mikroC PRO for dsPIC User Manual

mikroC PRO for dsPIC User Manual
mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 is a full-featured C compiler
for dsPIC30, dsPIC33 and PIC24 MCUs from Microchip. It is designed
for developing, building and debugging dsPIC30/33 and PIC24based embedded applications. This development environment has a
wide range of features such as: easy-to-use IDE, very compact and
efficient code, many hardware and software libraries, comprehensive
documentation, software simulator, COFF file generation, SSA
optimization (up to 30% code reduction) and many more. Numerous
ready-to-use and well-explained examples will give a good start for
your embedded project.
Manual
Compiler
mikroC PRO for dsPIC
™
MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
Table of Contents
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
Introduction to mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24
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What’s new in mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24
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Software License Agreement
35
Technical Support
How to Register
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CHAPTER 2
mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 Environment Main Menu Options
File
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Edit
44
Features
Where to Start
Compiler Changes
IDE Changes
mikroElektronika Associates License Statement and Limited Warranty
IMPORTANT - READ CAREFULLY
LIMITED WARRANTY
HIGH RISK ACTIVITIES
GENERAL PROVISIONS
Who Gets the License Key
How to Get License Key
After Receving the License Key
File Menu Options
Edit Menu Options
Find Text
Replace Text
Find In Files
Go To Line
Regular expressions option
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View
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Project
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Build
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Run
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View Menu Options
Project Menu Options
Build Menu Options
Run Menu Options
Tools
Tools Menu Options
MikroElektronika
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2
mikroC PRO for dsPIC
Help
Help Menu Options
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mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 IDE
54
Code Editor
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Code Explorer
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Project Manager
Project Settings
Library Manager
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Statistics
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Messages Window
Quick Converter
Macro Editor
Image Preview
Toolbars
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IDE Overview
Editor Settings
Auto Save
Highlighter
Spelling
Comment Style
Code Folding
Code Assistant
Parameter Assistant
Bookmarks
Go to Line
Column Select Mode
Editor Colors
Auto Correct
Auto Complete (Code Templates)
Routine List
Managing libraries using Package Manager
Memory Usage Windows
RAM Memory Usage
Used RAM Locations
SFR Locations
ROM Memory Usage
ROM Memory Constants
Functions
Functions Sorted By Name Chart
Functions Sorted By Size Chart
Functions Sorted By Addresses
Function Tree
Memory Summary
File Toolbar
Edit Toolbar
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MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
Advanced Edit Toolbar
Find/Replace Toolbar
Project Toolbar
Build Toolbar
Debug Toolbar
Styles Toolbar
Tools Toolbar
View Toolbar
Layout Toolbar
Help Toolbar
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Customizing IDE Layout
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Options
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Integrated Tools
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Active Comments
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Docking Windows
Saving Layout
Auto Hide
Code editor
Tools
Output settings
Active Comments Editor
ASCII Chart
EEPROM Editor
Filter Designer
Graphic Lcd Bitmap Editor
HID Terminal
Lcd Custom Character
Seven Segment Editor
UDP Terminal
USART Terminal
New Active Comment
Renaming Active Comment
Deleting Active Comment
Export Project
Jump To Interrupt
Regular Expressions
Introduction
Simple matches
Escape sequences
Character classes
Metacharacters
Metacharacters - Line separators Metacharacters - Predefined classes
Metacharacters - Word boundaries
Metacharacters - Iterators
Metacharacters - Alternatives
MikroElektronika
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mikroC PRO for dsPIC
Metacharacters - Subexpressions
Metacharacters - Backreferences
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Keyboard Shortcuts
CHAPTER 3
mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 Command Line Options
CHAPTER 4
mikroICD (In-Circuit Debugger)
Introduction
mikroICD Debugger Options
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mikroICD Debugger Example
mikroICD Debugger Windows
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CHAPTER 5
Software Simulator Overview
Software Simulator
Software Simulator Debug Windows
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Software Simulator Debugger Options
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CHAPTER 6
mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 Specifics
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ANSI Standard Issues
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Predefined Globals and Constants
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Accessing Individual Bits
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Debugger Options
Debug Windows
Breakpoints Window
Watch Values Window
RAM Window
Stopwatch Window
EEPROM Watch Window
Code Watch Window
Debug Windows
Breakpoints Window
Watch Values Window
RAM Window
Stopwatch Window
EEPROM Watch Window
Code Watch Window
Debugger Options
GOTO Table
Divergence from the ANSI C Standard
C Language Extensions
Implementation-defined Behavior
Predefined project level defines
sbit type
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MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
at keyword
bit type
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Interrupts
145
Linker Directives
147
Indirect Function Calls
Built-in Routines
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Code Optimization
157
Single Static Assignment Optimization
158
Common Object File Format (COFF)
161
Function Calls from Interrupt
Disable Context Saving
Interrupt Handling
Interrupt Example
Directive absolute
Directive orgall
Directive funcorg
Lo
Hi
Higher
Highest
LoWord
HiWord
Delay_us
Delay_ms
Vdelay_ms
VDelay_Advanced_ms
Delay_Cyc
Delay_Cyc_Long
Clock_kHz
Clock_Mhz
Get_Fosc_kHz
Get_Fosc_Per_Cyc
Constant folding
Constant propagation
Copy propagation
Value numbering
"Dead code" ellimination
Stack allocation
Local vars optimization
Better code generation and local optimization
Introduction
Proper Coding Recommendations
Asm code and SSA optimization
Debugging Notes
Warning Messages Enhancement
COFF File Format
MikroElektronika
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mikroC PRO for dsPIC
COFF File Generation
161
CHAPTER 7
dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 Specifics
163
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dsPIC Memory Organization
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Memory Type Specifiers
168
Memory Type Qualifiers
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Read Modify Write Problem
CHAPTER 8
mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 Language Reference
Lexical Elements Overview
Whitespace
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Comments
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Tokens
181
Constants
Integer Constants
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Types Efficiency
Nested Calls Limitations
Limits of Indirect Approach Through PSV
Limits of Pointer to Function
Variable, constant and routine alignment
Program Memory (ROM)
Data Memory (RAM)
SFR Memory Space
X and Y Data RAM
DMA RAM
Unimplemented Memory Space
code
data
rx
sfr
xdata
ydata
dma
Near Memory Qualifier
Far Memory Qualifier
Whitespace in Strings
Line Splicing with Backslash (\)
C comments
C++ comments
Nested comments
Token Extraction Example
Long and Unsigned Suffixes
Decimal
Hexadecimal
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mikoC PRO for dsPIC
Binary
Octal
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Floating Point Constants
Character Constants
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String Constants
186
Enumeration Constants
Pointer Constants
Constant Expressions
Keywords
Identifiers
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Punctuators
191
Concepts
Objects
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Scope and Visibility
196
Name Spaces
Duration
197
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Types
199
Fundamental Types
Arithmetic Types
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Escape Sequences
Disambiguation
Line Continuation with Backslash
Case Sensitivity
Uniqueness and Scope Identifier Examples
Brackets
Parentheses
Braces
Comma
Semicolon
Colon
Asterisk (Pointer Declaration)
Equal Sign
Pound Sign (Preprocessor Directive)
Objects and Declarations
Lvalues
Rvalues
Scope
Visibility
Static Duration
Local Duration
Type Categories
Integral Types
Floating-point Types
MikroElektronika
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mikroC PRO for dsPIC
Enumerations
201
Void Type
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Derived Types
Arrays
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Pointers
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Pointer Arithmetic
210
Structures
213
Working with Structures
216
Structure Member Access
217
Unions
219
Bit Fields
221
Enumeration Declaration
Anonymous Enum Type
Enumeration Scope
Void Functions
Generic Pointers
Array Declaration
Array Initialization
Arrays in Expressions
Multi-dimensional Arrays
Pointer Declarations
Null Pointers
Assign an address to a Function Pointer
Function Pointers
Assign an address to a Function Pointer
Arrays and Pointers
Assignment and Comparison
Pointer Addition
Pointer Subtraction
Structure Declaration and Initialization
Incomplete Declarations
Untagged Structures and Typedefs
Anonymous Structures
Assignment
Size of Structure
Structures and Functions
Accessing Nested Structures
Structure Uniqueness
Union Declaration
Size of Union
Union Member Access
Anonymous Unions
Anonymous Union Member Access
Bit Fields Declaration
Bit Fields Access
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MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
Types Conversions
Standard Conversions
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Explicit Types Conversions (Typecasting)
Declarations
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Linkage
226
Storage Classes
227
Type Qualifiers
229
Typedef Specifier
asm Declaration
229
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Initialization
232
Functions
233
Function Calls and Argument Conversions
235
Ellipsis (‘...’) Operator
Operators
237
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Relational Operators
241
Bitwise Operators
242
Arithmetic Conversions
Pointer Conversions
Declarations and Definitions
Declarations and Declarators
Linkage Rules
Internal Linkage Rules
Auto
Register
Static
Extern
Qualifier const
Qualifier volatile
Accessing variables
Asm code and SSA optimization
Automatic Initialization
Function Declaration
Function Prototypes
Function Definition
Functions reentrancy
Function Calls
Argument Conversions
Operators Precedence and Associativity
Binary Arithmetic Operators
Unary Arithmetic Operators
Relational Operators Overview
Relational Operators in Expressions
Bitwise Operators Overview
Logical Operations on Bit Level
MikroElektronika
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mikroC PRO for dsPIC
Bitwise Shift Operators
Bitwise vs. Logical
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Logical Operators
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Conditional Operator ? :
245
Assignment Operators
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Unary Operators
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Sizeof Operator
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Expressions
Comma Expressions
Statements
Labeled Statements
Expression Statements
Selection Statements
If Statement
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Switch Statement
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Iteration Statements (Loops)
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Do Statement
For Statement
Jump Statements
Break and Continue Statements
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Goto Statement
Return Statement
Compound Statements (Blocks)
Preprocessor
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Logical Operators Overview
Logical Operations
Logical Expressions and Side Effects
Logical vs. Bitwise
Conditional Operator Rules
Simple Assignment Operator
Compound Assignment Operators
Assignment Rules
Unary Arithmetic Operators
Unary Logical Operator
Unary Bitwise Operator
Address and Indirection Operator
Sizeof Applied to Expression
Sizeof Applied to Type
Nested If statements
Nested switch
While Statement
Break Statement
Continue Statement
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MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
Preprocessor Directives
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Macros
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File Inclusion
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Preprocessor Operators
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Conditional Compilation
264
CHAPTER 9
mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 Libraries
Hardware Libraries
Digital Signal Processing Libraries
Standard ANSI C Libraries
Miscellaneous Libraries
Hardware Libraries
ADC Library
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CAN Library
275
MikroElektronika
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Line Continuation with Backslash (\)
Defining Macros and Macro Expansions
Macros with Parameters
Undefining Macros
Explicit Path
Operator #
Operator ##
Directives #if, #elif, #else, and #endif
Directives #ifdef and #ifndef
Library Routines
ADCx_Init
ADCx_Init_Advanced
ADCx_Get_Sample
ADCx_Read
ADC_Set_Active
Library Example
Library Routines
CANxSetOperationMode
CANxGetOperationMode
CANxInitialize
CANxSetBaudRate
CANxSetMask
CANxSetFilter
CANxRead
CANxWrite
CAN Constants
CAN_OP_MODE Constants
CAN_CONFIG_FLAGS Constants
CAN_TX_MSG_FLAGS Constants
CAN_RX_MSG_FLAGS Constants
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mikroC PRO for dsPIC
CAN_MASK Constants
CAN_FILTER Constants
Library Example
HW Connection
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CANSPI Library
290
Compact Flash Library
306
Library Dependency Tree
External dependencies of CANSPI Library
Library Routines
CANSPISetOperationMode
CANSPIGetOperationMode
CANSPIInitialize
CANSPISetBaudRate
CANSPISetMask
CANSPISetFilter
CANSPIRead
CANSPIWrite
CANSPI Constants
CANSPI_OP_MODE Constants
CANSPI_TX_MSG_FLAGS Constants
CANSPI_RX_MSG_FLAGS Constants
CANSPI_MASK Constants
CANSPI_FILTER Constants
Library Example
HW Connection
Library Dependency Tree
External dependencies of Compact Flash Library
Library Routines
Cf_Init
Cf_Detect
Cf_Enable
Cf_Disable
Cf_Read_Init
Cf_Read_Byte
Cf_Write_Init
Cf_Write_Byte
Cf_Read_Sector
Cf_Write_Sector
Cf_Fat_Init
Cf_Fat_QuickFormat
Cf_Fat_Assign
Cf_Fat_Reset
Cf_Fat_Read
Cf_Fat_Rewrite
Cf_Fat_Append
Cf_Fat_Delete
Cf_Fat_Write
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MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
Cf_Fat_Set_File_Date
Cf_Fat_Get_File_Date
Cf_Fat_Get_File_Date_Modified
Cf_Fat_Get_File_Size
Cf_Fat_Get_Swap_File
Library Example
HW Connection
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ECAN Library
324
EEPROM Library
343
Epson S1D13700 Graphic Lcd Library
347
Library Routines
ECANxDmaChannelInit
ECANxSetOperationMode
ECANxGetOperationMode
ECANxInitialize
ECANxSelectTxBuffers
ECANxFilterDisable
ECANxFilterEnable
ECANxSetBufferSize
ECANxSetBaudRate
ECANxSetMask
ECANxSetFilter
ECANxRead
ECANxWrite
ECAN Constants
ECAN_OP_MODE Constants
ECAN_CONFIG_FLAGS Constants
ECAN_TX_MSG_FLAGS Constants
ECAN_RX_MSG_FLAGS Constants
ECAN_MASK Constants
ECAN_FILTER Constants
ECAN_RX_BUFFER Constants
Library Example
HW Connection
Library Routines
EEPROM_Erase
EEPROM_Erase_Block
EEPROM_Read
EEPROM_Write
EEPROM_Write_Block
Library Example
External dependencies of the Epson S1D13700 Graphic Lcd Library
Library Routines
S1D13700_Init
S1D13700_Write_Command
S1D13700_Write_Parameter
S1D13700_Read_Parameter
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mikroC PRO for dsPIC
S1D13700_Fill
S1D13700_GrFill
S1D13700_TxtFill
S1D13700_Display_GrLayer
S1D13700_Display_TxtLayer
S1D13700_Set_Cursor
S1D13700_Display_Cursor
S1D13700_Write_Char
S1D13700_Write_Text
S1D13700_Dot
S1D13700_Line
S1D13700_H_Line
S1D13700_V_Line
S1D13700_Rectangle
S1D13700_Box
S1D13700_Rectangle_Round_Edges
S1D13700_Rectangle_Round_Edges_Fill
S1D13700_Circle
S1D13700_Circle_Fill
S1D13700_Image
S1D13700_PartialImage
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Flash Memory Library
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Graphic Lcd Library
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dsPIC30: PIC24 and dsPIC33: 24F04KA201 and 24F16KA102 Family Specifics :
Library Routines
dsPIC30 Functions
PIC24 and dsPIC33 Functions
dsPIC30 Functions
FLASH_Erase32
FLASH_Write_Block
FLASH_Write_Compact
FLASH_Write_Init
FLASH_Write_Loadlatch4
FLASH_Write_Loadlatch4_Compact
FLASH_Write_DoWrite
FLASH_Read4
FLASH_Read4_Compact
PIC24 and dsPIC33 Functions FLASH_Erase
FLASH_Write
FLASH_Write_Compact
FLASH_Read
FLASH_Read_Compact
Library Example
Library Dependency Tree
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MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
External dependencies of Graphic Lcd Library
Glcd_Init
Glcd_Set_Side
Glcd_Set_X
Glcd_Set_Page
Glcd_Read_Data
Glcd_Write_Data
Glcd_Fill
Glcd_Dot
Glcd_Line
Glcd_V_Line
Glcd_H_Line
Glcd_Rectangle
Glcd_Rectangle_Round_Edges
Glcd_Rectangle_Round_Edges_Fill
Glcd_Box
Glcd_Circle
Glcd_Circle_Fill
Glcd_Set_Font
Glcd_Write_Char
Glcd_Write_Text
Glcd_Image
Glcd_PartialImage
Library Example
HW Connection
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I²C Library
390
Keypad Library
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Lcd Library
399
Library Routines
I2Cx_Init
I2Cx_Start
I2Cx_Restart
I2Cx_Is_Idle
I2Cx_Read
I2Cx_Write
I2Cx_Stop
Library Example
HW Connection
External dependencies of Keypad Library
Library Routines
Keypad_Init
Keypad_Key_Press
Keypad_Key_Click
Library Example
HW Connection
Library Dependency Tree
Keypad_Key_Click
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mikroC PRO for dsPIC
Library Routines
Lcd_Init
Lcd_Out
Lcd_Out_Cp
Lcd_Chr
Lcd_Chr_Cp
Lcd_Cmd
Available Lcd Commands
Library Example
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Manchester Code Library
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Multi Media Card Library
413
Keypad_Key_Click
Library Routines
Man_Receive_Init
Man_Receive
Man_Send_Init
Man_Send
Man_Synchro
Man_Break
Library Example
Connection Example
Secure Digital Card
Secure Digital High Capacity Card
Library Dependency Tree
External dependencies of MMC Library
Library Routines
Mmc_Init
Mmc_Read_Sector
Mmc_Write_Sector
Mmc_Read_Cid
Mmc_Read_Csd
Mmc_Fat_Init
Mmc_Fat_QuickFormat
Mmc_Fat_Assign
Mmc_Fat_Reset
Mmc_Fat_Read
Mmc_Fat_Rewrite
Mmc_Fat_Append
Mmc_Fat_Delete
Mmc_Fat_Write
Mmc_Fat_Set_File_Date
Mmc_Fat_Get_File_Date
Mmc_Fat_Get_File_Date_Modified
Mmc_Fat_Get_File_Size
Mmc_Fat_Get_Swap_File
Library Example
HW Connection
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MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
OneWire Library
432
Peripheral Pin Select Library
437
Port Expander Library
441
PS/2 Library
452
PWM Library
456
Library Routines
Ow_Reset
Ow_Read
Ow_Write
Library Example
HW Connection
Library Routines
Unlock_IOLOCK
Lock_IOLOCK
PPS_Mapping
Direction Parameters
Input Functions
Output Functions
Library Dependency Tree
External dependencies of Port Expander Library
Library Routines
Expander_Init
Expander_Init_Advanced
Expander_Read_Byte
Expander_Write_Byte
Expander_Read_PortA
Expander_Read_PortB
Expander_Read_PortAB
Expander_Write_PortA
Expander_Write_PortB
Expander_Write_PortAB
Expander_Set_DirectionPortA
Expander_Set_DirectionPortB
Expander_Set_DirectionPortAB
Expander_Set_PullUpsPortA
Expander_Set_PullUpsPortB
Expander_Set_PullUpsPortAB
HW Connection
External dependencies of PS/2 Library
Library Routines
Ps2_Config
Ps2_Key_Read
Special Function Keys
Library Example
HW Connection
Library Routines
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mikroC PRO for dsPIC
PWM_Init
PWM_Set_Duty
PWM_Start
PWM_Stop
Library Example
HW Connection
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460
PWM Motor Control Library
460
RS-485 Library
464
Software I²C Library
474
Software SPI Library
481
Software UART Library
485
Library Routines
PWMx_Mc_Init
PWMx_Mc_Set_Duty
PWMx_Mc_Start
PWMx_Mc_Stop
HW Connection
Library Dependency Tree
External dependencies of RS-485 Library
Library Routines
RS485Master_Init
RS485Master_Receive
RS485Master_Send
RS485Slave_Init
RS485Slave_Receive
RS485Slave_Send
Library Example
HW Connection
Message format and CRC calculations
External dependencies of Software I²C Library
Library Routines
Soft_I2C_Init
Soft_I2C_Start
Soft_I2C_Read
Soft_I2C_Write
Soft_I2C_Stop
Soft_I2C_Break
Library Example
External dependencies of Software SPI Library
Library Routines
Soft_SPI_Init
Soft_SPI_Read
Soft_SPI_Write
Library Example
Library Routines
Soft_UART_Init
19
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481
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483
485
485
MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
Soft_UART_Read
Soft_UART_Write
Soft_UART_Break
Library Example
486
486
487
488
Sound Library
489
SPI Library
492
SPI Ethernet Library
499
Library Routines
Sound_Init
Sound_Play
HW Connection
Library Routines
SPIx_Init
SPIx_Init_Advanced SPIx_Read
SPIx_Write
SPI_Set_Active
Library Example
HW Connection
Library Dependency Tree
External dependencies of SPI Ethernet Library
Library Routines
SPIx_Write
SPIx_Write
SPI_Ethernet_Enable
SPI_Ethernet_Disable
SPI_Ethernet_doPacket
SPI_Ethernet_putByte
SPI_Ethernet_putBytes
SPI_Ethernet_putConstBytes
SPI_Ethernet_putString
SPI_Ethernet_putConstString
SPI_Ethernet_getByte
SPI_Ethernet_getBytes
SPI_Ethernet_UserTCP
SPI_Ethernet_UserUDP
SPI_Ethernet_getIpAddress
SPI_Ethernet_getDnsIpAddress
SPI_Ethernet_getIpMask
SPI_Ethernet_confNetwork
SPI_Ethernet_arpResolve
SPI_Ethernet_sendUDP
SPI_Ethernet_dnsResolve
SPI_Ethernet_initDHCP
SPI_Ethernet_doDHCPLeaseTime
SPI_Ethernet_renewDHCP
Library Example
MikroElektronika
489
489
489
491
492
493
494
496
496
497
497
498
499
500
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510
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512
512
513
514
514
515
20
mikroC PRO for dsPIC
HW Connection
522
SPI Ethernet ENC24J600 Library
523
SPI Graphic Lcd Library
541
Library Dependency Tree
External dependencies of SPI Ethernet ENC24J600 Library
Library Routines
SPI_Ethernet_24j600_Init
SPI_Ethernet_24j600_Enable
SPI_Ethernet_24j600_Disable
SPI_Ethernet_24j600_doPacket
SPI_Ethernet_24j600_putByte
SPI_Ethernet_24j600_putBytes
SPI_Ethernet_24j600_putConstBytes
SPI_Ethernet_24j600_putString
SPI_Ethernet_24j600_putConstString
SPI_Ethernet_24j600_getByte
SPI_Ethernet_24j600_getBytes
SPI_Ethernet_24j600_UserTCP
SPI_Ethernet_24j600_UserUDP
SPI_Ethernet_24j600_getIpAddress
SPI_Ethernet_24j600_getGwIpAddress
SPI_Ethernet_24j600_getDnsIpAddress
SPI_Ethernet_24j600_getIpMask
SPI_Ethernet_24j600_confNetwork
SPI_Ethernet_24j600_arpResolve
SPI_Ethernet_24j600_sendUDP
SPI_Ethernet_24j600_dnsResolve
SPI_Ethernet_24j600_initDHCP
SPI_Ethernet_24j600_doDHCPLeaseTime
SPI_Ethernet_24j600_renewDHCP
Library Example
Library Dependency Tree
External dependencies of SPI Lcd Library
Library Routines
SPI_Glcd_Init
SPI_Glcd_Set_Side
SPI_Glcd_Set_Page
SPI_Glcd_Set_X
SPI_Glcd_Read_Data
SPI_Glcd_Write_Data
SPI_Glcd_Fill
SPI_Glcd_Dot
SPI_Glcd_Line
SPI_Glcd_V_Line
SPI_Glcd_H_Line
SPI_Glcd_Rectangle
SPI_Glcd_Rectangle_Round_Edges
21
523
524
525
526
528
529
530
530
531
531
532
532
532
533
533
534
534
535
535
536
536
537
537
538
539
540
540
540
541
541
541
542
543
543
543
544
544
545
545
546
546
547
547
548
MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
SPI_Glcd_Rectangle_Round_Edges_Fill
SPI_Glcd_Box
SPI_Glcd_Circle
SPI_Glcd_Circle_FIll
SPI_Glcd_Set_Font
SPI_Glcd_Write_Char
SPI_Glcd_Write_Text
SPI_Glcd_Image
SPI_Glcd_PartialImage
Library Example
HW Connection
548
549
549
550
551
552
552
553
553
554
556
SPI Lcd Library
557
SPI Lcd8 (8-bit interface) Library
563
SPI T6963C Graphic Lcd Library
570
Library Dependency Tree
External dependencies of SPI Lcd Library
Library Routines
SPI_Lcd_Config
SPI_Lcd_Out
SPI_Lcd_Out_Cp
SPI_Lcd_Chr
SPI_Lcd_Chr_Cp
SPI_Lcd_Cmd
SPI_Lcd_Cmd
Library Example
Default Pin Configuration
Library Dependency Tree
External dependencies of SPI Lcd Library
Library Routines
SPI_Lcd8_Config
SPI_Lcd8_Out
SPI_Lcd8_Out_Cp
SPI_Lcd8_Chr
SPI_Lcd8_Chr_Cp
SPI_Lcd8_Cmd
Available SPI Lcd8 Commands
Library Example
Library Dependency Tree
External dependencies of SPI T6963C Graphic Lcd Library
Library Routines
SPI_Lcd8_Cmd
SPI_T6963C_writeData
SPI_T6963C_writeCommand
SPI_T6963C_setPtr
SPI_T6963C_waitReady
SPI_T6963C_fill
SPI_T6963C_dot
MikroElektronika
557
557
557
558
558
559
559
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560
560
561
561
563
563
563
564
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566
566
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575
22
mikroC PRO for dsPIC
SPI_T6963C_write_char
SPI_T6963C_write_text
SPI_T6963C_line
SPI_T6963C_rectangle
SPI_T6963C_rectangle_round_edges
SPI_T6963C_rectangle_round_edges_fill
SPI_T6963C_box
SPI_T6963C_circle
SPI_T6963C_circle_fill
SPI_T6963C_image
SPI_T6963C_PartialImage
SPI_T6963C_sprite
SPI_T6963C_set_cursor
SPI_T6963C_clearBit
SPI_T6963C_setBit
SPI_T6963C_negBit
SPI_T6963C_displayGrPanel
SPI_T6963C_displayTxtPanel
SPI_T6963C_setGrPanel
SPI_T6963C_setTxtPanel
SPI_T6963C_panelFill
SPI_T6963C_grFill
SPI_T6963C_txtFill
SPI_T6963C_cursor_height
SPI_T6963C_graphics
SPI_T6963C_text
SPI_T6963C_cursor
SPI_T6963C_cursor_blink
Library Example
HW Connection
T6963C Graphic Lcd Library
Library Dependency Tree
Library Dependency Tree
Library Routines
SPI_T6963C_cursor
T6963C_writeData
T6963C_writeCommand
T6963C_setPtr
T6963C_waitReady
T6963C_fill
T6963C_dot
T6963C_write_char
T6963C_write_text
T6963C_line
T6963C_rectangle
T6963C_rectangle_round_edges
T6963C_rectangle_round_edges_fill
23
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576
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578
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579
579
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581
581
582
582
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600
601
601
602
MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
T6963C_box
T6963C_circle
T6963C_circle_fill
T6963C_image
T6963C_PartialImage
T6963C_sprite
T6963C_set_cursor
T6963C_clearBit
T6963C_setBit
T6963C_negBit
T6963C_displayGrPanel
T6963C_displayTxtPanel
T6963C_setGrPanel
T6963C_setTxtPanel
T6963C_panelFill
T6963C_grFill
T6963C_txtFill
T6963C_cursor_height
T6963C_graphics
T6963C_text
T6963C_cursor
T6963C_cursor_blink
Library Example
HW Connection
TFT Library
External dependencies of TFT Library
Library Routines
TFT_Init
TFT_Set_Index
TFT_Write_Command
TFT_Write_Data
TFT_Set_Active
TFT_Set_Font
TFT_Write_Char
TFT_Write_Text
TFT_Fill_Screen
TFT_Dot
TFT_Set_Pen
TFT_Set_Brush
TFT_Line
TFT_H_Line
TFT_V_Line
TFT_Rectangle_Round_Edges
TFT_Circle
TFT_Image
TFT_Partial_Image
TFT_Image_Jpeg
MikroElektronika
602
602
603
603
604
604
605
605
605
606
606
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607
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607
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623
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629
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24
mikroC PRO for dsPIC
TFT_RGBToColor16bit
TFT_Color16bitToRGB
HW Connection
631
631
632
Touch Panel Library
633
Touch Panel TFT Library
643
UART Library
649
USB Library
662
Library Dependency Tree
External dependencies of Touch Panel Library
Library Routines
TP_Init
TP_Set_ADC_Threshold
TP_Press_Detect
TP_Get_Coordinates
TP_Calibrate_Bottom_Left
TP_Calibrate_Upper_Right
TP_Get_Calibration_Consts
TP_Set_Calibration_Consts
Library Example
Library Dependency Tree
External dependencies of Touch Panel TFT Library
Library Routines
TP_TFT_Init
TP_TFT_Set_ADC_Threshold
TP_TFT_Press_Detect
TP_TFT_Get_Coordinates
TP_TFT_Calibrate_Min
TP_TFT_Calibrate_Max
TP_TFT_Get_Calibration_Consts
TP_TFT_Set_Calibration_Consts
HW Connection
Library Routines
UARTx_Init
UARTx_Init_Advanced
UARTx_Data_Ready
UARTx_Tx_Idle
UARTx_Read
UARTx_Read_Text
UARTx_Write
UARTx_Write_Text
UART_Set_Active
Library Example
HW Connection
USB HID Class
Library Routines
HID_Enable
25
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633
633
634
634
635
636
636
637
637
638
638
643
643
643
644
644
645
646
646
647
647
648
648
649
650
651
653
654
655
656
657
658
659
660
661
662
662
663
MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
HID_Read
HID_Write
HID_Disable
USB_Interrupt_Proc
USB_Polling_Proc
Gen_Enable
Gen_Read
Gen_Write
Library Example
HW Connection
663
664
664
665
665
666
666
667
668
668
DSP Libraries
669
FIR Filter Library
670
IIR Filter Library
671
FFT Library
672
Bit Reverse Complex Library
676
Vectors Library
677
Matrices Library
685
Digital Signal Processing Libraries
Library Routines
FIR_Radix
Library Routines
IIR_Radix
Library Dependency Tree
FFT
Twiddle Factors:
TwiddleCoeff_64
TwiddleCoeff_128
TwiddleCoeff_256
TwiddleCoeff_512
Library Routines
BitReverseComplex
Library Routines
Vector_Set
Vector_Power
Vector_Subtract
Vector_Scale
Vector_Negate
Vector_Multiply
Vector_Min
Vector_Max
Vector_Dot
Vector_Correlate
Vector_Convolve
Vector_Add
Library Routines
Matrix_Transpose
MikroElektronika
669
670
670
671
671
672
672
673
673
673
674
674
676
676
677
677
678
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679
679
680
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681
681
682
683
684
685
685
26
mikroC PRO for dsPIC
Matrix_Subtract
Matrix_Scale
Matrix_Multiply
Matrix_Add
686
686
687
688
Standard ANSI C Libraries
ANSI C Ctype Library
689
689
ANSI C Math Library
693
ANSI C Stdlib Library
699
Library Functions
isalnum
isalpha
iscntrl
isdigit
isgraph
islower
ispunct
isspace
isupper
isxdigit
toupper
tolower
Library Functions
acos
asin
atan
atan2
ceil
cos
cosh
exp
fabs
floor
frexp
ldexp
log
log10
modf
pow
sin
sinh
sqrt
tan
tanh
Library Dependency Tree
Library Functions
abs
27
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690
690
691
691
691
691
692
692
692
692
693
693
694
694
694
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695
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695
696
696
696
696
697
697
697
697
698
698
698
699
699
699
MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
atof
atoi
atol
div
ldiv
uldiv
labs
max
min
rand
srand
xtoi
Div Structures
700
700
700
700
701
701
701
701
702
702
702
702
703
ANSI C String Library
704
Miscellaneous Libraries
Button Library
712
712
Conversions Library
714
Library Functions
memchr
memcmp
memcpy
memmove
memset
strcat
strchr
strcmp
strcpy
strlen
strncat
strncpy
strspn
strncmp
strstr
strcspn
strpbrk
strrchr
strtok
Library Routines
strrchr
Library Dependency Tree
Library Routines
ByteToStr
ShortToStr
WordToStr
IntToStr
LongToStr
MikroElektronika
704
704
705
705
705
706
706
706
707
707
707
708
708
708
709
709
710
710
710
711
712
712
714
714
715
715
716
716
717
28
mikroC PRO for dsPIC
LongWordToStr
FloatToStr
WordToStrWithZeros
IntToStrWithZeros
LongWordToStrWithZeros
LongIntToStrWithZeros
ByteToHex
ShortToHex
WordToHex
IntToHex
LongWordToHex
LongIntToHex
Dec2Bcd
Bcd2Dec
Dec2Bcd16
Bcd2Dec16
Rtrim
Ltrim
717
718
719
719
720
720
721
721
722
722
723
723
724
724
725
725
726
726
PrintOut Library
727
Setjmp Library
731
Sprint Library
734
Time Library
738
Trigonometry Library
742
CHAPTER 10
Tutorials
744
744
Library Dependency Tree
Library Routines
PrintOut
Library Routines
Setjmp
Longjmp
Library Example
Library Dependency Tree
Functions
sprintf
sprintl
sprinti
Library Example
Library Routines
Time_dateToEpoch
Time_epochToDate
Time_dateDiff
Library Example
Library Routines
sinE3
cosE3
29
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727
727
731
731
732
732
734
734
734
736
736
737
738
738
739
740
741
742
742
743
MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
Managing Project
744
New Project
745
New Project
748
Customizing Projects
752
Add/Remove Files from Project
754
Source Files
756
Edit Project
Source Files
759
760
Clean Project Folder
Compilation
763
764
Using Microchip MPLAB® IDE with mikroElektronika compilers
766
Using MPLAB® ICD 2 Debugger
Using MPLAB® Simulator
766
773
Projects
New Project Wizard Steps
New Project Wizard Steps
Managing Project Group
Add/Remove Files from Project
Project Level Defines:
Project Level Defines:
Managing Source Files
Creating new source file
Opening an existing file
Printing an open file
Saving file
Saving file under a different name
Closing file
Search Paths
Paths for Source Files (.c)
Paths for Header Files (.h)
Managing Source Files
Creating new source file
Opening an existing file
Printing an open file
Saving file
Saving file under a different name
Closing file
Search Paths
Paths for Source Files (.c)
Paths for Header Files (.h)
Output Files
Assembly View
Multiple Library Versions
Debugging Your Code
MikroElektronika
744
745
748
752
752
753
755
756
756
756
756
756
757
757
757
758
758
760
760
760
760
760
761
761
761
762
762
764
764
765
766
30
mikroC PRO for dsPIC
Frequently Asked Questions
778
Can I use your compilers and programmer on Windows Vista (Windows 7) ?
778
I am getting “Access is denied” error in Vista, how to solve this problem ?
778
What are differences between mikroC PRO, mikroPascal PRO and mikroBasic PRO compilers ?
Why do they have different prices ?
778
Why do your PIC compilers don’t support 12F508 and some similar chips ?
778
What are limitations of demo versions of mikroElektronika’s compilers ?
778
Why do I still get demo limit error when I purchased and installed license key ?
778
I have bought license for the older version, do I have to pay license for the new version of the compiler ?
779
Do your compilers work on Windows Vista (Windows 7) ?
779
What does this function/procedure/routine do ?
779
I try to compile one of the provided examples and nothing happens, what is the problem?
779
Can I get your library sources ? I need to provide all sources with my project.
779
Can I use code I developed in your compilers in commercial purposes ? Are there some limitations
?
779
Why does an example provided with your compilers doesn’t work ?
779
Your example works if I use the same MCU you did, but how to make it work for another MCU ?779
I need this project finished, can you help me ?
780
Do you have some discount on your compilers/development systems for students/professors ? 780
I have a question about your compilers which is not listed here. Where can I find an answer ? 780
31
MikroElektronika
CHAPTER 1
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
INTRODUCTION
The mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 is a powerful, feature-rich development tool for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24
microcontrollers. It is designed to provide the programmer with the easiest possible solution to developing applications
for embedded systems, without compromising performance or control.
mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 IDE
MikroElektronika
32
mikroC PRO for dsPIC
Introduction to mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24
dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 and C fit together well: dsPIC is designed as PIC with digital signal processing capabilities.
These are Microchip’s first inherent 16-bit (data) microcontrollers. They build on the PIC’s existing strength offering
hardware MAC (multiply-accumulate), barrel shifting, bit reversal, (16x16)-bit multiplication and other digital signal
processing operations. Having a wide range of application, being prized for its efficiency, dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 MCUs
are a natural choice for developing embedded systems. mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 provides a successful
match featuring highly advanced IDE, ANSI compliant compiler, broad set of hardware libraries, comprehensive
documentation, and plenty of ready-to-run examples.
Features
mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 allows you to quickly develop and deploy complex applications:
- Write your source code using the built-in Code Editor (Code and Parameter Assistants, Code Folding, Syntax Highlighting, Auto Correct, Code Templates, and more.)
- Use included mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 libraries to dramatically speed up the development: data acquisition, memory, displays, conversions, communication etc.
- Monitor your program structure, variables, and functions in the Code Explorer.
- Generate commented, human-readable assembly, and standard HEX compatible with all programmers.
- Use the integrated mikroICD (In-Circuit Debugger) Real-Time debugging tool to monitor program execution on the hardware level.
- Inspect program flow and debug executable logic with the integrated Software Simulator.
- Generate COFF(Common Object File Format) file for software and hardware debugging under Microchip’s MPLAB software.
- Use Single Static Assignment optimization to shrink your code to even smaller size.
- Get detailed reports and graphs: RAM and ROM map, code statistics, assembly listing, calling tree, and more.
- Active Comments enable you to make your comments alive and interactive.
- mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 provides plenty of examples to expand, develop, and use as building bricks in your projects. Copy them entirely if you deem fit – that’s why we included them with the compiler.
Where to Start
- In case that you’re a beginner in programming dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 microcontrollers, read carefully the dsPIC Specifics chapter. It might give you some useful pointers on dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 constraints, code portability, and good programming practices.
- If you are experienced in C programming, you will probably want to consult mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 Specifics first. For language issues, you can always refer to the comprehensive Language Reference. A complete list of included libraries is available at mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 Libraries.
- If you are not very experienced in C programming, don’t panic! mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 provides plenty of examples making it easy for you to go quickly. We suggest that you first consult Projects and Source Files, and then start browsing the examples that you’re the most interested in.
Copyright (c) 2002-2010 mikroElektronika. All rights reserved.
What do you think about this topic ? Send us feedback!
33
MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
What’s new in mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24
IDE build 4.60
Command line build 4.60
New features and enhancements in the following areas will boost your productivity by helping you complete many tasks
more easily and in less time.
For a complete version history of mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24, visit the following link : http://www.mikroe.
com/download/eng/documents/compilers/mikroc/pro/dspic/version_history.txt
- Compiler Changes
- IDE Changes
Compiler Changes
Fixed :
- Optimization issues in specific cases when destination variable is in Rx space.
- Alignment not set for the first variable which is the first in block of initializers.
IDE Changes
Fixed :
- Error in Code Explorer in case void interrup is defined (without brackets).
- Compiler version is not visible in caption if no projects are open.
- Parameter assistant ignores commas when switching to another parameter.
- Occasional lost of configuration flags when swithing between projets.
- Improper display of RAM memory usage in statistics.
Improved :
- Communication to programmer concerning supported chips.
- License Key Request form.
MikroElektronika
34
mikroC PRO for dsPIC
Software License Agreement
mikroElektronika Associates License Statement and Limited Warranty
IMPORTANT - READ CAREFULLY
This license statement and limited warranty constitute a legal agreement (“License Agreement”) between you (either as
an individual or a single entity) and mikroElektronika (“mikroElektronika Associates”) for software product (“Software”)
identified above, including any software, media, and accompanying on-line or printed documentation.
BY INSTALLING, COPYING, OR OTHERWISE USING SOFTWARE, YOU AGREE TO BE BOUND BY ALL TERMS
AND CONDITIONS OF THE LICENSE AGREEMENT.
Upon your acceptance of the terms and conditions of the License Agreement, mikroElektronika Associates grants you
the right to use Software in a way provided below.
This Software is owned by mikroElektronika Associates and is protected by copyright law and international copyright
treaty. Therefore, you must treat this Software like any other copyright material (e.g., a book).
You may transfer Software and documentation on a permanent basis provided. You retain no copies and the recipient
agrees to the terms of the License Agreement. Except as provided in the License Agreement, you may not transfer,
rent, lease, lend, copy, modify, translate, sublicense, time-share or electronically transmit or receive Software, media
or documentation. You acknowledge that Software in the source code form remains a confidential trade secret of
mikroElektronika Associates and therefore you agree not to modify Software or attempt to reverse engineer, decompile,
or disassemble it, except and only to the extent that such activity is expressly permitted by applicable law notwithstanding
this limitation.
If you have purchased an upgrade version of Software, it constitutes a single product with the mikroElektronika
Associates software that you upgraded. You may use the upgrade version of Software only in accordance with the
License Agreement.
LIMITED WARRANTY
Respectfully excepting the Redistributables, which are provided “as is”, without warranty of any kind, mikroElektronika
Associates warrants that Software, once updated and properly used, will perform substantially in accordance with the
accompanying documentation, and Software media will be free from defects in materials and workmanship, for a period
of ninety (90) days from the date of receipt. Any implied warranties on Software are limited to ninety (90) days.
mikroElektronika Associates’ and its suppliers’ entire liability and your exclusive remedy shall be, at mikroElektronika
Associates’ option, either (a) return of the price paid, or (b) repair or replacement of Software that does not meet
mikroElektronika Associates’ Limited Warranty and which is returned to mikroElektronika Associates with a copy of
your receipt. DO NOT RETURN ANY PRODUCT UNTIL YOU HAVE CALLED MIKROELEKTRONIKA ASSOCIATES
FIRST AND OBTAINED A RETURN AUTHORIZATION NUMBER. This Limited Warranty is void if failure of Software
has resulted from an accident, abuse, or misapplication. Any replacement of Software will be warranted for the rest of
the original warranty period or thirty (30) days, whichever is longer.
TO THE MAXIMUM EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW, MIKROELEKTRONIKA ASSOCIATES AND ITS
SUPPLIERS DISCLAIM ALL OTHER WARRANTIES AND CONDITIONS, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED,
INCLUDED, BUT NOT LIMITED TO IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR
PURPOSE, TITLE, AND NON-INFRINGEMENT, WITH REGARD TO SOFTWARE, AND THE PROVISION OF OR
FAILURE TO PROVIDE SUPPORT SERVICES.
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IN NO EVENT SHALL MIKROELEKTRONIKA ASSOCIATES OR ITS SUPPLIERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY SPECIAL,
INCIDENTAL, INDIRECT, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES WHATSOEVER (INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION,
DAMAGES FOR LOSS OF BUSINESS PROFITS AND BUSINESS INFORMATION, BUSINESS INTERRUPTION, OR
ANY OTHER PECUNIARY LOSS) ARISING OUT OF THE USE OF OR INABILITY TO USE SOFTWARE PRODUCT
OR THE PROVISION OF OR FAILURE TO PROVIDE SUPPORT SERVICES, EVEN IF MIKROELEKTRONIKA
ASSOCIATES HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES. IN ANY CASE, MIKROELEKTRONIKA
ASSOCIATES’ ENTIRE LIABILITY UNDER ANY PROVISION OF THIS LICENSE AGREEMENT SHALL BE LIMITED
TO THE AMOUNT ACTUALLY PAID BY YOU FOR SOFTWARE PRODUCT PROVIDED, HOWEVER, IF YOU HAVE
ENTERED INTO A MIKROELEKTRONIKA ASSOCIATES SUPPORT SERVICES AGREEMENT, MIKROELEKTRONIKA
ASSOCIATES’ ENTIRE LIABILITY REGARDING SUPPORT SERVICES SHALL BE GOVERNED BY THE TERMS OF
THAT AGREEMENT.
