Server User Manual

Server User Manual
Commander NVR
Server User Manual
Ver. 1.2.2.120626.00
Table of Contents
1.
Installation .................................................................................................1
1.1 Installation Process..............................................................................1
1.2 LED Status Definitions........................................................................9
2.
Settings .....................................................................................................10
2.1 Camera Setup ...................................................................................... 11
2.1.1
Add Cameras by Camera Search ................................... 11
2.1.2
Add Cameras Manually.......................................................12
2.1.3
2.1.4
2.1.5
2.1.6
Modify
Modify
Set up
Set up
Camera Information .............................................14
Camera Parameters ..............................................14
Lens Settings...........................................................15
2nd Stream ..............................................................15
2.1.7
View Camera Status............................................................16
2.2 Recording & Event Setup.................................................................18
2.2.1
Recording Mode Setup .......................................................18
2.2.2
Recording Schedule / Event Setup................................19
2.2.3
Camera Events and Responding Actions Setup........23
2.2.4
2.2.5
2.2.6
2.2.7
2.3
I/O Box Input and Responding Action Setup ............25
System Events and Responding Actions Setup ........26
SMTP Server Setup..............................................................27
Add Event Contacts .............................................................28
RAID & File Settings..........................................................................29
2.3.1
Create a RAID Volume .......................................................29
2.3.2
2.3.3
View RAID Volume Status.................................................30
View Disk Drive Information............................................31
2.3.4
Modify RAID Volume ...........................................................32
2.3.5
Delete a RAID Volume........................................................34
2.3.6
Format ......................................................................................35
2.4 Auto Backup .........................................................................................36
2.4.1
Set up Backup Schedule....................................................36
2.4.2
Set up Backup Server.........................................................37
2.5
Network Setup.....................................................................................38
2.5.1
View Network Status...........................................................38
2.5.2
Network Settings ..................................................................39
2.5.3
Auto Port-Forwarding..........................................................40
2.5.4
Network Service Setup.......................................................42
1
2.5.5
Master/Slave Configuration ..............................................44
2.6 Management.........................................................................................45
2.6.1
2.6.2
2.6.3
2.6.4
View the List of Users.........................................................45
Create New Users.................................................................45
Modify User Information....................................................46
Change a User’s Password................................................47
2.6.5
2.6.6
2.6.7
2.6.8
Delete Users ...........................................................................47
Import/Export User Account ............................................48
Online License Activation ..................................................49
Offline License Activation ..................................................50
2.6.9
View the Event Log..............................................................52
2.6.10
Save Unit Configuration ................................................53
2.6.11
Load Unit Configuration / Default Settings ...........54
2.7 System....................................................................................................55
3.
2.7.1
2.7.2
2.7.3
2.7.4
2.7.5
View System Information..................................................55
Smart Fan Control................................................................56
UPS Setup ...............................................................................56
Upgrade the System ...........................................................57
System Date and Time Setup .........................................58
2.7.6
2.7.7
2.7.8
2.7.9
Daylight Saving Time Setup.............................................58
Local Display ..........................................................................59
Restart the Unit.....................................................................60
Shut Down the Unit .............................................................60
I/O...............................................................................................................62
3.1 Introduction ..........................................................................................62
3.1.1
3.1.2
System Introduction ...........................................................62
HW Installation......................................................................62
3.1.3
Software Installation – SCB-C31 ...................................63
3.1.4
Software Installation – SCB-C24/26/28......................64
3.2 Software Setup....................................................................................66
3.2.1
Add I/O Box............................................................................66
3.2.2
Modify I/O Box Information .............................................67
3.2.3
I/O Pin Setting.......................................................................67
3.3
4.
Relative Configuration and Application ......................................68
3.3.1
Record on Input Trigger.....................................................68
3.3.2
Input and Responding Actions ........................................68
3.3.3
I/O Control Panel in Live View ........................................68
External Storage....................................................................................69
2
4.1
4.2
Create a Volume on DAS .................................................................69
Create an External Storage ............................................................69
4.3
Create an External Storage on iSCSI .........................................70
Log out ......................................................................................................72
Remote PC System Requirements ..................................................73
Troubleshooting......................................................................................74
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
Replace a Failed Disk Drive ............................................................74
Respond to a Critical RAID Volume .............................................74
Respond to a File System Error RAID Volume ........................74
Install ActiveX......................................................................................75
5.
6.
7.
7.5 Cannot Log in to the Unit with Internet Explorer ..................75
Appendix – RAID System...................................................................................76
Introduction to RAID....................................................................................76
RAID 0 – Stripe ..............................................................................................76
RAID 1 – Mirror..............................................................................................77
RAID 5 – Block Striping with Distributed Parity................................78
RAID 10 – Mirror / Stripe...........................................................................79
Choosing a RAID Level................................................................................80
3
1. Installation
1.1 Installation Process
Step 1: Unpack the Unit
This
package contains the following items:
The unit
Quick Start Guide
Screws for disk drives
Key
Power cord
Warranty card
CD with Install Wizard, NuClient and Offline License Tool
application, user manual, and quick start guide
The electronic components within the unit can be damaged by Electrostatic Discharge
(ESD). Please take precautions at all times when handling the unit or its
sub-assemblies.
To configure the unit, you must install the software onto a desktop/ laptop running
Windows XP-SP3 32bit, Windows 7 32/64bit, Mac OS X v10.6/10.7
Unit front/rear view
1. Key Lock
6. Power Connector
2. LED Indicators: Power,
7. VGA
LAN1-2, HDD1–4
8. eSATA Connector
3. USB x2
9. USB x 4
4. Power Button
10. Gigabit LAN x 2
5. PSU Cooling Fan
11. Main Cooling Fan
Step 2: Install Hard Drives
Refer to compatibility list and install HDDs. For optimal
performance consideration, install disks with the same model and
storage capacity. The available RAID level depends on the amount
of disks installed.
1. Open the lid on the front of the unit enclosure.
2. Pull a HDD tray from the enclosure. See the front view figure.
3. Carefully lock the disks into the HDD tray with screws. 3 screws
for each disk. We recommend locking the screws on the bottom
of the disk, instead of the side of tray. Put the HDD tray back
once you finished.
Step 3: Connect to the Network
1. Attach one end of the network cable to the RJ45 network
connection. See the rear view figure.
2. Attach the other end of the network cable to your Ethernet hub
or switch.
2
If there are multiple networks at your facility, note the network to which you connect
the unit. You will need this information during the setup process. Please also enable
the DHCP function within the network, as the unit will retrieve an IP address through
DHCP by default.
Step 4: Connect the Power
1. Attach the power cord to the power source.
2. Connect the power cord to the back of the unit enclosure. See
the rear view figure.
3. On the front of the unit, press the power button. See the front
view figure.
It takes about a minute for the unit to fully power up. Once it is
powered up, the Power Status LED turns blue. See the front view
figure.
