1756-RM094 - Literature Library

1756-RM094 - Literature Library
Reference Manual
Logix5000 Controllers Design Considerations
Catalog Numbers 1756 ControlLogix, 1756 GuardLogix, 1768 CompactLogix, 1768 Compact GuardLogix, 1769 CompactLogix,
1789 SoftLogix, CompactLogix 5370
Important User Information
Read this document and the documents listed in the additional resources section about installation, configuration, and
operation of this equipment before you install, configure, operate, or maintain this product. Users are required to
familiarize themselves with installation and wiring instructions in addition to requirements of all applicable codes, laws,
and standards.
Activities including installation, adjustments, putting into service, use, assembly, disassembly, and maintenance are required
to be carried out by suitably trained personnel in accordance with applicable code of practice.
If this equipment is used in a manner not specified by the manufacturer, the protection provided by the equipment may be
impaired.
In no event will Rockwell Automation, Inc. be responsible or liable for indirect or consequential damages resulting from the
use or application of this equipment.
The examples and diagrams in this manual are included solely for illustrative purposes. Because of the many variables and
requirements associated with any particular installation, Rockwell Automation, Inc. cannot assume responsibility or
liability for actual use based on the examples and diagrams.
No patent liability is assumed by Rockwell Automation, Inc. with respect to use of information, circuits, equipment, or
software described in this manual.
Reproduction of the contents of this manual, in whole or in part, without written permission of Rockwell Automation,
Inc., is prohibited.
Throughout this manual, when necessary, we use notes to make you aware of safety considerations.
WARNING: Identifies information about practices or circumstances that can cause an explosion in a hazardous environment,
which may lead to personal injury or death, property damage, or economic loss.
ATTENTION: Identifies information about practices or circumstances that can lead to personal injury or death, property
damage, or economic loss. Attentions help you identify a hazard, avoid a hazard, and recognize the consequence.
IMPORTANT
Identifies information that is critical for successful application and understanding of the product.
Labels may also be on or inside the equipment to provide specific precautions.
SHOCK HAZARD: Labels may be on or inside the equipment, for example, a drive or motor, to alert people that dangerous
voltage may be present.
BURN HAZARD: Labels may be on or inside the equipment, for example, a drive or motor, to alert people that surfaces may
reach dangerous temperatures.
ARC FLASH HAZARD: Labels may be on or inside the equipment, for example, a motor control center, to alert people to
potential Arc Flash. Arc Flash will cause severe injury or death. Wear proper Personal Protective Equipment (PPE). Follow ALL
Regulatory requirements for safe work practices and for Personal Protective Equipment (PPE).
Allen-Bradley, CompactBlock Guard I/O, CompactLogix, ControlFLASH, ControlLogix, DH+, FactoryTalk, FLEX, GuardLogix, Kinetix, Logix5000, MicroLogix, PanelBuilder, PanelView, PhaseManager, PLC-2, PLC-3,
PLC-5, POINT I/O, POINT Guard I/O, Rockwell Automation, Rockwell Software, RSBizWare, RSFieldbus, RSLinx, RSLogix 5000, RSNetWorx, RSView, SLC, SoftLogix, Stratix, Stratix 2000, Stratix 5700, Stratix 6000,
Stratix 8000, Stratix 8300, Studio 5000, Studio 5000 Logix Designer, SynchLink, and Ultra are trademarks of Rockwell Automation, Inc.
ControlNet, DeviceNet, and EtherNet/IP are trademarks of ODVA, Inc.
Trademarks not belonging to Rockwell Automation are property of their respective companies.
Logix5000 Controller Comparison - CompactLogix, ControlLogix, GuardLogix
Table 1 - CompactLogix, ControlLogix, and GuardLogix Characteristics
Characteristic
CompactLogix™
1769-L30ER,
1769-L30ER-NSE,
1769-L30ERM,
1769-L33ER,
1769-L33ERM,
1769-L36ERM
CompactLogix
1769-L24ER-BB1B,
1769-L24ER-QBFC1B,
1769-L27ERM-QBFC1B
Controller tasks:
• Continuous
• Periodic
• Event
32
• 100 programs/task,
Version 23 and earlier
• 1000 programs/task, max:
Version 24 or later
32
• 100 programs/task, Version
23 and earlier
• 1000 programs/task, max:
Version 24 or later
32
• 100 programs/task, Version 23 and earlier
• 1000 programs/task, max: Version 24 or
later
32
• 100 programs/task, Version 23 and earlier
• 1000 programs/task, max: Version 24 or later
Event tasks
Consumed tag, EVENT
instruction, axis, and motion
event triggers
Consumed tag, EVENT
instruction, axis, and m257.50otion event triggers
Consumed tag, EVENT instruction, axis, and
motion event triggers; this controller also
executes an Event task from its embedded I/O
modules
All event triggers
User memory
• 1769-L30ER,
1769-L30ER-NSE,
1769-L30ERM: 1MB
• 1769-L33ER,
1769-L33ERM: 2 MB
• 1769-L36ERM: 3 MB
• 1769-L24ER: 750 KB
• 1769-L27ERM: 1 MB
• 1769-L16ER: 384 KB
• 1769-L18ER,
1769-L18ERM: 512 KB
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Memory card
Secure Digital
Secure Digital
Secure Digital
Secure Digital
Built-in ports
2 EtherNet/IP and 1 USB
2 EtherNet/IP and 1 USB
2 EtherNet/IP and 1 USB
1 USB
Communication options
• Dual EtherNet/IP ports
• DeviceNet
• Dual EtherNet/IP ports
• DeviceNet
• Dual EtherNet/IP ports
•
•
•
•
•
•
Controller connections
256
256
256
500
Network connections
• 1769-L30ER,
1769-L30ER-NSE, 1769L30ERM: 16
• 1769-L33ER,
1769-L33ERM: 32
• 1769-L36ERM: 48
• 1769-L24ER-BB1B,
1769-L24ER-QBFC1B, 8
• 1769-L27ERM-QBFC1B, 16
• 1769-L16ER-BB1B: 4
• 1769-L18ER-BB1B, 1769-L18ERM-BB1B: 8
Per module:
• 128 ControlNet (CN2/B)
• 40 ControlNet (CNB)
• 256 EtherNet/IP; 128 TCP (EN2x)
• 128 EtherNet/IP; 64 TCP (ENBT)
Controller redundancy
—
—
—
Supported with restrictions
Integrated motion
1769-L30ERM, 1769-L33ERM,
and 1769-L36ERM support
integrated motion on an
EtherNet/IP network
1769-L27ERM-QBFC1B supports
integrated motion on an
EtherNet/IP network
1769-L18ERM-BB1B supports integrated
motion on an EtherNet/IP network
Integrated motion on an EtherNet/IP network
SERCOS interface
Analog options
Programming languages
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
• Standard task: all languages
• Safety task: relay ladder, safety application
instructions
• Relay ladder
• Structured text
• Function block
• SFC
CompactLogix
1769-L16ER-BB1B,
1769-L18ER-BB1B,
1769-L18ERM-BB1B
ControlLogix®
1756-L71, 1756-L72, 1756-L73,
1756-L74, 1756-L75, 1756-L73XT
GuardLogix®
1756-L72S, 1756-L73S, 1756-L73SXT
• Relay ladder
• Structured text
• Function block
• SFC
• Relay ladder
• Structured text
• Function block
• SFC
Rockwell Automation Publication 1756-RM094I-EN-P - September 2015
1756-L71: 2 MB
1756-L72: 4 MB
1756-L72S, 1756-L73SXT: 4 MB + 2 MB safety
1756-L73, 1756-L73XT: 8 MB
1756-L73S: 8 MB + 4 MB safety
1756-L74: 16 MB
1756-L75: 32 MB
EtherNet/IP (standard and safety)
ControlNet (standard and safety)
DeviceNet (standard and safety)
DH+™
Remote I/O
SynchLink™
3
Chapter 1
Notes:
4
Rockwell Automation Publication 1756-RM094I-EN-P - September 2015
Summary of Changes
This manual contains new and updated information. Changes throughout this
revision are marked by change bars, as shown to the right of this paragraph.
Topic
Page
Logix5000™ Controller Comparison Table:
• Removed 1756-L6x, 1769-L23x, 1769-L3x, and 1769-L4x because they are no longer supported.
• Removed SoftLogix™ 5800 because the controller does not support the features in Studio 5000
Logix Designer Version® 24, but the controller does support Emulator in Version 24.
• Changed 1756-L72SXT to 1756-L73SXT.
3
Description of Access the Module Object Feature
33
Guidelines for Program Parameters
51
Comparison of Program Parameters and Add-On Instructions
52
Network Address Translation (NAT)
89
Rockwell Automation Publication 1756-RM094I-EN-P - September 2015
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Summary of Changes
Notes:
6
Rockwell Automation Publication 1756-RM094I-EN-P - September 2015
Table of Contents
Preface
Additional Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Websites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Chapter 1
Logix5000 Controller Resources
Estimate Memory Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
RSLinx Software Use of Logix5000 Controller Memory . . . . . . . . .
Compare PLC/SLC MEMORY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Controller Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Determine Total Connection Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CIP Sync . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Controller Mode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16
16
17
17
18
20
21
Chapter 2
Logic Execution
Decide When to Use Tasks, Programs, and Routines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Specify Task Priorities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Manage User Tasks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Considerations that Affect Task Execution. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configure a Continuous Task. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configure a Periodic Task . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configure an Event Task . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Guidelines to Configure an Event Task. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Additional Considerations for Periodic and Event Tasks. . . . . . . . .
Select a System Overhead Percentage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Manage the System Overhead Timeslice Percentage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Access the Module Object . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Create the Add-On Instruction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Develop Application Code in Routines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Comparison of Programming Languages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Programming Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Inline Duplication. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Indexed Routine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Buffered Routine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Controller Prescan of Logic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Add-On Instruction Prescan Logic. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Controller Postscan of SFC Logic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Add-On Instruction Postscan Logic. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Timer Execution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SFC Step Timer Execution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Edit an SFC Online . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
24
25
26
27
29
29
30
30
30
31
32
33
33
34
34
35
35
35
36
36
37
37
37
38
38
39
Chapter 3
Modular Programming Techniques
Guidelines for Code Reuse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Naming Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Parameter Name Prefixes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
Rockwell Automation Publication 1756-RM094I-EN-P - September 2015
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Table of Contents
Guidelines to for Subroutines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Guidelines for User-defined Data Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Naming Conventions for User-Defined Data Types . . . . . . . . . . . . .
UDT Member Order . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Guidelines for Add-On Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Add-On Instruction Design Concepts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Naming Conventions for Add-On Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Comparison of Subroutines and Add-On Instructions . . . . . . . . . . .
Comparison of Partial Import/Export and Add-On Instructions .
Guidelines for Program Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Comparison of Program Parameters and Add-On Instructions . . .
45
46
46
46
48
49
49
49
50
51
52
Chapter 4
Address Data
Guidelines for Data Types. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Arrays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Guidelines for Arrays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Indirect Addresses of Arrays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Guidelines for Array Indexes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Guidelines for User-defined Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Select a Data Type for Bit Tags . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Serial Bit Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Guidelines for String Data Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PLC-5/SLC 500 Access of Strings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configure Tags. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Guidelines for Base Tags . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Create Alias Tags . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Guidelines for Data Scope. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Guidelines for Tag Names. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Guidelines for Extended Tag Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tag Descriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Protect Data Access Control at Tag Level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
54
55
56
56
57
58
59
60
61
61
62
62
63
64
64
65
66
66
Chapter 5
Produced and Consumed Data
Guidelines for Produced and Consumed Tags . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Guidelines to Specify an RPI Rate for
Produced and Consumed Tags . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Guidelines to Manage Connections for
Produced and Consumed Tags . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configure an Event Task Based on a Consumed Tag . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Compare Messages and Produced/Consumed Tags . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
67
68
69
69
70
Chapter 6
Communicate with I/O
8
Buffer I/O Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Guidelines to Specify an RPI Rate for I/O Modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Communication Formats for I/O Modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Electronic Keying. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rockwell Automation Publication 1756-RM094I-EN-P - September 2015
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Table of Contents
More Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Guidelines to Manage I/O Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Control 1771 I/O Modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Communicate with HART Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Communicate with FOUNDATION Fieldbus Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Create Tags for I/O Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Controller Ownership. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Runtime/Online Addition of Modules. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Add Modules at Runtime/Online . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Design Considerations for Runtime/Online Addition
of Modules. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
75
76
77
78
79
81
82
83
84
85
Chapter 7
Determine the Appropriate Network EtherNet/IP Network Topology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
Guidelines for EtherNet/IP Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Guidelines for Switches in EtherNet/IP Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Determine Whether Your System Operates Properly . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stratix Industrial Switches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ControlNet Network Topology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Guidelines for ControlNet Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Guidelines for Unscheduled ControlNet Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Compare Scheduled and Unscheduled ControlNet Communication .
DeviceNet Network Topology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Guidelines for DeviceNet Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
89
90
90
91
91
92
93
94
94
95
Chapter 8
Communicate with Other Devices
Cache Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
Message Buffers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
Outgoing Unconnected Buffers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
Guidelines for Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
Guidelines to Manage Message Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
Guidelines for Block Transfer Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
Map Tags. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
Chapter 9
FactoryTalk Alarms and Events
System
Guidelines for Logix-based Alarm Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changes in Logic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configure Logix-based Alarm Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Multiple Language Versions of Alarm Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Alarm Process. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Alarm Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Programmatically Access Alarm Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Shelve, Suppress, or Disable Alarms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rockwell Automation Publication 1756-RM094I-EN-P - September 2015
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104
105
106
107
108
108
109
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Table of Contents
Chapter 10
Optimize an Application for Use with HMI Implementation Option. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
Compare FactoryTalk View Site Edition and RSView32 Software . . . 112
HMI
Guidelines for FactoryTalk View Software. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
How RSLinx Software Communicates with Logix5000 Controllers .
Compare RSLinx Classic and RSLinx Enterprise Software . . . . . . . . . .
Guidelines for RSLinx Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Guidelines to Configure Controller Tags . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reference Controller Data from FactoryTalk View Software . . . .
112
113
114
114
115
115
Chapter 11
Develop Equipment Phases
Guidelines for Equipment Phases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
Equipment Phase Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
Chapter 12
Manage Firmware
Guidelines to Manage Controller Firmware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Compare Firmware Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Guidelines for the Firmware Supervisor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Access Firmware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Glossary
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
Index
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
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120
120
122
Preface
Additional Resources
These documents contain additional information about Logix5000 controllers.
Resource
Description
• EtherNet/IP Modules in Logix5000 Control Systems User Manual, ENET-UM001
• ControlNet Modules in Logix5000 Control Systems User Manual, CNET-UM001
• DeviceNet Modules in Logix5000 Control Systems User Manual, DNET-UM004
Networks
•
•
•
•
•
•
Logix5000 Controllers
Logix5000 Common Procedures Programming Manual, 1756-PM001
Logix5000 Controllers General Instructions Reference Manual, 1756-RM003
Logix5000 Controllers Process Control and Drives Instructions Reference Manual, 1756-RM006
PhaseManager User Manual, LOGIX-UM001
Logix5000 Controllers Motion Instructions Reference Manual, MOTION-RM002
Logix5000 Controllers Import/Export Reference Manual, 1756-RM084
• ControlLogix System User Manual, 1756-UM001
• Motion Configuration and Startup User Manual, MOTION-UM001
• Motion Coordinate System User Manual, MOTION-UM002
ControlLogix Controllers
•
•
•
•
CompactLogix Controllers
CompactLogix 5370 Controllers User Manual, 1769-UM021
1768 CompactLogix System User Manual, 1768-UM001
1769 CompactLogix System User Manual, 1769-UM011
1769 Packaged CompactLogix Controllers Quick Start and User Manual, IASIMP-QS010
• SoftLogix System User Manual, 1789-UM002
SoftLogix Controllers
You can view or download publications at
http://www.rockwellautomation.com/literature/. To order paper copies of
technical documentation, contact your local Allen-Bradley distributor or
Rockwell Automation sales representative.
Websites
Resource
Description
http://www.ab.com/logix/
Logix Product Information
http://www.ab.com/networks/
Network Product Information
http://www.rockwellautomation.com/support/
In the left pane under Downloads, select Software Updates.
Software Updates
(product serial number required)
Http://www.rockwellautomation.com/support
In the left pane under Downloads, select Firmware Updates.
Firmware Updates
(product serial number required)
http://www.ab.com/networks/eds/
Rockwell Automation® EDS Files
http://samplecode.rockwellautomation.com
Studio 5000® Sample Code
Rockwell Automation Publication 1756-RM094I-EN-P - September 2015
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Preface
Notes:
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Chapter
1
Logix5000 Controller Resources
Topic
Page
Estimate Memory Use
16
Controller Connections
17
Determine Total Connection Requirements
18
CIP Sync
20
Controller Mode
21
1756-L7x ControlLogix controllers - Memory is separated into isolated sections.
Project Documentation Memory
Comment descriptions
Logic and Data Memory
I/O Memory
I/O data
Program source code
Logix
CPU
Alarm log
Tag data
Extended tag properties
RSLinx® tag group lists
Backplane CPU
I/O force tables
Message buffers
Produced/consumed tags
1768 CompactLogix and 1756-L6x ControlLogix controllers - Memory is separated into isolated sections.
Logic and Data Memory
I/O Memory
I/O data
Program source code
Logix
CPU
Tag data
Backplane CPU
I/O force tables
Message buffers
RSLinx tag group lists
Produced/consumed tags
The Logix CPU executes application code and messages. The backplane CPU
transfers I/O memory and other module data on the backplane. This CPU
operates independently from the Logix CPU, so it sends and receives I/O
information asynchronous to program execution.
TIP
CPU usage is based on the number of devices in the I/O tree. About 6% of the
L7x CPU is used for every 100 devices in the I/O tree.
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Logix5000 Controller Resources
CompactLogix 5370 controllers - Memory is separated into isolated segments.
Project Documentation Memory
Logic and Data Memory
I/O Memory
Comment descriptions
Program source code
I/O data
Alarm log
Tag data
Extended tag properties
RSLinx tag group lists
Logix
CPU
I/O force tables
Message buffers
Produced/consumed tags
The Logix CPU executes application code and messages.
Controller
I/O Task Priority
Communication Task Priority
CompactLogix 5370
6
12
1769 CompactLogix controllers - Memory is in one, contiguous section.
Logic, Data, and I/O Memory
Program source code
I/O data
Tag data
I/O force tables
RSLinx tag group lists
Message buffers
Logix
CPU
I/O task
Comms task
Produced/consumed tags
These controllers have one CPU that performs all operations. Isolated tasks
perform I/O and communication and interact with networks. These tasks
simulate the backplane CPU.
14
Controller
I/O Task Priority
Communication Task Priority
1769 CompactLogix
6
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Chapter 1
SoftLogix controllers - Memory is in one, contiguous section.
Project Documentation Memory
Comment descriptions
Logic, Data, and I/O Memory
Program source code
I/O data
Alarm log
Tag data
I/O force tables
Extended tag properties
RSLinx tag group lists
Message buffers
Windows
operating
system
Logix
CPU
Produced/consumed tags
The SoftLogix controller has one CPU that works with the Windows operating
system to perform all operations. Rather than using controller priority levels for
I/O and communication tasks, the SoftLogix controller uses Windows priority
levels for these tasks.
Controller
I/O Task Priority
Communication Task Priority
SoftLogix
Windows priority 16
(Idle)
Windows priority 16 (Idle)
For all controllers, memory is used at runtime for the following:
• Message processing
• RSLinx data handling to store tag groups
• Online edits to store edit rungs
• Graphical trends to buffer data
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Logix5000 Controller Resources
The equations provide an estimate of the memory that is needed for a controller.
Estimate Memory Use
IMPORTANT
If you configure controllers for redundancy, you must double the memory
resources that are required for a non-redundant application.
Controller tasks
_____
* 4,000
=
_____ bytes (minimum 1 needed)
Digital I/O points
_____
* 400
=
_____ bytes
Analog I/O points
_____
* 2,600
=
_____ bytes
DeviceNet modules1
_____
* 7,400
=
_____ bytes
Other communication modules2 _____
* 2,000
=
_____ bytes
Motion axis
_____
* 8,000
=
_____ bytes
FactoryTalk® alarm instruction
_____
* 2,200
=
_____ bytes (per alarm)
FactoryTalk subscriber
_____
* 2,000
=
_____ bytes (per subscriber)
Total
=
_____ bytes
1The first DeviceNet module is 7400 bytes. Additional DeviceNet modules are 5800 bytes each.
2Count all communication modules in the system, not just the modules in the local chassis. The count includes device connection modules, adapters, and ports on
PanelView™ terminals.
IMPORTANT
Reserve 20…30% of the controller memory to accommodate growth.
RSLinx Software Use of Logix5000 Controller Memory
The amount of memory that RSLinx software needs depends on the type of data
RSLinx software reads. These equations provide a memory estimate.
RSLinx overhead
(per connection)
_____
* 1345 =
___ bytes (four connections by default)
Individual tags
_____
* 45
=
___ bytes
*7
=
___ bytes
Total
=
___ bytes
Arrays / structures _____
You can consolidate tags into an array or a structure to reduce the communication
overhead and the number of connections that are used to obtain the data.
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Chapter 1
Compare PLC/SLC MEMORY
The Logix5000 controllers use compiled instructions to provide faster execution
times than PLC or SLC™ processors. The compiled instructions use more
memory when compared to the instructions in PLC and SLC processors.
If you have a PLC/SLC program, you can estimate the number of bytes it takes in
a Logix5000 controller by the following equation:
number PLC/SLC words  18 = number of Logix5000 bytes
Controller Connections
A Logix5000 controller uses a connection to establish a communication link
between two devices. Connections can be made to the following:
• Controller to local I/O modules or local communication modules
• Controller to remote I/O or remote communication modules
• Controller to remote I/O (rack optimized) modules
For more information on connections for I/O, see Communicate with I/O
on page 71.
• Produced and consumed tags
For more information, see Produced and Consumed Data on page 67.
• Messages
For more information, see Communicate with I/O on page 71.
• Access to RSLogix 5000® software
• RSLinx software access for HMI or other software applications
The controllers have different communication limits.
Communication Attribute
1756-L7x ControlLogix
1756-L6x ControlLogix 1769 CompactLogix
and SoftLogix
CompactLogix 5370
1768 CompactLogix
Connections
500
250
256
250
Cached messages(1)
32 for messages and block transfers combined
Unconnected receive buffers
3
Unconnected transmit buffers
Default 20 (can be increased to 40)
100
Default 10 (can be increased to 40)
(1) See Communicate with Other Devices on page 97 for more information about messages and buffers.
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The limit of connections can ultimately reside in the communication module you
use for the connection. If a message path routes through a communication
module, the connection that is related to the message also counts toward the
connection limit of that communication module.
Controller
Communication Device
Supported Connections
ControlLogix
1756-CN2R, 1756-CN2RXT
100 CIP connections
(any combination of scheduled and message connections)
1756-CN2/B
128 CIP connections
1756-CNB,1756 -CNBR
64 CIP connections
depending on RPI, recommend that you use only 48 connections
(any combination of scheduled and message connections)
1756-EN2F, 1756-EN2T, 1756-EN2TR, 1756EN2TXT, 1756-EN3TR
256 CIP connections
128 TCP/IP connections
1756-ENBT
1756-EWEB
128 CIP connections
64 TCP/IP connections
1768 CompactLogix
1768-ENBT
1768-EWEB
64 CIP connections
32 TCP/IP connections
1769 CompactLogix
1769-L32C, 1769-L35CR
32 CIP connections
depending on RPI, as many as 22 connections can be scheduled
The remaining connections (or all 32, if you have no scheduled connections) can
be used for message connections
1769-L32E, 1769-L35E
32 CIP connections
64 TCP/IP connections
1769-L23Ex
32 CIP connections
12 TCP/IP connections
CompactLogix 5370
Built-in Ethernet ports
See the CompactLogix 5370 Controllers User Manual, publication 1769-UM021,
for information on how to count EtherNet/IP nodes on the I/O Configuration
section of RSLogix 5000 software.
SoftLogix 5800
1784-PCICS
128 CIP connections
127 can be scheduled connections
Determine Total
Connection Requirements
The total connections for a Logix5000 controller include both local and remote
connections. Counting local connections is not an issue for CompactLogix
controllers. They support the maximum number of modules that are permitted
in their systems.
When designing your CompactLogix 5370 controllers, you must consider these
resources:
• EtherNet/IP network nodes
• Controller connections
For more information, see the CompactLogix 5370 Controllers User Manual,
publication 1769-UM021.
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Chapter 1
The ControlLogix and SoftLogix controllers support more communication
modules than the other controllers, so you must tally local connections to make
sure that you stay within the connection limit.
Use this table to tally local connections.
Connection Type
Device Quantity
x
Connections per Module
=
Local I/O module (always a direct connection)
x
1
=
SERCOS Motion module
x
3
=
ControlNet communication module
x
0
=
EtherNet/IP communication module
x
0
=
DeviceNet communication module
x
2
=
DH+/Remote I/O communication module
x
1
=
DH-485 communication module
x
1
=
RSLogix 5000 software access to controller
x
1
=
Total Connections
Total
IMPORTANT
A redundant system uses eight connections in the controller.
The communication modules that you select determine how many remote
connections are available. Use this table to tally remote connections.
Connection Type
Device Quantity
x
Connections per Module
=
Remote ControlNet communication module
Configured as a direct (none) connection
Configured as a rack-optimized connection
x
Remote EtherNet/IP communication module
Configured as a direct (none) connection
Configured as a rack-optimized connection
x
Remote device over a DeviceNet network
(accounted for in rack-optimized connection for local DeviceNet module)
x
0
=
Safety device on a DeviceNet or EtherNet/IP network
x
2
=
Other remote communication adapter
x
1
=
Distributed I/O module (individually configured for a direct connection)
x
1
=
Produced tag and first consumer
Each additional consumer
x
2
1
=
Consumed tag
x
1
=
Connected message (CIP Data Table Read/Write and DH+)
x
1
=
Block transfer message
x
1
=
RSLinx software access for HMI or other software applications
x
4
=
RSLinx® Enterprise software for HMI or other software applications
x
5
=
Total Connections
=
0 or
1
=
0 or
1
Total
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CIP Sync
CIP Sync is a time synchronization implementation that incorporates
IEEE-1588 standards on the EtherNet/IP protocol. CIP Sync provides the
control system access to synchronization information and transport and routing
of a system clock on standard CIP networks.
CIP Sync offers the following features:
• Precision Time Protocol (PTP)
• Nanosecond resolution +/- 100 nanosecond synchronization (hardware
assist clock)
• Master clock reference
• No longer need application code or software to synchronize clocks
between controller, HMI, and other control hardware.
• Open standard lets compatibility with most IEEE-1588 v2 products exist,
letting the integration with GPS and other IT layer devices occur.
• Alarm system automatically picks up time stamps from CIP Sync system
time
• System self-heals, so that if one clock master fails the rest arbitrate to find
the next best clock master.
A ControlLogix controller or 1756-EN2T can become a system clock master.
Other Logix5000 controllers can require application code.
The controller or networked device that wins system clock arbitration is the
Grandmaster clock. The wall clock time can only be set from the system Grand
Master device. If you adjust a controller clock, the controller could reject that
time if it is not or does not become the Grandmaster clock.
You can configure the system clock via RSLogix 5000 software, version 18 and
later, and programmatically via GSV/SSV instructions. Use a GSV/SSV
instruction with the Time Sync object to do the following:
• Enable or disable CIP Sync
• Get or set the time
• Set priority to override other masters
• Get synchronization status
• Get current PTP master status and state information
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Controller Mode
Chapter 1
The controller mode switch provides a mechanical means to enhance controller
and control system security. You must physically move the switch to change the
operating mode from RUN to REM or to PROG.
Remote lets you change the operational mode to REM RUN or REM PROG via
RSLogix 5000 software.
IMPORTANT
During runtime, we recommend that you place the controller mode switch in
RUN mode and remove the key (if applicable) from the switch. This practice
helps discourage unauthorized access to the controller or potential tampering
with the controller program, configuration, or device firmware. Place the mode
switch in REM or PROG mode during controller commissioning, maintenance,
and whenever temporary access is necessary to change the program,
configuration, or firmware.
For more information on controller mode switches, see the ControlLogix System
User Manual, publication 1756-UM001.
