Formatting and Converting for LaTeX Users

Formatting and Converting for LaTeX Users
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
at Pitt
(a LATEX 2ε class)
Federico Garcia
∗
2004/08/17
Contents
1 Introduction
3
2 PDF creation through LATEX
2.1 PDFLATEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2 dvipdfm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3 Other ways to get a PDF file and bookmarks
2.4 No hyperref . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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3 Installation
3.1 pittetd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2 Installation of other required packages . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3 PDFTEX, dvipdfm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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4 To keep in mind
4.1 Headings and captions . . . .
4.2 Preliminaries . . . . . . . . .
4.3 Use of packages . . . . . . . .
4.3.1 Unsupported packages
4.3.2 Supported packages .
4.4 Related classes . . . . . . . .
4.5 Stage and interaction . . . . .
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University of Pittsburgh, Electronic Theses and Dissertations (ETD) Working
Group.
1
4.6
4.7
Auxiliary files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PDF Document Info . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5 Using pittetd
5.1 Loading the class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2 Font sizes and spacing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.3 Sectioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.3.1 Sectioning commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.3.2 Numbering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.4 The preliminaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.4.1 Title Page . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.4.2 Committee membership page . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.4.3 Copyright page . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.4.4 Abstract . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.4.5 Table of Contents, and Lists of Figures and Tables
5.4.6 Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.4.7 Additional preliminaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.5 PDF Document Info . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.6 Main body . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.6.1 Numbering and captions for tables and figures . .
5.6.2 Cross references . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.7 Appendices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.8 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.8.1 BibTEX styles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.8.2 Citation packages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.9 The index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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6 Using the hyperref package
6.1 New user’s commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.2 Overriding pittetd’s preferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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7 Before submitting
29
References
30
Index
30
Pitt ETD Webpage: http://www.pitt.edu/~graduate/etd/
pittetd’s Webpage:
http://www.pitt.edu/~graduate/etd/latextemplate.html/
TEX Users Group: http://www.tug.org/ (with a link to CTAN)
2
1
Introduction
This is the guide to the pittetd LATEX 2ε document class, designed for the
preparation of electronic theses and dissertations (ETD) at the University
of Pittsburgh. It is recommended that users read this entire documentation
before starting using pittetd, so that they will have an idea of the different possibilities and options, some of which are particular to pittetd and
therefore not usual in standard LATEX classes.
Users will find below a description of pittetd usage, extended with an
introduction to some of the most relevant features of the hyperref package.
In addition, when this document has been produced by running LATEX on
the file pittetd.dtx, it also contains a commented transcript of the code,
so that users can modify things if they need to (and know what they are
doing). In the version downloadable from the Pitt ETD webpage, this
latter part is omitted. A separate document, Comments on using LATEX for
theses, also prepared for Pitt ETD authors, describes some standard tools
of LATEX that may or may not be known to the reader but can certainly
prove useful when writing the thesis or dissertation. Touched upon are
topics such as inclusion of graphics and the handling of large, book-length
documents [1].
Throughout this text reference is made to the Format Guidelines for
Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Preparation at the University of Pittsburgh, downloadable from the Pitt ETD webpage. The abbreviation FG is
used to refer to it; page numbers are indicated in parenthesis.
Section 2 describes the creation of interactive PDF files through LATEX,
introducing the two main tools for that effect, the programs PDFLATEX
and dvipdfm. Section 3 explains how to install pittetd and the main LATEX
packages needed for its proper working. Also, cursory information for the
installation of PDFLATEX and dvipdfm is given.
In section 4 some general considerations are given about the best ways
to use pittetd (and to cope with its restrictions). Use of packages and the
issues it might bring about (notably incompatibility)is treated in a special
subsection.
Detailed information about the options, available commands, and use
of pittetd can be found in section 5. Typesetting of the preliminary pages
is described in subsection 5.4.
Section 6 describes in an introductory way the basic features of
hyperref, the package that implements interactivity into LATEX documents.
3
Finally, section 7 gives some suggestions for a final format review before
submitting an ETD written with pittetd. It warns about those problems
that are most likely to occur because they lie beyond pittetd’s control.
2
PDF creation through LATEX
In principle, pittetd is equipped to fulfill the basic interactivity requirements of the FG, namely the creation of bookmarks from the entries in
the Table of Contents, the List of Figures, and the List of Tables, and the
implementation of these entries themselves as links to the corresponding
page. This is done by means of invoking the formidable hyperref package,1
which offers the basic functions for interactive handling (section 6 below
offers an introductory guide to other features from this package that users
can take advantage of). Thus, hyperref has to be—and it usually is in
standard distributions of LATEX—installed in the system for pittetd to be
able to fulfill these tasks (section 3 offers immediate help on the installation
of hyperref and other tools, including pittetd itself).
pittetd has been written under the assumption that the user will create
the final .pdf file through one of two tools, namely PDFLATEX, or the program dvipdfm. The user indicates which of the two ways is to be used as
an option to the pittetd class, namely pdftex or dvipdfm (on the way to
load the class and specify options, see section 5.1). The following sections
explain the particularities of each way. A third related option, nohyperref
option, will be discussed in section 2.4. Note that it is possible to switch
back and forth between the three ways just by modifying the relevant option; as far as pittetd is concerned, nothing else is necessary to effect the
change.2
2.1
PDFLATEX
The most direct way to obtain a .pdf output file is running PDFLATEX3
instead of LATEX. Naturally, PDFLATEX has to be installed in the system
(again, it is usually included in standard distributions of LATEX; see section 3). The user has to indicate pdftex as an option to pittetd, and
1
Written by Sebastian Rahtz.
However, when going to/from nohyperref, it is always good to delete any auxiliary files before running. Also, some of the hyperref package’s commands discussed in
section 6 are of course disabled when nohyperref is used.
3
Created by Hàn Thé Thàn.
2
4
this latter will pass that option to other packages that need it, including
hyperref but also graphicx and color (this latter used by hyperref).
Note that if this is the chosen method, a regular LATEX (i.e., not
PDFLATEX) run will result in an error message (‘Why not use pdf(e)TeX
binaries?’). This could affect user’s habits, batch files, etc.
There is one more significant drawback to the use of PDFLATEX: the
running time is sometimes clearly longer than regular LATEX. This depends, to be sure, on one of the configuration options of PDFTEX, namely
\pdfcompresslevel, and it could be modified. But in that case, the resulting file is incomparably larger.4
2.2
dvipdfm
As the name indicates, dvipdfm5 is one of the programs available to convert
.dvi files into .pdf. The procedure then consists in running LATEX as usual
while the document is in preparation, having loaded pittetd with dvipdfm
option, thus obtaining (more quickly) the usual (and smaller).dvi output.
Only optionally, at strategic points in the development of the document
(notably at the end), has the user to worry about PDF, and apply dvipdfm
to the .dvi file. This is usually as simple as typing
dvipdfm doc.dvi
in the command line. The file dvipdfm.pdf is the user’s manual for the
program and explains the switches that can be used in the command line.
In some .dvi viewers the bookmarks (and even the links) are lost.
But the relevant information is recovered by dvipdfm when creating the
corresponding .pdf file.
Another significative advantage of dvipdfm is that it tries to solve inclusion of PostScript graphic files, so it is not always necessary to convert
them (see also [1]). To do the job, however, dvipdfm uses GhostScript, and
therefore this program must also be installed in the system.
2.3
Other ways to get a PDF file and bookmarks
There are other ways to obtain a final PDF output file, but they are all
discouraged to use alongside with pittetd. For example, a common method
4
In general, a .pdf is much larger—much less efficient in all respects—than the .dvi.