Step 5: Install the Software
1. Insert the CD into your CDROM.
2. Double-click Setup.exe to begin installation.
3. Follow the instruction of Setup.exe, and click the Finish button
to close the installer.
Step 6: Set up the Unit
The software Installation Wizard performs the setup procedures
on the unit. After the procedure, you can begin using it.
1. Go to Start > NVR Series > NVR Installation Wizard.
2. This program will show the default language setting and
initiation mode.
3. Choose your preferred language and initiation mode, and then
click the
button.
3
Express Mode: you don’t need to set up the network settings,
Date/Time and RAID level.
Advanced Mode: configure all settings manually: network,
license, camera, Date/Time, upgrade notification, and RAID
level
4. The Installation Wizard program starts searching for all the
units on the internet currently. Choose one of them, and then
click the
button.
4
5. Type in the password, and then click the OK button.
The default Administrator password is “admin”.
6. Name this server and select the network type, and then click the
button.
Obtain network settings automatically from external
DHCP server: apply all settings which are automatically
generated by the DHCP server, such as IP, subnet mask,
gateway, and DNS.
Configure network settings manually: configure the
preferred settings one by one.
7. Activate camera license to have more channel capacity, and
5
click the
button.
8. Add cameras for this server. There are two ways of adding
cameras, selecting the searched cameras and manually
configuring the cameras. Click the
completing camera list.
Click the Search button.
6
button after
Select camera and type the camera name, username and password.
Add cameras manually.
9. Set up the time zone, date, and time, and adjust daylight saving
changes if needed. Click the
7
button.
10.Follow the following instruction and select the RAID type you
want to create. Click the
button.
11. Review your settings. If the settings are correct, click the
Finish button to exit the settings procedure and activate the
system.
8
Once the “FINISH” button is clicked, the unit will start working. In order to ensure the
stability of the unit, never pull any disks out when the system is running.
1.2 LED Status Definitions
Function
LED Status
Power Status
Power-on: blue
Power-off: dark
HDD Status (top)
Power-on: blue
Power-off: dark
HDD Activity Status
Healthy: blue with blinking
(bottom)
No disk: dark
Ethernet Status
Linking: blue
Accessing: blue with blinking
No linking: dark
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2. Settings
After setting up the unit, log in to the system by entering its IP
address in the browser (Internet Explorer 8 and later, Safari 5.1
7534.48.3, and Firefox 7.0.1). When connecting, choose your
language, enter the user name and password, and then begin
using this system.
Take IE as the demonstration browser of this manual.
There are four main functions of this unit: Settings, NuClient, Help
Page, and Logout button. They will be shown on the top of the
page. Currently, NuClient is supported on IE and Firefox only.
Current firmware version and free storage capacity are shown
above the function list.
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2.1 Camera Setup
2.1.1 Add Cameras by Camera Search
The function enables user to automatically search and add cameras
in the same network. There are two search mechanisms, one is
UPnP, another is camera search tool. Before searching UPnP
cameras, make sure that the cameras possess UPnP function.
1. Log in to the unit.
2. Click IP Camera/ Camera Settings.
3. Click the Camera Search tab.
4. Click the Search button.
5. The system will list all the currently available cameras. The
inserted cameras are shown in blue. Click the
icon to add a
camera into your camera list.
6. After clicking the
icon, the camera setting page will pop up.
Click the item to which you want to add a camera.
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7. Insert the camera name, user name, and password.
To have better compatibility between camera and system, please make sure the
privilege of camera credential is admin-level.
8. Click the Add button to add it.
9. After clicking the Add button, the updated camera list will be
displayed in the Camera Setting tab.
2.1.2 Add Cameras Manually
1. Log in to the unit.
2. Click IP Camera / Camera Settings.
3. Click the Camera Settings tab, and the camera list will be
displayed on the bottom of the page.
4. Click on the camera list for the channel you want to add and
enter the camera’s information.
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Camera name: The name of the camera.
Address: The IP address.
Port: The transmission port.
Administrator Name: Login username.
Password: Login password.
Camera Channel: Select the number of analog cameras
supported by one video server or select the number of IP
cameras possessing multiple lens/channels.
Protocol: Data transmission protocol.
Vendor: Camera vendor name.
Model: Camera model name.
To have better compatibility between camera and system, please make sure the
privilege of camera credential is admin-level.
5. Click the Save button.
Save: Save the information of this camera.
Reset: Return to the latest saved settings of the selected
camera.
Clear: Set all the settings to default value.
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Auto Detection: After inserting IP address, port, username,
and password, click this button to automatically detect other
camera information, including Channel, Protocol, Vendor, and
Model.
2.1.3 Modify Camera Information
1. Log in to the unit.
2. Click IP Camera / Camera Settings.
3. Click the Camera Settings tab.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Click the camera which you want to modify.
Modify the information of this camera.
Click the Save button.
Use the same method to replace a camera if needed.
2.1.4 Modify Camera Parameters
1. Log in to the unit.
2. Click IP Camera / Camera Parameters.
3. Click the Camera Parameter tab.
4. Click the camera which you want to modify on the camera list.
5. Modify the information of this camera.
6. Click the Save button.
Camera Name: The name of the camera.
Video Format: Choose the type of format which this camera
supports.
Frame rate: Select the frame rate of the camera.
Resolution: Select the resolution of the camera.
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Quality: Select the image quality of the camera.
Audio: Check the Enable Audio option to view and enable
audio recording.
2.1.5 Set up Lens Settings
1.
2.
3.
4.
Log in to the unit.
Click IP Camera / Camera Parameters.
Click the Lens Settings tab.
Click the camera which you want to modify in the camera list.
5. Modify the information of this camera.
6. Click the Save button.
Camera Name: The name of the camera.
ImmerVision Lens: Enable the option if ImmerVision lens is
installed.
Camera Position: Select the position of the camera.
If users enable the lens while lens is not installed correctly or not even installed, a
warning message will pop up as a notification if users are trying to operate lens on
liveview page.
2.1.6 Set up 2nd Stream
Stream profile is designed for mobile client and lower fps live
15
stream display. Without stream profile integration, users cannot
watch live video on mobile client nor select lower fps stream on
liveview. Further, for performance consideration, we fix the
resolution and framerate for each brand/series. You can refer to
appendix for supporting list.
1. Log in to the unit.
2. Click IP Camera / Camera Parameters.
3. Click the 2nd Stream Settings tab.
Stream Profile: The default status is Disable. If you want
mobile client user to access to this camera, you can select
Enable, and click Save button in the middle of the page.
Low Profile: The stream profile, under 300kbps, is designed
for mobile client single-view.
Minimum Profile: The stream profile, under 100 kbps, is
designed for mobile client multi-view.