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Notes:
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Chapter
2
Logic Execution
Topic
Page
Decide When to Use Tasks, Programs, and Routines
24
Specify Task Priorities
25
Manage User Tasks
26
Considerations that Affect Task Execution
27
Configure a Continuous Task
29
Configure a Periodic Task
29
Configure an Event Task
30
Select a System Overhead Percentage
31
Manage the System Overhead Timeslice Percentage
32
Access the Module Object
33
Develop Application Code in Routines
34
Programming Methods
35
Controller Prescan of Logic
36
Controller Postscan of SFC Logic
37
Timer Execution
38
Edit an SFC Online
39
The controller operating system is a ct2000LAK pre-emptive multitasking
system that is IEC 61131-3 compliant.
Tasks to configure controller execution
Programs to group data and logic
A task provides scheduling and priority information for a set of one or more
programs. You can configure tasks as either continuous, periodic, or event.
A task contains programs, each with its own routines and program-scoped tags.
Once a task is triggered (activated), the programs that are assigned to the task
execute in the order in which they are listed in the Controller Organizer.
Programs are useful for projects that multiple programmers develop. During
development, the code in one program that uses program-scoped tags can be
duplicated in a second program to minimize the possibility of tag
names colliding.
With firmware revision 15, tasks can contain programs and equipment phases.
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Chapter 2
Logic Execution
Routines to encapsulate
executable code that is written
in one programming language
Routines contain the executable code. Each program has a main routine that is
the first routine to execute within a program. Use logic, such as the Jump to
Subroutine ( JSR) instruction, to call other routines. You can also specify an
optional program fault routine.
See Develop Application Code in Routines on page 34 for information on
selecting programming languages, and how the controller prescans and
postscans logic.
Decide When to Use Tasks,
Programs, and Routines
Use these considerations to determine when to use a task, program, or routine.
Comparison
Task
Program and Equipment Phase
Routine
Quantity available
Varies by controller (4, 6, 8, or 32)
32 program and equipment phases
(combined) per task
(100 for ControlLogix and SoftLogix
controllers)
Unlimited number of routines per program
Function
Determines how and when code is executed
Organizes groups of routines that share a
common data area and function.
Contains executable code (relay ladder,
function block diagram, sequential function
chart, or structured text)
Use
• Most code is expected to reside in a
continuous task
• Use a periodic task for slower processes or
when time-based operation is critical
• Use an event task for operations that
require synchronization to a specific event
• Put major equipment pieces or plant cells
into isolated programs
• Use programs to isolate different
programmers or create reusable code
• Configurable execution order within a task
• Isolate individual batch phases or discrete
machine operations
• Isolate machine or cell functions in a
routine
• Use the appropriate language for the
process
• Modularize code into subroutines that can
be called multiple times
Considerations
• A high number of tasks can be difficult to
debug
• Can disable output processing on some
tasks to improve performance
• Tasks can be inhibited to prevent execution
• Do not configure multiple tasks at the same
priority
• Data spanning multiple programs must go
into controller-scoped area
• Listed in the Controller Organizer in the
order of execution
• Subroutines with multiple calls can be
difficult to debug
• Data can be referenced from programscoped and controller-scoped areas
• Calling many routines impacts scan time
• Listed in the Controller Organizer as Main,
Fault, and then alphabetically
For more information about equipment phases, see Develop Equipment Phases
on page 117.
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Logic Execution
Chapter 2
Each task in the controller has a priority level. A higher priority task (such as 1)
interrupts any lower priority task (such as 15). The continuous task has the
lowest priority; periodic or event tasks always interrupt continuous tasks.
Specify Task Priorities
Logix5000 Controller
User Tasks Supported
Available Priority Levels
ControlLogix
32
15
CompactLogix 5370
32
15
1768-L43, 1769-L45 CompactLogix
16
15
1769-L35CR, 1769-L35E CompactLogix
8
15
1769-L32C,1769-L32E CompactLogix
6
15
1769-L31 CompactLogix
4
15
1769-L23E-QB1B, 1769-L23E-QBFC1B, 1769-L23-QBFC1B
CompactLogix
3
15
SoftLogix 5800
32
3
The Logix5000 controller has these types of tasks.
Priority
Highest
Lowest
User Task
Description
N/A
CPU overhead - serial port and general CPU operations
N/A
Motion planner - executed at coarse update rate
N/A
Safety task - safety logic
N/A
Redundancy task - communication in redundant systems
N/A
Trend data collection - high-speed collection of trend data values
Priority 1 Event/Periodic
User defined
Priority 2 Event/Periodic
User defined
Priority 3 Event/Periodic
User defined
Priority 4 Event/Periodic
User defined
Priority 5 Event/Periodic
User defined
Priority 6 Event/Periodic
User defined
1769 CompactLogix controllers process I/O as a periodic task based on the chassis RPI setting
Priority 7 Event/Periodic
User defined
Priority 8 Event/Periodic
User defined
Priority 9 Event/Periodic
User defined
Priority 10 Event/Periodic
User defined
Priority 11 Event/Periodic
User defined
Priority 12 Event/Periodic
User defined
CompactLogix communication and scheduled connection maintenance
Priority 13 Event/Periodic
User defined
Priority 14 Event/Periodic
User defined
Priority 15 Event/Periodic
User defined
Continuous
Message handler - based on system overhead timeslice
If a periodic or event task is executing when another is triggered, and both tasks
are at the same priority level, the tasks’ timeslice executes in 1 ms increments until
one of the tasks completes execution.
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Logic Execution
Manage User Tasks
You can configure these user tasks.
If you want logic to execute
Use this task
Description
All of the time
Continuous task
The continuous task runs in the background. Any CPU time that is not allocated to other operations or
tasks is used to execute the continuous task.
• The continuous task runs all of the time. When the continuous task completes a full scan, it restarts
immediately.
• A project does not require a continuous task. If used, there can be only one continuous task.
• At a constant period (such as every 100 ms)
• Multiple times within the scan of your other logic
Periodic task
A periodic task performs a function at a specific time interval. Whenever the time for the periodic task
expires, the periodic task:
• Interrupts any lower priority tasks.
• Executes one time.
• Returns control to where the previous task left off.
Immediately when an event occurs
Event task
An event task performs a function only when a specific event (trigger) occurs. Whenever the trigger for
the event task occurs, the event task:
• Interrupts any lower priority tasks.
• Executes one time.
• Returns control to where the previous task left off.
See Configure an Event Task on page 30 for the triggers for an event task. Some Logix5000 controllers
do not support all triggers.
The user tasks that you create appear in the Tasks folder of the controller. The
predefined system tasks do not appear in the Tasks folder and they do not count
toward the task limit of the controller:
• Motion planner
• I/O processing
• System overhead
• Output processing
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Logic Execution
Chapter 2
Considerations that Affect
Task Execution
Consideration
Description
Motion planner
The motion planner interrupts all other tasks, regardless of their priority.
• The number of axes and coarse update period for the motion group affect how long and how often the motion
planner executes.
• If the motion planner is executing when a task is triggered, the task waits until the motion planner is done.
• If the coarse update period occurs while a task is executing, the task pauses to let the motion planner execute.
I/O processing
CompactLogix and SoftLogix controllers use a dedicated periodic task to process I/O data. This I/O task:
• CompactLogix controllers, operates at priority 6.
SoftLogix controllers, operates at Windows priority 16 (Idle).
• Higher-priority tasks take precedence over the I/O task and can affect processing.
• Executes at the fastest RPI you have scheduled for the system.
• Executes for as long as it takes to scan the configured I/O modules.
System overhead
See also Select a System Overhead Percentage on page 31.
System overhead is the time that the controller spends on message communication and background tasks.
• Message communication is any communication that you do not configure through the I/O configuration folder
of the project, such as MSG instructions.
• Message communication occurs only when a periodic or event task is not running. If you use multiple tasks, make
sure that their scan times and execution intervals leave enough time for message communication.
• System overhead interrupts only the continuous task.
• The system overhead timeslice specifies the percentage of time (excluding the time for periodic or event tasks)
that the controller devotes to message communication.
• The controller performs message communication for up to 1 ms at a time and then resumes the continuous task.
• Adjust the update rates of the tasks as needed to get the best trade-off between executing your logic and
servicing message communication.
Output processing
At the end of a task, the controller performs output processing for the output modules in your system. This
processing depends on the number of output connections that are configured in the I/O tree.
Too many tasks
If you have too many tasks, then the following can occur:
• Continuous task can take too long to complete.
• Other tasks can experience overlaps. If a task is interrupted too frequently or too long, it must be triggered again
to complete its execution.
• Controller communication can be slower.
• If your application is designed for data collection, try to avoid multiple tasks.
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Logic Execution
This example depicts the execution of a project with these tasks.
Task
Priority
Period
Execution Time
Duration
Motion planner
N/A
8 ms (course update rate)
1 ms
1 ms
Event task 1
1
N/A
1 ms
12 ms
Periodic task 1
2
12 ms
2 ms
24 ms
I/O task—N/A to ControlLogix and SoftLogix controllers
7
5 ms (fastest RPI)
1 ms
15 ms
System overhead
N/A
Timeslice = 20%
1 ms
16 ms
Continuous task
N/A
N/A
20 ms
48 ms
Task executes.
Legend:
Task is interrupted (suspended).
Motion
Planner
Event Task 1
Periodic
Task 1
I/O Task
System
Overhead
Continuous
Task
5
1
10
2
15
3
20
4
25
30
35
5
Description
28
1
Initially, the controller executes the motion planner and the I/O task (if one exists).
2
After executing the continuous task for 4 ms, the controller triggers the system overhead.
3
The period for periodic task 1 expires (12 ms), so the task interrupts the continuous task.
4
After executing the continuous task again for 4 ms, the controller triggers the system overhead.
5
The triggers occur for event task 1.
Event task 1 waits until the motion planner is done.
Lower priority tasks experience longer delays.
6
The continuous task automatically restarts.
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50
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Logic Execution
Configure a Continuous Task
Chapter 2
The continuous task is created automatically when you open an RSLogix 5000®
software project. A continuous task is similar to how logic executes on PLC-5®
and SLC™ 500 processors. A Logix5000 controller supports one continuous task,
but a continuous task is not required. You can configure whether the task updates
output modules at the end of the continuous task. You can change the continuous
task to either a periodic or event task.
The CPU timeslices between the continuous task and system overhead. Each
task switch between user task and system overhead takes more CPU time to load
and restore task information.
RSLogix 5000 software, version 16 and later, forces at least 1 ms of execution
time for the continuous task, regardless of the system overhead timeslice. This
more efficiently uses system resources because letting shorter execution times of
the continuous task exist means switching tasks more frequently.
System Overhead Timeslice %
Configure a Periodic Task
Communication Execution (msec) Continuous Task Execution (msec)
10
1
9
20
1
4
33
1
2
50
1
1
66
2
1
80
4
1
90
9
1
A periodic task executes automatically based on a preconfigured interval. This
task is similar to selectable timed interrupts in PLC-5® and SLC 500 processors.
You can configure whether the task updates output modules at the end of the
periodic task. After the task executes, it does not execute again until the
configured time interval has elapsed.
If your application has a lot of communication, such as RSLinx communication,
use a periodic task rather than a continuous task.
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An event task executes automatically based on a trigger event occurring or if a
trigger event does not occur in a specific time interval. You configure whether the
task updates output modules at the end of the task. After the task executes, it
does not execute again until the event occurs again. Each event task requires a
specific trigger.
Configure an Event Task
Trigger
Description
Module Input Data State Change
With Logix5000 controllers, a remote input module (digital or analog) triggers an event task that is based on the change of state (COS)
configuration for the module. Enable COS for only one point on the module. If you enable COS for multiple points, a task overlap of the event
task can occur.
• The ControlLogix sequence of events modules (1756-IB16ISOE, 1756-IH16ISOE) use the Enable CST Capture feature instead of COS.
• The embedded input points on the 1769-L16ER-BB1B, 1769-L18ER-BB1B, and 1769-L18ERM-BB1B modules can be configured to trigger
an event task when a COS occurs.
Consumed Tag
Only one consumed tag can trigger a specific event task. Use an IoT instruction in the producing controller to signal the production of
new data.
Axis Registration 1 or 2
A registration input triggers the event task.
Axis Watch
A watch position triggers the event task.
Motion Group Execution
The coarse update period for the motion group triggers the execution of both the motion planner and the event task. Because the motion
planner interrupts all other tasks, it executes first.
EVENT Instruction
Multiple EVENT instructions can trigger the same task.
For more information on event tasks, see:
• Logix5000 Controllers Common Procedures Programming Manual,
publication 1756-PM001
• Using Event Tasks with Logix5000 Controllers,
publication LOGIX-WP003
Guidelines to Configure an Event Task
Guideline
Description
Place the I/O module being used to trigger an event in the
same chassis as the controller.
Placing the I/O module in a remote chassis adds more network communication and processing to the response time.
Limit events on digital inputs to one input bit on a module.
All inputs on a module trigger one event, so if you use multiple bits you increase the chance of a task overlap. Configure
the module to detect change of state on the trigger input and turn off the other bits.
Set the priority of the event task as the highest priority on
the controller.
If the priority of the event task is lower than a periodic task, the event task has to wait for the periodic task to complete
execution.
Limit the number of event tasks.
Increasing the number of event tasks reduces the available CPU bandwidth and increases the chances of task overlap.
Additional Considerations for Periodic and Event Tasks
Consideration
Description
Amount of code in the event task
Each logic element (for example, rung, instruction, or structured text construct) adds to scan time.
Task priority
If the event task is not the highest priority task, a higher priority task can delay or interrupt the execution of the event task.
CPS and UID instructions
If one of these instructions are active, the event task cannot interrupt the currently executing task. (The task with the CPS or UID.)
Communication interrupts
Incoming character processing through the serial port interrupts a task, regardless of the priority of the task.
Motion planner
The motion planner takes precedence over event or periodic tasks
Trends
Trend data collection takes precedence over event or periodic tasks.
Output processing
You can disable output processing at the end of a task to reduce the amount of task processing time. As of RSLogix 5000 software, version 16,
the Controller Organizer displays whether outputs processing is disabled.
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Select a System Overhead
Percentage
Chapter 2
The system overhead timeslice specifies the percentage of continuous task
execution time that is devoted to communication and background redundancy
functions. System overhead functions include the following:
• Communicating with programming and HMI devices (such as
RSLogix 5000 software)
• Responding to messages
• Sending messages
• Serial port message and instruction processing
• Alarm instruction processing
• Redundancy qualification
The controller performs system overhead functions for up to 1 ms at a time. If the
controller completes the overhead functions in less than 1 ms, it resumes the
continuous task. The following chart compares a continuous and periodic task.
Continuous Task Restarts
Continuous Task
10% CPU Overhead
Continuous Task
25% CPU Overhead
Periodic Task
CPU Overhead
Periodic Task Restarts
Example
Description
Continuous task
10% CPU overhead
In the top example, the system overhead timeslice is set to 10%. Given 40 ms of code to execute, the continuous task
completes the execution in 44 ms. During a 60 ms period, the controller is able to spend 5 ms on
communication processing.
Continuous task
25% CPU overhead
By increasing the system overhead timeslice to 25%, the controller completes the continuous task scan in 57 ms. The
controller spends 15 ms of a 60 ms time span on communication processing.
Periodic task
Placing the same code in a periodic task yields even more time for communication processing. The bottom example
assumes that the code is in a 60 ms periodic task. The code executes to completion and then goes dormant until the 60
ms, time-based trigger occurs. While the task is dormant, all CPU bandwidth can focus on communication. Because the
code takes only 40 ms to execute, the controller can spend 20 ms on communication processing. Depending on the
amount of communication to process during this 20 ms window, it can be delayed as it waits for other modules in the
system to process all of the data that was communicated.
The Logix5000 CPU timeslices between the continuous task and system
overhead. Each task switch between user task and system overhead takes
additional CPU time to load and restore task information. You can calculate the
continuous task interval as:
ContinuousTime=(100/SystemOverheadTimeSlice%) - 1
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As the system overhead timeslice percentage increases, time that is allocated to
executing the continuous task decreases. If there is no communication for the
controller to manage, the controller uses the communication time to execute the
continuous task.
Manage the System
Overhead Timeslice
Percentage
Description
Continuous task always has at least 1 ms execution time
RSLogix 5000 software, version 16 and later, forces the continuous task to have at least 1 ms of execution time, regardless
of the setting for the system overhead timeslice. This results in more efficient controller use because excessive swapping
between tasks uses valuable CPU resources.
Impact on communication and scan time
Increasing the system overhead timeslice percentage decreases execution time for the continuous task while it increases
communication performance.
Increasing the system overhead timeslice percentage also increases the amount of time it takes to execute a continuous
task - increasing overall scan time.
Tags Per
Second
Program Scan
Time
Tags per Second
Program Scan Time in Milliseconds
Consideration
System Timeslice %
Unused portion of system overhead timeslice
With RSLogix 5000 software, version 16, you can configure any unused portion of the system overhead timeslice to:
• Run the continuous task, which results in faster execution of application code and increases the variability of the
program scan.
• Process communication, which results in more predictable and deterministic scan time for the continuous task. (This
is for development and testing of an application to simulate communication.)
Individual applications can differ, but the overall impact on communication and
scan time remains the same. The data is based on a ControlLogix5555 controller
running a continuous task with 5000 tags (no arrays or user-defined structures).
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Access the Module Object
Chapter 2
The MODULE object provides status information about a module. To select a
particular module object, set the Object Name operand of the GSV/SSV
instruction to the module name. The specified module must be present in the
I/O Configuration section of the controller organizer and must have a
device name.
Create the Add-On Instruction
With Logix Designer Application, version 24.00.00 and later, you can access the
MODULE object directly from an Add-On Instruction. Previously, you could
access the MODULE object data, but not from within an Add-On Instruction.
You must create a Module Reference parameter when you define the Add-On
Instruction to access the MODULE object data. A Module Reference parameter
is an InOut parameter of the MODULE data type that points to the MODULE
Object of a hardware module. You can use module reference parameters in both
Add-On Instruction logic and program logic.
For more information on the Module Reference parameter, see the Logix5000
Controllers Add On Instructions programming manual, publication
1756-PM010 and the Logix Designer application online help.
The MODULE object uses the following attributes to provide
status information:
• EntryStatus
• FaultCode
• FaultInfo
• FWSupervisorStatus
• ForceStatus
• Instance
• LEDStatus
• Mode
• Path
The Path attribute is available with Logix Designer application, version 24.00.00
and later. This attribute provides a communication path to the module.
For more information on the attributes available in the MODULE object, see the
Logix5000 Controllers General Instructions Reference Manual, publication
1756-RM003.
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Develop Application Code in
Routines
Each routine contains logic in one programming language. Choose a
programming language that is based on the application.
Section of Code Represents
Language to Use
Continuous or parallel execution of multiple operations (not sequenced)
Relay ladder logic (LD)
Boolean or bit-based operations
Complex logical operations
Message and communication processing
Machine interlocking
Operations that service or maintenance personnel can interpret to troubleshoot the machine or process.
Servo motion control
Continuous process and drive control
Function block diagram (FBD)
Loop control
Calculations in circuit flow
High-level management of multiple operations
Sequential function chart (SFC)
Repetitive sequences of operations
Batch process
Motion control sequencing (via sequential function chart with embedded structure text)
State machine operations
Complex mathematical operations
Structured text (ST)
Specialized array or table loop processing
ASCII string handling or protocol processing
Comparison of Programming Languages
Comparison
Relay Ladder Logic
Function Block Diagram
Sequential Function Chart
Structured Text
Instruction categories
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
• Step/action with embedded
structured text
• Transition with structure text
comparisons
• Simultaneous and selection
branches
• Stop element
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Editor style
• Graphical rungs
• Unlimited rungs
• Graphical, free-form drawing
• Unlimited sheets
• Graphical, free-form drawing
• Unlimited grid space
• Textual
• Unlimited lines
Monitoring
• Rung animation
• Data value animation
• Force status
• Output and input pin data value
animation
• Active steps animation
• Auto display scroll
• Branch/transition force status
• Tag watch pane
• Context coloring
Comments
• Tag
• Rung
• Tag
• Text box
• Tag
• Text box
• Embedded structured text
comments that are stored in CPU
• Multi-line
• End if line
• Comments that are stored in CPU
34
Boolean
General and trig math
Timers and counters
Array management
Diagnostic
Serial port and messaging
ASCII manipulation
Motion control
General and trig math
Timers and counters
Bitwise logical
Advanced process
Advanced drive
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General and trig math
Timers and counters
Bitwise logical
Array management
Diagnostic
ASCII manipulation
Specialty CPU control
Motion control
Advanced process
Advanced drive
Logic Execution
Chapter 2
The capabilities of the Logix5000 controllers make different programming
methods possible. There are trade-offs to consider when selecting a
programming method.
Programming Methods
Inline Duplication
Benefits
• Uses more memory
• Fastest execution time because all tag references
are defined before runtime
• Easiest to maintain because rung animation
matches tag values
• Requires more time to create and modify
Write multiple copies of the code with different tag references.
Indexed Routine
Benefits
• One copy of code is faster to develop
• Slowest execution time because all tag references
are calculated at run time
• Can be difficult to maintain because the data
monitor is not synchronized to execution
Write one copy of code and use indexed references to data stored in arrays.
The JSR instruction
passes the index.
Each indexed reference adds
to scan time.
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Buffered Routine
Benefits
• One copy operation can occur faster than multiple
index offsets
• Eliminates the need to calculate array offsets at
run time
• The amount of code increases, but so do the
benefits
• Can be difficult to maintain because the data
monitor is not synchronized to execution
Copy the values of an array into tags to directly reference these buffer tags.
A user-defined structure
consolidates control data.
Direct reference to a local
copy of data.
The JSR instruction
passes all control
instance data.
Controller Prescan of Logic
On transition to Run mode, the controller prescans logic to initialize
instructions. The controller resets all state-based instructions, such as outputs
(OTE) and timers (TON). Some instructions also perform operations during
prescan. For example, the ONSR instructions turns off the storage bit.
For information on prescan, see the following resources:
• Logix5000 Controllers General Instructions Reference Manual,
publication 1756-RM003.
• Logix5000 Controllers Process Control and Drives Instructions Reference
Manual, publication 1756-RM006.
During prescan, input values are not current and outputs are not written.
Prescan Affects
Description
Relay ladder logic
The controller resets non-retentive I/O and internal values.
Function block diagram logic
Along with resetting non-retentive I/O and internal values, the controller also clears the EnableIn parameter for every
function block diagram.
Structured text logic
The controller resets bit tags and forces numeric tags to zero (0).
Use the bracketed assignment operator ([:=]) to force a value to be reset during prescan.
If you want a tag that is left in its last state, use the non-bracketed assignment operator (:=).
Sequential function chart logic
Embedded structured text follows the same rules as listed previously.
Prescan differs from first scan in that the controller does not execute logic during
prescan. The controller executes logic during first scan. The controller sets S:FS
for one scan:
• During the first scan that follows prescan.
• During the first scan of a program when it has been uninhibited.
• Each time a step is first scanned (when step.FS is set). You can view the
S:FS bit being set only from the logic that is contained in actions that
execute during the first scan of their parent step (N, L, P, and P1).
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Chapter 2
Add-On Instruction Prescan Logic
An Add-On Instruction prescan logic executes after the main logic executes in
Prescan mode. Use the prescan logic to initialize tag values before execution. For
example, set a PID instruction to Manual mode with a 0% output before its
first execution.
When an Add-On Instruction executes in Prescan mode, any required
parameters have their data passed.
• Values are passed to Input parameters from their arguments in the
instruction call.
• Values are passed out of Output parameters to their arguments defined in
the instruction call.
Controller Postscan of
SFC Logic
SFCs support an automatic reset option that performs a postscan of the actions
that are associated with a step once a transition indicates that the step is
completed. Also, every Jump to Subroutine ( JSR) instruction causes the
controller to postscan the called routine. During this postscan:
• Output energize (OTE) instructions are turned off and non-retentive
timers are reset.
• In structured text code, use the bracketed assignment operator ([:=]) to
have tags reset.
• In structured text code, use the non-bracketed assignment operator (:=) to
have tags that are left in their last state.
• Selected array faults, that is, 4/20 and 4/83, can be suppressed. When the
fault is suppressed, the controller uses an internal fault handler to clear it.
Clearing the fault causes the postscan process to skip the instruction
containing the fault and continue with the next instruction. This occurs
only when SFC instructions are configured for automatic reset.
Add-On Instruction Postscan Logic
When an Add-On Instruction is called by logic in an SFC Action and the
Automatic Reset option is set, the Add-On Instruction executes in Postscan
mode. An Add-On Instruction postscan routine executes after the main logic
executes in Postscan mode. Use the postscan logic to reset internal states and
status values or to disable instruction outputs when the SFC action completes.
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Timer Execution
Timers in the PLC, SLC, and Logix5000 controllers all store off a portion of the
real-time clock each time they are scanned. The next time through, they compare
this stored value against the current clock and then adjust the ACC value by
the difference.
PLC/SLC Controller
Logix5000 Controller
In a PLC/SLC controller, the timers stores 8 bits at 10 ms/bit. This lets 2.56 seconds (2**8 /
100) of padding before a timer overlaps.
If program execution skips timers, it appears as if the timers pause. Actually, the timers
are overrunning themselves. Depending on when the timer logic next executes, the lost
time varies ranges from 0…2.56 seconds.
A Logix5000 controller uses native 32-bit data, so there is more space to store the time.
The timer stores 22 bits at 1 ms/bit, which equates to 69.905 minutes (2**22 / 1000 ms
per second / 60 seconds per minute).
If program execution skips timers, it takes longer than in PLC/SLC controllers to overrun
the timers. This results in a larger jump in lapsed time when the timer code next executes.
Program execution can skip executing timers due to the following:
• Subroutine not being called
• Jumping over code
• SFC action
• Inactive SFC step
• Event or periodic task not executing
• Equipment phase state routines
SFC Step Timer Execution
An SFC step timer stores the clock time each time the step executes. On
subsequent scans of the step, the controller compares the current clock time with
the last scan and updates the step timer’s ACC by the difference.
When you pause an SFC and then release the SFC, the step timer jumps forward
by the duration of the pause. If you want a step timer to remain at its position
during a pause:
• Latch a recovery bit when the chart pause is released.
• Add an action to the step to store the step timer’s .ACC value and restore
that value when the pause recovery bit is set.
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Edit an SFC Online
Chapter 2
Firmware revision 13 adds support for editing SFCs online. When you edit an
SFC online, the software initially makes the changes in the offline project. When
you accept the changes, they are downloaded to the controller. If you transition
the controller to test or untest edits, the controller resets the SFC and starts
execution at the initial step. If you edit an SFC online, do the following:
• Plan when you test or untest edits to coincide with the SFC executing the
initial step.
• Place structured text logic in subroutines to minimize the impact of
online edits.
• Use an SFR instruction to shift SFC execution to the desired step
programmatically.
In some cases, this can result in the SFC being out of sync with the equipment.
Program logic in the initial step to check the last state and use an SFR instruction
to change to the appropriate step, if needed. One method is to set an index
number in an action of each step. Then when the restart occurs, use the SFR
instruction to jump to appropriate step based on the index value.
As of firmware revision 18, these online edits to an SFC no longer reset the SFC
to the initial step:
• Modified structured text in actions and transitions
• Physically moved steps, actions, and transitions on SFC sheets without
changing the wiring
• Added, deleted, or modified text and description boxes
• Modified indicator tags
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Notes:
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Chapter
3
Modular Programming Techniques
Modular programming guidelines support the delivery of standardized
programming structures, conventions, configurations, and strategies. The goal of
modular programming is to provide consistency.
• Faster and easier development of application software
• Faster and easier testing of application software
• More reliable application software
• Improved maintenance and operation of application software
• Improved interoperability with other equipment and systems
Guidelines for Code Reuse
Guideline
Description
Use user-defined data types (UDTs) to group data.
Within a UDT:
• You can mix data types.
• The tag names that you assign self-document the structure.
Use Add-On Instructions to create standardized modules
of code for reuse across a project.
Use an Add-On Instruction to:
• Encapsulate specific or focused operations, such as a Motor or Valve action. A Conveyor or Tank action is better
managed as a routine.
• Create extensions to the base controller instructions. For example, create an Add-On Instruction to execute an SLC 500
or PLC controller instruction not available in the Logix5000 controllers.
• Encapsulate an instruction from one language for use in another language. For example, create a function block PIDE
instruction for use in relay ladder.
Use program parameters to share data between
programs.
Program parameters:
• Are publicly accessible outside of the program.
• Support external HMI external access on an individual basis for each parameter.
Direct access lets the user reference program parameters in logic without configuring parameters in the local program.
