User manual | Magellan ZXW Sensor, ZXW Eurocard GPS receiver Operation and Reference Manual

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ZXW Sensor & ZXW Eurocard Operation and Reference Manual | Manualzz

ZXW-Sensor

& ZXW-Eurocard

Operation and Reference Manual

II

Part Number: 630897, Revision B

© 2004-2007 Magellan Navigation. All rights reserved. ZXW-Eurocard and ZXW-

Sensor are trademarks of Magellan Navigation Inc. All other product and brand names are trademarks of their respective holders.

Magellan Professional Products - Limited Warranty

(North, Central and South America)

Magellan Navigation warrants their GPS receivers and hardware accessories to be free of defects in material and workmanship and will conform to our published specifications for the product for a period of one year from the date of original purchase. THIS

WARRANTY APPLIES ONLY TO THE ORIGINAL

PURCHASER OF THIS PRODUCT.

In the event of a defect, Magellan Navigation will, at its option, repair or replace the hardware product with no charge to the purchaser for parts or labor.

The repaired or replaced product will be warranted for 90 days from the date of return shipment, or for the balance of the original warranty, whichever is longer. Magellan Navigation warrants that software products or software included in hardware products will be free from defects in the media for a period of

30 days from the date of shipment and will substantially conform to the then-current user documentation provided with the software (including updates thereto). Magellan Navigation's sole obligation shall be the correction or replacement of the media or the software so that it will substantially conform to the then- current user documentation. Magellan Navigation does not warrant the software will meet purchaser's requirements or that its operation will be uninterrupted, error-free or virus-free. Purchaser assumes the entire risk of using the software.

PURCHASER'S EXCLUSIVE REMEDY UNDER

THIS WRITTEN WARRANTY OR ANY IMPLIED

WARRANTY SHALL BE LIMITED TO THE REPAIR

OR REPLACEMENT, AT MAGELLAN NAVIGA-

TION'S OPTION, OF ANY DEFECTIVE PART OF

THE RECEIVER OR ACCESSORIES WHICH ARE

COVERED BY THIS WARRANTY. REPAIRS UN-

DER THIS WARRANTY SHALL ONLY BE MADE

AT AN AUTHORIZED MAGELLAN NAVIGATION

SERVICE CENTER. ANY REPAIRS BY A SER-

VICE CENTER NOT AUTHORIZED BY MAGEL-

LAN NAVIGATION WILL VOID THIS WARRANTY.

To obtain warranty service the purchaser must obtain a Return Materials Authorization (RMA) number prior to shipping by calling 1-800-229-2400

(press option #1) (U.S.) or 1-408-615-3981 (International), or by submitting a repair request on-line at: http://professional.magellangps.com/en/support/rma.asp. The purchaser must return the product postpaid with a copy of the original sales receipt to the address provided by Magellan Navigation with the RMA number. Purchaser’s return address and the RMA number must be clearly printed on the outside of the package.

Magellan Navigation reserves the right to refuse to provide service free-of-charge if the sales receipt is not provided or if the information contained in it is incomplete or illegible or if the serial number is altered or removed. Magellan Navigation will not be responsible for any losses or damage to the product incurred while the product is in transit or is being shipped for repair. Insurance is recommended. Magellan Navigation suggests using a trackable shipping method such as UPS or FedEx when returning a product for service.

EXCEPT AS SET FORTH IN THIS LIMITED WAR-

RANTY, ALL OTHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED

WARRANTIES, INCLUDING THOSE OF FITNESS

FOR ANY PARTICULAR PURPOSE, MERCHANT-

ABILITY OR NON-INFRINGEMENT, ARE HERE-

BY DISCLAIMED AND IF APPLICABLE, IMPLIED

WARRANTIES UNDER ARTICLE 35 OF THE

UNITED NATIONS CONVENTION ON CON-

TRACTS FOR THE INTERNATIONAL SALE OF

GOODS. Some national, state, or local laws do not allow limitations on implied warranty or how long an implied warranty lasts, so the above limitation may not apply to you.

The following are excluded from the warranty coverage: (1) periodic maintenance and repair or replacement of parts due to normal wear and tear; (2) batteries and finishes; (3) installations or defects resulting from installation; (4) any damage caused by

(i) shipping, misuse, abuse, negligence, tampering, or improper use; (ii) disasters such as fire, flood, wind, and lightning; (iii) unauthorized attachments or modification; (5) service performed or attempted by anyone other than an authorized Magellan Navigations Service Center; (6) any product, components or parts not manufactured by Magellan

Navigation; (7) that the receiver will be free from any claim for infringement of any patent, trademark, copyright or other proprietary right, including trade secrets; and (8) any damage due to accident, resulting from inaccurate satellite transmissions. Inaccurate transmissions can occur due to changes in the position, health or geometry of a satellite or modifications to the receiver that may be required due to any change in the GPS. (Note: Magellan

III

Navigation GPS receivers use GPS or GPS+GLO-

NASS to obtain position, velocity and time information. GPS is operated by the U.S. Government and

GLONASS is the Global Navigation Satellite System of the Russian Federation, which are solely responsible for the accuracy and maintenance of their systems. Certain conditions can cause inaccuracies which could require modifications to the receiver. Examples of such conditions include but are not limited to changes in the GPS or GLONASS transmission.) Opening, dismantling or repairing of this product by anyone other than an authorized

Magellan Navigation Service Center will void this warranty.

MAGELLAN NAVIGATION SHALL NOT BE LIA-

BLE TO PURCHASER OR ANY OTHER PERSON

FOR ANY INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL

DAMAGES WHATSOEVER, INCLUDING BUT

NOT LIMITED TO LOST PROFITS, DAMAGES

RESULTING FROM DELAY OR LOSS OF USE,

LOSS OF OR DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF

BREACH OF THIS WARRANTY OR ANY IMPLIED

WARRANTY EVEN THOUGH CAUSED BY NEG-

LIGENCE OR OTHER FAULT OFMAGELLAN

NAVIGATION OR NEGLIGENT USAGE OF THE

PRODUCT. IN NO EVENT WILL MAGELLAN NAV-

IGATION BE RESPONSIBLE FOR SUCH DAM-

AGES, EVEN IF MAGELLAN NAVIGATION HAS

BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH

DAMAGES.

This written warranty is the complete, final and exclusive agreement between Magellan Navigation and the purchaser with respect to the quality of performance of the goods and any and all warranties and representations. This warranty sets forth all of

Magellan Navigation's responsibilities regarding this product. This limited warranty is governed by the laws of the State of California, without reference to its conflict of law provisions or the U.N. Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of

Goods, and shall benefit Magellan Navigation, its successors and assigns.

This warranty gives the purchaser specific rights.

The purchaser may have other rights which vary from locality to locality (including Directive 1999/44/

EC in the EC Member States) and certain limitations contained in this warranty, including the exclusion or limitation of incidental or consequential damages may not apply.

For further information concerning this limited warranty, please call or write:

Magellan Navigation, Inc., 960 Overland Court,

San Dimas, CA 91773, Phone: +1 909-394-5000,

Fax: +1 909-394-7050 or

Magellan Navigation SAS - ZAC La Fleuriaye - BP

433 - 44474 Carquefou Cedex - France Phone:

+33 (0)2 28 09 38 00, Fax: +33 (0)2 28 09 39 39.

Magellan Professional Products Limited Warranty

(Europe, Middle East, Africa)

All Magellan Navigation global positioning system

(GPS) receivers are navigation aids, and are not intended to replace other methods of navigation. Purchaser is advised to perform careful position charting and use good judgment. READ THE

USER GUIDE CAREFULLY BEFORE USING THE

PRODUCT.

1. MAGELLAN NAVIGATION WARRANTY

Magellan Navigation warrants their GPS receivers and hardware accessories to be free of defects in material and workmanship and will conform to our published specifications for the product for a period of one year from the date of original purchase or such longer period as required by law. THIS WAR-

RANTY APPLIES ONLY TO THE ORIGINAL PUR-

CHASER OF THIS PRODUCT.

In the event of a defect, Magellan Navigation will, at its option, repair or replace the hardware product with no charge to the purchaser for parts or labor.

The repaired or replaced product will be warranted for 90 days from the date of return shipment, or for the balance of the original warranty, whichever is longer. Magellan Navigation warrants that software products or software included in hardware products will be free from defects in the media for a period of

30 days from the date of shipment and will substantially conform to the then-current user documentation provided with the software (including updates thereto). Magellan Navigation's sole obligation shall be the correction or replacement of the media or the software so that it will substantially conform to the then- current user documentation. Magellan Navigation does not warrant the software will meet purchaser's requirements or that its operation will be

IV

uninterrupted, error-free or virus-free. Purchaser assumes the entire risk of using the software.

2. PURCHASER'S REMEDY

PURCHASER'S EXCLUSIVE REMEDY UNDER

THIS WRITTEN WARRANTY OR ANY IMPLIED

WARRANTY SHALL BE LIMITED TO THE REPAIR

OR REPLACEMENT, AT MAGELLAN NAVIGA-

TION'S OPTION, OF ANY DEFECTIVE PART OF

THE RECEIVER OR ACCESSORIES WHICH ARE

COVERED BY THIS WARRANTY. REPAIRS UN-

DER THIS WARRANTY SHALL ONLY BE MADE

AT AN AUTHORIZED MAGELLAN NAVIGATION

SERVICE CENTER. ANY REPAIRS BY A SER-

VICE CENTER NOT AUTHORIZED BY MAGEL-

LAN NAVIGATION WILL VOID THIS WARRANTY.

3. PURCHASER'S DUTIES

To obtain service, contact and return the product with a copy of the original sales receipt to the dealer from whom you purchased the product.

Magellan Navigation reserves the right to refuse to provide service free-of-charge if the sales receipt is not provided or if the information contained in it is incomplete or illegible or if the serial number is altered or removed. Magellan Navigation will not be responsible for any losses or damage to the product incurred while the product is in transit or is being shipped for repair. Insurance is recommended. Magellan Navigation suggests using a trackable shipping method such as UPS or FedEx when returning a product for service.

4. LIMITATION OF IMPLIED WARRANTIES

EXCEPT AS SET FORTH IN ITEM 1 ABOVE, ALL

OTHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED WARRAN-

TIES, INCLUDING THOSE OF FITNESS FOR ANY

PARTICULAR PURPOSE OR MERCHANTABILI-

TY, ARE HEREBY DISCLAIMED AND IF APPLI-

CABLE, IMPLIED WARRANTIES UNDER

ARTICLE 35 OF THE UNITED NATIONS CON-

VENTION ON CONTRACTS FOR THE INTERNA-

TIONAL SALE OF GOODS.

Some national, state, or local laws do not allow limitations on implied warranty or how long an implied warranty lasts, so the above limitation may not apply to you.

5. EXCLUSIONS

The following are excluded from the warranty coverage:

(1) periodic maintenance and repair or replacement of parts due to normal wear and tear;

(2) batteries;

(3) finishes;

(4) installations or defects resulting from installation;

(5) any damage caused by (i) shipping, misuse, abuse, negligence, tampering, or improper use; (ii) disasters such as fire, flood, wind, and lightning; (iii) unauthorized attachments or modification;

(6) service performed or attempted by anyone other than an authorized Magellan Navigations Service

Center;

(7) any product, components or parts not manufactured by Magellan Navigation,

(8) that the receiver will be free from any claim for infringement of any patent, trademark, copyright or other proprietary right, including trade secrets

(9) any damage due to accident, resulting from inaccurate satellite transmissions. Inaccurate transmissions can occur due to changes in the position, health or geometry of a satellite or modifications to the receiver that may be required due to any change in the GPS. (Note: Magellan Navigation

GPS receivers use GPS or GPS+GLONASS to obtain position, velocity and time information. GPS is operated by the U.S. Government and GLONASS is the Global Navigation Satellite System of the

Russian Federation, which are solely responsible for the accuracy and maintenance of their systems.

Certain conditions can cause inaccuracies which could require modifications to the receiver. Examples of such conditions include but are not limited to changes in the GPS or GLONASS transmission.).

Opening, dismantling or repairing of this product by anyone other than an authorized Magellan Navigation Service Center will void this warranty.

6. EXCLUSION OF INCIDENTAL OR CONSE-

QUENTIAL DAMAGES

MAGELLAN NAVIGATION SHALL NOT BE LIA-

BLE TO PURCHASER OR ANY OTHER PERSON

FOR ANY INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL OR CONSE-

QUENTIAL DAMAGES WHATSOEVER, INCLUD-

V

ING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOST PROFITS,

DAMAGES RESULTING FROM DELAY OR LOSS

OF USE, LOSS OF OR DAMAGES ARISING OUT

OF BREACH OF THIS WARRANTY OR ANY IM-

PLIED WARRANTY EVEN THOUGH CAUSED BY

NEGLIGENCE OR OTHER FAULT OFMAGELLAN

NAVIGATION OR NEGLIGENT USAGE OF THE

PRODUCT. IN NO EVENT WILL MAGELLAN NAV-

IGATION BE RESPONSIBLE FOR SUCH DAM-

AGES, EVEN IF MAGELLAN NAVIGATION HAS

BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH

DAMAGES.

Some national, state, or local laws do not allow the exclusion or limitation of incidental or consequential damages, so the above limitation or exclusion may not apply to you.

7. COMPLETE AGREEMENT

This written warranty is the complete, final and exclusive agreement between Magellan Navigation and the purchaser with respect to the quality of performance of the goods and any and all warranties and representations. THIS WARRANTY SETS

FORTH ALL OF MAGELLAN NAVIGATION'S RE-

SPONSIBILITIES REGARDING THIS PRODUCT.

THIS WARRANTY GIVES YOU SPECIFIC

RIGHTS. YOU MAY HAVE OTHER RIGHTS

WHICH VARY FROM LOCALITY TO LOCALITY

(including Directive 1999/44/EC in the EC Member

States) AND CERTAIN LIMITATIONS CONTAINED

IN THIS WARRANTY MAY NOT APPLY TO YOU.

8. CHOICE OF LAW.

This limited warranty is governed by the laws of

France, without reference to its conflict of law provisions or the U.N. Convention on Contracts for the

International Sale of Goods, and shall benefit Magellan Navigation, its successors and assigns.

THIS WARRANTY DOES NOT AFFECT THE

CUSTOMER'S STATUTORY RIGHTS UNDER AP-

PLICABLE LAWS IN FORCE IN THEIR LOCALITY,

NOR THE CUSTOMER'S RIGHTS AGAINST THE

DEALER ARISING FROM THEIR SALES/PUR-

CHASE CONTRACT (such as the guarantees in

France for latent defects in accordance with Article

1641 et seq of the French Civil Code).

For further information concerning this limited warranty, please call or write:

Magellan Navigation SAS - ZAC La Fleuriaye - BP

433 - 44474 Carquefou Cedex - France.

Phone: +33 (0)2 28 09 38 00, Fax: +33 (0)2 28 09

39 39

VI

CONTENTS

Chapter 1 Introduction ................................................................ 1

Overview............................................................................................................. 1

Functional Description ...................................................................................... 2

Technical Specifications ..................................................................................... 3

Performance Specifications................................................................................ 4

Receiver Options ................................................................................................ 4

Option [B] RTCM Base ..................................................................................... 6

Option [U] RTCM Remote ................................................................................ 6

Option [E] Event Marker ................................................................................... 6

Option [M] Remote Monitoring.......................................................................... 6

Option [F] Fast Data Output ............................................................................. 6

Option [T] Point Positioning .............................................................................. 6

Option [3] Observables—1, 2, 3 ....................................................................... 7

Option [J] RTK Rover ....................................................................................... 7

Option [K] RTK Base ........................................................................................ 7

[I] Instant RTK................................................................................................... 7

[G] Reserved for Future Options ...................................................................... 7

[H] 5 Hz Synchronized RTK.............................................................................. 8

[N] Reserved for Future Options....................................................................... 8

Option [Y] SBAS ............................................................................................... 8

.......................................................................................................................... 8

Chapter 2 Equipment................................................................... 9

Hardware Description ......................................................................................... 9

ZXW-Eurocard.................................................................................................. 9

RF Connector ............................................................................................... 12

Antenna ........................................................................................................ 12

Power Requirements .................................................................................... 12

Environmental Specifications ....................................................................... 12

Mounting Requirements ............................................................................... 12

Heat Sink Requirements............................................................................... 13

Modem Support ............................................................................................ 14

ZXW-Sensor ................................................................................................... 14

Mounting Dimensions ................................................................................... 16

Power/Input/Output Connector ..................................................................... 17

Power Requirements .................................................................................... 18

Environmental Specifications ....................................................................... 18

RF Connector ............................................................................................... 18

Serial/Power Cable....................................................................................... 19

VII

Antenna ........................................................................................................ 19

On-Board Battery............................................................................................ 19

Radio Interference .......................................................................................... 19

Development Kits ............................................................................................. 20

Chapter 3 Getting Started ......................................................... 25

Hardware Setup................................................................................................ 25

Applying Power............................................................................................... 25

Receiver Initialization........................................................................................ 25

Receiver Communication ................................................................................. 25

Monitoring......................................................................................................... 26

Satellite Tracking ............................................................................................ 26

Position........................................................................................................... 27

Setting Receiver Parameters.......................................................................... 27

Saving Parameter Settings............................................................................. 27

Data Recording................................................................................................. 27

Default Parameters........................................................................................... 28

Chapter 4 Operation .................................................................. 33

Receiver Initialization........................................................................................ 33

Setting Receiver Parameters............................................................................ 33

Saving Parameter Settings............................................................................... 34

Data Modes .................................................................................................... 34

Downloading the Data .................................................................................... 35

Data Logging through Serial Port ................................................................... 35

Elevation Masks ............................................................................................. 36

Secondary Elevation Mask ........................................................................... 36

Zenith Elevation Mask .................................................................................. 37

Session Programming ...................................................................................... 38

Position Mode................................................................................................... 39

ALT Fix Mode ................................................................................................... 39

Daisy Chain Mode ............................................................................................ 40

Point Positioning............................................................................................... 40

Remote Monitoring ........................................................................................... 40

Event Marker .................................................................................................... 41

Time Tagging the Shutter Signal .................................................................... 42

Closed-Loop Technique (Advanced Trigger).................................................. 42

1PPS Out.......................................................................................................... 43

Data Output ...................................................................................................... 43

Transferring Data Files ..................................................................................... 44

VIII

Synchronization to GPS Time .......................................................................... 45

Default Parameters........................................................................................... 45

Multipath Mitigation........................................................................................... 49

Evaluating Correlator Performance ................................................................ 50

Signal-to-Noise Ratio........................................................................................ 52

Antenna Reduction ........................................................................................... 53

Chapter 5 Differential and RTK Operations............................. 55

Base Stations ................................................................................................... 56

Setting Up a Differential Base Station ............................................................ 56

Setting Up an RTK Base Station .................................................................... 57

RTCM 18 & 19.............................................................................................. 57

RTCM 20 & 21.............................................................................................. 58

Magellan DBEN Format................................................................................ 59

CMR or CMR Plus Format............................................................................ 60

Setting Up a Combined Differential & RTK Base Station ............................... 61

Advanced Base Station Operation ................................................................. 62

Recommended Advanced Parameter Settings for Base Stations ................ 62

Antenna ........................................................................................................ 62

Message Rate .............................................................................................. 62

Required Differential Update Rates.............................................................. 63

Message size.............................................................................................. 63

Required Radio Rate .................................................................................. 64

Mask Angle................................................................................................... 66

Base Station Position ................................................................................... 66

Base Station Antenna Offset ........................................................................ 67

Using Reference Station ID .......................................................................... 67

Reference Station Health ............................................................................. 67

Other RTCM Messages................................................................................ 67

Message 2 .................................................................................................. 67

Filler: Message 6 Null Frame...................................................................... 68

Special Message: Message 16................................................................... 68

Using a PC Interface .................................................................................... 68

Using a Handheld Interface .......................................................................... 68

Remote Stations ............................................................................................... 69

Setting Up a Differential Remote Station........................................................ 69

Setting Up an RTK Remote Station................................................................ 69

Using RTCM Messages................................................................................ 69

Using Magellan DBN or CMR Messages ..................................................... 70

Advanced Remote Station Operation ............................................................. 71

Base Station Data......................................................................................... 71

IX

Base Data Latency ....................................................................................... 72

Differential Accuracy vs. Base Data Latency................................................ 73

Chosing Between Fast RTK and Synchronized RTK ................................... 73

Synchronized RTK...................................................................................... 73

Fast RTK .................................................................................................... 74

5 Hz Synchronized RTK ............................................................................. 74

Position Latency ......................................................................................... 75

Float and Fixed Solutions ............................................................................. 75

Carrier Phase Initialization............................................................................ 76

Reliability .................................................................................................... 76

Monitoring Accuracy ................................................................................... 77

Required Number of Satellites.................................................................... 77

Mask Angles ................................................................................................. 77

Auto Differential Mode .................................................................................. 77

RTCM Messages.......................................................................................... 78

RTCM 104 Format, Version 2.3.................................................................. 79

Chapter 6 Understanding RTK/CPD ......................................... 81

Monitoring the CPD Rover Solution.................................................................. 81

How to Tell If the Integer Ambiguities are Fixed............................................. 82

Data Link Monitor ........................................................................................... 82

CPD Solution Output and Storage.................................................................. 82

Real-time Solution Output .............................................................................. 83

Vector Solution Output ................................................................................... 83

Solution Storage ............................................................................................. 84

Troubleshooting................................................................................................ 85

System Performance Optimization ................................................................... 86

Ambiguity Fix: $PASHS,CPD,AFP ................................................................. 87

Dynamics: $PASHS,CPD,DYN ...................................................................... 88

Fast CPD: $PASHS,CPD,FST ....................................................................... 89

Multipath: $PASHS,CPD,MTP........................................................................ 89

DBN Message Interval: $PASHS,CPD,PED and CPD Update Rate: $PA-

SHS,CPD,PER ................................................................................................... 89

Initialization: $PASHS,CPD,RST.................................................................... 90

Base Position Coordinates Selection: $PASHS,CPD,UBS ............................ 90

Base Station Elevation Mask: $PASHS,ELM ................................................. 90

Universal RTCM Base Station.......................................................................... 91

Instant-RTK .................................................................................................... 91

CMR Format ................................................................................................... 92

Setting Up Your Receivers to Use CMR Format .......................................... 92

Base Receiver: ........................................................................................... 92

X

Rover Receiver:.......................................................................................... 92

Chapter 7 Coordinate Transformation ..................................... 93

Background ...................................................................................................... 93

Datum to Datum ............................................................................................... 94

Datum to Grid ................................................................................................... 96

Projection Types............................................................................................. 98

Elevation Modeling ....................................................................................... 100

Chapter 8 Command/Response Formats .............................. 103

Receiver Commands ...................................................................................... 105

Set Commands............................................................................................. 105

Query Commands ........................................................................................ 105

ALH: Almanac Messages Received ............................................................. 110

ALT: Set Ellipsoid Height.............................................................................. 111

ANA: Post-Survey Antenna Height............................................................... 111

ANH: Set Antenna Height............................................................................. 111

ANR: Set Antenna Reduction Mode ............................................................. 112

ANT: Set Antenna Offsets ............................................................................ 113

BEEP: Beeper Set-up................................................................................... 114

CLM: Clear/Reformat PCMCIA Card ............................................................ 115

CSN: Satellite Signal-to-Noise Ratio ............................................................ 116

CTS: Port Protocol Setting ........................................................................... 117

DOI: Data Output Interval ............................................................................. 117

DRI: Data Recording Interval........................................................................ 118

DSC: Store Event String............................................................................... 118

DSY: Daisy Chain......................................................................................... 118

ELM: Recording Elevation Mask .................................................................. 119

EPG: Epoch Counter .................................................................................... 120

FIL,C: Close a File........................................................................................ 120

FIL,D: Delete a File....................................................................................... 120

FIX: Altitude Fix Mode .................................................................................. 121

FLS: Receiver File Information ..................................................................... 121

FSS: File System Status............................................................................... 123

HDP: HDOP Mask ........................................................................................ 124

INF: Set Session Information........................................................................ 125

INI: Receiver Initialization ............................................................................. 127

ION: Set Ionospheric Model ......................................................................... 128

ION: Query Ionospheric Parameters ............................................................ 128

LPS: Loop Tracking ...................................................................................... 130

XI

LTZ: Set Local Time Zone ............................................................................ 131

MDM: Set Modem Parameters ..................................................................... 131

MDM,INI: Initialize Modem Communication ................................................. 133

MET: Meteorological Meters Setup ............................................................. 134

MET,CMD: Meteorological Meters Trigger String......................................... 134

MET,INIT: Meteorological Meters Initialization ............................................. 135

MET,INTVL : Meteorological Meters Interval................................................ 135

MST: Minimum SVs for Kinematic Survey.................................................... 136

MSV: Minimum SVs for Data Recording ...................................................... 136

OUT,MET: Start Meteorological Meters Process ......................................... 136

OUT, TLT: Start Tiltmeter Process ............................................................... 137

PAR: Query Receiver Parameters................................................................ 137

PDP: PDOP Mask ........................................................................................ 140

PEM: Position Elevation Mask...................................................................... 140

PHE: Photogrammetry Edge (Event Marker Edge) ...................................... 141

PJT: Log Project Data .................................................................................. 142

PMD: Position Mode..................................................................................... 142

POS: Set Antenna Position .......................................................................... 143

POW: Battery Parameters ............................................................................ 144

PPO: Point Positioning ................................................................................. 145

PPS: Pulse Per Second................................................................................ 145

PRT: Port Setting.......................................................................................... 146

PWR: Sleep Mode ........................................................................................ 147

RCI: Recording Interval ................................................................................ 148

REC: Data Recording ................................................................................... 148

RID: Receiver ID........................................................................................... 149

RNG: Data Type ........................................................................................... 150

RST: Reset Receiver to default .................................................................... 150

RTR: Real-Time Error................................................................................... 151

SAV: Save User Parameters ........................................................................ 151

SEM: Secondary Elevation Mask ................................................................. 152

SES: Session Programming ......................................................................... 152

SID: Serial Number....................................................................................... 156

SIT: Set Site Name....................................................................................... 156

SPD: Serial Port Baud Rate ......................................................................... 156

STA: Satellite Status..................................................................................... 157

SVS: Satellite Selection................................................................................ 158

TLT : Tiltmeter Set-up................................................................................... 159

TLT,CMD: Tiltmeter Trigger String ............................................................... 159

TLT,INIT : Tiltmeter Initialization................................................................... 160

TLT,INTVL: Tiltmeter Interval ....................................................................... 160

XII

TMP: Receiver Internal Temperature ........................................................... 161

TST:Output RTK Latency ............................................................................. 161

UNH: Unhealthy Satellites ............................................................................ 162

USE: Use Satellites ...................................................................................... 162

VDP: VDOP Mask ........................................................................................ 162

WAK: Warning Acknowledgment.................................................................. 162

WARN: Warning Messages.......................................................................... 163

WKN: GPS Week Number............................................................................ 167

Raw Data Commands .................................................................................... 168

Set Commands............................................................................................. 168

Query Commands ........................................................................................ 169

CBN: CBEN Message ................................................................................ 172

CMR: CMR Message.................................................................................. 177

Compact Measurement Record Packet...................................................... 179

Observables (Message Type 0) ................................................................. 179

L2 Data ....................................................................................................... 181

DBN: DBEN Message ................................................................................ 182

EPB: Raw Ephemeris ................................................................................. 186

MBN: MBN Message .................................................................................. 188

OUT: Enable/Disable Raw Data Output ..................................................... 192

PBN: Position Data..................................................................................... 193

RAW: Query Raw Data Parameter............................................................. 195

RWO: Raw Data Output Settings ............................................................... 197

SAL: Almanac Data .................................................................................... 198

SNV: Ephemeris Data ................................................................................ 199

NMEA Message Commands .......................................................................... 202

Set Commands............................................................................................. 202

Query Commands ........................................................................................ 203

ALL: Disable All NMEA Messages ............................................................. 206

ALM: Almanac Message............................................................................. 206

CRT: Cartesian Coordinates Message ....................................................... 209

DAL: DAL Format Almanac Message......................................................... 211

DCR: Delta Cartesian Message ................................................................. 213

DPO: Delta Position Message .................................................................... 215

GDC: User Grid Coordinate....................................................................... 217

GGA: GPS Position Message..................................................................... 220

GLL: Latitude/Longitude Message.............................................................. 223

GRS: Satellite Range Residuals................................................................. 224

GSA: DOP and Active Satellite Messages ................................................. 226

GSN: Signal Strength/Satellite Number...................................................... 229

GST: Pseudo-range Error Statistic Message ............................................. 230

XIII

GSV: Satellites in View Message ............................................................... 231

GXP: Horizontal Position Message ............................................................ 234

MSG: Base Station Message ..................................................................... 235

NMO: NMEA Message Output Settings ..................................................... 241

PER: Set NMEA Send Interval ................................................................... 242

POS: Position Message.............................................................................. 243

PTT: Pulse Time Tag Message .................................................................. 246

RMC: Recommended Minimum GPS/Transit ............................................. 247

RRE: Residual Error ................................................................................... 249

SAT: Satellite Status................................................................................... 251

TAG: Set NMEA Version ............................................................................ 254

TTT: Event Marker...................................................................................... 254

UTM: UTM Coordinates.............................................................................. 255

VTG: Velocity/Course ................................................................................. 258

XDR: Transducer Measurements ............................................................... 260

ZDA: Time and Date................................................................................... 262

RTCM Response Message Commands ......................................................... 264

Set Commands............................................................................................. 264

Query Commands ........................................................................................ 264

Query: RTCM Status .................................................................................. 266

AUT: Auto Differential................................................................................. 269

BAS: Enable Base Station.......................................................................... 269

EOT: End of Transmission ......................................................................... 269

INI: Initialize RTCM..................................................................................... 270

IOD: Ephemeris Data Update Rate ............................................................ 270

MAX: Max Age............................................................................................ 270

MSG: Define Message ............................................................................... 271

MSI: Query RTCM Message Status ........................................................... 271

OFF: Disable RTCM ................................................................................... 272

QAF: Quality Factor.................................................................................... 272

REM: Enable Remote RTCM ..................................................................... 272

SEQ: Check Sequence Number................................................................. 273

SPD: Base Bit Rate .................................................................................... 273

STH: Station Health.................................................................................... 274

STI: Station ID ............................................................................................ 274

TYP: Message Type ................................................................................... 275

CPD Commands............................................................................................. 276

Set Commands............................................................................................. 276

Query Commands ........................................................................................ 276

CPD: RTK Status........................................................................................ 279

AFP: Ambiguity Fixing ................................................................................ 282

XIV

ANT: Antenna Parameters ......................................................................... 283

CMR: CMR Received Mode ....................................................................... 284

DLK: Data Link Status ................................................................................ 284

DYN: Rover Dynamics................................................................................ 287

ENT: Use Current Position ......................................................................... 288

EOT: End of Transmission ......................................................................... 288

FST: Fast CPD Mode ................................................................................. 289

INF: CPD Information ................................................................................. 289

MAX: Max Age for CPD Correction ............................................................ 291

MOD: CPD Mode........................................................................................ 291

MTP: Multipath ........................................................................................... 292

OBN: Vector Solution Information .............................................................. 293

OUT: Solution Output ................................................................................. 296

PEB: Base Broadcast Interval .................................................................... 297

PED: DBEN/CMR Transmission Period ..................................................... 297

PER: CPD Update Interval ......................................................................... 298

POS: Set Base Position.............................................................................. 298

PRO: Select RTK Format ........................................................................... 299

PRT: Port Output Setting............................................................................ 300

RST: Reset CPD ........................................................................................ 300

STS: CPD Solution Status.......................................................................... 300

UBP: Use Base Position............................................................................. 301

UCT Commands............................................................................................. 302

DTM: Datum Selection ............................................................................... 303

FUM: Fix UTM Zone ................................................................................... 304

FZN: Set UTM Zone to Fix ......................................................................... 305

GRD: Datum-to-Grid Transformation Selection (Map Projection) .............. 305

HGT: Height Model Selection ..................................................................... 306

UDD: User-Defined Datum ......................................................................... 307

UDG: User-Defined Datum-to-Grid Transformation ................................... 308

Chapter 9 SBAS Commands................................................... 313

SBA: SBAS Raw Data .................................................................................. 314

OUT: WAAS Almanac Data.......................................................................... 315

SBA: Tracking Mode..................................................................................... 316

Automatic Mode.......................................................................................... 316

SSO: Set SBAS Satellite Search Order........................................................ 318

Appendix A Reference Datums & Ellipsoids......................... 319

XV

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 2.1. ZXW-Eurocard Dimensions............................................................... 9

Figure 2.2. ZXW-Eurocard Interface Connector ................................................ 10

Figure 2.3. 64-Pin Straight Header Option ........................................................ 10

Figure 2.4. ZXW-Eurocard Mounted with Heat-Sink ......................................... 13

Figure 2.5. ZXW-Sensor.................................................................................... 15

Figure 2.6. ZXW-Sensor Mounting Dimensions ................................................ 16

Figure 2.7. DB25 Connector.............................................................................. 17

Figure 2.8. ZXW-Sensor Serial/Power Cable .................................................... 19

Figure 2.9. ZXW-SensorZXW-Sensor Development Kit (A) .............................. 20

Figure 2.10. ZXW-Sensor Development Kit (B)................................................. 21

Figure 2.11. Board & Cable Pinouts for ZXW-Eurocard Development Kit (A) ... 22

Figure 2.12. ZXW-Eurocard Development Kit (B) ............................................. 23

Figure 4.1. Secondary Elevation Mask (SEM) Zone ......................................... 36

Figure 4.2. ZEN (Zenith) Elevation Mask Zone ................................................. 37

Figure 4.3. Event Marker Time Measurement ................................................... 41

Figure 4.4. Closed Loop Technique .................................................................. 42

Figure 4.5. Relative Performance of Multipath Mitigation Techniques .............. 51

Figure 4.6. Detailed View of Multipath Mitigation Performance ......................... 52

Figure 5.1. Combined Differential/RTK Base Station and Remote Operation ... 72

Figure 5.2. DGPS Accuracy .............................................................................. 73

Figure 6.1. Ambiguity Fix Test Results.............................................................. 88

Figure 7.1. Rotation and Translation Between Coordinate Systems................. 96

Figure 7.2. Mercator .......................................................................................... 98

Figure 7.3. Transverse Mercator ....................................................................... 99

Figure 7.4. Oblique Mercator............................................................................. 99

Figure 7.5. Stereographic ................................................................................ 100

Figure 7.6. Lambert Conformal Conic ............................................................. 100

XVI

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1.1. Technical Specifications ..................................................................... 3

Table 1.2. Accuracy as Function of Mode ........................................................... 4

Table 1.3. Remote User’s Guide Options ............................................................ 5

Table 2.1: ZXW-Eurocard Interface Connector ................................................. 10

Table 2.2: ZXW-Sensor Front Panel Description .............................................. 15

Table 2.3: ZXW-Sensor DB25 Connector Pinout .............................................. 17

Table 3.1: Default Values .................................................................................. 28

Table 4.1. Recording Modes ............................................................................. 34

Table 4.2. File Types ......................................................................................... 35

Table 4.3. Position Modes ................................................................................. 39

Table 4.4. Default Values .................................................................................. 46

Table 5.1. Differential Base Station Commands ............................................... 56

Table 5.2. RTK Base Station Commands - Types 18 and 19 ........................... 57

Table 5.3. RTK Base Station Commands - Types 20 and 21 ........................... 58

Table 5.4. RTK Base Station Commands - DBEN ............................................ 59

Table 5.5. RTK Base Station Commands - CMR or CMR Plus Format ............ 60

Table 5.6. Base Station Commands - Combined Differential and RTK ............ 61

Table 5.7. Message Size for RTCM Messages 18 & 19 or 20 & 21 .................. 63

Table 5.8. Message Size For Magellan DBN Messages ................................... 64

Table 5.9. Minimum Baud Rates for RTCM Messages 18 & 19 or 20 & 21 ...... 64

Table 5.10.Minimum Baud Rates for Magellan DBN Messages ....................... 65

Table 5.11.Maximum Number of Satellites Above a 4° Mask Angle ................. 65

Table 5.12.Differential Remote Station Commands .......................................... 69

Table 5.13.RTK Remote Station Command ...................................................... 70

Table 5.14.RTK Remote Station Commands .................................................... 71

Table 5.15.Auto Differential Modes and Position Output ................................... 78

Table 5.16.RTCM Message Types .................................................................... 79

Table 6.1. Troubleshooting Tips ........................................................................ 85

Table 6.2. CPD optimization commands ........................................................... 86

Table 6.3. Default RTCM Message Schedules ................................................. 91

Table 6.4. Percentage of Ambiguity Initialization Using a Single Epoch ........... 92

Table 7.1. User Coordinate Transformation Functionalities .............................. 94

Table 7.2. Ellipsoid Parameters for WGS-72 and WGS-84 ............................... 95

Table 8.1. Command Parameter Symbols ...................................................... 104

Table 8.2. Receiver Commands ...................................................................... 106

Table 8.3. ALH Parameter Table ..................................................................... 110

Table 8.4. ANR Message Structure ................................................................. 112

Table 8.5. Antenna Offsets Settings ................................................................ 113

Table 8.6. ANT Message Structure ................................................................. 114

Table 8.7. CLM Message Structure ................................................................. 116

XVII

Table 8.8. CSN Message Structure ................................................................. 116

Table 8.9. DSY Parameter Table .................................................................... 118

Table 8.10.FIX Parameter Settings ................................................................. 121

Table 8.11.FLS Message Structure ................................................................. 122

Table 8.12.Typical FLS Message .................................................................... 123

Table 8.13.FSS Message Structure ................................................................ 124

Table 8.14.INF Parameter Table ..................................................................... 125

Table 8.15.INF Message Structure .................................................................. 126

Table 8.16.INI Parameter Description Table ................................................... 127

Table 8.17.Baud Rate Codes .......................................................................... 127

Table 8.18.Reset Memory Codes .................................................................... 128

Table 8.19.ION Message Structure ................................................................. 129

Table 8.20.LPS Message Structure ................................................................. 130

Table 8.21.MDM Setting Parameters and Descriptions .................................. 131

Table 8.22.Baud Rate Codes .......................................................................... 132

Table 8.23.MDM Message Structure ............................................................... 133

Table 8.24.MET,CMD Message Structure ....................................................... 134

Table 8.25.MET,INIT Message Structure ........................................................ 135

Table 8.26.MET,INTVL Message Structure ..................................................... 135

Table 8.27.MST Parameter ............................................................................. 136

Table 8.28.OUT,MET Message Structure ....................................................... 136

Table 8.29.OUT,TLT Message Structure ........................................................ 137

Table 8.30.PAR Parameter Table .................................................................. 138

Table 8.31.PHE Parameter Table ................................................................... 141

Table 8.32.PHE Message Structure ................................................................ 141

Table 8.33.PJT Parameter Table .................................................................... 142

Table 8.34.PMD Parameter Table ................................................................... 143

Table 8.35.POS Parameter Table ................................................................... 143

Table 8.36.POW Parameter Table .................................................................. 144

Table 8.37.POW Message Structure ............................................................... 144

Table 8.38.PPO Parameter Table ................................................................... 145

Table 8.39.PPS Message Structure ................................................................ 145

Table 8.40.PPS Response Structure ............................................................... 146

Table 8.41.PRT Response Structure ............................................................... 147

Table 8.42.Baud Rate Codes .......................................................................... 147

Table 8.43.REC Message Structure ................................................................ 148

Table 8.44.RID Message Structure ................................................................. 149

Table 8.45.RNG Data Modes .......................................................................... 150

Table 8.46.RTR Message Structure ................................................................ 151

Table 8.47.SES,PAR Message Structure ........................................................ 152

Table 8.48.SES,SET Message Structure ........................................................ 153

XVIII

Table 8.49.SES Message Structure ................................................................ 154

Table 8.50.SSN Message Structure ................................................................ 155

Table 8.51.SPD Baud Rate Codes .................................................................. 156

Table 8.52.STA Message Structure ................................................................ 158

Table 8.53.TLT,CMD Message Structure ........................................................ 159

Table 8.54.TLT,INIT Message Structure ......................................................... 160

Table 8.55.TLT,INTVL Message Structure ...................................................... 160

Table 8.56.TMP Message Structure ................................................................ 161

Table 8.57.TST Message Structure ................................................................. 161

Table 8.58.WARN Message Structure ............................................................ 163

Table 8.59.Receiver Warning Messages ......................................................... 163

Table 8.60.WKN Message Structure ............................................................... 167

Table 8.61.Raw Data Types and Formats ....................................................... 170

Table 8.62.Raw Data Commands ................................................................... 170

Table 8.63.CBN Message Structure (ASCII Format) ...................................... 172

Table 8.64.Solution Type Flag Table (ASCII Format) ..................................... 173

Table 8.65.CBN Message Structure (Binary Format) ...................................... 174

Table 8.66.Solution Type Flag Structure (Binary Format) ............................... 175

Table 8.67.Compact Measurement Record Structure ..................................... 178

Table 8.68.Compact Measurement Record Packet Definition ......................... 179

Table 8.69.CMR Type 0 Message Header ...................................................... 179

Table 8.70.CMR Type 0 Message Observables Block .................................... 180

Table 8.71.CMR Type 0 Message Observables Block (L2) ............................ 181

Table 8.72.RPC Message Structure ................................................................ 182

Table 8.73.RPC Packed Parameter Descriptions ........................................... 183

Table 8.74.DBEN Message Sizes ................................................................... 184

Table 8.75.BPS Message Structure ................................................................ 185

Table 8.76.BPS Status Byte Definition ............................................................ 186

Table 8.77.EPB Response Format .................................................................. 187

Table 8.78.MPC Measurement Structure (Binary Format) .............................. 189

Table 8.79.MPC Message Structure (ASCII Format) ...................................... 190

Table 8.80.Warning Flag Settings ................................................................... 191

Table 8.82.OUT Message Structure ................................................................ 192

Table 8.81.Measurement Quality (Good/Bad Flag) ......................................... 192

Table 8.83.PBN Message Structure (ASCII Format) ....................................... 194

Table 8.84.PBN Message Structure (Binary Format) ...................................... 195

Table 8.85.RAW Message Structure ............................................................... 196

Table 8.86.RWO Message Structure ............................................................ 198

Table 8.87.ALM Message Structure ................................................................ 199

Table 8.88.SNV Message Structure ............................................................... 200

Table 8.89.NMEA Data Message Commands ................................................. 205

XIX

Table 8.90.ALM Response Message .............................................................. 207

Table 8.91.Typical ALM Response Message .................................................. 208

Table 8.92.CRT Message Structure ................................................................ 209

Table 8.93.DAL Message Structure ................................................................ 212

Table 8.94.Typical DAL Message .................................................................... 213

Table 8.95.DCR Message Structure ................................................................ 214

Table 8.96.DPO Message Structure ................................................................ 216

Table 8.97.GDC Message Structure ............................................................... 217

Table 8.98.Typical GDC Response Message ................................................. 219

Table 8.99.GGA Message Structure ............................................................... 220

Table 8.100.Typical GGA Message ................................................................. 222

Table 8.101.GLL Message Structure ............................................................... 223

Table 8.102.Typical GLL Message .................................................................. 224

Table 8.103.GRS Message Structure .............................................................. 225

Table 8.104.Typical GRS Message ................................................................. 226

Table 8.105.GSA Message Structure .............................................................. 227

Table 8.106.Typical GSA Message ................................................................. 227

Table 8.107.GSN Message Structure .............................................................. 229

Table 8.108.Typical GSN Message ................................................................. 230

Table 8.109.GST Message Structure .............................................................. 231

Table 8.110.GSV Message Structure .............................................................. 232

Table 8.111.Typical GSV Message ................................................................. 232

Table 8.112.GXP Message Structure .............................................................. 234

Table 8.113.Typical GXP Message ................................................................. 235

Table 8.114.Common Fields of Type 1, 2, 3, 6, 16, 18, 19, 20 and 21 ........... 237

Table 8.115.Remainder of Type 1 Message ................................................... 237

Table 8.116.Remainder of Type 2 Message ................................................... 238

Table 8.117.Remainder of Type 3 Message ................................................... 238

Table 8.118.Remainder of Type 16 Message ................................................. 238

Table 8.119.Remainder of Type 18 and 20 Messages .................................... 239

Table 8.120.Remainder of Type 19 and 21 Messages .................................... 240

Table 8.121.NMO Message Structure ............................................................. 242

Table 8.122.POS Message Structure .............................................................. 244

Table 8.123.Typical POS Message ................................................................. 245

Table 8.124.PTT Message Structure ............................................................... 246

Table 8.125.Typical PTT Response Message ................................................. 247

Table 8.126.RMC Message Structure ............................................................. 247

Table 8.127.Typical RMC Response ............................................................... 249

Table 8.128.RRE Message Structure .............................................................. 250

Table 8.129.Typical RRE Message ................................................................. 251

Table 8.130.SAT Message Structure .............................................................. 252

XX

Table 8.131.Typical SAT Message .................................................................. 252

Table 8.132.NMEA Message Format Codes ................................................... 254

Table 8.133.$PASHR,TTT Message Structure ............................................... 255

Table 8.134.UTM Message Structure .............................................................. 256

Table 8.135.Typical UTM Response Message ................................................ 257

Table 8.136.VTG Message Structure .............................................................. 258

Table 8.137.Typical VTG Message ................................................................. 259

Table 8.138.XDR Message Structure .............................................................. 261

Table 8.139.ZDA Message Structure .............................................................. 262

Table 8.140.Typical ZDA Response Message ................................................ 263

Table 8.141.RTCM Commands ....................................................................... 265

Table 8.142.RTC Response Parameters ........................................................ 266

Table 8.143.EOT Parameters .......................................................................... 269

Table 8.144.RTC,MSI Message Structure ....................................................... 271

Table 8.145.Available Bit Rate Codes ............................................................. 273

Table 8.146.RTC,STH Health of Base Station ................................................ 274

Table 8.147.RTC,TYP Message Types ........................................................... 275

Table 8.148.CPD Commands .......................................................................... 278

Table 8.149.CPD Status Message Structure ................................................... 280

Table 8.150.CPD,AFP Parameter Table ......................................................... 282

Table 8.151.CPD,ANT Parameter Table ......................................................... 283

Table 8.152.CPD,ANT Message Structure ...................................................... 284

Table 8.153.CPD,DLK Message Structure ...................................................... 285

Table 8.154.CPD,DLK Response Message Example - Rover Station ............ 286

Table 8.155.CPD,DLK Response Message Example - Base Station .............. 287

Table 8.156.CPD,DYN Parameter Table ......................................................... 288

Table 8.157.CPD,EOT Parameter Table ......................................................... 288

Table 8.158.INF Message Structure ................................................................ 289

Table 8.159.CPD,MOD Parameter Table ........................................................ 291

Table 8.160.CPD,MOD Message Structure .................................................... 292

Table 8.161.MTP Parameter Table ................................................................. 293

Table 8.162.OBEN Message Structure (Binary Format) ................................. 294

Table 8.163.CPD,OUT Parameter Table ......................................................... 296

Table 8.164.CPD,PEB Parameter Table ......................................................... 297

Table 8.165.CPD,PED Parameter Table ......................................................... 297

Table 8.166.CPD,PER Parameter Table ......................................................... 298

Table 8.167.CPD,POS Parameter Table ......................................................... 299

Table 8.168.CPD,PRO Parameter .................................................................. 300

Table 8.169.CPD,STS Message Structure ...................................................... 301

Table 8.170.CPD,UBP Parameter Table ......................................................... 301

Table 8.171.UCT Commands .......................................................................... 303

XXI

Table 8.172.UDD Message Structure .............................................................. 307

Table 8.173.UDG Structure for Equatorial Mercator ....................................... 308

Table 8.174.UDG Structure for Transverse Mercator ...................................... 308

Table 8.175.UDG Structure for Oblique Mercator ........................................... 309

Table 8.176.UDG Structure for Stereographic (Polar and Oblique) ................ 309

Table 8.177.UDG Structure for Lambert CC SPC83 (2 std parallels) ............. 309

Table 8.178.UDG Structure for Lambert Conic Conformal for SPC27 ............ 310

Table 8.179.UDG Structure for Transverse Mercator for SPC27 .................... 311

Table 8.180.UDG Structure for Transverse Mercator SPC27 Alaska Zone 2-9 311

Table 9.1. Summary of WAAS Commands ..................................................... 313

Table 9.2. SBA,DAT Parameters .................................................................... 314

Table 9.3. WAAS Almanac Structure .............................................................. 315

Table A.1. Available Geodetic Datums ............................................................ 319

Table A.2. Reference Ellipsoids ....................................................................... 321

XXII

1

Introduction

Overview

This manual provides operation and reference information for the ZXW-Sensor and the ZXW-Eurocard. These two receivers are intended specifically for real-time industrial applications, such as machine control in construction, mining, and precision agriculture; as well as precision navigation applications such as docking and dredging.

Both configurations are built to withstand the extremely high vibration requirements in their target application. The receivers also provide positions at the very high updates and low latencies required in control applications.

The ZXW-Receivers can track two SBAS (WAAS/EGNOS/MSAS) satellites simultaneously on two channels. In addition, the ZXW-Receivers track all the available signals from GPS satellites, both C/A and P code, both L1 and L2 frequencies, whether or not AS (“Anti-Spoofing” or encryption) is on or off. The benefit of a dualfrequency receiver is that it is excellent for RTK (Real Time Kinematic) applications, especially on longer baselines. RTK is typically used where centimeter position accuracy is required in real time.

Because this manual describes both the ZXW-Sensor and the ZXW-Eurocard, the term “ZXW-

Receiver” is used to refer to both products except where noted otherwise.

Introduction 1

2

Functional Description

The ZXW-Receiver is activated when power is applied to the power connector, and (in the case of the ZXW-Sensor) the power switch is ON. After self-test, the receiver initializes its 12x3 channels and begins searching for all

GPS space vehicles (SV) within the field of view of the antenna.

As the ZXW-Receiver acquires (locks onto) each SV, it notes the time and then collects the ephemeris data about the orbit of that SV, and almanac data about the orbits of all the SVs in the constellation.

The ZXW-Receiver features 12-parallel channel/12-SV all-in-view operation; each of up to 12 visible SVs can be assigned to a channel and then continuously tracked. Each GPS SV broadcasts almanac and ephemeris information every 30 seconds, and the receiver automatically records this information in its non-volatile memory.

The receiver has an L1/L2-band radio frequency (RF) port and four RS-232 serial input/output (I/O) ports. Ports A, B, and C are capable of two-way communication with external equipment. On the Sensor, port D is not available. On the Eurocard, port D can be accessed via the DIN64 connector.

The RF circuitry receives satellite data from a GPS antenna and LNA via a coaxial cable, and can supply +5V to the antenna/LNA by means of that cable. No separate antenna power cable is required. Typical power consumption is approximately 7.5 watts even when powering an LNA.

The receiver incorporates a red/green LED which lights red to indicate power status, and flashes green to indicate the number of locked satellites.

The ZXW-Receiver collects Coarse Acquisition (C/A) code-phase (pseudorange) and full wavelength carrier phase measurement on L1 frequency

(1575 MHz), Precise (P) code phase (pseudo-range) and full wavelength carrier phase on L1 and L2 frequency (1227 MHz). The ZXW-Receiver permits uninterrupted use even when anti-spoofing (AS) is turned on. When

AS is on, the ZXW-Receiver automatically activates Magellan’s patented Ztracking mode that mitigates the effects of AS. The performance when AS is on is the same as when AS is off.

ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

Technical Specifications

Table 1.1 lists the technical specifications of the ZXW-Receiver.

Table 1.1. Technical Specifications

Specifications

Characteristic

ZXW-Sensor ZXW-Eurocard

Tracking

Size

Weight

Operating temperature

Storage temperature

Humidity

Environment

12 channels L1 CA/PL1 and PL2

2.30”H x 6.75”W x 10.31”L 0.6”H x 3.9”W x 6.8”L

3.75 lb

-30° to +55°C

0.5 lb

-30° to +70°C*

-40° to +85°C

100%

Resistant to wind-driven rain and dust per MIL-STD-810E

-40° to +85°C

95% non-condensing

N/A

Power consumption

Power input

Interface

7.5 watts

10 to 28VDC

• Three RS-232 ports via a

DB-25 connector

(one internal RS-232 port)

• One antenna connector

• Event marker and 1PPS via

DB-25 connector

• Optional radio antenna connector

Measurement Precision

5VDC ±5%

• Four RS-232 ports

• One antenna connector

• Event marker

• 1PPS

• Optional radio interface connector

C/A (>10° elevation)

• Pseudo-range (raw/smooth)

• Carrier Phase

P-Code AS off (>10° elevation)

• L1 Pseudo-range (raw/ smooth)

• L1 Carrier Phase

• L2 Pseudo-range (raw/ smooth)

• L2 Carrier Phase

* Refer to @@@ for heat sinking information.

•25cm/3.6cm

•0.9mm

•15cm/0.9cm

•0.9mm

•21cm/1.3cm

•0.9mm

Equipment Description 3

4

Performance Specifications

One of the most important functions of the ZXW-Receiver is providing real-

time position with accuracy ranging from centimeter level to 100 meters. Table

1.2 summarizes the positioning modes and expected accuracy.

Table 1.2. Accuracy as Function of Mode

Positioning Mode

Autonomous

Typical Horizontal

Accuracy (2drms),

5 SVs, PDOP<4

PPO setting:

50%

95%

Sigma

50%

95%

Sigma

Y N

0.63

1.47

1.49

3.26

0.72

1.88

0.36

1.89

1.78

5.95

0.93

3.01

Maximum

Update Rate

Maximum

Operating Range

5 Hz (10 Hz optional) Anywhere

RTCM code differential

Static (post-processed)

Real-time carrier phase differential in RTCM-RTK format or DBEN format

1.0 meters + 10 ppm

5mm + 1ppm

1.6cm +2ppm

5 Hz (10 Hz optional)

Several hundred kilometers

(depending upon datalink)

5 Hz (10 Hz optional)

5 Hz (10 Hz optional

Several hundred kilometers

(depending upon satellite geometry)

<15 kilometers

(depending upon datalink)

All accuracies were computed from multiple trials of live satellite data collected in the San Francisco Bay area with receivers and survey grade antennas under average multipath conditions.

Receiver Options

Table 1.3 lists the available options. Each option is represented by a letter or

number presented in a certain order. You can verify the installed options by issuing the following command to the receiver using an external handheld controller or PC, as described in chapter 6, Command/Response Formats:

$PASHQ,RID

ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

The command will display the options on an external handheld controller or

PC. For example:

$PASHR,RID,UZ,30,ZE24,BUEXMFT3JKI-H-Y,1A01*5C

If the letter or number is displayed in the response message, the option is available. Conversely, if the letter/number is not displayed, the option is not

available. Table 1.3 lists the available options.

Table 1.3. Remote User’s Guide Options

Option Description

J

K

Y

E

X

B

U

RTCM differential base

RTCM differential remote

Event Marker

External Frequency

M

F

Remote monitor option

Fast Data Output

T Point Positioning

1,2,3 Observables

RTK Rover

RTK Base Station

SBAS Option

Equipment Description 5

6

Option [B] RTCM Base

The receiver has the ability to be set as an RTCM differential base station and can output real-time differential corrections when this option is enabled.

The output will be in RTCM-104, Version 2.3 format message types 1,3,6, 16 and 22 as well as RTCM Carrier Differential 18, 19, 20, and 21. For messages

18, 19, 20, and 21, the J option is also required.

Option [U] RTCM Remote

Real-time differential corrections are available when this option is enabled.

The receiver will decode the RTCM-104, Version 2.3 format message types

1,3,6,9, 16, and 22 as well as types 18, 19, 20 and 21. For messages 18, 19,

20, and 21, the J option is also required.

Option [E] Event Marker

The [E] option enables the storage of event times created from a trigger signal. The receiver measures and records event times with high accuracy

(down to one microsecond). The receiver stores an event time at the rising edge of the trigger signal (or the falling edge on command) and the time is recorded in the receiver’s PC memory card and/or output through the TTT

NMEA message.

Option [M] Remote Monitoring

The remote monitoring option allows you to use the

REMOTE

.

EXE

to access and control the receiver via a modem from a remote location.

Option [F] Fast Data Output

This option enables the receiver to be programmed to output both raw position data and NMEA messages at user-selectable frequencies up to

10Hz. Without this option, only frequencies up to 5Hz are available.

Option [T] Point Positioning

The [T] option allows you to put the receiver into point positioning mode using the $PASHS,PPO command. Point positioning mode improves the accuracy of an autonomous position of a static point.

ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

Option [3] Observables—1, 2, 3

This option determines the observables available in the receiver where:

1—CA code and P-code on L1/L2 (no carrier)

2—CA code and carrier, P-code on L1/L2 (no carrier)

3—CA code and carrier, P-code on L1/L2 and carrier

Option [J] RTK Rover

The [J] option allows the receiver to act as a rover station that utilizes the carrier phase differential (both DBEN and RTCM message 18, 19, 20, and 21) data transmitted from the base to compute differentially corrected positions.

This option requires the observables option to be 3.

For RTCM messages type 18, 19, 20, and 21, the U option is required in addition to the J option.

Option [K] RTK Base

The [K] option allows the receiver to act as an RTK base station which outputs carrier phase differential data. This option requires the observables option to be 3. For RTCM 18/19 or 21/22, the B option is also required.

[I] Instant RTK

The [I] option, an extension of the J option, allows the receiver to use the RTK system - Instant RTK

TM

which uses a data processing strategy for integer ambiguity initialization. The initialization time using Instant RTK typically requires a single epoch of data if there are 6 or more satellites available with reasonable open sky and low multipath. The baseline length should be 7 km or less.