2.1.7 View Camera Status
1. Log in to the unit.
2. Click IP Camera / Camera Status.
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Conn. Status: The status of the connection. Click the
Connect or Disconnect button to change the connection
status.
Status
Connection Status
Connected
Connection Status
Disconnected
Connection Status
Connecting
Connection Button
Connected: Normal
Icon
Connected: Over
Connection Button
Disconnected: Normal
Disconnected: Over
Rec. Status: The set recording schedule of this camera in
this time.
Status
Recording Status
No Recording
Recording Status
Always Recording –
Recording
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Icon
Recording Status
Always Recording –
Stopped
Recording Status
Schedule Recording –
Recording
Recording Status
Schedule Recording –
Stopped
Recording Status
Manual Recording –
Recording
Recording Status
Manual Recording
–Stopped
Framerate: The frame rate of this camera.
Bitrate: The transmission bit rate of this camera.
If your total bitrate becomes red, it means that the loading of the system is too heavy.
2.2 Recording & Event Setup
2.2.1 Recording Mode Setup
1.
2.
3.
4.
Log in to the unit.
Click Recording & Event / Recording settings.
Click the Recording Mode tab.
If selecting Always Recording, the chosen cameras will begin
to record immediately.
No Recording: Turn off the recording.
Recording by Schedule: Recording by schedule.
Always Recording: Permanently turn on the chosen
cameras.
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System will do recycling automatically when disks are full.
2.2.2 Recording Schedule / Event Setup
Instead of Always Recording, you can begin the recording by
setting the Recording Schedule.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Log in to the unit.
Click Recording & Event / Recording Settings.
Click the Recording Schedule tab.
Check the Day or Week mode.
Day: Schedule the recording to turn the recorder on and off at
the same time every day according to your setting.
Week: Schedule the recording for each day of the week
differently.
5. Click the schedule of the camera which needs to be modified.
6. Click the column at the bottom of the page.
Insert: Insert new schedules.
19
Delete: Delete the selected schedule.
Configure: Modify the schedule and recording mode
settings.
Copy: Copy current Day Schedule to other channel(s); copy
current Week Schedule to other day(s) of a week or to other
channel(s).
7. The default setting of the camera’s recording schedule is from
00:00 to 24:00. If you want to modify the time slot, click the
Configure button to modify the default settings first.
8. Choose the recording mode.
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Always Record: Always record.
Record on Event: Record when events triggered. The event
can be triggered by Motion or Digital input.
When setting the event Motion, please first ensure that the motion detection function
of the camera has been enabled.
9. If you want to add another new schedule, click the Insert
button to add a new one.
10. Click the Save button.
21
When changing the motion detection settings of a camera, make sure to disconnect
your unit and that camera first. Once you have finished, re-connecting them will
update the settings in your unit.
When setting an event, Motion or Digital input can be triggered from other cameras.
This means that if the system detects motion or digital input from other cameras or I/O
Box, the camera will begin recording.
There is another way to set the schedule. If you want to change the recording time
length, drag the end of the time bar from 24:00 back to the length you wish, and then
drag the beginning of the time bar to the point at which you would like it to commence
recording. (You may also click the Insert button to add new schedules.)
22
2.2.3 Camera Events and Responding Actions Setup
1. Log in to the unit.
2. Click Recording & Event / Event & Action Management.
3. Choose the camera, and then select one of the events. The
event list depends on camera its own ability.
Connect lost: When a connection between the camera and
this unit is lost, the system will trigger an action.
Motion from Camera: When video motion is detected, the
camera triggers an action.
23
Input: Any external input can trigger an action.
When setting the event Motion from Camera, make sure to set up the camera’s
motion detection function first. Besides, event log will be recorded only if event is
selected on this page.
4. Click the Configure button to enable the event and select the
active period.
Always Active: The selected event is always active.
Active only in the following period: The selected event is
only active in the designated time, which able to cover two
days e.g. from 18:00 to 09:00.
I/O Type: Check one of the options of I/O type. N/O means
normal open, while N/C means normal close.
5. Click the Add button to set up the responding actions of this
event.
24
Output: When an event occurs, the system will send an
output signal to other connected devices.
E-Mail: When an event occurs, the system will send e-mail
notifications. Make sure to add an e-mail address first.
6. Click the action, and then click the Configure button to modify
the details of that action if necessary.
7. Click the Save button.
After selecting camera events, the event information will display on the screen when
it’s triggered.
2.2.4 I/O Box Input and Responding Action Setup
1. Log in to the unit.
2. Click Recording & Event / Event & Action Management.
3. Select an input of I/O Box from list.
4. Click the Add button to set up the responding actions of this
event.
5. Click the action, and then click the Configure button to modify
the details of that action if necessary.
Output: When an input is triggered, the system will send an
output signal to other connected devices.
E-Mail: When an input is triggered, the system will send
e-mail notifications. Make sure to add an e-mail address first.
25
6. Click the Save button.
2.2.5 System Events and Responding Actions Setup
1. Log in to the unit.
2. Click Recording & Event / Event & Action Management.
3. Click the Event & Action tab.
4. Click System to unfold the list of system events, and then
select one of the five events.
Abnormal disk status: When there is no enough disk space
for recording or when disk is abnormal for accessing, the
system will trigger an action.
Daily system report: Enable users to know the system
information, HDD usage, and Disk status everyday through
E-mail without accessing to the unit to check.
Unable to access FTP: The action will be triggered when the
connection between the unit and FTP server is lost.
Backup unfinished: If there is any file which the system
didn’t complete the backup process, the file(s) name will be
listed and send out through E-mail after finishing the last file
of this backup schedule.
Power-on notification: Record the time as power was
turning on.
Auto power-off notification (overheat): Turn off the
system power automatically to protect the unit from damage
when it’s overheated.
26
5. Click the Add button to set up the responding actions of this
event. Follow the steps in the previous section.
6. Click the Save button.
E-Mail is the only one action to the event Daily system report, Unable to access
FTP, Backup unfinished, Power-on notification and Auto power-off
notification (overheat). In addition to select a contact, remember to insert the time
of sending daily system report.
2.2.6 SMTP Server Setup
1. Log in to the unit.
2. Click Recording & Event / E-Mail.
3. Click the SMTP Server tab.
Server Address: SMTP (Simple Mail Transport Protocol)
server IP address.
Port: SMTP port.
27
Sender: Sender information.
Subject: The subject of the mail.
Body: E-Mail content.
SMTP Authentication: Before sending out an E-Mail, enter
the user name and password for SMTP authentication.
Username
Password
4. Click the Send Test Mail button and the system will send a test
mail to the sender. Check it after testing.
5. Click the Save button.
2.2.7 Add Event Contacts
1. Log in to the unit.
2. Click Recording & Event / E-Mail.
3. Click the Contactors tab.
Add Contactor: Add this new contact into the contact list.
Reset: Return to the latest saved settings of the contact list.