For example, if Program A has an output parameter that is called Tank_Level, Program B can reference the Tank_Level
parameter in logic without creating a corresponding parameter to connect to Program A.
Use partial import/export programs, routines, Add-On
Instructions, and code segments to create libraries of
reusable code.
Partial import and export of routines and programs:
• Provides more control over the scope of what is extracted from the project.
• Provides reusable code for larger machine, cell, or unit control.
• Promotes collaboration between multiple engineers, code standardization, and reuse.
The export .L5X file includes all pertinent information, including program configuration, code, user-defined data-types,
tags, and descriptions, in an XML-formatted, ASCII text file. Use partial import/export to:
• Distribute code separately from the project .ACD file.
• Edit and create programs and routines by using other editing tools.
Use subroutines to reuse code within a program.
Subroutines:
• Can be created and used in standard and safety applications.
• Pass User-Defined Structures (UDT).
• Pass all input and output Parameters by value.
• Subroutines require the most overhead to pass parameters when called.
• Can only be called from within the program they reside.
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Chapter 3
Modular Programming Techniques
Naming Conventions
The following conventions are guidelines to help make an engineering library
more reusable by other developers. These guidelines also help the resulting
applications have a more consistent look and feel.
• Names that are meaningful (and readable) to people who use the
application as a later date are most effective.
• Names use controller memory and have limited length, so keep them short
by using abbreviations and acronyms. Use mixed case rather than
underscore characters to indicate words.
• When you use acronyms, use those that are common or provided by
industry standards.
Names for controller logic components must follow these guidelines.
• The name must start with a letter, either upper or lower case
• The name can contain as many as 40 characters; any mix of upper case
letter, lower case letters, numbers, and underscore characters
• Case is not significant. The controller interprets Mix_Tank the same and
mix_tank. However, the software displays the case as entered
• Underscores are significant. The controller interprets AB_CD as unique
from A_BCD
• You cannot have two or more underscore characters in a row
• The name cannot end with an underscore.
Component Name
Recommendations
Controller
Area, unit, or units the controller controls, underscore, type of controller
Example:
Area/Unit + Type
Controller project
Controller Name:
Mixing:ControlLogix
Controller name, the letter C, 1-digit major revision number, underscore, 2-digit minor revision number
Example:
Project in controller Mixing_CLX,
Major Revision 1, Minor Revision 02
Application Name:
Mixing_CLX_C2_092.ACD
Increment the minor revision number for any documented engineering change according to the code in the controller
(for example, the code for minor process or equipment changes).
Increment the major revision number for any documented engineering change according to the code in the controller
that implements a design change (for example, code that enhances or reduces controller functionality).
Tag
42
Prefix with the abbreviation of the type of tag
Examples:
Interprocessor communication tag
IPC_
Input tag
I_
Output tag
O_
Remote I/O tag
RIO_
Control module class tag
Device ID_
Equipment module class tag
EM_
Equipment phase class tag
EP_
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Modular Programming Techniques
Chapter 3
Component Name
Recommendations
I/O or communication module
Controller name, underscore, abbreviation of rack location (L=local, R=remote), underscore, the letter S, 2-digit slot
number, underscore, abbreviation of function
Example Functions:
Analog input
AI
Analog output
AO
Discrete input
DI
Discrete output
DO
Analog input/output combination
AIO
Discrete input/output combination
DIO
Analog/discrete input/output combination
ADIO
Serial data
SIO
Motion data
MIO
DeviceNet data
DNET
EtherNet/IP data
ENET
ControlNet
CNET
Remote I/O data
RIO
Examples:
Mixer123 Controller, Local chassis, Slot 4,
Analog Output
Module Name: M123_CLX_L00_S04_AO
Mixer123 Controller, Local chassis, Slot 12,
Discrete Output
Module Name: M123_CLX_L00_S12_DO
Mixer123 Controller, Remote chassis #1,
Slot 1, Analog Input
Module Name: M123_CLX_R01_S01_AI
Mixer123 Controller, Remote chassis #1,
Slot 2, Analog Output
Module Name: M123_CLX _R01_S02_AO
Mixer123 Controller, Remote chassis #2,
Slot 5, Discrete Input
Module Name: M123_CLX _R02_S05_DI
Mixer123 Controller, Remote chassis #2,
Slot 6, Discrete Output
Module Name: M123_CLX _R02_S06_DO
Mixer123 Controller, Local chassis, Slot 5,
Remote I/O
Module Name: M123_CLX _R02_S06_RIO
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Parameter Name Prefixes
Programming structures, such as Add-On Instructions and programs support
parameters for passing values. The convention for prefixes is to abbreviate the
function of the parameter to three letters and an underscore, followed by
additional text to clarify the specific function.
Parameter Function
Prefix
Description
Command
Cmd_
Designates a command input, either from the operator via the HMI or from the program.
Examples:
• Cmd_Reset: Clear faults and reset the process
• Cmd_JogServo: Jog a servo axis
• Cmd_FillTank: Fill a tank with a liquid
Configuration
Cfg_
Designates a configuration value for the structure. Enter from the HMI or as part of a recipe.
Examples:
• Cfg_JogDirection: Selects the direction a servo jogs: 0=Positive, 1=Negative
• Cfg_BulkFill: Selects the fill rate to use: 0=Slow Rate, 1=Fast Rate
• Cfg_UserUnits: Selects the measure of volume to use: 0=mm, 1=m, 2=gal
• Cfg_EnableInterlocks: Enable interlock functionality
• Cfg_EnablePermissive: Enable permissive functionality
Status
Sts_
Status of the process within the structure.
Examples:
• Sts_Alarm: An alarm condition (such as a HI/LOW alarm) exists within the process
• Sts_ER: An error with an instruction execution within the process has been detected
• Sts_IndexComplete: The servo index move within the process has completed
• Sts_FillInProcess: The tank filling process is underway
Error
Err_
If the Sts_ER bit is on, the Err_ parameter indicates the actual error. This can be either a bit level or value level indication.
• Bit level error recording supports multiple errors simultaneously, but can require a large number of indicators to
support all error states.
• Value-based error annunciation supports a large quantity of errors within a single indicator. However, this approach
requires that errors are annunciated one at a time.
Examples:
• Err_Value: A non-zero value indicates an error condition
• Err_PCamCalcFault: Indicates that an error has occurred in an MCCP
Alarm
Alm_
If the Sts_Alm bit is on, the Alm_ parameter indicates which alarm is occurring. This can be either a bit-level or valuelevel indication.
• Bit-level alarming supports multiple alarms simultaneously, but can require a large number of indicators to support
all alarm states.
• Value-based alarm annunciation supports a large quantity of alarms within a single indicator. However, this approach
requires alarms to be annunciated one at a time.
Examples:
• Alm_Value: A non-zero value indicates an alarm condition
• Alm_TankHI: Indicates that a HI level condition has been detected within a tank
Input
Inp_
Real-time data used to drive the process. Designates a connection either to a real input point, a control device, or to data
received from other processes.
Examples:
• Inp_ServoPosition: Variable providing the input value for a position of a servo
• Inp_ServoRegistrationPosition: Input of a the registration position of the servo
• Inp_InterlockOK: Input indicating external interlocks are met
• Inp_TankLevel: Variable providing the analog input for a tank’ level
• Inp_TankLevelFillRate
Output
Out_
Real-time data driven from the process. Designates a connection to a real output point, a control device, or to data sent
to other processes.
Examples:
• Out_GlueGun1: Output signal to turn of Glue Gun 1
• Out_ServoCorrectionDistance: Output of a servo registration correction distance
• Out_OverflowValve: Output signal to open the Overflow Valve
• Out_TankLevelError: Output of a difference between target and actual fill level of a tank
Reference
Ref_
Complex data structures that combine input and output data.These structures pass data into a structure, where some
process is performed. The results are then loaded back into the structure to be passed out of AOI for use elsewhere.
Example:
Ref_PositionCamRecovery: Provides the data set for calculating a Position Cam with all offsets factored in, as well as the
resulting Position Cam Profile to run in an MAPC instruction
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Parameter Function
Prefix
Description
Parameter
Par_
Variables that are received from an external source that can be internal or external to the program.
Examples:
• Par_MachineSpeed: Provides a machine's running speed
• Par_TargetFillLevel: Provides a tank's target fill level
Set point
Set_
Variables received from an operator or HMI and are not part of an external source.
Examples:
• Set_MachineMaxSpeed: Provides the setting for a machine's maximum permissible speed
• Set_TankHILevel: Provides the setting for a tank's HI alarm limit
Value
Val_
Designates a value that might not be the primary output of the structure.
Report
Rpt_
Designates a value that is typically used for reporting.
Information
Inf_
Non-functional data such as an revision level or name for displaying a faceplate.
Ready
Rdy_
Command-ready bits that are typically Booleans calculated inside the control routines to reflect whether the routine let
states change commands. Used with HMI faceplates to enable or disable command buttons.
Program Command
(optional)
PCmd_
Command input for commands typically issued by the application program.
Examples:
• PCmd_ProgReq - Request for Program Mode made by the application (as opposed to Cmd_ProgProgReq)
• PCmd_AutoReq - Request for Auto Mode made by the application (as opposed to Cmd_ProgAutoReq)
Operator Command
(optional)
OCmd_
Command input for commands typically issued by the operator via the HMI.
Examples:
• OCmd_ProgReq - Request for Program Mode made by the operator (as opposed to Cmd_OperProgReq)
• OCmd_AutoReq - Request for Auto Mode made by the operator (as opposed to Cmd_OperAutoReq)
Guidelines to for Subroutines
Follow these parameter guidelines for subroutines.
Guideline
Description
Input and Return parameters depend on the
subroutine logic.
If the subroutine needs to know the previous state of any Return parameters (the values are used elsewhere in the
project), these values should also be Input parameters:
• If the subroutine contains latch/unlatch logic (holding circuits), intended outputs of the subroutine should be passed
into and returned from the subroutine.
• If the subroutine does not contain latch/unlatch logic, intended outputs of the subroutine only need to be returned
from the subroutine.
Pass complete timers in and out of subroutines.
If a subroutine needs a timer, pass the complete timer tag to the subroutine as an input and return the complete timer
tag as an output. Store the timer in a buffer tag outside of the subroutine.
Create a user-defined tag to pass large numbers Input and
Output parameters
Create and pass a UDT if you have several Input and Output parameters to save on execution time. The more parameters
you pass, the fewer nested JSRs you can perform.
Data types must match
For each parameter in a SBR or RET instruction, use the same data type (including any array dimensions) as the
corresponding parameter in the JSR instruction. Using different data types can produce unexpected results.
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Guidelines for User-defined
Data Types
A UDT lets you organize or group data logically, so that all of the data associated
with a device (such as a pressure transmitter or variable frequency drive) can be
grouped together.
• You can mix data types, such as real or floating point values, counters,
timers, arrays, Booleans, and other UDTs, within one UDT.
• You can copy a UDT from one project to another, and even from one
Logix controller type to another.
• A UDT is self-documenting based on the tag names you assign, and
provides a logical representation of parts or sub-systems.
Naming Conventions for User-Defined Data Types
Element
Description
Prefix_
UDT_
UDT name
Function or purpose of the UDT
Examples:
Inventory tracking tag
UDT_InventoryTracking
Clean in place system
UDT_CIP
Two-state valve control module in control module
UDT_CMV2S
Water addition in equipment module
UDT_EM
UDT Member Order
The order in which elements are listed in the UDT can have a significant impact
on memory use if several BOOL, INT, or SINT elements are defined. Memory is
allocated in 4-byte (32-bit) increments, and every DINT, REAL, STRING, or
sub-UDT element always start at the beginning of a 4-byte boundary.
For example, if the first element defined is a BOOL, it uses the first 4 bytes
allocated to the UDT. Other BOOLs can be assigned immediately following
without consuming any more memory, until the first 4 bytes are consumed.
However, if the next element is a DINT, the DINT element allocates another 4
bytes even though the BOOL occupies only a single bit in the first 4 bytes. So for
this example, the 31 bits of memory between the BOOL and the start of the
DINT are allocated but are not accessible.
• UDT memory is allocated in 4-byte increments.
• Elements that occupy 4 bytes or more always start at a 4-byte boundary.
These include DINT, REAL, STRING, any UDT, or any other complex
data structure.
• Elements of smaller data types (BOOL, SINT, or INT) start on the next
byte boundary that matches its size, so that all the data types in the UDT
are fully contained in their respective 4-byte increments. For example, INT
elements start on 2-byte boundaries, SINT elements follow at the next
byte, and BOOL elements in succession occupy consecutive bits within a
byte.
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In the following example, the UDT on the left, UDT_Tank, has members
arranged by function without regard for memory usage. This makes sense in the
context of implementation, because members toward the top are ordinarily used
in the software code.
However, the disjointed listing of data types in UDT_Tank consumes 25% more
memory than the example UDT on the right, UDT_TankPacked. In
UDT_TankPacked, the BOOL members are grouped according to their
functionality, with the input BOOLs grouped at the top and the output BOOLs
grouped at the bottom. As a result, the data type size is reduced from 80 bytes to
64 bytes.
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An Add-On Instruction encapsulates commonly used functions or device
controls. It is not intended for use as a high-level hierarchical design tool. Once
an Add-On Instruction is defined in a project, it behaves similarly to the built-in
instructions that are already available in the programming software. The AOI
appears on the instruction toolbar and in the instruction browser.
Guidelines for Add-On
Instructions
Guideline
Description
Create Add-On Instructions in relay ladder, function block
diagram, or structured text languages.
Supports all Add-On Instructions and most built-in instructions. Excludes JSR/SBR/RET, JXR, FOR/BRK (relay ladder), SFR,
SFP, SAR, IOT, and EVENT instructions.
GSV/SSV instructions in an Add-On Instruction cannot reference the Module, Message, Axis, Motion Group, or Coordinate
System class names.
Add-On Instructions support function block, relay ladder, and structured text programming languages. Each of the AddOn Instruction logic areas can be any language. For example, the main logic can be function block and the prescan logic
can be relay ladder.
You can nest Add-On Instructions seven levels deep.
As of RSLogix 5000 software, version 18, you can create safety Add-On Instructions in a safety task.
An Add-On Instruction supports parameters:
• Input (copied in)
• Output (copied out)
• InOut (passed by reference)
• Limited to 512 total: Input parameter + Output parameter + local tags (no limit on the number of InOut parameters)
• 2 MB maximum data instance (parameters and locals)
• Alarm, axis, axis group, coordinate system, message, motion group, and produced/consumed tags must exist at the
program or controller scope and passed as an InOut parameter
• Can include references to controller-scoped tags, program-scoped tags, and immediate values.
• Input and Output parameters are limited to atomic (BOOL, SINT, INT, DINT, REAL) data types. Use the InOut parameter
for LINT, user-defined, and structure data types.
• DINT data types provide optimal execution.
• Default values of parameters and local tags are used to initialize the data structure when a tag is created of the
instruction’s data type. When an existing parameter or local tag's default value is modified, the existing tag instances
for that instruction are not updated. When a parameter or local tag is added to the instruction definition, the tag's
default value is used in the existing tags.
Create and modify offline only.
Online operation supports monitoring.
Modifications to Add-On Instructions are made offline. Make changes once to the Add-On Instruction definition to affect
all instances.
An Add-On Instruction executes like a routine.
A task with a higher execution priority can interrupt an Add-On Instruction. Use a UID/UIE instruction pair to make sure
an Add-On Instruction’s execution is not interrupted by a higher priority task.
If you have many parameters or specialized options, consider multiple Add-On Instructions
Calling many Add-On Instructions impacts scan time
The code within an Add-On Instruction can access data
that is specified only via parameters or defined as local.
Copy the local data to a parameter if you want to programmatically access it outside of an Add-On Instruction.
Use optional Scan mode logic to set up, initialize, or reset
the Add-On Instruction code.
An Add-On Instruction can have logic along with the main logic for the instruction.
• Prescan logic executes on controller startup.
• Postscan logic executes on SFC Automatic reset.
• EnableInFalse logic executes when rung condition is false.
Apply code signatures to Add-On Instructions for revision
control.
Add-On Instructions can be sealed with a code signature, as of RSLogix 5000 software, version 18. Use the code signature
for revision control and to identify any changes. For safety controllers, the signature can be used to get TUV certification
for a safety Add-On Instruction. For more information, see the Logix5000 Controllers Add-On Instructions Programming
Manual, publication 1756-PM010.
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Add-On Instruction Design Concepts
To be sure that specific data is passed into or out of the add-on instruction, use a
required parameter. A required parameter must be passed as an argument in
order for a call to the instruction for verification. To pass a required parameter in
ladder diagrams and in structured text, specify an argument tag for the parameter.
• In a function block diagram, required Input parameters and Output
parameters must be wired.
• In a ladder diagram, InOut parameters must have an argument tag.
• If a required parameter lacks an associated argument, the routine that
contains the call to the add-on instruction does not verify.
Naming Conventions for Add-On Instructions
Component Name
Recommendations
Add-On Instruction
Start with the application name.
Add a variant name, is applicable.
Capitalize the first letter in all words in the name.
Example:
PCam profile display
PCamProfileDisplay
Suffix with underscore AOI, if space permits.
Example:
PCam profile display
PCamProfileDisplay_AOI
Comparison of Subroutines and Add-On Instructions
Comparison
Subroutine
Add-On Instructions
Accessibility
Within program (multiple copies)
Anywhere in controller (single copy)
Parameters
Pass by value
Pass by value or reference via InOut
Numeric parameters
No conversion, you must manage
Automatic data type conversion for Input and Output parameters
InOut parameters must match declared type exactly
Parameters data types
Atomic, arrays, structures
• Atomic data types as In or Out parameters
• LINT, user-defined, and structure data types as InOut parameters
Parameter checking
None, you must manage
Verification checks
Data encapsulation
All data at program or controller scope (accessible to anything)
Local data is isolated (only accessible within instruction)
Monitor/debug
Logic that is animated with mixed data from multiple calls
Logic that is animated with data from one calling instance
Supported programming languages
FBD, LD, SFC, ST
FBD, LD, ST
Callable from
FBD, LD, SFC, ST
FBD, LD, SFC, ST
Protection
Locked and View Only
Locked and View Only
Documentation
Routine, rung, textbox, line
Instruction description, revision information, vendor, rung, textbox,
line, extended help
Execution performance
• JSR/SBR/RTN add overhead
• All data is copied
• Call is more efficient
• InOut passed by reference
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Comparison
Subroutine
Add-On Instructions
Memory use
Compact
• Call requires more memory
• All references need additional memory
Edit
Both code and data can be modified offline and online in a running
controller
Code modifications are limited to offline in the project file and require
a new download
Data values associated can be modified online and offline
Import/export
All routines are imported/exported in the full project .L5K file
(protected routines can be excluded or encrypted)
Individual LD rungs and references and tags/UDTs can be imported/
exported via the .L5X file
All Add-On Instructions are imported/exported in the full project .L5K
file (protected instructions can be excluded or encrypted)
Individual Add-On Instruction definitions and code are imported/
exported via the .L5X file
Comparison of Partial Import/Export and Add-On Instructions
Comparison
Partial Import/Export
Add-On Instructions
Logic
Any program, equipment phase, routine, Add-On Instruction, or userdefined data type in the project can be imported/exported via .L5X file.
Create once (single copy) and use anywhere in the same
controller project.
Controller accessibility
Import on-line with a running controller:
• Add programs, routines, and Add-On Instructions
• Existing programs and routines can be replaced
• Create tags and UDTs
• Name collisions are detected automatically and you are prompted to
rename or bind to existing components
• The data values in the controller are maintained and new tags have their
values initialized from the import file
Existing Add-On Instructions can only be edited offline.
New Add-On Instructions can be created online or offline.
Logic checking
You resolve conflicts on import.
The software verifies the components that you add to Add-On
Instruction as you create it.
Data
Editing member definitions of an Add-On Instruction maintains the values
that are assigned to the parameters when:
• Inserting, adding, or deleting members
• Rearranging (moving) members
• Renaming members
• Changing the data types of members
Local data is isolated (only accessible within the instruction).
Values for members that are both renamed and moved in the same
operation are not to be maintained.
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Guidelines for Program
Parameters
Chapter 3
Program parameters define a data interface for programs to facilitate data sharing.
Data sharing between programs can be achieved either through pre-defined
connections between parameters or directly through a special notation. Unlike
local tags, all program parameters are publicly accessible outside of the program.
Additionally, HMI external access can be specified on individual basis for each
parameter.
Standard (non-Safety) parameters can be created, edited, and deleted while
online with the controller. The following exceptions apply:
• Parameters cannot be deleted while online if they are connected/bound to
other parameters, or if the control logic references them.
• InOut parameters cannot be deleted while online
• InOut bindings can only be changed online through a Partial Import
Online (PIO) operation
A safety parameter cannot be connected with or bound to a standard parameter
or controller scoped tag. A safety connection cannot be created, modified, or
deleted in a Safety Locked project. Input, Output, and Public parameters support
the External Access attribute. InOut parameters do not.
Program Parameter
Description
Input
• Input parameters (including members) can only support ONE connection. Only one source can be delivering the value
to the input parameter.
• Input Parameter values are refreshed before each scan of a program. The values do not change during the logic
execution so you do not need to write code to buffer inputs.
• A program can write to its own input parameters.
• Data values for Output parameters that are connected to controller scope tags or Public parameters are copied after
the scan of a program. In a project with multiple tasks, the data copy for a parameter that is of type BOOL, SINT, INT,
DINT, LINT, or REAL will not be interrupted. A task switch can interrupt the data copy from an Output parameter to a
controller scope tag or Public parameter, or any other predefined or user-defined data type.
Output
• Output parameters (including members) can support multiple connections. For example, lets assume you have a
BOOL input parameter in Program A and Program B named Input1a and Input1b. You can connect an output
parameter in Program C to Input1a AND Input1b. As stated earlier, this is often referred to as fanning.
• Output Parameter values are refreshed AFTER each scan of a program. Updated output parameter values are NOT
available to the parameters connected to that output parameter until the program execution is complete.
• Output parameters that are connected to Public parameters or controller scope tags are copied (pushed) at the end of
the program execution.
• An Output parameter can ONLY be connected to an InOut parameter if both the Output and InOut parameters are
configured as Constants.
InOut
• InOut parameters can only support ONE connection. You cannot configure connections to any member of an InOut
parameter.
• InOut parameters are passed by REFERENCE, which means they simply point to the base tag. In other words, when an
InOut parameter is used in logic, the current value of the parameter that is connected to the InOut Parameter is used.
• An InOut parameter can ONLY be connected to an Output parameter if both the Output and InOut parameters are
configured as Constants. See the tool tip for Output Parameters for a more detailed explanation.
• InOut parameters CANNOT be changed online, unless using the Partial Import Online (PIO).
Public
• Public parameters can support MULTIPLE connections. You can configure connections to the base Public parameter or
any member of a Public parameter. This includes User-Defined Structures.
• Public parameters are updated when the source is updated. In other words, when a Public parameter value updates, it
is immediately available to any higher priority tasks that are connected to that parameter.
• •Public parameters can be aliased to Controller Scope Tags. If this functionality is desired, remember that the alias
update is asynchronous to program execution. The public parameter contains the real-time value of the controller
scope tag.
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Comparison of Program Parameters and Add-On Instructions
Comparison
Program Parameters
Add-On Instructions
Accessibility
Within program (multiple copies)
Anywhere in controller (single copy)
Parameters
Input / Output (pass by value), InOut (pass by reference), Public (pass
by value)
Input / Output (pass by value), InOut (pass by reference)
Numeric parameters
• Automatic data type conversion for Input and Output parameters
• InOut parameters must match declared type exactly
• Automatic data type conversion for Input and Output parameters
• InOut parameters must match declared type exactly
Parameters data types
Atomic, strings, arrays, structures
• Atomic data types as In or Out parameters
• LINT, user-defined, and structure data types as InOut parameters
Parameter checking
None, user must manage
Verification checks
Data encapsulation
All data at program or controller scope (accessible to anything).
Programs can talk directly and exchange data between them. Local
tags remain private to the Program. Cannot access Local Tags, only
the parameters.
Local data is isolated (only accessible within instruction)
Monitor/debug
Online editable.
Logic that is animated with data from one calling instance
Supported programming languages
FBD, LD, SFC, ST
FBD, LD, ST
Callable from
FBD, LD, SFC, ST
FBD, LD, SFC, ST
Protection
—
Locked and View Only
Documentation
—
Instruction description, revision information, vendor, rung, textbox,
line, extended help
Execution performance
• Programs can talk directly and exchange data between them.
• InOut passed by reference
• Call is more efficient
• InOut passed by reference
Memory use
Compact. One Public parameters can be connected or bound to
multiple Input, Output or InOut parameters to form a shared memory
space.
• Call requires more memory
• All references need additional memory
Edit
Online editable, and supports sub-element connections. Copy / Paste
Programs without disturbing parameter configuration.
Code modifications are limited to offline in the project file and require
a new download
Data values associated can be modified online and offline
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4
Address Data
Logix5000 controllers support IEC 61131-3 atomic data types, such as BOOL,
SINT, INT, DINT, LINT, and REAL. The controllers also support compound
data types, such as arrays, predefined structures (such as counters and timers), and
user-defined structures.
Data Type
Description
Atomic data type
(BOOL, SINT, INT, DINT, REAL)
Benefit
Consideration
• Individual names
• No limit to the number of tags
• Tag Editor and Data Monitor can filter individual tags and display
any references
• Always listed alphabetically in the Tag Editor and Data Monitor
• Full alias tag support (both the base tag and its bits)
• Can be added when programming online
• Supported as In or Out parameter in an Add-On Instruction
• Require more communication overhead and, potentially, more
controller memory than compound data types
• Can only change the data type of a flag when programming offline
• The root tag is listed alphabetically in the Tag Editor and Data
Monitor, but the structure members are listed in the order in
which they were defined in the structure
Special-use atomic data type
(LINT)
Benefit
Consideration
• 64-bit integer value to store date and time values
• Data monitor display radix for Date and Time lets you display a
LINT value as year, month, day, hours, minutes, seconds,
microseconds
• Limited instruction support: GSV, SSV, ALMD, ALMA, COP, and CPS
• For math operations or comparisons, copy the LINT value into a
pair of DINTs and then manipulate through code
• Limited to InOut parameter in an Add-On Instruction
Compound data type
(array, structure)
Benefit
Consideration
•
•
•
•
•
•
• 2 MB data limit per user-defined structure or array
• User-defined structures are padded to enforce 32-bit data
alignment
• Alias tags cannot point to the root tag of an array
• Tag Editor and Data Monitor filtering limited
• Can only create or change a user-defined structure when
programming offline
• Can only change an array when programming offline
• Limited to InOut parameter in an Add-On Instruction
Specific names and user-defined organization are available
Consolidates information in controller memory
Optimizes communication time and memory impact
Arrays can be dynamically indexed
Can create arrays when programming online
Alias support for user-defined structures, members of an array,
and bits of a member
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The Logix CPU reads and manipulates 32-bit data values. The minimum
memory allocation for data in a tag is 4 bytes. When you create a standalone tag
that stores data that is less than 4 bytes, the controller allocates 4 bytes, but the
data only fills the part that it needs.
Data Type
Bits
64...32
31
16 15
8 7
1
0
BOOL
Not allocated
Allocated but not used
SINT
Not allocated
Allocated but not used
INT
Not allocated
Allocated but not used
DINT
Not allocated
-2,147,483,648...2,147,483,647
REAL
Not allocated
-3.40282347E38...-1.17549435E-38 (negative values)
0
1.17549435E-38...3.40282347E38 (positive values)
LINT
Valid Date/Time range is from 1/1/1970 12:00:00 AM coordinated universal time (UTC) to 1/1/3000 12:00:00 AM UTC
0 or 1
-128...127
-32,768...32,767
A tag uses additional memory in the controller to store the tag name and symbol,
and allocate memory for data.
To manipulate SINT or INT data, the controller converts the values to DINT
values, performs the programmed manipulation, and then returns the result to a
SINT or INT value. This requires additional memory and execution time when
compared to using DINT values for the same operation.
Follow these guidelines depending on the data type for your application.
Guidelines for Data Types
Guideline
Description
Use DINT data types whenever possible
The Logix5000 controllers perform DINT (32 bit) and REAL (32 bit) math operations. DINT data types use less memory and
execute faster than other data types. Use the following data type:
• DINT for most numeric values and array indexes.
• REAL for manipulating floating point, analog values.