This tendency is reinforced if PDFLATEX is configured to run faster.
5
Written by Mark A. Wicks.
5
is to use dvips to convert a file to the PostScript format, and then apply
Acrobat Distiller on it. This method involves two conversions; links and
especially bookmarks tend to have an erratic behavior.
Acrobat PDF Writer, a ‘printer emulator’ that ‘prints’ PDF files will, of
course, ignore anything that cannot be printed, including bookmarks. And
the other .dvi;.pdf converter in existence, dvipdf,6 is not as widely
available as dvipdfm.
On the other hand, hyperref is not the only way to create bookmarks
with LATEX. Older packages and systems exist, like VTEX, but since those
are much less widely used, pittetd does not support them.
2.4
No hyperref
There is a third option concerning the creation of bookmarks and links in
pittetd. Option nohyperref will prevent pittetd from taking care of almost
all interactivity requirements, and the user is left the freedom (and the
burden) to fulfill them by him- or herself.
This option might be more useful than it seems, because it allows users
to use the hyperref package itself their way, not pittetd’s. There are in the
latter’s code a series of minor, but substantial, modifications to hyperref,
and some of the options with which the package is loaded are fixed. As
a security measure, pittetd will not allow the user manually to load the
package, unless nohyperref is specified. Thus, if a user wants to control
hyperref’s behavior, this option will be necessary. Section 6.2 gives some
directions on how to do this.
Also, if pittetd cannot run normally due to some complication in installation or configuration of hyperref, the nohyperref option provides
a way to keep working on the contents of the document and worry about
requirements later.
3
Installation
3.1
pittetd
The pittetd bundle is made of the following files:
6
By Sergey Lesenko.
6
pittetd.dtx
pittetd.ins
Source for the class and this documentation.
Batch file for installation.
pittetd.cls
pit10pt.clo
pit11pt.clo
pit12pt.clo
The pittetd class itself.
Definitions for 10pt-size option.
Definitions for 11pt-size option.
Definitions for 12pt-size option.
pitthesis.pit
pittdiss.pit
achicago.pit
Patch for pitthesis class
Patch for pittdiss class
Patch for achicago package
pittetd.dvi
pittetd.pdf
This documentation
All these files are individually downloadable from pittetd’s webpage. It is
only the two first files, however, that are necessary, for the rest can be
extracted from them. To do this, the file pittetd.ins has to be processed
with TEX (not LATEX); the documentation results from running LATEX (not
TEX) on pittetd.dtx.7
It is the .cls and .clo files that conform the class itself, i.e., what
EX needs to have access to. Under a system that, like most TEX implementations today, use the standard TEX Directory Structure (TDS), LATEX
files are put in subdirectories of the .../texmf/tex/latex directory (for
example, the standard classes are in .../texmf/tex/latex/base). So the
best thing under such a system is to create a subdirectory for pittetd:
LAT
.../texmf/tex/latex/pittetd
and place there the .cls and .clo files. Likewise, the documentation (the
file you are reading, pittetd.dvi) should be placed in
.../texmf/doc/latex/pittetd
and the source files (pittetd.dtx and pittetd.ins) in
.../texmf/source/latex/pittetd
The ‘patches’ should be placed in the same directory as the actual
document’s input files.
After placing the files in those directories, you might need to ‘refresh’ the
database, i.e., to make TEX aware that a new class is loaded. This usually
7
To get the index right, you have to run makeindex with gind style, saying, in the command line (and after a LATEX run on pittetd.dtx), makeindex -s gind.ist pittetd.
Then a final latex pittetd.dtx produces the document with a well-formatted index.
7
appears as a command (or button, or window, etc.) of the implementation.8
For non-TDS systems, the suggestion is ‘put the files where TEX can
find them.’ For example, search your disk for the standard classes (e.g.,
article.cls), and put the pittetd files where they are. Alternatively, you
can simply put the pittetd files in the directory that contains the input files
of your document.
3.2
Installation of other required packages
In addition, you will need at least the hyperref and color packages, and
PDFTEX if you use pdftex option. Most likely, you already have those
packages installed. Even so, it is possible that you do not have the file
pdftex.def, which is part of only relatively recent distributions. This
file, available from the pittetd’s webpage, should be copied to the same
directory where the file color.sty is (.../texmf/tex/latex/graphics in
a TDS system).
hyperref is a package used by pittetd (unless, of course, the nohyperref
option is used), so it has to be in the system. In the very unlikely case it
is not already installed, you will need to download it from either CTAN
(through http://www.tug.org) or the pittetd’s webpage, and install it by
running TEX (not LATEX) on the file hyperref.ins. This will extract
the files and instruct you on where to place them (which, in any case, is
analogous to the placement of pittetd files).
Likewise, hyperref uses other packages from the standard distribution
of
EX (notably, color). Installation of those packages is analogous.
LAT
3.3
PDFTEX, dvipdfm
Installation of PDFTEX and dvipdfm is a more complex matter. Again,
several implementations, including TEXLive, MiKTeX, teTEX, fpTEX,
and CMacTEX, have both tools pre-installed. In case your system does not
have either or both of them, you can download the relevant files, and obtain
installation directions, at CTAN (through www.tug.org). The PDFTEX
manual, file pdftex-s.pdf, is available from the pittetd’s webpage, and
contains information on the installation of the program.
8
With MiKTeX, for example, you should run the program ‘MiKTeX Options.’
8
4
To keep in mind
The pittetd class has been designed to fully comply with the format guidelines for Pitt ETDs. Due to this, there are some particularities that might
create conflict with LATEX users’ habits. This section warns and advises
about those particularities. Decisions have been made with two priorities:
to discourage uses that go against the FG, and to facilitate conversion from
standard LATEX classes.
4.1
Headings and captions
pittetd will automatically capitalize the title of the document and those of
the chapters. However, section titles have to be capitalized by the user.9
On the other hand, since both sectional headings and captions for tables
and figures must have entries in the bookmarks panel, they are subject to
two substantial limitations: they cannot be long, and must consist only of
ASCII characters.10
When building the bookmarks, hyperref will convert some simple
EX commands, but in general will ignore most of them. It also will crop
everything that goes beyond the maximum length of a bookmark (that
varies among PDF viewers; Acrobat Reader makes it 64 characters). There
are two tools to handle these limitations in LATEX: the hyperref command
\texorpdfstring (section 6.1), and the optional argument to \caption
(section 5.6.1).
LAT
4.2
Preliminaries
The series of preliminaries in a Pitt ETD differs substantially from a paperbased thesis/dissertation. The committee page has changed, and dedication
and acknowledgements pages have been eliminated (under the assumption
and recommendation that these should be part of the preface). The order
was modified accordingly (so that the preface goes immediately before the
text of the thesis itself).
Thus, the preliminaries are in principle limited to the following:
9
This is because modification of the \section command in order to capitalize not
only the title itself, but also the bookmark, although possible, would highly increase the
probability of incompatibilities with other packages.
10
That is why the FG recommend using words (not formulas) in titles and keeping
captions “to one line if possible” (p. 9).
9
Title page
Committee Membership page
Copyright page (optional)
Abstract
Table of contents
List of Tables
List of Figures
Preface (optional)
Since all these preliminaries have their own commands in pittetd (see section 5.4), there is in principle no need nor place for non-numbered chapters
(\chapter* commands). In fact, the starred version behaves exactly as
the regular one. If there is a need for additional preliminary pages, the (on
purpose) cumbersome command \preliminarychapter is available (see
section 5.4.7).