[G] Reserved for Future Options

Equipment Description 7

[H] 5 Hz Synchronized RTK

The [H] option enables the receiver to output synchronized or matched time tag RTK positions at a rate up to 5 Hz (5 positions per second); 5 Hz synchronized RTK lets you attain the better accuracy of matched time tag

RTK with nearly the same productivity as Fast CPD. This feature is available only when using DBEN or CMR format data.

[N] Reserved for Future Options

Option [Y] SBAS

The [Y] option allows SBAS raw data messages, SBAS almanac messages, and the commands to enable any of the SBAS tracking modes. SBAS

(Satellite Based Augmentation System) includes WAAS, EGNOS and MSAS.

Where appearing, WAAS may refer to SBAS, EGNOS and MSAS.

8 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

2

Equipment

Hardware Description

ZXW-Eurocard

The ZXW-Eurocard has four RS-232 serial ports embedded in a 64-pin connector.

The RF circuitry receives satellite data from a GPS antenna and LNA via coaxial cable, and can supply power to the antenna/LNA by means of that cable. No separate antenna power is required. The LNA power consumption is approximately 150 milliwatts (depends on model and manufacturer).

The board includes a two-color LED; the LED lights red to indicate the power status, and flashes green to indicate the number of satellites locked. For example, red indicates power on, and four green flashes indicate four satellites locked.

An external two-color LED can be connected to the board by connecting the common cathode to ground, and the anodes to the LED-GRN and LED-RED pins.

Equipment

Figure 2.1. ZXW-Eurocard Dimensions

9

Figure 2.2 shows the 64-pin DIN male power/input/output interface connector

(this board is also available with a 64-pin straight header).

Figure 2.2. ZXW-Eurocard Interface Connector

10

Figure 2.3. 64-Pin Straight Header Option

Table 2.1 defines the pinout and signal designations of the 64-pin connector.

Table 2.1: ZXW-Eurocard Interface Connector

Pin

A5

A6

A7

A8

A9

A1

A2

A3

A4

Code

GND

+5 Vdc input

—*

LNA GND

Serial GND

Serial A DTR

Serial A TXD

Pin

B5

B6

B7

B8

B9

B1

B2

B3

B4

Code

GND

+5 Vdc input

SSR +12 V

LNA power†

LED red

LED green

Serial A DCD

Serial A DSR

Serial A CTS

ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

Equipment

Table 2.1: ZXW-Eurocard Interface Connector (continued)

Pin Code Pin Code

A10 Serial A RXD

A11 Serial C TXD

A12 Serial C RXD

A13 Serial D TXD

A14 Serial D RXD

A15 Serial GND

A16 —

A17 Serial B TXD

A18 Serial B RXD

A19 —

A20 —

A21 GND

A22 GND

A23 GND

A24 GND

A25 GND

B10

B11

B12

B13

B14

B15

B16

B17

B18

B19

B20

B21

B22

B23

B24

B25

Serial A RTS

Serial C CTS

Serial C RTS

Serial D CTS

Serial D RTS

Serial B CTS

Serial B RTS

Radio LED - red

Radio LED - green

1 PPS output

Photo input

A26 GND

A27 GND

A28 GND

A29 GND

B26

B27

B28

B29

Manual reset input‡

A30 GND

A31 GND

B30

B31

A32 GND B32 —

* “—” means no connection.

† Required only if LNA requires greater than 5Vdc.

‡Short to ground with a switch closure or open-collector transistor.

Port A can be connected to a modem. Refer to “Modem Support” on page 14

for more details.

11

12

RF Connector

The RF connector is a standard 50-ohm SMB female wired for connection via coaxial cabling to a GPS antenna with integral LNA. The SMB connector shell is connected to the ZXW-Eurocard common ground. The SMB center pin provides +5Vdc to power the LNA (maximum 150 mA draw) and accepts 1227 and 1575 MHz RF input from the antenna; the RF and DC signals share the same path.

For installations compatible with the GG24-Eurocard, an SMB-to-SMA adapter is available (part number 730188).

Antenna

The ZXW-Eurocard provides DC power on the center conductor for an LNA on the antenna cable. No external source is required to power a 5 Vdc LNA.

An LNA requiring greater than 5 Vdc may be used by connecting an external power supply to LNA POWER and LNA GND on the 64-pin connector. No jumpering is required as long as the voltage is higher than 5 Vdc. The

maximum external LNA voltage should not exceed 15Vdc.

The gain of the LNA less the loss of the cable and connectors should be between 20 and 45 dB. Connect the antenna cable directly to the antenna connector on the ZXW-Eurocard. Antenna cables exceeding 15 dB of loss require a line amplifier. A line amp (part number 700389) compensates for 20 dB of cable loss. The line amplifier has N-type connectors to connect to the antenna cable.

Power Requirements

The ZXW-Eurocard requires 5 Vdc regulated ±5% at the board connector, and consumes 4.0 watts.

Environmental Specifications

The operating temperature range of the ZXW-Eurocard is -30

°C to +70°C; storage temperature is -40

°C to +85°C.

The operating humidity range is 0 to 95%, non-condensing.

The ZXW-Eurocard is designed to operate while being subjected to random vibration per MIL-STD-810E Method 514.4, as well as a machine control vibration test of 5g for 20 hours in each orthogonal axis.

Mounting Requirements

The ZXW-Eurocard should be mounted using, as a minimum, the four 0.110” holes in the corners of the board, on standoffs as described under the heat-

sink requirements (refer to “Heat Sink Requirements” on page 13). In high-

ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

vibration applications, the two center 0.110” holes should also be used. The maximum diameter for the center standoffs is 3/16”.

This board can also be provided in a true Eurocard format with a 96-pin 3-row connector. The center row of pins is not loaded, for electrical compatibility, and the side edges are milled to 0.062” to allow insertion into a card rack. The length of the true Eurocard board is 6.300”; all other dimensions are the same as the standard ZXW-Eurocard.

Heat Sink Requirements

The ZXW-Eurocard has one large quad-flat-pack IC on the bottom side that requires a heat sink to keep it within its safe operating temperature range. If you wish to mount the board inside a metal case, use 0.200” standoffs with the adhesive thermal pads provided with the board filling the gap between the two ICs and the metal case.

If this arrangement is not possible, an aluminum heat-sink plate is available

(part number 200541) so you can attach the board on the bottom side (again using the thermal pad) filling the gap between the ICs and the heat-sink).

Attach the plate using the four plated-through holes as shown.

Equipment

Figure 2.4. ZXW-Eurocard Mounted with Heat-Sink

13

14

Applications requiring 70

°C operation should provide either a substantial heat sink or forced-air cooling to limit the temperature rise on the board to less than

10

°C above ambient.

Modem Support

The ZXW-Eurocard can be interfaced to a modem through Port A. Refer to

Table 2.1 and the modem user manual before making connections. After

making connections, you can follow the steps below to configure and initialize the modem using ZX receiver commands. If using a modem other than US

Robotics, refer to modem command (MDM) in the user manual for more detailed information.

1.

Select an appropriate baud rate for Port A and modem; the baud rate should be identical for Port A and the modem. You may have to refer to the user manual if selecting a baud rate other than the default.

2.

Set Port A for modem use with the command

$PASHS,MDM,ON,A,O,[baud rate].

The baud rate field in the command is optional, as indicated by the brackets. The above command can be sent through serial ports B, C, or D. The receiver acknowledges with the response message

$PASHR,ACK.

3.

Use the query command $PASHQ,MDM to verify the setting in step 2.

4.

Send command $PASHS,MDM,INI to initialize the modem. The receiver should respond with the message

$PASHR,MDM,INI,OK

5.

The modem connected to Port A of the receiver is now initialized and ready for communication.

6.

To establish a communication link, the modem on the other end has to dial the modem connected to the receiver.

ZXW-Sensor

The sensor version of the receiver, Figure 2.5, has three RS-232 input/output

(I/O) ports embedded in a DB25 connector (ports A,B, and C are available to the user), an L1/L2-band RF port, and an optional radio RF port. The ZXW-

ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

Sensor also supports an optional PCMCIA card (internal) for data recording purposes.

Equipment

Figure 2.5. ZXW-Sensor

Table 2.2 describes the front panel components of the ZXW-Sensor.

Table 2.2: ZXW-Sensor Front Panel Description

Component Function

RADIO connector Not Available.

GPS ANT connector The GPS ANT connector is a standard TNC female receptacle wired for connection via 50-ohm coax to a GPS antenna with an integral LNA.

The connector shell is connected to the ZXW-Sensor common ground.

The TNC center pin provides +5Vdc to power the LNA, and accepts

1227 and 1575 MHz RF input from the antenna; RF and DC signals share the same path.

ON/OFF switch

PWR/SATS LED

SERIAL PORTS

A, B, C, PWR

STROBES

Turns the unit on and off.

Flashing red indicates power is applied to the receiver. Number of green flashes indicates number of satellites the receiver is locked to.

The multi-function 25-pin connector serves as the three RS-232 serial input/output ports (A, B, and C), the power input, event marker input, the

1PPS output, and LED connectors.

15

Mounting Dimensions

Figure 2.6 shows the mounting dimensions for the ZXW-Sensor.

16

Figure 2.6. ZXW-Sensor Mounting Dimensions

ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

Power/Input/Output Connector

Figure 2.7 shows the pin arrangement for the DB25 power/input/output

connector.

Equipment

Figure 2.7. DB25 Connector

Table 2.3 lists the signal designations for the DB25 connector.

Pin

3

4

1

2

5

6

Table 2.3: ZXW-Sensor DB25 Connector Pinout

Code

LED RED

LED GREEN

GND

RTSC-ready to send, port C

TXDC-transmit data, port C

TXDB-transmit data, port B

Pin

14

15

16

17

18

19

Code

LED GND

1PPS OUT

CTSC-clear to send, port C

RXDC-receive data, port C

RXDB-receive data, port B

EVENT IN

17

18

Pin

11

12

13

9

10

7

8

Table 2.3: ZXW-Sensor DB25 Connector Pinout (continued)

Code

GND

RTSB-ready to send, port B

TXDA-transmit data, port A

GND

RTSA-ready to send, port A

GND

GND

Pin

20

21

22

23

24

25

Code

CTSB-clear to send, port B

RXDA-receive data, port A

No connection

CTSA-clear to send

EXT PWR 1

EXT PWR 2

Power Requirements

The ZXW-Sensor requires 10-28 Vdc and consumes 7.5 watts.

Environmental Specifications

The operating temperature range of the Z-Sensor is -30

°C to +55°C; storage temperature range is -40

°C to +85°C.

The ZXW-Sensor will work at 100% humidity and is rated to MIL-STD-810E for wind driven rain and dust.

RF Connector

The RF connector is a standard 50-ohm female TNC wired for connection via coaxial cabling to a GPS antenna with integral LNA. The TNC connector shell is connected to the Z-Sensor common ground. The TNC center pin provides

+5 Vdc to power the LNA (maximum 150 mA draw) and accepts 1227 and

1575 MHz RF input from the antenna; the RF and DC signals share the same path.

ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

Serial/Power Cable

The serial/power cable, Figure 2.8, connects the ZXW-Sensor to the power

source, the PC or handheld unit, and any peripherals.

Equipment

Figure 2.8. ZXW-Sensor Serial/Power Cable

Antenna

The ZXW-Sensor provides DC power on the center conductor for the antenna cable to provide power to the LNA. Antenna/LNA gain minus RF network (RF cable and connectors) loss should be between +20 and +30 dB.

On-Board Battery

Both the ZXW-Sensor and ZXW-Eurocard contain a 3.6V lithium backup battery to maintain power to the non-volatile memory and real-time clock when the main power source is not available. This battery should last a minimum of 5 years. The firmware monitors the battery voltage, and detects a failure when it reaches 2.25 volts. You can obtain this information via any

serial port with the $PASHQ,WARN command (refer to “WARN: Warning

Messages” on page 163 for detailed information about this command).

Radio Interference

Some radio transmitters and receivers, such as FM radios, can interfere with the operation of GPS receivers. Before setting up your project, Magellan recommends you verify that nearby handheld or mobile communications devices do not interfere with the ZXW-receivers.

19

Development Kits

Figure 2.9 through Figure 2.12 illustrate the items you should have received

with your purchase of either the ZXW-Eurocard or ZXW-Sensor. These items are listed below.

(This document)

Evaluate Software and Manual

Antenna and Cable

Mission Planning Software & Manual

Power Supply and Interface Cables

20

Figure 2.9. ZXW-SensorZXW-Sensor Development Kit (A)

ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

Equipment

Figure 2.10. ZXW-Sensor Development Kit (B)

21

22

SERIAL B CTS

SERIAL B RTS

RADIO LED RED

RADIO LED GREEN

NC

1 PPS OUTPUT

NC

PHOTO INPUT

NC

NC

NC

MANUAL RESET INPUT

NC

NC

NC

NC

GND

+5V INPUT

SSR +12v

LNA POWER

LED RED

LED GREEN

SERIAL A DCD

SERIAL A DSR

SERIAL A CTS

SERIAL A RTS

SERIAL C CTS

SERIAL C RTS

SERIAL D CTS

SERIAL D RTS

NC

NC

BOARD PINOUT

B29

B30

B31

B32

B25

B26

B27

B28

B21

B22

B23

B24

B17

B18

B19

B20

B13

B14

B15

B16

B9

B10

B11

B12

B5

B6

B7

B8

B1

B2

B3

B4

A29

A30

A31

A32

A25

A26

A27

A28

A21

A22

A23

A24

A17

A18

A19

A20

A13

A14

A15

A16

A9

A10

A11

A12

A5

A6

A7

A8

A1

A2

A3

A4

GND

GND

GND

GND

GND

GND

GND

GND

GND

GND

GND

GND

SERIAL B TXD

SERIAL B RXD

NC

NC

GND

+5V INPUT

NC

LNA GND

NC

NC

SERIAL GND

SERIAL A DTR

SERIAL A TXD

SERIAL A RXD

SERIAL C TXD

SERIAL C RXD

SERIAL D TXD

SERIAL D RXD

SERIAL GND

NC

DB37

CABLE ASSEMBLY PINOUT

PORT A

20

2

21

3

CASE

22

30

11

1

DSRA PUR

DTRA BLU

DCDA GRN

GND RED

CTSA GRN

TXDA YEL

RTSA BRN

RXDA BLK

SHIELD

NC

CASE

9

8

3

7

2

1

5

6

4

8

29

10

7

26

PORT B

4

23

5

24

6

CASE

GND RED

CTSB GRN

TXDB WHT

RTSB BRN

RXDB BLK

SHIELD

NC

3

CASE

1

4

6

9

5

7

2

8

+

BACKUP BATTERY

LOCATED INSIDE DB37

POWER

CONNECTOR

Figure 2.11. Board & Cable Pinouts for ZXW-Eurocard Development Kit (A)

ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

Equipment

Figure 2.12. ZXW-Eurocard Development Kit (B)

23

24 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

3

Getting Started

This chapter describes receiver operations.

Hardware Setup

Perform the following steps before turning on the receiver:

1.

Connect the antenna cable from the GPS antenna to the antenna connector on the receiver.

2.

Connect supplied power cable to the power connector on the receiver.

3.

Connect serial port connectors of serial/power cable to appropriate connectors on external equipment.

Applying Power

Apply power after your equipment has been properly cabled.

Receiver Initialization

It is good practice to reset your receiver prior to operating it for the first time or when a system malfunction occurs. A reset of the internal memory clears the memory and restores the factory defaults. Send the following command:

$PASHS,INI,5,5,5,5,1,0

Receiver Communication

After you have the receiver powered and running, you must send it commands in order to receive data. The following procedure describes how to send commands to and receive information from the receiver using an IBM-compatible PC. Many communication software packages, such as the Magellan Evaluate or Receiver

Communications Software, allow you to interface with the receiver. Evaluate includes a communications package that automatically establishes communication with the receiver and allows you to send commands from a predefined menu, as well as tools for logging and playback of data, graphical display of position and velocity, and data analysis.

Getting Started 25

26

The default communications parameters of the receiver are:

• 9600 baud

• 8 data bits

• no parity

• one stop bit

When first establishing communication, your interface must use this protocol.

Having established communication, you may send commands.

All the default data output commands are set to NO. The receiver will not output any data until you send a message commanding it to do so.

If you have typed in and sent the command correctly, you should receive a response. To become familiar with receiver messages, send a few common commands and observe the responses.

Monitoring

The receiver provides the capability of monitoring receiver activity while data collection is occurring. The following is a step-by-step instruction of how to access important receiver status information such as:

• Satellite Tracking

• Position

• Remaining Memory

Satellite Tracking

If you wish to monitor the satellites the receiver is tracking and using for position solutions, perform the following steps:

1.

Send the NMEA command $PASHS,NME,SAT,x,ON x—port designation

ON—turns port on

2.

SAT messages will be output every second through the designated port.

3.

The response message contains the number of tracked satellites as well as whether individual satellites are used in the position solution.

ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

Getting Started

Position

To view the current position of the Z-receiver, perform the following steps:

1.

Send the NMEA command $PASHS,NME,POS,x,ON.

x—port designation

ON—turns port on

2.

POS messages are output every second through the designated port.

3.

The response message contains information about the current position of the receiver.

Setting Receiver Parameters

If you do not wish to use the factory default settings, you must change each

setting individually. Refer to the Command/Response Formats chapter in this

manual.

Saving Parameter Settings

Ordinarily, Z-receiver parameters that have been changed will return to their default status after a power cycle. The Z-receiver allows you to save changed settings so they will be saved through a power cycle. Perform the following steps to save receiver settings:

1.

Send the command $PASHS,SAV,c. This command enables or disables user parameters in memory, where c is Y (yes) or N (no).

User parameters that were changed prior to issuing the SAV command are saved until commands INI or RST are issued, or until

SAV is set to No and a power cycle occurs.

Data Recording

Recording data directly onto your PC can be done with GBSS Software which can be purchased from your dealer or Regional Sales Manager. Alternatively, you can use the internal PCMCIA card (optional) in the ZXW-Sensor for

recording data. See “REC: Data Recording” on page 148.

27

28

Default Parameters

During the normal course of receiver operation, you will often change one or more receiver parameters such as recording interval, port baud rate, or elevation mask. To save new settings, you must save the current setting to memory or else all parameters (with a few exceptions) will be reset to the default values during a power cycle. The exceptions are session programming parameters, modem setting parameters, MET (meteorological) and TLT (tilt) parameters, and the POW (power) parameters. Saving parameters can be done by issuing a $PASHS,SAV,Y command to a serial port. When parameters are saved to the memory, they are maintained until a memory reset or a receiver initialization is performed which resets all parameters to their default.

Figure 3.1 lists the default values of all user parameters.

Table 3.1: Default Values

Parameter Description

HPD

VDP

UNH

ION

PPO

SAV

ANR

LAT

SVS

PMD

FIX

PEM

SV tracking selection

Position mode selection

Altitude Hold Fix Mode Selection

Position elevation mask

ZEN_PEM Zenith position elevation mask

FUM Use of UTM coordinates

FZN

PDP

UTM zone selection

Position Dilution of Precision mask

LON

ALT

DTM

Horizontal Dilution of Precision mask

Vertical Dilution of Precision mask

Use of unhealthy SV’s

Enable ionosphere model

Enable point positioning mode

Save parameters in battery backup memory

Antenna noise reduction

Antenna latitude

Antenna longitude

Antenna altitude

Datum selection

Default

N

N

04

04

N

N

CPD

00N

90

N

01

40

Y for all

0

0

10

00W

+00000.000

W84

ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

Getting Started

Parameter

UDD

POW parameters

Session

Programming

Power capacity of external battery

Session Programming Default Parameters

MDM

BEEP

CTS

LPS

MET

TLT

PHE

PPS

Table 3.1: Default Values (continued)

Description

Datum user-defined parameters

Photogrammetry edge selection

Pulse per second default parameters

Default

Semi major axis = 6378137

Inverse flattening =

298.257224

Remaining parameters = 0

R

Period= 1 second

Offset = 000.0000

Edge = R

All 0’S

Modem Parameters

Warning beep

Clear to send port setting

Loop parameter setting meteorological parameter setting

Tilt Meter parameter setting

NMEA Message Output Status

INUSE flag = N

REF day = 000

OFFSET = 00:00

For all Sessions:

Session Flag = N

Start Time = 00:00:00

End Time = 00:00:00

RCI = 20

MSV = 3

ELM = 10

RNG = 0

MODE=OFF

TYPE = 0 (US Robotics)

PORT = B

BAUD RATE = 38400

Off

On

01, 2, 3

All ports off

INIT-STR:No

TRIG-CMD:*0100P9

INTVL:5

All ports OFF

INIT-STR:No

TRIG-CMD:*0100XY

INTVL:1

OFF in all ports NMEA messages

TAG

PER

RCI

NMEA message format

NMEA Messages Output Rate

Raw Data Output Rate

ASH

001.0

020.0

29

30

Table 3.1: Default Values (continued)

Parameter Description Default

DOI

DRI

MSV

ELM

ZEN_ELM

REC

MST

ANH

ANA

SIT

EPG

RNG

RAW data

Raw data format

Serial Port

Baud Rate

Data output interval

Data recording interval

Minimum Number of SV’s for Raw Data Output

Elevation Mask for Raw Data Output

Zenith elevation mask

Record Data Flag (N/A)

Minimum Number of SV’s for Kinematic

Operation

Antenna Height (before session)

Antenna Height (after session)

Site ID Name

Kinematic Epoch Counter

Ranger Mode Selection (N/A)

Raw Data Output Status

Raw Data Output Format

Serial Ports Baud Rate Selection

20

20

03

10

90

E

0

00.0000

00.0000

????

000

0

OFF in all ports

ASCII in all ports

9600 in all ports

RTCM MODE RTCM Differential Mode Selection

RTCM PORT RTCM Differential Mode Port Selection

AUT Automatic differential/autonomous switching when RTCM differential mode enabled

RTCM SPD

STI

STH

MAX

QAF

SEQ

TYPE

RTCM EOT

MSG

IOD

CPD MODE

RTCM differential bps speed setting

RTCM base or remote station id setting

RTCM base station health setting

Maximum age for old RTCM corrections to be used

RTCM communication quality setting

Use sequence number of RTCM correction in remote station

RTCM differential messages enabled and output frequency of the enabled messages

100

N

1 = 01, 6 = OFF, remaining messages 00

End of character selection for RTCM corrections CRLF

Text for RTCM type 16 message empty

IODE update rate

CPD mode selection

OFF

A

N

0300

0000

0

0060

30

Disabled

ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

Getting Started

Table 3.1: Default Values (continued)

Parameter Description Default

PED DBEN output transmission period

DBEN PORT Output port for DBEN messages in the base

CPD EOT

AFP

End of character selection for CPD corrections

Setting of ambiguity fixing confidence level

MAX AGE

DYN

POS Output

MTP

CPD POS

FST

CPD PER

CKR

IAF

ANT radius

ANT offset

ANT horizontal azimuth

ANT horizontal distance

SBAS mode

Maximum age of corrections for CPD

CPD rover mode dynamic operation

001.0

B

CRLF

099.0

30

WALKING

Level of multipath selection

Reference position of the other receiver

Fast CPD Mode Selection

CPD Update Interval

Reserved

Reserved

Radius of the Antenna

CPD

MEDIUM

RECEIVED

ON

01

ON

ON

0.0000

Distance from Antenna Phase Center to Antenna

Edge

00.0000

Azimuth measured from Reference Point to

Antenna Phase Center

00000.00

Distance from Reference Point to Antenna Phase

Center

SBAS mode on or off

00.0000

Off

31

32 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

4

Operation

This chapter describes receiver operations other than those available through the front panel.

Receiver Initialization

It is good practice to reset your receiver prior to operating it for the first time or when a system malfunction occurs. A reset of the internal memory clears the memory and restores the factory defaults. This reset does not affect data stored on the PCMCIA card. Send the following command to execute the initialization:

$PASHS,INI,5,5,5,5,1,0

For more information about this command, refer to Chapter 8, Command/Response

Formats.

Setting Receiver Parameters

All user parameters may be set or changed by sending commands to the receiver

serial port. Refer to Chapter 8, Command/Response Formats for more information

about these commands.

Operation 33

Saving Parameter Settings

Ordinarily, receiver parameters that have been changed will return to their default status after a power cycle. The Z-Family of receivers allows you to save changed receiver settings so they will be saved through a power cycle. Perform the following steps to save receiver settings:

1.

Send the receiver command: $PASHS,SAV,Y.

2.

This command saves any parameters that have been modified from their default values before the command is issued. For more information about this

command, refer to “SAV: Save User Parameters” on page 151.

Data Modes

The receiver can record data in three different modes, called data modes or data types.

Each mode records different combination of data records and can only be changed

using the serial port command $PASHS,RNG. Table 4.1 describes these modes. The

default is mode 0.

Table 4.1. Recording Modes

Recording

Mode

0

Typical Application

Raw data, full code and carrier phase

2

4

Position data only

Raw data, full code and carrier phase, position data file

Records Created

File Type After

Conversion

Raw data B-file

Ephemeris E-file

Session information S-file

Almanac ALMyy.ddd

Position C-file

Session S-file

Almanac ALMyy.ddd

Raw data B-file

Position C-file

Ephemeris E-file

Session information S-file

Almanac ALMyy.ddd

34 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

Downloading the Data

The data on the PC card can be either downloaded from the receiver via the serial port or read from the PCMCIA drive into the PC. In both cases, use the Download application. Download handles the protocol required to transfer data from the receiver via the serial port into the PC memory.

When transferring PC data from the receiver or the PCMCIA drive into the PC,

Download reads the U-files records from the PC card and converts them into different data files, creating one set of data files per each session. Data files are named using the U-file name for that session, however the first letter corresponds to the file type.

The one exception are almanac files which are named ALMyy.ddd where YY are the

last two digits of the year and ddd is the day of the year. Table 4.2 lists the file types.

Table 4.2. File Types

File Type Generated From

B-file

E-file

S-file

C-file

M-file

Raw data - generally code and carrier phase, position, and SITE data

Satellite ephemeris data

Site information data

Position data

Event marker files (photogrammetry)

D-file Site attribute files

ALMyy.ddd

Almanac data

Format

Binary

Binary

ASCII

ASCII

ASCII

ASCII

Binary

Data Logging through Serial Port

An alternative way to record data is to record data directly onto your PC. This method is useful if your data card does not have enough space or if you wish to bypass the download process. To record data directly onto the PC, use the GBSS Software which can be purchased from your dealer or Regional Sales Manager.

Operation 35

Elevation Masks

Because data from GPS satellites near the horizon are often excessively noisy and can degrade position computation and post-processing , GPS receivers use elevation masks to filter out the unwanted signals. The receiver has 2 main elevation masks, a data elevation mask and a position elevation mask. Data for satellites below the data recording elevation mask will not be recorded or output. Satellite data below the position elevation mask will not be used for position computation.

The default for both the data elevation mask and the position elevation mask is 10 degrees. The data elevation mask may be changed using the $PASHS,ELM command. The position elevation mask may be changed using the $PASHS,PEM command. For receivers with an LED display, the data elevation mask may also be changed in the Survey Configuration (SurvConf) menu setting the ELEV MASK: parameter.

Secondary Elevation Mask

In some cases, noisy atmospheric conditions may exist at higher elevations only in a certain sector of the sky, interfering with satellite data in that part so that position quality is degraded. For example, ionospheric activity may be especially active to the north, affecting all satellites in that quadrant. To correct this problem, a secondary elevation mask has been created. This secondary elevation mask is set using the command $PASHS,SEM. The parameters for the $PASHS,SEM include a first and a second azimuth that are used to define the part of the sky to be masked, and an

elevation mask value that applies only to the area within those azimuth values (Figure

4.1). Note that the $PASHS,SEM command only applies to position computation and

does not affect data recording or output.

N

PEM=10

300 o

PEM=20

60 o

36

Figure 4.1. Secondary Elevation Mask (SEM) Zone

ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

Zenith Elevation Mask

Towers or other heavy metal equipment that are directly over the GPS antenna may cause intermittent data collection and areas of extreme multipath at very high elevation angles, creating poor quality data from certain satellites and degrading position computation. To remove these satellites, a zenith elevation mask has been created. Whereas the normal elevation mask disregards satellites between the horizon and the mask angle, the zenith elevation mask ignores satellites between the mask angle and the zenith (90

ο), as shown in Figure 4.2. Rather than create a

separate command, an additional, optional zenith elevation mask parameter has been added to the $PASHS,ELM data elevation mask and the $PASHS,PEM position elevation mask commands.

Zenith mask angle

Circular patch of sky masked by zenith mask

Zenith 90 o

Zenith mask angle

0 o

Horizon

Figure 4.2. ZEN (Zenith) Elevation Mask Zone

180 o

Operation 37

Session Programming

The Session Programming feature allows you to pre-set up to 26 observation sessions in the receiver. The receiver can then run unattended and will collect data on the data card only during the times that have been preset. Once set, the sessions will collect data during the preset session times every day. Or if desired, a session time offset can be programmed in that will shift the session start and end times by a set amount every day.

Session programming can also be used to put the receiver into sleep mode. When the receiver is in sleep mode, most of the receiver functions are shut down which will conserve power when data is not being collected. Using the session start times that have been preset, the receiver will automatically wake up in time to collect data for the next session and go back to sleep when the session is over.

Session programming is enabled by using either Receiver Communications Software or the REMOTE.EXE program, with either the <ALT-P> option, or else by sending the

$PASHS,SES commands through the serial port. Regardless of which method is used, you will need to enable the individual sessions and set session parameters such as the desired start/stop time, the recording interval, elevation mask, minimum number of satellites, and the data type for each session to be recorded.

In addition, you will need to set the mode (session in use switch), the session reference day, and any desired session offset. The mode is either Yes, No, or Sleep.

If the mode is NO, then session programming is not enabled, even if individual session are set. If the mode is Yes, then session programming is enabled, and any enabled individual sessions will be activated. If the mode is Sleep, then the receiver will go into sleep mode once an activated session is completed, and will wake up just prior to the next session.

The session reference day is a mandatory parameter that both determines the start day of session programming data collection and is used in conjunction with the Offset to determine the session start and end times. The reference day must be set to equal to or earlier than the current day, or else the sessions will not run. If the reference day is later than the current day, then the session start and end times will decrement by the Offset multiplied by the numbers of days between the current day and the reference day. For example, suppose you wish to collect data every day for 7 days observing the identical satellite window on each day. Since the GPS window moves backwards 4 minutes per day, you would set the Offset to 0400 and set the reference day equal to the current day. For each subsequent day of data collection, all sessions will start and end 4 minutes earlier than the previous day. By the seventh day, the sessions will start and end 28 minutes earlier than on day 1.

If a file name with the same name and session ID as the current session programming session ID exists, new data will be appended to the end of this file.

38 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

Position Mode

The receiver performs a position fix computation in four modes. The $PASHS,PMD

command is used to select the mode. Table 4.3 describes these four modes.

Table 4.3. Position Modes

Mode

0

1

2

3

Description

At least four satellites with elevation equal to or above elevation mask are needed to compute a position. All three polar coordinates are computed in this mode.

At least three satellites with elevation equal to or above position elevation mask are needed to compute a position. Only latitude and longitude are computed if three satellites are locked and altitude is held. If more than three satellites are locked, this mode is similar to mode 0.

At least three satellites with elevation equal to or above position elevation mask are needed to compute a position. Only latitude and longitude are computed, and altitude is always held, regardless of number of satellites.

At least three satellites with elevation equal to or above position elevation mask are needed to compute a position. Only latitude and longitude are computed, and altitude is held if only three satellites are locked. If more than three satellites are used and HDOP is less than the specified

HDOP mask, all three polar components are computed. If HDOP is higher than the specified

HDOP mask, receiver automatically goes into altitude hold mode.

ALT Fix Mode

Two modes define what altitude is selected when the receiver is in altitude hold mode.

The $PASHS,FIX command can be used to select between these modes.

In mode 0, the most recent altitude is used. This is either the one entered by using the

$PASHS,ALT command or the one computed when four or more satellites are used in the solution, whichever is most recent. If the last altitude is the one computed with four or more satellites, it is used only if VDOP is less than the VDOP mask.

In mode 1, only the last altitude entered is used in the position fix solution.

On initial power-up, or a receiver initialization, the most recent antenna altitude is 0.

Operation 39

Daisy Chain Mode

The Daisy Chain mode establishes a communication link through the GPS receiver, between a PC/handheld and a peripheral device. When the GPS receiver is in Daisy

Chain mode, all commands entered in one serial port are passed back out through another serial port. The commands are not interpreted by the GPS receiver. The command $PASHS,DSY enables the Daisy Chain mode and allows the user to assign which serial ports to be used. A typical example of the use of Daisy Chain mode is communicating with a radio through a handheld. The radio and handheld are not directly connected but are both connected to the GPS receiver via separate serial ports. By enabling the Daisy Chain mode between the two serial ports used by the handheld and radio, the handheld can communicate with the radio through the GPS

receiver. Refer to “DSY: Daisy Chain” on page 118.

Point Positioning

The Point Positioning option improves the accuracy of a stand-alone absolute position of a stationary receiver from about 50 meters to less than five meters over a period of four hours, and can typically get down to a couple meters level after ten hours. Point positioning uses an averaging technique to reduce the effects of

Selective Availability (SA) and other fluctuating errors. Point positioning mode can be

set using the $PASHS,PPO command. Refer to Chapter 8, Command/Response

Formats for more details about this command. The Point Positioning receiver option

[T] must be set in the receiver for this command to work.

Remote Monitoring

Remote monitoring allows a user to control a remotely located receiver through a PC and a modem link. You can then:

• monitor operational status

• configure receiver parameter settings

• download data

This function is useful in situations where a receiver is operating in a difficult to access location.

The receiver must have the Remote Monitor [M] option enabled. Use the

REMOTE.exe software to perform remote monitoring.

40 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

Event Marker

When the Event Marker [E] option is installed, the receiver can measure and record event times with high accuracy. In order to store an event time in the receiver’s memory, a trigger signal must be applied to the appropriate connector located on the rear panel of the receiver (refer to your individual receiver manual for pinout information). The event marker feature allows the event time to be stored in memory and downloaded using the DOWNLOAD program as an M-file, or output by using the

$PASHS,NME,TTT command.

At the rising or falling edge (selectable) of the trigger signal, the time is recorded in the receiver’s PC card. The trigger signal can be set to the falling edge using the

$PASHS,PHE command.

The measured time is accurate down to 1 microsecond. This is GPS time (UTC + 13 seconds as of 1 January, 1999) and is recorded as the time since the start of the GPS week (00:00 a.m. Sunday). The output includes day number, hours, minutes, seconds, and fractional seconds up to seven digits. With each event time, the receiver also records the site name. One example of the record is:

TEXA 4 21:30:19:4309643

The event time is measured relative to the receiver's GPS time. It measures only the

first event during the period between 2 GPS epochs (1ms). Refer to Figure 4.3. This

allows use of mechanical switches without concern for contact bounces.

Figure 4.3. Event Marker Time Measurement

The receiver stores only one event time per nav processing cycle (0.1 sec). If more than one event time is measured within a data collection period, the receiver records only the first one.

The trigger pulse may be TTL-compatible or open collector. Minimum pulse duration is

100 nanoseconds when the signal is not terminated at the receiver input. The impedance is approximately 2K ohms.

Use a coaxial cable with BNC connectors to connect the camera trigger output to the photogrammetry input connector of the sensor.

Operation 41

Time Tagging the Shutter Signal

In this technique, the signal generated by the camera shutter is fed to a GPS unit for accurate time-tagging which can then be post-processed with the GPS observations.

Since the time of the picture is not synchronized with the time that the GPS measurement is taken, the two position computations before and after the shutter time are interpolated to compute the position of the camera at the time the picture was taken.

For example, suppose the GPS measurements are recorded at the rate of one per second while the distance that the aircraft moves in ½ second is about 100 meters.

The induced error between the position of the camera at the time the picture was taken and the GPS position fixes can be as much as 50 meters. To minimize the errors discussed above, the closed loop technique is recommended.

Closed-Loop Technique (Advanced Trigger)

The closed-loop technique combines PPS synchronization and shutter timing as

shown in Figure 4.4.

Figure 4.4. Closed Loop Technique

In this technique, the 1PPS output of the receiver triggers a camera shutter. The camera shutter generates a signal that is fed to the receiver for accurate time tagging.

The delay between the camera receiving the pulse and triggering the photogrammetry port should be calculated. This may then be applied so as to advance the 1PPS from the receiver so that the shutter time exactly matches the

GPS system time for the epoch. No interpolation between the shutter time and the

GPS position time will be needed.

42 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

This input is asserted by bringing it to ground with a low-impedance driver, a contact closure, or an open-collector transistor. The maximum voltage to guarantee assertion is 0.75 volts, and the current when grounded will be no more than 350 microampere.

The input has an internal pull-up, so it is not necessary to drive it high to make it inactive. The signal will be de-bounced internally, so only the first falling edge in a pulse train of up to 100 milliseconds will be detected.

1PPS Out

By default, the receiver generates a TTL-level pulse every second within one microsecond of the GPS time for synchronization of external equipment. Refer to your individual receiver manual to determine signal location on the pinouts of the ports.

This pulse can be offset using the $PASHS,PPS command (refer to “PPS: Pulse Per

Second” on page 145). It can also synchronize either the rising edge (default) or the

falling edge to the GPS time. The receiver can generate this signal with a different period (0.1 to 60 seconds). Setting the period to 0 disables the PPS pulse.

You may output the time tag of the pulse to a serial port via the

$PASHS,NME,PTT,c,ON (where c is the output port). This message will be sent within

100ms of the pulse. It has been designed to minimize the latency when the offset is

0.0 (within 30ms of the pulse when Fast CPD is off).

This output is driven by a 3.3 volt CMOS gate through a 150 ohm resistor, and is intended to drive a high-impedance TTL or CMOS input. The minimum allowable input resistance to guarantee TTL input levels is 250 ohms.

Data Output

Real time data output is only available through the four RS-232 ports. Refer to Chapter

6 for more details. There are two types of messages:

• NMEA

NMEA is a standard data transfer format developed to permit ready and satisfactory data communication between electronic marine instruments, navigation equipment and communications equipment when interconnected via an appropriate system. This is data in printable ASCII form and may include information such as position, speed, depth, frequency allocation, etc.

Typical messages might be 20 to a maximum of 79 characters in length and generally require transmission no more often than once per second.

Operation 43

Due to the extra resolution required for RTK operation, some NMEA messages are actually longer than the specified 80 characters.

• Proprietary

When specific information was needed, and the NMEA standard did not contain a suitable message, Magellan created proprietary messages.

Messages are available in ASCII.

With the Fast Data output [F] option installed, the highest output rate supported is

10Hz. This is valid for every setting except for RTK Differential mode, if Fast CPD mode is set to off, in which case the highest rate is 1 Hz (if Fast CPD mode is on, 10

HZ is available). Also, if the [F] option is not installed, the highest output rate supported is 5Hz.

Transferring Data Files

GPS data stored on the PC Card may be transferred to a computer for postprocessing by three different methods using Download. Download reads the session file (U-file), converts the file into the different data files (B-, C-, D-, E-, M-, S-

, and almanac files), and transfers the converted files to the specified directory.

• Download data directly through one of the receiver serial ports into any directory on the computer.

• Load the PCMCIA card into a PCMCIA drive and download the data to any directory on the computer.

• Load the PCMCIA card into a PCMCIA drive in your computer, and copy the file MICRO_Z.BIN to your hard disk. Then use Download to convert the file into usable data files.

The U-file is a compressed file format and is not usable until converted using Download.

A Standalone version of Download is available in the Software/GPSToolKit folder on our ftp site at ftp://ftp.magellangps.com.

44 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

Synchronization to GPS Time

All GPS receivers contain internal clocks. These clocks are of varying quality, and for cost reasons, are not generally accurate enough to be precisely synchronized to GPS system time (or “true GPS time”). The effect of receiver clock error shows up in two places. First, it affects the instant in time when measurement snapshots are taken, and second, it introduces errors in the values of the measurements themselves. This means that two receivers at the same location (zero-baseline), but with different clock errors, will, among other things, provide different position measurements. Similarly, if two receivers are moving together, their position measurements would be different, because each receiver will report a position for a snapshot taken at a different time.

Fortunately, if a receiver obtains measurements from four or more satellites it can determine its own internal clock error. In order to reduce the effects mentioned previously, most receivers use the computed clock error to periodically reset the internal receiver clock to remain close to GPS system time (within a millisecond). This method does not entirely remove the effects mentioned above and furthermore causes jumps in the raw measurements obtained by the receiver; all of which the user must account for when processing the data.

The receiver offers a GPS Time Sync Mode, which almost completely removes the effects of the receiver clock error. For example, the jumps in the raw measurements do not appear in GPS Time Sync Mode, and also in zero baseline tests, two Magellan receivers in GPS Time Sync Mode will provide very closely matching pseudo-range measurements.

Default Parameters

During the normal course of receiver operation, a typical user will often change one or more receiver parameters such as recording interval, port baud rate, or elevation mask. To save new settings, the user must save the current setting to memory or else all parameters (with a few exceptions) will be reset to the default values during a power cycle. The exceptions are session programming parameters, modem setting parameters, MET (meteorological) and TLT (tilt) parameters, and the POW (power) parameters. To save parameters to memory, issue the $PASHS,SAV,Y command via the serial port. When parameters are saved to the memory, they are maintained until a memory reset or a receiver initialization is performed which will reset all parameters back to their default.

Only the parameters modified prior to issuing the SAV command are saved in memory. Any parameter modified after SAV is issued reverts to default after power cycle.

Operation 45

The following table lists the default values of all user parameters.

Table 4.4. Default Values

Parameter Description Default

SVS

PMD

FIX

PEM

Satellite Tracking Selection

Position Mode selection

Altitude Hold Fix Mode selection

Position Elevation Mask

ZEN_PEM Zenith position elevation mask

FUM Use of UTM coordinates

FZN

PDP

UTM Zone selection

Position Dilution of Precision mask

HPD

VDP

UNH

ION

PPO

SAV

Horizontal Dilution of Precision mask

Vertical Dilution of Precision mask

Use of Unhealthy satellite’s

Enable Ionosphere model

Enable Point Positioning mode

Save parameters in battery backup memory

04

04

N

N

N

N

90

N

01

40

Y for all

0

0

10

ANR

LAT

LON

ALT

DTM

UDD

HGT

GRD

PHE

PPS

POW parameters

Antenna noise reduction

Antenna latitude

Antenna longitude

Antenna altitude

CPD

00N

00W

+00000.000

Datum selection

Datum user-defined parameters

W84

Semi-major Axis = 6378137.000

Inverse flattening = 298.257224

Remaining parameters = 0

Height model selection ELG

Datum-to-grid transformation selection NON

Photogrammetry edge selection R

Pulse-per-second default parameters Period = 1 second

Offset = 000.0000

Edge = R

Power capacity of external battery ALL 0’S

46

144

ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

Page

124

162

162

128

145

151

140

304

305

140

151

142

121

140

112

142

143

111

303

307

306

305

141

145

Table 4.4. Default Values (continued)

Parameter Description Default

Session

Programming

MDM

BEEP

CTS

LPS

MET

Session programming default parameters

Modem parameters

LED display and warning beep

Clear to send port setting

Loop parameter setting meteorological parameter setting

INUSE flag = N

REF day = 000

OFFSET = 00:00

For all Sessions:

Session Flag = N

Start Time = 00:00:00

End Time = 00:00:00

RCI = 20

MSV = 3

ELM = 10

RNG = 0

MODE=OFF

TYPE = 0 (US Robotics)

PORT = B

BAUD RATE = 38400

Off (ZXW-Sensor)

On

01, 2, 3

All ports off

INIT-STR:No

TRIG-CMD:*0100P9

INTVL:5

TLT Tilt meter parameter setting All ports OFF

INIT-STR:No

TRIG-CMD:*0100XY

INTVL:1

OFF in all ports NMEA messages

TAG

PER

RCI

DOI

DRI

MSV

NMEA message output status

NMEA message format

NMEA messages output rate

Raw data output rate/recording rate

Data output interval

Data recording interval

Minimum number of satellites for data recording/output

20

03

ELM Elevation mask for data recording/ output

ZEN_ELM Zenith elevation mask

ASH

001.0

020.0

20

10

90

Operation

Page

152

131

114

117

130

134

159

202

254

242

148

117

118

136

119

119

47

Table 4.4. Default Values (continued)

Parameter Description Default

REC

MST

ANH

ANA

SIT

EPG

Record data flag

Minimum number of satellites for kinematic operation

Antenna height (before session)

Antenna height (after session)

Site ID name

Kinematic epoch counter

RNG Ranger mode selection

RAW data Raw data output status

Raw data output format Raw data format

Serial port baud rate

Serial port baud rate selection

Y

0

00.0000

00.0000

????

000

0

OFF in all ports

ASCII in all ports

9600 in all ports

RTCM

MODE

RTCM differential mode selection OFF

RTCM PORT RTCM differential mode port selection A

AUT Automatic differential/autonomous switching when RTCM differential mode enabled

N

RTCM SPD

STI

STH

MAX

RTCM differential BPS speed setting

RTCM base or remote station ID setting

RTCM base station health setting

Maximum age for old RTCM corrections to be used

0300

0000

0

0060

QAF

SEQ

TYPE

RTCM communication quality setting 100

Use sequence number of RTCM correction in remote station

N

RTCM differential messages enabled and output frequency of the enabled messages

1 = 01, 6 = OFF

Remaining messages 00

RTCM EOT End of character selection for rtcm corrections

MSG Text for RTCM type 16 message

CRLF empty

48

272

273

275

273

274

274

270

269

271

127

264

264

269

Page

148

136

111

111

156

120

150

168

168

ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

Table 4.4. Default Values (continued)

Default Parameter Description

IOD IODE update rate

CPD MODE CPD mode selection

30

Disabled

PED DBEN output transmission period 001.0

DBEN PORT Output port for DBEN messages in base B

CPD EOT End of character selection for CPD corrections

CRLF

AFP Ambiguity fixing confidence level 099.0

MAX AGE Maximum age of corrections for CPD 30

DYN

MTP

CPD rover mode dynamic operation

Level of multipath Selection

CPD POS Reference position of the other receiver

WALKING

MEDIUM

RECEIVED

FST

CPD PER

ANT radius

Fast CPD Mode Selection

CPD Update Interval

Radius of the Antenna

ANT offset Distance from Antenna Phase Center to Antenna Edge

ANT horizontal azimuth

ANT horizontal distance

Azimuth measured from Reference

Point to Antenna Phase Center

Distance from Reference Point to

Antenna Phase Center

SBAS mode SBAS mode on or off

ON

01

0.0000

00.0000

00000.00

00.0000

Off

Multipath Mitigation

283

314

Multipath occurs when GPS signals arrive at the receiver after being reflected off some object. The reflected signals always travel a longer path length than the direct signal. This leads to measurement errors in the receiver which is trying to measure the direct path length to the satellite. The techniques for rejecting the reflected signals are known as multipath mitigation.

The receiver implements the latest advances in Magellan Multipath Rejection

Technology: the Enhanced Strobe Correlator™.

289

298

283

283

282

291

287

292

298

283

Page

270

296

297

182

288

Operation 49

This correlator drastically improves multipath mitigation over the traditional correlator schemes such as standard (1-chip) correlator spacing or narrow (1/10 chip) correlator spacing.

The Enhanced Strobe Correlator™ works well in any kind of multipath environment, specular as well as diffuse, regardless of the number of multipath signals present, its ability to track is not significantly impacted in low SNR environment and it does not give away other receiver performance, such as noise performance.

A detailed description of Enhanced Strobe Correlation performance is given in

Enhanced Strobe Correlator Multipath Rejection for Code & Carrier”, Lionel Garin,

Jean-Michel Rousseau, Proceedings of ION-GPS'97 Sept. 16-19 1997, Kansas City,

Missouri.

Evaluating Correlator Performance

Theoretical analysis of the different multipath mitigation techniques is a straightforward analysis of how much error hypothetical multipath signals would cause. A plot of multipath mitigation performance is made by assuming a reflected signal with a certain power (usually half the power of the direct signal) and a certain delay. The induced error on the range measurement is then calculated and plotted.

Figure 4.5 shows the error envelopes induced by a multipath signal half the strength

of the direct signal, for the Standard Correlator, the very well known Narrow

Correlator and the new Magellan Enhanced Strobe Correlator. The x-axis shows the multipath delay, which is the extra distance that the reflected signal travels compared to the direct signal. The y-axis shows the induced range error caused by a multipath

50 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

signal with the indicated delay. As the multipath delay increases, the error oscillates between the positive and negative error envelope.

0

-20

-40

-60

Multipath Code Error Envelopes

100

80

60

Multipath:

Amplitude -3 dBs

Phase 0,180 deg.

Generic Standard

Correlator

40

20

Narrow Standard

Correlator

Magellan

Enhanced Strobe

Correlator

-80

-100

0 100 200 300

BW = 10.5 MHz

Multipath Delay (meters)

400 500

Figure 4.5. Relative Performance of Multipath Mitigation Techniques

In a real situation, multipath is usually a combination of many reflections, all with different delays and different power. Real-life multipath is often described as either close-in multipath or far multipath. Close-in multipath occurs when the reflecting surface is close to the satellite antenna direct line, and the delay is small; usually, these reflections come from a surface near the antenna, for example, an antenna on a tripod on the ground would pick up close-in multipath from reflections off the ground below and around the tripod.

Figure 4.6 is a blow up of Figure 4.5 and shows that Enhanced Strobe Correlation

techniques prove much better than usual techniques, especially for close-in multipath that is attenuated by a factor of 3. Very close-in multipath causes only a small change

Operation 51

in the ideal correlation function, so it is usually almost impossible for the correlatorbase multipath integration to completely compensate for this error.

Multipath Code Error Envelopes

10

8

6

4

2

0

-2

-4

-6

-8

-10

0

Magellan

Enhanced Strobe

Correlator

10 20

Narrow Standard Correlator

30

Multipath Delay (meters)

40 50

Figure 4.6. Detailed View of Multipath Mitigation Performance

In order to completely compensate for close-in multipath, we suggest to use Chokering antennas along with the Enhanced Strobe Correlation technique.

Far multipath can cause very large errors if a good multipath mitigation technique is not used.

Far multipath occurs when there is a reflecting surface at some distance from the antenna, such as a building, a mast, a mountain, etc. Metal surfaces cause the strongest reflections. Far multipath signals can be very nearly eliminated by good correlator-based multipath mitigation techniques.

Signal-to-Noise Ratio

The signal-to-noise ratio or C/No as given by the receiver is the ratio of the total signal power to the noise power in a 1 Hz bandwidth otherwise known as the carrier-to-noise ratio or C/No. The reference point of the reading is the antenna connector located on the receiver’s back panel. It is expressed in units of dB.Hz.

It is important to realize that the displayed C/No includes the degradation caused by many factors before reaching the receiver, including: antenna gain, antenna temperature, and LNA noise figure. The C/No at the output of the antenna element will be degraded by the noise produced by the first amplifier, known as the low-noise amplifier (LNA) which is built into most Magellan antenna assemblies. When using

52 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

different antennas with the receiver it should be noted that differences in C/No can be seen as a result of the above mentioned factors.

If calibrating the C/No reading of the receiver with a satellite constellation simulator at room temperature, realize that the noise figure of the LNA will degrade the C/No reading by the amount equal to the noise figure of the LNA.

(C/No)reading = (C/No)simulator - NF where:

• NF is the preamplifier noise figure in dBs,

• (C/No)reading is the carrier-to-noise ratio displayed by the receiver in dB.Hz,

• (C/No)simulator is the carrier-to-noise ratio at the output of the GPS simulator in dBHz.

If you select to display C/No for the C/A code (or C/No for P1 code), the displayed figure relates to the ratio of the power of the C/A code only (or P1 code only) to the noise power in a 1Hz bandwidth.

Antenna Reduction

Unless requested by the user, the position solution provided by a receiver is the one of the antenna phase center. The receiver provides a means of obtaining the position of the surveyed point rather than the antenna phase center through two commands:

$PASHS,ANT and $PASHS,ANR.

The ANT command allows the user to specify the antenna parameters (such as the distance between the antenna phase center and the surveyed point). Since the antenna phase center cannot be accurately accessed, this distance can be entered as antenna radius (distance between phase center and the side of the ground plate) and antenna slant (distance between the side of the ground plate and the surveyed point).

The receiver will compute antenna height based on these two parameters.

The antenna radius is usually provided by the antenna manufacturer, while the antenna slant can be obtained with a measuring rod.

Once these parameters are entered, the user can select to use them through the

$PASHS,ANR,x command with x indicating the following:

where x is N— Antenna reduction is performed. The solution provided is the antenna phase center.

where x is Y—Antenna reduction is performed. The solution provided is the surveyed point (if no antenna parameters were entered, the solution will be the antenna phase center)

where x is CPD—Antenna reduction is performed only for the CPD solution, not for the stand-alone or RTCM code phase differential.

Operation 53

54 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

5

Differential and RTK Operations

Real-time differential positioning involves a reference (base) station receiver computing the satellite range corrections and transmitting them to the remote stations.

The reference station transmits the corrections in real time to the remote receivers via a telemetry link. Remote receivers apply the corrections to their measured ranges, using the corrected ranges to compute their position.

RTK (Real-time kinematic) positioning can be used in lieu of real-time differential positioning. RTK uses the carrier signal in addition to the code signal and is much more accurate. Although messages transmitted and calculations performed vary, RTK is essentially a special form of differential positioning. A base station receiver is required to transmit RTK data to remote receivers. The remote receivers use the RTK data to compute a corrected position.

As stand-alone, the receiver can compute a position to around 100 meters. Differential

GPS achieves sub-meter precision at a remote receiver, and RTK positioning achieves centimeter accuracy at a remote receiver.

A communication link must exist between the base and remote receivers. The communication link can be a radio link, telephone line, cellular phone, communications satellite link, or any other medium that can transfer digital data.

RTK is also referred to as Carrier Phase Differential (CPD) in this manual.

Differential and RTK Operations 55

Base Stations

Setting Up a Differential Base Station

You must have the Base option [B] installed on the receiver.

Send the commands listed in Table 5.1 to the receiver to generate RTCM differential

corrections using message type 1.

Table 5.1. Differential Base Station Commands

Command Description

$PASHS,RST

$PASHS,PEM,4

$PASHS,POS,ddmm.mmm,d,dddmm.mmm, d,saaaaa.aa

$PASHS,RTC,BAS,x

$PASHS,RTC,SPD,9

$PASHS,SAV,Y

Reset the receiver to factory defaults

Set the base differential mask to four degrees

Enter the phase center of the antenna if ANR is OFF or

CPD, or the ground mark if ANR is ON. Enter the latitude, longitude, and height of the survey mark. (NOTE: If this is the position of the antenna phase center, set $PASHS,ANR to OFF.)

Turn on RTCM corrections on port x

When this command is sent, a base station automatically sends RTCM message type 1 once every second.

Set internal bit-rate for corrections to burst mode.

Save settings

Do not try to transmit corrections on the same receiver serial port you are using to set up the receiver from your PC.

The receiver is set as a base station which transmits RTCM message type 1 once per second. Following a power cycle the receiver automatically starts transmitting these corrections again (because you have saved the settings with the $PASHS,SAV,Y command). To change the message type or rate, use the $PASHS,RTC,TYP command.

56 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

Setting Up an RTK Base Station

An RTK base station supports three different types of messages:

• RTCM standard 18 & 19 (plus 3 & 22)

• RTCM standard 20 & 21 (plus 3 & 22)

• Magellan standard DBN

RTCM 18 & 19

You must have both [B] and [K] options installed on the receiver.

Send the commands listed in Table 5.2 to the receiver to generate RTCM RTK

message types 3,18,19 and 22.

Table 5.2. RTK Base Station Commands - Types 18 and 19

Command

$PASHS,RST

$PASHS,ELM,9

$PASHS,POS,ddmm.mmm,d, dddmm.mmm,d,saaaaa.aa

$PASHS,RTC,BAS,B

$PASHS,RTC,TYP,1,0

$PASHS,RTC,TYP,3,1

$PASHS,RTC,TYP,18,1

$PASHS,RTC,TYP,22,1

$PASHS,RTC,SPD,9

$PASHS,SAV,Y

Description

Reset the receiver to factory defaults

Set the RTK Base mask to nine degrees

Enter the phase center of the antenna if ANR is OFF or the ground mark if ANR is ON or CPD. Enter the latitude, longitude, and height of the survey mark. (NOTE: If this is the position of the antenna phase center, set $PASHS,ANR to OFF.)

Turn on RTCM corrections on port B. When this command is sent, a base station automatically sends RTCM message type 1 continuously.

Turn off RTCM message type 1.

Turn on RTCM message type 3.

Turn on RTCM message type 18 & 19.

Turn on RTCM message type 22.

Set internal bit-rate for corrections to burst mode.

Save settings

The receiver is set as a base station which transmits RTCM messages types 18 and

19 every second, and types 3 and 22 every minute. Following a power cycle, the receiver automatically starts transmitting these messages again (because you have saved the settings with the $PASHS,SAV,Y command). To change the message type or rate, use the $PASHS,RTC,TYP command.

Differential and RTK Operations 57

RTCM 20 & 21

You must have both [B] and [K] options installed on the receiver.

Send the commands listed in Table 5.3 to the receiver to generate RTCM RTK

message types 3,20, 21, and 22.

