result Frequency Stop
For reference only: The stop frequency for the generator, calculated from the configured
generator frequency and the stop value defined for the analyzer.
Frequency Min.
For reference only: Lower frequency limit for the generator.
Frequency Max.
For reference only: Upper frequency limit for the generator.
Power Min.
For reference only: Lower power limit for the generator.
Power Max.
For reference only: Upper power limit for the generator.
5.3 Tracking Generator Functions
The following functions are available if the R&S ESR Tracking Generator (R&S FSV-B9)
is installed.
●
​chapter 5.3.1, "Calibration mechanism", on page 340
●
​chapter 5.3.2, "Calibrating for transmission and reflection measurement",
on page 341
●
​chapter 5.3.3, "Transmission measurement", on page 342
●
​chapter 5.3.4, "Reflection measurement", on page 342
●
​chapter 5.3.5, "Normalization", on page 343
●
​chapter 5.3.6, "Modulation (internal Tracking Generator only)", on page 346
5.3.1 Calibration mechanism
Calibration means calculating the difference between the currently measured power and
a reference curve, independent of the selected type of measurement (transmission/
reflection). The hardware settings used for measuring the reference curve are included
in the reference dataset.
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Even with normalization switched on, the instrument settings can be changed in a wide
area without stopping the normalization. This reduces the necessity to carry out a new
normalization to a minimum.
Therefore, the reference dataset (trace with n measured values, where n is the number
of ​Sweep Points) is stored internally as a table of n points (frequency/level).
Differences in level settings between the reference curve and the current instrument settings are taken into account automatically. If the span is reduced, a linear interpolation
of the intermediate values is applied. If the span increases, the values at the left or right
border of the reference dataset are extrapolated to the current start or stop frequency,
i.e. the reference dataset is extended by constant values.
An enhancement label is used to mark the different levels of measurement accuracy. This
enhancement label is displayed at the right diagram border if normalization is switched
on and a deviation from the reference setting occurs. Three accuracy levels are defined:
Table 5-1: Measurement accuracy levels
Accuracy
Enhancement label
Reason/Limitation
high
NOR
No difference between reference setting and measurement
medium
APX (approximation)
Change of the following settings:
coupling (RBW, VBW, SWT)
●
reference level, RF attenuation
●
start or stop frequency
●
output level of tracking generator
●
detector (max. peak, min. peak, sample, etc.)
●
change of frequency:
●
max. 691 points within the set sweep limits (corresponds to a
doubling of the span)
–
Aborted normalization
More than 500 extrapolated points within the current sweep limits
(in case of span doubling)
At a reference level of -10 dBm and at a tracking generator output level of the same value,
the R&S ESR operates without overrange reserve. That means the R&S ESR is in danger
of being overloaded if a signal is applied whose amplitude is higher than the reference
line. In this case, either the message "OVLD" for overload or "IFOVL" for exceeded display range (clipping of the trace at the upper diagram border = overrange) is displayed
in the status line.
Overloading can be avoided as follows:
●
Reducing the output level of the tracking generator ( ​"Source Config" on page 338
softkey in the Tracking Generator menu)
●
Increasing the reference level (​Ref Level softkey in the "Amplitude" menu)
5.3.2 Calibrating for transmission and reflection measurement
Prerequisite: The instrument is in tracking generator measurement mode.
1. To enter the generator output level, press the ​"Source Power" on page 335 softkey.
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2. To enter a constant level offset for the tracking generator, press the ​"Source Config" on page 338 softkey and enter a "Power Offset".
3. To open the submenu for calibration, press the ​"Source Cal" on page 335 softkey.
4. To record a reference trace for transmission measurement, press the ​"Calibrate
Transmission" on page 335 softkey.
The recording of the reference trace and the completion of the calibration sweep are
indicated by message bo XE s.
5. To record a reference trace for reflection measurement, press the ​"Calibrate Reflection Short" on page 335 or ​"Calibrate Reflection Open" on page 335 softkey.
The recording of the reference trace and the completion of the calibration sweep are
indicated by message bo XE s.
6. To switch on the normalization, press the ​"Normalize" on page 336 softkey.
7. To display the reference line, press the ​"Reference Value Position" on page 336
softkey.
8. To enter a value to shift the reference line, press the ​"Reference Value"
on page 336 softkey.
9. To restore the settings used for source calibration, press the ​"Recall" on page 336
softkey.
5.3.3 Transmission measurement
This measurement yields the transmission characteristics of a two-port network. The
internal or external tracking generator serves as a signal source. It is connected to the
input connector of the DUT. The input of the R&S ESR is fed from the output of the DUT.
A calibration can be carried out to compensate for the effects of the test setup (e.g. frequency response of connecting cables).
Fig. 5-1: Test setup for transmission measurement
5.3.4 Reflection measurement
Scalar reflection measurements can be carried out by means of a reflection-coefficient
measurement bridge.
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Fig. 5-2: Test setup for reflection measurement
5.3.5 Normalization
The "NORMALIZE" softkey switches normalization on or off. The softkey is only available
if the memory contains a correction trace.
You can shift the relative reference point within the grid using the ​"Reference Value
Position" on page 336 softkey. Thus, the trace can be shifted from the top grid margin to
the middle of the grid:
Fig. 5-3: Normalized display
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CORR ON, see ​[SENSe:​]CORRection[:​STATe]​ on page 678
Fig. 5-4: Normalized measurement, shifted with Reference Value Position= 50%
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:RPOS 10PCT, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y[:​
SCALe]:​RPOSition​ on page 612
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Fig. 5-5: Measurement with Reference Value: +10dB and Reference Value Position = 50%
After the reference line has been shifted by entering +10 dB as the ​"Reference Value"
on page 336, deviations from the nominal value can be displayed with high resolution
(e.g. 2 dB/Div.). The absolute measured values are still displayed; in the above example,
2 dB below nominal value (reference line) = 8 dB attenuation.
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Fig. 5-6: Measurement of a 10-dB attenuator pad with 2dB/Div
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:RVAL +10dB, see ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y[:​
SCALe]:​RVALue​ on page 666
5.3.6 Modulation (internal Tracking Generator only)
The time characteristics of the tracking generator output signal can be influenced by
means of external signals (input voltage range -1 V to +1 V).
Two BNC connectors at the rear panel are available as signal inputs. Their function
changes depending on the selected modulation:
●
TG IN I/AMand
●
TG IN Q/FM
The modulation modes can be combined with each other and with the frequency offset
function up to a certain degree. The following table shows which modulation modes are
possible at the same time and which ones can be combined with the frequency offset
function.
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Table 5-2: Simultaneous modes of modulation (tracking generator)
Modulation
Frequency offset
Frequency offset
EXT AM
●
EXT FM
●
EXT I/Q
●
EXT AM
EXT FM
EXT I/Q
●
●
●
●
●
● = can be combined
External AM
The ​"External AM" on page 337 softkey activates an AM modulation of the tracking generator output signal.
The modulation signal is applied to the TG IN I/AM connector. An input voltage of 1 V
corresponds to 100% amplitude modulation.
Switching on an external AM disables the active I/Q modulation.
External FM
The ​"External FM" on page 337 softkey activates the FM modulation of the tracking generator output signal.
The modulation frequency range is 1 kHz to 100 kHz, the deviation can be set in 1-decade
steps in the range of 100 Hz to 10 MHz at an input voltage of 1 V. The phase deviation
h should not exceed the value 100.
Phase deviation h = deviation/modulation frequency
The modulation signal is applied to the TG IN Q/FM connector.
Switching on an external FM disables the active I/Q modulation.
External IQ
The ​"External I/Q" on page 337 softkey activates the external I/Q modulation of the tracking generator.
The signals for modulation are applied to the two input connectors TG IN I and TG IN Q
at the rear panel of the unit. The input voltage range is ±1 V into 50 Ω.
Switching on an external I/Q modulation disables the active external AM or FM.
Functional description of the quadrature modulator:
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Fig. 5-7: I/Q modulation
I/Q modulation is performed by means of the built-in quadrature modulator. The RF signal
is divided into two orthogonal I and Q components (in phase and quadrature phase).
Amplitude and phase are controlled in each path by the I and Q modulation signal. By
adding the two components an RF output signal is generated that can be controlled in
amplitude and phase.
Remote command:
​SOURce<n>:​DM:​STATe​ on page 679
5.4 Displayed Information and Errors
Diagram header
In Tracking Generator measurement mode, some additional information is displayed in
the diagram header.
Label
Description
INT TG: <source power>
Internal tracking generator active
INT TG: <start power>… <stop power>
Internal tracking generator with power sweep active
EXT TG <1|2>: <source power>
External tracking generator (1 or 2) active
LVL
Power Offset (see ​chapter 5.2, "Configuring Tracking Generators", on page 338
FRQ
Frequency Offset (see ​chapter 5.2, "Configuring Tracking Generators", on page 338
Measurement accuracy levels
NOR
Normalization on;
No difference between reference setting and measurement
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Label
Description
APX (approximation)
Normalization on;
Deviation from the reference setting occurs
-
Aborted normalization
For details on measurement accuracy levels, see ​chapter 5.3.5, "Normalization",
on page 343.
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Manual Operation – Local Menu
6 System Configuration
6.1 Manual Operation – Local Menu
When switched on, the instrument is always in the manual measurement mode and can
be operated via the front panel. As soon as the instrument receives a remote command,
it is switched to the remote control mode.
In remote control mode, all keys of the instrument except the PRESET key are disabled,
see ​chapter 6.3, "Instrument Setup and Interface Configuration – SETUP Key",
on page 352. The "LOCAL" softkey and the ​Display Update (On/Off) softkey are displayed. Depending on the setting of the ​Display Update (On/Off) softkey, the diagrams,
traces and display fields are displayed or hidden. For further details on the ​Display Update
(On/Off) softkey refer to ​chapter 6.3, "Instrument Setup and Interface Configuration –
SETUP Key", on page 352.
For details on remote control refer to chapter 5 "Remote Control – Basics".
The change to manual operation consists of:
●
Enabling the Front Panel Keys
Returning to manual mode enables all inactive keys. The main softkey menu of the
current mode is displayed.
●
Displaying the measurement diagrams again.
The diagrams, traces and display fields are displayed again.
●
Generating the "OPERATION COMPLETE" message
If, at the time of pressing the "LOCAL" softkey, the synchronization mechanism via
*OPC, *OPC? or *WAI is active, the currently running measurement procedure is
aborted and synchronization is achieved by setting the corresponding bits in the registers of the status reporting system.
●
Setting Bit 6 (User Request) of the Event Status Register
With a corresponding configuration of the status reporting system, this bit immediately
causes the generation of a service request (SRQ) to inform the control software that
the user wishes to return to front panel control. For example this can be used to
interrupt the control program and to correct instrument settings manually. This bit is
set each time the "LOCAL" softkey is pressed.
To return to manual operation
► Press the "LOCAL" softkey.
The instrument switches from remote to manual operation, but only if the local lockout
function has not been activated in the remote control mode.
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User-Defined Menu – USER key
6.2 User-Defined Menu – USER key
The USER key displays a user-defined menu. The softkeys displayed here can be labelled and assigned to user-defined settings files as required.
To open the user-defined menu
► Press the USER key.
The "User" menu is displayed.
Softkeys of the User menu
The "User" menu contains 8 user-definable softkeys as well as a ​"User Preference Setup"
softkey that allows you to define them. Pressing one of the user-definable softkeys has
the same effect as the ​Save File / Recall File function for a pre-defined settings file. The
definitions for these softkeys remain unchanged even after a reset function and after
updating the firmware.
"User Preference Setup" softkey
Opens an "ApplicationManager" dialog to set up the user-defined softkeys.
For each user-definable softkey (1–8), you can define a key label and assign a settings
file that is to be loaded when the softkey is selected.
SCPI command:
​MMEMory:​USER<Softkey>​ on page 733
To define the key label
1. Click into the table entry for the corresponding softkey.
2. Enter a label for the softkey.
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3. Press ENTER.
To assign a settings file
1. Click into the table entry for the corresponding softkey.
2. In the file selection dialog, select a stored settings file to be recalled when the softkey
is selected.
3. Click "Select".
The selected file is displayed in the "ApplicationManager" dialog.
To store the softkey settings
► Click "Save" to store the user-defined softkey definitions.
6.3 Instrument Setup and Interface Configuration – SETUP
Key
The SETUP key is used to set or display the default settings of the instrument: reference
frequency, noise source, level correction values, date, time, LAN interface, firmware
update and enabling of options, information about instrument configuration and service
support functions. For further details refer also to the Quick Start Guide, chapter 2 "Preparing for Use".
To open the Setup menu
► Press the SETUP key.
The "Setup" menu is displayed.
Menu and softkey description
●
​chapter 6.3.1, "Softkeys of the Setup Menu", on page 352
Further information
●
​chapter 6.3.3, "LXI Class C Functionality", on page 376
Tasks
●
​chapter 6.3.2, "Activating or Deactivating the LXI Class C Functionality",
on page 375
6.3.1 Softkeys of the Setup Menu
The following table shows all softkeys available in the "Setup" menu. It is possible that
your instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is only available
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with a special option, model or (measurement) mode, this information is delivered in the
corresponding softkey description.
Reference Int/Ext........................................................................................................354
Handle missing Ext. Ref..............................................................................................355
└ Show Error Flag............................................................................................355
└ Auto select Reference...................................................................................355
Transducer..................................................................................................................355
└ Using transducer factors or transducer sets.................................................356
└ Defining characteristics of a transducer factor..............................................356
└ Managing transducer sets.............................................................................358
Alignment....................................................................................................................359
└ Self Alignment...............................................................................................359
└ Show Align Results.......................................................................................359
└ Touch Screen Alignment...............................................................................360
General Setup.............................................................................................................360
└ Configure Network........................................................................................360
└ Network Address...........................................................................................360
└ Computer Name.................................................................................360
└ IP Address..........................................................................................360
└ Subnet Mask.......................................................................................361
└ DHCP (On/Off)....................................................................................361
└ LXI.................................................................................................................361
└ Info......................................................................................................361
└ Password............................................................................................361
└ Description..........................................................................................361
└ LAN Reset..........................................................................................362
└ GPIB.............................................................................................................362
└ GPIB Address.....................................................................................362
└ ID String Factory.................................................................................362
└ ID String User.....................................................................................362
└ Compatibility Mode.............................................................................362
└ Mode Default............................................................................363
└ Mode R&S FSP........................................................................363
└ Mode R&S FSU........................................................................363
└ GPIB Language........................................................................363
└ IF Gain (Norm/Puls)..................................................................364
└ Sweep Repeat (On/Off)............................................................364
└ Coupling (FSx/HP)....................................................................364
└ REV String Factory...................................................................365
└ REV String User.......................................................................365
└ Display Update (On/Off).....................................................................365
└ GPIB Terminator LFEOI/EOI..............................................................365
└ *IDN Format Leg./New........................................................................365
└ I/O Logging (On/Off)...........................................................................366
└ Time+Date....................................................................................................366
└ Configure Monitor.........................................................................................366
└ Soft Frontpanel.............................................................................................366
Display Setup..............................................................................................................367
└ Tool Bar State (On/Off).................................................................................367
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└
└
└
└
└
└
└
Screen Title (On/Off).....................................................................................368
Time+Date (On/Off)......................................................................................368
Time+Date Format (US/DE).........................................................................368
Print Logo (On/Off)........................................................................................368
Annotation (On/Off).......................................................................................368
Theme Selection...........................................................................................368
Screen Colors...............................................................................................368
└ Select Screen Color Set.....................................................................369
└ Color (On/Off).....................................................................................369
└ Select Object......................................................................................369
└ Predefined Colors...............................................................................369
└ User Defined Colors...........................................................................369
└ Set to Default......................................................................................370
└ Print Colors...................................................................................................370
└ Select Print Color Set.........................................................................370
└ Color (On/Off).....................................................................................370
└ Display Pwr Save (On/Off)............................................................................371
System Info.................................................................................................................371
└ Hardware Info...............................................................................................371
└ Versions+Options.........................................................................................371
└ System Messages.........................................................................................372
└ Clear All Messages.......................................................................................372
Firmware Update.........................................................................................................372
Option Licenses..........................................................................................................372
└ Install Option.................................................................................................373
└ Install Option by XML....................................................................................373
Application Setup Recovery........................................................................................373
Preset Receiver...........................................................................................................373
Preset Spectrum.........................................................................................................373
Service........................................................................................................................374
└ Input Source..................................................................................................374
└ RF.......................................................................................................374
└ Calibration Frequency RF...................................................................374
└ Reset Password............................................................................................374
└ Selftest..........................................................................................................374
└ Selftest Results.............................................................................................375
└ Password......................................................................................................375
└ Service Function...........................................................................................375
Reference Int/Ext
Switches between the internal and external reference signal source. The default setting
is internal reference. It is important that the external reference signal is deactivated when
switching from external to internal reference to avoid interactions. When an external reference is used, "EXT REF" is displayed in the status bar.
If the reference signal is missing after switching to an external reference, the message
"NO REF" is displayed to indicate that no synchronization is performed.
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The R&S ESR can use the internal reference source or an external reference source as
frequency standard from which all internal oscillators are derived. A 10 MHz crystal oscillator is used as internal reference source. In the external reference setting, all internal
oscillators of the R&S ESR are synchronized to the external reference frequency, which
can be set from 1–20 MHz in 100 kHz steps. For details on connectors refer to the Quick
Start Guide, chapter 1 "Front and Rear Panel".
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]ROSCillator:​SOURce​ on page 696
Handle missing Ext. Ref
If an external reference is selected but none is available, there are different ways the
instrument can react. This command opens a submenu to select the preferred method
of handling a missing external reference. By default, an error flag is displayed in the status
bar of the display.
The submenu contains the following commands:
●
●
​"Show Error Flag" on page 355
​"Auto select Reference" on page 355
Show Error Flag ← Handle missing Ext. Ref
If this option is selected, an error flag is displayed in the status bar of the display when
an external reference is selected but none is available.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]ROSCillator:​SOURce​ on page 696
Auto select Reference ← Handle missing Ext. Ref
If this option is selected, the instrument automatically switches back to the internal reference if no external reference is available. Note that you must re-activate the external
reference if it becomes available again at a later time.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]ROSCillator:​SOURce​ on page 696
Transducer
Opens a dialog box that contains functionality to work with transducer factors or transducer sets.
Basically, the dialog box contains three elements.
●
A list of available transducer factors or transducer sets.
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●
●
The list shows the name of the transducer factor or set, its unit and its state.
A button to filter the transducer factors that are displayed in the list.
The filter is available for transducer factor selection.
A line that shows the comment of a transducer factor or set.
A comment is displayed only if one has been defined.
For more information on using transducer factors and sets see ​chapter 2.2.7, "Transducers", on page 38.
For more information on designing transducer factors and sets see
● ​"Defining characteristics of a transducer factor" on page 356
● ​"Managing transducer sets" on page 358
Using transducer factors or transducer sets ← Transducer
The "(Factor Set)" softkey selects if you want to use a transducer factor or set.
The label of the currently selected type of transducer is highlighted.
To actually include the transducer in the measurement, you first have to select one and
turn it on with the "Active (On Off)" softkey. When the transducer factor is active, all
amplitude settings and outputs take on the unit of the transducer factor. It will no longer
be possible to select another unit. An exception is in case the transducer has the unit dB.
The name of the active transducer is displayed in the channel bar. To indicate the progress of the measurement, the diagram area also contains a green vertical line with the
label "TF".
Note that you can turn on up to eight transducer factors at the same time. If you want to
use more transducer factors in the same measurement, you have to combine them in a
transducer set.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]CORRection:​TRANsducer:​SELect​ on page 713
​[SENSe:​]CORRection:​TRANsducer[:​STATe]​ on page 713
​[SENSe:​]CORRection:​TSET:​SELect​ on page 716
​[SENSe:​]CORRection:​TSET[:​STATe]​ on page 716
Defining characteristics of a transducer factor ← Transducer
Before you can define the characteristics of a transducer factor, make sure that you are
actually using a transducer factor (➙"(Factor Set)" softkey).
You can define the characteristics in several ways:
● Edit a transducer factor that already exists (➙"Edit" softkey).
● Create a new transducer factor (➙"New" softkey).
● Create a new transducer factor based on an existing one ➙("Copy To" softkey).
Each of the three options opens a dialog box that contains the functionality to characterize
a transducer factor.
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1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
Name and comment of the transducer factor (➙"Edit Name" softkey)
Unit of the transducer factor (➙"Edit Unit" softkey)
Linear or logarithmic scaling of the frequency axis (➙"Edit Name" softkey)
Table of data points and graphical preview of the transducer factor (➙"Edit Value" softkey)
Button to insert a data point in the table (➙"Insert Value" softkey)
Button to delete a data point from the table (➙"Delete Value" softkey)
Button to shift all data points of the transducer factor horizontally by a certain amount
Button to shift all data points of the transducer factor vertically by a certain amount
Button to save and store the transducer factor on the internal hard disk of the R&S ESR (➙"Save Factor"
softkey)
Note that there are softkeys for several elements of the dialog box as mentioned in the
legend above.
A transducer factor may consist of up to 625 data points. Each data point is a pair of
values: the first value describes the frequency, the second value describes the level for
that frequency.
Frequencies have to be entered in ascending order and may not overlap.
When you save the transducer factor, the R&S ESR uses the name of the transducer
factor as the file name. The file type is *.tdf. If a transducer factor of the same name
already exists, the R&S ESR will ask before it overwrites the existing file.
The transducer factors and sets are stored in separate but fix directories on the internal
memory of the R&S ESR. You can create subdirectories for a more concise file structure
and display their contents with the "Show Directories" softkey (you have to select the
directory first, though).
It is possible to delete a transducer factor at any time, if you do not need it anymore (➙
"Delete" softkey).
Dynamic range with active transducers
The shift of the trace caused by the transducer factor by a certain amount deteriorates
the dynamic range of the measurement results.
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To restore the original dynamic range, you have to compensate for the transducer factor.
You can do this by adjusting the reference level accordingly. If you turn on the automatic
adjustment of the reference level (➙"Ref Level Adjust (Man Auto)" softkey), the R&S ESR
restores the original dynamic range as best as possible by chagning the reference level
by the maximum level shift defined in the active transducer factor.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]CORRection:​TRANsducer:​SELect​ on page 713
​[SENSe:​]CORRection:​TRANsducer:​COMMent​ on page 712
​[SENSe:​]CORRection:​TRANsducer:​UNIT​ on page 714
​[SENSe:​]CORRection:​TRANsducer:​SCALing​ on page 713
​[SENSe:​]CORRection:​TRANsducer:​DATA​ on page 712
​[SENSe:​]CORRection:​TRANsducer:​DELete​ on page 713
​[SENSe:​]CORRection:​TRANsducer:​ADJust:​RLEVel[:​STATe]​ on page 711
Managing transducer sets ← Transducer
Before you can define the contents of a transducer set, make sure that you are actually
using a transducer set (➙"(Factor Set)" softkey).
You can define the contents in several ways:
● Edit a transducer set that already exists (➙"Edit" softkey).
● Create a new transducer set (➙"New" softkey).
● Create a new transducer set based on an existing one (➙"Copy To" softkey).
Each of the three options opens a dialog box that contains the functionality to define a
transducer set.
1
2
3
4
5
6
=
=
=
=
=
=
Name and comment of the transducer set
Unit of the transducer set
Button to turn the transducer break on and off
Table of transducer set ranges and corresponding frequencies and transducer factors
Start and stop frequency of the currently selected range
List of transducer ranges
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For more information on using and designing transducer sets see ​"Transducer sets"
on page 38.
Opening the dialog box also opens an additional softkey menu that contains functionality
that you need to design a transducer set.
This softkey menu provides the function to
●
●
●
●
●
●
insert ranges up to a maximum of 10 (➙"Insert Range" softkey)
delete ranges that already exist (➙"Delete Range" softkey)
add up to eight transducer factors to a range (➙"Add Factor" softkey)
replace a transducer factor that has been assigned with another one (➙"Change
Factor)" softkey)
remove a transducer factor from the transducer set (➙"Remove Factor" softkey)
save the contents of the transducer set (➙"Save Set" softkey)
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]CORRection:​TSET:​SELect​ on page 716
​[SENSe:​]CORRection:​TSET:​COMMent​ on page 715
​[SENSe:​]CORRection:​TSET:​UNIT​ on page 716
​[SENSe:​]CORRection:​TSET:​BREak​ on page 714
​[SENSe:​]CORRection:​TSET:​RANGe<range>​ on page 715
​[SENSe:​]CORRection:​TSET:​DELete​ on page 715
Alignment
Opens a submenu with the available functions for recording, displaying and activating
the data for self alignment.
The correction data and characteristics required for the alignment are determined by
comparison of the results at different settings with the known characteristics of the highprecision calibration signal source at 65.83 MHz. The correction data are stored as a file
on flash disk and can be displayed using the ​"Show Align Results" on page 359 softkey.
The submenu contains the following commands:
●
●
●
​"Self Alignment" on page 359
​"Show Align Results" on page 359
​"Touch Screen Alignment" on page 360
Self Alignment ← Alignment
Starts the recording of correction data of the instrument. If the correction data acquisition
has failed or if the correction values are deactivated, a corresponding message is displayed in the status field.
As long as the self alignment data is collected the procedure can be cancelled using the
"Abort" button.
Remote command:
​*CAL?​ on page 683
Show Align Results ← Alignment
Opens a dialog box that displays the correction data of the alignment:
●
●
●
date and time of last correction data record
overall results of correction data record
list of found correction values according to function/module
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The results are classified as follows:
PASSED
calibration successful without any restrictions
CHECK
deviation of correction value larger than expected, correction could however be performed
FAILED
deviations of correction value too large, no correction was possible. The found correction data are not applicable.