4.3
Use of packages
Almost certainly authors of Pitt ETD’s will need to load a wide and unpredictable variety of packages. Although pittetd has been coded with the
premise not to ‘invite’ incompatibilities, it is possible that some of these
packages will create clashes, for there is simply no way to claim universal compatibility with the hundreds of packages already available and with
those to come.
However, partial compatibility can be (and supposedly has been)
achieved. A survey carried out in April–May 2003 gave us a list of packages
that are of common use in the Pitt community, and those have been taken
into account in the writing of pittetd.
For the handling of possible incompatibilities arising in the future, the
following policy has been designed. The user who suspects he or she has
found a clash should contact the Pitt ETD Working Group and explain
the problem, ideally e-mailing a copy of the input file(s). Hopefully in a
reasonable amount of time, a ‘patch’ will be created that solves the problem.
The patch takes the form of a file with extension .pit, downloadable from
pittetd’s webpage.
After the file has been downloaded and put where LATEX can find it (the
easiest way is to put it in the same folder as the document itself), it should
\patch be accessed. The command \patch, that takes the name of the package
10
as its argument, reads any patch that exists for it. For example, there is
already a patch for the achicago package; to ensure the proper behavior
of this package, the user should type, after \usepackage{achicago}, the
command \patch{achicago}.
Alternatively, the command \usepackage can itself be replaced by
\usewithpatch \usewithpatch. When a package is invoked by means of \usewithpatch,
pittetd will search the system for the corresponding patch; if it exists, it
loads it; if not, nothing happens. Options to the package, as usual, are indicated by the optional argument [hoptionsi]. The drawback of this mechanism is that several packages cannot be loaded at once (i.e., by commaseparating them, as in \usepackage{color,graphicx}); each must receive
its own \usewithpatch. But using \usewithpatch ensures that pittetd will
always look for a patch when loading a package.
The following paragraphs mention some LATEX packages and tell
whether they are supported or not by pittetd. For information on compatibility with the bibliographical styles and packages, see section 5.8.
4.3.1
Unsupported packages
Many popular LATEX packages provide formatting features that either go
against the FG or are already incorporated into pittetd. Therefore, it is
assumed that such packages will not be loaded. These include setspace,
packages for the handling of floating objects (such as float, floatflt),
for variations of layout (fancyhdr, fncychap, multicol), and sectioning
(titlesec, tocbibind). Using any of those packages might result in error
messages, anomalies, and unpredictable output. Before reporting or trying
to solve these problems, keep in mind that departmental approval is needed
to include the features.
4.3.2
Supported packages
Some packages provide features that are legitimate in a Pitt ETD. Font
packages, such as those in the PSNFSS collection (times, bookman,
palatino, newcent, etc.) are perfectly compatible with pittetd. In fact, if
CM fonts are desired, it is recommendable that the ae package is loaded.11
The packages of the American Mathematical Society (amsmath, amsthm,
etc.) are supported. Likewise, all the packages in the standard distribution
11
The AE fonts emulate CM, but are PostScript, not bitmap, fonts, which gives them
a better quality for screen display.
11
of LATEX (color, graphicx, xspace, verbatim, etc.) are supposed to work.
caption2 works miraculously fine. In general, packages that provide, as
opposed to override, features, should work fine.
4.4
Related classes
Currently there are two LATEX classes that produce theses and dissertations for Pitt, namely pitthesis (by Wonkoo Kim, 1999) and pittdiss (by
Will Slaughter, 2003). The former was designed for paper-based documents, following requirements somewhat different from those of an ETD;
the latter, on the contrary, was created with ETD in mind.12 Many features
are shared by those classes and pittetd—notably the creation of preliminaries—but the detailed mechanisms (command names and things like that)
are different. This release of pittetd includes two ‘patch’ files that allow using pittetd with conventions from the other two classes, so that the user does
not have to change every command (some will require handling, though;
pittetd will warn or complain).
The patches are called through either
\patch{pittdiss}
or
\patch{pitthesis}
(the latter only two t’s.) Having read the corresponding patch, pittetd
will try to interpret pittdiss- or pitthesis-commands. Hopefully, most times
it will succeed; in any case, it will issue warnings (or error messages in
the final option) for things that have to be changed. For example, if
acknowledgements are created with pitthesis’s acknowledgements environment, pittetd will warn that now there is no separate preliminary for that,
and that this section should be part of the preface.
As an extra safety measure when going from pitthesis or pittdiss
to pittetd, all auxiliary files should be deleted before the first pittetd
run. Also, it is very much recommendable to change \bibliography to
\safebibliography since the beginning.
4.5
Stage and interaction
In order to facilitate the process of converting files from standard classes
into pittetd, annoying error messages due to the particularities of pittetd
12
It does not produce links or bookmarks, however.
12
have been avoided as much as possible. The ‘stage’ of the document is
used to decide whether or not the differences should make stop the LATEX
run. The idea is that when the draft option is used, most problems are
reported as ‘Class Warnings’ that do not stop the process. But if final
is used (and eventually it should be used), more prominent error messages
appear instead.
However, many packages (including the seminal hyperref, color, and
graphicx) themselves operate differently when draft is specified. So for
example, hyperref does not create links or bookmarks, and graphicx does
not import external graphic files. But the user might want to see these
features, still not worrying about detailed pittetd concerns. That is why
an intermediate stage semifinal is introduced. The packages will work as
usual, but pittetd will issue mostly warnings, not error messages. This is
the default option.
Both semifinal and draft issue a final warning at the end of the job,
reminding the user to run the document with final. As usual, moreover,
draft makes overfull boxes visible.
The ‘stage’ option also governs pittetd’s complaints about the preliminaries when information for the different pages is missing, when the order
is wrong, etc.: with draft and semifinal, there will be a warning, while
with final there will be an error message.
4.6
Auxiliary files
In addition to the regular auxiliary files (.aux, .toc, .lot, .lof, etc.),
a run of pittetd involving all its features will produce two files: one with
extension .out (written by hyperref for the ‘outlines,’ or bookmarks), and
one with extension .etd, used by pittetd to decide some details. Input or
other files created by the user should avoid these extensions. Also, for some
implementations of LATEX that provide a quick erasing of auxiliary files, it
is advisable to configure this tool to include .out and .etd files.
4.7
PDF Document Info
pittetd offers the possibility of filling in the fields of Acrobat Reader’s ‘Document Info’ dialog box. ‘Title’ and ‘Author’ are filled in with the data of the
title page. ‘Subject’ and ‘Keywords’ are handled by additional commands
(see section 5.5).
13
5
5.1
Using pittetd
Loading the class
The pittetd class is loaded by typing
\documentclass[hoptionsi]{pittetd}
at the very top of the input file. Table 1 shows all the hoptionsi available.
Most of the options for conventional classes (i.e., the standard classes article,
book, report, and similar ones like amsart and amsbook) have been disabled
in pittetd. The document will always be typeset letter paper (8.5 × 11
inches), portrait, and one column.13
Characteristic
Font size
Stage
(see section 4.5)
Bibliography
layout
Available Options
12pt (default)
11pt
10pt
final
semifinal (default)
draft
openbib (‘open’ bibliographies).
Equations
Type
Section numbering
(see section 5.3.2)
PDF production
(see section 2)
leqno (equation numbers on the left)
fleqn (flush-left displays)
phd (dissertation, default)
ms (M.S.’s thesis)
ma (M.A.’s thesis)
sectionnumbers (default)
sectionletters
dvipdfm
pdftex
nohyperref
Table 1: Available options for pittetd
13
Thus, options to modify these parameters, namely those for a) paper size
(letterpaper, legalpaper, etc.); b) paper orientation (portrait, landscape); c) number
of columns (onecolumn, twocolumn); and d) pagination (oneside, twoside; openright,
openany; titlepage, notitlepage), are not implemented.