HIGH RISK ACTIVITIES
Software is not fault-tolerant and is not designed, manufactured or intended for use or resale as on-line control
equipment in hazardous environments requiring fail-safe performance, such as in the operation of nuclear facilities,
aircraft navigation or communication systems, air traffic control, direct life support machines, or weapons systems, in
which the failure of Software could lead directly to death, personal injury, or severe physical or environmental damage
(“High Risk Activities”). mikroElektronika Associates and its suppliers specifically disclaim any expressed or implied
warranty of fitness for High Risk Activities.
GENERAL PROVISIONS
This statement may only be modified in writing signed by you and an authorised officer of mikroElektronika Associates.
If any provision of this statement is found void or unenforceable, the remainder will remain valid and enforceable
according to its terms. If any remedy provided is determined to have failed for its essential purpose, all limitations of
liability and exclusions of damages set forth in the Limited Warranty shall remain in effect.
This statement gives you specific legal rights; you may have others, which vary, from country to country. mikroElektronika
Associates reserves all rights not specifically granted in this statement.
mikroElektronika
Visegradska 1A,
11000 Belgrade,
Europe.
Phone: + 381 11 36 28 830
Fax: +381 11 36 28 831
Web: www.mikroe.com
E-mail: [email protected]
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Technical Support
The latest software can be downloaded free of charge via Internet (you might want to bookmark the page so you could
check news, patches, and upgrades later on): www.mikroe.com/en/compilers/mikroC PRO/dspic/download.htm .
In case you encounter any problem, you are welcome to our support forums at www.mikroe.com/forum/. Here, you may
also find helpful information, hardware tips, and practical code snippets. Your comments and suggestions on future
development of the mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 are always appreciated — feel free to drop a note or two
on our Wishlist.
In our Knowledge Base www.mikroe.com/en/kb/ you can find the answers to Frequently Asked Questions and solutions
to known problems. If you can not find the solution to your problem in Knowledge Base then report it to Support Desk
www.mikroe.com/en/support/. In this way, we can record and track down bugs more efficiently, which is in our mutual
interest. We respond to every bug report and question in a suitable manner, ever improving our technical support.
How to Register
The latest version of the mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 is always available for downloading from our website.
It is a fully functional software with the mikroICD(in-circuit Debugger), all the libraries, examples, and comprehensive
help included.
The only limitation of the free version is that it cannot generate hex output over 2K of program words. Although it might
sound restrictive, this margin allows you to develop practical, working applications with no thinking of demo limit. If you
intend to develop really complex projects in the mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24, then you should consider the
possibility of purchasing the license key.
Who Gets the License Key
Buyers of the mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 are entitled to the license key. After you have completed the
payment procedure, you have an option of registering your mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24. In this way you can
generate hex output without any limitations.
How to Get License Key
After you have completed the payment procedure, start the program. Select Help › How to Register from the dropdown menu or click the How To Register Icon
.
You can choose between two registering methods, I work online or I work offline, based on your current internet
connection and click Request license key now button :
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If you choose I work online registering method, following page will be opened in your default browser :
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mikroC PRO for dsPIC
Fill out the registration form, select your distributor, and click the Submit button.
If you choose I work offline registering method, following window will be opened :
Fill out the registration form, select your distributor, and click the Submit button.
This will start your e-mail client with message ready for sending. Review the information you have entered, and add the
comment if you deem it necessary. Please, do not modify the subject line.
Upon receiving and verifying your request, we will send the license key to the e-mail address you specified in the
form.
After Receving the License Key
The license key comes as a small autoextracting file – just start it anywhere on your computer in order to activate
your copy of compiler and remove the demo limit. You do not need to restart your computer or install any additional
components. Also, there is no need to run the mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 at the time of activation.
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Important :
- The license key is valid until you format your hard disk. In case you need to format the hard disk, you should request a new activation key.
- Please keep the activation program in a safe place. Every time you upgrade the compiler you should start this program again in order to reactivate the license.
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CHAPTER 2
mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and
PIC24 Environment
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Main Menu Options
Available Main Menu options are:
Related topics: Keyboard shortcuts, Toolbars
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File
File Menu Options
The File menu is the main entry point for manipulation with the source files.
File
Description
Open a new editor window.
Open source file for editing or image file for viewing.
Reopen recently used file.
Save changes for active editor.
Save the active source file with the different name or change the file type.
Close active source file.
Close all opened files.
Print Preview.
Print.
Exit IDE.
Related topics: Keyboard shortcuts, File Toolbar, Managing Source Files
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Edit
Edit Menu Options
The Edit Menu contains commands for editing the contents of the current document.
Edit
Description
Undo last change.
Redo last change.
Cut selected text to clipboard.
Copy selected text to clipboard.
Paste text from clipboard.
Delete selected text.
Select all text in active editor.
Find text in active editor.
Find next occurence of text in active editor.
Find previous occurence of text in active editor.
Replace text in active editor.
Find text in current file, in all opened files, or in files from desired folder.
Go to line to the desired line in active editor.
Advanced Code Editor options
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Advanced »
Description
Comment selected code or put single line comment if there is no selection.
Uncomment selected code or remove single line comment if there is no selection.
Indent selected code.
Outdent selected code.
Changes selected text case to lowercase.
Changes selected text case to uppercase.
Changes selected text case to titlercase.
Find Text
Dialog box for searching the document for the specified text. The search is performed in the direction specified. If the
string is not found a message is displayed.
Replace Text
Dialog box for searching for a text string in file and replacing it with another text string.
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Find In Files
Dialog box for searching for a text string in current file, all opened files, or in files on a disk.
The string to search for is specified in the Text to find field. If Search in directories option is selected, The files to search
are specified in the Files mask and Path fields.
Go To Line
Dialog box that allows the user to specify the line number at which the cursor should be positioned.
Regular expressions option
By checking this box, you will be able to advance your search, through Regular expressions.
Related topics: Keyboard shortcuts, Edit Toolbar, Advanced Edit Toolbar
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View
View Menu Options
View Menu contains commands for controlling the on-screen display of the current project.
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View
Description
Show/Hide Software Simulator / mikroICD (In-Circuit Debugger) Debug Windows.
Show/Hide Toolbars.
Show/Hide Bookmarks window.
Show/Hide Code Explorer window.
Show/Hide Library Manager window.
Show/Hide Macro Editor window.
Show/Hide Messages window.
Show/Hide Project Manager window.
Show/Hide Project Settings window.
Show/Hide Routine List in active editor.
Show/Hide Quick Converter window.
Show/Hide View Image Preview window.
View Assembly.
View Listing.
View Statistics.
Show Window List window.
The Tools toolbar can easily be customized by adding new tools in Options(F12) window.
Related topics: Keyboard shortcuts, Integrated Tools
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Project
Project Menu Options
Project Menu allows user to easily manipulate current project.
Project
Description
Open New Project Wizard
Open existing project.
Open project group.
Open recently used project or project group.
Save current project.
Save active project file with the different name.
Close active project.
Close project group.
Add file to project.
Remove file from project.
Edit search paths.
Edit project settings
Clean Project Folder
Export Project.
Related topics: Keyboard shortcuts, Project Toolbar, Creating New Project, Project Manager, Project Settings
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Build
Build Menu Options
Build Menu allows user to easily manage building and compiling process.
Build
Description
Build active project.
Rebuild all sources in acrive project.
Build all projects.
Stop building of all projects.
Build and program active project.
Related topics: Keyboard shortcuts, Project Toolbar, Creating New Project, Project Manager, Project Settings
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Run
Run Menu Options
Run Menu is used to debug and test compiled code on a software or harware level.
Run
Description
Start Software Simulator or mikroICD (In-Circuit Debugger).
Stop debugger.
Run/Pause Debugger.
Step Into.
Step Over.
Step Out.
Run To Cursor.
Jump to interrupt in current project.
Toggle Breakpoint.
Clear Breakpoints.
Toggle between source and disassembly.
Related topics: Keyboard shortcuts, Debug Toolbar
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Tools
Tools Menu Options
Tools Menu contain a number of applications designed to ease the use of compiler and included library routines.
Tools
Description
Run mikroElektronika Programmer.
Run Package Manager.
Show/Hide Active Comment Editor window.
Run ASCII Chart
Run EEPROM Editor
Generate HTML code suitable for publishing source code on the web.
Run Filter Designer Tool.
Run Glcd bitmap editor
Run HID Terminal
Run Lcd custom character
Run Seven Segment Editor
Run UDP communication terminal
Run USART Terminal
Open Options window
Related topics: Keyboard shortcuts, Tools Toolbar
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Help
Help Menu Options
Help
Description
Оpen Help File.
Оpen Code Migration Document.
Check if new compiler version is available.
Open mikroElektronika Support Forums in a default browser.
Open mikroElektronika Web Page in a default browser.
Information on how to register
Open About window.
Related topics: Keyboard shortcuts, Help Toolbar
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mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 IDE
IDE Overview
The mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 is an user-friendly and intuitive environment.
For a detailed information on a certain part of IDE, simply click on it (hovering a mouse cursor above a desired IDE part
will pop-up its name) :
- The Code Editor features adjustable Syntax Highlighting, Code Folding, Code Assistant, Parameters Assistant, Spell
Checker, Auto Correct for common typos and Code Templates (Auto Complete).
- The Code Explorer is at your disposal for easier project management.
- The Project Manager alows multiple project management
- General project settings can be made in the Project Settings window
- Library manager enables simple handling libraries being used in a project
- The Messages Window displays all messages during compiling and linking.
- The source-level Software Simulator lets you debug executable logic step-by-step by watching the program flow.
- The New Project Wizard is a fast, reliable, and easy way to create a project.
- Help files are syntax and context sensitive.
- Like in any modern Windows application, you may customize the layout of mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24
to suit your needs best.
- Spell checker underlines identifiers which are unknown to the project. In this way it helps the programmer to spot
potential problems early, much before the project is compiled.
Spell checker can be disabled by choosing the option in the Preferences dialog (F12).
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Code Editor
The Code Editor is advanced text editor fashioned to satisfy needs of professionals. General code editing is the
same as working with any standard text-editor, including familiar Copy, Paste and Undo actions, common for Windows
environment.
Available Code Editor options are: Editor Settings, Editor Colors, Auto Correct, Auto Complete and Style.
Editor Settings
Main Editor Settings Features are :
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- Auto Save
- Highlighter
- Spelling
- Comment Style
- Code Folding
- Code Assistant
- Parameter Assistant
- Bookmarks and Go to Line
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Auto Save
Auto Save is a function which saves an opened project automatically, helping to reduce the risk of data loss in case of
a crash or freeze. Autosaving is done in time intervals defined by the user.
Highlighter
Highlighting is a convenient feature for spotting brackets which notate begin or end of a routine, by making them
visually distinct.
Spelling
The Spell Checker underlines unknown objects in the code, so they can be easily noticed and corrected before compiling
your project.
Select Tools › Options from the drop-down menu, or click the Show Options Icon
Checker Tab.
and then select the Spell
Comment Style
Code Editor has a feature to change the comment style to either single-line or multi-line. Commenting or uncommenting
the selected code is done by a simple click of a mouse, using the Comment Icon
and Uncomment Icon
from
the Advanced Edit Toolbar.
Code Folding
Code folding is IDE feature which allows users to selectively hide and display sections of a source file. In this way it is
easier to manage large regions of code within one window, while still viewing only those subsections of the code that
are relevant during a particular editing session.
While typing, the code folding symbols (
code subsections.
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and
) appear automatically. Use the folding symbols to hide/unhide the
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Another way of folding/unfolding code subsections is by using Alt+← and Alt+→.
If you place a mouse cursor over the tooltip box, the collapsed text will be shown in a tooltip style box.
Code Assistant
If you type the first few letters of a word and then press Ctrl+Space, all valid identifiers matching the letters you have
typed will be prompted in a floating panel (see the image below). Now you can keep typing to narrow the choice, or you
can select one from the list using the keyboard arrows and Enter.
Parameter Assistant
The Parameter Assistant will be automatically invoked when you open parenthesis “(” or press Shift+Ctrl+Space. If the
name of a valid function precedes the parenthesis, then the expected parameters will be displayed in a floating panel.
As you type the actual parameter, the next expected parameter will become bold.
Bookmarks
Bookmarks make navigation through a large code easier. To set a bookmark, use Ctrl+Shift+number. The same
princliple applies to the removal of the bookmarks. To jump to a bookmark, use Ctrl+number.
Go to Line
The Go to Line option makes navigation through a large code easier. Use the shortcut Ctrl+G to activate this option.
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Column Select Mode
This mode changes the operation of the editor for selecting text. When column select mode is used, highlighted text
is based on the character column position of the first character selected to the column of the last character of text
selected.
Text selected in this mode does not automatically include all text between the start and end position, but includes all
text in the columns between the first and last character selected.
Column mode editing is sometimes referred to as block mode editing as the act of selecting text forms a rectangle.
To enter this mode, press Alt + Left mouse button, drag the mouse towards the desired direction thus selecting the
text.
Editor Colors
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Editor Colors option allows user to set, change and save text and color settings organized in schemes. Schemes
represent custom graphical appearance that can be applied to GUI(Graphical User Interface) to satifsy tastes of
different users.
Auto Correct
Auto Correct option facilitate user in such a fashion that it automatically corrects common typing or spelling errors as
it types.
This option is already set up to automatically correct some words. For example, if you type whiel, it will be corrected to
while when you press the spacebar :
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User can easily add its common typos by entering original typo, for example btye, to the Original box, and replacement,
byte, to the Replacement box, and just click "Add" button.
Next time when the typo occurs, it will be automatically corrected.
Auto Complete (Code Templates)
Auto Complete option saves lots of keystrokes for commonly used phrases by automatically completing user's typing.
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User can insert the Code Template by typing the name of the template (for instance, dow), then press Ctrl+J and the
Code Editor will automatically generate a code :
You can add your own templates to the list by entering the desired keyword, description and code of your template in
appropriate boxes.
Autocomplete macros can retreive system and project information :
- %DATE% - current system date
- %TIME% - current system time
- %DEVICE% - device(MCU) name as specified in project settings
- %DEVICE_CLOCK% - clock as specified in project settings
- %COMPILER% - current compiler version
These macros can be used in template code, see template ptemplate provided with mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and
PIC24 installation.
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Code Explorer
The Code Explorer gives clear view of each item declared inside the source code. You can jump to a declaration of
any item by double clicking it, or pressing the Enter button. Also, besides the list of defined and declared objects, code
explorer displays message about first error and it's location in code.
Following options are available in the Code Explorer:
Icon
Description
Expand/Collapse all nodes in tree.
Locate declaration in code.
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Routine List
Routine list diplays list of routines, and enables filtering routines by name. Routine list window can be accessed by
pressing Ctrl+L.
You can jump to a desired routine by double clicking on it, or pressing the Enter button. Also, you can sort routines by
size or by address.
Project Manager
Project Manager is IDE feature which allows users to manage multiple projects. Several projects which together make
project group may be open at the same time. Only one of them may be active at the moment.
Setting project in active mode is performed by double clicking the desired project in the Project Manager, which will
result in bolding the project's name.
Also, the name of the currently active project will be diplayed in the Program Manager window title, alongside with the
number of projects in project group.
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Following options are available in the Project Manager:
Icon
Description
Save project Group.
Open project group.
Close the active project.
Close project group.
Add project to the project group.
Remove project from the project group.
Add file to the active project.
Remove selected file from the project.
Build the active project.
Run mikroElektronika’s Flash programmer.
For details about adding and removing files from project see Add/Remove Files from Project.
Related topics: Project Settings, Project Menu Options, File Menu Options, Project Toolbar, Build Toolbar, Add/Remove
Files from Project
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Project Settings
Following options are available in the Project Settings :
- Device - select the appropriate device from the device drop-down list.
- MCU Clock - enter the clock frequency value.
- Build/Debugger Type - choose debugger type.
Related topics: Edit Project, Customizing Projects, Project Manager
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Library Manager
Library Manager enables simple handling libraries being used in a project. Library Manager window lists all libraries
(extension .mcl) which are instantly stored in the compiler Uses folder. The desirable library is added to the project by
selecting check box next to the library name.
In order to have all library functions accessible, simply press the button Check All
In case none library is needed in a project, press the button Clear All
and all libraries will be selected.
and all libraries will be cleared from the
project.
Only the selected libraries will be linked.
Icon
Description
Refresh Library by scanning files in “Uses” folder.Useful when new libraries are added by copying files to
“Uses” folder.
Rebuild all available libraries. Useful when library sources are available and need refreshing.
Include all available libraries in current project.
No libraries from the list will be included in current project.
Restore library to the state just before last project saving.
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Managing libraries using Package Manager
The Package Manager is a tool which enables users to easily install their own libraries in the mikroIDE. Libraries are
distributed in the form of a package, which is an archive composed of one or more files, containing libraries. For more
information on Package Manager, visit our website.
Upon package installation, a new node with the package name will be created in the Library Manager. For example :
From the Library Manager, user can also uninstall the desired package by right clicking the the appropriate node, and
from the drop-down menu choose Uninstall package :
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Related topics: mikroC PRO for PIC Libraries, Creating New Library
Statistics
After successful compilation, you can review statistics of your code. Click the Statistics Icon
.
Memory Usage Windows
Provides overview of RAM and ROM usage in the various forms.
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RAM Memory Usage
Displays RAM memory usage in a pie-like form.
Used RAM Locations
Displays used RAM memory locations and their names.
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SFR Locations
Displays list of used SFR locations.
ROM Memory Usage
Displays ROM memory space usage in a pie-like form.
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ROM Memory Constants
Displays ROM memory constants and their addresses.
Functions
Sorts and displays functions in various ways.
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Functions Sorted By Name Chart
Sorts and displays functions by their name, in the ascending order.
Functions Sorted By Size Chart
Sorts and displays functions by their sizes in a chart-like form.
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Functions Sorted By Addresses
Sorts and displays functions by their addresses, in the ascending order.
Function Tree
Displays Function Tree with the relevant data for each function.
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Memory Summary
Displays summary of RAM and ROM memory in a pie-like form.
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Messages Window
Messages Window displays various informations and notifications about the compilation process.
It reports for example, time needed for preprocessing, compilation and linking; used RAM and ROM space, generated
baud rate with error percentage, etc.
User can filter which notifications will Messages Window display by checking Errors, Warning and Hints box.
In case that errors were encountered during compiling, the compiler will report them and won’t generate a hex file. The
Messages Window will display errros at the bottom of the window by default.
The compiler also reports warnings, but these do not affect the output; only errors can interefere with the generation
of hex.
Double click the message line in the Message Window to highlight the line where the error was encountered.
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Quick Converter
Quick Converter enables user to easily transform numbers from one base to another.
User can convert integers of various sizes (8, 16 or 32 bits), signed and unsigned, using different representation
(decimal, hexadecimal, binary and character).
Also, Quick Converter features float point numbers conversion from/to Float Decimal, Float 32bit (IEEE), Float 32bit
(Microchip) and Radix 1.15 for dsPIC family of MCUs.
Macro Editor
A macro is a series of keystrokes that have been 'recorded' in the order performed. A macro allows you to 'record' a
series of keystrokes and then 'playback', or repeat, the recorded keystrokes.
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The Macro offers the following commands:
Icon
Description
Starts ‘recording’ keystrokes for later playback.
Stops capturing keystrokes that was started when the Start Recording command was selected.
Allows a macro that has been recorded to be replayed.
New macro.
Delete macro.
Related topics: Code Editor, Code Templates
Image Preview
There are a lot of occassions in which the user besides the code, must look at the appropriate schematics in order to
succesfully write the desired program.
The mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 provides this possibility through a Image Preview Window.
To add a image to the Image Preview Window, right click the Image Files node in the Project Manager :
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Now, navigate to the desired image file, and simply add it :
Next, right click the added file, and choose Set As Preview Image :
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Once you have added the image, it will appear in the Image Preview Window :
Also, you can add multiple images to the Image Files node, but only the one that is set will be automatically displayed
in the Image Preview Window upon opening the project.
By changing the Image Preview Window size, displayed image will be fit by its height in such a way that its proportions
will remain intact.
Toolbars
This section provides an overview of the toolbars available in mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 Help :
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- File Toolbar
- Edit Toolbar
- Advanced Edit Toolbar
- Find Toolbar
- Project Toolbar
- Build Toolbar
- Debug Toolbar
- Styles Toolbar
- Tools Toolbar
- View Toolbar
- Layout Toolbar
- Help Toolbar
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File Toolbar
File Toolbar is a standard toolbar with following options:
Icon
Description
Opens a new editor window.
Open source file for editing or image file for viewing.
Save changes for active window.
Save changes in all opened windows.
Print Preview.
Print.
Edit Toolbar
Edit Toolbar is a standard toolbar with following options:
Icon
Description
Undo last change.
Redo last change.
Cut selected text to clipboard.
Copy selected text to clipboard.
Paste text from clipboard.
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Advanced Edit Toolbar
Advanced Edit Toolbar comes with following options:
Icon
Description
Comment selected code or put single line comment if there is no selection
Uncomment selected code or remove single line comment if there is no selection.
Select text from starting delimiter to ending delimiter.
Go to ending delimiter.
Go to line.
Indent selected code lines.
Outdent selected code lines.
Generate HTML code suitable for publishing current source code on the web.
Find/Replace Toolbar
Find/Replace Toolbar is a standard toolbar with following options:
Icon
Description
Find text in current editor.
Find next occurence.
Find previous occurence.
Replace text.
Find text in files.
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Project Toolbar
Project Toolbar comes with following options:
Icon
Description
New project.
Open Project
Save Project
Edit project settings.
Close current project.
Clean project folder.
Add File To Project
Remove File From Project
Build Toolbar
Build Toolbar comes with following options:
Icon
Description
Build current project.
Build all opened projects.
Build and program active project.
Start programmer and load current HEX file.
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Debug Toolbar
Debug Toolbar comes with following options:
Icon
Description
Start Software Simulator or mikroICD (In-Circuit Debugger).
Run/Pause Debugger.
Stop Debugger.
Step Into.
Step Over.
Step Out.
Run To Cursor.
Toggle Breakpoint.
View Breakpoints Window
Clear Breakpoints.
View Watch Window
View Stopwatch Window
Styles Toolbar
Styles toolbar allows you to easily change colors of your workspace.
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Tools Toolbar
Tools Toolbar comes with following default options:
Icon
Description
Run USART Terminal
EEPROM
ASCII Chart
Seven Segment Editor.
Open Active Comment editor.
Options menu
Tip : The Tools toolbar can easily be customized by adding new tools in Options menu window.
View Toolbar
View Toolbar provides access to assembly code, listing file and statistics windows.
Icon
Description
Open assembly code in editor.
Open listing file in editor.
View statistics for current project.
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Layout Toolbar
Styles toolbar allows you to easily customize workspace through a number of different IDE layouts.
Help Toolbar
Help Toolbar provides access to information on using and registering compilers :
Icon
Description
Open Help file.
How To Register.
Related topics: Keyboard shortcuts, Integrated Tools
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Customizing IDE Layout
Docking Windows
You can increase the viewing and editing space for code, depending on how you arrange the windows in the IDE.
Step 1: Click the window you want to dock, to give it focus.
Step 2: Drag the tool window from its current location. A guide diamond appears. The four arrows of the diamond point
towards the four edges of the IDE.
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Step 3: Move the pointer over the corresponding portion of the guide diamond. An outline of the window appears in the
designated area.
Step 4: To dock the window in the position indicated, release the mouse button.
Tip : To move a dockable window without snapping it into place, press CTRL while dragging it.
Saving Layout
Once you have a window layout that you like, you can save the layout by typing the name for the layout and pressing
the Save Layout Icon
.
To set the layout select the desired layout from the layout drop-down list and click the Set Layout Icon
.
To remove the layout from the drop-down list, select the desired layout from the list and click the Delete Layout
Icon
.
Auto Hide
Auto Hide enables you to see more of your code at one time by minimizing tool windows along the edges of the IDE
when not in use.
- Click the window you want to keep visible to give it focus.
- Click the Pushpin Icon
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on the title bar of the window.
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When an auto-hidden window loses focus, it automatically slides back to its tab on the edge of the IDE. While a window
is auto-hidden, its name and icon are visible on a tab at the edge of the IDE. To display an auto-hidden window, move
your pointer over the tab. The window slides back into view and is ready for use.
Options
Options menu consists of three tabs: Code Editor, Tools and Output settings
Code editor
The Code Editor is advanced text editor fashioned to satisfy needs of professionals.
Tools
The mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 includes the Tools tab, which enables the use of shortcuts to external
programs, like Calculator or Notepad.
You can set up to 10 different shortcuts, by editing Tool0 - Tool9.
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Output settings
By modifying Output Settings, user can configure the content of the output files.
You can enable or disable, for example, generation of ASM and List file.
Also, user can choose optimization level, and compiler specific settings, which include case sensitivity, dynamic link for
string literals setting (described in mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 specifics).
Build all files as library enables user to use compiled library (*.mcl) on any MCU (when this box is checked), or for a
selected MCU (when this box is left unchecked).
For more information on creating new libraries, see Creating New Library.
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Integrated Tools
Active Comments Editor
Active Comments Editor is a tool, particularly useful when working with Lcd display. You can launch it from the dropdown menu Tools › Active Comments Editor or by clicking the Active Comment Editor Icon
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from Tools toolbar.
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ASCII Chart
The ASCII Chart is a handy tool, particularly useful when working with Lcd display. You can launch it from the dropdown menu Tools › ASCII chart or by clicking the View ASCII Chart Icon
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EEPROM Editor
The EEPROM Editor is used for manipulating MCU's EEPROM memory. You can launch it from the drop-down menu
Tools › EEPROM Editor.
When you run mikroElektronika programmer software from mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 IDE - project_
name.hex file will be loaded automatically while ihex file must be loaded manually.
Filter Designer
The Filter designer is a tool for designing FIR and IIR filters. It has an user-friendly visual interface for setting the filter
parameters. Filter designer output is the mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 compatible code. You can launch it
from the drop-down menu Tools › Filter Designer.
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Graphic Lcd Bitmap Editor
The mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 includes the Graphic Lcd Bitmap Editor. Output is the mikroC PRO for
dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 compatible code. You can launch it from the drop-down menu Tools › Glcd Bitmap Editor.
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HID Terminal
The mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 includes the HID communication terminal for USB communication. You
can launch it from the drop-down menu Tools › HID Terminal.
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Lcd Custom Character
mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 includes the Lcd Custom Character. Output is mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and
PIC24 compatible code. You can launch it from the drop-down menu Tools › Lcd Custom Character.
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Seven Segment Editor
The Seven Segment Editor is a convenient visual panel which returns decimal/hex value for any viable combination you
would like to display on seven segment display. Click on the parts of seven segment image to get the requested value
in the edit boxes. You can launch it from the drop-down menu Tools › Seven Segment Editor or by clicking the Seven
Segment Editor Icon
from Tools toolbar.
UDP Terminal
The mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 includes the UDP Terminal. You can launch it from the drop-down menu
Tools › UDP Terminal.
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USART Terminal
The mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 includes the USART communication terminal for RS232 communication.
You can launch it from the drop-down menu Tools › USART Terminal or by clicking the USART Terminal Icon
from
Tools toolbar.
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Active Comments
The idea of Active Comments is to make comments alive and give old fashioned comments new meaning and look.
From now on, you can assign mouse event on your comments and 'tell' your comments what to do on each one. For
example, on left mouse click, open some web address in your browser, on mouse over show some picture and on
mouse double click open some file.
Let suppose we are writing a example for a GSM/GPSR module which is connected to EasyPIC6 and we would like to
provide a photo of our hardware (jumpers, cables, etc.). within the example.
Also, it would be also nice to put some documentation about chip we are using and a GSM module extra board. Now
we can have all those things defined in one single comment using Active Comment Editor.
New Active Comment
When you start Active Comment Editor for the first time (from the View menu, from editor's pop-up menu, or by pressing
Ctrl + Alt + P) you will get an empty editor :
By clicking the
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button you are prompted to enter a name for the comment :
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You can notice that when you start typing a name, properties pane is automatically displayed so you can edit properties
if you wish. A Comment will be is created when you click
button.
Properties are consisted of two major categories - Attributes and Events.
Attributes can be :
- URL - Valid web address.
- Image - Image has to be previously added to Project (Project Manager > Images).
- File - File has to be previously added to Project (Project Manager > Other Files).
There are four predefined event types you can apply to an Active Comment :
1. OnLeftClick + Alt
2. OnRightClick
3. OnDoubleClick
4. OnMouseOver
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First three event types can have one of the following three actions :
1. OpenUrl - Opens entered URL in default Web browser.
2. OpenFile - Opens a file within a default program associated with the file extension (defined by Windows).
3. None - Does nothing.
Fourth event, OnMouseOver, has only 2 actions :
1. PreviewImage - Shows image when cursor is moved over a comment.
2. None - Does nothing.
Attributes are tightly bounded with events. For example, you can not have OnLeftClick + Alt -> OpenFile if there is no
file attribute set, or if there is no file added to project. Same behavior applies to image attribute.
Let's start editing our Active Comment by entering some valid web address in the URL field :
For every Active Comment a XML file will be created, containing all valid information regarding the Active Comment attributes, events, etc. and it is automatically added to Project manager after saving it :
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You can see the contents of the created XML file by expanding Active Comment Editor :
As we mentioned above you can add image or file which are already included in project. If the the desired image or file
aren't added, you can do it directly from here by clicking the
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button.
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Next file dialog will be opened :
There, you should select the desired image to be added. In our example, Easy_GSM_GPRS.jpg image will be added.
Selected picture is automatically added to the drop down list of the Image field in Active Comment Editor :
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Now, when image has been selected, we can assign an event for it. For example, OnMouseOver will be used for
PreviewImage action, and OnLeftClick + Alt will be assigned to OpenUrl action :
Now we can save our changes to Active Comment by clicking the Save button.
Note : Setting file attributes is same as for image, so it won't be explained separately.
Once we have finished creating our active comment, we can notice that it has been added to source file on current caret
position with ac: prefix 'telling' IDE that it is active comment :
Now let's try it. If you LeftClick+Alt on it, URL in default Web browser will be opened. If you hover the mouse over it,
you will see an Image preview:
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There is another way to add an active comment to an active project. You can do it simply by typing a comment in old
fashion way, except with ac: prefix. So it would look like this :
Notice that when you stop typing, Add Comment To Project button will show. By clicking on it, you will open Active
Comment Editor and comment name will be already set, so you need only to adjust attributes and settings.
After saving you can always edit your active comment by Active Comment Editor, and switch between comments
directly from editor.
If you remove a file from the Project Manager or add an Active Comment File which contains information about the file
which is no longer in project, and hover the mouse over the comment, you will be prompted to either add file to project
or remove event definition from Active Comment for this file :
If you remove active comment file from the Project Manager, you'll receive this message:
Click on Yes button you'll prompted for an active comment file :
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If you click No, comment will be removed from the source code.
Renaming Active Comment
When you click on rename button, you will be prompted to enter new name :
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Now click again Rename button. Now you have renamed your Active Comment in such a way that its filename, source
code name are changed :
Deleting Active Comment
Deleting active comment works similar like renaming it. By clicking on delete button, you will remove an active comment
from both code and Project Manager.
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Export Project
This option is very convenient and finds its use in relocating your projects from one place to another (e.g. from your
work computer to your home computer).
Often, project contains complicated search paths (files involved within your project could be in a different folders, even
on different hard disks), so it is very likely that some files will be forgotten during manual relocation.
In order to simplify this, Export Project gives you opportunity to do this task automatically.
To open Export Project, from Project menu select Export Project or hit Ctrl + Alt + E. Following window will appear :
In the empty input boxes, current location and the destination folder of the desired project should be entered.
By default, currently active project will be set for export. You can change it any time by clicking the Open Button
.
Once you have entered the appropriate data, click Export Project button. After exporting is done, and if everything was
OK, you'll receive a message :
Now, Export Project has copied all project files into desired folder and changed project search paths, so you can easily
move the entire folder to another location and run the project.
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Jump To Interrupt
Lets you choose which interrupt you want to jump to.
Requirement: Interrupt routine is included in project.
You can call Jump To Interrupt by selecting Run › Jump To Interrupt from the drop-down menu, or by clicking the Jump
To Interrupt Icon
, from the Watch Values Window.
By checking the Only Used box, you can display only the used breakpoints.
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Regular Expressions
Introduction
Regular Expressions are a widely-used method of specifying patterns of text to search for. Special metacharacters
allow you to specify, for instance, that a particular string you are looking for, occurs at the beginning, or end of a line, or
contains n recurrences of a certain character.
Simple matches
Any single character matches itself, unless it is a metacharacter with a special meaning described below. A series of
characters matches that series of characters in the target string, so the pattern "short" would match "short" in the
target string. You can cause characters that normally function as metacharacters or escape sequences to be interpreted
by preceding them with a backslash "\".
For instance, metacharacter "^" matches beginning of string, but "\^" matches character "^", and "\\" matches
"\", etc.
Examples :
unsigned matches string 'unsigned'
\^unsigned matches string '^unsigned'
Escape sequences
Characters may be specified using a escape sequences: "\n" matches a newline, "\t" a tab, etc. More generally, \
xnn, where nn is a string of hexadecimal digits, matches the character whose ASCII value is nn.
If you need wide (Unicode) character code, you can use '\x{nnnn}', where 'nnnn' - one or more hexadecimal
digits.
\xnn - char with hex code nn
\x{nnnn)- char with hex code nnnn (one byte for plain text and two bytes for Unicode)
\t - tab (HT/TAB), same as \x09
\n - newline (NL), same as \x0a
\r - car.return (CR), same as \x0d
\f - form feed (FF), same as \x0c
\a - alarm (bell) (BEL), same as \x07
\e - escape (ESC) , same as \x1b
Examples:
unsigned\x20int matches 'unsigned int' (note space in the middle)
\tunsigned matches 'unsigned' (predecessed by tab)
Character classes
You can specify a character class, by enclosing a list of characters in [], which will match any of the characters from the
list. If the first character after the “[“ is “^”, the class matches any character not in the list.
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Examples:
count[aeiou]r finds strings 'countar', 'counter', etc. but not 'countbr', 'countcr', etc.
count[^aeiou]r finds strings 'countbr', 'countcr', etc. but not 'countar', 'counter', etc.
Within a list, the "-" character is used to specify a range, so that a-z represents all characters between "a" and "z",
inclusive.
If you want "-" itself to be a member of a class, put it at the start or end of the list, or precede it with a backslash.
If you want ']', you may place it at the start of list or precede it with a backslash.
Examples:
[-az] matches 'a', 'z' and '-'
[az-] matches 'a', 'z' and '-'
[a\-z] matches 'a', 'z' and '-'
[a-z] matches all twenty six small characters from 'a' to 'z'
[\n-\x0D] matches any of #10,#11,#12,#13.
[\d-t] matches any digit, '-' or 't'.
[]-a] matches any char from ']'..'a'.
Metacharacters
Metacharacters are special characters which are the essence of regular expressions. There are different types of
metacharacters, described below.
Metacharacters - Line separators
^ - start of line
$ - end of line
\A - start of text
\Z - end of text
. - any character in line
Examples:
^PORTA - matches string ‘ PORTA ‘ only if it’s at the beginning of line
PORTA$ - matches string ‘ PORTA ‘ only if it’s at the end of line
^PORTA$ - matches string ‘ PORTA ‘ only if it’s the only string in line
PORT.r - matches strings like ‘PORTA’, ‘PORTB’, ‘PORT1’ and so on
The “^” metacharacter by default is only guaranteed to match beginning of the input string/text, and the “$”
metacharacter only at the end. Embedded line separators will not be matched by “^” or “$”.
You may, however, wish to treat a string as a multi-line buffer, such that the “^” will match after any line separator within
the string, and “$” will match before any line separator.
Regular expressions works with line separators as recommended at
http://www.unicode.org/unicode/reports/tr18/
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Metacharacters - Predefined classes
\w - an alphanumeric character (including "_")
\W - a nonalphanumeric character
\d - a numeric character
\D - a non-numeric character
\s - any space (same as [\t\n\r\f])
\S - a non space
You may use \w, \d and \s within custom character classes.
Example:
so on.
routi\de - matches strings like 'routi1e', 'routi6e' and so on, but not 'routine', 'routime' and
Metacharacters - Word boundaries
A word boundary ("\b") is a spot between two characters that has an alphanumeric character ("\w") on one side,
and a nonalphanumeric character ("\W") on the other side (in either order), counting the imaginary characters off the
beginning and end of the string as matching a "\W".
\b - match a word boundary)
\B - match a non-(word boundary)
Metacharacters - Iterators
Any item of a regular expression may be followed by another type of metacharacters - iterators. Using this
metacharacters,you can specify number of occurences of previous character, metacharacter or subexpression.
* - zero or more (“greedy”), similar to {0,}
+ - one or more (“greedy”), similar to {1,}
? - zero or one (“greedy”), similar to {0,1}
{n} - exactly n times (“greedy”)
{n,} - at least n times (“greedy”)
{n,m} - at least n but not more than m times (“greedy”)
*? - zero or more (“non-greedy”), similar to {0,}?
+? - one or more (“non-greedy”), similar to {1,}?
?? - zero or one (“non-greedy”), similar to {0,1}?
{n}? - exactly n times (“non-greedy”)
{n,}? - at least n times (“non-greedy”)
{n,m}? - at least n but not more than m times (“non-greedy”)
So, digits in curly brackets of the form, {n,m}, specify the minimum number of times to match the item n and the
maximum m. The form {n} is equivalent to {n,n} and matches exactly n times. The form {n,} matches n or more
times. There is no limit to the size of n or m, but large numbers will chew up more memory and slow down execution.
If a curly bracket occurs in any other context, it is treated as a regular character.
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Examples:
count.*r ß- matches strings like 'counter', 'countelkjdflkj9r' and 'countr'
count.+r - matches strings like 'counter', 'countelkjdflkj9r' but not 'countr'
count.?r - matches strings like 'counter', 'countar' and 'countr' but not 'countelkj9r'
counte{2}r - matches string 'counteer'
counte{2,}r - matches strings like 'counteer', 'counteeer', 'counteeer' etc.
counte{2,3}r - matches strings like 'counteer', or 'counteeer' but not 'counteeeer'
A little explanation about "greediness". "Greedy" takes as many as possible, "non-greedy" takes as few as possible.
For example, 'b+' and 'b*' applied to string 'abbbbc' return 'bbbb', 'b+?' returns 'b', 'b*?' returns empty
string, 'b{2,3}?' returns 'bb', 'b{2,3}' returns 'bbb'.
Metacharacters - Alternatives
You can specify a series of alternatives for a pattern using "|" to separate them, so that bit|bat|bot will match
any of "bit", "bat", or "bot" in the target string as would "b(i|a|o)t)". The first alternative includes everything
from the last pattern delimiter ("(", "[", or the beginning of the pattern) up to the first "|", and the last alternative
contains everything from the last "|" to the next pattern delimiter. For this reason, it's common practice to include
alternatives in parentheses, to minimize confusion about where they start and end.
Alternatives are tried from left to right, so the first alternative found for which the entire expression matches, is the
one that is chosen. This means that alternatives are not necessarily greedy. For example: when matching rou|rout
against "routine", only the "rou" part will match, as that is the first alternative tried, and it successfully matches the
target string (this might not seem important, but it is important when you are capturing matched text using parentheses.)
Also remember that "|" is interpreted as a literal within square brackets, so if you write [bit|bat|bot], you're really
only matching [biao|].
Examples:
rou(tine|te) - matches strings 'routine' or 'route'.
Metacharacters - Subexpressions
The bracketing construct ( ... ) may also be used for define regular subexpressions. Subexpressions are numbered
based on the left to right order of their opening parenthesis. First subexpression has number ‘1’
Examples:
(int){8,10} matches strings which contain 8, 9 or 10 instances of the ‘int’
routi([0-9]|a+)e matches ‘routi0e’, ‘routi1e’ , ‘routine’, ‘routinne’, ‘routinnne’ etc.
Metacharacters - Backreferences
Metacharacters \1 through \9 are interpreted as backreferences. \ matches previously matched subexpression #.
Examples:
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(.)\1+ matches ‘aaaa’ and ‘cc’.
(.+)\1+ matches ‘abab’ and ‘123123’
([‘”]?)(\d+)\1 matches “13” (in double quotes), or ‘4’ (in single quotes) or 77 (without quotes) etc
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Keyboard Shortcuts
Below is a complete list of keyboard shortcuts available in mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 IDE.
IDE Shortcuts
Advanced Editor Shortcuts
F1
Help
Ctrl+Space
Code Assistant
Ctrl+N
New Unit
Ctrl+Shift+Space
Parameters Assistant
Ctrl+O
Open
Ctrl+D
Find Declaration
Ctrl+Shift+O
Open Project
Ctrl+E
Incremental Search
Ctrl+Shift+N
New Project
Ctrl+L
Routine List
Ctrl+K
Close Project
Ctrl+G
Goto Line
Ctrl+F4
Close unit
Ctrl+J
Insert Code Template
Ctrl+Shift+E
Edit Project
Ctrl+Shift+.
Comment Code
Ctrl+F9
Build
Ctrl+Shift+,
Uncomment Code
Shift+F9
Build All
Ctrl+number
Goto Bookmark
Ctrl+F11
Build And Program
Ctrl+Shift+number
Set Bookmark
Shift+F4
View Breakpoints
Ctrl+Shift+I
Indent Selection
Ctrl+Shift+F5
Clear Breakpoints
Ctrl+Shift+U
Unindent Selection
F11
Start mE Programmer
TAB
Indent Selection
Ctrl+Shift+F11
Project Manager
Shift+TAB
Unindent Selection
F12
Options
Alt+Select
Select Columns
Alt + X
Close mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33
and PIC24
Ctrl+Alt+Select
Select Columns
Alt + Left Arrow
Fold Region (if available)
Alt + Right Arrow
Unfold Region (if available)
Ctrl+Alt+L
Convert Selection to Lowercase
Ctrl+Alt+U
Convert Selection to Uppercase
Ctrl+Alt+T
Convert to Titlecase
Ctrl+T
USART Terminal
Ctrl+Q
Quick Converter
Basic Editor Shortcuts
F3
Find, Find Next
Shift+F3
Find Previous
Alt+F3
Grep Search, Find In Files
Ctrl+A
Select All
Ctrl+C
Copy
Ctrl+F
Find
Ctrl+R
Replace
Ctrl+P
Print
F2
Jump To Interrupt
Ctrl+S
Save Unit
F4
Run to Cursor
Ctrl+Shift+S
Save All
F5
Toggle Breakpoint
Ctrl+V
Paste
F6
Run/Pause Debugger
Ctrl+X
Cut
F7
Step Into
Ctrl+Y
Delete Entire Line
F8
Step Over
Ctrl+Z
Undo
F9
Start Debugger
Ctrl+Shift+Z
Redo
Ctrl+F2
Stop Debugger
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Shortcuts
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Ctrl+F5
Add to Watch List
Ctrl+F8
Step Out
Alt+D
Disassembly View
Shift+F5
Open Watch Window
Ctrl+Shift+A
Show Advanced Breakpoints
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CHAPTER 3
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and
PIC24 Command Line Options
Usage: mikroCdsPIC.exe [-<opts> [-<opts>]] [<infile> [-<opts>]] [-<opts>]]
Infile can be of *.c, *.mcl and *.pld type.