Remote command:
​CALibration:​RESult?​ on page 698
Touch Screen Alignment ← Alignment
Displays a touch screen alignment dialog.
When the device is delivered, the touch screen is initially aligned. However, it may
become necessary to adjust the alignment later, e.g. after an image update or after
exchanging a hard disk. If you notice that touching a specific point on the screen does
not achieve the correct response, you may try adjusting the alignment, as well. .
Using a finger or any other pointing device, press the 4 markers on the screen.
The touch screen is aligned according to the executed pointing operations.
General Setup
Opens a submenu for all general settings such as IP address and LAN settings, date and
time, remote control (optional) and measurement display.
Configure Network ← General Setup
Opens the "Network Connections" dialog box to change the LAN settings. For details
refer to the Quick Start Guide, chapter 2 "Preparing for Use" and appendix B "LAN Interface".
Network Address ← General Setup
Opens a submenu to configure the internet protocol properties and the computer name.
Computer Name ← Network Address ← General Setup
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the computer name via the keypad. The naming conventions of Windows apply. If too many characters and/or numbers are entered, in the
status line, an according message is displayed. For step-by-step instructions refer to the
Quick Start Guide, appendix B "LAN Interface".
IP Address ← Network Address ← General Setup
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the IP address via the keypad. The TCP/IP protocol is
preinstalled with the IP address 10.0.0.10. If the DHCP server is available ("DHCP On"),
the dialog box entry is read-only.
The IP address consists of four number blocks separated by dots. Each block contains
3 numbers in maximum (e.g. 100.100.100.100), but also one or two numbers are allowed
in a block (as an example see the preinstalled address). For step-by-step instructions
refer to the Quick Start Guide, chapter 2 "Preparing for Use".
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Subnet Mask ← Network Address ← General Setup
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the subnet mask via the keypad. The TCP/IP protocol
is preinstalled with the subnet mask 255.255.255.0. If the DHCP server is available
("DHCP On"), the dialog box entry is read-only.
The subnet mask consists of four number blocks separated by dots. Each block contains
3 numbers in maximum (e.g. 100.100.100.100), but also one or two numbers are allowed
in a block (as an example see the preinstalled address). For step-by-step instructions
refer to the Quick Start Guide, chapter 2 "Preparing for Use".
DHCP (On/Off) ← Network Address ← General Setup
Switches between DHCP server available (On) or not available (Off). If a DHCP server
is available in the network, the IP address and subnet mask of the instrument are obtained
automatically from the DHCP server. For further details refer to the Quick Start Guide,
chapter 2 "Preparing for Use".
LXI ← General Setup
Opens the LXI submenu containing the following softkeys:
●
●
●
●
​"Info" on page 361
​"Password" on page 361
​"Description" on page 361
​"LAN Reset" on page 362
LXI functionality is available only for user accounts with administrator rights.
Info ← LXI ← General Setup
Shows the current parameters of LXI class C, including the current version, class and
various computer parameters like the computer name or IP address.
While active, the dialog is not updated.
LXI functionality is available only for user accounts with administrator rights.
Remote command:
​SYSTem:​LXI:​INFo?​ on page 735
Password ← LXI ← General Setup
Shows the currently set password. You can also change the current password using this
softkey.
The password is required to change settings via the web browser (e.g. IP parameter). An
empty password is not valid, i.e. you must enter a password.
By default, the password is LxiWebIfc.
LXI functionality is available only for user accounts with administrator rights.
Remote command:
​SYSTem:​LXI:​PASSword​ on page 736
Description ← LXI ← General Setup
Opens a dialog box to view or change the LXI instrument description. This description is
used on some of the LXI web sites.
By default, the description is "Signal Analyzer".
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LXI functionality is available only for user accounts with administrator rights.
Remote command:
​SYSTem:​LXI:​MDEScription​ on page 736
LAN Reset ← LXI ← General Setup
Resets the LAN configuration to a state required by the LXI standard. For example, the
TCP/IP mode is set to DHCP and Dynamic DNS and ICMP Ping are enabled. In addition,
the R&S ESR sets the password and the instrument description to their initial states (see
​"Password" on page 361 and ​"Description" on page 361 softkeys).
Only user accounts with administrator rights can reset the LAN configuration.
Remote command:
​SYSTem:​LXI:​LANReset​ on page 736
GPIB ← General Setup
Opens a submenu to set the parameters of the remote control interface.
GPIB Address ← GPIB ← General Setup
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the GPIB address. Values from 0 to 30 are allowed.
The default address is 20.
Remote command:
​SYSTem:​COMMunicate:​GPIB[:​SELF]:​ADDRess​ on page 735
ID String Factory ← GPIB ← General Setup
Selects the default response to the *IDN? query.
Remote command:
​SYSTem:​IDENtify:​FACTory​ on page 692
ID String User ← GPIB ← General Setup
Opens an edit dialog box to enter a user-defined response to the *IDN? query. Max. 36
characters are allowed.
Remote command:
​SYSTem:​IDENtify[:​STRing]​ on page 692
Compatibility Mode ← GPIB ← General Setup
Sets the R&S ESR in a state compatible to previous R&S devices, enabling the usage of
existing external control applications. In particular, the number of measurement points
and available bandwidths are adjusted to those of other devices.
Furthermore, some special GPIB settings are available in order to emulate HP models
(see ​chapter 8.16, "GPIB Commands of HP Models 856xE, 8566A/B, 8568A/B and
8594E", on page 784):
●
●
●
●
​"GPIB Language" on page 363
​"IF Gain (Norm/Puls)" on page 364
​"Sweep Repeat (On/Off)" on page 364
​"Coupling (FSx/HP)" on page 364
"Default"
Standard R&S ESR operation, see ​"Mode Default" on page 363
"R&S FSP"
Compatible to R&S FSP, see ​"Mode R&S FSP" on page 363
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"R&S FSU"
Compatible to R&S FSU, see ​"Mode R&S FSU" on page 363
Remote command:
​SYSTem:​COMPatible​ on page 687
Mode Default ← Compatibility Mode ← GPIB ← General Setup
Resets the number of measurement points and available bandwidths to default R&S ESR
values.
Remote command:
SYST:COMP DEF, see ​SYSTem:​COMPatible​ on page 687
Mode R&S FSP ← Compatibility Mode ← GPIB ← General Setup
Sets the number of measurement points and available bandwidths as in R&S FSP devices.
Remote command:
SYST:COMP FSP, see ​SYSTem:​COMPatible​ on page 687
Mode R&S FSU ← Compatibility Mode ← GPIB ← General Setup
Sets the number of measurement points and available bandwidths as in R&S FSU devices.
Remote command:
SYST:COMP FSU, see ​SYSTem:​COMPatible​ on page 687
GPIB Language ← Compatibility Mode ← GPIB ← General Setup
Opens a list of selectable remote-control languages:
Language
Comment
SCPI
71100C
Compatible to 8566A/B
71200C
Compatible to 8566A/B
71209A
Compatible to 8566A/B
8560E
8561E
8562E
8563E
8564E
8565E
8566A
Command sets A and B are available. Command sets A and B differ in the rules
regarding the command structure.
8566B
8568A
Command sets A and B are available. Command sets A and B differ in the rules
regarding the command structure.
8568A_DC
Uses DC input coupling by default if supported by the instrument
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Language
Comment
8568B
Command sets A and B are available. Command sets A and B differ in the rules
regarding the command structure.
8568B_DC
Uses DC input coupling by default if supported by the instrument
8591E
Compatible to 8594E
8594E
Command sets A and B are available. Command sets A and B differ in the rules
regarding the command structure.
For details on the GPIB languages, see ​chapter 8.16, "GPIB Commands of HP Models
856xE, 8566A/B, 8568A/B and 8594E", on page 784.
Remote command:
​SYSTem:​LANGuage​ on page 738
IF Gain (Norm/Puls) ← Compatibility Mode ← GPIB ← General Setup
Configures the internal IF gain settings in HP emulation mode due to the application
needs. This setting is only taken into account for resolution bandwidth < 300 kHz.
NORM
Optimized for high dynamic range, overload limit is close to reference level.
PULS
Optimized for pulsed signals, overload limit up to 10 dB above reference level.
This softkey is only available if a HP language is selected via the "GPIB Language" softkey (see ​"GPIB Language" on page 363).
Remote command:
​SYSTem:​IFGain:​MODE​ on page 738
Sweep Repeat (On/Off) ← Compatibility Mode ← GPIB ← General Setup
Controls a repeated sweep of the E1 and MKPK HI HP model commands (for details on
the commands refer to ​"GPIB Language" on page 363). If the repeated sweep is OFF,
the marker is set without sweeping before.
Note: In single sweep mode, switch off this softkey before you set the marker via the E1
and MKPK HI commands in order to avoid sweeping again.
This softkey is only available if a HP language is selected via the "GPIB Language" softkey (see ​"GPIB Language" on page 363).
Remote command:
​SYSTem:​RSW​ on page 737
Coupling (FSx/HP) ← Compatibility Mode ← GPIB ← General Setup
Controls the default coupling ratios in the HP emulation mode for:
●
●
span and resolution bandwidth (Span/RBW) and
resolution bandwidth and video bandwidth (RBW/VBW)
For FSP(=FSV), the standard parameter coupling of the instrument is used. As a result,
in most cases a shorter sweeptime is used than in case of HP.
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This softkey is only available if a HP language is selected via the "GPIB Language" softkey (see ​"GPIB Language" on page 363).
Remote command:
​SYSTem:​HPCoupling​ on page 738
REV String Factory ← Compatibility Mode ← GPIB ← General Setup
Selects the default response to the REV? query for the revision number (HP emulation
only, see ​chapter 8.16, "GPIB Commands of HP Models 856xE, 8566A/B, 8568A/B and
8594E", on page 784).
Remote command:
​SYSTem:​REVision:​FACTory​ on page 736
REV String User ← Compatibility Mode ← GPIB ← General Setup
Opens an edit dialog box to enter a user-defined revision number in response to the
REV? query (HP emulation only, see ​chapter 8.16, "GPIB Commands of HP Models
856xE, 8566A/B, 8568A/B and 8594E", on page 784). Max. 36 characters are allowed.
Remote command:
​SYSTem:​REVision[:​STRing]​ on page 737
Display Update (On/Off) ← GPIB ← General Setup
Defines whether the instrument display is switched off when changing from manual operation to remote control. In remote control mode, this softkey is displayed in the local menu.
Remote command:
​SYSTem:​DISPlay:​UPDate​ on page 688
GPIB Terminator LFEOI/EOI ← GPIB ← General Setup
Changes the GPIB receive terminator.
According to the standard, the terminator in ASCII is <LF> and/or <EOI>. For binary data
transfers (e.g. trace data) from the control computer to the instrument, the binary code
used for <LF> might be included in the binary data block, and therefore should not be
interpreted as a terminator in this particular case. This can be avoided by changing the
receive terminator to EOI.
Remote command:
​SYSTem:​COMMunicate:​GPIB[:​SELF]:​RTERminator​ on page 735
*IDN Format Leg./New ← GPIB ← General Setup
Defines the response format to the *IDN? remote command (see ​*IDN?​ on page 683).
This function is intended for re-use of existing control programs together with the
R&S ESR.
"Leg"
Legacy format, compatible to the R&S FSP/FSU/FSQ family
e.g. Rohde&Schwarz,FSV-7,100005/007,1.61
"New"
R&S ESR format
e.g. Rohde&Schwarz,FSV-7,1307.9002K07/100005,1.61
Remote command:
​SYSTem:​FORMat:​IDENt​ on page 688
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I/O Logging (On/Off) ← GPIB ← General Setup
Activates or deactivates the SCPI log function. All remote control commands received by
the R&S ESR are recorded in the following log file:
C:\R_S\Instr\scpilogging\ScpiLog.txt
Logging the commands may be extremely useful for debug purposes, e.g. in order to find
misspelled keywords in control programs.
Remote command:
​SYSTem:​CLOGging​ on page 687
Time+Date ← General Setup
Opens an edit dialog box to enter time and date for the internal real time clock. For details
refer to the Quick Start Guide, chapter 2 "Preparing for Use".
Remote command:
​SYSTem:​TIME​ on page 689
​SYSTem:​DATE​ on page 691
Configure Monitor ← General Setup
Determines and displays the configuration of a connected external monitor, if available.
In the configuration dialog box, you can switch from the internal monitor (laptop icon) to
the external monitor (monitor icon), or both (double monitor icon). For external, the
R&S ESR display is disabled (turns dark). The screen content formerly displayed on the
R&S ESR is displayed on the external screen.
For further details refer to the Quick Start Guide, chapter 2 "Preparing for Use".
Soft Frontpanel ← General Setup
Activates or deactivates the display of the instrument emulation.
deactivated
Only the measurement screen is displayed. This is the setting for working at the
R&S ESR.
activated
In addition to the measurement screen, the whole front panel is displayed, i.e. the
hardkeys and other hardware controls of the device are simulated on the screen. This
is the setting for working at a computer with XP Remote Desktop or at an external
monitor.
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Fig. 6-1: Soft Frontpanel
Alternatively to this softkey, you can use the F6 key.
Remote command:
​SYSTem:​DISPlay:​FPANel​ on page 690
Display Setup
Opens a submenu to define the display settings.
The following display settings are available:
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
​"Tool Bar State (On/Off)" on page 367
​"Screen Title (On/Off)" on page 368
​"Time+Date (On/Off)" on page 368
​"Time+Date Format (US/DE)" on page 368
​"Print Logo (On/Off)" on page 368
​"Annotation (On/Off)" on page 368
​"Theme Selection" on page 368
​"Screen Colors" on page 368
​"Print Colors" on page 370
​"Display Pwr Save (On/Off)" on page 371
Tool Bar State (On/Off) ← Display Setup
Displays or removes the tool bar above the diagram for standard file functions.
Remote command:
​DISPlay:​TBAR[STATe]​ on page 728
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Screen Title (On/Off) ← Display Setup
Activates/deactivates the display of a diagram title (if available) and opens an edit dialog
box to enter a new title for the active diagram. Max. 20 characters are allowed.
Remote command:
​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TEXT[:​DATA]​ on page 730
​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TIME​ on page 730
Time+Date (On/Off) ← Display Setup
Activates/deactivates the display of date and time beneath the diagram.
Remote command:
​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TIME​ on page 730
Time+Date Format (US/DE) ← Display Setup
Switches the time and date display on the screen between US and German (DE).
Remote command:
​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TIME:​FORMat​ on page 730
Print Logo (On/Off) ← Display Setup
Activates/deactivates the display of the Rohde & Schwarz company logo in the upper left
corner.
Remote command:
​DISPlay:​LOGO​ on page 727
Annotation (On/Off) ← Display Setup
Activates/deactivates the display of the frequency information in the diagram footer. For
example to protect confidential data it can be useful to hide the frequency information.
Remote command:
​DISPlay:​ANNotation:​FREQuency​ on page 726
Theme Selection ← Display Setup
Opens a selection list of available themes for the screen display. The theme defines the
colors used for keys and screen elements, for example. The default theme is "BlueOcean".
Remote command:
​DISPlay:​THEMe:​SELect​ on page 729
Screen Colors ← Display Setup
Opens a submenu to configure the screen colors. For details on screen colors refer to
the Quick Start Guide, chapter 2 "Preparing for Use".
The submenu contains the following commands:
●
●
●
●
●
​"Select Screen Color Set" on page 369
​"Color (On/Off)" on page 369
​"Select Object" on page 369
​"Predefined Colors" on page 369
​"User Defined Colors" on page 369
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●
​"Set to Default" on page 370
Remote command:
​DISPlay:​CMAP<item>:​HSL​ on page 726
Select Screen Color Set ← Screen Colors ← Display Setup
Opens the "Select Screen Color Set" dialog box to select default or user defined color
settings.
If one of the default settings is selected ("Default Colors 1"/"2"), the default settings for
brightness, color tint and color saturation for all display screen elements are restored.
The default color schemes provide optimum visibility of all picture elements at an angle
of vision from above or below. Default setting is "Default Colors 1".
If "User Defined Colors" is selected, a user-defined color set can be defined. For stepby-step instruction refer to the Quick Start Guide, chapter 2 "Preparing for Use".
Remote command:
​DISPlay:​CMAP<item>:​DEFault​ on page 726
Color (On/Off) ← Screen Colors ← Display Setup
Switches from color display to black-and-white display and back. The default setting is
color display.
Select Object ← Screen Colors ← Display Setup
Opens the "Color Setup" dialog box to select the color settings for a selected object.
The "Selected Object" list is displayed to select the object. For setting the color the predefined colors are displayed.
Remote command:
​DISPlay:​CMAP<item>:​HSL​ on page 726
​HCOPy:​CMAP<item>:​HSL​ on page 719
Predefined Colors ← Screen Colors ← Display Setup
In the "Color Setup" dialog box, displays the "Predefined Colors" (alternatively to the
"Predefined Colors" button). This softkey is only available if, in the "Select Color Set"
dialog box, the "User Defined Colors" option is selected or the "Color Setup" dialog box
is displayed. For further details refer to the Quick Start Guide, chapter 2 "Preparing for
Use".
Remote command:
​DISPlay:​CMAP<item>:​PDEFined​ on page 727
​HCOPy:​CMAP<item>:​PDEFined​ on page 720
User Defined Colors ← Screen Colors ← Display Setup
In the "Color Setup" dialog box, displays the "User Defined Colors" (alternatively to the
"User Defined Colors" button). This softkey is only available if, in the "Select Color Set"
dialog box, the "User Defined Colors" option is selected or the "Color Setup" dialog box
is displayed. For further details refer to the Quick Start Guide, chapter 2 "Preparing for
Use".
Remote command:
​DISPlay:​CMAP<item>:​HSL​ on page 726
​HCOPy:​CMAP<item>:​HSL​ on page 719
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Set to Default ← Screen Colors ← Display Setup
Opens the "Set to Default" dialog box to select one of the factory default color settings.
Remote command:
​DISPlay:​CMAP<item>:​DEFault​ on page 726
​HCOPy:​CMAP<item>:​DEFault​ on page 719
Print Colors ← Display Setup
Opens a submenu to select the colors for the printout. To facilitate color selection, the
selected color combination is displayed when the menu is entered. The previous colors
are restored when the menu is exited. For details on screen colors refer to the Quick Start
Guide, chapter 2 "Preparing for Use".
The submenu contains the following commands:
●
●
●
●
●
●
​"Select Print Color Set" on page 370
​"Color (On/Off)" on page 370
​"Select Object" on page 393
​"Predefined Colors" on page 393
​"User Defined Colors" on page 393
​"Set to Default" on page 393
Remote command:
​HCOPy:​CMAP<item>:​HSL​ on page 719
Select Print Color Set ← Print Colors ← Display Setup
Opens the "Select Print Color Set" dialog box to select the color settings for printout.
Screen Colors (Print)
Selects the current screen colors for the printout. The background is
always printed in white and the grid in black.
Screen Colors (Hardcopy)
Selects the current screen colors without any changes for a hardcopy.
The output format is set via the ​"Device Setup" on page 392 softkey
in the "Print" menu.
Optimized Colors
Selects an optimized color setting for the printout to improve the visibility of the colors (default setting). Trace 1 is blue, trace 2 black, trace
3 green, and the markers are turquoise. The background is always
printed in white and the grid in black.
User Defined Colors
Enables the softkeys to define colors for the printout.
Remote command:
​HCOPy:​CMAP<item>:​DEFault​ on page 719
Color (On/Off) ← Print Colors ← Display Setup
Switches from color printout to black-and-white printout and back. All colored areas are
printed in white and all colored lines in black. This improves the contrast. The default
setting is color printout, provided that the selected printer can produce color printouts.
Remote command:
​HCOPy:​DEVice:​COLor​ on page 721
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Display Pwr Save (On/Off) ← Display Setup
Switches the power-save mode for the display (On/Off) and opens an edit dialog box to
enter the time for the power-save function to respond. After the elapse of this time the
display is completely switched off, i.e. including backlighting. This mode is recommended
when the instrument is exclusively operated in remote control.
For details on the power-save mode for the display refer to the Quick Start Guide, chapter
2 "Preparing for Use".
Remote command:
​DISPlay:​PSAVe[:​STATe]​ on page 728
​DISPlay:​PSAVe:​HOLDoff​ on page 727
System Info
Opens a submenu to display detailed information on module data, device statistics and
system messages.
The submenu contains the following commands:
●
●
●
●
​"Hardware Info" on page 371
​"Versions+Options" on page 371
​"System Messages" on page 372
​"Clear All Messages" on page 372
Hardware Info ← System Info
Opens a dialog box that displays hardware information, e.g. on the frontend and motherboard. Every listed component is described by its serial number, order number, model
information, hardware code, and hardware revision.
Remote command:
​DIAGnostic<n>:​SERVice:​HWINfo?​ on page 691
Versions+Options ← System Info
Opens a dialog box that displays a list of hardware and firmware information, including:
Label
Description
Device ID
Unique ID of the device
Instrument Firmware
Installed firmware version
BIOS
Installed BIOS version
CPLD
CPLD version
MB-FPGA
Motherboard FPGA version
Data Sheet Version
Data sheet version of the basic device
<option>
Installed hardware and firmware options
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For details on options refer to the Quick Start Guide, chapter 2 "Checking the Supplied
Items".
Remote command:
​*IDN?​ on page 683
​*OPT?​ on page 684
​SYSTem:​DEVice:​ID?/SYSTem:​DID?​ on page 690
System Messages ← System Info
Opens the "System Messages" dialog box that displays the generated system messages
in the order of their occurrence. The most recent messages are placed at the top of the
list. Messages that have occurred since the last display of system messages menu are
marked with an asterisk '*'. The following information is available:
No
device-specific error code
Message
brief description of the message
Component
hardware messages: name of the affected module
software messages: name of the affected software
Date/Time
date and time of the occurrence of the message
If the number of error messages exceeds the capacity of the error buffer, "Message buffer
overflow" is displayed. To delete messages see ​"Clear All Messages" on page 372 softkey.
Remote command:
​SYSTem:​ERRor:​LIST?​ on page 693
Clear All Messages ← System Info
Deletes all system messages. The softkey is only available if the "System Messages"
dialog box is displayed.
Remote command:
​SYSTem:​ERRor:​CLEar:​ALL​ on page 693
Firmware Update
Opens the "Firmware Update" dialog box.
Enter the name of or browse for the firmware installation file and press the "Execute"
button. For details on installation refer to the Quick Start Guide, chapter 3 "Firmware
Update and Installation of Firmware Options".
Only user accounts with administrator rights can perform a firmware update.
Remote command:
​SYSTem:​FIRMware:​UPDate​ on page 688
Option Licenses
Opens a submenu to install options. For details on options refer to the Quick Start Guide,
chapter 3 "Firmware Update and Installation of Firmware Options".
The submenu contains the following commands:
●
​"Install Option" on page 373
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​"Install Option by XML" on page 373
Only user accounts with administrator rights are able to install options.
Install Option ← Option Licenses
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the license key for the option that you want to install.
If an option is about to expire, a message box is displayed to inform you. You can then
use this softkey to enter a new license key.
If an option has already expired, a message box appears for you to confirm. In this case,
all instrument functions are unavailable (including remote control) until the R&S ESR is
rebooted. You must then use the "Install Option" softkey to enter the new license key.
For more information about the option in question refer to the ​System Info softkey in the
"Setup" menu.
Only user accounts with administrator rights are able to install options.
Install Option by XML ← Option Licenses
Opens an edit dialog to install an additional option to the R&S ESR using an XML file.
Enter or browse for the name of an XML file on the instrument that contains the option
key and press "Select".
Only user accounts with administrator rights are able to install options.
Application Setup Recovery
Controls instrument behavior when switching between measurement applications, e.g.
from "Spectrum" to "Analog Demod" and back.
If this softkey is activated, the current instrument settings are stored when you switch to
a different application. When you switch back to the previous application, the corresponding instrument settings are restored. Thus, the settings of the individual applications
are independant of each other.
If the softkey is deactivated (default), only a few parameters of the current instrument
setting are passed between applications (e.g. center frequency, level settings).
Note that this setting is not deactivated during a preset operation, i.e. you must deactivate
it manually, if necessary.
Remote command:
​SYSTem:​APPLication:​SRECovery[:​STATe]​ on page 687
Preset Receiver
Selects the default settings defined for the Receiver mode to be restored when you perform an instrument preset.
Remote command:
​SYSTem:​PRESet:​COMPatible​ on page 689
Preset Spectrum
Selects the default settings defined for the Spectrum mode to be restored when you
perform an instrument preset.
Remote command:
​SYSTem:​PRESet:​COMPatible​ on page 689
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Service
Opens a submenu that contains additional functions for maintenance and/or troubleshooting.
NOTICE! Risk of incorrect operation due to Service functions. The service functions are
not necessary for normal measurement operation. However, incorrect use can affect
correct operation and/or data integrity of the R&S ESR.
Therefore, many of the functions can only be used after entering a password. They are
described in the instrument service manual.
The submenu contains the following commands:
●
●
●
●
●
●
​"Input Source" on page 374
​"Reset Password" on page 374
​"Selftest" on page 374
​"Selftest Results" on page 375
​"Password" on page 375
​"Service Function" on page 375
Only user accounts with administrator rights are able to use service functions.
Input Source ← Service
Opens a submenu to select the input source for measurement.
The submenu contains the following options:
●
●
​"RF" on page 374
​"Calibration Frequency RF" on page 374
RF ← Input Source ← Service
Switches the input of the R&S ESR to the RF input connector (normal position). This is
the default setting.
Remote command:
​DIAGnostic<n>:​SERVice:​INPut[:​SELect]​ on page 699
Calibration Frequency RF ← Input Source ← Service
Opens an edit dialog box to set the generator frequency for the internal calibration.