Table 5.3. RTK Base Station Commands - Types 20 and 21

Command

$PASHS,RST

$PASHS,ELM,9

$PASHS,POS,ddmm.mmm,d, dddmm.mmm,d,saaaaa.aa

$PASHS,RTC,BAS,B

$PASHS,RTC,TYP,1,0

$PASHS,RTC,TYP,3,1

$PASHS,RTC,TYP,20,1

$PASHS,RTC,TYP,22,1

$PASHS,RTC,SPD,9

$PASHS,SAV,Y

Description

Reset the receiver to factory defaults

Set the RTK Base mask to nine degrees

Enter the phase center of the antenna if ANR is OFF or the ground mark if ANR is ON or CPD. Enter the latitude, longitude, and height of the survey mark. (NOTE: If this is the position of the antenna phase center, set $PASHS,ANR to OFF.)

Turn on RTCM corrections on port B. When this command is sent, a base station automatically sends RTCM message type 1 continuously.

Turn off RTCM message type 1.

Turn on RTCM message type 3.

Turn on RTCM message type 20 & 21.

Turn on RTCM message type 22.

Set internal bit-rate for corrections to burst mode.

Save settings

The receiver is set as a base station which transmits RTCM messages types 20 and

21 every second, and types 3 and 22 every minute. Following a power cycle it will automatically start transmitting these messages again (because you have saved the settings with the $PASHS,SAV,Y command). To change the message type or rate, use the $PASHS,RTC,TYP command.

58 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

Magellan DBEN Format

You must have the [K] option installed on the receiver.

Send the commands listed in Table 5.4 to the receiver to generate the Magellan DBN

message.

Table 5.4. RTK Base Station Commands - DBEN

Command

$PASHS,RST

$PASHS,ELM,9

$PASHS,POS,ddmm.mmm,d, dddmm.mmm,d,saaaaa.aa

$PASHS,CPD,MOD,BAS

$PASHS,CPD,PRT,B

$PASHS,SAV,Y

Description

Reset the receiver to factory defaults

Set the RTK Base mask to nine degrees

Enter the phase center of the antenna if ANR is OFF or the ground mark if ANR is ON or CPD. Enter the latitude, longitude, and height of the survey mark. (NOTE: If this is the position of the antenna phase center, set $PASHS,ANR to OFF.)

Set the receiver as an RTK base station with Magellan DBN message generated once per second.

Send DBN message through port B.

Save settings

The receiver is set as a base station which transmits DBN messages every second.

Following a power cycle it will automatically start transmitting these messages again

(because you have saved the settings with the $PASHS,SAV,Y command). To change the message rate, use the $PASHS,CPD,PED command.

The receiver also transmits a BPS message (base position) every 30 seconds by default (the periodicity can be set with the $PASHS,CPD,PEB command).

DBN messages are shorter than their RTCM equivalent, so they provide lower latency. If the data link is not very reliable, use RTCM messages because they can be used partially, unlike DBN messages, so in that configuration, the chances of obtaining a reasonable position solution are higher with RTCM than with DBN.

Differential and RTK Operations 59

CMR or CMR Plus Format

You must have the [K] option installed in the receiver.

Send the commands listed in Table 5.5 to the receiver to generate the CMR (compact

measurement record) format message.

Table 5.5. RTK Base Station Commands - CMR or CMR Plus Format

Command

$PASHS,RST

$PASHS,ELM,9

$PASHS,POS,ddmm.mmmm,d, dddmm.mmmm,d,saaaaa.aa

$PASHS,CPD,MOD,BAS

$PASHS,CPD,PRO,CMR

$PASHS,CPD,PRO,CMP

$PASHS,CPD,PRT,B

$PASHS,SAV,Y

Description

Reset receiver to factory defaults

Set base elevation mask to 9 degrees

Enter the latitude, longitude, and height of the survey mark. (NOTE: If this is the position of the antenna phase center, set $PASHS,ANR to OFF.)

Set receiver as an RTK base station

Set receiver to transmit CMR format data

Set receiver to transmit CMR Plus format data

Send CMR messages through port B

Save settings to memory

The receiver is now set as a base station which transmits CMR messages every second. Following a power cycle, the receiver will automatically start transmitting these messages again (because you saved the settings with the $PASHS,SAV,Y command.

The receiver also transmits a CMR base position message every 30 seconds by default. This rate can be changed with the $PASHS,CPD,PEB command.

60 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

Setting Up a Combined Differential & RTK Base Station

You must have both the [B] and [K] installed in your receiver.

Send the commands listed in Table 5.6 to the receiver.

Table 5.6. Base Station Commands - Combined Differential and RTK

Command

$PASHS,RST

$PASHS,PEM,4

$PASHS,ELM,9

$PASHS,POS,ddmm.mmm,d, dddmm.mmm,d,saaaaa.aa

$PASHS,RTC,BAS,x

$PASHS,RTC,SPD,9

$PASHS,RTC,TYP,1,5

$PASHS,RTC,TYP,3,1

$PASHS,RTC,TYP,22,1

$PASHS,RTC,TYP,18,1

$PASHS,SAV,Y

Description

Reset the receiver to factory defaults

Set the Base differential mask to four degrees

Set the RTK base elevation mask to nine degrees

Enter the phase center of the antenna if ANR is OFF or the ground mark if ANR is ON. Do not set ANR to CPD in this case. Enter the latitude, longitude, and height of the survey mark. (NOTE: If this is the position of the antenna phase center, set $PASHS,ANR to OFF.)

Turn on RTCM corrections on port x

Set internal bit-rate for corrections to burst mode

Turn on type 1 differential correction message once every 5 seconds

Turn on base station position messages 3 & 22 once each minute

Turn on Code and Carrier phase messages, once each second

Save settings

Type 1 is on once per second (by default). Most radio links cannot keep up with both Type 18/19 and

Type 1 at once a second, and with SA off, there is no need to transmit Type 1 once a second

The receiver is set as a base station which transmits RTCM differential corrections

(type 1) every 5 seconds, RTCM messages types 18 and 19 every second, and types

3 and 22 every minute. Following a power cycle it automatically starts transmitting these messages again (because you have saved the settings with the $PASHS,SAV,Y command). You can also set up the Base Station to use messages 20 & 21 instead of

18 & 19. You can not use DBN and RTCM messages on the same serial port. You can generate DBN from one port while generating RTCM from a different port.

Differential and RTK Operations 61

Advanced Base Station Operation

Recommended Advanced Parameter Settings for Base Stations

Many parameters control the operation of the receiver. Leave most at the default

values, except for the settings identified in Table 5.1 through Table 5.6.

Antenna

Locate the antenna with a clear view of the sky.

The antenna position, entered with the $PASHS,POS command, is the WGS84 phase center of the antenna if the antenna reduction mode (ANR) is OFF. It is the ground mark position if ANR is ON (or CPD if the receiver is set as CPD base). Do not use

ANR = CPD when setting up a combined Differential and RTK base since the position

entered is interpreted differently (for more information, see “Antenna Reduction” section on page 53). If you do not have a surveyed position on which to locate your

antenna you may use the command $PASHS,CPD,ENT along with Magellan DBN messages. This sets the base station position to the autonomous position calculated by the receiver. The relative accuracy of the remote receiver positions is the same, with respect to the base station, as if you had entered the true position of the antenna.

The absolute accuracy translates by the difference between the nominal base station position (from $PASHS,CPD,ENT) and the true WGS84 position. That is, if the nominal base station position is one meter north of the true position, then all remote positions will be translated north by exactly one meter.

Message Rate

To improve Differential and RTK performance, minimize base station data latency by using the highest possible data rates that your data link supports. There are three different settings that affect data rates:

• RTCM message bit rate. $PASHS,RTC,SPD. This is the internal bit rate used to generate the RTCM messages. This should be as high as possible without exceeding the baud rate of the serial port. Recommended bit rate setting is burst mode (9), which automatically adjusts the bit rate to the fastest possible rate based on the serial port baud rate:

$PASHS,RTC,SPD,9

• Serial port baud rate. This should be as high as possible.

• RTCM message rate. This is the rate at which messages are generated.

• RTK messages (RTCM 18 & 19, RTCM 20 & 21, Magellan DBN) are the most important. They should be generated as fast as possible, ideally once per second. If they are generated slower then the effect

62 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

on the remote receiver depends on the mode. The slowest allowable setting for type 18 and 19 is once per 5 seconds.

• Fast RTK mode: accuracy will degrade by approximately 1cm for each second of latency (example: type 18 and 19 generated every

5 seconds, fast RTK accuracy of 5cm, horizontal 1s. Fast RTK update rate is unaffected.

• Synchronized RTK mode: accuracy is unaffected. Update rate is limited to the update rate of messages 18 and 19.

• Differential messages (1) are next most important, ideally once per second. If the data rate does not support this, these messages may be generated slower, with a corresponding decrease in differential

accuracy (Figure 5.2 to see the accuracy sensitivity to lower update

interval).

• RTK base station position (RTCM 3 & 22 or Magellan BPS) are least important. They affect the RTK initialization time following power on of the remote receiver, (the remote receiver cannot provide an RTK position until it has received messages 3 and 22 once or until receiving the $PASHS,CPD,POS command), but the rate at which these messages are generated does not affect RTK accuracy.

Required Differential Update Rates

For RTK operation there is a minimum radio baud rate that is acceptable. The required radio rate depends on which messages are being generated at the base station, and the message period. The slowest rate at which one should send RTK data is once every 5 seconds. The remote receivers can fix integers with base station data arriving once every 5 seconds or faster.

Message size

Table 5.7 lists the message size for RTCM messages 18 & 19 or 20 & 21.

Table 5.7. Message Size for RTCM Messages 18 & 19 or 20 & 21

Number of Satellites

7

9

12

Number of RTCM Words in

Message Type 18/20

(30 bits/word)

(2+1+7)*2 = 20

(2+1+9)*2 = 24

(2+1+12)*2 = 30

Number of RTCM Words in

Message Type 19/21

(30 bits/word)

(2+1+7)*2 = 20

(2+1+9)*2 = 24

(2+1+12)*2 = 30

Differential and RTK Operations 63

Table 5.8 lists the message size for Magellan DBN messages.

Table 5.8. Message Size For Magellan DBN Messages

Number of

Satellites

7

9

12

Number of Bits in DBN Message

17*8+ceil((94+72*2*7)/16)*16 = 1240

17*8+ceil((94+72*2*9)/16)*16 = 1528

17*8+ceil((94+72*2*12)/16)*16 = 1960

Number of bytes in DBN Messages

155

191

245 ceil (3.1) = 4

Required Radio Rate

For RS232 communications, 1 start bit and 1 stop bit is required for each byte. The required number of bits is 10/8 times the number of message bits.

For RTCM, the data is packed in 6/8 format. The required number of bits is 8/6 times the number of bits in the message.

For RTCM data on an RS232 link, the required number of bits is 8/6*10/8 times the number of bits in the message.

Table 5.9 lists the minimum baud rates for a receiver sending RTCM 18 & 19 or 20 &

21 messages only.

Table 5.9. Minimum Baud Rates for RTCM Messages 18 & 19 or 20 & 21

Number of

Satellites

7

9

12

Minimum baud rate

(message period = T)

20*30*2*8/6*10/8*1/T

24*30*2*8/6*10/8*1/T

30*30*2*8/6*10/8*1/T

Minimum standard baud rate (T = 5 sec)

600 bps

600 bps

600 bps

Minimum standard baud rate (T = 1 sec)

2400 bps

2400 bps

4800 bps

64 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

For Magellan DBN messages, the required minimum baud rate is the DBN rate

multiplied by 10/8. Table 5.10 lists the required baud rates.

Table 5.10. Minimum Baud Rates for Magellan DBN Messages

Number of

Satellites

7

9

12

Minimum baud rate

(message period = T)

1240*10/8*1/T

1528*10/8*1/T

1960*10/8*1/T

Minimum standard baud rate (T = 5 sec)

600 baud

600 baud

600 baud

Minimum standard baud rate (T = 1 sec)

2400 baud

2400 baud

4800 baud

Table 5.9 and Table 5.10 list the minimum baud rates, assuming no other data is sent on the data

link. If other messages are transmitted, then the minimum standard baud rate may increase.

The recommended optimal setting is to transmit type 18 and 19 messages once every second on a high-speed link.

If a high speed data link is not available, you have indirect control over the number of satellites used, by setting elevation mask angles. The elevation angle for any particular satellite changes by 1° for every 100 km of baseline length. For baselines of less than 100 km, you should set the base station elevation mask at 1° less than the remote receiver elevations masks to make sure the base station sends data for all satellites the remote might use, while not sending data for low elevation satellites that the remote does not use.

Recommended mask angle settings for RTK:

Remote: 10° (Default)

Base: 9°

Use the Magellan Mission Planning software to determine the maximum number of

satellites visible above a given mask angle. Table 5.11 shows the maximum number of

satellites above a 4° mask angle, with the constellations available August 11, 1997,

(25 GPS satellites) using a 24-hour simulation at 0° longitude. GPS geometry is primarily a function of latitude, and varies only slightly with longitude for a constant latitude.

Table 5.11. Maximum Number of Satellites Above a 4° Mask Angle

Latitude

10°

Maximum Number of GPS SVs

11

12

Differential and RTK Operations 65

Table 5.11. Maximum Number of Satellites Above a 4° Mask Angle (continued)

Latitude

60°

70°

80°

90°

20°

30°

40°

50°

Maximum Number of GPS SVs

11

12

11

12

11

11

11

10

Mask Angle

The base station mask angle for RTK messages 18, 19, 20, & 21 is controlled by

$PASHS,ELM. The base station mask angle for differential corrections (type 1) is controlled by $PASHS,PEM. If your data link bandwidth is large enough, then you can set both mask angles to zero degrees for base stations. This ensures that the base station will send data for all satellites that it can “see” above the horizon.

If your bandwidth limits the number of satellites for which you can transmit base station data, then you may raise the mask angle. On baselines less than 100 km, the remote station sees satellites at approximately the same elevation angles as the base station sees them, the base station mask angle should be set one degree lower than the remote mask angle. On long baselines the elevation angle changes by approximately 1° for every 100 km. So for baselines of x*100 km the base station should not have a mask angle higher than the remote station mask minus x*1°.

The two different controls allow you, for a combined RTK/Differential base station, to set the mask angles higher for RTK (which typically operates on short baselines) than

Differential (which often operates on longer baselines).

Base Station Position

The RTCM messages 3 and 22 broadcast the base station position to the rover. In case DBN is used, the position is broadcast via $PASHR,BPS. The base station position may also be entered directly into the remote unit, using the

$PASHS,CPD,POS and $PASHS,UBP commands. This reduces bandwidth requirements by obviating the need for messages 3 and 22.

66 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

Base Station Antenna Offset

If you set up the base station antenna over a known, surveyed point, you may enter the position of the surveyed point and the offset from this point to the antenna phase center. Or you may enter the phase center directly.

If you are using 3 & 22, or BPS:

• At the base station, enter the phase center of the antenna directly using $PASHS,POS and setting $PASHS,ANR,OFF, or

• At the base station, enter the surveyed reference point using

$PASHS,POS and enter the antenna offset using $PASHS,ANT and

$PASHS,ANR, ON (or keep it at CPD if running CPD mode only, not combined).

If you are entering the base station position directly at the remote:

• At the remote, enter the phase center of the base station antenna directly using $PASHS,CPD,POS and setting $PASHS,ANR,OFF, or

• At the remote, enter the surveyed base station reference point using

$PASHS,CPD,POS and enter the base station antenna offset using

$PASHS,CPD,ANT, and set $PASHS,ANR,ON

Using Reference Station ID

You may monitor which reference or base station the remote receiver uses by setting a reference station ID at the base station. For RTCM, set the reference station ID using the command $PASHS,RTC,STI. For Magellan DBN, use $PASHS,SIT.

For RTCM, you may also control which reference station the remote receiver uses by setting the desired station ID at the remote receiver, or the remote receiver to use corrections from any base station.

Reference Station Health

You may set the reference station to "unhealthy", which causes all remote receivers to ignore the messages they receive from that base station.

Other RTCM Messages

Message 2

These are automatically generated when the base station is transmitting differential corrections and a new ephemeris is downloaded from the satellites.

Differential and RTK Operations 67

Filler: Message 6 Null Frame

This message is provided for datalinks that require continuous transmission of data, even if there are no corrections to send. As many Messages 6 are sent as required to fill in the gap between two correction messages. Messages 6 are not sent in the burst mode ($PASHS,RTC,SPD,9)

Special Message: Message 16

This message allows you to transmit an ASCII message from the base station.

Using a PC Interface

If you are using Evaluate software to interface to your receiver you may use initialization files (

*.gps

) to send the base station setting commands for you. The

Magellan Receiver Communication Software can be used as well.

To monitor the corrections from a PC, turn on the MSG message

$PASHS,NME,MSG,port,ON

This generates an ASCII echo of the RTCM messages being transmitted by the base station. Use different receiver serial ports for MSG and the actual transmitted RTCM messages.

Using a Handheld Interface

If you are using Magellan software on a handheld computer, differential set-up is controlled via a series of menus designed to free you from knowing or entering commands. Handheld software allows you to monitor and control most receiver functionality.

68 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

Remote Stations

Setting Up a Differential Remote Station

You must have the Differential remote option [U] installed on your receiver.

You must have a source of differential corrections, usually a radio receiving a transmission from a base station. Connect this radio to one of the receiver serial ports.

Send the following commands to the receiver. The receiver will accept RTCM differential corrections in message types 1 or 9. You do not have to tell the receiver which message types to expect, it will automatically use whatever it receives on serial port c.

Table 5.12. Differential Remote Station Commands

Command Description

$PASHS,RST

$PASHS,SPD,c,d

Reset the receiver to factory defaults

$PASHS,RTC,REM,c Set the receiver as a remote station, receiving corrections on serial port c

Set the baud rate of serial port c to the same as the radio providing the corrections.

$PASHS,SAV,Y Save settings

You have now set up the remote station. Turn on the GGA, GLL, POS or PBN message to obtain position.

Setting Up an RTK Remote Station

The receiver can operate in RTK remote mode using any one of the following three modes:

• RTCM Standard 18, 19, 3, and 22

• RTCM Standard 20, 21, 3, and 22

• Magellan Standard DBN

Using RTCM Messages

Operating an RTK remote using RTCM messages is almost identical to operating a

Differential remote receiver. The main differences are:

Differential and RTK Operations 69

1.

The data from the base station is RTCM Types (18 & 19) or (20 & 21) and 3 &

22, instead of 1 or 9.

2.

The accuracy is approximately 100 times better.

You must have both the Differential remote option, [U], and the Phase differential option, [J], installed in your receiver.

You must have a source of RTK data, usually a radio receiving a transmission from an

RTK base station. Connect this radio to one of the receiver’s serial ports.

Send the following commands to the receiver. The receiver accepts RTCM RTK data in message types 18 (carrier phase data) and 19 (Code phase data), 20 (carrier phase corrections) and 21 (code phase corrections), 3 and 22 (base station position).

Table 5.13. RTK Remote Station Command

Command

$PASHS,RST

$PASHS,RTC,REM,c

$PASHS,SPD,c,d

$PASHS,CPD,MOD,ROV

$PASHS,SAV,Y

Description

Reset the receiver to factory defaults

Set the receiver as a remote station, receiving corrections on serial port c

Set the baud rate of serial port c to the same as the radio providing the corrections.

Set the receiver as an RTK remote

Save settings

Make sure to issue command $PASHS,RTC,REM,c before the $PASHS,CPD,MOD,ROV command.

Doing so in reverse order disables the CPD mode.

The receiver is set up as a RTK remote station. Turn on the GGA, GLL, or POS message to obtain position. PBN does not provide RTK position, only stand-alone or code differential.

RTK (Real Time Kinematic) and CPD (Carrier Phase Differential) are synonyms.

Using Magellan DBN or CMR Messages

You must have the [J] option installed in your receiver.

Send the commands listed in Table 5.14

70 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

.

Table 5.14. RTK Remote Station Commands

Command Description

$PASHS,RST

$PASHS,SPD,c,d

Reset the receiver to factory defaults

Set the baud rate of serial port c to the same as the radio providing corrections

$PASHS,CPD,MOD,ROV Set the receiver as an RTK remote

$PASHS,SAV,Y Save settings

The receiver automatically detects which port is receiving the DBEN or CMR messages and uses them in the RTK solution.

Advanced Remote Station Operation

Base Station Data

Both differential remote stations and RTK stations automatically extract the messages needed from the data coming in to the designated serial port. So you can set up a combined Differential/RTK base station (see “Setting up a Combined Differential and

RTK Base Station” on page 61 ), and operate DGKPS remote receivers and RTK

remote receivers. You can also send RTCM messages from one serial port, while sending Magellan DBN messages from another port. You cannot send RTCM and

DBN from the same port.

Any combination of RTCM messages can be sent out of the serial port designated by

$PASHS,RTC,BAS,c. One radio can then be used to support both RTK and

differential operation, as illustrated in Figure 5.1.

Differential and RTK Operations 71

Figure 5.1. Combined Differential/RTK Base Station and Remote Operation

Magellan remote receivers (both Differential and RTK) operate with any base station that generates the industry standard RTCM messages.

Base Data Latency

Both Differential and RTK operation are better the lower the latency of the Base-

Remote data link. To minimize latency set the baud rate of the radios as high as possible, and use radios that are optimized for low latency GPS operation.

Maximum acceptable base-remote data latency is controlled by $PASHS,RTC,MAX for code differential mode and by $PASHS,CPD,MAX for RTK mode.

The latency is indicated in the “age of correction” field of the GGA message. The age increments when the correction message is not received or if it is invalid (bad checksum). When the age reaches max age, the differential position does not output

anymore (for more information see, “Auto Differential Mode” section on page 77 ).

72 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

In the case of CPD with RTCM 18 & 19 or 20 & 21, if the message is partially received, for enough satellites to compute a position, the age increments, but a position solution is still derived, and continues to be output even if MAX AGE is reached.

Differential Accuracy vs. Base Data Latency

Figure 2 shows the growth of position error with increasing latency for DGPS.

Figure 5.2. DGPS Accuracy

Chosing Between Fast RTK and Synchronized RTK

With an RTK remote receiver you can choose between three modes of RTK position computation:

1.

Synchronized RTK

2.

Fast RTK (F option required)

3.

5 Hz synchronized RTK (H option required)

Choosing the right mode for your application is a decision based upon a trade-off between frequency of position output and accuracy of position.

Synchronized RTK

Synchronized RTK (also called matched time tag RTK) means that the remote receiver will compute and output an RTK position for each DBEN, RTCM 18/19 or 20/

21, or CMR message it receives from the base receiver. In normal synchronized RTK, the maximum transmission rate from the base receiver is 1 Hz.. Therefore, the maximum position output rate at the remote receiver is also 1 Hz. If there is an

Differential and RTK Operations 73

interruption at the base receiver or interference in the data link that blocks transmission of data from the base receiver, this frequency may decrease. The rover will only provide an RTK position when it receives data from the base receiver.

Therefore, with synchronized RTK, the latency of the rover position is approximately equal to the latency of the base-remote data link. However, because the time tags of the base and rover observables are matched and because the data latency is low, the positions are consistently very accurate. The accuracy of synchronized data is typically 0.5 cm + 1ppm.

Fast RTK

In Fast RTK (also known as Fast CPD) mode, the rover receiver can output centimeter level RTK positions at rates up to 10 Hz. Fast CPD works by using a single base station carrier phase message to compute additional rover RTK positions. In this mode, positions are more independent of the rate at which it receives DBEN, RTCM

18/19 or 20/21, or CMR messages from the base receiver.

Fast CPD should be used when regular and high frequency position updates are required (such as in machine control), and when consistent position accuracy is not the highest priority. The accuracy is a function of the latency. The typical accuracy in centimeters is equal to the base-remote data latency in seconds (1s horizontal) for data latency of up to 10 seconds. After 10 seconds, the position is no longer centimeter level accuracy. Any degradation in position, either because of latency or cycle slips can be monitored in the RRE message. Because Fast RTK is running synchronized RTK in the background, any degradation is usually temporary. Cycle slips are typically fixed at the next synchronized epoch.

5 Hz Synchronized RTK

5 Hz Synchronized RTK is a new feature that combines the accuracy of synchronized

RTK with position output rates that approach those of Fast CPD. Data is transmitted at a faster rate from the base receiver, allowing the rover to compute more frequent matched time tag RTK positions. In this mode, the rover is capable of outputting RTK positions up to 5 times per second.

Assuming that the [H] option is installed, the receivers are set up in 5 Hz synchronized

RTK mode by setting the base receiver to transmit data at a 5 Hz rate and the rover to output RTK positions at 5 Hz. Note that the 5 Hz synchronized RTK only works for

DBEN and CMR messages.

Enable the base station to transmit data at 5 Hz by sending the following command to the base receiver: $PASHS,CPD,PED,0.2 <enter>.

74 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

Enable the rover to output RTK positions at 5 Hz by sending the following command to the rover receiver: $PASHS,CPD,PER,0.2.

Even if the $PASHS,CPD,PER or $PASHS,RCI message is set to 0.1, the rover can only output positions at a maximum interval of 0.2 seconds when 5 Hz synchronized

RTK is running. Also, it is strongly recommended that Fast CPD not be enabled when running 5 Hz RTK. Lastly, be aware that when CPD is outputting positions higher than

1 Hz, the receiver will only use the 10 highest satellites for CPD position computation.

Position Latency

Base data latency, discussed above, is the delay between when a base station measures the GPS signals and when the remote receiver receives the RTCM or DBN messages. Position latency is the delay between when the remote receiver measures the GPS signals and when the position is available at the serial port. In other words, position latency is the delay in providing the user’s actual position to the user. Position latency is typically less than 50 milliseconds, it varies with the number of satellites in view.

Float and Fixed Solutions

When the receiver is in RTK mode the crucial difference from Differential mode is that it uses the carrier phase measurement to generate the range measurements to centimeter accuracy. The receiver can measure the fractional part of the carrier phase to centimeter accuracy, it derives the integer number of full carrier phase wavelengths by processing both the carrier and code phase measurements. This process of deriving the integer numbers is known as integer ambiguity resolution or carrier phase initialization. This carrier phase initialization is only necessary following power-on, or after the receiver has lost lock on the satellites (e.g. after passing under a bridge). The receiver performs carrier phase initialization automatically. The receiver does not have to be stationary while initializing. Once the receiver is initialized it will provide centimeter-level accuracy, while moving, in real time. The time for carrier phase initialization is a few seconds up to several minutes, depending on baseline length, number of satellites in view, and required reliability; these are discussed in the next section.

During the carrier phase initialization the receiver is said to be in "float" mode, once initialization is complete the receiver is said to be in "fixed" mode. This terminology derives from computer terminology: floating-point numbers (real numbers) and fixed numbers (integers).

When in float mode the accuracy will range from Differential accuracy (1m) down to sub-decimeter. The longer the receiver has been in float mode the higher the accuracy. Convergence time is a function of baseline length and number of satellites

Differential and RTK Operations 75

in view. When the receiver fixes integers, accuracy makes a quantum change to centimeter level.

The POS and GGA messages have fields which indicate whether the receiver is in float or fixed mode.

Carrier Phase Initialization

The time required for carrier phase initialization is a function of base-remote baseline length, number of satellites in view, satellite geometry, and required reliability. With a large number of satellites in view (Š7), initialization time can be as low as a few seconds. With fewer satellites in view, the receiver takes as long as necessary to obtain the required reliability.

Reliability

The process of carrier phase initialization has a non-zero probability of error. If an error is made the receiver will fix the integers to the wrong value. This will result in floating point accuracy (typically between 10cm and 1m). After an error in fixing integers the receiver automatically detects and corrects the error when the satellite geometry changes. This may be as soon as a new satellite comes into view, or, in the worst case, when the satellites move by a few degrees in the sky, which can take from one to more than 10 minutes.

You can control the reliability that the receiver provides, this indirectly controls the speed of carrier phase initialization. The higher the reliability the longer it takes to fix integers.

The receiver offers three modes for ambiguity fixing: a.

Fixed solution, formal reliability = 90% b.

Fixed solution, formal reliability = 95% c.

Fixed solution, formal reliability = 99% (default) d.

Fixed solution, formal reliability = 99.9%

The command $PASHS,CPD,AFP controls the ambiguity fix parameter.

The four choices of formal reliability for fixed solution are provided to allow you to trade off speed with reliability. The AFP setting controls the internal thresholds of the receiver so that the expected statistical reliability of getting correctly fixed integers is

90%, 95%, 99%, or 99.9% respectively. The receiver fixes integers faster with

AFP=99 than with AFP=99.9.While the receiver is busy fixing integers, it gives a float solution.

Operation under trees, or in other areas with frequent blockage of satellites signals will lead to significantly degraded results.

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Monitoring Accuracy

Besides fixed/float status, position accuracy is the most important consideration when using the receiver for real time carrier phase positioning. The primary means of monitoring CPD “fixed” and CPD “float” accuracy is the RRE message (see NMEA section for full description). The RRE gives an indication of the overall quality

(precision) of the CPD position by displaying the RMS value of the error of all the range inputs to the position solution. The RRE message also gives a real-time estimate of the actual error in the CPD position in horizontal error and vertical error.

The actual position error of the system will be less than the standard deviations displayed in the RRE approximately 68% of the time. If you multiply the standard deviations by 2, the result is a conservative estimate of actual accuracy about 95% of the time.

The quality of the RRE estimates improve with increasing number of satellites. The

RRE estimates may be very unreliable with only 5 satellites in view. The horizontal estimates are derived from:

(

LatError

)

2

+

(

LonError

)

2

GST estimates of latitude, longitude, and altitude accuracy automatically account for

DOP, SNR, and many other factors. These parameters are built into the GST estimate already and do not have to be recomputed by the user.

Required Number of Satellites

The receiver requires five or more satellites to fix integers, following power on, or obstruction and re-acquisition. If the solution is fixed with five or more satellites, and the number of satellites falls below five but stays above three, the solution stays fixed and accuracy remains at the centimeter-level. Positions are always three-dimensional when in RTK mode. Two-dimensional positions, using previously calculated altitudes, are not possible.

Mask Angles

At the remote station the position elevation mask is always controlled by

$PASHS,PEM, whether the receiver is in Differential mode or RTK mode.

Auto Differential Mode

When a user operates a rover receiver in differential mode (either code phase or carrier phase), a failure at the base station or in the data link causes the rover receiver to cease outputting differentially corrected positions. Auto differential mode allows the user to output an autonomous position at the rover receiver if differential data from the base station is unavailable. Auto differential mode is enabled by entering the

Differential and RTK Operations 77

command $PASHS,RTC,AUT,Y. Table 5.15 describes how auto differential mode

affects position output at the rover receiver.

Table 5.15. Auto Differential Modes and Position Output

Mode

Code differential

Auto Differential Off

(Default code mode)

Code differential

Auto Differential On

Carrier differential

Fast CPD On

Auto Differential Off

(Default carrier mode)

Carrier differential

Fast CPD On

Auto Differential On

Carrier differential

Fast CPD Off

Auto Differential Off or

On

Position Output

Differential position output if the age of corrections is less than maximum age (maximum age as defined in the rover by

$PASHS,RTC,MAX).

No position otherwise.

Differential position is output if the age of corrections is less than maximum age, otherwise an autonomous position is output.

Once the rover mode has been enabled, autonomous position outputs until it has computed the first CPD position. A CPD position solution continues to output until the age of corrections is greater than the maximum age.

Once the rover mode has been enabled, autonomous position outputs until it has computed the first CPD position. A CPD position solution continues to output until the age of corrections is less than the maximum age, otherwise an autonomous position is output.

Once the rover mode has been enabled, autonomous position outputs until it has computed the first CPD position. A CPD position solution continues to output until corrections stop, and no position outputs unless corrections are available.

RTCM Messages

The receiver accepts RTCM 104 version 2.3 differential formats. The receiver is set to differential mode in any of the serial ports with the set command $PASHS,RTC,str,c where str is BAS or REM and c is the port. Of RTCM message types 1 through 64, the receiver processes only: types 3, 16, and 22 for Base station location and special information; types 1, 2, and 9 for RTCM differential corrections, null frame type 6, and

RTK data message types 18, 19, 20 and 21. The differential corrections are automatically processed by the receiver. For diagnostic purposes, the RTCM messages can be output in an ASCII format on the rover side via the MSG command

(see”MSG: Base Station Message” on page 235.).

On initial power-up or after use of the $PASHS,RST reset to defaults command, the receiver default automatic differential mode is OFF, and the default is 60 seconds for the maximum age of an RTCM differential correction above which it will not be used. If the automatic mode is not enabled by the $PASHS,RTC,AUT,Y set command and the differential correction data is older than the maximum age specified by the

$PASHS,RTC,MAX set command, the receiver does not return antenna position data.

78 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

In automatic mode, if no differential correction data is received and the age of data is older than the specified maximum age, the receiver does return the uncorrected raw position.

RTCM 104 Format, Version 2.3

When the receiver is used as a reference station and the RTCM and RTK Base options are enabled, it computes differential corrections for up to 12 satellites, converts those corrections to RTCM format, and transmits the converted messages via its serial ports. It can generate message types 1, 2, 3, 6, 16, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22 as

detailed in Table 5.16.

Table 5.16. RTCM Message Types

GPS

Message Type

20

21

22

16

18

19

1

2

3

6

Contents of Message

Differential GPS corrections

Delta differential corrections

Reference station parameters in WGS 84

Null frame

Special GPS text message

RTK carrier phase

RTK pseudo-ranges

RTK carrier phase corrections

RTK code phase (pseudo-range) corrections

Extended reference station parameter

The receiver uses the six-of-eight format (data bits a1 through a 6 of an eight-bit byte) for communication between the reference station and user equipment.

When the receiver is used as remote equipment and the RTCM and RTK remote options are enabled, it can accept any type of RTCM message. However it decodes types 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, 16, 18, 19, 20, 21, and 22 uses only types 1, 2, and 9 for differential corrections and types 3, 18, 19, 20, 21, and 22 for RTK corrections.

For radio communication, the receiver in remote mode can recover bit slippage.

Differential and RTK Operations 79

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6

Understanding RTK/CPD

This chapter covers CPD operation in more detail by describing CPD solution monitoring, solution output and storage, trouble shooting, and performance optimization. RTCM reference station setup is also described briefly.

For detailed information on the commands and responses that are mentioned in this

chapter, please refer to Chapter 8, Command/Response Formats.

The following operation procedure applies to RTCM-RTK with type 18 & 19, 20 & 21, or RTK with Magellan DBN message.

Monitoring the CPD Rover Solution

When a receiver is set to CPD rover mode, you can monitor the current CPD solution status and positions with the following queries:

• $PASHQ,CPD—shows the CPD setup in a tabulated format

• $PASHQ,CPD,MOD—shows the CPD setup in a $PASHR format

• $PASHQ,CPD,INF—shows the satellite information in CPD operation

• $PASHQ,CPD,STS—shows the current ambiguities fixing status

• $PASHQ,RRE—shows the post-fit carrier phase residual in CPD solution

Positions can be also monitored from GGA message or CBN message.

Understanding RTK/CPD 81

How to Tell If the Integer Ambiguities are Fixed

The ambiguities fixing status can be determined through the following messages:

• STS

• GGA

• CBN

• CPD

In $PASHR,CPD,STS message, if the second field > 1.0, it means that the ambiguities are fixed. For example,

$PASHR,CPD,STS,0.005,0124.72*5C

In $GPGGA message, a solution type of “3” in the sixth field indicates that ambiguities are fixed.

$GPGGA,212349.00,3722.378424,N,12159.841801,W,3,08,01.0,-

00005.078,M,-032.121,M,014,*82

In ASCII $PASHR,CBN message, a “1” in the third digit of the solution type field indicates the ambiguities are fixed.

$PASHR,CBN,212501.00,????,08,001.2,3722.3784261,N,12159.8417992,

W,-00005.0847,00.011,00.011,00.012,-00.000,+00.000,-00.000,221001,

+000.000,-000.001,+000.001, 00.000,00.000,00.000*6C

In a CBN message, the solution RMS values represent one-sigma solution accuracy.

A fixed ambiguity solution should have all three RMS values < 0.03 meters, with PDOP

< 4.0.

You can also look at the $PASHR,CPD message for ambiguities fixing status. Refer to CPD: RTK

Status on page 279.

Data Link Monitor

The Data Link Status can be monitored via $PASHQ,CPD,DLK message. Pay special

attention to the SV list and QA. Refer to $PASHQ,CPD,DLK,c on page 284.

CPD Solution Output and Storage

The raw GPS measurements, autonomous position, RTCM positions, or CPD solutions can be outputted to the serial port for monitoring and logging. If a receiver has a PC data card, the data can be stored on the PC data card as well as downloaded to a PC.

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Real-time Solution Output

The CPD rover position, velocity, and other solution information can be output via the receiver’s serial port, in CBN message format or NMEA message format. The CBN message output rate is controlled via the $PASHS,RCI command.

The PBN message will always output autonomous position or code differential position (if messages 1 or 9 are available).

The CBN message can provide more complete information on position, velocity, solution status, position RMS and covariance, number of satellites, and PDOP. The CBN message output can be in ASCII or binary format. The binary format is bitwise packed and is not IEEE format compatible.

To output the CBN message, use the $PASHS,OUT command.

To output the NMEA messages, use the $PASHS,NME commands.

If for any reason the CPD solution cannot be computed for an epoch, there will be no

CPD solution output for that epoch in any real-time or NMEA message.

Other solution messages are also available for query, and not to output periodically like

CBN messages. These messages are UBN and OBN. The UBN message gives CPD position, velocity, and statistical information in binary format. The OBN message gives

CPD vector and site information in binary format.

Vector Solution Output

This capability allows you to log vector solutions containing the same information as post-processed vector output files (O-file), allowing the position solutions to be imported into an adjustment program. Your RTK solutions may then be included as part of a leastsquares network adjustment.

To use this option, a valid site name must be entered (check by using the $PASHQ,RAW command), and the rover’s GPS antenna must remain stationary until the site name has been changed to “????.” If the GPS antenna is moving with a site name entered, the vector solution will not be valid. If no site name is entered, the vector solution will not be created. Note that a site name must be entered at the base station as well.

Understanding RTK/CPD 83

Solution Storage

The CPD solution can be stored in receiver memory in Ranger mode 2 or Ranger mode 4.

If your receiver has a PC data card, you can store the raw measurements and the solution information into the receiver’s PC data card. These data can then be downloaded to a PC into B, C, E and S-file format via Magellan’s Download program at a later time.

• To create/delete files, use $PASHS,FIL command.

• To select file storage type, use $PASHS,RNG command.

• To check the memory usage, use $PASHQ,FLS command.

• To verify the data recording setup, use $PASHQ,RAW.

When setting up a receiver to store solutions, pay special attention to the following items:

• Recording interval

• Minimum number of SVs

• Elevation mask

• Ranger mode type

• Recording is set to Yes

• Site name

Since CPD is a differential operation, a solution may not be available if the differential data link is lost. However, the receiver will always store the raw measurements whether the CPD solution is available or not. When the CPD solution is not available, the position computed by the raw pseudo-ranges, or the autonomous position, may be stored instead (see

Auto Differential Mode on page 77 for more information).

Information in CBN, OBN, and UBN cannot be stored in receiver memory.

84 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

Troubleshooting

The following problems are sometimes encountered by users new to the receiver. If your system isn’t working properly, please refer to this list. If you need further assistance, please call a Technical Support representative.

Table 6.1. Troubleshooting Tips

Symptom Action

PC cannot communicate with receiver receiver not in RTK Rover mode

• Verify the receiver is capable of RTK operation (refer to Receiver Options on page 4 for J or U option).

• Verify the receiver is in rover mode using $PASHQ,CPD and $PASHQ,RTC.

$PASHQ,CPD,DLK has no information

• Verify cable connections.

• Verify communication BAUD rate and communication software setting.

• If symptom persists, cycle power.

• Verify that the receiver is in CPD base mode or in CPD rover mode.

• Verify that the antenna connection is connected to the GPS antenna. The

GPS antenna must be mounted outdoors, with a clear view of the sky.

Nearby buildings and vegetation can block the GPS signals or introduce multipath by reflecting the GPS signals.

• Verify the receiver is computing autonomous position properly.

• In the base receiver Verify the entered base station coordinates as well, as described in next trouble shooting

In the rover receiver, verify the data link between the base and rover/ remote. In case of hardwired data link between receivers from different vendors, check the hardware handshaking in the RS-232 connection.

Base beeps

No CPD solution

• The entered coordinates differ from the computed coordinates by more than

500 meters.

• Verify the receiver is computing autonomous position properly.

• Verify and re-enter the coordinates or enter the raw position as the base

coordinates as described in Base Position Coordinates Selection:

$PASHS,CPD,UBS on page 90.

• Verify that there are at least four common satellites between the base and the rover, using $PASHQ,CPD,INF command.

• Verify that base station coordinates have been received in the rover side, using $PASHQ,CPD,POS command. If the coordinates are not being received, make sure the base is sending them periodically, using

$PASHQ,CPD,DLK command or $PASHQ,RTC command. Or you can enter the base station coordinates in the rover side, using $PASHS,CPD,POS command.

• Check that there are no warnings ($PASHQ,WARN).

Understanding RTK/CPD 85

Table 6.1. Troubleshooting Tips (Continued)

Symptom

CPD solution is intermittent and the Rover beeps

Cannot get fixed CPD solution

CPD solutions are not being stored in the Rover

Cannot get the CPD solution output in real-time

Action

• Monitor the data link quality, using the $PASHQ,CPD,DLK command. The

QA number should be 90% or higher.

• Verify that fast CPD is turned on, using $PASHQ,CPD or

$PASHQ,CPD,MOD command.

• Verify the rover antenna has clear view to the sky and is tracking satellites properly.

• Verify using $PASHQ,CPD,INF command that at least 5 SVs are being tracked for P1 and P2.

• Verify that the number of satellites common between the base and rover is 5 or more. Even if 5 or more satellites are tracked, you still may not get a fixed solution at locations with severe multipath.

• Move away from the obstruction if possible. Issue $PASHS,CPD,RST command to reinitialize the CPD operation.

• Verify that PC card is inserted.

• Verify that $PASHQ,CPD,OUT is selected to output CPD solution.

• Verify that REC is set to Y in $PASHR,RAW message.

• Verify there is still memory available.Verify the record interval.

• ·Verify receiver is in Data Type (RNG) mode 2 or 4.

• Make sure the communication BAUD rate is correct. In RTCM operation, the receiver port is not being set to RTCM base or REMOTE.

• Verify the output selection, using $PASHQ,RAW and $PASHQ,PAR commands.

System Performance Optimization

Table 6.2 lists the commands that can be used to optimize CPD operations.

Table 6.2. CPD optimization commands

Command

$PASHS,CPD,AFP

$PASHS,CPD,DYN

$PASHS,CPD,FST

$PASHS,CPD,MTP

$PASHS,CPD,PED

$PASHS,CPD,PER

$PASHS,CPD,RST

$PASHS,CPD,UBS

Description

Selects the ambiguity fixing parameters

Changes the Rover dynamics

Turns on/off fast CPD operation

Changes the expected multipath in the system

Changes the DBN output interval

Changes the CPD update interval

Reinitializes the CPD operation

Selects which base station coordinates to use.

86 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

Ambiguity Fix: $PASHS,CPD,AFP

The ambiguity fixing parameter can be set to different confidence levels between 90.0 and 99.9. Higher confidence levels result in longer search times but increase the reliability of the ambiguity fixed solution.

The ambiguity fix mode can be set from 90.0 to 99.9. The default setting of 99.0 is recommended for most static and kinematic surveying applications. Setting the mode to 99.9 results in the highest reliability that the ambiguities are fixed correctly, but also results in a longer time to resolve the ambiguities and give the fixed solution. Setting the mode to 95.0 decreases the time to solve the ambiguities and give the fixed solution, but also increases the chances that the ambiguities are fixed incorrectly. Setting the mode to 90 results in the shortest time to resolve the ambiguities; however, mode 90.0 also has the highest chance that the ambiguities are fixed incorrectly.

Figure 6.1 shows the test results for over 12,000 ambiguity fix test performed by

Magellan on a Z-12 RZ receiver at various baseline lengths up to nine kilometers. These test results indicate that at the default setting, the typical time to resolve the ambiguities is 60 seconds, with a reliability of 99.9% At the fastest setting, the results indicate that the typical time to resolve the ambiguities is five seconds, with a reliability of 97.6%.

Understanding RTK/CPD 87

If the ambiguities are fixed incorrectly, the satellite geometry must change appreciably before the ambiguities will again fix correctly. For a static rover, this will happen within approximately 10 minutes, or when a new satellite is acquired.

Figure 6.1. Ambiguity Fix Test Results

Dynamics: $PASHS,CPD,DYN

Select the dynamics for the fastest acceleration you expect to be moving. If the dynamics are not set properly, the CPD solution will be less accurate. Use the STATIC dynamics mode only if the antenna will remain on a solid setup such as a tripod. If the antenna is on a pole that may have some slight movement, select Q-STATIC. If you are doing stop-and-go kinematic or rapid static surveys, the WALKING (default) or

AUTOMOBILE dynamic should be selected. SHIP dynamics assume limited vertical movement. AIRCRAFT dynamics assume higher speeds and accelerations.

88 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

Fast CPD: $PASHS,CPD,FST

Fast CPD off achieves the ultimate in GPS accuracy. With Fast CPD off, sub-centimeter position solution accuracy can be obtained with fixed integer ambiguities. However, it suffers from solution delay. This delay is caused by measurement and radio link delays.

The measurement delay is about 1 second. Typical radio data link delays are about 1 second also. DLf and Tf are not shown in $PASHR,CPD message when Fast CPD is off.

For surveying application where accuracy has higher concern over the latency, fast

CPD should be turned off, especially when collecting data for static points.

Turning Fast CPD on (default) reduces the solution delay to about 50 millisecond.

Because Fast CPD computes the position as soon as Rover measurement has been collected, it does not suffer from radio link delays. However, the position accuracy is only 2-3 centimeters.

Turning FAST CPD on also allows the solution to be available when there is a temporary data drop-out from the base station.

Multipath: $PASHS,CPD,MTP

Set this parameter to the expected GPS signal multipath environment according to the list below:

SEVERE Forest, urban canyon

HIGH Water surface, nearby buildings

MEDIUM Cropland, occasional tree or building (default)

LOW Flat terrain, no nearby objects

NONE No multipath, for testing purpose only

DBN Message Interval: $PASHS,CPD,PED and CPD Update

Rate: $PASHS,CPD,PER

In some application where the data link bandwidth is not wide enough to transmit the

DBN or RTCM message at 1Hz rate, you can slow down the DBN or RTCM output rate in the base side and slow down the CPD update rate in the rover side.

To change the DBN message interval at the base, use $PASHS,CPD,PED command.

Understanding RTK/CPD 89

To change the CPD update rate between 1 and 5 seconds, using $PASHS,CPD,PER command. This will affect the CPD solution update rate when fast CPD is off, but not with the fast CPD on. The fast CPD update rate is controlled by $PASHS,RCI command for recording on a PC data card or raw data output (CBN, MBN,...), and

$PASHS,NME,PER for real-time NMEA output.

It is important to set the rover’s update rate to match the base’s DBN message output interval.

Initialization: $PASHS,CPD,RST

If you wish to reset the carrier phase cycle ambiguities that have been found, send

$PASHS,CPD,RST command. Note that your position accuracy will temporarily degrade and you should wait until the ambiguities are fixed again before expecting centimeter accuracy.

Base Position Coordinates Selection: $PASHS,CPD,UBS

If the transmitted base position were entered incorrectly at the base, you may change this field at the rover to USE ENTERED BASE POS (with $PASHS,CPD,UBS) and then enter the correct base coordinates via $PASHS,CPD,POS command. The CPD data link status on response of $PASHQ,CPD or $PASHR,CPD,DLK message will display the RCVD CORD age as “999 SEC” when the entered page position is used.

If you are using the transmitted coordinates, which is the recommended method, you can verify the transmitted position by sending $PASHQ,CPD,POS command.

Base Station Elevation Mask: $PASHS,ELM

In the base station, set the elevation mask angle to 5 degrees to ensure the maximum coverage. In the rover, you can set a different elevation mask angle for position computation, using $PASHS,PEM command.

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Universal RTCM Base Station

With the addition of RTCM type 18 & 19 or 20 & 21 message, a single receiver RTCM base station can

• Generate type 1 or type 2 message for code differential operation for receivers with RTCM differential options, such as DG14, DG16, A12, G-

12, GG24, receiver, etc.

• Generate type 18 & 19 or 20 & 21 message for CPD (RTK) operation in receiver.

This makes the receiver a universal RTCM reference station. All types of messages can be mixed to meet the system accuracy requirements and the radio bandwidth requirements.

Table 6.3 lists the recommended message schedules.

Table 6.3. Default RTCM Message Schedules

Message Type

3

6

1

2

16

18/19

20/21

22

Interval (seconds)

5

0 (off)

60 (1 minute)

Off

Off

1

1

60 (1 minute)

For CPD (RTK) application only, you can turn on type 3 and/or 22 and type 18/19 or

20/21 only.

Instant-RTK

When the Instant-RTK

TM firmware is installed, you can choose the [I] option which significantly improves the ambiguity fix performance. The integer ambiguities can be initialized instantaneously most of the time if 6 or more satellites are used with reasonable open sky. Three reliability levels can be chosen: 95%, 99% (default), and

99.9%). A reliability setting other than these three levels will automatically go to the

Understanding RTK/CPD 91

default option. Table 6.4 shows the percentage of ambiguity initialization using a single

epoch based on over 100,000 ambiguity fix tests at various baseline lengths up to eight kilometers.

Table 6.4. Percentage of Ambiguity Initialization Using a Single Epoch

Reliability Level

95.0%

99.0%

99.9%

Six Satellites or More

92.06

87.22

80./65

Seven Satellites or More

95.46

92.01

87.09

Eight Satellites or More

98.92

97.27

95.51

CMR Format

Compact Measurement Record or CMR format is a non-proprietary RTK format that compresses data to reduce the bandwidth required to transmit RTK data from base to rover. In other words, the amount of data transmitted on the datalink to perform RTK operations is less with CMR than with other formats.

Because the CMR format requires half the bandwidth of equivalent RTCM messages, you can use relatively slow data links (9600) and still produce accurate results. Faster datalinks may experience smaller latency times.

Setting Up Your Receivers to Use CMR Format

Base Receiver:

Set the base receiver to output in CMR format by entering the serial command: $PASHS,CPD,PRO,CMR <enter>.

Set the base receiver to output in CMR Plus format by entering the serial command: $PASHS,CPD,PRO,CMP.

Rover Receiver:

Once setup in RTK Rover mode, the rover is setup to detect CMR or

CMR Plus format messages by default. No additional setup parameters are necessary.

92 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

7

Coordinate Transformation

This chapter discusses the coordinate transformation features of your receiver.

Background

GPS determines the three-dimensional positions of surveyed points based on the

WGS84 datum. These coordinates are either presented as geocentric Cartesian coordinates (X,Y,Z) values or geodetic coordinates (latitude, longitude, ellipsoidal height).

There are circumstances where it would be desirable to have positions represented in a different reference frame or format, i.e. based on a different datum or projected onto a plane (grid coordinates).

The ZXW-Receivers provide the following on-board tools to transform WGS84 coordinates into various formats and reference frames:

1.

Datum-to-Datum Transformation

Using this feature, WGS84 coordinates can be transformed into coordinates based on another datum.

2.

Datum-to-Grid Conversion

With this tool, a grid system can be defined to convert geodetic coordinates into grid coordinates.

3.

Elevation Modeling

Using an on-board geoid model, ellipsoidal heights can be transformed into orthometric heights using this capability.

Coordinate Transformation 93

Table 7.1 provides an overview of user coordinate transformation functions for your

receiver.

Table 7.1. User Coordinate Transformation Functionalities

Transformation

Datum to Datum

Datum to Grid

Elevation Modeling

Description

3D (7-parameter) datum transformation between two Cartesian XYZ systems associated with the WGS84 datum and local datum defined by the user.

Data projected from a geodetic system, associated with WGS-84 or a user-defined datum and a specified grid system.

Map Projections Supported

• Mercator (EMER)

• Transverse Mercator (TM83)

• Oblique Mercator (OM83)

• Sterographic (Polar and Oblique) (STER)

• Lambert Conformal Conic (2 standard parallels) (LC83)

Special Map Projections Specific to NAD27

• Transverse Mercator 27 (TM27 and TMA7)

• Oblique Mercator 27 (OM83)

• Lambert Conformal Conic 27 (LC27)

Interpolation of geoidal undulations

The remainder of this chapter describes in more detail the coordinate transformation features of your receiver.

Datum to Datum

The receiver normally computes and outputs positions in the WGS-84 coordinate reference frame. However, it is possible to output positions in NMEA messages in a number of different pre-defined datums, as well as in a user defined datum.

To set the receiver to output positions in a different datum, use the $PASHS,DTM command. Once set to a different datum, then all position outputs in NMEA messages such as GGA and GLL and the position displayed on the LED screen are referenced

to the chosen datum. For a list of Datums, refer to Appendix A, Reference Datums &

Ellipsoids.

If the list of datums does not include a datum of interest to you, you can define a datum and load it on the receiver, using the $PASHS,UDD command along with the

$PASHS,DTM command. Prior to using these commands, define the required parameters including the length of the semi-major axis and amount of flattening in the reference ellipsoid and the translation, rotation, and scale between the user defined system and WGS-84.

94 ZXW- Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

The rotation and scale parameters are only available in version ZC00 or later.

The generic formula used to translate and rotate from coordinate system 1 to coordinate system 2 is as follows: x y z

2

=

∆x

∆y

∆z

+

(

1 + m

×10

– 6

)

1

ε rz

ε rz

ε ry

1

ε rx

ε ry

ε rx

1 x y z

1 where e rx

= e x expressed in radians, similarly for e ry

and e rz

.

Example: Define local datum as the WGS-72 datum

Send the following commands to the receiver:

$PASHS,UDD, 0,6378135.0, 298.26,0,0,4.5,0,0,-0.554,0.23

$PASHS,DTM,UDD

This implements the transformations listed in Table 7.2 and below.

Table 7.2. Ellipsoid Parameters for WGS-72 and WGS-84

Datum

WGS-72

WGS-84

Reference

Ellipsoid

WGS-72

WGS-84

a[m] 1/f

6378135.0

6378137.0

298.26

298.257223563

x y z

WGS84

∆x=∆y=0

ε x

=

ε y

=0

∆z= 4.5 meters m= 0.23 x 10

-6

ε z

= –2.686

x 10

-6 radians = –0.”554 in the following equation:

=

0

0

4,5

+

(

1 + 0,23

×10

– 6

)

1

2,686

×10

– 6

0

– 2,686

×10 0

1

0

0

1 x y z

1WGS72

After issuing the $PASHS,DTM,UDD command, the receiver internally transforms positions from the reference datum (WGS-84) to the user-defined datum. In standard text books, however, the datum transformations are given from local datums to WGS-

84. To simplify entering the transformation parameters, the translation, rotation, and scale parameters are defined from the local datum to WGS-84.

Coordinate Transformation 95

Figure 7.1 illustrates the change in the coordinate systems.

Figure 7.1. Rotation and Translation Between Coordinate Systems

After transforming the datum, the receiver computes geodetic coordinates in the defined system. All coordinates output by the receiver are in this new system.

Do not forget to issue the $PASHS,DTM,UDD command after defining the transformation parameters with the $PASHS,UDD command. Otherwise, the newly entered parameters are not used.

Datum to Grid

Use this transformation to generate coordinates in an <x,y> rectangular system, based on the user’s location and mapping requirements or local standard. You can select any projection along with any base datum for output.

Convert geodetic coordinates into grid coordinates by defining a grid system utilizing one of the supported projection types (Figures 7.2 - 7.6).

CAUTION

Although almost any projection or combination of datums and projections is mathematically possible, some are inappropriate with respect to the project scope or geographic area.

96 ZXW- Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

To set the receiver to supply grid coordinates:

1.

Select the projection type that best fits your needs.

2.

Define the grid system, using this projection type, with the $PASHS,UDG command. This command defines the grid system to be used.

3.

Enable the grid system with the $PASHS,GRD,UDG command. The receiver computes grid coordinates in the system defined.

4.

To access the grid coordinates, use either the $PASHQ,GDC command to query for one output of the current coordinates, or use the

$PASHS,NME,GDC command to set the receiver to continuously output the current coordinates.

There is one exception when configuring the receiver to compute and output grid coordinates. If you are interested in computing and outputting WGS-84 based UTM coordinates, there is no need to define the grid system in the receiver. The parameters for WGS84 UTM are pre-set in the receiver. To use them, set the receiver to output grid coordinates using either the $PASHQ,UTM command to query for one output of the current coordinates, or the $PASHS,NME,UTM command to set the receiver to continuously output the current coordinates.

Check the GDC message for the currently assigned datum.

Coordinate Transformation 97

Projection Types

The following graphics represent the different types of projections available for the receiver.

Figure 7.2. Mercator

98 ZXW- Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

Figure 7.3. Transverse Mercator

Coordinate Transformation

Figure 7.4. Oblique Mercator

99

Figure 7.5. Stereographic

Figure 7.6. Lambert Conformal Conic

Elevation Modeling

In addition to computing and outputting geodetic and cartesian coordinates in different systems, the receiver can compute and output elevations in different systems.

By default, the receiver computes and outputs ellipsoidal heights. In some messages, the geoid separation is included, computed from the internal global model, relative to

WGS-84.

100 ZXW- Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

To set the receiver to compute and output orthometric heights, use the

$PASHS,HGT,GEO command. After setting this command, the receiver outputs orthometric heights using the internal global geoid model. Be aware that the internal geoid model used in this calculation is very coarse. Orthometric heights derived from this model could be in error by a meter or more.