The following parameters are valid :
-P <devicename> : MCU for which compilation will be done.
-FO <oscillator> : Set oscillator [in MHz].
-SP <directory> : Add directory to the search path list.
-IP <directory> : Add directory to the #include search path list.
-N <filename> : Output files generated to file path specified by filename.
-B <directory> : Save compiled binary files (*.mcl) to 'directory'.
-O : Miscellaneous output options.
-DBG : Generate debug info.
-L : Check and rebuild new libraries.
-DL : Build all files as libraries.
-Y : Dynamic link for string literals.
-UICD : ICD build type.
-EH <filename> : Full EEPROM HEX file name with path.
-LHF : Generate Long hex format.
-GC : Generate COFF file.
Example:
mikroCdsPIC.exe -MSF -DBG -p30F4013 -Y -DL -O11111114 -fo80 -N”C:\Lcd\Lcd.mcpds” -SP”C:\
Program Files\Mikroelektronika\mikroC PRO for dsPIC\Defs”
-SP”C:\Program Files\Mikroelektronika\mikroC PRO for dsPIC\Uses” -SP”C:\
Lcd\” “Lcd.c” “__Lib_Math.mcl” “__Lib_MathDouble.mcl”
“__Lib_System.mcl” “__Lib_Delays.mcl” “__Lib_LcdConsts.mcl” “__Lib_Lcd.
mcl”
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Parameters used in the example:
-MSF : Short Message Format; used for internal purposes by IDE.
-DBG : Generate debug info.
-p30F4013 : MCU 30F4013 selected.
-Y : Dynamic link for string literals enabled.
-DL : All files built as libraries.
-O11111114 : Miscellaneous output options.
-fo80 : Set oscillator frequency [in MHz].
-N"C:\Lcd\Lcd.mcpds" -SP"C:\Program Files\Mikroelektronika\mikroC PRO for dsPIC\
Defs\" : Output files generated to file path specified by filename.
-SP"C:\Program Files\Mikroelektronika\mikroC PRO for dsPIC\Defs\" : Add directory to the search path list.
-SP"C:\Program Files\Mikroelektronika\mikroC PRO for dsPIC\Uses\" : Add directory to
the search path list.
-SP"C:\Lcd\" : Add directory to the search path list.
"Lcd.c" "__Lib_Math.mcl" "__Lib_MathDouble.mcl" "__Lib_System.mcl" "__Lib_Delays.
mcl" "__Lib_LcdConsts.mcl" "__Lib_Lcd.mcl" : Specify input files.
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CHAPTER 4
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
mikroICD (In-Circuit Debugger)
Introduction
The mikroICD is a highly effective tool for a Real-Time debugging on hardware level. The mikroICD debugger enables
you to execute the mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 program on a host dsPIC30/33 or PIC24 microcontroller and
view variable values, Special Function Registers (SFR), RAM, CODE and EEPROM memory along with the mikroICD
code execution on hardware.
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If you have appropriate hardware and software for using the mikroICD select mikroICD Debug Build Type before
compiling the project.
Now, compile the project by pressing Ctrl + F9, or by pressing Build Icon
on Build Toolbar.
Run the mikroICD by selecting Run › Start Debugger from the drop-down menu or by clicking the Start Debugger
Icon
. Starting the Debugger makes more options available: Step Into, Step Over, Run to Cursor, etc. Line that is
to be executed is color highlighted (blue by default). There is also notification about the program execution and it can
be found in the Watch Window (yellow status bar). Note that some functions take more time to execute; execution is
indicated with "Running..." message in the Watch Window Status Bar.
Related topics: mikroICD Debugger Example, mikroICD Debug Windows, mikroICD Debugger Options
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mikroICD Debugger Options
Debugger Options
Name
Description
Function
Key
Start Debugger
Starts Debugger.
F9
Stop Debugger
Stop Debugger.
Ctrl + F2
Run/Pause Debugger Run/Pause Debugger.
F6
Step Into
Executes the current program line, then halts. If the executed
program line calls another routine, the debugger steps into the
routine and halts after executing the first instruction within it.
F7
Step Over
Executes the current program line, then halts. If the executed
program line calls another routine, the debugger will not step into
it. The whole routine will be executed and the debugger halts at
the first instruction following the call.
F8
Step Out
Executes all remaining program lines within the subroutine. The
debugger halts immediately upon exiting the subroutine.
Ctrl + F8
Run To Cursor
Toggle Breakpoint
Toolbar
Icon
Executes the program until reaching the cursor position.
F4
Toggle breakpoints option sets new breakpoints or removes those
already set at the current cursor position.
F5
Related topics: Run Menu, Debug Toolbar
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mikroICD Debugger Example
Here is a step-by-step mikroICD Debugger Example.
First you have to write a program. We will show how the mikroICD works using this example :
// Lcd module connections
sbit LCD_RS at LATD0_bit;
sbit LCD_EN at LATD1_bit;
sbit LCD_D4 at LATB0_bit;
sbit LCD_D5 at LATB1_bit;
sbit LCD_D6 at LATB2_bit;
sbit LCD_D7 at LATB3_bit;
sbit LCD_RS_Direction at TRISD0_bit;
sbit LCD_EN_Direction at TRISD1_bit;
sbit LCD_D4_Direction at TRISB0_bit;
sbit LCD_D5_Direction at TRISB1_bit;
sbit LCD_D6_Direction at TRISB2_bit;
sbit LCD_D7_Direction at TRISB3_bit;
// End Lcd module connections
char text[] = "mikroElektronika";
char i;
void Move_Delay() {
Delay_ms(500);
}
void main() {
ADPCFG = 0xFFFF;
Lcd_Init();
Lcd_Cmd(_LCD_CLEAR);
Lcd_Cmd(_LCD_CURSOR_OFF);
}
for(i = 1; i < 17; i++) {
Lcd_Chr(1, i, text[i-1]);
}
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After successful compilation and MCU programming press F9 to start the mikroICD. After the mikroICD initialization a
blue active line should appear.
We will debug the program line by line. To execute code line by line press [F8]. However, it is not recommended to use
Step Over [F8] over Delay routines and routines containing delays. In this case use Run to cursor [F4] function or Run
[F6] function combined with Breakpoints.
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Step Into [F7], Step Over [F8] and Step Out [Ctrl+F8] are mikroICD debugger functions that are used in stepping mode.
There is also a Real-Time mode supported by the mikroICD. Functions that are used in the Real-Time mode are Run/
Pause Debugger [F6] and Run to cursor [F4]. Pressing F4 executes the code until the program reaches the cursor
position line.
Run(Pause) Debugger [F6] and Toggle Breakpoints [F5] are mikroICD debugger functions that are used in the RealTime mode. Pressing F5 marks the line selected by the user for breakpoint. F6 executes code until the breakpoint
is reached. After reaching that breakpoint Debugger halts. Here in our example we will use breakpoints for writing a
word "mikroElektronika" on LCD char by char. Breakpoint is set on LCD_Chr and the program will stop every time this
function is reached. After reaching breakpoint we must press F6 again to continue the program execution.
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Breakpoints are divided into two groups: hardware and software breakpoints. The hardware breakpoints are placed
in the MCU and provide fastest debugging. Number of hardware breakpoints is limited (4 for PIC24 and dsPIC33
family, for dsPIC30 family this number depends on the MCU used). If all hardware brekpoints are used, then the next
breakpoint will be software breakpoint. These breakpoints are placed inside the mikroICD and simulate hardware
breakpoints. Software breakpoints are much slower than hardware breakpoints. These differences between hardware
and software breakpoints are not visible in the mikroICD software but their different timings are quite notable. That's
why it is important to know that there are two types of breakpoints.
The picture below demonstrates step-by-step execution of the code used in above mentioned examples.
Common Errors :
- Trying to program the MCU while the mikroICD is active.
- Trying to debug Release build version of the program with the mikroICD debugger.
- Trying to debug program code which has been changed, but has not been compiled and programmed into the MCU.
- Trying to select line that is empty for Run to cursor [F4] and Toggle Breakpoints [F5] functions.
- Trying to debug MCU with mikroICD while Watch Dog Timer is enabled.
- Trying to debug MCU with mikroICD while Power Up Timer is enabled.
- Trying to Step Into [F7] the mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 Library routines. Use Step Over [F8] command
for these routines.
- It is not possible to force Code Protect while trying to debug MCU with mikroICD.
- Trying to debug MCU with mikroICD with pull-up resistors set to ON on RB6 and RB7.
Related topics: mikroICD Debugger, mikroICD Debug Windows, mikroICD Debugger Options
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mikroICD Debugger Windows
Debug Windows
This section provides an overview of available Debug Windows in mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 :
- Breakpoints Window
- Watch Values Window
- RAM Window
- Stopwatch Window
- EEPROM Watch Window
- Code Watch Window
Breakpoints Window
The Breakpoints window manages the list of currently set breakpoints in the project. Doubleclicking the desired
breakpoint will cause cursor to navigate to the corresponding location in source code.
In situations when multiple breakpoints are used within the code, it is sometimes handy to enable/disable certain
breakpoints. To do this, just check/uncheck the desired breakpoint using the checkbox in front of the breakpoint’s
name.
Watch Values Window
Watch Values Window is the main Debugger window which allows you to monitor program execution. To show the
Watch Values Window, select Debug Windows › Watch from the View drop-down menu.
The Watch Values Window displays variables and registers of the MCU, with their addresses and values. Values are
updated along with the code execution. Recently changed items are coloured red.
There are two ways to add variable/register into the watch list :
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- by its real name (variable’s name in program code). Just select wanted variable/register from Select
variable from list drop-down menu and click the
button.
- by its name ID (assembly variable name). Simply type name ID of the variable/register you want to display into Search for variable by assemby name box and click the
button.
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Also, it is possible to add all variables in the Watch Values Window by clicking
button.
To remove a variable from the Watch Values Window, just select the variable that you want to remove and then click
the
button, or press the Delete key.
It is possible to remove all variables from the Watch Values Window by clicking
button.
You can also expand/collapse complex variables i.e. struct type variables, strings, etc, by clicking the appropriate
button ( or ) beside variable name.
Double clicking a variable or clicking the
button opens the Edit Value window in which you can assign a
new value to the selected variable/register. Also, you can choose the format of variable/register representation between
decimal, hexadecimal, binary, float or character. All representations except float are unsigned by default. For signed
representation click the check box next to the Signed label.
An item's value can also be changed by double clicking item's value field and typing the new value directly.
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RAM Window
The RAM Window is available from the drop-down menu, View › Debug Windows › RAM.
The RAM Window displays the map of MCU’s RAM, with recently changed items colored red. The user can edit and
change the values in the RAM window.
mikroICD Specific : RAM window content will be written to the MCU before the next instruction execution.
Stopwatch Window
The Software Simulator Stopwatch Window is available from the drop-down menu, View › Debug Windows ›
Stopwatch.
The Stopwatch Window displays a Current Count of cycles/time since the last Software Simulator action.
Stopwatch measures the execution time (number of cycles) from the moment Software Simulator has started and can
be reset at any time.
Delta represents the number of cycles between the lines where Software Simulator action has started and ended.
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Notes :
- The user can change the clock in the Stopwatch Window, which will recalculate values for the latest
specified frequency.
- Changing the clock in the Stopwatch Window does not affect actual project settings – it only provides a simulation.
- Stopwatch is available only when Software Simulator is selected as a debugger.
EEPROM Watch Window
Note : EEPROM Watch Window is available only when mikroICD is selected as a debugger.
To show the EEPROM Watch Window, select Debug Windows › EEPROM from the View drop-down menu.
The EEPROM Watch Window shows current content of the MCU's internal EEPROM memory.
There are two action buttons concerning the EEPROM Watch Window :
- Reads data from MCU's internal EEPROM memory and loads it up into the EEPROM window.
- Writes data from the EEPROM window into MCU's internal EEPROM memory.
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Code Watch Window
Note : Code Watch Window is available only when mikroICD is selected as a debugger.
To show the Code Watch Window, select Debug Windows › Code from the View drop-down menu.
The Code Watch Window shows code (hex format) written into the MCU.
There is one action button concerning the Code Watch Window :
- Reads code from the MCU and loads it up into the Code Window. Code reading is resources
consuming operation so the user should wait until the reading is over.
Also, you can set an address scope in which hex code will be read.
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CHAPTER 5
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
Software Simulator Overview
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Software Simulator
The Source-level Software Simulator is an integral component of the mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24
environment. It is designed to simulate operations of the Microchip dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 MCUs and assist the users
in debugging code written for these devices.
Upon completion of writing your program, choose Release build Type in the Project Settings window:
After you have successfuly compiled your project, you can run the Software Simulator by selecting Run › Start
Debugger from the drop-down menu, or by clicking the Start Debugger Icon
from the Debugger Toolbar.
Starting the Software Simulator makes more options available: Step Into, Step Over, Step Out, Run to Cursor, etc. Line
that is to be executed is color highlighted (blue by default).
Note : The Software Simulator simulates the program flow and execution of instruction lines, but it cannot fully emulate
dsPIC device behavior, i.e. it doesn’t update timers, interrupt flags, etc.
Related topics: Software Simulator Debug Windows, Software Simulator Debugger Options
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Software Simulator Debug Windows
Debug Windows
This section provides an overview of available Debug Windows in mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 :
- Breakpoints Window
- Watch Values Window
- RAM Window
- Stopwatch Window
- EEPROM Watch Window
- Code Watch Window
Breakpoints Window
The Breakpoints window manages the list of currently set breakpoints in the project. Doubleclicking the desired
breakpoint will cause cursor to navigate to the corresponding location in source code.
In situations when multiple breakpoints are used within the code, it is sometimes handy to enable/disable certain
breakpoints. To do this, just check/uncheck the desired breakpoint using the checkbox in front of the breakpoint's
name.
Watch Values Window
Watch Values Window is the main Debugger window which allows you to monitor program execution. To show the
Watch Values Window, select Debug Windows › Watch from the View drop-down menu.
The Watch Values Window displays variables and registers of the MCU, with their addresses and values. Values are
updated along with the code execution. Recently changed items are coloured red.
There are two ways to add variable/register into the watch list :
- by its real name (variable's name in program code). Just select wanted variable/register from Select variable from list drop-down menu and click the
button.
- by its name ID (assembly variable name). Simply type name ID of the variable/register you want to display into Search for variable by assemby name box and click the
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Also, it is possible to add all variables in the Watch Values Window by clicking
button.
To remove a variable from the Watch Values Window, just select the variable that you want to remove and then click
the
button, or press the Delete key.
It is possible to remove all variables from the Watch Values Window by clicking
button.
You can also expand/collapse complex variables i.e. struct type variables, strings, etc, by clicking the appropriate
button ( or ) beside variable name.
Double clicking a variable or clicking the
button opens the Edit Value window in which you can assign a
new value to the selected variable/register. Also, you can choose the format of variable/register representation between
decimal, hexadecimal, binary, float or character. All representations except float are unsigned by default. For signed
representation click the check box next to the Signed label.
An item's value can also be changed by double clicking item's value field and typing the new value directly.
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RAM Window
The RAM Window is available from the drop-down menu, View › Debug Windows › RAM.
The RAM Window displays the map of MCU’s RAM, with recently changed items colored red. The user can edit and
change the values in the RAM window.
mikroICD Specific : RAM window content will be written to the MCU before the next instruction execution.
Stopwatch Window
The Software Simulator Stopwatch Window is available from the drop-down menu, View › Debug Windows ›
Stopwatch.
The Stopwatch Window displays a Current Count of cycles/time since the last Software Simulator action.
Stopwatch measures the execution time (number of cycles) from the moment Software Simulator has started and can
be reset at any time.
Delta represents the number of cycles between the lines where Software Simulator action has started and ended.
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Notes :
The user can change the clock in the Stopwatch Window, which will recalculate values for the latest specified
frequency.
Changing the clock in the Stopwatch Window does not affect actual project settings – it only provides a simulation.
Stopwatch is available only when Software Simulator is selected as a debugger.
EEPROM Watch Window
Note : EEPROM Watch Window is available only when mikroICD is selected as a debugger.
To show the EEPROM Watch Window, select Debug Windows › EEPROM from the View drop-down menu.
The EEPROM Watch Window shows current content of the MCU's internal EEPROM memory.
There are two action buttons concerning the EEPROM Watch Window :
- Reads data from MCU's internal EEPROM memory and loads it up into the EEPROM window.
- Writes data from the EEPROM window into MCU's internal EEPROM memory.
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Code Watch Window
Note : Code Watch Window is available only when mikroICD is selected as a debugger.
To show the Code Watch Window, select Debug Windows › Code from the View drop-down menu.
The Code Watch Window shows code (hex format) written into the MCU.
There is one action button concerning the Code Watch Window :
- Reads code from the MCU and loads it up into the Code Window. Code reading is resources
consuming operation so the user should wait until the reading is over.
Also, you can set an address scope in which hex code will be read.
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Software Simulator Debugger Options
Debugger Options
Name
Description
Function
Key
Start Debugger
Starts Debugger.
F9
Stop Debugger
Stop Debugger.
Ctrl + F2
Run/Pause Debugger Run/Pause Debugger.
F6
Step Into
Executes the current program line, then halts. If the executed
program line calls another routine, the debugger steps into the
routine and halts after executing the first instruction within it.
F7
Step Over
Executes the current program line, then halts. If the executed
program line calls another routine, the debugger will not step into
it. The whole routine will be executed and the debugger halts at
the first instruction following the call.
F8
Step Out
Executes all remaining program lines within the subroutine. The
debugger halts immediately upon exiting the subroutine.
Ctrl + F8
Run To Cursor
Toggle Breakpoint
Toolbar
Icon
Executes the program until reaching the cursor position.
F4
Toggle breakpoints option sets new breakpoints or removes those
already set at the current cursor position.
F5
Related topics: Run Menu, Debug Toolbar
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CHAPTER 6
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and
PIC24 Specifics
The following topics cover the specifics of mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 compiler:
- ANSI Standard Issues
- Predefined Globals and Constants
- Accessing Individual Bits
- Interrupts
- Linker Directives
- Built-in Routines
- Code Optimization
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GOTO Table
If a certain routine is allocated on the address higher than 64kB and can not be accessed directly, a GOTO table is
created just after the Interrupt Vector Table to enable this routine call.
GOTO table comprises of addresses of those routines that are allocated on the addresses higher than 64kB.
So, whenever a call is made to a routine which is not directly accessible, it jumps to an assigned GOTO table block
which contains address of a desired routine. From there, a GOTO call is generated to that address, and the routine is
executed.
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ANSI Standard Issues
Divergence from the ANSI C Standard
The mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 diverges from the ANSI C standard in a few areas. Some of these
modifications are improvements intended to facilitate dsPIC programming, while others are the result of dsPIC30/33
and PIC24 hardware limitations.
- Case Sensitivity. Check identifiers
- The mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 treats identifiers declared with the const qualifier as “true constants” (C++ style). This allows using const objects in places where ANSI C expects a constant expression. If aiming at portability, use the traditional preprocessor defined constants. See Type Qualifiers and Constants.
- The mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 allows C++ style single–line comments using two adjacent slashes (//). The comment can start at any position and extends until the next new line. See Comments.
- A number of standard C libraries (ctype, math, stdlib, string) have been implemented; check the individual functions for divergence.
- The mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 does not provide automatic initialization for objects.
Uninitialized globals and objects with static duration will take random values from memory.
- Anonymous unions and structures are now supported.
C Language Extensions
mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 has additional set of keywords that do not belong to the ANSI standard C
language keywords:
-
code
data
rx
sfr
xdata
ydata
dma
near
far
at
sbit
bit
iv
Implementation-defined Behavior
Certain sections of the ANSI standard have implementation-defined behavior. This means that the exact behavior of
some C code can vary from compiler to compiler. This Help contains the sections describing how the mikroC PRO for
dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 compiler behaves in such situations.
The most notable specifics include:
- Storage Classes
- Bit Fields
Related topics: Keywords, dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 Specifics
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Predefined Globals and Constants
To facilitate dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 programming, the mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 implements a number
of predefined globals and constants.
All dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 SFR registers are implicitly declared as global variables of volatile unsigned int. These
identifiers have an external linkage, and are visible in the entire project. When creating a project, the mikroC PRO for
dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 will include an appropriate (*.c) file from defs folder, containing declarations of available SFR
registers and constants (such as PORTB, ADPCFG, etc). All identifiers are in upper case, identical to nomenclature
in the Microchip datasheets. All dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 SFR registers are also available as structures with bitfields
named identically to the Microchip datasheets in order to facilitate bit access e.g
TRISBbits.TRISB3 = 1.
For a complete set of predefined globals and constants, look for “Defs” in the mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24
installation folder, or probe the Code Assistant for specific letters (Ctrl+Space in the Code Editor).
Predefined project level defines
mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 provides several predefined project level defines that you can use in your
project :
- First one is equal to the name of selected device for the project i.e. if P30f4013 is selected device, then P30f4013
token will be defined as 1, so it can be used for conditional compilation :
#ifdef P30F4013
...
#endif
- The second one is value of frequency (in kHz) for which the project is built :
#ifdef __FOSC__ == 80000
...
#endif
- Third one is for identifying mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 compiler :
#ifdef __MIKROC_PRO_FOR_DSPIC__
...
#endif
- Fourth one is for identifying the build version. For instance, if a desired build version is 142, user should put this in
his code :
#if __MIKROC_PRO_FOR_DSPIC_BUILD__ == 142
...
#endif
Related topics: Project Level Defines
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Accessing Individual Bits
The mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 allows you to access individual bits of 16-bit variables. It also supports
sbit and bit data types.
Lets use the Zero bit as an example. This bit is defined in the definition file of the particular MCU as :
const register unsigned short int Z = 1;
sbit Z_bit at SR.B1;
To access this bit in your code by its name, you can write something like this:
// Clear Zero bit
SR.Z = 0;
In this way, if Zero bit changes its position in the register, you are sure that the appropriate bit will be affected.
But, if Zero bit is not located in the designated register, you may get errors.
Another way of accesing bits is by using the direct member selector (.) with a variable, followed by one of identifiers B0,
B1, … , B15, or F0, F1, … F15, with F15 being the most significant bit, to access the desired bit :
// predefined globals as bit designators
// Clear Zero bit
SR.B1 = 0;
// Set Zero bit
SR.F1 = 1;
In this way, if the target bit changes its position in the register, you cannot be sure that you are invoking the appropriate
bit.
This kind of selective access is an intrinsic feature of mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 and can be used anywhere
in the code. Identifiers B0–B15 are not case sensitive and have a specific namespace.
You may override them with your own members B0–B15 within any given structure.
When using literal constants as bit designators instead of predefined ones, make sure not to exceed the appropriate
type size.
Also, you can access the desired bit by using its alias name, in this case Z_bit :
// Set Zero Bit
C_bit = 1;
In this way, if the Zero bit changes its register or position in the register, you are sure that the appropriate bit will be
affected.
For backward compatibility, you can access bits in this way also :
// Clear TRISB3
TRISBbits.TRISB3 = 0;
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Note : If aiming at portability, avoid this style of accessing individual bits, use the bit fields instead.
See Predefined Globals and Constants for more information on register/bit names.
sbit type
The mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 compiler has sbit data type which provides access to registers, SFRs,
variables, etc.
You can declare a sbit variable in a unit in such way that it points to a specific bit in SFR register:
extern sfr sbit Abit; // Abit is precisely defined in some external file, for example in
the main program unit
In the main program you have to specify to which register this sbit points to, for example:
sbit Abit at PORTB.B0; // this is where Abit is fully defined
...
void main() {
...
}
In this way the variable Abit will actually point to PORTB.0. Please note that we used the keyword sfr for declaration
of Abit, because we are pointing it to PORTB which is defined as a sfr variable.
Note : Declaring a sbit variable is not possible via F0, F1, … F15 identifiers.
In case we want to declare a bit over a variable which is not defined as sfr, then the keyword sfr is not necessary,
for example:
extern sbit AnotherBit; // AnotherBit is precisely defined in some external file, for
example in the main program unit
char MyVar;
sbit AnotherBit at MyVar.B0; // this is where AnotherBit is fully defined
...
void main() {
...
}
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at keyword
You can use the keyword "at" to make an alias to a variable, for example, you can write a library without using register
names, and later in the main program to define those registers, for example :
extern char PORTAlias; // here in the library we can use its symbolic name
char PORTAlias at PORTB; // this is where PORTAlias is fully defined
...
void main() {
...
}
Note : Bear in mind that when using at operator in your code over a variable defined through a extern modifier,
appropriate memory specifer must be appended also.
bit type
The mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 compiler provides a bit data type that may be used for variable
declarations. It can not be used for argument lists, and function-return values.
bit bf;
// bit variable
There are no pointers to bit variables:
bit *ptr;
// invalid
An array of type bit is not valid:
bit arr [5];
// invalid
Note :
- Bit variables can not be initialized.
- Bit variables can not be members of structures and unions.
- Bit variables do not have addresses, therefore unary operator & (address of) is not applicable to these variables.
Related topics: Bit fields, Predefined globals and constants, Extern modifier
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Interrupts
The dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 interrupt controller module reduces numerous peripheral interrupt request signals to a
single interrupt request signal to the dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 CPU and has the following features:
- Up to 8 processor exceptions and software traps
- 7 user-selectable priority levels
- Interrupt Vector Table (IVT) with up to 62 vectors (dsPIC30) or up to 118 vectors (dsPIC33 and PIC24)
- A unique vector for each interrupt or exception source
- Fixed priority within a specified user priority level
- Alternate Interrupt Vector Table (AIVT) for debug support
ISRs are organized in IVT. ISR is defined as a standard function but with the iv directive afterwards which connects the
function with specific interrupt vector. For example iv IVT_ADDR_T1INTERRUPT is IVT address of Timer1 interrupt
source of the dsPIC 30F3014 MCU. For more information on IVT refer to the dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 Family Reference
Manual.
Function Calls from Interrupt
Calling functions from within the interrupt routine is possible. The compiler takes care about the registers being used,
both in "interrupt" and in "main" thread, and performs "smart" context-switching between two of them, saving only the
registers that have been used in both threads. It is not recommended to use a function call from interrupt. In case of
doing that take care of stack depth.
Disable Context Saving
Use the #pragma disablecontexsaving to instruct the compiler not to automatically perform context-switching.
This means that no register will be saved/restored by the compiler on entrance/exit from interrupt service routine,
except STATUS, WREG and BSR registers in high priority interrupt ('Fast Register Stack').
This exception can be overrided by placing an asm RETFIE, 0 instruction at the end of the high priority interrupt routine
(with redirecting all routine exits to this instruction).
Thus, #pragma disablecontexsaving pragma enables the user to manually write code for saving registers upon
entrance and to restore them before exit from interrupt.
Interrupt Handling
For the sake of interrupt handling convenience, new keyword, iv, is introduced. It is used to declare Interrupt Vector
Table (IVT) address for a defined interrupt routine :
void int1() iv IVT_ADDR_U1RXINTERRUPT{
asm nop;
}
Now it is possible to explicitly declare interrupt routine address :
void int1() org 0x600 iv IVT_ADDR_U1RXINTERRUPT {
asm nop;
}
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For the sake of backward compatibility, user may write also :
void int1() org IVT_ADDR_U1RXINTERRUPT {
asm nop;
}
which is equivalent to :
void int1() iv IVT_ADDR_U1RXINTERRUPT {
asm nop;
}
Is is recommended that interrupts are handled in this way for the sake of better readability of the user projects.
Interrupt Example
Here is a simple example of handling the interrupts from Timer1 (if no other interrupts are allowed):
// Interrupt routine
void Timer1Int() iv IVT_ADDR_T1INTERRUPT {
//** it is necessary to clear manually the interrupt flag:
IFS0 = IFS0 & 0xFFF7;
// Clear TMR1IF
}
//** user code starts here
LATB = ~ PORTB;
// Invert PORTB
//** user code ends here
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Linker Directives
The mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 uses an internal algorithm to distribute objects within memory. If you need
to have a variable or routine at specific predefined address, use the linker directives absolute and org.
Directive absolute
Directive absolute specifies the starting address in RAM for a variable or a starting address in ROM for a constant. If
the variable or constant is multi-byte, higher bytes will be stored at the consecutive locations.
Directive absolute is appended to declaration of a variable or constant :
// Variable x will occupy 1 byte at address 0x22 :
short x absolute 0x22;
// Variable y will occupy 2 bytes at addresses 0x23 and 0x24 :
int y absolute 0x23;
// Array elements will be placed on the consecutive locations starting from 0x1000 :
const short ConstantArray[] = {1,2,3} absolute 0x1000;
Note :
If you want to place simple type constant into Flash memory, instead of following declaration:
const short SimpeConstant = 0xAA absolute 0x2000;
use an array consisting of single element :
const short SimpleConstant[] = {0xAA} absolute 0x2000;
In first case, compiler will recognize your attempt, but in order to save Flash space, and boost performance, it will
automatically replace all instances of this constant in code with it's literal value.
In the second case your constant will be placed in Flash in the exact location specified.
Be careful when using the absolute directive, as you may overlap two variables by accident. For example:
// Variable i will occupy 1 byte at address 0x33
char i absolute 0x33;
// Variable will occupy 4 bytes at 0x30, 0x31, 0x32, 0x33; thus,
// changing i changes jjjj highest byte at the same time, and vice versa
long jjjj absolute 0x30;
Directive orgall
If the user wants to place his routines, constants, etc, above a specified address in ROM, #pragma orgall directive
should be used:
#pragma orgall 0x200
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Directive funcorg
You can use the #pragma funcorg directive to specify the starting address of a routine in ROM using routine name
only:
#pragma funcorg <func_name>
<starting_address>
Related topics: Indirect Function Calls
Indirect Function Calls
If the linker encounters an indirect function call (by a pointer to function), it assumes that any of the functions addresses
of which were taken anywhere in the program, can be called at that point. Use the #pragma funcall directive to instruct
the linker which functions can be called indirectly from the current function:
#pragma funcall <func_name> <called_func>[, <called_func>,...]
A corresponding pragma must be placed in the source module where the function func_name is implemented. This
module must also include declarations of all functions listed in the called_func list.
These functions will be linked if the function func_name is called in the code no matter whether any of them was called
or not.
Note : The #pragma funcall directive can help the linker to optimize function frame allocation in the compiled
stack.
Related topics: Linker Directives
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Built-in Routines
The mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 compiler provides a set of useful built-in utility functions.
The Lo, Hi, Higher, Highest, LoWord, HiWord routines are implemented as macros. If you want to use these
functions you must include built_in.h header file (located in the inlclude folder of the compiler) into your project.
The Delay_us and Delay_ms routines are implemented as “inline”; i.e. code is generated in the place of a call, so the
call doesn’t count against the nested call limit.
The Vdelay_ms, Vdelay_advanced_ms, Delay_Cyc, Delay_Cyc_Long, Get_Fosc_kHz and Get_
Fosc_Per_Cyc are actual C routines. Their sources can be found in Delays.c file located in the uses folder of the
compiler.
- Lo
- Hi
- Higher
- Highest
- LoWord
- HiWord
- Delay_us
- Delay_ms
- Vdelay_ms
- Vdelay_Advanced_ms
- Delay_Cyc
- Delay_Cyc_Long
- Clock_kHz
- Clock_MHz
- Get_Fosc_kHz
- Get_Fosc_Per_Cyc
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Lo
Prototype
#define Lo(param) ((char *)&param)[0]
Description
The function returns low byte of number. The function does not interpret bit patterns of number – it
merely returns 8 bits as found in register.
This is an “inline” routine; code is generated in the place of the call, so the call doesn’t count against
the nested call limit.
Parameters
Returns
Requires
Example
Notes
number: input number
Low byte of number, bits 7..0.
Nothing.
d = 0x12345678; tmp = Lo(d); // Equals 0x78
Lo(d) = 0xAA; // d equals 0x123456AA
None.
Hi
Prototype
#define Hi(param) ((char *)&param)[1]
Description
The function returns high byte of number. The function does not interpret bit patterns of number – it
merely returns 8 bits as found in register.
This is an “inline” routine; code is generated in the place of the call, so the call doesn’t count against
the nested call limit.
Parameters
Returns
Requires
Example
Notes
number: input number
High byte of number, bits 15..8.
Nothing.
d = 0x12345678; tmp = Hi(d); // Equals 0x56
Hi(d) = 0xAA; // d equals 0x1234AA78
None.
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Higher
Prototype
#define Higher(param) ((char *)&param)[2]
Description
The function returns higher byte of number. The function does not interpret bit patterns of number –
it merely returns 8 bits as found in register.
This is an “inline” routine; code is generated in the place of the call, so the call doesn’t count against
the nested call limit.
Parameters
Returns
Requires
Example
Notes
number: input number
Higher byte of number, bits 23..16.
Nothing.
d = 0x12345678; tmp = Higher(d); // Equals 0x34
Higher(d) = 0xAA; // d equals 0x12AA5678
None.
Highest
Prototype
#define Highest(param) ((char *)&param)[3]
Description
The function returns highest byte of number. The function does not interpret bit patterns of number
– it merely returns 8 bits as found in register.
This is an “inline” routine; code is generated in the place of the call, so the call doesn’t count against
the nested call limit.
Parameters
Returns
Requires
Example
Notes
151
number: input number
Highest byte of number, bits 31..24.
Nothing.
d = 0x12345678; tmp = Highest(d);
// Equals 0x12
Highest(d) = 0xAA; // d equals 0xAA345678
None.
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LoWord
Prototype
Description
unsigned int LoWord(unsigned long number);
The function returns low word of number. The function does not interpret bit patterns of number – it
merely returns 16 bits as found in register.
This is an “inline” routine; code is generated in the place of the call, so the call doesn’t count against
the nested call limit.
Parameters
Returns
Requires
Example
Notes
number: input number
Low word of number, bits 15..0.
Nothing.
d = 0x12345678; tmp = LoWord(d); // Equals 0x5678
LoWord(d) = 0xAAAA; // d equals 0x1234AAAA
None.
HiWord
Prototype
Description
unsigned int HiWord(unsigned long number);
The function returns high word of number. The function does not interpret bit patterns of number – it
merely returns 16 bits as found in register.
This is an “inline” routine; code is generated in the place of the call, so the call doesn’t count against
the nested call limit.
Parameters
Returns
Requires
Example
Notes
number: input number
High word of number, bits 31..16.
Nothing.
d = 0x12345678; tmp = HiWord(d); // Equals 0x1234
HiWord(d) = 0xAAAA; // d equals 0xAAAA5678
None.
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Delay_us
Prototype
Description
void Delay_us(const unsigned long time_in_us);
Creates a software delay in duration of time_in_us microseconds.
This is an “inline” routine; code is generated in the place of the call, so the call doesn’t count against
the nested call limit.
Parameters
time_in_us: delay time in microseconds. Valid values: constant values, range of applicable
constants depends on the oscillator frequency
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Nothing.
Example
Delay_us(10);
Notes
None.
/* Ten microseconds pause */
Delay_ms
Prototype
Description
void Delay_ms(const unsigned int time_in_ms);
Creates a software delay in duration of time_in_ms milliseconds.
This is an “inline” routine; code is generated in the place of the call, so the call doesn’t count against
the nested call limit.
Parameters
time_in_ms: delay time in milliseconds. Valid values: constant values, range of applicable constants
depends on the oscillator frequency
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Nothing.
Example
Delay_ms(1000);
Notes
For generating delays with variable as input parameter use the Vdelay_ms routine.
/* One second pause */
Vdelay_ms
Prototype
Description
Parameters
Returns
Requires
Example
Notes
153
void Vdelay_ms(unsigned Time_ms);
Creates a software delay in duration of Time_ms milliseconds. Generated delay is not as precise as
the delay created by Delay_ms.
Time_ms: delay time in milliseconds
Nothing.
Nothing.
unsignedpause = 1000;
...
Vdelay_ms(pause); // ~ one second pause
Vdelay_ms is a library function rather than a built-in routine; it is presented in this topic for the sake
of convenience.
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VDelay_Advanced_ms
Prototype
Description
Parameters
Returns
void VDelay_Advanced_ms(unsigned time_in_ms, unsigned Current_Fosc_kHz);
Creates a software delay in duration of time_in_ms milliseconds (a variable), for a given oscillator
frequency. Generated delay is not as precise as the delay created by Delay_ms.
Time_ms: delay time in milliseconds
Current_Fosc_kHz: desiredoscillator frequency
Nothing.
Requires
Nothing.
Example
pause = 1000;
fosc = 10000;
Notes
VDelay_Advanced_ms(pause, fosc);
// Generates approximately one second
pause, for a oscillator frequency of 10 MHz
Note that VDelay_Advanced_ms is library function rather than a built-in routine; it is presented in
this topic for the sake of convenience.
Delay_Cyc
Prototype
Description
Parameters
Returns
void Delay_Cyc(unsigned int x, unsigned int y);
Creates a delay based on MCU clock. Delay lasts for x*16384 + y MCU clock cycles.
x: NumberOfCycles divided by 16384
y: remainder of the NumberOfCycles/16384 division
Nothing.
Requires
Nothing.
Example
Delay_Cyc(1, 10);
Notes
Delay_Cyc is a library function rather than a built-in routine; it is presented in this topic for the sake
of convenience.
/* 1x16384 + 10 = 16394 cycles pause */
Delay_Cyc_Long
Prototype
Description
Parameters
Returns
void Delay_Cyc_Long(unsigned long CycNo);
Creates a delay based on MCU clock. Delay lasts for CycNo MCU clock cycles.
CycNo: number of cycles
Nothing.
Requires
Nothing.
Example
Delay_Cyc_Long(16394);
Notes
Delay_Cyc_Long is a library function rather than a built-in routine; it is presented in this topic for
the sake of convenience.
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// 16394 cycles pause
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Clock_kHz
Prototype
Description
unsigned long Clock_kHz();
Function returns device clock in kHz, rounded to the nearest integer.
This is an “inline” routine; code is generated in the place of the call, so the call doesn’t count against
the nested call limit.
Parameters
None.
Returns
Device clock in kHz, rounded to the nearest integer.
Requires
Nothing.
Example
Notes
unsigned long clk;
...
clk = Clock_kHz();
None.
Clock_Mhz
Prototype
Description
unsigned long Clock_MHz();
Function returns device clock in MHz, rounded to the nearest integer.
This is an “inline” routine; code is generated in the place of the call, so the call doesn’t count against
the nested call limit.
Parameters
None.
Returns
Device clock in MHz, rounded to the nearest integer.
Requires
Nothing.
Example
Notes
unsigned long clk;
...
clk = Clock_Mhz();
None.
Get_Fosc_kHz
Prototype
Description
unsigned long Get_Fosc_kHz();
Function returns device clock in kHz, rounded to the nearest integer.
Note that Get_Fosc_kHz is library function rather than a built-in routine; it is presented in this topic
for the sake of c?nvenience.
Parameters
None.
Returns
Device clock in kHz, rounded to the nearest integer.
Requires
Nothing.
Example
Notes
155
unsigned long clk;
...
clk = Get_Fosc_kHz();
None.
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Get_Fosc_Per_Cyc
Prototype
Description
unsigned int Get_Fosc_Per_Cyc();
Function returns device’s clock per cycle, rounded to the nearest integer.
Note that Get_Fosc_Per_Cyc is library function rather than a built-in routine; it is presented in this
topic for the sake of convenience.
Parameters
None.
Returns
Device’s clock per cycle, rounded to the nearest integer.
Requires
Nothing.
Example
Notes
unsigned int clk_per_cyc;
...
clk_per_cyc = Get_Fosc_Per_Cyc();
None.
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Code Optimization
Optimizer has been added to extend the compiler usability, cut down the amount of code generated and speed-up its
execution. The main features are:
Constant folding
All expressions that can be evaluated in the compile time (i.e. constant) are being replaced by their results. (3 + 5 ->
8);
Constant propagation
When a constant value is being assigned to a certain variable, the compiler recognizes this and replaces the use of the
variable by constant in the code that follows, as long as the value of a variable remains unchanged.
Copy propagation
The compiler recognizes that two variables have the same value and eliminates one of them further in the code.
Value numbering
The compiler "recognizes" if two expressions yield the same result and can therefore eliminate the entire computation
for one of them.
"Dead code" ellimination
The code snippets that are not being used elsewhere in the programme do not affect the final result of the application.
They are automatically removed.
Stack allocation
Temporary registers ("Stacks") are being used more rationally, allowing VERY complex expressions to be evaluated
with a minimum stack consumption.
Local vars optimization
No local variables are being used if their result does not affect some of the global or volatile variables.
Better code generation and local optimization
Code generation is more consistent and more attention is payed to implement specific solutions for the code "building
bricks" that further reduce output code size.
Related topics: SSA Optimization, dsPIC specifics, mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 specifics, Memory type
specifiers
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Single Static Assignment Optimization
Introduction
In compiler design, static single assignment form (often abbreviated as SSA form or SSA) is an intermediate
representation (IR) in which every variable is assigned exactly once.
An SSA-based compiler modifies the program representation so that every time a variable is assigned in the original
program, a new version of the variable is created.
A new version of the variable is distinguished (renamed) by subscripting the variable name with its version number or
an index, so that every definition of each variable in a program becomes unique.
At a joining point of the control flow graph where two or more different definitions of a variable meet, a hypothetical
function called a phi-function is inserted so that these multiple definitions are merged.
In mikroC PRO for dsPIC, SSA's main goal is in allocating local variables into the RX space (instead onto the frame).
To do that, SSA has to make an alias and data flow analysis of the Control Flow Graph.
Besides these savings, there are a number of compiler optimization algorithms enhanced by the use of SSA, like :
- Constant Propagation
- Dead Code Elimination
- Global Value Numbering
- Register Allocation
Changes that SSA brings is also in the way in which routine parameters are passed. When the SSA is enabled,
parameters are passed through a part of the RX space which is reserved exclusively for this purpose (W10-W13 for
dsPIC).
Allocating local variables and parameters in RX space has its true meaning for those architectures with hardware
frame.
Enabling SSA optimization in compiler is done by checking
box from the Output Settings Menu.
Lets consider a trivial case :
void main() {
int y,k;
}
if(y+k)
asm nop;
With SSA enabled, this example is consisted of 3 asm instructions :
;rbuild.c,10 :: 0x02120x408002 ADD
0x02140x320001 BRA Z
L__main2:
;rbuild.c,11 :: 0x02160x000000 NOP
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if(y+k)
_WREG1, _WREG2, _WREG0
L_main0
asm nop;
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Without SSA enabled, this example is consisted of 5 asm instructions :
;rbuild.c,10 :: 0x02180x90008E MOV
0x021A0x470062 ADD
0x021C0x408010 ADD
0x021E0x320001 BRA Z
L__main2:
;rbuild.c,11 :: 0x02200x000000 NOP
if(y+k)
[_WREG14+0], _WREG1
_WREG14, #2, _WREG0
_WREG1, [_WREG0], _WREG0
L_main0
asm nop;
Proper Coding Recommendations
To get the maximum out of the SSA, user should regard the following rules during the coding process :
- Routines should not contain too many parameters (not more than 4 words).
- Don’t change the value of the parameter in the function body (it is better to use a new local variable).