Remote command:
​DIAGnostic<n>:​SERVice:​INPut:​PULSed:​CFRequency​ on page 698
Reset Password ← Service
Deactivates all set passwords.
Remote command:
​SYSTem:​PASSword:​RESet​ on page 701
Selftest ← Service
Initiates the self test of the instrument modules to identify a defective module in case of
failure. All modules are checked consecutively and the test result is displayed.
Remote command:
​*TST?​ on page 686
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Selftest Results ← Service
Opens the "Selftest Result" dialog box that contains the test results. In case of failure a
short description of the failed test, the defective module, the associated value range and
the corresponding test results are indicated.
Remote command:
​DIAGnostic<n>:​SERVice:​STESt:​RESult?​ on page 699
Password ← Service
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the password. This ensures that the service functions
are only used by authorized personnel.
Remote command:
​SYSTem:​PASSword[:​CENable]​ on page 701
Service Function ← Service
Opens the "Service Function" dialog box to start special service functions. For further
information refer to the service manual.
Remote command:
​DIAGnostic<n>:​SERVice:​SFUNction​ on page 700
6.3.2 Activating or Deactivating the LXI Class C Functionality
1. In the Windows XP "Start" menu, select the "LXI" entry and press the ENTER key.
An LXI configuration dialog box is displayed.
2. Press the "Rescan" button.
3. Press the "Save" button.
The instrument reboots and after the reboot LXI is active.
4. To deactivate the LXI Class C functionality perform step 1 and 2 again.
An LXI configuration dialog box is displayed.
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5. Press the "Turn LXI Off" button.
6.3.3 LXI Class C Functionality
If the LXI Class C functionality is installed and enabled (default state is off; see ​chapter 6.3.1, "Softkeys of the Setup Menu", on page 352), the instrument can be accessed
via any web browser (e.g. the Microsoft Internet Explorer) to perform the following tasks:
●
modifying network configurations
●
modifying device configurations
●
monitoring connections from the device to other devices
To change settings, in the web browser, open the "http://<instrument-hostname>" or
"http://<instrument-ip-address>" page. The password to change LAN configurations is
LxiWeb.
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7 Data Management
7.1 Saving and Recalling Settings Files – SAVE/RCL Key
The SAVE/RCL key is used to store and load instrument settings and measurement
results, and to manage stored files.
The "Save/Recall" menu includes functions for storing instrument settings such as instrument configurations (measurement/display settings, etc) and measurement results on
permanent storage media, or to load stored data back onto the instrument. The data is
stored on the internal flash disk or, if selected, on a memory stick or network drive.
Functions for management of storage media include functions for listing, copying, deleting and renaming files.
To open the Save/Recall menu
► Press the SAVE/RCL key.
The "Save/Recall" menu is displayed.
Menu and softkey description
●
​chapter 7.1.1, "Softkeys of the SAVE/RCL Menu", on page 377
Further information
●
​chapter 7.1.2, "File Selection Dialog Boxes", on page 383
●
​chapter 7.1.3, "Importing and Exporting I/Q Data", on page 386
7.1.1 Softkeys of the SAVE/RCL Menu
The following table shows all softkeys available in the "Save/Recall" menu.
Save............................................................................................................................378
└ Save File / Recall File...................................................................................378
└ Select Path....................................................................................................378
└ Select File.....................................................................................................379
└ Edit File Name..............................................................................................379
└ Edit Comment...............................................................................................379
└ Select Items..................................................................................................379
└ Select Items........................................................................................379
└ Enable all Items..................................................................................379
└ Disable all Items.................................................................................379
└ Delete File.....................................................................................................379
Recall..........................................................................................................................379
Startup Recall..............................................................................................................380
└ Startup Recall (On/Off).................................................................................380
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└ Select Dataset...............................................................................................380
ScreenShot.................................................................................................................380
Export..........................................................................................................................380
└ ASCII Trace Export.......................................................................................380
└ Decim Sep....................................................................................................381
└ IQ Export.......................................................................................................381
Import..........................................................................................................................381
└ IQ Import.......................................................................................................381
File Manager...............................................................................................................381
└ Edit Path.......................................................................................................382
└ New Folder....................................................................................................382
└ Copy..............................................................................................................382
└ Rename........................................................................................................382
└ Cut................................................................................................................382
└ Paste.............................................................................................................382
└ Delete............................................................................................................382
└ Sort Mode.....................................................................................................382
└ Name..................................................................................................382
└ Date....................................................................................................382
└ Extension............................................................................................383
└ Size.....................................................................................................383
└ File Lists (1/2)...............................................................................................383
└ Current File List (1/2)....................................................................................383
└ Network Drive...............................................................................................383
└ Map Network Drive.............................................................................383
└ Disconnect Network Drive..................................................................383
Save
Opens the "Save" dialog box to define which measurement settings and results to store.
To navigate in the dialog box and define/enter data, use the corresponding softkeys.
For details see also ​chapter 7.1.2, "File Selection Dialog Boxes", on page 383.
Save File / Recall File ← Save
Saves the settings file with the defined file name ("Save" dialog box), or recalls the
selected settings file ("Recall" dialog box).
You can assign stored settings files to user-definable softkeys in the "User" menu for
easy access, see ​chapter 6.2, "User-Defined Menu – USER key", on page 351 .
Remote command:
​MMEMory:​STORe<n>:​STATe​ on page 709
​MMEMory:​STORe<n>:​STATe:​NEXT​ on page 709
​MMEMory:​LOAD:​STATe 1,​ on page 708
Select Path ← Save
Opens the directory list to select the drive and folder for the settings file to be stored or
loaded. The default path is C:\r_s\instr\user.
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Select File ← Save
Sets the focus on the "Files" list.
Remote command:
​MMEMory:​CATalog?​ on page 702
Edit File Name ← Save
Sets the focus on the "File Name" field.
Edit Comment ← Save
Sets the focus on the "Comment" field to enter a comment for the settings file. Max. 60
characters are allowed.
Select Items ← Save
Displays the submenu for selecting the items to be stored or loaded.
Select Items ← Select Items ← Save
Sets the focus on the items list. Which items are available depends on the installed
options.
In the "Save" dialog box, all items that can be saved are displayed.
In the "Recall" dialog box, the items saved in the selected file are displayed.
Remote command:
​MMEMory:​SELect[:​ITEM]:​HWSettings​ on page 732
​MMEMory:​SELect[:​ITEM]:​LINes:​ALL​ on page 732
​MMEMory:​SELect[:​ITEM]:​TRACe[:​ACTive]​ on page 732
​MMEMory:​SELect[:​ITEM]:​TRANsducer:​ALL​ on page 733
Enable all Items ← Select Items ← Save
Selects all items for saving or loading.
Remote command:
​MMEMory:​SELect[:​ITEM]:​ALL​ on page 731
Disable all Items ← Select Items ← Save
Selects none of the items for saving or loading.
Remote command:
​MMEMory:​SELect[:​ITEM]:​NONE​ on page 732
Delete File ← Save
Deletes the selected settings file.
Remote command:
​MMEMory:​CLEar:​STATe 1,​ on page 707
Recall
Opens the "Recall" dialog box to load a settings file. To navigate in the dialog box, use
the corresponding softkeys.
For details see also ​chapter 7.1.2, "File Selection Dialog Boxes", on page 383.
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Path
Directory from which the settings file is loaded. The default path for user
settings files is C:\r_s\instr\user
Files
List of stored settings files
File Name
Name of settings file
Comment
Comment of the settings file
[Items]
Items saved in the settings file
Note: After you use the "Recall" function, the history of previous actions is deleted, i.e.
any actions performed previously cannot be undone or redone using the UNDO/REDO
keys.
Remote command:
​MMEMory:​LOAD:​STATe 1,​ on page 708
Startup Recall
Opens a submenu to activate or deactivate and set up the startup recall function.
Startup Recall (On/Off) ← Startup Recall
Activates or deactivates the startup recall function. If activated, the settings stored in the
file selected via the ​Select Dataset softkey are loaded when booting or for preset. If
deactivated, the default settings are loaded.
Remote command:
​MMEMory:​LOAD:​AUTO​ on page 708
Select Dataset ← Startup Recall
Opens the "Startup Recall" dialog box to select the settings file for the startup recall function.
ScreenShot
Saves the current measurement screen as a file (screenshot). This function can also be
performed via the "Screenshot" icon in the toolbar, if available.
Remote command:
​HCOPy[:​IMMediate<1|2>]​ on page 723
Export
Opens a submenu to configure data export.
ASCII Trace Export ← Export
Opens the "ASCII Trace Export Name" dialog box and saves the active trace in ASCII
format to the specified file and directory.
The file consists of the header containing important scaling parameters and a data section
containing the trace data. For details on an ASCII file see ​chapter 3.3.1.6, "ASCII File
Export Format", on page 257.
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This format can be processed by spreadsheet calculation programs, e.g. MS-Excel. It is
necessary to define ';' as a separator for the data import. Different language versions of
evaluation programs may require a different handling of the decimal point. It is therefore
possible to select between separators '.' (decimal point) and ',' (comma) using the "Decim
Sep" softkey (see ​"Decim Sep" on page 62).
Remote command:
​FORMat:​DEXPort:​DSEParator​ on page 616
​MMEMory:​STORe<n>:​TRACe​ on page 616
Decim Sep ← Export
Selects the decimal separator with floating-point numerals for the ASCII Trace export to
support evaluation programs (e.g. MS-Excel) in different languages. The values '.' (decimal point) and ',' (comma) can be set.
Remote command:
​FORMat:​DEXPort:​DSEParator​ on page 616
IQ Export ← Export
Opens a file selection dialog box to select an export file to which the IQ data will be stored.
This function is only available in single sweep mode.
For details see ​chapter 7.1.3, "Importing and Exporting I/Q Data", on page 386.
Remote command:
​MMEMory:​STORe:​IQ:​STATe​ on page 709
​MMEMory:​STORe:​IQ:​COMM​ on page 708
Import
Provides functions to import data.
IQ Import ← Import
Opens a file selection dialog box to select an import file that contains IQ data. This function
is only available in single sweep mode.
For details see ​chapter 7.1.3, "Importing and Exporting I/Q Data", on page 386.
Remote command:
​MMEMory:​LOAD:​IQ:​STATe​ on page 666
File Manager
Opens the "File Manager" dialog box and a submenu to manage mass storage media
and files. In the upper left corner, the current drive is displayed. Below the folders and
subfolders of the current directory are displayed.
For details on navigation see also ​chapter 7.1.2, "File Selection Dialog Boxes",
on page 383.
The following tasks can be performed:
●
●
●
copying files from flash disk to other media
copying files into another directory
renaming and deleting files
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Edit Path ← File Manager
Opens the directory list to select the drive and folder for the file to be stored or loaded.
The default path is C:\r_s\instr\user.
Remote command:
​MMEMory:​MSIS​ on page 706
​MMEMory:​CDIRectory​ on page 703
New Folder ← File Manager
Creates a new folder and opens an edit dialog box to enter name and path (absolute or
relative to the current directory) of the new folder.
Remote command:
​MMEMory:​MDIRectory​ on page 705
Copy ← File Manager
Copies the selected item to the clipboard. The item can be copied later using the ​Paste
softkey.
Remote command:
​MMEMory:​COPY​ on page 704
Rename ← File Manager
Opens an edit dialog box to enter a new file or folder name.
Remote command:
​MMEMory:​MOVE​ on page 705
Cut ← File Manager
Copies the selected file to the clipboard. If the file is later copied to a different directory
using the ​Paste softkey, it is deleted in the current directory.
Paste ← File Manager
Copies a file from the clipboard to the currently selected directory.
Delete ← File Manager
Deletes the selected item after confirmation.
Remote command:
​MMEMory:​DELete​ on page 705
​MMEMory:​RDIRectory​ on page 707
Sort Mode ← File Manager
Opens a submenu to select the sorting mode for the displayed files. The entry for the next
higher directory level ("..") and the folders are always located at the top of the list.
Name ← Sort Mode ← File Manager
Sorts the displayed files in alphabetical order of the file names.
Date ← Sort Mode ← File Manager
Sorts the displayed files in respect to the date.
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Extension ← Sort Mode ← File Manager
Sorts the displayed files in respect to the extension.
Size ← Sort Mode ← File Manager
Sorts the displayed files in respect to the size.
File Lists (1/2) ← File Manager
Splits the screen to copy files from one directory to the other. The focus between the two
panes is switched using the FIELD RIGHT and FIELD LEFT keys.
Current File List (1/2) ← File Manager
Changes the focus to the selected file list.
Network Drive ← File Manager
Opens the "Map Network Drive" dialog box and submenu.
Map Network Drive ← Network Drive ← File Manager
Sets the focus on the "Drive" list.
Remote command:
​MMEMory:​NETWork:​MAP​ on page 734
​MMEMory:​NETWork:​USEDdrives?​ on page 734
​MMEMory:​NETWork:​UNUSeddrives?​ on page 734
Disconnect Network Drive ← Network Drive ← File Manager
Opens the "Disconnect Network Drive" dialog box. In the "Drive" list, select the drive you
want to disconnect and confirm with "OK".
Remote command:
​MMEMory:​NETWork:​DISConnect​ on page 734
7.1.2 File Selection Dialog Boxes
The "Save" and "Recall" dialog boxes are used to save and recall settings and data files.
The "File Manager" allows you to copy, delete or rename data files on the R&S ESR.
These and other file selection dialog boxes are very similar.
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Drive
The data is stored on the internal flash disk or, if selected, on a memory stick or network
drive. The mass media are assigned to the volume names as follows:
Drive
Designation
Comment
C
operating system, firmware and stored instrument
settings
for customer data
A
USB floppy drive
if connected
D
USB memory stick or USB CD-ROM
if connected
E …Z
additional USB mass storage devices or mounted
LAN volumes
if connected
Path
The current path contains the drive and the complete file path to the currently selected
folder.
To set the focus on the "Path" list, press the ​Select Path/ ​Edit Path softkey.
Files
This list contains the files and folders contained in the currently selected path.
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To set the focus on the "Files" list, press the ​Select File softkey.
File Name
The "File Name" field contains the name of the data file without the path or extension.
To set the focus on "File Name" field, press the ​Edit File Name softkey.
In the "Save" dialog box, the field already contains a suggestion for a new name: the file
name used in the last saving process is used, extended by an index. For example, if the
name last used was test_004, the new name test_005 is suggested, but only if this
name is not in use. You can change the suggested name as you like.
By default, the name of a settings file consists of a base name followed by an underscore
and three numbers, e.g. limit_lines_005. In the example, the base name is
limit_lines. The base name can contain characters, numbers and underscores. The
file extension dfl is added automatically.
Comment
The comment is optional and may contain a description for the data file.
To set the focus on the "Comment" field, press the ​Edit Comment softkey.
Items
When saving data files you can select which data and settings are stored; when recalling
such files, this field indicates which items were included during storage. In the "File Manager", this field is not available.
Which items are available depends on the installed options. The following items may be
included:
Item
Description
Current Settings
Current measurement settings
All Transducers
Transducer factors for all active transducers.
All Traces
All active traces; R&S FSV-K30 only: also calibration data
All Limit Lines
All limit lines (Note: information on which limit lines are active is stored with the
"Current Settings")
Spectrograms
Spectrogram trace data (only available if spectrogram display is currently active,
R&S FSV-K14 only)
Noise - ENR
Data in "ENR Settings" dialog box (R&S FSV-K30 only)
Noise - Loss Settings
Data in "Loss Settings" dialog box (R&S FSV-K30 only)
Noise - Calibration data
Results from calibration measurement (R&S FSV-K30 only)
K40 Results
All current phase noise trace results (R&S FSV-K40 only)
WLAN Results
Stores the trace and table results for WLAN measurements(R&S FSV-K91 only)
WLAN IQ Data
Stores the measured I/Q data (R&S FSV-K91 only)
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Item
Description
WLAN User Limits
Stores any limit values modified in the table of results for WLAN measurements
(R&S FSV-K91 only)
WiMAX Results
Stores the trace and table results for WiMAX measurements(R&S FSV-K93
only)
7.1.3 Importing and Exporting I/Q Data
In addition to instrument settings and displayed traces, also captured I/Q data can be
exported to a file on the R&S ESR. The stored data can then be imported again at a later
time, also by different applications, for further processing.
As opposed to storing trace data, which may be averaged or restricted to peak values, I/
Q data is stored as it was captured, without further processing. The data is stored as
complex values in 32-bit floating-point format. The I/Q data is stored in a packed format
with the file extension .iq.tar.
The ​IQ Import and ​IQ Export functions are available from the "Save/Recall" menu, which
is displayed when you press the SAVE/RCL key on the front panel.
They can also be performed remotely using the following commands:
​MMEMory:​STORe:​IQ:​STATe​ on page 709
​MMEMory:​LOAD:​IQ:​STATe​ on page 666
7.1.3.1
iq-tar File Format Specification
I/Q data is stored in a compressed format with the file extension .iq.tar.
An .iq.tar file contains I/Q data in binary format together with meta information that
describes the nature and the source of data, e.g. the sample rate. The objective of
the .iq.tar file format is to separate I/Q data from the meta information while still having
both inside one file. In addition, the file format allows you to preview the I/Q data in a web
browser, and allows you to include user-specific data.
Contained files
An iq-tar file must contain the following files:
●
I/Q parameter XML file, e.g. xyz.xml
Contains meta information about the I/Q data (e.g. sample rate). The filename can
be defined freely, but there must be only one single I/Q parameter XML file inside an
iq-tar file.
●
I/Q data binary file, e.g. xyz.complex.float32
Contains the binary I/Q data of all channels. There must be only one single I/Q data
binary file inside an iq-tar file.
Optionally, an iq-tar file can contain the following file:
●
I/Q preview XSLT file, e.g. open_IqTar_xml_file_in_web_browser.xslt
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Contains a stylesheet to display the I/Q parameter XML file and a preview of the I/Q
data in a web browser.
I/Q Parameter XML File Specification
The content of the I/Q parameter XML file must comply with the XML schema
RsIqTar.xsd available at: http://www.rohde-schwarz.com/file/RsIqTar.xsd.
In particular, the order of the XML elements must be respected, i.e. iq-tar uses an
"ordered XML schema". For your own implementation of the iq-tar file format make
sure to validate your XML file against the given schema.
The following example shows an I/Q parameter XML file. The XML elements and attributes are explained in the following sections.
Sample I/Q parameter XML file: xyz.xml
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<?xml-stylesheet type="text/xsl"
href="open_IqTar_xml_file_in_web_browser.xslt"?>
<RS_IQ_TAR_FileFormat fileFormatVersion="1"
xsi:noNamespaceSchemaLocation="RsIqTar.xsd"
xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance">
<Name>FSV-K10</Name>
<Comment>Here is a comment</Comment>
<DateTime>2011-01-24T14:02:49</DateTime>
<Samples>68751</Samples>
<Clock unit="Hz">6.5e+006</Clock>
<Format>complex</Format>
<DataType>float32</DataType>
<ScalingFactor unit="V">1</ScalingFactor>
<NumberOfChannels>1</NumberOfChannels>
<DataFilename>xyz.complex.float32</DataFilename>
<UserData>
<UserDefinedElement>Example</UserDefinedElement>
</UserData>
<PreviewData>...</PreviewData>
</RS_IQ_TAR_FileFormat>
Element
Description
RS_IQ_TAR_FileFormat
The root element of the XML file. It must contain the attribute
fileFormatVersion that contains the number of the file format definition. Currently, fileFormatVersion "2" is used.
Name
Optional: describes the device or application that created the file.
Comment
Optional: contains text that further describes the contents of the file.
DateTime
Contains the date and time of the creation of the file. Its type is xs:dateTime
(see RsIqTar.xsd).
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Element
Description
Samples
Contains the number of samples of the I/Q data. For multi-channel signals all
channels have the same number of samples. One sample can be:
A complex number represented as a pair of I and Q values
●
A complex number represented as a pair of magnitude and phase values
●
A real number represented as a single real value
●
See also Format element.
Clock
Contains the clock frequency in Hz, i.e. the sample rate of the I/Q data. A signal
generator typically outputs the I/Q data at a rate that equals the clock frequency.
If the I/Q data was captured with a signal analyzer, the signal analyzer used the
clock frequency as the sample rate. The attribute unit must be set to "Hz".
Format
Specifies how the binary data is saved in the I/Q data binary file (see
DataFilename element). Every sample must be in the same format. The format
can be one of the following:
Complex: Complex number in cartesian format, i.e. I and Q values inter●
leaved. I and Q are unitless
Real: Real number (unitless)
●
Polar: Complex number in polar format, i.e. magnitude (unitless) and phase
●
(rad) values interleaved. Requires DataType = float32 or float64
DataType
Specifies the binary format used for samples in the I/Q data binary file (see
DataFilename element and ​"I/Q Data Binary File" on page 390). The following
data types are allowed:
int8: 8 bit signed integer data
●
int16: 16 bit signed integer data
●
int32: 32 bit signed integer data
●
float32: 32 bit floating point data (IEEE 754)
●
float64: 64 bit floating point data (IEEE 754)
●
ScalingFactor
Optional: describes how the binary data can be transformed into values in the unit
Volt. The binary I/Q data itself has no unit. To get an I/Q sample in the unit Volt
the saved samples have to be multiplied by the value of the ScalingFactor. For
polar data only the magnitude value has to be multiplied. For multi-channel signals
the ScalingFactor must be applied to all channels.
The ScalingFactor must be > 0. If the ScalingFactor element is not defined,
a value of 1 V is assumed.
NumberOfChannels
Optional: specifies the number of channels, e.g. of a MIMO signal, contained in
the I/Q data binary file. For multi-channels, the I/Q samples of the channels are
expected to be interleaved within the I/Q data file (see ​"I/Q Data Binary File"
on page 390). If the NumberOfChannels element is not defined, one channel is
assumed.
DataFilename
Contains the filename of the I/Q data binary file that is part of the iq-tar file.
It is recommended that the filename uses the following convention:
<xyz>.<Format>.<Channels>ch.<Type>
●
●
●
●
<xyz> = a valid Windows file name
<Format> = complex, polar or real (see Format element)
<Channels> = Number of channels (see NumberOfChannels element)
<Type> = float32, float64, int8, int16, int32 or int64 (see DataType element)
Examples:
●
●
●
●
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xyz.polar.1ch.float64
xyz.real.1ch.int16
xyz.complex.16ch.int8
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Element
Description
UserData
Optional: contains user, application or device-specific XML data which is not part
of the iq-tar specification. This element can be used to store additional information, e.g. the hardware configuration. It is recommended that you add user data
as XML content.
PreviewData
Optional: contains further XML elements that provide a preview of the I/Q data.
The preview data is determined by the routine that saves an iq-tar file (e.g.
R&S ESR). For the definition of this element refer to the RsIqTar.xsd schema.
Note that the preview can be only displayed by current web browsers that have
JavaScript enabled and if the XSLT stylesheet
open_IqTar_xml_file_in_web_browser.xslt is available.
Example: ScalingFactor
Data stored as int16 and a desired full scale voltage of 1 V
ScalingFactor = 1 V / maximum int16 value = 1 V / 215 = 3.0517578125e-5 V
Numerical value
Numerical value x ScalingFactor
Minimum (negative) int16 value
- 215 = - 32768
-1 V
Maximum (positive) int16 value
215-1= 32767
0.999969482421875 V
Example: PreviewData in XML
<PreviewData>
<ArrayOfChannel length="1">
<Channel>
<PowerVsTime>
<Min>
<ArrayOfFloat length="256">
<float>-95</float>
<float>-94</float>
...
<float>-93</float>
</ArrayOfFloat>
</Min>
<Max>
<ArrayOfFloat length="256">
<float>0</float>
<float>-41</float>
...
<float>0</float>
</ArrayOfFloat>
</Max>
</PowerVsTime>
<Spectrum>
<Min>
<ArrayOfFloat length="256">
<float>-107</float>
<float>-96</float>
...
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<float>-94</float>
</ArrayOfFloat>
</Min>
<Max>
<ArrayOfFloat length="256">
<float>-25</float>
<float>1</float>
...
<float>1</float>
</ArrayOfFloat>
</Max>
</Spectrum>
</Channel>
</ArrayOfChannel>
</PreviewData>
I/Q Data Binary File
The I/Q data is saved in binary format according to the format and data type specified in
the XML file (see Format element and DataType element). To allow reading and writing
of streamed I/Q data all data is interleaved, i.e. complex values are interleaved pairs of
I and Q values and multi-channel signals contain interleaved (complex) samples for
channel 1, channel 2, channel 3 etc.
Example: NumberOfChannels - Element ordering for complex cartesian data
Complex data: I[channel no][time index], Q[channel no][time index]
I[0][0], Q[0][0],
// Channel 0, Complex sample 0
I[1][0], Q[1][0],
// Channel 1, Complex sample 0
I[2][0], Q[2][0],
// Channel 2, Complex sample 0
I[0][1], Q[0][1],
// Channel 0, Complex sample 1
I[1][1], Q[1][1],
// Channel 1, Complex sample 1
I[2][1], Q[2][1],
// Channel 2, Complex sample 1
I[0][2], Q[0][2],
// Channel 0, Complex sample 2
I[1][2], Q[1][2],
// Channel 1, Complex sample 2
I[2][2], Q[2][2],
// Channel 2, Complex sample 2
I[0][3], Q[0][3],
// Channel 0, Complex sample 3
I[1][3], Q[1][3],
// Channel 1, Complex sample 3
I[2][3], Q[2][3],
// Channel 2, Complex sample 3
...
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7.2 Measurement Documentation – PRINT Key
The PRINT key is used to select and configure the printer and to customize the screen
printout. For detailed information on printer selection and installation refer to the Quick
Start Guide.
To open the Print menu
► Press the PRINT key.
The "Print" menu is displayed.