14
5.2
Font sizes and spacing
\Small The usual LATEX commands are defined according to the font size option
\SMALL selected. In addition, the \Small and \SMALL commands work as in the
classes amsart and amsbook, i.e., are equivalent to \footnotesize and
\scriptsize respectively. See figure 1.
The text of a Pitt ETD has to be at least “one half-spaced, with the
exception of long quotations, footnotes, bibliographical references, and the
Index (if included), which may be single-spaced” (p. 7). A spacing of
little more than one-half for regular text has been built in into pittetd; the
text in footnotes and quotations has been set to single spacing. The user
can always adjust the spacing in the usual way, \renewcommand’ing the
\baselinestretch command \baselinestretch, so that
\renewcommand\baselinestretch{1.3}
increases the built-in spacing by a 30%—for all the text, footnotes included.
The spacing-scheme is achieved in pittetd by building it into the font
sizes. Normal-size font (\normalsize) is one-half spaced, while all other
sizes are single-spaced. The quote and quotation environments, as well
as \footnote, all of which set a smaller font, produce thus single-spaced
\singlespace text. An additional ‘size’ has been implemented, namely \singlespace,
which produces regular-size, but single-spaced, text.
\smallskip
The spacing command \smallskip is set to an amount of a single space;
\medskip \medskip is a line (a little more than one and a half space); and \bigskip
\bigskip a double space.
\SMALL or
\Small or
\tiny \scriptsize \footnotesize \small
\normalsize
\large
\Large
\LARGE
\huge
\Huge
Figure 1: Font sizes
\acro
Adapted from the ltugboat class, pittetd implements the command
\acro, that typesets its argument in a font smaller than the surrounding text. It is useful for all-uppercase acronyms like ETD (\acro{ETD}),
UNICEF (\acro{UNICEF}), etc., which would be too large in regular size
(compare ETD, CTAN, UNICEF); it is better than the direct \small,
which is not good in contexts of font size other than normal.
15
5.3
5.3.1
\chapter
\section
\subsection
\subsubsection
Sectioning
Sectioning commands
The sectioning of a pittetd document is done through the usual commands \chapter, \section, \subsection, and \subsubsection. Note
that \part, \paragraph, and \subparagraph are not implemented. The
\chapter command takes care of capitalization of the title both in the text
and in the bookmarks; however, since \section capitalizes in the text but
not in the bookmarks, it is always advisable to capitalize manually.
Within preliminaries, the subdivisions \section, \subsection, and
\subsubsection will produce neither a number nor a bookmark entry
(\chapter is reserved for chapters in the body of the text; about additional
preliminary ‘chapters’ see section 4.2). The starred variants \chapter*,
\section*, etc., work exactly as the non-starred counterparts, although
producing a warning.
All four sectioning commands have the usual optional argument, that
contains the alternate version of the heading that appears in the table of
contents. This, however, is implemented only for compatibility reasons, for
the FG require that the table of contents lists the headings exactly as it
appears in the text. The main reason why the optional argument could be
used at all is that it permits to cope with the conversion of the text into
ASCII text for the bookmarks, but that is best handled by the command
\texorpdfstring (section 6.1).
On the other hand, there might be cases in which some letters must
appear in lowercase even in headings (chemical elements is such a case).
The command \lowercase works within the arguments to sectioning commands, and can be used for those cases.
5.3.2
Numbering
The divisions of a Pitt ETD can be numbered in two ways, depicted in
Figure 2. The first one is the one used by default (sectionnumbers); the
user can specify pittetd’s option sectionletters to use the second one.
In this case, in addition, the labels for successive levels of the enumerate
environment are also changed from their default appearance, to agree with
the section numbering: the first level will be an uppercase roman numeral,
\regularenum the second an uppercase letter, and so on. The user has the command
\regularenum to revert to the usual appearances (namely arabic, letter,
16
roman, Letter).
1.0 FIRST CHAPTER
I. FIRST CHAPTER
1.1 FIRST SECTION
A. FIRST SECTION
1.11 First subsection
1.
1.11.1 First subsubsection
First subsection
a. First subsubsection
sectionnumbers (default)
sectionletters
Figure 2: The two possibilities for section numbering
5.4
The preliminaries
The first part of a Pitt ETD is made of the ‘preliminaries.’ They are created
in pittetd with special commands that are the subject of the present section.
pittetd will keep track of the order in which the user typesets the preliminaries, and will warn or complain according to the ‘stage’ of the document
(see section 4.5).
5.4.1
Title Page
\maketitle
The title page is produced, as usual, by the command \maketitle, but
involves several pieces of information in addition to \title, \author and
\date, so it is only deceivingly similar to the same command in standard
LATEX classes. All efforts have been taken to prevent the differences to ruin
the LATEX run (making easier the conversion from other classes), but the
user will eventually have to check it carefully.
\title
The macro \title has an optional argument that sets the title of the
document as it will appear in the ‘Document Info’ dialog box of Acrobat Reader. If no optional argument is given, the required argument will
be used (however, bear in mind that only a limited portion of it will be
visible). In order for this feature to work properly, \title must be issued
in the preamble of the document. In the text, the title will be typeset
uppercase.
Ex.: \title[An Anatomy of the World]{An Anatomy of %
the World on texts by John Donne, %
for soprano and six instrumentalists}
17
\author
The \author command works much the same as in standard LATEX
classes. Again, it should be issued in the preamble for the author’s name
to appear in the ‘Document Info’ dialog box. On the other hand, \thanks
and \and are disabled.
Ex.: \author{Federico Garcia}
The following macros set other information needed by pittetd to build the
preliminaries. None of them is required unless final option is used. With
semifinal and draft, a warning is issued informing of any missing commands.
These commands are analogous, but not identical, to additional commands in the classes pitthesis and pittdiss. Patches are available to facilitate
conversion from those classes to pittetd.
\year
The title page does not include the whole date, but only the year. By
default, this is set to the current year; the user can optionally specify it
with the command \year.
Ex.: \year{2002}
\degree
The information of the author’s previous degrees is provided by the
\degree command, and should contain the degree, institution, and year of
the each degree. Several lines or degrees can be separated with \\.
Ex.: \degree{B.S. in Music (Composition),\\Bogot\’a, 2001}
\school
The title page includes the text ‘submitted to the graduate faculty of’,
followed by the school name. The user sets this name with the command
\school. By default, the article ‘the’ is appended to the school name, but
the user can change it with the optional argument.
Ex.: \school{Department of Mathematics}
Ex.: \school[]{FAS}
Ex.: \school[certain]{Other department}
\degreesought
According to the option used (phd, ms, or ma), pittetd sets the value of
\degreesought to either ‘Doctor of Philosophy,’ ‘Master of Sciences,’ or
‘Master of Arts’. If desired, \renewcommand can be used to modify it.
Ex.: \renewcommand\degreesought{M. A. in Composition and Theory}
Figure 3 is the title page produced by the examples above.
5.4.2
Committee membership page
\makecommittee The \makecommittee command builds up the committee membership page.
The author is typeset as it was in the Title Page (i.e., as is provided by
the \author command); the school name comes initially from the \school
command, although capitalized (see section 5.4.1 for these two commands).
In some cases, the name of the school in the committee membership page
18
AN ANATOMY OF THE WORLD ON TEXTS BY JOHN
DONNE FOR SOPRANO AND SIX INSTRUMENTALISTS
by
Federico Garcia
B.S. in Music (Composition)
Bogotá, 2001
Submitted to the Graduate Faculty of
Arts and Sciences in partial fulfillment
of the requirements for the degree of
M. A. in Composition and Theory
University of Pittsburgh
2002
Figure 3: Example of title page
19
should be different from the one that appears on the Title Page (for example, when it starts with ‘Faculty’); the user can insert a new \school
command right before \makecommittee (and after \maketitle) to control
the second appearance.