• SINT (8 bit) and INT (16 bit) primarily in user-defined structures or when communicating with an external device that
does not support DINT values.
SINT
INT
DINT
REAL
Memory that is reserved for a standalone tag
4 bytes
4 bytes
4 bytes
4 bytes
Memory that is reserved for data in a user-defined structure
1 byte
(8-bit aligned)
2 bytes
(16-bit aligned)
4 bytes
(32-bit aligned)
4 bytes
(32-bit aligned)
Memory that is used to access a tag in an ADD instruction
236 bytes
260 bytes
28 bytes
44 bytes
Execution time on a 1756-L63 controller that is required to perform an
ADD instruction
3.31 s
3.49 s
0.26 s
1.45 s
Group BOOL values into arrays
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When you use BOOL values, group them into DINT arrays to best use controller memory and to make the bits accessible
via FBC or DDT instructions.
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Address Data
Chapter 4
An array allocates a contiguous block of memory to store a specific data type as a
table of values.
• Tags support arrays in one, two, or three dimensions.
• User-defined structures can contain a single-dimension array as a member
of the structure.
Arrays
This array
Stores data like
For Example
One dimension
Tag name
Type
Dimension 0
Dimension 1
Dimension 2
one_d_array
DINT[7]
7
--
--
Total number of elements = 7
Valid subscript range DINT[a] where a=0...6
Two dimension
Tag name
Type
Dimension 0
Dimension 1
Dimension 2
two_d_array
DINT[4,5]
4
5
--
Total number of elements = 4  5 = 20
Valid subscript range DINT[a,b] where a=0...3; b=0...4
Three dimension
Tag name
Type
Dimension 0
Dimension 1
Dimension 2
three_d_array
DINT[2,3,4]
2
3
4
Total number of elements = 2  3  4 = 24
Valid subscript range DINT[a,b,c] where a=0...1; b=0...2, c=0...3
The data type you select for an array determines how the contiguous block of
memory gets used.
BOOL[96] = 12 bytes
BOOL arrays use 32-bit
increments of memory
SINT[10] = 12 bytes of memory (2 bytes unused)
SINT arrays are padded to use
any left over bytes
INT[5] = 12 bytes of memory (2 bytes unused)
INT arrays are padded to use
any left over bytes
DINT[3] = 12 bytes and REAL[3] = 12 bytes
DINT and REAL arrays use
4-byte increments of memory
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Guidelines for Arrays
Guideline
Description
You can create arrays of most data types, except for
ALARM, AXIS, COORDINATE_SYSTEM, MOTION_GROUP,
and MESSAGE data types.
A subscript identifies an individual element within the array. A subscript starts at 0 and extends to the number of
elements minus 1 (zero based).
• Single-dimension arrays take less memory and execute faster than two-dimension or three-dimension arrays.
• Direct references to array elements execute faster than indexed references.
• An array can be as large as 2 MB.
• If you create an array of structures, the memory for each element is allocated based on the structure definition.
Type of Array
Benefit
Considerations
Single (1) dimension
• Better support by native file instructions
• Fully supported in user-defined structures and arrays
• Smallest impact (execution time and memory) for
indexed references
• Can create arrays when programming online
• Multiple arrays cannot be indirectly referenced like in
PLC or SLC processors (such as, N[N7:0]:5)
• BOOL arrays are not directly supported by file
instructions
• Can be changed only when programming offline
Double (2) dimension
and
Triple (3) dimension
• Can provide a more accurate data representation for a
physical system
• Can emulate PLC file/word indirection with a twodimension array
• Can create arrays when programming online
• Larger impact (execution time and memory) for
indexed references
• File manipulation requires extra code and file
instructions
• Can only be changed when programming offline
Nest arrays.
The file instructions offer limited support for arrays. To work with array data, create a user-defined structure with one
array as a member of the structure. Then create an array tag by using the user-defined structure as its data type.
Select the data type of the array based on the data and
the instructions that manipulate that data.
While SINT and INT arrays can compact more values into a given memory area, they require additional memory and
execution time for each instruction that references the array.
Limit arrays to 2 MB of data.
The maximum array size is 2 MB. The software displays a warning if you try to create an array that is too large. The
software also displays a warning if an array is 1.5...2 MB, even though these sizes are valid.
Edit arrays online and offline.
You can create arrays when online or offline. However, you can modify only the size or data type of an existing array when
offline.
Indirect Addresses of Arrays
If you want an instruction to access different elements in an array, use a tag in the
subscript of the array (an indirect address). By changing the value of the tag, you
change the element of the array that your logic references.
When index equals 1, array[index] points here.
array[0]
4500
array[1]
6000
array[2]
3000
array[3]
2500
When index equals 2, array[index] points here.
When you directly reference an element in an array (such as MyArray[20]), uses
less memory and executes faster than an indirect reference (MyArray[MyIndex]).
You can also indirectly address bits in a tag (MyDint.[Index]).
If you use indirect addresses, use DINT tags because other data types require
conversion and execute slower. For each indexed access to data, the controller
recalculates the array index. If you access a specific array element multiple times,
copy the data out of the array into a fixed tag and use that tag in subsequent logic.
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You can also use an expression to specify the index value. For example:
MyArray[10 + MyIndex].
• An expression uses operators to calculate a value.
• The controller computes the result of the expression and uses it as the
index.
• These are valid operators.
Operator
Description
Optimal
Operator
Description
Optimal
+
Add
DINT, REAL
LN
Natural log
REAL
-
Subtract/negate
DINT, REAL
LOG
Log base 10
REAL
*
Multiply
DINT, REAL
MOD
Modulo divide
DINT, REAL
/
Divide
DINT, REAL
NOT
Bitwise complement
DINT
**
Exponent (x to y)
DINT, REAL
OR
Bitwise OR
DINT
ABS
Absolute value
DINT, REAL
RAD
Degrees to radians
DINT, REAL
ACS
Arc cosine
REAL
SIN
Sine
REAL
AND
Bitwise AND
DINT
SQR
Square root
DINT, REAL
ASN
Arc sine
REAL
TAN
Tangent
REAL
ATN
Arc tangent
REAL
TOD
Integer to BCD
DINT
COS
Cosine
REAL
TRN
Truncate
DINT, REAL
DEG
Radians to degrees
DINT, REAL
XOR
Bitwise exclusive OR
DINT
FRD
BCD to integer
DINT
Guidelines for Array Indexes
Guideline
Description
Use the SIZE instruction to determine the number of
elements in an array.
By determining the number of elements in an array at runtime, you can write reusable code that adjusts itself to meet
each instance where it is used.
The SIZE instruction returns the number of elements. Arrays are zero-based, so subtract 1 from the result to determine
the last element position.
Use immediate values to reference array elements.
Immediate value references to array elements are quicker to process and execute faster than indexed references.
Use DINT tags for array indexes.
DINT tags execute the fastest. SINT, INT, and REAL tags require conversion code that can add additional scan time to
an operation.
Avoid using array elements as indexes.
The Logix5000 controller does not directly support the use of an array element as the index to look up a value in another
array. To work around this, you can create an alias to the element and then use this as the index. Or copy the element to a
base tag and use that base tag as the index.
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Guidelines for User-defined Structures
Table 1 - UDT Guidelines
Guideline
Description
Group members of the same data type within a structure.
You can create members of most data types, except for ALARM, AXIS, COORDINATE_SYSTEM, MOTION_GROUP, and
MESSAGE data types.
Place members that use the same data type in sequence.
A Logix5000 controller aligns every data type along an 8-bit boundary for SINTs, a 16-bit boundary for INTS, or a 32-bit
boundary for DINTs and REALs. BOOLs also align on 8-bit boundaries, but if they are placed next to each other in a userdefined structure, they are mapped so that they share the same byte.
Arrays within structures can only be 1-dimension.
If you include an array as a member, limit the array to one dimension. Multidimension arrays are not permitted in a userdefined structure.
I/O data that is used in structure must be copied into the
members.
If you include members that represent I/O devices, you must use logic to copy the data into the members of the structure
from the corresponding I/O tags.
Make sure that the data type of the structure member matches the I/O data type to avoid data type conversion.
Limit user-defined structures to 500 members.
Logix5000 controllers limit user-defined structures to 500 members. If you need more, consider nesting structures within
the main structure.
Limit user-defined structures to 2 MB of data.
The maximum UDT size is 2 MB. The software displays a warning if you try to create an UDT that is too large. The software
also displays a warning if the UDT is 1.5...2 MB, even though these sizes are valid.
Limit the size of user-defined structures if they are to be
communicated.
Produced and consumed tags are limited to 500 bytes over the backplane and 480 bytes if over a network.
RSLinx software can optimize user-defined structures that are less than 480 bytes.
Use the appropriate instruction to load data into a
structure.
Load input values into the user-defined structure at the beginning of the program and copy output values from the
user-defined structure at the end of the program.
• Single bit - Examine On (XIC) and Output Energize (OTE) instructions
• Contiguous bits - Bit Field Distribute (BTD) instruction
• Single value - MOV instruction
• Multiple contiguous values -COP/CPS instruction
Use structure descriptions to automatically create tag
descriptions.
Enable the Use Pass-through Description workstation option (Tools > Options > Display) to display the descriptions you
add to the members of structures for each tag that uses that structure data type.
Online and offline editing.
You can create user-defined structures when online or offline. However, you can modify only an existing structure when
offline.
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Select a Data Type for
Bit Tags
Bits in a Logix5000 controller can exist as: BOOL tags, bits in a BOOL array,
bits in elements of a SINT, INT, DINT array, members of a user-defined
structure, or as bits in a SINT, INT, DINT member of a user-defined structure.
Tag Type
Description
BOOL tag
Each tag accesses a specific bit. Each tag uses 4 bytes.
MyBit:BOOL
BOOL array
Chapter 4
Benefits
Considerations
• Each bit has a specific tag
• Requires extra bandwidth to communication
• Uses more memory
• Cannot use FBC/DDT bit file instructions
A BOOL array combines multiple bits into adjacent words (32-bit words).
BitTable:BOOL[32]
DINT array
Benefits
Considerations
• Consolidates multiple bits into one word
• Better use of memory
• Can address all bits in an array by using indirect
addressing
• BOOL data type only supported by bit instructions
• Cannot use file instructions, copy instructions, or DDT/
FBC instructions
A DINT combines multiple bits into adjacent words.
FaultTable:DINT[3]
User-defined structure
Benefits
Considerations
• Consolidates multiple bits into one word
• File instructions, copy instructions, and DDT/FBC
instructions support DINT arrays
• Lets you access the bits by element (word) and
bit number
• Requires extra planning to indirectly address bits
• Difficult to address bits in the array by using indirect
addressing
A user-defined structure combines multiple bits into adjacent, individually named words.
BitStructure
Bit1:BOOL
Bit2:BOOL
Benefits
Considerations
• Object based
• Consolidates multiple bits into one word
• Third party MMI/EOI products do not directly support
structures.
• Cannot use FBC/DDT bit file instructions
Fault:BitStructure
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Serial Bit Addresses
The BOOL B data table in the PLC-5 and SLC 500 processors supports two
address modes that can address the same bit.
Address Mode
Description
Serial bit
In PLC-5 or SLC software, this addressing mode is
represented as /Bit
Serial bit addressing references all bits as a contiguous list (array) of bits. For example, if you want to reference the third
bit in the second word of a B file, specify B3/18. This method is similar to a BOOL array in a Logix5000 controller where
you specify FaultBit[18].
Word bit
In PLC-5 or SLC software, this addressing mode is
represented as Word/Bit
Word bit addressing identifies a bit within a specific word. For example, B3:1/2 is the same as B3/18 from the serial bit
example. This method is similar to accessing the bits of a SINT, INT, DINT array in a Logix5000 controller where you
specify FaultTable[1].2.
The Logix5000 controller supports both of these addressing modes, but you
cannot use both to reference bits in the same array due to conformance with the
IEC 61131-3 standard. Choose the method that best meets your application
needs. You can copy data between arrays by using both methods.
You can also use an expression to indirectly reference a bit in a DINT array by
using a serialized bit number. For example:
Tag
MyBits : DINT[10]
BitRef : DINT
EndTag
MOV(34, BitRef)
XIC(MyBits[BitRef / 32].[BitRef AND 31])
where:
This expression
Calculates the
[BitRef / 32]
Element in the DINT array
If the tag MyBits is an INT or SINT, the divisor is 16 or 8, respectively.
[BitRef AND 31]
Bit within the element
If the tag MyBits is an INT or SINT, the mask value is 15 or 7, respectively.
The Diagnostic Detect (DDT) and File Bit Compare (FBC) instructions
provide a bit number as a result of their operation. These instructions are limited
to DINT arrays so you can use them to locate the bit number that is returned
from the example above.
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String data types are structures that hold ASCII characters. The first member of
the structure defines the length of the string; the second member is an array that
holds the actual ASCII characters.
Guidelines for String
Data Types
Guideline
Description
You can create a string data type that is longer or shorter
than the default string data type.
The default string data type can contain as many as 82 characters, but you can create custom-length string data types to
hold as many characters as needed.
Only some instructions support string data types.
These comparison instructions support string tags: EQU, NEQ, GRT, GEG, LES, LEQ, CMP.
These serial port instructions support string tags: ARD, ARL, AWA, AWT.
These string-handling instructions support string tags: STOD, DTOS, STOR, RTOS, CONCAT, MID, FIND, DELETE, INSERT,
UPPER, LOWER, SIZE.
These file instructions support string arrays: FAL, FFL, FFU, LFL, LFU, COP, CPS, FSC.
Use the SIZE instruction to determine the number of
characters in a string,
By determining the number of characters in a string at runtime, you can write reusable code that adjusts itself to meet
each instance where it is used.
Use the DTOS, RTOS, and CONCAT instructions to embed
tag values within a string.
The SLC 500 processor supports the ability to embed a data-table reference address within a string (inline indirection).
The SLC 500 AWA and AWT instructions can then look up the data value and place an ASCII representation into the
outgoing string. The Logix5000 controller does not directly support this ability. Use the DTOS or RTOS instructions to
convert a value to a string and the CONCAT instruction to merge characters with another string.
Set the LEN field to indicate the number characters that
are present.
The LEN field in the string structure indicates how many characters are in the string. RSLogix 5000 software and the
controller instructions that manipulate strings use the LEN value to determine how many positions in the string DATA
array contain valid characters. Both RSLogix 5000 software and the instructions stop processing the DATA array once they
reach the LEN value.
PLC-5/SLC 500 Access of
Strings
The ASCII A data table in the PLC-5 and SLC 500 processors uses a string
format that is similar to the Logix string data type. The main difference is that the
LEN field (length) in a PLC-5/SLC 500 processor is a 16-bit, INT value. The
LEN field in a Logix5000 controller is a 32-bit, DINT field. This difference can
impact converted logic and data communication. The Logix5000 controller
converts the LEN field to the appropriate value and size when a PLC-5/SLC 500
message format is used to read or write a string.
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Configure Tags
A tag is a text-based name for an area of the controller’s memory where data is
stored. Tags are the basic mechanism to allocate memory, reference data from
logic, and monitor data.
If you want the tag to
Then choose this type
Store a value for use by logic within the project
Base
Use another name for an existing tag’s data
(can help simplify long, pre-determined tag names, such as for I/O data
or user-defined structures)
Alias
Send (broadcast) data to another controller
Produced
Receive data from another controller
Consumed
For more information on I/O tags, see Communicate with I/O on page 71.
Guidelines for Base Tags
Use the following guidelines for base tags.
Table 2 - Base Tag Guidelines
Guideline
Description
Create standalone atomic tags.
The controller supports pre-defined, standalone tags.
• Atomic tags are listed directly in the Tag Editor and Data Monitor and can easily be found by browsing the alphabetical
list.
• Atomic tags can be created online, but the data type can be only modified offline.
Using only atomic tags can impact HMI communication performance as more information must be passed and acted on.
Create user-defined structures
User-defined structures (data types) let you organize your data to match your machine or process.
• One tag contains all data that is related to a specific aspect of your system. This keeps related data together and easy
to locate, regardless of its data type.
• Each piece of data (member) gets a descriptive name.
• You can use the structure to create multiple tags with the same data layout.
• User-defined structure can only be modified offline.
RSLinx software optimizes user-defined structures more than standalone tags.
Use arrays like files to create a group of similar tags.
An array creates multiple instances of a data type under a common tag name.
• Arrays let you organize a block of tags that use the same data type and perform a similar function.
• You organize the data in one, two, or three dimensions to match what the data represents.
• Arrays can be only modified offline.
• RSLinx software optimizes array data types more than standalone tags.
Minimize the use of BOOL arrays. Many array instructions do not operate on BOOL arrays, making it more difficult to
initialize and clear an array of BOOL data.
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Table 2 - Base Tag Guidelines
Guideline
Description
Take advantage of program-scoped tags.
If you want multiple tags with the same name, define each tag at the program scope (program tags) for a different
program. This lets you reuse both logic and tag names in multiple programs.
Avoid using the same name for both a controller tag and a program tag. Within a program, you cannot reference a
controller tag if a tag of the same name exists as a program tag for that program.
Use mixed case and the underscore characters.
Although tags are not case-sensitive (upper case A is the same as lower case a), mixed case is easier to read. For example,
Tank_1 can be easier to read than tank1.
Consider alphabetical order.
RSLogix 5000 software displays tags of the same scope in alphabetical order. To make it easier to monitor related tags,
use similar starting characters for tags that you want to keep together. For example, consider using Tank_North and
Tank_South rather than North_Tank and South_Tank.
Use leading zeroes (0) when numbers are part of tag
names
RSLogix 5000 software uses a simple sort to alphabetize tag names in the Tag Editor and Data Monitor. This means if you
have Tag1, Tag2, Tag11, and Tag12, the software displays them in order as Tag1, Tag11, Tag12, and then Tag2. If you want
to keep them in numerical order, name them Tag01, Tag02, Tag11, and Tag12.
Create Alias Tags
An alias tag lets you create one tag that represents another tag.
• Both tags share the same value as defined by the base tag.
• When the value of a base tag changes, all references (aliases) to the base tag
reflect the change.
Guideline
Description
An alias tag references a base tag.
When you assign aliases, avoid:
• Nesting aliases.
• Using multiple aliases to the same tag.
On upload, the software decompiles the program and uses the physical memory addresses to determine which tags are
referenced in the code. All references to a base tag revert to an alias if one exists. If multiple aliases point to the same tag,
RSLogix 5000 software uses the first alias tag (alphabetically) that it finds.
Alias tags do not affect controller execution.
During download, the program is compiled into machine executable code and physical memory addresses. While the
existence of an alias requires controller memory to store the name, the program performs the same operation for a
reference with an alias or its associated base tag.
Access alias tags from RSLinx software.
Because an alias tag appears as a standalone tag to RSLinx software, an alias tag that references a compound array or
structure can require additional communication time. When you reference tags from RSLinx software or other HMI, it can
be fastest to reference base tags directly.
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Guidelines for Data Scope
Controller
scope
Data scope defines where you can access tags. Controller-scoped tags are
accessible by all programs. Program-scoped tags are accessible only by the code
within a specific program; phase-scoped tags are accessible only by the code
within a specific equipment phase.
If you want to
Then assign this scope
Program
scope
Use a tag in multiple programs in the same project
Controller scope (controller tags)
Phase
scope
Produce or consume data
Use a tag in a message (MSG) instruction
Use motion tags
Communicate with a PanelView terminal
Reuse the same tag name multiple times for different parts or
processes within a controller
Program scope (program tags)
Phase scope (phase tags)
Have multiple programmers work on logic and you want to
merge logic into one project
Isolate portions of a machine or different stations into separate programs or
equipment phases and use program-scoped or phase-scoped tags. This lets you do
the following:
• Provide isolation between programs and equipment phases
• Prevent tag name collisions
• Improve the ability to reuse code
Guidelines for Tag Names
Use the following guidelines when you name tags.
Guideline
Description
Create descriptive names but keep them short.
Tag names can be from 140 characters long.
• Each character of the tag name uses 1 byte of controller memory, rounded to a 4-byte boundary.
• For example, a tag name with 1…4 characters uses 4 bytes. A tag name with 5 characters uses 8 bytes.
• Tag names are stored in the controller.
• Use structures to reduce the number and size of tags needed.
Program upload preserves tag names.
Create a naming convention.
Develop a tag-naming convention on electrical drawings or machine design. For example, Conv1_Full_PE101 combines
the sensor function with the photoeye number.
Use correct characters in tag names.
Logix5000 tag names follow the IEC 61131-3 standard. You can use:
• Letters A through Z.
• Numbers 0…9.
• Underscore character (_).
Tags must start with a letter to avoid confusion with logical expressions. The remaining characters can be any of the
supported characters.
Pad names to improve sort order.
RSLogix 5000 software displays tags in alphabetical order. If you use numbers in your tag names, pad the number with
leading zeros so the names sort in the proper order.
For example, tag names: TS1, TS2, TS3, TS10, TS15, TS20, TS30 display as: TS1, TS10, TS15, TS2, TS20,TS3, and TS30.
Pad the numbers with zero so they display as: TS01, TS02, TS03, TS10, TS15, TS20, TS30.
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Guidelines for Extended Tag
Properties
Chapter 4
Use the following guidelines for extended tag properties.
Guideline
Description
Use extended tag properties to define additional
information, such as limits, engineering units, or state
identifiers, for various components within your controller
project.
You can define extended tag properties for these components:
• Tag
• User-defined data type
• Add-On Instruction
Some extended tag properties support pass-through for
data structures and arrays.
Pass-through behavior is available for descriptions, state identifiers, and engineering units and is configurable in data
structures and arrays.
Pass-through behavior is not available for limits.
You can read extended properties via logic, but you
cannot write to extended properties values in logic.
• Extended properties must be used as an input operand.
• Alias tags with extended properties cannot be accessed in logic.
• Limits can be configured for input and output parameters in Add-On Instructions. However, limit extended properties
must not be defined on an InOut parameter of an Add-On Instruction.
• Limits cannot be accessed inside Add-On Instruction logic.
• If you read an extended property value in logic, it consumes memory equivalent to an equivalent program-scoped tag
of that data type. If you do not use them in logic, extended tag properties use no user memory, only extended
memory.
If an array tag uses indirect addressing to access limit
extended properties in logic, the following conditions
apply.
• If the array tag has limit extended properties that are configured, the extended properties are applied to any array
element that does not explicitly have that particular extended property configured. For example, if the array tag
MyArray has Max configured to 100, then any element of the array that does not have Max configured inherits the
value of 100 when used in logic. However, it is not visible to you that the value inherited from MyArray is configured in
the tag properties.
• At least one array element must have specific limit extended property configured for indirectly referenced array logic
to verify. For example, if MyArray[x].@Max is being used in logic, at least one array element of MyArray[] must have
Max extended property configured if Max is not configured by MyArray.
• Under the following circumstances a data type default value is used:
– Array is accessed programmatically with an indirect reference.
– Array tag does not have the extended property configured.
– A member of an array does not have the extended property configured.
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Tag Descriptions
Guideline
Tag descriptions display in RSLogix 5000 software
according to the tag’s origin.
RSLogix 5000 software searches a tag’s origin to locate the first available
description. This reduces the number of descriptions you need to enter. This also
verifies that tag references display associated descriptions.
Description
Type of Tag
Description Display in RSLogix 5000 Software
Atomic
For a BOOL, SINT, INT, DINT, or REAL tag, the description that is associated with the tag is
the only description available for display.
Alias
First the alias tag description, then the base tag description.
User-defined structure
and Add-On
Instruction
All members use the description for tag, unless you define a specific description for a
member.
For example, MyTimer.DN uses the description for MyTimer if there is no description for
MyTimer.DN.
Atomic array
• All references into an array use the description for the array, unless you define a
description for an element of the array.
• For example, MyTable[10] uses the description for MyTable if there is no description
for MyTable[10].
• All indexed references into an array use the description for the array.
• For example, MyTable[Index] uses the description for MyTable.
Structure array
All references to a member of a structure in an array default to the array definition, unless
you define a description for the structure member of the array.
For example, Table[0].Field1 uses the description for Table if there is no description for
the specific field.
For more information, see the Create Tag Descriptions Automatically with UserDefined Data Types White Paper, publication LOGIX-WP004.
Protect Data Access Control
at Tag Level
With RSLogix 5000 software, version 18 and later, new tag attributes define
access to tag data at runtime.
Tag Attribute
Description
External access
Defines how an external application, such as an HMI, historian, or OPC data server, can access a tag. For arrays, this
feature applies to the top level only; for user-defined structure, this feature applies to individual members. Possible
values are:
• Read/Write: External applications can both read and modify the tag’s value
• Read Only: External applications can read the tag’s value, but not modify it
• None: External applications can neither read or write the tag’s value
Constant
Defines whether a tag value remains constant. Tags with this attribute set cannot be changed programmatically.
Use RSLinx Classic software, version 2.56, and RSLinx Enterprise software,
version 5.21 or later, for best results with these tag attributes. Using earlier
versions of RSLinx software can result in anomalous behavior from the data
servers with the external access options of Read Only and None.
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5
Produced and Consumed Data
Logix5000 controllers support the ability to produce (broadcast) and consume
(receive) system-shared tags.
For two controllers to share produced or consumed tags, both controllers must be
in the same backplane or attached to the same control network. You cannot
bridge produced and consumed tags over two networks.
If there are no other connections, the controller supports these tags.
As a
The controller support
Producer
(number of produced tags)  127
Consumer
(number of consumed tags)  250 (or controller maximum)
The total combined number of consumed and produced tags that a controller
supports is:
(produced tags) + (consumed tags) + (other connections)  250 (or controller maximum)
IMPORTANT
The actual number of produced and consumed tags that you can configure over
ControlNet or EtherNet/IP in a project depends on the connection limits of the
communication module through which you produce or consume the tags.
Guidelines for Produced and Consumed Tags
Guideline
Description
You cannot bridge produced and consumed tags over
different networks.
For two controllers to share produced or consumed tags, both controllers must be attached to the same network. You can
produce and consume tags over ControlNet or EtherNet/IP networks.
Create the tag at controller scope.
You can only produce and consume (share) controller-scoped tags.
Limit the size of the tag
to  500 bytes.
If you transfer a tag with more than 500 bytes, create logic to transfer the data in packets.
If you consume a tag over a ControlNet hop, the tag must be 480 bytes. This is a limitation of the ControlNet network,
not the controller.
Combine data that goes to the same controller.
If you are producing several tags for the same controller:
• Group the data into one or more user-defined structures. This uses fewer connections than producing each
tag separately.
• Group the data according to similar update intervals. To conserve network bandwidth, use a greater RPI for
less critical data.
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Guideline
Description
Use one of these data types:
• DINT
• REAL
• Array of DINTs or REALs
• User-defined structure
To share data types other than DINT or REAL, create a user-defined structure to contain the required data.
Use the same data type for the produced tag and the corresponding consumed tag or tags.
Use a user-defined structure to produce or consume INT or
SINT data.
To produce or consume INT or SINT data, create a user-defined structure with INT or SINT members. The members can be
individual INTs or SINTs or the members can be INT or SINT arrays. The resulting user-defined structure can then be
produced or consumed.
The data type in the producer and the consumer must
match.
The data type for a produced or consumed tag must be the same in both the producer and the consumer.
Produce tags that are based on user-defined structures to
non-Logix devices.
The controller produces tags in 32-bit words. For devices that communicate in other word boundaries, such as 16-bit
words, the resulting data in the target device can be misaligned. To help avoid misalignment, structure the produced data
in a user-defined structure.
Use a programmatic handshake to help ensure data is
exchanged.
Produced tags continually transmit based on the RPI, so it can be difficult to know when new data arrives. You can set a
bit or increment a counter that is embedded in the produced tag to identify to the consumer that new data is present. You
can also provide a return handshake via a reverse produced/consumed tag, so that the original producer knows that the
consumer received and processed the tag.
Use a CPS instruction to buffer produced and consumed
data.
Use the CPS instruction to copy the data to the outgoing tag on the producer side. Then use another CPS instruction to
copy the data into a buffer tag on the consumer side.
The CPS instructions provide data integrity for data structures greater than 32 bits.
Important: The controller inhibits all interrupts while it executes a CPS instruction.
Use unicast EtherNet/IP communication to reduce
broadcast network traffic.
To reduce bandwidth use and preserve network integrity, some facilities block multicast Ethernet packets. With
RSLogix 5000 software, version 16, you can configure a produced and consumed tag to use multicast or unicast
connections. Unicast connections help with the following:
• Reduce network bandwidth
• Simplify Ethernet switch configuration
When configuring produced and consumed tags, you specify a requested packet
interval (RPI) rate. The RPI value is the rate at which the controller attempts to
communicate with the module.