If separation is included in the message, it is calculated by adding the difference between WGS-84 and a user- or pre-defined datum to the WGS-84-based geoid separation. An exception to this is the

GGA message which ONLY outputs WGS-84 based geoid heights and separation, as per NMEA specifications.

Coordinate Transformation 101

102 ZXW- Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

Command/Response Formats

8

This chapter details the formats and content of the serial port commands through which the receiver is controlled and monitored. These serial port commands set receiver parameters and request data and receiver status information. Use the RCS

(or REMOTE.exe) software or any other standard serial communication software to send and receive messages. Note that the baud rate and protocol of the computer

COM port must match the baud rate and protocol of the receiver port for commands and data to be successfully transmitted and received. The receiver protocol is 8 data bits, 1 stop bit, and parity = none.

All commands sent by the user to the receiver are either Set commands or Query commands. Set commands generally change receiver parameters and initiate data output. Query commands generally request receiver status information. All set commands begin with the string $PASHS, and all query commands begin with the

$PASHQ string. $PASHS and $PASHQ are the message start character and message header and are required for all commands. All commands must end with <Enter> to transmit the command to the receiver. If desired, an optional checksum may precede

<Enter>. All response messages end with <Enter>.

In this manual, the serial commands are discussed in six separate groups:

Receiver commands - general receiver operations - page 105

Raw data commands - measurement, ephemeris, and almanac - page 168

NMEA message commands - NMEA message output - page

202

RTCM commands - RTCM differential operation - page 264

CPD commands - carrier phase differential (CPD) operation - page

276

UCT commands - coordinate transformation, map projection - page

302

Commands 103

Within each group, the commands are listed alphabetically and then described in detail. Information about the command including the syntax, a description, the range and default, and an example of how it is used are presented for each command. The syntax includes the number and type of parameters that are used or required by the command; these parameters may be characters or numbers, depending upon the particular command. The parameter type is indicated by the symbol that is a part of

the syntax. Table 8.1 describes parameter symbology.

Table 8.1. Command Parameter Symbols

Symbol Parameter Type

c s f d Numeric integer (no decimal)

Numeric real (with decimal)

1-character ASCII

Character string m h

Mixed parameter (integer and real) for lat/lon or time

Hexadecimal digit

*cc Hexadecimal checksum which is always preceded by a *

<Enter> Combination of <CR><LF> (carriage return, line feed, in that order)

Example

3

2.45

N

OFF

3729.12345

FD2C

*A5

For example, for the receiver command

$PASHS,RCI,f <Enter>

the parameter f indicates that the RCI command accepts a single parameter that is a real number such as 0.5 or 10.0. If a character is entered instead, the command will be rejected. Generally speaking, the parameter must be in the specified format to be accepted. However, most parameters that are real numbers (f) will also accept an integer. For example, in the case of the RCI command, the receiver accepts both 10 and 10.0.

104 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

Receiver Commands

Receiver commands change or display various receiver operating parameters such as recording interval, antenna position, and PDOP mask. Commands may be sent through any available serial port.

Set Commands

The general structure of the set commands is:

$PASHS,s,c <Enter>

where s is a 3-character command identifier, and c is one or more data parameters that will be sent to the receiver. For example, the set command to change the recording interval to 5 seconds is:

$PASHS,RCI,5 <Enter>

If a set command is accepted, an acknowledgment message is returned in the form:

$PASHR,ACK*3D

If a set command is not accepted, a non-acknowledgment message is returned in the form $PASHR,NAK*30. If a command is not accepted, check that the command has been typed correctly, and that the number and format of the data parameters are correct.

Query Commands

The general structure of the query command is:

$PASHQ,s,c <Enter>

where s is a 3-character command identifier and c is the serial port where the response message will be sent. The serial port field is optional. If the serial port is not included in a query command, the response will be sent to the current port. For example, if you are communicating with the receiver on Port A and send the following query command

$PASHQ,SES <Enter>

the response will be sent to port A. However, if from the same port, you send the query command:

$PASHQ,SES,B <Enter>

Commands 105

the response will be sent to port B.

The format of the response message may either be in a comma-delimited format or in a free-form table format, depending upon the query command. Note that not every set command has a corresponding query command. The most useful query command to check the general status of most receiver parameters is:

$PASHQ,PAR <Enter>

Table 8.2 lists the receiver commands alphabetically by function, and then

alphabetically within each function. Each command is described in detail in alphabetical order in the pages following the table.

Table 8.2. Receiver Commands

Command

$PASHS,ALT

$PASHS,POS

$PASHS,DOI

$PASHS,DRI

$PASHS,DSC

$PASHS,ELM

$PASHS,EPG

$PASHS,MSV

$PASHS,RCI

$PASHS,REC

$PASHS,RNG

$PASHS,HDP

$PASHS,PDP

$PASHS,VDP

$PASHS,CLM

$PASHS,FIL,C

$PASHS,FIL,D

Description

ANTENNA POSITION

Set ellipsoidal height of antenna

Set position of antenna

DATA RECORDING

Sets raw data output interval

Sets PCMCIA card data recording interval

Store event or attribute string

Set recording satellite elevation angle mask

Sets the epoch counter for kinematic survey

Sets minimum number of Svs for recording

Set data recording interval

Enable/disable data recording/raw data output interval

Set data recording type

DILUTION OF PRECISION (DOP)

Set HDOP mask for position computation

Set PDOP mask for position computation

Set VDOP mask for position computation

PCMCIA CARD/FILE MANAGEMENT

Clear (reformat) PCMIA Card

Close current data file

Delete data files

Page

111

143

124

140

162

115

120

121

120

136

148

148

150

117

118

118

119

106 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

Command

$PASHQ,FLS

$PASHS,ION

$PASHQ,ION

$PASHS,INI

$PASHS,RST

$PASHS,SAV

$PASHR,MET

$PASHS,MET,CMD

$PASHS,MET,INIT

$PASHS,MET,INTVL

$PASHS,OUT,c,MET

$PASHQ,TMP

$PASHS,WAK

$PASHQ,WKN

$PASHQ,WARN

$PASHS,PHE

$PASHQ,PHE

$PASHS,PPS

$PASHQ,PPS

$PASHS,FIX

$PASHS,PEM

$PASHS,SEM

$PASHS,PMD

$PASHS,PPO

Table 8.2. Receiver Commands (continued)

Description

Query data file information

IONOSPHERE

Include/exclude ionospheric model

Display ionosphere data information

MEMORY

Clear internal memory and/or PCMIA Card

Reset receiver to default parameters

Save parameters in battery-backed-up memory

METEOROLOGICAL METER

Query meteorological meter setup

Set meteorological meter trigger string

Set meteorological meter initialization string

Set meteorological meter output interval

Start/Stop output of meteorological meter data

MISCELLANEOUS PARAMETERS

Query receiver temperature

Acknowledge warning messages

Query GPS week number

Query warning messages

PHOTOGRAMMETRY/1PPS/STROBE

Set photogrammetry edge (event marker)

Display the photogrammetry parameters

Set period and offset of 1PPS signal

Display 1PPS parameters

POSITION COMPUTATION

Set altitude hold position fix mode

Set elevation mask for position computation

Set secondary elevation mask

Set position computation mode

Set point positioning mode

Commands

121

140

152

142

145

141

141

145

146

107

161

162

167

163

134

134

135

135

136

Page

121

128

128

127

150

151

Command

$PASHS,UNH

$PASHS,POW

$PASHQ,POW

$PASHS,PWR

$PASHS,BEEP

$PASHQ,BEEP

$PASHS,CTS

$PASHQ,CTS

$PASHS,DSY

$PASHS,LPS

$PASHQ,LPS

$PASHS,LTZ

$PASHS,MDM

$PASHS,MDM,INI

$PASHQ,MDM

$PASHQ,PAR

$PASHQ,PRT

$PASHQ,RAW

$PASHQ,RID

$PASHQ,SID

$PASHS,SPD

$PASHS,TST

$PASHQ,ALH

$PASHQ,CSN

$PASHR,CSN

$PASHQ,STA

$PASHS,SVS

Table 8.2. Receiver Commands (continued)

Description

Omit/include unhealthy satellites for position computation

POWER/BATTERY PARAMETERS

Set battery parameters

Query battery parameters

Put receiver to sleep

RECEIVER CONFIGURATION

Enable/Disable LED and warning beep

Query LED and Warning beep setting

Enable/disable hardware handshake

Query hardware handshake status

Configure serial ports as daisy chain

Set loop parameters

Query loop parameter settings

Set local time zone

Set modem parameters

Initialize modem communication

Query modem parameters

Request current settings of receiver parameters

Query port setting

Request port baud rate

Request receiver data recording settings

Request receiver identification

Query receiver serial number

Set baud rate of serial port

SATELLITE INFORMATION

Query the almanac messages received

Query satellite signal-to-noise ratios

Satellite signal-to-noise response message

Request status of SVs currently locked

Designate satellites to track

108

Page

162

144

144

147

146

195

149

156

131

133

132

137

156

161

118

130

130

131

114

114

117

117

110

116

116

157

158

ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

Command

$PASHS,USE

$PASHS,INF

$PASHQ,INF

$PASHS,PJT

$PASHS,SES,PAR

$PASHS,SES,SET

$PASHS,SES,DEL

$PASHQ,SES

$PASHS,ANA

$PASHS,ANH

$PASHS,ANR

$PASHS,ANT

$PASHQ,ANT

$PASHS,MST

$PASHS,SIT

$PASHS,TLT,CMD

$PASHS,TLT,INIT

$PASHS,TLT,INTVL

$PASHS,OUT,c,TLT

$PASHQ,TLT

$PASHS,SBA,DAT

$PASHQ,SBA,DAT

$PASHR,SBA,DAT

$PASHS,OUT,X,SAW

$PASHQ,SAW

Table 8.2. Receiver Commands (continued)

Description

Designate individual satellites to track

SESSION PARAMETERS

Set session parameters

Query session parameters

Log project data

SESSION PROGRAMMING

Set session programming parameters

Set individual sessions

Clear session programming parameters and reset to default

Query session programming parameters

SURVEY

Antenna height after survey

Antenna height before survey

Antenna reduction setting

Set antenna offsets

Query antenna offset parameters

Set minimum number of satellites for kinematic survey.

Enter site name

TILTMETER

Set tiltmeter trigger string

Set tiltmeter initialization string

Set tiltmeter ouput interval

Start/stop output of tiltmeter data

Query tiltmeter setup

SBAS

Enable SBAS raw data output on serial port

Query SBAS raw data on serial port

SBAS raw data response message

Enable SBAS almanac data output on serial port

Query SBAS almanac data on serial port

Commands

Page

162

125

125

142

152

153

153

153

111

111

112

113

113

136

156

314

314

314

315

315

159

160

160

137

159

109

Command

$PASHS,SBA,SSO

$PASHS,SBA,XXX

Table 8.2. Receiver Commands (continued)

Description

Set SBAS satellite search order

Set SBAS tacking mode, where XXX =:

SAM - single automatic mode

DAM - dual automatic mode

MAN,xx - single manual mode

MAN,xx,yy - dual manual mode

OFF = turn off WAAS, operate as GPS only

Page

318

316

ALH: Almanac Messages Received

$PASHQ,ALH,c

This command queries the receiver for the number of almanac messages that have been received since the last power cycle, where c is the optional output port. Using this query, a user can tell when all of the most recent almanac messages have been received.

Example: Query the current port for the number of received almanac messages.

$PASHQ,ALH <Enter>

$PASHR,ALH

The response message is in the form shown below and described in Table 8.3.

$PASHR,ALH,d1,s1*cc <Enter>

Table 8.3. ALH Parameter Table

Parameter

d1 s1

*cc

Significance

Number of almanac messages received since power up

All almanac messages received:

NO = not all almanacs have been received

OK = all almanacs received checksum

Range

0-32

NO

OK

110 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

ALT: Set Ellipsoid Height

$PASHS,ALT,f

Sets the ellipsoidal height of the antenna, where f = ±99999.999 meters. The receiver uses this data in the position calculation for 2-D position computation, and when in differential base mode.

Examples:

Set ellipsoidal height of antenna to 100.25 meters.

$PASHS,ALT,100.25 <Enter>

Set ellipsoidal height of antenna to -30.1m.

$PASHS,ALT,-30.1 <Enter>

ANA: Post-Survey Antenna Height

$PASHS,ANA,f

Sets the antenna height after survey, where f is from 0.0 - 64.0000 meters. This command is used to record the antenna height after a survey, as a check to verify the original antenna height.

Example: Set after-survey antenna height to 3.5343 meters:

$PASHS,ANA,3.5343 <Enter>

ANH: Set Antenna Height

$PASHS,ANH,f

Sets the antenna height where f is from 0.0 - 64.0000 meters.

Example: Set antenna height to 3.534 meters.

$PASHS,ANH,3.534 <Enter>

Commands 111

ANR: Set Antenna Reduction Mode

$PASHS,ANR,s

This command sets the antenna reduction mode. The mode selection is used to translate between ground mark position and antenna phase center position.

When turned on, this mode applies the antenna parameters entered via

$PASHS,ANT to the computed position to make it the ground mark position. This implies that the base position entered should also be the ground mark position of the base.

When turned off, the parameters entered via $PASHS,ANT are ignored and the position is the position of the phase center of the antenna. This implies that the base position entered should also be the one of the phase center of the base antenna.

Table 8.4. ANR Message Structure

Parameter

s

Description

Reduction mode

Range

ON => Antenna reduction on ALL position messages for

autonomous, code differential, and RTK.

OFF => No antenna reduction in ANY position messages

for autonomous, code differential, and RTK.

CPD => No antenna reduction on for position messages for

autonomous and code differential, but RTK has

antenna reduction.

Example: Set antenna reduction mode to CPD only:

$PASHS,ANR,CPD <Enter>

Antenna reduction, when performed, is applied to ALL position messages except for PBN and the

position in the B-file. For more detail on the usage of the antenna reduction mode, see “Base

Station Antenna Offset” on page 67l.

112 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

ANT: Set Antenna Offsets

$PASHS,ANT,f1,f2,f3,m1,f4

Sets the antenna offsets from ground mark to antenna phase center via a reference point. Horizontally, the reference point is the physical center of the antenna housing.

Vertically, the reference point is the point to which the antenna slant height was

measured. The antenna phase center is the center of reception of the signal. Table

8.5 summarizes the various offsets.

Table 8.5. Antenna Offsets Settings

Parameter

f1 f2 f3 m1 f4

Description Range

Antenna slant height: height measured from the reference point to the antenna edge

Antenna radius: the distance from the reference point to the antenna edge

0 -64.000

0.0 - 9.9999

Antenna vertical offset: the offset from the antenna phase center to the reference point

0.0 - 99.9999

Horizontal azimuth: measured from reference point to antenna phase center, with respect to

WGS84 north (dddmm.mm)

35959.99

Horizontal distance: measured from reference point to point below (above) antenna phase center.

999.9999

Unit

Meter

Meter

Meter

Degrees decimal minutes

Meter

Example: Set antenna offsets.

$PASHS,ANT,1.678,0.1737,0.5,0,0 <Enter>

$PASHQ,ANT,c

Requests the current antenna offset parameters, where c is the output port and is not required to direct the response message to the current communication port.

Example: Query antenna offset on port B:

$PASHQ,ANT,B <Enter>

Commands 113

$PASHR,ANT,f1,f2,f3,m1,f4*cc

The response message returns the receiver antenna parameters, where the ANT

message structure is as defined in Table 8.6.

Table 8.6. ANT Message Structure

Parameter

f1 f2 f3 m1 f4

*cc

Description Unit

Antenna height: height measured from reference point to antenna edge meter

Antenna radius: distance from antenna phase center to antenna edge meter

Antenna offset: offset from antenna phase center to antenna ground plane edge meter

Horizontal azimuth: measured from reference point to antenna phase center, with respect to WGS84 north (dddmm.mm) degree and decimal minutes

Horizontal distance: measured from reference point to point below

(above) antenna phase center.

Checksum meter n/a

BEEP: Beeper Set-up

$PASHS,BEEP,s

This command enables or disables the audible beeper

, where s is ON or OFF. If the beeper is disabled, it will not sound when a warning is generated. The beeper is OFF by default in ZXW-Eurocard and ZXW-Sensor. The status is saved in battery-backed memory if $PASHS,SAV,Y has been issued afterwards.

Example: Disable the beeper.

$PASHS,BEEP,OFF <Enter>

$PASHQ,BEEP,c

Requests the current state of the beeper, where c is the optional output port and is not required to direct the response to the current port.

$PASHR,BEEP

The response message is in the form $PASHR,BEEP,s where s is the beeper status,

ON or OFF.

114 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

CLM: Clear/Reformat PCMCIA Card

$PASHS,CLM

The CLM command deletes all files from the data card and reformats all tracks in the data card. This includes the File Allocation Table (FAT), directory structure, and data area.

To avoid fragmentation of the card which can occur over time, it is recommended that the CLM command be performed at least once a week.

Example: Clear data files from PCMCIA card.

$PASHS,CLM <Enter>

$PASHQ,CLM,c

This command queries the status the PCMCIA data card reformatting initiated with either a $PASHS,CLM command or a $PASHS,INI command (reset memory code = 2 or 3), where c is the optional output port.

Example: Check the status of the PC card reformatting:

$PASHQ,CLM<Enter>

$PASHR,CLM

For the CLM command, the response message depends upon whether a

$PASHS,CLM command or a $PASHQ,CLM query has been sent.

If $PASHQ,CLM has been sent, the response is:

$PASHR,CLM,d1*cc, where d1 is the percent of reformatting completed, and ranges from 0 to 100.

If the set command $PASHS,CLM has been sent, the response is as follows:

If the card passes the test, the response is in the form:

$PASHR,CLM,WAIT*cc <Enter>

$PASHR,CLM,SIZE,d1KB*cc <Enter>

$PASHR,CLM,PASSED*cc <Enter>

If the card fails the test, the response is in the form:

$PASHR,CLM,FAILED*cc <Enter>

Table 8.7 describes the parameters in the response message.

Commands 115

Table 8.7. CLM Message Structure

Parameter Significance

d1

*cc

Size of the data card in kilobytes

Checksum

The time to complete the CLM dependsup on the data card size: approximately 5 seconds per MB.

CSN: Satellite Signal-to-Noise Ratio

$PASHQ,CSN

This command queries the receiver for the signal-to-noise ratios (in dB Hz) of all tracked satellites.

Example: Query receiver for CSN message:

$PASHQ,CSN <Enter>

$PASHR,CSN

The response message is in the form:

$PASHR,CSN,m1,d2,d3,n(d4,d5,d6,d7)*cc

where n is equal to d2, and where parameters s5,d6, and c7 are repeated 9 times, once for each raw data message type.

Table 8.8 describes each parameter in the CSN message.

Table 8.8. CSN Message Structure

Parameter

d5 d6 d7

*cc m1 d2 d3 d4

Description

GPS time (hhmmss.ss)

Number of SVs locked

Number of ratios per satellite

PRN number

C/A s/n ratio (dB Hz)

L1 s/n ratio (dB Hz)

L2 s/n ratio (dB Hz) checksum

Range

0-235959.50

0 - 12

1 - 3

0 - 32

116 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

CTS: Port Protocol Setting

$PASHS,CTS,c,s

This command enables or disables the RTS/CTS (handshaking) protocol for the specified port, where c is the port and s is ON or OFF. If the port is not specified (i.e., if c is not included in the command), the protocol is enabled or disabled for the port to which the command was sent.

Example: Disable the handshaking protocol for port A:

$PASHS,CTS,A,OFF <Enter>

$PASHQ,CTS,c

Query the RTS/CTS (handshaking) protocol status, where c is the optional output port and is not required to direct the response to the current port.

$PASHR,CTS,s

This is the CTS response message, where s is ON or OFF.

DOI: Data Output Interval

$PASHS,DOI,f1

Sets the output rate of raw data through the serial port, where f1 is any value between

0.1 and 999 seconds. The default is 20.0 seconds. Values between 1 second and 999 seconds can only increment in 1- second intervals. For example, 20.1 seconds is not a valid value.

Example: Set the data output interval to 5 seconds:

$PASHS,DOI,5<Enter>

The $PASHS,RCI command overrides this command. See also the commands $PASHS,DRI and

$PASHS,RCI.

Commands 117

DRI: Data Recording Interval

$PASHS,DRI,f1

Sets the recording interval of data to the PCMCIA card, where f1 is any value between 0.1 and 999 seconds. The default is 20.0 seconds. Values between 1 second and 999 seconds can only increment in 1 second intervals. For example, 20.1 seconds is not a valid value.

Example: Set the data recording interval to 5 seconds:

$PASHS,DRI,5<Enter>

The $PASHS,RCI command overrides this command.

DSC: Store Event String

$PASHS,DSC,s

Store a string as event datum to current open session in receiver, where s is a character string up to 80 characters. The string is stored in the D-file with a time tag.

Example: Set the string ‘LightPole’ to the receiver:

$PASHS,DSC,LIGHTPOLE <Enter>

DSY: Daisy Chain

$PASHS,DSY,c1,c2 or $PASHS,DSY,OFF

Redirects all characters from one serial port to another without interpreting them, where c1 is the source port, and c2 is the destination port. Any combination may be chosen. This command is used primarily to initialize the radio from an external monitor (handheld or PC). When a port is in daisy chain mode, it can only interpret the

OFF command; all other characters are redirected. The OFF command discontinues the daisy chain mode. Redirection can also be bi-directional (i.e. A to B and B to A at

the same time), but a second command is necessary to set the other direction. Table

8.9 summarizes the source and destination ranges.

Table 8.9. DSY Parameter Table

Parameter

c1 c2

Description

Source port

Destination port

Range

A...D

A...D

118 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

Examples:

Redirects A to B. Can issue from any port.

$PASHS,DSY,A,B <Enter>

Redirects B to A. Can issue from any port, but it cannot be issued from port A if

$PASH,DSY,A,B <Enter> has been sent.

$PASHS,DSY,B,A <Enter>

Turns off redirection from A. Can issue from any port.

$PASHS,DSY,A,OFF <Enter>

Turns off daisy chain on all ports. Can issue from any port.

$PASHS,DSY,OFF <Enter>

ELM: Recording Elevation Mask

$PASHS,ELM,d

Sets elevation mask for position computation, where d1 is the primary position elevation mask, and d2 is an optional zenith position elevation mask. Both d1 and d2 may be set to any value between 0 and 90 degrees, although d1 must be less than d2. The default for the primary position elevation mask is 10 degrees. The default for the zenith position elevation mask is 90 degrees.

Example: Set primary position elevation mask to 15 degrees

$PASHS,ELM,15 <Enter>

Example: Set primary position elevation mask to 15 degrees, and zenith position elevation mask to 80 degrees:

$PASHS,ELM,15,80 <Enter>

Commands 119

EPG: Epoch Counter

$PASHS,EPG,d

Sets the initial value of the counter of epochs for recording at a site where d is the number of epochs and ranges from 0 to 999. The command is used during kinematic surveys, when the receiver occupies a site for a set amount of time. When the number of epoch goes to zero, the site name is set to ???? automatically indicating that the receiver is in motion.

Example: Set epoch counter to 20:

$PASHS,EPG,20 <Enter>

FIL,C: Close a File

$PASHS,FIL,C

Closes the current file in the receiver.

Example: Close current file in receiver:

$PASHS,FIL,C <Enter>

If a file closure is attempted while the file system is mounting, the receiver will respond with a

$PASHR,FIL,BUSY message and the file will not be closed.

FIL,D: Delete a File

$PASHS,FIL,D,d

Delete data file(s) from the receiver, where d is the file index number, and ranges from

0 - 99. If d is 999 then all files are deleted and the PC card is reformatted.

If the deleted file is not the last file in the receiver, the receiver reorders all files after the deleted file, thus changing the file index numbers for those files.

Example: Delete 6th file from receiver.

$PASHS,FIL,D,5 <Enter>

Command $PASHS,FIL,D,999 not only deletes all files, but also reformats the PCMCIA card by clearing the FAT and directory structure.

120 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

FIX: Altitude Fix Mode

$PASHS,FIX,d

Set altitude hold position fix mode for the altitude used (for 2-D position determination), where d is 0 or 1, as detailed in

1

. The default is 0. This command must be used with the $PASHS,PMD command.

Table 8.10. FIX Parameter Settings

Parameter

d = 0 d = 1

Description

(default) the most recent antenna altitude is used in altitude hold position fix. The altitude is taken from either the altitude entered by the $PASHS,ALT command, or the last one computed when VDOP is less than VDOP mask.

always use the altitude entered by $PASHS,ALT command.

Example: Fix altitude to always use the entered altitude.

$PASHS,FIX,1 <Enter>

FLS: Receiver File Information

$PASHQ,FLS,d

This command requests file information from the memory card, where d is the beginning file index number and can range from 0 - 99. The file index number is a sequence number where the first file has a file index = 0, the second file has a file index = 1, continuing through to the 100th file which has a file index number of 99.

The output displays files in blocks of up to 10 files. If d is greater than the highest file index number, then the command will not be acknowledged (NAK is returned).

Examples:

Display file information for files 1-10:

$PASHQ,FLS,0 <Enter>

1. Table 8.10

Commands 121

Display file information for files 6-15:

$PASHQ,FLS,5 <Enter>

If a file closure is attempted while the file system is mounting, the receiver will respond with a

$PASHR,FIL,BUSY message until the mounting procedure is complete.

$PASHR,FLS

The response message returns file size, name, and available memory information.

The response structure is shown below and definted in Table 8.11.

$PASHR,FLS,d1,d2,d3,n(s4,m5,d6) *cc<Enter>

Table 8.11. FLS Message Structure

Parameter

d1 d2 d3 n s4 m5 d6

*cc

Description

Free memory in receiver PCMCIA card in Kbytes.

Total number of files currently in the receiver.

Number of files that match the query parameter and are displayed in the response.

Number of files displayed (f3)

File 4-character site name.

Time of last epoch recorded in the file, in the format wwwwdhhmm, where: wwww = the GPS week number d= day in the week (1-7) hhmm = hours and minutes

Size of the file in Kbytes checksum

122 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

Example:

$PASHR,FLS,000003,003,03,SIT1,095641850,001666,SIT2,095721707,

000187,SIT3,095721803,000051*2A <Enter>

Table 8.12. Typical FLS Message

Item

000003

003

03

SIT1

095641850

001666

SIT2

095721707

000187

SIT3

095721803

000051

2A

Significance

3 kb left on the Pc card (i.e., Pc card is full)

3 sessions total on the card

3 sessions listed in the message

Site name of 1st session listed

GPS week 0956, day 4 (Wednesday) at 18:50 (6:50 pm)

1.666 MByte of data on that session

Site name of the 2nd session listed

GPS week 0957, day 2 (Monday) at 17:07 (5:07 pm)

187 KByte of data on that session

Site name of 3rd session listed

GPS week of 0957, day 2 (Monday) at 18:03 (6:03 pm)

51 KByte of data on that session checksum

FSS: File System Status

$PASHQ,FSS,c

This command queries the status of PCMCIA data card where c is the optional output port. This command can be used to check the file system mounting progress when a new data card is inserted in the receiver, as well as the number of files on the card and which file is currently active.

Example: Query file system status and direct output to port B:

$PASHQ,FSS,B <Enter>

Commands 123

$PASHR,FSS

The FSS response message returns the number of files on the disk, the index number of the currently active file, and percent completion of the file system mounting, plus some reserved parameters for internal use only. The response is in the form:

$PASHR,FSS,h1,d2,d2,d3,d4,d5,d6*cc

where the parameters are as defined in Table 8.13.

Table 8.13. FSS Message Structure

Parameter

d5 d6

*cc h1 d2 d3 d4

Description

Reserved

Reserved

Reserved

File index of current active file (999 = no file active)

Total number of files on the PC card

File system mounting status (% complete)

Checksum

Range

4-digit hex

2 digit

2 digit

0-099, 999

001-100

0-100

HDP: HDOP Mask

$PASHS,HDP,d

Set value of HDOP mask, where d is a number between 0 and 99 (default =4).

Example: Set HDOP mask to 6:

$PASHS,HDP,6 <Enter>

124 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

INF: Set Session Information

Sets a variety of session information parameters. The structure is shown below and

defined in Table 8.14 .

$PASHS,INF,c1,s2,s3,s4,s5,s6,f7,d8,d9,d10,d11

Table 8.14. INF Parameter Table s5 s6 f7 d8 d9 d10 d11

Parameter

c1 s2 s3 s4

Description

Session name

Receiver serial number

Antenna serial number

Month and day of the session (mmdd)

Operator identification,

User comment

Antenna height in meters

Dry temperature in degrees Celsius

Wet temperature in degrees Celsius

Relative humidity in percent

Barometric pressure in millibars

Range

1 alphanumeric char

3 alphanumeric char

3 alphanumeric char

01-12 month

01-31 day

3 alphanumeric characters up to 9 alphanumeric characters

0.0000 - 64.0000

-99 - +99

-99 - + 99

0 - 99

0 - 9999

Example: Set session parameters:

$PASHS,INF,A,325,401,0313,DWK,Test-Proj,1.456,65,60,65,1010 <Enter>

$PASHQ,INF,c

Query the survey session parameters, where c is the optional output port.

Example: Query session parameters to the current port:

$PASHQ,INF <Enter>

$PASHR,INF

The response message is in the form shown below and defined in Table 8.15.

$PASHR,INF,f1,d2,d3,d4,c5,d6,d7,s8,c9,s10,s11,s12,s13,s14,f15,d16, d17,d18,d19,f20,d21,d22,d23,d24 *cc <Enter>

Commands 125

Table 8.15. INF Message Structure

Return

Parameter

s13 s14 f15 d16 c9 s10 s11 s12 c5 d6 d7 s8 f1 d2 d3 d4 d21 d22 d23 d24

*cc d17 d18 d19 f20

Description Range

Data recording interval in seconds

Minimum number of SV for data recording

Satellite elevation angle mask for data recording

Data type recorded

Recording data switch

Minimum number of SV for kinematic alarm

Number of epochs to go for kinematic survey

Site name

0.1 - 999

0 - 9

0 - 90

0, 2, 4

Y or N

0, 4 - 9

0 - 999

4 alphanumeric characters

Session name

Receiver number

Antenna number

Month and day of the session (mmdd)

1 alpha-numeric character

3 alphanumeric character

3 alphanumeric character

1 - 12 month/1 - 31 day

Operator identification

User comment

3 alpha-numeric character

9 alpha-numeric character

Antenna height before data collection 0.0000 - 64.0000

Dry temperature before data collection (degrees celsius).

±99

Wet temperature before data collection (degrees celsius)

Relative humidity before data collection (percent)

Barometric pressure before data collection (millibars)

Antenna height after data collection (meters)

Dry temperature after data collection (degrees celsius)

Wet temperature after data collection (degrees celsius)

Relative humidity after data collection (percent)

Barometric pressure after data collection (millibars)

Checksum

±99

0 - 99

0 - 9999

0.0000 - 64.0000

±99

±99

0 - 99

0 - 9999

126 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

INI: Receiver Initialization

$PASHS,INI

The INI command resets the receiver memory, sets the serial port baud rate to the specified rates, and/or sends the modem initialization string through the specified port. The structure is

$PASHS,INI,d1,d2,d3,d4,d5,c6, where the parameters

are as defined in Table 8.16.

Table 8.16. INI Parameter Description Table

Parameter Description Range* Default

d1 d2 d3 d4

Port A baud rate code

Port B baud rate code

Port C baud rate code

Port D baud rate code

0-9

0-9

0-9

0-9

5

5

5

5 d5 c6

Reset Memory Code

Modem initialization

Port, 0 = No initialization

0-3

A-D, 0 n/a n/a

* Refer to Table 8.17 for baud rate and Table 8.18 for reset memory codes.

Table 8.17. Baud Rate Codes

Code

0

1

2

3

4

Baud Rate

300

600

1200

2400

4800

Code Baud Rate

5

6

7

8

9

9600

19200

38400

57600

115200

Commands 127

Table 8.18. Reset Memory Codes

Reset Memory

Code

2

3

0

1

Action

No memory reset

Reset internal memory/battery back-up memory

Reset/reformat PCMCIA card

Reset internal memory and PCMCIA card

The reset memory codes 0 and 2 behave like a power cycle. Any parameters not saved with the

$PASHS,SAV command are lost. Code 1 and 3 reset all parameters to default as well as the ephemeris and almanac (i.e., creates a cold start). Code 2 and 3 reformat the data card by clearing the FAT table and directory structure.

ION: Set Ionospheric Model

$PASHS,ION,c

Enable or disable the ionospheric model to compensate for ionospheric and tropospheric delay in the position computation, where c is either N (disable) or Y

(enable). Default is N (disable).

Example: Enable ionospheric model:

$PASHS,ION,Y <Enter>

ION: Query Ionospheric Parameters

$PASHQ,ION,c

Query current ionosphere data information through port c, where c is the optional output port and is not required to direct the response message to the current communication port.

The ionosphere data is not computed by the receiver. It is obtained from the frame data transmitted by the satellites.

Example: Query the ionosphere parameters to port C:

$PASHQ,ION,C <Enter>

128 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

float float float float float float float float double double unsigned long short short short short short short unsigned long short unsigned long short total =

$PASHR,ION

Ionosphere and GPS-to-UTC data conversion parameters. See ICD-GPS-200 for the definition and the description of the model.

The format is $PASHR,ION,<ION Structure> <Enter>, where the structure is as

defined in Table 8.19.

Table 8.19. ION Message Structure

Type

Size

(Bytes)

2

2

2

8

4

2

4

4

8

4

4

2

76

2

4

2

2

4

4

4

4

4

Contents

α

0. Ionspheric parameter(seconds)

α1

. Ionspheric parameter (sec. per semicircle)

α2

. Ionspheric parameter (sec. per semicircle)

α

3. Ionspheric parameter (sec. per semicircle)

β0. Ionspheric parameter (seconds)

β1. Ionspheric parameter (sec. per semicircle)

β2. Ionspheric parameter (sec. per semicircle)

β3. Ionspheric parameter (sec. per semicircle)

A1.First order terms of polynomial

A0. Constant terms of polynomial tot. Reference time for UTC data

Wnt. UTC reference week number

∆tLS. GPS-UTC differences at reference time

WNLSF. week number when leap second became effective

DN. day number when leap second became effective

∆tLSF. Delta time between GPS and UTC after correction

WN. GPS week number tow. Time of the week (in seconds) bulwn. GPS week number when message was read bultow. Time of the week when message was read

Word checksum

Commands 129

LPS: Loop Tracking

$PASHS,LPS

Sets user-selectable third-order loop tracking parameters. The structure is

$PASHS,LPS,d1,d2,d3

where d1 is the 3rd order ratio of the carrier loop, d2 is the carrier loop parameter, and d3 is the code loop parameter (see $PASHR,LPS below for more information). Loop setting allows the user to select the tracking loop parameters based on the application. The receiver uses default values until another setting is selected. The user settings are saved in battery-backed memory if the $PASHS,SAV,Y command is issued afterwards and are used until a new setting is selected, or the memory is cleared. The default is 1, 2, 3.

Table 8.20. LPS Message Structure

Parameter

d1 d2 d3

Description Range

3rd order loop ratio

Carrier loop parameter (related to the noise bandwidth of the loop)

Code loop parameter (related to the noise bandwidth of the loop)

00 - 10

0 - 2nd order only

1 - ratio of 0.1 (low acceleration)

10 - ratio of 1 (high acceleration)

1 -

ω0 = 10 Hz (static)

2 -

ω0 = 25 Hz (low dynamics)

3 -

ω0 = 50 Hz (high dynamics)

1 -

ω0 = 0.05 Hz

2 -

ω0 = 0.1 Hz

3 -

ω0 = 0.2 Hz

Example: Change loop parameters to ratio 0.2 and carrier bandwidth 10 Hz:

$PASHS,LPS,2,1,3 <Enter>

$PASHQ,LPS,c

Query tracking loop setting, where c is the optional output port and is not required to direct the response to the current port.

$PASHR,LPS

The response is in the form:

$PASHR,LPS,d1,d2,d3*cc <Enter>

where d1-d3 are as described in Table 8.20.

130 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

LTZ: Set Local Time Zone

$PASHS,LTZ,d1,d2

Set local time zone value, where d1 is the number of hours that should be added to the local time to match GMT time and d2 is the number of minutes; minutes have the same sign as d1. The d1 value is negative for east longitude, and the range is 0 to 13.

The setting is displayed by NMEA message ZDA.

Example: Set local time zone to East 7 hours, 20 minutes:

$PASHS,LTZ,-7,-20 <Enter>

MDM: Set Modem Parameters

$PASHS,MDM

This command sets modem parameters. The structure is

$PASHS,MDM,s1,c2,d3,d4,CFG,s5,MOD,s6,NAM,s7,D2C,s8,C2D,s9

where the parameters are as defined in Table 8.21.

Table 8.21. MDM Setting Parameters and Descriptions

Setting Parameter Description

s1 c2 d3

Switch to set modem in use flag on or off

Serial port that modem connect to

Modem type index:

0 - US Robotics Sportster

1 - Telebit WorldBlazer

2 - Telebit TrailBlazer

3 - Telebit CellBlazer

4 - User defined

Baud Rate Index Code (see

Table 8.22

)

Modem configuration initialization string d4 [optional]

CFG,s5 [optional]

MOD,s6 [optional] Modem configuration mode used

NAM,s7 [optional] Modem name

D2C,s8 [optional]

C2D,s9 [optional]

Data to command mode escape string

Command to data mode string

Range

ON/OFF

A - D

0 - 4

3 - 8

96 bytes

16 bytes

40 bytes

16 bytes

16 bytes

Default

Off

B

0

7

Commands 131

Table 8.22. Baud Rate Codes

Code

2

3

0

1

4

Baud Rate

300

600

1200

2400

4800

Code Baud Rate

7

8

5

6

9

9600

19200

38400

57600

115200

All s-parameter optional settings are user defined modem settings and can be entered in any order and with any combination of these settings. If the baud rate index code in not entered, the default baud rate (7=38400) is used.

Example: Send all parameters for user modem:

$PASHS,MDM,ON,B,4,6,CFG,ATS111=255S45=255S51=252S58=250=1&

D2&C1X12E0Q0&W\r\n,MOD,AT&F1\r\n,NAM,US-ROBOTICS,

D2C,+++AT, C2D,ATO\r\n <Enter>

Example: Send only mode and data to command escape string and default baud rates:

$PASHS,MDM,ON,B,4,MOD,AT&F1\r\n,D2C,+++AT <Enter>

$PASHQ,MDM,c

Query current modem parameter settings, where c is the output port and is not required to direct the response message to the current communication port.

Example: Query modem setting to the current port:

$PASHQ,MDM <Enter>

$PASHR,MDM

The return message is in the form shown below and described in Table 8.23.

$PASHR,MDM,c1,d2,s3,d4,s5,s6,s7,s8*cc <Enter>

132 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

d4 s5 s6 s7 s8

*cc

Table 8.23. MDM Message Structure

Return

Parameter

c1 d2 s3

Description

Receiver port assigned for modem connection

Baud rate code

Modem status

Range

‘A’ - ‘D’

3 - 8

‘ON’/’OFF’/’INITOK’/

’SYNC’/’ESCAPE’

0-4 Modem type index

User defined initialization string

User defined modem configuration mode

User defined data to command escape string

User defined command to data string

Byte-wise XOR checksum begin with ‘P’ 2-byte hex

MDM,INI: Initialize Modem Communication

$PASHS,MDM,INI

The $PASHS,MDM,INI command establishes communication between the modem and the receiver. This command must be run to initiate modem communication after modem parameters have been set using the $PASHS,MDM command.

Example: Initialize modem communication:

$PASHS,MDM,INI <Enter>

$PASHR,MDM,INI

If the initialization is successful the response message is in the form:

$PASHR,MDM,INI,OK*cc <Enter>

If the initialization is not successful, the response message is in the form:

$PASHR,MDM,INI,FAIL*cc <Enter>

Commands 133

MET: Meteorological Meters Setup

$PASHQ,MET,c

Query meteorological meter setup, where c is the optional output port and is not required to direct the response to the current port.

The response message is in the form:

MET METER PARAMETERS SETTINGS

PRTA:OFF INIT_STR:NO TRIG_CMD:*0100P9 INTVL:0005

PRTB:OFF INIT_STR:NO TRIG_CMD:*0100P9 INTVL:0005

PRTC:OFF INIT_STR:NO TRIG_CMD:*0100P9 INTVL:0005

PRTD:OFF INIT_STR:NO TRIG_CMD:*0100P9 INTVL:0005

MET,CMD: Meteorological Meters Trigger String

$PASHS,MET,CMD,c,s

Set meteorological meters trigger string, where c is the output port and s is the trigger

string, as defined in Table 8.24.

Table 8.24. MET,CMD Message Structure

Parameter

c s

Description Range

Serial port connected to the meteorological meters A - D

Trigger string of meteorological meters excluding the starting '*' sign Limited to 20 alphanumeric characters

Example: Set *9900XY to the MET CMD field:

$PASHS,MET,CMD,C,9900XY <Enter>

134 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

MET,INIT: Meteorological Meters Initialization

$PASHS,MET,INIT,c,s

This command sets the meteorological meters initialization string, as defined in Table 8.25.

Table 8.25. MET,INIT Message Structure

Parameter

c s

Description Range

Serial port connected to meteorological meters

Initialization string of meteorological meters excluding the starting '*' sign

A - D

Limited to 20 alphanumeric characters

Example: Set *9900ID to the INIT STRING_MET field:

$PASHS,MET,INIT,A,9900ID <Enter>

MET,INTVL : Meteorological Meters Interval

$PASHS,MET,INTVL,c,d

Set the interval for the query of the meteorological meters, as defined in Table 8.26.

Table 8.26. MET,INTVL Message Structure

Parameter

c d

Description

Serial port connected to meteorological meters

Sample interval for meteorological meters

Range

A - D

5-9999 sec (default = 5)

Example: Set 10 to the MET SAMPLE field

$PASHS,MET,INTVL,D,10 <Enter>

Commands 135

MST: Minimum SVs for Kinematic Survey

$PASHS,MST,d

Sets the minimum number of satellites required for kinematic survey, where d is that

number (Table 8.27). If the number of satellites locked is below that minimum, an

audible alarm sounds. The alarm is disabled only if you acknowledge (press any key), not if enough satellites are tracked again.

Table 8.27. MST Parameter

Parameter

d

Description Range

Min. number of satellites required for kinematic survey. 0 = disable alarm 0, 4 - 9

Default

0

Example: Set minimum number of satellites to 5:

$PASHS,MST,5 <Enter>

MSV: Minimum SVs for Data Recording

$PASHS,MSV,d

Sets the minimum number of satellites required for measurement data to be output and/or recorded, where d is a number between 1 and 9. Default is 3.

Example: Set minimum satellites to 4:

$PASHS,MSV,4 <Enter>

OUT,MET: Start Meteorological Meters Process

$PASHS,OUT,c,MET,s

Start/stop processing of meteorological meters. The receiver first initializes the meters and then regularly queries them at the interval requested, where c is the port

the meteorological meters is connected to, and s is ON or OFF, as defined in Table

8.28.

Table 8.28. OUT,MET Message Structure

Parameter

c s

Description

Serial port connected to meteorological meters.

Enable /disable meteorological meters processing

Range

A - D

ON / OFF

136 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

Example: Start meteorological meter on port B:

$PASHS,OUT,B,MET,ON <Enter>

OUT, TLT: Start Tiltmeter Process

$PASHS,OUT,c,TLT,s

Start/stop the processing of the tiltmeters. The receiver first initializes the meters and then regularly queries them at the interval requested, where c is the port the tiltmeters

is connected to, and s is ON or OFF, as defined in Table 8.29.

Table 8.29. OUT,TLT Message Structure

Parameter

c s

Description

Serial port connected to the tiltmeter

Enable /disable tiltmeter processing

Range

A - D

ON / OFF

Example: Start tiltmeter on port B:

$PASHS,OUT,B,TLT,ON <Enter>

PAR: Query Receiver Parameters

$PASHQ,PAR,c

Query general receiver parameters, where c is the optional output port and is not required to direct the response message to the current communication port. This query shows the status of most of the general receiver parameters.

Example: Query the receiver parameters:

$PASHQ,PAR <Enter>

Commands 137

The response message is in a table format. A typical response message might be:

SVS:YYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY

PMD:0 FIX:0 ION:N UNH:N PDP:40 HDP:04 VDP:04 FUM:N FZN:01 TAG:ASH

DIF_RTCM MODE: OFF PRT:A NMEA_PER:001.0 PEM:10 PPO:N SAV:N ANR:CPD

SEM_STA: OFF SEM:?? FST_AZIM:??? SND_AZIM:??? ZEN_PEM:90

LAT:00:00.0000000N LON:000:00.0000000W ALT:+00000.000

NMEA:GLL GXP GGA VTG GSN ALM MSG DAL GSA GSV TTT RRE GRS UTM POS SAT

PRTA:OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF

PRTB:OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF

PRTC:OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF

PRTD:OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF

NMEA:XDR GDC RMC PTT ZDA DPO DCR CRT GST

PRTA:OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF

PRTB:OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF

PRTC:OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF

PRTD:OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF

Table 8.30 lists all of the above fields in alphabetic order. The description of the field is

given along with the set command to modify them.

Table 8.30. PAR Parameter Table

Return

Parameter

ALT

ANR

DIF_RTCM

MODE

Description/Related Command

Altitude of antenna

$PASHS,POS or $PASHS,ALT

Antenna reduction mode

$PASHS,ANR

RTCM differential mode

$PASHS,RTC

FIX

Range

±0-99999.999

ON/OFF/CPD

Unit

meter n/a

OFF

BAS (Base) REM

(Remote) n/a

0, 1 n/a

FST_AZIM

FUM

FZN

HDP

Altitude hold fix mode

$PASHS,FIX

First azimuth setting of secondary elevation mask’

$PASHS,SEM

Fix UTM zone

$PASHS,FUM

UTM zone held fixed

$PASHS,FZN

Horizontal Dilution Of Precision mask

$PASHS,HDP

0 - 360

Y/N

1-60

0 - 99 degree n/a n/a n/a

138 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

Table 8.30. PAR Parameter Table (continued)

Return

Parameter

Description/Related Command

ION

LAT

LON

Enable ionospheric and tropospheric model.

$PASHS,ION

Latitude of the antenna position

$PASHS,POS

Longitude of the antenna position

$PASHS,POS

NMEA message type for output NMEA

PDP

PEM

Position Dilution of Precision mask

$PASHS,PDP

Position elevation mask.

$PASHS,PEM

NMEA_PER NMEA message output period

$PASHS,NME,PER

PMD Position mode for the minimum number of satellites required to compute a position fix.

$PASHS,PMD

PPO

PRTA, PRTB,

PRTC, PRTD

Output to port A/B/C/D

$PASHS,NME

PRT

Point Positioning

$PASHS, PPO

SAV

Port sending or receiving differential corrections

$PASHS,RTC

Save parameters in the battery-backed-up memory.

$PASHS,SAV

SEM Secondary elevation mask

$PASHS,SEM

SEM_STA

Y/N

0 - 90 N/S

0 - 180 E/W

0 -99

0 - 90

0.1 - 999

0 - 3

Y/N

ON, OFF

A - D

Y/N

Range Unit

n/a degree

-minute degree

-minute n/a n/a degree second n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a

0 - 90

?? when

SEM_STA = OFF

ON, OFF n/a n/a

SND_AZIM

SVS

TAG

UNH

Secondary elevation mask

$PASHS,SEM

Second azimuth setting of secondary elevation mask

Satellites which the receiver will attempt to acquire

$PASHS,SVS

NMEA format setting

$PASHS,TAG

Use unhealthy satellites for position computation.

$PASHS,UNH

0 - 360

Y/N

ASH, V23, V30

Y/N degree n/a n/a

Commands 139

Table 8.30. PAR Parameter Table (continued)

Return

Parameter

VDP

ZEN_PEM

Description/Related Command

Vertical Dilution Of Precision (VDOP) mask

$PASHS,VDP

Zenith elevation mask setting of position elevation mask

$PASHS,PEM

0 - 99

0 - 90

Range Unit

n/a degree

PDP: PDOP Mask

$PASHS,PDP,d

Set the value of the PDOP mask to d, where d is a number between 0 and 99.

Position is not computed if the PDOP exceeds the PDOP mask. The default is 40.

Example: Set PDOP mask to 20:

$PASHS,PDP,20 <Enter>

PEM: Position Elevation Mask

$PASHS,PEM,d1,[d2]

Sets elevation mask for position computation, where d1 is the primary position elevation mask, and d2 is an optional zenith position elevation mask. Both d1 and d2 may be set to any value between 0 and 90 degrees, although d1 must be less than d2. The default for the primary position elevation mask is 10 degrees. The default for the zenith position elevation mask is 90 degrees.

Example: Set primary position elevation mask to 15 degrees

$PASHS,PEM,15 <Enter>

Example: Set primary position elevation mask to 15 degrees, and zenith position elevation mask to 80 degrees:

$PASHS,PEM,15,80 <Enter>

140 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

PHE: Photogrammetry Edge (Event Marker Edge)

$PASHS,PHE,c

Sets the photogrammetry time tag to the rising or falling edge of the pulse. The Event

Marker receiver option (E) must be installed for this command to work (Table 8.31).

Table 8.31. PHE Parameter Table

Parameter

c

Description

Direction of photogrammetry edge

Range

R - rising (default)

F - falling

Example: Set the photogrammetry edge to the falling edge:

$PASHS,PHE,F <Enter>

$PASHQ,PHE,c

Query photogrammetry edge setting, where c is the output port and is not required to send the output message to the current communication port.

Example: Query photogrammetry edge setting to port C:

$PASHQ,PHE,C <Enter>

$PASHR,PHE

The response message is in the form shown below and defined in Table 8.32.

$PASHR,PHE,c*cc <Enter>

Table 8.32. PHE Message Structure

Return Parameter

c

*cc

Description Range

Photogrammetry edge R - rising

F - falling

Checksum N/A

Commands 141

PJT: Log Project Data

$PASHS,PJT,c1s2s3s4s5s6

This command allows you to enter project data related to station occupation. This

information appears in the S-file and the $PASHQ,INF query, as defined in Table 8.33.

Table 8.33. PJT Parameter Table

Parameter

c1 s2 s3 s4

Description

Session

Receiver ID

Antenna ID

Month and Day (mmdd) s5 s6

Operator Initials

Comment

Range

1 character alphanumeric

3 character alphanumeric

3 character alphanumeric mm = 01-12 dd = 01-31

3 character alphanumeric

9 character alphanumeric

There are no commas between parameters.

Example: Set project data with the following settings:

• Session = A

• Receiver ID = 123

• Antenna ID = 456

• Month and Day = July 12th (0712)

• Operator Initials = DWR

• Comment = TESTPROJ

$PASHS,PJT,A1234560712DWRTESTPROJ

PMD: Position Mode

$PASHS,PMD,d

Set position mode for minimum number of SVs required to compute a position fix,

where d = 0, 1, 2, or 3, as described in Table 8.34. The default is 0.

142 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

Table 8.34. PMD Parameter Table

Parameter

d = 0 d = 1 d = 2 d = 3

Description

Minimum of 4 SVs needed (e.g., for 3-D)

Default, minimum of 3 SVs needed; with 3 SVs, altitude is held (2-D); with 4 or more, altitude is not held (3-D)

Minimum of 3 SVs needed; altitude always held (always 2-D)

Minimum of 3 SVs needed; with 3 SVs, altitude is always held; with 4 SVs, altitude is held only if HDOP is greater than HDOP mask (2-D), otherwise 3-D

Example: Set min SVs required for position computation to 4:

$PASHS,PMD,0 <Enter>

POS: Set Antenna Position

$PASHS,POS,m1,c2,m3,c4,f5

Sets the position of the antenna used in differential base mode.

Table 8.35. POS Parameter Table

Parameter

m1 c2 m3 c4 f5

Description

Latitude in degrees, decimal minutes (ddmm.mmmmmmm)

North (N) or South (S)

Longitude in degrees, decimal minutes (dddmm.mmmmmmm)

East (E) or West (W)

Ellipsoidal height in meters

Range

0 - 90.0

N, S

0 - 180.0

E, W

+0 - 99999.999

Example: Set antenna position

$PASHS,POS,3722.2912135,N,12159.7998217,W,15.25 <Enter><Enter>

Commands 143

POW: Battery Parameters

$PASHS,POW,d1,d2,f3

The POW command allows you to enter parameters associated with the external battery. The query and response will use those parameters to compute the approximate amount of available time left on the battery.

Table 8.36. POW Parameter Table

Parameter

d1 d2 f3

Description

battery capacity in mAh battery capacity in percent (percent charged) battery voltage

Range

500 - 10000

0-100

10.0 - 28.0

Example: Set the POW parameters of a 12 volt battery with a capacity of 5000 mAh that is 100% charged.

$PASHS,POW,5000,100,12.0 <Enter>

$PASHQ,POW,c

The POW query command requests current available battery power data, where c is the optional port to which the response will be sent. For external battery, the available battery power displayed in the response is computed from the battery parameters entered and the amount of time the receiver has been on after they were entered. For internal battery, it is read from the smart battery, no $PASHS,POW is required in that case.

$PASHR,POW,d1,d2,d3,f4*cc <Enter>

Table 8.37. POW Message Structure

Parameter

d1 d2 d3 f4

*cc

Description Unit

Battery capacity (time) minutes

Capacity remaining minutes

Battery capacity (power) mAh

Battery voltage volts

Checksum n/a

The data shown for the external battery is estimated based on user entered parameters. The user should re-enter the battery parameters after clearing the receiver’s internal memory. The data displayed for the internal battery is the direct reading from the smart battery.

144 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

PPO: Point Positioning

$PASHS,PPO,c

Enable/disable point positioning mode, where c is either Y (enable) or N (disable).

Point positioning is an averaging algorithm that will improve the stand alone accuracy of a static point after about 4 hours.

Table 8.38. PPO Parameter Table

Parameter

c

Description

Enable/disable point position mode

Range

Y/N

Example: Enable point positioning

$PASHS,PPO,Y

PPS: Pulse Per Second

$PASHS,PPS,d1,f2,c3

The receiver generates PPS pulse with programmable period and offset with respect to GPS time. The PPS set command allows the user to change the period and the offset of the pulse, and to either synchronize the rising edge of the pulse with GPS time, or synchronize the falling edge of the pulse with GPS time. PPS is generated by default once every second with its rising edge synchronized to GPS time and no offset.

Table 8.39. PPS Message Structure

Parameter

d1 f2 c3

Description

period offset rising edge or falling edge

Range Units

0-60 Second

±999.9999

Milliseconds

R / F n/a

The period set to 0 will disable the PPS output. Between 0 and 1, the period can be set in increments of 0.1. Between 1 and 60, the period can be set in increments of 1.

Commands 145

Example: Set PPS to a period of 2 seconds, a offset of 500ms, and synchronize the rising edge of the pulse with GPS time.

$PASHS,PPS,2,+500,R <Enter>

$PASHQ,PPS,c

Query PPS parameter where c is the output port. Note that c is not required to direct the response message to the current communication port.

Example: Query PPS parameters to port A.

$PASHQ,PPS,A <Enter>

$PASHR,PPS

The response is in the form:

$PASHR,PPS,d1,f2,c3*cc <Enter>

where Table 8.40 defines the structure:

Table 8.40. PPS Response Structure d1 f2 c3 cc

Parameter Description

Period. Range from 0 to 60.0

Offset, Range from -999.9999 to +999.9999

Edge, R = rising edge or F = falling edge

Checksum

PRT: Port Setting

$PASHQ,PRT,c

Display the baud rate setting for the connected communication port where c is the optional output port. Note that to direct the response message to the current communication port, c is not required.

Example: Query the baud rate of the current port.

$PASHQ,PRT <Enter>

$PASHR,PRT

146 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

The response is a message in the format:

$PASHR,PRT,c1,d2*cc <Enter>

Table 8.41. PRT Response Structure

Parameter

c1 d2

*cc

Description Range

Serial port A - D

Baud rate code 0 - 9 (See table below)

Checksum n/a

Table 8.42. Baud Rate Codes

Code Baud Rate Code

0

1

2

3

4

300

600

1200

2400

4800

5

6

7

8

9

Baud

Rate

9600

19200

38400

56800

115200

PWR: Sleep Mode

$PASHS,PWR,off

Direct the receiver to immediately go into sleep mode. Once a receiver is in sleep mode, any character issued through any port will restore normal operation.

Example: Put receiver into sleep mode

$PASHS,PWR,OFF <Enter>

This command doesn’t apply to ZXW-Eurocard since the power supply is external to the board.

Commands 147

RCI: Recording Interval

$PASHS,RCI,f1

Set the value of the interval for data recording and raw data output, where f1 is any value between 0.1 and 999. Values between 0.1 and 1 can increment in 0.1 secs.

Values between 1 and 999 can increment in 1 second. The default is 20.0.

Example: Set recording interval to 5 seconds

$PASHS,RCI,5 <Enter>

If the fast data option (F) is not installed, the setting 0.1 second is not available. All other settings

(0.2 to 999) are available except 0.7 which is never available.

When running the receiver in 5Hz RTK mode (H option required), if the Fast Data option (F) is installed you will be allowed to set the RCI parameter to 0.1 second but will only receive solution output at 0.2-second intervals.

REC: Data Recording

$PASHS,REC,c

Data recording switch that turns data recording to either Yes, No, Stop, or Restart.

Yes and No are used to enable/disable data recording. The default is Yes. Stop is used prior to removing a PCMCIA card from the receiver while the receiver is recording data. This will prevent any corruption of the data files on the PCMCIA card.