Softkeys of the Print Menu
The following table shows all softkeys available in the "Print" menu. It is possible that
your instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is only available
with a special option, model or (measurement) mode, this information is delivered in the
corresponding softkey description.
Print Screen................................................................................................................391
Device Setup...............................................................................................................392
Device (1/2).................................................................................................................392
Colors..........................................................................................................................392
└ Select Print Color Set....................................................................................392
└ Color (On/Off)...............................................................................................392
└ Select Object.................................................................................................393
└ Predefined Colors.........................................................................................393
└ User Defined Colors......................................................................................393
└ Set to Default................................................................................................393
Comment.....................................................................................................................393
Install Printer...............................................................................................................393
Print Screen
Starts to printout all test results displayed on the screen: diagrams, traces, markers,
marker lists, limit lines etc. Comments, title, date, and time are included at the bottom
margin of the printout. All displayed items belonging to the instrument software (softkeys,
tables, dialog boxes) are not printed out.
The output is defined via the ​"Device Setup" on page 392 softkey. If the output is saved
in a file, the file name used in the last saving process is counted up to the next unused
name. If you use a file name that already exists, upon saving, a message is displayed.
Selecting "Yes" overwrites the existing file, selecting "No" aborts the saving process. For
further details on the file name and an example, refer to the "Save/ Recall" menu, ​"Edit
File Name" on page 379 softkey.
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Path
Directory in which the file is stored. The default path is C:\r_s\instr\user
Files
List of the existing files in the same format
File Name
Name of the file
Remote command:
​HCOPy[:​IMMediate<1|2>]​ on page 723
​HCOPy[:​IMMediate<1|2>]:​NEXT​ on page 724
​HCOPy:​ITEM:​ALL​ on page 722
Device Setup
Opens the "Hardcopy Setup" dialog box to define the output: image file, clipboard, or the
printer. The dialog box consists of two tabs which are selected via the ​"Device (1/2)"
on page 392 softkey.
For further information refer to the Quick Start Guide.
Remote command:
​HCOPy:​DEVice:​LANGuage<1|2>​ on page 721
​HCOPy:​DESTination<1|2>​ on page 720
​HCOPy:​PAGE:​ORIentation<1|2>​ on page 723
​HCOPy:​TDSTamp:​STATe<1|2>​ on page 723
​SYSTem:​COMMunicate:​PRINter:​ENUMerate:​FIRSt?​ on page 724
​SYSTem:​COMMunicate:​PRINter:​ENUMerate[:​NEXT]?​ on page 724
Device (1/2)
Selects the tab of the device in the "Device Setup" dialog box. The analyzer is able to
manage two print settings independently of each other. For each device the print setting
is displayed on the corresponding tab of the "Device Setup" dialog box ( ​"Device
Setup" on page 392 softkey).
For further information refer to the Quick Start Guide.
Colors
Opens a submenu to define the colors to be used. For details see ​"Print Colors"
on page 370 softkey of the "Setup" menu.
The submenu contains the following commands:
●
●
●
●
●
●
​"Select Print Color Set" on page 392
​"Color (On/Off)" on page 392
​"Select Object" on page 393
​"Predefined Colors" on page 393
​"User Defined Colors" on page 393
​"Set to Default" on page 393
Select Print Color Set ← Colors
For details see ​"Select Print Color Set" on page 370 softkey of the "Setup" menu.
Color (On/Off) ← Colors
For details see ​"Color (On/Off)" on page 369 softkey of the "Setup" menu.
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Select Object ← Colors
For details see ​"Select Object" on page 369 softkey of the "Setup" menu.
Predefined Colors ← Colors
For details see ​"Predefined Colors" on page 369 softkey of the "Setup" menu.
User Defined Colors ← Colors
For details see ​"User Defined Colors" on page 369 softkey of the "Setup" menu.
Set to Default ← Colors
For details see ​"Set to Default" on page 370 softkey of the "Setup" menu.
Comment
Opens dialog box to enter a comment. Max. 120 characters are allowed. 60 characters
fit in one line. In the first line, at any point a manual line-feed can be forced by entering
"@".
Date and time are inserted automatically. The comment is printed below the diagram
area, but not displayed on the screen. If a comment should not be printed, it must be
deleted.
For details on the alphanumeric entries refer to the Quick Start Guide, "Basic Operations".
Remote command:
​HCOPy:​ITEM:​WINDow:​TEXT​ on page 722
Install Printer
Opens the "Printers and Faxes" window to install a new printer. All printers that are
already installed are displayed.
For further information refer to the Quick Start Guide, appendix 1, "Printer Interface".
Only user accounts with administrator rights can install a printer.
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8 Remote Control
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
Remote Control - Basics.......................................................................................394
Selecting the Operating Mode...............................................................................432
Remote Commands in Receiver Mode.................................................................433
Remote Commands in Spectrum Analyzer Mode.................................................493
Remote Commands in I/Q Analyzer Mode............................................................664
Remote Commands to Control the Tracking Generator........................................676
Common Commands............................................................................................682
System Configuration............................................................................................686
Data Management.................................................................................................701
Using Transducers................................................................................................710
Documentation......................................................................................................717
Display Configuration............................................................................................725
Network Connection..............................................................................................733
Status Register......................................................................................................739
Remote Control – Programming Examples...........................................................742
GPIB Commands of HP Models 856xE, 8566A/B, 8568A/B and 8594E..............784
8.1 Remote Control - Basics
This chapter provides basic information on operating an instrument via remote control.
The computer that is used for remote operation is called "controller" here.
8.1.1 Remote Control Interfaces and Protocols
The instrument supports different interfaces for remote control. The following table gives
an overview.
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Table 8-1: Remote control interfaces and protocols
Interface
Protocols, VISA*)
address string
Remarks
Local Area
Network
(LAN)
Protocols:
A LAN connector is located on the rear panel of the instrument.
●
●
●
The interface is based on TCP/IP and supports various protocols.
VXI-11
RSIB
simple telnet (Raw
Ethernet)
VISA*) address string:
For a description of the protocols refer to:
●
​"VXI-11 Protocol" on page 398
●
​"RSIB Protocol" on page 398
●
​"Telnet Protocol" on page 399
TCPIP::host
address[::LAN device
name][::INSTR]
GPIB (IEC/
IEEE Bus
Interface)
VISA*) address string:
GPIB::primary
address[::INSTR]
(no secondary address)
A GPIB bus interface according to the IEC 625.1/IEEE 488.1
standard is located on the rear panel of the instrument.
For a description of the interface refer to ​chapter 8.1.1.4, "GPIB
Interface (IEC 625/IEEE 418 Bus Interface)", on page 399.
*)
VISA is a standardized software interface library providing input and output functions to communicate with
instruments. A VISA installation on the controller is a prerequisite for remote control using the indicated interfaces (see also ​chapter 8.1.1.1, "VISA Libraries", on page 395).
Within this interface description, the term GPIB is used as a synonym for the IEC/IEEE
bus interface.
SCPI (Standard Commands for Programmable Instruments)
SCPI commands - messages - are used for remote control. Commands that are not taken
from the SCPI standard follow the SCPI syntax rules. The instrument supports the SCPI
version 1999. The SCPI standard is based on standard IEEE 488.2 and aims at the
standardization of device-specific commands, error handling and the status registers.
The tutorial "Automatic Measurement Control - A tutorial on SCPI and IEEE 488.2" from
John M. Pieper (R&S order number 0002.3536.00) offers detailed information on concepts and definitions of SCPI.
The requirements that the SCPI standard places on command syntax, error handling and
configuration of the status registers are explained in detail in the following sections.
Tables provide a fast overview of the bit assignment in the status registers. The tables
are supplemented by a comprehensive description of the status registers.
8.1.1.1
VISA Libraries
VISA is a standardized software interface library providing input and output functions to
communicate with instruments. The I/O channel (LAN or TCP/IP, USB, GPIB,...) is
selected at initialization time by means of the channel–specific address string ("VISA
resource string") indicated in ​table 8-1, or by an appropriately defined VISA alias (short
name). A VISA installation is a prerequisite for remote control using the VXI-11 and RSIB
protocols. The necessary VISA library is available as a separate product. For details
contact your local R&S sales representative.
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For more information on VISA refer to the user documentation.
8.1.1.2
Messages
The messages transferred on the data lines are divided into the following categories:
●
Interface messages
Interface messages are transmitted to the instrument on the data lines, with the
attention line being active (LOW). They are used to communicate between the controller and the instrument. Interface messages can only be sent by instruments that
have GPIB bus functionality. For details see the sections for the required interface.
●
Instrument messages
Instrument messages are employed in the same way for all interfaces, if not indicated
otherwise in the description. Structure and syntax of the instrument messages are
described in ​chapter 8.1.4, "SCPI Command Structure", on page 403. A detailed
description of all messages available for the instrument is provided in the chapter
"Remote Control Commands".
There are different types of instrument messages, depending on the direction they
are sent:
– Commands
–
Instrument responses
Commands
Commands (program messages) are messages the controller sends to the instrument.
They operate the instrument functions and request information. The commands are subdivided according to two criteria:
●
According to the effect they have on the instrument:
– Setting commands cause instrument settings such as a reset of the instrument
or setting the frequency.
–
●
Queries cause data to be provided for remote control, e.g. for identification of the
instrument or polling a parameter value. Queries are formed by directly appending
a question mark to the command header.
According to their definition in standards:
– Common commands: their function and syntax are precisely defined in standard
IEEE 488.2. They are employed identically on all instruments (if implemented).
They refer to functions such as management of the standardized status registers,
reset and self test.
–
Instrument control commands refer to functions depending on the features of
the instrument such as frequency settings. Many of these commands have also
been standardized by the SCPI committee. These commands are marked as
"SCPI confirmed" in the command reference chapters. Commands without this
SCPI label are device-specific; however, their syntax follows SCPI rules as permitted by the standard.
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Instrument responses
Instrument responses (response messages and service requests) are messages the
instrument sends to the controller after a query. They can contain measurement results,
instrument settings and information on the instrument status.
8.1.1.3
LAN Interface
To be integrated in a LAN, the instrument is equipped with a LAN interface, consisting of
a connector, a network interface card and protocols. The network card can be operated
with a 10 MHz Ethernet IEEE 802.3 or a 100 MHz Ethernet IEEE 802.3u interface. For
remote control via a network, the PC and the instrument must be connected via the LAN
interface to a common network with TCP/IP network protocol. They are connected using
a commercial RJ45 cable (shielded or unshielded twisted pair category 5). The TCP/IP
network protocol and the associated network services are preconfigured on the instrument. Software for instrument control and the VISA program library must be installed on
the controller.
VISA library
Instrument access via VXI-11 or RSIB protocols is usually achieved from high level programming platforms using VISA as an intermediate abstraction layer. VISA encapsulates
the low level VXI, RSIB or even GPIB function calls and thus makes the transport interface
transparent for the user. See ​chapter 8.1.1.1, "VISA Libraries", on page 395 for details.
IP address
Only the IP address or the computer name (LAN device name) is required to set up the
connection. The IP address/computer name is part of the "visa resource string" used by
the programs to identify and control the instrument.
The visa resource string has the form:
TCPIP::host address[::LAN device name][::INSTR]
where:
●
TCPIP designates the network protocol used
●
host address is the IP address of the device
The IP address for the R&S ESR is factory-set to 10.0.0.10, subnet mask
255.255.255.0.
●
LAN device name is the computer name of the instrument (alternative to IP address)
●
INSTR indicates that the VXI-11 protocol is used
Example:
Instrument has the IP address 192.1.2.3; the valid resource string is:
TCPIP::192.1.2.3::INSTR
The instrument name is RSFSV; the valid resource string is:
TCPIP::RSFSV::INSTR
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Identifying instruments in a network
If several instruments are connected to the network, each instrument has its own IP
address and associated resource string. The controller identifies these instruments by
means of the resource string.
For details on configuring the LAN connection, see "Setting Up a Network (LAN) Connection" in the Quick Start Guide.
VXI-11 Protocol
The VXI-11 standard is based on the ONC RPC (Open Network Computing Remote
Procedure Call) protocol which in turn relies on TCP/IP as the network/transport layer.
The TCP/IP network protocol and the associated network services are preconfigured.
TCP/IP ensures connection-oriented communication, where the order of the exchanged
messages is adhered to and interrupted links are identified. With this protocol, messages
cannot be lost.
RSIB Protocol
The R&S defined RSIB protocol uses the TCP/IP protocol for communication with the
instrument. Remote control over RSIB is done on a message level basis using the SCPI
command set of the instrument. The RSIB protocol allows you to control the instrument
for example via Visual C++- and Visual Basic programs, via the Windows applications
Word and Excel, as well as via National Instruments LabView, LabWindows/CVI, Agilent
VEE and others. The control applications run on an external computer in the network.
RSIB Interface Functions
The library functions are adapted to the interface functions of National Instruments for
GPIB programming. The functions supported by the libraries are listed in the following
table.
Function
Description
RSDLLibfind()
Provides a handle for access to a device.
RSDLLibwrt()
Sends a zero-terminated string to a device.
RSDLLilwrt()
Sends a certain number of bytes to a device.
RSDLLibwrtf()
Sends the contents of a file to a device.
RSDLLibrd()
Reads data from a device into a string.
RSDLLilrd()
Reads a certain number of bytes from a device.
RSDLLibrdf()
Reads data from a device into a file.
RSDLLibtmo()
Sets timeout for RSIB functions.
RSDLLibsre()
Switches a device to the local or remote state.
RSDLLibloc()
Temporarily switches a device to the local state.
RSDLLibeot()
Enables/disables the END message for write operations.
RSDLLibrsp()
Performs a serial poll and provides the status byte.
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Function
Description
RSDLLibonl()
Sets the device online/offline.
RSDLLTestSrq()
Checks whether a device has generated an SRQ.
RSDLLWaitSrq()
Waits until a device generates an SRQ.
RSDLLSwapBytes
Swaps the byte sequence for binary numericdisplay (only required for nonIntel platforms).
Telnet Protocol
As an alternative to remote control the instrument can use a simple telnet protocol (port
5025). Unlike using the VXI-11 protocol, no VISA installation is necessary on the remote
controller side. This protocol is sometimes also referred to as "socket communication" or
"Raw Ethernet mode". To control the instrument, only a Telnet program is required. The
Telnet program is part of every operating system.
8.1.1.4
GPIB Interface (IEC 625/IEEE 418 Bus Interface)
To be able to control the instrument via the GPIB bus, the instrument and the controller
must be linked by a GPIB bus cable. A GPIB bus card, the card drivers and the program
libraries for the programming language used must be provided in the controller. The controller must address the instrument with the GPIB bus address (see ​"GPIB Instrument
Address" on page 401).
Notes and Conditions
In connection with the GPIB interface, note the following:
●
Up to 15 instruments can be connected
●
The total cable length is restricted to a maximum of 15 m or 2 m times the number of
devices, whichever is less; the cable lenth between two instruments should not
exceed 2 m.
●
A wired "OR"-connection is used if several instruments are connected in parallel.
●
Any connected IEC-bus cables should be terminated by an instrument or controller.
GPIB Interface Messages
Interface messages are transmitted to the instrument on the data lines, with the attention
line (ATN) being active (LOW). They are used for communication between the controller
and the instrument and can only be sent by a computer which has the function of a GPIB
bus controller. GPIB interface messages can be further subdivided into:
●
Universal commands: act on all instruments connected to the GPIB bus without
previous addressing
●
Addressed commands: only act on instruments previously addressed as listeners
The following figure provides an overview of the available communication lines used by
the GPIB interface.
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Fig. 8-1: Communication lines used by the GPIB interface
Universal Commands
Universal commands are encoded in the range 10 through 1F hex. They affect all instruments connected to the bus and do not require addressing.
Command
Effect on the instrument
DCL (Device Clear)
Aborts the processing of the commands just received and sets the command
processing software to a defined initial state. Does not change the instrument
settings.
IFC (Interface Clear) *)
Resets the interfaces to the default setting.
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Command
Effect on the instrument
LLO (Local Lockout)
The LOC/IEC ADDR key is disabled.
SPE (Serial Poll Enable)
Ready for serial poll.
SPD (Serial Poll Disable)
End of serial poll.
PPU (Parallel Poll Unconfigure)
End of the parallel-poll state.
*) IFC is not a real universal command, it is sent via a separate line; however, it also affects all instruments
connected to the bus and does not require addressing
Addressed Commands
Addressed commands are encoded in the range 00 through 0F hex. They only affect
instruments addressed as listeners.
Command
Effect on the instrument
GET (Group Execute Trigger)
Triggers a previously active instrument function (e.g. a sweep). The
effect of the command is the same as with that of a pulse at the
external trigger signal input.
GTL (Go to Local)
Transition to the "local" state (manual control).
Transition to the "remote" state (remote control).
PPC (Parallel Poll Configure)
Configures the instrument for parallel poll.
SDC (Selected Device Clear)
Aborts the processing of the commands just received and sets the
command processing software to a defined initial state. Does not
change the instrument setting.
GPIB Instrument Address
In order to operate the instrument via remote control, it must be addressed using the
GPIB address. The remote control address is factory-set to 20, but it can be changed if
it does not fit in the network environment. For remote control, addresses 0 through 30
are allowed. The GPIB address is maintained after a reset of the instrument settings.
Setting the GPIB address
1. On the R&S ESR, press the SETUP key.
2. Press the "General Setup" softkey.
3. Press the "GPIB" softkey.
The submenu for setting the parameters of the remote control interface is displayed.
4. Press the "GPIB Address" softkey.
The edit dialog box for the GPIB address is displayed.
5. Enter a value between 0 and 30.
Remote command: SYST:COMM:GPIB:ADDR 18
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8.1.2 Starting a Remote Control Session
When you switch on the instrument, it is always in manual operation state ("local" state)
and can be operated via the front panel.
Starting remote control
1. Send an addressed command (GTR - Go to Remote) from a controller to the instrument.
The instrument is switched to remote control ("remote" state). Operation via the front
panel is disabled. Only the "Local" softkey is displayed to return to manual operation.
The instrument remains in the remote state until it is reset to the manual state via the
instrument or via remote control interfaces. Switching from manual operation to
remote control and vice versa does not affect the other instrument settings.
2. During program execution, send the SYSTem:DISPlay:UPDate ON command to
activate the display of results.
The changes in the device settings and the recorded measurement values are displayed on the instrument screen.
3. To obtain optimum performance during remote control, send the
SYSTem:DISPlay:UPDate OFF command to hide the display of results and diagrams again (default setting in remote control).
4. To prevent unintentional return to manual operation, disable the keys of the instrument using the universal command LLO.
Switching to manual mode is only possible via remote control then. This function is
only available for the GPIB interface.
5. To enable the keys of the R&S ESR again, switch the instrument to local mode
(GTL - Go to Local), i.e. deactivate the REN line of the remote control interface.
If the instrument is operated exclusively in remote control, it is recommended that you
switch on the power-save mode for the display. For more details on this mode refer to
the Quick Start Guide.
8.1.3 Returning to Manual Operation
Before you switch back to manual operation, all remote command processing must be
completed. Otherwise, the instrument will switch back to remote control immediately.
► Press the "Local" softkey or the PRESET key, or use the following GPIB command:
status = viGpibControlREN(vi, VI_GPIB_REN_ADDRESS_GTL)
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8.1.4 SCPI Command Structure
SCPI commands consist of a so-called header and, in most cases, one or more parameters. The header and the parameters are separated by a "white space" (ASCII code 0
to 9, 11 to 32 decimal, e.g. blank). The headers may consist of several mnemonics (keywords). Queries are formed by appending a question mark directly to the header.
The commands can be either device-specific or device-independent (common commands). Common and device-specific commands differ in their syntax.
8.1.4.1
Syntax for Common Commands
Common (=device-independent) commands consist of a header preceded by an asterisk
(*) and possibly one or more parameters.
Examples:
*RST
RESET
Resets the instrument.
*ESE
EVENT STATUS ENABLE
Sets the bits of the event status enable
registers.
*ESR?
EVENT STATUS QUERY
Queries the contents of the event status
register.
*IDN?
IDENTIFICATION QUERY
Queries the instrument identification
string.
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8.1.4.2
Syntax for Device-Specific Commands
Not all commands used in the following examples are necessarily implemented in the
instrument.
For demonstration purposes only, assume the existence of the following commands for
this section:
●
DISPlay[:WINDow<1...4>]:MAXimize <Boolean>
●
FORMat:READings:DATA <type>[,<length>]
●
HCOPy:DEVice:COLor <Boolean>
●
HCOPy:DEVice:CMAP:COLor:RGB <red>,<green>,<blue>
●
HCOPy[:IMMediate]
●
HCOPy:ITEM:ALL
●
HCOPy:ITEM:LABel <string>
●
HCOPy:PAGE:DIMensions:QUADrant[<N>]
●
HCOPy:PAGE:ORIentation LANDscape | PORTrait
●
HCOPy:PAGE:SCALe <numeric value>
●
MMEMory:COPY <file_source>,<file_destination>
●
SENSE:BANDwidth|BWIDth[:RESolution] <numeric_value>
●
SENSe:FREQuency:STOP <numeric value>
●
SENSe:LIST:FREQuency <numeric_value>{,<numeric_value>}
Long and short form
The mnemonics feature a long form and a short form. The short form is marked by upper
case letters, the long form corresponds to the complete word. Either the short form or the
long form can be entered; other abbreviations are not permitted.
Example:
HCOPy:DEVice:COLor ON is equivalent to HCOP:DEV:COL ON.
Case-insensitivity
Upper case and lower case notation only serves to distinguish the two forms in the manual, the instrument itself is case-insensitive.
Numeric suffixes
If a command can be applied to multiple instances of an object, e.g. specific channels or
sources, the required instances can be specified by a suffix added to the command.
Numeric suffixes are indicated by angular brackets (<1...4>, <n>, <i>) and are replaced
by a single value in the command. Entries without a suffix are interpreted as having the
suffix 1.
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Example:
Definition: HCOPy:PAGE:DIMensions:QUADrant[<N>]
Command: HCOP:PAGE:DIM:QUAD2
This command refers to the quadrant 2.
Different numbering in remote control
For remote control, the suffix may differ from the number of the corresponding selection
used in manual operation. SCPI prescribes that suffix counting starts with 1. Suffix 1 is
the default state and used when no specific suffix is specified.
Some standards define a fixed numbering, starting with 0. If the numbering differs in
manual operation and remote control, it is indicated for the corresponding command.
Optional mnemonics
Some command systems permit certain mnemonics to be inserted into the header or
omitted. These mnemonics are marked by square brackets in the description. The instrument must recognize the long command to comply with the SCPI standard. Some commands are considerably shortened by these optional mnemonics.
Example:
Definition: HCOPy[:IMMediate]
Command: HCOP:IMM is equivalent to HCOP
Optional mnemonics with numeric suffixes
Do not omit an optional mnemonic if it includes a numeric suffix that is relevant for the
effect of the command.
Example:
Definition:DISPlay[:WINDow<1...4>]:MAXimize <Boolean>
Command: DISP:MAX ON refers to window 1.
In order to refer to a window other than 1, you must include the optional WINDow parameter with the suffix for the required window.
DISP:WIND2:MAX ON refers to window 2.
Parameters
Parameters must be separated from the header by a "white space". If several parameters
are specified in a command, they are separated by a comma (,). For a description of the
parameter types, refer to ​chapter 8.1.4.3, "SCPI Parameters", on page 406.
Example:
Definition:HCOPy:DEVice:CMAP:COLor:RGB <red>,<green>,<blue>
Command:HCOP:DEV:CMAP:COL:RGB 3,32,44
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Special characters
|
Parameters
A vertical stroke in parameter definitions indicates alternative possibilities in the sense of "or". The effect
of the command differs, depending on which parameter is used.
Example:
Definition:HCOPy:PAGE:ORIentation LANDscape | PORTrait
Command HCOP:PAGE:ORI LAND specifies landscape orientation
Command HCOP:PAGE:ORI PORT specifies portrait orientation
Mnemonics
A selection of mnemonics with an identical effect exists for several commands. These mnemonics are
indicated in the same line; they are separated by a vertical stroke. Only one of these mnemonics needs
to be included in the header of the command. The effect of the command is independent of which of the
mnemonics is used.
Example:
DefinitionSENSE:BANDwidth|BWIDth[:RESolution] <numeric_value>
The two following commands with identical meaning can be created:
SENS:BAND:RES 1
SENS:BWID:RES 1
[]
Mnemonics in square brackets are optional and may be inserted into the header or omitted.
Example: HCOPy[:IMMediate]
HCOP:IMM is equivalent to HCOP
{}
Parameters in curly brackets are optional and can be inserted once or several times, or omitted.
Example: SENSe:LIST:FREQuency <numeric_value>{,<numeric_value>}
The following are valid commands:
SENS:LIST:FREQ 10
SENS:LIST:FREQ 10,20
SENS:LIST:FREQ 10,20,30,40
8.1.4.3
SCPI Parameters
Many commands are supplemented by a parameter or a list of parameters. The parameters must be separated from the header by a "white space" (ASCII code 0 to 9, 11 to 32
decimal, e.g. blank). Allowed parameters are:
●
Numeric values
●
Special numeric values
●
Boolean parameters
●
Text
●
Character strings
●
Block data
The parameters required for each command and the allowed range of values are specified in the command description.
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Numeric values
Numeric values can be entered in any form, i.e. with sign, decimal point and exponent.
Values exceeding the resolution of the instrument are rounded up or down. The mantissa
may comprise up to 255 characters, the exponent must lie inside the value range -32000
to 32000. The exponent is introduced by an "E" or "e". Entry of the exponent alone is not
allowed. In the case of physical quantities, the unit can be entered. Allowed unit prefixes
are G (giga), MA (mega), MOHM and MHZ are also allowed), K (kilo), M (milli), U (micro)
and N (nano). If the unit is missing, the basic unit is used.