Save: Save this time modification of the contact list.
4. Insert the name of a new contact.
5. Insert the e-mail address of this new contact.
6. Click the Add Contactor button.
7. Click the Save button to save this modification of the contact
list.
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2.3 RAID & File Settings
2.3.1 Create a RAID Volume
In this system, the term RAID volume refers to one or more disk
drives working together as a RAID logical drive. You must create a
RAID volume before starting to record.
The maximum volume size to create RAID on NVR is 16T. Please make sure every
volume you are going to add as a external storage is under 16T.
1. Log in to the unit.
2. Click RAID & File System / RAID Management.
3. Click the Create tab.
4. Choose the RAID level you prefer for your disk array.
5. Check boxes of disks and click the >> button to assign disk
drives for this volume.
6. Click the Create button.
7. A confirmation dialog pops up. Check the Yes, I want to
create volume with those disk(s) box, and click the Yes,
create it button.
29
8. Creating RAID volume takes a while, depending on the size of
disks and the RAID level you choose. You can start recording
during RAID creation.
The RAID Volume will be functional on another unit if all disks of this volume are
moved to the unit.
After setting RAID level, you are not allowed to change neither the RAID level nor the
number of disks containing in this volume.
If you choose Express Mode when using the Installation Wizard, the disk(s) will be
set to RAID 1 (2 bay) or RAID 5 (4 bay) automatically unless the number of disks is not
enough for this RAID level.
2.3.2 View RAID Volume Status
RAID status refers to the disk drives on your unit and how they are
arranged into a RAID volume.
1. Log in to the unit.
2. Click RAID & File System / RAID Management.
3. Click the RAID Status tab to view the status of your RAID
Volume.
30
RAID Name: Name of your RAID, automatically assigned
when it was created.
RAID Level: RAID 0, 1, 5, or 10, specified when it was
created.
RAID Status: Functional is normal. Critical means there
are some problems on RAID volume, but the recording status
is normal. Offline means that no volume is found, so
recording is stopped and you cannot access your data either.
File system error means that RAID volume is existed but
unmounted, so recording is stopped and you cannot access
your data either.
Capacity: Total, free, used data capacity of the RAID volume.
Update Time: The time of volume created/updated.
Devices: Total number of disks and the number of active,
failed, spare disks.
Format Progress: The status of RAID format
Recovery Progress: The status of RAID recovery
2.3.3 View Disk Drive Information
1.
2.
3.
4.
Log in to the unit.
Click RAID & File System / RAID Management.
Click the RAID Status tab.
Click on a disk directly to view the information.
31
2.3.4 Modify RAID Volume
This function is designed for replacing a broken hard drive with a
new one, instead of modifying RAID level.
In the condition of critical RAID status, it’s a warning to show that
one of disks of this RAID volume may be damaged. Even though
it’s no impact on the recording function, you’d better to replace a
new disk to make sure the volume with data protection
mechanism.
This function is not applied to RAID 0, since there is no data protection mechanism by
its nature.
In case of any unexpected damage, we recommend users to unplug running HDD by
this method, which can be viewed as security hard drive remove.
1. Log in to the unit.
2. Click RAID & File System / RAID Management.
3. Click the Modify tab.
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4. Click on the volume you want to modify. The information of this
volume will be displayed under the Modify Volume section.
5. After removing the damaged disk. Add a free disk to replace the
damaged, and click the Modify button.
6. A confirmation dialog pops up. Check the Yes, I want to
modify this volume box, and click the Yes, modify it button.
33
7. Modifying RAID volume takes a while, depending on the size of
disks you choose. Recording won’t be stopped during the
modification, and the data of this RAID volume is fully
accessible.
2.3.5 Delete a RAID Volume
1. Log in to the unit.
2. Click RAID & File System / RAID Management.
3. Click the Delete tab.
34
4. Click the option button beside the RAID Volume you want to
delete.
5. Click the Delete button.
6. A confirmation dialog pops up. Check the Yes, I want to
delete this volume box, and click the Yes, delete it button.
7. System will restart automatically after RAID volume is deleted
When you delete a RAID Volume, all the folders in the RAID volume and all the data
saved in the folders will be deleted. Backup any important data before deleting a RAID
Volume.
2.3.6 Format
Neither pressing reset button nor loading default setting, the data
of RAID volume won’t be deleted, which implies that format is the
only way to clean the RAID information from disks.
1. Log in to the unit.
2. Click RAID & File System / RAID Management.
3. Click the Format tab.
35
4. Click the option button beside the RAID Volume you want to
format.
5. Click the Format button.
6. A confirmation dialog pops up. Check the Yes, I want to
format this volume box, and click the Yes, format it button.
7. System will restart automatically after volume format is
complete.
2.4 Auto Backup
This feature enables you to automatically backup the recorded
video of the previous date to FTP site. There are two steps to
enable the function, one is Set up Backup Schedule, another is
Set up Backup Server.
2.4.1 Set up Backup Schedule
1. Log in to the unit.
2. Click RAID & File System / Auto Backup Management.
3. Click the Backup Schedule tab.
4. Set up backup schedule, select the backup channels, and check
the Enable option to enable Auto Backup.
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Auto Backup: Check the Enable option to enable this
function.
Daily Backup Time: The daily scheduled time to start
backup process.
Start Time: The start time of recorded video of the previous
date.
End Time: The end time of recorded video of the previous
date.
Camera: Select the channel(s) to backup.
5. Current Event Settings shows the condition of the events of
auto backup – enable or disable. Follow the steps of System
Events and Responding Actions Setup to configure the
event & action.
The system backups recorded video files one by one. If the connection between the
unit and FTP server is normal, but some problems of FTP causes the system unable to
write files on FTP, the system would try each file three times before starting to backup
the next file. If the connection is lost, the system would wait for the connection, so no
file would be skipped.
2.4.2 Set up Backup Server
1.
2.
3.
4.
Log in to the unit.
Click RAID & File System / Auto Backup Management.
Click the Backup Server tab.
Set up the FTP server and create a folder for backup files. The
folder format is “FolderName”, “FolderName/SubFolderName”,
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and so on.
For example: AutoBackup/NVR
5. After setting up all the information, click the Test FTP button
and the system will create a folder to FTP.
6. Click the Save button.
Make sure the FTP account with privileges of administrator who is able to upload,
rewrite, delete files, and create new folder. Besides, make sure the FTP server has
enough space for auto backup.
To avoid the failure of auto backup, please check the normality of FTP server regularly
(e.g., enough space for video, system conditions.)
2.5 Network Setup
2.5.1 View Network Status
1. Log in to the unit.
2. Click Network Setup / Network Setup.
3. Click the Information tab to view the unit’s network
information.
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2.5.2 Network Settings
1. Log in to the unit.
2. Click Network Setup / Network Setup.
3. Click the Setup tab to set up the network settings of your unit.
Server Name: Name your unit.