When the same or another PCMCIA card is inserted into the receiver, the receiver will automatically restart data recording. The Restart command is necessary to restart data recording only if the Stop command is used, but the PCMCIA card is not actually removed.

See $PASHQ,RAW command for the various states this parameter can take internally.

Table 8.43. REC Message Structure

Setting Parameter

c

Description

’Y’ Record data

‘N’ Do not record data

‘S’ Stop data recording

‘R’ Restart data recording

Range

’Y’ / ‘N’ / ‘S’ / ‘R’

Example: Disable recording data

148 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

$PASHS,REC,N <Enter>

REC,N will disable recording but will not close the session. Whenever REC,Y is issued, recording will resume in the same session. REC,S will close the session, and a new session will be created if

REC,R is used or if the card is reinserted.

RID: Receiver ID

$PASHQ,RID,c

Request information about the receiver type, firmware and available options, where c is the optional output port.

Example: Query the current port for receiver identification

$PASHQ,RID <Enter>

$PASHR,RID

The return message is in the form shown below and defined in Table 8.44.

$PASHR,RID,s1,d2,s3,s4,s5*cc <Enter>

Table 8.44. RID Message Structure s4 s5

*cc

Return Parameter

s1 d2 s3

Description

Receiver type

Channel option

Codeless option nav firmware version

Receiver options boot version

UZ

Range

3 (C/A, PL1, P L2)

0

4 char string

Refer to Table 1.2.

4 char string

Example:

$PASHR,RID,UZ,30,ZE24,BUEXMFT3JKI-H-Y,1A01*5C

Commands 149

RNG: Data Type

$PASHS,RNG,d

Sets data recording mode where d is the desired data type (Table 8.45).

Table 8.45. RNG Data Modes

Parameter

d

Description Range

Data recording mode

0 - creates B-file that includes carrier phase, code phase and position data

2 - creates a C-file with smoothed positions only

4 - creates both a B-file and a C-file

0, 2, 4

Example: Set data recording mode to 2

$PASHS,RNG,2 <Enter>

RST: Reset Receiver to default

$PASHS,RST

Reset the receiver parameters to their default values. The RST command reset all parameters except the POW, MET, TLT, and MDM command parameters, including the baud rate of the modem port. For more information on default values, see the

Operations Section.

Example: Reset receiver parameters

$PASHS,RST <Enter>

CAUTION

Ensure that 110 millisecond delay occurs before a new set command is issued.

150 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

RTR: Real-Time Error

$PASHR,RTR

This is an unsolicited response message that the receiver sends when a runtime error occurs. The response is an unsigned hex long word bitmap with the bit assignment

listed in Table 8.46 indicating the position computation did not converge.

The message is in the form shown below and defined in Table 8.46.

$PASHR,RTR,h*cc <Enter>

Table 8.46. RTR Message Structure

Bit #

13

Description

Autonomous position did not converge.

SAV: Save User Parameters

$PASHS,SAV,c

Enables or disables saving user parameters in memory, where c is Y (yes) or N (No).

This command saves any parameters that have been modified from their default values prior to issuing the command. User parameters are saved until commands INI or RST are issued, or until SAV is set to N and a power cycle occurs.

POW, MET, TLT, MDM, and SES-related parameters are saved automatically every time the corresponding set command is issued.

Example: Save modified user parameters.

$PASHS,SAV,Y <Enter>

$PASHQ,SAV,c

This command queries the receiver to determine if the user parameters have been saved, where c is the optional output port.

Example: Query receiver for saved user parameter status. Output the response to the current port:

$PASHQ,SAV <Enter>

$PASHR,SVS

The response message is in the form:

$PASHR,SAV,c1 *cc

where c1 is either Y (parameters saved) or N (parameters not saved).

Commands 151

SEM: Secondary Elevation Mask

$PASHS,SEM,d1,d2,d3

Sets the secondary elevation mask for position computation, where d1 is the secondary elevation mask angle, d2 is the first azimuth defining the secondary sector, and d3 is the second azimuth defining the secondary sector. The secondary elevation mask only affects position computation and has no effect on data recording or raw data output. The default is OFF.

Example: Set secondary elevation mask to a mask angle of 50 degrees between azimuth 30 degrees and 60 degrees:

$PASHS,SEM,50,30,60<Enter>

To disable the secondary elevation mask, enter the command

$PASHS,SEM,OFF <Enter>

SES: Session Programming

$PASHS,SES,PAR,c1,d2,d3

Set session programming parameters, where c1 sets the session mode, d2 and d3

set the reference day and daily offset (Table 8.47). The reference day must be equal

to or less than the current day for session programming to operate. Issue the

$PASHS,SES,SET command to program individual sessions.

Table 8.47. SES,PAR Message Structure

Setting Parameter

c1 d2 d3

Description

Session in use

Y = Yes

N = No

S = Sleep Mode

Session reference day

Session offset (mm:ss)

Range

Y or N or S

1-366

0-59

Example: Enable session programming parameters with 4-minute daily offset to keep track of the daily change of the GPS satellite configuration.

$PASHS,SES,PAR,Y,121,0400 <Enter>

$PASHS,SES,SET,c1,c2,d3,d4,f5,d6,d7,d8

152 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

Set the individual sessions for session programming. This command will set a single

session. Up to 10 sessions may be programmed (Table 8.48). This command must be

used with $PASHS,SES,PAR.

Table 8.48. SES,SET Message Structure

Parameter

c1 c2

Description

Session name

Session flag d3 d4 f5 d6 d7 d8

Session start time (hhmmss)

Session end time (hhmmss)

Session record interval

Session elevation Mask

Session min SV

Session data type

Range

A-Z

Y = Yes

N = No hh = 0-23 mm = ss = 0-59 hh = 0 - 23 mm = ss = 0 - 59

0.1 - 999

0 - 90

1 - 9

0, 2, or 4

Example: Set a session starting at 0100 that will run for 2 hours.

$PASHS,SES,SET,A,Y,010000,030000,10.0,10,3,0 <Enter>

If sleep mode is enabled, the receiver will automatically power on 2 minutes prior to session time to ensure all available satellites are tracked by the time recording starts.

$PASHS,SES,DEL

Clear all session programming parameters and reset to default values.

Example: Clear all session programming parameters:

$PASHS,SES,DEL<Enter>

$PASHQ,SES,c

Query session programming parameters, where c is optional output serial port.

Example: Query session programming parameters:

$PASHQ,SES <Enter>

Commands 153

Typical SES return message:

A N

B N

C N

D N

E N

.

.

.

Z N

INUSE:N

00:00 00:00 020.0

10 3 0

00:00 00:00 020.0

10 3 0

00:00 00:00 020.0

10 3 0

00:00 00:00 020.0

10 3 0

00:00 00:00 020.0

10 3 0

00:00 00:00 020.0

10 3 0

REF:000 OFFSET:00.00 TODAY:000

Table 8.49 lists the SES parameters in alphabetic order:

Table 8.49. SES Message Structure

Return

Parameter

1st column

2nd column

3rd column

4th column

5th column

6th column

7th column

8th column

INUSE

REF

OFFSET

TODAY

Description

Session Name

Session enabled flag

Session start time (hours, minutes, seconds)

Session end time (hours, minutes, seconds)

Session recording interval (seconds)

Session elevation mask

Session minimum SVs

Session data type

Session use

Session reference day

Session time offset (minutes, seconds)

Date of the year

Range

A-Z

‘Y’ / ‘N’ hh:mm:ss hh:mm:ss

0.1-999

0-90

1-9

0, 2, or 4

Y or N or S

0-366 mm:ss

0-366

154 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

$PASHQ,SSN,c

Query session programming parameters of an individual session, where c is the session letter. To query the first session, set c = A. To query the last session, set c = Z.

Example: Query session programming parameters of session D:

$PASHS,SSN,D<Enter>

$PASHR,SSN

The SSN response message is in the form shown below and defined in Table 8.50.

$PASHR,SSN,c1,d2,d3,d4,d5,d6,c7,c8,d9,d10,d11,d12,d13,d14,f15,d16,d17,d18<CR><LF>

Table 8.50. SSN Message Structure

Parameter

d13 d14 f15 d16 d9 d10 d11 d12 d17 d18 d5 d6 c7 d8 c1 d2 d3 d4

Description

In-use flag. Y=Yes, N=No, A=Active

Reference day of all programmed sessions

Offset per day (minutes)

Offset per day (seconds)

Total number of programmed sessions

Session number requested

Session letter requested

Session use flag Y = set, N = session not set

Session start time (hours)

Session start time (minutes)

Session start time (seconds)

Session end time (hours)

Session end time (minutes)

Session end time (seconds)

Epoch interval (seconds)

Elevation mask (degrees)

Minimum number of satellites for recording

Ranger mode

Range

0 - 23

0 - 60

0 - 60

0 - 23

0 - 60

0 - 60

0.1 - 999.0

0 - 89

0 - 9

0 - 2

Y, N, A

0 - 365

0 - 60

0 - 60

1 - 26

0 - 25

A - Z

Y, N

Commands 155

SID: Serial Number

$PASHQ,SID,c

Query receiver serial number and firmware timestamp, where c is the optional output port.

Example: Query receiver serial number

$PASHQ,SID <E

NTER

>

Return message:

DATE: / /

SER#:111122223333

The date field is used for backward compatibility.

SIT: Set Site Name

$PASHS,SIT,s

Sets site name where s is the 4 character site ID. Only characters that are DOS compatible are allowed (i.e., excludes “*”, “.”, “/”, and “\”. “?” will be converted to “_” in the file name).

Example: Set site name to ECC1

$PASHS,SIT,ECC1 <Enter>

SPD: Serial Port Baud Rate

$PASHS,SPD,c1,d2

Set the baud rate of the receiver serial port c1, where c1 is port A, B, C, or D and d2 is

a number between 0 and 9 specifying the baud rate as shown in Table 8.51. Default is

9600 baud.

Table 8.51. SPD Baud Rate Codes

0

1

2

Code Baud Rate

300

600

1200

Code

5

6

7

Baud Rate

9600

19200

38400

156 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

Table 8.51. SPD Baud Rate Codes (continued)

3

4

Code Baud Rate

2400

4800

Code

8

9

Baud Rate

56800

115200

To resume communication with the receiver after changing the baud rate using this command, be sure to change the baud rate of the command device.

Example:

Set port A to 19200 baud

$PASHS,SPD,A,6 <Enter>

STA: Satellite Status

$PASHQ,STA,c

Show the status of SVs currently locked, where c is the optional output serial port.

Example: Query satellite status to the current port

$PASHQ,STA <Enter>

The return message is in a free-form format. A typical response is shown below and

described in Table 8.52.

TIME : 22:20:16 UTC

LOCKED: 28 31 29 07 11 08 27 26 04 09

CA S/N : 51 49 49 47 43 48 41 48 42 39

P1 S/N : 49 49 47 48 41 45 40 47 38 38

P2 S/N : 44 44 42 43 36 40 35 42 34 33

SVELEV : 55 76 40 84 15 33 12 41 12 12

Commands 157

Table 8.52. STA Message Structure

Return

Parameter

TIME

LOCKED

CA S/N

P1 S/N

P2 S/N

SVELEV

Description Range

Current UTC time in hours, minutes, & seconds (or GPS time if GPS is indicated instead of UTC)

PRN number of all locked satellites

Signal-to-noise ratio of the C/A observable in dB Hz hh:mm:ss

1-32

30-60

Signal to noise ratio of the L1 P-code observable in dB Hz 30-60

Signal to noise ratio of the L2 P-code observable in dB Hz 30-60

Satellite elevation in degrees 0 - 90

After a cold start it can take the recevier up to 12.5 minutes to obtain UTC time; during this period,

GPS time is displayed in the TIME field.

SVS: Satellite Selection

$PASHS,SVS,c1c2c3.....c32

Select SVs that the receiver attempts to acquire, where: c = Y, SV is used (default).

c = N, SV is not used.

Up to 32 SVs may be selected. They are entered in order of PRN number. If fewer than 32 are specified the rest are set to N. Only the characters Y and N are accepted.

Example: Attempt to acquire SV 1-9; do not acquire 10,11; acquire 12, 13; do not acquire 14-32

$PASHS,SVS,YYYYYYYYYNNYYNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN <Enter>

$PASHQ,SVS,c

This command queries the receiver for the satellite selection, where c is the optional output port.

Example: Query receiver for current satellite selection. Output response to port D:

$PASHQ,SVS,D<Enter>

158 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

$PASHR,SVS

The response message is in the form:

$PASHR,SVS,YNYYYYYNYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY YY *cc

where each slot represents a PRN number from 1 to 32, and the character is either Y

(satellite selected) or N (satellite not selected). In this example, only PRN 2 and 8 have been de-selected.

TLT : Tiltmeter Set-up

$PASHQ, TLT,c

Query tiltmeter setup, where c is the optional output port and is not required to direct the response to the current port.

Response message:

TILTMETER PARAMETERS SETTINGS

PRTA:OFF INIT_STR:NO TRIG_CMD:*0100XY INTVL:0001

PRTB:OFF INIT_STR:NO TRIG_CMD:*0100XY INTVL:0001

PRTC:OFF INIT_STR:NO TRIG_CMD:*0100XY INTVL:0001

PRTD:OFF INIT_STR:NO TRIG_CMD:*0100XY INTVL:0001

TLT,CMD: Tiltmeter Trigger String

$PASHS, TLT,CMD,c,s

Set tiltmeter trigger string, where c is the output port and s is the trigger string.

Table 8.53. TLT,CMD Message Structure

Parameter

c s

Description

Serial port connected to the tiltmeter trigger string of the tiltmeter excluding the starting '*' sign

Range

A - D

Limited to 20 alphanumeric characters

Example: Set *9900XY to the TLT CMD field:

$PASHS,TLT,CMD,C,9900XY <Enter>

Commands 159

TLT,INIT : Tiltmeter Initialization

$PASHS, TLT,INIT,c,s

Set tiltmeter initialization string, where parameters are as defined in Table 8.54.

Table 8.54. TLT,INIT Message Structure

Parameter

c s

Description

Serial port connected to the tiltmeter initialization string of the tiltmeter excluding the starting '*' sign

Range

A - D

Limited to 20 alphanumeric characters

Example: Set *9900ID to the INIT STRING_ TLT field.

$PASHS,TLT,INIT,A,9900ID <Enter>

TLT,INTVL: Tiltmeter Interval

$PASHS, TLT,INTVL,c,d

Set the interval for the query of the tiltmeters, as specified in Table 8.55. .

Table 8.55. TLT,INTVL Message Structure

Parameter

c d

Description

Serial port connected to the tiltmeter sample interval for a tiltmeter

Range

A - D

1-86400 sec

(default = 1)

Example: Set the TLT SAMPLE field to 10:

$PASHS, TLT,INTVL,D,10 <Enter>

160 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

TMP: Receiver Internal Temperature

$PASHQ,TMP,c

This command queries the receiver’s internal temperature and the temperature setting at which the receiver will shut off, where c is the optional output serial port.

Example: Query current receiver temperature, and output response to port A:

$PASHQ,TMP,A <Enter>

$PASHR,TMP

The response message is in the form shown below and described in Table 8.56.

$PASHR,TMP,f1,f2*cc <Enter>

Table 8.56. TMP Message Structure

Return

Parameter

f1 f2

*cc

Description

Receiver internal temperature in degrees Celsius

Default receiver shut-off temperature in degrees Celsius checksum

Example: $PASHR,TMP,+046.50,082.00*1B <Enter>

TST:Output RTK Latency

$PASHS,TST,d

Enable/Disable the output of the RTK (fast CPD) latency as decimal part of the age of correction in the GGA message. There is no query to check this setting since it is visible in the GGA message; age of correction is an integer number when disabled, as

listed in Table 8.57.

This setting will revert to default at power-on, unless saved in battery-backed memory through the $PASHS,SAV,Y command (issued after setting the desired mode).

Table 8.57. TST Message Structure

Parameter

d

Description

220 - enable RTK latency output

221 - disable RTK latency output (default)

Commands 161

Example: Enable Fast CPD latency output:

$PASHS,TST,220 <Enter>

UNH: Unhealthy Satellites

$PASHS,UNH,c

Include unhealthy satellitess for position computation, where c is Y (yes) or N (no, default)

Example: Include unhealthy satellitess in position computation:

$PASHS,UNH,Y <Enter>

USE: Use Satellites

$PASHS,USE,d,c

Selects satellites to track or not track, where d is the PRN number of the satellite

(range from 1 to 32) or ALL for all satellites and c is Y (enable) or N (disable).

Example: Do not track satellite 14

$PASHS,USE,14,N <Enter>

VDP: VDOP Mask

$PASHS,VDP,d

Sets the value of VDOP mask, where d is between 0 and 99. The default is 4.

Example: Set VDOP to 6:

$PASHS,VDP,6 <Enter>

WAK: Warning Acknowledgment

$PASHS,WAK

This command acknowledges a warning condition (status displayed by WARN will go from CURRENT to PENDING) and will stop the receiver beep that accompanies a warning (if the beep is set to ON).

162 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

WARN: Warning Messages

$PASHQ,WARN,c

Queries the receiver for any warning messages, where c is the optional output port.

Example: Query receiver warning status:

$PASHQ,WARN <Enter>

$PASHR,WARN

The response is in the form shown below and defined in Table 8.58.

$PASHR,WARN,s1,s2*cc<Enter>

Table 8.58. WARN Message Structure

Parameter

s1 s2

Significance

Warning Message -

NONE = no warnings

Status -

Pending = has been acknowledged

Current = has not been acknowledged

Occurred = error condition has occurred but is no longer current.

Range

For a list of all warning message, refer to

Table 8.59.

‘PENDING’, ‘CURRENT’, ‘OCCURRED’

Table 8.59 lists the possible warnings the receiver may issue.

Table 8.59. Receiver Warning Messages

Warning

Int. Battery Error :

SMBus

Int. Battery Error :

Access

Battery Conditioning

Required

Low Int. Battery :

< 10 min

Definition Action

The SMBus controller

(for internal battery communication) is not working

Can not access the internal battery

Remove battery and reinsert it. If problem persists, insert a different battery. If problem still persists, contact Technical Support.

Remove battery and reinsert it. If problem persists, insert a different battery. If problem still persists, contact Technical Support.

Internal battery efficiency is down, it requires a conditioning cycle.

Perform battery reconditioning (depends on the battery, but typically means full charge, full discharge and full charge again)

Internal battery remaining life is < 10 min, the battery needs to be changed

Replace battery with a charged one.

Commands 163

164

Table 8.59. Receiver Warning Messages (continued)

Warning Definition Action

Low Ext. Battery :

< 30 min

†Data Card Error :

Access

External battery remaining life is < 30 min, the battery needs to be changed. This is only available if the user has entered the parameters of the external battery via the

$PASHS,POW command.

Replace battery with a charged one.

RAM error

Battery backed Ram

Perform a receiver initialization. If problem persists, contact Technical Support.

Perform a receiver initialization. If problem persists, contact Technical Support.

†Memory Test Error :

RAM

†Memory Test Error :

BBRAM

†Memory Test Error :

ROM

†Memory Test Error :

BOOT

ROM, i.e. Flash Perform a receiver initialization. If problem persists, contact Technical Support.

Perform a receiver initialization. If problem persists, contact Technical Support.

No Data Card Detected There is no card in the

PCMCIA drive or it cannot be detected; no recording

Insert or reinsert data card in slot.

Data Card Full

Boot section of the flash

No space left on the

PC card, therefore data recording is stopped

Replace current data card with a card containing available memory, or delete some older sessions.

Data Card Full

<5 min

Not enough space on the PC card to record more than five minutes of data under current conditions (satellite number, recording period, output information).

Replace data card with one containing available memory, or delete older sessions.

Can’t read or write to the PC card

Power cycle the receiver.

If problem persists, issue command

$PASHS,CLM (card will be reformatted and all data erased, so download data prior to issuing the CLM command).

If problem persists, replace the PC card.

ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

Table 8.59. Receiver Warning Messages (continued)

Warning Definition Action

†Data Card Error :

Update

†Data Card Error :

Create

†Data Card Error :

Rename

†Data Card Error:

Corrupted FAT

Not Receiving Base

Data

Can’t update the FAT

(file allocation table)

Power cycle the receiver.

If problem persists, issue command

$PASHS,CLM (card will be reformatted and all data erased, so download data prior to issuing the CLM command).

If problem persists, replace the PC card.

Can’t create the files for new session so we can’t record data

Power cycle the receiver.

If problem persists, issue command

$PASHS,CLM (card will be reformatted and all data erased, so download data prior to issuing the CLM command).

If problem persists, replace the PC card.

Can’t rename the files of session

Power cycle the receiver.

If problem persists, issue command

$PASHS,CLM (card will be reformatted and all data erased, so download data prior to issuing the CLM command).

If problem persists, replace the PC card.

File Allocation Table on

PCMCIA card has been corrupted and could not be recovered by the receiver.

Issue command $PASHS,CLM to reformat the card. If critical data is on the PC card, call Customer Support before issuing the

CLM comnmand to recover data.

Not receiving RTK carrier phase measurements from the base receiver

Check serial/radio link with the base. Verify that base is computing a position. Ensure a valid position was entered into the base

Not Receiving RTCM

Base Data

Not receiving RTCM code phase corrections from the base receiver

Check serial/radio link with the base. Verify that base is computing a position. Ensure a valid position was entered into the base.

Bad Base Coordinates The position entered in the base receiver for

CPD operation is not correct (too far from computed position)

• Base position was entered wrong on the rover side. Reenter it.

• The mode in the base receiver was set to not send BPS, set base to send BPS

($PASHS, CPD,UBP,1).

• If rover is in “entered base station”

($PASH,CPD,UBP,O). Enter the base position in the rover via

$PASHS,BPS,POS.

• If rover is in “receiver base position” mode

(default or $PASHS,CPD,UBP,1), check link with base.

• Make sure the base sends base coordinates ($PASHS,BPS,PER,O)

Commands 165

166

Table 8.59. Receiver Warning Messages (continued)

Warning Definition Action

Bad RTCM Base

Position

The position entered in the base receiver for

RTCM code operation is not correct (too far from computed position)

Enter correct base position.

The kinematic survey must be reinitialized on last point.

†‡Not Enough Satellites Tracking fewer than the minimum number of satellites required for kinematic survey

Low Backup Battery The battery powering the non-volatile memory and the realtime clock is low and needs to be changed

Contact Customer Support. Back-up battery must be replaced.

Antenna Overload

No Antenna Detected

MODEM

Communication Error

MODEM Initialization

Error

Antenna installation problems, i.e. the setup is drawing more than 150 milliamps

(short on antenna cable or LNA drawing too much current)

Check antenna connection for bad cable or bad LNA.

Does not sense any antenna: WARNING, this will be the case if a

DC block is installed somewhere between the receiver and the antenna

Check antenna connection for bad cable or bad LNA. There may be another receiver connected to the same antenna with no DC block, or this receiver is connected to the antenna via a DC block.

Cannot communicate with the modem

Cannot initialize the modem

Check serial connection to the modem.

Check power on modem. Check baud rate of modem-it should match baud rate of receiver. Reinitialize modem.

Check serial connection to the modem.

Check power on modem. Check baud rate of modem-it should match baud rate of receiver. Reinitialize modem.

ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

Table 8.59. Receiver Warning Messages (continued)

Warning Definition Action

High Receiver

Temperature

Download in Progress

Inside receiver temperature > 80 deg

Celsius: the receiver will turn off automatically at 82 deg

Celsius (this message might be seen when the external ambient temperature is >55 degrees Celsius

Cover the receiver from the sun. Increase air flow around receiver.

NOTE: If the receiver’s temperature is still going up, it will automatically switch to the sleep mode, in reduced power consumption mode as a safety measure. To recover, cycle the Power, after having eliminated the source of overheating.

Receiver is currently downloading data from the PCMCIA card to a

PC. No front panel operations can be conducted at this time.

Wait for Download to complete operation before performing the command. If

Download is not running, run Download again, perform proper shutdown routine. Do not disconnect serial link to PC before exiting

Download.

† Indicates warning is permanent (the warning will NOT go away if the condition disappears, but only if it is acknowledged).

‡ Indicates error will only display if antenna is present.

WKN: GPS Week Number

$PASHQ,WKN,c

This command queries the current GPS week number, where c is the optional output serial port.

Example: Query receiver for GPS week number

$PASHQ,WKN <Enter>

$PASHR,WKN

Returns current GPS week number, where the message is in the form:

$PASHR,WKN,d1*cc <Enter>

Table 8.60. WKN Message Structure

Parameter

d1

Description

Current GPS week number

Commands 167

Raw Data Commands

The raw data commands cover all query and set commands related to measurement, ephemeris, and almanac data.

Set Commands

There is only one set command that controls the continuous output of all raw data messages; the $PASHS,OUT command. The $PASHS,OUT command allows you to enable or disable the output of one or more raw data messages simultaneously as well as change the format (ASCII or Binary) of the messages types where the format is an option. The general format of the $PASHS,OUT command is:

$PASHS,OUT,c,str(,str...),s

where c is the output serial port (A-D), str is one or more 3 character strings that denote the different raw data output types, and s is the optional format of the message and is either ASC (ASCII) or BIN (binary). For example, the command:

$PASHS,OUT,A,MBN,PBN,BIN <Enter>

will output MBEN and PBEN messages in binary format to serial port A. If the format field is not included, then the message will be sent in ASCII format which is the default. The ephemeris and almanac messages are available in binary format only. If a user attempts to output a raw data message type in ASCII format when only binary is available, the receiver will send the header only with no additional information or data. Also, be aware that a $PASHS,OUT command will override anything set in a previous $PASHS,OUT command.

If the $PASHS,OUT command is sent correctly, the receiver will respond with the

$PASHR,ACK acknowledgment The messages will be output to the indicated serial port at the recording interval defined by the $PASHS,RCI command. The default output frequency is every 20 seconds. The $PASHS,RCI command controls both the rate of data recorded to the PCMCIA card, as well as the output of raw data from the serial port.

It is possible to set one rate of data recording to the PCMCIA card and a different rate of raw data output to the serial port. This is done using the $PASHS,DRI and the

$PASHS,DOI commands. $PASHS,DRI sets the data recording rate to the PCMCIA card. $PASHS,DOI sets the rate of raw data output to the serial port. The default of both these commands is 20.0 seconds. Be aware that setting the $PASHS,RCI command will override any parameter previously set in the DRI or DOI command.

168 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

Raw data messages are disabled by sending the $PASHS,OUT command with no data strings. For example the command:

$PASHS,OUT,A <Enter>

will disable the output of all raw data output from port A. See the $PASHS,OUT command in this section for more details. To see what raw data messages have been enabled, use the $PASHQ,RAW query.

In general, the parameters that affect raw data output are the same as those that control data recording including: recording interval, elevation mask, and minimum number of SVs. See the Raw Data Command table for more details about the commands that control these parameters.

Query Commands

The query commands will output a single raw data message type once. The general format of the query commands is:

$PASHQ,s,c

where s is the 3 character string that denotes the raw data message type, and c is the serial port to which the message will be output. The serial port field is optional. If the query is sent with the port field left empty, then the response will be sent to the current port. If the port field contains a valid port (A-D), then the response will be output to that port. For example, the query:

$PASHQ,PBN <Enter>

will output a single PBEN message to the current port. The command:

$PASHQ,MBN,C <Enter>

will output a single set of MBEN message to port C. It is not possible to change the format (ASCII or Binary) of the response with a query command. If the format of the port is ASCII, the response will be in ASCII, unless the ASCII format is not available for that message type. In this case, the receiver will send only the header of the raw data message.

There are no ACK command acknowledgments for queries. If the query has been enter properly, and the data is available (for example, MBEN is not available unless the receiver is tracking enough satellites above the elevation mask), then the acknowledgment will be the data response message.

Commands 169

Table 8.61 lists the raw data types, the associated 3-character string used in the

commands, and the format available for each data type.

Table 8.61. Raw Data Types and Formats

MBEN

PBEN

SNAV

SALM

EPB

DBEN

CBEN

CMR

Raw Data Type

MBN

PBN

SVN

SAL

EPB

DBN

CBN

CMR

3-Character

String

Description

STANDARD RAW DATA

Measurement data

Position data

Ephemeris data

Almanac data

Raw ephemeris

CPD carrier phase

CPD position data

CPD carrier phase

Format

Available

ASCII/binary

ASCII/binary

Binary only

Binary only

Binary only

Binary only

ASCII/binary

Binary only

Table 8.62 lists all the raw data commands. A complete description of each command can be found on the

pages following the table.

Table 8.62. Raw Data Commands

Command

$PASHQ,SAL

Description

ALMANAC DATA

Almanac query

CPD PARAMETERS

Page

198

$PASHQ,DBN

172

182

$PASHQ,SNV

$PASHQ,EPB

$PASHQ,MBN

$PASHQ,PBN

DBEN query

EPHEMERIS DATA

SNAV query

Raw ephemeris data query

MEASUREMENT DATA

MBEN query

POSITION DATA

PBEN query

199

186

188

193

170 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

$PASHS,OUT

$PASHQ,RWO

$PASHQ,RAW

$PASHS,SIT

$PASHS,ELM

$PASHS,RCI

$PASHS,MSV

Table 8.62. Raw Data Commands (continued)

Command Description

ALMANAC DATA

RAW DATA OUTPUT

Enable/disable raw data output

Query raw data output settings

Query raw data parameters

Set site name

Set elevation mask

Set recording interval

Set minimum # of SVs

Page

192

197

195

156

119

148

136

Commands 171

CBN: CBEN Message

$PASHQ,CBN,c

Request CBEN data for one epoch, where c is the optional output port.

Example: Query CBN message to the current port.

$PASHQ,CBN <Enter>

$PASHR,CBN

The CBN response message is either ASCII format or binary format depending upon the setting of the output port.

The format of the ASCII response message is in the form:

$PASHR,CBN,m1,s2,d3,f4,m5,c6,m7,c8,f9,f10,f11,f12,f13,f14,f15,s16, f17,f18,f19,f20,f21,f22*cc <Enter>

Table 8.63 defines the response structure.

Table 8.63. CBN Message Structure (ASCII Format)

Parameter

m1 s2 d3 f4 m5 c6 m7 c8 f9 f10 f11 f12 f13 f14 f15

Description Range

Receiver time UTC (hhmmss.ss)

Four character site identification

0 - 235959.99

Number of satellites used in position computation.

0 -12

PDOP 0 - 999.9

0 - 90.0

Latitude in degrees and decimal minutes ddmm.mmmmmmm

Latitude direction

Longitude in degrees and decimal minutes ddmm.mmmmmmm

‘N’/’S’

0 - 180

°

0 - 59.9999999

Longitude direction

Ellipsoid Height (meters)

‘E’ / ‘W’

-1000.000 to 18000.000

Standard Deviation of latitude component (meters) 0 - 99.999 m

Standard Deviation of longitude component

(meters)

0 - 99.999 m

Standard Deviation of ellipsoid height (meters)

Cross correlation of XY

Cross correlation of XZ

Cross correlation of YZ

0 - 99.999 m

±

30.000 m

±

30.000 m

±

30.000 m

172 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

Table 8.63. CBN Message Structure (ASCII Format) (continued)

Parameter

f20 f21 f22

*cc s16 f17 f18 f19

Description

Solution type flag containing 6 Parameters.

Velocity of East Direction

Velocity of North Direction

Velocity of Upper Direction

Standard Deviation of East Velocity

Standard Deviation of North Velocity

Standard Deviation of Upper Velocity

Checksum

Range

(see Table 8.64)

± 500.000 m/s

± 500.000 m/s

± 500.000 m/s

0 -99.999 m/s

0 - 99.999 m/s

0 -99.999 m/s

Table 8.64 describes the solution type flag:

Table 8.64. Solution Type Flag Table (ASCII Format)

Symbol

A

(least significant bit)

B

2

3

0

1

Value

0

Description

No solution is available

2D solution

3D solution

Reserved

Autonomous solution

C

(meaningful if B=2)

D

(meaningful if B=2)

E

(meaningful if B=2)

F

(meaningful if B=2)

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

2

3

CPD solution

Reserved

Float solution

Fixed solution

Updated solution with measurement update

Projected solution with time update

Normal CPD solution

RVP CPD solution

Usual CPD solution

Fast CPD solution

Commands 173

The format of the binary message is in the form:

$PASHR,CBN, <binary data><CheckSum> <Enter>

where the message structure is as defined in Table 8.65.

For the sign bit: 1 means ‘-’; 0 means ‘+’.

Table 8.65. CBN Message Structure (Binary Format)

Data Type

double char[4] char unsigned short double

Symbol

rcvtime

Range

0 - 604800000 1 msec

Site_ID

Num_Svs 0 - 12

PDOP 0 - 100 0.1

Resolution

Compress

Num. Bits

30

32

4

10

Description

Receiver time in GPS milliseconds of week

Receiver site ID

Number of satellites used in CPD position computation

PDOP

Rover position latitude north double double float float float float float

Lat_N

Lon_E sign ± deg 0-90

° frac. 0 - 1 deg 0-360

° frac. 0-1 e-9 deg (e-4 m) e-9 deg (e-4 m)

0.0001 m EH sign 1 data:

-1km - 18km

0 - 100 m Position

RMS

Sigma_N /

RMS/

0 - 1.0

0.001 m

1%

Sigma_E /

RMS

0 - 1.0

Sigma_U /

RMS

0 - 1.0

Corr_EN /

RMS

2

-0.5 - 0.5

1%

1%

1%

1

7

30

9

30

1

29

17

8

8

8

8

Rover position longitude east

Rover position ellipsoid height in meters

Standard deviation of position error

Standard deviation of latitude componeny/ position RMS

Standard deviation of longitude component/ position RMS

Standard deviation of ellipsoid height component/position

RMS

Cross correlation of lat and lon/RMS

2

174 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

Data Type

float float char

Table 8.65. CBN Message Structure (Binary Format) (continued)

Symbol Range

Corr_EU /

RMS

2

Corr_NU /

RMS

2

FLAG

-0.5 - 0.5

-0.5 - 0.5

0 - 256

1%

1%

Resolution

Compress

Num. Bits

8

8

8

Description

Cross correlation of lon and height/RMS

2

Cross correlation of lat and height/RMS

2

Solution type (bitwise flag)

Total bytes for the first part = 32 float Vel_E sign ± data 500 m/s

0.001 m/s float float float

Vel_N

Vel_U sign ± data 500 m/s

0.001 m/s sign ± data 500 m/s

0.001 m/s

Sigma_VE 0 -16.0 m/s 0.001 m/s float float

Sigma_VN 0 - 16.0 m/s

Sigma_VU 0 - 16.0 m/s

0.001 m/s

0.001 m/s

1

19

14

1

20

1

20

14

14

8

Velocity of east direction

Velocity of north direction

Velocity of upper direction

Standard deviation of east velocity

Standard deviation of north velocity

Standard deviation of upper velocity

To make modular of

16

Total bytes for the second part= 14 short <checksum

> n/a n/a 16 Checksum (sum of all

“short” in the data)

The solution type flag has the structure defined in Table 8.66.

Table 8.66. Solution Type Flag Structure (Binary Format)

Symbol and Bits

A : bits 1 and 2

00xxxxxxx

01xxxxxxx

10xxxxxxx

11xxxxxxx

2

3

0

1

Values

(most significant bits)

No solution is available

2D solution

3D solution

Reserved

Meaning

Commands 175

Table 8.66. Solution Type Flag Structure (Binary Format) (continued)

Symbol and Bits

B : bits 3 and 4

xx00xxxx

xx01xxxx

xx10xxxx

xx11xxxx

C : bit 5

xxxx0xxx

xxxx1xxx

D : bit 6

xxxxx0xx

xxxxx1xx

E : bit 7

xxxxxx0x

xxxxxx1x

F : bit 8

xxxxxxx0

xxxxxxx1

0

1

Values

1

2

3

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

Autonomous solution

RTCM solution

CPD solution

Reserved

Float solution

Fixed solution

Meaning

Updated solution with measurement update

Projected solution with time update

Normal CPD solution

RVP CPD solution

(least significant bit)

Usual CPD solution

Fast CPD solution

176 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

CMR: CMR Message

$PASHQ,CMR,c

Query the CMR message for one epoch, where c is the optional output port.

Example: $PASHQ,CMR <Enter>

$PASHR,CMR

CMR is a compact measurement record which contains one epoch of GPS pseudorange and carrier phase measurements. It is used as an alternative message to

DBEN for CPD operations.

This message only exists in binary format. If ASCII format is requested (default), only the header will be sent ($PASHR,CMR).

An overview of the Compact Measurement Record Format is illustrated in Table 8.67.

Each CMR message is surrounded by a (six byte) packet frame. Within each message frame is a header and a data section. Message types are defined for:

• Observables - L1 and L2 carrier phase and pseudorange measurements

• Reference Station Location - WGS84 Cartesian coordinates and antenna offsets

• Reference Station Description - ASCII message for station name and description

Commands 177

The observables message is sent once per second. The reference station location and the reference station description messages are sent every ten seconds, but are interleaved. All of the message types are described in detail below.

Table 8.67. Compact Measurement Record Structure

Transmission Structure

Packet header

Observables header {Type 0} (includes number of satellites [n])

Satellite 1 L1 observables (extended L2 data follows)

Satellite 1 L2 observables

Satellite 2 L1 observables

Satellite n L2 observables

.......

Satellite n L1 observables

Satellite n L2 observables

Packet tail

.........

(observables packets)

Packet header

Reference station coordinates header {Type 1}

Reference station location fields

Packet tail

.......

(observables packets)

........

Packet header

Reference station description header {Type 2}

Reference station description fields

Packet tail

4 bytes

6 bytes

Size of Transmission

8 bytes

7 bytes

7 bytes

7 bytes

.......

8 bytes

7 bytes

2 bytes

Type 0: 9 sats = 147 bytes

4 bytes

6 bytes

7 bytes

2 bytes (Type 1: 19 bytes)

4 bytes

6 bytes

75 bytes

2 bytes (Type 2: 87 bytes)

178 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

Compact Measurement Record Packet

Each CMR message is sent within a six-byte frame. Details of the packet structure are

given in Table 8.68.

Table 8.68. Compact Measurement Record Packet Definition

Parameter

Number of

Bytes

Description

STX

Status

Type

Length

Data Block

Checksum

ETX

1

1

1

1 as per definition

1

1

Start of transmission (02h)

Status byte (00h)

CMR message types: 0 - observables; 1 - location; 2 - description

Number of bytes in the data block

Message data as defined below.

Data checksum calculated using (Status + Type + Length

+ Data Block) mod 256

End of transmission

Although a checksum field is used to provide some protection against packet errors, it is the responsibility of the datalink to provide additional and sufficient error detection mechanisms to ensure that the message content received at the rover station is valid.

Observables (Message Type 0)

The Compact Measurement Record format is divided into a header portion and a data portion. The header is sent at each measurement epoch and contains timing and satellite tracking information that is relevant to the observable block. The observable block is repeated for each satellite tracked at the reference station. The header is

shown in Table 8.69. The observables are shown in Table 8.70 and x.xxxxx.

Table 8.69. CMR Type 0 Message Header

Paramete r

Version

Number

Station ID

Bits

3

5

Units

n/a n/a

Range

0 - 7

0 - 31 Reference station ID.

Description

Defines the format version.

Commands 179

Table 8.69. CMR Type 0 Message Header (continued)

Paramete r

Bits

Message

Type

Number of

SVs

Epoch

Time

3

5

18

Units

n/a n/a ms

Range

0 - 7

0 - 31

0 -

240,000

Clock Bias

Validity

Clock

Offset

2

12 n/a

500 ns

0 - 3

+/- 0.5 ms

Description

Describes the information that follows in subsequent data blocks. The observables message type is 0 (zero).

Number of satellites contained in the observable blocks that follow.

Receiver epoch time for GPS measurements modulo 240 seconds. Epoch time is scaled into milliseconds and transmitted as an unsigned 18-bit integer.

Indicates that the reference receiver clock offset is valid or invalid. 0 - invalid 3 - valid

The clock offset is given in the range -0.5 to +0.5 milliseconds. Receivers that drive their clock onto GPS time should set the clock offset parameter to zero.

Total 48

Table 8.70. CMR Type 0 Message Observables Block

Parameter

SV PRN

P-code/CAcode flag

L1 phase data valid

Extended

L2 data follows

CA-code pseudorange

Carrier -

Code

1

1

24

20

Bits

5

1

Units Range

n/a n/a

0 - 31

0,1 n/a n/a

0,1

0,1

1/8 L1 cycles

1/256

L1 cycles

0 - 2

21

L1 cycles

+/- 2

19

(1/256

L1 cycles)

Description

Satellite PRN identifier

Indicates the type of code data being tracked on the L1 or

L2 band.0 = CA-code 1 = P-code

Indicates the validity of the phase data. Only use phase when the validity flag is set. 0 = Invalid 1 = Valid

L2 data follows the L1 data if this flag is set.

0 = L1 only 1= L1 & L2

The L1 pseudorange is transmitted modulo 1 light millisecond (299792.458m), in units of 1/8 L1 cycles.

The carrier phase data is referenced against the code measurement field. The carrier phase is quantised in 1/

256 L1 cycles and broadcast in the range +/- 2

19

.

180 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

Table 8.70. CMR Type 0 Message Observables Block (continued)

Parameter

SNR

Bits

4

Cycle slip count

8

Units Range

least signifi cant bit = 2

SNR counts n/a

0 - 15

0 - 255

Description

The Signal-to Noise Ratio value is given in the range 0-15 where the least significant bit is equal to 2 SNR counts.

Incremented every time there is a cycle slip on this satellite. The rover should assume that a cycle slip has occurred if the cycle slip count increments between measurement epochs.

Total 64

L2 Data

L2 data is appended directly to L1 observable data for each satellite (Table 8.71).

Table 8.71. CMR Type 0 Message Observables Block (L2)

Parameter

L2 code available

(A)

P-code /

X-correlation

(B)

Code Valid

(C)

Phase Valid

(D)

Phase Full

(E)

Reserved

L2 range - L1 range

Bits

1

1

1

1

1

3

16

Units Range

n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a

Reserved

0.01 m

0,1

0,1

0,1

0,1

0,1

Reserved

+/- 2

15

cm

Description

Receivers capable of tracking L2 code during encryption should set this flag to indicate that

L2 code data is available.

0 =- no code available 1 = code available

Indicates the type of code data collected on L2.

This bit is ignored if no code information is present.

0 = P-code 1 = cross correlation

Indicates the validity of the L2 code information.

0 = False 1 = True

Indicates validity of the L2 phase information.

0 = false 1 = true

Full-cycle L2 receivers should set this flag.

0 = half wave 1 = full wave

Reserved

The L2 range measurement is referenced against the L1 range measurement and broadcast in terms of integer centimeters.

Commands 181

Table 8.71. CMR Type 0 Message Observables Block (L2) (continued)

Parameter

L2 carrier - L1 code

L2 SNR

L2 cycle slip count

Total

Bits

20

Units Range

1/ 256 L2 cycles

+/- 2

19

(1/

256 L2 cycles)

4

8

56

LSB = 2

SNR counts n/a

0 - 15

0 - 255

Description

L2 carrier phase measurement is referenced against L1 code measurement in a fashion similar to L1 carrier phase. Units for L2 carrier minus L1 code in terms of 1/256 L2 full cycles.

For half-cycle data, units in terms of 1/256 L2 half cycles.

L2 signal-to-noise ratio, similar to L1 SNR.

L2 cycle slip count is accumulated sum of number of cycle slips at transmitting receiver.

DBN: DBEN Message

$PASHQ,DBN,x

Query DBEN message for one epoch where x is the optional output port.

Example: $PASHQ,DBN <Enter>

$PASHR,RPC

DBEN is a packed message which contains one epoch of GPS pseudo-range and carrier phase measurements. It is an essential message which is used for CPD operation.

This message only exists in binary format. If ASCII format is requested (default) only the header will be sent ($PASHR,RPC)

The structure is

$PASHR,RPC,<data length><packed data><ChkSum>

where the parameters are as defined in Table 8.72 and Table 8.73.

Table 8.72. RPC Message Structure

Parameter

Data length

Type

unsigned short 2

Number of bytes

Description

Number of bytes in <packed data> part

182 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

Parameter

Packed data

ChkSum

Table 8.72. RPC Message Structure

Type

unsigned char[] unsigned short

Number of bytes

Data length

2

Description

See Table 8.73 below.

Cumulative unsigned short summation of the <packed data>, after <data length> before <ChkSum>

<packed data> parameter:

Table 8.73. RPC Packed Parameter Descriptions

Data

Type

Symbol Range

Resolutio n

Compress

Num. Bits

Description

double rcvtime 0 - 604800000 1 msec 30 char[4] long site ID

PRN

32

32

Receiver’s four-character site ID

SVPRN for the satellites which have data in this message. It is a bitwise indication. Starting from least significant bit, bit 1 corresponds toSVPRN #1, bit 2 corresponds to SVPRN #2, and so on. Bit value of 1 means that

SVPRN has data in this message, 0 otherwise.

For each satellite whose corresponding bit in PRN is ‘1, the following data will be repeated, i.e., sent once for PL1 data and a second time for PL2 data.

double PL1 or

PL2

1.0e-10 seconds

31

Receiver time in GPS milliseconds of week

Pseudorange in units of 1.0e-10 seconds (or 0.1 nanoseconds).

Multiply this value by 1.0e-10 to get pseudo-range in seconds. A zero value indicates bad pseudo-range char WN

Sign 1

1

1

Warning bit

1- bad carrier phase and has possible cycle-slips

0 - good carrier phase

Carrier phase sign bit

1 - negative carrier phase value

0 - positive carrier phase value

Commands 183

Table 8.73. RPC Packed Parameter Descriptions (continued)

Data

Type

Symbol

long PH_I double PH_F

Range

Resolutio n

Compress

Num. Bits

1 28

15.0e-4 11

Description

Integer part of the carrier phase measurement in cycles

Fractional part of the carrier phase measurement in units of

5e-4 cycles. Multiply this number by 5e-4 to get fractional carrier phase in cycles. Whole carrier phase measurement = PH_I +

PH_F*5.0e-4

Zeros will be padded so that all of <packed data> part is a module of 16 bits. Total number of bits in <packed data>: ceil ((94 + 72*2*Nsvs)/16) * 16 and <data length> = ceil ((94 + 72*2*Nsvs)/16) * 2 in which, ceil (a) means truncates to +Inf, e.g., ceil (3.1)

= 4, ceil (3.5) = 4, ceil (3.95) = 4. Nsvs is number of SVs.

Table 8.74 defines the DBEN message size.

Table 8.74. DBEN Message Sizes

Num of SVs

8

9

10

11

12

4

5

6

7

Bits

808

952

1096

1240

1384

1528

1672

1816

1960

Bytes

173

191

209

227

240

101

119

137

155

184 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

f7 f8 f5 f6 m1 c2 m2 c5 m3 f9 s10

*cc

$PASHR,BPS

The $PASHR,BPS is the base station position message that is transmitted along with the DBEN message. This message has a fixed length of 96 bytes (not including the

<CR><LF> and contains the base stations coordinates and antenna parameters. By default, this message is transmitted every 30 seconds.

The response message is in the form shown below and defined in Table 8.75.

$PASHR,BPS,m1,c2,m3,c4,f5,f6,f7,f8,m3,f9,s10*cc<CR><LF>

Table 8.75. BPS Message Structure

Field Description Range

Latitude (degrees/decimal minutes)

Latitude direction

Latitude (degrees/decimal minutes)

Longitude direction

Altitude (meters)

Antenna slant height (meters)

Antenna radius in meters

Antenna vertical offset in meters

Antenna horizontal offset: azimuth degree/decimal minutes

Antenna horizontal offset: (meters)

Status byte in HEX checksum

0-89.9999999

‘N’/’S’

0-179.9999999

‘E’/’W’

+/-99999.9999

0 - 6.400

0 - 6.400

-99.9999 -

99.9999

0-359.99

0 - 99.9999

LL

Commands 185

The s10 parameter is a hex coded one byte of status flag where the meaning is as

shown in Table 8.76.

Table 8.76. BPS Status Byte Definition

Bit

1 (LSB)

2

3

4

5

6,7,8

Description

Base station coordinate is not entered

Base station antenna offset is not entered (This is questionable. In some cases, the user will choose to enter the antenna phase center coordinates, then the antenna offsets are all zeros)

The base station is not computing position with raw pseudo ranges

The entered coordinates are more than 500 meters different in each direction from the computed position, based on the raw pseudo ranges.

The base station is not tracking satellites properly (need more careful definition of not tracking satellite properly)

Not used

EPB: Raw Ephemeris

$PASHQ,EPB,d

Query for raw ephemeris data output, where d is the PRN number. If no PRN number is specified, data for all available SVs will be output.

Example: Query for raw ephemeris for all available satellites.

$PASHQ,EPB <Enter>

Query ephemeris data for PRN 25.

$PASHQ,EPB,25 <E

NTER

>

186 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

$PASHR,EPB

The response is the broadcast ephemeris data. See the ICD-GPS-200 for definition of the Parameters. Each subframe word is right-justified in a 32-bit long integer.

The response is in the form:

$PASHR,EPB,d,<ephemeris structure> <Enter>

This message only exists in a binary format, if ASCII format is requested (default) only the header will be sent ($PASHR,EPB).

Table 8.77 defines the response format.

Table 8.77. EPB Response Format

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

Type

long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long long d struct long long

2

Size Contents

PRN number

Subframe 1, word 1

Subframe 1, word 2

Subframe 1, word 3

Subframe 1, word 4

Subframe 1, word 5

Subframe 1, word 6

Subframe 1, word 7

Subframe 1, word 8

Subframe 1, word 9

Subframe 1, word 10

Subframe 2, word 1

Subframe 2, word 2

Subframe 2, word 3

Subframe 2, word 4

Subframe 2, word 5

Subframe 2, word 6

Subframe 2, word 7

Subframe 2, word 8

Commands 187

Table 8.77. EPB Response Format (continued)

Type

long long long long long long long long long long long long short total =

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

2

Size

122

Contents

Subframe 2, word 9

Subframe 2, word 10

Subframe 3, word 1

Subframe 3, word 2

Subframe 3, word 3

Subframe 3, word 4

Subframe 3, word 5

Subframe 3, word 6

Subframe 3, word 7

Subframe 3, word 8

Subframe 3, word 9

Subframe 3, word 10

Word checksum begin with header ‘P’.

struct size

MBN: MBN Message

$PASHQ,MBN,c

Requests one epoch of MBN data, where c is the optional output port.

Example: Query MBN message to the current port.

$PASHQ,MBN <Enter>

$PASHR,MPC

The response can be in either ASCII or binary format. There will be a return message for each tracked satellite above the elevation mask.

The MBN response message in binary format is in the form

$PASHR,MPC,<structure> <Enter>

188 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

where the measurement structure is as defined in Table 8.78. The checksum is

computed after the MPC header, and includes the last comma.

Table 8.78. MPC Measurement Structure (Binary Format)

Type

unsigned short unsigned char unsigned char unsigned char unsigned char unsigned char unsigned char unsigned char char unsigned char unsigned char double double long long unsigned char total bytes

1

1

1

1

1

4

4

(29)

(29)

1

95

1

8

8

1

1

1

1

Size

2

Contents

sequence tag (unit: 50 ms) modulo 30 minutes number of remaining struct to be sent for current epoch.

satellite PRN number. (1 to 32 for GPS and 33 to 64 for SBAS) satellite elevation angle (degree).

satellite azimuth angle (two degree increments).

channel ID (1 - 12).

C/A code data block 29 bytes

Warning flag

Indicates quality of the position measurement. (good/bad)

(set to 5 for backward compatibility)

Signal to noise of satellite observation (db.Hz)

Spare

Full carrier phase measurements in cycles.

Raw range to SV (in seconds), i.e., receive time - raw range = transmit time

Doppler (10

-4

Hz).

bits: 0 - 23 Smooth correction (bit 0-22 = magnitude of correction in cms, bit 23 = sign) bits:24-31 Smooth count, unsigned. as follows:

0 = unsmoothed, 1=least smoothed, 200 = most smoothed

P code on L1 block, same format as C/A code data block

P code on L2 block, same format as the C/A code data block.

Checksum, a bytewise exclusive OR (XOR)

For details on warning flag and good/bad flag, see MBN data struct in ASCII.

The MBN response message in ASCII is in the form:

Commands 189

$PASHR,MPC,d1,d2,d3,d4,d5,d6,d7,d8,d9,d10,d11,f12,f13,f14,f15, d16,d17,d18,d19,d20,d21,f22,f23,f24,f25,d26,d27,d28,d29,d30,d31, f32,f33,f34,f35,d36,ccc <Enter>

Table 8.79 defines the parameters.

Table 8.79. MPC Message Structure (ASCII Format) d17 d18 d19 d20 d21 f22 d11 f12 f13 f14 f15 d7 d8 d9 d10

Parameter

d1 d2 d3 d4 d5 d6 d16

Significance Units

Sequence tag. This is the time tag used to associate all structures with one epoch. It is in units of 50 ms and modulo 30 minutes.

Number of remaining structures

SV PRN number

Satellite elevation

Satellite azimuth

Channel index

C/A Code Data Block

Warning flag (see Table 8.80)

Good/bad flag (see Table 8.81)

5 for backwards compatibility signal to noise indicator

50 ms degrees degrees dB Hz spare

Full carrier phase

Code transmit time

Doppler measurement

Range smoothing correction. Raw range minus smoothed range.

cycles ms

10 (-4) Hz meters

Range smoothing quality

PL1 Code Data Block

Warning flag (see Table 8.80)

Good/bad flag (see Table 8.81)

5 for backward compatibility

Signal to noise indicator spare

Full carrier phase dB Hz cycles

0-36000

Range

0-11

1-32

0-90

0-360

1-12

0-255

22-24

5

30-60

0

±999999999.9

0-999999999.9

±99999.99999

0-99.99

0-200

0-255

22-24

5

30-60

0-999999999.999

190 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

Table 8.79. MPC Message Structure (ASCII Format) (continued) d31 f32 f33 f34 f35 d27 d28 d29 d30

Parameter

f23 f24 f25 d26 d36 cc

Significance Units

Code transmit time

Doppler measurement

Range smoothing correction. Raw range minus smoothed range

Range smoothing quality ms

10 (-4) Hz meters

PL2 Code Data Block

Warning flag (seeTable 8.80)

Good/bad flag (see Table 8.81)

5 for backward compatibility

Signal to noise indicator spare

Full carrier phase

Code transmit time dB Hz

Doppler measurement

Range smoothing correction. Raw range minus smoothed range

Range smoothing quality

Checksum

Displayed in decimal. A bytwise exlusive OR

(XOR) on all bytes from the sequence tag to the checksum (starts after MPC, and includes the last comma before the checksum).

cycles ms

10 (-4) Hz meters

Range

0-99.9999999

±99999.99999

0-99.99

0-200

0-255

22-24

5

30-60

0-999999999.999

0-99.9999999

±99999.99999

0-99.99

0-200

Table 8.80. Warning Flag Settings

3

4

5

1

0

0

1

Bits

Index

2

0

1

0

Description of Parameter d

7

Combination of bit 1 and bit 2 same as 22 in good/bad flag same as 24 in good/bad flag same as 23 in good/bad flag carrier phase questionable code phase (range) questionable range not precise (code phase loop not settled)

Commands 191

Table 8.80. Warning Flag Settings (continued)

6

7

8

Bits

Index

Description of Parameter d

Z tracking mode possible cycle slip loss of lock since last epoch

7

Table 8.81. Measurement Quality (Good/Bad Flag)

Value of d

8

0

22

23

24

Description

Measurement not available and no additional data will be sent

Code and/or carrier phase measured

Code and/or carrier phase measure, and navigation message was obtained but measurement was not used to compute position

Code and/or carrier phase measured, navigation message was obtained, and measurement was used to compute position

Only C/A is used for position computation, so this flag will never be more than 22 on Pcode measurements.

OUT: Enable/Disable Raw Data Output

$PASHS,OUT,c1,(s2,s3,...),f4

The OUT command enables and disables continuous raw data output. The serial port

c is mandatory, s2 and s3 specify the type string (Table 8.82), and f4 the format. The

raw data type string and the format are optional. If the command is sent without a format field, the data will be output in the format of the current setting of the port, if that format is available for that data type. A $PASHS,OUT command overrides any previously sent $PASHS,OUT commands.

To disable raw data output, issue the $PASHS,OUT command without any data format strings.

Table 8.82. OUT Message Structure

Parameter

c1 Serial port

Description

A - D

Range

192 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

Table 8.82. OUT Message Structure (continued)

Parameter

s2, s3 f4

Description

Raw data type string, may have one or more delimited by commas

ASCII or binary format

Range

MBN, PBN, SNV, CBN, CMR, DBN, EPB, SAL

ASC or BIN

Examples: Enable MBN, PBN, and SNV message in binary format on port C:

$PASHS,OUT,C,MBN,PBN,SNV,BIN <Enter>

Disable all raw data messages on port A:

$PASHS,OUT,A <Enter>

PBN: Position Data

$PASHQ,PBN,c

Request PBEN data for one epoch, where c is the output port and is not required to direct the response message to the current communication port.

Example: Request PBN message to the current port:

$PASHQ,PBN <Enter>

Commands 193

$PASHR,PBN

The response message may be in either ASCII or binary format. Position data in

ASCII format is in the form:

$PASHR,PBN,f1,f2,f3,f4,m5,m6,f7,f8,f9,f10,d11,s12,d13,d14,d15, d16*cc <Enter>

Table 8.83. PBN Message Structure (ASCII Format) f2 f3 f4 m5 f7 f8 f9 f10 d11 s12 d13 d14 d15 d16

*cc f1

Parameter

m6

Description

Receiver time with seconds of the week when code is received

Station position: ECEF-X (meters)

Station position: ECEF-Y (meters)

Station position: ECEF-Z (meters)

Latitude in degrees and decimal minutes

(ddmm.mmmmmm) Positive north.