Guidelines to Specify an RPI
Rate for Produced and
Consumed Tags
Guideline
Description
Make sure that the RPI is equal to or greater than the NUT. You use RSNetWorx™ for ControlNet™ software to select the network update time (NUT) and the software schedules the
network connections.
RSNetWorx™ software cannot schedule a ControlNet network if a module and/or produced/consumed tag on the network
has an RPI that is faster than the network update time.
The smallest (fastest) consumer RPI determines the RPI
for the produced tag.
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If multiple consumers request the same tag, the smallest (fastest) request determines the rate at which the tag is
produced for all consumers.
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Chapter 5
Guidelines to Manage
Connections for Produced
and Consumed Tags
Guideline
Description
Minimize the use of produced and consumed tags.
To reduce network traffic, minimize the size of produced and consumed tags. Also, minimize the use of produced and
consumed tags to high-speed, deterministic data, such as interlocks.
Use arrays or user-defined structures.
When sending multiple tags to the same controller, use an array or user-defined structure to consolidate the data. The
byte limit of  500 bytes per produced and consumed tag still applies.
Configure the number of consumers accurately.
Make sure the number of consumers that are configured for a produced tag is the actual number of controllers that
consumes the tag. If you set the number higher than the actual number of controllers, you unnecessarily use up
connections.
The default is two consumers per produced tag.
Multiple produced/consumed connections are linked.
If there are multiple produced and consumed connections between two controllers and one connection fails, all produced
and consumed connections fail.
Consider combining all produced and consumed data into one structure or array so that you only need one connection
between the controllers.
Configure an Event Task
Based on a Consumed Tag
An event task executes automatically based on a preconfigured event occurring.
One such event can be the arrival of a consumed tag.
• Only one consumed tag can trigger a specific event task.
• Use an IoT instruction in the producing controller to signal the production
of new data.
• When a consumed tag triggers an event task, the event task waits for all
data to arrive before the event task executes.
For information on configuring an event task, see Configure an Event Task on
page 30,
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Compare Messages and
Produced/Consumed Tags
Method
Benefits
Considerations
Read/Write Message
• Programmatically initiated
• Communication and network resources that are only used when
needed
• Support automatic fragmentation and reassembly of large data
packets, up to as many as 32,767 elements
• Some connections can be cached to improve retransmission time
• Generic CIP message useful for third-party devices
• Delay can occur if resources are not available when needed
• MSG instruction and processing can impact controller scan
(system overhead timeslice)
• Data arrives asynchronous to program scan (use a programmatic
handshake or an UID/UIE instruction pair to reduce impact, no
event task support)
• Can add additional messages online in Run mode.
Produced/Consumed Tag
• Configured once and sent automatically based on requested
packet interval (RPI)
• Multiple consumers can simultaneously receive the same data
from a produced tag
• Can trigger an event task when consumed data arrives
• ControlNet resources are reserved up front
• Does not affect the scan of the controller
• Support limited to Logix5000 and PLC-5 controllers, and the
1784-KTCS I/O Linx and select third-party devices
• Limited to 500 bytes over the backplane and 480 bytes over a
network
• Must be scheduled when using ControlNet
• Data arrives asynchronous to program scan (use a programmatic
handshake or CPS instruction and event tasks to synchronize)
• Connection status must be obtained separately
• With RSLogix 5000 version 17 and later, you can configure status
information for a produced/consumed tag
• On an EtherNet/IP network, you can configure produced/
consumed tags to use multicast or unicast connections.
• Cannot create additional produced/consumed tags online in Run
mode.
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Communicate with I/O
In Logix5000 controllers, I/O values update at a period, requested packet
interval (RPI), which you configure via Module Property dialog in the I/O
configuration folder of the project. The values update asynchronously to the
execution of logic.
The module sends input values to the controller at the specified RPI. Because this
transfer is asynchronous to the execution of logic, an I/O value in the controller
can change in the middle of a scan.
Buffer I/O Data
If you reference an I/O tag multiple times, and the application could be impacted
if the value changes during a program scan, you must copy the I/O value into a
buffer tag before the first reference of that tag in your code. In your code,
reference the buffer tag rather than the I/O tag.
IMPORTANT
Use the synchronous copy (CPS) instruction to buffer I/O data. While the CPS
instruction copies data, no I/O updates or other tasks can change the data.
Tasks that attempt to interrupt a CPS instruction are delayed until the
instruction is done. Overuse of the CPS instruction can impact controller
performance by keeping all other tasks from executing.
Buffer I/O data to do the following:
• Prevent an input or output value from changing during the execution of a
program. (I/O updates asynchronous to the execution of logic.)
• Copy an input or output tag to a member of a structure or element of an
array.
• Prevent produced or consumed data from changing during the execution
of a program.
• Make sure all produced and consumed data arrives or is sent as a group
(not mixed from multiple transfers)
• Only use the CPS instruction if the I/O data that you want to buffer is
greater than 32 bits (or 4 bytes) in size
Overuse of the CPS instruction can greatly impact controller performance.
If you have a user-defined structure with members that represent I/O devices, you
must use logic to copy the data into the members of the structure from the
corresponding I/O tags.
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Configure an RPI rate per module (ControlLogix and SoftLogix) or an RPI rate
per controller (CompactLogix). The RPI value is the rate at which the controller
attempts to communicate with the module.
Guidelines to Specify an RPI
Rate for I/O Modules
Guideline
Description
Specify an RPI at 50% of the rate you actually need.
Setting the RPI faster (specifying a smaller number) than what your application needs wastes network resources, such as
ControlNet schedule bandwidth, network processing time, and CPU processing time.
For example, if you need information every 80 ms, set the RPI at 40 ms. The data is asynchronous to the controller scan, so
you sample data twice as often (but no faster) than you need it to make sure that you have the most current data.
Group devices with similar performance needs onto the
same module.
By grouping devices with similar performance needs on the same module, you consolidate data transmission to one
module rather than multiple modules. This conserves network bandwidth.
Set the ControlNet network update time (NUT) equal to or
less than the fastest RPI.
When configuring a ControlNet network, set the network update time (NUT) equal to or less than the fastest RPI of the
I/O modules and produced/consumed tags in the system. For example, if your fastest RPI is 10 ms, set the NUT to 5 ms for
more flexibility in scheduling the network.
In an ControlNet system, use even multiples of the NUT for
the RPI value.
Set the RPI to a binary multiple of the NUT. For example, if the NUT is 10 ms, select an RPI such as 10, 20, 40, 80, or
160 ms.
In a ControlNet system, isolate I/O communication.
If you use unscheduled ControlNet communication or want to be able to add ControlNet I/O at runtime (see page 83),
dedicate one ControlNet network to I/O communication only. On the dedicated I/O network, make sure that there is
the following:
• No HMI traffic
• No MSG traffic
• No programming workstations
• No peer-to-peer interlocking in multi-processor system architectures
In an EtherNet/IP system, module change of state is
limited to 1/4 of the RPI.
If you configure change of state communication for a module in a remote chassis that is connected via an EtherNet/IP
network, the module can send data only as fast as the module RPI. Initially, the module sends its data immediately.
However, when an input changes, the module data is held at the adapter until 1/4 of the RPI is reached to avoid
overloading the EtherNet/IP network with the module communication.
Data transmission depends on the controller.
The type of controller determines the data transmission rate.
• ControlLogix and SoftLogix controllers transmit data at the RPI you configure for the module.
• CompactLogix controllers transmit data at powers of 2 ms (such as 2, 4, 8, 16, 64, or 128). For example, if you specify
an RPI of 100 ms, the data actually transfers at 64 ms.
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Communication Formats for
I/O Modules
Direct connection
Chapter 6
The communication format determines whether the controller connects to the
I/O module via a direct or a rack-optimized connection. The communication
format also determines the type and quantity of information that the module
provides or uses.
Each module passes its data to/from the controller individually. Communication
modules bridge data across networks.
Digital Inputs
Local Chassis
Communication
Module
Remote Chassis
Benefits
Considerations
• Each module can determine its own rate (RPI)
• More data can be sent per module, such as diagnostic and analog data
• Supports event task communication
• Requires additional connections and network resources
• This is the only method supported in the local chassis
• I/O data presented as individual tags
Rack-optimized connection
Digital Outputs
Communication
Module
Controller
The communication module in a remote chassis consolidates data from multiple
modules into a single packet and transmits that packet as a single connection to
the controller.
Digital Inputs
Local Chassis
Communication
Module
Digital Outputs
Communication
Module
Controller
Remote Chassis
.
Benefits
Considerations
• One connection can service a full chassis of digital modules
• Reduces network resources and loading
•
•
•
•
•
All modules are sent at the same rate
Unused slots are still communicated
Still need a direct connection for analog and diagnostic data
Limited to remote chassis
I/O data presented as arrays with alias tags for each module
The rack-optimized format limits data to one 32-bit input word per module in a
chassis. If you place a diagnostic module in a chassis, the rack-optimized format
eliminates the value that the diagnostic module offers. In this case, it’s better to
use a direct connection so that the diagnostic information from the module is
passed to the controller.
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Peer control
Output modules let peer ownership of input modules to consume input data to
directly control outputs without requiring controller processing. The 1756IB16IF and 1756-IB16IFC modules can be listened to presuming the output
module knows the input data layout and connection information. The
configuration from the controller defines how the peer input data is mapped to
the output modules. The controller can use the other digital points on the
module that are not peer-owned as conventional outputs.
The controller can also use the output data it normally sends to the module with
consumed inputs, letting ‘gate-type’ features enabled by controller logic
selectively letting application of the consumed peer input data.
Connection / Peer Control
Output Data
Connection
Listen Only
I
N
P
U
T
Input
Input
O
U
T
P
U
T
Output Echo
.
Benefits
Considerations
• Faster response time because the controller scan time is removed from the equation.
Data is sent directly to the output module from the input module.
• Increases controller performance by reducing the need for event tasks to close loops
quickly.
• Each input module has an AND and OR bit mask that defines the logic that is applied to
each input module.
• You must program the controller for proper relationship with the output modules.
• The peer output module must be in the same chassis as the input module to maximize
response time.
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Chapter 6
Electronic Keying
Electronic Keying reduces the possibility that you use the wrong device in a
control system. It compares the device that is defined in your project to the
installed device. If keying fails, a fault occurs. These attributes are compared.
Attribute
Description
Vendor
The device manufacturer.
Device Type
The general type of the product, for example, digital I/O module.
Product Code
The specific type of the product. The Product Code maps to a catalog number.
Major Revision
A number that represents the functional capabilities of a device.
Minor Revision
A number that represents behavior changes in the device.
The following Electronic Keying options are available.
Keying Option
Description
Compatible
Module
Lets the installed device accept the key of the device that is defined in the project when the
installed device can emulate the defined device. With Compatible Module, you can typically
replace a device with another device that has the following characteristics:
• Same catalog number
• Same or higher Major Revision
• Minor Revision as follows:
– If the Major Revision is the same, the Minor Revision must be the same or higher.
– If the Major Revision is higher, the Minor Revision can be any number.
Disable Keying
Indicates that the keying attributes are not considered when attempting to communicate with a
device. With Disable Keying, communication can occur with a device other than the type specified
in the project.
ATTENTION: Be cautious when using Disable Keying; if used incorrectly, this option can lead to
personal injury or death, property damage, or economic loss.
We strongly recommend that you do not use Disable Keying.
If you use Disable Keying, you must take full responsibility for understanding whether the device
being used can fulfill the functional requirements of the application.
Exact Match
Indicates that all keying attributes must match to establish communication. If any attribute does
not match precisely, communication with the device does not occur.
Carefully consider the implications of each keying option when selecting one.
IMPORTANT
When you change Electronic Keying parameters online, it interrupts
connections to the device and any devices that are connected through the
device. Connections from other controllers can also be broken.
If an I/O connection to a device is interrupted, the result can be a loss of data.
More Information
For more detailed information on Electronic Keying, see Electronic Keying in
Logix5000 Control Systems Application Technique, publication LOGIXAT001.
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Guidelines to Manage I/O Connections
Use the following guidelines to administer your I/O modules.
Table 3 - I/O Connection Guidelines
Guideline
Description
The type of I/O module can determine the type of
connection.
Analog modules always use direct connections, except for 1771 analog modules that use messaging.
Digital modules can use direct or rack-optimized connections. Communication formats that include optimization in the
title are rack-optimized connections; all other connection options are direct connections.
Select the communication format for a remote adapter
based on the remote I/O modules.
Select one of these formats for a remote adapter.
Select
If
None
The remote chassis contains only analog modules, diagnostic digital modules, fused output modules, or
communication modules.
On a ControlNet network, use None to add a new chassis to the network while the controller is running.
Rack-Optimized
The remote chassis only contains standard, digital input, and output modules (no diagnostic modules or fused
output modules).
For a ControlNet network at runtime (controller is online), you can add new digital modules to an existing rack-optimized
connection, but new rack-optimized connections can only be added when offline. An EtherNet/IP network supports new
rack optimized connections both offline and at runtime (online). For more information, see page 83.
Listen Only Rack-Optimized
You want to receive I/O module and chassis slot information from a rack-optimized remote chassis that is owned by
another controller.
The runtime capability for listen only rack-optimized connections is the same as for rack-optimized connections.
Use rack-optimized connections to conserve connections
If you are trying to limit the number of controller and network connections, rack-optimized connections can help.
In some cases, all direct connections work best.
For a remote adapter that is configured for rack-optimized connections, there is always data that is sent for each slot in
the chassis, even if a slot is empty or contains a direct connection module. There are 12 bytes of data that is transferred for
rack-optimized overhead between the controller and the remote adapter. In addition, the remote adapter sends 8 bytes
per slot to the controller; the controller sends 4 bytes per slot to the remote adapter.
For a few digital modules in a large chassis, it can be better to use direct connections because transferring the full chassis
information can require more system bandwidth than direct connections to a few modules.
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Example
Description
Remote 17-slot chassis
Slot 0: 1756-CNBR/D
Slots 1…15: analog modules
Slot 16: standard digital module
Option 1: Select Rack Optimization as the communication format for the remote adapter. This example uses 16
controller connections (15 for analog modules and 1 for the rack-optimized connection). This example also
transfers:
• 12 bytes for rack-optimized overhead.
• 12 bytes for the digital module.
• 12 bytes for each of the 15 analog modules, for a total of 180 bytes.
Option 2: Select None as the communication format for the remote adapter. This example also uses 16 controller
connections (1 direct connection to each I/O module). There is no rack-optimized overhead data to transfer.
Recommendation: Option 2 is recommended because it avoids unnecessary network traffic, and thus improves
network performance.
Remote 17-slot chassis
Slot 0: 1756-CNBR/D
Slots 1…8: analog modules
Slots 9…16: digital modules
Option 1: Select Rack Optimization as the communication format for the remote adapter. This example uses nine
controller connections (eight for analog modules and one for the rack-optimized connection). This example also
transfers:
• 12 bytes for rack-optimized overhead.
• 12 bytes for each of the 8 digital modules, for a total of bytes 96 bytes.
• 12 bytes for each of the 8 analog modules, for a total of 96 bytes.
Option 2: Select Rack Optimization for the communication format of the remote adapter. This example uses
16 controller connections (1 direct connection to each I/O module). There is no rack-optimized overhead data to
transfer.
Recommendation: The best option for this example depends on the type of digital I/O modules in the system
and other controller connections. If the total system has many analog modules, diagnostic modules, fused output
modules, or produced/consumed tags, select Option 1 to conserve controller connections. If there are plenty of
controller connections available, select Option 2 to reduce unnecessary network traffic.
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Chapter 6
The Logix5000 controllers support the following:
• Remote I/O communication to 1771 digital and analog I/O modules
• ControlNet communication to 1771 digital I/O modules
• Block transfer message instructions via a remote I/O or ControlNet
network to 1771 analog and intelligent I/O modules
Control 1771 I/O Modules
Guideline
Description
Distribute 1771 analog I/O modules.
Spread 1771 I/O analog I/O modules across multiple chassis to reduce the number of block transfers one
1771-ACN15, 1771-ACNR15, or 1771-ASB adapter manages.
Isolate different 1771 chassis on different networks to diversify the communication so no single network communication
module has to manage all block transfer messages.
For block transfers over a ControlNet network, increase
the amount of ControlNet unscheduled bandwidth.
The traffic load of scheduled communication determines the amount of time available for unscheduled communication.
Boundary moves according to
scheduled traffic load.
Network Update Time
(NUT) Period Start
Next Network Update Time
(NUT) Period
·Scheduled traffic
·Each device/node transmits
only once
·Unscheduled traffic
·Network maintenance
Increase the controller system overhead to allocate more CPU time to message and block transfer processing.
Program block transfers.
Unscheduled data is limited to 510 bytes/node per ControlNet NUT. The 1756-CNB is limited to 128 words per transfer. If
needed, data is sent in multiple packets.
The data transfer occurs asynchronous to the program scan. See page 101 for more information on block transfers.
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HART (Highway Addressable Remote Transmitter) is an open protocol that is
designed to connect analog devices in industrial process-measurement
applications. The protocol uses the standard 4…20 mA current loop that is widely
used for such measurements.
Communicate with HART
Devices
The 1756-IFxH and 1756-OFxH modules offer analog and HART connectivity
in one module. You can place modules local to the controller or remote over
ControlNet or EtherNet/IP networks. You do not need external hardware to
access the HART signal.
ControlLogix Controller with 1756-IF8H and
1756-OF8H Modules
HART Field Devices
Guideline
Description
Enable HART support on only those channels that need
the support.
All channels share the HART modem, so HART response time is better if you enable only the needed HART channels.
The update rate for the HART part of a tag is slower than
for the analog part.
The update rate varies, depending on HART network traffic. If all eight channels have HART enabled, update rates are in
the range of 10 s. Be sure to consider this response time in your control strategy. Also, check the data quality indications
that are provided with the HART data.
The Device Variable Status (PVStatus, SVStatus, TVStatus,
FVStatus) is a relatively new feature in HART systems.
If your HART device does not support Device Variable Status, the 1756-IF8H and 1756-OF8H module synthesizes a status
value that is based on the communication status with the HART field device.
The Dynamic Variables do not update as fast as the Analog Signal. The actual rate depends on:
• The number of channels that are configured for HART.
• The number of Pass Through commands.
• The presence of handheld communicators or other secondary masters.
• The response speed of the field device.
The 1756 HART modules support asset management
software.
HART must be enabled before any asset management access is possible, including scanning for multiplexors. RSLinx
Professional software, RSLinx Gateway software, and RSLinx OEM software let asset management software communicate
through networks and the 1756 backplane.
Endress+Hauser FieldCare asset management software is a Field Device Tool (FDT) frame application. The frame
application runs the Device Type Manager (DTM) files. The DTM files are executable files that are provided by control and
device vendors. There are communication DTMs and device DTMs. Rockwell Automation provides one communication
DTM for RSLinx software and the 1756 backplane and two other communication DTMs for the 1756 HART modules.
Companies like Endress+Hauser provide device DTMs for their instruments and valves. The device DTMs provide
visualization of the parameters that are used to configure, monitor, and maintain the devices.
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Chapter 6
FOUNDATION Fieldbus is a communication network that is created by the
Fieldbus Foundation. It is a protocol that is designed for distributed control of
process control applications.
Communicate with
FOUNDATION Fieldbus
Devices
If your application bridges from
Select
Description
EtherNet/IP
1757-FFLD2
1757-FFLD4
The 1757-FFLDx linking device bridges from an Ethernet network to either two or four H1 ports.
ControlNet
1757-FFLDC2
1757-FFLDC4
The 1757-FFLDCx linking device bridges from a ControlNet network to either two or four H1 ports. The
1757-FFLDCx is compatible with ControlLogix redundancy and supports redundant ControlNet media.
Figure 1 - Example Configuration - EtherNet/IP Network to FOUNDATION Fieldbus Network
ControlLogix Controller
with 1756-ENBT
Field Device
24V DC
Power
Supply
RSFieldbus™
H1
Ethernet
Field Device
1757-FFLD
Linking Device
OPC
24V DC
Power
Supply
OPC Client
Power
Conditioner
Figure 2 - Example Configuration - ControlNet Network to FOUNDATION Fieldbus Network
ControlLogix Controller
with 1756-ENBT
and 1756-CNB
Field Device
24V DC
Power
Supply
RSFieldbus
Ethernet
OPC
OPC Client
H1
ControlNet
Field Device
1757-FFLDC
Linking Device
24V DC
Power
Supply
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Table 4 - Linking Device Guidelines
Guideline
Description
Use either the EtherNet/IP linking device or the
ControlNet linking device with an HSE server.
Rockwell Automation does not support 1757-FFLDC and 1757-FFLD linking devices communicating with the same HSE
server in the same RSFieldbus project.
Each linking device supports 16 Logix blocks.
Each Logix block supports eight digital inputs, eight digital outputs, eight analog inputs, and eight analog outputs. Each
Logix block uses one CIP connection.
The connections that are required for a linking device
depend on the number of Logix blocks.
Each linking device uses these connections:
• Two connections to the network communication module
• One connection for each Logix block
The type of device affects the maximum number of
FOUNDATION Fieldbus devices per H1 segment.
Each linking device supports two or four H1 segments, with 8...10 instruments (16 maximum) per each H1 segment.
Do not exceed the maximum number of virtual
A VCR is a channel that provides for the transfer of data between FOUNDATION Fieldbus devices. The number of VCRs
communication relationships (VCRs) on each H1 segment. required to send data or receive data depends on the device and type of data. Each parameter that you pass to or from the
Logix5000 controller uses a VCR. Some devices, such as valves, use more VCRs than transmitters.
As of firmware revision 2.1 and later, the linking device supports a maximum of 64 publisher and 64 subscriber VCRs for
each H1 segment. Earlier firmware revisions support a maximum of 16 publisher and 16 subscriber VCRs for each H1
segment.
Make sure that you have the correct device description
(DD) for each linking device.
DDs are like EDS files for DeviceNet devices. You can find DDs on vendor/organization websites or on media that ships
with the device. A host with DD services can interoperate with all parameters defined in the DD for a field device.
Use the right wiring and connection products.
Always use a tree or modified tree topology. Never daisy chain devices.
Noise is the most frequent problem, due to:
• Wrong wiring
• Improper grounding
• Bad connectors
To get the best implementation, understand the details of
a FOUNDATION Fieldbus system.
See these references:
• FOUNDATION Fieldbus System User Manual, publication 1757-UM012
• FOUNDATION Fieldbus Design Considerations Reference Manual, publication RSFBUS-RM001
• FOUNDATION Fieldbus Technical Overview at http://www.fieldbus.org
• Relcom Wiring Guide at http://www.relcominc.com
• Pepperl-Fuchs Fieldbus Wiring and Installation Guide
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Chapter 6
Each I/O tag is automatically created when you configure the I/O module
through the programming software. Each tag name follows this format:
Create Tags for I/O Data
Location:SlotNumber:Type.MemberName.SubMemberName.Bit
This address variable
Is
Location
Identifies network location
LOCAL = local chassis or DIN rail
ADAPTER_NAME = identifies remote adapter or bridge
SlotNumber
Slot number of I/O module in its chassis
Type
Type of data:
I = input
O = output
C = configuration
S = status
MemberName
Specific data from the I/O module, such as Data and Fault; depends on the module
SubMemberName
Specific data that is related to a MemberName
Bit (optional)
Specific point on the I/O module; depends on the size of the I/O module (0…31 for a 32-point module)
If you configure a rack-optimized connection, the software creates a rack-object
tag for the remote communication module. You can reference the rack-optimized
I/O module individually, or by its element within the rack-object tag.
For example, a remote ControlNet communication module
(remote_cnb) has an I/O module in slot 1.
The individual tag that is created for the I/O
module in remote slot 1.
The entry in the rack-object tag for the remote
communication module that identifies the I/O
module in remote slot 1.
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Controller Ownership
When you choose a communication format, you have to choose whether to
establish an owner or listen-only relationship with the module.
Mode
Description
Owner
The owner controller writes configuration data and can establish a connection to the module.
Listen-only
A controller that uses a listen-only connection only monitors the module. It does not write configuration data and can
only maintain a connection to the I/O module when the owner controller is actively controlling the I/O module.
There is a noted difference in the ownership of input modules versus the
ownership of output modules.
Controlling
This Ownership
Description
Input modules
Owner
An input module is configured by a controller that establishes a connection as an owner. This configuring controller
is the first controller to establish an owner connection.
Once an input module has been configured (and owned by a controller), other controllers can establish owner
connections to that module. This lets additional owners to continue to receive multicast data if the original owner
controller breaks its connection to the module. All other additional owners must have the identical configuration
data and identical communication format that the original owner controller has, otherwise the connection attempt
is rejected.
Listen-only
Once an input module has been configured (and owned by a controller), other controllers can establish a listen-only
connection to that module. These controllers can receive multicast data while another controller owns the module.
If all owner controllers break their connections to the input module, all controllers with listen-only connections no
longer receive multicast data.
Owner
An output module is configured by a controller that establishes a connection as an owner. Only one owner
connection can be connected to an output module. If another controller attempts to establish an owner connection,
the connection attempt is rejected.
Listen-only
Once an output module has been configured (and owned by one controller), other controllers can establish listenonly connections to that module. These controllers can receive multicast data while another controller owns the
module. If the owner controller breaks its connection to the output module, all controllers with listen-only
connections no longer receive multicast data.
Output modules
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Communicate with I/O
Runtime/Online Addition of
Modules
Chapter 6
You can add modules when the controller is in Run mode.
RSLogix 5000 Software
Support for Online Addition of Modules
Version 15 and later
Add 1756 I/O modules to the local chassis, remotely via the unscheduled portion
of a ControlNet network, and remotely via an EtherNet/IP network.
Version 17 and later
Add a 1757-FFLDC module remotely via the unscheduled portion of a ControlNet
network.
Network
Considerations
ControlNet network
You can use:
• 1756-CN2, 1756-CN2R, 1756-CN2RTXT any series modules.
• 1756-CNB, 1756-CNBR series D or later communication modules.
Digital I/O modules can be added as rack-optimized connections if the parent module is already configured with rack-optimized connections. While you can
add a new digital I/O module to an existing rack-optimized connection, you cannot add rack-optimized connections while online. Digital I/O modules can
also be added as direct connections.
Analog I/O modules can be added only as direct connections.
Disable the Change of State (COS) feature on digital input modules because it can cause inputs to be sent more quickly than the RPI.
If you plan to add large amounts of I/O to the ControlNet network, dedicate one ControlNet network for I/O. For the dedicated ControlNet network, verify
that there is little or no:
• HMI traffic.
• MSG traffic.
• Programming workstations.
If the module has a Real Time Sample (RTS), disable it or set to a rate that is greater than the RPI.
Considerations for 1756-CN2, 1756-CN2R, 1756-CN2RXT Modules
You can add I/O modules until you reach these limits:
• 80% of CPU utilization of the 1756-CN2, 1756-CN2R, or 1756-CN2RXT communication module.
• Less than 400,000 unscheduled bytes per second are displayed in RSNetWorx™ for ControlNet software after the network has been scheduled.
Considerations for 1756-CNB, 1756-CNBR Modules
Requested Packet Intervals (RPIs) faster than 25 ms for unscheduled modules can overload the 1756-CNB or 1756-CNBR communication module. To avoid
the overload, make these considerations:
• Use a NUT of 10 ms or more.
• Keep the SMAX and UMAX values as small as possible.
You can add I/O modules until you reach these limits:
• 75% of CPU utilization of the 1756-CNB or 1756-CNBR communication module.
• Plan for a CPU-use increase of 1...4% of the 1756-CNB or 1756-CNBR module for each I/O module you add, depending on RPI.
• 48 connections on the 1756-CNB or 1756-CNBR communication module.
• Less than 400,000 unscheduled bytes per second are displayed in RSNetWorx for ControlNet software after the network has been scheduled.
EtherNet/IP network
The EtherNet/IP I/O modules that you add at runtime can be:
• Added to existing rack-optimized connections
• Added to new rack-optimized connections
• Added as direct connections (you can create rack-optimized connections when adding EtherNet/IP I/O modules at runtime)
You can add I/O modules until you reach the limits of the communication module.