- If the function1 parameters are passed as function2 parameters, then parameter order should remain the same :
f2(int a, int b) { }
f1(int x, int y) {
// routine call
f2(x,y); // x->a and y->b (1 to 1 and 2 to 2) is far more efficient than :
f2(y,x); // y->a and x->b (1 to 2 and 2 to 1)
}
- Large amount of nested loops and complex structures as its members should be avoided.
- When writing a code in assembly, keep in mind that there are registers reserved exclusively for routine parameters.
- Using goto and label statements in nested loops should be avoided.
- Obtaining address of the local variable with the global pointer and using it to alter the variable’s address should be avoided.
Notes :
- mcl files compiled with or without SSA enabled are fully compatible and can be used and mixed without any restrictions, except function pointers.
- All function prototypes and function pointers have to be built using the same optimizer because of different calling conventions in different optimizers. In SSA, function parameters are passed via working registers, and without SSA they end up on the function frame.
- This means that you cannot have a function implementation which is optimized using SSA optimizer, and to call this function via function pointer in another module which is optimized using NON-SSA.
When using pointers to functions, compiler must know exactly how to pass function parameters and how to execute function call.
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Asm code and SSA optimization
If converting code from an earlier version of the compiler, which consists of mixed asm code with the C code, keep in mind that the generated code can substantially differ when SSA optimization option is enabled or disabled.
This is due to the fact that SSA optimization uses certain working registers to store routine parameters (W10-W13), rather than storing them onto the function frame.
Because of this, user must be very careful when writing asm code as existing values in the working registers used by SSA optimization can be overwritten.
To avoid this, it is recommended that user includes desired asm code in a separate routine.
Debugging Notes
SSA also influences the code debugging in such a way that the local variables will be available in the Watch Window
only in those parts of the procedure where they have useful value (eg. on entering the procedure, variable isn't available
until its definition).
Variables can be allocated in one part of the procedure in register W4, and in another part of the procedure in register
W2, if the optimizer estimates that it is better that way. That means that the local variable has no static address.
Warning Messages Enhancement
Besides the smaller code, SSA also deals with the intensive code analysis, which in turn has the consequence in
enhancing the warning messages.
For example, compiler will warn the user that the uninitialized variable is used :
void main() {
int y;
}
if (y)
PORTD = 0;
// Variable y might not have been initialized
Related topics: Code Optimization, dsPIC Specifics, mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 specifics, Memory type
specifiers
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Common Object File Format (COFF)
COFF File Format
The Common Object File Format (COFF) is a specific file format suitable for code debugging.
The COFF incorporates symbolic procedure, function, variable and constant names information; line number information,
breakpoints settings, code highlighter and all the necessary information for effective and fast debugging.
By using COFF, it is possible to import and debug code generated by mikroElektronika compilers under Microchip's
MPLAB®.
COFF File Generation
1. Start mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 and open the desired project. For example, UART project for EasydsPIC4A board and dsPIC30F4013 will be opened :
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2. When the project is opened, go to Tools › Options › Output settings, and check the "Generate COFF file" option,
and click the OK button :
3. Now, compile the project. In the messages window, appropriate message on COFF file generation should appear :
4. Generated COFF file will be created in the project folder, with the .cof extension.
Related topics: Using MPLAB® ICD 2 Debugger, Using MPLAB® Simulator
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CHAPTER 7
dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 Specifics
In order to get the most from the mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 compiler, the user should be familiar with certain
aspects of dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 MCU. This knowledge is not essential, but it can provide a better understanding of
the dsPIC30/33 and PIC24’s capabilities and limitations, and their impact on the code writing as well.
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Types Efficiency
First of all, the user should know that dsPIC30/33 and PIC24’s ALU, which performs arithmetic operations, is optimized
for working with 16-bit types. Although mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 is capable of handling types like char or
short, dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 will generate a better code for 16-bit types, like int. Therefore, use char and short only in
places where you can significantlly save RAM (e.g. for arrays char a[30]).
Nested Calls Limitations
There are no Nested Calls Limitations, except by RAM size. A Nested call represents a function call within the function
body, either to itself (recursive calls) or to another function.
Recursive calls, as a form of cross-calling, are supported by mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24, but they should
be used very carefully due to dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 stack and memory limitations. Also calling functions from interrupt
is allowed. Calling function from both interrupt and main thread is allowed. Be carefull because this programming
technique may cause unpredictable results if common resources are used in both main and interrupt.
Limits of Indirect Approach Through PSV
Constant aggregates are stored in Flash and are accessible through PSV. mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 can
allocate more than 32KByte of constants. See near and far memory specifiers.
Limits of Pointer to Function
Currently pointer to functions are 16-bit variables. For functions which address exceeds 16 bit limit, the compiler uses
handle (16-bit pointer on GOTO). A handle usage is automatic compiler process so there is no need for the user to
intervene.
Variable, constant and routine alignment
Simple type variables whose size exceeds 1 byte (int, long, float, double, long double) are always set to alignment 2
(i.e. are always allocated on even address).
Derived types and constant aggregates whose at least one element exceeds size of 1 byte are set to alignment 2.
Routines are always set to aligment 2.
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dsPIC Memory Organization
The dsPIC microcontroller’s memory is divided into Program Memory and Data Memory. Program Memory (ROM) is
used for permanent saving program being executed, while Data Memory (RAM) is used for temporarily storing and
keeping intermediate results and variables.
Program Memory (ROM)
Program Memory (ROM) is used for permanent saving program code being executed, and it is divided into several
sections, as on the picture below. The size of these sections is device dependant.
The program memory map is divided into the User Memory Space and Configuration Memory Space. The User Memory
Space contains the Reset vector, interrupt vector tables, program memory and data EEPROM memory (dsPIC30 family
and some PIC24 family MCU’s).
The Configuration Memory Space contains non-volatile configuration bits for setting device options and the device ID
locations.
Program Memory (ROM) Organization
1. dsPIC33F Program Memory Organization
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Data Memory (RAM)
Data memory consists of:
- SFR Memory Space
- X and Y Data RAM
- DMA RAM (only for dsPIC33F Family)
- Unimplemented Memory Space
Data Memory (RAM) Organization
1. PIC24F Data Memory Organization
2. dsPIC33F Data Memory Organization
SFR Memory Space
The first 2kB of data memory is allocated to the Special Function Registers (SFRs). The SFRs are control and status
register for core and peripheral functions in the dsPIC.
X and Y Data RAM
Up to 8 kB of data RAM is implemented after the SFRs. This is general purpose RAM that can be used for data storage.
This RAM is split into X and Y memory for dsPIC instructions.
This allows DSP instructions to support dual operand reads, so that data can be fetched from X and Y memory space
at the same time for a single instruction.
The X and Y data space boundary is fixed for any given device. When not doing DSP instructions, the memory is all
treated as a single block of X memory.
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DMA RAM
Every dsPIC33F device contains a portion of dual ported DMA RAM located at the end of Y data space. Direct Memory
Access (DMA) is a very efficient mechanism of copying data between peripheral SFRs and buffers or variables stored
in RAM, with minimal CPU intervention.
The DMA controller can automatically copy entire blocks of data without requiring the user software to read or write the
peripheral Special Function Registers (SFRs) every time a peripheral interrupt occurs.
The DMA controller uses a dedicated bus for data transfers and therefore, does not steal cycles from the code execution
flow of the CPU. To exploit the DMA capability, the corresponding user buffers or variables must be located in DMA
RAM.
Unimplemented Memory Space
The last segment of data RAM space is not implemented, but can be mapped into program space for Program Space
Visibility. This allows program memory to be read as though it were in data RAM.
Notes:
- Boundaries between memory spaces are device specific. Please, refer to the appropriate datasheet for details.
- Memory spaces are not shown to scale. Please, refer to the appropriate datasheet for details.
There are seven memory type specifiers that can be used to refer to the data memory: rx, data, code, sfr,
xdata, ydata, and dma
Related topics: Accessing individual bits, SFRs, Memory type specifiers, dsPIC Memory Type QualifiersC
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Memory Type Specifiers
The mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 supports usage of all memory areas.
Each variable may be explicitly assigned to a specific memory space by including a memory type specifier in the
declaration, or implicitly assigned.
The following memory type specifiers can be used:
-
code
data
rx
sfr
xdata
ydata
dma
code
Description The code memory type may be used for allocating constants in program memory.
Example
// puts txt in program memory
const code char txt[] = “ENTER PARAMETER:”;
data
Description This memory specifier is used when storing variable to the Data RAM.
Example
// puts x in data ram
data unsigned char x;
rx
Description This memory specifier allows variable to be stored in the working registers space
(WREG0-WREG15).
Example
// puts y in working register space
rx char y;
sfr
Description This memory specifier allows user to access special function registers. It also
instructs compiler to maintain same identifier in source and assembly.
Example
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sfr char y; // puts y in SFR space
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xdata
Description This memory specifier allows user to access X Data memory space.
Example
xdata char x; // puts x in xdata memory space
ydata
Description This memory specifier allows user to access Y Data memory space.
Example
ydata char y; // puts y in ydata memory space
dma
Description This memory specifier allows user to access DMA memory space (dsPIC33F
specific).
Example
dma char y; // puts y in DMA memory space
Note: If none of the memory specifiers are used when declaring a variable, data specifier will be set
as default by the compiler.
Related topics: dsPIC Memory Organization, dsPIC Memory Type Qualifiers, Accessing individual
bits, SFRs, Constants, Functions
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Memory Type Qualifiers
In addition to the standard storage qualifiers(const, volatile) the compiler introduces storage qualifiers of near
and far.
Near Memory Qualifier
1. Data Memory Objects
The qualifier near is used to denote that a variable is allocated in near data space (the first 8 kB of Data memory). Such variables can sometimes be accessed more efficiently than variables not allocated (or not known to be allocated) in near data space.
If variables are allocated in the near data section, the compiler is often able to generate better (more compact) code than if the variables are not allocated in the near data section.
2. Program Memory Objects
The qualifier near is used to denote that a constant is allocated in the default program memory page (32kB segment of program memory). Default program memory page is the one with most free space and is set by the compiler by analyzing program memory pages.
This qualifier is set as default by the compiler, if no other qualifier is used.
Far Memory Qualifier
1 Data Memory Objects
The qualifier far is used to denote that a variable will not be in near data space (i.e. the variable can be located anywhere in data memory). This qualifier is set as default by the compiler, if no other qualifier is used.
2. Program Memory Objects
The qualifier far is used to denote that a constant can be allocated anywhere in the program memory, in the page pointed to by PSVPAG register.
Location of object based on memory qualifiers:
Qualifier/Memory
Data Memory
near
First 8 kB of RAM
In default page
Anywhere in RAM
In page pointed to PSVPAG register
far
Program Memory
Example:
char i;
// far memory qualifier is set, variable i can allocated somewhere in data memory
char near j;
// near memory qualifier is set, variable j will be allocated in the first 8kB of data memory
const int k = 10; // near memory qualifier is set, constant k will be allocated in the default memory page
Related topics: dsPIC Memory Organization, dsPIC Memory Type Specifiers
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Read Modify Write Problem
The Microchip microcontrollers use a sequence known as Read-Modify-Write (RMW) when changing an output state
(1 or 0) on a pin. This can cause unexpected behavior under certain circumstances.
When your program changes the state on a specific pin, for example RB0 in PORTB, the microcontroller first READs
all 8 bits of the PORTB register which represents the states of all 8 pins in PORTB (RB7-RB0).
The microcontroller then stores this data in the MCU. The bit associated with RB that you’ve commanded to MODIFY
is changed, and then the microcontroller WRITEs all 8 bits (RB7-RB0) back to the PORTB register.
During the first reading of the PORT register, you will be reading the actual state of the physical pin.
The problem arises when an output pin is loaded in such a way that its logic state is affected by the load. Instances of
such loads are LEDs without current-limiting resistors or loads with high capacitance or inductance.
For example, if a capacitor is attached between pin and ground, it will take a short while to charge when the pin is set to 1.
On the other hand, if the capacitor is discharged, it acts like a short circuit, forcing the pin to ‘0’ state, and, therefore, a
read of the PORT register will return 0, even though we wrote a 1 to it.
Lets analyze the following example:
PORTB.B0 = 1;
PORTB.B1 = 1;
Assume that the PORTB is initially set to zero, and that all pins are set to output. Let’s say we connect a discharged
capacitor to RB0 pin.
The first line, PORTB.B0 = 1; will be decoded like in this way:
READ
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PORTB is read:
STORE
Data is stored inside a temporary internal register in the MCU :
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Actual voltage levels on MCU pins are relevant.
MODIFY Data is modified to set the RB0 bit:
WRITE
PORTB is written with the modified data. The output driver for RB0 turns on, and the capacitor starts to charge:
The second line, PORTB.B1 = 1; will be decoded like in this way:
STORE Because the capacitor is still charging, the voltage at RB0 is still low and reads as a ‘0’ (since we are reading from the pins directly, not from the PORTB register) :
READ PORTB is read:
Actual voltage levels on MCU pins are relevant.
MODIFY Data is modified to set the bit:
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WRITE
PORTB is written with the new data. The output driver for RB1 turns on, but the
driver for RB0 turns back off:
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To correct the problem in the code, insert a delay after each PORTB.Bx = 1 line, or modify the entire PORTB register
in a single line PORTB = 0b00000011.
This problem can be avoided by using LATx register when writing to ports, rather than using PORTx registers.
Writing to a LATx register is equivalent to writing to a PORTx register, but readings from LATx registers return the
data value held in the port latch, regardless of the state of the actual pin.
For example, lets analyze the following example:
LATB.B0 = 1;
LATB.B1 = 1;
The first line, LATB.B0 = 1; will be decoded like in this way:
STORE Data is stored inside a temporary internal register in the MCU :
READ LATB is read:
Actual voltage levels on MCU pins are no longer relevant when using LATx for output
MODIFY Data is modified to set the RB0 bit:
WRITE
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LATB is written with the modified data. The output driver for RB0 turns on, and the capacitor starts to charge:
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The second line, LATB.B1 = 1; will be decoded like in this way :
READ LATB is read:
STORE Since the voltage levels on MCU pins are no longer relevant, we get the expected value:
Actual voltage levels on MCU pins are no longer relevant when using LATx for output
MODIFY Data is modified to set the bit:
WRITE LATB is written with the new data. The output driver for RB1 turns on, and the output driver for RB0 remains turned on:
When to use LATx instead of PORTx
Depending on your hardware, one may experience unpredictable behavior when using PORTx bits for driving output.
Displays (GLCD, LCD), chip select pins in SPI interfaces and other cases when you need fast and reliable output, LATx
should be used instead of PORTx.
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CHAPTER 8
mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and
PIC24 Language Reference
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- Lexical Elements
- Whitespace
- Comments
- Tokens
- Constants
- Constants Overview
- Integer Constants
- Floating Point Constants
- Character Constants
- String Constants
- Enumeration Constants
- Pointer Constants
- Constant Expressions
- Keywords
- Identifiers
- Punctuators
- Concepts
- Objects and Lvalues
- Scope and Visibility
- Name Spaces
- Duration
- Types
- Fundamental Types
- Arithmetic Types
- Enumerations
- Void Type
- Derived Types
- Arrays
- Pointers
- Structures
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- Introduction to Pointers
- Pointer Arithmetic
- Introduction to Structures
- Working with Structures
- Structure Member Access
- Unions
- Bit Fields
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- Types Conversions
- Standard Conversions
- Explicit Typecasting
- Declarations
- Introduction to Declarations
- Linkage
- Storage Classes
- Type Qualifiers
- Typedef Specifier
- ASM Declaration
- Initialization
- Functions
- Introduction to Functions
- Function Calls and Argument Conversion
- Operators
- Introduction to Operators
- Operators Precedence and Associativity
- Arithmetic Operators
- Relational Operators
- Bitwise Operators
- Logical Operators
- Conditional Operator
- Assignment Operators
- Sizeof Operator
- Expressions
- Introduction to Expressions
- Comma Expressions
- Statements
- Introduction
- Labeled Statements
- Expression Statements
- Selection Statements
- Iteration Statements (Loops)
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- If Statement
- Switch Statement
- While Statement
- Do Statement
- For Statement
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- Jump Statements
- Break and Continue Statements
- Goto Statement
- Return Statement
- Compound Statements (Blocks)
- Preprocessor
- Introduction to Preprocessor
- Preprocessor Directives
- Macros
- File Inclusion
- Preprocessor Operators
- Conditional Compilation
Lexical Elements Overview
The following topics provide a formal definition of the mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 lexical elements. They
describe different categories of word-like units (tokens) recognized by the mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24.
In the tokenizing phase of compilation, the source code file is parsed (that is, broken down) into tokens and whitespace.
The tokens in the mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 are derived from a series of operations performed on your
programs by the compiler and its built-in preprocessor.
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Whitespace
Whitespace is a collective name given to spaces (blanks), horizontal and vertical tabs, newline characters and comments.
Whitespace can serve to indicate where tokens start and end, but beyond this function, any surplus whitespace is
discarded. For example, two sequences
int i; float f;
and
int
i;
float f;
are lexically equivalent and parse identically to give six tokens:
int
i
;
float
f
;
Whitespace in Strings
The ASCII characters representing whitespace can occur within string literals. In that case they are protected from the
normal parsing process (they remain as a part of the string). For example,
char name[] = “mikro foo”;
parses into seven tokens, including a single string literal token:
char
name
[
]
=
“mikro foo”
;
/* just one token here! */
Line Splicing with Backslash (\)
A special case occurs if a line ends with a backslash (\). Both backslash and new line character are discarded, allowing
two physical lines of a text to be treated as one unit. So, the following code
“mikroC PRO for \
dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 Compiler”
parses into “mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 Compiler”. Refer to String Constants for more information.
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Comments
Comments are pieces of a text used to annotate a program and technically are another form of whitespace. Comments
are for the programmer’s use only; they are stripped from the source text before parsing. There are two ways to delineate
comments: the C method and the C++ method. Both are supported by mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24.
You should also follow the guidelines on the use of whitespace and delimiters in comments, discussed later in this topic
to avoid other portability problems.
C comments
C comment is any sequence of characters placed after the symbol pair /*. The comment terminates at the first occurance
of the pair */ following the initial /*. The entire sequence, including four comment-delimiter symbols, is replaced by one
space after macro expansion.
In the mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24,
int /* type */ i /* identifier */;
parses as:
int i;
Note that the mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 does not support a nonportable token pasting strategy using /**/.
For more information on token pasting, refer to the Preprocessor Operators.
C++ comments
The mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 allows single-line comments using two adjacent slashes (//). The comment
can start in any position and extends until the next new line.
The following code
int i;
int j;
// this is a comment
parses as:
int i;
int j;
Nested comments
ANSI C doesn’t allow nested comments. The attempt to nest a comment like this
/*
int /* declaration */ i; */
fails, because the scope of the first /* ends at the first */. This gives us
i; */
which would generate a syntax error.
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Tokens
Token is the smallest element of a C program that compiler can recognize. The parser separates tokens from the input
stream by creating the longest token possible using the input characters in a left–to–right scan.
The mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 recognizes the following kinds of tokens:
- keywords
- identifiers
- constants
- operators
- punctuators (also known as separators)
Tokens can be concatenated (pasted) by means of the preprocessor operator ##. See the Preprocessor Operators for
details.
Token Extraction Example
Here is an example of token extraction. Take a look at the following example code sequence:
inter =
a+++b;
First, note that inter would be parsed as a single identifier, rather than as the keyword int followed by the identifier
er.
The programmer who has written the code might have intended to write inter = a + (++b), but it wouldn’t work
that way. The compiler would parse it into the seven following tokens:
inter
=
a
++
+
b
;
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
variable identifier
assignment operator
variable identifier
postincrement operator
addition operator
variable identifier
statement terminator
Note that +++ parses as ++ (the longest token possible) followed by +.
According to the operator precedence rules, our code sequence is actually:
inter (a++)+b;
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Constants
Constants or literals are tokens representing fixed numeric or character values.
The mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 supports:
- integer constants
- floating point constants
- character constants
- string constants (strings literals)
- enumeration constants
The data type of a constant is deduced by the compiler using such clues as a numeric value and format used in the
source code.
Integer Constants
Integer constants can be decimal (base 10), hexadecimal (base 16), binary (base 2), or octal (base 8). In the absence
of any overriding suffixes, the data type of an integer constant is derived from its value.
Long and Unsigned Suffixes
The suffix L (or l) attached to any constant forces that constant to be represented as a long. Similarly, the suffix U (or
u) forces a constant to be unsigned. Both L and U suffixes can be used with the same constant in any order or case:
ul, Lu, UL, etc.
In the absence of any suffix (U, u, L, or l), a constant is assigned the “smallest” of the following types that can
accommodate its value: short, unsigned short, int, unsigned int, long int, unsigned long int.
Otherwise:
- If a constant has the U suffix, its data type will be the first of the following that can accommodate its value: unsigned short, unsigned int, unsigned long int.
- If a constant has the L suffix, its data type will be the first of the following that can accommodate its value: long
int, unsigned long int.
- If a constant has both L and U suffixes, (LU or UL), its data type will be unsigned long int.
Decimal
Decimal constants from -2147483648 to 4294967295 are allowed. Constants exceeding these bounds will produce
an “Out of range” error. Decimal constants must not use an initial zero. An integer constant that has an initial zero is
interpreted as an octal constant. Thus,
int i = 10;
int i = 010;
int i = 0;
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/* decimal 10 */
/* decimal 8 */
/* decimal 0 = octal 0 */
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In the absence of any overriding suffixes, the data type of a decimal constant is derived from its value, as shown
below:
Value Assigned to Constant
Assumed Type
< -2147483648
Error: Out of range!
-2147483648 – -32769
long
-32768 – -129
-128 – 127
128 – 255
256 – 32767
32768 – 65535
65536 – 2147483647
int
short
unsigned short
int
unsigned int
long
2147483648 – 4294967295
unsigned long
> 4294967295
Error: Out of range!
Hexadecimal
All constants starting with 0x (or 0X) are taken to be hexadecimal. In the absence of any overriding suffixes, the data
type of an hexadecimal constant is derived from its value, according to the rules presented above. For example,
0xC367 will be treated as unsigned int.
Binary
All constants starting with 0b (or 0B) are taken to be binary. In the absence of any overriding suffixes, the data type
of an binary constant is derived from its value, according to the rules presented above. For example, 0b11101 will be
treated as short.
Octal
All constants with an initial zero are taken to be octal. If an octal constant contains the illegal digits 8 or 9, an error
is reported. In the absence of any overriding suffixes, the data type of an octal constant is derived from its value,
according to the rules presented above. For example, 0777 will be treated as int.
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Floating Point Constants
A floating-point constant consists of:
- Decimal integer
- Decimal point
- Decimal fraction
- e or E and a signed integer exponent (optional)
- Type suffix: f or F or l or L (optional)
Either decimal integer or decimal fraction (but not both) can be omitted. Either decimal point or letter e (or E) with
a signed integer exponent (but not both) can be omitted. These rules allow conventional and scientific (exponent)
notations.
Negative floating constants are taken as positive constants with an unary operator minus (-) prefixed.
The mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 limits floating-point constants to the range ±1.17549435082 * 10-38 ..
±6.80564774407 * 1038.
Here are some examples:
0.
-1.23
23.45e6
2e-5
3E+10
.09E34
//
//
//
//
//
//
=
=
=
=
=
=
0.0
-1.23
23.45 * 10^6
2.0 * 10^-5
3.0 * 10^10
0.09 * 10^34
The mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 floating-point constants are of the type double. Note that the mikroC PRO
for dsPIC’s implementation of ANSI Standard considers float and double (together with the long double variant)
to be the same type.
Character Constants
A character constant is one or more characters enclosed in single quotes, such as ‘A’, ‘+’, or ‘\n’. In the mikroC
PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24, single-character constants are of the unsigned int type. Multi-character constants
are referred to as string constants or string literals. For more information refer to String Constants.
Escape Sequences
A backslash character (\) is used to introduce an escape sequence, which allows a visual representation of certain
nongraphic characters. One of the most common escape constants is the newline character (\n).
A backslash is used with octal or hexadecimal numbers to represent an ASCII symbol or control code corresponding
to that value; for example, ‘\x3F’ for the question mark. Any value within legal range for data type char (0 to 0xFF
for the mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24) can be used. Larger numbers will generate the compiler error “Out of
range”.
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For example, the octal number \777 is larger than the maximum value allowed (\377) and will generate an error. The
first nonoctal or nonhexadecimal character encountered in an octal or hexadecimal escape sequence marks the end
of the sequence.
Note: You must use the sequence \\ to represent an ASCII backslash, as used in operating system paths.
The following table shows the available escape sequences:
Sequence
Value
Char
What it does?
\a
0x07
BEL
Audible bell
0x08
BS
Backspace
0x0C
FF
Formfeed
0x0A
LF
Newline (Linefeed)
0x0D
CR
Carriage Return
0x09
HT
Tab (horizontal)
0x0B
VT
Vertical Tab
0x5C
\
Backslash
0x27
‘
Single quote (Apostrophe)
0x22
“
Double quote
0x3F
?
Question mark
any
O = string of up to 3 octal digits
any
H = string of hex digits
any
H = string of hex digits
\b
\f
\n
\r
\t
\v
\\
\’
\”
\?
\O
\xH
\XH
Disambiguation
Some ambiguous situations might arise when using escape sequences.
Here is an example:
Lcd_Out_Cp(“\x091.0 Intro”);
This is intended to be interpreted as \x09 and “1.0 Intro”. However, the mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24
compiles it as the hexadecimal number \x091 and literal string “.0 Intro”. To avoid such problems, we could
rewrite the code in the following way:
Lcd_Out_Cp(“\x09” “1.0 Intro”);
For more information on the previous line, refer to String Constants.
Ambiguities might also arise if an octal escape sequence is followed by a nonoctal digit. For example, the following
constant:
“\118”
would be interpreted as a two-character constant made up of the characters \11 and 8, because 8 is not a legal octal digit.
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String Constants
String constants, also known as string literals, are a special type of constants which store fixed sequences of characters.
A string literal is a sequence of any number of characters surrounded by double quotes:
“This is a string.”
The null string, or empty string, is written like “”. A literal string is stored internally as a given sequence of characters
plus a final null character. A null string is stored as a single null character.
The characters inside the double quotes can include escape sequences. This code, for example:
“\t\”Name\”\\\tAddress\n\n”
prints like this:
“Name”\
Address
The “Name” is preceded by two tabs; The Address is preceded by one tab. The line is followed by two new lines. The
\” provides interior double quotes. The escape character sequence \\ is translated into \ by the compiler.
Adjacent string literals separated only by whitespace are concatenated during the parsing phase. For example:
“This is “ “just”
“ an example.”
is equivalent to
“This is just an example.”
Line Continuation with Backslash
You can also use the backslash (\) as a continuation character to extend a string constant across line boundaries:
“This is really \
a one-line string.”
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Enumeration Constants
Enumeration constants are identifiers defined in enum type declarations. The identifiers are usually chosen as
mnemonics to contribute to legibility. Enumeration size is calculated according to the enumerators (enumeration
elements). They can be used in any expression where integer constants are valid.
For example:
enum weekdays { SUN = 0, MON, TUE, WED, THU, FRI, SAT };
The identifiers (enumerators) used must be unique within the scope of the enum declaration. Negative initializers are
allowed. See Enumerations for details about enum declarations.
Pointer Constants
A pointer or pointed-at object can be declared with the const modifier. Anything declared as const cannot change its
value. It is also illegal to create a pointer that might violate a non-assignability of the constant object.
Consider the following examples:
int i;
int * pi;
int * const cp = &i;
const int ci = 7;
const int * pci;
const int * const cpc = &ci;
//
//
//
//
//
//
i is an int
pi is a pointer to int (uninitialized)
cp is a constant pointer to int
ci is a constant int
pci is a pointer to constant int
cpc is a constant pointer to a constant int
The following assignments are legal:
i = ci;
*cp = ci;
++pci;
pci = cpc;
//
//
//
//
//
Assign const-int to int
Assign const-int to
object-pointed-at-by-a-const-pointer
Increment a pointer-to-const
Assign a const-pointer-to-a-const to a pointer-to-const
The following assignments are illegal:
ci = 0;
ci--;
*pci = 3;
cp = &ci;
cpc++;
pi = pci;
// NO--cannot assign to a const-int
// NO--cannot change a const-int
// NO--cannot assign to an object
// pointed at by pointer-to-const.
// NO--cannot assign to a const-pointer,
// even if value would be unchanged.
// NO--cannot change const-pointer
// NO--if this assignment were allowed,
// you would be able to assign to *pci
//(a const value) by assigning to *pi.
Similar rules are applayed to the volatile modifier. Note that both const and volatile can appear as modifiers
to the same identifier.
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Notes:
- Pointer to constant space (Flash memory) is allocated in RAM.
- Due to the previous note, it is not possible to define an extern const.
- Constants of a simple type are not allocated in the Flash memory nor in RAM, but changed in the compile time, and therefore, address of a such constant can not be obtained.
Constant Expressions
A constant expressions can be evaluated during translation rather that runtime and accordingly may be used in any
place that a constant may be.
Constant expressions can consist only of the following:
- literals,
- enumeration constants,
- simple constants (no constant arrays or structures),
- sizeof operators.
Constant expressions cannot contain any of the following operators, unless the operators are contained within the
operand of a sizeof operator: assignment, comma, decrement, function call, increment.
Each constant expression can evaluate to a constant that is in the range of representable values for its type.
Constant expression can be used anywhere a constant is legal.
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Keywords
Keywords are words reserved for special purposes and must not be used as normal identifier names.
Beside standard C keywords, all relevant SFR are defined as global variables and represent reserved words that
cannot be redefined (for example: TMR0, PCL, etc). Probe the Code Assistant for specific letters (Ctrl+Space in Editor)
or refer to Predefined Globals and Constants.
Here is an alphabetical listing of keywords in C:
-
absolute
asm
at
auto
bit
bool
break
case
catch
char
class
code
const
continue
data
default
delete
dma
do
double
else
enum
explicit
extern
false
far
float
for
friend
goto
if
inline
int
iv
long
mutable
namespace
near
operator
org
pascal
private
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-
protected
public
register
return
rx
sfr
short
signed
sizeof
static
struct
switch
template
this
throw
true
try
typedef
typeid
typename
union
unsigned
using
virtual
void
volatile
while
xdata
ydata
Also, the mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 includes a number of predefined identifiers used in libraries. You
could replace them by your own definitions, if you want to develop your own libraries. For more information, see mikroC
PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 Libraries.
Identifiers
Identifiers are arbitrary names of any length given to functions, variables, symbolic constants, user-defined data types
and labels. All these program elements will be referred to as objects throughout the help (don’t get confused with the
meaning of object in object-oriented programming).
Identifiers can contain the letters a to z and A to Z, underscore character “_”, and digits from 0 to 9. The only restriction
is that the first character must be a letter or an underscore.
Case Sensitivity
The mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 identifiers aren’t case sensitive by default, so that Sum, sum, and suM
represent an equivalent identifier. Case sensitivity can be activated or suspended in Output Settings window. Even if
case sensitivity is turned off Keywords remain case sensitive and they must be written in lower case.
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Uniqueness and Scope
Although identifier names are arbitrary (according to the stated rules), if the same name is used for more than one
identifier within the same scope and sharing the same name space then error arises. Duplicate names are legal for
different name spaces regardless of scope rules. For more information on scope, refer to Scope and Visibility.
Identifier Examples
Here are some valid identifiers:
temperature_V1
Pressure
no_hit
dat2string
SUM3
_vtext
… and here are some invalid identifiers:
7temp
%higher
int
j23.07.04
//
//
//
//
NO
NO
NO
NO
-----
cannot
cannot
cannot
cannot
begin with a numeral
contain special characters
match reserved word
contain special characters (dot)
Punctuators
The mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 punctuators (also known as separators) are:
- [ ] – Brackets
- ( ) – Parentheses
- { } – Braces
- , – Comma
- ; – Semicolon
- : – Colon
- * – Asterisk
- = – Equal sign
- # – Pound sign
Most of these punctuators also function as operators.
Brackets
Brackets [ ] indicate single and multidimensional array subscripts:
char ch, str[] = “mikro”;
int mat[3][4];
ch = str[3];
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/* 3 x 4 matrix */
/* 4th element */
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Parentheses
Parentheses ( ) are used to group expressions, isolate conditional expressions, and indicate function calls and
function parameters:
d = c * (a + b);
/* override normal precedence */
if (d == z) ++x;
func();
void func2(int n);
/* essential with conditional statement */
/* function call, no args */
/* function declaration with parameters */
Parentheses are recommended in macro definitions to avoid potential precedence problems during an expansion:
#define CUBE(x) ((x) * (x) * (x))
For more information, refer to Operators Precedence And Associativity and Expressions.
Braces
Braces { } indicate the start and end of a compound statement:
if (d == z) {
++x;
func();
}
Closing brace serves as a terminator for the compound statement, so a semicolon is not required after }, except in
structure declarations. Sometimes, the semicolon can be illegal, as in
if (statement)
{ ... };
/* illegal semicolon! */
else
{ ... };
For more information, refer to the Compound Statements.
Comma
Comma (,) separates the elements of a function argument list:
void func(int n, float f, char ch);
Comma is also used as an operator in comma expressions. Mixing two uses of comma is legal, but you must use
parentheses to distinguish them. Note that (exp1, exp2) evalutates both but is equal to the second:
func(i, j);
func((exp1, exp2), (exp3, exp4, exp5));
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/* call func with two args */
/* also calls func with two args! */
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Semicolon
Semicolon (;) is a statement terminator. Any legal C expression (including the empty expression) followed by a
semicolon is interpreted as a statement, known as an expression statement. The expression is evaluated and its value
is discarded. If the expression statement has no side effects, the mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 might ignore
it.
a + b;
++a;
;
/* Evaluate a + b, but discard value */
/* Side effect on a, but discard value of ++a */
/* Empty expression, or a null statement */
Semicolons are sometimes used to create an empty statement:
for (i = 0; i < n; i++);
For more information, see the Statements.
Colon
Use colon (:) to indicate the labeled statement:
start: x = 0;
...
goto start;
Labels are discussed in the Labeled Statements.
Asterisk (Pointer Declaration)
Asterisk (*) in a variable declaration denotes the creation of a pointer to a type:
char *char_ptr;
/* a pointer to char is declared */
Pointers with multiple levels of indirection can be declared by indicating a pertinent number of asterisks:
int **int_ptr;
double ***double_ptr;
/* a pointer to an array of integers */
/* a pointer to a matrix of doubles */
You can also use asterisk as an operator to either dereference a pointer or as multiplication operator:
i = *int_ptr;
a = b * 3.14;
For more information, see the Pointers.
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Equal Sign
Equal sign (=) separates variable declarations from initialization lists:
int test[5] = { 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 };
int x = 5;
Equal sign is also used as an assignment operator in expressions:
int a, b, c;
a = b + c;
For more information, see Assignment Operators.
Pound Sign (Preprocessor Directive)
Pound sign (#) indicates a preprocessor directive when it occurs as the first nonwhitespace character on a line. It
signifies a compiler action, not necessarily associated with a code generation. See the Preprocessor Directives for
more information.
# and ## are also used as operators to perform token replacement and merging during the preprocessor scanning
phase. See the Preprocessor Operators.
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Concepts
This section covers some basic concepts of language, essential for understanding of how C programs work. First, we
need to establish the following terms that will be used throughout the help:
- Objects and lvalues
- Scope and Visibility
- Name Spaces
- Duration
Objects
An object is a specific region of memory that can hold a fixed or variable value (or set of values). This use of a term
object is different from the same term, used in object-oriented languages, which is more general. Our definiton of the
word would encompass functions, variables, symbolic constants, user-defined data types, and labels.
Each value has an associated name and type (also known as a data type). The name is used to access the object and
can be a simple identifier or complex expression that uniquely refers the object.
Objects and Declarations
Declarations establish a necessary mapping between identifiers and objects. Each declaration associates an identifier
with a data type.
Associating identifiers with objects requires each identifier to have at least two attributes: storage class and type
(sometimes referred to as data type). The mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 compiler deduces these attributes
from implicit or explicit declarations in the source code. Usually, only the type is explicitly specified and the storage class
specifier assumes the automatic value auto.
Generally speaking, an identifier cannot be legally used in a program before its declaration point in the source code.
Legal exceptions to this rule (known as forward references) are labels, calls to undeclared functions, and struct or union
tags.
The range of objects that can be declared includes:
- Variables
- Functions
- Types
- Arrays of other types
- Structure, union, and enumeration tags
- Structure members
- Union members
- Enumeration constants
- Statement labels
- Preprocessor macros
The recursive nature of the declarator syntax allows complex declarators. You’ll probably want to use typedefs to
improve legibility if constructing complex objects.
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Lvalues
Lvalue is an object locator: an expression that designates an object. An example of lvalue expression is *P, where P is
any expression evaluating to a non-null pointer. A modifiable lvalue is an identifier or expression that relates to an object
that can be accessed and legally changed in memory. A const pointer to a constant, for example, is not a modifiable
lvalue. A pointer to a constant can be changed (but its dereferenced value cannot).
Historically, l stood for “left”, meaning that lvalue could legally stand on the left (the receiving end) of an assignment
statement. Now only modifiable lvalues can legally stand to the left of an assignment operator. For example, if a and
b are nonconstant integer identifiers with properly allocated memory storage, they are both modifiable lvalues, and
assignments such as a = 1 and b = a + b are legal.
Rvalues
The expression a + b is not lvalue: a + b = a is illegal because the expression on the left is not related to an object.
Such expressions are sometimes called rvalues (short for right values).
Scope and Visibility
Scope
The scope of an identifier is a part of the program in which the identifier can be used to access its object. There are
different categories of scope: block (or local), function, function prototype, and file. These categories depend on how
and where identifiers are declared.
- Block: The scope of an identifier with block (or local) scope starts at the declaration point and ends at the end of the block containing the declaration (such block is known as the enclosing block). Parameter declarations with a function definition also have block scope, limited to the scope of the function body.
- File: File scope identifiers, also known as globals, are declared outside of all blocks; their scope is from the point of declaration to the end of the source file.
- Function: The only identifiers having function scope are statement labels. Label names can be used with goto statements anywhere in the function in which the label is declared. Labels are declared implicitly by writing label_name: followed by a statement. Label names must be unique within a function.
- Function prototype: Identifiers declared within the list of parameter declarations in a function prototype (not as a part of a function definition) have a function prototype scope. This scope ends at the end of the function prototype.
Visibility
The visibility of an identifier is a region of the program source code from which an identifier’s associated object can be
legally accessed.
Scope and visibility usually coincide, though there are circumstances under which an object becomes temporarily
hidden by the appearance of a duplicate identifier: the object still exists but the original identifier cannot be used to
access it until the scope of the duplicate identifier ends.
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Technically, visibility cannot exceed a scope, but a scope can exceed visibility. See the following example:
void f (int i) {
int j;
// auto by default
j = 3;
// int i and j are in scope and visible
{
double j;
j = 0.1;
}
j += 1;
//
//
//
//
nested block
j is local name in the nested block
i and double j are visible;
int j = 3 in scope but hidden
// double j out of scope
// int j visible and = 4
}
// i and j are both out of scope
Name Spaces
Name space is a scope within which an identifier must be unique. The mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 uses
four distinct categories of identifiers:
1. goto label names - must be unique within the function in which they are declared.
2. Structure, union, and enumeration tags - must be unique within the block in which they are defined. Tags declared outside of any function must be unique.
3. Structure and union member names - must be unique within the structure or union in which they are defined. There is no restriction on the type or offset of members with the same member name in different structures.
4. Variables, typedefs, functions, and enumeration members - must be unique within the scope in which they are defined. Externally declared identifiers must be unique among externally declared variables.
Duplicate names are legal for different name spaces regardless of the scope rules.
For example:
int blue = 73;
{ // open a block
enum colors { black, red, green, blue, violet, white } c;
/* enumerator blue = 3 now hides outer declaration of int blue */
}
struct colors { int i, j; };
double red = 2;
blue = 37;
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// ILLEGAL: colors duplicate tag
// ILLEGAL: redefinition of red
// back in int blue scope
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Duration
Duration, closely related to a storage class, defines a period during which the declared identifiers have real, physical
objects allocated in memory. We also distinguish between compile-time and run-time objects. Variables, for instance,
unlike typedefs and types, have real memory allocated during run time. There are two kinds of duration: static and
local.
Static Duration
Memory is allocated to objects with static duration as soon as execution is underway; this storage allocation lasts until
the program terminates. Static duration objects usually reside in fixed data segments allocated according to the memory
specifier in force. All globals have static duration. All functions, wherever defined, are objects with static duration. Other
variables can be given static duration by using the explicit static or extern storage class specifiers.
In the mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24, static duration objects are not initialized to zero (or null) in the absence
of any explicit initializer.
Don’t mix static duration with file or global scope. An object can have static duration and local scope – see the example
below.
Local Duration
Local duration objects are also known as automatic objects. They are created on the stack (or in a register) when an
enclosing block or a function is entered. They are deallocated when the program exits that block or function. Local
duration objects must be explicitly initialized; otherwise, their contents are unpredictable.
The storage class specifier auto can be used when declaring local duration variables, but it is usually redundant,
because auto is default for variables declared within a block.
An object with local duration also has local scope because it does not exist outside of its enclosing block. On the other
hand, a local scope object can have static duration. For example:
void f() {
/* local duration variable; init a upon every call to f */
int a = 1;
/* static duration variable; init b only upon first call to f */
static int b = 1;
/* checkpoint! */
a++;
b++;
}
void main() {
/* At checkpoint,
f(); // a=1, b=1,
f(); // a=1, b=2,
f(); // a=1, b=3,
// etc.
}
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we will have: */
after first call,
after second call,
after third call,
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Types
The mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 is a strictly typed language, which means that every object, function,
and expression must have a strictly defined type, known in the time of compilation. Note that the mikroC PRO for
dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 works exclusively with numeric types.
The type serves:
- to determine the correct memory allocation required,
- to interpret the bit patterns found in the object during subsequent accesses,
- in many type-checking situations, to ensure that illegal assignments are trapped.
The mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 supports many standard (predefined) and user-defined data types, including
signed and unsigned integers in various sizes, floating-point numbers with various precisions, arrays, structures, and
unions. In addition, pointers to most of these objects can be established and manipulated in memory.
The type determines how much memory is allocated to an object and how the program will interpret the bit patterns
found in the object’s storage allocation. A given data type can be viewed as a set of values (often implementationdependent) that identifiers of that type can assume, together with a set of operations allowed with these values. The
compile-time operator sizeof allows you to determine the size in bytes of any standard or user-defined type.
The mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 standard libraries and your own program and header files must provide
unambiguous identifiers (or expressions derived from them) and types so that the mikroC PRO for dsPIC can
consistently access, interpret, and (possibly) change the bit patterns in memory corresponding to each active object in
your program.
Type Categories
A common way to categorize types is to divide them into:
- fundamental
- derived
The fudamental types represent types that cannot be split up into smaller parts. They are sometimes referred to as
unstructured types. The fundamental types are void, char, int, float, and double, together with short, long,
signed, and unsigned variants of some of them. For more information on fundamental types, refer to the topic
Fundamental Types.
The derived types are also known as structured types and they include pointers to other types, arrays of other types,
function types, structures, and unions. For more information on derived types, refer to the topic Derived Types.
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Fundamental Types
The fudamental types represent types that cannot be divided into more basic elements, and are the model for
representing elementary data on machine level. The fudamental types are sometimes referred to as unstructured types,
and are used as elements in creating more complex derived or user-defined types.