Longitude in degrees and decimal minutes

(dddmm.mmmmmm) Positive east.

Altitude (meters)

Velocity in ECEF-X (m/sec).

Velocity in ECEF-Y (m/sec).

Velocity in ECEF-Z (m/sec).

Number of satellites used for position computation.

Site name

PDOP

HDOP

VDOP

TDOP

Checksum

Range

0 - 604800.00

±9999999.9

±9999999.9

±9999999.9

±90

±180

-1000.000 to 18000.000

500.00

500.00

500.00

3 -12

4 char string

0 - 99

0 - 99

0 - 99

0 - 99

194 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

The response message in the binary format is in the form:

$PASHR,PBN,<PBN structure> <Enter>

Table 8.84 describes the binary structure of the PBEN message.

Table 8.84. PBN Message Structure (Binary Format)

Parameter

long pbentime char sitename double navx double navy double navz float navt float navxdot float navydot float navzdot float navtdot 4 unsigned short pdop 2

2 unsigned short chksum

Total bytes 56

4

4

4

4

8

8

4

8

4

Bytes Significance

GPS time when data was received.

Site name

Station position: ECEF-X

Station position: ECEF-Y

Station position: ECEF-Z clock offset

Velocity in ECEF-X

Velocity in ECEF-Y

Velocity in ECEF-Z

Clock drift

PDOP checksum

Units

10

-3

seconds of week

4 character meters meters meters meters m/sec m/sec m/sec m/sec

RAW: Query Raw Data Parameter

$PASHQ,RAW

This query will display the settings of all parameters related to raw data.

Example: $PASHQ,RAW <Enter>

Return Message

Commands 195

The return message is shown below and described in Table 8.85.

RCI:020.0 MSV:03 ELM:10 ZEN_ELM:90 REC:E MST:0

ANH:00.0000 ANA:00.0000 SIT:SC01 EPG:000 RNG:0

DRI:020.0 DOI:020.0

RAW: MBN PBN CBN SNV EPB SAL DBN DPC CMR SNW SAW FORMAT BAUD

PRTA: OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF ASCII 5

PRTB: OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF ASCII 5

PRTC: OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF ASCII 5

PRTD: OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF ASCII 5

Table 8.85. RAW Message Structure

Return

Parameter

Description Range Default

RCI

MSV

Recording interval 0.1 - 999 seconds

Minimum number of Svs for the data to be sent or recorded

1 - 9

20.0

3

ELM

ZEN_ELM Zenith elevation mask. Measurement data from satellites above this elevation will not be recorded or output

0 - 90 degrees

REC

Data elevation mask. The elevation below which measurement data from that satellite will not be output or recorded.

Data recording to PCMCIA card

0 - 90 degrees 10

90

Y = Yes

N = No (does not close file)

E = Error (recording is Y but can’t write to PC card at this point)

S = Stop recording (closes file)

F = Bad FAT

D = Download in progress

Y

MST 0, 4 - 9 0

ANH

ANA

SIT

EPG

Minimum satellites required for kinematic survey

Antenna height

Antenna height after survey

Site ID

Epoch counter

0.0000 to 64.0000 meters

0.0000 to 64.0000 meters

(4-character alphanumeric)

0 - 999

0.0

0.0

????

0

196 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

Table 8.85. RAW Message Structure (continued)

Return

Parameter

RNG

DRI

DOI

RAW

Description Range

Data mode which controls what data type is stored

0 = B-files

2 = C-files

4 = B and C files

0, 2, 4

Recording interval to the PCMCIA card 0.1 - 999.0 seconds

Output interval of raw data to the serial port

0.1 - 999.0 seconds

Raw data type

Serial port

MBN, PBN, CBN, SNV, EPB, SAL,

DBN, DPC, CMR, SNW, SAW

‘ON’, ‘OFF’ PRTA/

PRTB/

PRTC/

PRTD

BAUD

Format

Baud rate index at each port

Format setting of each port

0-9 (see Table 8.42)

ASCII, binary

The raw data type DPC is for CGRS users only and is not documented in this manual.

Default

0

20.0

20.0

-

OFF

5

ASCII

RWO: Raw Data Output Settings

$PASHQ,RWO,c

This command queries the raw data settings of port c, where c is A, B, C, or D. The output is sent to the current port.

Example: Query receiver for raw data setting of port C:

$PASHQ,RWO,C<Enter>

$PASHR,RWO

The response message is in the form:

$PASHR,RWO,c1,d2,f3,d4,9(s5,d6,c7)*cc where parameters s5, d6, and c7 are repeated 9 times, once for each raw data message type.

Commands 197

Table 8.86 describes each parameter in an RWO message.

Table 8.86. RWO Message Structure

Parameter

c1 d2 f3 d4 s5

Description

Port

Baud rate code (see Table 8.42, page 147 for codes)

RCI setting

Number of raw data message settings to report

Raw data message type d6 c7

Enabled/disabled flag. 0=disabled, 1=enabled

ASCII/binary setting. A= ASCII, B= binary

Range

A, B, C, D

0 - 9

0.0 - 999.0

9

MBN, PBN, CBN, SNV, EPB,

SAL,DBN, DPC, CMR, SNW,

SAW

0, 1

A, B

SAL: Almanac Data

$PASHQ,SAL,c

Request for almanac data in Magellan format, where c is the optional serial port.

Example: Query receiver for almanac data on current port.

$PASHR,ALM

$PASHQ,SAL <Enter>

The response is a binary message in the form

$PASHR,ALM,(almanac structure) <Enter>

This message only exists in binary format. If ASCII format is requested (default), only the header will be sent ($PASHR, ALM).

The almanac message structure is defined in Table 8.87.

198 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

short short float long float float double

Type

double double double float float short short long unsigned short

Total bytes70

Table 8.87. ALM Message Structure

2

4

4

2

2

8

4

8

8

4

4

8

4

4

2

2

Size Contents

(Satellite PRN -1)

Health. see ICD-200 for description e. Eccentricity toe. Reference time for orbit (sec)

I0. Inclination angle at reference time (semi-circles).

OMEGADOT. Rate of right Asc. (semi-circles per sec).

(A)

1/2.

Square root of semi-major axis (meters

1/2

).

(OMEGA)0. Lon of Asc. node (semi-circles).

ω

. Argument of Perigee (semi-circles)

M0. Mean anomaly at reference time (semi-circle).

af0. sec af1. sec/sec.

almanac week number

GPS week number

Seconds of GPS week

Word checksum

SNV: Ephemeris Data

$PASHQ,SNV,c

Request ephemeris data from receiver, where c is either the optional output serial or the specific PRN number. If either the port is specified, or if this field is left blank, the ephemeris structures for all available SVs will be output.

Example: Send out SNAV data for all available SVs to the current port.

$PASHQ,SNV <Enter>

Send out SNAV data for PRN 10

$PASHQ,SNV,10 <Enter>

Commands 199

$PASHR,SNV

The response is in the form:

$PASHR,SNV,<ephemeris structure> <Enter>

This message only exists in binary format. If ASCII format is requested (default), only the header will be sent ($PASHR,SNV).

Table 8.88 describes the binary structure of the SNAV message.

Table 8.88. SNV Message Structure long float float float float float float double double float float long float double double double short long float long long float

Type

4

8

4

4

8

4

4

4

4

8

8

8

4

4

4

4

Size

4

4

4

2

4

4

Contents

Wn. GPS week number

Seconds of GPS week

Tgd. Group delay (sec)

Iodc. Clock data issue toc. second af2. sec/sec

2 af1. sec/sec af0. sec

IODE Orbit data issue

∆ n. Mean anomaly correction (semi-circle/sec)

M0. Mean anomaly at reference time (semi-circle).

e. Eccentricity

(A)

1/2

. Square root of semi-major axis (meters

1/2

).

toe. Reference time for orbit (sec).

Cic. Harmonic correction term (radians).

Crc. Harmonic correction term (meters).

Cis. Harmonic correction term (radians).

Crs. Harmonic correction term (meters).

Cuc. Harmonic correction term (radians).

Cus. Harmonic correction term (radians).

(OMEGA)0. Lon of asc. node (semi-circles).

ω

. Argument of perigee (semi-circles)

200 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

Table 8.88. SNV Message Structure (continued)

Type

double float float short short short char char unsigned short

1

1

2

2

2

4

2

8

4

Size Contents

I0. Inclination angle at reference time (semi-circles).

OMEGADOT. Rate of right Asc. (semi-circles per sec).

IDOT. Rate of inclination (semi-circles per sec).

Accuracy

Health

Curve fit interval (coded).

(SV PRN number -1)

Reserved byte.

Word checksum

Commands 201

NMEA Message Commands

The NMEA message commands control all query and set commands related to

NMEA format messages and miscellaneous messages in an NMEA-style format. All standard NMEA message are a string of ASCII characters delimited by commas. All messages are in compliance with NMEA 0183 Standards version 3.0, although they can also be output in both version 2.3 or in the format they historically have been in

Magellan receivers. (The version can be set using the $PASHS,NME,TAG command).

All non-standard NMEA messages are a string of ASCII characters delimited by commas in the Magellan proprietary format. Any combination of these messages can be output through different ports at the same time. In addition, you can set the output rate and the serial port independently for each message

For each NMEA message type there is a set command, a query command and a

response message. The set command is used to continuously output the NMEA response message. The period of the output is set by the $PASHS,NME,PER command, or by adding a period value at the end of the set command for the individual message. See “Set Commands” below for more details. The query command outputs an NMEA response only once.

Set Commands

The general structure of the NMEA set commands is:

$PASHS,NME,str,c,s [f] <Enter> where str is a 3-character strings that identifies the NMEA message to be output. The available strings are:

ALM, CRT, DAL, DCR, DPO, GDG, GGA, GLL, GRS, GSA, GSN, GST, GSV, GXP,

MSG, POS, PTT, RMC, RRE, SAT, TTT, UTM, VTG, XDR, and ZDA. c is the serial port to which response message should be sent (A, B, C or D), and s is either ON or OFF. ON starts the message output. OFF disables the message.

f is an optional parameter that sets the send interval of the message in seconds. The range is 0.1 to 999 seconds.

202 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

The output rate of NMEA messages can be set individually for each message in each port, or as a single rate that will govern the output rate of all enabled messages. To set the output of all NMEA messages to the same send interval, issue the command

$PASHS,NME,PER,f, where f is the send interval in seconds, with a range of 0.1 to

999 seconds. To set the output rate for an individual message, enter a value for the send interval (as described above) when enabling a particular message. For example, to output the SAT message on port A at 2-second intervals, issue the command

$PASHS,NME,SAT,A,ON,2. Note that if you send a $PASHS,NME,PER command after setting the rate for an individual command, the PER command will override the rate set for the individual command on all ports.

When a set command is sent correctly, the receiver returns a $PASHR,ACK

(command acknowledge) message. If the command is sent incorrectly or the syntax is wrong, the receiver returns a $PASHS,NAK (command not acknowledged) message.

Once acknowledged, the receiver outputs the corresponding NMEA data message at the interval defined by the $PASHS,NME,PER command, unless a necessary condition for the message to be output is not present. For example, the GRS message will not be output unless a position is being computed.

To disable all set NMEA messages, issue the $PASHS,NME,ALL command.

To see what NMEA messages have been enabled, and at what interval, issue the

$PASHQ,PAR command.

Example: Enable the POS and GGA messages on port A at 5-second intervals, and enable the SAT message on port B at 10-second intervals:

$PASHS,NME,POS,A,ON<Enter>

$PASHS,NME,GGA,A,ON<Enter>

$PASHS,NME,PER,5<Enter>

$PASHS,NME,SAT,B,ON,10<Enter>

Query Commands

The general structure of the NMEA query commands is:

$PASHQ,s,c <Enter> where s is one of the 3 character NMEA strings and c is the serial port to which response message should be sent (A, B, C or D). The serial port field is optional. If a port is not included, the receiver will send the response to the current port. Unlike the set commands, the query command will initiate a single response message.

Commands 203

Example: Query POS message and send the response to port D

$PASHQ,POS,D <Enter>

Query GSA message and send the response to the current port.

$PASHQ,GSA <Enter>

Table 8.89 lists the NMEA data message commands. Only the set command for each

NMEA message type is listed in the table, as the description for the set, query, and response message for each NMEA message are grouped together.

204 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

A detailed description of each NMEA command follows Table 8.89.

Table 8.89. NMEA Data Message Commands

Command

$PASHS,NME,ALL

$PASHQ,PAR

$PASHQ,NMO

$SPASHS,NME,TAG

$PASHS,NME,MSG

$PASHS, NME,XDR

$PASHS,NME,PER

$PASHS,NME,PTT

$PASHS,NME,TTT

PASHS,NME,GDC

$$PASHS,NME,GGA

$PASHS,NME,GLL

$PASHS,NME,GXP

$PASHS,NME,POS

$PASHS,NME,RMC

$PASHS,NME,UTM

$PASHS,NME,CRT

$PASHS,NME,DPO

$PASHS,NME,DCR

$PASHS,NME,GRS

Description

DISABLE OUTPUT

Disable all messages

CHECK NMEA OUTPUT SETTINGS

Query receiver parameters

Query NMEA message settings

NMEA VERSION

Set version of NMEA output

DIFFERENTIAL INFORMATION

Enable/disable base station messages

EXTERNAL SENSORS

Enable/disable external sensor information

OUTPUT RATE PARAMETER

Set output interval of NMEA response messages

PPS/PHOTOGRAMMETRY

Enable/disable PPS pulse time tag message

Enable/disable event marker photogrammetry time tag message

POSITION INFORMATION

Enable/disable GPS positions in grid coordinates

Enable/disable GPS position response message

Enable/disable lat/lon message

Enable/disable position computation with time of fix

Enable/disable position message

Enable/disable recommended minimum GPS data

Enable/disable UTM coordinates message

Enable/disable Cartesian coordinates message

Enable/disable delta position message

Enable/disable delta cartesian message

RESIDUAL INFORMATION

Enable/disable satellite range residual information

Commands

Page

254

235

260

242

206

137

241

246

254

243

247

255

209

217

220

223

234

215

213

224

205

Table 8.89. NMEA Data Message Commands (continued)

Command

$PASHS,NME,RRE

$PASHS,NME,ALM

$PASHS,NME,DAL

$PASHS,NME,GSA

$PASHS,NME,GSN

$PASHS,NME,GSV

$PASHS,NME,SAT

$PASHS,NME,ZDA

$PASHS,NME,VTG

$PASHS,NME,GST

Description

Enable/disable satellite residual and position error

SATELLITE INFORMATION

Enable/disable almanac data

Enable/disable decimal almanac data

Enable/disable SVs used message

Enable/disable signal strength/satellite number

Enable/disable satellites in view message

Enable/disable satellite status message

TIME SYNC

Enable/disable time synchronization message

TRACK AND SPEED

Enable/disable velocity/course message

ERROR STATISTICS

Enable/disable the pseudo-range error statistic message

Page

249

206

211

226

229

231

251

262

258

230

ALL: Disable All NMEA Messages

$PASHS,NME,ALL,c,OFF

Turn off all enabled NMEA messages, where c is the specified serial port. If the output rate is not set, the command is output at the rate set by the

$PASHS,NME,PER command.

Example: Turn off all NMEA message currently sent out through port B

$PASHS,NME,ALL,B,OFF <Enter>

ALM: Almanac Message

$PASHS,NME,ALM,c,s,[f]

Enable/disable the almanac message where c is the receiver serial port, s is ON or

OFF, and f is the optional output rate parameter in seconds. If the output rate is not set, the command is output at the rate set by the $PASHS,NME,PER command..

Example: Enable ALM message on port C

$PASHS,NME,ALM,C,ON <Enter>

206 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

$PASHQ,ALM,c

Query the almanac message, where c is the optional output port.

Example: Query almanac data message to receiver port D

$PASHQ,ALM,D <Enter>

$GPALM

There will be one response message for each satellite in the GPS constellation. The response to the set or query command is in the form:

$GPALM,d1,d2,d3,d4,h5,h6,h7,h8,h9,h10,h11,h12,h13,h14, h15*cc <Enter>

Table 8.90. ALM Response Message

Parameter

h5 h6 h7 h8 h9 h10 h11 d1 d2 d3 d4 h12 h13 h14 h15

*cc

Description Range

Total number of messages

Number of this message

Satellite PRN number

GPS week

SV health (In ASCII Hex) e. Eccentricity (In ASCII Hex) toe. Almanac reference time (seconds. In ASCII Hex)

Io. Inclination angle (semicircles. In ASCII Hex)

OMEGADOT. Rate of ascension (semicircles/sec. In ASCII Hex)

A½. Square Root of semi-major axis (Meters & ½ In ASCII Hex)

ω

. Argument of perigee (semicircle. In ASCII Hex)

OMEGA0. Longitude of ascension mode (semicircle. In ASCII Hex) 6 bytes

Mo. Mean anomaly (semicircle. In ASCII Hex) afo. Clock parameter (seconds. In ASCII Hex)

6 bytes

3 bytes af1. Clock parameter (sec/sec. In ASCII Hex)

Checksum

3 bytes

01 -32

01 -32

01 - 32

4 digits

2 bytes

4 bytes

2 bytes

4 bytes

4 bytes

6 bytes

6 bytes

Example:

Query: $PASHQ,ALM <Enter>

Commands 207

Response:

$GPALM,26,01,01,0899,00,1E8C,24,080B,FD49,A10D58,EB4562,

BFEF85,227A5B,011,000*0B <Enter>

Table 8.91 describes a typical ALM response message.

Table 8.91. Typical ALM Response Message

Item

080B

FD49

A10D58

EB4562

BFEF85

227A5B

011

000

*0B

$GPALM

26

01

01

0899

00

1E8C

24

Significance

Header

Total number of messages

Number of this message

Satellite PRN Number

GPS week number

Satellite Health

Eccentricity

Almanac Reference Time

Inclination angle

Rate of ascension

Root of semi-major axis

Argument of perigree

Longitude of ascension mode

Mean anomaly

Clock parameter

Clock parameter checksum

208 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

CRT: Cartesian Coordinates Message

$PASHS,NME,CRT,c,s,[f]

This command enables/disables the output of the cartesian coordinates message, where c is the port, s is ON or OFF, and f is an optional output rate parameter in seconds. If the output rate parameter is not set, the command will be output at the rate set by the $PASHS,NME,PER command. If no position is computed, the message will be output with the position related fields empty.

Example: Enable CRT message on port B:

$PASHS,NME,CRT,B,ON<Enter>

$PASHQ,CRT,c

Query the CRT message, where c is the optional output serial port.

Example: Query receiver for Cartesian coordinate message to current port:

$PASHQ,CRT <Enter>

$PASHR,CRT

The response message is in the form:

$PASHR,CRT,d1,d2,m3,f4,f5,f6,f7,f8,f9,f10,f11,f12,f13,f14,f15,s16,*cc

where the fields are as defined in Table 8.92.

Table 8.92. CRT Message Structure f7 f8 f5 f6 f9 f10 d2 m3 f4

Parameter

d1

Description Range

Raw/differential position

0: Raw, position is not differentially corrected

1: Position is differentially corrected with RTCM code

2: Position is differentially corrected with CPD float solution

3: Position is CPD fixed solution

0-3

Number of SVs used in position computation.

UTC time: hhmmss.ss

ECEF X coordinate (meters): [-]xxxxxxx.xxx

3 to 12

00 to 23:59:59.99

± 9999999.999

ECEF Y coordinate (meters): [-]xxxxxxx.xxx

ECEF Z coordinate (meters): [-]xxxxxxx.xxx

Receiver clock offset (meters) [-]x.xxx

Velocity vector, X-component (meters/sec): [-]x.xxx

Velocity vector, Y-component (meters/sec): [-]x.xxx

Velocity vector, Z-component (meters/sec): [-]x.xxx

± 9999999.999

± 9999999.999

± 9.999

± 9.999

± 9.999

± 9.999

Commands 209

Table 8.92. CRT Message Structure (continued)

Parameter

f11 f12 f13 f14 f15 s16

*cc

Description

Receiver clock drift (meters) [-]x.xxx

PDOP - position dilution of position

HDOP - horizontal dilution of position

VDOP - vertical dilution of position

TDOP - time dilution of position

Firmware version ID

Checksum

Range

± 9.999

0 to 99.9

0 to 99.9

0 to99.9

0 to 99.9

4-character string

210 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

DAL: DAL Format Almanac Message

$PASHS,NME,DAL,c,s,[f]

This message displays the NMEA almanac message in decimal format, where c is the port, s is ON or OFF, and f is the optional output rate parameter in seconds. If the output rate is not set, the command is output at the rate set by the $PASHS,NME,PER command.

Example: Enable DAL message on port A:

$PASHS,NME,DAL,A,ON <Enter>

$PASHQ,DAL,c

There are 2 formats of the $PASHQ,DAL query. One format outputs the almanac information for all available satellites in the GPS constellation, one response message for each satellite. The other format allows you to output the almanac for only a single satellite.

Format 1 - Almanac, all messages: $PASHQ,DAL,c

Queries the receiver for almanac information for all available satellites where c is the optional output serial port.

Example: Query all available almanac messages. Send output to port D.

$PASHQ,DAL,D <Enter>

Format 2 - Almanac, one satellite: $PASHQ,DAL,d

Queries the receiver for almanac information from a single satellite, where d is the

PRN number of the desired satellite. The response is sent to the current port.

Example: Query the almanac information for PRN #15:

$PASHQ,DAL,15 <Enter>

$PASHR,DAL

Depending upon the chosen query format, there will be one response message or many, but only one response message for each satellite. The response message is in

the form shown below and described in Table 8.93.

$GPDAL,d1,d2,f3,f4,f5,f6,f7,f8,f9,f10,f11,f12,d13*cc

<Enter>

Commands 211

Table 8.93. DAL Message Structure

Parameter

f9 f10 f11 f12 d13

*cc f7 f8 f5 f6 d1 d2 f3 d4

Description Range

Satellite PRN number

Satellite health e. Eccentricity toe, reference time for orbit (in seconds)

1 - 32

0 - 255

±9.9999999E±99

0 - 999999 i0, inclination angle at reference time (semicircles) omegadot, the rate of right ascension (semicircles/sec) checksum in hex

0 - 9.9999999E±99

±9.9999999E±99 roota, the square root of semi-major axis (meters 1/2) 0 - 9.9999999E±99 omega0, the longitude of the ascension node (semicircle) ±9.9999999E±99

ω

, the argument of perigee (semicircle)

M0, the mean anomaly at reference time (semicircle) af0, clock parameter (in seconds) af1, clock parameter (sec/sec) wn, GPS almanac week number

±9.9999999E±99

±9.9999999E±99

±9.9999999E±99

0 - 9.9999999E±99

4 digits hex

Example:

Query: $PASHQ,DAL <Enter>

Typical DAL response message:

$PASHR,DAL,01,00,3.7240982E03,061440,3.0392534E-01,

-2.5465852E-09,5.1536646E03,1.6172159E-01,-5.0029719E-01,

2.7568674E-01,1.6212463E-05,0.0000000E00,0899*51 <Enter>

Table 8.94 describes the typical DAL response message.

212 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

Item

$PASHR,DAL

01

00

3.7240982E03

061440

3.0392534E-01

-2.5465852E-09

5.1536646E03

-1.6172159E-01

-5.0029719E-01

2.7568674E-01

1.6212463E-05

0.0000000E00

0899

*51

Table 8.94. Typical DAL Message

Significance

Header

Satellite PRN number

Satellite health

Eccentricity

Reference time for orbit

Inclination angle

Rate of right ascension

Square root of semi-major axis

Argument of perigree

Longitude of ascension mode

Mean anomaly

Clock parameter

Clock parameter

GPS week number

Checksum

DCR: Delta Cartesian Message

$PASHS,NME,DCR,c,s,[f]

This command enables/disables the output of the delta Cartesian message, where s is the port, c is ON or OFF, and f is an optional output rate parameter in seconds. If the output rate parameter is not set, the command is output at the rate set by the

$PASHS,NME,PER command.

Example: Enable DCR message on port D:

$PASHS,NME,DCR,D,ON<Enter>

$PASHQ,DCR,[c]

Query the DCR message, where c is the optional output serial port.

Example: Query DCR message output to port A:

$PASHQ,DCR,A<Enter>

$PASHR,DCR

The DCR response message is in the form:

$PASHR,DCR,c1,d2,m3,f4,c5,f6,c7,f8,c9,f10,f11,f12,f13,f14,f15,f16,s17*cc

where the parameters are as defined in Table 8.95.

Commands 213

Table 8.95. DCR Message Structure

Parameter

f13 f14 f15 s16

*cc f9 f10 f11 f12 f7 f8 f5 f6 c1 d2 m3 f4

Description

Mode: M = manual, A = automatic

Number of SVs used in position computation

UTC time: hhmmss.ss

Delta antenna position ECEF X coordinate in meters: [-]x.xxx

Delta antenna position ECEF Y coordinate in meters: [-]x.xxx

Delta antenna position ECEF X coordinate in meters: [-]x.xxx

Receiver clock offset in meters: [-]x.xxx

Velocity vector, X component, in meters/sec: [-].xxx

Velocity vector, Y component, in meters/sec: [-].xxx

Velocity vector, X component, in meters/sec: [-].xxx

Receiver clock drift in meters: [-]x.xxx

PDOP: Position Dilution of Precision

HDOP: Horizontal Dilution of Precision

VDOP: Vertical Dilution of Precision

TDOP: Time Dilution of Precision

Firmware version ID

Checksum

Range

M or A

3 to 12

00 to 23:59:59.99

± 9.999

± 9.999

± 9.999

± 9.999

± 0.999

± 0.999

± 0.999

± 9.999

0-99.9

0-99.9

0-99.9

0-99.9

4-character string

214 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

DPO: Delta Position Message

$PASHS,NME,DPO,c,s,[f]

This command enables/disables the output of the delta position message, where c is the port, s is ON or OFF, and f is an optional output rate parameter in seconds. If the output rate parameter is not set, the command is output at the rate set by the

$PASHS,NME,PER command. The DPO message outputs the computed vector solution in northing, easting, and up coordinates. If no position is computed, the message is output with the position-related fields empty.

Example: Enable DPO message on port A:

$PASHS,NME,DPO,A,ON<Enter>

$PASHQ,DPO,c

Query the DPO message where c is the optional output serial port.

Example: Query the DPO message output to port A:

$PASHQ,CRT,A <Enter>

$PASHR,DPO

The DPO response message is in the form:

$PASHR,DPO,c1,d2,m3,f4,c5,f6,c7,f8,c9,f10,f11,f12,f13,f14,f15,f16,sl7*cc

where the message parameters are as defined in Table 8.96.

Commands 215

Table 8.96. DPO Message Structure

Parameter

f13 f14 f15 f16 c9 f10 f11 f12 s17

*cc c5 f6 c7 f8 c1 d2 m3 f4

Description

Mode: M = manual, A = automatic

Number of SVs used in the position computation

UTC time: hhmmss.ss

Northing coordinate difference in meters: [-]xxxxxxx.xxx

North: N

Easting coordinate difference in meters: [-]xxxxxxx.xxx

East: E

Ellipsoid height difference in meters: xxxxx.xxx

Reserved

COG: course over ground in degrees: xxx.x

SOG: speed over ground in meters/sec: xxx.x

Vertical velocity in meters/sec [-]xxx.x

PDOP: position dilution of precision

HDOP: horizontal dilution of precision

VDOP: vertical dilution of precision

TDOP: time dilution of precision

Firmware version ID

Checksum

Range

M or A

3 to 12

00 to 23:59:59.99

± 9999999.999

N

± 9999999.999

E

± 99999.999

0 to 360

0 to 999.9

± 999.9

0 to 99.9

0 to 99.9

0 to 99.9

0 to 99.9

4-character string

216 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

GDC: User Grid Coordinate

$PASHS,NME,GDC,c,s,[f]

This command enables/disables the output of grid coordinates on port c, where c is either A, B, C, or D, s is ON or OFF, and f is the optional output rate parameter in seconds. If the output rate is not set, the command is output at the rate set by the

$PASHS,NME,PER command.

If no position is being computed or GRD is not set to UDG, this message is not output.

$PASHQ,GDC,c

Query grid coordinates where c is the optional output serial port. The message is not output unless position is being computed and GRD is set to UDG.

Example: Send GDC message to the current port:

$PASHQ,GDC <Enter>

$PASHR,GDC

This message outputs the current position in the Grid Coordinate system selected by the user.

The response message is in the form shown below and defined in Table 8.97.

$PASHR,GDC,m1,s2,f3,f4,d5,d6,f7,f8,M,f9,M,d10,s11,s12*cc <Enter>

Table 8.97. GDC Message Structure

Parameter

m1 s2

Description

UTC of position in hours, minutes, and decimal seconds

(hhmmss.ss)

Map projection type

Range

0—235959.90

f3 f4 d5 d6 f7 x (Easting) User Grid coordinate (meters) y (Northing) User Grid coordinate (meters)

Position Indicator

1: Raw Position

2: RTCM differential, or CPD float position

3: Carrier Phase differential (CPD) fixed

Number of GPS satellites being used

Horizontal Dilution of Position (HDOP)

EMER/TM83/

OM83/LC83/

STER/LC27/

TM27/TMA7

±9999999.999

±9999999.999

1, 2, 3

3 - 12

999.9

Commands 217

Table 8.97. GDC Message Structure (continued)

M f9

M d10 s11 s12 cc

Parameter

f8 Altitude in meters

Description

Altitude units (M=meters)

Geoidal separation in meters w.r.t. selected datum and Geoid

Model

Geoidal separation units (M-meters)

Age of differential corrections

Differential reference station ID

Datum type checksum

Range

-1000.000 to

18000.000

M

±999.999

M

0-999

0-1023

See Appendix A

The altitude is either ellipsoidal (default) or geoidal (mean-sea-level) depending upon the selection made with $PASHS,HGT. The geoidal separation subtracted from the ellipsoidal altitude gives the geoidal altitude.

218 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

Example:

$PASHR,GDC,015151.00,EMER,588757.623,4136720.056,2,04,

03.8,00012.123,M,-031.711,M,14,1010,W84*2A <Enter>

where the message parameters are as described in Table 8.98.

Table 8.98. Typical GDC Response Message

Item

M

-031.711

M

014

1010

W84

*2A

015151.00

EMER

588757.623

4136720.056

2

04

03.8

00012.123

Description

UTM time

Equatorial Mercator map projection

User Grid easting coordinate (x)

User Grid northing coordinate (y)

RTCM differential position

Number of SVs used to compute position

HDOP

Altitude of position

Altitude units (M=meters)

Geoidal separation w.r.t. selected datum geoidal separation units (M = meters) age of corrections

Differential Station ID

Datum is WGS-84 checksum

Commands 219

GGA: GPS Position Message

$PASHS,NME,GGA,c,s,[f]

This command enables/disables the GPS position message on port c, where c is either A, B, C, or D, s is ON or OFF, and f is the optional output rate parameter in seconds. If the output rate is not set, the command is output at the rate set by the

$PASHS,NME,PER command.. If no position is computed, the message will be output but the position related fields will be empty.

Example: Enable GGA on port A:

$PASHS,NME,GGA,A,ON <Enter>

$PASHQ,GGA,c

Query the GPS position message where c is the receiver port where the message will be output. If no position is computed, the message will be output but the position related fields will be empty.

Example: $PASHQ,GGA <Enter>

$GPGGA

The GGA response message is in the form:

$GPGGA,m1,m2,c3,m4,c5,d6,d7,f8,f9,M,f10,M,f11,d12*cc <Enter>

Table 8.99. GGA Message Structure

Parameter

m1 m2 c3 m4 c5 d6 d7 f8

Description Range

Current UTC time of position fix in hours, minutes, and seconds

(hhmmss.ss)

Latitude component of position in degrees and decimal minutes

(ddmm.mmmmmm)

Direction of latitude N= North, S= South

Position type

0. Position not available or invalid

1. Autonomous position

2. RTCM differential corrected position or CPD float position

3. CPD fixed position

Number of GPS satellites being used in the position computation

Horizontal dilution of precision (HDOP)

00-235959.90

0-90

N/S

Longitudinal component of position in degrees and decimal minutes

(dddmm.mmmmmm)

0-180

Direction of longitude E = East, W= West E/W

0, 1, 2, 3

3 - 12

0 - 99.9

220 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

Table 8.99. GGA Message Structure (continued)

Parameter

f9

Description

Geoidal Height (Altitude above mean sea level)

M f10

M f11 d12

*cc

Altitude units M = meters

Geoidal separation in meters

Geoidal separation units M = meters

Age of differential corrections (seconds)

Base station ID (RTCM only) checksum

Range

-1000.000 to

18000.000

‘M’

±999.999

‘M’

0-999 (RTCM mode)

0-99 (CPD)

0-1023

If the $PASHS,NME,TAG command is set to V23 or V30, the d6 parameter (Position Type) is defined as follows:

0 = Fix invalid or not available

1 = GPS SPS Mode, fix valid

2 = Differential GPS, SPS Mode, fix valid

3 = GPS PPS Mode, fix valid

4 = Real Time Kinematic. Satellite system used in RTK mode with fixed integers

5 = Float RTK. Satellite system used in RTK mode, floating integers

6 = Estimated (dead reckoning) Mode

7 = Manual Input Mode

8 = Simulator Mode

This field will not be a null field.

Example: Query: $PASHQ,GGA <Enter>

Typical response:

$GPGGA,015454.00,3723.285132,N,12202.238512,W,2,04,03.8,00012.123,

M,-032.121,M,014,0000*75 <Enter>

Table 8.100 describes the parameters of the typical GGA response message.

Commands 221

Item

$GPGGA

015454.00

3723.285132

N

12202.238512

W

2

04

03.8

00012.123

M

-032.121

M

014

0000

*75

Table 8.100. Typical GGA Message

Description

Header

UTC time

Latitude (ddmm.mmmmmm)

North Latitude

Longitude (dddmm.mmmmmm)

West longitude

RTCM differential position

Number of satellites used in position

HDOP

Geoided height (altitude above mean-sea-level)

Units of altitude (M = meters)

Geoidal separation

Units of geoidal separation (M=meters)

Age of correction

Base station ID checksum

222 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

GLL: Latitude/Longitude Message

$PASHS,NME,GLL,c,s,[f]

This command enables/disables the latitude/longitude response message, where c is port A, B, C, or D, s is ON or OFF, and f is the optional output rate parameter in seconds. If the output rate is not set, the command is output at the rate set by the

$PASHS,NME,PER command.

If no position is computed, the message is output with the position-related fields empty.

Example: Enable GLL message on port A:

$PASHS,NME,GLL,A,ON <Enter>

$PASHQ,GLL,c

Query GLL, where c is the optional output serial port.

Example: $PASHQ,GLL <Enter>

$GPGLL

The GLL response message is in the form shown below and defined in Table 8.101.

$GPGLL,m1,c2,m3,c4,m5,c6*cc <Enter>

Table 8.101. GLL Message Structure m1 c2 m3 c4 m5 c6

*cc

Parameters Description Range

Position latitude in degrees and decimal minutes (ddmm.mmmmmm)

0 - 90

°

Direction of latitude N = North, S = South N/S

Position longitude in degrees and decimal minutes (dddmm.mmmmmm)

0 - 180

°

Direction of longitude W = West, E = East W/E

UTC time of position in hours, minutes, and seconds (hhmmss.ss)

Status: A = valid V = invalid

Checksum

00-235959.90

A/V

If the $PASHS,NME,TAG command is set to V23 or V30, an additional field is added to the $GPGLL message at the end of the message, before the checksum. This field is the Mode Indicator and is defined as follows:

A = Autonomous Mode

D = Differential Mode

E = Estimated (dead reckoning) Mode

S = Simulator Mode

N = Data not valid

Commands 223

The Status field (parameter c6) will be set to V (invalid) for all values of the Mode Indicator except A

(autonomous) and D (differential).

Example: Query: $PASHQ,GLL <Enter>

Typical response:

$GPGLL,3722.414292,N,12159.852825,W,202556.00,A*12 <Enter>

Table 8.102 describes each item in a typical GLL response message.

Table 8.102. Typical GLL Message

Item

$GPGLL

3722.414292

N

12159.852825

W

202556.00

A

*12

Significance

Header

Latitude

North latitude

Longitude

West longitude

UTC time of position

Status valid checksum

GRS: Satellite Range Residuals

$PASHS,NME,GRS,c,s,[f]

This command enables/disables the NMEA satellite range residual response message to port c, where c is A, B, C, or D, s is ON or OFF, and f is the optional output rate parameter in seconds. If the output rate is not set, the command is output at the rate set by the $PASHS,NME,PER command.

If only four SVs are used in the position solution, residuals are not computed and

GRS outputs zeroes in the residual fields. With three SVs or fewer, the message is not output.

Example: Enable GRS message on port C:

$PASHS,NME,GRS,C,ON <Enter>

224 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

$PASHQ,GRS,c

Query satellite range residual where c is the optional output serial port. The message is not output unless position is being computed.

Example: $PASHQ,GRS <Enter>

$GPGRS

The GRS response message is in the form:

$GPGRS,m1,d2,n(f3)*cc <Enter>

where n is the number of satellites used in the position solution. Table 8.103 defines

the GRS message structure.

Table 8.103. GRS Message Structure

Parameter

m1 d2 f3

*cc

Description Range

Current UTC time of GGA position in hours, minutes, seconds (hhmmss.ss) 00-235959.90

Mode used to compute range residuals

0: Residuals used to calculate position given in matching GGA line

1: Residuals re-computed after GGA position computed or post-fit residuals

0, 1

Range residuals for satellite used in position computation. Order of residuals matches order of satellites in GSV message

±

999.999

checksum

The range residuals are re-computed after the GGA position is computed, therefore the mode is always 1.

Example:

Query: $PASHQ,GRS <Enter>

Typical response:

$GPGRS,203227.50,1,-007.916,051.921,-048.804,-026.612,

-002.717,021.150*63 <Enter>

Table 8.104 describes each item in a typical GRS message.

Commands 225

Item

$GPGRS

203227.50

1

-007.916

051.921

-048.804

-026.612

-002.717

021.150

*63

Table 8.104. Typical GRS Message

Significance

Header

UTC time of GGA position

Residuals computed after GGA position was computed

Range residuals of the first satellite

Range residuals of the second satellite

Range residuals of the third satellite

Range residuals of the fourth satellite

Range residuals of the fifth satellite

Range residuals of the sixth satellite checksum

GSA: DOP and Active Satellite Messages

$PASHS,NME,GSA,c,s,[f]

This command enables/disables the DOP and active satellite message to be sent out to serial port c, where c is port A, B, C, or D, s is ON or OFF, and f is the optional output rate parameter in seconds. If the output rate is not set, the command is output at the rate set by the $PASHS,NME,PER command.

Example: Enable GSA message on port B:

$PASHS,NME,GSA,B,ON <Enter>

$PASHQ,GSA,c

Query DOP and active satellites where c is the optional output serial port.

Example: Query GSA message to the current port:

$PASHQ,GSA <Enter>

226 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

$GPGSA

The response message is in the form:

$GPGSA,c1,d1,d2,d3,d4,d5,d6,d7,d8,d9,d10,d11,d12,d13,f1, f2,f3*cc <Enter>

where the parameters are as defined in Table 8.105.

Table 8.105. GSA Message Structure

Range

M or A

1 -3

Example:

Query: $PASHQ,GSA <Enter>

$GPGSA

Typical GSA response message:

$GPGSA,M,3,,02,,04,27,26,07,,,,,09,3.2,1.4,2.9*39 <Enter>

Table 8.106 describes a typical GSA response message.

Table 8.106. Typical GSA Message

Item

$GPGSA

M

3

Empty field

Significance

Header

Manual mode

3D mode

Satellite in channel 1

Commands

1 -32

0 - 9.9

0 - 9.9

0 - 9.9

227

Table 8.106. Typical GSA Message (continued)

Item

02

Empty field

04

27

26

07

Empty field

Empty field

Empty field

Empty field

09

3.2

1.4

2.9

*38

Significance

Satellite in channel 2

Satellite in channel 3

Satellite in channel 4

Satellite in channel 5

Satellite in channel 6

Satellite in channel 7

Satellite in channel 8

Satellite in channel 9

Satellite in channel 10

Satellite in channel 11

Satellite in channel 12

PDOP

HDOP

VDOP checksum

228 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

GSN: Signal Strength/Satellite Number

$PASHS,NME,GSN,c,s,[f]

This command enables/disables the signal strength/satellite number response message on port c, where c is either A, B, C, or D, s is ON or OFF, and f is the optional output rate parameter in seconds. If the output rate is not set, the command is output at the rate set by the $PASHS,NME,PER command.

Example: Enable GSN message on port C:

$PASHS,NME,GSN,C,ON <Enter>

$PASHQ,GSN,c

Query signal strength message where c is the optional output serial port.

Example: Query GSN message on port A:

$PASHQ,GSN,A <Enter>

$GPGSN

The response message contains the GPS PRN number and corresponding signal strength for each locked satellite. The response message is in the form:

$GPGSN,d1,n(d2,f3,)d4*cc <Enter>

where n is the number of locked satellites. Table 8.107 defines the GSN structure.

Table 8.107. GSN Message Structure

Field

d1 d2 f3 d4

*cc

Significance Range

Number of SVs locked

PRN number

0 - 12

1 - 32 for GPS

33 - 64 for SBAS

Signal strength in dB Hz 30.0 - 60.0

999 to end the message or RTCM age of corrections (if available) 999

Checksum

Example:

Query: $PASHQ,GSN <Enter>

Typical GSN response message:

$GPGSN,08,05,46.0,30,43.4,06,37.3,04,44.5,17,46.2,09,42.4,24,46.6,35,34.

5,999*70 <Enter>

Commands 229

Table 8.108 describes each item in a typical GSN message.

Table 8.108. Typical GSN Message

Item

09

51.2

999

*7C

04

48.4

07

50.8

$GPGSN

04

02

46.5

Significance

Header

Number of SVs locked

PRN number of the first SV

Signal to noise of the first SV

PRN number of the second SV

Signal-to-noise ratio of the second SV

PRN number of the third SV

Signal-to-noise ratio of the third SV

PRN number of the fourth SV

Signal-to-noise ratio of the fourth SV

Message termination checksum

GST: Pseudo-range Error Statistic Message

$PASHS,NME,GST,c,s,[f]

This command enables/disables the output of the pseudo-range error statistic message, where c is the port, s is ON or OFF, and f is the optional output rate parameter in seconds. If the output rate parameter is not set, the command is output at the rate set by the $PASHS,NME,PER command.

Example: Enable GST message on port A:

$PASHS,NME,GST,A,ON<Enter>

$PASHQ,GST,c

Query the GST message, where c is the optional output serial port.

Example: Query GST message output to the current port:

$PASHQ,GST<Enter>

230 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

$PASHR,GST

The GST response message is in the form:

$PASHR,GST,m1,f2,f3,f4,f5,f6,f7,f8*cc

where the parameters are as defined in Table 8.109.

Table 8.109. GST Message Structure

Field Description Range

$PASHR,GST Header m1 f2

UTC time: hhmmss.ss

RMS value of standard deviation of range inputs f3 f4 f5

Standard deviation of semi-major axis of error ellipse (meters)

00 to 23:59:59.99

0.00 to 99.999

0.00 to 99.999

Standard deviation of semi-minor axis of error ellipse (meters) 0.00 to 99.999

Orientation of semi-major axis of error ellipse (degrees from true north 0 to 180 f6 f7 f8

*cc

Standard deviation of latitude error (meters)

Standard deviation of longitude error (meters)

Standard deviation of altitude error (meters)

Checksum

0.00 to 99.999

0.00 to 99.999

0.00 to 99.999

GSV: Satellites in View Message

$PASHS,NME,GSV,c,s,[f]

This command enables/disables the satellites-in-view message to send out of serial port, where c is port A, B, C, or D, s is ON or OFF, and f is the optional output rate parameter in seconds. If the output rate is not set, the command is output at the rate set by the $PASHS,NME,PER command.

Example: Output GSV message on port A:

$PASHS,NME,GSV,A,ON <Enter>

$PASHQ,GSV,c

Query satellites in view, where c is the optional output serial port.

Example: Query the GSV message on port A:

$PASHQ,GSV,A <Enter>

Commands 231

$GPGSV

The GSV response message is in the form:

$GPGSV,d1,d2,d3,n(d4,d5,d6,f7)*cc <Enter>

where n is maximum 4. If more than 4 satellites are tracked, a second message is

sent, then a 3rd if more than 8 SVs are tracked. Table 8.110 defines the message

structure.

Table 8.110. GSV Message Structure d5 d6 f7

*cc

Field

d1 d2 d3 d4

Description Range

Total number of messages 1-3

Message number 1-3

Total number of satellites in view 1-12

Satellite PRN

Elevation in degrees

Azimuth in degrees

SNR in dB-Hz checksum

1-32 for GPS

33-64 for SBAS

0-90

0-359

30.0-60.0

Example:

Query: $PASHQ,GSV <Enter>

Typical GSV response message:

$GPGSV,2,1,08,05,77,304,45.7,30,37,312,43.3,06,17,276,38.6,04,32,045,44

.5*7A <Enter>

where each item is as described in Table 8.111.

.

Table 8.111. Typical GSV Message

2

1

8

16

Item Significance

Total number of messages 1..3

Message number 1..3

Number of SVs in view 1..12

PRN of first satellite 1..32

232 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

Commands

14

145

50.9

*78

11

038

51.5

29

63

050

52.1

28

23

293

50.3

19

Item

Table 8.111. Typical GSV Message (continued)

Significance

Elevation of first satellite 0..90

Azimuth of first satellite 0...359

Signal-to-noise ratio of first satellite

PRN of second satellite

Elevation of second satellite

Azimuth of second satellite

Signal-to-noise ratio of second satellite

PRN of third satellite

Elevation of third satellite

Azimuth of third satellite

Signal-to-noise ratio of third satellite

PRN of fourth satellite

Elevation of fourth satellite

Azimuth of fourth satellite

Signal-to-noise of fourth satellite

Checksum in hexadecimal

233

GXP: Horizontal Position Message

$PASHS,NME,GXP,c,s,[f]

This command enables/disables the horizontal position message where c is either A,

B, C, or D, s is ON or OFF, and f is the optional output rate parameter in seconds. If the output rate is not set, the command is output at the rate set by the

$PASHS,NME,PER command.

If no position is computed, this message is output but the positon related fields will be empty.

Example: Output GXP message on port C

$PASHS,NME,GXP,C,ON <Enter>

$PASHQ,GXP,c

Query horizontal position where c is the optional output serial port.

Example: $PASHQ,GXP,A <Enter>

$GPGXP

The GXP response message is in the form:

$GPGXP,m1,m2,c3,m4,c5*cc <Enter>

where the message structure is as defined in Table 8.112.

Table 8.112. GXP Message Structure

Parameter

m1 m2 c3 m4 c5 cc

Description

UTC of fix in hours, minutes and seconds (hhmmss.ss)

Latitude in degrees and decimal minutes (ddmm.mmmmmm)

Direction of latitude N = North, S = South

Longitude in degrees and decimal minutes (dddmm.mmmmmm)

Direction of longitude E = East, W = West checksum

Range

00-235959.90

0 - 90.00

N/S

0 - 180.00

W/E

Example:

Query: $PASHQ,GXP <Enter>

Typical GXP response message:

$GPGXP,212958.00,3722.396956,N,12159.849225,W*7A <Enter>

234 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

Table 8.113 describes each item in a typical GXP message.

Table 8.113. Typical GXP Message

Item

$GPGXP

212958.00

3722.396956

N

12159.849225

W

*7A

Significance

Header

UTC time of position

Latitude

North Latitude

Longitude

West Longitude checksum

MSG: Base Station Message

$PASHS,NME,MSG,c,s,[f]

This command enables/disables the message containing RTCM reference (base) station message types 1, 2, 3, 6, and 16, 18, 19 where c is the output port, A, B, C, or

D, s is ON or OFF, and f is the optional output rate parameter in seconds. If the output rate is not set, the command is output at the rate set by the $PASHS,NME,PER command.

Unless the unit is sending or receiving differential corrections, this command is ignored.

Example: Enable MSG on port A:

$PASHS,NME,MSG,A,ON <Enter>

$PASHQ,MSG,c

Query base station message where c is the optional output serial port. The message is not output unless differential corrections are being sent or received.

Example: $PASHQ,MSG,C <Enter>

Commands 235

$GPMSG

The response message will vary depending upon the type of message:

Message type 1 format:

$GPMSG,d1,d2,f3,d4,d5,d6,m7,n(d8,d9,f10,f11,d12)*cc <Enter>

Message type 2 format:

$GPMSG,d1,d2,f3,d4,d5,d6,m7,n(d8,d9,f10,f11,d12)*cc <Enter>

Message type 3 format:

$GPMSG,d1,d2,f3,d4,d5,d6,m7,f8,f9,f10*cc <Enter>

Message type 6 format:

$GPMSG,d1,d2,f3,d4,d5,d6,m7*cc <Enter>

Message type 16 format:

$GPMSG,d1,d2,f3,d4,d5,d6,m7,s8*cc <Enter>

Message type 18 format:

$GPMSG,d1,d2,f3,d4,d5,d6,m7,n(d8,d9,d10,d11,d12,d13,d14,d15)*cc

<Enter>

Message type 19 format:

$GPMSG,d1,d2,f3,d4,d5,d6,m7,n(d8,d9,d10,d11,d12,d13,d14,f15)*cc

<Enter>

236 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

Message type 20 format:

$GPMSG,d1,d2,f3,d4,d5,d6,m7,n(d8,d9,d10,d11,d12,d13,d14,d15)*cc

<Enter>

Message type 21 format:

$GPMSG,d1,d2,f3,d4,d5,d6,m7,n(d8,d9,d10,d11,d12,d13,d14,f15)*cc

<Enter>

Table 8.114 lists the common parts of messages 1, 2, 3, 6, 16, 18, 19, 20 and 21.

Table 8.114. Common Fields of Type 1, 2, 3, 6, 16, 18, 19, 20 and 21

Parameter

d1 d2 f3 d4 d5 d6 m7

Description

RTCM message type

Station identifier

Z count

Sequence number

Station health

Total number of characters after the time item

(include the comma and <Enter>)

Current GPS time of position fix (hhmmss.ss)

Range

1,2,3,6,16,18, 19,20,21

0 - 1023

0 - 9999.9

0 - 9

0 - 7

0 - 999

00-235959.90

Table 8.115 lists the remainder of the type 1 message:

Table 8.115. Remainder of Type 1 Message

Parameter

d8 d9 f10 f11 d12

*cc

Description

User differential range error (URDE)

Satellite PRN number

Pseudo range correction (PRC) in meters

Range rate correction (RRC) in meters/sec

Issue of data ephemeris (IODE) checksum

Range

0-9

1-32

±9999.99

±9.999

0-999

Commands 237

Table 8.116 lists the remainder of message type 2

Table 8.116. Remainder of Type 2 Message

Parameter

d8 d9 f10 f11 d12

*cc

Description Range

User differential range error (UDRE)

Satellite PRN Number

Delta Pseudo range correction (Delta PRC) in meters

Delta Range rate correction (Delta RRC) in meters/ sec

Issue of data ephemeris (IODE) checksum

0-9

1-32

±

±

99.99

9.999

0-999

Table 8.117 lists the remaining message for type 3

Table 8.117. Remainder of Type 3 Message

Parameter

f8 f9 f10

*cc

Description

Station X component

Station Y component

Station Z component checksum

Range

±9999999.99

±9999999.99

±9999999.99

Table 8.118 lists the remaining message for type 16

Table 8.118. Remainder of Type 16 Message

Parameter

s8

*cc

Description Range

text message send from base receiver Up to 80 alpha-numeric characters checksum

238 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

Table 8.119 lists the remainder for message type 18/20 (RTK carrier phase

corrections) size for type 18/20: total number of svs for L1 and L2 frequency +2*(10 byte freq+GNSS) + 3 byte chksum + 2 byte <Enter>

Table 8.119. Remainder of Type 18 and 20 Messages

Range

Parameter Description

d8 d9 d10 d11 d12 d13 d14 d15

L1 or L2 frequency

GPS time of measurement

Half/full L2 wavelength indicator

00...01

0..599999 [µsec]

0 - full, 1 - half

CA code /P code indicator

SV prn

Data quality

0 - CA, 1 -P

1..32

0..7 refer to RTCM spec. for table of phase errors

Cumulative loss of continuity indicator

0..31

Type 18 - carrier phase +/- 8388608 full cycles with resolution of 1/256 full cycle

Type 20 - carrier phase correction

+/- 16777216 half cycles with resolution of 1/128 half cycle

+/- 32768 full wavelengths with resolution 1/256 full wavelength

+/- 65536 half wavelengths with resolution of 1/

128 half wavelength

Commands 239

Table 8.120 lists the remainder of the type 19 message (uncorrected pseudorange

measurements) and 21 (RTK pseudorange correction).

size for type 19 /21: total number of SVs for L1 and L2 frequency + 2*(13 byte Freq+sm+GNSS) +

3 byte chksum + 2 byte <Enter>

Table 8.120. Remainder of Type 19 and 21 Messages

Parameter

d8 d9

Description

L1 or L2 frequency

Smoothing interval d10 d11 d12 d13 d14 f15

GPS time of measurement

CA code /P code indicator

SV prn data quality multipath error type 19 - pseudorange type 21 - pseudorange correction

Range

00...01

00 - 0..1 min

01 - 1..5 min

10 - 5..15 min

11 - indefinite

0..599999 [µsec]

0 - CA, 1 -P

1..32

0..7 refer to RTCM spec. for table of pseudorange error

0..15 refer to RTCM spec. for table of multipath error

0..85899345.90 meters

+/-655.34 [0.02 meter] when pseudorange scale factor is 0

+/-10485.44 [0.32 meter] when pseudorange scale factor is 1 (default)

240 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

Examples:

$GPMSG,01,0000,2220.0,1,0,127,003702.00,2,12,-0081.30,

0.026,235,2,13,0022.86,0.006, 106,2,26,-0053.42,-0.070,

155,2,02,0003.56,+0.040,120,2,27,.0047.42,-0.004,145*cc <Enter>

$GPMSG,03,0000,1200.0,7,0,038,231958.00,-2691561.37,-4301271.02,

3851650.89*cc <Enter>

$GPMSG,16,0000,1209.6,5,0,036,23200.008,THIS IS A MESSAGE SENT

FROM BASE*cc <Enter>

NMO: NMEA Message Output Settings

$PASHQ,NMO,c

This command queries the NMEA message settings of port c, where c can be A,B,C, or D. The output will be sent to the current port.

Example: Query the receiver for the NEMA message settings of port B:

$PASHQ,NMO,B <Enter>

$PASHR,NMO

The NMO response message is in the form:

$PASHR,NMO,c1,d2,f3,d4, 25(s5,f6)*cc where parameters s5 and f6 are repeated 25 times, once for each NMEA message type.

Commands 241

Table 8.121 defines the parameters in an NMO message.

Table 8.121. NMO Message Structure

Parameter

c1 d2 f3 d4 s5 f6

Description Range

port A, B, C, D

Baud rate code (see Table 8.42, page 147, for codes)

0 - 9

PER setting

Number of NMEA messages settings to report

NMEA message type

0.0 - 999.0

25

Output rate (seconds) 0=message is not enabled.

GLL, GXP, GGA, VTG,

GSN, ALM, MSG, DAL,

GSA, GSV, TTT, RRE,

GRS, UTM, POS, SAT,

XDR, GDC, RMC, PTT,

ZDA, DPO, DCR, CRT,

GST

0.1 to 999.0

PER: Set NMEA Send Interval

$PASHS,NME,PER,f

Set send interval of the NMEA response messages in seconds, where f is a value between 0.1 and 999. Values between 0.1 and 1 can be set at 0.1 second increments.

Values between 1 and 999 can be set at 1 second intervals. Value 0.7 is not available.

Example: Output NMEA messages every 5 seconds:

$PASHS,NME,PER,5 <Enter>

If the fast data option (F) is installed, then PER can be set to 0.1 (10 Hz). If the fast data option is not installed, then PER can be set to 0.2 (5Hz) minimum.

242 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

POS: Position Message

$PASHS,NME,POS,c,s,[f]

Enable/disable NMEA position response message on port c where c is port A, B, C or

D, s is ON or OFF, and f is the optional output rate parameter in seconds. If the output rate is not set, the command is output at the rate set by the $PASHS,NME,PER command.

If no position is being computed, a message will still be output but the corresponding position fields will be empty.

Example: Enable position message on port B:

$PASHS,NME,POS,B,ON <Enter>

$PASHQ,POS,c

Query position message, where c is the optional output serial port.

Example: Send POS message to current port:

$PASHQ,POS <Enter>

$PASHR,POS

Commands 243

The POS response message is in the form below and detailed in Table 8.122:

$PASHR,POS,d1,d2,m3,m4,c5,m6,c7,f8,f9,f10,f11,f12,f13,f14,f15,f16, s17*cc <Enter>

Table 8.122. POS Message Structure f13 f14 f15 f16 f9 f10 f11 f12 s17

*cc

Parameter

d1 d2 m3 m4 c5 m6 c7 f8

Description Range

Raw/differential position

0: Raw; position is not differentially corrected

1: Position is differentially corrected with RTCM code

2: Position is differentially corrected with CPD float solution

3: Position is CPD fixed solution

Number of SVs used in position fix

Current UTC time of position fix (hhmmss.ss)

Latitude component of position in degrees and decimal minutes (ddmm.mmmmmm)

Latitude sector, N = North, S = South

0 - 3

3 -12

00-235959.90

0 - 90

N or S

Longitude component of position in degrees and decimal minutes (dddmm.mmmmmm)

Longitude sector E = East, W = West

0 - 180

W or E

Altitude above selected datum in meters. For 2-D position computation this item contains the altitude held fixed.