In addition to that information, the committee membership page takes
also the date and the committee members, which are provided with the
next commands.
\date
The \date command is intended for the date of the thesis/dissertation
defense, which will appear after the text ‘It was defended on’. The default
value is \today. It can be omitted with \date{} (in whose case there will
be no ‘It was defended’), but a warning will be issued.
Ex.: \date{May 15, 2003}
\committeemember
The list of committee members is typeset with information from one or
more \committeemember commands (one for each member). The argument
of \committeemember cannot contain more than one line.
Ex.: \committeemember{N. Chimpsky, Ph.\ D., Professor}
The first name will be treated as the thesis/dissertation advisor. When
there are two advisors, the second one should be provided with the
\coadvisor \coadvisor command.
In master’s theses, inclusion of the rest of the committee is optional,
but in Ph. D. dissertations it is required. Accordingly, if pittetd has been
loaded with the phd option, it will require at least two \committemember
commands, the requirement taking the form of a warning for draft and
semifinal options, an error for final.
In any case, if just one member (the advisor) is listed, pittetd will omit
the text ‘approved by’, only typesetting the advisor’s name at the bottom
of the page.
5.4.3
Copyright page
\copyrightpage Optionally, a copyright page can be appended immediately after the com-
mittee membership page, through the command \copyrightpage.
5.4.4
Abstract
abstract An abstract of no more than 350 words is required for every Pitt ETD. It
is created as usual with the abstract environment:
\begin{abstract}
htext of the abstracti
\end{abstract}
20
The page will start with the title, the author, and the year of the
document, followed by the text of the abstract.
Optionally, a list of keywords or descriptors can be appended at the end
of the abstract. The keywords themselves have to be set in the preamble
by the command \keywords (section 5.5). Then, an optional argument
to the abstract environment sets the title of the list. For example, the
command \begin{abstract}[Keywords:] produces, after the text of the
abstract, the expression ‘Keywords:’ followed by the contents of the previous \keywords command.
Some schools (including the School of Engineering) recommend that the
word ‘ABSTRACT’ appears on the abstract page. pittetd provides for that
requirement in the form of a starred version for the abstract environment:
\begin{abstract*}
htext of the abstracti
\end{abstract*}
Keywords can be appended to this kind of abstract in the same way.
5.4.5
Table of Contents, and Lists of Figures and Tables
\tableofcontents The table of contents and the lists of figures and tables are created with the
\listoffigures usual LATEX commands. If hyperref is used, the entries in these lists are
\listoftables links pointing to the corresponding page, and are included as bookmarks.
5.4.6
Preface
\preface The preface is optional. If one is desired, the user needs only to type
\preface followed by the text itself. Acknowledgements, dedication, etc.,
should be included in this preliminary. The preface is the only preliminary
that is included in the table of contents.
5.4.7
Additional preliminaries
\preliminarychapter As has been said, preliminaries in a Pitt ETD are in principle limited to
those described above. Just for the sake of completeness, however, a command for additional preliminaries is implemented (and its use is discouraged) in pittetd:
\preliminarychapter{hheadingi}
21
The hheadingi will be both typeset and bookmarked, but not included in
the table of contents). Sections within the additional preliminary will be
unnumbered.
5.5
PDF Document Info
The ‘Document Info’ dialog box of Acrobat Reader includes information
for title, author, subject, and keywords. pittetd will fill in these fields (if
hyperref is used) with, respectively: the optional argument to the command \title; the \author; the \subject command; and the \keywords
command. All four commands must be issued in the preamble for the information to go to the Document Info (although there is no error message
if any or all are missing).
\subject
For example, the commands \subject{Musical Composition} and
\keywords \keywords{Music \& Text, John Donne, Vocal Music} define the con-
tents of the ‘subject’ and ‘keywords’ fields. The latter will, optionally, also
be typeset at the end of the abstract (see section 5.4.4).
5.6
Main body
The way the main body of the document is typeset by LATEX is very little
modified by pittetd. As has been said, footnotes and quotations appear
in a smaller font, and single-spaced. Within the table and figure environments, moreover, \singlespace is declared, so their contents appears
single-spaced. To resort to one-half spacing, the declaration \normalsize
is enough.
5.6.1
Numbering and captions for tables and figures
By default, figures and tables are numbered consecutively (1, 2, etc.), inde\chapterfloats pendently from the chapter. This can be changed with the \chapterfloats
command, that has to appear before \begin{document}. In that case, figures and tables will be numbered within chapters (1.4, 2.5, etc., or I.4, II.5,
etc.); pittetd reserves enough space for the figure or table number in the
list of figures or tables (that might be something long like ‘VIII.14’) , but
this requires several runs.
As has been mentioned, captions are subject to the limitations of book\caption marking: they must be short and contain only ASCII text. In case this
22
poses problems, the optional argument to the \caption command is the
best tool to deal with them:
\caption[halternate captioni]{hcaptioni}
When present, it is halternate captioni, instead hcaptioni, what is actually
typeset in the list of tables or figures, and into the corresponding bookmark.
So, if a long caption is necessary, it can be handled as in the following
example (note the avoidance of \cite in the optional argument):
\caption[A modern ‘wave model’ of the Indo-European
languages according to Raimo~Antilla~(1972).]{A
modern ‘wave model’ of the Indo-European languages
according to \cite{r-a}. The numbers indicate 24
isogglosses (similarities) shared among different
Indo-European languages. Isogloss 1 indicates the
centum:satem split...
}
Refer also to section 6.1 for more details on hyperref conversion of
TEX into ASCII text.
5.6.2
Cross references
When using hyperref, cross references created with the \ref and \pageref
commands are interactive links. The package offers, as an alternative, the
command \nameref, that is used exactly as \ref, but typesets the name
of the chapter or section, instead of its number.14 This kind of reference
seems to be more consistent with interactivity (for, when a click is enough,
the main motivation for an ordered numbering is called into question).
In any case, with pittetd, the \nameref command is slightly modified
when it refers to an appendix: it does not produce the appendix’s title, but
its label (‘APPENDIX’, or ‘APPENDIX A’, etc.).
5.7
Appendices
\appendix The \appendix command tells pittetd that the following chapters (i.e.,
the following \chapter commands) are appendices. If there is only one
appendix, its heading will be ‘APPENDIX’; if there are more, they will be
numbered with capital letters, ‘APPENDIX A’, etc. pittetd needs a second
run to know which way to follow.
14
hyperref achieves this by means of invoking the nameref package.
23
5.8
5.8.1
Bibliography
BibTEX styles
This section applies only to documents whose bibliography is generated
through BibTEX. Manually-created bibliographies (i.e., produced with the
thebibliography environment) need no special warning to work properly
with pittetd, which handles spacing after the FG (single space within entries;
entries separated by one-half space).
As far as pittetd is concerned, there are three kinds of BibTEX styles
(.bst files). The first kind includes the styles that limit themselves to
ordering and formatting the different pieces of information within the bibliography entries (without modifying the appearance of the list as a whole).
The vast majority of BibTEX styles, including the standard ones (plain,
unsrt, alpha, abbrv), fall in this category. These styles pose no problem
to pittetd, and nothing special is needed to fulfill the requirements of the
FG.