The fundamental types include:
- Arithmetic Types
- Enumerations
- Void Type
Arithmetic Types
The arithmetic type specifiers are built up from the following keywords: void, char, int, float and double,
together with the prefixes short, long, signed and unsigned. From these keywords you can build both integral
and floating-point types.
Integral Types
The types char and int, together with their variants, are considered to be integral data types. Variants are created
by using one of the prefix modifiers short, long, signed and unsigned.
In the table below is an overview of the integral types – keywords in parentheses can be (and often are) omitted.
The modifiers signed and unsigned can be applied to both char and int. In the absence of the unsigned prefix,
signed is automatically assumed for integral types. The only exception is char, which is unsigned by default. The
keywords signed and unsigned, when used on their own, mean signed int and unsigned int, respectively.
The modifiers short and long can only be applied to int. The keywords short and long, used on their own,
mean short int and long int, respectively.
Type
bit
sbit
(unsigned) char
signed char
(signed) short (int)
unsigned short (int)
(signed) int
unsigned (int)
(signed) long (int)
unsigned long (int)
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Size in bytes
Range
1-bit
0 or 1
1-bit
0 or 1
1
0 .. 255
1
- 128 .. 127
1
- 128 .. 127
1
0 .. 255
2
-32768 .. 32767
2
0 .. 65535
4
-2147483648 .. 2147483647
4
0 .. 4294967295
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Floating-point Types
The types float and double, together with the long double variant, are considered to be floating-point types. The
mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24’s implementation of an ANSI Standard considers all three to be the same
type.
Floating point in the mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 is implemented using the Microchip AN575 32-bit format
(IEEE 754 compliant).
An overview of the floating-point types is shown in the table below:
Type
float
double
long double
Size in bytes
Range
1045
.. +3.4 * 1038
4
-1.5 *
4
-1.5 * 1045 .. +3.4 * 1038
4
-1.5 * 1045 .. +3.4 * 1038
Enumerations
An enumeration data type is used for representing an abstract, discreet set of values with appropriate symbolic
names.
Enumeration Declaration
Enumeration is declared like this:
enum tag {enumeration-list};
Here, tag is an optional name of the enumeration; enumeration-list is a comma-delimited list of discreet values,
enumerators (or enumeration constants). Each enumerator is assigned a fixed integral value. In the absence of
explicit initializers, the first enumerator is set to zero, and the value of each succeeding enumerator is set to a value of
its predecessor increased by one.
Variables of the enum type are declared the same as variables of any other type. For example, the following
declaration:
enum colors { black, red, green, blue, violet, white } c;
establishes a unique integral type, enum colors, variable c of this type, and set of enumerators with constant integer
values (black = 0, red = 1, ...). In the mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24, a variable of an enumerated type can be
assigned any value of the type int – no type checking beyond that is enforced. That is:
c = red;
c = 1;
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// OK
// Also OK, means the same
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With explicit integral initializers, you can set one or more enumerators to specific values. The initializer can be any
expression yielding a positive or negative integer value (after possible integer promotions). Any subsequent names
without initializers will be increased by one. These values are usually unique, but duplicates are legal.
The order of constants can be explicitly re-arranged. For example:
enum colors { black,
red,
green,
blue=6,
violet,
white=4 };
//
//
//
//
//
//
value
value
value
value
value
value
0
1
2
6
7
4
Initializer expression can include previously declared enumerators. For example, in the following declaration:
enum memory_sizes { bit = 1, nibble = 4 * bit, byte = 2 * nibble,
kilobyte = 1024 * byte };
nibble would acquire the value 4, byte the value 8, and kilobyte the value 8192.
Anonymous Enum Type
In our previous declaration, the identifier colors is an optional enumeration tag that can be used in subsequent
declarations of enumeration variables of the enum colors type:
enum colors bg, border;
/* declare variables bg and border */
Like with struct and union declarations, you can omit the tag if no further variables of this enum type are required:
/* Anonymous enum type: */
enum { black, red, green, blue, violet, white } color;
Enumeration Scope
Enumeration tags share the same name space as structure and union tags. Enumerators share the same name space
as ordinary variable identifiers:
int blue = 73;
{ // open a block
enum colors { black, red, green, blue, violet, white } c;
/* enumerator blue = 3 now hides outer declaration of int blue */
}
struct colors { int i, j; };
double red = 2;
blue = 37;
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// ILLEGAL: colors duplicate tag
// ILLEGAL: redefinition of red
// back in int blue scope
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Void Type
void is a special type indicating the absence of any value. There are no objects of void; instead, void is used for
deriving more complex types.
Void Functions
Use the void keyword as a function return type if the function does not return a value.
void print_temp(char temp) {
Lcd_Out_Cp(“Temperature:”);
Lcd_Out_Cp(temp);
Lcd_Chr_Cp(223); // degree character
Lcd_Chr_Cp(‘C’);
}
Use void as a function heading if the function does not take any parameters. Alternatively, you can just write empty
parentheses:
main(void) { // same as main()
...
}
Generic Pointers
Pointers can be declared as void, which means that they can point to any type. These pointers are sometimes called
generic.
Derived Types
The derived types are also known as structured types. They are used as elements in creating more complex userdefined types.
The derived types include:
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- arrays
- pointers
- structures
- unions
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Arrays
Array is the simplest and most commonly used structured type. A variable of array type is actually an array of objects
of the same type. These objects represent elements of an array and are identified by their position in array. An array
consists of a contiguous region of storage exactly large enough to hold all of its elements.
Array Declaration
Array declaration is similar to variable declaration, with the brackets added after identifer:
type array_name[constant-expression]
This declares an array named as array_name and composed of elements of type. The type can be any scalar type
(except void), user-defined type, pointer, enumeration, or another array. Result of constant-expression within the
brackets determines a number of elements in array. If an expression is given in an array declarator, it must evaluate to
a positive constant integer. The value is a number of elements in an array.
Each of the elements of an array is indexed from 0 to the number of elements minus one. If a number of elements is n,
elements of array can be approached as variables array_name[0] .. array_name[n-1] of type.
Here are a few examples of array declaration:
#define MAX = 50
int
vector_one[10];
float vector_two[MAX];
float vector_three[MAX - 20];
/* declares an array of 10 integers */
/* declares an array of 50 floats
*/
/* declares an array of 30 floats
*/
Array Initialization
An array can be initialized in declaration by assigning it a comma-delimited sequence of values within braces. When
initializing an array in declaration, you can omit the number of elements – it will be automatically determined according
to the number of elements assigned. For example:
/* Declare an array which holds number of days in each month: */
int days[12] = {31,28,31,30,31,30,31,31,30,31,30,31};
/* This declaration is identical to the previous one */
int days[] = {31,28,31,30,31,30,31,31,30,31,30,31};
If you specify both the length and starting values, the number of starting values must not exceed the specified length. The opposite
is possible, in this case the trailing “excess” elements will be assigned to some encountered runtime values from memory.
In case of array of char, you can use a shorter string literal notation. For example:
/* The two declarations are identical: */
const char msg1[] = {‘T’, ‘e’, ‘s’, ‘t’, ‘\0’};
const char msg2[] = “Test”;
For more information on string literals, refer to String Constants.
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Arrays in Expressions
When the name of an array comes up in expression evaluation (except with operators & and sizeof), it is implicitly
converted to the pointer pointing to array’s first element. See Arrays and Pointers for more information.
Multi-dimensional Arrays
An array is one-dimensional if it is of scalar type. One-dimensional arrays are sometimes referred to as vectors.
Multidimensional arrays are constructed by declaring arrays of array type. These arrays are stored in memory in such
way that the right most subscript changes fastest, i.e. arrays are stored “in rows”. Here is a sample of 2-dimensional
array:
float m[50][20];
/* 2-dimensional array of size 50x20 */
A variable m is an array of 50 elements, which in turn are arrays of 20 floats each. Thus, we have a matrix of 50x20
elements: the first element is m[0][0], the last one is m[49][19]. The first element of the 5th row would be m[4]
[0].
If you don’t initialize the array in the declaration, you can omit the first dimension of multi-dimensional array. In that
case, array is located elsewhere, e.g. in another file. This is a commonly used technique when passing arrays as
function parameters:
int a[3][2][4];
/* 3-dimensional array of size 3x2x4 */
void func(int n[][2][4]) { /* we can omit first dimension */
...
n[2][1][3]++; /* increment the last element*/
}
void main() {
...
func(a);
}
You can initialize a multi-dimensional array with an appropriate set of values within braces. For example:
int a[3][2] = {{1,2}, {2,6}, {3,7}};
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Pointers
Pointers are special objects for holding (or “pointing to”) memory addresses. In the mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and
PIC24, address of an object in memory can be obtained by means of an unary operator &. To reach the pointed object,
we use an indirection operator (*) on a pointer.
A pointer of type “pointer to object of type” holds the address of (that is, points to) an object of type. Since pointers are
objects, you can have a pointer pointing to a pointer (and so on). Other objects commonly pointed to include arrays,
structures, and unions.
A pointer to a function is best thought of as an address, usually in a code segment, where that function’s executable
code is stored; that is, the address to which control is transferred when that function is called.
Although pointers contain numbers with most of the characteristics of unsigned integers, they have their own rules and
restrictions for declarations, assignments, conversions, and arithmetic. The examples in the next few sections illustrate
these rules and restrictions.
Pointer Declarations
Pointers are declared the same as any other variable, but with * ahead of identifier. A type at the beginning of declaration
specifies the type of a pointed object. A pointer must be declared as pointing to some particular type, even if that type
is void, which really means a pointer to anything. Pointers to void are often called generic pointers, and are treated
as pointers to char in the mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24.
If type is any predefined or user-defined type, including void, the declaration
type *p;
/* Uninitialized pointer */
declares p to be of type “pointer to type”. All scoping, duration, and visibility rules are applied to the p object just
declared. You can view the declaration in this way: if *p is an object of type, then p has to be a pointer to such object
(object of type).
Note:
You must initialize pointers before using them! Our previously declared pointer *p is not initialized (i.e. assigned a value), so it cannot be used yet.
In case of multiple pointer declarations, each identifier requires an indirect operator. For example:
int *pa, *pb, *pc;
// is same as :
int *pa;
int *pb;
int *pc;
Once declared, though, a pointer can usually be reassigned so that it points to an object of another type. The mikroC
PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 lets you reassign pointers without typecasting, but the compiler will warn you unless
the pointer was originally declared to be pointing to void. You can assign the void* pointer to the non-void* pointer
– refer to void for details.
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Null Pointers
A null pointer value is an address that is guaranteed to be different from any valid pointer in use in a program. Assigning
the integer constant 0 to a pointer assigns a null pointer value to it.
For example:
int *pn = 0;
/* Here’s one null pointer */
/* We can test the pointer like this: */
if ( pn == 0 ) { ... }
The pointer type “pointer to void” must not be confused with the null pointer. The declaration
void *vp;
declares that vp is a generic pointer capable of being assigned to by any “pointer to type” value, including null, without
complaint.
Assignments without proper casting between a “pointer to type1” and a “pointer to type2”, where type1 and type2
are different types, can invoke a compiler warning or error. If type1 is a function and type2 isn’t (or vice versa),
pointer assignments are illegal. If type1 is a pointer to void, no cast is needed. If type2 is a pointer to void, no
cast is needed.
Assign an address to a Function Pointer
It’s quite easy to assign the address of a function to a function pointer. Simply take the name of a suitable and known
function. Using the address operator & infront of the function’s name is optional.
//Assign an address to the function pointer
int DoIt (float a, char b, char c){ return a+b+c; }
pt2Function = &DoIt; // assignment
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Example:
int addC(char x,char y){
return x+y;
}
int subC(char x,char y){
return x-y;
}
int mulC(char x,char y){
return x*y;
}
int divC(char x,char y){
return x/y;
}
int modC(char x,char y){
return x%y;
}
//array of pointer to functions that receive two chars and returns int
int (*arrpf[])(char,char) = { addC ,subC,mulC,divC,modC};
int res;
char i;
void main() {
for (i=0;i<5;i++){
res = arrpf[i](10,20);
}
}
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Function Pointers
Function Pointers are pointers, i.e. variables, which point to the address of a function.
// Define a function pointer
int (*pt2Function) (float, char, char);
Note:
Thus functions and function pointers with different calling convention (argument order, arguments type or return type is different) are incompatible with each other.
Assign an address to a Function Pointer
It’s quite easy to assign the address of a function to a function pointer. Simply take the name of a suitable and known
function. Using the address operator & infront of the function’s name is optional.
//Assign an address to the function pointer
int DoIt (float a, char b, char c){ return a+b+c; }
pt2Function = &DoIt; // assignment
Example:
int addC(char x,char y){
}
return x+y;
int subC(char x,char y){
}
return x-y;
int mulC(char x,char y){
}
return x*y;
int divC(char x,char y){
}
return x/y;
int modC(char x,char y){
}
return x%y;
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//array of pointer to functions that receive two chars and returns int
int (*arrpf[])(char,char) = { addC ,subC,mulC,divC,modC};
int res;
char i;
void main() {
for (i=0;i<5;i++){
res = arrpf[i](10,20);
}
}
Pointer Arithmetic
Pointer arithmetic in the mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 is limited to:
- assigning one pointer to another,
- comparing two pointers,
- comparing pointer to zero,
- adding/subtracting pointer and an integer value,
- subtracting two pointers.
The internal arithmetic performed on pointers depends on the memory specifier in force and the presence of any
overriding pointer modifiers. When performing arithmetic with pointers, it is assumed that the pointer points to an array
of objects.
Arrays and Pointers
Arrays and pointers are not completely independent types in the mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24. When the
name of an array comes up in expression evaluation (except with operators & and sizeof), it is implicitly converted to
the pointer pointing to array’s first element. Due to this fact, arrays are not modifiable lvalues.
Brackets [ ] indicate array subscripts. The expression
id[exp]
is defined as
*((id) + (exp))
where either:
- id is a pointer and exp is an integer, or
- id is an integer and exp is a pointer.
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The following statements are true:
&a[i]
a[i]
=
=
a + i
*(a + i)
According to these guidelines, it can be written:
pa = &a[4];
x = *(pa + 3);
// pa points to a[4]
// x = a[7]
/* .. but: */
y = *pa + 3;
// y = a[4] + 3
Also the care should be taken when using operator precedence:
*pa++;
(*pa)++;
// Equal to *(pa++), increments the pointer
// Increments the pointed object!
The following examples are also valid, but better avoid this syntax as it can make the code really illegible:
(a + 1)[i] = 3;
// same as: *((a + 1) + i) = 3, i.e. a[i + 1] = 3
(i + 2)[a] = 0;
// same as: *((i + 2) + a) = 0, i.e. a[i + 2] = 0
Assignment and Comparison
The simple assignment operator (=) can be used to assign value of one pointer to another if they are of the same type.
If they are of different types, you must use a typecast operator. Explicit type conversion is not necessary if one of the
pointers is generic (of the void type).
Assigning the integer constant 0 to a pointer assigns a null pointer value to it.
Two pointers pointing to the same array may be compared by using relational operators ==, !=, <, <=, >, and >=.
Results of these operations are the same as if they were used on subscript values of array elements in question:
int *pa = &a[4], *pb = &a[2];
if (pa == pb) {... /* won’t be executed as 4 is not equal to 2 */ }
if (pa > pb) {... /* will be executed as 4 is greater than 2 */ }
You can also compare pointers to zero value – testing in that way if the pointer actually points to anything. All pointers
can be successfully tested for equality or inequality to null:
if (pa == 0) { ... }
if (pb != 0) { ... }
Note:
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Pointer Addition
You can use operators +, ++, and += to add an integral value to a pointer. The result of addition is defined only if the
pointer points to an element of an array and if the result is a pointer pointing to the same array (or one element beyond
it).
If a pointer is declared to point to type, adding an integral value n to the pointer increments the pointer value by n *
sizeof(type) as long as the pointer remains within the legal range (first element to one beyond the last element). If
type has a size of 10 bytes, then adding 5 to a pointer to type advances the pointer 50 bytes in memory. In case of
the void type, the size of a step is one byte.
For example:
int a[10];
int *pa = &a[0];
*(pa + 3) = 6;
pa++;
/*
/*
/*
/*
array a containing 10 elements of type int */
pa is pointer to int, pointing to a[0] */
pa+3 is a pointer pointing to a[3], so a[3] now equals 6 */
pa now points to the next element of array a: a[1] */
There is no such element as “one past the last element”, of course, but the pointer is allowed to assume such value. C
“guarantees” that the result of addition is defined even when pointing to one element past array. If P points to the last
array element, P + 1 is legal, but P + 2 is undefined.
This allows you to write loops which access the array elements in a sequence by means of incrementing pointer — in
the last iteration you will have the pointer pointing to one element past the array, which is legal. However, applying an
indirection operator (*) to a “pointer to one past the last element” leads to undefined behavior.
For example:
void f (some_type a[], int n) {
/* function f handles elements of array a; */
/* array a has n elements of type some_type */
int i;
some_type *p=&a[0];
}
for ( i = 0; i < n; i++ ) {
/* .. here we do something with *p .. */
p++; /* .. and with the last iteration p exceeds
the last element of array a */
}
/* at this point, *p is undefined! */
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Pointer Subtraction
Similar to addition, you can use operators -, -- , and -= to subtract an integral value from a pointer.
Also, you may subtract two pointers. The difference will be equal to the distance between two pointed addresses, in
bytes.
For example:
int
int
int
i =
pi2
a[10];
*pi1 = &a[0];
*pi2 = &a[4];
pi2 - pi1;
-= (i >> 1);
/* i equals 8 */
/* pi2 = pi2 - 4: pi2 now points to [0] */
Structures
A structure is a derived type usually representing a user-defined collection of named members (or components). These
members can be of any type, either fundamental or derived (with some restrictions to be discussed later), in any
sequence. In addition, a structure member can be a bit field.
Unlike arrays, structures are considered to be single objects. The mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 structure
type lets you handle complex data structures almost as easily as single variables.
The mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 supports anonymous structures.
Structure Declaration and Initialization
Structures are declared using the keyword struct:
struct tag {member-declarator-list};
Here, tag is the name of a structure; member-declarator-list is a list of structure members, actually a list of
variable declarations. Variables of structured type are declared the same as variables of any other type.
The member type cannot be the same as the struct type being currently declared. However, a member can be a pointer
to the structure being declared, as in the following example:
struct mystruct {mystruct s;};
/* illegal! */
struct mystruct {mystruct *ps;}; /* OK */
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Also, a structure can contain previously defined structure types when declaring an instance of declared structure. Here
is an example:
/* Structure defining a dot: */
struct Dot {float x, y;};
/* Structure defining a circle: */
struct Circle {
float r;
struct Dot center;
} o1, o2;
/* declare variables o1 and o2 of Circle */
Note that the structure tag can be omitted, but then additional objects of this type cannot be declared elsewhere. For
more information, see the Untagged Structures below.
Structure is initialized by assigning it a comma-delimited sequence of values within braces, similar to array. For
example:
/* Referring to declarations from the example above: */
/* Declare and initialize dots p and q: */
struct Dot p = {1., 1.}, q = {3.7, -0.5};
/* Declare and initialize circle o1: */
struct Circle o1 = {1., {0., 0.}}; // radius is 1, center is at (0, 0)
Incomplete Declarations
Incomplete declarations are also known as forward declarations. A pointer to a structure type A can legally appear in
the declaration of another structure B before A has been declared:
struct A; // incomplete
struct B {struct A *pa;};
struct A {struct B *pb;};
The first appearance of A is called incomplete because there is no definition for it at that point. An incomplete declaration
is allowed here, because the definition of B doesn’t need the size of A.
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Untagged Structures and Typedefs
If the structure tag is omitted, an untagged structure is created. The untagged structures can be used to declare the
identifiers in the comma-delimited member-declarator-list to be of the given structure type (or derived from it),
but additional objects of this type cannot be declared elsewhere.
It is possible to create a typedef while declaring a structure, with or without tag:
/* With tag: */
typedef struct mystruct { ... } Mystruct;
Mystruct s, *ps, arrs[10]; /* same as struct mystruct s, etc. */
/* Without tag: */
typedef struct { ... } Mystruct;
Mystruct s, *ps, arrs[10];
Usually, there is no need to use both tag and typedef: either can be used in structure type declarations.
Untagged structure and union members are ignored during initialization.
Anonymous Structures
mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 allows you to declare a structure variable within another structure without
giving it a name.
These nested structures are called anonymous structures.
You can access the members of an anonymous structure as if they were members in the containing structure:
struct phone{
int areacode;
long number;
};
struct person {
char
name[30];
char
gender;
int
age;
int
weight;
struct phone;
// Anonymous structure; no name needed
} Jim;
}
Jim.number = 1234567;
Related topics: Working with structures
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Working with Structures
Structures represent user-defined types. A set of rules regarding the application of structures is strictly defined.
Assignment
Variables of the same structured type may be assigned one to another by means of simple assignment operator (=).
This will copy the entire contents of the variable to destination, regardless of the inner complexity of a given structure.
Note that two variables are of the same structured type only if they are both defined by the same instruction or using
the same type identifier. For example:
/* a and b are of the same type: */
struct {int m1, m2;} a, b;
/* But c and d are _not_ of the same type although
their structure descriptions are identical: */
struct {int m1, m2;} c;
struct {int m1, m2;} d;
Size of Structure
The size of the structure in memory can be retrieved by means of the operator sizeof. It is not necessary that the
size of the structure is equal to the sum of its members’ sizes. It is often greater due to certain limitations of memory
storage.
Structures and Functions
A function can return a structure type or a pointer to a structure type:
mystruct func1(void);
mystruct *func2(void);
/* func1() returns a structure */
/* func2() returns pointer to structure */
A structure can be passed as an argument to a function in the following ways:
void func1(mystruct s;);
void func2(mystruct *sptr;);
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/* directly */
/* via a pointer */
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Structure Member Access
Structure and union members are accessed using the following two selection operators:
- . (period)
- -> (right arrow)
The operator . is called the direct member selector and it is used to directly access one of the structure’s members.
Suppose that the object s is of the struct type S and m is a member identifier of the type M declared in s, then the
expression
s.m
// direct access to member m
is of the type M, and represents the member object m in S.
The operator -> is called the indirect (or pointer) member selector. Suppose that the object s is of the struct type S and
ps is a pointer to s. Then if m is a member identifier of the type M declared in s, the expression
ps->m
// indirect access to member m;
// identical to (*ps).m
is of the type M, and represents the member object m in s. The expression ps->m is a convenient shorthand for
(*ps).m.
For example:
struct mystruct {
int i;
char str[21];
double d;
} s, *sptr = &s;
...
s.i = 3;
sptr -> d = 1.23;
// assign to the i member of mystruct s
// assign to the d member of mystruct s
The expression s.m is lvalue, providing that s is lvalue and m is not an array type. The expression sptr->m is an lvalue
unless m is an array type.
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Accessing Nested Structures
If the structure B contains a field whose type is the structure A, the members of A can be accessed by two applications
of the member selectors:
struct A {
int j; double x;
};
struct B {
int i; struct A aa; double d;
} s, *sptr;
...
s.i = 3;
s.aa.j = 2;
sptr->d = 1.23;
sptr->aa.x = 3.14;
//
//
//
//
assign
assign
assign
assign
3 to
2 to
1.23
3.14
the i member of B
the j member of A
to the d member of B
to x member of A
Structure Uniqueness
Each structure declaration introduces a unique structure type, so that in
struct A {
int i,j; double d;
} aa, aaa;
struct B {
int i,j; double d;
} bb;
the objects aa and aaa are both of the type struct A, but the objects aa and bb are of different structure types.
Structures can be assigned only if the source and destination have the same type:
aa = aaa;
aa = bb;
/* but
aa.i =
aa.j =
aa.d =
/* OK: same type, member by member assignment */
/* ILLEGAL: different types */
you can assign member by member: */
bb.i;
bb.j;
bb.d;
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Unions
Union types are derived types sharing many of syntactic and functional features of structure types. The key difference
is that a union members share the same memory space.
Note: The mikroC PRO for PIC supports anonymous unions.
Union Declaration
Unions have the same declaration as structures, with the keyword union used instead of struct:
union tag { member-declarator-list };
Unlike structures’ members, the value of only one of union’s members can be stored at any time. Here is a simple
example:
union myunion {
int i;
double d;
char ch;
} mu, *pm;
// union tag is ‘myunion’
The identifier mu, of the type myunion, can be used to hold a 2-byte int, 4-byte double or single-byte char, but only
one of them at a certain moment. The identifier pm is a pointer to union myunion.
Size of Union
The size of a union is the size of its largest member. In our previous example, both sizeof(union myunion) and
sizeof(mu) return 4, but 2 bytes are unused (padded) when mu holds the int object, and 3 bytes are unused when
mu holds char.
Union Member Access
Union members can be accessed with the structure member selectors (. and ->), be careful when doing this:
/* Referring to declarations from the example above: */
pm = &mu;
mu.d = 4.016;
tmp = mu.d; // OK: mu.d = 4.016
tmp = mu.i; // peculiar result
pm->i = 3;
tmp = mu.i;
// OK: mu.i = 3
The third line is legal, since mu.i is an integral type. However, the bit pattern in mu.i corresponds to parts of the
previously assigned double. As such, it probably won’t provide an useful integer interpretation.
When properly converted, a pointer to a union points to each of its members, and vice versa.
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Anonymous Unions
Anonymous unions are unions that are declared without tag or declarator:
union { member-declarator-list };
Such union declarations do not declare types; they declare an unnamed objects.
The name of each union member must be unique within the scope where the union is declared.
In C, an anonymous union can have a tag; it cannot have declarators. Names declared in an anonymous union are
used directly, like nonmember variables.
In addition to the restrictions listed above in Union, anonymous unions are subject to additional restrictions:
- They must also be declared as static if declared in global scope. If declared in local scope, they must be either static or automatic, not external
- They can have only public members; private and protected members in anonymous unions generate errors.
- They cannot have function members.
Here is a simple example:
union {
// no union tag
int i;
float f;
union { // no union tag
unsigned char uc;
char c;
};
// no declarator
};
// no declarator
Anonymous Union Member Access
Anonymous union members are accessed directly because they are in the scope containing the anonymous union :
// Referring to declarations from the example above:
i = 1;
f = 3.14;
uc = ‘c’;
c = ‘u’;
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Bit Fields
Bit fields are specified numbers of bits that may or may not have an associated identifier. Bit fields offer a way of
subdividing structures into named parts of user-defined sizes.
Structures and unions can contain bit fields that can be up to 16 bits.
You cannot take the address of a bit field.
Note: If you need to handle specific bits of 8-bit variables (char and unsigned short) or registers, you don’t need to declare bit fields.
Much more elegant solution is to use the mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24’s intrinsic ability for individual bit access — see Accessing Individual Bits for more information.
Bit Fields Declaration
Bit fields can be declared only in structures and unions. Declare a structure normally and assign individual fields like
this (fields need to be unsigned):
struct tag {
unsigned bitfield-declarator-list;
}
Here, tag is an optional name of the structure; bitfield-declarator-list is a list of bit fields. Each component
identifer requires a colon and its width in bits to be explicitly specified. Total width of all components cannot exceed two
bytes (16 bits).
As an object, bit fields structure takes two bytes. Individual fields are packed within two bytes from right to left. In
bitfield-declarator-list, you can omit identifier(s) to create an artificial “padding”, thus skipping irrelevant bits.
For example, if there is a need to manipulate only bits 2–4 of a register as one block, create a structure like this:
struct {
unsigned : 2,
mybits : 3;
} myreg;
// Skip bits 0 and 1, no identifier here
// Relevant bits 2, 3 and 4
// Bits 5, 6 and 7 are implicitly left out
Here is an example:
typedef struct
lo_nibble :
hi_nibble :
high_byte :
{
4;
4;
8;} myunsigned;
which declares the structured type myunsigned containing three components: lo_nibble (bits 3..0), hi_nibble
(bits 7..4) and high_byte (bits 15..8).
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Bit Fields Access
Bit fields can be accessed in the same way as the structure members. Use direct and indirect member selector (. and
->). For example, we could work with our previously declared myunsigned like this:
// Declare a bit field Value_For_PortB:
myunsigned Value_For_PortB;
// Declare a pointer to mybitfield type:
mybitfield *TimerControl;
void main() {
TimerControl = (mybitfield *) (void *) &T2CON ;
T2CON, so it can be assigned
}
// explicit casting of pointer to
...
Value_For_PortB.lo_nibble = 7;
Value_For_PortB.hi_nibble = 0x0C;
Value_For_PortB.high_byte = 0xAA;
PORTB = *(unsigned *) (void *)&Value_For_PortB;
// typecasting :
// 1. address of structure to pointer to void
// 2. pointer to void to pointer to unsigned
// 3. dereferencing to obtain the value
Types Conversions
The mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 is a strictly typed language, with each operator, statement and function
demanding appropriately typed operands/arguments. However, we often have to use objects of “mismatching” types in
expressions. In that case, type conversion is needed.
Conversion of object of one type means that object’s type is changed into another type. The mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33
and PIC24 defines a set of standard conversions for built-in types, provided by compiler when necessary. For more
information, refer to the Standard Conversions.
Conversion is required in the following situations:
- if a statement requires an expression of particular type (according to language definition), and we use an expression of different type,
- if an operator requires an operand of particular type, and we use an operand of different type,
- if a function requires a formal parameter of particular type, and we pass it an object of different type,
- if an expression following the keyword return does not match the declared function return type,
- if intializing an object (in declaration) with an object of different type.
In these situations, compiler will provide an automatic implicit conversion of types, without any programmer’s interference.
Also, the programmer can demand conversion explicitly by means of the typecast operator. For more information, refer
to the Explicit Typecasting.
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Standard Conversions
Standard conversions are built in the mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24. These conversions are performed
automatically, whenever required in the program. They can also be explicitly required by means of the typecast operator
(refer to the Explicit Typecasting).
The basic rule of automatic (implicit) conversion is that the operand of simpler type is converted (promoted) to the type
of more complex operand. Then, the type of the result is that of more complex operand.
Arithmetic Conversions
When using arithmetic expression, such as a + b, where a and b are of different arithmetic types, the mikroC PRO
for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 performs implicit type conversions before the expression is evaluated. These standard
conversions include promotions of “lower” types to “higher” types in the interests of accuracy and consistency.
Assigning a signed character object (such as a variable) to an integral object results in automatic sign extension.
Objects of type signed char always use sign extension; objects of type unsigned char always has its high byte set to
zero when converted to int.
Converting a longer integral type to a shorter type truncates the higher order bits and leaves low-order bits unchanged.
Converting a shorter integral type to a longer type either sign-extends or zero-fills the extra bits of the new value,
depending on whether the shorter type is signed or unsigned, respectively.
Note: Conversion of floating point data into integral value (in assignments or via explicit typecast) produces correct results only if the float value does not exceed the scope of destination integral type.
In details:
Here are the steps the mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 uses to convert the operands in an arithmetic
expression:
First, any small integral types are converted according to the following rules:
1. bit converts to char
2. char converts to int
3. signed char converts to int, with the same value
4. short converts to int, with the same value, sign-extended
5. unsigned short converts to unsigned int, with the same value, zero-filled
6. enum converts to int, with the same value
After this, any two values associated with an operator are either int (including the long and unsigned modifiers) or
float (equivalent with double and long double in the mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24).
1. If either operand is float, the other operand is converted to float.
2. Otherwise, if either operand is unsigned long, the other operand is converted to unsigned long.
3. Otherwise, if either operand is long, then the other operand is converted to long.
4. Otherwise, if either operand is unsigned, then the other operand is converted to unsigned.
5. Otherwise, both operands are int.
The result of the expression is the same type as that of the two operands.
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Here are several examples of implicit conversion:
2 + 3.1
5 / 4 * 3.
3. * 5 / 4
/* → 2. + 3.1 → 5.1 */
/* → (5/4)*3. → 1*3. → 1.*3. → 3. */
/* → (3.*5)/4 → (3.*5.)/4 → 15./4 → 15./4. → 3.75 */
Pointer Conversions
Pointer types can be converted to other pointer types using the typecasting mechanism:
char *str;
int *ip;
str = (char *)ip;
More generally, the cast type* will convert a pointer to type “pointer to type”.
Explicit Types Conversions (Typecasting)
In most situations, compiler will provide an automatic implicit conversion of types where needed, without any user’s
interference. Also, the user can explicitly convert an operand to another type using the prefix unary typecast operator:
(type) object
This will convert object to a specified type. Parentheses are mandatory.
For example:
/* Let’s have two variables of char type: */
char a, b;
/* Following line will coerce a to unsigned int: */
(unsigned int) a;
/* Following line will coerce a to double,
then coerce b to double automatically,
resulting in double type value: */
(double) a + b;
// equivalent to ((double) a) + b;
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Declarations
A declaration introduces one or several names to a program – it informs the compiler what the name represents, what
its type is, what operations are allowed with it, etc. This section reviews concepts related to declarations: declarations,
definitions, declaration specifiers, and initialization.
The range of objects that can be declared includes:
- Variables
- Constants
- Functions
- Types
- Structure, union, and enumeration tags
- Structure members
- Union members
- Arrays of other types
- Statement labels
- Preprocessor macros
Declarations and Definitions
Defining declarations, also known as definitions, beside introducing the name of an object, also establish the creation
(where and when) of an object; that is, the allocation of physical memory and its possible initialization. Referencing
declarations, or just declarations, simply make their identifiers and types known to the compiler.
Here is an overview. Declaration is also a definition, except if:
- it declares a function without specifying its body
- it has the extern specifier, and has no initializator or body (in case of func.)
- it is the typedef declaration
There can be many referencing declarations for the same identifier, especially in a multifile program, but only one
defining declaration for that identifier is allowed.
For example:
/* Here is a nondefining declaration of function max; */
/* it merely informs compiler that max is a function */
int max();
/* Here is a definition of function max: */
int max(int x, int y) {
return (x >= y) ? x : y;
}
/* Definition of variable i: */
int i;
/* Following line is an error, i is already defined! */
int i;
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Declarations and Declarators
The declaration contains specifier(s) followed by one or more identifiers (declarators). The declaration begins with
optional storage class specifiers, type specifiers, and other modifiers. The identifiers are separated by commas and the
list is terminated by a semicolon.
Declarations of variable identifiers have the following pattern:
storage-class [type-qualifier] type var1 [=init1], var2 [=init2], ... ;
where var1, var2,... are any sequence of distinct identifiers with optional initializers. Each of the variables is
declared to be of type; if omitted, type defaults to int. The specifier storage-class can take the values extern,
static, register, or the default auto. Optional type-qualifier can take values const or volatile. For
more details, refer to Storage Classes and Type Qualifiers.
For example:
/* Create 3 integer variables called x, y, and z
and initialize x and y to the values 1 and 2, respectively: */
int x = 1, y = 2, z;
// z remains uninitialized
/* Create a floating-point variable q with static modifier,
and initialize it to 0.25: */
static float q = .25;
These are all defining declarations; storage is allocated and any optional initializers are applied.
Linkage
An executable program is usually created by compiling several independent translation units, then linking the resulting
object files with preexisting libraries. A term translation unit refers to a source code file together with any included files,
but without the source lines omitted by conditional preprocessor directives. A problem arises when the same identifier
is declared in different scopes (for example, in different files), or declared more than once in the same scope.
The linkage is a process that allows each instance of an identifier to be associated correctly with one particular object
or function. All identifiers have one of two linkage attributes, closely related to their scope: external linkage or internal
linkage. These attributes are determined by the placement and format of your declarations, together with an explicit (or
implicit by default) use of the storage class specifier static or extern.
Each instance of a particular identifier with external linkage represents the same object or function throughout the entire
set of files and libraries making up the program. Each instance of a particular identifier with internal linkage represents
the same object or function within one file only.
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Linkage Rules
Local names have internal linkage; the same identifier can be used in different files to signify different objects. Global
names have external linkage; identifier signifies the same object throughout all program files.
If the same identifier appears with both internal and external linkage within the same file, the identifier will have internal
linkage.
Internal Linkage Rules
1. names having file scope, explicitly declared as static, have internal linkage
2. names having file scope, explicitly declared as const and not explicitly declared as extern, have internal linkage
3. typedef names have internal linkage
4. enumeration constants have internal linkage
External Linkage Rules
1. names having file scope, that do not comply to any of previously stated internal linkage rules, have external linkage
The storage class specifiers auto and register cannot appear in an external declaration. No more than one external
definition can be given for each identifier in a translation unit declared with internal linkage. An external definition is
an external declaration that defines an object or a function and also allocates a storage. If an identifier declared with
external linkage is used in an expression (other than as part of the operand of sizeof), then exactly one external
definition of that identifier must be somewhere in the entire program.
Storage Classes
Associating identifiers with objects requires each identifier to have at least two attributes: storage class and type
(sometimes referred to as data type). The mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 compiler deduces these attributes
from implicit or explicit declarations in the source code.
A storage class dictates the location (data segment, register, heap, or stack) of object and its duration or lifetime (the
entire running time of the program, or during execution of some blocks of code). A storage class can be established by
the syntax of a declaration, by its placement in the source code, or by both of these factors:
storage-class type identifier
The storage class specifiers in the mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 are:
227
- auto
- register
- static
- extern
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Auto
The auto storage-class specifier declares an automatic variable (a variable with a local lifetime). An auto variable is
visible only within the block in which it is declared.
The auto storage-class specifier can only be applied to names of variables declared in a block or tonames of function
parameters.
However, these names have automatic storage by default. Therefore the auto storage class specifier is usually
redundant in a data declaration.
Register
The register storage-class specifier is used to define local variables that should be stored in a register instead of RAM.
At the moment this modifier has no special meaning in mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24.
mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 simply ignores requests for register allocation.
Static
The static storage class specifier lets you define variables or functions with internal linkage, which means that each
instance of a particular identifier represents the same variable or function within one file only.
In addition, variables declared static have static storage duration, which means that memory for these variables is
allocated when the program begins running and is freed when the program terminates.
Static storage duration for a variable is different from file or global scope. A variable can have static duration, but local
scope.
Extern
The extern storage class specifier lets you declare objects that can be used in several source files. An extern declaration
makes a described variable usable by the succeeding part of the current source file.
This declaration does not replace the definition. It is used to describe a variable that is externally defined. An extern
declaration can appear outside a function or at the beginning of a block.
If the declaration describes a function or appears outside a function and describes an object with external linkage, the
keyword extern is optional.
If a declaration for an identifier already exists within the file scope, any extern declaration of the same identifier found
within a block refers to the same object.
If no other declaration for the identifier exists within the file scope, the identifier has external linkage.
See Linkage for more information.
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Type Qualifiers
The type qualifiers const and volatile are optional in declarations and do not actually affect the type of declared
object.
Qualifier const
The const qualifier is used to indicate that variable value cannot be changed. Its value is set at initialization.
The mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 treats objects declared with the const qualifier the same as literals or
preprocessor constants. If the user tries to change an object declared with the const qualifier compiler will report an
error.
For example:
const double PI = 3.14159;
Qualifier volatile
The volatile qualifier indicates that variable values can be changed both with or without user’s interference in the
program. The compiler should not optimize such variable.
Typedef Specifier
The typedef declaration introduces a name that, within its scope, becomes a synonym for the specified type. You can
use typedef declarations to construct shorter or more meaningful names for types already defined by the language or
declared by the user.
Typedef names allow you to encapsulate implementation details that may change. Unlike the struct, union, and
enum declarations, the typedef declarations do not introduce new types, but new names for existing types.
The specifier typedef stands first in the declaration:
typedef <type_definition> synonym;
The typedef keyword assigns synonym to <type_definition>. The synonym needs to be a valid identifier.
A declaration starting with the typedef specifier does not introduce an object or a function of a given type, but rather
a new name for a given type. In other words, the typedef declaration is identical to a “normal” declaration, but instead
of objects, it declares types. It is a common practice to name custom type identifiers with starting capital letter — this is
not required by the mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24.
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For example:
/* Let’s declare a synonym for “unsigned long int” */
typedef unsigned long int Distance;
/* Now, synonym “Distance” can be used as type identifier: */
Distance i; // declare variable i of unsigned long int
In the typedef declaration, as in any other declaration, several types can be declared at once. For example:
typedef int
*Pti, Array[10];
Here, Pti is a synonym for type “pointer to int”, and Array is a synonym for type “array of 10 int elements”.
asm Declaration
The mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 allows embedding assembly in the source code by means of the asm
declaration. The declarations _asm and __asm are also allowed in the mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 and
have the same meaning. Note that numerals cannnot be used as absolute addresses for SFR or GPR variables in
assembly instructions. Symbolic names may be used instead (listing will display these names as well as addresses).
Assembly instructions can be grouped by the asm keyword (or _asm, or __asm):
asm {
block of assembly instructions
}
The mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 comments (both single-line and multi-line) are allowed in embedded
assembly code.
The only types whose name remains the same in asm as it is in the mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 are
registers, e.g. INTCON, PORTB, WREG, GIE, etc.
Accessing variables
Depending on the place of declaration, accessing a variable can be done in several ways:
- Accessing global variable:
1. If declared as static (visible only in the file where it was declared):
<source_file_name>_<variable_name>.
2. If declared as a non-static global (visible throughout the whole project): _<variable_name>.
3. If accessing registers (declared through register, rx or sfr specifiers, visible throughout the whole project) : <variable_name>.
- Accessing local variable: <routine_name>_<variable_name>.
- Accessing routine parameter: FARG_<routine_name>_<variable_name>.
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Here is an example of using asm instructions:
unsigned myvar absolute 0x2678;
unsigned long myvar1;
const char msg[] = “Test” absolute 0x3652;
void main() org 0x11234 {
myvar = 5;
myvar1 = 0xABCDEFAB;
asm {
MOV _myvar, w0
; move myvar to W0
nop
MOV #6, W0
; move literal 6 to W0
MOV W0, _myvar
; move contents of W0 to myvar
MOV #lo_addr(_myvar), W1 ; retrieve low address word of _myvar and move it to W1
(0x2678 -> W1)
MOV #hi_addr(_myvar), W1 ; retrieve high address word of _myvar and move it to
W1 (0x0000 -> W1)
MOV #lo_addr(___main_Label1), W0 ; retrieve lo address word of Label1 and move it
W0 ( PC(Label1) ) -> W0
MOV #hi_addr(_main), W0 ; retrieve hi address byte of main routine and move it
to W0 (0x0001 -> W1)
MOV #lo_addr(_msg2), W0
; retrieve low address word of constant msg
and move it to W0 (0x3652 -> W1)
MOV _myvar1+2, W1
; accessing hi word of myvar1 variable and
move it to W1 (0xABCD -> W1)
}
Label1:
asm MOV #hi_addr(___main_Label1), W0
// retrieve hi address word of Label1 and move
it W0 (PC(Label1)) -> W0
goto Label1;
}
When using asm instructions that expect parameters like lit1, lit4, slit6, slit6, bit4, etc. be sure to preceed
them with the ‘#’ (hash symbol) to ensure proper functioning.
Example:
BSET f, #5
MOV #16000, Wnd
ADD Ws, #-5, Acc
; set bit #5 in f register
; move number #16000 to destination working register
; add number #-5 to accumulator
Asm code and SSA optimization
If asm code is mixed with the C code, keep in mind that the generated code can substantially differ when SSA optimization
option is enabled or disabled.
This is due to the fact that SSA optimization uses certain working registers to store routine parameters (W10-W13),
rather than storing them onto the function frame.