Example: SENS:FREQ:STOP 1.5GHz = SENS:FREQ:STOP 1.5E9
Units
For physical quantities, the unit can be entered. Allowed unit prefixes are:
●
G (giga)
●
MA (mega), MOHM, MHZ
●
K (kilo)
●
M (milli)
●
U (micro)
●
N (nano)
If the unit is missing, the basic unit is used.
Example:
SENSe:FREQ:STOP 1.5GHz = SENSe:FREQ:STOP 1.5E9
Some settings allow relative values to be stated in percent. According to SCPI, this unit
is represented by the PCT string.
Example:
HCOP:PAGE:SCAL 90PCT
Special numeric values
The texts listed below are interpreted as special numeric values. In the case of a query,
the numeric value is provided.
●
MIN/MAX
MINimum and MAXimum denote the minimum and maximum value.
●
DEF
DEFault denotes a preset value which has been stored in the EPROM. This value
conforms to the default setting, as it is called by the *RST command.
●
UP/DOWN
UP, DOWN increases or reduces the numeric value by one step. The step width can
be specified via an allocated step command for each parameter which can be set via
UP, DOWN.
●
INF/NINF
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INFinity, Negative INFinity (NINF) represent the numeric values 9.9E37 or -9.9E37,
respectively. INF and NINF are only sent as instrument responses.
●
NAN
Not A Number (NAN) represents the value 9.91E37. NAN is only sent as a instrument
response. This value is not defined. Possible causes are the division of zero by zero,
the subtraction of infinite from infinite and the representation of missing values.
Example:
Setting command: SENSe:LIST:FREQ MAXimum
Query: SENS:LIST:FREQ?, Response: 3.5E9
Queries for special numeric values
The numeric values associated to MAXimum/MINimum/DEFault can be queried by
adding the corresponding mnemonics to the command. They must be entered following
the quotation mark.
Example: SENSe:LIST:FREQ? MAXimum
Returns the maximum numeric value as a result.
Boolean Parameters
Boolean parameters represent two states. The "ON" state (logically true) is represented
by "ON" or a numeric value 1. The "OFF" state (logically untrue) is represented by
"OFF" or the numeric value 0. The numeric values are provided as the response for a
query.
Example:
Setting command: HCOPy:DEV:COL ON
Query: HCOPy:DEV:COL?
Response: 1
Text parameters
Text parameters observe the syntactic rules for mnemonics, i.e. they can be entered
using a short or long form. Like any parameter, they have to be separated from the header
by a white space. In the case of a query, the short form of the text is provided.
Example:
Setting command: HCOPy:PAGE:ORIentation LANDscape
Query: HCOP:PAGE:ORI?
Response: LAND
Character strings
Strings must always be entered in quotation marks (' or ").
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Example:
HCOP:ITEM:LABel "Test1" or HCOP:ITEM:LABel 'Test1'
Block data
Block data is a format which is suitable for the transmission of large amounts of data. A
command using a block data parameter has the following structure:
Example:
FORMat:READings:DATA
#45168xxxxxxxx
The ASCII character # introduces the data block. The next number indicates how many
of the following digits describe the length of the data block. In the example the 4 following
digits indicate the length to be 5168 bytes. The data bytes follow. During the transmission
of these data bytes all end or other control signs are ignored until all bytes are transmitted.
#0 specifies a data block of indefinite length. The use of the indefinite format requires a
NL^END message to terminate the data block. This format is useful when the length of
the transmission is not known or if speed or other considerations prevent segmentation
of the data into blocks of definite length.
8.1.4.4
Overview of Syntax Elements
The following table provides an overview of the syntax elements:
:
The colon separates the mnemonics of a command. In a command line the separating semicolon
marks the uppermost command level.
;
The semicolon separates two commands of a command line. It does not alter the path.
,
The comma separates several parameters of a command.
?
The question mark forms a query.
*
The asterisk marks a common command.
''
Quotation marks introduce a string and terminate it (both single and double quotation marks are
possible).
"
#
The hash symbol introduces binary, octal, hexadecimal and block data.
Binary: #B10110
●
Octal: #O7612
●
Hexa: #HF3A7
●
Block: #21312
●
A "white space" (ASCII-Code 0 to 9, 11 to 32 decimal, e.g. blank) separates the header from the
parameters.
8.1.4.5
Structure of a command line
A command line may consist of one or several commands. It is terminated by one of the
following:
●
a <New Line>
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●
a <New Line> with EOI
●
an EOI together with the last data byte
Several commands in a command line must be separated by a semicolon ";". If the next
command belongs to a different command system, the semicolon is followed by a colon.
Example:
MMEM:COPY "Test1","MeasurementXY";:HCOP:ITEM ALL
This command line contains two commands. The first command belongs to the MMEM
system, the second command belongs to the HCOP system.
If the successive commands belong to the same system, having one or several levels in
common, the command line can be abbreviated. To this end, the second command after
the semicolon starts with the level that lies below the common levels. The colon following
the semicolon must be omitted in this case.
Example:
HCOP:ITEM ALL;:HCOP:IMM
This command line contains two commands. Both commands are part of the HCOP command system, i.e. they have one level in common.
When abbreviating the command line, the second command begins with the level below
HCOP. The colon after the semicolon is omitted. The abbreviated form of the command
line reads as follows:
HCOP:ITEM ALL;IMM
A new command line always begins with the complete path.
Example:
HCOP:ITEM ALL
HCOP:IMM
8.1.4.6
Responses to Queries
A query is defined for each setting command unless explicitly specified otherwise. It is
formed by adding a question mark to the associated setting command. According to
SCPI, the responses to queries are partly subject to stricter rules than in standard IEEE
488.2.
●
The requested parameter is transmitted without a header.
Example: HCOP:PAGE:ORI?, Response: LAND
●
Maximum values, minimum values and all other quantities that are requested via a
special text parameter are returned as numeric values.
Example: SENSe:FREQuency:STOP? MAX, Response: 3.5E9
●
Numeric values are output without a unit. Physical quantities are referred to the basic
units or to the units set using the Unit command. The response 3.5E9 in the previous example stands for 3.5 GHz.
●
Truth values (Boolean values) are returned as 0 (for OFF) and 1 (for ON).
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Example:
Setting command: HCOPy:DEV:COL ON
Query: HCOPy:DEV:COL?
Response: 1
●
Text (character data) is returned in a short form.
Example:
Setting command: HCOPy:PAGE:ORIentation LANDscape
Query: HCOP:PAGE:ORI?
Response: LAND
8.1.5 Command Sequence and Synchronization
IEEE 488.2 defines a distinction between overlapped and sequential commands:
●
A sequential command is one which finishes executing before the next command
starts executing. Commands that are processed quickly are usually implemented as
sequential commands.
●
An overlapping command is one which does not automatically finish executing
before the next command starts executing. Usually, overlapping commands take
longer to process and allow the program to do other tasks while being executed. If
overlapping commands do have to be executed in a defined order, e.g. in order to
avoid wrong measurement results, they must be serviced sequentially. This is called
synchronization between the controller and the instrument.
Setting commands within one command line, even though they may be implemented as
sequential commands, are not necessarily serviced in the order in which they have been
received. In order to make sure that commands are actually carried out in a certain order,
each command must be sent in a separate command line.
Example: Commands and queries in one message
The response to a query combined in a program message with commands that affect the
queried value is not predictable.
The following commands always return the specified result:
:FREQ:STAR 1GHZ;SPAN 100 :FREQ:STAR?
Result:
1000000000 (1 GHz)
Whereas the result for the following commands is not specified by SCPI:
:FREQ:STAR 1GHz;STAR?;SPAN 1000000
The result could be the value of STARt before the command was sent since the instrument might defer executing the individual commands until a program message terminator
is received. The result could also be 1 GHz if the instrument executes commands as they
are received.
As a general rule, send commands and queries in different program messages.
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Example: Overlapping command with *OPC
The instrument implements INITiate[:IMMediate] as an overlapped command.
Assuming that INITiate[:IMMediate] takes longer to execute than *OPC, sending
the following command sequence results in initiating a sweep and, after some time, setting the OPC bit in the ESR:
INIT; *OPC.
Sending the following commands still initiates a sweep:
INIT; *OPC; *CLS
However, since the operation is still pending when the instrument executes *CLS, forcing
it into the "Operation Complete Command Idle" State (OCIS), *OPC is effectively skipped.
The OPC bit is not set until the instrument executes another *OPC command.
The following list includes the commands for which a synchronization via *OPC, *OPC?
or *WAI is mandatory:
8.1.5.1
Command
Purpose
INIT
start measurement
INIT:CONM
continue measurement
CALC:MARK:FUNC:ZOOM
zoom frequency range around marker 1
CALC:STAT:SCAL:AUTO ONCE
optimize level settings for signal statistic measurement functions
[SENS:]POW:ACH:PRES:RLEV
optimize level settings for adjacent channel power measurements
Preventing Overlapping Execution
To prevent an overlapping execution of commands, one of the commands *OPC, *OPC?
or *WAI can be used. All three commands cause a certain action only to be carried out
after the hardware has been set. By suitable programming, the controller can be forced
to wait for the corresponding action to occur.
Table 8-2: Synchronization using *OPC, *OPC? and *WAI
Command
Action
*OPC
Sets the Operation Complete bit in the ESR
●
after all previous commands have been execu- ●
●
ted.
*OPC?
Stops command processing until 1 is returned. Sending *OPC? directly after the command
This is only the case after the Operation Com- whose processing should be terminated before
plete bit has been set in the ESR. This bit indi- other commands can be executed.
cates that the previous setting has been completed.
*WAI
Stops further command processing until all
commands sent before *WAI have been executed.
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Programming the controller
Setting bit 0 in the ESE
Setting bit 5 in the SRE
Waiting for service request (SRQ)
Sending *WAI directly after the command
whose processing should be terminated before
other commands are executed.
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Command synchronization using *WAI or *OPC? appended to an overlapped command
is a good choice if the overlapped command takes only little time to process. The two
synchronization techniques simply block overlapped execution of the command.
For time consuming overlapped commands it is usually desirable to allow the controller
or the instrument to do other useful work while waiting for command execution. Use one
of the following methods:
*OPC with a service request
1. Set the OPC mask bit (bit no. 0) in the ESE: *ESE 1
2. Set bit no. 5 in the SRE: *SRE 32 to enable ESB service request.
3. Send the overlapped command with *OPC
4. Wait for a service request
The service request indicates that the overlapped command has finished.
*OPC? with a service request
1. Set bit no. 4 in the SRE: *SRE 16 to enable MAV service request.
2. Send the overlapped command with *OPC?
3. Wait for a service request
The service request indicates that the overlapped command has finished.
Event Status Register (ESE)
1. Set the OPC mask bit (bit no. 0) in the ESE: *ESE 1
2. Send the overlapped command without *OPC, *OPC? or *WAI
3. Poll the operation complete state periodically (by means of a timer) using the
sequence: *OPC; *ESR?
A return value (LSB) of 1 indicates that the overlapped command has finished.
*OPC? with short timeout
1. Send the overlapped command without *OPC, *OPC? or *WAI
2. Poll the operation complete state periodically (by means of a timer) using the
sequence: <short timeout>; *OPC?
3. A return value (LSB) of 1 indicates that the overlapped command has finished. In
case of a timeout, the operation is ongoing.
4. Reset timeout to former value
5. Clear the error queue with SYStem:ERRor? to remove the "-410, Query interrupted"
entries.
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Using several threads in the controller application
As an alternative, provided the programming environment of the controller application
supports threads, separate threads can be used for the application GUI and for controlling
the instrument(s) via SCPI.
A thread waiting for a *OPC? thus will not block the GUI or the communication with other
instruments.
8.1.6 Status Reporting System
The status reporting system stores all information on the current operating state of the
instrument, and on errors which have occurred. This information is stored in the status
registers and in the error queue. Both can be queried via GPIB bus or LAN interface
(STATus... commands).
8.1.6.1
Hierarchy of Status Registers
●
STB, SRE
The STatus Byte (STB) register and its associated mask register Service Request
Enable (SRE) form the highest level of the status reporting system. The STB provides
a rough overview of the instrument status, collecting the information of the lower-level
registers.
●
ESR, SCPI registers
The STB receives its information from the following registers:
– The Event Status Register (ESR) with the associated mask register standard
Event Status Enable (ESE)
–
The STATus:OPERation and STATus:QUEStionable registers which are
defined by SCPI and contain detailed information on the instrument
●
IST, PPE
The IST flag ("Individual STatus"), like the SRQ, combines the entire instrument status
in a single bit. The PPE fulfills the same function for the IST flag as the SRE for the
service request.
●
Output buffer
The output buffer contains the messages the instrument returns to the controller. It
is not part of the status reporting system but determines the value of the MAV bit in
the STB and thus is represented in the overview.
All status registers have the same internal structure.
SRE, ESE
The service request enable register SRE can be used as ENABle part of the STB if the
STB is structured according to SCPI. By analogy, the ESE can be used as the ENABle
part of the ESR.
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8.1.6.2
Structure of a SCPI Status Register
Each standard SCPI register consists of 5 parts. Each part has a width of 16 bits and has
different functions. The individual bits are independent of each other, i.e. each hardware
status is assigned a bit number which is valid for all five parts. Bit 15 (the most significant
bit) is set to zero for all parts. Thus the contents of the register parts can be processed
by the controller as positive integers.
Fig. 8-2: The status-register model
Description of the five status register parts
The five parts of a SCPI register have different properties and functions:
●
CONDition
The CONDition part is written into directly by the hardware or the sum bit of the next
lower register. Its contents reflect the current instrument status. This register part can
only be read, but not written into or cleared. Its contents are not affected by reading.
●
PTRansition / NTRansition
The two transition register parts define which state transition of the CONDition part
(none, 0 to 1, 1 to 0 or both) is stored in the EVENt part.
The Positive-TRansition part acts as a transition filter. When a bit of the
CONDition part is changed from 0 to 1, the associated PTR bit decides whether the
EVENt bit is set to 1.
– PTR bit =1: the EVENt bit is set.
–
PTR bit =0: the EVENt bit is not set.
This part can be written into and read as required. Its contents are not affected by
reading.
The Negative-TRansition part also acts as a transition filter. When a bit of the
CONDition part is changed from 1 to 0, the associated NTR bit decides whether the
EVENt bit is set to 1.
– NTR bit =1: the EVENt bit is set.
–
NTR bit =0: the EVENt bit is not set.
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This part can be written into and read as required. Its contents are not affected by
reading.
●
EVENt
The EVENt part indicates whether an event has occurred since the last reading, it is
the "memory" of the condition part. It only indicates events passed on by the transition
filters. It is permanently updated by the instrument. This part can only be read by the
user. Reading the register clears it. This part is often equated with the entire register.
●
ENABle
The ENABle part determines whether the associated EVENt bit contributes to the
sum bit (see below). Each bit of the EVENt part is "ANDed" with the associated
ENABle bit (symbol '&'). The results of all logical operations of this part are passed
on to the sum bit via an "OR" function (symbol '+').
ENABle bit = 0: the associated EVENt bit does not contribute to the sum bit
ENABle bit = 1: if the associated EVENt bit is "1", the sum bit is set to "1" as well.
This part can be written into and read by the user as required. Its contents are not
affected by reading.
Sum bit
The sum bit is obtained from the EVENt and ENABle part for each register. The result is
then entered into a bit of the CONDition part of the higher-order register.
The instrument automatically generates the sum bit for each register. Thus an event can
lead to a service request throughout all levels of the hierarchy.
8.1.6.3
Contents of the Status Register
This chapter provides information on the contents of each status register the meaning for
all bits that are used available for each operating mode.
Status Registers in Receiver Mode
This chapter contains the description of the registers and bits specific to spectrum mode.
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Fig. 8-3: Overview of status registers in receiver mode
Status Byte (STB) and Service Request Enable Register (SRE)
The STatus Byte (STB) is already defined in IEEE 488.2. It provides a rough overview
of the instrument status by collecting the pieces of information of the lower registers. A
special feature is that bit 6 acts as the sum bit of the remaining bits of the status byte.
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The STB can thus be compared with the CONDition part of an SCPI register and
assumes the highest level within the SCPI hierarchy.
The STB is read using the command ​*STB?​ or a serial poll.
The STatus Byte (STB) is linked to the Service Request Enable (SRE) register.
Each bit of the STB is assigned a bit in the SRE. Bit 6 of the SRE is ignored. If a bit is set
in the SRE and the associated bit in the STB changes from 0 to 1, a service request
(SRQ) is generated. The SRE can be set using the command ​*SRE​ and read using the
command *SRE?.
Table 8-3: Meaning of the bits used in the status byte
Bit No.
Meaning
0...1
Not used
2
Error Queue not empty
The bit is set when an entry is made in the error queue. If this bit is enabled by the SRE, each
entry of the error queue generates a service request. Thus an error can be recognized and specified in greater detail by polling the error queue. The poll provides an informative error message.
This procedure is to be recommended since it considerably reduces the problems involved with
remote control.
3
QUEStionable status register summary bit
The bit is set if an EVENt bit is set in the QUEStionable status register and the associated
ENABle bit is set to 1. A set bit indicates a questionable instrument status, which can be specified
in greater detail by querying the STATus:QUEStionable status register.
4
MAV bit (message available)
The bit is set if a message is available in the output queue which can be read. This bit can be used
to enable data to be automatically read from the instrument to the controller.
5
ESB bit
Sum bit of the event status register. It is set if one of the bits in the event status register is set and
enabled in the event status enable register. Setting of this bit indicates a serious error which can
be specified in greater detail by polling the event status register.
6
MSS bit (master status summary bit)
The bit is set if the instrument triggers a service request. This is the case if one of the other bits of
this registers is set together with its mask bit in the service request enable register SRE.
7
STATus:OPERation status register summary bit
The bit is set if an EVENt bit is set in the OPERation status register and the associated
ENABle bit is set to 1. A set bit indicates that the instrument is just performing an action. The type
of action can be determined by querying the STATus:OPERation status register.
IST Flag and Parallel Poll Enable Register (PPE)
As with the SRQ, the IST flag combines the entire status information in a single bit. It can
be read by means of a parallel poll (see ​"Parallel Poll" on page 428) or using the command ​*IST?​.
The parallel poll enable register (PPE) determines which bits of the STB contribute to the
IST flag. The bits of the STB are "ANDed" with the corresponding bits of the PPE, with
bit 6 being used as well in contrast to the SRE. The IST flag results from the "ORing" of
all results. The PPE can be set using commands ​*PRE​ and read using command *PRE?.
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Event Status Register (ESR) and Event Status Enable Register (ESE)
The Event Status Register (ESR) is the source for the registers on the highest levels and
is similar to the EVENt part of a SCPI register. It is defined by IEEE 488.2. You can read
out the ESR with ​*ESR?​.
The corresponding ENABle part of the ESR is the Event Status Enable mask register
(ESE). The ESE is directly linked to the ESR. You can control the ESE with ​*ESE​.
Table 8-4: Meaning of the bits used in the event status register
Bit No.
Meaning
0
Operation Complete
This bit is set on receipt of the command *OPC exactly when all previous commands have been
executed.
1
Unused
2
Query Error
This bit is set if either the controller wants to read data from the instrument without having sent a
query, or if it does not fetch requested data and sends new instructions to the instrument instead.
The cause is often a query which is faulty and hence cannot be executed.
3
Device-dependent Error
This bit is set if a device-dependent error occurs.
The R&S ESR adds a number to the error queue. The number is either in the range between -300
and -399 or greater than 0. If the number is positive, it indicates the error type in greater detail.
4
Execution Error
This bit is set if a received command is syntactically correct but cannot be performed for other
reasons. An error message with a number between -200 and -300, which denotes the error in
greater detail, is entered into the error queue.
5
Command Error
This bit is set if a remote command is undefined or has a incorrect syntax.
The R&S ESR adds a number to the error queue. The number is in the range between -100 and
-200 and indicates the error type in greater detail.
6
User Request
This bit is set when you press the "Local" softkey.
7
Power On (supply voltage on)
This bit is set when you turn on the instrument.
STATus:OPERation Register
The STATus:OPERation register contains information about actions the R&S ESR is
currently executing. It also contains information about the actions the R&S ESR has executed since the last reading.
You can read out the state of the register with ​STATus:​OPERation:​CONDition?​ or ​
STATus:​OPERation[:​EVENt]?​.
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Table 8-5: Meaning of the bits used in the STATus:OPERation register
Bit No.
Meaning
0
CALibrating
This bit is set as long as the instrument is performing a calibration.
1 to 7
Not used
8
HardCOPy in progress
This bit is set while the instrument is printing a hardcopy.
9
SCAN results available
This bit is set when a block of scan results is available.
Note that this function must be enabled by TRACe:FEED:CONTol ALWays.
10
Sweep Break
This bit is set when the end of a scan range is reached.
To proceed, you have to use the INITiate:CONMeas command.
11
Not used
12
Threshold signal active
13 to 14
Not used
15
This bit is always 0.
STATus:QUEStionable Register
The STATus:QUEStionable register contains information about states that may occur if
the R&S ESR is operated without meeting the specifications.
You can read out the state of the register with ​STATus:​QUEStionable:​CONDition?​
and ​STATus:​QUEStionable[:​EVENt]?​.
Table 8-6: Meaning of the bits used in the STATus:QUEStionable register
Bit No.
Meaning
0-2
These bits are not used
3
POWer
This bit is set if a questionable power occurs (see ​"STATus:QUEStionable:POWer Register"
on page 423).
4
TEMPerature
This bit is set if a questionable temperature occurs.
5
FREQuency
The bit is set if a frequency is questionable (see ​"STATus:QUEStionable:FREQuency Register"
on page 421).
6-7
Not used
8
CALibration
The bit is set if a measurement is performed unaligned ("UNCAL" display)
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Bit No.
Meaning
9
LIMit (device-specific)
This bit is set if a limit value is violated (see ​"STATus:QUEStionable:LIMit Register"
on page 421)
10
LMARgin (device-specific)
This bit is set if a margin is violated (see ​"STATus:QUEStionable:LMARgin Register"
on page 422)
11
Not used
12
ACPLimit (device-specific)
This bit is set if a limit for the adjacent channel power measurement is violated (see ​"STATus:QUEStionable:ACPLimit Register" on page 426)
13 to 14
Not used
15
This bit is always 0.
STATus:QUEStionable:FREQuency Register
The STATus:QUEStionable:FREQuency register contains information about the condition of the local oscillator and the reference frequency.
You can read out the register with ​STATus:​QUEStionable:​FREQuency:​
CONDition?​ or ​STATus:​QUEStionable:​FREQuency[:​EVENt]?​.
Table 8-7: Meaning of the bits used in the STATus:QUEStionable:FREQuency register
Bit No.
Meaning
0
OVEN COLD
This bit is set if the reference oscillator has not yet attained its operating temperature. "OCXO" is
displayed.
1
LO UNLocked
This bit is set if the local oscillator no longer locks. "LOUNL" is displayed.
2 to 7
Unused
8
EXTernalREFerence
This bit is set if you have selected an external reference oscillator but did not connect a useable
external reference source.
In that case the synthesizer can not lock. The frequency in all probability is not accurate.
9 to 14
Unused
15
This bit is always 0.
STATus:QUEStionable:LIMit Register
The STATus:QUEStionable:LIMit register contains information about the results of a limit
check when you are working with limit lines.
The number of LIMit registers depends on the number of measurement windows available
in any operating mode.
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You can read out the register with ​STATus:​QUEStionable:​LIMit<n>:​
CONDition?​ or ​STATus:​QUEStionable:​LIMit<n>[:​EVENt]?​.
Table 8-8: Meaning of the bits used in the STATus:QUEStionable:LIMit register
Bit No.
Meaning
0
LIMit 1 FAIL
This bit is set if limit line 1 is violated.
1
LIMit 2 FAIL
This bit is set if limit line 2 is violated.
2
LIMit 3 FAIL
This bit is set if limit line 3 is violated.
3
LIMit 4 FAIL
This bit is set if limit line 4 is violated.
4
LIMit 5 FAIL
This bit is set if limit line 5 is violated.
5
LIMit 6 FAIL
This bit is set if limit line 6 is violated.
6
LIMit 7 FAIL
This bit is set if limit line 7 is violated.
7
LIMit 8 FAIL
This bit is set if limit line 8 is violated.
8 to 14
Unused
15
This bit is always 0.
STATus:QUEStionable:LMARgin Register
This register contains information about the observance of limit margins.
You can read out the register with ​STATus:​QUEStionable:​LMARgin<n>:​
CONDition?​ or ​STATus:​QUEStionable:​LMARgin<n>[:​EVENt]?​.
Table 8-9: Meaning of the bits used in the STATus:QUEStionable:LMARgin register
Bit No.
Meaning
0
LMARgin 1 FAIL
This bit is set if limit margin 1 is violated.
1
LMARgin 2 FAIL
This bit is set if limit margin 2 is violated.
2
LMARgin 3 FAIL
This bit is set if limit margin 3 is violated.
3
LMARgin 4 FAIL
This bit is set if limit margin 4 is violated.
4
LMARgin 5 FAIL
This bit is set if limit margin 5 is violated.
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Bit No.
Meaning
5
LMARgin 6 FAIL
This bit is set if limit margin 6 is violated.
6
LMARgin 7 FAIL
This bit is set if limit margin 7 is violated.
7
LMARgin 8 FAIL
This bit is set if limit margin 8 is violated.
8 to 14
Not used
15
This bit is always 0.
STATus:QUEStionable:POWer Register
The STATus:QUEStionable:POWer register contains information about possible overload situations that may occur during operation of the R&S ESR.
You can read out the registers with ​STATus:​QUEStionable:​POWer:​CONDition?​ or ​
STATus:​QUEStionable:​POWer[:​EVENt]?​.