The second group comprises those styles that, in addition to the individual entries, format the list as well. In general, styles that do not use
bracketed labels (‘[1]’ or ‘[Cas44]’) are part of this group, for they need to
redefine the thebibliography environment to conform to the absence of
such labels. They usually come with an associated package (.sty file) that
takes care of this task. To ensure proper behavior when using these pack\safebibliography ages, pittetd offers the command \safebibliography. Its use is identical
to that of \bibliography, and it tries to make a compromise between the
style’s conventions and the FG.15
The last kind of bibliography styles is that of systems that modify
aspects of formatting other than the final list of bibliographical references.
All these systems have not only .bst files, but also substantial packages
(.sty). harvard, natbib and achicago are common instances. When
pittetd has a close encounter with packages of the third kind, there can
be erratic behavior. It is recommended that \safebibliography is used
instead of \bibliography, but this will probably not be enough. Since
there is no general solution, the problems have to be treated individually,
with patches, as explained in 4.3 above.
The three mentioned systems have already been tackled: natbib is an
extremely well-written program, so that conciliating it with pittetd is easy
15
It of course is not guaranteed that it will always succeed in doing so. If it does not,
it is possible that the bibliography style is actually of the third kind.
24
and does not merit a separate patch file. No special treatment (other than
using \safebibliography) will normally be needed.
On the other hand, harvard is a more complicated case, for the package
creates interactive links. The hyperref package has support for harvard,
but there is no way to foresee potential problems. It is strongly recommended if possible not to use this package, replacing it with natbib.
achicago poses other kinds of problems. It is an ambitious package that
modifies things other than bibliography-related functions. For example,
using this package, the effect of \emph will not be italic, but slanted shape;
the quote and quotation environments are also modified, so that pittetd
cannot set single spacing within them. Again, it is recommended to avoid
this package, but in any case there is a patch available at pittetd’s webpage,
the file achicago.pit. It should be loaded saying \patch{achicago}.
Thus, through the means just explained, a broad range of bibliographical usages is supported by pittetd. Bracketed-labels referencing, being
what LATEX is designed for, can generally be used without restriction; for
author-year referencing, natbib and achicago are supported; and for footnote referencing, the package opcit (available from CTAN) works fine if
\safebibliography is used.
5.8.2
Citation packages
There are some packages that handle the way bibliographical references
are handled within the text, rather than the way the entries of the final
list are typeset. It is unfortunate that the package cite, that sorts the
numbers of a multiple \cite, creates deep and quite un-traceable conflicts
with hyperref. The package can be loaded, but it will have no effect. As
a result, the overcite package will not sort the numbers either, although
it will typeset them as superscripts (which, in addition, will be interactive
links). achemso also causes problems, and it is recommended not to use it
at all.16 chapterbib, going against FG, is not supposed to be loaded.
16
In hyperref’s documentation, Sebastian Rahtz admits not having been able to make
hyper-bibliography robust, “since many styles redefine these things. . . Any or all of
achemso, chapterbib, and drftcite may break.” For the case of cite, I tried to make
a compromise, sacrificing the interactivity of the bibliographical references to keep the
effects of the package. But I got completely lost in the attempt. . . As Rahtz says, “life
is too short,” and I am not going to understand all the workings of \@cite, \@citex,
\@citen, . . . Sigh.
25
On the other hand, support for the multibib package, that allows multiple lists of references in the same document, is in progress. For the time
being, the recommendation is to plan on writing one general bibliography
if possible. In any case, several reference lists can be manually created (i.e.,
without using BibTEX).
5.9
The index
The code of pittetd defines the environment theindex to suit the FG, but
otherwise exactly as standard classes define it. This means that the production of the index, be it manually or through MakeIndex , remains the
same. hyperref offers an option to create a ‘hyper-index,’ whose page
numbers are interactive links. However, the option is not very robust, and
therefore pittetd uses hyperref but turns hyper-indexing off.
At the moment there is no support for multiple indexes to be generated
automatically by MakeIndex , although several indexes can be manually
created.
6
Using the hyperref package
This section is a very brief and incomplete guide to some extra features of
the hyperref package that have not been explained before. Unfortunately,
if something is missing to hyperref, it is documentation. Useful information is to be found in [2] and [3], but those documents are not intended
for the average user. The present section is a translated adaptation of the
relevant section in [4], to my knowledge the most complete (but still not
comprehensive) user’s guide on the package.
Section 6.2 provides a starting point to use hyperref in a way different
of pittetd’s default.
6.1
New user’s commands
Certain character strings (notably the text of the bookmarks) are converted
by hyperref into ASCII text, ignoring most LATEX commands. In general,
macros that expand into a piece of text (such as the \LaTeX command
itself, the italic correction \/, or things like ‘ and ’) are appropriately
handled. But math mode, for example, is completely ignored. The process
26
leads virtually never to an error message; warnings, however, are issued for
every ignored token.
\texorpdfstring
In any case, the user has a way to ‘help’ hyperref in the conversion,
namely the command
\texorpdfstring{hTEX texti}{hPDF texti}
that can be used in sectioning commands or captions for figures and tables. For example, a caption with the text ‘An H2 O molecule,’ that would
produce a bad bookmark entry, can be fixed by typing
\caption{\texorpdfstring{An H$_2$O molecule}{A water molecule}}
After this, the caption for the figure will feature ‘H2 O’ (both in the figure
and the list of figures), but its bookmark will substitute ‘water’.
To create links other than those produced by the LATEX commands \ref,
\pageref, and \cite, hyperref makes available other commands. Only
some of them will be mentioned here. See [2] for the rest.
\nameref
The \nameref command works like ref, but creates a link with the
chapter or section name. It is only applicable to sectioning commands.
\url
The command \url{hURL addressi} prints the hURL addressi as a
link that launches the local Internet surfer and leads to the corresponding
page.
\hypertarget
Analogous to \label, the command \hypertarget{hkeyi}{htexti}
makes the htexti to be the target of a cross reference.
\hyperlink
Analogous to \ref, the command \hyperlink{hkeyi}{hexpressioni}
sets up an internal link whose target has been previously defined with
\hypertarget.
\Acrobatmenu Through the command \Acrobatmenu{hmenu functioni}{htexti}, a htexti
is typeset as a link that activates the hmenu functioni of Acrobat Reader
(or Exchange). For a list of the available functions, see section 4 of [2].
6.2
Overriding pittetd’s preferences
As has been said, pittetd loads hyperref with a fixed set of options. In
order to access the package keeping control of it, it is needed to specify the
nohyperref option for pittetd and then load hyperref:
\documentclass[nohyperref]{pittetd}
27
\usepackage[hpersonal optionsi]{hyperref}
This procedure is of course recommended only to users experienced with
hyperref. A comprehensive list of hyperref’s options is given in [5]. Here
is the list of options that pittetd uses by default (when allowed to):
letterpaper, colorlinks,
hyperindex=false
bookmarks, bookmarksnumbered, bookmarksopen,
citecolor=blue, urlcolor=blue
An option not used by pittetd that might be relevant is backref, that
makes the bibliographical entries produce links to the sections in which the
corresponding \cite appear (there is also the alternative pagebackref,
with links leading to the page of the \cite’s).
In any case, it is always good to indicate the driver for hyperref, for
example pdftex or dvipdfm, as an option to this package. In fact, when
such an option is given to pittetd, all that is done by the latter is to pass it
on to packages that need it, including hyperref, graphicx and color.
By loading hyperref manually, some automatic features of pittetd are lost:
the bookmarks for the bibliography, the index, and the appendices; and the
filling in of the ‘Document Info’ dialog box of Acrobat Reader. Figures and
tables, however, will still create bookmarks. To get those bookmarks created was the thorniest issue in the writing of pittetd, and we have decided to
keep this working even if the user has chosen to override pittetd’s preferences
about hyperref (see the code for \listoffigures and \listoftables).