Because of this, user must be very careful when writing asm code as existing values in the working registers used by
SSA optimization can be overwritten.
To avoid this, it is recommended that user includes desired asm code in a separate routine.
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Initialization
The initial value of a declared object can be set at the time of declaration (initialization). A part of the declaration which
specifies the initialization is called initializer.
Initializers for globals and static objects must be constants or constant expressions. The initializer for an automatic
object can be any legal expression that evaluates to an assignment-compatible value for the type of the variable
involved.
Scalar types are initialized with a single expression, which can optionally be enclosed in braces. The initial value of an
object is that of the expression; the same constraints for type and conversions as for simple assignments are applied
to initializations too.
For example:
int i = 1;
char *s = “hello”;
struct complex c = {0.1, -0.2};
// where ‘complex’ is a structure (float, float)
For structures or unions with automatic storage duration, the initializer must be one of the following:
- An initializer list.
- A single expression with compatible union or structure type. In this case, the initial value of the object is that of the expression.
For example:
struct dot {int x; int y; } m = {30, 40};
For more information, refer to Structures and Unions.
Also, you can initialize arrays of character type with a literal string, optionally enclosed in braces. Each character in the
string, including the null terminator, initializes successive elements in the array. For more information, refer to Arrays.
Automatic Initialization
The mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 does not provide automatic initialization for objects. Uninitialized globals
and objects with static duration will take random values from memory.
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Functions
Functions are central to C programming. Functions are usually defined as subprograms which return a value based
on a number of input parameters. Return value of the function can be used in expressions – technically, function call is
considered to be an expression like any other.
C allows a function to create results other than its return value, referred to as side effects. Often, the function return value
is not used at all, depending on the side effects. These functions are equivalent to procedures of other programming
languages, such as Pascal. C does not distinguish between procedure and function – functions play both roles.
Each program must have a single external function named main marking the entry point of the program. Functions
are usually declared as prototypes in standard or user-supplied header files, or within program files. Functions have
external linkage by default and are normally accessible from any file in the program. This can be restricted by using the
static storage class specifier in function declaration (see Storage Classes and Linkage).
Note: Check the dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 Specifics for more information on functions’ limitations on the dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 MCUs.
Function Declaration
Functions are declared in user’s source files or made available by linking precompiled libraries. The declaration syntax
of the function is:
type function_name(parameter-declarator-list);
The function_name must be a valid identifier. This name is used to call the function; see Function Calls for more
information.
type represents the type of function result, and can be of any standard or user-defined type. For functions that do not
return value the void type should be used. The type can be omitted in global function declarations, and function will
assume the int type by default.
Function type can also be a pointer. For example, float* means that a function result is a pointer to float. The generic
pointer void* is also allowed.
The function cannot return an array or another function.
Within parentheses, parameter-declarator-list is a list of formal arguments that function takes. These
declarators specify the type of each function parameter. The compiler uses this information to check validity of function
calls. If the list is empty, a function does not take any arguments. Also, if the list is void, a function also does not take
any arguments; note that this is the only case when void can be used as an argument’s type.
Unlike variable declaration, each argument in the list needs its own type specifier and possible qualifier const or
volatile.
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Function Prototypes
A function can be defined only once in the program, but can be declared several times, assuming that the declarations
are compatible. When declaring a function, the formal argument’s identifier does not have to be specified, but its type
does.
This kind of declaration, commonly known as the function prototype, allows better control over argument number, type
checking and type conversions. The name of a parameter in function prototype has its scope limited to the prototype.
This allows one parameter identifier to have different name in different declarations of the same function:
/* Here are two prototypes of the same function: */
int test(const char*)
int test(const char*p)
/* declares function test */
/* declares the same function test */
Function prototypes are very useful in documenting code. For example, the function Cf_Init takes two parameters:
Control Port and Data Port. The question is, which is which? The function prototype:
void Cf_Init(char *ctrlport, char *dataport);
makes it clear. If a header file contains function prototypes, the user can read that file to get the information needed
for writing programs that call these functions. If a prototype parameter includes an identifier, then the indentifier is only
used for error checking.
Function Definition
Function definition consists of its declaration and function body. The function body is technically a block – a
sequence of local definitions and statements enclosed within braces {}. All variables declared within function body are
local to the function, i.e. they have function scope.
The function itself can be defined only within the file scope, which means that function declarations cannot be nested.
To return the function result, use the return statement. The statement return in functions of the void type cannot have
a parameter – in fact, the return statement can be omitted altogether if it is the last statement in the function body.
Here is a sample function definition:
/* function max returns greater one of its 2 arguments: */
int max(int x, int y) {
return (x>=y) ? x : y;
}
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Here is a sample function which depends on side effects rather than return value:
/* function converts Descartes coordinates (x,y) to polar (r,fi): */
#include <math.h>
void polar(double
*r = sqrt(x * x
*fi = (x == 0 &&
return; /* this
}
x, double y, double *r, double *fi) {
+ y * y);
y == 0) ? 0 : atan2(y, x);
line can be omitted */
Functions reentrancy
Functions reentrancy is allowed. Remember that the dsPIC’s and PIC24 has stack and memory limitations which can
varies greatly between MCUs.
Function Calls and Argument Conversions
Function Calls
A function is called with actual arguments placed in the same sequence as their matching formal parameters. Use the
function-call operator ():
function_name(expression_1, ... , expression_n)
Each expression in the function call is an actual argument. Number and types of actual arguments should match those
of formal function parameters. If types do not match, implicit type conversions rules will be applied. Actual arguments
can be of any complexity, but order of their evaluation is not specified.
Upon function call, all formal parameters are created as local objects initialized by the values of actual arguments. Upon
return from a function, a temporary object is created in the place of the call, and it is initialized by the expression of
the return statement. This means that the function call as an operand in complex expression is treated as a function
result.
If the function has no result (type void) or the result is not needed, then the function call can be written as a selfcontained expression.
In C, scalar arguments are always passed to the function by value. The function can modify the values of its formal
parameters, but this has no effect on the actual arguments in the calling routine. A scalar object can be passed by the
address if a formal parameter is declared as a pointer. The pointed object can be accessed by using the indirection
operator * .
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// For example, Soft_UART_Read takes the pointer to error variable,
// so it can change the value of an actual argument:
Soft_UART_Read(&error);
// The following code would be wrong; you would pass the value
// of error variable to the function:
Soft_UART_Read(error);
Argument Conversions
If a function prototype has not been previously declared, the mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 converts integral
arguments to a function call according to the integral widening (expansion) rules described in Standard Conversions. If
a function prototype is in scope, the mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 converts the passed argument to the type
of the declared parameter according to the same conversion rules as in assignment statements.
If a prototype is present, the number of arguments must match. The types need to be compatible only to the extent that
an assignment can legally convert them. The user can always use an explicit cast to convert an argument to a type that
is acceptable to a function prototype.
Note: If the function prototype does not match the actual function definition, the mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 will detect this if and only if that definition is in the same compilation unit as the prototype.
If you create a library of routines with the corresponding header file of prototypes, consider including that header file when you compile the library, so that any discrepancies between the prototypes and actual definitions will be detected.
The compiler is also able to force arguments to change their type to a proper one. Consider the following code:
int limit = 32;
char ch = ‘A’;
long res;
// prototype
extern long func(long par1, long par2);
main() {
...
res = func(limit, ch);
}
// function call
Since the program has the function prototype for func, it converts limit and ch to long, using the standard rules of
assignment, before it places them on the stack for the call to func.
Without the function prototype, limit and ch would be placed on the stack as an integer and a character, respectively;
in that case, the stack passed to func will not match size or content that func expects, which can cause problems.
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Ellipsis (‘...’) Operator
The ellipsis (‘...’) consists of three successive periods with no whitespace intervening. An ellipsis can be used in
the formal argument lists of function prototypes to indicate a variable number of arguments, or arguments with varying
types. For example:
void func (int n, char ch, ...);
This declaration indicates that func will be defined in such a way that calls must have at least two arguments, int and
char, but can also have any number of additional arguments.
Example:
#include <stdarg.h>
int addvararg(char a1,...){
va_list ap;
char temp;
va_start(ap,a1);
while( temp = va_arg(ap,char))
a1 += temp;
return a1;
}
int res;
void main() {
res = addvararg(1,2,3,4,5,0);
res = addvararg(1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,0);
}
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Operators
Operators are tokens that trigger some computation when applied to variables and other objects in an expression.
- Arithmetic Operators
- Assignment Operators
- Bitwise Operators
- Logical Operators
- Reference/Indirect Operators
- Relational Operators
- Structure Member Selectors
- Comma Operator ,
- Conditional Operator ? :
- Array subscript operator []
- Function call operator ()
- sizeof Operator
- Preprocessor Operators # and ##
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Operators Precedence and Associativity
There are 15 precedence categories, some of them contain only one operator. Operators in the same category have
equal precedence.
If duplicates of operators appear in the table, the first occurrence is unary and the second binary. Each category has
an associativity rule: left-to-right (→), or right-to-left (←). In the absence of parentheses, these rules resolve a grouping
of expressions with operators of equal precedence.
Precedence
Operands
15
2
14
1
13
2
12
2
11
2
10
2
9
2
8
2
7
2
6
2
5
2
4
2
3
3
2
2
1
2
Operators
()
[]
.
!
~
++
sizeof
*
+
<<
<
==
&
/
--
->
Asociativity
→
+
-
*
&
(type) ←
%
-
→
→
>>
<=
!=
→
>
>=
→
→
→
^
→
|
→
&&
→
||
?:
=
|=
,
→
←
*=
/=
%=
<<=
>>=
+=
-=
&=
^= ←
→
Note: Operator * is context sensitive and can also represent the pointer reference operator.
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Binary Arithmetic Operators
Division of two integers returns an integer, while remainder is simply truncated:
/* for example: */
7 / 4;
/* equals 1 */
7 * 3 / 4;
/* equals 5 */
/* but: */
7. * 3. / 4.;
/* equals 5.25 because we are working with floats */
Remainder operand % works only with integers; the sign of result is equal to the sign of the first operand:
/* for example:
9 % 3;
7 % 3;
-7 % 3;
*/
/* equals 0 */
/* equals 1 */
/* equals -1 */
Arithmetic operators can be used for manipulating characters:
‘A’ + 32;
‘G’ - ‘A’ + ‘a’;
/* equals ‘a’ (ASCII only) */
/* equals ‘g’ (both ASCII and EBCDIC) */
Unary Arithmetic Operators
Unary operators ++ and -- are the only operators in C which can be either prefix (e.g. ++k, --k) or postfix (e.g. k++,
k--).
When used as prefix, operators ++ and -- (preincrement and predecrement) add or subtract one from the value of the
operand before the evaluation. When used as suffix, operators ++ and -- (postincrement and postdecrement) add or
subtract one from the value of the operand after the evaluation.
For example:
int j = 5;
j = ++k;
/* k = k + 1, j = k, which gives us j = 6, k = 6 */
but:
int j = 5;
j = k++;
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/* j = k, k = k + 1, which gives us j = 5, k = 6 */
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Relational Operators
Use relational operators to test equality or inequality of expressions. If an expression evaluates to be true, it returns 1;
otherwise it returns 0.
All relational operators associate from left to right.
Relational Operators Overview
Operator
Operation
Precedence
==
equal
9
!=
not equal
9
>
greater than
10
<
less than
10
>=
greater than or equal 10
<=
less than or equal
10
Relational Operators in Expressions
Precedence of arithmetic and relational operators is designated in such a way to allow complex expressions without
parentheses to have expected meaning:
a + 5 >= c - 1.0 / e
/* → (a + 5) >= (c - (1.0 / e)) */
Do not forget that relational operators return either 0 or 1. Consider the following examples:
/* ok: */
5 > 7
10 <= 20
/* returns 0 */
/* returns 1 */
/* this can be tricky: */
8 == 13 > 5
/* returns 0, as: 8 == (13 > 5) → 8 == 1 → 0 */
14 > 5 < 3
/* returns 1, as: (14 > 5) < 3 → 1 < 3 → 1 */
a < b < 5
/* returns 1, as: (a < b) < 5 → (0 or 1) < 5 → 1*/
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Bitwise Operators
Use the bitwise operators to modify individual bits of numerical operands.
Bitwise operators associate from left to right. The only exception is the bitwise complement operator ~ which associates
from right to left.
Bitwise Operators Overview
Operator
Operation
Precedence
&
bitwise AND; compares pairs of bits and returns 1 if 8
both bits are 1, otherwise returns 0
|
bitwise (inclusive) OR; compares pairs of bits and 6
returns 1 if either or both bits are 1, otherwise
returns 0
^
bitwise exclusive OR (XOR); compares pairs of 7
bits and returns 1 if the bits are complementary,
otherwise returns 0
~
bitwise complement (unary); inverts each bit
<<
bitwise shift left; moves the bits to the left, discards 11
the far left bit and assigns 0 to the far right bit.
>>
bitwise shift right; moves the bits to the right, 11
discards the far right bit and if unsigned assigns 0
to the far left bit, otherwise sign extends
14
Logical Operations on Bit Level
&
0
1
|
0
1
^
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
0
~
0
1
1
0
Bitwise operators &, | and ^ perform logical operations on the appropriate pairs of bits of their operands. Operator ~
complements each bit of its operand. For example:
0x1234 & 0x5678
/* equals 0x1230 */
/* because ..
0x1234 : 0001 0010 0011 0100
0x5678 : 0101 0110 0111 1000
---------------------------&
: 0001 0010 0011 0000
.. that is, 0x1230 */
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/* Similarly: */
0x1234 | 0x5678;
0x1234 ^ 0x5678;
~ 0x1234;
/* equals 0x567C */
/* equals 0x444C */
/* equals 0xEDCB */
Note: Operator & can also be a pointer reference operator. Refer to Pointers for more information.
Bitwise Shift Operators
Binary operators << and >> move the bits of the left operand by a number of positions specified by the right operand,
to the left or right, respectively. Right operand has to be positive.
With shift left (<<), far left bits are discarded and “new” bits on the right are assigned zeroes. Thus, shifting unsigned
operand to the left by n positions is equivalent to multiplying it by 2n if all discarded bits are zero. This is also true for
signed operands if all discarded bits are equal to a sign bit.
000001 <<
0x3801 <<
5;
4;
/* equals 000040 */
/* equals 0x8010, overflow! */
With shift right (>>), far right bits are discarded and the “freed” bits on the left are assigned zeroes (in case of unsigned
operand) or the value of a sign bit (in case of signed operand). Shifting operand to the right by n positions is equivalent
to dividing it by 2n.
0xFF56 >>
0xFF56u >>
4;
4;
/* equals 0xFFF5 */
/* equals 0x0FF5 */
Bitwise vs. Logical
Do not forget of the principle difference between how bitwise and logical operators work. For example:
0222222 & 0555555;
0222222 && 0555555;
/* equals 000000 */
/* equals 1 */
~ 0x1234;
! 0x1234;
/* equals 0xEDCB */
/* equals 0 */
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Logical Operators
Operands of logical operations are considered true or false, that is non-zero or zero. Logical operators always return 1
or 0. Operands in a logical expression must be of scalar type.
Logical operators && and || associate from left to right. Logical negation operator ! associates from right to left.
Logical Operators Overview
Operator
Operation
Precedence
&&
logical AND
5
||
logical OR
4
!
logical negation
14
Logical Operations
&&
0
x
||
0
x
0
0
0
0
0
1
x
0
1
x
1
1
!
0
x
1
0
Precedence of logical, relational, and arithmetic operators was designated in such a way to allow complex expressions
without parentheses to have an expected meaning:
c >= ‘0’ && c <= ‘9’;
a + 1 == b || ! f(x);
/* reads as: (c >= ‘0’) && (c <= ‘9’) */
/* reads as: ((a + 1) == b) || (! (f(x))) */
Logical AND && returns 1 only if both expressions evaluate to be nonzero, otherwise returns 0. If the first expression
evaluates to false, the second expression will not be evaluated. For example:
a > b && c < d;
/* reads as (a > b) && (c < d) */
/* if (a > b) is false (0), (c < d) will not be evaluated */
Logical OR || returns 1 if either of expression evaluates to be nonzero, otherwise returns 0. If the first expression
evaluates to true, the second expression is not evaluated. For example:
a && b || c && d; /* reads as: (a && b) || (c && d) */
/* if (a && b) is true (1), (c && d) will not be evaluated */
Logical Expressions and Side Effects
General rule regarding complex logical expressions is that the evaluation of consecutive logical operands stops at the
very moment the final result is known. For example, if we have an expression a && b && c where a is false (0), then
operands b and c will not be evaluated. This is very important if b and c are expressions, as their possible side effects
will not take place!
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Logical vs. Bitwise
Be aware of the principle difference between how bitwise and logical operators work. For example:
0222222 & 0555555
0222222 && 0555555
/* equals 000000 */
/* equals 1 */
~ 0x1234
! 0x1234
/* equals 0xEDCB */
/* equals 0 */
Conditional Operator ? :
The conditional operator ? : is the only ternary operator in C. Syntax of the conditional operator is:
expression1 ? expression2 : expression3
The expression1 is evaluated first. If its value is true, then expression2 evaluates and expression3 is ignored.
If expression1 evaluates to false, then expression3 evaluates and expression2 is ignored. The result will be a
value of either expression2 or expression3 depending upon which of them evaluates.
Conditional operator associates from right to left.
Note: The fact that only one of these two expressions evaluates is very important if they are expected to produce side effects!
Here are a couple of practical examples:
/* Find max(a, b): */
max = ( a > b ) ? a : b;
/* Convert small letter to capital: */
/* (no parentheses are actually necessary) */
c = ( c >= ‘a’ && c <= ‘z’ ) ? ( c - 32 ) : c;
Conditional Operator Rules
expression1 must be a scalar expression; expression2 and expression3 must obey one of the following rules:
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1. Both expressions have to be of arithmetic type. expression2 and expression3 are subject to usual arithmetic conversions, which determines the resulting type.
2. Both expressions have to be of compatible struct or union types. The resulting type is a structure or union type of expression2 and expression3.
3. Both expressions have to be of void type. The resulting type is void.
4. Both expressions have to be of type pointer to qualified or unqualified versions of compatible types. The resulting type is a pointer to a type qualified with all type qualifiers of the types pointed to by both expressions.
5. One expression is a pointer, and the other is a null pointer constant. The resulting type is a pointer to a type qualified with all type qualifiers of the types pointed to by both expressions.
6. One expression is a pointer to an object or incomplete type, and the other is a pointer to a qualified or unqualified version of void. The resulting type is that of the non-pointer-to-void expression.
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Assignment Operators
Unlike many other programming languages, C treats value assignment as operation (represented by an operator)
rather than instruction.
Simple Assignment Operator
For a common value assignment, a simple assignment operator (=) is used:
expression1 = expression2
The expression1 is an object (memory location) to which the value of expression2 is assigned. Operand expression1
has to be lvalue and expression2 can be any expression. The assignment expression itself is not lvalue.
If expression1 and expression2 are of different types, the result of the expression2 will be converted to the type
of expression1, if necessary. Refer to Type Conversions for more information.
Compound Assignment Operators
C allows more comlex assignments by means of compound assignment operators. The syntax of compound assignment
operators is:
expression1 op= expression2
where op can be one of binary operators +, -, *, /, %, &, |, ^, <<, or >>.
Thus, we have 10 different compound assignment operators: +=, -=, *=, /=, %=, &=, |=, ^=, <<= and >>=. All
of them associate from right to left. Spaces separating compound operators (e.g. + =) will generate error.
Compound assignment has the same effect as
expression1 = expression1 op expression2
except the lvalue expression1 is evaluated only once. For example, expression1 += expression2 is the same
as expression1 = expression1 + expression2.
Assignment Rules
For both simple and compound assignment, the operands expression1 and expression2 must obey one of the
following rules:
1. expression1 is of qualified or unqualified arithmetic type and expression2 is of arithmetic type.
2. expression1 has a qualified or unqualified version of structure or union type compatible with the type of expression2.
3. expression1 and expression2 are pointers to qualified or unqualified versions of compatible types and the type pointed to by left has all qualifiers of the type pointed to by right.
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4. Either expression1 or expression2 is a pointer to an object or incomplete type and the other is a pointer to a qualified or unqualified version of void. The type pointed to by left has all qualifiers of the type pointed to by right.
5. expression1 is a pointer and expression2 is a null pointer constant.
Unary Operators
Unary operators are operators that take exactly one argument.
Unary Arithmetic Operators
Unary operators ++ and -- are the only operators in C which can be either prefix (e.g. ++k, --k) or postfix (e.g. k++,
k--).
When used as prefix, operators ++ and -- (preincrement and predecrement) add or subtract one from the value of the
operand before the evaluation. When used as suffix, operators ++ and -- (postincrement and postdecrement) add or
subtract one from the value of the operand after the evaluation.
Operator
Operation
Precedence
+
unary plus does not affect the operand
14
-
unary minus changes the sign of the operand
14
++
increment adds one to the value of the operand. 14
Postincrement adds one to the value of the operand
after it evaluates; while preincrement adds one
before it evaluates
--
decrement subtracts one from the value of the 14
operand. Postdecrement subtracts one from
the value of the operand after it evaluates; while
predecrement subtracts one before it evaluates
For example:
int j = 5;
j = ++k;
/* k = k + 1, j = k, which gives us j = 6, k = 6 */
but:
int j = 5;
j = k++;
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/* j = k, k = k + 1, which gives us j = 5, k = 6 */
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Unary Logical Operator
The ! (logical negation) operator produces the value 0 if its operand is true (nonzero) and the value 1 if its operand is
false (0).
Operator
!
Operation
Precedence
logical negation
14
The following two expressions are equivalent:
!right;
right == 0;
Unary Bitwise Operator
The result of the ~ (bitwise negation) operator is the bitwise complement of the operand. In the binary representation of
the result, every bit has the opposite value of the same bit in the binary representation of the operand.
Operator
~
Operation
Precedence
bitwise complement (unary); inverts each bit 14
Address and Indirection Operator
In the mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24, address of an object in memory can be obtained by means of an unary
operator &. To reach the pointed object, we use an indirection operator (*) on a pointer. See Pointers section for more
details.
Operator
Operation
Precedence
*
accesses a value indirectly, through a pointer; result 14
is the value at the address to which operand points
&
gives the address of its operand
14
Example:
int *p_to_y;
int y;
// p_to_y is defined as a pointer to an int
// y is defined as an int
p_to_y = &y;
*p_to_y = 3;
// assigns the address of the variable y to the pointer p_to_y
// causes the variable y to receive the value 3
Note: Besides these, sizeof and casting unary operators are supported also.
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Sizeof Operator
The prefix unary operator sizeof returns an integer constant that represents the size of memory space (in bytes) used
by its operand (determined by its type, with some exceptions).
The operator sizeof can take either a type identifier or an unary expression as an operand. You cannot use sizeof
with expressions of function type, incomplete types, parenthesized names of such types, or with lvalue that designates
a bit field object.
Sizeof Applied to Expression
If applied to expression, the size of an operand is determined without evaluating the expression (and therefore without
side effects). The result of the operation will be the size of the type of the expression’s result.
Sizeof Applied to Type
If applied to a type identifier, sizeof returns the size of the specified type. The unit for type size is sizeof(char) which
is equivalent to one byte. The operation sizeof(char) gives the result 1, whether char is signed or unsigned.
Thus:
sizeof(char)
sizeof(int)
sizeof(unsigned long)
sizeof(float)
/* returns 1 */
/* returns 2 */
/* returns 4 */
/* returns 4 */
When the operand is a non-parameter of array type, the result is the total number of bytes in the array (in other words,
an array name is not converted to a pointer type):
int i, j, a[10];
...
j = sizeof(a[1]);
i = sizeof(a);
/* j = sizeof(int) = 2 */
/* i = 10*sizeof(int) = 20 */
/* To get the number of elements in an array: */
int num_elem = i/j;
If the operand is a parameter declared as array type or function type, sizeof gives the size of the pointer. When
applied to structures and unions, sizeof gives the total number of bytes, including any padding. The operator sizeof
cannot be applied to a function.
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Expressions
Expression is a sequence of operators, operands, and punctuators that specifies a computation. Formally, expressions
are defined recursively: subexpressions can be nested without formal limit. However, the compiler will report an out-ofmemory error if it can’t compile an expression that is too complex.
In ANSI C, the primary expressions are: constant (also referred to as literal), identifier, and (expression), defined
recursively.
Expressions are evaluated according to a certain conversion, grouping, associativity and precedence rules, which
depends on the operators used, presence of parentheses and data types of the operands. The precedence and
associativity of the operators are summarized in Operator Precedence and Associativity. The way operands and
subexpressions are grouped does not necessarily specify the actual order in which they are evaluated by the mikroC
PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24.
Expressions can produce lvalue, rvalue, or no value. Expressions might cause side effects whether they produce a
value or not.
Comma Expressions
One of the specifics of C is that it allows using of comma as a sequence operator to form so-called comma expressions
or sequences. Comma expression is a comma-delimited list of expressions – it is formally treated as a single expression
so it can be used in places where an expression is expected. The following sequence:
expression_1, expression_2;
results in the left-to-right evaluation of each expression, with the value and type of expression_2 giving the result
of the whole expression. Result of expression_1 is discarded.
Binary operator comma (,) has the lowest precedence and associates from left to right, so that a, b, c is the same
as (a, b), c. This allows writing sequences with any number of expressions:
expression_1, expression_2, ... expression_n;
which results in the left-to-right evaluation of each expression, with the value and type of expression_n giving the
result of the whole expression. Results of other expressions are discarded, but their (possible) side-effect do occur.
For example:
result = ( a = 5, b /= 2, c++ );
/* returns preincremented value of variable c,
but also intializes a, divides b by 2 and increments c */
result = ( x = 10, y = x + 3, x--, z -= x * 3 - --y );
/* returns computed value of variable z,
and also computes x and y */
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Note
Do not confuse comma operator (sequence operator) with comma punctuator which separates elements in a function
argument list and initializator lists. To avoid ambiguity with commas in function argument and initializer lists, use
parentheses. For example,
func(i, (j = 1, j + 4), k);
calls the function func with three arguments (i, 5, k), not four.
Statements
Statements specify a flow of control as the program executes. In the absence of specific jump and selection statements,
statements are executed sequentially in the order of appearance in the source code.
Statements can be roughly divided into:
- Labeled Statements
- Expression Statements
- Selection Statements
- Iteration Statements (Loops)
- Jump Statements
- Compound Statements (Blocks)
Labeled Statements
Each statement in a program can be labeled. A label is an identifier added before the statement like this:
label_identifier: statement;
There is no special declaration of a label – it just “tags” the statement. Label_identifier has a function scope and
the same label cannot be redefined within the same function.
Labels have their own namespace: label identifier can match any other identifier in the program.
A statement can be labeled for two reasons:
1. The label identifier serves as a target for the unconditional goto statement,
2. The label identifier serves as a target for the switch statement. For this purpose, only case and default labeled statements are used:
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case constant-expression : statement
default : statement
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Expression Statements
Any expression followed by a semicolon forms an expression statement:
expression;
The mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 executes an expression statement by evaluating the expression. All side
effects from this evaluation are completed before the next statement starts executing. Most of expression statements
are assignment statements or function calls.
A null statement is a special case, consisting of a single semicolon (;). The null statement does nothing, and therefore
is useful in situations where the mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 syntax expects a statement but the program
does not need one. For example, a null statement is commonly used in “empty” loops:
for (; *q++ = *p++ ;);
/* body of this loop is a null statement */
Selection Statements
Selection or flow-control statements select one of alternative courses of action by testing certain values. There are two
types of selection statements:
- if
- switch
If Statement
The if statement is used to implement a conditional statement. The syntax of the if statement is:
if (expression) statement1 [else statement2]
If expression evaluates to true, statement1 executes. If expression is false, statement2 executes. The
expression must evaluate to an integral value; otherwise, the condition is ill-formed. Parentheses around the
expression are mandatory.
The else keyword is optional, but no statements can come between if and else.
Nested If statements
Nested if statements require additional attention. A general rule is that the nested conditionals are parsed starting from
the innermost conditional, with each else bound to the nearest available if on its left:
if (expression1) statement1
else if (expression2)
if (expression3) statement2
else statement3
/* this belongs to: if (expression3) */
else statement4
/* this belongs to: if (expression2) */
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Note: #if and #else preprocessor statements (directives) look similar to if and else statements, but have very different effects. They control which source file lines are compiled and which are ignored.
Switch Statement
The switch statement is used to pass control to a specific program branch, based on a certain condition. The syntax
of the switch statement is:
switch (expression) {
case constant-expression_1 : statement_1;
.
.
.
case constant-expression_n : statement_n;
[default : statement;]
}
First, the expression (condition) is evaluated. The switch statement then compares it to all available constantexpressions following the keyword case. If a match is found, switch passes control to that matching case causing
the statement following the match evaluates. Note that constant-expressions must evaluate to integer. It is not
possible to have two same constant expressions evaluating to the same value.
Parentheses around expression are mandatory.
Upon finding a match, program flow continues normally: the following instructions will be executed in natural order
regardless of the possible case label. If no case satisfies the condition, the default case evaluates (if the label
default is specified).
For example, if a variable i has value between 1 and 3, the following switch would always return it as 4:
switch
case
case
case
}
(i) {
1: i++;
2: i++;
3: i++;
To avoid evaluating any other cases and relinquish control from switch, each case should be terminated with break.
Here is a simple example with switch. Suppose we have a variable phase with only 3 different states (0, 1, or 2) and a
corresponding function (event) for each of these states. This is how we could switch the code to the appopriate routine:
switch (phase) {
case 0: Lo(); break;
case 1: Mid(); break;
case 2: Hi(); break;
default: Message(“Invalid state!”);
}
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Nested switch
Conditional switch statements can be nested – labels case and default are then assigned to the innermost
enclosing switch statement.
Iteration Statements (Loops)
Iteration statements allows to loop a set of statements. There are three forms of iteration statements in the mikroC PRO
for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24:
- while
- do
- for
While Statement
The while keyword is used to conditionally iterate a statement. The syntax of the while statement is:
while (expression) statement
The statement executes repeatedly until the value of expression is false. The test takes place before statement
is executed. Thus, if expression evaluates to false on the first pass, the loop does not execute. Note that parentheses
around expression are mandatory.
Here is an example of calculating scalar product of two vectors, using the while statement:
int s = 0, i = 0;
while (i < n) {
s += a[i] * b[i];
i++;
}
Note that body of the loop can be a null statement. For example:
while (*q++ = *p++);
Do Statement
The do statement executes until the condition becomes false. The syntax of the do statement is:
do statement while (expression);
The statement is executed repeatedly as long as the value of expression remains non-zero. The expression is
evaluated after each iteration, so the loop will execute statement at least once.
Parentheses around expression are mandatory.
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Note that do is the only control structure in C which explicitly ends with semicolon (;). Other control structures end with
statement, which means that they implicitly include a semicolon or closing brace.
Here is an example of calculating scalar product of two vectors, using the do statement:
s = 0; i = 0;
do {
s += a[i] * b[i];
i++;
} while ( i < n );
For Statement
The for statement implements an iterative loop. The syntax of the for statement is:
for ([init-expression]; [condition-expression]; [increment-expression]) statement
Before the first iteration of the loop, init-expression sets the starting variables for the loop. You cannot pass
declarations in init-expression.
condition-expression is checked before the first entry into the block; statement is executed repeatedly until the
value of condition-expression is false. After each iteration of the loop, increment-expression increments a
loop counter. Consequently, i++ is functionally the same as ++i.
All expressions are optional. If condition-expression is left out, it is assumed to be always true. Thus, “empty”
for statement is commonly used to create an endless loop in C:
for ( ; ; ) statement
The only way to break out of this loop is by means of the break statement.
Here is an example of calculating scalar product of two vectors, using the for statement:
for ( s = 0, i = 0; i < n; i++ ) s += a[i] * b[i];
There is another way to do this:
for ( s = 0, i = 0; i < n; s += a[i] * b[i], i++ );
/* valid, but ugly */
but it is considered a bad programming style. Although legal, calculating the sum should not be a part of the incrementing
expression, because it is not in the service of loop routine. Note that null statement (;) is used for the loop body.
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Jump Statements
The jump statement, when executed, transfers control unconditionally. There are four such statements in the mikroC
PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24:
- break
- continue
- goto
- return
Break and Continue Statements
Break Statement
Sometimes it is necessary to stop the loop within its body. Use the break statement within loops to pass control to the
first statement following the innermost switch, for, while, or do block.
Break is commonly used in the switch statements to stop its execution upon the first positive match. For example:
switch (state) {
case 0: Lo(); break;
case 1: Mid(); break;
case 2: Hi(); break;
default: Message(“Invalid state!”);
}
Continue Statement
The continue statement within loops is used to “skip the cycle”. It passes control to the end of the innermost enclosing
end brace belonging to a looping construct. At that point the loop continuation condition is re-evaluated. This means
that continue demands the next iteration if the loop continuation condition is true.
Specifically, the continue statement within the loop will jump to the marked position as it is shown below:
while (..) {
...
if (val>0) continue;
...
// continue jumps here
}
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do {
...
if (val>0) continue;
...
// continue jumps here
while (..);
for (..;..;..) {
...
if (val>0) continue;
...
// continue jumps here
}
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Goto Statement
The goto statement is used for unconditional jump to a local label — for more information on labels, refer to Labeled
Statements. The syntax of the goto statement is:
goto label_identifier;
This will transfer control to the location of a local label specified by label_identifier. The label_identifier has
to be a name of the label within the same function in which the goto statement is. The goto line can come before or
after the label.
goto is used to break out from any level of nested control structures but it cannot be used to jump into block while
skipping that block’s initializations – for example, jumping into loop’s body, etc.
The use of goto statement is generally discouraged as practically every algorithm can be realized without it, resulting
in legible structured programs. One possible application of the goto statement is breaking out from deeply nested
control structures:
for (...) {
for (...) {
...
if (disaster) goto Error;
...
}
}
.
.
.
Error: /* error handling code */
Return Statement
The return statement is used to exit from the current function back to the calling routine, optionally returning a value.
The syntax is:
return [expression];
This will evaluate expression and return the result. Returned value will be automatically converted to the expected
function type, if needed. The expression is optional; if omitted, the function will return a random value from
memory.
Note: The statement return in functions of the void type cannot have expression – in fact, the return statement can be omitted altogether if it is the last statement in the function body.
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Compound Statements (Blocks)
The compound statement, or block, is a list (possibly empty) of statements enclosed in matching braces { }.
Syntactically, the block can be considered to be a single statement, but it also plays a role in the scoping of identifiers.
An identifier declared within the block has a scope starting at the point of declaration and ending at the closing brace.
Blocks can be nested to any depth up to the limits of memory.
For example, the for loop expects one statement in its body, so we can pass it a compound statement:
for (i = 0; i < n; i++ ) {
int temp = a[i];
a[i] = b[i];
b[i] = temp;
}
Note that, unlike other statements, compound statements do not end with semicolon (;), i.e. there is never a semicolon
following the closing brace.
Preprocessor
Preprocessor is an integrated text processor which prepares the source code for compiling. Preprocessor allows:
- inserting text from a specifed file to a certain point in the code (see File Inclusion),
- replacing specific lexical symbols with other symbols (see Macros),
- conditional compiling which conditionally includes or omits parts of the code (see Conditional Compilation).
Note that preprocessor analyzes text at token level, not at individual character level. Preprocessor is controled by
means of preprocessor directives and preprocessor operators.
Preprocessor Directives
Any line in the source code with a leading # is taken as a preprocessing directive (or control line), unless # is within
a string literal, in a character constant, or embedded in a comment. The initial # can be preceded or followed by a
whitespace (excluding new lines).
A null directive consists of a line containing the single character #. This line is always ignored.
Preprocessor directives are usually placed at the beginning of the source code, but they can legally appear at any point
in a program. The mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 preprocessor detects preprocessor directives and parses the
tokens embedded in them. A directive is in effect from its declaration to the end of the program file.
Here is one commonly used directive:
#include <math.h>
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For more information on including files with the #include directive, refer to File Inclusion.
The mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 supports standard preprocessor directives:
# (null directive)
#define
#elif
#else
#endif
#error
#if
#ifdef
#ifndef
#include
#line
#undef
Note: For the time being only funcall pragma is supported.
Line Continuation with Backslash (\)
To break directive into multiple lines end the line with a backslash (\):
#define MACRO
This directive continues to \
the following line.
Macros
Macros provide a mechanism for a token replacement, prior to compilation, with or without a set of formal, function-like
parameters.
Defining Macros and Macro Expansions
The #define directive defines a macro:
#define macro_identifier <token_sequence>
Each occurrence of macro_identifier in the source code following this control line will be replaced in the original
position with the possibly empty token_sequence (there are some exceptions, which are discussed later). Such
replacements are known as macro expansions.token_sequence is sometimes called the body of a macro. An empty
token sequence results in the removal of each affected macro identifier from the source code.
No semicolon (;) is needed to terminate a preprocessor directive. Any character found in the token sequence, including
semicolons, will appear in a macro expansion.token_sequence terminates at the first non-backslashed new line
encountered. Any sequence of whitespace, including comments in the token sequence, is replaced with a single-space
character.
After each individual macro expansion, a further scan is made of the newly expanded text. This allows the possibility
of using nested macros: the expanded text can contain macro identifiers that are subject to replacement. However, if
the macro expands into something that looks like a preprocessing directive, such directive will not be recognized by the
preprocessor. Any occurrences of the macro identifier found within literal strings, character constants, or comments in
the source code will not be expanded.
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A macro won’t be expanded during its own expansion (so #define MACRO MACRO won’t expand indefinitely).
Here is an example:
/* Here are some simple macros: */
#define ERR_MSG “Out of range!”
#define EVERLOOP for( ; ; )
/* which we could use like this: */
main() {
EVERLOOP {
...
if (error) { Lcd_Out_Cp(ERR_MSG); break; }
...
}
}
Attempting to redefine an already defined macro identifier will result in a warning unless a new definition is exactly the
same token-by-token definition as the existing one. The preferred strategy when definitions might exist in other header
files is as follows:
#ifndef BLOCK_SIZE
#define BLOCK_SIZE 512
#endif
The middle line is bypassed if BLOCK_SIZE is currently defined; if BLOCK_SIZE is not currently defined, the middle
line is invoked to define it.
Macros with Parameters
The following syntax is used to define a macro with parameters:
#define macro_identifier(<arg_list>) <token_sequence>
Note that there can be no whitespace between macro_identifier and “(”. The optional arg_list is a sequence of
identifiers separated by commas, like the argument list of a C function. Each comma-delimited identifier has the role
of a formal argument or placeholder.
Such macros are called by writing
macro_identifier(<actual_arg_list>)
in the subsequent source code. The syntax is identical to that of a function call; indeed, many standard library C
“functions” are implemented as macros. However, there are some important semantic differences.
The optional actual_arg_list must contain the same number of comma-delimited token sequences, known as
actual arguments, as found in the formal arg_list of the #define line – there must be an actual argument for each formal
argument. An error will be reported if the number of arguments in two lists is not the same.
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A macro call results in two sets of replacements. First, the macro identifier and the parenthesis-enclosed arguments
are replaced by the token sequence. Next, any formal arguments occurring in the token sequence are replaced by the
corresponding real arguments appearing in actual_arg_list. Like with simple macro definitions, rescanning occurs
to detect any embedded macro identifiers eligible for expansion.
Here is a simple example:
/* A simple macro which returns greater of its 2 arguments: */
#define _MAX(A, B) ((A) > (B)) ? (A) : (B)
/* Let’s call it: */
x = _MAX(a + b, c + d);
/* Preprocessor will transform the previous line into:
x = ((a + b) > (c + d)) ? (a + b) : (c + d) */
It is highly recommended to put parentheses around each argument in the macro body in order to avoid possible
problems with operator precedence.
Undefining Macros
The #undef directive is used to undefine a macro.
#undef macro_identifier
The directive #undef detaches any previous token sequence from macro_identifier; the macro definition has been
forgotten, and macro_identifier is undefined. No macro expansion occurs within the #undef lines.
The state of being defined or undefined is an important property of an identifier, regardless of the actual definition. The
#ifdef and #ifndef conditional directives, used to test whether any identifier is currently defined or not, offer a
flexible mechanism for controlling many aspects of a compilation.
After a macro identifier has been undefined, it can be redefined with #define, using the same or different token
sequence.
File Inclusion
The preprocessor directive #include pulls in header files (extension .h) into the source code. Do not rely on
preprocessor to include source files (extension .c) — see Add/Remove Files from Project for more information.
The syntax of the #include directive has two formats:
#include <header_name>
#include “header_name”
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The preprocessor removes the #include line and replaces it with the entire text of a header file at that point in the
source code. The placement of #include can therefore influence the scope and duration of any identifiers in the
included file.
The difference between these two formats lies in searching algorithm employed in trying to locate the include file.
If the #include directive is used with the <header_name> version, the search is made successively in each of the
following locations, in this particular order:
1. the mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 installation folder › “include” folder
2. user’s custom search paths
The “header_name” version specifies a user-supplied include file; the mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 will
look for the header file in the following locations, in this particular order:
1. the project folder (folder which contains the project file .mcpds)
2. the mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 installation folder › “include” folder
3. user’s custom search paths
Explicit Path
By placing an explicit path in header_name, only that directory will be searched. For example:
#include “C:\my_files\test.h”
Note
There is also a third version of the #include directive, rarely used, which assumes that neither < nor “ appear as the
first non-whitespace character following #include:
#include macro_identifier
It assumes that macro definition that will expand macro identifier into a valid delimited header name with either
<header_name> or “header_name” formats exists.
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Preprocessor Operators
The # (pound sign) is a preprocessor directive when it occurs as the first non-whitespace character on a line. Also, #
and ## perform operator replacement and merging during the preprocessor scanning phase.
Operator #
In C preprocessor, a character sequence enclosed by quotes is considered a token and its content is not analyzed. This
means that macro names within quotes are not expanded.
If you need an actual argument (the exact sequence of characters within quotes) as a result of preprocessing, use the #
operator in macro body. It can be placed in front of a formal macro argument in definition in order to convert the actual
argument to a string after replacement.
For example, let’s have macro LCD_PRINT for printing variable name and value on Lcd:
#define LCD_PRINT(val) Lcd_Out_Cp(#val “: “); \
Lcd_Out_Cp(IntToStr(val));
Now, the following code,
LCD_PRINT(temp)
will be preprocessed to this:
Lcd_Out_Cp(“temp” “: “); Lcd_Out_Cp(IntToStr(temp));
Operator ##
Operator ## is used for token pasting. Two tokens can be pasted(merged) together by placing ## in between them
(plus optional whitespace on either side). The preprocessor removes whitespace and ##, combining the separate
tokens into one new token. This is commonly used for constructing identifiers.
For example, see the definition of macro SPLICE for pasting two tokens into one identifier:
#define SPLICE(x,y) x ## _ ## y
Now, the call SPLICE(cnt, 2) will expand to the identifier cnt_2.
Note: The mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 does not support the older nonportable method of token pasting using (l/**/r).
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Conditional Compilation
Conditional compilation directives are typically used to make source programs easy to change and easy to compile
in different execution environments. The mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 supports conditional compilation by
replacing the appropriate source-code lines with a blank line.
All conditional compilation directives must be completed in the source or include file in which they have begun.
Directives #if, #elif, #else, and #endif
The conditional directives #if, #elif, #else, and #endif work very similar to the common C conditional statements.