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Because of the internal data modifications required, it takes a few seconds to change
the name of your unit. Log in again after configuration activated.

Internet Protocol: Choose to obtain an IP address from
external DHCP server automatically, or configure the IP
address manually.
IP Address: IP address of this unit.
Subnet Mask: Subnet mask address.
Default Gateway IP Address: Gateway IP address.
Primary DNS: Primary DNS (Domain Name System)
address.
Secondary DNS: Secondary DNS address.
4. Click the DDNS Setup tab to enable Dynamic Domain Name
Server function, allowing you to connect unit with dynamic IP
address.
2.5.3 Auto Port-Forwarding
This function is designed for saving time in port configuration on
router if users want to access the unit (in LAN) from WAN. Once
enabling UPnP Service on router, users can do port-forwarding for
web server (default: 80) and streaming server (default: 5250)
automatically.
1. Log in to the unit.
2. Click Network Setup / Network Setup.
3. Click the UPnP Port-Forwarding tab.
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4. Click the Search button, and the searched routers will be listed.
Also, the list may indicate which LAN of the unit searches this
router.
5. Select the searched router, and all UPnP ports configured on this
router will show under the UPnP Port Forwarding List.
6. After selecting one of searched routers, click the
icon to set
up port-forwarding to this router automatically. You will find
ports of web server and streaming server are listed.
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For security reason, the privilege of UPnP port-forwarding is LOWER than
port-forwarding configured on router. Therefore, if the ports have been used on
router, we are unable to know before finding out access failure.
UPnP port-forwarding is for temporarily use only. Most of UPnP router will clean up all
UPnP ports after router reboots. Furthermore, for some routers, if the port you want
to add has already been used for other devices in the same way (UPnP port
forwarding), this “enable” action will cover over the settings.
2.5.4 Network Service Setup
1. Log in to the unit.
2. Click Network Setup / Network Service.
3. Click the Network Service tab.
4. Set up port and maximum connections of client and click the
Save button.
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Streaming Server
Port: Live/playback streaming transmission port. (default:
5250)
Live View Maximum Connections: Maximum connections
from remote access. (max: 256 connections; default: 64)
Black/White List
White List: Only IP addresses from the allowed list are
allowed to log in.
Black List: IP addresses from the blocked list will be unable
to log in.
One connection means that one user connects to one camera. 4 users connect to a
server with “16” Live View Maximum Connections, and the average connection for
each user is 4, rather than 16.
5. Click the Web Server tab.
6. Set up a port for this unit and click the Save button
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2.5.5 Master/Slave Configuration
This is a basic structure of management server and client. By
adding slave servers in one master server, and configure same
user account to master/slave server, user can get the camera list of
slave servers when accessing master server with NuClient. Follow
the steps to build up the connection between master and slaves.
1. Log in to the unit.
2. Click Network Setup / Master / Slave.
3. Click the Master/Slave tab.
4. Type the LAN/WAN IP and port, administrator password and
click the Add button.
5. Repeat the previous step to add more slave servers.
6. Click the Save button to apply the settings.
7. Click the User Sync. tab.
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8. Select the slave servers with their web port and administrator
password being filled in correctly on the page of master/slave,
and click the Synchronize button to sync the user accounts of
master server to slave servers.
The action is synchronizing user “accounts”. If the user accounts are existed on slave
servers, which privilege settings will be kept; if the user accounts are new to slaves,
which privileges are as default.
There is another way to create same user account on multiple servers, please check
section Import/Export User Account for details.
2.6 Management
2.6.1 View the List of Users
1. Open Internet Explorer and login the unit.
2. Click Management/ User Management.
3. Click the Create New Users tab.
4. The list will be displayed on the bottom of the page.
2.6.2 Create New Users
1. Open Internet Explorer and login the unit.
2. Click Management/ User Management.
3. Click the Create New Users tab.
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4. Insert the username of this new user.
5. Insert the password of this new user.
6. Choose the group of this user.
Power user: Power user can do all the settings and operation
except the Network Settings, RAID Settings, and
Management function.
User: User just can change his/her password and operate
client functions.
Guest user: User can operation client function only.
7. Select the cameras which this user can access.
8. Manage the privilege for this user.
9. Click the Create New User button to finish it.
The Administrator will be the only user who can use all of the functions. There is a
default administrator account in the system, and you cannot create neither another
“Administrator” account, nor another username named “admin”.
2.6.3 Modify User Information
1. Log in to the unit.
2. Click Management / User Management.
3. Click the Modify Users tab.
4. Click one of the users in the User List on the bottom of this page.
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5. Change the group of this user.
6. Select the cameras which this user can access.
7. Manage the privilege for this user.
8. Click the Modify User button to finish it.
2.6.4 Change a User’s Password
1. Log in to the unit.
2. Click Management / User Management.
3. Click the Change Password tab.
4. Choose the user.
5. Enter a new password.
6. Enter this new password again.
7. Click the OK button.
2.6.5 Delete Users
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Except for the administrator, you can delete any users with the
following steps.
1. Log in to the unit.
2. Click Management / User Management.
3. Click the Modify Users tab.
4. Click the Delete icon of the user you want to delete.
5. In the confirmation box, click the OK button.
2.6.6 Import/Export User Account
For large-scale projects, the locations are equipped with a lot of
cameras and are under surveillance by many users. Since it’s
possible for users being assigned to check videos from multiple
servers, adding same user accounts in multiple servers is
unavoidable, which takes time definitely. In this case, we design an
easier way to manage user accounts. Please refer to
Master/Slave Configuration, or follow the steps below.
1. Log in to the unit.
2. Click Management / User Management.
3. Click the Import / Export tab.
4. For exporting user account, click the Export button to export
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current user account and privilege.
5. For importing user account, browse an user.cfg file and click
the Import button to load user account and privilege.
If the user Carlton (username) is existed in this server, the user privilege WON’T be
covered when importing an user.cfg with same user account Carlton.
When importing an user.cfg exported from a “less-channel” server to a
“more-channel” server, 16ch and 32ch for example, which total numbers of channel
access are different, in this case, only 16ch will be checked after importing .cfg.
However, if the user account belongs to “power user”, all privileges are defaulted
checked even the number of channel access of original server is less than this server.
2.6.7 Online License Activation
Activate a camera license to have more camera capacity. There are
two ways to activate license, online and offline.
1. Log in to the unit.
2. Click Management / License Management.
3. Select Online as the Activation Type, input serial number, and
click the Activate button.
4. The license will be updated in License List if activated
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successfully. System will reboot automatically.
2.6.8 Offline License Activation
If the device is set up in Intranet (Local LAN) without Internet
connection, there is another way to activate license.
1. Log in to the unit.
2. Click Management / License Management.
3. Click the Export button under the section of Offline Activation
to export the information of this unit.