Table 8-10: Meaning of the bits used in the STATus:QUEStionable:POWer register
Bit No.
Meaning
0
OVERload
This bit is set if an overload occurs at the RF input.
The R&S ESR displays the enhancement label "OVLD".
1
UNDerload
This bit is set if an underload occurs at the RF input.
The R&S ESR displays the enhancement label "UNLD".
2
IF_OVerload
This bit is set if an overload occurs in the IF path.
The R&S ESR displays the enhancement label "IFOVL".
3 to 14
Unused
15
This bit is always 0.
Status Registers in Spectrum Mode
This chapter contains the description of the registers and bits specific to spectrum mode.
For a comprehensive description of the other status registers see ​"Status Registers in
Receiver Mode" on page 416.
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Fig. 8-4: Overview of status registers in spectrum mode
STATus:OPERation Register
The STATus:OPERation register contains information on current activities of the
R&S ESR. It also contains information on activities that have been executed since the
last read out.
You can read out the register with ​STATus:​OPERation:​CONDition?​ or ​STATus:​
OPERation[:​EVENt]?​.
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Table 8-11: Meaning of the bits used in the STATus:OPERation register
Bit No.
Meaning
0
CALibrating
This bit is set as long as the instrument is performing a calibration.
1-2
Not used
3
SWEeping
Sweep is being performed; identical to bit 4
4
MEASuring
Measurement is being performed; identical to bit 3
5
Waiting for TRIgger
Instrument is ready to trigger and waiting for trigger signal
6-7
Not used
8
HardCOPy in progress
This bit is set while the instrument is printing a hardcopy.
9
Not used
10
Stop after Range
This bit is set when a range in the sweep list has been completed if "Stop after Range" has been
activated.
11-14
Not used
15
This bit is always 0.
STATus:QUEStionable Register
The STATus:QUEStionable register contains information on instrument states that do not
meet the specifications.
You can read out the register with ​STATus:​QUEStionable:​CONDition?​ or ​
STATus:​QUEStionable[:​EVENt]?​.
Table 8-12: Meaning of the bits used in the STATus:QUEStionable register
Bit No.
Meaning
0-2
Unused
3
POWer
This bit is set if the measured power level is questionable.
The ​STATus:QUEStionable:POWer Register provides more information on the error type.
4
TEMPerature
This bit is set if the temperature is questionable.
5
FREQuency
This bit is set if there is anything wrong with the frequency of the local oscillator or the reference
frequency.
The ​STATus:QUEStionable:FREQuency Register provides more information on the error type.
6-7
Unused
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Bit No.
Meaning
8
CALibration
This bit is set if the R&S ESR is unaligned ("UNCAL" display)
9
LIMit (device-specific)
This bit is set if a limit value is violated.
The ​STATus:QUEStionable:LIMit Register provides more information on the error type.
10
LMARgin (device-specific)
This bit is set if a margin is violated.
The ​STATus:QUEStionable:LMARgin Register provides more information on the error type.
11
Not used
12
ACPLimit (device-specific)
This bit is set if a limit during ACLR measurements is violated.
The ​STATus:QUEStionable:ACPLimit Register provides more information on the error type.
13 - 14
Not used
15
This bit is always 0.
STATus:QUEStionable:ACPLimit Register
The STATus:QUEStionable:ACPLimit register contains information about the results of
a limit check during ACLR measurements.
You can read out the register with ​STATus:​QUEStionable:​ACPLimit:​
CONDition?​ or ​STATus:​QUEStionable:​ACPLimit[:​EVENt]?​.
Table 8-13: Meaning of the bits used in the STATus:QUEStionable:ACPLimit register
Bit No.
Meaning
0
ADJ UPPer FAIL
This bit is set if the limit is exceeded in the upper adjacent channel
1
ADJ LOWer FAIL
This bit is set if the limit is exceeded in the lower adjacent channel.
2
ALT1 UPPer FAIL
This bit is set if the limit is exceeded in the upper 1st alternate channel.
3
ALT1 LOWer FAIL
This bit is set if the limit is exceeded in the lower 1st alternate channel.
4
ALT2 UPPer FAIL
This bit is set if the limit is exceeded in the upper 2nd alternate channel.
5
ALT2 LOWer FAIL
This bit is set if the limit is exceeded in the lower 2nd alternate channel.
6
ALT3 … 11 LOWer/UPPer FAIL
This bit is set if the limit is exceeded in one of the lower or upper alternate channels 3 … 11.
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8.1.6.4
Bit No.
Meaning
7 to 14
Unused
15
This bit is always 0.
Application of the Status Reporting System
The purpose of the status reporting system is to monitor the status of one or several
devices in a measuring system. To do this and react appropriately, the controller must
receive and evaluate the information of all devices. The following standard methods are
used:
●
Service request (SRQ) initiated by the instrument
●
Serial poll of all devices in the bus system, initiated by the controller in order to find
out who sent a SRQ and why
●
Parallel poll of all devices
●
Query of a specific instrument status by means of commands
●
Query of the error queue
Service Request
Use of the command *OPC to generate an SRQ at the end of a sweep
1. CALL InstrWrite(analyzer, "*ESE 1") 'Set bit 0 in the ESE (Operation
Complete)
2. CALL InstrWrite(analyzer, "*SRE 32") 'Set bit 5 in the SRE (ESB)
3. CALL InstrWrite(analyzer, "*INIT;*OPC") ' Generate an SRQ after operation complete
After its settings have been completed, the instrument generates an SRQ.
The SRQ is the only possibility for the instrument to become active on its own. Each
controller program should cause the instrument to initiate a service request if errors occur.
The program should react appropriately to the service request.
A detailed example for a service request routine can be found in ​chapter 8.15.1, "Service
Request", on page 744.
Serial Poll
In a serial poll, just as with command *STB, the status byte of an instrument is queried.
However, the query is realized via interface messages and is thus clearly faster.
The serial poll method is defined in IEEE 488.1 and used to be the only standard possibility for different instruments to poll the status byte. The method also works for instruments which do not adhere to SCPI or IEEE 488.2.
The serial poll is mainly used to obtain a fast overview of the state of several instruments
connected to the controller.
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Parallel Poll
In a parallel poll, up to eight instruments are simultaneously requested by the controller
using a single command to transmit 1 bit of information each on the data lines, i.e., to set
the data line allocated to each instrument to a logical "0" or "1".
In addition to the SRE register, which determines the conditions under which an SRQ is
generated, there is a Parallel Poll Enable register (PPE) which is ANDed with the STB
bit by bit, considering bit 6 as well. This register is ANDed with the STB bit by bit, considering bit 6 as well. The results are ORed, the result is possibly inverted and then sent
as a response to the parallel poll of the controller. The result can also be queried without
parallel poll using the command ​*IST?​.
The instrument first has to be set for the parallel poll using the command PPC. This command allocates a data line to the instrument and determines whether the response is to
be inverted. The parallel poll itself is executed using PPE.
The parallel poll method is mainly used to find out quickly which one of the instruments
connected to the controller has sent a service request. To this effect, SRE and PPE must
be set to the same value.
Query of an instrument status
Each part of any status register can be read using queries. There are two types of commands:
●
The common commands *ESR?, *IDN?, *IST?, *STB? query the higher-level registers.
●
The commands of the STATus system query the SCPI registers
(STATus:QUEStionable...)
The returned value is always a decimal number that represents the bit pattern of the
queried register. This number is evaluated by the controller program.
Queries are usually used after an SRQ in order to obtain more detailed information on
the cause of the SRQ.
Decimal representation of a bit pattern
The STB and ESR registers contain 8 bits, the SCPI registers 16 bits. The contents of a
status register are specified and transferred as a single decimal number. To make this
possible, each bit is assigned a weighted value. The decimal number is calculated as the
sum of the weighted values of all bits in the register that are set to 1.
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Example:
The decimal value 40 = 32 + 8 indicates that bits no. 3 and 5 in the status register (e.g.
the QUEStionable status summary bit and the ESB bit in the STatus Byte ) are set.
Error Queue
Each error state in the instrument leads to an entry in the error queue. The entries of the
error queue are detailed plain text error messages that can be looked up in the Error Log
or queried via remote control using SYSTem:ERRor[:NEXT]? or
SYSTem:ERRor:ALL?. Each call of SYSTem:ERRor[:NEXT]? provides one entry from
the error queue. If no error messages are stored there any more, the instrument responds
with 0, "No error".
The error queue should be queried after every SRQ in the controller program as the
entries describe the cause of an error more precisely than the status registers. Especially
in the test phase of a controller program the error queue should be queried regularly since
faulty commands from the controller to the instrument are recorded there as well.
8.1.6.5
Reset Values of the Status Reporting System
The following table contains the different commands and events causing the status
reporting system to be reset. None of the commands, except ​*RST​ and
SYSTem:PRESet, influence the functional instrument settings. In particular, DCL does
not change the instrument settings.
Table 8-14: Resetting the status reporting system
Event
Switching on supply
voltage
Power-On-StatusClear
DCL, SDC *RST or
STA*CLS
SYSTus:PRE(Device
Tem:PRE- Set
Clear,
Selected Set
Effect
0
1
Device
Clear)
Clear STB, ESR
-
yes
-
-
-
yes
Clear SRE, ESE
-
yes
-
-
-
-
Clear PPE
-
yes
-
-
-
-
Clear EVENt parts of the registers
-
yes
-
-
-
yes
Clear ENABle parts of all
OPERation and QUEStionable
registers;
-
yes
-
-
yes
-
-
yes
-
-
yes
-
Clear error queue
yes
yes
-
-
-
yes
Clear output buffer
yes
yes
yes
1)
1)
1)
Fill ENABle parts of all other registers with "1".
Fill PTRansition parts with "1";
Clear NTRansition parts
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Event
Effect
Switching on supply
voltage
Power-On-StatusClear
DCL, SDC *RST or
STA*CLS
SYSTus:PRE(Device
Tem:PRE- Set
Clear,
Selected Set
0
1
Device
Clear)
yes
yes
Clear command processing and yes
input buffer
-
-
-
1) The first command in a command line that immediately follows a <PROGRAM MESSAGE TERMINATOR>
clears the output buffer.
8.1.7 General Programming Recommendations
Initial instrument status before changing settings
Manual operation is designed for maximum possible operating convenience. In contrast,
the priority of remote control is the "predictability" of the instrument status. Thus, when a
command attempts to define incompatible settings, the command is ignored and the
instrument status remains unchanged, i.e. other settings are not automatically adapted.
Therefore, control programs should always define an initial instrument status (e.g. using
the *RST command) and then implement the required settings.
Command sequence
As a general rule, send commands and queries in different program messages. Otherwise, the result of the query may vary depending on which operation is performed first
(see also Preventing Overlapping Execution).
Reacting to malfunctions
The service request is the only possibility for the instrument to become active on its own.
Each controller program should instruct the instrument to initiate a service request in case
of malfunction. The program should react appropriately to the service request.
Error queues
The error queue should be queried after every service request in the controller program
as the entries describe the cause of an error more precisely than the status registers.
Especially in the test phase of a controller program the error queue should be queried
regularly since faulty commands from the controller to the instrument are recorded there
as well.
8.1.8 The IECWIN Tool
The R&S ESR is delivered with IECWIN installed, an auxiliary tool provided free of charge
by R&S. IECWIN is a program to send SCPI commands to a measuring instrument either
interactively or from a command script.
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The R&S IECWIN32 tool is provided free of charge. The functionality may change in a
future version without notice.
IECWIN offers the following features:
●
Connection to instrument via several interfaces/protocols (GPIB, VISA, named pipe
(if IECWIN is run on the instrument itself), RSIB)
●
Interactive command entry
●
Browsing available commands on the instrument
●
Error checking following every command
●
Execution of command scripts
●
Storing binary data to a file
●
Reading binary data from a file
●
Generation of a log file
For command scripts, IECWIN offers the following features:
●
Synchronization with the instrument on every command
●
Checking expected result for query commands (as string or numeric value)
●
Checking for expected errors codes
●
Optional pause on error
●
Nested command scripts
●
Single step mode
●
Conditional execution, based on the *IDN and *OPT strings
You can use the IECWIN to try out the programming examples provided in the R&S ESR
User Manuals.
Starting IECWIN
IECWIN is available from the Windows task bar on the R&S ESR, or by executing the
following file:
You can also copy the program to any Windows PC or laptop. Simply copy the
iecwin32.exe, iecwin.chm and rsib32.dll files from the location above to the
same folder on the target computer.
When the tool is started, a "Connection settings" dialog box is displayed. Define the connection from the computer the IECWIN tool is installed on to the R&S ESR you want to
control. If you are using the tool directly on the R&S ESR, you can use an NT Pipe (COM
Parser) connection, which requires no further configuration. For help on setting up other
connection types, check the tool's online help (by clicking the "Help" button in the dialog
box).
The IECWIN offers an online help with extensive information on how to work with the tool.
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Selecting the Operating Mode
8.2 Selecting the Operating Mode
INSTrument:​CREate[:​NEW]​............................................................................................432
INSTrument:​DELete​.......................................................................................................432
INSTrument[:​SELect]​......................................................................................................433
INSTrument:CREate[:NEW] <ChannelType>, <ChannelName>
This command adds an additional spectrum display. You can add up to three additional
spectrum displays.
Also see
●
​INSTrument[:​SELect]​ on page 433
●
​INSTrument:​DELete​ on page 432
●
Remote program example: ​chapter 8.15.16, "Usage of Four Spectrum Instances",
on page 782
Parameters:
<ChannelType>
<ChannelName>
SANalyzer
The channel type is always SANalyzer to indicate that you add
a new spectrum display.
Sets the name of the additional spectrum display.
Spectrum 2 | Spectrum 3 | Spectrum 4
The names of the spectrum displays you add have to be
Spectrum 2 for the second spectrum display, Spectrum 3 for
the third and Spectrum 4 for the fourth.
Example:
INST:CRE SAN, Spectrum 2
Adds a second spectrum display.
INSTrument:DELete <ChannelName>
This command deletes a spectrum display.
Also see
●
​INSTrument:​CREate[:​NEW]​ on page 432
●
Remote program example: ​chapter 8.15.16, "Usage of Four Spectrum Instances",
on page 782
Parameters:
<ChannelName>
Selects the spectrum display you want to delete.
Spectrum 2 | Spectrum 3 | Spectrum 4
A spectrum display must exist in order to be able delete it.
Example:
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INST:DEL Spectrum 4
Deletes the fourth spectrum display.
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INSTrument[:SELect] <Mode> | <ChannelName>
This command activates a new measurement channel with the defined channel type, or
selects an existing measurement channel with the specified name.
●
​INSTrument:​CREate[:​NEW]​ on page 432
●
Remote program example: ​chapter 8.15.16, "Usage of Four Spectrum Instances",
on page 782
Parameters:
<Mode>
RECeiver
Receiver mode
RTIMe
Realtime mode
SANalyzer
Spectrum mode
Spectrum 2 | Spectrum 3 | Spectrum 4
Selects one of the additional spectrum displays. The first spectrum
display is always active. You can select it with SANalyzer.
A spectrum display must exist in order to be able to select it.
*RST:
SANalyzer
8.3 Remote Commands in Receiver Mode
The following remote commands configure and perform EMI measurements. They are
available in receiver mode only.
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
Measurements and Result Displays......................................................................433
Defining the Frequency.........................................................................................444
Configuring the Vertical Axis.................................................................................446
Selecting the Bandwidth........................................................................................448
Controlling Inputs and Outputs..............................................................................450
Test Automation....................................................................................................450
Working with Markers............................................................................................464
Limit Lines.............................................................................................................478
8.3.1 Measurements and Result Displays
●
●
●
●
●
●
Bargraph Control...................................................................................................434
Scan Control.........................................................................................................436
Final Measurements and Automated Test Sequence Control..............................437
Trace Data and Result Query...............................................................................439
Fixed Frequency Scans........................................................................................442
Demodulating Analog Signals...............................................................................442
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8.3.1.1
Bargraph Control
DISPlay:​BARGraph:​LEVel:​LOWer??​................................................................................434
DISPlay:​BARGraph:​LEVel:​UPPer?​..................................................................................434
DISPlay:​BARGraph:​PHOLd​............................................................................................434
DISPlay:​BARGraph:​PHOLd:​RESet​..................................................................................434
DISPlay:​BARGraph:​TCOupling​........................................................................................434
[SENSe:​]DETector:​RECeiver[:​FUNCtion]​..........................................................................435
[SENSe:​]SWEep:​TIME​...................................................................................................435
DISPlay:BARGraph:LEVel:LOWer??
This command queries the minimum level of the bargraph.
Example:
:DISP:BARG:LEV:LOW?
Usage:
Query only
DISPlay:BARGraph:LEVel:UPPer?
This command queries the maximum level of the bargraph.
Example:
:DISP:BARG:LEV:UPP?
Usage:
Query only
DISPlay:BARGraph:PHOLd <State>
This command switches the indication of the maxhold value of the bar graph measurement on or off.
Parameters:
<State>
ON
OFF
*RST:
Example:
OFF
:DISP:BARG:PHOL ON
DISPlay:BARGraph:PHOLd:RESet
This command resets the maxhold value of the numeric indication of the bar graph measurement.
Example:
:DISP:BARG:PHOL:RES
Usage:
Event
DISPlay:BARGraph:TCOupling <State>
This command couples or decouples the bargraph detector and scan trace detector.
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Parameters:
<State>
ON | OFF
*RST:
Example:
OFF
DISP:BARG:TCO ON
Couples the type and color of bargraph and scan trace.
[SENSe:]DETector:RECeiver[:FUNCtion] <Detector>, [<Detector>, <Detector>]
This command selects the detector for the bargraph measurement.
Parameters:
<Detector>,
[<Detector>,
<Detector>]
You can select up to three detectors, one for each active bargraph.
AVERage
Selects the Average detector.
CAVerage
Selects the CISPR Average detector.
CRMS
Selects the CISPR RMS detector.
NEGative
Selects the Min Peak detector.
POSitive
Selects the Max Peak detector.
QPEak
Selects the Quasipeak detector.
RMS
Selects the RMS detector.
*RST:
Example:
AVERage
DET:REC POS,AVER,QPE
Selects the peak, average and quasipeak detectors.
[SENSe:]SWEep:TIME <Time>
This command defines the measurement or acquisition time for bargraph measurements,
scans and CISPR APD measurements.
Parameters:
<Time>
Example:
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Range:
10 µs to 100 s
SWE:TIME 10s
Defines a measurement time of 10 s.
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8.3.1.2
Scan Control
ABORt ​.........................................................................................................................436
HOLD​...........................................................................................................................436
INITiate<n>:​CONMeas​...................................................................................................436
INITiate<n>:​CONTinuous​................................................................................................436
INITiate<n>[:​IMMediate]​..................................................................................................437
ABORt
This command stops a measurement and resets the trigger system.
Example:
ABOR;INIT:IMM
Aborts the measurement and restarts it.
Usage:
SCPI confirmed
HOLD
This command interrupts a running scan measurement.
To resume the scan, use ​INITiate<n>[:​IMMediate]​.
Example:
HOLD
Interrupts the scan.
INITiate<n>:CONMeas
This command resumes a scan that was interrupted by a transducer stop at the current
reciever frequency.
If the scan was interrupted by the ​HOLD​ command, you have to resume it with ​
INITiate<n>[:​IMMediate]​ on page 437.
Example:
INIT2:CONT OFF
Selects single scan mode.
SWE:COUN 20
Forms an average over 20 scans.
INIT2;*WAI
Starts the measurement and waits for the end of the 20 scans.
INIT2:CONM;*WAI
Continues the measurement (next 20 sequences) and waits for
the end.
Usage:
Event
INITiate<n>:CONTinuous <State>
This command turns single measurements on and off.
The measurement starts immediately.
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Parameters:
<State>
ON
Continuous measurements.
OFF
Single measurements.
Example:
INIT2:CONT OFF
Turns on a single measurement.
INITiate<n>[:IMMediate]
The command initiates a new measurement.
In case of a single measurement, the R&S ESR stops measuring when it has reached
the end frequency. When you start a continuous measurement, it stops only if you abort
it deliberately.
If you are using trace modes MAXHold, MINHold and AVERage, previous results are
reset when you restart the measurement.
In single sweep mode, you can synchronize to the end of the measurement with *OPC,
*OPC? or *WAI. In continuous sweep mode, synchronization to the end of the measurement is not possible. Thus, it is not recommended that you use continuous sweep mode
in remote control, as results like trace data or markers are only valid after a single sweep
end synchronization.
8.3.1.3
Example:
INIT2:CONT OFF
Selects single measurement mode.
SWE:COUN 20
Forms an average over 20 measurements.
INIT2;*WAI
Starts the measurement and waits for the end of the complete
measurement.
Usage:
Event
Final Measurements and Automated Test Sequence Control
INITiate<n>:​EMITest​......................................................................................................437
INITiate<n>:​FMEasurement​............................................................................................438
[SENSe:​]DETector<t>:​FMEasurement​..............................................................................438
[SENSe:​]FMEasurement:​AUTO​.......................................................................................438
[SENSe:​]FMEasurement:​TIME​........................................................................................439
INITiate<n>:EMITest
This command initiates an automated test sequence.
The sequence consists of a scan, a peak search and a final measurement.
Example:
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INIT2:EMIT
Starts the test sequence.
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Usage:
Event
INITiate<n>:FMEasurement
This command initiates a final measurement based on the peak list.
Example:
INIT2:FME
Starts the final measurement.
Usage:
Event
[SENSe:]DETector<t>:FMEasurement <Detector>
This command selects the detector for the final measurement.
Parameters:
<Detector>
AVERage
Selects the Average detector.
CAVerage
Selects the CISPR Average detector.
CRMS
Selects the CISPR RMS detector.
NEGative
Selects the Min Peak detector.
POSitive
Selects the Max Peak detector.
QPEak
Selects the Quasipeak detector.
RMS
Selects the RMS detector.
*RST:
Example:
QPEak
DET:FME POS
[SENSe:]FMEasurement:AUTO <State>
This command turns automatic final measurements on and off.
Parameters:
<State>
ON
Turns on automatic final measurement.
OFF
Turns on interactive final measurement.
*RST:
Example:
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ON
FME:AUTO ON
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[SENSe:]FMEasurement:TIME <Time>
This command defines the time each frequency in the peak list is measured during the
final measurement.
Parameters:
<Time>
Example:
8.3.1.4
*RST:
1s
FME:TIME 1us
Defines a measurement time of 1 µs.
Trace Data and Result Query
This section contains information on the TRACe:DATA command and a detailed description of the characteristics of that command. Basically, the command queries the results
of the current measurement. The command supports various SCPI parameters in combination with the query. Each SCPI parameter returns a different aspect of the measurement.
The format of the return values is either in ASCII or binary characters and depends on
the format you have set with ​FORMat[:​DATA]​ on page 616.
Querying trace data
The SCPI parameters TRACE1 | ... | TRACE6 return the trace data for the corresponding
trace.
Example:
TRAC? TRACE1
The number of results depends on the currently selected number of sweep points. For
each sweep point, the command returns one level value. The unit depends on the measurement and on the unit you have currently set.
The trace has to be active for the command to work.
Querying bargraph results
The SCPI parameters SINGLE and PHOLD return the results of the bargraph measurement.
SINGLE returns the current bargraph results for each active bargraph detector.
The order of detectors is as shown in the user interface: maximum peak, minimum peak,
quasipeak, average, RMS. Inactive detectors are ignored.
Example:
TRAC? SINGLE
PHOLD returns the bargraph maxhold results for each active bargraph detector.
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Each result is made up out of two values:
●
Absolute level
●
Frequency
The order of detectors is as shown in the user interface: maximum peak, minimum peak,
quasipeak, average, RMS. Inactive detectors are ignored.
Example:
TRAC? PHOLD
Querying scan characteristics
The SCPI parameter SCAN returns the scan characteristics while the scan is running.
The amount of returned results depends on the scan settings.
The type of returned data is as follows:
●
4 byte, trace status:
➙ bit 0 to 9 represent the subscan
➙ bit 10 represents the last block of a subscan
➙ bit 11 represents the last block of the last subscan
➙ bit 12 represents the last of all blocks (for multiple scans after the last scan)
●
4 byte, number n of measurement results contained in one trace
●
4 byte, bit 0 represents the state of trace 1 (0/1)
●
4 byte, bit 0 represents the state of trace 2 (0/1)
●
4 byte, bit 0 represents the state of trace 3 (0/1)
●
4 byte, bit 0 represents the state of trace 4 (0/1)
Note:
If more than 4 traces are active, the state of trace 5 and 6 is indicated by an additional
bit (bit 8) in the UINT32 field of trace 1 and 2.
●
n*4 byte, measurement results for trace 1; only if trace 1 is active
●
n*4 byte, measurement results for trace 2; only if trace 2 is active
●
n*4 byte, measurement results for trace 3; only if trace 3 is active
●
n*4 byte, measurement results for trace 4; only if trace 4 is active
●
n*4 byte, measurement results for trace 5; only if trace 5 is active
●
n*4 byte, measurement results for trace 6; only if trace 6 is active
●
n*1 byte, status information for each measurement result
➙ bit 2 represents overrange for trace 1 to trace 6
The data is always returned in binary format (​FORM REAL,32).
Note that the SCAN parameter only works while the scan is actually running.
Example:
TRAC? SCAN
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Querying results for a peak search
The SCPI parameters PLIST1 | ... | PLIST6 returns the results of a peak search for a
particular trace or detector (1 to 6).
Each result is made up out of three values:
●
4 byte, frequency
●
4 byte, absolute level
●
4 byte, Delta between absolute level and limit line value at corresponding frequency
If no limit line is active, the delta value is set to 0.0
The trace has to be active for the command to work.