\pdfbookmark
To create bookmarks additional to those that come from sections in the
table of contents (or from the lists of figures and tables), hyperref provides
the \pdfbookmark command:
\pdfbookmark[hlevel i]{hbookmark texti}{hkeyi}
where hlevel i is 0 for chapters, 1 for sections, and so on. The hkeyi is
a unique name chosen by the user. The bookmark will be appended to
the panel in the current position, and will point to the page of the text, in
which \pdfbookmark appears. For more complicated instances (bookmarks
that lead to a different location in the document, or that lead to different
documents), see sections 5.2.4 and 7.2 of [3].
28
7
Before submitting
The pittetd LATEX class is programmed to follow closely and consistently
the FG. In general, the author of a thesis or dissertation needs not to be
concerned about most of the formatting requirements (for example, checking the bookmarks and links one by one is unnecessary). However, this
creates the danger of implying that nothing can go wrong. There are in
fact some things beyond pittetd’s control, and those things must be checked
by the authors themselves (and will probably be checked closely by format
reviewers). This section highlights the most common and likely problems.
Captions of tables and figures. Captions for tables should appear at
the top of the table, while those for figures go at the bottom. pittetd
does not force nor check this requirement.
Captions as bookmarks. Very long captions for tables and figures tend
to be truncated when converted to bookmarks. Also, LATEX constructions (like formulas, cite commands, etc.) are lost. Sections
5.6.1 and 6.1 show two ways of dealing with these limitations.
Capitalization of sections. The section titles are capitalized by pittetd
in the text, but not in the bookmarks. The best thing is to provide
\section with an already-all-capitals argument.
The final option. Before submitting it is always very important to run
the document with final option (i.e., adding ‘final’ to the list of
options to \documentclass). This will catch and make evident any
problems in the preliminary pages. See section 4.5.
Bad line breaks. Sometimes LATEX cannot break a paragraph into lines
satisfactorily. The result is one (or more) ‘overfull’ lines, that stick
to the right of the margin. LATEX always gives a warning about each
and every overfull, and these can be seen in the .log file. This file, a
plain-text file, can (and should) be read for overfull and other kinds
of warnings. Overfull warnings start with the text ‘Overfull \hbox
in paragraph’.
Bad page breaks. Similarly, LATEX issues an ‘underfull’ warning for bad
page breaking—when it is able to recognize it. But sometimes LATEX
will break a page just after a heading, which is wrong. The best way
to check page breaking is to make the pages fit the screen and go
scanning quickly page by page (PgDn).
29
Warnings. There are also warnings about other things, such as incomplete
cross references, undefined \cite’s, etc., which are important to fix.
The warnings are all collected in the .log file, and usually reveal at
least one problem that had not been noticed before. It is not good to
neglect reading this file; getting it to report no problems should be
the crowning, final step in the thesis/dissertation production.
References
[1] Federico Garcia, Comments on using LATEX for theses, July 2003, file
comments.dvi or comments.pdf, available at pittetd’s webpage.
[2] Sebastian Rahtz, Hypertext marks in LATEX: the hyperref package,
June 1998, file manual.pdf, part of the hyperref package distribution.
Available at pittetd’s webpage.
[3] Heiko Oberdiek, PDF information and navigation elements with hyperref, pdfTEX, and thumbpdf, paper at EuroTEX’99. File paper.pdf, part
of the hyperref package distribution. Available at pittetd’s webpage.
[4] Rodrigo De Castro, El Universo LATEX, 2nd. edition, Bogotá, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, 2003.
[5] Sebastian Rahtz, hyperref package options, October 1999, file
options.pdf, part of the hyperref package distribution. Available at
pittetd’s webpage.
Index
Numbers written in italics refer to the page where the corresponding entry
is described. A list of mentioned packages is found under ‘packages mentioned;’ of environments under ‘environments;’ of pittetd options under
‘options to pittetd.’
Numbers
A
abstract . . . . . . . . . . . 10, 20–21, 22
10pt option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7, 14 abstract (environment) . . . . . . . 20
11pt option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7, 14 achemso package . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
achicago package . . . . . 7, 11, 24, 25
12pt option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7, 14
patch for . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7, 25
30
acknowledgements . . . . . . . 9, 12, 21
\acro . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Acrobat PDF Writer . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Acrobat Reader . 6, 9, 13, 17, 22, 28
\Acrobatmenu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
advisor(s) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
ae package . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
AE fonts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
AMS packages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
amsart class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
amsbook class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
amsmath package . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
amsthm package . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
appendices . . . . . . . . . . . . 23, 23, 28
\appendix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
ASCII . . . . . . . . . . 9, 16, 22, 23, 26
author . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21, 22
\author . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
author . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
author-year . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
auxiliary files . . . . . . . . . . 4, 12, 13
B
\baselinestretch . . . . . . . . 15, 15
bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . 15, 24–28
BibTEX styles . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
author-year . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
bracket labels . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
citations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
footnote . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
packages . . . . . . . . . . . 11, 24–26
\bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . 12, 24
BibTEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
styles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24–25
\bigskip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
bookmarks 4–6, 9, 13, 16, 21–23, 28, 29
limitations . . . . . . . . 9, 22, 26, 29
C
capitalization of titles
\caption . . . . . . . . .
caption2 package . . .
captions . . . . . . . . .
\chapter . . . . . . . . .
\chapter* . . . . . . . .
. . . . 9, 16, 29
. . . . . . . 9, 22
. . . . . . . . . 12
9, 22–23, 27, 29
. . . . . . 16, 23
. . . . . . . . . 10
chapterbib package . . . . . . . . . . 25
\chapterfloats . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
chapters
numbering . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16–17
titles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
cite package . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
\cite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23, 25
classes
related to pittetd . . . . . . . . . . 12
related to pittetd . . . . . . . . . . . 7
standard . . . . . . . 3, 9, 12, 17, 18
CM fonts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
coadvisor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
\coadvisor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
color package . . . . . 5, 8, 12, 13, 28
committee members . . . . . . . . . . 20
committee page . . . . . . 9, 10, 18–20
\committeemember . . . . . . . . . . . 20
copyright page . . . . . . . . . . . 10, 20
\copyrightpage . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
cross referencing . . . . . . . . . . 23, 30
CTAN (Comprehensive TEX Archive
Network) . . . . . . . . . . . . 2, 8
D
date . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
\date . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
dedication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9, 21
defense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
\degree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
\degreesought . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
dissertation advisor(s) . . . . . . . . . 20
Document Info . . . 13, 17, 18, 22, 28
\documentclass . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
documentclass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
draft option . . . . . . . 13, 14, 18, 20
DVI
files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
viewers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
dvipdf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
dvipdfm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5, 6
dvipdfm option . . . . . . . . 4, 5, 14, 28
dvipdfm option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
dvips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
31
E
\emph . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
enumerate (environment)
environments:
abstract . . . . . . . .
thebibliography . .
enumerate . . . . . . . .
figure . . . . . . . . . .
quotation . . . . . . . .
quote . . . . . . . . . . .
table . . . . . . . . . . .
theindex . . . . . . . .
error messages . . . . . . .
pittetd’s . . . . . . . . . .
pittetd’s . . . . . . . .