If the expression you write after #if has a nonzero value, the line group immediately following the #if directive is
retained in the translation unit.
The syntax is:
#if constant_expression_1
<section_1>
[#elif constant_expression_2
<section_2>]
...
[#elif constant_expression_n
<section_n>]
[#else
<final_section>]
#endif
Each #if directive in a source file must be matched by a closing #endif directive. Any number of #elif directives
can appear between #if and #endif directives, but at most one #else directive is allowed. The #else directive, if
present, must be the last directive before #endif.
sections can be any program text that has meaning to compiler or preprocessor. The preprocessor selects a single
section by evaluating constant_expression following each #if or #elif directive until it finds a true (nonzero)
constant expression. The constant expressions are subject to macro expansion.
If all occurrences of constant-expression are false, or if no #elif directives appear, the preprocessor selects the text
block after the #else clause. If the #else clause is omitted and all instances of constant_expression in the #if
block are false, no section is selected for further processing.
Any processed section can contain further conditional clauses, nested to any depth. Each nested #else, #elif, or
#endif directive belongs to the closest preceding the #if directive.
The net result of the preceding scenario is that only one code section (possibly empty) will be compiled.
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Directives #ifdef and #ifndef
The #ifdef and #ifndef directives can be used anywhere #if can be used and they can test whether an identifier
is currently defined or not. The line
#ifdef identifier
has exactly the same effect as #if 1 if identifier is currently defined, and the same effect as #if 0 if identifier
is currently undefined. The other directive, #ifndef, tests true for the “not-defined” condition, producing the opposite
results.
The syntax thereafter follows that of #if, #elif, #else, and #endif.
An identifier defined as NULL is considered to be defined.
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CHAPTER 9
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and
PIC24 Libraries
mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 provides a set of libraries which simplify the initialization and use of dsPIC30/33
and PIC24 and their modules:
Use Library manager to include mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 Libraries in you project.
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Hardware Libraries
- ADC Library
- CAN Library
- CANSPI Library
- Compact Flash Library
- Enhanced CAN Library
- EEPROM Library
- Epson S1D13700 Graphic Lcd Library
- Flash Memory Library
- Graphic Lcd Library
- I²C Library
- Keypad Library
- Lcd Library
- Manchester Code Library
- Multi Media Card Library
- OneWire Library
- Peripheral Pin Select Library
- Port Expander Library
- PS/2 Library
- PWM Library
- PWM Motor Library
- RS-485 Library
- Software I²C Library
- Software SPI Library
- Software UART Library
- Sound Library
- SPI Library
- SPI Ethernet Library
- SPI Ethernet ENC24J600 Library
- SPI Graphic Lcd Library
- SPI Lcd Library
- SPI Lcd8 Library
- SPI T6963C Graphic Lcd Library
- T6963C Graphic Lcd Library
- TFT Display Library
- Touch Panel Library
- Touch Panel TFT Library
- UART Library
- USB Library
Digital Signal Processing Libraries
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- FIR Filter Library
- IIR Filter Library
- FFT Library
- Bit Reverse Complex Library
- Vectors Library
- Matrices Library
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Standard ANSI C Libraries
- ANSI C Ctype Library
- ANSI C Math Library
- ANSI C Stdlib Library
- ANSI C String Library
Miscellaneous Libraries
- Button Library
- Conversions Library
- PrintOut Library
- Setjmp Library
- Sprint Library
- Time Library
- Trigonometry Library
- See also Built-in Routines.
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Hardware Libraries
- ADC Library
- CAN Library
- CANSPI Library
- Compact Flash Library
- DSP Libraries
- Enhanced CAN Library
- EEPROM Library
- Epson S1D13700 Graphic Lcd Library
- Flash Memory Library
- Graphic Lcd Library
- I²C Library
- Keypad Library
- Lcd Library
- Manchester Code Library
- Multi Media Card Library
- OneWire Library
- Peripheral Pin Select Library
- Port Expander Library
- PS/2 Library
- PWM Library
- PWM Motor Library
- RS-485 Library
- Software I²C Library
- Software SPI Library
- Software UART Library
- Sound Library
- SPI Library
- SPI Ethernet Library
- SPI Ethernet ENC24J600 Library
- SPI Graphic Lcd Library
- SPI Lcd Library
- SPI Lcd8 Library
- SPI T6963C Graphic Lcd Library
- T6963C Graphic Lcd Library
- TFT Display Library
- Touch Panel Library
- Touch Panel TFT Library
- UART Library
- USB Library
ADC Library
ADC (Analog to Digital Converter) module is available with a number of dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 MCU modules.
ADC is an electronic circuit that converts continuous signals to discrete digital numbers. ADC Library provides you a
comfortable work with the module.
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Library Routines
- ADCx_Init
- ADCx_Init_Advanced
- ADCx_Get_Sample
- ADCx_Read
- ADC_Set_Active
ADCx_Init
Prototype
void ADCx_Init();
Description This routines configures ADC module to work with default settings.
The internal ADC module is set to:
- single channel conversion
- 10-bit conversion resolution
- unsigned integer data format
- auto-convert
- VRef+ : AVdd, VRef- : AVss
- instruction cycle clock
- conversion clock : 32*Tcy
- auto-sample time : 31TAD
Parameters None.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
- MCU with built-in ADC module.
- ADC library routines require you to specify the module you want to use. To select the
desired ADC module, simply change the letter x in the routine prototype for a number
from 1 to 2.
Example
ADC1_Init();
Notes
- Number of ADC modules per MCU differs from chip to chip. Please, read the appropriate
datasheet before utilizing this library.
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// Initialize ADC1 module with default settings
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ADCx_Init_Advanced
Prototype
// dsPIC30F and PIC24FJ prototype
void ADC1_Init_Advanced(unsigned Reference);
// dsPIC33FJ and PIC24HJ prototype
void ADCx_Init_Advanced(unsigned ADCMode, unsigned Reference);
Description This routine configures the internal ADC module to work with user defined settings.
Parameters - ADCMode: resolution of the ADC module.
- Reference: voltage reference used in ADC process.
Description
Predefined library const
ADC mode:
10-bit resolution
12-bit resolution
_ADC_10bit
Voltage reference
Internal voltage reference
External voltage reference
_ADC_12bit
_ADC_INTERNAL_REF
_ADC_EXTERNAL_REF
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
- MCU with built-in ADC module.
- ADC library routines require you to specify the module you want to use. To select the
desired ADC module, simply change the letter x in the routine prototype for a number
from 1 to 2.
Example
ADC1_Init_Advanced(_ADC_10bit, _ADC_INTERNAL_REF); // sets ADC
module in 12-bit resolution mode with internal reference used
Notes
- Number of ADC modules per MCU differs from chip to chip. Please, read the appropriate
datasheet before utilizing this library.
- Not all MCUs support advanced configuration. Please, read the appropriate datasheet
before utilizing this library.
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ADCx_Get_Sample
Prototype
unsigned ADCx_Get_Sample(unsigned channel);
Description The function enables ADC module and reads the specified analog channel input.
Parameters - channel represents the channel from which the analog value is to be acquired.
Returns
Requires
Example
Notes
10-bit or 12-bit (depending on selected mode by ADCx_Init_Advanced or MCU) unsigned value
from the specified channel.
- The MCU with built-in ADC module.
- Prior to using this routine, ADC module needs to be initialized. See ADCx_Init and ADCx_Init_
Advanced.
- ADC library routines require you to specify the module you want to use. To select the desired ADC
module, simply change the letter x in the routine prototype for a number from 1 to 2.
- Before using the function, be sure to configure the appropriate TRISx bits to designate pins as
inputs.
unsigned adc_value;
...
adc_value = ADC1_Get_Sample(10);
channel 10
// read analog value from ADC1 module
- Number of ADC modules per MCU differs from chip to chip. Please, read the appropriate datasheet
before utilizing this library.
- The function sets the appropriate bit in the ADPCFG registers to enable analog function of the
chosen pin.
- Refer to the appropriate Datasheet for channel-to-pin mapping.
ADCx_Read
Prototype
unsigned ADCx_Read(unsigned channel);
Description The function initializes, enables ADC module and reads the specified analog channel input.
Parameters - channel represents the channel from which the analog value is to be acquired.
Returns
Requires
Example
Notes
10-bit or 12-bit (depending on the MCU) unsigned value from the specified channel.
- The MCU with built-in ADC module.
- ADC library routines require you to specify the module you want to use. To select the desired ADC
module, simply change the letter x in the routine prototype for a number from 1 to 2.
- Number of ADC modules per MCU differs from chip to chip. Please, read the appropriate datasheet
before utilizing this library.
- Before using the function, be sure to configure the appropriate TRISx bits to designate pins as
inputs.
unsigned adc_value;
...
adc_value = ADC1_Read(10);
channel 10
// read analog value from ADC1 module
- This is a standalone routine, so there is no need for a previous initialization of ADC module.
- The function sets the appropriate bit in the ADPCFG registers to enable analog function of the
chosen pin.
- Refer to the appropriate Datasheet for channel-to-pin mapping.
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ADC_Set_Active
Prototype
void ADC_Set_Active(unsigned (*adc_gs)(unsigned));
Description Sets active ADC module.
Parameters Parameters:
Returns
Requires
- adc_gs: ADCx_Get_Sample handler.
Nothing.
Routine is available only for MCUs with multiple ADC modules.
Used ADC module must be initialized before using this routine. See ADCx_Init and ADCx_Init_
Advanced routines.
Example
Notes
// Activate ADC2 module
ADC_Set_Active(ADC2_Get_Sample);
None.
Library Example
This code snippet reads analog value from the channel 1 and sends readings as a text over UART1.
Copy Code To Clipboard
unsigned adcRes;
char txt[6];
void main() {
PORTB = 0x0000;
TRISB.F1 = 1;
ADC1_Init();
UART1_Init(9600);
}
// set pin as input - needed for ADC to work
while (1) {
adcRes = ADC1_Get_Sample(1);
WordToStr(adcRes, txt);
UART1_Write_Text(txt);
Delay_ms(50);
}
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ADC HW connection
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CAN Library
The mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 provides a library (driver) for working with the dsPIC30F CAN module.
The CAN is a very robust protocol that has error detection and signalization, self–checking and fault confinement.
Faulty CAN data and remote frames are re-transmitted automatically, similar to the Ethernet.
Data transfer rates depend on distance. For example, 1 Mbit/s can be achieved at network lengths below 40m while
250 Kbit/s can be achieved at network lengths below 250m. The greater distance the lower maximum bitrate that can
be achieved. The lowest bitrate defined by the standard is 200Kbit/s. Cables used are shielded twisted pairs.
CAN supports two message formats:
- Standard format, with 11 identifier bits and
- Extended format, with 29 identifier bits
Important:
- Consult the CAN standard about CAN bus termination resistance.
- CAN library routines require you to specify the module you want to use. To use the desired CAN module, simply change the letter x in the routine prototype for a number from 1 to 2.
- Number of CAN modules per MCU differs from chip to chip. Please, read the appropriate datasheet before utilizing this library.
Library Routines
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- CANxSetOperationMode
- CANxGetOperationMode
- CANxInitialize
- CANxSetBaudRate
- CANxSetMask
- CANxSetFilter
- CANxRead
- CANxWrite
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CANxSetOperationMode
Prototype
void CANxSetOperationMode(unsigned int mode, unsigned int WAIT);
Description Sets the CAN module to requested mode.
Parameters - mode: CAN module operation mode. Valid values: CAN_OP_MODE constants. See CAN_OP_
MODE constants.
- WAIT: CAN mode switching verification request. If WAIT == 0, the call is non-blocking. The
function does not verify if the CAN module is switched to requested mode or not. Caller must
use CANxGetOperationMode to verify correct operation mode before performing mode specific
operation. If WAIT != 0, the call is blocking – the function won’t “return” until the requested mode
is set.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
MCU with the CAN module.
MCU must be connected to the CAN transceiver (MCP2551 or similar) which is connected to the
CAN bus.
Example
Notes
//
set
the
CAN1
module
into
configuration
CAN1SetOperationMode until this mode is set)
CAN1SetOperationMode(_CAN_MODE_CONFIG, 0xFF);
mode
(wait
inside
- CAN library routine require you to specify the module you want to use. To use the desired CAN
module, simply change the letter x in the routine prototype for a number from 1 to 2.
- Number of CAN modules per MCU differs from chip to chip. Please, read the appropriate datasheet
before utilizing this library.
CANxGetOperationMode
Prototype
unsigned int CANxGetOperationMode();
Description The function returns current operation mode of the CAN module. See CAN_OP_MODE constants
or device datasheet for operation mode codes.
Parameters None.
Returns
Current operation mode.
Requires
MCU with the CAN module.
MCU must be connected to the CAN transceiver (MCP2551 or similar) which is connected to the
CAN bus.
Example
Notes
MikroElektronika
// check whether the CAN1 module is in Normal mode and if it is then do
something.
if (CAN1GetOperationMode() == _CAN_MODE_NORMAL) {
...
}
- CAN library routine require you to specify the module you want to use. To use the desired CAN
module, simply change the letter x in the routine prototype for a number from 1 to 2.
- Number of CAN modules per MCU differs from chip to chip. Please, read the appropriate datasheet
before utilizing this library.
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CANxInitialize
Prototype
void CANxInitialize(unsigned int SJW, unsigned int BRP, unsigned int PHSEG1,
unsigned int PHSEG2, unsigned int PROPSEG, unsigned int CAN_CONFIG_FLAGS);
Description Initializes the CAN module.
The internal dsPIC30F CAN module is set to:
- Disable CAN capture
- Continue CAN operation in Idle mode
- Do not abort pending transmissions
- Fcan clock : 4*Tcy (Fosc)
- Baud rate is set according to given parameters
- CAN mode is set to Normal
- Filter and mask registers IDs are set to zero
- Filter and mask message frame type is set according to CAN_CONFIG_FLAGS value
SAM, SEG2PHTS, WAKFIL and DBEN bits are set according to CAN_CONFIG_FLAGS value.
Parameters - SJW as defined in MCU’s datasheet (CAN Module)
- BRP as defined in MCU’s datasheet (CAN Module)
- PHSEG1 as defined in MCU’s datasheet (CAN Module)
- PHSEG2 as defined in MCU’s datasheet (CAN Module)
- PROPSEG as defined in MCU’s datasheet (CAN Module)
- CAN_CONFIG_FLAGS is formed from predefined constants. See CAN_CONFIG_FLAGS constants.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
MCU with the CAN module.
MCU must be connected to the CAN transceiver (MCP2551 or similar) which is connected to the CAN
bus.
Example
// initialize the CAN1 module with appropriate baud rate and message
acceptance flags along with the sampling rules
unsigned int can_config_flags;
...
can_config_flags = _CAN_CONFIG_SAMPLE_THRICE & // Form value to be used
_CAN_CONFIG_PHSEG2_PRG_ON &
// with
CAN1Initialize
_CAN_CONFIG_STD_MSG &
_CAN_CONFIG_DBL_BUFFER_ON &
_CAN_CONFIG_MATCH_MSG_TYPE &
_CAN_CONFIG_LINE_FILTER_OFF;
CAN1Initialize(1,3,3,3,1,can_config_flags); // initialize the CAN1 module
Notes
277
- CAN mode NORMAL will be set on exit.
- CAN library routine require you to specify the module you want to use. To use the desired CAN
module, simply change the letter x in the routine prototype for a number from 1 to 2.
- Number of CAN modules per MCU differs from chip to chip. Please, read the appropriate datasheet
before utilizing this library.
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CANxSetBaudRate
Prototype
void CANxSetBaudRate(unsigned int SJW, unsigned int BRP, unsigned int PHSEG1,
unsigned int PHSEG2, unsigned int PROPSEG, unsigned int CAN_CONFIG_FLAGS);
Description Sets CAN baud rate. Due to complexity of the CAN protocol, you can not simply force a bps value.
Instead, use this function when CAN is in Config mode. Refer to datasheet for details.
SAM, SEG2PHTS and WAKFIL bits are set according to CAN_CONFIG_FLAGS value. Refer to
datasheet for details.
Parameters - SJW as defined in MCU’s datasheet (CAN Module)
- BRP as defined in MCU’s datasheet (CAN Module)
- PHSEG1 as defined in MCU’s datasheet (CAN Module)
- PHSEG2 as defined in MCU’s datasheet (CAN Module)
- PROPSEG as defined in MCU’s datasheet (CAN Module)
- CAN_CONFIG_FLAGS is formed from predefined constants. See CAN_CONFIG_FLAGS constants.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
MCU with the CAN module.
MCU must be connected to the CAN transceiver (MCP2551 or similar) which is connected to the CAN
bus.
CAN must be in Config mode, otherwise the function will be ignored. See CANxSetOperationMode.
Example
// set required baud rate and sampling rules
unsigned int can_config_flags;
...
CAN1SetOperationMode(_CAN_MODE_CONFIG,0xFF);
// set CONFIGURATION
mode (CAN1 module must be in config mode for baud rate settings)
can_config_flags = _CAN_CONFIG_SAMPLE_THRICE &
_CAN_CONFIG_PHSEG2_PRG_ON &
_CAN_CONFIG_STD_MSG &
_CAN_CONFIG_DBL_BUFFER_ON &
_CAN_CONFIG_MATCH_MSG_TYPE &
_CAN_CONFIG_LINE_FILTER_OFF;
Notes
// Form value to be used
// with CAN1SetBaudRate
CAN1SetBaudRate(1,3,3,3,1,can_config_flags);// set the CAN1 module baud rate
- CAN library routine require you to specify the module you want to use. To use the desired CAN
module, simply change the letter x in the routine prototype for a number from 1 to 2.
- Number of CAN modules per MCU differs from chip to chip. Please, read the appropriate datasheet
before utilizing this library.
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CANxSetMask
Prototype
void CANxSetMask(unsigned int CAN_MASK, long val, unsigned int CAN_CONFIG_
FLAGS);
Description Function sets mask for advanced filtering of messages. Given value is bit adjusted to appropriate
buffer mask registers.
Parameters - CAN_MASK: CAN module mask number. Valid values: CAN_MASK constants. See CAN_MASK
constants.
- val: mask register value. This value is bit-adjusted to appropriate buffer mask registers
- CAN_CONFIG_FLAGS: selects type of message to filter. Valid values:
- _CAN_CONFIG_ALL_VALID_MSG,
- _CAN_CONFIG_MATCH_MSG_TYPE & _CAN_CONFIG_STD_MSG,
- _CAN_CONFIG_MATCH_MSG_TYPE & _CAN_CONFIG_XTD_MSG.
See CAN_CONFIG_FLAGS constants.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
MCU with the CAN module.
MCU must be connected to the CAN transceiver (MCP2551 or similar) which is connected to the CAN
bus.
CAN must be in Config mode, otherwise the function will be ignored. See CANxSetOperationMode.
Example
// set appropriate filter mask and message type value
CAN1SetOperationMode(_CAN_MODE_CONFIG,0xFF);
// set CONFIGURATION
mode (CAN1 module must be in config mode for mask settings)
Notes
279
// Set all B1 mask bits to 1 (all filtered bits are relevant):
// Note that -1 is just a cheaper way to write 0xFFFFFFFF.
// Complement will do the trick and fill it up with ones.
CAN1SetMask(_CAN_MASK_B1, -1, _CAN_CONFIG_MATCH_MSG_TYPE & _CAN_CONFIG_XTD_
MSG);
- CAN library routine require you to specify the module you want to use. To use the desired CAN
module, simply change the letter x in the routine prototype for a number from 1 to 2.
- Number of CAN modules per MCU differs from chip to chip. Please, read the appropriate datasheet
before utilizing this library.
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CANxSetFilter
Prototype
void CANxSetFilter(unsigned int CAN_FILTER, long val, unsigned int CAN_
CONFIG_FLAGS);
Description Function sets message filter. Given value is bit adjusted to appropriate buffer mask registers.
Parameters - CAN_FILTER: CAN module filter number. Valid values: CAN_FILTER constants. See CAN_FILTER
constants.
- val: filter register value. This value is bit-adjusted to appropriate filter registers
- CAN_CONFIG_FLAGS: selects type of message to filter. Valid values: _CAN_CONFIG_STD_MSG and
_CAN_CONFIG_XTD_MSG. See CAN_CONFIG_FLAGS constants.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
MCU with the CAN module.
MCU must be connected to the CAN transceiver (MCP2551 or similar) which is connected to the CAN
bus.
CAN must be in Config mode, otherwise the function will be ignored. See CANxSetOperationMode.
Example
// set appropriate filter value and message type
CAN1SetOperationMode(_CAN_MODE_CONFIG,0xFF);
// set
CONFIGURATION mode (CAN1 module must be in config mode for filter settings)
Notes
// Set id of filter B1_F1 to 3
CAN1SetFilter(_CAN_FILTER_B1_F1, 3, _CAN_CONFIG_XTD_MSG);
- CAN library routine require you to specify the module you want to use. To use the desired CAN
module, simply change the letter x in the routine prototype for a number from 1 to 2.
- Number of CAN modules per MCU differs from chip to chip. Please, read the appropriate datasheet
before utilizing this library.
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CANxRead
Prototype
unsigned int CANxRead(unsigned long *id, char *data_, unsigned int *dataLen,
unsigned int *CAN_RX_MSG_FLAGS);
Description If at least one full Receive Buffer is found, it will be processed in the following way :
- Message ID is retrieved and stored to location pointed by id pointer
- Message data is retrieved and stored to array pointed by data pointer
- Message length is retrieved and stored to location pointed by dataLen pointer
- Message flags are retrieved and stored to location pointed by CAN_RX_MSG_FLAGS pointer
Parameters - id: message identifier address
- data: an array of bytes up to 8 bytes in length
- dataLen: data length address
- CAN_RX_MSG_FLAGS: message flags address. For message receive flags format refer to CAN_RX_
MSG_FLAGS constants. See CAN_RX_MSG_FLAGS constants.
Returns
Requires
Example
Notes
281
- 0 if nothing is received
- 0xFFFF if one of the Receive Buffers is full (message received)
MCU with the CAN module.
MCU must be connected to the CAN transceiver (MCP2551 or similar) which is connected to the CAN
bus.
CAN must be in Config mode, otherwise the function will be ignored. See CANxSetOperationMode.
// check the CAN1 module for received messages. If any was received do
something.
unsigned int msg_rcvd, rx_flags, data_len;
char data[8];
unsigned long msg_id;
...
CAN1SetOperationMode(_CAN_MODE_NORMAL,0xFF);
// set NORMAL
mode (CAN1 module must be in mode in which receive is possible)
...
rx_flags = 0;
// clear message flags
if (msg_rcvd = CAN1Read(&msg_id, data, &data_len, &rx_flags)) {
...
}
- CAN library routine require you to specify the module you want to use. To use the desired CAN
module, simply change the letter x in the routine prototype for a number from 1 to 2.
- Number of CAN modules per MCU differs from chip to chip. Please, read the appropriate datasheet
before utilizing this library.
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CANxWrite
Prototype
unsigned int CANxWrite(long id, char *data_, unsigned int DataLen, unsigned
int CAN_TX_MSG_FLAGS);
Description If at least one empty Transmit Buffer is found, the function sends message in the queue for
transmission.
Parameters - id: CAN message identifier. Valid values: 11 or 29 bit values, depending on message type (standard
or extended)
- data: data to be sent
- dataLen: data length. Valid values: 0..8
- CAN_RX_MSG_FLAGS: message flags. Valid values: CAN_TX_MSG_FLAGS constants. See CAN_TX_
MSG_FLAGS constants.
Returns
Requires
Example
- 0 if all Transmit Buffers are busy
- 0xFFFF if at least one Transmit Buffer is available
MCU with the CAN module.
MCU must be connected to the CAN transceiver (MCP2551 or similar) which is connected to the CAN
bus.
CAN must be in Config mode, otherwise the function will be ignored. See CANxSetOperationMode.
// send message extended CAN message with appropriate ID and data
unsigned int tx_flags;
char data[8];
unsigned long msg_id;
...
CAN1SetOperationMode(_CAN_MODE_NORMAL,0xFF);
// set NORMAL
mode (CAN1 must be in mode in which transmission is possible)
tx_flags = _CAN_TX_PRIORITY_0 &
_CAN_TX_XTD_FRAME &
_CAN_TX_NO_RTR_FRAME;
CAN1Write(msg_id, data, 1, tx_flags);
Notes
// set message flags
- CAN library routine require you to specify the module you want to use. To use the desired CAN
module, simply change the letter x in the routine prototype for a number from 1 to 2.
- Number of CAN modules per MCU differs from chip to chip. Please, read the appropriate datasheet
before utilizing this library.
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CAN Constants
There is a number of constants predefined in CAN library. To be able to use the library effectively, you need to be
familiar with these. You might want to check the example at the end of the chapter.
CAN_OP_MODE Constants
CAN_OP_MODE constants define CAN operation mode. Function CANxSetOperationMode expects one of these as its
argument:
Copy Code To Clipboard
const unsigned int
_CAN_MODE_BITS
_CAN_MODE_NORMAL
_CAN_MODE_SLEEP
_CAN_MODE_LOOP
_CAN_MODE_LISTEN
_CAN_MODE_CONFIG
=
=
=
=
=
=
0xE0,
0x00,
0x20,
0x40,
0x60,
0x80;
// Use this to access opmode
bits
CAN_CONFIG_FLAGS Constants
CAN_CONFIG_FLAGS constants define flags related to CAN module configuration. Functions CANxInitialize and
CANxSetBaudRate expect one of these (or a bitwise combination) as their argument:
Copy Code To Clipboard
const unsigned int
_CAN_CONFIG_DEFAULT
= 0xFF,
// 11111111
= 0x01,
= 0xFF,
= 0xFE,
// XXXXXXX1
// XXXXXXX0
_CAN_CONFIG_LINE_FILTER_BIT = 0x02,
_CAN_CONFIG_LINE_FILTER_ON = 0xFF,
_CAN_CONFIG_LINE_FILTER_OFF = 0xFD,
// XXXXXX1X
// XXXXXX0X
_CAN_CONFIG_SAMPLE_BIT
_CAN_CONFIG_SAMPLE_ONCE
_CAN_CONFIG_SAMPLE_THRICE
= 0x04,
= 0xFF,
= 0xFB,
// XXXXX1XX
// XXXXX0XX
_CAN_CONFIG_MSG_TYPE_BIT
_CAN_CONFIG_STD_MSG
_CAN_CONFIG_XTD_MSG
= 0x08,
= 0xFF,
= 0xF7,
// XXXX1XXX
// XXXX0XXX
_CAN_CONFIG_DBL_BUFFER_BIT
_CAN_CONFIG_DBL_BUFFER_ON
_CAN_CONFIG_DBL_BUFFER_OFF
= 0x10,
= 0xFF,
= 0xEF,
// XXX1XXXX
// XXX0XXXX
_CAN_CONFIG_PHSEG2_PRG_BIT
_CAN_CONFIG_PHSEG2_PRG_ON
_CAN_CONFIG_PHSEG2_PRG_OFF
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_CAN_CONFIG_MSG_BITS
_CAN_CONFIG_ALL_MSG
_CAN_CONFIG_VALID_XTD_MSG
_CAN_CONFIG_VALID_STD_MSG
_CAN_CONFIG_ALL_VALID_MSG
=
=
=
=
=
0x60,
0xFF,
0xDF,
0xBF,
0x9F;
//
//
//
//
X11XXXXX
X10XXXXX
X01XXXXX
X00XXXXX
You may use bitwise AND (&) to form config byte out of these values. For example:
Copy Code To Clipboard
init = _CAN_CONFIG_SAMPLE_THRICE &
_CAN_CONFIG_PHSEG2_PRG_ON &
_CAN_CONFIG_STD_MSG
&
_CAN_CONFIG_DBL_BUFFER_ON &
_CAN_CONFIG_VALID_XTD_MSG &
_CAN_CONFIG_LINE_FILTER_OFF;
...
CANInitialize(1, 1, 3, 3, 1, init);
// initialize CAN
CAN_TX_MSG_FLAGS Constants
CAN_TX_MSG_FLAGS are flags related to transmission of a CAN message:
Copy Code To Clipboard
const unsigned int
_CAN_TX_PRIORITY_BITS
_CAN_TX_PRIORITY_0
_CAN_TX_PRIORITY_1
_CAN_TX_PRIORITY_2
_CAN_TX_PRIORITY_3
=
=
=
=
=
0x03,
0xFC,
0xFD,
0xFE,
0xFF,
//
//
//
//
XXXXXX00
XXXXXX01
XXXXXX10
XXXXXX11
_CAN_TX_FRAME_BIT
_CAN_TX_STD_FRAME
_CAN_TX_XTD_FRAME
= 0x08,
= 0xFF,
= 0xF7,
// XXXXX1XX
// XXXXX0XX
_CAN_TX_RTR_BIT
_CAN_TX_NO_RTR_FRAME
_CAN_TX_RTR_FRAME
= 0x40,
= 0xFF,
= 0xBF;
// X1XXXXXX
// X0XXXXXX
You may use bitwise AND (&) to adjust the appropriate flags. For example:
Copy Code To Clipboard
// form value to be used with CANSendMessage:
send_config = _CAN_TX_PRIORITY_0 &
_CAN_TX_XTD_FRAME &
_CAN_TX_NO_RTR_FRAME;
...
CANSendMessage(id, data, 1, send_config);
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CAN_RX_MSG_FLAGS Constants
CAN_RX_MSG_FLAGS are flags related to reception of CAN message. If a particular bit is set; corresponding meaning
is TRUE or else it will be FALSE.
Copy Code To Clipboard
const unsigned int
_CAN_RX_FILTER_BITS
_CAN_RX_FILTER_1
_CAN_RX_FILTER_2
_CAN_RX_FILTER_3
_CAN_RX_FILTER_4
_CAN_RX_FILTER_5
_CAN_RX_FILTER_6
_CAN_RX_OVERFLOW
_CAN_RX_INVALID_MSG
_CAN_RX_XTD_FRAME
_CAN_RX_RTR_FRAME
_CAN_RX_DBL_BUFFERED
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
0x07,
0x00,
0x01,
0x02,
0x03,
0x04,
0x05,
0x08,
0x10,
0x20,
0x40,
0x80;
// Use this to access filter bits
//
//
//
//
//
Set
Set
Set
Set
Set
if
if
if
if
if
Overflowed else cleared
invalid else cleared
XTD message else cleared
RTR message else cleared
this message was hardware double-buffered
You may use bitwise AND (&) to adjust the appropriate flags. For example:
Copy Code To Clipboard
if (MsgFlag & _CAN_RX_OVERFLOW != 0) {
...
// Receiver overflow has occurred.
// We have lost our previous message.
}
CAN_MASK Constants
CAN_MASK constants define mask codes. Function CANxSetMask expects one of these as its argument:
Copy Code To Clipboard
const unsigned int
_CAN_MASK_B1 = 0,
_CAN_MASK_B2 = 1;
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CAN_FILTER Constants
CAN_FILTER constants define filter codes. Function CANxSetFilter expects one of these as its argument:
Copy Code To Clipboard
const unsigned int
_CAN_FILTER_B1_F1
_CAN_FILTER_B1_F2
_CAN_FILTER_B2_F1
_CAN_FILTER_B2_F2
_CAN_FILTER_B2_F3
_CAN_FILTER_B2_F4
=
=
=
=
=
=
0,
1,
2,
3,
4,
5;
Library Example
The example demonstrates CAN protocol. The 1st node initiates the communication with the 2nd node by sending
some data to its address. The 2nd node responds by sending back the data incremented by 1. The 1st node then does
the same and sends incremented data back to the 2nd node, etc.
Code for the first CAN node:
Copy Code To Clipboard
unsigned int Can_Init_Flags, Can_Send_Flags, Can_Rcv_Flags; // can flags
unsigned int Rx_Data_Len;
// received data length in
bytes
char RxTx_Data[8];
// can rx/tx data buffer
char Msg_Rcvd;
// reception flag
unsigned long Tx_ID, Rx_ID;
// can rx and tx ID
void main() {
ADPCFG = 0xFFFF;
PORTB = 0;
TRISB = 0;
Can_Init_Flags = 0;
Can_Send_Flags = 0;
Can_Rcv_Flags = 0;
//
// clear flags
//
Can_Send_Flags = _CAN_TX_PRIORITY_0 &
_CAN_TX_XTD_FRAME &
_CAN_TX_NO_RTR_FRAME;
// Form value to be used
// with CAN2Write
Can_Init_Flags = _CAN_CONFIG_SAMPLE_THRICE &
_CAN_CONFIG_PHSEG2_PRG_ON &
_CAN_CONFIG_XTD_MSG &
_CAN_CONFIG_DBL_BUFFER_ON &
_CAN_CONFIG_MATCH_MSG_TYPE &
_CAN_CONFIG_LINE_FILTER_OFF;
// Form value to be used
// with CAN2Initialize
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RxTx_Data[0] = 9;
CAN2Initialize(1,3,3,3,1,Can_Init_Flags);
// set initial data to be sent
// initialize CAN2
CAN2SetOperationMode(_CAN_MODE_CONFIG,0xFF);
// set CONFIGURATION mode
CAN2SetMask(_CAN_MASK_B1,-1,_CAN_CONFIG_MATCH_MSG_TYPE & _CAN_CONFIG_XTD_MSG);
//
set all mask1 bits to ones
CAN2SetMask(_CAN_MASK_B2,-1,_CAN_CONFIG_MATCH_MSG_TYPE & _CAN_CONFIG_XTD_MSG);
//
set all mask2 bits to ones
CAN2SetFilter(_CAN_FILTER_B2_F3,3,_CAN_CONFIG_XTD_MSG);
// set
id of filter B1_F1 to 3
CAN2SetOperationMode(_CAN_MODE_NORMAL,0xFF);
NORMAL mode
// set
Tx_ID = 12111;
transmit ID
// set
CAN2Write(Tx_ID, RxTx_Data, 1, Can_Send_Flags);
initial message
while(1) {
endless loop
Msg_Rcvd = CAN2Read(&Rx_ID , RxTx_Data , &Rx_Data_Len, &Can_Rcv_Flags);
message
if ((Rx_ID == 3u) && Msg_Rcvd) {
message received check id
PORTB = RxTx_Data[0];
correct, output data at PORTB
RxTx_Data[0]++;
received data
Delay_ms(10);
CAN2Write(Tx_ID, RxTx_Data, 1, Can_Send_Flags);
incremented data back
}
}
}
287
// send
//
// receive
// if
// id
// increment
// send
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Code for the second CAN node:
Copy Code To Clipboard
unsigned int Can_Init_Flags, Can_Send_Flags, Can_Rcv_Flags; // can flags
unsigned int Rx_Data_Len;
// received data length in
bytes
char RxTx_Data[8];
// can rx/tx data buffer
char Msg_Rcvd;
// reception flag
unsigned long Tx_ID, Rx_ID;
// can rx and tx ID
void main() {
ADPCFG = 0xFFFF;
PORTB = 0;
TRISB = 0;
Can_Init_Flags = 0;
Can_Send_Flags = 0;
Can_Rcv_Flags = 0;
//
// clear flags
//
Can_Send_Flags = _CAN_TX_PRIORITY_0 &
_CAN_TX_XTD_FRAME &
_CAN_TX_NO_RTR_FRAME;
// Form value to be used
// with CAN2Write
Can_Init_Flags = _CAN_CONFIG_SAMPLE_THRICE &
_CAN_CONFIG_PHSEG2_PRG_ON &
_CAN_CONFIG_XTD_MSG &
_CAN_CONFIG_DBL_BUFFER_ON &
_CAN_CONFIG_MATCH_MSG_TYPE &
_CAN_CONFIG_LINE_FILTER_OFF;
// Form value to be used
// with CAN2Initialize
CAN2Initialize(1,3,3,3,1,Can_Init_Flags);
CAN2SetOperationMode(_CAN_MODE_CONFIG,0xFF);
// initialize CAN2
// set CONFIGURATION mode
CAN2SetMask(_CAN_MASK_B1,-1,_CAN_CONFIG_MATCH_MSG_TYPE & _CAN_CONFIG_XTD_MSG);
//
set all mask1 bits to ones
CAN2SetMask(_CAN_MASK_B2,-1,_CAN_CONFIG_MATCH_MSG_TYPE & _CAN_CONFIG_XTD_MSG);
//
set all mask2 bits to ones
CAN2SetFilter(_CAN_FILTER_B1_F1,12111,_CAN_CONFIG_XTD_MSG);
// set
id of filter B1_F1 to 12111
CAN2SetOperationMode(_CAN_MODE_NORMAL,0xFF);
// set NORMAL mode
Tx_ID = 3;
// set tx ID
while(1) {
// endless loop
Msg_Rcvd = CAN2Read(&Rx_ID , RxTx_Data , &Rx_Data_Len, &Can_Rcv_Flags);
// receive
message
if ((Rx_ID == 12111u) && Msg_Rcvd) {
// if message received check id
PORTB = RxTx_Data[0];
// id correct, output data at PORTB
RxTx_Data[0]++;
// increment received data
CAN2Write(Tx_ID, RxTx_Data, 1, Can_Send_Flags); // send incremented data back
}
}
}
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HW Connection
Example of interfacing CAN transceiver with MCU and CAN bus
289
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CANSPI Library
The SPI module is available with a number of the dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 MCUs. The mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33
and PIC24 provides a library (driver) for working with mikroElektronika's CANSPI Add-on boards (with MCP2515 or
MCP2510) via SPI interface.
In the mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24, each routine of the CAN library has its own CANSPI counterpart with
identical syntax. For more information on Controller Area Network, consult the CAN Library. Note that an effective
communication speed depends on SPI and certainly is slower than "real" CAN.
Important :
- Consult the CAN standard about CAN bus termination resistance.
- An effective CANSPI communication speed depends on SPI and certainly is slower than “real” CAN.
- The library uses the SPI module for communication. User must initialize appropriate SPI module before using the CANSPI Library.
- For MCUs with multiple SPI modules it is possible to initialize both of them and then switch by using the SPI_Set_Active routine.
- Number of SPI modules per MCU differs from chip to chip. Please, read the appropriate datasheet before utilizing this library.
Library Dependency Tree
External dependencies of CANSPI Library
The following variables must
be defined in all projects using Description :
CANSPI Library:
extern sfr sbit CanSpi_CS;
Chip Select line.
extern sfr sbit
CanSpi_Rst;
Reset line.
extern sfr sbit
CanSpi_CS_Direction;
Direction of the Chip Select pin.
extern sfr sbit
CanSpi_Rst_Direction;
Direction of the Reset pin.
MikroElektronika
Example :
sbit CanSpi_CS at
RF0_bit;
sbit CanSpi_Rst at
RF1_bit;
sbit
CanSpi_CS_Direction
at TRISF0_bit;
sbit
CanSpi_Rst_Direction
at TRISF1_bit;
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Library Routines
- CANSPISetOperationMode
- CANSPIGetOperationMode
- CANSPIInitialize
- CANSPISetBaudRate
- CANSPISetMask
- CANSPISetFilter
- CANSPIRead
- CANSPIWrite
CANSPISetOperationMode
Prototype
void CANSPISetOperationMode(char mode, char WAIT);
Description Sets the CANSPI module to requested mode.
Parameters mode: CANSPI module operation mode. Valid values: CANSPI_OP_MODE constants. See CANSPI_
OP_MODE constants.
WAIT: CANSPI mode switching verification request. If WAIT == 0, the call is non-blocking. The
function does not verify if the CANSPI module is switched to requested mode or not. Caller must
use CANSPIGetOperationMode to verify correct operation mode before performing mode specific
operation. If WAIT != 0, the call is blocking – the function won’t “return” until the requested mode is
set.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
The CANSPI routines are supported only by MCUs with the SPI module.
MCU has to be properly connected to mikroElektronika’s CANSPI Extra Board or similar hardware.
See connection example at the bottom of this page.
Example
Notes
291
//
set
the
CANSPI
module
into
configuration
CANSPISetOperationMode until this mode is set)
CANSPISetOperationMode(_CANSPI_MODE_CONFIG, 0xFF);
mode
(wait
inside
None.
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CANSPIGetOperationMode
Prototype
char CANSPIGetOperationMode();
Description The function returns current operation mode of the CANSPI module. Check CANSPI_OP_MODE
constants or device datasheet for operation mode codes.
Parameters None.
Returns
Current operation mode.
Requires
The CANSPI routines are supported only by MCUs with the SPI module.
MCU has to be properly connected to mikroElektronika’s CANSPI Extra Board or similar hardware.
See connection example at the bottom of this page.
Example
Notes
// check whether the CANSPI module is in Normal mode and if it is do
something.
if (CANSPIGetOperationMode() == _CANSPI_MODE_NORMAL) {
...
}
None.
CANSPIInitialize
Prototype
void CANSPIInitialize(char SJW, char BRP, char PHSEG1, char PHSEG2, char
PROPSEG, char CANSPI_CONFIG_FLAGS);
Description Initializes the CANSPI module.
Stand-Alone CAN controller in the CANSPI module is set to:
- Disable CAN capture
- Continue CAN operation in Idle mode
- Do not abort pending transmissions
- Fcan clock : 4*Tcy (Fosc)
- Baud rate is set according to given parameters
- CAN mode : Normal
- Filter and mask registers IDs are set to zero
- Filter and mask message frame type is set according to CANSPI_CONFIG_FLAGS value
SAM, SEG2PHTS, WAKFIL and DBEN bits are set according to CANSPI_CONFIG_FLAGS value.
Parameters - SJW as defined in MCU’s datasheet (CAN Module)
- BRP as defined in MCU’s datasheet (CAN Module)
- PHSEG1 as defined in MCU’s datasheet (CAN Module)
- PHSEG2 as defined in MCU’s datasheet (CAN Module)
- PROPSEG as defined in MCU’s datasheet (CAN Module)
- CANSPI_CONFIG_FLAGS is formed from predefined constants. See CANSPI_CONFIG_FLAGS
constants.
Returns
Nothing.
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Requires
Global variables :
- CanSpi_CS: Chip Select line
- CanSpi_Rst: Reset line
- CanSpi_CS_Direction: Direction of the Chip Select pin
- CanSpi_Rst_Direction: Direction of the Reset pin
must be defined before using this function.
The CANSPI routines are supported only by MCUs with the SPI module.
The SPI module needs to be initialized. See the SPIx_Init and SPIx_Init_Advanced routines.
MCU has to be properly connected to mikroElektronika’s CANSPI Extra Board or similar hardware.
See connection example at the bottom of this page.
Example
// CANSPI module connections
sbit CanSpi_CS at RF0_bit;
sbit CanSpi_CS_Direction at TRISF0_bit;
sbit CanSpi_Rst at RF1_bit;
sbit CanSpi_Rst_Direction at TRISF1_bit;
// End CANSPI module connections
// initialize the CANSPI module with the appropriate baud rate and message
acceptance flags along with the sampling rules
char CANSPI_Init_Flags;
...
CANSPI_Init_Flags = _CANSPI_CONFIG_SAMPLE_THRICE & // form value to be
used
_CANSPI_CONFIG_PHSEG2_PRG_ON &
// with
CANSPIInitialize
_CANSPI_CONFIG_XTD_MSG &
_CANSPI_CONFIG_DBL_BUFFER_ON &
_CANSPI_CONFIG_VALID_XTD_MSG;
...
SPI1_Init();
// initialize SPI1 module
CANSPIInitialize(1,3,3,3,1,CANSPI_Init_Flags);
// initialize external
CANSPI module
Notes
293
- CANSPI mode NORMAL will be set on exit.