-1000.000 to

18000.000

reserved

True track/course over ground in degrees

Speed over ground in knots

Vertical velocity in meters per second

PDOP - position dilution of precision,

HDOP - horizontal dilution of precision.

VDOP - vertical dilution of precision.

TDOP - time dilution of precision.

Firmware version ID checksum

0 - 359.9

0 - 999.9

±

999.9

0 - 99.9

0 - 99.9

0 - 99.9

0 - 99.9

4 char string

The altitude is either ellipsoidal (default) or geoidal (mean-sea-level) depending on the selection made with $PASHS,HGT. The geoidal separation when subtracted from the ellipsoidal altitude gives the geoidal altitude.

244 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

Example:

Query: $PASHQ,POS <Enter>

Typical POS response message:

$PASHR,POS,0,06,214619.50,3722.385158,N,12159.833768,W,00043.110,,

331.0,000.7,000.0,02.7,01.2,02.4,01.6,UC00*6C <Enter>

Table 8.123 describes each item in a typical POS message.

Table 8.123. Typical POS Message

Item Significance

$PASHR,POS Header

0 Raw Position

06

214619.50

Number of SVs used in position fix

UTC time of position fix

3722.385158

N

Latitude

North latitude

121159.833768 Longitude

W West longitude

00043.110

empty field

331.0

000.7

000.0

02.7

01.2

02.4

01.6

UC00

*6C

Altitude (meters)

Reserved

Course over ground (degrees)

Speed over ground (knots)

Vertical velocity (dm/sec)

PDOP

HDOP

VDOP

TDOP

Firmware version ID checksum

Commands 245

PTT: Pulse Time Tag Message

$PASHS,NME,PTT,c,s,[f]

Enable/disable output of PPS pulse time tag message, where c is the output port, s is

ON or OFF, and f is the optional output rate parameter in seconds. If the output rate is not set, the command is output at the rate set by the $PASHS,NME,PER command.

The reponse message is output as soon as possible after the PPS pulse is generated

(with minimum latency, < 50 ms if PPS offset is 0, otherwise < 150 ms), and contains the GPS time at which the latest PPS was sent, including the offset if an offset was set when the PPS pulse was enabled.

The period of the PTT message is independent of the NMEA period. It is only linked to the PPS period.

Example: Enable PTT message on port A:

$PASHS,NME,PTT,A,ON <Enter>

$PASHQ,PTT,c

Query the time tag of the next PPS pulse, where c is the optional output port. If c is not specified, the reply is sent to the port on which the query was made.

The response will be sent out once, right after the next PPS pulse is generated, and contains the GPS time at which the PPS pulse was sent, including the offset if an offset was set when the PPS pulse was enabled. Thus the response may be delayed by one PPS period plus the time tag latency indicated above.

$PASHR,PTT

The PTT response message is in the form:

$PASHR,PTT,d1,m2*cc <Enter>

where the message structure is as defined in Table 8.124.

Table 8.124. PTT Message Structure

Parameters

d1 m2

Description

Day of GPS week,

GPS time in hours, minutes, seconds of the

PPS pulse hh:mm:ss.sssssss

Range

1 to 7, Sunday = 1

0 -

23:59:59.9999999

Typical PTT response message:

$PASHR,PTT,6,20:41:02.0000000*OD <Enter>

246 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

Table 8.125 describes a typical PTT response message.

Table 8.125. Typical PTT Response Message

Item

6

20:41:02.0000000

*OD

Description

Day of week (Friday)

GPS Time (8:41:02 PM)

Message checksum in hexadecimal

RMC: Recommended Minimum GPS/Transit

$PASHS,NME,RMC,c,s,[f]

Enables/disables the recommended minimum specific GPS/Transit message, where c is the serial port, s is ON or OFF, and f is the optional output rate parameter in seconds. If the output rate is not set, the command is output at the rate set by the

$PASHS,NME,PER command.

Example: Enable RMC message on port C:

$PASHS,NME,RMC,C,ON <Enter>

$PASHQ,RMC,c

Query recommended minumum GPS/transit message, where c is the optional output port.

$GPRMC

The return message is in the form:

$GPRMC,m1,c2,m3,c4,m5,c6,f7,f8,d9,f10,c11*cc <Enter>

Table 3.6 defines the response message structure.

Table 8.126. RMC Message Structure m3 c4 m5 c6

Parameter

m1 c2

Description

UTC time of the position fix (hhmmss.ss)

Status

Latitude (ddmm.mmmmmm)

Latitude direction

Longitude (dddmm.mmmmmm)

Longitude direction

Range

000000.00 - 235959.90

A = data valid

V = navigation receiver warning

0000.000000 -8959.999999

N = North S = South

00000.000000 -17959.999999

E = East W = West

Commands 247

Table 8.126. RMC Message Structure (continued)

Parameter

f7 f8 d9 f10 c11

*cc

Description Range

Speed over ground, knots

Course over ground, degrees true

Date, ddmmyy

Magnetic variation, degrees

000.0 - 999.9

000.0 - 359.9

010100 - 311299

0.0 - 99.9

Direction of variation

Easterly variation (E) subtracts from true course.

Westerly variation (W) adds to true course

Hexadecimal checksum

E = East

W = West

If the $PASHS,NME,TAG command is set to V23 or V30, an additional field is added to the $GPRMC message at the end of the message, before the checksum. This field is the Mode Indicator and is defined as follows:

A = Autonomous Mode

D = Differential Mode

E = Estimated (dead reckoning) Mode

S = Simulator Mode

N = Data not valid

The Status field (parameter c2) of the $GPRMC message will be set to V (navigation receiver warning) for all values of the Mode Indicator except A (autonomous) and D (differential). The Mode

Indicator field will not be a null field.

Typical RMC response:

$GPRMC,213357.20,A,3722.410857,N,12159.773686,W,000.3,102.4,

290498,15.4,W*43 <Enter>

Table 8.127 describes a typical RMC response message.

248 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

Table 8.127. Typical RMC Response

Parameter

213357.20

A

3722.410857

N

12159.773686

W

000.3

102.4

290498

15.4

W

Description

UTC time of the position fix (hhmmss.ss)

Valid position

Latitude ddmm.mmmmmm

North latitude

Longitude dddmm.mmmmmm

West longitude

Speed over ground, knots

Course over ground, degrees True

Date, 29 April 1998

Magnetic variation, degrees

Westerly variation (W) adds to True course

RRE: Residual Error

$PASHS,NME,RRE,c,s[f]

This command enables/disables the satellite residual and position error message to port c, where c is A, B, C, or D, s is ON or OFF, and f is the optional output rate parameter in seconds. If the output rate is not set, the command is output at the rate set by the $PASHS,NME,PER command.

This message is not output unless a position is computed. If only 4 SVs are used in the position solution, residuals are not computed and RRE outputs zeroes in the residual and position error fields. If 3 or less SVs are used, then no RRE message is output.

Example: Enable RRE message on port A:

$PASHS,NME,RRE,A,ON <Enter>

Commands 249

$PASHQ,RRE,c

Query range residual message where c is the optional output serial port. The message is not output unless position is being computed.

Example: Send RRE message to Port A:

$PASHQ,RRE,A <Enter>

$GPRRE

The response message is in the form:

$GPRRE,d1,n(d2,f3),f4,f5*cc <Enter> where n = number of satellites used to compute a position

Table 8.128. RRE Message Structure

Parameter

d1 d2 f3 f4 f5

*cc

Description Range

Number of satellites used to compute position 3 - 12

Satellite number (PRN Number) 1 - 32

Range residual

RMS Horizontal position error

± 999.9

0 - 9999.9

RMS Vertical position error

Checksum

0 - 9999.9

Units

n/a n/a meter meter meter

Example:

Query: $PASHQ,RRE <Enter>

Typical RRE response message:

$GPRRE,04,23,8.4,28,-9.2,11,-2.2,17,3.2,34.4,49.7*0A <Enter>

250 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

Table 8.129 describes a typical RRE response message.

Table 8.129. Typical RRE Message

Item

-9.2

11

-2.2

17

04

23

8.4

28

3.2

34.4

49.7

*0A

Significance

Number of SVs used to compute a position

PRN number of the first SV

Range residual for the first SV

PRN number of the second SV

Range residual for the second SV

PRN number for the third SV

Range residual for the third SV

PRN number for the fourth SV

Range residual for the fourth SV

Horizontal position error

Vertical position error checksum

SAT: Satellite Status

$PASHS,NME,SAT,c,s,[f]

This command enables/disables the satellite status message to port c, where c is A,

B, C, or D, s is ON or OFF, and f is the optional output rate parameter in seconds. If the output rate is not set, the command is output at the rate set by the

$PASHS,NME,PER command.

Example: Enable SAT message on port B:

$PASHS,NME,SAT,B,ON <Enter>

$PASHQ,SAT,c

Query satellite status where c is the optional output serial port.

Example: Send SAT message to port D:

$PASHQ,SAT,D <Enter>

Commands 251

$PASHR,SAT

The response message is in the form shown below and detailed in Table 8.130:

$PASHR,SAT,d1,n(d2,d3,d4,f5,c)*cc <Enter> where n = the number of SVs tracked.

Table 8.130. SAT Message Structure f5 c d3 d4

*cc

Parameter

d1 d2

Description Range

Number of SVs locked

SV PRN number,

1 - 12

1 - 32 for GPS

33 - 64 for SBAS

SV azimuth angle in degrees

SV elevation angle in degrees

SV signal/noise ratio in dB Hz 30.0-60.0

SV used in position computation ’U’: used, ‘ -’ : not used ‘U’ / ‘-’ checksum

0 - 359

0 - 90

The elevation/azimuth prior to the first computed position may be erroneous if the last position stored in battery back memory is very far from the current point.

Example:

Query: $PASHQ,SAT <Enter>

Typical SAT response message:

$PASHR,SAT,08,35,103,08,34.0,-,05,304,77,45.6,U,30,312,37,43.5,U,

06,276,17,38.5,U,04,045,32,44.3,U,17,198,60,46.4,U,09,205,27,42.6,U,24,0

70,76,46.4,U*64 <Enter>

Table 8.131 describes each item in a typical SAT response message.

Table 8.131. Typical SAT Message

Item Significance

$PASHR,SAT Header

04 Number of SVs locked

03

103

56

PRN number of the first SV

Azimuth of the first SV in degrees

Elevation of the first SV in degrees

252 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

Commands

04

160

46

53.6

045

02

51.4

U

U

*6E

61

52.4

U

16

50.5

U

23

225

Table 8.131. Typical SAT Message (continued)

Item Significance

Signal strength of the first SV

SV used in position computation

PRN number of the second SV

Azimuth of the second SV in degrees

Elevation of the second SV in degrees

Signal strength of the second SV

SV used in position computation

PRN number of the third SV

Azimuth of the third SV in degrees

Elevation of the third SV in degrees

Signal Strength of the third SV

SV used in position computation

PRN number of fourth SV

Azimuth of fourth SV in degrees

Elevation of fourth SV in degrees

Signal strength of fourth SV

SV used in position computation

Message checksum in hexadecimal

253

TAG: Set NMEA Version

$PASHS,NME,TAG,s

This command sets the version of the standard NMEA messages, where s is a 3-

character string identifying the version, as listed in Table 8.132.

Table 8.132. NMEA Message Format Codes

s

ASH

V30

V23

NMEA Message Format Version

Consistent with previous versions (default)

NMEA Version 3.0

NMEA Version 2.3

In order to maintain backward compatibility, the ASH format outputs messages in a format consistent with previous versions.

Example: Set NMEA output format to Version 3.0:

$PASHS,NME,TAG,V30<Enter>

$PASHQ,NME,TAG

This command queries the current setting of the NMEA output version format. The response message is sent to the current port.

$PASHR,NME,TAG

The response message is in the form:

$PASHR,NME,TAG,s

where s is the 3-character string listed above in Table 8.132.

TTT: Event Marker

$PASHS,NME,TTT,c,s,[f]

This command enables/disables the event marker message to port c, where c is A, B,

C, or D, s is ON or OFF, and f is the optional output rate parameter in seconds. If the output rate is not set, the command is output at the rate set by the

$PASHS,NME,PER command.

254 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

This message outputs the GPS time (within 1

µsec) when the pulse was received.

This message is not output unless an event pulse is being input through the appropriate pin of port B and the event marker option (E) is available in the receiver.

This message is therefore independent of the NMEA period (can be output faster or slower than the NMEA period depending on the period of the event).

Example: Enable TTT message on port A:

$PASHS,NME,TTT,A,ON <Enter>

There is no query command for TTT.

$PASHR,TTT

The response message is in the form shown below and detailed in Table 8.133:

$PASHR,TTT,d1,m2*cc <Enter>

Table 8.133. $PASHR,TTT Message Structure

Parameter

d1 m2

*cc

Description Range

Day of the week. 1: Sunday, 7: Saturdayt 1 - 7

GPS time tag in hours, minutes and seconds (hh:mm:ss.sssssss) 0 - 23:59:59.9999999

checksum

Example: $PASHR,TTT,3,18:01:33.1200417 *AC <Enter>

UTM: UTM Coordinates

$PASHS,NME,UTM,c,s,[f]

This command enables/disables the output of the UTM coordinates on port c, where c is either A, B, C, or D, s is ON or OFF, and f is the optional output rate parameter in seconds. If the output rate is not set, the command is output at the rate set by the

$PASHS,NME,PER command.

If no position is being computed, this message is not output.

$PASHQ,UTM,c

Query UTM coordinates where c is the optional output serial port. The message is not output unless position is being computed.

Example: Send UTM message to the current port:

$PASHQ,UTM <Enter>

Commands 255

$PASHR,UTM

The response message is in the form:

$PSHR,UTM,m1,m2,f3,f4,d5,d6,f7,f8,M,f9,M,d10,s11*cc <Enter>

where the structure is as defined in Table 8.134.

Table 8.134. UTM Message Structure f9

M d10 s11

*cc d6 f7 f8

M

Parameter

m1 m2 f3 f4 d5

Description Range

UTC of position in hours, minutes, and decimal seconds (hhmmss.ss)

0 - 235959.90

Zone number for coordinates

Zone letter for coordinates (N = north, S = south)

1-60, 99

‘N’, ‘S’

East UTM coordinate (meters)

North UTM coordinate (meters)

Position indicator.

1: Raw position

2: RTCM code differential, or CPD float solution

3: Carrier phase differential (CPD) fixed

±9999999.999

±9999999.999

1, 2, 3

Number of GPS satellites being used

Horizontal dilution of precision (HDOP)

Altitude in meters

Altitude units (M = meters)

Geoidal separation in meters

Geoidal separation units (M = meters)

Age of differential corrections

Differential reference station ID checksum

3 - 12

999.9

-1000.000 to 18000.000

M

±999.999

M

0 - 999

4-character string

The antenna altitude is either ellipsoidal (default) or geoidal (mean-sea-level) depending on the

selection made with $PASHS,HGT (see Table 8.171, “UCT Commands,” on page 303). The geoidal

altitude can be also derived by subtracting the geoidal separation from the ellipsoidal altitude.

256 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

Example:

Query: $PASHQ,UTM <Enter>

Typical UTM response message:

$PASHR,UTM,015454.00,10S,588757.623,4136720.056,2,04,03.8,00012.12

3,M,-031.711,M,014,1010*3A <Enter>

Table 8.135 describes a typical UTM response message.

Table 8.135. Typical UTM Response Message

Parameter

015454.00

10S

588757.623

4136720.056

2

04

03.8

00012.123

M

-031.711

M

014

1010

*3A

Description

UTC time

UTM zone

UTM easting coordinate

UTM northing coordinate

RTCM code differential position

Number of SVs used to compute position

HDOP

Altitude

Altitude units (M = meters)

Geoidal separation

Geoidal separation units (M = meters)

Age of corrections

Differential station ID

Checksum

Commands 257

VTG: Velocity/Course

$PASHS,NME,VTG,c,s,[f]

This command enables/disables the velocity/course message to port c, where c is A,

B, C or D, s is ON or OFF, and f is the optional output rate parameter in seconds. If the output rate is not set, the command is output at the rate set by the

$PASHS,NME,PER command.

This message is not output unless position is computed.

Example: Enable VTG message on port B:

$PASHS,NME,VTG,B,ON <Enter>

$PASHQ,VTG,c

Query velocity/course where c is the optional output serial port. The message is not output unless position is being computed.

Example: Send VTG message to port C:

$PASHQ,VTG,C <Enter>

$GPVTG

The response message is in the form shown below and detailed in Table 8.136:

$GPVTG,f1,T,f2,M,f3,N,f4,K*cc <Enter>

Table 8.136. VTG Message Structure

Parameter

N f4

K

*cc f2

M f3 f1

T

Description

COG (Course Over Ground) true north

COG orientation (T = true north)

COG magnetic north

COG orientation (M = magnetic north)

SOG (Speed Over Ground)

SOG units (N = knots)

SOG (Speed Over Ground)

SOG units (K = Km/hr) checksum

Range

0 - 359.99

T

0 - 359.99

M

0 - 999.99

N

0 - 999.99

K

If the $PASHS,NME,TAG command is set to V23 or V30, an additional field is added to the $GPVTG message at the end of the message, before the checksum. This field is the Mode Indicator and is defined as follows:

A = Autonomous Mode

258 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

D = Differential Mode

E = Estimated (dead reckoning) Mode

S = Simulator Mode

N = Data not valid

The Mode Indicator will not be a null field.

Example:

Query: $PASHQ,VTG <Enter>

Typical VTG response message:

$GPVTG,004.58,T,349.17,M,000.87,N,001.61,K*46 <Enter>

Table 8.137 describes each item in a typical VTG message.

Table 8.137. Typical VTG Message

Parameter

$GPVTG

004.58

T

349.17

M

000.87

N

001.61

K

*46

Significance

Header

Course over ground (COG) oriented to true north

True north orientation

Course over ground (COG) oriented to magnetic north

Magnetic north orientation

Speed over ground (SOG) in knots

SOG units (N=knots)

Speed over ground (SOG) in km/hr

SOG units (K=km/hr) checksum

Commands 259

XDR: Transducer Measurements

$PASHS,NME,XDR,c,s,[f]

Enable/disable the transducer measurements message, where c is the output port, s is ON or OFF, and f is the optional output rate parameter in seconds. If the output rate is not set, the command is output at the rate set by the $PASHS,NME,PER command.

This message transfers the XDR message received from external transducers

(through $WIXDR and $YXXDR NMEA message or Magellan format $PASHS,XDR) for use by the control station, so that the control station can have access to all measurements, GPS data, and transducer data through a single communication link.

Example: Enable XDR message on port A::

$PASHS,NME,XDR,A,ON <Enter>

$PASHQ,XDR,c

Query transducer measurements, where c is the optional output port and is not required to direct the response to the current port.

Example: Send query of XDR message on port A:

$PASHQ,XDR,A <Enter>

$GPXDR

As indicated above, the format of the response is the same as the format of the input from the transducer ($WIXDR and $YXXDR). The messages are in the form:

$GPXDR,c1,f2,c3,s4, c5,f6,c7,s8,..., c n,f n+1,c n+2,s n+3*cc <Enter>

260 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

The data from the transducers have the form c1,f2,c3,s4, as defined in Table 8.138.

Several transducer data can be sent in the same message as long as the entire string is not longer than 180 characters.

Table 8.138. XDR Message Structure

Parameter

c1

Description

Transducer type f2 c3 s4

*cc

Transducer value

Transducer units

Transducer ID

Checksum

Range

A - Angular deplacement

C - Temperature

D - Linear displacement

F - Frequency

G - Generic

H - Humidity

I - Current

N - Force

P - Pressure

R - Flow rate

S - Switch or valve

T - Tachometer

U - Voltage

V - Volume

+/- x.x (variable < 30 char) type A : D - Degress type C : C - Celsius type D : M - Meters type F : H - Hertz type G : Null - none type H : P - Percent type I : A - Amperes type N : N - Newton type P : B - Bars type R : L - Liters type S : null - none type T : R - RPM type U : V - Volts type V : M - Cubic meters

Variable length (< 80 char)

Commands 261

ZDA: Time and Date

$PASHS,NME,ZDA,c,s,[f]

Enable/disable the time and date message, where c is the output port, s is ON or

OFF, and f is the optional output rate parameter in seconds. If the output rate is not set, the command is output at the rate set by the $PASHS,NME,PER command.

This message is output even if a position is not computed.

Example: Disable ZDA message on port A:

$PASHS,NME,ZDA,A,OFF <Enter>

$PASHQ,ZDA,c

Query time and date, where c is the optional output port and is not required to direct the response to the current port.

Example: Send query of ZDA message on port A:

$PASHQ,ZDA,A <Enter>

$GPZDA

The response message is in the form shown below and defined in Table 8.139.

$GPZDA,m1,d2,d3,d4,d5,d6*cc <Enter>

Table 8.139. ZDA Message Structure

Parameter

m1 d2 d3 d4 d5 d6

*cc

Description

UTC time (hhmmss.ss) (hours, minutes, seconds)

Current day 01 - 31

Current month 01 - 12

Current year 0000-9999

Local zone offset from UTC time where s = sign and hh = hours Range 00 - ±13

Local zone offset from UTC time where mm = minutes with same sign as hh

Checksum

Typical Example:

$GPZDA,132123.00,10,03,1998,-07,-20*22 <Enter>

262 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

Table 8.140 describes a typical ZDA response message.

Table 8.140. Typical ZDA Response Message

Parameter Description

-07

-20

*22

Local zone offset (hours)

Local zone offset (min)

Checksum in hexadecimal

Commands 263

RTCM Response Message Commands

The RTCM commands allow you to control and monitor RTCM real-time differential operations. The RTCM commands are only available if the differential options are installed in the receiver. If the Base Station option (B) is installed, then only the base parameter and general parameter commands are accessible. If the Remote option

(U) is installed, then only the remote parameter and general parameter commands are available. For a more detailed discussion of RTCM differential, refer to the RTCM differential section of the Operations chapter.

Set Commands

All RTCM commands but one are set commands. Through the set commands you can modify and enable a variety of differential parameters. Certain set commands are applicable only to the base station and certain commands only apply to the remote station. If the set command is sent correctly, the receiver will respond with the

$PASHR,ACK acknowledgment. If a parameter is out of range or the syntax is incorrect, then the receiver will respond with a $PASHR,NAK to indicate that the command was not accepted.

Query Commands

There is only one query command: $PASHQ,RTC. Use this command to monitor the parameters and status of RTCM differential operations. The query command has an optional port field. If the query is sent with the port field left empty, then the response will be sent to the current port. If the port field contains a valid port (A-D), then the response will be output to that port. For example, the query:

$PASHQ,RTC <Enter> outputs an RTCM status message to the current port. The command:

$PASHQ,RTC,C <Enter> outputs an RTCM status message to port C.

Table 8.141 lists the RTCM commands.

264 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

Command

$PASHS,RTC,BAS

$PASHS,RTC,EOT

$PASHS,RTC,MSG

$PASHS,RTC,IOD

$PASHQ,RTC,MSI

$PASHS,RTC,SPD

$PASHS,RTC,STH

$PASHS,RTC,TYP

$PASHS,RTC,AUT

$PASHS,RTC,MAX

$PASHS,RTC,QAF

$PASHS,RTC,REM

$PASHS,RTC,SEQ

$PASHS,RTC,INI

$PASHS,RTC,OFF

$PASHS,RTC,STI

$PASHQ,RTC

Table 8.141. RTCM Commands

Description

BASE

Sets receiver to operate as differential base station

Controls end of message characters

Defines RTCM type 16 message

Set ephemeris data update for RTCM base

Query RTCM message status

Sets bit rate of base station

Sets health of base station

Sets message type and message period

REMOTE

Turns auto differential mode on or off

Sets maximum age of RTCM differential corrections

Sets communication quality threshold

Sets receiver to operate as differential remote station

Checks sequence number of received messages

GENERAL

Resets RTCM internal operation

Disables differential mode

Sets station identification of base or remote

Requests differential mode parameters and status

Page

270

272

274

266

269

270

272

272

273

271

274

275

269

269

269

271

270

Commands 265

Query: RTCM Status

$PASHQ,RTC,c

Query RTCM differential status, where c is the optional serial port.

Example: Query receiver for RTCM status:

$PASHQ,RTC, <Enter>

The return message is a free-form format. A typical response is shown below.

STATUS:

SYNC: TYPE:00 STID:0000 STHE:0

AGE:+000 QA:100.00% OFFSET:00

SETUP:

MODE:OFF PORT:A,- AUT:N CODE:C/A

SPD:0300 STI:0000 STH:0 IOD:030

MAX:0060 QAF:100 SEQ:N

TYPE: 1 2 3 22 6 9 15 16 18/19 20/21 EOT

FRQ: 01 00 00 00 OFF 00 00 00 00 00 CRLF

UNITS: 1 60 60 60 1 1 60 1 1

MSG:

Table 8.142 describes the RTC response parameters.

Table 8.142. RTC Response Parameters

Return

Parameter

Description Range Default

SYNC

TYPE

STID

STHE

STATUS

status that denotes sync to last received

RTCM message between Base and Remote stations.

(Remote only) Set to “ “ if no corrections received for “max age”.

RTCM message type being sent (Base) or received (Remote).

‘*’ - in sync

1,2,3,6,9,15,16,18,19,

20,21,22

Station ID received from the Base station 0 (any station) to 1023

Station health received from the Base station. 0 - 7

266 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

Table 8.142. RTC Response Parameters (continued)

Return

Parameter

AGE

QA

OFFSET

MODE

PORT

AUT

CODE

SPD

STI

STH

IOD

MAX

QAF

SEQ

TYP

EOT

Description Range Default

In Base mode, displays the elapsed time in seconds between the beginning of the transmission of Type 1,18/19 messages. In

Remote mode, displays the age of the received messages in seconds.

Displays the communication quality factor between Base and Remote. Defined as (# of good measurements /QAF * 100 (Remote only)

Displays the number of bits from the beginning of the RTCM byte (in case of a bit slippage)

SETUP

RTCM mode

Communication port

Automatic differential mode

Indicated the code type used in differential

RTCM bit rate. Indicate the speed at which differential collection are transmitted to the serial port.

Station ID.

Station health

Ephemeris data update rate

Specifies the maximum age, in seconds, for which last corrections are still used, when no new corrections are received. (Remote only)

0 - 999

0 - 100%

BAS, REM, OFF

‘A’ , ‘B’ , ‘C’ or ‘D’

N, Y

Always C/A

25,50,100,110,150,

200, 250,300,1500,0

(burst mode)

0 (any station) to 1023 0

0-7

0 - 90

0 - 1199

OFF

A

N

C/A

300

0

30

60

Sets the criteria to be applied when evaluating the quality of communication between Base and Remote. (Remote only)

0 - 999

Check for sequential received message number for the message to be accepted.

(Remote only)

N, Y

RTCM message type that receiver will generate. (Base only)

End of transmission character

100

N

1, 2, 3, 6, 9,15, 16, 18,

19, 20, 21, 22

n/a

CRLF, CR,NONE CRLF

Commands 267

Table 8.142. RTC Response Parameters (continued)

Return

Parameter

FRQ

UNITS

MSG

Description Range

RTCM message send frequency.

The period is in seconds for type 1, 18/19, 20/

21 and minutes for all other types.

Type 6 is either ON or OFF.

99 - continuous

00 - disabled

Units of output line, in seconds per the FREQ setting less 99 which is continuous, and Type

6 which is filler

For Base mode, it contains the message, up to 90 characters, that is sent from the base to the remote when message type 16 is enabled.

In Remote mode, it displays the message, up to 90 characters, that is received from the

Base.

Default

Type 1 =1

Type 6 = OFF

268 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

AUT: Auto Differential

$PASHS,RTC,AUT,c

Turns auto differential mode on or off, where c is Y (or ON) or N (or OFF). In auto-diff mode, the receiver generates raw positions automatically if differential corrections are older than the maximum age, or are not available. This command is also used to set the auto differential mode in CPD operation; it is used only in REMOTE mode. Default is N (OFF).

Example: Turn auto differential mode on:

$PASHS,RTC,AUT,Y <Enter> or

$PASHS,RTC,AUT,ON <Enter>

BAS: Enable Base Station

$PASHS,RTC,BAS,c

Set the receiver to operate as an RTCM differential base station, where c is the differential port A, B, C, or D.

Example: Set to differential base mode using port B:

$PASHS,RTC,BAS,B <Enter>

EOT: End of Transmission

$PASHS,RTC,EOT,s

Control which characters to transmit at the end of each RTCM message, where s is

the end of message parameter as detailed in Table 8.143. Default is ‘CRLF’.

Table 8.143. EOT Parameters

Setting Parameter

s

Description Range

nothing carriage return carriage return and line feed (default)

‘NONE’

‘CR’

‘CRLF’

Example: Transmit only carriage return at end of every RTCM message:

$PASHS,RTC,EOT,CR <Enter>

Commands 269

INI: Initialize RTCM

$PASHS,RTC,INI

Initialize RTCM internal operation. This should be issued to the RTCM base or remote station (or both) if communication link between base and remote is disrupted.

Example: Initialize RTCM internal operation:

$PASHS,RTC,INI <Enter>

IOD: Ephemeris Data Update Rate

$PASHS,RTC,IOD,d

This command sets the time period before the RTCM base station switches to a new issue of the ephemeris data (IODE), where d is the update rate and ranges from 0 -

90 seconsds. Default is 30 seconds. The current setting of this parameter can be seen in the query command $PASHQ,RTC.

This command, applicable to RTCM base mode only, determines how soon after receiving a new ephemeris update the base receiver will begin to use that data to compute corrections. The rover receiver will continue to use the old ephemeris until it receives RTCM corrections on the new IODE.

Example: Set base receiver to use new ephemeris data to compute corrections 20 seconds after the new ephemeris has been received:

$PASHS,RTC,IOD,20<Enter>

MAX: Max Age

$PASHS,RTC,MAX,d

Set the maximum age in seconds of an RTCM differential correction above which it will not be used, where d is any number between 1 and 1199. Default is 60.

$PASHS,RTC,MAX is used only in REMOTE mode.

Example: Set maximum age to 30 seconds:

$PASHS,RTC,MAX,30 <Enter>

270 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

MSG: Define Message

$PASHS,RTC,MSG,s

Define RTCM type 16 message up to 90 characters long that will be sent from the base to the remote. $PASHS,RTC,MSG,s is used only at the base station and only if message type 16 is enabled.

Example: Define RTCM message “This is a test message”

$PASHS,RTC,MSG,This is a test message <Enter>

MSI: Query RTCM Message Status

$PASHQ,RTC,MSI,c

This command queries the base station for the current RTCM message type settings, where c is the optional output serial port. This query responds with the RTCM message types and frequencies that are being transmitted. Used only with the base receiver.

Example: Query base receiver for RTCM message settings:

$PASHQ,RTC,MSI<Enter>

$PASHR,RTC,MSI

The response message is in the form shown below and defined in Table 8.144.

$PASHR,RTC,MSI,d1,n(d2,d3)*cc (n = d1)

Table 8.144. RTC,MSI Message Structure

Parameter

d1 d2 d3

Description

Number of RTCM types in message

RTCM type

Message frequency

0 = disabled 99 = continuous

Units depend upon message type. See

$PASHS,RTC,TYP command on page 275.

Range

11

01,02,03,06,09,15,16,18,19,20,21,22

0, 99

Commands 271

OFF: Disable RTCM

$PASHS,RTC,OFF

Disables base or remote differential mode.

Example: Turn RTCM off:

$PASHS,RTC,OFF <Enter>

QAF: Quality Factor

$PASHS,RTC,QAF,d

Sets the number of received differential correction frames in RTCM differential mode above which the quality factor is set to 100%, where d is any number between 0 and

999. This QAF number is used to compute the QA value where:

QA = good messages/QAF

The QA parameter allows you to evaluate the communication quality between the base and remote stations. Default is 100. $PASHS,RTC,QAF is used only in

REMOTE mode.

Example: Set quality factor to 200:

$PASHS,RTC,QAF,200 <Enter>

REM: Enable Remote RTCM

$PASHS,RTC,REM,c

Set the receiver to operate as an RTCM differential remote station, where c is differential port A, B, C, or D.

Example: Set receiver to differential remote using port B:

$PASHS,RTC,REM,B <Enter>

272 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

SEQ: Check Sequence Number

$PASHS,RTC,SEQ,c

Checks sequence number of received messages and, if sequential, accepts corrections; if not, don't use correction, where c is Y (check) or N (do not check).

Default is N. $PASHS,RTC,SEQ is used only in REMOTE mode. Valid only at beginning of differential operation. After two sequential RTCM corrections have been received, differential operation begins.

Example: Check sequence number:

$PASHS,RTC,SEQ,Y <Enter>

SPD: Base Bit Rate

$PASHS,RTC,SPD,d

Set the number of bits per second that are being generated to the serial port of the base station, where d is the code for the output rate in bits per second. The available

speeds and corresponding codes are listed in Table 8.145. Default is 300 bits per

second. $PASHS,RTC,SPD is used only in BASE mode.

Code E

Rate E

0

25

1

Table 8.145. Available Bit Rate Codes

2 3 4 5 6 7 8

50

9

100 110 150 200 250 300 150

0

0 (burst mode)

Example: Set bit rate to 110 bits/sec:

$PASHS,RTC,SPD,3 <Enter>

Commands 273

STH: Station Health

$PASHS,RTC,STH,d

Set the health of the base station, where d is any value between 0 and 7.

$PASHS,RTC,STH is used only in BASE mode. Default is 0. Table 8.146 defines the

codes for the station health:

Table 8.146. RTC,STH Health of Base Station

Code

5

4

3

7

6

2

1

0

Health Indication

Base station not working.

Base station transmission not monitored.

Specified by service provider/UDRE scale factor = 0.1

Specified by service provider/UDRE scale factor = 0.2

Specified by service provider/UDRE scale factor = 0.3

Specified by service provider/UDRE scale factor = 0.5

Specified by service provider/UDRE scale factor = 0.75

Specified by service provider/UDRE scale factor = 1

Example: Set health to “Base station not working”:

$PASHS,RTC,STH,7 <Enter>

The station health is simply transmitted by the base, code 1 to 5 are not valid since the base and rover are using UDRE scale factor of 1 always.

STI: Station ID

$PASHS,RTC,STI,d

This command sets the user station identification (user STID), where d is any integer value between 0000 and 1023. The STID is used to restrict the use of differential corrections to a particular base station. If the STID in the remote station is set to any non-zero number, then corrections will only be used from a base station with the same STID number. For example, if a remote station STID is set to 0987, then it will only use the differential corrections from a base station with an STID of 0987. If the remote station STID is set to 0000 (the default) then the station will use any differential corrections received, regardless of the STID of the base station.

274 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

Example: Set site identification to 0001:

$PASHS,RTC,STI,0001 <Enter>

TYP: Message Type

$PASHS,RTC,TYP,d1,d2

Enables the type of message to be sent by the base station and the period at which it will be sent, where d1 is the type and d2 is the period. $PASHS,RTC,TYP is used only

in BASE mode. Table 8.147 lists the message types available and the period range

setting. The default is type 1 set to 01, and type 6 is Off.

Table 8.147. RTC,TYP Message Types

Type

01

02

03

06

09

16

18/19

20/21

22

Range

0-99 seconds, where 0 is disabled and 99 is generated continuously

0-99 minutes, where 0 is disabled and 99 is generated continuously

0-99 minutes, where 0 is disabled and 99 is generated continuously

1 = ON, 0 = OFF (ON and OFF are also accepted)

Same as type 1

Same as type 3

Same as type 1

Same as type 1

Same as type 3

All messages can be tuned on simultaneously except Type 1 and 9 cannot be turned on at the same time and 18/19 and 20/21 cannot be turned on at the same time.

Example: Enable type 1, sent out every second:

$PASHS,RTC,TYP,1,1 <Enter>

Commands 275

CPD Commands

The CPD commands allow you to control and monitor CPD (Carrier Phase

Differential) operations. The commands are either general parameter or query commands, base set commands or rover set commands. The base set commands are available only if the CPD base option (K) is installed, and the rover set commands are only available if the CPD Rover option (J) is installed in the receiver. In addition, using the base to output RTCM type 18/19 or 20/21 requires the B option (RTCM Diff.

Base), and using the RTCM types in the rover requires the U option (RTCM Diff.

Rover). When these options are enabled, the CMR format can also be used. For a more detailed discussion of CPD differential, refer to Chapter 4, Understanding RTK/

CPD.

Set Commands

Through the set commands you can modify and enable a variety of CPD operating parameters. Certain set commands are applicable only to the base station and certain set commands only apply to the remote station. The general format of the set commands is:

$PASHS,CPD,s,c <Enter> where s is the 3 character command identifier, and c is the parameter to be set. The only exception is command $PASHS,RTC,AUT,N/Y which will be used to set the auto differential mode in both RTCM and CPD operation. If the set command is sent correctly, the receiver will respond with the $PASHR,ACK acknowledgment. If a parameter is out of range or the syntax is incorrect, then the receiver will respond with a $PASHR,NAK to indicate that the command was not accepted.

To use RTCM type 18/19 or 20/21, $PASHS,RTC commands are also used. (See

“RTCM Response Message Commands” on page 264 ).

Query Commands

The query commands are used to monitor the setting of individual parameters and the status of CPD operations. The general format of the query command is:

$PASHQ,CPD,s,c <Enter>

276 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

where s is the 3 character command identifier, and c is the port to which the response message will be output. The port field is optional. If the query is sent with the port field left empty, then the response will be sent to the current port. If the port field contains a valid port (A-D), then the response will be output to that port. For example, the query:

$PASHQ,CPD <Enter> will output a CPD status message to the current port. The query:

$PASHQ,CPD,C <Enter> will output a CPD status message to port C.

Commands 277

To use RTCM type 18/19 or 20/21, $PASHS,RTC commands are also used. (See

“RTCM Response Message Commands” on page 264).

Table 8.148. CPD Commands

$PASHS,CPD,AFP

$PASHS,CPD,ANT

$PASHQ,CPD,ANT

$PASHS,RTC,AUT

$PASHS,CPD,DYN

$PASHS,CPD,FST

$PASHS,CPD,MAX

$PASHS,CPD,MTP

$PASHQ,OBN

$PASHS,CPD,OUT

$PASHS,CPD,PER

$PASHS,CPD,POS

$PASHQ,CPD,POS

$PASHS,RTC,REM

$PASHS,CPD,RST

$PASHQ,CPD,STS

$PASHS,CPD,UBP

Command

$PASHS,CPD,MOD

$PASHS,CPD,CMR,ON/OFF

$PASHQ,CPD

$PASHQ,CPD,CMR

$PASHQ,CPD,DLK

$PASHQ,CPD,INF

$PASHQ,CPD,MOD

Description Page

GENERAL SET COMMANDS

Set CPD mode

Enable/disable detection of CMR messages

GENERAL QUERY COMMANDS

291

284

Query CPD related setting

279

Query status of CMR received mode (internal use only)

284

Query data link status

Query CPD SV information

285

289

292

Query CPD mode settings

ROVER ONLY COMMAND

Set ambiguity fixing confidence parameter

Set base antenna parameters from rover

Query base station antenna settings (from rover)

Set auto-differential mode

Set Rover dynamics

Enable/disable fast CPD mode

282

283

283

269

Max Age for CPD Correction

Set multipath parameter

Vector solution information

Select solution to output

287

289

291

292

Set CPD update interval.

Set reference position of the base receiver from

Query base position from rover

Set to receive RTCM type 18/19 or 20/21

293

296

298

298

Reset the PNAV processing (Kalman filter reset)

Query CPD Solution Status

Select base position to use in rover mode

299

272

300

300

301

278 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

Command

$PASHS,RTC,BAS

$PASHS,CPD,PEB

$PASHS,CPD,PED

$PASHS,CPD,ENT

$PASHS,CPD,EOT

$PASHS,CPD,PRO

$PASHS,CPD,PRT

$PASHS,RTC,TYP

Table 8.148. CPD Commands (continued)

Description

BASE-ONLY SET COMMANDS

Set RTCM base mode.

Set broadcasting interval for base station position message,. either BPS (DBEN) or CMR type 1.

Set the DBN or CMR transmission period.

Set current raw position as BASE position

Select type of end-of-transmission message character(s) to send in DBN message

Select DBN or CMR format

Set port to output DBN and base position messages.

Set output of RTCM type message (18/19 or 20/21)

Page

269

297

297

288

288

299

300

275

CPD: RTK Status

$PASHQ,CPD,c

This is the general CPD query command where c is the optional serial port. Use this query to monitor CPD settings and status.

Example: Query CPD parameters:

$PASHQ,CPD <Enter>

Commands 279

The response message is in free form format. A typical response appears as follows:

STATUS: VERSION: PNAV_UL45,03/23/2002

MODE:DISABLED BASE STAT: 00000

PRN:

AGE: 0000ms RCVD CORD: 000 sec

AMBIGUITY: N/A RCV INTVL: 01.0 sec TYP:----

Dlf: 00000ms Tf:00000 ms DLc:00000 ms Tc:00000 ms

SETUP:

DBEN PER:001.0sec DBEN PORT: B EOT: CRLF

AMBIGUITY FIX MODE: 099.0% MAX:AGE :0030sec AUT:N

DYNAMICS: WALKING DYNAMIC POS OUTPUT: CPD CKR:ON

MUTLIPATH: MEDIUM MULTIPATH BAS POS USED: RECEIVED

FAST CPD: ON CPD PER: 01 sec IAF:ON

NESSAGE TYPE: DBN

PAF: OFF AFM: 00 RNG: 040000 SCL: 0060 ION: N LC: N

Table 8.149. CPD Status Message Structure

Parameter Description Range Default

STATUS:

MODE CPD differential mode

DISABLED

BASE

ROVER

RVP BASE

RVP ROVER

Version number and date of the CPD library.

Disabled

VERSION

BASE STAT status of base station operation in a 5-column array

(A B C D E)

A - ‘1’ if receiver has not tracked L2 observables

B - ‘1’ if entered position and computed position differ by more that 500 meters in any direction

C - ‘1’ if base station has not computed position using raw pseudo-ranges

D - ‘1’ if base station antenna parameters are all zero

E - ‘1’ if base station coordinates are not entered.

Useful only if Mode = Base

For each column - 0,1 00000

PRN Lists the satellites’ PRN ID in the transmitting DBEN messages or received DBEN message.

1-32 n/a

AGE Display the DBEN message age in milliseconds.

Always zero at the base.

0-9999

280 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

Table 8.149. CPD Status Message Structure (continued)

Parameter Description Range Default

Dlf

Tf

Dlc

Tc

RCVD

COORD

Display age of received base station coordinates in seconds (from BPS message).

AMBIGUITY Display ambiguity fix status (Rover)

RCV INTVL Interval in seconds of DBEN message received

(Rover)

TYP Displays the message type received by the rover.

(PASH=DBEN, CMR2=CMR, 1819=RTCM 18/19,

2021=RTCM20/21)

Time delay to start fast CPD task (milliseconds)

Time to execute fast CPD task (Rover) (milliseconds)

Time delay to start CPD (Rover) (milliseconds)

Time to execute CPD (Rover) (milliseconds)

SETUP

0-999

Fixed/float

PASH, CMR2, 1819,

2021

0

01.0

n/a

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

DBEN PER DBEN output period (Base)

DBEN PORT DBEN output port (Base) or receiving port (Rover)

EOT End-of-Transmission characters (Base)

AMBIGUITY

FIX MODE

MAX AGE

Confidence level of the ambiguity fix mode.

90.0 / 95.0 / 99.0 / 99.9

Maximum age of base data will be used (sec)

0-5.0

1

A-D

CR/CRLF/ NONE

0-30

DYNAMICS (Rover) WALKING DYNAMIC / STATIC DYNAMIC /

Q-STATIC DYNAMIC / AUTOMOBILE DYNAMIC /

AIRCRAFT DYNAMIC / SHIP DYNAMIC

AUT Auto-differential mode. If Y, rover will output code differential position if available, or stand-alone, if not, once the MAX AGE has been received.

Y/N

CPD/RAW POS

OUTPUT

Type of position for output (Rover)

MULTIPATH (Rover) MEDIUM MULTIPATH / NO MULTIPATH /

LOW MULTIPATH / HIGH MULTIPATH / SEVERE

MULTIPATH

BAS POS

USED

Base position used (Rover)

1.0

B

CRLF

99.0

30

WALKING

DYNAMIC

N

CPD

MEDIUM

MULTI-

PATH

RECEIVEDENTERED RECEIVED

FAST CPD

CPD PER

Fast CPD algorithm (Rover)

CPD update period in seconds (Rover)

Only relevant for fast CPD OFF

ON, OFF

0 - 5.0

1

ON

1.0

Commands 281

Table 8.149. CPD Status Message Structure (continued)

Parameter Description Range

IAF

Message type

PAF

AFM

RNG

SCL

Reserved

Message type sent by base receiver (Base only)

Reserved

Reserved

Reserved

Reserved

DBN,CMR

ION

LC

Reserved

Reserved

CKR Reserved

1

The full range of the DBEN PER and CPD PER parameters (in seconds) is:

0.0, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 0.9, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0.

Default

DBN

AFP: Ambiguity Fixing

$PASHS,CPD,AFP,f

This command sets the confidence level for ambiguity fixing, where f is the confidence level in percent. The higher the confidence level, the more certainty that the ambiguities are fixed correctly. But the longer it will take to fix them. The default is

99.0.

Table 8.150. CPD,AFP Parameter Table

Parameter

f

Description Range

Ambiguity Fixing Parameter, i.e. the confidence levels for the reliability of the ambiguity fixed solution.

90.0

95.0

99.0

99.9

Example: Set the confidence level to 99.9:

$PASHS,CPD,AFP,99.9 <Enter>

282 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

ANT: Antenna Parameters

$PASHS,CPD,ANT,f1,f2,f3,m4,f5

Sets the antenna parameters of base receiver from the rover receiver.

Since this is only valid when using a base position entered at the rover, the user must first set

$PASHS,CPD,UBP,O before entering $PASHS,CPD,ANT.

Table 8.151. CPD,ANT Parameter Table f2 f3 m4

Parameter

f1 f5

Description Range Units

Antenna height (measured from the point to the antenna edge).

(Survey mark to edge of antenna)

Antenna radius (from antenna edge to antenna phase center)

Vertical offset (phase center to ground plane)

0 - 64.000

0-9.9999

0 - 99.9999

meter meter meter

Horizontal azimuth in degrees and decimal minutes

(dddmm.mm). Measured from survey mark to antenna phase center with respect to WGS84 north.

Horizontal distance (distance from survey mark to a point directly below the antenna phase center).

0 - 35959.59

degree/ decimal minutes

0 - 999.999

meter

Example: Set antenna parameters of base station:

$PASHS,CPD,ANT,6.4,0.13,0.02,3.5,1.0 <Enter>

$PASHQ,CPD,ANT,c

Query antenna parameters where c is the optional output port:

Example: Query antenna parameters to present port:

$PASHQ,CPD,ANT <Enter>

Commands 283

$PASHR,CPD,ANT

The return message is in the form shown below and defined in Table 8.152.

$PASHR,CPD,ANT,f1,f2,f3,m4,f5*cc <Enter>

Table 8.152. CPD,ANT Message Structure

Field Description Range Units

f1 f2

Antenna height

Antenna radius f3 Vertical offset 0 - 99.9999

meter m4 Horizontal azimuth (dddmm.mm) 0 - 35959.99

degree/decimal minutes f5 Horizontal distance 0 - 999.9999

meter cc checksum

0 - 64.000

0 - 9.9999

meter meter

CMR: CMR Received Mode

$PASHS,CPD,CMR,ON/OFF

This command enables/disables detection of CMR messages. Default is ON.

Example: Enable CMR messages:

$PASHS,CPD,CMR,ON<Enter>

DLK: Data Link Status

$PASHQ,CPD,DLK,c

This command queries the data link status message, where c is the optional output port. If the port is not specified, the message is output to the port from which this command was received

Example: Query the data link status message to port A:

$PASHQ,CPD,DLK,A <Enter>

284 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

$PASHR,CPD,DLK

This response message is different for base and rover receiver.

The response message is in the form:

$PASHR,CPD,DLK,s1,d2,d3,n(d4c5),s6,s7,d8,d9,d10,c11*cc <Enter> n = number of satellites

Table 8.153. CPD,DLK Message Structure

Field Description Range Unit

s1 receiver CPD mode ‘BAS’, ‘ROV’, ‘RBB’, ‘RBR’, ‘OFF’

The remainder of the message is only available when receiver is not in ‘OFF’ mode d2 BPS message warning flag bit4 - displays “1” if the receiver has not tracked the L2 observables bit3 - displays “1” if the entered position and computed position differ by more than 500 meters in any direction bit2 - displays “1” if the base station has not computed position using the raw pseudo-ranges bit1 - displays “1” if base station antenna parameters are all zeros bit0 - displays “1” if the base station coordinates are not entered

0 - 12 d3 d4c5 SVPRN number and warnings.

SV PRN

Warning field description:

+ - no warnings

C - warning in L1 measurements

P - warning in L2 measurements

- - warning in both measurements s6

Number of satellites in current DBEN message

Message header (sender/designator identifications)

1-32

‘+’

‘C’

‘P’

‘-’

PASH = DBEN CMR2 = CMR

The following message is only available if the receiver is in ROV or RVP base mode s7 Message masking (sender/designator) PASH = DBEN

CMR2 = CMR

1819 = RTCM 18/19

2012 = RTCM 20/21 d8 BPS message age (or RTCM type 3/22) sec

Commands 285

Table 8.153. CPD,DLK Message Structure (continued)

Range Field

d9 d10 c11

*cc

Description

Percentage of good DBEN message reception (or RTCM type 18/19 or 20/21)

DBEN message age

Communication port status:

‘+’ data is in the communication port

‘-’ no data in the communication port

Checksum

‘+’, ‘-’

Unit

ms

The following examples will illustrate the difference between the $PASHR,DLK response message from a Rover station receiver and from a base station receiver

(Table 8.154, Table 8.155).

From the Rover station:

$PASHR,CPD,DLK,ROV,02,05,02+,03C,10+,18+,19P,PASH,

PASH,024,100.00,0405,+*44 <Enter>

Table 8.154. CPD,DLK Response Message Example - Rover Station

Field Significance

ROV

02

05

02+

03C

Receiver CPD mode = rover

BPS warning flag - base station antenna parameters are all zeros

Number of SVs in current DBEN message = 5

SV 02, warning = none

SV 03, warning = L1 measurement warning

10+

18+

19P

SV 10, warning = none

SV 18, warning = none

SV 19, warning - L2 measurement warning

PASH DBEN message header

PASH DBEN message masking

024 BPS message age

100.00

Percentage of good DBEN message reception

0405 DBEN message age

+

*44

Data is in the communication port checksum

286 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

From the Base station:

$PASHR,CPD,DLK,BAS,02,05,02+,03+,10+,18+,19P,,PASH*12 <Enter>

Table 8.155. CPD,DLK Response Message Example - Base Station

Field Significance

03C

10+

18+

19P

BAS

02

05

02+

Receiver CPD mode = base

BPS warning flag - base station antenna parameters are all zeros

Number of SVs in current DBEN message = 5

SV 02, warning = none

SV 03, warning - L1 measurement warning

SV 10, warning = none

SV 18, warning = none

SV 19, warning = L2 measurement warning

PASHS DBEN message header

*12 checksum

DYN: Rover Dynamics

$PASHS,CPD,DYN,d1

This command sets rover's dynamic information, where d1 is a code number that best represents the motion of the rover receiver. This command is relevant only for

ROVER or RVP BASE receiver. The default is 2 (walking dynamics).

Commands 287

Example: Set rover dynamics to aircraft dynamics:

$PASHS,CPD,DYN,4, <Enter>

Table 8.156. CPD,DYN Parameter Table

Parameter

d1

Description

Dynamic. One of the following values:

0 -- Static (antenna on tripod)

1 -- Quasi-static (antenna on manual pole)

2 -- Walking (default)

3 -- Automobile

4 -- Aircraft

5 -- Ship

ENT: Use Current Position

$PASHS,CPD,ENT

This command sets the current raw position as the BASE position.

Example: Use current raw position as the base position:

$PASHS,CPD,ENT <Enter>

EOT: End of Transmission

$PASHS,CPD,EOT,s

Selects the type of EOT character(s) to be sent in the DBEN message, where s is a

string indicating the characters to be sent, as defined in Table 8.157. Used only in the

base receiver.

Table 8.157. CPD,EOT Parameter Table

Parameter

s ‘NONE’

‘CR’

‘CRLF’

Range Characters to be sent

nothing

0x0D

0x0D 0x0A (default)

Example: Use CR as EOT characters:

$PASHS,CPD,EOT,CR <Enter>

288 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

FST: Fast CPD Mode

$PASHS,CPD,FST,s

Enables/disables fast CPD mode, where s is either ON or OFF. If this mode is set to

ON, the rover receiver provides a fast CPD position solution. This command is relevant for ROVER receiver only. The default is ON.

Example: Turn fast CPD OFF:

$PASHS,CPD,FST,OFF <Enter>

INF: CPD Information

$PASHQ,CPD,INF,c

This command queries the INF message where c is the optional output port. This message contains base and rover satellite status information.

Example: Query the CPD satellite information message to the current port:

$PASHQ,CPD,INF <Enter>

$PASHR,CPD,INF

The response message is in the form:

$PASHR,CPD,INF,s1,d2,n(d3,c4),d5,m(d6,c7),d8,d9,d10*cc <Enter> n = number of SVs in the base m = number of SVs in the rover

Table 8.158. INF Message Structure

Field Description Range

s1 d2

CPD mode

Number of Svs in base station. This determines how many fields to be followed.

SVPRN for the Svs in base receiver d3 c4 Warning field description:

+ - no warnings

C - warning in L1 measurements

P - warning in L2 measurements

- - warning in both measurements

... repeats for other SVs in base station d5 Number of Svs in the rover station. This determines the number of fields to follow.

d6 SVPRN for the Svs in the rover receiver

OFF, BAS, ROV, RBR, RBB

0 - 12

1-32

‘+’

‘-’

‘C’

‘P’

0-12

1-32

Units

Commands 289

Table 8.158. INF Message Structure (continued)

Range Field Description

c7 Warning field description:

+ - no warnings

C - warning in L1 measurements

P - warning in L2 measurements

- - warning in both measurements

... repeats for other SVs in rover station d8 Last BPS message time (empty for RBB) d9 d10

*cc

Last DBEN message time

BPS message warning (see $PASHR,BPS for coding scheme)

Checksum

‘+’

‘-’

‘C’

‘P’

Units

ms ms

290 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

MAX: Max Age for CPD Correction

$PASHS,CPD,MAX,d

Set the maximum age in seconds of CPD differential correction above which it will not be used in the position solution, where d is any number between 1 and 30. Default is

30. The max age is used only in REMOTE / ROVER mode. The max setting can be checked through the $PASHQ,CPD command.

Example: Set maximum age to 10 seconds:

$PASHS,CPD,MAX,10 <Enter>

MOD: CPD Mode

$PASHS,CPD,MOD,s

This command enables/disables CPD mode, where s is a string that defines the mode.

Example: Set receiver to Base CPD mode:

$PASHS,CPD,MOD,BAS <Enter>

Table 8.159. CPD,MOD Parameter Table

Parameter

s

Character

String

BAS

ROV

RBR

RBB

OFF

Description

CPD BASE mode

CPD ROVER mode

RVP (reverse vector processing) ROVER mode: outputs DBEN message only

RVP BASE mode: it computes the RVP ROVER’s position

Disable CPD mode

$PASHQ,CPD,MOD,c

Queries the current CPD setting, where c is the optional output port. This message contains information about current CPD mode. If the port is not specified, the message is output to the port from which this command was received.

Example: Query the receiver for CPD mode information:

$PASHQ,CPD,MOD <Enter>

Commands 291

$PASHR,CPD,MOD

The response is in the form:

$PASHR,CPD,MOD,s1,s2,c3,f4,d5,d6,s7,s8,f9,s10,d11,s12,f13*cc <Enter>

Table 8.160. CPD,MOD Message Structure

Parameter

d6 s7 s8 f9 s10 d11 s12 f13 s1 s2 c3 f4 d5

Description Range

Mode

Fast CPD mode

Port

CPD update period

Rover's dynamics (see $PASHS,CPD,DYN)

‘BAS’,’ROV’,’RBB’,’RBR’,’OFF’

‘OFF’,’FST’

A/B/C/D

1.0 - 5.0 (second)

0 - 5

Multipath information (see $PASHS,CPD,MTP) 0 - 4

DBEN type

DBEN smooth on /off

‘RCA’,’RP1’,’RP2’,’RPC’

‘SMS’, ‘UNS’

DBEN transmission period 0.0 - 999.0

Which base position to use (entered/received) ‘ETD’,’XIT’

BPS transmission period or broadcast interval 0,10,30,100,300

Which solution to output

Ambiguity fixing confidence level

‘CPD’, ‘RAW’, ‘RBP’

99.0, 95.0, 99.0, 99.9

MTP: Multipath

$PASHS,CPD,MTP,d1

This command sets the multipath parameter, where d1 is a code that describes the multi-path environment. This command is relevant for ROVER mode or RVP BASE mode only. Default is medium (2).