4. Download dialog pops up. Save the request file and take it to
other PC which is connected to the Internet. Furthermore, the
PC should be installed OffLineTool.exe which can be found
from NVR toolkit.
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5. Execute the OffLineTool.exe in that PC with Internet connection,
and select the request file offline.req.
6. Input the serial number, click the Activate button, and save
the .dll file offline_license.dll.
7. Import the license file to the unit.
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8. The license will be updated in License List if activated
successfully. System will reboot automatically.
2.6.9 View the Event Log
1. Log in to the unit.
2. Click Management / Log System to find the event list of your
unit.
There are two kinds of event which will be listed on this page.
Hardware Log: The log information of the operations to your
unit, such as reboot or shutdown.
NVR Event Log: The log information of event, recording,
backup, export, I/O, etc. Refer to the figure below for details.
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The camera Log will be recorded only if event is selected on Event & Action
Management page.
2.6.10 Save Unit Configuration
Save configuration can let you save the settings of this unit. These
settings can be applied to other units, which will let you set other
units more easily.
1. Log in to the unit.
2. Click Management / Save / Load Configuration.
3. Click the Save Configuration tab.
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4. Check the box of Client Settings if you want to keep the
configuration.
5. Click the OK button.
6. The configuration file will be generated into the chosen folder.
2.6.11 Load Unit Configuration / Default Settings
Load configuration can let you apply another unit’s settings to the
current unit; Load Default Settings will revert all of the unit’s
settings back to the default factory settings.
1. Click Management / Save / Load Configuration.
2. Click the Load Configuration tab.
3. Follow the direction to Load Default Settings or Load
Configuration. For the former, uncheck the box of Network
Settings to keep the current IP address; for the latter, check
the box of Client Settings if you want to restore the
configuration.
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4. Click the Load button.
5. A confirmation dialog pops up. Click the OK button to begin to
load the settings into your unit.
If the saved configuration is without client settings, selecting loading configuration
with client settings will lead you get the default. The original client settings (if any) are
covered and untraceable.
User account and privilege will be kept even if loading default settings, while
camera settings, recording schedule, event & action settings, E-mail setting and
server settings won’t be. RAID information will always be kept whether loading
default settings or loading configuration.
If you select to load default IP, system may guide you to the defaulted IP. However, if
the guiding mechanism is failed, please try Installation Wizard.
2.7 System
2.7.1 View System Information
1. Log in to the unit.
2. Click System / System Information.
The system information includes the following items.
Operating System: Embedded Linux
NVR Version: NVR system version
Camera package version: Camera package version
CPU: CPU model number
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MAC Address 1: First MAC address of this unit
MAC Address 2: Second MAC address of this unit
CPU Temperature
CPU Fan Speed
System Temperature
System Fan Speed
2.7.2 Smart Fan Control
1. Log in to the unit.
2. Click System / System Settings.
3. Click the Fan Control tab.
4. Check the Enable or Disable option.
5. Click the OK button.
2.7.3 UPS Setup
This feature enables you to tell your unit how long to run on APC
Uninterruptable Power Supply (UPS) battery power and when to
shutdown, after power failure.
1. Attach the APC UPS to one of the unit’s USB ports.
2. Log in to the unit.
3. Click System / Settings.
4. Click the APU UPS tab.
5. Check one of the options:
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Disable: Run until the UPS battery is depleted
System shutdown as power of the UPS remains __ %:
Run until the UPS battery remains this percentage.
System shutdown as power of the UPS remains __
min.: Run until the UPS battery remains the certain period of
time.
6. Fill in the specific value if you choose the last two options.
7. Click the OK button.
2.7.4 Upgrade the System
1. Log in to the unit.
2. Click System / Upgrade.
3. Click the Firmware Upgrade tab.
4. Browse the FW for upgrading and click the OK button.
5. A confirmation dialog pops up. Click the OK button to start
upgrade process.
6. After upgrade, the system will restart. You need to re-access
the unit again after this.
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2.7.5 System Date and Time Setup
1. Log in to the unit.
2. Click System / Date/Time.
3. Click the Setup tab.
4. Choose the year, month, day and time.
5. Click the OK button to restart the system to activate the
changes.
When you modify the date or time of the system, the system may find the wrong data
when searching the recorded data. Backup the recorded data before changing the
time.
2.7.6 Daylight Saving Time Setup
1. Log in to the unit.
2. Click System / Date/Time.
3. Click the Time Zone tab.
4. Check the Adjust clock for daylight saving changes option
and select the time change of daylight saving time in your
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location.
5. Click the OK button.
2.7.7 Local Display
NVR supports VGA out by connecting the D-SUB of the unit with a
screen to watch live videos. You can do some operations on the
monitor, such as switching grid layout and enabling auto scan, but
you have to configure the settings on web. Please follow the steps
to set up local display.
1. Log in to the unit.
2. Click System / Local Display.
Local Display: Check the box to enable local display. (default:
checked)
Local Display Channel (max: 16): Select the channel you
want to display. (default: 4 ch)
Screen Resolution: Choose the resolution of screen display;
the selections of resolutions will be shown when connecting
with a screen. (default: auto; “auto” implies the best
resolution system detects)
Default Grid Layout: Choose the defaulted layout. (default:
2x2)
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OSD: Check the box to enable OSD of camera name. (default:
checked)
Toolbar Display: Choose to hide the toolbar or always show
it on the screen. If you choose “Hide”, toolbar can still be
shown when moving the cursor. (default: hide)
Display Date/Time on Toolbar: Check the boxes to display
date/time on toolbar and change the formats if necessary.
(default: checked)
Fix Aspect Ratio: Check the box to make all videos fix the
aspect ratio. (default: unchecked)
Default Start Auto Scan: Check the box to enable auto scan
when liveviewing. (default: unchecked)
Auto Scan Interval: The time interval of auto scan. (default:
5 sec.)
3. Click the OK button.
2.7.8 Restart the Unit
1. Log in to the unit.
2. Click System / Reboot/Shutdown.
3. Check the Reboot option.
4. Click the OK button.
5. A confirmation dialog pops up. Click the OK button to reboot the
unit.
During system restart, none of your files will be accessible from your
desktops/laptops.
2.7.9 Shut Down the Unit
The only time you need to shut down the unit is to replace the disk
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drive cooling fan or the power supply. During and after the
shutdown, none of your files will be accessible from your
desktops/laptops. There are two ways to shutdown the unit.
Shutdown by Software
1. Log in to the unit.
2. Click System / Reboot / Shutdown.
3. Check the Shutdown option.
4. Click the OK button.
5. A confirmation dialog pops up. Click the OK button to shutdown
the unit.
1.
Direct Shutdown
Press the power button and hold it for 5 seconds to force to cut
off the power directly.