1756-EN2TR, 1756-EN3TR Module
1756-EN2T, 1756-EN2TXT,
1756-EN2F Module
1756-ENBT Module
1756-ENET/B Module
20,000 pps
10,000 pps
5000 pps
900 pps
128 TCP connections
128 TCP connections
64 TCP connections
64 TCP connections
256 CIP connected messages
256 CIP connected messages
128 CIP connected messages
160 CIP connected messages
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Add Modules at Runtime/Online
Module Type and
Connection Method
In Local Chassis
Offline
Remote via a ControlNet Network
Runtime(1)
Remote via an
EtherNet/IP Network
Runtime(1)
Offline
Scheduled
Unscheduled Scheduled
Unscheduled
Configure Hold Last
Output State
Offline
Runtime(1)
Offline only
Motion - direct
Yes
No
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
Digital - direct
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes - 1756 I/O digital
output modules
Digital - rack-optimized
N/A
N/A
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Yes - 1756 I/O digital
output modules
Analog - direct
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Generic third party - direct
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
N/A
1756-DNB
Yes
No
Yes
No
No
No
Yes
Yes
N/A
1756-DHRIO
Yes
No
Yes
No
No
No
Yes
Yes
N/A
1756-CNx - no connection
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
N/A
N/A
N/A
1756-CNx - rack-optimized
N/A
N/A
Yes
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
Generic ControlNet third party
- direct
N/A
N/A
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
N/A
N/A
N/A
1757-FFLDx linking device
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
Yes
Yes
N/A
1757-FFLDCx linking device(2)
N/A
N/A
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
N/A
N/A
N/A
1788HP-EN2PA-R
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
Yes
Yes
N/A
1788HP-CN2PA-R
N/A
N/A
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
N/A
N/A
N/A
1715 Redundant I/O
No
No
No
No
No
No
Yes
Yes
N/A
1756-ENx - no connection
Yes
Yes
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
Yes
Yes
N/A
1756-ENx - rack-optimized
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
Yes
Yes
N/A
Generic EtherNet/IP third
party - direct
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
Yes
Yes
N/A
1794 FLEX™ I/O
N/A
N/A
Yes
Yes
No
No
Yes
No
Yes - Analog output
modules only
POINT I/O™
N/A
N/A
Yes
Yes
No
No
Yes
No
Yes (3)
(1) Support for I/O modules added with RSLogix 5000 software, version 15.00.00.
(2) Support for 1757-FFLDC devices added with RSLogix 5000 software, version 17.00.00.
(3) When you lose communication to the controller, POINT I/O modules ignore the last output state configuration, an d set the outputs to zero.
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Communicate with I/O
Chapter 6
Design Considerations for Runtime/Online Addition of Modules
When you design your network, address these considerations to add modules at
runtime.
Design Issue
Considerations
I/O modules
When planning to add 1756 I/O modules at runtime, leave space in the local chassis, remote chassis on a ControlNet network, or remote chassis
on an EtherNet/IP network for the I/O modules you want to add.
Other modules
You can add 1757-FFLDC devices remotely via the unscheduled portion of a ControlNet network at runtime.
Input transmission rate
Make sure the RPIs work for the data you want to send and receive.
Make sure the added I/O does not depend on change of state data.
Network topology
On a ControlNet network, install spare taps so you can add modules at runtime without disrupting the network. Each tap must be terminated
so as to not ground out the system. Check ControlNet system requirements to determine how many spare taps your network can support.
• In a ControlNet network with redundant cabling, you can break the trunk and add a tap, but redundant cabling is lost during the module
installation.
• In a ControlNet ring, add a drop off the ring or add new nodes off the coax and disrupt only part of the network.
• You could remove an existing node and add a repeater off that drop. Then reconnect the existing node and add any new nodes off the new
segment.
On an EtherNet/IP network, reserve some connection points on the switch so that you can connect additional nodes or switches in the future.
Network configuration
On a ControlNet network, plan which communication can be scheduled or unscheduled.
On an EtherNet/IP network, all communication is immediate and occurs based on a module’s RPI (also referred to as unscheduled).
If you know that you need a new chassis with digital modules in the future, configure the network and add it to the I/O configuration tree as
rack optimized. Then inhibit the communication adapter until you need the chassis.
Network performance
You can add modules at runtime until you impact the capacity of the communication module.
Make sure that you have sufficient communication modules for the connections you plan to add.
For more information, see the Runtime/Online Addition of ControlLogix
(1756) I/O Over ControlNet and EtherNet/IP White Paper,
publication LOGIX-WP006.
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Notes:
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Chapter
7
Determine the Appropriate Network
EtherNet/IP™, ControlNet™, and DeviceNet™ networks share a universal set of
communication services. These are the recommended networks for Logix
control systems.
Comparison
EtherNet/IP Network
ControlNet Network
DeviceNet Network
Function
Plant management system tie-in
Supports transmission of time critical
(material handling); configuration,
data between PLC processors and
data collection, and control on a high- I/O devices
speed network
Connects low-level devices directly to
plant-floor controllers—without
interfacing them through I/O modules
Typical devices networked1756-RM094
Mainframe computers
Programmable controllers
Robots
HMI
I/O
Drives
Process instruments
Programmable controllers
I/O chassis
HMIs
PCs
Drives
Robots
Sensors
Motor starters
Drives
PCs
Push buttons
Low-end HMIs
Bar code readers
PLC processors
Valve manifolds
Data repetition
Large packets, data sent regularly
Medium-size packets; data
transmissions are deterministic and
repeatable
Small packets; data is sent as needed
Number of nodes, max
No limit
99 nodes
64 total nodes
Data transfer rate
10 Mbps, 100 Mbps, or 1 Gbps
5 Mbps
500 Kbps, 250 Kbps, or 125 Kbps
Typical use
Plant-wide architecture
High-speed applications
Redundant applications
Scheduled communication
Supply power and connectivity to
low-level devices.
Follow these guidelines when planning a network.
Design Issue
Considerations
Network topology
Plan for future connections.
Plan for additional controllers and/or communication modules to handle future I/O modules.
Consider distances between devices.
Determine resiliency requirements.
Network configuration
On a ControlNet network, plan which communication can be scheduled or can be unscheduled.
On an EtherNet/IP network, all I/O communication is based on a the RPI of the module.
Network performance
Make sure that you have sufficient communication modules for the connections you plan to use.
Use available network performance tools.
Chassis
Consolidate communication connections for multiple modules to one network node. Group digital I/O modules into a rack-optimized
connection to reduce the amount of communication and network bandwidth.
Input transmission rate
Make sure the RPIs work for the data you want to send and receive.
Make sure that I/O added at runtime does not depend on change of state data.
For more information about planning for adding I/O modules at runtime/
online, see Runtime/Online Addition of Modules on page 83.
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EtherNet/IP Network Topology
EtherNet/IP Network
Topology
• An EtherNet/IP network supports messaging, produced and consumed tags, and
distributed I/O
• An EtherNet/IP network supports half-duplex/full-duplex, 10 Mbps or
100 Mbps operation
• An EtherNet/IP network requires no network scheduling
• There are several methods available to configure EtherNet/IP network parameters for
devices. Not all methods are always available. These methods are device and configuration
dependent:
– DHCP
– Rockwell Automation BOOTP/DHCP utility
– RSLinx software
– Logix Designer application
– RSNetWorx™ for EtherNet/IP software
– Web browser
– SNMP tools
Application Ideas
• Connectivity to commercial devices (such as cameras and phones)
• Business systems with remote access or sharing data
• Applications with motion or safety on the same network.
• Plant management (material handling)
• Configuration, data collection, and control on a high-speed network
• Time-critical applications with no established schedule
• Inclusion of commercial technologies (such as video over IP)
• Internet/Intranet connection
Star
Ring with
Switches
Linear
D
D
D
Device Level Ring
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
Redundant Star
Switch
D
D
D
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Switch
D
Determine the Appropriate Network
Chapter 7
Guidelines for EtherNet/IP Networks
Guideline
Description
Use these publications.
• EtherNet/IP Network Configuration User Manual, publication ENET-UM001
• EtherNet/IP Embedded Switch Technology Application Guide, publication ENET-AP005
• EtherNet/IP Design Considerations Reference Manual, publication ENET-RM002
Make sure that the switch has the required features.
For EtherNet/IP control, use an industrial-grade switch.
Required or Recommended
Switch Feature
Required
Full-duplex capability on all ports
Recommended
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
VLAN
Autonegotiation and manually configurable speed/duplex
Wire-speed switching fabric
SNMP
IGMP snooping constrains multicast traffic to ports associated with a
specific IP multicast group
Port diagnostics
Port mirroring (required for troubleshooting)
STP for loop prevention
QoS
Network Address Translation (NAT)
Data transmission depends on the controller.
The type of Logix5000 controller determines the data transmission rate.
• ControlLogix and SoftLogix controllers transmit data at the RPI you configure for the module.
• CompactLogix controllers transmit data at powers of 2 ms (such as 2, 4, 8, 16, 64, or 128). For example, if you specify
an RPI of 100 ms, the data actually transfers at 64 ms.
You can add I/O modules at runtime.
With Logix controller firmware, revision 15, you can add 1756 I/O modules to remote chassis connected via an
EtherNet/IP network to a running controller. You can configure direct or rack-optimized connections. For more
information see Runtime/Online Addition of Modules on page 83.
Data transmission rate depends on the RPI.
An EtherNet/IP network broadcasts I/O information to the controller based on the RPI setting. With change of state (COS)
enabled and:
• No data changes, the EtherNet/IP module produces data every RPI.
• Data changes, the EtherNet/IP module produces data at a maximum rate of RPI/4.
Select unicast EtherNet/IP communication whenever
possible.
To reduce bandwidth use and preserve network integrity, some facilities block multicast Ethernet packets. Multicast is a
more efficient method for transmitting data with multiple consumers and redundancy applications.
You can configure multicast or unicast connections for:
• Produced and consumed tags by using the Logix Designer application
• I/O modules by using the Logix Designer application.
Unicast connections help with the following:
• Letting produced and consumed tag communication span multiple subnets
• Reduce network bandwidth.
• Simplify configuration for EtherNet/IP network devices because of unicast default setting for the Logix Designer
application.
Network Address Translation (NAT)
Network Address Translation is a service that can translate a packet from one IP address to another IP address. NAT
translates one IP address to another IP address via a NAT-configured switch. The switch translates the source and
destination addresses within data packets as traffic passes between subnets.
This service is useful if you reuse IP addresses throughout a network. NAT enables devices that share one IP address on a
private subnet to be segmented into multiple identical private subnets while maintaining unique identities on the
public subnet. The terms private and public differentiate the two networks on either side of the NAT device. The terms do
not mean that the public network must be Internet routable.
The implementation of NAT in Stratix™ switches is distinct in these ways:
• One-to-one NAT—The switch uses one-to-one NAT, rather than one-to-many NAT. One-to-one NAT requires that
each source address translates to one unique destination address. Unlike one-to-many NAT, multiple source addresses
cannot share a destination address.
• Layer 2 implementation—The implementation of NAT operates at the Layer 2 (MAC) level. At this level, the switch
can replace only IP addresses and does not act as a router.
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Guidelines for Switches in EtherNet/IP Systems
Use a Managed Switch
Use an Unmanaged Switch
• The EtherNet/IP control system is directly connected to the business system via a
switch or router. Proper segregation of the control and business network is always a
good design practice.
• The system has non-Rockwell Automation EtherNet/IP devices that are connected on
the network (except for personal computers). These devices can fail to properly handle
the multicast traffic that is generated by the I/O devices.
• If the system performs troubleshooting. For troubleshooting, you need port mirroring,
which is only supported with a managed switch.
In I/O Systems—Only in These Cases
• In an isolated EtherNet/IP architecture, the control system is not directly connected to
the business system. Or, the control system is connected to the business system via a
ControlLogix gateway (for example, a ControlLogix chassis contains two 1756-ENBT
modules; one is connected to the control system and the other is connected to the
business system).
• The EtherNet/IP control system contains only Rockwell Automation devices (except for
personal computers).
• Traffic loading through each device (in packets/sec) is less than the capacity of each
device.
In Non-I/O Systems
• The EtherNet/IP traffic on the network consists of messaging only (MSG instructions,
HMI, program upload/download).
If you use an unmanaged switch, you give up these features:
• Switch port diagnostics
• Port mirroring
• Forced duplex speed
• SNMP
• IGMP snooping
• Web browser to view configuration and diagnostics
• STP or loop prevention
• QoS for network prioritization
Determine Whether Your System Operates Properly
Rockwell Automation EtherNet/IP devices have embedded diagnostic
web pages.
On this web page
Look for
Ethernet Statistics page
• All media counters
• In Error and Out Error counters
• Rejected Packets counter
Numbers near zero (0) and not incrementing.
Diagnostic Overview page
• An absence of connection timeouts.
• Packets/sec counts that are within the capacity of each device.
• MISSED counter-values that are under I/O Packet Counter Statistics that are zero.
If connections frequently break or if HMIs appear to update slowly, reduce traffic
loading. If the situation is multicast-related, it can also help to use managed
switches with IGMP snooping.
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Chapter 7
Stratix Industrial Switches
Switch
Description
Stratix 8000™ and 8300 - modular managed with Cisco
technology
•
•
•
•
Optimized for the enterprise and plant floor
Stratix 8000 for layer 2; Stratix 8300™ for layer 3 routing capability
IT friendly - Cisco operating system, feature set, and user interface
Engineer friendly – Logix-based configuration, Logix-based tags, and FactoryTalk® View faceplates
Stratix 5700™ - managed
•
•
•
•
Compact size
Layer 2 access switch
IT friendly - Cisco operating system, feature set, and user interface
Engineer friendly – Logix-based configuration, Logix-based tags, and FactoryTalk® View faceplates
Stratix 6000™ - fixed managed
• Optimized for the plant floor
• Engineer friendly – Logix-based configuration, Logix-based tags, and FactoryTalk View faceplates
Embedded technology
•
•
•
•
Stratix 2000™ - fixed unmanaged
• Compact size
• IP20 versions
• No configuration required
Two Ethernet ports that are embedded in Allen-Bradley products
Enables high-speed ring and linear topologies
No configuration required
1783-ETAP, 1783-ETAP1F, 1783-ETAP2F – Ethernet tap modules for connectivity to single-port devices
ControlNet Network Topology
Topology
Shared I/
O
ControlNet Network
CPU
CPU
I/O
I/O
Rockwell Automation Publication 1756-RM094I-EN-P - September 2015
ControlNet Network
• A ControlNet network lets both I/O and messaging on the same wire.
• Multiple controllers and their respective I/O can also be placed on the same
ControlNet wire.
• When new I/O is added, or when the communication structure on an existing I/O module
changes, you must use RSNetWorx for ControlNet software to reschedule the network.
• If the network timing changes, every device with scheduled traffic on the network
is affected.
• To reduce the impact of changes, place each CPU and its respective I/O on isolated
ControlNet networks.
• Place shared I/O and produced/consumed tags on a common network available to each
CPU that needs the information.
• Built-in redundant cabling supports I/O network and provides HMI switchover in
redundant ControlLogix system.
Application Ideas
• Default Logix network
• Best replacement for Universal Remote I/O
• Backbone to multiple distributed DeviceNet networks
• Peer interlocking network
• Common devices include: Logix5000 controllers, PanelView terminals, I/O modules,
and drives
ControlNet Network
ControlNet Network
I/O
I/O
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Guidelines for ControlNet Networks
Guideline
Description
Use these publications.
• ControlNet Coax Media Planning and Installation Guide, publication CNET-IN002
• ControlNet Fiber Media Planning and Installation Guide, publication CNET-IN001
• ControlNet Network Configuration User Manual, publication CNET-UM001
Adjust the default RSNetWorx for ControlNet settings.
Change these settings in the RSNetWorx for ControlNet software:
• UMAX (highest unscheduled node on the network)
– Default is 99
– The network takes the time to process the total number of nodes that are specified in this setting, even if there are
not that many devices on the network
– Change to a reasonable level to accommodate the active network devices and additional devices that can be
connected
• SMAX (highest scheduled node on the network)
– Default is 1
– This must be changed for all systems
– Set SMAX < UMAX
Design for at least 400 KB of available, unscheduled
network bandwidth, as displayed by RSNetWorx for
ControlNet software.
Leaving too little bandwidth for unscheduled network communication results in poor message throughput and slower
workstation response.
Unscheduled data transfers on ControlNet occur asynchronous to the program scan and support a maximum of 510
bytes/node per ControlNet NUT.
Place DeviceNet (1756-DNB) communication modules in
the local chassis.
DeviceNet (1756-DNB) communication modules have multiple, 500-byte data packets that impact scheduled bandwidth.
Placing these modules in the same chassis as the controller avoids this data being scheduled over the DeviceNet network.
If you must place these communication devices in remote chassis, configure the input and output sizes to match the data
that is configured in RSNetWorx for DeviceNet software. This reduces the amount of data that must be transmitted.
Limit 1756-CNB, 1756-CNBR connections.
For best performance, limit the 1756-CNB, 1756-CNBR to 40...48 connections. Add additional 1756-CNB, 1756-CNBR
modules in the same chassis if you need more connections. To improve system performance, you can add more modules
and split connections among the modules.
If the chassis that contains the CNB module also contains multiple digital I/O modules, configure the CNB communication
format for Rack Optimization. Otherwise, use None.
As a cost savings measure, use 1756-CNB, 1756-CNBR modules in chassis that contain only I/O modules for traditional
adapter functionality. Use the 1756-CN2, 1756-CN2R, 1756-CN2RXT modules in the same chassis as the controller for
traditional scanner functionality.
For additional connections, consider the 1756-CN2, 1756- The 1756-CN2/B, 1756-CN2R/B, 1756-CN2RTXT communication modules each support 131 connections, and have higher
CN2R, 1756-CN2RXT modules.
performance than previous modules.
The 1756-CN2/A, 1756-CN2R/A communication modules each support 100 connections.
If you change network settings, resave each controller
project.
Any time that you edit the network with RSNetWorx for ControlNet software and you save or merge your edits, connect to
each controller in the system with their respective project file and perform a save and upload. This copies the ControlNet
settings into the offline, database file and makes sure that future downloads of the controller permit it to go online
without having to run RSNetWorx for ControlNet software.
You can add I/O modules at runtime.
With Logix controller firmware, revision 15, you can add 1756 I/O modules and some drives to remote chassis connected
via ControlNet to a running controller. It is recommended to use a 1756-CN2/B, 1756-CNB2R/B, or 1756-CN2RXT module
as the traditional scanner in these applications.
Data transmission depends on the controller.
The type of Logix5000 controller determines the data transmission rate.
• ControlLogix and SoftLogix controllers transmit data at the RPI you configure for the module.
• CompactLogix controllers transmit data at powers of 2 ms (such as 2, 4, 8, 16, 64, and 128). For example, if you specify
an RPI of 100 ms, the data actually transfers at 64 ms.
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Chapter 7
Guidelines for Unscheduled ControlNet Networks
Guideline
Description
You can run an entire ControlNet network as unscheduled. An unscheduled ControlNet network:
• provides for easier network configuration.
• is useful if your I/O updates needs are slower.
• supports the addition of 1756 I/O modules and some drives without placing the controller in Program mode.
• provides an HMI network with fast switchover times in a redundant controller system.
You still must run RSNetWorx for ControlNet software at least once to configure NUT, SMAX, UMAX, and media
configuration settings.
Plan appropriately if you place I/O on an unscheduled
ControlNet network.
Follows these recommendations for I/O on an unscheduled ControlNet network:
• A 1756-CN2, 1756-CN2R series B or later, or a 1756-CN2RXT is recommended.
• Disable the Change of State (COS) feature on digital input modules because it can cause inputs to be sent faster than
the RPI.
• Set the real-time sample (RTS) on analog cards slower than the RPI
• Dedicate a ControlNet network to I/O only.
• Do not exceed 80% utilization of a 1756-CN2, 1756-CN2R, 1756-CN2RXT communication module.
• Do not exceed 75% utilization of a 1756-CNB, 1756-CNBR communication module.
• Have no more than 48 connections on the 1756-CNB, 1756-CNBR communication module.
• Use a NUT of 10 ms or more.
• Keep the SMAX and UMAX values as small as possible.
1756-CNB, 1756-CNBR only
Set the RPI at 25 ms or slower.
Use RPI of 25 ms or slower for unscheduled modules to avoid overload on the 1756-CNB, 1756-CNBR communication
module. Depending on the RPI, the communication module loading increases 1…4% for each I/O module added.
Additional CNB Loading %
Additional 1756-CNB, 1756-CNBR Loading
RPI (ms)
This chart shows the number of modules and associated RPIs so that you do not exceed 75% utilization of the 1756-CNB,
1756-CNBR communication module.
Maximum Number of I/O Modules in an Unscheduled Network
Number of Unscheduled Modules
1756-CNB, 1756-CNBR only
The RPI affects how many I/O modules you can have.
RPI (ms)
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Compare Scheduled and Unscheduled ControlNet Communication
Scheduled ControlNet Communication
Unscheduled ControlNet Communication
Deterministic
Less deterministic than scheduled communication
Provides simpler ControlNet installations when scheduled networks are not required
To add scheduled I/O on the ControlNet network, you must:
• Add the I/O to an offline controller project.
• Download the project to the controller.
• Run RSNetWorx to schedule the network requires network to be scheduled (must stop
the network and put the controller in Program mode to schedule a network).
• Save the controller project.
Can be changed online without impacting the schedule
New modules can affect other modules communicating via unscheduled bandwidth
Supports 1756 I/O modules and some drives
RPI and NUT determine module communication rates
RPI determines module communication rates
MSG and HMI traffic can occur on the same network because they are isolated in
unscheduled traffic
MSG and HMI traffic do not affect I/O communication
Recommend 1756-CN2, 1756-CN2R, 1756-CN2RXT
Recommend a dedicate ControlNet network for only I/O modules
MSG and HMI traffic can affect I/O communication
Direct and rack-optimized connections to I/O
Only direct connections to I/O (results in being able to use fewer total I/O modules
because of the connection limits of controllers and communication modules)
Supports any firmware revision of a ControlNet communication module
You can use any 1756-CN2, 1756-CN2R, 1756-CN2RXT communication module
If you use a 1756-CNB, 1756-CNBR communication module, it must be series D or later
Supports any I/O platform that can communicate via a ControlNet network
Supports only 1756 I/O modules
DeviceNet Network Topology
DeviceNet Network
Topology
• You need a DeviceNet scanner to connect the controller to
DeviceNet devices.
• You must use RSNetWorx for DeviceNet software to configure
devices and create the scanlist for the scanner.
• You can configure the network communication rate as 125
Kbps (default and a good starting point), 250 Kbps, or 500
Kbps.
• If each device on the network (except the scanner) sends  4
bytes of input data and receives  4 bytes of output data, you
can use AutoScan to configure the network.
Application Ideas
• Distributed devices
• Drives network
• Diagnostic information
Single Network
CPU
Scanner
Device
Device
Device
Device
Several Smaller Distributed Networks (Subnets)
Linking
Device
CPU
Device
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Device
Device
Linking
Device
Device
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Device
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Determine the Appropriate Network
Chapter 7
Guidelines for DeviceNet Networks
Guideline
Description
Use these publications.
• DeviceNet Cable System Manual, publication DNET-UM072
• DeviceNet Network Configuration User Manual, publication DNET-UM004
Use the DeviceNet Tag Generator tool.
The Logix Designer application includes a DeviceNet tag generator tool that creates device-specific structured tags and
logic based on the network configuration in RSNetWorx for DeviceNet software.
The logic copies data to and from the DNB data array tags to the device tags so that data is presented synchronously
to program scan.
Place DeviceNet (DNB) communication modules in the
local chassis.
Placing DNB modules in the local chassis maximizes performance, especially in ControlLogix systems.
Size the input and output image for the DNB modules to the actual devices that are connected plus 20% for future
growth. If you have to place DNB modules in remote chassis, sizing the input and output images is critical for best
performance.
Verify the total network data does not exceed the
maximum DNB data table size.
A DNB supports:
• 124, 32-bit input words.
• 123, 32-bit output words.
• 32, 32-bit status words.
You can use RSNetWorx for DeviceNet software offline to estimate network data. Use a second DNB if there is more
network data than one module can support.
Set up slaves first.
Configure a device’s parameters before adding that device to the scanlist. You cannot change the configuration of many
devices once they are already in the scanlist.
If you configure the scanner first, there is a chance that the scanner configuration cannot match the current configuration
for a device. If the configuration does not match, the device does not show up when you browse the network.
Leave node address 63 open to add nodes.
Devices default to node 63 out-of-the-box. Leave node address 63 unused so you can add a new devices to the network.
Then change the address of the new device.
Leave node address 62 open to connect a computer.
Always leave at least one open node number to let a computer be attached to the network if needed for troubleshooting
or configuration.
Don’t forget to set the scanner run bit.
For the scanner to be in Run mode, the controller must be in Run mode and the logic in the controller must set the
scanner’s run bit.
Make sure you have the most current EDS files for
your devices.
RSNetWorx for DeviceNet software uses EDS file to recognize devices. If the software is not properly recognizing a device,
you are missing the correct EDS files) For some devices, you can create an EDS file by uploading information from the
device. Or you can get EDS files from: http://www.ab.com/networks/eds.
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8
Communicate with Other Devices
The MSG instruction asynchronously reads or writes a block of data to another
device.
If the target device is a
Select one of these message types
Logix5000 controller
CIP Data Table Read
CIP Data Table Write
I/O module that you configure with the Logix Designer
application
Module Reconfigure
SERCOS drive
SERCOS IDN Read
CIP Generic
SERCOS IDN Write
PLC-5 controller
PLC5 Typed Read
PLC5 Typed Write
PLC5 Word Range Read
PLC5 Word Range Write
SLC controller
MicroLogix™ controller
SLC Typed Read
Block transfer module
Block Transfer Read
SLC Typed Write
Block Transfer Write
PLC-3® processor
PLC3 typed read
PLC3 typed write
PLC3 word range read
PLC3 word range write
PLC-2® processor
PLC2 unprotected read
PLC2 unprotected write
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Some types of messages use a connection to send or receive data. Some also give
you the option to either leave the connection open (cache) or close the
connection when the message is done transmitting. This table shows messages
that use a connection and whether you can cache the connection.
Cache Messages
Message Type
Communication Method
Uses Connection Can Cache
Connection
CIP data table read or write
CIP
Yes
Yes
PLC2, PLC3, PLC5, or SLC (all types)
CIP
DH+
Yes
Yes
CIP generic
N/A
Your option(1)
Your option(1)
Block transfer read or write
N/A
Yes
Yes
CIP with Source ID
(1) You can connect CIP generic messages, but for most applications we recommend that you leave CIP generic messages unconnected.
A cached connection remains open until one of the following occurs:
• The controller goes to Program mode.
• You rerun the message as uncached.
• Another message is initiated and a cached buffer is needed.
• An intermediate node in the connection goes down.
A Logix5000 controller has buffers for unconnected messages and for cached
messages. Buffers store incoming and outgoing message data until the controller
can process the data.
Message Buffers
Unconnected
Buffers
MSG and Block Transfer
Instructions
Open/Close Connections
CIP Generic MSG
Incoming
Unconnected MSG
Outgoing
Communication
Handler
Controller
Connections
Data To and From
Logix5000 Controller
Uncached Connected CIP MSG or Block Transfer
Cache Buffers
Connections
(Buffers)
MSG Buffers
BT Buffers
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Communicate with Other Devices
Chapter 8
Table 5 - Message Buffer Guidelines
Buffer
Description
Ten outgoing unconnected buffers
(20 on 1756-L7x controllers)
You can increase this to 40 by using a CIP Generic message
instruction. Each buffer that you add uses approximately
1.2 KB of I/O memory. See the MSG section in the Logix
5000 Controllers General Instructions Reference Manual,
publication 1756-RM003.
The outgoing unconnected buffers are for:
• Establishing I/O connections to local I/O modules and remote devices on ControlNet, EtherNet/IP, and
remote I/O networks.
• Executing unconnected PLC2, PLC3, PLC5, or SLC (all types) messages over Ethernet/IP or ControlNet (CIP and CIP
with Source ID) networks.
• Initiation of messaging over a DH+ network (uses 2 buffers, one to open the connection and one to transfer data).
• Initiation of uncached block transfers.
• Initiation of uncached CIP read/write message instructions.
• Initiation of cached block transfers.
• Initiation of cached CIP read/write messages instructions.
• CIP Generic message instructions.
Three incoming unconnected buffers
The incoming unconnected buffers are for:
• Initial receiving of a cached CIP message instruction.
• Receiving an uncached CIP message instruction.
• Receiving a message over a DH+ network.
• Receiving a CIP Generic message instruction.