292 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

Example: Set multipath parameter to high:

$PASHS,CPD,MTP,3 <Enter>

Table 8.161. MTP Parameter Table

Parameter

d1

Description

Multipath. One of the following values:

0 - no multipath (zero baseline)

1 - Low (open field)

2 - Medium (default)

3 - high (water surface, buildings)

4 - Severe (forest, urban canyon)

OBN: Vector Solution Information

$PASHQ,OBN

This command queries the OBN message. The OBN message contains information about the vector solution accumulated during the static site occupation. To output an

OBN message, the following receiver parameters must be set:

• The receiver must be in CPD Rover mode ($PASHS,CPD,MOD,ROV)

• The CPD dynamics must be set to static ($PASHS,CPD,DYN,0)

• The 4-character site field must be set to a valid site name ($PASHS,SIT)

Example: Query OBN message, send response to current port:

$PASHQ,OBN <Enter>

$PASHR,OBN

Commands 293

The response message is in binary as shown below and defined in Table 8.162:

$PASHR,OBN,<OBEN structure> <Enter>

Table 8.162. OBEN Message Structure (Binary Format) int

Base site information

Type

float float float float int float float float float double double double

Description

Number of channels in receiver site ID slant height antenna radius vertical offset north offset east offset temperature humidity air pressure

WGS 84 X component of position

WGS 84 Y component of position

WGS 84 Z component of position

Units

4 character meters meters meters meters meters degrees C percent millibars meters meters meters

294 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

Table 8.162. OBEN Message Structure (Binary Format) (continued)

Units

Baseline information

Type

int long int float int int int int long float float float float float float float double double double float int float float

Description

Number of epochs available

Number of epochs used in solution

Number of satellites used for solution

Reference SV PRN number

PRNs of used satellites

L1 ambiguity

Number of epochs for each satellite

Standard deviation of L1 ambiguity

L2 ambiguity

Standard deviation of L2 ambiguity

Standard deviation of vector x component

Standard deviation of vector y component

Standard deviation of vector Z component

Cross correlation XY

Cross correlation XZ

Cross correlation YZ

Baseline component delta X

Baseline component delta Y

Baseline component delta Z

Lowest contrast ratio for fixing ambiguities

Number of fixed ambiguities

RMS residual chi-squared

0.01 cycles cycles

0.01 cycles cycles meters meters meters meters meters meters meters meters meters meters

Commands 295

Table 8.162. OBEN Message Structure (Binary Format) (continued)

Time Tag

Type

int int long long

Description

Week number of static site occupation beginning

Week number of last epoch

Week millisecond of static site occupation beginning

Week millisecond of last epoch

Units

millisecond s millisecond s

Total Bytes checksum

446

OUT: Solution Output

$PASHS,CPD,OUT,d1

This command selects which position solution to output to the serial port and/or the data card. This command is relevant for ROVER mode or RVP BASE mode. The default is 1.

Table 8.163. CPD,OUT Parameter Table

Paramete r

d1

Description

solution output selection:

0 - raw pseudo range solution (autonomous)

1 - CPD solution if available. (default)

Note 1: CPD solution can only be stored on the PC card in a C-file (data mode 2 or

4 See “$PASHS,RNG,d” on page 150).

Note 2 : When the receiver is set to ROVER mode and the CPD solution is not available, no solution will be output to the serial port. However, the raw pseudorange solution will be stored in the data card.

Note 3: If receiver is in RVP BASE mode, the CPD solution will be output via serial ports but will not be stored into receiver’s data card (B and C files) because this solution is the rover’s position.

2 - Same as 1, but in RVP Base Mode, the solution WILL BE stored into receiver’s

C-file on the data card.

296 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

Example: Set CPD output to raw position output:

$PASHS,CPD,OUT,0 <Enter>

PEB: Base Broadcast Interval

$PASHS,CPD,PEB,d1

This command specifies the broadcasting interval for the BPS message, where d1 is the interval in seconds. The BPS message contains base station’s ground mark coordinates (if relevant) and antenna offset from reference point. When using CMR format, this command controls the broadcast interval of the reference station coordinates and offset to the antenna phase center (CMR type 1 message). This command is relevant for BASE mode or RVP ROVER mode.

Table 8.164. CPD,PEB Parameter Table

Parameter

d1

Description

Base coordinates broadcast interval. Only the following values are valid: 0, 10, 30, 60, 120, 300 (0 for no transmission).

Units Default

second 30 seconds

Example: Set BPS broadcast interval to 10 seconds:

$PASHS,CPD,PEB,10 <Enter>

PED: DBEN/CMR Transmission Period

$PASHS,CPD,PED,d1

This command sets the period of the DBEN or CMR message transmission, where d1 is the transmission period in seconds. This command is relevant for BASE mode or

RVP ROVER mode.

Table 8.165. CPD,PED Parameter Table

Default Parameter

d1

Description Range

DBEN/CMR transmission period

0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.7, 0.8, and 1.0 to 999

(0 = no transmission)

Unit

Commands 297

Example: Set DBEN transmission period to 3 seconds:

$PASHS,CPD,PED,3 <Enter>

PER: CPD Update Interval

$PASHS,CPD,PER,d1

This command selects the CPD Kalman filter update interval, where d1 is the update interval in seconds. This command is relevant for ROVER mode or RVP BASE mode, and when fast CPD is set to OFF.

Table 8.166. CPD,PER Parameter Table

Parameter

d1

Description Range

Kalman filter update period 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.7, 0.8,

0.9, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5

Unit

sec

Default

1 second

Example: Set CPD update interval to 3 seconds:

$PASHS,CPD,PER,3 <Enter>

POS: Set Base Position

$PASHS,CPD,POS,m1,c2,m3,c4,f5

This command sets the base point position from the rover receiver.

298 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

Table 8.167. CPD,POS Parameter Table

Parameter

m1 c2 m3 c4 f5

Description Range

Latitude of base position in degrees and decimal minutes

(ddmm.mmmmmmm).

Direction of latitude N = North, S = South

0-8959.9999999

‘S’, ‘N’

Longitude of base position in degrees and decimal minutes

(dddmm.mmmmmmm)

0-

17959.9999999

Direction of longitude E = East, W = West

Reference point altitude (always have + or - sign) (in meters)

‘E’, ‘W’

±9999.9999

This requires the receiver configured to use the entered base position (by issuing command

$PASHS,UBP,0)

Example: Set base position from the rover receiver:

$PASHS,CPD,POS,3722.2432438,N,12350.5438423,W,+34.5672 <Enter>

$PASHQ,CPD,POS,c

This command queries the base position from the rover, where c is the optional serial port. If the port is not specified, the message is output to port from which this command was received.

Example: Query base position set at the rover receiver:

$PASHQ,CPD,POS <Enter>

$PASHR,CPD,POS

The response message is in the form:

$PASHR,CPD,POS,m1,c2,m3,c4,f5 <Enter>

The description of these parameters can be found in Table 8.167.

PRO: Select RTK Format

$PASHS,CPD,PRO,s

Commands 299

This command sets the output format of the CPD message transmitted from the base

receiver, where s is a 3-character string as defined in Table 8.168. The parameter

can be set to either DBN (Magellan proprietary format) or CMR (compact measurement record). This command is relevant only for the base receiver, and is not relevant when outputting RTCM 18/19 or 20/21 messages. The default is DBN. .

Table 8.168. CPD,PRO Parameter

Parameter

s

Description

3-character string

DBN = DBEN output format

CMR = CMR (compact measurement record) output format

PRT: Port Output Setting

$PASHS,CPD,PRT,c

This command sets the port to output DBEN and BPS messages, where c is the desired port. This is only relevant to BASE or RVP ROVER mode. Default port is B.

Example: Output DBEN and BPS messages to port C:

$PASHS,CPD,PRT,C <Enter>

RST: Reset CPD

$PASHS,CPD,RST

Reset the PNAV processing (Kalman filter reset). This command is relevant for

ROVER mode or RVP BASE mode only.

Example: Reset the PNAV Kalman Filter:

$PASHS,CPD,RST <Enter>

STS: CPD Solution Status

$PASHQ,CPD,STS,c

This command queries the CPD Solution Status message, where c is the optional output port. This message contains information about the current CPD/PNAV

Processing status.

Example: Query solution status to port D:

$PASHQ,CPD,STS,D <Enter>

300 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

$PASHR,CPD,STS

The response message is in the form:

$PASHR,CPD,STS,f1,f2*cc <Enter>

Table 8.169. CPD,STS Message Structure

Field

f1 f2

*cc

Description Range Units

RMS phase residual 0.00 - 0.100

Ambiguity Fixing Contrast Ratio 0.00 - 99999.99

Checksum meter

UBP: Use Base Position

$PASHS,CPD,UBP,d1

This command selects the base position to use in ROVER mode, where d1 indicates the desired base position. This command is relevant for ROVER mode only. Default is

1.

Table 8.170. CPD,UBP Parameter Table

Parameter

d1

Description Range

Base position to use:

0 = Use entered base position

1 = Use transmitted base position

0,1 1

Default

Example: Use entered base station position:

$PASHS,CPD,UBP,0 <Enter>

Commands 301

UCT Commands

The User Coordinate Transformation (UCT) library, Table 8.171, includes user-

defined transformation data (e.g., datums, grid systems, map projection parameters, etc.) and transformation functions. You can define and store 1 set of transformation parameters, and do transformation based on these parameters.

The UCT commands include:

• Transformation Parameters

• Transformation Selection

• Coordinate Output

302 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

Command

$PASHS,UDD

$PASHQ,UDD

$PASHS,UDG

$PASHQ,UDG

$PASHS,DTM

$PASHQ,DTM

$PASHS,GRD

$PASHQ,GRD

$PASHS,HGT

$PASHQ,HGT

$PASHS,NME,GGA

$PASHS,NME,GLL

$PASHS,NME,POS

$PASHS,NME,GXP

$PASHS,NME,GDC

$PASHQ,GDC

$PASHS,NME,UTM

$PASHQ,UTM

Table 8.171. UCT Commands

Description

TRANSFORMATION PARAMETERS SETTING

Set datum-to-datum transformation parameters

Query 7 parameters of datum-to-datum transformation

Set datum-to-grid projection parameters

Query parameters of datum-to-grid projection (variable parameters)

TRANSFORMATION SELECTION

Select datum to use (preset or user-defined)

Query datum used

Select grid (map projection) mode

Query grid (map projection) mode

Select height model

Query height model

COORDINATES OUTPUT

Enable/disable geographic position output

Enable/disable latitude/longitude response message

Enable/disable NMEA postion response message

Enable/disable the horizontal position message

Enable/disable user-defined grid coordinates output

Query user-defined grid coordinates

Enable/disable UTM grid coordinates output

Query UTM grid coordinates

Page

307

307

308

312

DTM: Datum Selection

$PASHS,DTM,s

Select the geodetic datum used for position computation and measurements, where s is a 3-character string that defines a pre-defined datum or UDD (User-Defined

Datum). Parameters for a user-defined datum are entered with the $PASHS,UDD

command (page 307

). W84 is the default. For a list of available predefined datums,

see Appendix A, Reference Datums & Ellipsoids.

217

217

255

255

220

223

243

234

303

304

305

305

306

306

Commands 303

Example: Select user-defined datum for position computation:

$PASHS,DTM,UDD <Enter>

This does not affect the position output in the B-file or in the PBN message which are ECEF and always with respect to WGS-84.

$PASHQ,DTM,c

Query datum setting where c is the optional output port.

Example: Query the DTM status to port C:

$PASHQ,DTM,C <Enter>

$PASHR,DTM

The response message is in the form:

$PASHR,DTM,s*cc <Enter>

where s is the 3-character string that denotes the current datum setting. For the list of

available datum, see Appendix A, Reference Datums & Ellipsoids.

Transformation charts, including DMA, list the datum transformation parameters as “from” local

“to” WGS-84. This format is used for the UDD interface and the parameter signs are automatically inversed before the transformation is executed.

FUM: Fix UTM Zone

$PASHS,FUM,c

This command will enable/disable the fixing of the UTM zone, where c is either Y

(enable) or N (disable). The default is N. This command is mostly used when the user is near a UTM boundary and outputing position in UTM coordinates and does not want the UTM coordinates to suddenly shift from one zone to another if the boundary is crossed. Use the $PASHS,FZM command to set the zone that will be fixed.

Example: Select the UTM zone to be fixed:

$PASHS,FUM,Y <Enter>

304 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

FZN: Set UTM Zone to Fix

$PASHS,FZN,d

This command will set the UTM zone that will be held fixed, where d is the UTM zone and ranges from 1 to 60. this command is mostly used when the user is near a UTM boundary and outputing position in UTM coordinates and does not want the UTM coordinates to suddenly shift from one zone to another if the boundary is crossed.

This command must be used with $PASHS,FUM.

Example: Select UTM zone 10 to be fixed:

$PASHS,FZN,10 <Enter>

GRD: Datum-to-Grid Transformation Selection (Map Projection)

$PASHS,GRD,s

Enable/Disable usage of datum-to-grid transformation, where s is a 3-character string:

NON: (default: none) disable datum-to-grid transformation

UDG: enable datum-to-grid transformation

Parameters for user-defined datum are entered with the $PASHS,UDG command

(page 308). Grid coordinates are output in the “$PASHR,GDC” on page 217

.

Example: Enable user-defined datum-to-grid transformation:

$PASHS,GRD,UDG <Enter>

$PASHQ,GRD,c

Associated query command where c is the optional output port.

Example: Query the GRD status to port C:

$PASHQ,GRD,C <Enter>

$PASHR,GRD

The response message is in the form:

$PASHR,GRD,s*cc <Enter>

where s is a 3-character string that denotes current datum-to-grid setting (NON or UDG)

Commands 305

HGT: Height Model Selection

$PASHS,HGT,s

Select height used in position output messages, where s is a 3-character string:

ELG: (default) output ellipsoidal heights in position messages.

GEO: output orthometric heights in position messages using worldwide geoidal model.

This does not affect the position output in the B-file or in the PBN message which are ECEF and always with respect to WGS84.

To remain NMEA standard, the GGA message will always output geoidal height whatever the selection.

This selection affects height value in other position messages such as POS, UTM, and GDC.

Example: Select geoidal height in position output:

$PASHS,HGT,GEO <Enter>

$PASHQ,HGT,c

Query height model selection, where c is the optional output port.

Example: Query the HGT status to port C:

$PASHQ,HGT,C <Enter>

$PASHR,HGT

The response message is in the form:

$PASHR,HGT,s*cc <Enter>

where s is 3-character string that denotes current height setting (ELG or GEO).

306 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

UDD: User-Defined Datum

$PASHS,UDD,d1,f2,f3,f4,f5,f6,f7,f8,f9,f10

Sets the user-defined datum parameters in the receiver memory, where the

parameters are as defined in Table 8.172.

Table 8.172. UDD Message Structure

Parameter Description Range Units Default

d1 f2 f3

Geodetic datum. Always 0 for WGS 84.

Semi-major axis

Inverse flattening in meters.

0

6300000.000-

6400000.000

290.0000000-

301.0000000

n/a meters meters

0

6378137.000

298.257223563

f4 f5 f6 f7

Translation in x direction*

Translation in y direction*

Translation in z direction*

Rotation about x axis*

+ rotation is counterclockwise,

- rotation is clockwise about origin.

±1000.000

±1000.000

±1000.000

±10.000

meters sec

0.00

meters 0.00

meters 0.00

0.000

f8 f9 f10

Rotation about y axis*

Rotation about z axis*

Delta scale factor (scale factor = 1 + delta scale factor)

±10.000

±10.000

±25.000

sec sec

PPM

0.000

0.000

0.0000

* Translations, rotations, and scale factors are entered as going FROM local datum TO WGS84

Example: Set datum parameters:

$PASHS,UDD,0,637 8240, 297.323, 34.23, 121.4, 18.9, 0, 0, 0, 0 <Enter>

$PASHQ,UDD,c

Query the user datum parameters, where c is the optional output port and is not required to direct the response message to the current communication port.

Example: Query datum parameters to port C:

$PASHQ,UDD,C <Enter>

Commands 307

$PASHR,UDD

The response is in the form:

$PASHR,UDD,d1,f2,f3,f4,f5,f6.f7,f8,f9,f10*cc <Enter>

where the parameters are as defined in Table 8.172.

UDG: User-Defined Datum-to-Grid Transformation

$PASHS,UDG,s1,d2,f3,f4,f5,f6,f7,f8,f9,f10,f11,f12,f13

Sets the user-defined datum-to-grid transformation parameters in the receiver memory. The number of parameters depends on the map projection type selected and must be indicated by the user as parameter d2.

Table 8.173 through Table 8.177 define the parameters projection type.

Table 8.173. UDG Structure for Equatorial Mercator

Field

s1 d2 f3 f4 f5

Description

Map projection type

Number of parameters for the selected projection

Longitude for the central meridian

False northing

False easting

Range Units

EMER

3 n/a n/a

±1800000.0000

dddmmss.ssss

±10,000,000 meters

±10,000,000 meters

Table 8.174. UDG Structure for Transverse Mercator

Range

f3 f4 f5 f6 f7

Field

s1 d2

Description

Map projection type

Number of parameters for the selected projection

Longitude for central meridian

Scale factor at central meridian

Latitude of the grid origin of the projection

False easting

False northing

TM83

5

±1800000.0000

0.5-1.5

±900000.0000

±10,000,000

±10,000,000 n/a n/a

Units

dddmmss.ssss

n/a ddmmss.ssss

meters meters

308 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

Table 8.175. UDG Structure for Oblique Mercator

Field

f7 f8 f5 f6 s1 d2 f3 f4

Description

Map projection type

Number of parameters for selected projection

Azimuth of the skew axis

Scale factor at center of projection

Longitude of the grid origin of projection

Latitude of the grid origin of projection

False easting

False northing

Range Units

OM83

6 n/a n/a

±1800000.0000

ddmmss.ssss

0.5-1.5

n/a

±1800000.0000

ddmmss.ssss

±900000.0000

ddmmss.ssss

±10,000,000

±10,000,000 meters meters

Table 8.176. UDG Structure for Stereographic (Polar and Oblique)

Field

f4 f5 f6 s1 d2 f3 f7

Description

Map projection type

Number of parameters for selected projection

Latitude of the grid origin of projection

Longitude of the grid origin of projection

Scale factor at center of projection

False easting

False northing

Range Units

STER n/a

5 n/a

±900000.0000

ddmmss.ssss

±1800000.0000 ddmmss.ssss

0.5-1.5

±10,000,000 n/a meters

±10,000,000 meters

Table 8.177. UDG Structure for Lambert CC SPC83 (2 std parallels)

Field

f7 f8 f5 f6 f3 f4 s1 d2

Description Range Units

Map projection type LC83

Number of parameters for selected projection 6

Latitude of southern standard parallel

Latitude of northern standard parallel

±900000.0000

±900000.0000

Longitude of the grid origin of the projection

Latitude of the grid origin of the projection

False easting

False northing

±1800000.0000

±900000.0000

±10,000,000

±10,000,000 n/a n/a ddmmss.ssss

ddmmss.ssss

ddmmss.ssss

ddmmss.sss

meters meters

Commands 309

The following SPC27 map projections must be used in conjunction with the Clarke

1866 ellipsoid (a = 6378206.4 m and 1/f = 294.978698200) and the following datum

(Tx = -8.0, Ty = 160.0, Tz= 176.0, rotation and scale = 0) which is included in the preset datum list as NAC.

Values are derived from tables which can be obtained from various sources, including NGS

Publication 62-4 (1986 Reprint) which also includes discussion and definitions of applied formulas and parameters.

Table 8.178. UDG Structure for Lambert Conic Conformal for SPC27

Description

Map projection type.

Number of parameters for selected projection

False easting or x coordinate of central meridian

Longitude of central meridian

Map radius of central parallel (

Φο)

Map radius of lowest parallel of projection table plus y value on central meridian at this parallel (y = 0 in most cases)

Scale (m) of projection along central parallel (

Φo)

Sine of latitude of central parallel (

Φo) computed from basic equations for

Lambert projection with 2 standard parallel.

Degree, minute portion of the rectifying latitude

ωo for Φo, latitude of origin

Remainder of

ωo

1/6 * Ro * No * 10^6 tan

Φo / 24 * (Ro * No)^3/2] * 10^24

[(5 + 3 * tan^2

Φo)/120 * Ro * N0^3] * 10^32

Number of parameters for selected projection

Range Name

LC27

11

L1

L2

L3

L4

L5

L6

L7

L8

L9

L10

L11

11 f9 : w = F - [1052.893882 - (4.483344 - 0.002352 * cos^2F) * cos^2 F] * sin F * cos F f11/f12/f13 : Ro = a * (1 - e^2) / (1 - e^2 *sin^2 Fo)^3/2 : radius of curvature in meridian plane at Fo

310 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

No = a / (1-e^2 * sin^2 Fo)^1/2 : radius of curvature in prime vertical at Fo

Table 8.179. UDG Structure for Transverse Mercator for SPC27

Description

Map projection type

Number of parameters for selected projection

False Easting or x coordinate of central meridian

Longitude of Central meridian

Degree, minute portion of rectifying latitude

ωo for Φo, latitude of origin

Remainder of

ωo

Scale along central meridian

(1/6 * Rm * Nm * T5^2) * 10^15

Range/Name in

Table

T3

T4

T5

T6

TM27

6

T1

T2

Rm = radius of curvature in meridian plane

Nm = radius of curvature in prime vertical

Both calculated for the mean latitude of the area in the zone.

Table 8.180. UDG Structure for Transverse Mercator SPC27 Alaska Zone 2-9

Parameter

s1 d2 f3 f4

Description

Map projection type.

Number of parameters for selected projection

False easting or x coordinate of central meridian

Longitude of central meridian

Range/Name

TMA7

2

C

CM

Example: Set datum-to-grid transformation for Lambert Conformal CA-zone 4:

$PASHS,UDG,LC83,6,360000.0,371500.0,

-1190000.0,352000.0,2000000,500000 <Enter>

Example: Set datum-to-grid transformation parameters:

$PASHS,UDG,LC83,637 8240,297.323,121.4,18.9,0,0,0,1.5 <Enter>

Commands 311

$PASHQ,UDG,c

The associated query command, where c is the optional output port and is not required to direct the response message to the current communication port.

Example: Query datum-to-grid transformation parameters to port C:

$PASHQ,UDG,C <Enter>

$PASHR,UDG

The response is in the format:

$PASHR,UDG,s1,d2,f3,f4,f5,f6,f7,f8,f9,f10,f11,f12,f13*cc <Enter> where the fields (and the number of them) are defined in the above tables and depend upon the selected map projection.

312 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

9

SBAS Commands

This chapter describes the WAAS (Wide Area Augmentation System) capabilities of the ZXW-Receivers. These capabilities are available only if the receiver has the Y

option installed (page 4).

The ZXW-Receivers can track two SBAS (WAAS/EGNOS/MSAS) satellites simultaneously on two different channels. The receivers decode and output WAAS raw data and almanac.

Table 9.1 summarizes the WAAS commands applicable to the above functions. :

Table 9.1. Summary of WAAS Commands

Command

$PASHS,SBA,DAT

$PASHQ,SBA,DAT

$PASHR,SBA,DAT

$PASHS,OUT,X,SAW

$PASHQ,SAW

$PASHS,SBA,SSO

$PASHS,SBA,XXX

Description

Enable SBAS raw data output on serial port

Query SBAS raw data on serial port

SBAS raw data response message

Enable SBAS almanac data output on serial port

Query SBAS almanac data on serial port

Set SBAS satellite search order

Set SBAS tacking mode, where XXX =:

SAM - single automatic mode

DAM - dual automatic mode

MAN,xx - single manual mode

MAN,xx,yy - dual manual mode

OFF = turn off WAAS, operate as GPS only

Page

314

314

314

315

315

318

316

SBAS Commands 313

SBA: SBAS Raw Data

$PASHS,SBA,DAT

This command enables SBAS raw data on the serial port. The structure is

$PASHS,SBA,DAT,c1,s1<Enter>

where c1 is the receiver port and s1 is ON or OFF.

$PASHQ,SBA,DAT

The corresponding query is $PASHQ,SBA,DAT.

$PASHR,SBA,DAT

The response message is in the form

$PASHR,SBA,DAT,d1,t2,d3,d4,s5*hh<Enter>

where the DAT parameters are as defined in Table 9.2.

Table 9.2. SBA,DAT Parameters

Parameter

d1 t2 d3 d4 s5

Description Range

WAAS PRN number

Time tag: hhmmss.hh

The SBA,DAT message contains the time tag of the beginning of WAAS message transmission (WAAS message transmission time is 1 second)

33 - 64

000000.00 to

235959.00

RTCA message ID 0 - 63

Error flag in hex. Bit 0 = preamble error, bit 1 = parity error 0 - 3

RTCA message: 250-bits in 63 hex numbers. Data arranged left to right and from high-order to low-order bits.

The two low-order bits in the 63rd number are not used.

The output format is ASCII.

Examples:

$PASHR,SBA,DAT,33,140420.00,04,0,C61240000000000000000000000000

00000000000003BBB8000000002D0F310*55

$PASHR,SBA,DAT,44,140420.00,00,0,5300400003BFF4018000000000004

003FE400001C003BBBBBBBBBBBB934D094*20

314 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

OUT: WAAS Almanac Data

$PASHS,OUT,x,SAW

This command enables/disables WAAS almanac data. The structure is:

$PASHS,OUT,x,SAW,BIN

where x is the output port, SAW is constant, and BIN specifies binary output format.

Almanac data is output every 15 minutes with one satellite output at each recording interval (RCI).

$PASHQ,SAW

The associated query is $PASHQ,SAW,x where x is the optional output port.

$PASHR,SAW

The response message is one binary message per satellite in the form

$PASHR,SAW,(almanac structure)

where the WAAS almanac structure is as defined in Table 9.3.

Table 9.3. WAAS Almanac Structure

Parameter

char char long float float long char char unsigned short

1

1

2

Bytes

1

1

4

3*4 q3*4

4

Content

Data ID - two LSB of byte. In current signal specification format is 00.

Health, where:

Bit 0 = Ranging on (0) or Off (1)

Bit 1 = Corrections On (0) or Off (1)

Bit 2 = Broadcast integrity On (0) or Off (1)

Bit 3 = Reserved

Bits 4 - 7 = Filled by zero t0 - Almanac data reference time within the day expressed in WAAS system time scale (seconds)

Satellite ECEF X, Y, Z coordinates (meters)

Satellite velocity X’, Y’, Z’ (meters/second)

TOW - time of week in GPS time scale when WAAS almanac was received

(seconds)

WN - week number in GPS time scale when WAAS almanac was receiver

Satellite number (33 - 64)

Checksum computed by breaking structure into 40 unsigned shorts, adding them together, and taking leastt-significant 16 bits of result

SBAS Commands 315

Parameter

Total

Table 9.3. WAAS Almanac Structure (continued)

Bytes

38

Content

51 for structure plus header and <CR><LF>

SBA: Tracking Mode

$PASHS,SBA,xxx

The $PASHS,SBA tracking mode command sets the tracking mode for WAAS operation. The command structure is as follows:

$PASHS,SBA,SAM - single automatic tracking mode

$PASHS,SBA,DAM - double automatic tracking mode

$PASHS,SBA,MAN,xxx - single manual mode

$PASHS,SBA,MAN,xxx,yyy - dual manual mode

$PASHS,SBA,OFF - turns off WAAS processing, sets receiver to GPS-only mode

Automatic mode is used to automatically determine which WAAS satellite(s) to use.

Manual mode is used to manually specify the WAAS satellite(s) to use. Single mode is used to select one set of WAAS corrections; similarly, dual mode is used to select two sets of WAAS corrections.

The WAAS command is a user-defined setting that is saved when the $PASHS,SAV command is issued. Default is Off.

Automatic Mode

In the Automatic mode, the receiver automatically searches for and tracks the WAAS satellite indicated in the available almanac. If there is no WAAS almanac available, the receiver searches for and tracks the WAAS satellites in a predetermined programmable order. The default order can be 122,120,134,138,121,123, 125, 126,

127, 128, 129, 130, 131, 133, 136, 137. The order can be redefined using the

$PASHS,SSO command (page 318).

The receiver supports two Automatic modes of operation: single and dual. The

$PASHS,SBA,SAM command sets single mode, $PASHS,SBA,DAM sets dual mode.

316 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

Single Automatic Mode

In Single Automatic mode, the receiver automatically detects all available WAAS signals and selects the best single satellite, switching automatically as the receiver moves from one coverage area to another. Automatic operation is achieved by using two independent WAAS channels. Channel 1 tracks the best available WAAS signal, and channel 2 scans for other available WAAS satellite signals, maintaining a WAAS satellite directory in battery-backed memory. The quality (signal strength, elevation, etc.) of the WAAS satellite tracked on channel 1 is compared to a set quality threshold. When the quality of the signal on channel 1 is determined to be less than the set qualiity threshold, the receiver checks the quality (if any) on channel 2. If channel 2 is determined to have a better signal, the receiver switches to that channel.

If, however, the signal on channel 1 drops below the desired threshold, and channel 2 is not tracking a better for any other WAAS signal, the receiver continues to use the current WAAS satellite.

NOTE: Best WAAS satellite is based collectively on satellite SNR, elevation angle, continuity of reception, etc.

Dual Automatic Mode

In Dual Automatic mode, the receiver automatically detects all available WAAS signals and selects the best two. Channel 1 tracks the best signal, after which channel

2 tracks the second-best signal. Since there is no other WAAS channel, the receiver has no capability to scan for other, better WAAS signals. Therefore, the receiver continues to track these two WAAS signals as long as it is able. If the signal on one of the channels is lost, this channel scans the available frequencies to determine the best signal available for tracking.

Demodulated data from both channels is available for output.

Manual Mode

In Manual mode, the receiver searches for and tracks the user-selected WAAS satellite, comprising either one (Single mode) or two (Dual mode) satellites. Single

Manual mode is selected by the $PASHS,SBA,MAN,xx command. Dual Manual mode is selected by the $PASHS,SBA,MAN,xx,yy command, where xx and yy are two-digit

WAAS satellite PRN numbers.

In Single Manual mode, only one channel is reserved for WAAS satellite tracking. The receiver searches for and tracks the specified WAAS satellite (PRN = xx on channel

1). In Dual Manual mode, the receiver searches for and tracks two user-specified satellites (PRN = xx and PRN = yy) on channel 1 and channel 2, respectively.

SBAS Commands 317

In Single Manual mode, demodulated WAAS data from channel 1 is available for output, whereas in Dual Manual mode the demodulated WAAS data from both channels is available for output.

SSO: Set SBAS Satellite Search Order

$PASHS,SBA,SSO

This command changes the satellite search order. The structure is

$PASHS,SBA,SSO,s1[,s2...]

where s1, s2 are the satellite ID numbers ranging from 33 to 64, which are searched first. The numbers 33 to 64 are in accordance with NMEA standard. The SBAS system PRN numbers range from 120 to 138. The offset from SBAS SV ID to SBAS

PRN number is 87. Add 87 to the SV ID to derive the SBAS PRN number.

Example:

The following command sets SBAS PRN 122 and 134 as the first in the search list.

SBAS satellite 122 has a satellite ID number 35, and SBAS satellite 134 has a satellite ID number 47.

$PASH,SBA,SSO,35,47

Default Setting

SSO - Search order satellites IDs 35,33,47,51,34,36,37,38,39,40,41,42,43,44,45,46,

48,49,50.

This command affects the SBAS satellites search order in automatic searching mode. Current search order is saved in BBU by the $PASHS,SAV command.

318 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

A

Reference Datums & Ellipsoids

The following tables list geodetic datums and reference ellipsoid parameters.

The translation values are in the format - From local to WGS84.

Table A.1. Available Geodetic Datums

CAP

CGE

CHI

CHU

COA

EUA

Datum ID

ARF

ARS

AUA

AUG

BOO

CAI

Reference

Ellipsoid

Offset in meters

(dX,dY,dZ

Datum Description

Clarke 1880

Clarke 1880

-143, -90, -294 ARC 1950 (Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi,

Swaziland, Zaire, Zambia ,Zimbabwe

-160, -8, -300

Australian National -133, -48, 148

ARC 1960 (Kenya, Tanzania)

ANS66 Australian Geodetic Datum 1966

(Australia, Tasmania Island)

Australian National

International 1924

International 1924

Clarke 1880

Clarke 1880

-134, -48, 149 ANS84 Australian Geodetic Datum 1984

(Australia, Tasmania Island)

Bogota, Bogota Observatory (Columbia) 307, 304, -318

-148, 136, 90 Campo, S. American Campo Inchauspe

(Argentina)

-136, -108, -292 Cape (South Africa)

-263, 6, 431 Carthage (Tunisia)

International 1924

International 1924

International 1924

International 1924

175, -38, 113

-134, 229, -29

-206, 172, -6

-87, -96, -120

Chatham 1971 (Chatham,New Zeland)

S. American Chua Astro (Paraguay)

S. American Corrego Alegre (Brazil)

European 1950 (Western Europe: Austria,

Denmark, France, F.R. of Germany, Netherlands,

Switzerland)

Reference Datums & Ellipsoids 319

Table A.1. Available Geodetic Datums (continued)

LIB

LUZ

MAS

MER

MIN

NAC

INA

INM

IRL

KEA

FAH

GAA

GEO

HJO

EUE

EUF

EUH

EUJ

EUS

Datum ID

Reference

Ellipsoid

International 1924

International 1924

International 1924

International 1924

International 1924

NAD

NAE

NAH

NAN

NAR

OEG

Clarke 1880

International 1924

International 1924

International 1924

Everest

Everest

Modified Airy

Modified Everest

Clarke 1880

Clarke 1866

Bessel 1841

Clarke 1880

Clarke 1880

Clarke 1866

Clarke 1866

Clarke 1866

Clarke 1880

Clarke 1866

GRS1980

Helmert 1906

Offset in meters

(dX,dY,dZ

Datum Description

-104, -101, -140 European 1950 (Cyprus)

-130, -117, -151 European 1950 (Egypt)

-117, -132, -164 European 1950 (Iran)

-97, -88, -135 European 1950 (Sicily)

-86, -98, -119 European 1979 (Austria, Finland, Netherlands,

Norway, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland)

-346, -1, 224

-133, -321, 50

84, -22, 209

-73, 46, -86

Oman

Gandajika Base (Rep. of Maldives)

Geodetic Datum 1949 (New Zealand)

Hjorsey 195 (Iceland)

214, 836, 303

289, 734, 257

506, -122, 611

-11, 851, 5

-90, 40, 88

-133, -77, -51

639, 405, 60

31, 146, 47

-92, -93, 122

-8, 160, 176

Indian 1 (Thailand, Vietnam)

Indian 2 (India, Nepal, Bangladesh)

Ireland 1965

Kertau 1948 (West Malayzia, Singapore)

Liberia 1964

Luzon (Philippines excluding Mindanoa Is.)

Massawa (Eritrea,Ethiopia)

Merchich (Morocco)

-5, 135, 172

-10, 158, 187

-231, -196, 482

-6, 127, 192

0, 0, 0

-130, 110, -13

Minna (Nigeria)

NAD27 N. American CONUS 1927 (North

America)

AK27 N. American Alaska 1927 (Alaska)

CAN27 N. American Canada 1927 (Canada incl.

Newfoundland Island)

Nahrwan (Saudi Arabia)

Central America (Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador,

Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Mexico)

GRS80 North American 1983

Old Egyptian

320 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

Table A.1. Available Geodetic Datums (continued)

TOY

UDD

W72

W84

ZAN

OHA

PIT

QAT

QUO

SAN

Datum ID

OGB

SCK

TIL

Reference

Ellipsoid

Airy 1830

Clarke 1866

International 1924

International 1924

International 1924

South American

1969

Bessel 1841

Namibia

Everest

Offset in meters

(dX,dY,dZ

375, -111, 431

61, -285, -181

185, 165, 42

-128, -283, 22

164, 138, -189

-57, 1, -41

616, 97, -251

Datum Description

OSG Ordnance Survey of Great Britain 1936

(England, Isle of Man, Scotland, Shetland

Islands, Wales)

OLDHW Old Hawaiian

Pitcairn Astro 1967 (Pitcairn Island)

Qatar National (Qatar)

Qornoq (South Greenland)

SAMER69 S. American 1969 (Argentina, Bolivia,

Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyan,

Paraguay, Peru, Venezuela, Trinidad, Tobago)

Schwarzeck (Namibia)

-689, 691, -46

Bessel 1841

User Defined

WGS72

WGS84

-128, 481, 664 user defined

0, 0, +4.5

0, 0, 0

International 1924 -265, 120, -358

Timbalai 1948 (Brunei, East Malaysia, Sarawak,

Sabah)

Tokyo (Japan, Korea, Okinawa)

User defined

WGS72 World Geodetic System - 72

WGS84 World Geodetic System - 84

Zanderij (Surinam)

Ellipsoid

Airy 1830

Modified Airy

Australian National

Bessel 1841

Clarke 1866

Clarke 1880

Everest (India 1830)

Everest (W.Malaysia and

Singapore)

Table A.2. Reference Ellipsoids

a (metres) 1/f

6377563.396

299.3249647

6377340.189

299.3249647

6378160.0

298.25

6377397.155

299.1528128

6378206.4

294.9786982

6378249.145

293.465

6377276.345

300.8017

6377304.063

300.8017

f

0.00334085064038

0.00334085064038

0.00335289186924

0.00334277318217

0.00339007530409

0.00340756137870

0.00332444929666

0.00332444929666

Reference Datums & Ellipsoids 321

Table A.2. Reference Ellipsoids (continued)

Ellipsoid

Geodetic Reference System

1980

Helmert 1906

International 1924

South American 1969

World Geodetic System 1972

(WGS-72)

World Geodetic System 1984

(WGS-84)

a (metres)

6378137.0

6378200.0

6378388.0

6378160.0

6378135.0

6378137.0

1/f f

298.257222101

0.00335281068118

298.30

297.00

298.25

298.26

0.00335232986926

0.00336700336700

0.00335289186924

0.00335277945417

298.257223563

0.00335281066475

322 ZXW-Receivers Operation and Reference Manual

INDEX

Symbols

$GPALM

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207

$GPGGA

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82, 220

$GPGLL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223

$GPGRS

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225

$GPGSA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227

$GPGSN

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229

$GPGSV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232

$GPGXP

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234

$GPMSG

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236

$GPRMC

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247

$GPRRE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250

$GPVTG

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258

$GPXDR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260

$GPZDA

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262

$PASHQ,ALH

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110

$PASHQ,ALH,c

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110

$PASHQ,ALM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207

$PASHQ,ANT

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113

$PASHQ,BEEP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114

$PASHQ,CBN

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172

$PASHQ,CPD

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279

$PASHQ,CPD,ANT

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283

$PASHQ,CPD,DLK

. . . . . . . 82, 85, 86, 284

$PASHQ,CPD,INF

. . . . . . . . . . . 85, 86, 289

$PASHQ,CPD,MOD . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86, 291

$PASHQ,CPD,OUT

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86

$PASHQ,CPD,POS . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85, 299

$PASHQ,CPD,STS

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300

$PASHQ,CTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114

$PASHQ,DAL

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211

$PASHQ,DBN

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182

$PASHQ,DPO

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215

$PASHQ,DTM

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304

$PASHQ,EPB

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186

$PASHQ,FLS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121

$PASHQ,GGA

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220

$PASHQ,GLL

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223

$PASHQ,GRS

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225

$PASHQ,GSA

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226

$PASHQ,GSN

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229

$PASHQ,GSV

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .231

$PASHQ,GXP

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .234

$PASHQ,INF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .125

$PASHQ,ION

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .128

$PASHQ,LPS

. . . . . . . . . . . . .130, 131, 133

$PASHQ,MBN

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .188

$PASHQ,MDM

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .132

$PASHQ,MET

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .134

$PASHQ,MSG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .235

$PASHQ,OBN

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .293

$PASHQ,PAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .137

$PASHQ,PBN

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .193

$PASHQ,PHE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .141

$PASHQ,POW

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .144

$PASHQ,PPS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .146

$PASHQ,PRT

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .146

$PASHQ,RAW

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .83, 86, 195

$PASHQ,RID

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .149, 150

$PASHQ,RMC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .247

$PASHQ,RRE

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .250

$PASHQ,RTC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .85, 266

$PASHQ,SAL

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .198

$PASHQ,SAT

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .251

$PASHQ,SBA,DAT

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .314

$PASHQ,SES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .153

$PASHQ,SID

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .156

$PASHQ,SNV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .199

$PASHQ,STA

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .157

$PASHQ,TMP

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .161

$PASHQ,TTT

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .246

$PASHQ,UDD

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .307

$PASHQ,UDG

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .312

$PASHQ,UTM

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .97, 255

$PASHQ,VTG

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .258

$PASHQ,WARN

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .85, 163

$PASHQ,WKN

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .167

$PASHQ,XDR,c . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .260

$PASHQ,ZDA

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .262

$PASHR,ALH

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .110

$PASHR,ALM

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .198

$PASHR,ANT

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .114

Index 323

$PASHR,BEEP

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114

$PASHR,BPS

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66

$PASHR,CBN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172

$PASHR,CLM

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115

$PASHR,CPD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82

$PASHR,CPD,ANT

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284

$PASHR,CPD,DLK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90, 285

$PASHR,CPD,INF

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289

$PASHR,CPD,MOD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292

$PASHR,CPD,POS

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299

$PASHR,CPD,STS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301

$PASHR,CTS

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117

$PASHR,DPO

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215

$PASHR,DTM

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304

$PASHR,EPB

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187

$PASHR,FIL,BUSY

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122

$PASHR,FLS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122

$PASHR,INF

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125

$PASHR,ION

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129

$PASHR,LPS

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130

$PASHR,MDM

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132, 133

$PASHR,MPC

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188

$PASHR,OBN

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293

$PASHR,PBN

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194

$PASHR,PHE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141

$PASHR,POS

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243

$PASHR,PPS

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146

$PASHR,PRT

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146

$PASHR,RID

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149

$PASHR,RPC

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182

$PASHR,RTR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151

$PASHR,SAT

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252

$PASHR,SNV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200

$PASHR,TMP

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161

$PASHR,TTT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246, 255

$PASHR,UDD

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308

$PASHR,UDG

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312

$PASHR,UTM

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256

$PASHR,WARN

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163

$PASHR,WKN

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167

$PASHS,ALT

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110, 111

$PASHS,ANA

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111

$PASHS,ANH,f

$PASHS,ANR

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53, 112

$PASHS,ANR,OFF

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67

$PASHS,ANR,ON . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67

$PASHS,ANT

. . . . . . . . . . . . . 53, 112, 113

$PASHS,BEEP

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114

$PASHS,CPD

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62

$PASHS,CPD,AFP

. . . . . . . . . . 86, 87, 282

$PASHS,CPD,ANT

. . . . . . . . . . . . . 67, 283

$PASHS,CPD,DYN

. . . . . . 86, 88, 287, 293

$PASHS,CPD,ENT

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288

$PASHS,CPD,EOT

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288

$PASHS,CPD,FST

. . . . . . . . . . 86, 89, 289

$PASHS,CPD,MAX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291

$PASHS,CPD,MOD

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291

$PASHS,CPD,MOD,ROV

. . . . . 70, 71, 293

$PASHS,CPD,MTP

. . . . . . . . . . 86, 89, 292

$PASHS,CPD,OUT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296

$PASHS,CPD,PEB

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297

$PASHS,CPD,PED

. . . . . . . . . . 59, 86, 297

$PASHS,CPD,PER

. . . . . . . . . . 86, 90, 298

$PASHS,CPD,POS

. . . . . . . 67, 85, 90, 298

$PASHS,CPD,PRT

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300

$PASHS,CPD,RST

. . . . . . . . . . 86, 90, 300

$PASHS,CPD,UBP

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301

$PASHS,CPD,UBS

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86, 90

$PASHS,CTS

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114

$PASHS,DRI

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117, 168

$PASHS,DSC

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118

$PASHS,DSY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118

$PASHS,DTM

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119, 303

$PASHS,DTM,UDD

$PASHS,ELM

$PASHS,FIL

$PASHS,FIX

$PASHS,INF

$PASHS,INI

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120

$PASHS,GRD,UDG

$PASHS,HGT

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25, 127

$PASHS,ION

$PASHS,LTZ

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95

. . . . . . . . . . . 37, 66, 90, 119

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131, 161

Index 324

$PASHS,MDM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14, 133

$PASHS,MDM,INI

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

$PASHS,MET,CMD

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134

$PASHS,MET,INIT

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135

$PASHS,MST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136

$PASHS,MSV

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136

$PASHS,NME

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83

$PASHS,NME,ALL

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206

$PASHS,NME,ALM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206

$PASHS,NME,DAL

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211

$PASHS,NME,GDC

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97

$PASHS,NME,GGA

. . . . . . . . . . . . 220, 242

$PASHS,NME,GLL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223

$PASHS,NME,GRS

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224

$PASHS,NME,GSA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226

$PASHS,NME,GSN

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229

$PASHS,NME,GSV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231

$PASHS,NME,GXP

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234

$PASHS,NME,MSG . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68, 235

$PASHS,NME,PER

. . . . . . . . . . . . . 90, 242

$PASHS,NME,POS

. . . . . 27, 119, 140, 141

$PASHS,NME,RMC

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247

$PASHS,NME,RRE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249

$PASHS,NME,SAT

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26, 251

$PASHS,NME,TTT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41, 254

$PASHS,NME,UTM

. . . . . . . . . . . . . 97, 255

$PASHS,NME,VTG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258

$PASHS,NME,XDR

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260

$PASHS,NME,ZDA

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262

$PASHS,OUT

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83, 192

$PASHS,PDP

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140

$PASHS,PEM

. . . . . . . . . 37, 66, 77, 90, 140

$PASHS,PHE

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41, 141, 143

$PASHS,PJT

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142

$PASHS,PMD

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121, 142

$PASHS,POS

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62, 143

$PASHS,POW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144

$PASHS,PPO

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6, 145

$PASHS,PPS

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145

$PASHS,PWR

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147

$PASHS,RCI

. . . . 83, 90, 104, 117, 118, 148

$PASHS,REC

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148

$PASHS,RNG

$PASHS,RST

. . . . . . . . 69, 70, 71, 78, 150

$PASHS,RTC,AUT

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269

$PASHS,RTC,AUT,Y

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78

$PASHS,RTC,BAS

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269

$PASHS,RTC,EOT

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269

$PASHS,RTC,INI

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270

$PASHS,RTC,MAX

. . . . . . . . . . . . . 78, 270

$PASHS,RTC,MSG

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271

$PASHS,RTC,OFF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272

$PASHS,RTC,QAF

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272

$PASHS,RTC,REM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272

$PASHS,RTC,REM,c

. . . . . . . . . . . . 69, 70

$PASHS,RTC,SEQ

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273

$PASHS,RTC,SPD

. . . . . . . . . . . . . 62, 273

$PASHS,RTC,SPD,9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68

$PASHS,RTC,STH

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274

$PASHS,RTC,STI

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67, 274

$PASHS,RTC,TYP

. . . . . . . . . . . . 271, 275

$PASHS,SAV

. 59, 128, 130, 151, 156, 318

$PASHS,SAV,Y

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69, 70, 71

$PASHS,SBA,DAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316

$PASHS,SBA,DAT

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314

$PASHS,SBA,MAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316

$PASHS,SBA,OFF

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316

$PASHS,SBA,SAM

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316

$PASHS,SEM

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

$PASHS,SES

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152

$PASHS,SES,PAR

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152

$PASHS,SES,SET

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152

$PASHS,SIT

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67, 156, 293

$PASHS,SPD

$PASHS,SPD,c,d

$PASHS,SVS

$PASHS,TST

$PASHS,UBP

$PASHS,UDD

$PASHS,UDG

$PASHS,UNH

$PASHS,USE

$PASHS,VDP

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34, 150

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156

. . . . . . . . . . . . 69, 70, 71

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95, 307

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97, 308

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162

Index 325

$PASHS,WAK

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162

$WIXDR

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260

$YXXDR

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260

????

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82, 83, 120

Numerics

1PPS out

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

25-pin connector

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

2-D

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111, 244

700389

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

730188

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

A

accuracy

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

accuracy,real-time monitoring

. . . . . . . . . . 77

almanac data

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

ALT Fix Mode

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

altitude error

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231

altitude held fixed

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244

ambiguity fixing reliability

. . . . . . . . . . . . . 76

ANR

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53, 62

ANT

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53, 185, 283, 284, 289

antenna height . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125

antenna offset

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67

antenna phase center

. . . . . . . . 53, 113, 283

antenna radius

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53

Antenna Reduction

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53

antenna serial number

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125

antenna slant

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53

Anti-Spoofing

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

AS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

AS. See Anti-Spoofing

Auto Differential Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77

autonomous position

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

available memory

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122

B

backup battery

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

backward compatibility

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254

barometric pressure

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125

Base data latency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75

base station

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

baseline length

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

battery back-up

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128

battery-backed memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130

BUSY

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122

C

CA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

cable loss

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

carrier loop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130

carrier phase

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 carrier phase differential . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

carrier phase initialization

. . . . . . . . . . . . 75

CBN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83

CMR

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71

code loop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130

COG

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259

communication link . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

communication protocol

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

communication with receiver

. . . . . . . . . . 25

constellation

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

CPD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59, 62, 82

CPD solution

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53

CSN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116

CTS

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117

current position

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

D

daisy chain mode

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

DAM

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316

DAT

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314

data

output

43

recording

34

transferring

44

data analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

data collection

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

DB25 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14, 17

DBEN

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7, 71

DBN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59, 61

dead reckoning

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221

default data output commands . . . . . . . . 26 default parameters

. . . . . . . . . . . . 26, 28, 45

delete all files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120

Index 326

D-file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118

differential

correction 78

GPS

55

differential & RTK base station setup

. . . . 58

differential base mode

. . . . . . . . . . . 111, 143

differential dase station setup . . . . . . . . . . 56

differential remote station setup

. . . . . . . . 69

DIN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

DIN64

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

directory structure

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128

disable differential mode

. . . . . . . . . . . . . 272

DOI

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117, 168

DOP

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226

DRI

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117, 118, 168

DSC

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118

DSY

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118

DTM

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303

dynamics

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130

E

edge selection

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

ELG

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306

ellipsoidal altitude

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244

ellipsoidal height

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111

ELM

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37, 66, 119

EMER

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94

Enable Type of Message

. . . . . . . . . . . . 275

encryption

see Anti-Spoofing

1

ENT

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62

EOT

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288

ephemeris data

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

event marker

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41, 254

event marker message . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246

event marker option (E)

. . . . . . . . . . . . . 255

event time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

external communication

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

F

fast RTK mode

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63

FAT

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115, 128

FIL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120

file index number

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121

file name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122

file size

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122

firmware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

firmware version

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244

FIX

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121

FLS

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121

forced-air cooling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

FSS

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123

G

gain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

GEO

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306

geodetic coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93

geoidal separation

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244

GGA

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69, 70

GLL

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69, 70

GPS time

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41, 246

GPS-to-UTC

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129

grid coordinates

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93

ground plane

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283

ground plate

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53

GRS

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224

GSN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229

GSV

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231

GXP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234

H

handshaking

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114, 117

HDP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124

HGT

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306

humidity

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125

I

ICD-GPS-200

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129

IEEE format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83

INI

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25, 27, 127

initialization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

initialization time

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

integer ambiguity resolution

. . . . . . . . . . . 75

IODE

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237

ION

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128

Index 327

K

Kalman

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300

L

L1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1, 116

L1 1575 MHz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

L1/L2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

L1/L2-band . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

L2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1, 116

L2 1227 MHz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

latency

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72, 92

latitude error

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231

LC27

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94

LC83 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94

LNA

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2, 9, 12, 18

longitude error

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231

LPS

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130

LTZ

. . . . . . . . . . . . . 131, 134, 136, 137, 159

M

machine control

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

magnetic variation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248

MAN

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316

matched time tag RTK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73

MDM

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

memory reset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128

message rate

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62

M-file

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

MIL-STD-810E

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3, 12, 18

Mission Planning

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65

MOD

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70, 71

modem

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

monitoring accuracy

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77

monitoring receiver activity

. . . . . . . . . . . . 26

multipath

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

multipath mitigation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49

N

NAD27

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94

NGS Publication 62-4

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310

NME,POS

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243

NMEA

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

NMEA period

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255

NMEA satellite range residual

. . . . . . . . 224

NMEA Version 2.3

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254

NMEA Version 3.0

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254

non-volatile memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

O

OBN

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83, 293

OM83 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94

operating temperature range

. . . . . . . . . . 13

operator identification

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125

Options

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

OUT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168

P

P code

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

parameters saving

34

setting 33

PBN

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69, 70

PCMCIA

. . . . . . 33, 115, 118, 120, 122, 128

PCMCIA card

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

PDOP

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82, 83, 105

PEB

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59

PED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59

PEM

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37, 66

performance

conditions

4

PHE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

PMD

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121

PNAV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300

point positioning

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

point positioning mode

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

port protocol

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114

POS

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27, 62, 69, 70, 299

position

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

horizontal 234

mode

39

position latency

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75

post-fit residuals

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225

POW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144

Power

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

PPO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

Index 328

PRC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237

precision navigation

docking 1 dredging

1

protocol for a specified port

. . . . . . . . . . . 117

pseudo-range

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

R

raw measurements

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82

raw position data

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

RCI

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117, 118, 168, 315

real-time differential

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

receiver serial number . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125

receiver status

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

reference station

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55, 67

reformat

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120

reformat data card . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128

reliability, ambiguity fixing

. . . . . . . . . . . . . 76

REM

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69, 70

remote location

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

remote monitoring

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

remote option

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79

REMOTE.EXE

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6, 38

REMOTE.exe

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103

RNG

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

ROV

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70, 71

RRC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237

RS-232

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

RST

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

RTC,OFF

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272

RTC,TYP

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275

RTCM

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

reference

235

RTCM 104

78, 79

RTCM message bit rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62

RTCM-104, Version 2.2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

RTK

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

RTK dase station setup

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57

RTK remote station setup

. . . . . . . . . . . . . 69

S

SAM

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316

SAT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

satellite in-view

231

residual and position error

249

status

251

satellites being tracked

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

SAV

. . . . . 27, 59, 69, 70, 71, 128, 130, 318

save changed settings

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

SBA

Tracking Mode

316

second azimuth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

SEM

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

session name

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125

session programming

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

setup differential & RTK base station

58

differential base station 56

differential remote station

69

RTK base station 57

RTK remote station

69

shutter timing

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42

signal strength

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229

signal-to-noise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116

six-of-eight format

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79

SMB

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

SMB-to-SMA adapter

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

SNR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52

SOG

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259

SPD

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62, 68, 69, 70, 71

speed over ground

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244

SPS

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221

STER

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94

STI

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67

surveyed point

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53

surveys, static . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163

SV

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

synchronization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

synchronized RTK mode

. . . . . . . . . . . . . 63

T

technical specifications

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

temperature

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125

time and date message

. . . . . . . . . 260, 262

Index 329

time tag

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118

time tag latency

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246

TM27 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94

TM83

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94

TMA7

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94

TNC

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15, 18

true course . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248

true track/course

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244

TTT

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6, 41, 246

TYP

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271

U

UBN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83

UDG

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308

URDE)

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237

user comment

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125

UTC

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41, 262

V

V23

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221, 254

V30

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221, 254

vector solution

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293

velocity

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

velocity/course

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258

vertical velocity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244

W

WAAS tracking mode

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316

WGS-72

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95

WGS-84

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95, 101, 219

X

XDR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260

Z

ZDA

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131, 260

zenith

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119

Z-tracking

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

ZXW

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

Index 330

ZXW-Sensor

& ZXW-Eurocard

Operation and Reference Manual

Magellan

GNSS Boards Contact Information:

In USA +1 408 615 3970

Fax +1 408 615 5200

Toll Free (Sales in USA/Canada) 1 800 922 2401

In South America +56 2 273 3214

Fax +56 2 273 3187

Email [email protected]

In Singapore

+65 9838 4229

Fax +

65 6777 9881

In China +86 10 6566 9866

Fax +86 10 6566 0246

Email [email protected]

In France +33 2 28 09 38 00

Fax +33 2 28 09 39 39

In Germany +49 81 6564 7930

Fax +49 81 6564 7950

In Russia +7 495 956 5964

Fax +7 495 956 5965

In the Netherlands +31 78 61 57 988

Fax +31 78 61 52 027

Email [email protected]

www.pro.magellanGPS.com

Magellan follows a policy of continuous product improvement; specifications and descriptions are thus subject to change without notice. Please contact Magellan for the latest product information.

©2004-2007 Magellan Navigation, Inc. All rights reserved. ZXW-Sensor and ZXW-Eurocard are trademarks of Magellan Navigation, Inc. All other product and brand names are trademarks of their respective holders.

P/N 6308

97-01B

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Key Features

  • Real-time Kinematic (RTK) Positioning
  • Differential Correction
  • Data Logging
  • High-Precision Positioning
  • Advanced Signal Processing
  • Multiple Data Output Options
  • User-Friendly Interface
  • Flexible Configuration Options

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Frequently Answers and Questions

What are the power requirements for the ZXW Sensor?
The ZXW Sensor requires a 12-24 VDC power supply.
What is the accuracy of the RTK solution?
The accuracy of the RTK solution depends on various factors, including the quality of the base station, the signal strength, and the environment. In ideal conditions, sub-centimeter accuracy can be achieved.
How do I set up a differential base station?
To set up a differential base station, you need to configure the receiver in base station mode and connect it to a radio or modem for data transmission.
What is the difference between RTK and Fast RTK?
RTK (Real-Time Kinematic) provides centimeter-level accuracy, while Fast RTK offers faster positioning updates but with slightly lower accuracy.
How do I download data from the receiver?
You can download data from the receiver using a serial port connection or a data logger.
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