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3. I/O
3.1 Introduction
3.1.1 System Introduction
Remote I/O solution for is provided in NVR by connecting SCB-C31
with NUUO I/O Box SCB-C24/26/28. Refer to the below
architecture, I/O device is connected directly with I/O Box, and
input/output signal delivered in RS485 format are converted to
Ethernet through SCB-C31. NVR can use the signals to do more
sophisticated setup, such as starting recording when input
triggered, triggering output as an event happened, and much
more.
3.1.2 HW Installation
SCB-C24/26/28 must work with SCB-C31 (Ethernet-RS485
converter). Further, the C31 Box cannot be used for POS and
converter at the same time, and one C31 Box can be paired
with one NVR unit only. Please follow the steps below to
configure the devices.
Step 1: Check the system switch of SCB-C31 is switched to
OFF-OFF position.
Step 2: Connect SCB-C31 with power source.
Step 3: Connect SCB-C31 with internet by RJ45 LAN cable.
Step 4: Connect I/O Box with power source.
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Step 5: Connect SCB-C31 and I/O Box with cable, positive
connection (TX+/D+ and DATA+) and negative connection (TX-/Dand DATA-). Take SCB-C31 with I/O Box SCB-C24 for example as
below.
RS485
RJ-45
RS485
Reset Switch
Power
Multiple I/O Boxes can be connected to a single SCB-C31. However, series
connection of I/O boxes is forbidden. Furthermore, the default ID for each I/O
Box is the same. Please follow the direction to setup I/O Box one by one.
3.1.3 Software Installation – SCB-C31
Step 1: Open Internet Explorer to setup SCB-C31. The default IP
address is 192.168.1.1.
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Step 2: Setup IP address and port.
1. Static IP Address
2. Server Listening Port: The default port is 4000, which is
not the port for setting page, but for signal transmission.
Step 3: Click the Apply button to activate configuration.
Due to the stability of data transmission, one SCB-C31 can be paired with one NVR
unit only.
3.1.4 Software Installation – SCB-C24/26/28
The default ID of I/O Box is identical. To avoid the conflict between
Boxes, please connect only one Box with SCB-C31 and execute the
setup application to change the ID from the default value (1).
1. Execute IOConfig.exe, type in the IP address and port of
SCB-C31, and click the Scan button.
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IOConfig.exe starts scanning the ID from 0 to 255, and it may take around a minute
to finish scan.
2. When the I/O Box is discovered, click on the item and change
the ID from the New Address field. Click the Update device
button to activate the settings.
3. Scan again to make sure the configuration is validated. In this
case, we changed the ID to 10, so we can modify the number of
“Starting address” to 10 to save the searching time.
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4. Refer to the HW Installation section to connect other I/O Box
and repeat the steps 1 through 3 above to configure more I/O
Boxes.
3.2 Software Setup
3.2.1 Add I/O Box
1. Log in to the unit.
2. Click POS & I/O / I/O Settings / I/O Box Settings.
3. Enter the information of I/O box.
Device No: The unique ID system distributes in sequence
automatically.
Device Name: The name of the I/O box.
Device Type: The types of I/O box, including SCB-C24,
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SCB-C26, and SCB-C28.
IP Address: The IP Address of SCB-C31.
Port: The transmission port of SCB-C31.
ID: The ID of the I/O box.
4. Click the Create button, and the information will be updated in
I/O Box List.
5. Repeat steps 3 and 4 to add more I/O boxes in the list.
6. Click the Save button to activate the settings. Meanwhile,
system will distribute an unique ID to each device.
3.2.2 Modify I/O Box Information
1. Log in to the unit.
2. Click POS & I/O / I/O Settings / I/O Box Settings.
3. Click the I/O box which you want to modify from the list.
4. Modify the information of this I/O box, and click the Modify
button.
5. Click the Save button to activate the settings.
3.2.3 I/O Pin Setting
1. Log in to the unit.
2. Click POS & I/O / I/O Settings / I/O Pin Settings.
3. All input and output pins are shown in this page, including the
ones from cameras and I/O boxes.
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Device Name: The name of the I/O box.
Name: The name of the I/O pin.
Associated Camera: You may assign one camera to each
digital input device. DI’s included with IP cameras will keep its
own camera as default associated camera.
I/O Pin: Check the box to enable a pin. (default: checked)
4. Click the Save button.
If the box of I/O pin is unchecked, this pin won’t be shown on relative application
pages. In other words, you cannot do any setting/operation with this pin. See details
in next section.
3.3 Relative Configuration and Application
3.3.1 Record on Input Trigger
Refer to Recording Schedule / Event Setup.
3.3.2 Input and Responding Actions
Refer to I/O Box Input and Responding Action Setup.
3.3.3 I/O Control Panel in Live View
Refer to NuClient user manual for details.
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4. External Storage
4.1 Create a Volume on DAS
The current compatible DAS is AXUS FiT Series. We don’t
guarantee the quality of other DAS models. Please refer to the
manual of AXUS FiT Series to create a single volume on DAS.
We are unable to create a volume on external storage in NVR setting page, so do NOT
skip this step before connecting to NVR.
The maximum volume size to create RAID on NVR is 16T. Please make sure every
volume you are going to add as a external storage is under 16T.
4.2 Create an External Storage
1. Log in to the unit.
2. Click RAID & File System / RAID Management.
3. You will find External SATA Disk displayed in Disk List.
4. Click on the eSATA disk directly to check the disk drive
information.
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5. Refer to the section of Create a RAID Volume to create a
volume for it. You can either create a volume with eSATA and
embedded disk(s), or create an isolate volume with eSATA disk
only.
4.3 Create an External Storage on iSCSI
1. Log in to the unit.
2. Click RAID & File System / iSCSI initiator
3. Fill in the IP address and port (default 3260) for iSCSI, and click
“Discover”
4. You will see the iSCSI you discovered.
5. Log on each disk on Target. If you have set password on iSCSI,
choose CHAP to log on. If not, choose “None”.
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6. After log on the disk, choose RAID Management, you will see
the iSCSI disk on Free disks.
7. Refer to the section of Create a RAID Volume to create a
volume for it. You can only create a volume with purely iSCSI
disk.
We suggest user use more HD to create one volume. Not use one HD to divide to more
than 2 volume.
If you log off the disk which has been created as a RAID, it may destroy the current
recording file.
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5. Log out
Click the Logout button on the top of the page to log out of the
system. If there is no action in 10 minutes, the system will log out
automatically to avoid unauthorized access.
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6. Remote PC System Requirements
Remote PC Minimum Requirements
CPU
Intel Core 2 Duo, 2.6GHz
Display
OpenGL 2.0 and later
Card
OS
Windows XP 32 bit
Windows 7 32/64 bit
Supported
Mac 10.6/10.7
RAM
1GB
2GB
User
1. HTTP Web browser - Internet Explorer 8 and
later and Firefox 7.0.1
Interface
2. Client application program
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7. Troubleshooting
7.1 Replace a Failed Disk Drive
If a disk drive fails, the Disk Status LED becomes orange. If the
disk drive belongs to a RAID Volume, the Volume goes Critical or
Offline, depending on RAID level. See Check RAID Volume
Status for details.