\hyperlink . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
. . . . . . . 25 hyperref package . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . 3–6, 8, 9, 13, 21–23, 25, 26
. . . . . . 16
use of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26–28
. . . . . . . 20 \hypertarget . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
. . . . . . . 24
I
. . . . . . . 16
incompatibility . . . . . . . . . . . . 10–11
. . . . . . . 22
index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15, 26, 28
. . . . 15, 25
input files . . . . . . . . . . . . 7, 8, 10, 14
. . . . 15, 25
installation
. . . . . . . 22
pittetd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6–8
. . . . . . . 26
dvipdfm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
. . 5, 11, 27
color . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
. . . . . 12–20
hyperref . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
. . . . . . . 13
PDFTEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
F
fancyhdr package . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
FG (Format Guidelines) . . . . . . .
. . 3, 4, 9, 11, 15, 16, 24–26, 29
figure (environment) . . . . . . . . . 22
figures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
captions . . . . . . . . . 9, 22–23, 29
numbering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
spacing in . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
final option . . 12, 13, 14, 18, 20, 29
fleqn option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
float package . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
floatflt package . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
fncychap package . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
fonts
packages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
PostScript . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
footnotes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15, 22
formulas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
G
graphics
inclusion of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
graphicx package . . . . . 5, 12, 13, 28
K
keywords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21, 22
\keywords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21, 22
L
leqno option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
links . . . . . 4, 5, 13, 21, 23, 25–27, 29
list of figures . . . . . . . . . . . 10, 21, 23
list of tables . . . . . . . . . . . 10, 21, 23
\listoffigures . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
\listoftables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
\lowercase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
M
ma option . . . . . . . .
\makecommittee . . .
MakeIndex . . . . . . .
\maketitle . . . . . .
\medskip . . . . . . . .
MiKTeX . . . . . . . . .
ms option . . . . . . . .
multibib package . .
multicol package . .
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N
nameref package . . . . .
\nameref . . . . . . . . . .
H
natbib package . . . . .
harvard package . . . . . . . . . . 24, 25 nohyperref option . . .
headings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9, 29 non-numbered chapters
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14, 18
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14, 18
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. . . . . 23, 27
. . . . . 24, 25
4, 6, 8, 14, 27
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\normalsize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
numbering
chapters and sections . . . . . 16–17
figures and tables . . . . . . . . . . 22
O
opcit package . . . .
openbib option . . . .
options to pittetd:
draft . . . . . . . .
dvipdfm . . . . . .
final . . . . . 12,
fleqn . . . . . . . .
leqno . . . . . . . .
ma . . . . . . . . . . .
ms . . . . . . . . . . .
nohyperref . . . .
openbib . . . . . .
pdftex . . . . . . .
phd . . . . . . . . . .
sectionletters
sectionnumbers
semifinal . . . . .
10pt . . . . . . . . .
11pt . . . . . . . . .
12pt . . . . . . . . .
overcite package . .
overfull lines . . . . . .
P
packages
bibliography . . .
fonts . . . . . . . . .
standard . . . . . .
supported . . . . .
unsupported . . .
use of . . . . . . . .
packages mentioned:
achemso . . . . . .
achicago . . . . .
ae . . . . . . . . . . .
amsmath . . . . . .
amsthm . . . . . . .
caption2 . . . . .
chapterbib . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . 25
. . . . . . . . . . 14
. . 13, 14, 18, 20
. . . . 4, 5, 14, 28
13, 14, 18, 20, 29
. . . . . . . . . . 14
. . . . . . . . . . 14
. . . . . . . 14, 18
. . . . . . . 14, 18
. . 4, 6, 8, 14, 27
. . . . . . . . . . 14
. . 4, 4, 8, 14, 28
. . . . . 14, 18, 20
. . . . . . . 14, 16
. . . . . . . 14, 16
. . 13, 14, 18, 20
. . . . . . . . 7, 14
. . . . . . . . 7, 14
. . . . . . . . 7, 14
. . . . . . . . . . 25
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10–12
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25
25
11
11
11
12
25
cite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
color . . . . . . . . . 5, 8, 12, 13, 28
fancyhdr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
float . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
floatflt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
fncychap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
graphicx . . . . . . . . 5, 12, 13, 28
harvard . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24, 25
hyperref . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . 3–6, 8, 9, 13, 21–23, 25, 26
use of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26–28
multibib . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
multicol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
nameref . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
natbib . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24, 25
opcit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
overcite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
setspace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
titlesec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
tocbibind . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
verbatim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
xspace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
\pageref . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
paper-based theses/ dissertations . . 9
\patch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
patches . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7, 10–12, 24
PDF
creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Document Info . 13, 17, 18, 22, 28
files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5, 6
viewers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
PDFLATEX . . . . . . . . . . . . 4, 4–5, 8
PDFTEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
\pdfbookmark . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
pdftex option . . . . . . . 4, 4, 8, 14, 28
pdftex.def file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
phd option . . . . . . . . . . . . 14, 18, 20
Pitt ETD
format guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . 9
webpage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Working Group . . . . . . . . . . . 10
pittdiss class . . . . . . . . . . . 7, 12, 18
patch for . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7, 12
pittetd
loading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
33
options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . 4–8, 12–14, 16, 18, 20, 27–29
webpage . . . . . . . . . . . . 2, 8, 10
pitthesis class . . . . . . . . . . 7, 12, 18
patch for . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7, 12
PostScript
fonts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
preamble . . . . . . . . . . 17, 18, 21, 22
preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9, 10, 12, 21
\preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
preliminaries . 9, 10, 12, 16, 17–22, 29
\preliminarychapter . . . . . . . . 21
PSNFSS collection . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Q
quotation (environment) . . . 15, 25
quotations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15, 22
quote (environment) . . . . . . . 15, 25
R
\ref . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
\regularenum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
S
\safebibliography . .
\school . . . . . . . . . . .
\section . . . . . . . . . .
sectionletters option
sectionnumbers option
sections
commands . . . . . . .
numbering . . . . . . .
titles . . . . . . . . . . .
semifinal option . . . .
setspace package . . . .
\singlespace . . . . . .
\SMALL . . . . . . . . . . . .
\Small . . . . . . . . . . . .
\smallskip . . . . . . . .
spacing . . . . . . . . . . . .
stage . . . . . . . . . . . . .
standard classes . . . . .
starred commands:
\chapter* . . . . . . .
\chapter . . . . . . .
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12, 24
18, 20
16, 29
14, 16
14, 16
\section* . . . . .
\subsection* . .
\subsubsection*
subject . . . . . . . . . .
\subject . . . . . . . .
\subsection . . . . .
\subsubsection . . .
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16
16
16
22
22
16
16
T
table (environment) . . . . . . . . . . 22
table of contents . . 10, 16, 21, 21, 22
\tableofcontents . . . . . . . . . . . 21
tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
captions . . . . . . . . . 9, 22–23, 29
numbering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
spacing in . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
TDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7, 8
\texorpdfstring . . . . . . . 9, 16, 27
thebibliography (environment) . 24
theindex (environment) . . . . . . . 26
thesis advisor(s) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
title . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9, 21, 22
\title . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
title page . . . . . . . . . . 10, 13, 17–18
titles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
titlesec package . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
tocbibind package . . . . . . . . . . . 11
U
underfull boxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
. . . . . 16, 27 \url . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
. . . . . . 16–17 \usepackage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
. . . 9, 16, 29 \usewithpatch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
13, 14, 18, 20
V
. . . . . . . . 11
VTEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
. . . . . 15, 22
verbatim package . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
. . . . . . . . 15
. . . . . . . . 15
W
. . . . . . . . 15 warnings . . . . . 12–13, 18, 20, 29, 30
15, 22, 24, 25
. . . . . 12–13
X
. . . . . . . . . 3 xspace package . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Y
. . . . . . . . 10
. . . . . . . . 16 \year . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
34
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