• Receiving a read or write request from a ControlNet PanelView™ terminal (unconnected messaging).
• Initial receiving of a read request from an EtherNet/IP PanelView terminal (connected messaging).
• Receiving a write request from an EtherNet/IP PanelView terminal (unconnected messaging).
• Receiving an initial request from the Logix Designer application to go online.
• Initial receiving of RSLinx connections.
Cached buffers
The cached buffers are outgoing buffers for messages and block transfers. A cached connection helps message
performance because the connection is left open and does not need to be re-established the next time that it is
executed. A cached connection counts towards the total limit of connections for a controller. A cached connection is
refreshed at the connection RPI. All cached entries are closed when the controller transitions to Program mode.
With revision 12 and later firmware, you can cache 32 messages and block transfers (any combination). Previous
revisions of controller firmware let you cache 16 messages only and 16 block transfers only.
The first time a cached message is executed, it uses one of the 10 outgoing unconnected buffers. When the connection
is established, it moves into the cached buffer area.
For optimum performance, do not cache more messages or block transfers than there are cached buffers. If you cache
more than the available cached buffers, the controller looks for a connection that has been inactive for the longest
time, closes that connection, and lets a new connection take its place. The controller closes a cached message or block
transfer, depending on which has been inactive the longest. If all 32 cached connections are in use, the message is
executed as connected and, once it is completed, the connection is closed.
You can multiplex cached connections. If a connection is inactive and a message instruction executes that has the same
target and path, it uses that inactive connection. For example, if you have a block transfer read and write to the same
module, interlock the read and write so that only one is active at a time. Then when they are cached, they use the same
cached connection.
Revision 12 and later firmware:
32 cached buffers for any combination of messages and
block transfers
Revision 11 and earlier firmware
16 cached buffers only for messages and 16 cached
buffers only for block transfers
Outgoing Unconnected Buffers
Buffers
Use
1...10
The first 10 buffers (default) are shared for unconnected messaging, initiating connected messaging, establishing I/O
connections, and establishing produced/consumed connections.
11
The 11th buffer is dedicated to establishing I/O and produced/consumed connections.
12...40
The 12th to the 40th buffers are used only for initiating connected messages and executing unconnected messages. To
increase the outgoing buffers to a value higher than 11, execute a CIP generic message to configure that change each time
you transition from Program mode to Run mode.
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Guidelines for Messages
Guideline
Description
Message tags must exist as controller-scoped, base tags.
The operating system accesses the information in a message tag asynchronously to the program scan. Along with the
visible fields within the message tag, there are hidden attributes that are only referenced by the background operating
system.
You can have more than 32 messages in a program.
The controller supports 32 active, cached messages at a time. If you determine that there are more than 32 messages, you
cannot cache all messages. You need extra programming to help ensure that no more than 32 messages are active
simultaneously.
Before controller revision 12, the controller supported 16 active, cached messages at a time.
You can use a message to send a large amount of data.
Even though there are network packet limitations (such as 500 bytes on ControlNet and 244 bytes on DH+), the controller
can send a large amount of data from one MSG instruction. When configuring the message, select an array as the source/
destination tags and select the number of elements (as many as 32,767 elements) you want to send. The controller
automatically breaks the array into small fragments and sends all of the fragments to the destination. On the receiving
side, the data appears in fragments, so some application code can be required to detect the arrival of the last piece.
Do not manipulate the message status bit
Do not change the following status bits of a MSG instruction:
• DN
• EN
• ER
• EW
• ST
Do not change those bits either by themselves or as part of the FLAGS word. If you do, the controller can have a
nonrecoverable fault. The controller clears the project from its memory when it has a nonrecoverable fault.
Guidelines to Manage Message Connections
Guideline
Description
Create user-defined structures or arrays.
User-defined structures let you organize your data to match your machine or process.
• One tag contains all data that is related to a specific aspect of your system. This keeps related data together and easy
to locate, regardless of its data type.
• Each individual piece of data (member) gets a descriptive name. This automatically creates an initial level of
documentation for your logic.
• You can use the structure to create multiple tags with the same data layout.
• RSLinx can optimize user-defined structures more than standalone tags.
Cache connections when appropriate.
If a message executes repeatedly, cache the connection. This keeps the connection open and optimizes execution time.
Opening a connection each time the message executes increases execution time.
If a message executes infrequently, do not cache the connection. This closes the connection upon completion of the
message, which frees up that connection for other uses.
The system overhead timeslice percentage you configure for the controller
determines the percentage of controller time (excluding the time for periodic and
event tasks) that is devoted to communication and background functions. This
includes sending and receiving messages.
For more information, see Select a System Overhead Percentage on page 31.
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Guidelines for Block Transfer Messages
Guideline
Description
Distribute 1771 analog modules across multiple chassis.
Distributing 1771 analog modules across multiple chassis reduces the number of block transfers that one 1771-ACN or
1771-ASB module manages.
Isolate different 1771 chassis on different networks.
Isolating different chassis onto different networks diversifies the communication so that no single network or
communication module has to deal with all communication.
Increase ControlNet unscheduled bandwidth.
If communicating over a ControlNet network, increase the amount of ControlNet unscheduled bandwidth to permit
additional time on the network for data exchange.
See Compare Scheduled and Unscheduled ControlNet Communication on page 94 for more information about
unscheduled bandwidth on a ControlNet network.
Increase the system overhead timeslice percentage.
Increase the system overhead timeslice to allocate more CPU time to communication processing from the continuous
task.
Interlock block transfer read and write messages to the
same module.
Programmatically interlock block transfer read and write messages to the same module so that both operations cannot
be active simultaneously.
Use the 1757-ABRIO module for systems with a high
number of block transfer modules.
The 1757-ABRIO module provides connectivity from a ControlLogix chassis to 1771 I/O and other modules that are
connected via remote I/O. The 1757-ABRIO module off-loads the burden of performing block transfers from the controller
and increases the number of block transfer operations that can be performed.
Map Tags
A Logix5000 controller stores tag names on the controller so that other devices
can read or write data without having to know physical memory locations. Many
products only understand PLC/SLC data tables, so the Logix5000 controller
offers a PLC/SLC mapping function that lets you map Logix tag names to
memory locations.
• You only have to map the file numbers that are used in messages; the other
file numbers do not need to be mapped.
• The mapping table is loaded into the controller and is used whenever a
logical address accesses data.
• You can only access controller-scoped tags (global data).
Follow these guidelines when you map tags.
• Do not use file numbers 0, 1, and 2. These files are reserved for Output,
Input, and Status files in a PLC-5 processor.
• Use PLC-5 mapping only for tag arrays of data type INT, DINT, or
REAL. Attempting to map elements of system structures can produce
undesirable effects.
• Use these file types and identifiers.
For this Logix5000 array type
Use this PLC file identifier
INT array
N or B
DINT array
L
REAL array
F
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Chapter
9
FactoryTalk Alarms and Events System
The FactoryTalk® Alarms and Events system integrates alarming between
FactoryTalk View SE applications and Logix5000 controllers by embedding an
alarming engine in Logix5000 controllers. You need the following tools:
• Logix Designer application, version 21 or later (or RSLogix 5000 software,
version 16 or later)
• FactoryTalk View SE, version 5.0 or later
• Logix5000 controllers
Firmware
Revision
ControlLogix non-redundant controllers
16.20 or later
ControlLogix redundant controllers
16.60 or later
CompactLogix controllers
16.20 or later
SoftLogix controllers
16.40 or later
Two Logix-based alarm instructions are available in relay ladder, structured text,
and function block diagram.
• The Digital Alarm (ALMD) instruction detects alarms that are based on
Boolean (true/false) conditions.
• The Analog Alarm (ALMA) instruction detects alarms that are based on
the level or rate of change of analog values.
Guidelines for Logix-based Alarm Instructions
Guideline
Description
Estimate increased controller memory use for each alarm. The alarm instructions use new alarm data types that contain state information and time stamps for each alarm. Estimate
this memory use in the controller:
• 2 KB per FactoryTalk Alarms and Events subscriber that receives alarms from the controller
• There is a maximum of 16 subscribers per controller. Most applications only require one subscriber to a controller to
provide data to many FactoryTalk View SE clients.
• 2.2 KB per alarm (typical), depends on use of associated tags
Alarm instructions increase total controller scan time.
The ALMD instructions and ALMA instructions affect total scan time. See Logix5000 Controllers Instruction Execution
Time and Memory Use Reference Manual, publication 1756-RM087 for execution times for your controller firmware.
An alarm state change is any event that changes the condition of the alarm, such as acknowledging or suppressing the
alarm. Minimize the potential for many alarms changing state simultaneously (alarm bursts) by creating dependencies
on related alarms. Large alarm bursts can have a significant impact on application code scan time.
Important: In redundancy systems, consider scan time impact due to crossloading alarm tag data. For more information
see the ControlLogix Enhanced Redundancy System User Manual, publication 1756-UM535.
You can edit or add an alarm instruction online.
Online edits of new and existing alarms are automatically sent to the subscribers. You do not have to re-subscribe to
receive the updated information. Online changes automatically propagate from the controller alarm structure to the rest
of the architecture.
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Guideline
Description
In relay ladder, how you define the alarm values on the
instruction determines whether you can access those
values programmatically through the alarm structure.
When you create an alarm instruction, you also create an alarm data type for that alarm. For example, MyDigitalAlarm of
data type DigitalAlarm. In relay ladder, the following values are shown on the instruction:
• ProgAck
• ProgReset
• ProgDisable
• ProgEnable
If you enter a value or assign a tag to these faceplate parameters (such as AckSection1All), the value or tag value is
automatically written to the alarm structure each time the instruction is scanned.
If you want to programmatically access the alarm structure, you must assign the structure tag to the faceplate. For
example, to use MyAnalogAlarm.ProgAck in logic, assign the tag MyAnalogAlarm.ProgAck on the faceplate to the
ProgAck parameter.
Test alarm behavior from within the Logix Designer
application.
On the Status tab of the alarm dialog, monitor the alarm condition, acknowledge an alarm, disable an alarm, suppress an
alarm, or reset an alarm. Use the dialog selections to see how an alarm behaves, without needing an operational HMI.
Reduce mistakes by making sure that alarms are noticed.
Shelving an alarm removes the alarm from the operator view for a period of time. It is like suppressing an alarm, except
that shelving is time-limited. If an alarm is acknowledged while it is shelved, it remains acknowledged even if it becomes
active again. It becomes unacknowledged when the shelve duration ends provided the alarm is still active at that
moment.
Increase productivity by eliminating nuisance alarms.
Set a duration (ms) on the ALMA instruction to specify how long an alarm condition must exist before being reported.
Apply the duration to individual, analog alarm levels.
High availability of alarm data helps reduce material
losses.
The alarm log in the controller stores the last 10,000 alarm state transitions in a circular log. This replaces the alarm buffer
in controllers with firmware earlier than revision 21.
Changes in Logic
With Logix Designer version 21.00.00, the alarm instructions added and
removed some parameters. The following parameters were removed:
• DeliveryER
• DeliveryDN
• DeliveryEN
• NoSubscriber
• NoConnection
• CommError
• AlarmBuffered
• Subscribers
• SubscNotified
The following parameters were added to support a shelve state:
• OperShelve
• ProgUnshelve
• OperUnshelve
• ShelveDuration
• MaxShelveDuration
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Configure Logix-based Alarm Instructions
Option
Description
Message string
The message string (maximum of 255 characters, including embedded text) contains the information to display to the
operator regarding the alarm. Besides entering text, you can also embed variable information. In the alarm message
editor, select the variable that you want and add it anywhere in the message string.
Variable
Description
Alarm name
Tag name of the alarm.
/*S:0 %AlarmName*/
Condition name
State of the alarm (such as, true, false, high-high, or low).
/*S:0 %ConditionName*/
Input value
True, false, or current value of the analog input value.
/*N:5 %InputValue NOFILL DP:0*/
Limit value
Limit or condition that caused the alarm.
/*N:5 %LimitValue NOFILL DP:0*/
Severity
The assigned importance of the alarm.
/*N:5 %Severity NOFILL DP:0*/
Values of associated tags
Values of the selected tags that are delivered with the alarm.
/*N:5 %Tag1 NOFILL DP:0*/
This information is always sent with the alarm, viewable by the operator, and entered in the history log, regardless of
whether you embed it in the message string.
You cannot programmatically access the alarm message string from the alarm tag. To change the alarm message based
on specific events, configure one of the associated tags as a string data type and embed that associated tag in the
message.
You can have multiple language versions of messages. You enter the different language via the import/export utility. For
more information, see page 106.
Associated tags
You can select as many as four additional tags from the controller project to associate with the alarm. These tags are sent
with an alarm message to the alarm server. Associated tags can be BOOL, INT, SINT, DINT, REAL, or string data types. For
example, a digital alarm for a pressure relief valve can also include information such as pump speed and system pressure,
and tank temperature
Optionally, embed the associated tags into the message text string.
Severity
Use the configurable severity range from 1...1000 to rank the importance of an alarm. A severity of 1 is for low priority
alarms; a severity of 1000 is for an emergency condition.
By default, in the FactoryTalk alarm service, severities:
• 1…250 are low alarms.
• 251…500 are medium alarms.
• 501…750 are high alarms.
• 751…1000 are urgent alarms.
You can configure how the FactoryTalk ranges are presented to the operator. The operator can also filter on alarm levels.
For example, a maintenance engineer can filter to see only those alarms at severity 128.
Alarm class
Use the alarm class to group related alarms. Specify the alarm class the same for each alarm you want in the same class.
The alarm class is case-sensitive.
For example, specify class Control Loop to group all alarms for PID loops.
You can then display and filter alarms at the HMI based on the class. For example, an operator can display all tank alarms
or all PID loop alarms.
The alarm class does not replace subscription to specific alarms. The FactoryTalk View SE Alarm object graphics have
configuration options to determine which controller alarms an operator sees.
View command
Execute a command on the operator station when requested by an operator for a specific alarm. This lets an operator
execute any standard FactoryTalk View command, such as call specific faceplates and displays, execute macros, access
help files, and launch external applications. When the alarm condition occurs and is displayed to the operator, a button
on the summary and banner displays lets the operator run an associated view command.
Defaults
The Parameters tab of the alarm instruction properties lets you define values for instruction parameters. You can return
the parameters to factory defaults and you can define your own set of instruction defaults. The instruction defaults you
assign are defaults for only that instance of the instruction.
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Multiple Language Versions of Alarm Messages
You can maintain alarm messages in multiple languages. Either enter the different
languages in the associated language versions of the Logix Designer application
or in an import/export (.CSV or .TXT) file.
You can access alarm message text from an import/export (.CSV or .TXT) file
and add additional lines for translated versions of the original message string.
Messages in different languages use ISO language codes in the TYPE column.
Text for the operator is in the DESCRIPTION column. The SPECIFIER
identifies the type of alarm.
Use the import/export utility to create and translate message strings into multiple
languages. The .TXT import/export format supports all languages, including
Chinese, Japanese, and Korean. The .CSV import/export format does not
support Chinese, Japanese, or Korean.
Importing and exporting messages always performs a merge. Deleting a message
in a .CSV file does not delete the message from the .ACD file. To delete a
message, import the .CSV file with the type, name, and specifier fields filled in
but the description blank.
When viewing alarm messages at the HMI:
• There is no default language string. If message text does not exist for a
specific language, FactoryTalk View software searches for the first language
that has a message string and displays that text.
• Date and time format do not switch with the language. They follow the
format of the operating system.
• Nonconfigurable dialogs, such as ACK with description dialog, do not
switch languages. They use the language of the operating system.
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Alarm Process
Chapter 9
At powerup of the alarm system, the alarm uses this process to establish its initial
connection to the controller.
1. The RSLinx Enterprise server initiates a subscription to the alarm log.
One subscription to the alarm log consumes 2 KB of controller memory.
2. The controller sends this alarm information to the subscriber:
– Path and tag information
– Alarm configuration
– Message strings in all configured languages
3. Once the subscriber receives the discovery information, it requests a
subscription to the alarm log.
Each alarm typically transfers 70…300 bytes of alarm status information to the
subscriber. A typical discovery phase for a system of 1000 alarms (500 analog and
500 digital) takes approximately 35 seconds. This varies depending on controller
loading, network loading, and message string size and languages.
During normal operation of the alarm system, the controller uses this process to
send alarm data to the subscriber.
1. When an alarm event occurs, the controller time stamps the alarm data and
sends it to the subscriber.
A typical alarm message size is 70 bytes for an analog alarm and 60 bytes
for a digital alarm. The packet size can be as large as 500 bytes and can
contain a combination of analog and digital messages.
2. The subscriber sends the alarm data to the appropriate client applications
and historical databases.
3. The operator acknowledges the alarm and the acknowledge request is
logged into the historical database (this time stamp is from the operator
workstation).
4. The RSLinx Enterprise server sends the acknowledge request to the
controller.
5. The controller receives the acknowledge request, marks the alarm as
acknowledged, and time stamps the completed action back to the
subscriber.
6. The controller sends the acknowledge confirmation with time stamp back
to the subscriber. (This time stamp is from the controller.)
7. The subscriber sends the acknowledge to the appropriate clients and
historical databases.
Because time stamps occur at multiple places during normal alarm operation, it is
important to coordinate the clocks of the controllers and workstations in the
system. For more information on, see Different Methods of Synchronizing
Clocks with ControlLogix Controllers, Knowledgebase document 40467 at
http://www.rockwellautomation.custhelp.com.
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The alarm log holds 10,000 alarm state transitions in a circular log. This replaces
the alarm buffer in controllers with firmware earlier than revision 21. The
original 100 KB alarm buffer is now a 2 KB subscription service with no
timeouts. The alarm log is stored in extended memory.
Alarm Log
In controllers with firmware earlier than revision 21, the controller reserves
100 KB per subscriber to buffer alarm data in case the subscriber loses its
connection to the controller. Typically, this buffer holds about 1000 events.
Guideline (Firmware Earlier Than Revision 21)
Description
If the subscriber loses its connection to the controller, reestablish the connection as soon as possible.
The alarm buffer in the controller continues to buffer new alarms until either the buffer is full (100 KB) or the buffer times
out.
You configure the buffer timeout from 0 min...2 hr (default is 20 min) when you configure the alarm server in RSLinx
Enterprise software. If the subscriber fails to reconnect by the end of this buffer time, the controller clears the buffer and
reclaims the 100 KB of buffer space for normal controller operations.
You can check the status of a subscriber connection to the
controller by reviewing the instruction faceplate.
The Status tab on the alarm properties in the Logix Designer application identifies whether the controller is buffering
alarm data. This value is updated at the next occurrence of the alarm event.
Programmatically Access
Alarm Information
Each alarm instruction has an alarm structure that stores alarm configuration and
execution information. The alarm structure includes both control program
elements and operator elements. The alarm instructions do not use mode settings
to determine whether program access or operator access is active, so these
elements are always active.
There are three ways to perform actions on an alarm instruction.
Table 9.A
Access
Alarm Structure Elements
Considerations
Control program
•
•
•
•
•
•
ProgAck
ProgReset
ProgUnshelve
ProgSuppress
ProgDisable
ProgEnable
Use controller logic to programmatically access elements of the alarming system. For example, the control program can
determine whether to disable a series of alarms that are related to one root cause. Then control program could disable an
alarm instruction, MyDigitalAlarm of data type DigitalAlarm, accesses a tag MyDigitalAlarm.ProgDisable.
Custom HMI
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
OperAck
OperReset
OperShelve
OperUnshelve
OperSuppress
OperDisable
OperEnable
Access a custom faceplate to access elements of the alarming system. For example, you can press a disable key that
accesses a tag MyDigitalAlarm.OperDisable, rather than manually disable or suppress alarms individually from the
alarming screens.
Standard HMI object
Not accessible
108
Normal operator interaction is through the alarm summary and alarm banner objects in the FactoryTalk View application.
This interaction is similar to the custom HMI option, but there is no programmatic visibility or interaction.
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Chapter 9
To perform global alarm operations, access the alarm elements via the relay ladder
instructions. For example, assign a BOOL tag DisableToolA to all the
ProgDisable fields on the alarm relay ladder faceplates in ToolA. Then use the
DisableToolA tag to disable the operation of all the alarms that use this tag.
IMPORTANT
If you assign a tag to the ProgAck, ProgReset, ProgDisable, or ProgEnable
functions on the alarm faceplate, do not use the alarm structure elements in
the alarm data type to perform the same functions. For example, if you assign
DisableToolA to disable an alarm MyDigitalAlarm, do not programmatically
access MyDigitalAlarm.ProgDisable. Doing so can cause a condition where the
faceplate requests one operation and the alarm tag requests another.
If you want to use the alarm structure elements to programmatically change
the alarming system, assign those elements to a faceplate. For example, on the
alarm faceplate for ProgDisable, assign the tag from that alarm’s structure tag
MyAlarmTag.ProgDisable. This lets you programmatically access
MyAlarmsTag.ProgDisable in other code locations without conflict.
At the HMI and in the event log, any controller-driven events, either through the
alarm structure or the alarm dialog, are logged in the historical database as
Discrete Events. This includes any HMI interface that also accesses this same
information via the operator elements (.OPERxxx). So while time stamps and
events are tracked in the log, the log excludes identification of what caused the
event. For example, an operator and workstation in this scenario is not tracked
because they did not take action via a FactoryTalk alarm graphic object.
Shelve, Suppress, or Disable Alarms
Following ANSI/ISA-18.2-2009, Management of Alarm Systems for the Process
Industries, Shelve, Suppress, and Disable are all methods to suppress indication of
alarms. You can use Shelve, Suppress, and Disable functionality to track operatorinitiated actions from design-initiated actions and maintenance actions. Shelve is
the method to use when the operator initiates the action (equivalent to the Shelve
state in ISA 18.2). Suppress is the method that the controller is expected to use to
programmatically inhibit operator notification (equivalent to the Suppress-byDesign state in ISA 18.2). Disable is the method to use to inhibit the alarm for
maintenance purposes (equivalent to Out-of-Service state in ISA 18.2).
• Shelve lets you clear an alarm from the alarm summary or banner while you
are resolving a known alarm without continuing to view alarm
information. Shelve has an automatic timeout, after which the alarm is
automatically unshelved and returned to the operator view.
• Suppress lets you clear an alarm from the alarm summary or banner while
you are resolving a known alarm without continuing to view alarm
information. Suppress does not have an automatic timeout.
• Disable an alarm to take the alarm out-of-service in the control program.
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Optimize an Application for Use with HMI
Rockwell Automation offers these HMI (human machine interface) platforms.
Platform
Description
PanelView™ Plus terminal
Dedicated, machine-level HMI running FactoryTalk View Machine Edition software
FactoryTalk View software
Product family that consists of:
• FactoryTalk View ME (Machine Edition) software for an open, machine-level HMI; also runs on PanelView Plus terminals
• FactoryTalk View Site Edition Station software for a single-workstation, supervisory-level HMI
• FactoryTalk View Site Edition distributed software for a multi-server, multi-client, supervisory-level HMI
RSView®32 software
Single-workstation or single-server, multiple-client, supervisory-level HMI
Software products that provide plant-floor device connectivity for HMI
applications include:
• RSLinx Classic software, also known as RSLinx 2.x.
• RSLinx Enterprise software.
HMI Implementation Options
Method
Benefits
Considerations
Single HMI
•
•
•
•
• Single point of failure for visualization
• Only one person can monitor one display at a time
Multiple, Independent HMI
• All HMI/EOI support this method
• The same HMI screens can be viewed at multiple stations
• Multiple people can monitor different parts of system
simultaneously
• Each HMI gets its own data
• No central server to configure and manage
• Local control and monitoring
• More controller connections are required
• Additional burden on controller to service all communication
(program scan impact)
• No sharing of data except through the controller
• Adding additional HMIs has larger increase on system
Client/Server HMI
•
•
•
•
•
• Server is a point of failure for all HMIs, unless you implement
redundancy
• Little communication overhead savings if each client wants
different data
• Networking knowledge that is required
All HMI/EOI support this method
Limited number of controller connections
No server to configure and manage
Local control and monitoring
The same HMI screens can be viewed at multiple stations
Server provides data to multiple clients
Fewer controller connections required
Impact on system is smaller than with multiple HMIs
Administer application at the server, not individually at the clients
or multiple, independent HMIs
Most third-party HMIs are limited to direct communication similar to the
multiple HMI method.
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Compare FactoryTalk View Site Edition and RSView32 Software
HMI Product
Benefits
Considerations
FactoryTalk View Site Edition
• Supports Windows 2000, Windows XP, Windows 2003. Windows
Vista, and Windows 2008 operating systems
• Common FactoryTalk® View Studio development environment for
FactoryTalk View SE and FactoryTalk View ME software (including
PanelView Plus terminals)
• FactoryTalk enabled
• Does not support Windows NT operating system
RSView®32
• Supports Windows NT, Windows 2000, Windows XP, and Windows
Server 2003 operating systems
• FactoryTalk enabled (version 7.0 and later)
• RSView32 development environment only support
RSView32 software
• PanelBuilder® software that is used for PanelView terminals
• RSView32 software supports only single-server architectures
Guidelines for FactoryTalk
View Software
To configure a FactoryTalk View Site Edition system, a maximum of:
• Five FactoryTalk View Studio clients can have simultaneous access to an
FactoryTalk View Site Edition application.
• 50 FactoryTalk View Site Edition clients can have simultaneous access to a
FactoryTalk View Site Edition application.
In nonredundant applications, a maximum of:
• 10 FactoryTalk View Site Edition servers can be in a FactoryTalk View
Site Edition application.
• Two FactoryTalk View Site Edition servers can be hosted on one
computer.
In redundant applications, a maximum of:
• One FactoryTalk View Site Edition server can be hosted on one computer.
Contact Rockwell Software® for architectural assistance with redundant server
applications or applications that require more than two FactoryTalk View Site
Edition Servers and 20 FactoryTalk View Site Edition clients.
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RSLinx software acts as a data server to optimize communication to HMI
applications. RSLinx software groups data items into one network packet to
reduce:
• The number of messages that are sent over the network.
• The number of messages a controller processes.
IMPORTANT
Unless otherwise indicated, references to RSLinx software include both RSLinx
Classic software and RSLinx Enterprise software.
1. When RSLinx software first connects to a Logix5000 controller, it queries
the tag database and uploads definitions for all controller-scoped tags. If
there are multi-layer, user-defined structures that are controller-scoped,
RSLinx software just queries the upper layer.
2. When the HMI client requests data, RSLinx software queries the
definitions for program-scoped tags and the lower layers of multi-layer
user-defined structures.
3. RSLinx software receives requests for data items from local or remote
HMI/EOI clients and combines multiple requests in optimized packets.
Each data item is a simple Logix tag, array, or user-defined structure. Each
optimized packet can be as large as 480 bytes of data and can contain one
or more data items.
4. The Logix5000 controller allocates unused system RAM to create an
optimization buffer to contain the requested data items.
– One optimization buffer can contain as much data as can fit into one
480-byte packet (optimization is limited to 480 bytes).
– Currently, RSLinx Enterprise software only provides optimization for
array tags.
– If you use the Logix Designer application to monitor controller RAM,
you can see used memory increase.
– The controller creates an optimization buffer for each RSLinx
optimization packet in the scan.
Kbytes of Memory Needed
How RSLinx Software
Communicates with
Logix5000 Controllers
Chapter 10
Standalone Tags
Optimized Array
Tags
Tags on Scan in RSLinx
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Compare RSLinx Classic and RSLinx Enterprise Software
Comparison
RSLinx Classic (RSLinx 2.x) Software
RSLinx Enterprise Software
Supported platforms
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Data server
OPC data server
Preferred data server for PLC/SLC platforms and applications that require
complex network routings
Maximum 10 clients per data server
Factory Talk Live data server
Preferred data server for Logix5000 platforms
Maximum 20 clients per data server
PLC/SLC systems
Maximum 20 controllers per data server via an Ethernet network
Maximum 20 controllers per data server via an Ethernet network
Logix5000 systems
Maximum:
• 10 controllers per data server via an Ethernet network
• 10,000 active (on-scan) tags per data server
• Three RSLinx data servers per controller
Maximum:
• 20 controllers per data server via an Ethernet network
• 20,000 active (on-scan) tags per data server
• Three RSLinx Enterprise data servers per controller
User interface and event logs
Yes
• Available user interfaces are FactoryTalk Studio software and
FactoryTalk® Administration Console software
• Event logs are available with FactoryTalk Diagnostics software
Benefits
• Supports topic switching with redundant ControlLogix system
• Supports used-defined tag optimization
• RSLinx Gateway software consolidates multiple HMI requests to
reduce network traffic
• Works with an integrated OPC server
• Automatically handles Logix tag changes
• FactoryTalk® Live Data software consolidates multiple HMI requests to
reduce network traffic
Considerations
• Requires HMI to be restarted if Logix5000 controller is reloaded with
changes to tags on scan
• Default is four connections for a read and one connection for a write
•
•
•
•
Windows 2000
Windows XP
Windows Server 2003
Windows Vista Business
Windows Server 2008
Windows CE
Windows 2000
Windows XP
Windows Server 2003
Windows Vista Business
Windows Server 2008
Does not support topic switching with redundant ControlLogix system
Optimization is limited to array tags
FactoryTalk Gateway software provides OPC support
Default is four connections for a read and one connection for a write
Guidelines for RSLinx Software
Guideline
Description
Use RSLinx software as the data server for multiple HMIs. For multiple HMI stations:
• Leverage remote OPC (RSLinx Classic software) or FactoryTalk (RSLinx Enterprise software) software for
data collection.