Replace the failed disk drive with a new disk drive of the same or
slightly greater capacity. You do not have to power down the unit.
Refer to Modify RAID Volume to remove the failed disk and
replace it with a new one.
7.2 Respond to a Critical RAID Volume
How the unit responding to a Critical RAID Volume depends on the
RAID level of your Volume:
For RAID 1, 5, and 10 volumes, you must replace the failed
disk drive with a new one. The RAID Volume will begin
rebuilding itself when you install the new disk drive. See
Replace a Failed Disk Drive for details.
RAID 0 volumes go offline after a disk drive failure. A RAID
0 Volume cannot be recovery. All data of the volume is lost.
7.3 Respond to a File System Error RAID Volume
When encountering file system error, you are unable to keep the
data anymore. It’s likely due to abnormal usage and disk damage.
In this case, if you want to keep recording, we suggest replacing
new disks, or try the following methods.
1. Format this volume, and check if the status becomes
functional. If yes, you can start recording. If it doesn’t, try the
second method.
2. Delete this volume, and create volume again to see if the
status is functional.
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7.4 Install ActiveX
If you cannot see the complete page of the system when using
Internet Explorer, it may be because the ActiveX installation
process is not completed.
1. Log in to the unit.
2. Click the NuClient button on the top right.
3. The browser will ask whether to install ActiveX. Click “Install”.
4. Click the Run button on popup dialog to begin ActiveX
installation process.
7.5 Cannot Log in to the Unit with Internet
Explorer
1. Check the settings of your antivirus software.
2. Change to appropriate settings or turn off this antivirus
software.
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Appendix – RAID System
Introduction to RAID
RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks) allows multiple disk
drives to be combined together into a RAID Volume. You will create
a RAID Volume on your unit when you perform the setup
procedure.
The benefits of a RAID can include:
Higher data transfer rates for increased server performance
Increased overall storage capacity for a single Volume
Data redundancy/fault tolerance for ensuring continuous
system operation in the event of a disk drive failure
Different RAID levels use different organizational models and have
varying benefits. The following outline breaks down the properties
for each RAID level supported on this unit:
RAID 0 – Stripe
When a RAID Volume is striped, the read and write blocks of data
are interleaved between the sectors of multiple disk drives.
Performance is increased, since the workload is balanced between
drives or “members” that form the RAID Volume. Identical drives
are recommended for performance as well as data storage
efficiency.
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The RAID Volume’s data capacity equals the capacity of the
smallest disk drive times the number of disk drives. For example,
one 100 GB and three 120 GB drives will form a 400 GB (4 x 100
GB) RAID Volume instead of 460 GB.
If disk drives of different capacities are used, there will also be
unused capacity on the larger drives.
Because RAID 0 does not offer Fault Tolerance, meaning that you
cannot recover your data after a disk drive failure, we do not
recommend a RAID 0 Volume for your unit.
RAID 0 Volumes on this unit consist of one or more disk drives.
RAID 1 – Mirror
When a RAID Volume is mirrored, identical data is written to a pair
of disk drives, while reads are performed in parallel. The reads are
performed using elevator seek and load balancing techniques
where the workload is distributed in the most efficient manner.
Whichever drive is not busy and is positioned closer to the data will
be accessed first.
With RAID 1, if one disk drive fails or has errors, the other mirrored
disk drive continues to function. This is called Fault Tolerance.
Moreover, if a spare disk drive is present, the spare drive will be
used as the replacement drive and data will begin to be mirrored to
it from the remaining good drive.
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The RAID Volume’s data capacity equals the smaller disk drive. For
example, a 100 GB disk drive and a 120 GB disk drive have a
combined capacity of 100 GB in a mirrored RAID Volume.
If disk drives of different capacities are used, there will also be
unused capacity on the larger drive.
RAID 1 Volumes on this unit consist of two disk drives.
If you want a mirrored RAID Volume with more than two disk
drives, see RAID 10 – Mirror / Stripe for details.
RAID 5 – Block Striping with Distributed Parity
RAID 5 organizes block data and parity data across the disk drives.
Generally, RAID level 5 tends to exhibit lower random write
performance due to the heavy workload of parity recalculation for
each I/O. RAID 5 works well for file, database, application and web
servers.
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The capacity of a RAID 5 Volume equals the smallest disk drive
times the number of disk drives, minus one. Hence, a RAID 5
Volume with four 100 GB disk drives will have a capacity of 300 GB.
A RAID Volume with two 120 GB disk drives and one 100 GB disk
drive will have a capacity of 200 GB.
RAID 5 is generally considered to be the most versatile RAID level.
RAID 5 requires a minimum of three disk drives.
RAID 10 – Mirror / Stripe
Mirror/Stripe combines both of the RAID 0 and RAID 1 types. RAID
10 can increase performance by reading and writing data in
parallel while protecting data with duplication. At least four disk
drives are needed for RAID 10 to be installed. With a
four-disk-drive RAID Volume, one drive pair is mirrored together
then striped over a second drive pair.
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The data capacity RAID 10 Volume equals the capacity of the
smallest disk drive times the number of disk drives, divided by two.
In some cases, RAID 10 offers double fault tolerance, depending
on which disk drives fail.
RAID 10 Volumes on this unit consist of four disk drives.
Because all of the available disk drives are used for the RAID
Volume, you cannot set up a spare drive with RAID 10.
Choosing a RAID Level
There are several issues to consider when choosing the RAID level.
The following summarizes some advantages, disadvantages and
applications for each choice.
RAID 0
Advantage
Disadvantage
Implements a striped disk RAID
Volume, the data is broken down
into blocks and each block is
written to a separate disk drive
Not a true RAID because it is not
fault tolerant
The failure of just one drive will
result in all data in a RAID Volume
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I/O performance is greatly
being lost
improved by spreading the I/O
load across many channels and
Should not be used in mission
critical environments
drives
No parity calculation overhead is
involved
RAID 1
Advantage
Simplest RAID storage subsystem
design
Can increase read performance by
Disadvantage
Very high disk overhead - uses
only 50% of total capacity
Disk failure has a medium impact
on throughput
Very high disk overhead – uses
only 50% of total capacity
processing data requests in
parallel since the same data
resides on two different drives
RAID 5
Advantage
High Read data transaction rate
Medium Write data transaction
Disadvantage
rate
Good aggregate transfer rate
Most versatile RAID level
RAID 10
Advantage
Implemented as a mirrored RAID
Volume whose segments are RAID
Disadvantage
0 RAID Volumes
High I/O rates are achieved
thanks to multiple stripe
segments
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