Example:
TRAC? PLIST3
Querying results for the final measurement
The SCPI parameters FINAL1 | ... | FINAL6 return the results of the final measurement
for a particular trace or detector (1 to 6).
Each result is made up out of three values:
●
4 byte, frequency
●
4 byte, absolute level
●
4 byte, Delta between absolute level and limit line value at corresponding frequency
If no limit line is active, the delta value is set to 0.0
The trace has to be active for the command to work.
Querying the status of the measurement results
The SCPI parameter STATUS returns the status information for each measurement result.
Thus, the number of returned values depends on the number of measurement results n.
For each measurement result, the parameter queries 1 byte of status information.
➙ bit 2 represents overrange for trace 1 to trace 6
Note that the SCAN parameter only works while the scan is actually running.
Example:
TRAC? STATUS
TRACe[:DATA] <ResultType>
This command queries current trace data and measurement results.
The data format depends on FORMat[:DATA].
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Query parameters:
<Trace>
TRACE1 | ... | TRACE6
See ​"Querying trace data" on page 439.
FINAL1 | ... | FINAL6
See ​"Querying results for the final measurement" on page 441.
PLIST1 | ... | PLIST6
See ​"Querying results for a peak search" on page 441.
PHOLD
See ​"Querying bargraph results" on page 439.
SCAN
See ​"Querying scan characteristics" on page 440.
SINGLE
See ​"Querying bargraph results" on page 439.
STATUS
See ​"Querying scan characteristics" on page 440.
Return values:
<TraceData>
Example:
8.3.1.5
For more information see tables below.
TRAC? TRACE1
Queries the level for each trace point of trace 1.
Fixed Frequency Scans
Commands useful to configure the fixed frequency scans described elsewhere:
●
​[SENSe:​]FREQuency:​MODE​ on page 445
[SENSe:​]SCAN:​TDOMain​...............................................................................................442
[SENSe:]SCAN:TDOMain <Time>
This command defines the measurement time for fixed frequency scans.
Parameters:
<Time>
Measurement time in seconds.
The range indicated eblow is the maximum range. The actual
range depends on the measurement time defined with ​[SENSe:​
]SWEep:​TIME​ on page 435.
Range:
Example:
8.3.1.6
10 ms to 10000 s
SCAN:TDOM 100 s
Defines a measurement time of 100 s.
Demodulating Analog Signals
[SENSe:​]DEMod​............................................................................................................443
[SENSe:​]DEMod:​SQUelch:​LEVel​.....................................................................................443
[SENSe:​]DEMod:​SQUelch[:​STATe]​.................................................................................443
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[SENSe:]DEMod <Demod>
This command turns analog demodulation at the receiver frequency on and off and
selects the type of analog demodulation.
Parameters:
<Demod>
OFF
Turns demodulation off.
AM
Turns AM demodulation on.
FM
Turns FM demodulation on.
*RST:
Example:
OFF
DEM FM
Turns FM demodulation on.
[SENSe:]DEMod:SQUelch:LEVel <Threshold>
This command defines the threshold for selective demodulation. Squelching must be
active for this command to work (see ​[SENSe:​]DEMod:​SQUelch[:​STATe]​).
All signals below the threshold are not demodulated.
This command in only available if the R&S ESR option B3 (Audio Demodulation) is
installed.
Parameters:
<Threshold>
The threshold level as a percentage of the display height.
Range:
*RST:
0 to 100
60
Example:
DEM:SQU:LEV 80
Sets the squelch level to 80% of the displayed signal.
Usage:
SCPI confirmed
[SENSe:]DEMod:SQUelch[:STATe] <State>
This command turns selective demodulation at the marker position on and off.
A video trigger is automatically activated with the same level as the squelch level, any
other trigger or gate settings are deactivated.
This command in only available if the R&S ESR option B3 (Audio Demodulation) is
installed.
Parameters:
<State>
ON | OFF
*RST:
Example:
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 05
OFF
DEM:SQU ON
Signals below the level threshold are not sent to the audio output.
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Usage:
SCPI confirmed
8.3.2 Defining the Frequency
DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​X:​SPACing​..................................................................444
[SENSe:​]FREQuency:​CENTer​.........................................................................................444
[SENSe:​]FREQuency:​CENTer:​STEP​...............................................................................444
[SENSe:​]FREQuency:​MODE​...........................................................................................445
[SENSe:​]FREQuency:​STARt​...........................................................................................445
[SENSe:​]FREQuency:​STOP​............................................................................................445
DISPlay[:WINDow<n>]:TRACe<t>:X:SPACing <Scale>
This command selects the scale of the frequency axis.
Parameters:
<Scale>
LINear
Linear scale of the frequency axis.
LOGarithmic
Logarithmic scale of the frequency axis.
*RST:
Example:
LOGarithmic
DISP:TRAC:X:SPAC LIN
Selects linear scale for the frequency axis.
[SENSe:]FREQuency:CENTer <Frequency>
This command defines the receiver frequency for measurements in the frequency or time
domain.
Parameters:
<Frequency>
0 to fmax
Range:
*RST:
Example:
0 Hz to fmax
fmax /2
FREQ:CENT 100MHz
Defines a receiver frequency of 100 MHz.
[SENSe:]FREQuency:CENTer:STEP <StepSize>
This command defines the center frequency step size.
Parameters:
<StepSize>
Example:
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Range:
1 to fmax
*RST:
0.1 x <span value>
Default unit: Hz
FREQ:CENT:STEP 120 MHz
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[SENSe:]FREQuency:MODE <Mode>
This command selects the frequency mode.
Parameters:
<Mode>
CW
Selects fixed frequency scans.
In the time domain, define the frequency with ​[SENSe:​
]FREQuency:​CENTer​ on page 444.
SCAN
Selects frequency domain scans.
In the frequency domain, define the frequency with:
• ​[SENSe:​]FREQuency:​STARt​ on page 445
• ​[SENSe:​]FREQuency:​STOP​ on page 445
• ​[SENSe:​]SCAN<range>:​STARt​ on page 455
• ​[SENSe:​]SCAN<range>:​STOP​ on page 455
• ​[SENSe:​]FREQuency:​SPAN​ on page 593
• ​[SENSe:​]FREQuency:​CENTer​ on page 444
TDOMain
Selects time domain scans in the frequency domain.
In the time domain, define the frequency with ​[SENSe:​
]FREQuency:​CENTer​ on page 444.
Time domain scans are available with options R&S ESR-B50 and
R&S ESR-K53.
*RST:
Example:
TDOMain
FREQ:MODE TDOM
Selects time domain scans.
[SENSe:]FREQuency:STARt <Start>
This command defines the start frequency for scans in the frequency domain.
Parameters:
<Start>
Example:
Range:
*RST:
0 Hz to fmax
0 Hz
FREQ:STAR 20MHz
[SENSe:]FREQuency:STOP <Stop>
This command defines the stop frequency for scans in the time domain.
Parameters:
<Stop>
Example:
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Range:
*RST:
0 Hz to fmax
fmax
FREQ:STOP 20MHz
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8.3.3 Configuring the Vertical Axis
CALCulate<n>:​UNIT:​POWer​...........................................................................................446
DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y[:​SCALe]:​BOTTom​.....................................................446
DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y:​SPACing​..................................................................446
INPut:​ATTenuation​.........................................................................................................447
INPut:​ATTenuation:​AUTO​...............................................................................................447
INPut:​ATTenuation:​PROTection[:​STATe]​.........................................................................447
INPut:​GAIN:​AUTO​.........................................................................................................448
INPut:​GAIN:​STATe ​.......................................................................................................448
INPut:​IMPedance​...........................................................................................................448
CALCulate<n>:UNIT:POWer <Power>
This command selects the unit for measurement results.
Parameters:
<Power>
DBM | V | A | W | DBPW | DBUV | DBMV | DBUA | DBPT |
DBUV_M | DBUA_M
*RST:
Example:
dBm
CALC:UNIT:POW DBM
Selects dBm as the unit for signal levels.
DISPlay[:WINDow<n>]:TRACe<t>:Y[:SCALe]:BOTTom <Level>
This command defines the minimum level displayed on the vertical diagram axis.
Parameters:
<Level>
Example:
Minimum displayed level. The unit depends on the one you have
selected.
DISP:TRAC:Y:BOTT -20
The minimum grid level is set to -20 dBuV (pre-condition: the
default unit has not been changed)
DISPlay[:WINDow<n>]:TRACe<t>:Y:SPACing <ScalingType>
This command selects the scaling of the y-axis.
Suffix:
<n>
.
Selects the measurement window.
<t>
irrelevant
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Parameters:
<ScalingType>
LOGarithmic
Logarithmic scaling.
LINear
Linear scaling in %.
LDB
Linear scaling in dB.
*RST:
Example:
LOGarithmic
DISP:TRAC:Y:SPAC LIN
Select a linear scale.
INPut:ATTenuation <Attenuation>
This command defines the attenuation level at the RF input.
To protect the input mixer, attenuation levels of 10 dB or less are possible only if you
have turned the input protection off with ​INPut:​ATTenuation:​PROTection[:​
STATe]​.
Parameters:
<Attenuation>
Example:
Range:
0 dB to 75 dB
Increment: 5 dB
*RST:
10 dB
INP:ATT 40dB
Defines an attenuation level of 40 dB.
INPut:ATTenuation:AUTO <State>
This command turns automatic configuration of the attenuation on and off.
If on, the R&S ESR selects an attenuation that results in a good signal-to-noise ratio
without overloading the receiver.
Parameters:
<State>
ON | OFF
*RST:
Example:
ON
INP:ATT:AUTO ON
Turns the auto ranging function on.
INPut:ATTenuation:PROTection[:STATe] <State>
This command turns the availability of attenuation levels of 10 dB or less on and off.
Parameters:
<State>
ON | OFF
*RST:
Example:
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OFF
INP:ATT:PROT ON
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Remote Commands in Receiver Mode
INPut:GAIN:AUTO <State>
Turns automatic selection of the preamplifier state on and off.
Parameters:
<State>
ON | OFF
*RST:
Example:
OFF
:INP:GAIN:AUTO ON
Includes the preamplifier into the auto range function
INPut:GAIN:STATe <State>
This command turns the 20 dB preamplifier on and off.
Parameters:
<State>
ON | OFF
*RST:
Example:
OFF
INP:GAIN:STAT ON
Turns the preamplifier on.
INPut:IMPedance <Impedance>
This command selects the nominal input impedance.
75 Ω should be selected if the 50 Ω input impedance is transformed to a higher impedance
using a 75 Ω adapter of the RAZ type (= 25 Ω in series to the input impedance of the
instrument). The correction value in this case is 1.76 dB = 10 log (75Ω/50Ω).
Parameters:
<Impedance>
50 | 75
*RST:
Example:
50 Ω
INP:IMP 75
8.3.4 Selecting the Bandwidth
[SENSe:​]BANDwidth|BWIDth[:​RESolution]​.......................................................................448
[SENSe:​]BANDwidth|BWIDth[:​RESolution]:​AUTO​..............................................................449
[SENSe:​]BANDwidth|BWIDth[:​RESolution]:​TYPE​..............................................................449
[SENSe:]BANDwidth|BWIDth[:RESolution] <Bandwidth>
This command defines the resolution bandwidth.
The available bandwidths depend on the selected filter type. For more information see ​
chapter 2.2.1, "Resolution Bandwidth", on page 29.
A change of the resolution bandwidth automatically turns the coupling to the span off.
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Parameters:
<Bandwidth>
refer to data sheet
*RST:
Example:
(AUTO is set to ON)
BAND 1 MHz
Sets the resolution bandwidth to 1 MHz
[SENSe:]BANDwidth|BWIDth[:RESolution]:AUTO <State>
This command couples or decouples the resolution bandwidth to the selected frequency.
The resolution bandwidth is coupled to the frequency only if you have selected the Quasipeak, CISPR Average or CISPR RMS detector.
For more information see ​chapter 2.2.1, "Resolution Bandwidth", on page 29.
Parameters:
<State>
ON | OFF
*RST:
Example:
ON
BAND:AUTO OFF
Decouples the measurement bandwidth from the frequency
range.
[SENSe:]BANDwidth|BWIDth[:RESolution]:TYPE <FilterType>
This command selects the type of resolution filter.
For detailed information on filters see ​chapter 3.2.6.3, "Selecting the Appropriate Filter
Type", on page 223 and ​chapter 3.2.6.4, "List of Available RRC and Channel Filters",
on page 224.
When changing the filter type, the next larger filter bandwidth is selected if the same filter
bandwidth is not available for the new filter type.
5 Pole filters are not available when using the sweep type "FFT".
Parameters:
<FilterType>
NORMal
Gaussian filters
CFILter
Channel filters
RRC
RRC filters
P5
5 Pole filters
CISPr (PULSe)
6 dB CISPR filter (commercial EMI standards)
Note: when the filter type is queried, the CISPR filter returns
'PULS'.
*RST:
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Example:
BAND:TYPE NORM
8.3.5 Controlling Inputs and Outputs
INPut:​COUPling​.............................................................................................................450
INPut:​TYPE​...................................................................................................................450
INPut:COUPling <CouplingType>
Toggles the RF input of the R&S ESR between AC and DC coupling.
Parameters:
<CouplingType>
AC | DC
*RST:
Example:
AC
INP:COUP:DC
INPut:TYPE <Input>
The command selects the signal source.
Parameters:
<Input>
INPUT1
Selects RF input 1.
INPUT2
Selects RF input 2.
*RST:
Example:
INPUT1
INP:TYPE INPUT1
Selects RF input 1.
8.3.6 Test Automation
●
●
●
●
●
●
8.3.6.1
General Scan Configuration..................................................................................450
Scan Table............................................................................................................452
Peak Search..........................................................................................................456
Peak Lists..............................................................................................................459
Trace Configuration...............................................................................................460
LISN Settings........................................................................................................461
General Scan Configuration
[SENSe:​]SWEep:​COUNt​.................................................................................................451
[SENSe:​]SWEep:​COUNt:​CURRent​..................................................................................451
TRACe<n>:​FEED:​CONTrol<t>​........................................................................................451
TRACe<n>:​POINts​.........................................................................................................452
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[SENSe:]SWEep:COUNt <SweepCount>
This command defines the number of scans performed during a single sweep.
Parameters:
<SweepCount>
Example:
Range:
*RST:
0 to 32767
0
SWE:COUN 64
Sets the number of sweeps to 64.
INIT:CONT OFF
Switches to single-sweep mode.
INIT;*WAI
Starts a sweep and waits for its end.
[SENSe:]SWEep:COUNt:CURRent
This command queries the number of scans that have started in a single sweep that
consists of more than one scan.
Note that the command returns a useful value only in single sweep mode with a single
sweep that consists of more than one scan.
Return values:
<SweepCount>
Example:
Number of the scans the R&S ESR has performed.
SWE:COUNt 64
sets sweep count to 64
INIT:CONT OFF
switches to single-sweep mode
INIT
starts a sweep (without waiting for the sweep end!)
SWE:COUN:CURR?
queries the number of started sweeps
TRACe<n>:FEED:CONTrol<t> <Occasion>
This command turns block data transmission during a scan on and off.
The availability of data is reported in the STATus:OPERation-Register.
The block size depends on scan time and the upper limit defined by ​TRACe<n>:​
POINts​ on page 452.
Suffix:
<n>
.
irrelevant
<t>
Selects a trace.
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Parameters:
<Occasion>
ALWays
Block data transmission is on.
NEVer
Block data transmission is off.
*RST:
Example:
NEVer
TRAC:FEED:CONT ALW
Switches to single sweep mode.
TRACe<n>:POINts LIMit, <Points>
This command defines the maximum number of measurement pointsthat are transferred
in one block after using TRAC? SCAN.
The total amount of bytes which is transferred depends on the number of active traces.
Suffix:
<n>
Parameters:
<Points>
Example:
8.3.6.2
.
irrelevant
Range:
*RST:
1 to 10000
1000
TRAC:POIN LIM, 8000
Transfers a maximum of 8000 measurement values per trace with
a single query.
Scan Table
[SENSe:​]SCAN<range>:​BANDwidth:​RESolution​...............................................................452
[SENSe:​]SCAN<range>:​INPut:​ATTenuation​.....................................................................453
[SENSe:​]SCAN<range>:​INPut:​ATTenuation:​AUTO​............................................................453
[SENSe:​]SCAN<1...10>:​INPut:​GAIN:​AUTO​......................................................................453
[SENSe:​]SCAN<range>:​INPut:​GAIN[:​STATE]​...................................................................454
[SENSe:​]SCAN<range>:​INPut:​TYPE​...............................................................................454
[SENSe:​]SCAN<range>:​RANGes[:​COUNt]​.......................................................................454
[SENSe:​]SCAN<range>:​STARt​.......................................................................................455
[SENSe:​]SCAN<range>:​STEP​........................................................................................455
[SENSe:​]SCAN<range>:​STOP​........................................................................................455
[SENSe:​]SCAN<range>:​TIME​.........................................................................................455
[[SENSe:​]SWEep:​SPACing​.............................................................................................456
[SENSe:]SCAN<range>:BANDwidth:RESolution <Bandwidth>
This command defines the measurement bandwidth for a particular scan range.
Suffix:
<range>
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1...10
Selects the scan range.
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Parameters:
<Bandwidth>
Example:
Range:
*RST:
10 Hz to 10 MHz
9 kHz
SCAN4:BAND:RES 1MHz
Defines a measurement bandwidth of 1 MHz for the 4th scan
range.
[SENSe:]SCAN<range>:INPut:ATTenuation <Attenuation>
This command defines the attenuation level for a particular scan range.
Suffix:
<range>
Parameters:
<Attenuation>
.
1...10
Selects the scan range.
dBmin to dBmax
Range:
*RST:
Example:
Att(min) to Att(max)
10 dB
SCAN4:INP:ATT 30dB
Defines an attenuation level of 30 dB for the 4th scan range.
[SENSe:]SCAN<range>:INPut:ATTenuation:AUTO <State>
This command turns auto ranging in a particular scan range on and off.
Suffix:
<range>
Parameters:
<State>
.
1...10
Selects the scan range.
ON | OFF
*RST:
Example:
OFF
SCAN4:INP:ATT:AUTO OFF
Turns off auto ranging in the 4th scan range.
[SENSe:]SCAN<1...10>:INPut:GAIN:AUTO <State>
This command includes the preamplifier in the autoranging function of the selected
receiver scan range.
Parameters:
<State>
ON
OFF
*RST:
Example:
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OFF
:SCAN1:INP:GAIN:AUTO ON
Includes the preamplifier in the autoranging function for scan
range 1
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[SENSe:]SCAN<range>:INPut:GAIN[:STATE] <State>
This command turns the preamplifier in a particular scan range on and off.
Suffix:
<range>
Parameters:
<State>
.
1...10
Selects the scan range.
ON | OFF
*RST:
Example:
OFF
SCAN4:INP:GAIN:STAT ON
Turns on the preamplifier for the 4th scan range.
[SENSe:]SCAN<range>:INPut:TYPE <Input>
This command selects the signal source for a particular scan range.
Suffix:
<range>
Parameters:
<Input>
.
1...10
Selects the scan range.
INPUT1
Selects RF input 1.
INPUT2
Selects RF input 2.
*RST:
Example:
INPUT1
SCAN4:INP:TYPE INPUT2
Selects RF input 2 as the signal source for the 4th scan range.
[SENSe:]SCAN<range>:RANGes[:COUNt] <Ranges>
This command defines the number of scan ranges.
If the number of scan ranges is 0, the R&S ESR ignores the configuration of the scan
table. instead, it performs the measurement based on the current receiver configuration.
Suffix:
<range>
Parameters:
<Ranges>
Example:
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.
1...10
Selects the scan range.
Range:
*RST:
0 to 10
0
SCAN:RANG:COUN 4
Defines 4 scan ranges.
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[SENSe:]SCAN<range>:STARt <Frequency>
This command defines the start frequency of a particular scan range.
Suffix:
<range>
Parameters:
<Frequency>
Example:
.
1...10
Selects the scan range.
Range:
*RST:
fmin to fmax
150 kHz
SCAN4:STAR 30MHz
Defines a start frequency of 30 MHz for the 4th scan range.
[SENSe:]SCAN<range>:STEP <Frequency>
This command defines the frequency stepsize within a particular scan range.
Suffix:
<range>
Parameters:
<Frequency>
Example:
.
1...10
Selects the scan range.
Range:
*RST:
fmin to fmax
4 kHz
SCAN4:STEP 1MHz
Defines a step size of 1 MHz for the 4th scan range.
[SENSe:]SCAN<range>:STOP <Frequency>
This command defines the stop frequency of a particular scan range.
Suffix:
<range>
Parameters:
<Frequency>
Example:
.
1...10
Selects the scan range.
Range:
*RST:
fmin to fmax
30 MHz
SCAN4:STOP 500MHz
Defines a stop frequency of 500 MHz for the 4th scan range.
[SENSe:]SCAN<range>:TIME <Time>
This command defines the measurement time for a particular scan range.
Note that for time domain scans (R&S ESR-K53), the available measurement time range
depends on the resolution bandwidth.
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Suffix:
<range>
Parameters:
<Time>
Example:
.
1...10
Selects the scan range.
Range:
*RST:
10 µs to 100 s
1 ms
SCAN4:TIME 1 ms
Defines a measurement time of 1 ms for the 4th scan range.
[[SENSe:]SWEep:SPACing <Spacing>
This command selects the frequency step mode.
Note that the command has no effect on the scale and display of the frequency axis.
Parameters:
<Spacing>
LINear
Linear frequency steps with a fix stepsize.
LOGarithmic
Logarithmic frequency steps with the stepsize being a percentage
of the current frequency.
AUTO
The stepsize is coupled to the resolution bandwidth to get the best
measurement results.
*RST:
Example:
8.3.6.3
LINear
SWE:SPAC LOG
Selects logarithmic frequency steps.
Peak Search
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​PEXCursion​.........................................................................456
CALCulate<n>:​PEAKsearch|PSEarch:​ADD​......................................................................457
CALCulate:​PEAKsearch|PSEarch:​CLEar[:​IMMediate]​........................................................457
CALCulate<n>:​PEAKsearch|PSEarch[:​IMMediate]​............................................................457
CALCulate<n>:​PEAKsearch|PSEarch:​MARGin​.................................................................457
CALCulate<n>:​PEAKsearch|PSEarch:​METHod​................................................................458
CALCulate<n>:​PEAKsearch|PSEarch:​SUBRanges​...........................................................458
CALCulate<n>:​PEAKsearch|PSEarch:​SUBRanges:​PCOunt​...............................................458
CALCulate<n>:MARKer<m>:PEXCursion <Excursion>
This command defines the peak excursion
The peak excursion sets the requirements for a peak to be detected during a peak search.
Suffix:
<n>
.
Selects the measurement window.
<m>
irrelevant
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Parameters:
<Excursion>
The peak excursion is the distance to a trace maximum that must
be attained before a new maximum is recognized, or the distance
to a trace minimum that must be attained before a new minimum
is recognized
*RST:
Example:
6 dB
CALC:MARK:PEXC 10dB
Defines peak excursion 10 dB.
CALCulate<n>:PEAKsearch|PSEarch:ADD <Frequency>
This command manually adds a particular frequency to the peak list, regardless if the
level threshold conditions have been fulfilled for that frequency.
Note that the frequency has to be in the displayed frequency range.
Suffix:
<n>
.
irrelevant
Parameters:
<Frequency>
Numeric value in Hz. The range depends on the measurement.
Example:
CALC:PEAK:ADD 93MHz
Adds the frequency 93 MHz to the peak list.
CALCulate:PEAKsearch|PSEarch:CLEar[:IMMediate]
This command deletes the contents of the peak list.
Example:
CALC:PEAK:CLE
Deletes the contents of the peak list.
Usage:
Event
CALCulate<n>:PEAKsearch|PSEarch[:IMMediate]
This command initiates a peak search and creates a peak list.
Example:
CALC:PEAK
Initiates a peak search.
Usage:
Event
CALCulate<n>:PEAKsearch|PSEarch:MARGin <Margin>
This command defines a margin for the peak search.
Suffix:
<n>
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Parameters:
<Margin>
Example:
Range:
*RST:
-200 dB to 200 dB
6 dB
CALC:PEAK:MARG 5 dB
CALCulate<n>:PEAKsearch|PSEarch:METHod <Method>
This command selects the way the R&S ESR creates a peak list.
Suffix:
<n>
Parameters:
<Method>
.
irrelevant
SUBRange
Divides the scan range into smaller subranges and looks for a
particular number of peaks in each subrange.
PEAK
Looks for a particular number of peaks over the complete scan
range.
*RST:
Example:
PEAK
CALC:PEAK:METH SUBR
Divides the scan range into smaller subranges for the peak search.
CALCulate<n>:PEAKsearch|PSEarch:SUBRanges <Peaks> | <Subranges>
The effects of this command depend on the peak search mode that you have selected.
Suffix:
<n>
Parameters:
<Peaks>
.
irrelevant
If you have selected the "Peaks" search mode, the command
defines the number of peaks to look for during the peak search.
Range:
*RST:
<Subranges>
If you have selected the Subranges search mode, the command
defines the number of subranges that the scan range is split into.
Range:
*RST:
Example:
1 to 500
50
1 to 50
10
CALC:PEAK:METH SUBR
CALC:PEAK:SUBR 25
Selects a subrange search and defines 25 subranges.
CALCulate<n>:PEAKsearch|PSEarch:SUBRanges:PCOunt <Peaks>
This command defines the number of peaks to be found in each subrange.
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Before you can use this command, you have to select the subrange peak search mode
with ​CALCulate<n>:​PEAKsearch|PSEarch:​METHod​.
Parameters:
<Peaks>
Number of peaks in one subrange.