• Only the RSLinx data server is expected to have an active topic.
• Do not configure or use topics on the HMI stations.
• RSLinx software does not need to be on the HMI stations.
Do not use too many RSLinx stations.
The performance of tag collection decreases as the more RSLinx stations collect data from the same controller.
Use an RSLinx Gateway station and have the other data collection stations use remote OPC for data collection.
Account for delay time when adding/removing
scanned tags.
When switching from one HMI screen to another, it takes time to put items in the controller on scan and take items off
scan. Part of this time delay is because the controller allocates system RAM for the optimization buffer.
To minimize this delay, when switching between HMI screens, put the items in the HMI screens on scan and leave them
on scan. For example, you can create a data log to keep the items on scan. Then when switching between HMI screens,
data collection continues without interruption.
RSLinx Enterprise and FactoryTalk View Site Edition software account for this time delay. When HMI screens change, these
applications deactivate tags rather than remove them from scan.
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Guidelines to Configure Controller Tags
Guideline
Description
Use INT data types with third-party products.
Most third-party operator interface products do not support DINT (32-bit) data types. However, there are additional
performance and memory-use considerations when you use INT data types. See Guidelines for Data Types on page 54.
FactoryTalk View software supports native Logix5000 data types (including BOOL, SINT, INT, DINT, and REAL), structures,
and arrays.
Group related data in arrays.
Most third-party operator interface products do not support user-defined structures. Arrays also make sure that data is in
contiguous memory, which optimizes data transfer between the controller and RSLinx software or other
operator interfaces.
Arrays of tags transfer more quickly and take up less memory than groups of individual tags.
Use RSLinx OPC services.
Use RSLinx OPC services to bundle multiple tag requests into one message to reduce communication overhead.
OPC provides better optimization than DDE.
Reference Controller Data from FactoryTalk View Software
This table shows how to reference data in a FactoryTalk View tag address.
Logix5000 Array Data Type
Description
PLC File Identifier
FactoryTalk View Tag Data Type
BOOL
Value of 0, 1, or -1
B
Digital
SINT
8-bit integer
A
Byte
INT
16-bit integer
N
Integer
DINT
32-bit integer
L
Long Integer
LINT
64-bit integer value to store date
and time values
No PLC identifier
Not supported
REAL
Floating point
F
Floating Point
When addressing a Logix5000 string tag, use the address syntax
[OPC_Topic]StringTag.Data[0],SC82 to address a SINT array. The string data
is stored in the SINT array .Data of the string tag, and you address the first
element of this array (.Data[0]). The maximum number of characters in a
STRING tag is 82. If you need more characters, then create your own
user-defined structure to hold the characters.
To write data into a Logix5000 string tag from an HMI or external source, set the
L.EN field to indicate the number of characters that are in the string. The Logix
Designer application and the controller use the .LEN value to determine how
many characters are present.
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11
Develop Equipment Phases
The PhaseManager™ option of the Logix Designer application gives you a state
model for your equipment. It includes the following components:
• Phase to run the state model
• Equipment phase instructions for programming the phase
• PHASE data type
Guidelines for Equipment
Phases
Guideline
Description
Use a separate phase for each activity of the equipment.
Each phase is a specific activity that the equipment performs.
• Use one phase for standalone machines.
• Make sure that each phase does an independent activity.
• Keep the total number of phases and programs in a project within the limit of programs for the controller.
• List the equipment that goes with each phase.
Complete one state model for each phase.
Each phase runs its own set of states. A state model divides the operating cycle of the equipment into a series of states.
• Decide which state to use for the initial state after powerup.
• Start with the initial state and work through the model.
• Use only the states you need; skip those states that do not apply.
• Use subroutines for producing and standby states.
The state model of an equipment phase is similar to the S88 state model. U.S. standard ISA S88.01-1995 and its IEC
equivalent IEC 61512-1-1998 is commonly referred to as S88. It is a set of models, terms, and good practices for the
design and operation of manufacturing systems.
Separate phase code from equipment code.
One advantage of a phase is that it lets you separate the procedures (recipes) for how to make the product from the
control of the equipment that makes the product. This makes it easier to execute different procedures for different
products by using the same equipment.
Separate normal execution from exceptions.
A state model makes it much easier to separate the normal execution of your equipment from any exceptions (faults,
failures, off-normal conditions).
• Use a prestate routine to watch for faults.
• A prestate routine is not a phase state routine. Create a routine like you do for any program and assign it as the
prestate routine for the equipment phase program.
• Use a state bit to limit code to a specific state.
• Logix Designer application automatically makes a tag for each phase. The phase tag has bits that identify the state of
the phase. For example, My_Phase.Running.
Use Equipment Phases in redundant systems.
PhaseManager™ has been tested for compatibility with ControlLogix redundancy systems. See the ControlLogix
Enhanced Redundancy System, firmware revision 16.81, Release Notes, publication 1756-RN650, for more information.
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The equipment phase instructions are available in relay ladder and structured text
programming languages. You can use them in relay ladder routines, structured
text routines, and SFC actions.
Equipment Phase
Instructions
If you want to
Use this instruction
Signal a phase that the state routine is complete so go to the next state
Phase State Complete (PSC)
Change the state or substate of a phase
Equipment Phase Command (PCMD)
Signal a failure for a phase
Equipment Phase Failure (PFL)
Clear the failure code of a phase
Equipment Phase Clear Failure (PCLF)
Initiate communication with RSBizWare™ Batch software
Equipment Phase External Request (PXRQ)
Clear the NewInputParameters bit of a phase
Equipment Phase New Parameters (PRNP)
Create breakpoints within the logic of a phase
Equipment Phase Paused (PPD)
Take ownership of a phase to either:
• Prevent another program or RSBizWare™ Batch software from commanding a phase.
• Make sure another program or RSBizWare Batch software does not already own a phase.
Attach to Equipment Phase (PATT)
Relinquish ownership of a phase
Detach from Equipment Phase (PDET)
Override a command
Equipment Phase Override (POVR)
For more information, see the PhaseManager User Manual,
publication LOGIX-UM001.
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12
Manage Firmware
The Logix controllers, I/O modules, and other devices use firmware that you can
update on your own. You choose the firmware revision level and decide when to
update the firmware.
Guidelines to Manage
Controller Firmware
Guideline
Description
Maintain software versions and firmware revisions at the
same major revision levels.
At release, a specific version of software supports the features and functions in a specific revision of firmware. To use a
specific revision of firmware, you must have the corresponding software version. This combination of software and
firmware is considered to be compatible.
A revision number consists of a major and minor revision number in this format xx.yy.
Where
Is the
xx
Major revision
Updated every release there is a functional change
yyy
Minor revision
Updated any time there is a change that does not affect function or interface
Use digitally signed firmware to maintain firmware
integrity.
Some communication modules support digitally signed firmware for additional security. Once upgraded with digitally
signed firmware, the module only accepts upgrade attempts that include signed firmware. The module rejects any
unsigned firmware updates. To let backward compatibility occur, modules ship with unsigned firmware installed and
must be upgraded to take advantage of this feature.
Document firmware revisions.
Include software version and firmware revision information in electrical drawings and other project documentation.
Read the associated release notes.
Always read the release notes that accompany new software versions and firmware revisions before you install them. The
release notes help you to understand what has improved and changed, and also help you determine whether you need to
modify your application because of the changes. In most cases, your application runs normally following an update.
Configure modules so that the controller automatically
updates firmware.
Controller firmware, revision 16, includes a firmware supervisor feature that lets controllers automatically update
devices. To use the firmware supervisor:
• You can update Local and remote modules while in Program or Run modes, as long as their electronic keying
configurations are set to Exact Match and the ControlFLASH™ Software supports the modules.
• Firmware kits must reside on the removable media in the controller.
Control that users have access to change firmware
revisions.
ControlFLASH software, version 8.0 and later, is integrated with FactoryTalk Security software so you can establish update
or no update privileges for users.
Use the ControlFLASH kit manager to update only the
firmware you need or have.
With ControlFLASH software, version 8.0 and later, you can:
• View available firmware kits before updating a device.
• Import and export kits to create custom kits.
• Delete kits as single devices or as groups by catalog number and device type.
• Support third-party applications to push/pull kits as needed.
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Controllers ship with basic firmware that supports only updating the controller
firmware to the required revision. You must update the firmware to a revision
that is compatible with your version of the Logix Designer application.
Compare Firmware Options
ControlFLASH Software
AutoFlash Function
Controller-based Firmware Supervisor
Standalone tool.
Manually launch from desktop icon or program list.
Integrated with the Logix Designer application.
The software automatically checks the controller, motion
module, and SERCOS drive firmware during a project
download. If the firmware is out of date or incompatible,
the software prompts you to update the firmware.
Integrated on the controller removable media and run by
the controller without user intervention.
Controllers automatically update modules on keying
mismatch situations.
Supports controllers, communication modules, I/O
modules, motion modules, and newer SERCOS drives, and
many other devices.
Supports the same devices as the ControlFLASH™
Software.
Supports local and remote devices that:
• Are in the I/O tree and configured as Exact Match
• Support firmware updates via the ControlFLASH
Software
• The hardware revision supports the firmware that is
stored for that Exact Match device
Supports valid CIP path to the device to update, such as
serial, DeviceNet, ControlNet, and EtherNet/IP
connections.
Supports valid CIP path to the device to update, such as
serial, DeviceNet, ControlNet, and EtherNet/IP
connections.
Supports all communication paths to devices that reside in
the controller I/O tree and that also support the
ControlFLASH Software.
The firmware must already be on removable media in the
controller.
For more information, see the ControlFLASH Firmware Upgrade Software User
Manual, publication 1756-UM105.
Guidelines for the
Firmware Supervisor
120
The firmware supervisor feature can automatically load firmware when you
replace a device in the system.
• OEMs who build multiple machines a month can have the controller
update all modules and devices in the system without user intervention.
• Machines with strict regulation can require specific firmware revisions for
the devices to maintain certification. The firmware supervisor helps make
sure that devices are at the correct firmware revision.
• Maintenance personnel replacing failed hardware can install the
replacement device and the controller automatically updates the device
with the correct firmware revision.
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Guideline
Description
The firmware supervisor can update any Rockwell
Automation device that:
• Can be placed in the I/O Configuration tree
• Has electronic keying that is configured as Exact Match
• Normally can be updated with ControlFLASH software
The firmware supervisor works on local I/O modules and distributed modules via EtherNet/IP, SERCOS, and ControlNet
networks. On DeviceNet networks, the firmware supervisor supports local devices only, such as scanners and linking
devices that reside in the I/O tree of the controller project. Because you cannot directly place a remote DeviceNet device in
the I/O tree, the firmware supervisor does not manage remote DeviceNet devices.
The firmware supervisor supports:
Logix5000 controllers that support removable media (except for redundant controllers).
The firmware supervisor does not manage the firmware of other standard controllers in the I/O Configuration tree.
Safety products, including GuardLogix Safety controllers and 1791ES CompactBlock™ Guard I/O™ EtherNet/IP modules.
The firmware supervisor does not manage the firmware of POINT Guard I/O™ modules or
1791DS CompactBlock Guard I/O DeviceNet modules.
SERCOS drives that support updates over a SERCOS network:
• 1394 drives, firmware revision 1.85 and later.
• Kinetix® 6000 drives, firmware revision 1.85 and later.
• Ultra™ 3000 drives, firmware revision 1.50 and later.
• 8720MC drives, firmware revision 3.85 and later.
Non-modular, distributed I/O products that sit directly on the network without an adapter. Distributed I/O products that
require an adapter, such as POINT I/O or FLEX I/O modules, are not supported. Instead, the firmware supervisor manages
the firmware for the adapters.
The firmware supervisor does not support PanelView Plus terminals, since the terminals do not support the ControlFLASH
software.
For the firmware supervisor to manage firmware for a
device, the device must have its electronic keying that is
configured for Exact Match.
Other modules can exist in the I/O Configuration that are not configured as Exact Match, but the firmware supervisor
does not maintain the firmware for those modules.
To disable the firmware supervisor for a specific device:
Change the electronic keying for that device to something besides Exact Match.
Disable firmware supervisor from either an SSV instruction or the Nonvolatile Memory tab of the controller properties.
Removable media must be formatted properly.
If you have a Secure Digital card with 4 G memory or more, format the card FAT32. If you have a Secure Digital card with
less than 4 G memory, format the card FAT16.
Make sure that the removable media is not locked.
The Secure Digital card has a lock feature. The card must be unlocked to write to the card.
Each controller must store the firmware files for
modules that are managed by the firmware supervisor on
removable media.
Enable the firmware supervisor, from the Nonvolatile Memory tab of the controller properties. Click Load/Store. From the
Automatic Firmware Updates pull-down menu, choose Store to copy it to removable media.
The computer running the Logix Designer application must have:
• ControlFLASH Software installed.
• The required firmware kits in the ControlFLASH default directory for the modules the firmware supervisor is to
maintain. The Logix Designer application moves firmware kits from your computer to the removable media in the
controller for the firmware supervisor to use.
• Controller firmware and application logic is managed outside of firmware supervisor on the Nonvolatile Memory tab.
Firmware supervisor adds to the ability to store controller firmware and logic on the removable media. If you disable
the firmware supervisor, you disable the firmware supervisor updates and not the controller firmware updates that
still occur when the controller image is reloaded.
Enable or disable the automatic firmware updates by
using GSV and SSV instructions.
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Chapter 12
Manage Firmware
Guideline
Description
You can monitor the status of automatic firmware
updates.
Monitor the status of automatic firmware updates on the Nonvolatile Memory tab on the controller properties.
To monitor the status of automatic firmware updates for a specific module, use GSV instructions. This example shows that
the firmware supervisor encountered the wrong hardware revision for 1756-OB16D module.
Access Firmware
The Logix Designer application ships with firmware update kits. Firmware
revisions are also available on the Rockwell Automation website.
1. Go to http://www.rockwellautomation.com/support/.
2. In the left pane, under Downloads, click Firmware Updates.
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Glossary
The following terms and abbreviations are used throughout this manual. For
definitions of terms that are not listed here, refer to the Allen-Bradley Industrial
Automation Glossary, publication AG-7.1.
Add-On Instruction An Add-On Instruction is a user-defined instruction that encapsulates executable
logic and data.
array An array groups data of the same data type under a common name. An array tag
occupies a contiguous block of memory in the controller, each element in
sequence.
atomic data type BOOL, SINT, INT, DINT, LINT, and REAL data types.
buffer A temporary memory area used for queuing incoming and outgoing messages.
The buffer area of a device determines how many messages can be queued for
processing.
cache To leave a connection open for a MSG instruction that executes repeatedly.
coarse update rate Determines the periodic rate at which the motion task executes to compute the
servo commanded position, velocity, and accelerations to be sent to the motion
modules when executing motion instructions.
compound data type Array, structure, and string data types.
connection A communication link between two devices, such as between a controller and an
I/O module, PanelView terminal, or another controller.
• Connections are allocations of resources that provide more reliable
communication between devices than unconnected messages.
• You indirectly determine the number of connections the controller uses by
configuring the controller to communicate with other devices in the
system.
consumed tag A tag that receives the data that is broadcast by a produced tag over an
EtherNet/IP network, ControlNet network, or ControlLogix backplane. A
consumed tag must be:
• Controller scope
• Same data type (including any array dimensions) as the remote tag
(produced tag).
See produced tag.
continuous task The continuous task runs continuously in the background. Any CPU time not
allocated to other operations (such as motion, communication, and periodic
tasks) is used to execute the programs within the continuous task.
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Glossary
controller scope Data accessible anywhere in the controller. The controller contains a collection of
tags that can be referenced by the routines and alias tags in any program, as well as
other aliases in the controller scope.
See program scope.
direct connection A direct connection is a real-time, data transfer link between the controller and
an I/O module. The controller maintains and monitors the connection with the
I/O module. Any break in the connection, such as a module fault or the removal
of a module while under power, sets fault bits in the data area associated with the
module.
See rack-optimized connection.
element An addressable unit of data that is a sub-unit of a larger unit of data. A single unit
of an array or structure.
equipment phase An equipment phase is a type of program. It has routines and a set of isolated tags.
It also has:
• State model
• State machine
• PHASE data type
event task An event task executes automatically based on a trigger event occurring or if a
trigger event does not occur in a specific time interval.
explicit A connection that is non-time critical and is request and reply in nature.
Executing a MSG instruction or executing a program upload are examples of
explicit connections. Explicit refers to basic information (such as source address,
data type, and destination address) that is included in every message.
See implicit.
firmware revision For products that have firmware components, the product ID label identifies the
firmware revision. This revision denotes the operating system for the device. The
firmware revision is usually two numbers separated by a period. For example, in
firmware revision 10.02, the first number (10) defines the major revision and the
second number (002) defines the minor revision.
See software version.
HART protocol HART (Highway Addressable Remote Transmitter) is an open protocol
designed to connect analog devices.
implicit A connection that is time critical in nature. This includes I/O and produced/
consumed tags. Implicit refers to information (such as source address, data type,
and destination address) that is implied in the message but not contained in
the message.
See explicit.
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Glossary
index A reference used to specify an element within an array.
local connection A connection to a module in a local chassis, extended-local chassis, or any of the
I/O banks configured for the controller. Communication occurs across the
backplane or virtual backplane and does not require an additional
communication module or adapter.
member An element of a structure that has its own data type and name.
• Members can be structures as well, creating nested structure data types.
• Each member within a structure can be a different data type.
message A message asynchronously reads or writes a block of data to another device.
multicast Network technology for the delivery of information to multiple destinations
simultaneously.
network update time (NUT) The repetitive time interval in which data can be sent on a ControlNet network.
The network update time ranges from 2...100 ms.
packet A unit of data that is routed between an origin and a destination.
parameter A parameter is a value or tag passed to an instruction or returned from an
instruction. An Add-On Instruction supports these parameters:
• Input (copied in)
• Output (copied out)
• InOut (passed by reference)
periodic task A periodic task executes automatically based on a preconfigured interval. This
task is similar to selectable timed interrupts in PLC-5 and SLC 500 processors.
PhaseManager option The PhaseManager option of RSLogix 5000 software (introduced in version 15)
gives you a state model for your equipment. Use the PhaseManager option to
create equipment phase programs.
postscan A function of the controller where the logic within a program is examined before
disabling the program to reset instructions and data.
prescan Prescan is an intermediate scan during the transition to Run mode.
• The controller performs prescan when you change from Program mode to
Run mode.
• The prescan examines all programs and instructions and initializes data
based on the results.
• Some instructions execute differently during prescan than they do during
the normal scan.
produced tag A tag that a controller is making available for use by (consumed by) other
controllers. Produced tags are always at controller scope.
See consumed tag.
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Glossary
product-defined data type A structure data type that is automatically defined by the software and controller.
By configuring an I/O module, you add the product-defined data type for that
module.
program A set of related routines and tags. Each program contains program tags, a main
executable routine, other routines, and an optional fault routine.
program scope Data accessible only within the current program. Each program contains a
collection of tags that can only be referenced by the routines and alias tags in that
program.
See controller scope.
rack-optimized connection For digital I/O modules, you can select rack-optimized communication. A rackoptimized connection consolidates connection usage between the controller and
all the digital I/O modules in the chassis (or DIN rail). Rather than having
individual, direct connections for each I/O module, there is one connection for
the entire chassis (or DIN rail).
See direct connection.
remote connection A connection to a module in a remote chassis or DIN rail. Communication
requires a communication module and/or adapter.
requested packet interval (RPI) When communicating over a the network, this is the maximum amount of time
between subsequent production of input data.
• Typically, this interval is configured in microseconds.
• The actual production of data is constrained to the largest multiple of the
network update time that is smaller than the selected RPI.
routine A set of logic instructions in a single programming language, such as a ladder
diagram. Routines provide the executable code for the project in a controller
(similar to a program file in a PLC or SLC controller).
scheduled connection A scheduled connection is unique to ControlNet communication. A scheduled
connection lets you send and receive data repeatedly at a predetermined rate that
is the requested packet interval (RPI). For example, a connection to an I/O
module is a scheduled connection because you repeatedly receive data from the
module at a specified rate. Other scheduled connections include connections to
the following:
• Communication devices
• Produced/consumed tags
On a ControlNet network, you must use RSNetWorx for ControlNet software
to enable all scheduled connections and establish a network update time (NUT).
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Glossary
software version The product ID label of a software products identifies the software version. This
version denotes the functional version of the software. The software version is
usually two numbers separated by a period. For example, in software version
10.02, the first number (10) defines the major revision and the second number
(02) defines the minor revision.
See firmware revision.
state machine A state machine does the following:
• Calls the maine routine (state routine) for an acting state.
• Manages the transitions between states with minimal coding.
• Makes sure that the equipment goes from state to state along a valid path.
state model A state model divides the operating cycle of your equipment into a series of states.
Each state is an instant in the operation of the equipment. It's the actions or
conditions of the equipment at a given time.
structure Some data types are a structure.
• A structure stores a group of data, each of which can be a different
data type.
• Within a structure, each individual data type is called a member.
• Like tags, members have a name and data type.
• You create your own user-defined structure by using any combination of
individual tags and most other structures.
• To copy data to a structure, use the COP instruction.
system overhead timeslice Specifies the percentage of controller time (excluding the time for periodic tasks)
that is devoted to communication and background functions (system overhead).
tag A named area of controller memory where data is stored. Tags are the basic
mechanism for allocating memory, referencing data from logic, and monitoring
data.
task A scheduling mechanism for executing a program. By default, each new project
file contains a preconfigured continuous task. You configure additional periodic
and event tasks, as needed.
unconnected message An unconnected message is a message that does not require connection resources.
An unconnected message is sent as a single request/response.
unicast Network technology for the delivery of information to a single destination.
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Glossary
user-defined data type (UDT) A UDT is a data structure you define. A user-defined data type groups different
types of data into a single named entity. You define the members of the userdefined data type. Like tags, the members have a name and data type.
virtual communication relationship A VCR is a channel that provides for the transfer of data between
(VCR) FOUNDATION Fieldbus devices. The number of VCRs required to send data
or receive data depends on the device and type of data. The type of VCR
determines whether the transfer is scheduled or unscheduled.
• A client/server VCR is for queued, unscheduled, user-initiated, and
one-to-one communication.
• A report distribution VCR is for queued, unscheduled, user-initiated, and
one-to-many communication.
• A publisher/subscriber VCR is for buffered, one-to-many communication.
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Index
A
access
firmware 122
module object 33
Access the Module Object 33
add-on instruction
guidelines 48
postscan logic 37
prescan 37
addresses
serial bit 60
alarm
and events
FactoryTalk 103
lbuffer 108
log 108
process 107
shelve, suppress, or disable 109
alias tags
creating 63
applications
HMI 111
array
guidelines 56
index
guidelines 57
indirect addresses 56
tag storage 55
atomic data types 53
B
base tag
guidelines 62
bit tags 59
block-transfer messages
guidelines 101
buffer
alarm 108
message storage 98
routine 36
comparison
HMI software 112
import/export, add-on instructions 50
program parameters, add-on instructions 52
programming languages 34
scheduled and unscheduled ControlNet 94
subroutines, add-on instructions 49
compound data types 53
configuration
Logix-based alarms 105
tags 62
connection
communication module 18
controller 17
considerations
periodic, event tasks 30
task 27
consumed tag
event task 69
continuous
task 26
lowest priority 25
task configuration 29
controller
connection 17
dual-core 14
memory estimation 16
mode switch 21
resources 14
RSLinx
software memory 16
-scoped tags 113
tag guidelines 115
task execution 23
ControlNet network
guidelines 92
scheduled and unscheduled comparison 94
topology 91
creating
alias tags 63
D
data
C
cache
messages 98
CIP Sync 20
code reuse
guidelines 41
communication
module connections 18
MSG instruction 97
RSLinx data packets 113
scope guidelines 64
type guidelines 54
DeviceNet network
guidelines 95
topology 94
disable
alarms 109
dual-core
controller 14
E
equipment phases 117
guidelines 117
instructions 118
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Index
estimate
controller memory 16
EtherNet/IP network
guidelines 89
switches 90
topology 88
event
task 26
configuration 30
considerations 30
consumed tag 69
guidelines 30
executable code
routines 24
execution
project 28
timer 38
F
FactoryTalk
alarms and events 103
software guidelines 112
firmware
access 122
management 119
options 120
supervisor guidelines 120
logic
routine application code 34
Logix5000 controller
resources 14
Logix-based
alarm
configuration 105
instruction guidelines 103
M
manage
firmware updates 119
system overhead 32
map tags 101
memory
estimation 16
RSLinx software estimation 16
message
block-transfer guidelines 101
cache 98
guidelines 100
storage buffer 98
mode switch
controller 21
module object 33
path attribute 33
MSG
communication 97
G
guidelines
block-transfer messages 101
controller firmware 119
controller tags 115
ControlNet network 92
DeviceNet network 95
equipment phases 117
EtherNet/IP network 89
FactoryTalk View software 112
firmware supervisor 120
Logix-based alarm instructions 103
messages 100
RSLinx software 114
N
network
ControlNet guidelines 92
ControlNet topology 91
DeviceNet guidelines 95
DeviceNet topology 94
EtherNet/IP guidelines 89
EtherNet/IP switches 90
EtherNet/IP topology 88
guidelines 87
services 87
unscheduled and scheduled ControlNet 94
unscheduled ControlNet guidelines 93
H
HMI
optimization 111
I
indexed routine 35
inline duplication 35
instructions
equipment phases 118
L
log
alarm 108
130
P
packet
RSLinx data 113
path attribute 33
periodic
task 26
configuration 29
considerations 30
phases
equipment 117
PhaseManager option 117
postscan
add-on instruction 37
SFC logic 37
prescan
add-on instruction 37
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Index
priority level
task 25
produced and consumed
RPI 68
tag guidelines 67
tags 67
program
considerations 24
languages comparison 34
methods 35
routines, tags 23
-scoped tags 113
project
execution 28
R
resources
Logix5000 controllers 14
routine
considerations 24
executable code 24
programming logic 34
programs 23
RPI
produced and consumed tags 68
RSLinx
classic and enterprise software 114
network data packet 113
software
controller memory estimate 16
guidelines 114
RSLogix 5000 software
PhaseManager option 117
S
serial bit addresses 60
services
network 87
SFC
logic postscan 37
online editing 39
shelve
alarms 109
storage
message buffer 98
Stratix
switches 91
string data types
guidelines 61
suppress
alarms 109
switch
controller mode 21
switches
EtherNet/IP network 90
Stratix 91
synchronization
time 20
system overhead
manage timeslice 32
timeslice 31
T
table
mapping 101
tag
configuration 62
controller-scoped 113
descriptions 66
maps 101
name guidelines 64
produced and consumed 67
program-scoped 113
task
configure controller execution 23
considerations 24, 27
continuous, periodic, event 26
priority level 25
types 25
time
synchronization 20
timer execution 38
timeslice
manage system overhead 32
system overhead 31
topology
ControlNet network 91
DeviceNet network 94
EtherNet/IP network 88
U
UDT
guidelines 58
unscheduled ControlNet
network guidelines 93
updating
firmware 119
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Index
Notes:
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Rockwell Automation Support
Rockwell Automation provides technical information on the Web to assist you in using its products.
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Installation Assistance
If you experience a problem within the first 24 hours of installation, review the information that is contained in this
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Publication 1756-RM094I-EN-P - September 2015
Supersedes Publication 1756-RM094H-EN-P - November 2012
Copyright © 2015 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in the U.S.A.
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