Note that the maximum number of peaks is 500. Thus, the maximum number of peaks per subrange depends on the number of
subranges you have defined.
Range:
*RST:
Example:
8.3.6.4
1 to depends on the number of subranges
1
CALC:PSE:METH SUBR
CALC:PSE:SUBR 20
CALC:PSE:SUBR:PCO 5
Looks for 5 peaks in each of 20 subranges.
Peak Lists
Commands useful to read peak lists described elsewhere:
●
​FORMat:​DEXPort:​DSEParator​ on page 616
DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​SYMBol​.......................................................................459
MMEMory:​STORe:​FINal​.................................................................................................459
MMEMory:​STORe:​PEAKlist​............................................................................................460
DISPlay[:WINDow<n>]:TRACe<t>:SYMBol <Symbol>
This command turns the peak labels in the diagram on and off.
Parameters:
<Symbol>
CROSs
Each peak is labelled by a symbol. The symbol and its color
depend on the trace the peak is on.
OFF
Peak labels are off.
*RST:
Example:
OFF
DISP:TRAC:SYMB CROS
MMEMory:STORe:FINal <FileName>
This command exports the contents of the final measurement peak list to a file in ASCII
format.
Parameters:
<FileName>
String containg the file name. The extension of the file is *.dat.
Example:
:MMEM:STOR:FIN 'A:\TEST.DAT'
Usage:
Event
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MMEMory:STORe:PEAKlist <FileName>
This command exports the contents of a peak list to a file in ASCII format.
8.3.6.5
Parameters:
<FileName>
String containg the file name. The extension of the file is *.dat.
Example:
MMEM:STOR:PEAK 'D:\TEST.DAT'
Trace Configuration
Commands useful to configure traces and final measurements described elsewhere:
●
​[SENSe:​]FMEasurement:​AUTO​ on page 438
●
​[SENSe:​]FMEasurement:​TIME​ on page 439
●
​[SENSe:​]DETector<t>:​FMEasurement​ on page 438
[SENSe:​][WINDow:​]DETector<trace>[:​FUNCtion]​..............................................................460
DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​MODE​.........................................................................460
[SENSe:][WINDow:]DETector<trace>[:FUNCtion] <Detector>
This command selects the detector for the scan.
Suffix:
<trace>
Parameters:
<Detector>
.
1...6
Selects the trace.
APEak | NEGative | POSitive | SAMPle | RMS | AVERage |
QPEak | CAVerage | CRMS
*RST:
Example:
APEak
DET RMS
Selects the RMS detector.
DISPlay[:WINDow<n>]:TRACe<t>:MODE <Mode>
This command defines the type of display and the evaluation of the traces. WRITE corresponds to the Clr/Write mode of manual operation. The trace is switched off (= BLANK
in manual operation) with ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>[:​STATe]​.
The number of measurements for AVERage, MAXHold and MINHold is defined with the
​[SENSe:​]AVERage<n>:​COUNt​ or ​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​COUNt​ commands. It should be
noted that synchronization to the end of the indicated number of measurements is only
possible in single sweep mode.
If calculation of average values is active, selection between logarithmic and linear averaging is possible. For more detail see ​[SENSe:​]AVERage<n>:​TYPE​ on page 618.
Suffix:
<n>
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<t>
Parameters:
<Mode>
trace
For more information on trace modes see ​chapter 2.2.4, "Trace
Modes", on page 35.
AVERage
Average trace mode.
BLANk
Blank trace.
MAXHold
Maximum value trace.
MINHold
Minimum value trace.
VIEW
Frozen trace.
WRITe
Clear write trace mode.
Example:
8.3.6.6
INIT:CONT OFF
Switching to single sweep mode.
SWE:COUN 16
Sets the number of measurements to 16.
DISP:TRAC3:MODE MAXH
Switches on the calculation of the maximum peak for trace 3.
INIT;*WAI
Starts the measurement and waits for the end of the 16 sweeps.
LISN Settings
[SENSe:​]FMEasurement:​LISN:​FILTer:​HPAS[:​STATe]​........................................................461
[SENSe:​]FMEasurement:​LISN:​PHASe​.............................................................................462
[SENSe:​]FMEasurement:​LISN[:​TYPE]​..............................................................................462
INPut:​LISN:​FILTer:​HPAS[:​STATe]​...................................................................................462
INPut:​LISN:​PHASe​.........................................................................................................463
INPut:​LISN[:​TYPE]​.........................................................................................................463
[SENSe:]FMEasurement:LISN:FILTer:HPAS[:STATe] <State>
This command turns the 150 kHz highpass filter of the ENV216 network for the final
measurement on and off.
The command is available for the R&S ENV216 network.
Parameters:
<State>
ON | OFF
*RST:
Example:
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ON
FME:LISN:FILT:HPAS ON
Turns on the highpass filter.
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[SENSe:]FMEasurement:LISN:PHASe <Phase>, [<Phase>]
This command selects the phase of the network used for the final measurement.
Parameters:
<Phase>
L1
L2
Available for networks with four phases (R&S ESH2Z5 and
R&S ENV4200)
L3
Available for networks with four phases (R&S ESH2Z5 and
R&S ENV4200)
N
*RST:
Example:
L1
FME:LISN:PHAS L1,N
[SENSe:]FMEasurement:LISN[:TYPE] <Type>
This command turns automatic control of the network used for the final measurement on
and off. It also selects the type of network in use.
Parameters:
<Type>
ENV216
R&S ENV 216: two phases and highpass are controllable.
ENV4200
R&S ENV 4200: four phases are controllable.
ESH2Z5
R&S ESH2-Z5: four phases and protective earth are controllable.
ESH3Z5
R&S ESH3-Z5: two phases and protective earth are controllable.
FOURphase
R&S ESH2-Z5: four phases and protective earth are controllable.
OFF
Turns off remote control of the LISN.
TWOPhase
R&S ESH3-Z5: two phases and protective earth are controllable.
*RST:
Example:
OFF
FME:LISN TWOP
Turns automatic control of the network on and selects the R&S
ESH3-Z5 network.
INPut:LISN:FILTer:HPAS[:STATe] <State>
This command turns the 150 kHz highpass filter of the ENV216 network for the premeasurement on and off.
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The command is available for the R&S ENV216 network.
Parameters:
<State>
ON | OFF
*RST:
Example:
OFF
INP:LISN:FILT:HPAS ON
Turns on the highpass filter.
INPut:LISN:PHASe <Phase>
This command selects the phase of the network used for the premeasurement.
Parameters:
<Phase>
L1
L2
Available for networks with four phases (R&S ESH2Z5 and
R&S ENV4200)
L3
Available for networks with four phases (R&S ESH2Z5 and
R&S ENV4200)
N
*RST:
Example:
L1
INP:LISN:PHAS L1
INPut:LISN[:TYPE] <Type>
This command turns automatic control of the network used for the premeasurement on
and off. It also selects the type of network in use.
Parameters:
<Type>
ENV216
R&S ENV 216: two phases and highpass are controllable.
ENV4200
R&S ENV 4200: four phases are controllable.
ESH2Z5
R&S ESH2-Z5: four phases and protective earth are controllable.
ESH3Z5
R&S ESH3-Z5: two phases and protective earth are controllable.
FOURphase
R&S ESH2-Z5: four phases and protective earth are controllable.
OFF
Turns off remote control of the LISN.
TWOPhase
R&S ESH3-Z5: two phases and protective earth are controllable.
*RST:
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Remote Commands in Receiver Mode
Example:
INP:LISN TWOP
Turns automatic control of the network on and selects the R&S
ESH3-Z5 network.
8.3.7 Working with Markers
●
●
●
8.3.7.1
Configuring Marker Functionality..........................................................................464
Using Markers.......................................................................................................467
Using Delta Markers..............................................................................................472
Configuring Marker Functionality
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​COUPled[:​STATe]​................................................................464
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​CENTer​................................................................464
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​CSTep​.................................................................465
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​ZOOM​..................................................................465
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​SCOupled[:​STATe]​...............................................................465
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​X:​SLIMits:​LEFT​....................................................................465
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​X:​SLIMits:​RIGHT​..................................................................466
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​X:​SLIMits[:​STATe]​................................................................466
DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​MINFo:​STATe​..............................................................................467
CALCulate<n>:MARKer<m>:COUPled[:STATe] <State>
This command couples or decouples the receiver frequency to the current marker frequency.
Parameters:
<State>
ON | OFF
*RST:
Example:
OFF
CALC:MARK:COUP ON
Couples the frequency to the marker frequency.
CALCulate<n>:MARKer<m>:FUNCtion:CENTer
This command matches the center or receiver frequency to the frequency of a marker.
If you use the command in combination with a delta marker, that delta marker is turned
into a normal marker.
Suffix:
<n>
.
Selects the measurement window.
<m>
Selects the marker.
Example:
CALC:MARK2:FUNC:CENT
Sets the center frequency to the frequency of marker 2.
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CALCulate<n>:MARKer<m>:FUNCtion:CSTep
This command matches the frequency step size to the current marker frequency.
The command turns delta markers into normal markers.
Suffix:
<n>
.
Selects the measurement window.
<m>
Selects the marker.
Example:
CALC:MARK3:FUNC:CST
Sets the center frequency to the same value as the frequency of
marker 3.
Usage:
Event
CALCulate<n>:MARKer<m>:FUNCtion:ZOOM <Range>
This command defines the range to be zoomed around marker 1. Marker 1 is activated
first, if necessary.
The marker frequency becomes the new receiver or center frequency and the span is
adjusted according to the zoom factor.
Note that you should perform a complete measurement with synchronization to the end
of the measurement. This is only possible for single sweeps.
Suffix:
<n>
.
Selects the measurement window.
<m>
Selects the marker.
Parameters:
<Range>
<numeric_value>
Example:
INIT:CONT OFF
Switches to single sweep mode
CALC:MARK:FUNC:ZOOM 1kHz;*WAI
Activates zooming and waits for its end.
CALCulate<n>:MARKer<m>:SCOupled[:STATe] <State>
This command couples or decouples the marker frequency to the scan range settings.
Parameters:
<State>
ON | OFF
*RST:
Example:
ON
CALC:MARK:SCO ON
Couples the scan range settings to the marker frequency.
CALCulate<n>:MARKer<m>:X:SLIMits:LEFT <Limit>
This command sets the left limit of the marker search range.
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If the power measurement in zero span is active, this command limits the evaluation range
to the trace.
Note: The function is only available if the search limit for marker and delta marker is
switched on (see ​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​X:​SLIMits[:​STATe]​).
Suffix:
<n>
.
Selects the measurement window.
<m>
irrelevant
Parameters:
<Limit>
The value range depends on the span or sweep time.
The unit is Hz for frequency domain measurements and s for time
domain measurements.
Range:
*RST:
Example:
0 to MAX
left diagram border
CALC:MARK:X:SLIM ON
Switches the search limit function on.
CALC:MARK:X:SLIM:LEFT 10MHz
Sets the left limit of the search range to 10 MHz.
CALCulate<n>:MARKer<m>:X:SLIMits:RIGHT <Limit>
This command sets the right limit of the marker search range.
If the power measurement in zero span is active, this command limits the evaluation range
to the trace.
Note: The function is only available if the search limit for marker and delta marker is
switched on ( ​CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​X:​SLIMits[:​STATe]​).
Suffix:
<n>
.
Selects the measurement window.
<m>
irrelevant
Parameters:
<Limit>
The value range depends on the span or sweep time.
The unit is Hz for frequency domain measurements and s for time
domain measurements.
Range:
*RST:
Example:
0 to MAX
left diagram border
CALC:MARK:X:SLIM ON
Switches the search limit function on.
CALC:MARK:X:SLIM:RIGH 20MHz
Sets the right limit of the search range to 20 MHz.
CALCulate<n>:MARKer<m>:X:SLIMits[:STATe] <State>
This command turns marker search limits on and off.
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If the power measurement in zero span is active, this command limits the evaluation range
on the trace.
Suffix:
<n>
.
Selects the measurement window.
<m>
marker
Parameters:
<State>
ON | OFF
*RST:
Example:
OFF
CALC:MARK:X:SLIM ON
Switches on search limitation.
DISPlay[:WINDow<n>]:MINFo:STATe <State>
This command turns the marker info field in the diagram on and off.
Parameters:
<State>
ON | OFF
*RST:
Example:
8.3.7.2
ON
DISP:MINF:STAT ON
Turns the marker info field on.
Using Markers
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​AOFF​..................................................................................467
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​MAXimum:​LEFT​...................................................................468
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​MAXimum:​NEXT​..................................................................468
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​MAXimum[:​PEAK]​................................................................468
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​MAXimum:​RIGHt​..................................................................469
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​MINimum:​LEFT​....................................................................469
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​MINimum:​NEXT​...................................................................469
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​MINimum[:​PEAK]​.................................................................470
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​MINimum:​RIGHt​...................................................................470
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>[:​STATe]​...............................................................................470
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​TRACe​................................................................................471
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​X​........................................................................................471
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​Y​........................................................................................472
CALCulate<n>:MARKer<m>:AOFF
This command all markers off, including delta markers and marker measurement functions.
Suffix:
<n>
.
Selects the measurement window.
<m>
depends on mode
irrelevant
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Example:
CALC:MARK:AOFF
Switches off all markers.
Usage:
Event
CALCulate<n>:MARKer<m>:MAXimum:LEFT
This command positions a marker to the next smaller trace maximum on the left of the
current position (i.e. in descending X values).
If no next smaller maximum value is found on the trace (level spacing to adjacent values
< peak excursion), an execution error (error code: -200) is produced.
Suffix:
<n>
.
Selects the measurement window.
<m>
Selects the marker.
Example:
CALC:MARK2:MAX:LEFT
Positions marker 2 to the next lower maximum value to the left of
the current value.
Usage:
Event
CALCulate<n>:MARKer<m>:MAXimum:NEXT
This command positions the marker to the next smaller trace maximum.
If no next smaller maximum value is found on the trace (level spacing to adjacent values
< peak excursion), an execution error (error code: -200) is produced.
Suffix:
<n>
.
Selects the measurement window.
<m>
Selects the marker.
Example:
CALC:MARK2:MAX:NEXT
Positions marker 2 to the next lower maximum value.
Usage:
Event
CALCulate<n>:MARKer<m>:MAXimum[:PEAK]
This command positions the marker on the current trace maximum.
The corresponding marker is activated first or switched to the marker mode.
If no maximum value is found on the trace (level spacing to adjacent values < peak
excursion), an execution error (error code: -200) is produced.
Suffix:
<n>
.
Selects the measurement window.
<m>
depends on mode
Selects the marker.
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Example:
CALC:MARK2:MAX
Positions marker 2 to the maximum value of the trace.
Usage:
Event
CALCulate<n>:MARKer<m>:MAXimum:RIGHt
This command positions a marker to the next smaller trace maximum on the right of the
current value (i.e. in ascending X values).
If no next smaller maximum value is found on the trace (level spacing to adjacent values
< peak excursion), an execution error (error code: -200) is produced.
Suffix:
<n>
.
Selects the measurement window.
<m>
Selects the marker.
Example:
CALC:MARK2:MAX:RIGH
Positions marker 2 to the next lower maximum value to the right
of the current value.
Usage:
Event
CALCulate<n>:MARKer<m>:MINimum:LEFT
This command positions a marker to the next higher trace minimum on the left of the
current value (i.e. in descending X direction).
If no next higher minimum value is found on the trace (level spacing to adjacent values
< peak excursion), an execution error (error code: -200) is produced.
Suffix:
<n>
.
Selects the measurement window.
<m>
Selects the marker.
Example:
CALC:MARK2:MIN
Positions marker 2 to the minimum value of the trace.
CALC:MARK2:MIN:LEFT
Positions marker 2 to the next higher minimum value to the left of
the current value.
Usage:
Event
CALCulate<n>:MARKer<m>:MINimum:NEXT
This command positions ae marker to the next higher trace minimum.
If no next higher minimum value is found on the trace (level spacing to adjacent values
< peak excursion), an execution error (error code: -200) is produced.
Suffix:
<n>
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Selects the measurement window.
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<m>
Selects the marker.
Example:
CALC:MARK2:MIN
Positions marker 2 to the minimum value of the trace.
CALC:MARK2:MIN:NEXT
Positions marker 2 to the next higher maximum value.
Usage:
Event
CALCulate<n>:MARKer<m>:MINimum[:PEAK]
This command positions the marker on the current trace minimum.
The corresponding marker is activated first or switched to marker mode, if necessary.
If no minimum value is found on the trace (level spacing to adjacent values < peak excursion), an execution error (error code: -200) is produced.
Suffix:
<n>
.
Selects the measurement window.
<m>
depends on mode
Selects the marker.
Example:
CALC:MARK2:MIN
Positions marker 2 to the minimum value of the trace.
Usage:
Event
CALCulate<n>:MARKer<m>:MINimum:RIGHt
This command positions a marker to the next higher trace minimum on the right of the
current value (i.e. in ascending X direction).
If no next higher minimum value is found on the trace (level spacing to adjacent values
< peak excursion), an execution error (error code: -200) is produced.
Suffix:
<n>
.
Selects the measurement window.
<m>
Selects the marker.
Example:
CALC:MARK2:MIN
Positions marker 2 to the minimum value of the trace.
CALC:MARK2:MIN:RIGH
Positions marker 2 to the next higher minimum value to the right
of the current value.
Usage:
Event
CALCulate<n>:MARKer<m>[:STATe] <State>
This command turns markers on and off.
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If the corresponding marker number is currently active as a deltamarker, it is turned into
a normal marker.
Suffix:
<n>
.
Selects the measurement window.
<m>
depends on mode
Selects the marker.
Parameters:
<State>
ON | OFF
*RST:
Example:
OFF
CALC:MARK3 ON
Switches on marker 3 or switches to marker mode.
CALCulate<n>:MARKer<m>:TRACe <Trace>
This command selects the trace a marker is positioned on.
The corresponding trace must have a trace mode other than "Blank".
If necessary, the corresponding marker is switched on prior to the assignment.
Suffix:
<n>
.
Selects the measurement window.
<m>
depends on mode
Selects the marker.
Parameters:
<Trace>
Example:
1 ... 6
Trace number the marker is positioned on.
CALC:MARK3:TRAC 2
Assigns marker 3 to trace 2.
CALCulate<n>:MARKer<m>:X <Position>
This command positions a marker on a particular coordinate on the x-axis.
If marker 2, 3 or 4 is selected and used as delta marker, it is switched to marker mode.
Suffix:
<n>
.
Selects the measurement window.
<m>
Selects the marker.
Parameters:
<Position>
Numeric value that defines the marker position on the x-axis. The
unit is either Hz (frequency domain) or s (time domain) or dB (statistics).
Range:
Example:
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The range depends on the current x-axis range.
CALC:MARK2:X 1.7MHz
Positions marker 2 to frequency 1.7 MHz.
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CALCulate<n>:MARKer<m>:Y <MarkerPosition>
This command queries the measured value of a marker.
If necessary, the command activates the marker or turns a delta marker into a normal
marker.
To get a valid result, you have to perform a complete measurement with synchronization
to the end of the measurement before reading out the result. This is only possible for
single sweeps.
The unit of results depends on the result display and the unit you have selected.
In the default setting, the output is made depending on the unit determined with ​
CALCulate<n>:​UNIT:​POWer​; only with linear level scaling the output is in %.
Suffix:
<n>
.
Selects the measurement window.
<m>
Selects the marker.
Parameters:
<MarkerPosition>
Return values:
<Result>
Example:
8.3.7.3
Defines the vertical marker position in the persistence spectrum
result display.
The measured value of the selected marker is returned.
In I/Q Analyzer mode, if the result display configuration "Real/Imag
(I/Q)" is selected, this query returns the Real (Q) value of the
marker first, then the Imag (I) value.
INIT:CONT OFF
Switches to single sweep mode.
CALC:MARK2 ON
Switches marker 2.
INIT;*WAI
Starts a sweep and waits for the end.
CALC:MARK2:Y?
Outputs the measured value of marker 2.
In I/Q Analyzer mode, for "Real/Imag (I/Q)", for example:
1.852719887E-011,0
Using Delta Markers
CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​AOFF​..........................................................................473
CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​LINK​...........................................................................473
CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​MAXimum:​LEFT​...........................................................473
CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​MAXimum:​NEXT​..........................................................474
CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​MAXimum[:​PEAK]​........................................................474
CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​MAXimum:​RIGHt​..........................................................474
CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​MINimum:​LEFT​............................................................474
CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​MINimum:​NEXT​...........................................................475
CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​MINimum[:​PEAK]​.........................................................475
CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​MINimum:​RIGHt​...........................................................475
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CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​MODE​.........................................................................476
CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>[:​STATe]​.......................................................................476
CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​TRACe​........................................................................476
CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​X​................................................................................477
CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​X:​RELative​..................................................................477
CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​Y​................................................................................477
CALCulate<n>:DELTamarker<m>:AOFF
This command turns all active delta markers off.
Suffix:
<n>
.
Selects the measurement window.
<m>
Selects the marker.
Example:
CALC:DELT:AOFF
Switches off all delta markers.
CALCulate<n>:DELTamarker<m>:LINK <State>
This command links delta marker 1 to marker 1.
If you change the horizontal position of the marker, so does the delta marker.
Suffix:
<n>
.
Selects the measurement window.
<m>
1
irrelevant
Parameters:
<State>
ON | OFF
*RST:
Example:
OFF
CALC:DELT:LINK ON
CALCulate<n>:DELTamarker<m>:MAXimum:LEFT
This command positions the delta marker to the next smaller trace maximum on the left
of the current value (i.e. descending X values). The corresponding delta marker is activated first, if necessary.
If no next higher minimum value is found on the trace (level spacing to adjacent values
< peak excursion), an execution error (error code: -200) is produced.
Suffix:
<n>
.
Selects the measurement window.
<m>
Selects the marker.
Example:
CALC:DELT:MAX:LEFT
Sets delta marker 1 to the next smaller maximum value to the left
of the current value.
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CALCulate<n>:DELTamarker<m>:MAXimum:NEXT
This command positions the delta marker to the next smaller trace maximum. The corresponding delta marker is activated first, if necessary.
If no next higher minimum value is found on the trace (level spacing to adjacent values
< peak excursion), an execution error (error code: -200) is produced.
Suffix:
<n>
.
Selects the measurement window.
<m>
Selects the marker.
Example:
CALC:DELT2:MAX:NEXT
Sets delta marker 2 to the next smaller maximum value.
CALCulate<n>:DELTamarker<m>:MAXimum[:PEAK]
This command positions the delta marker to the current trace maximum. If necessary,
the corresponding delta marker is activated first.
Suffix:
<n>
.
Selects the measurement window.
<m>
Selects the marker.
Example:
CALC:DELT3:MAX
Sets delta marker 3 to the maximum value of the associated trace.
CALCulate<n>:DELTamarker<m>:MAXimum:RIGHt
This command positions the delta marker to the next smaller trace maximum on the right
of the current value (i.e. ascending X values). The corresponding delta marker is activated
first, if necessary.
If no next higher minimum value is found on the trace (level spacing to adjacent values
< peak excursion), an execution error (error code: -200) is produced.
Suffix:
<n>
.
Selects the measurement window.
<m>
Selects the marker.
Example:
CALC:DELT:MAX:RIGH
Sets delta marker 1 to the next smaller maximum value to the right
of the current value.
CALCulate<n>:DELTamarker<m>:MINimum:LEFT
This command positions the delta marker to the next higher trace minimum on the left of
the current value (i.e. descending X values). The corresponding delta marker is activated
first, if necessary.
If no next higher minimum value is found on the trace (level spacing to adjacent values
< peak excursion), an execution error (error code: -200) is produced.
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Suffix:
<n>
.
Selects the measurement window.
<m>
Selects the marker.
Example:
CALC:DELT:MIN:LEFT
Sets delta marker 1 to the next higher minimum to the left of the
current value.
CALCulate<n>:DELTamarker<m>:MINimum:NEXT
This command positions the delta marker to the next higher trace minimum. The corresponding delta marker is activated first, if necessary.
If no next higher minimum value is found on the trace (level spacing to adjacent values
< peak excursion), an execution error (error code: -200) is produced.
Suffix:
<n>
.
Selects the measurement window.
<m>
Selects the marker.
Example:
CALC:DELT2:MIN:NEXT
Sets delta marker 2 to the next higher minimum value.
CALCulate<n>:DELTamarker<m>:MINimum[:PEAK]
This command positions the delta marker to the current trace minimum. The corresponding delta marker is activated first, if necessary.
Suffix:
<n>
.
Selects the measurement window.
<m>
Selects the marker.
Example:
CALC:DELT3:MIN
Sets delta marker 3 to the minimum value of the associated trace.
CALCulate<n>:DELTamarker<m>:MINimum:RIGHt
This command positions the delta marker to the next higher trace minimum on the right
of the current value (i.e. ascending X values). The corresponding delta marker is activated
first, if necessary.
If no next higher minimum value is found on the trace (level spacing to adjacent values
< peak excursion), an execution error (error code: -200) is produced.
Suffix:
<n>
.
Selects the measurement window.
<m>
Selects the marker.
Example:
CALC:DELT:MIN:RIGH
Sets delta marker 1 to the next higher minimum value to the right
of the current value.
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CALCulate<n>:DELTamarker<m>:MODE <Mode>
This command selects the delta marker mode.
Suffix:
<n>
.
Selects the measurement window.
<m>
Selects the marker.
Parameters:
<Mode>
ABSolute
Delta marker position in absolute terms.
RELative
Delta marker position in relation to a reference marker.
*RST:
Example:
REL
CALC:DELT:MODE ABS
Absolute delta marker position.
CALCulate<n>:DELTamarker<m>[:STATe] <State>
This command turns delta markers on and off.
If the corresponding marker was a