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CANSPISetBaudRate
Prototype
Returns
void CANSPISetBaudRate(char SJW, char BRP, char PHSEG1, char PHSEG2, char
PROPSEG, char CANSPI_CONFIG_FLAGS);
Nothing.
Description Sets the CANSPI module baud rate. Due to complexity of the CAN protocol, you can not simply force
a bps value. Instead, use this function when the CANSPI module is in Config mode.
SAM, SEG2PHTS and WAKFIL bits are set according to CANSPI_CONFIG_FLAGS value. Refer to
datasheet for details.
Parameters - SJW as defined in MCU’s datasheet (CAN Module)
- BRP as defined in MCU’s datasheet (CAN Module)
- PHSEG1 as defined in MCU’s datasheet (CAN Module)
- PHSEG2 as defined in MCU’s datasheet (CAN Module)
- PROPSEG as defined in MCU’s datasheet (CAN Module)
- CANSPI_CONFIG_FLAGS is formed from predefined constants. See CANSPI_CONFIG_FLAGS
constants.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
The CANSPI module must be in Config mode, otherwise the function will be ignored. See
CANSPISetOperationMode.
The CANSPI routines are supported only by MCUs with the SPI module.
MCU has to be properly connected to mikroElektronika’s CANSPI Extra Board or similar hardware.
See connection example at the bottom of this page.
Example
Notes
// set required baud rate and sampling rules
char CANSPI_CONFIG_FLAGS;
...
CANSPISetOperationMode(_CANSPI_MODE_CONFIG,0xFF);
// set CONFIGURATION
mode (CANSPI module must be in config mode for baud rate settings)
CANSPI_CONFIG_FLAGS = _CANSPI_CONFIG_SAMPLE_THRICE &
_CANSPI_CONFIG_PHSEG2_PRG_ON &
_CANSPI_CONFIG_STD_MSG
&
_CANSPI_CONFIG_DBL_BUFFER_ON &
_CANSPI_CONFIG_VALID_XTD_MSG &
_CANSPI_CONFIG_LINE_FILTER_OFF;
CANSPISetBaudRate(1, 1, 3, 3, 1, CANSPI_CONFIG_FLAGS);
None.
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CANSPISetMask
Prototype
void CANSPISetMask(unsigned short CANSPI_MASK, long value, unsigned short
CANSPI_CONFIG_FLAGS);
Description Configures mask for advanced filtering of messages. The parameter value is bit-adjusted to the
appropriate mask registers.
Parameters - CANSPI_MASK: CAN module mask number. Valid values: CANSPI_MASK constants. See CANSPI_
MASK constants.
- val: mask register value. This value is bit-adjusted to appropriate buffer mask registers
- CANSPI_CONFIG_FLAGS: selects type of message to filter. Valid values:
- _CANSPI_CONFIG_ALL_VALID_MSG,
- _CANSPI_CONFIG_MATCH_MSG_TYPE & _CANSPI_CONFIG_STD_MSG,
- _CANSPI_CONFIG_MATCH_MSG_TYPE & _CANSPI_CONFIG_XTD_MSG.
See CANSPI_CONFIG_FLAGS constants.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
The CANSPI module must be in Config mode, otherwise the function will be ignored. See
CANSPISetOperationMode.
The CANSPI routines are supported only by MCUs with the SPI module.
MCU has to be properly connected to mikroElektronika’s CANSPI Extra Board or similar hardware.
See connection example at the bottom of this page.
Example
Notes
295
// set the appropriate filter mask and message type value
CANSPISetOperationMode(_CANSPI_MODE_CONFIG,0xFF);
// set
CONFIGURATION mode (CANSPI module must be in config mode for mask settings)
// Set all B1 mask bits to 1 (all filtered bits are relevant):
// Note that -1 is just a cheaper way to write 0xFFFFFFFF.
// Complement will do the trick and fill it up with ones.
CANSPISetMask(_CANSPI_MASK_B1, -1, _CANSPI_CONFIG_MATCH_MSG_TYPE & _CANSPI_
CONFIG_XTD_MSG);
None.
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CANSPISetFilter
Prototype
void CANSPISetFilter(unsigned short CANSPI_FILTER, long value, unsigned
short CANSPI_CONFIG_FLAGS);
Description Configures message filter. The parameter value is bit-adjusted to the appropriate filter registers.
Parameters - CANSPI_FILTER: CAN module filter number. Valid values: CANSPI_FILTER constants. See
CANSPI_FILTER constants.
- val: filter register value. This value is bit-adjusted to appropriate filter registers
- CANSPI_CONFIG_FLAGS: selects type of message to filter. Valid values: _CANSPI_CONFIG_STD_
MSG and _CANSPI_CONFIG_XTD_MSG. See CANSPI_CONFIG_FLAGS constants.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
The CANSPI module must be in Config mode, otherwise the function will be ignored. See
CANSPISetOperationMode.
The CANSPI routines are supported only by MCUs with the SPI module.
MCU has to be properly connected to mikroElektronika’s CANSPI Extra Board or similar hardware.
See connection example at the bottom of this page.
Example
Notes
// set the appropriate filter value and message type
CANSPISetOperationMode(_CANSPI_MODE_CONFIG,0xFF);
//
set CONFIGURATION mode (CANSPI module must be in config mode for filter
settings)
// Set id of filter B1_F1 to 3 :
CANSPISetFilter(_CANSPI_FILTER_B1_F1, 3, _CANSPI_CONFIG_XTD_MSG);
None.
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CANSPIRead
Prototype
unsigned short CANSPIRead(long *id, unsigned short *data, unsigned short
*datalen, unsigned short *CANSPI_RX_MSG_FLAGS);
Description If at least one full Receive Buffer is found, it will be processed in the following way:
- Message ID is retrieved and stored to location provided by the id parameter
- Message data is retrieved and stored to a buffer provided by the data parameter
- Message length is retrieved and stored to location provided by the dataLen parameter
- Message flags are retrieved and stored to location provided by the CANSPI_RX_MSG_FLAGS
parameter
Parameters - id: message identifier address
- data: an array of bytes up to 8 bytes in length
- dataLen: data length address
- CANSPI_RX_MSG_FLAGS: message flags address. For message receive flags format refer to
CANSPI_RX_MSG_FLAGS constants. See CANSPI_RX_MSG_FLAGS constants.
Returns
Requires
- 0 if nothing is received
- 0xFFFF if one of the Receive Buffers is full (message received)
The CANSPI module must
CANSPISetOperationMode.
be
in
a
mode
in
which
receiving
is
possible.
See
The CANSPI routines are supported only by MCUs with the SPI module.
MCU has to be properly connected to mikroElektronika’s CANSPI Extra Board or similar hardware.
See connection example at the bottom of this page.
Example
Notes
297
// check the CANSPI module for received messages. If any was received do
something.
unsigned short msg_rcvd, rx_flags, data_len;
char data[8];
unsigned long msg_id;
...
CANSPISetOperationMode(_CANSPI_MODE_NORMAL,0xFF);
// set
NORMAL mode (CANSPI module must be in mode in which receive is possible)
...
rx_flags = 0;
// clear message
flags
if (msg_rcvd = CANSPIRead(msg_id, data, data_len, rx_flags)) {
...
}
None.
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CANSPIWrite
Prototype
unsigned short CANSPIWrite(long id, unsigned short *data, unsigned short
datalen, unsigned short CANSPI_TX_MSG_FLAGS);
Description If at least one empty Transmit Buffer is found, the function sends message in the queue for
transmission.
Parameters - id: CAN message identifier. Valid values: 11 or 29 bit values, depending on message type (standard
or extended)
- Data: data to be sent
- DataLen: data length. Valid values: 0..8
- CANSPI_TX_MSG_FLAGS: message flags. Valid values: CANSPI_TX_MSG_FLAGS constants. See
CANSPI_TX_MSG_FLAGS constants.
Returns
Requires
- 0 if all Transmit Buffers are busy
- 0xFFFF if at least one Transmit Buffer is available
The CANSPI module must
CANSPISetOperationMode.
be
in
mode
in
which
transmission
is
possible.
See
The CANSPI routines are supported only by MCUs with the SPI module.
MCU has to be properly connected to mikroElektronika’s CANSPI Extra Board or similar hardware.
See connection example at the bottom of this page.
Example
Notes
// send message extended CAN message with the appropriate ID and data
unsigned short tx_flags;
char data[8];
long msg_id;
...
CANSPISetOperationMode(CANSPI_MODE_NORMAL,0xFF);
// set
NORMAL mode (CANSPI must be in mode in which transmission is possible)
tx_flags = _CANSPI_TX_PRIORITY_0 & _CANSPI_TX_XTD_FRAME;
flags
CANSPIWrite(msg_id, data, 2, tx_flags);
// set message
None.
CANSPI Constants
There is a number of constants predefined in the CANSPI library. You need to be familiar with them in order to be able
to use the library effectively. Check the example at the end of the chapter.
CANSPI_OP_MODE Constants
The CANSPI_OP_MODE constants define CANSPI operation mode. Function CANSPISetOperationMode expects
one of these as it's argument:
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Copy Code To Clipboard
const unsigned int
_CANSPI_MODE_BITS
_CANSPI_MODE_NORMAL
_CANSPI_MODE_SLEEP
_CANSPI_MODE_LOOP
_CANSPI_MODE_LISTEN
_CANSPI_MODE_CONFIG
=
=
=
=
=
=
0xE0,
0x00,
0x20,
0x40,
0x60,
0x80;
// Use this to access opmode
bits
CANSPI_CONFIG_FLAGS Constants
The CANSPI_CONFIG_FLAGS constants define flags related to the CANSPI module configuration. The functions
CANSPIInit, CANSPISetBaudRate, CANSPISetMask and CANSPISetFilter expect one of these (or a bitwise
combination) as their argument:
Copy Code To Clipboard
const unsigned int
_CANSPI_CONFIG_DEFAULT
= 0xFF,
// 11111111
_CANSPI_CONFIG_PHSEG2_PRG_BIT = 0x01,
_CANSPI_CONFIG_PHSEG2_PRG_ON = 0xFF,
_CANSPI_CONFIG_PHSEG2_PRG_OFF = 0xFE,
// XXXXXXX1
// XXXXXXX0
_CANSPI_CONFIG_LINE_FILTER_BIT = 0x02,
_CANSPI_CONFIG_LINE_FILTER_ON = 0xFF,
_CANSPI_CONFIG_LINE_FILTER_OFF = 0xFD,
// XXXXXX1X
// XXXXXX0X
_CANSPI_CONFIG_SAMPLE_BIT
_CANSPI_CONFIG_SAMPLE_ONCE
_CANSPI_CONFIG_SAMPLE_THRICE
= 0x04,
= 0xFF,
= 0xFB,
// XXXXX1XX
// XXXXX0XX
_CANSPI_CONFIG_MSG_TYPE_BIT
_CANSPI_CONFIG_STD_MSG
_CANSPI_CONFIG_XTD_MSG
= 0x08,
= 0xFF,
= 0xF7,
// XXXX1XXX
// XXXX0XXX
_CANSPI_CONFIG_DBL_BUFFER_BIT
_CANSPI_CONFIG_DBL_BUFFER_ON
_CANSPI_CONFIG_DBL_BUFFER_OFF
= 0x10,
= 0xFF,
= 0xEF,
// XXX1XXXX
// XXX0XXXX
_CANSPI_CONFIG_MSG_BITS
_CANSPI_CONFIG_ALL_MSG
_CANSPI_CONFIG_VALID_XTD_MSG
_CANSPI_CONFIG_VALID_STD_MSG
_CANSPI_CONFIG_ALL_VALID_MSG
=
=
=
=
=
//
//
//
//
299
0x60,
0xFF,
0xDF,
0xBF,
0x9F;
X11XXXXX
X10XXXXX
X01XXXXX
X00XXXXX
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You may use bitwise AND (&) to form config byte out of these values. For example:
Copy Code To Clipboard
init = _CANSPI_CONFIG_SAMPLE_THRICE &
_CANSPI_CONFIG_PHSEG2_PRG_ON &
_CANSPI_CONFIG_STD_MSG
&
_CANSPI_CONFIG_DBL_BUFFER_ON &
_CANSPI_CONFIG_VALID_XTD_MSG &
_CANSPI_CONFIG_LINE_FILTER_OFF;
...
CANSPIInit(1, 1, 3, 3, 1, init);
// initialize CANSPI
CANSPI_TX_MSG_FLAGS Constants
CANSPI_TX_MSG_FLAGS are flags related to transmission of a CANSPI message:
Copy Code To Clipboard
const unsigned int
_CANSPI_TX_PRIORITY_BITS
_CANSPI_TX_PRIORITY_0
_CANSPI_TX_PRIORITY_1
_CANSPI_TX_PRIORITY_2
_CANSPI_TX_PRIORITY_3
=
=
=
=
=
0x03,
0xFC,
0xFD,
0xFE,
0xFF,
//
//
//
//
XXXXXX00
XXXXXX01
XXXXXX10
XXXXXX11
_CANSPI_TX_FRAME_BIT
_CANSPI_TX_STD_FRAME
_CANSPI_TX_XTD_FRAME
= 0x08,
= 0xFF,
= 0xF7,
// XXXXX1XX
// XXXXX0XX
_CANSPI_TX_RTR_BIT
_CANSPI_TX_NO_RTR_FRAME
_CANSPI_TX_RTR_FRAME
= 0x40,
= 0xFF,
= 0xBF;
// X1XXXXXX
// X0XXXXXX
You may use bitwise AND (&) to adjust the appropriate flags. For example:
Copy Code To Clipboard
// form value to be used as sending message flag :
send_config = _CANSPI_TX_PRIORITY_0 &
_CANSPI_TX_XTD_FRAME &
_CANSPI_TX_NO_RTR_FRAME;
...
CANSPIWrite(id, data, 1, send_config);
CANSPI_RX_MSG_FLAGS Constants
CANSPI_RX_MSG_FLAGS are flags related to reception of CANSPI message. If a particular bit is set then corresponding
meaning is TRUE or else it will be FALSE.
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const unsigned int
_CANSPI_RX_FILTER_BITS
_CANSPI_RX_FILTER_1
_CANSPI_RX_FILTER_2
_CANSPI_RX_FILTER_3
_CANSPI_RX_FILTER_4
_CANSPI_RX_FILTER_5
_CANSPI_RX_FILTER_6
_CANSPI_RX_OVERFLOW
_CANSPI_RX_INVALID_MSG
_CANSPI_RX_XTD_FRAME
_CANSPI_RX_RTR_FRAME
_CANSPI_RX_DBL_BUFFERED
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
0x07,
0x00,
0x01,
0x02,
0x03,
0x04,
0x05,
// Use this to access filter bits
=
=
=
=
=
0x08,
// Set if Overflowed else cleared
0x10,
// Set if invalid else cleared
0x20,
// Set if XTD message else cleared
0x40, // Set if RTR message else cleared
0x80;// Set if this message was hardware double-buffered
You may use bitwise AND (&) to adjust the appropriate flags. For example:
Copy Code To Clipboard
if (MsgFlag & _CANSPI_RX_OVERFLOW != 0) {
...
// Receiver overflow has occurred.
// We have lost our previous message.
}
CANSPI_MASK Constants
The CANSPI_MASK constants define mask codes. Function CANSPISetMask expects one of these as it’s argument:
Copy Code To Clipboard
const unsigned int
_CANSPI_MASK_B1 = 0,
_CANSPI_MASK_B2 = 1;
CANSPI_FILTER Constants
The CANSPI_FILTER constants define filter codes. Functions CANSPISetFilter expects one of these as it’s
argument:
Copy Code To Clipboard
const unsigned int
_CANSPI_FILTER_B1_F1
_CANSPI_FILTER_B1_F2
_CANSPI_FILTER_B2_F1
_CANSPI_FILTER_B2_F2
_CANSPI_FILTER_B2_F3
_CANSPI_FILTER_B2_F4
301
=
=
=
=
=
=
0,
1,
2,
3,
4,
5;
MikroElektronika
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Library Example
This is a simple demonstration of CANSPI Library routines usage. First node initiates the communication with the
second node by sending some data to its address. The second node responds by sending back the data incremented
by 1. First node then does the same and sends incremented data back to second node, etc.
Code for the first CANSPI node:
Copy Code To Clipboard
sbit
sbit
sbit
sbit
CanSpi_CS at RF0_bit;
CanSpi_Rst at RF1_bit;
CanSpi_CS_Direction at TRISF0_bit;
CanSpi_Rst_Direction at TRISF1_bit;
//
//
//
//
Chip select line
Reset line
Direction of the Chip Select pin
Direction of the Reset pin
unsigned int Can_Init_Flags, Can_Send_Flags, Can_Rcv_Flags; // Can flags
unsigned int Rx_Data_Len;
// Received data length in bytes
char RxTx_Data[8];
// Can rx/tx data buffer
char Msg_Rcvd;
// Reception flag
unsigned long Tx_ID, Rx_ID;
// Can rx and tx ID
void main() {
ADPCFG = 0xFFFF;
PORTB = 0;
TRISB = 0;
Can_Init_Flags = 0;
Can_Send_Flags = 0;
Can_Rcv_Flags = 0;
//
// Clear flags
//
Can_Send_Flags = _CANSPI_TX_PRIORITY_0 &
_CANSPI_TX_XTD_FRAME &
_CANSPI_TX_NO_RTR_FRAME;
// Form value to be used
// with CANSPI1Write
Can_Init_Flags = _CANSPI_CONFIG_SAMPLE_THRICE &
_CANSPI_CONFIG_PHSEG2_PRG_ON &
_CANSPI_CONFIG_XTD_MSG &
_CANSPI_CONFIG_DBL_BUFFER_ON &
_CANSPI_CONFIG_VALID_XTD_MSG;
// Form value to be used
// with CANSPI1Init
SPI1_Init();
CANSPIInitialize(1,3,3,3,1,Can_Init_Flags);
// Initialize SPI1 module
// Initialize external CANSPI module
CANSPISetOperationMode(_CANSPI_MODE_CONFIG,0xFF);
// Set CONFIGURATION mode
CANSPISetMask(_CANSPI_MASK_B1,-1,_CANSPI_CONFIG_XTD_MSG); // Set all mask1 bits to
ones
CANSPISetMask(_CANSPI_MASK_B2,-1,_CANSPI_CONFIG_XTD_MSG); // Set all mask2 bits to
ones
CANSPISetFilter(_CANSPI_FILTER_B2_F4,3,_CANSPI_CONFIG_XTD_MSG); // Set id of filter
B1_F1 to 3
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CANSPISetOperationMode(_CANSPI_MODE_NORMAL,0xFF); // Set NORMAL mode
RxTx_Data[0] = 9;
// Set initial data to be sent
Tx_ID = 12111;
// Set transmit ID
CANSPIWrite(Tx_ID, RxTx_Data, 1, Can_Send_Flags);
// Send initial message
while(1) {
// Endless loop
Msg_Rcvd = CANSPIRead(&Rx_ID , RxTx_Data , &Rx_Data_Len, &Can_Rcv_Flags); // Receive
message
if ((Rx_ID == 3u) && Msg_Rcvd) {
// If message received check id
PORTB = RxTx_Data[0];
// Id correct, output data at PORTB
RxTx_Data[0]++;
// Increment received data
Delay_ms(10);
CANSPIWrite(Tx_ID, RxTx_Data, 1, Can_Send_Flags); // Send incremented data back
}
}
}
Code for the second CANSPI node:
Copy Code To Clipboard
sbit
sbit
sbit
sbit
CanSpi_CS at RF0_bit;
CanSpi_Rst at RF1_bit;
CanSpi_CS_Direction at TRISF0_bit;
CanSpi_Rst_Direction at TRISF1_bit;
//
//
//
//
Chip select line
Reset line
Direction of the Chip Select pin
Direction of the Reset pin
unsigned int Can_Init_Flags, Can_Send_Flags, Can_Rcv_Flags; // Can flags
unsigned int Rx_Data_Len;
// Received data length in
bytes
char RxTx_Data[8];
// Can rx/tx data buffer
char Msg_Rcvd;
// Reception flag
unsigned long Tx_ID, Rx_ID;
// Can rx and tx ID
void main() {
ADPCFG = 0xFFFF;
PORTB = 0;
TRISB = 0;
Can_Init_Flags = 0;
Can_Send_Flags = 0;
Can_Rcv_Flags = 0;
//
// Clear flags
//
Can_Send_Flags = _CANSPI_TX_PRIORITY_0 &
_CANSPI_TX_XTD_FRAME &
_CANSPI_TX_NO_RTR_FRAME;
// Form value to be used
// with CANSPI1Write
Can_Init_Flags = _CANSPI_CONFIG_SAMPLE_THRICE & // Form value to be used
_CANSPI_CONFIG_PHSEG2_PRG_ON & // with CANSPI1Init
_CANSPI_CONFIG_XTD_MSG &
303
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_CANSPI_CONFIG_DBL_BUFFER_ON &
_CANSPI_CONFIG_VALID_XTD_MSG &
_CANSPI_CONFIG_LINE_FILTER_OFF;
SPI1_Init();
CANSPIInitialize(1,3,3,3,1,Can_Init_Flags);
// Initialize SPI1 module
// Initialize CANSPI module
CANSPISetOperationMode(_CANSPI_MODE_CONFIG,0xFF);
// Set CONFIGURATION mode
CANSPISetMask(_CANSPI_MASK_B1,-1,_CANSPI_CONFIG_XTD_MSG);
// Set all mask1
bits to ones
CANSPISetMask(_CANSPI_MASK_B2,-1,_CANSPI_CONFIG_XTD_MSG);
// Set all mask2
bits to ones
CANSPISetFilter(_CANSPI_FILTER_B2_F3,12111,_CANSPI_CONFIG_XTD_MSG); // Set id of
filter B1_F1 to 3
CANSPISetOperationMode(_CANSPI_MODE_NORMAL,0xFF);
// Set NORMAL mode
Tx_ID = 3;
// Set tx ID
while (1) {
// Endless loop
Msg_Rcvd = CANSPIRead(&Rx_ID , RxTx_Data , &Rx_Data_Len, &Can_Rcv_Flags);
//
Receive message
if ((Rx_ID == 12111u) && Msg_Rcvd) {
// If message received check id
PORTB = RxTx_Data[0];
// Id correct, output data at PORTB
RxTx_Data[0]++;
// Increment received data
CANSPIWrite(Tx_ID, RxTx_Data, 1, Can_Send_Flags); // Send incremented data back
}
}
}
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HW Connection
Example of interfacing CAN transceiver MCP2510 with MCU via SPI interface
305
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Compact Flash Library
The Compact Flash Library provides routines for accessing data on Compact Flash card (abbr. CF further in text). CF
cards are widely used memory elements, commonly used with digital cameras. Great capacity and excellent access
time of only a few microseconds make them very attractive for microcontroller applications.
In CF card, data is divided into sectors. One sector usually comprises 512 bytes. Routines for file handling, the Cf_Fat
routines, are not performed directly but successively through 512B buffer.
Important :
- Routines for file handling can be used only with FAT16 file system.
- Library functions create and read files from the root directory only.
- Library functions populate both FAT1 and FAT2 tables when writing to files, but the file data is being read from the
FAT1 table only; i.e. there is no recovery if the FAT1 table gets corrupted.
- If MMC/SD card has Master Boot Record (MBR), the library will work with the first available primary (logical) partition
that has non-zero size. If MMC/SD card has Volume Boot Record (i.e. there is only one logical partition and no
MBRs), the library works with entire card as a single partition. For more information on MBR, physical and logical
drives, primary/secondary partitions and partition tables, please consult other resources, e.g. Wikipedia and similar.
- Before writing operation, make sure not to overwrite boot or FAT sector as it could make your card on PC or digital
camera unreadable. Drive mapping tools, such as Winhex, can be of great assistance.
Library Dependency Tree
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External dependencies of Compact Flash Library
The following variables must
be defined in all projects using Description :
Compact Flash Library:
Example :
extern sfr unsigned int CF_
Compact Flash Data Port.
Data_Port;
char CF_Data_Port at PORTF;
extern sfr sbit CF_WE;
Write Enable signal line.
sbit CF_WE at RD6_bit;
extern sfr sbit CF_CD1;
Chip Detect signal line.
extern sfr sbit CF_A2;
Address pin 2.
extern sfr sbit CF_A0;
Address pin 0.
extern sfr sbit CF_RDY;
Ready signal line.
extern sfr sbit CF_OE;
Output Enable signal line.
extern sfr sbit CF_CE1;
Chip Enable signal line.
extern sfr sbit CF_A1;
Address pin 1.
extern sfr
direction;
Direction of the Ready pin.
extern sfr
direction;
extern sfr
direction;
extern sfr
direction;
extern sfr
direction;
extern sfr
direction;
extern sfr
direction;
extern sfr
direction;
307
sbit
CF_RDY_
sbit
CF_WE_
Direction of the Write Enable pin.
sbit
CF_OE_
Direction of the Output Enable pin.
sbit
CF_CD1_
Direction of the Chip Detect pin.
sbit
CF_CE1_
Direction of the Chip Enable pin.
sbit
CF_A2_
Direction of the Address 2 pin.
sbit
CF_A1_
Direction of the Address 1 pin.
sbit
CF_A0_
Direction of the Address 0 pin.
sbit CF_RDY at RD7_bit;
sbit CF_OE at RD5_bit;
sbit CF_CD1 at RD4_bit;
sbit CF_CE1 at RD3_bit;
sbit CF_A2 at RD2_bit;
sbit CF_A1 at RD1_bit;
sbit CF_A0 at RD0_bit;
sbit
CF_RDY_direction
TRISD7_bit;
at
sbit
CF_OE_direction
TRISD5_bit;
at
sbit
CF_CE1_direction
TRISD3_bit;
at
sbit
CF_A1_direction
TRISD1_bit;
at
sbit
CF_WE_direction
TRISDB6_bit;
at
sbit
CF_CD1_direction
TRISD4_bit;
at
sbit
CF_A2_direction
TRISD2_bit;
at
sbit
CF_A0_direction
TRISD0_bit;
at
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Library Routines
- Cf_Init
- Cf_Detect
- Cf_Enable
- Cf_Disable
- Cf_Read_Init
- Cf_Read_Byte
- Cf_Write_Init
- Cf_Write_Byte
- Cf_Read_Sector
- Cf_Write_Sector
Routines for file handling:
- Cf_Fat_Init
- Cf_Fat_QuickFormat
- Cf_Fat_Assign
- Cf_Fat_Reset
- Cf_Fat_Read
- Cf_Fat_Rewrite
- Cf_Fat_Append
- Cf_Fat_Delete
- Cf_Fat_Write
- Cf_Fat_Set_File_Date
- Cf_Fat_Get_File_Date
- Cf_Fat_Get_File_Date_Modified
- Cf_Fat_Get_File_Size
- Cf_Fat_Get_Swap_File
The following routine is for the internal use by compiler only:
- Cf_Issue_ID_Command
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Cf_Init
Prototype
void Cf_Init();
Description Initializes ports appropriately for communication with CF card.
Parameters None.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Global variables :
- CF_Data_Port : Compact Flash data port
- CF_RDY : Ready signal line
- CF_WE : Write enable signal line
- CF_OE : Output enable signal line
- CF_CD1 : Chip detect signal line
- CF_CE1 : Enable signal line
- CF_A2 : Address pin 2
- CF_A1 : Address pin 1
- CF_A0 : Address pin 0
- CF_RDY_direction : Direction of the Ready pin
- CF_WE_direction : Direction of the Write enable pin
- CF_OE_direction : Direction of the Output enable pin
- CF_CD1_direction : Direction of the Chip detect pin
- CF_CE1_direction : Direction of the Chip enable pin
- CF_A2_direction : Direction of the Address 2 pin
- CF_A1_direction : Direction of the Address 1 pin
- CF_A0_direction : Direction of the Address 0 pin
must be defined before using this function.
Example
// set compact flash pinout
char Cf_Data_Port at PORTF;
sbit
sbit
sbit
sbit
sbit
sbit
sbit
sbit
CF_RDY
CF_WE
CF_OE
CF_CD1
CF_CE1
CF_A2
CF_A1
CF_A0
at
at
at
at
at
at
at
at
RD7_bit;
RD6_bit;
RD5_bit;
RD4_bit;
RD3_bit;
RD2_bit;
RD1_bit;
RD0_bit;
sbit CF_RDY_direction at TRISD7_bit;
sbit CF_WE_direction at TRISD6_bit;
sbit CF_OE_direction at TRISD5_bit;
sbit CF_CD1_direction at TRISD4_bit;
sbit CF_CE1_direction at TRISD3_bit;
sbit CF_A2_direction at TRISD2_bit;
sbit CF_A1_direction at TRISD1_bit;
sbit CF_A0_direction at TRISD0_bit;
// end of compact flash pinout
...
Cf_Init();
// initialize CF
Notes
309
None.
MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
Cf_Detect
Prototype
unsigned int Cf_Detect();
Description Checks for presence of CF card by reading the chip detect pin.
Parameters None.
Returns
Requires
Example
Notes
- 1 - if CF card was detected
- 0 - otherwise
The corresponding MCU ports must be appropriately initialized for CF card. See Cf_Init.
// Wait until CF card is inserted:
do
asm nop;
while (!Cf_Detect());
dsPIC30 family MCU and CF card voltage levels are different. The user must ensure that MCU’s pin
connected to CD line can read CF card Logical One correctly.
Cf_Enable
Prototype
void Cf_Enable();
Description Enables the device. Routine needs to be called only if you have disabled the device by means of
the Cf_Disable routine. These two routines in conjunction allow you to free/occupy data line when
working with multiple devices.
Parameters None.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
The corresponding MCU ports must be appropriately initialized for CF card. See Cf_Init.
Example
Notes
// enable compact flash
Cf_Enable();
None.
Cf_Disable
Prototype
void Cf_Disable();
Description Routine disables the device and frees the data lines for other devices. To enable the device again, call
Cf_Enable. These two routines in conjunction allow you to free/occupy data line when working with
multiple devices.
Parameters None.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
The corresponding MCU ports must be appropriately initialized for CF card. See Cf_Init.
Example
Notes
// disable compact flash
Cf_Disable();
None.
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Cf_Read_Init
Prototype
void Cf_Read_Init(unsigned long address, unsigned short sector_count);
Description Initializes CF card for reading.
Parameters - address: the first sector to be prepared for reading operation.
- sector_count: number of sectors to be prepared for reading operation.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
The corresponding MCU ports must be appropriately initialized for CF card. See Cf_Init.
Example
Notes
// initialize compact flash for reading from sector 590
Cf_Read_Init(590, 1);
None.
Cf_Read_Byte
Prototype
unsigned char Cf_Read_Byte();
Description Reads one byte from Compact Flash sector buffer location currently pointed to by internal read
pointers. These pointers will be autoicremented upon reading.
Parameters None.
Returns
Returns a byte read from Compact Flash sector buffer.
Requires
The corresponding MCU ports must be appropriately initialized for CF card. See Cf_Init.
Example
Notes
CF card must be initialized for reading operation. See Cf_Read_Init.
// Read a byte from compact flash:
unsigned char data_;
...
data_ = Cf_Read_Byte();
Higher byte of the unsigned return value is cleared.
Cf_Write_Init
Prototype
void Cf_Write_Init(unsigned long address, unsigned short sectcnt);
Description Initializes CF card for writing.
Parameters - address: the first sector to be prepared for writing operation.
- sectcnt: number of sectors to be prepared for writing operation.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
The corresponding MCU ports must be appropriately initialized for CF card. See Cf_Init.
Example
Notes
311
// initialize compact flash for writing to sector 590
Cf_Write_Init(590, 1);
None.
MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
Cf_Write_Byte
Prototype
void Cf_Write_Byte(unsigned short data_);
Description Writes a byte to Compact Flash sector buffer location currently pointed to by writing pointers. These
pointers will be autoicremented upon reading. When sector buffer is full, its contents will be transfered
to appropriate flash memory sector.
Parameters - data_: byte to be written.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
The corresponding MCU ports must be appropriately initialized for CF card. See Cf_Init.
Example
Notes
CF card must be initialized for writing operation. See Cf_Write_Init.
char data_ = 0xAA;
...
Cf_Write_Byte(data_);
None.
Cf_Read_Sector
Prototype
void Cf_Read_Sector(unsigned long sector_number, unsigned short *buffer);
Description Reads one sector (512 bytes). Read data is stored into buffer provided by the buffer parameter.
Parameters - sector_number: sector to be read.
- buffer: data buffer of at least 512 bytes in length.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
The corresponding MCU ports must be appropriately initialized for CF card. See Cf_Init.
Example
// read sector 22
unsigned short data[512];
...
Cf_Read_Sector(22, data);
Notes
None.
Cf_Write_Sector
Prototype
void Cf_Write_Sector(unsigned long sector_number, unsigned short *buffer);
Description Writes 512 bytes of data provided by the buffer parameter to one CF sector.
Parameters - sector_number: sector to be written to.
- buffer: data buffer of 512 bytes in length.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
The corresponding MCU ports must be appropriately initialized for CF card. See Cf_Init.
Example
// write to sector 22
unsigned short data[512];
...
Cf_Write_Sector(22, data);
Notes
None.
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Cf_Fat_Init
Prototype
unsigned int Cf_Fat_Init();
Description Initializes CF card, reads CF FAT16 boot sector and extracts necessary data needed by the library.
Parameters None.
Returns
Requires
Example
Notes
- 0 - if CF card was detected and successfully initialized
- 1 - if FAT16 boot sector was not found
- 255 - if card was not detected
Nothing.
// Init the FAT library
if (!Cf_Fat_Init()) {
...
}
// Init the FAT library
None.
Cf_Fat_QuickFormat
Prototype
unsigned int Cf_Fat_QuickFormat(char *cf_fat_label);
Description Formats to FAT16 and initializes CF card.
Parameters - cf_fat_label: volume label (11 characters in length). If less than 11 characters are provided, the
label will be padded with spaces. If null string is passed, the volume will not be labeled.
Returns
Requires
Example
Notes
313
- 0 - if CF card was detected, successfully formated and initialized
- 1 - if FAT16 format was unsuccessful
- 255 - if card was not detected
Nothing.
// format and initialize the FAT library if (!Cf_Fat_QuickFormat(&cf_fat_label)) {
...
}
- This routine can be used instead or in conjunction with Cf_Fat_Init routine.
- If CF card already contains a valid boot sector, it will remain unchanged (except volume label field)
and only FAT and ROOT tables will be erased. Also, the new volume label will be set.
MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
Cf_Fat_Assign
Prototype
unsigned int Cf_Fat_Assign(char *filename, char file_cre_attr);
Description Assigns file for file operations (read, write, delete...). All subsequent file operations will be applied over
the assigned file.
Parameters - filename: name of the file that should be assigned for file operations. The file name should be in
DOS 8.3 (file_name.extension) format. The file name and extension will be automatically padded with
spaces by the library if they have less than length required (i.e. “mikro.tx” -> “mikro .tx “), so the user
does not have to take care of that. The file name and extension are case insensitive. The library will
convert them to proper case automatically, so the user does not have to take care of that.
Also, in order to keep backward compatibility with the first version of this library, file names can be
entered as UPPERCASE string of 11 bytes in length with no dot character between the file name and
extension (i.e. “MIKROELETXT” -> MIKROELE.TXT). In this case the last 3 characters of the string
are considered to be file extension.
- file_cre_attr: file creation and attributes flags. Each bit corresponds to the appropriate file
attribute:
Bit
Mask
Description
0
0x01
Read Only
1
0x02
Hidden
2
0x04
System
3
0x08
Volume Label
4
0x10
Subdirectory
5
0x20
Archive
6
0x40
Device (internal use only, never found on disk)
0x80
File creation flag. If the file does not exist and this
flag is set, a new file with specified name will be
created.
7
Returns
Requires
Example
Notes
- 0 if file does not exist and no new file is created.
- 1 if file already exists or file does not exist but a new file is created.
CF card and CF library must be initialized for file operations. See Cf_Fat_Init.
// create file with archive attributes if it does not already exist
Cf_Fat_Assign(“MIKRO007.TXT”,0xA0);
Long File Names (LFN) are not supported.
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Cf_Fat_Reset
Prototype
void Cf_Fat_Reset(unsigned long *size);
Description Opens currently assigned file for reading.
Parameters - size: buffer to store file size to. After file has been open for reading its size is returned through this
parameter.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
CF card and CF library must be initialized for file operations. See Cf_Fat_Init.
Example
Notes
File must be previously assigned. See Cf_Fat_Assign.
unsigned long size;
...
Cf_Fat_Reset(size);
None.
Cf_Fat_Read
Prototype
void Cf_Fat_Read(unsigned short *bdata);
Description Reads a byte from currently assigned file opened for reading. Upon function execution file pointers will
be set to the next character in the file.
Parameters - bdata: buffer to store read byte to. Upon this function execution read byte is returned through this
parameter.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
CF card and CF library must be initialized for file operations. See Cf_Fat_Init.
File must be previously assigned. See Cf_Fat_Assign.
File must be open for reading. See Cf_Fat_Reset.
Example
Notes
315
char character;
...
Cf_Fat_Read(&character);
None.
MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
Cf_Fat_Rewrite
Prototype
void Cf_Fat_Rewrite();
Description Opens currently assigned file for writing. If the file is not empty its content will be erased.
Parameters None.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
CF card and CF library must be initialized for file operations. See Cf_Fat_Init.
Example
Notes
The file must be previously assigned. See Cf_Fat_Assign.
// open file for writing
Cf_Fat_Rewrite();
None.
Cf_Fat_Append
Prototype
void Cf_Fat_Append();
Description Opens currently assigned file for appending. Upon this function execution file pointers will be positioned
after the last byte in the file, so any subsequent file writing operation will start from there.
Parameters None.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
CF card and CF library must be initialized for file operations. See Cf_Fat_Init.
Example
Notes
File must be previously assigned. See Cf_Fat_Assign.
// open file for appending
Cf_Fat_Append();
None.
Cf_Fat_Delete
Prototype
void Cf_Fat_Delete();
Description Deletes currently assigned file from CF card.
Parameters None.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
CF card and CF library must be initialized for file operations. See Cf_Fat_Init.
Example
Notes
File must be previously assigned. See Cf_Fat_Assign.
// delete current file
Cf_Fat_Delete();
None.
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Cf_Fat_Write
Prototype
void Cf_Fat_Write(char *fdata, unsigned data_len);
Description Writes requested number of bytes to currently assigned file opened for writing.
Parameters - fdata: data to be written.
- data_len: number of bytes to be written.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
CF card and CF library must be initialized for file operations. See Cf_Fat_Init.
File must be previously assigned. See Cf_Fat_Assign.
Example
Notes
File must be open for writing. See Cf_Fat_Rewrite or Cf_Fat_Append.
char file_contents[42];
...
Cf_Fat_Write(file_contents, 42); // write data to the assigned file
None.
Cf_Fat_Set_File_Date
Prototype
void Cf_Fat_Set_File_Date(unsigned int year, unsigned short month, unsigned
short day, unsigned short hours, unsigned short mins, unsigned short
seconds);
Description Sets the date/time stamp. Any subsequent file writing operation will write this stamp to currently
assigned file’s time/date attributes.
Parameters - year: year attribute. Valid values: 1980-2107
- month: month attribute. Valid values: 1-12
- day: day attribute. Valid values: 1-31
- hours: hours attribute. Valid values: 0-23
- mins: minutes attribute. Valid values: 0-59
- seconds: seconds attribute. Valid values: 0-59
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
CF card and CF library must be initialized for file operations. See Cf_Fat_Init.
File must be previously assigned. See Cf_Fat_Assign.
Example
Notes
317
File must be open for writing. See Cf_Fat_Rewrite or Cf_Fat_Append.
Cf_Fat_Set_File_Date(2005,9,30,17,41,0);
None.
MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
Cf_Fat_Get_File_Date
Prototype
void Cf_Fat_Get_File_Date(unsigned int *year, unsigned short *month, unsigned
short *day, unsigned short *hours, unsigned short *mins);
Description Reads time/date attributes of currently assigned file.
Parameters - year: buffer to store year attribute to. Upon function execution year attribute is returned through this
parameter.
- month: buffer to store month attribute to. Upon function execution month attribute is returned through
this parameter.
- day: buffer to store day attribute to. Upon function execution day attribute is returned through this
parameter.
- hours: buffer to store hours attribute to. Upon function execution hours attribute is returned through
this parameter.
- mins: buffer to store minutes attribute to. Upon function execution minutes attribute is returned
through this parameter.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
CF card and CF library must be initialized for file operations. See Cf_Fat_Init.
File must be previously assigned. See Cf_Fat_Assign.
Example
Notes
unsigned year;
char month, day, hours, mins;
...
Cf_Fat_Get_File_Date(&year, &month, &day, &hours, &mins);
None.
Cf_Fat_Get_File_Date_Modified
Prototype
void Cf_Fat_Get_File_Date_Modified(unsigned int *year, unsigned short *month,
unsigned short *day, unsigned short *hours, unsigned short *mins);
Description Retrieves the last modification date/time of the currently assigned file.
Parameters - year: buffer to store year of modification attribute to. Upon function execution year of modification
attribute is returned through this parameter.
- month: buffer to store month of modification attribute to. Upon function execution month of modification
attribute is returned through this parameter.
- day: buffer to store day of modification attribute to. Upon function execution day of modification
attribute is returned through this parameter.
- hours: buffer to store hours of modification attribute to. Upon function execution hours of modification
attribute is returned through this parameter.
- mins: buffer to store minutes of modification attribute to. Upon function execution minutes of
modification attribute is returned through this parameter.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
CF card and CF library must be initialized for file operations. See Cf_Fat_Init.
File must be previously assigned. See Cf_Fat_Assign.
Example
Notes
unsigned year;
char month, day, hours, mins;
...
Cf_Fat_Get_File_Date_Modified(&year, &month, &day, &hours, &mins);
None.
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Cf_Fat_Get_File_Size
Prototype
unsigned long Cf_Fat_Get_File_Size();
Description This function reads size of currently assigned file in bytes.
Parameters None.
Returns
Size of the currently assigned file in bytes.
Requires
CF card and CF library must be initialized for file operations. See Cf_Fat_Init.
File must be previously assigned. See Cf_Fat_Assign.
Example
Notes
unsigned long my_file_size;
...
my_file_size = Cf_Fat_Get_File_Size();
None.
Cf_Fat_Get_Swap_File
Prototype
unsigned long Cf_Fat_Get_Swap_File(unsigned long sectors_cnt, char *filename,
char file_attr);
Description This function is used to create a swap file of predefined name and size on the CF media. If a file
with specified name already exists on the media, search for consecutive sectors will ignore sectors
occupied by this file. Therefore, it is recommended to erase such file if it exists before calling this
function. If it is not erased and there is still enough space for a new swap file, this function will delete
it after allocating new memory space for a new swap file.
The purpose of the swap file is to make reading and writing to CF media as fast as possible, by using
the Cf_Read_Sector() and Cf_Write_Sector() functions directly, without potentially damaging
the FAT system. Swap file can be considered as a “window” on the media where the user can freely
write/read data. It’s main purpose in the this library is to be used for fast data acquisition; when the
time-critical acquisition has finished, the data can be re-written into a “normal” file, and formatted in
the most suitable way.
Parameters - sectors_cnt: number of consecutive sectors that user wants the swap file to have.
- filename: name of the file that should be assigned for file operations. The file name should be in
DOS 8.3 (file_name.extension) format. The file name and extension will be automatically padded with
spaces by the library if they have less than length required (i.e. “mikro.tx” -> “mikro .tx “), so the user
does not have to take care of that. The file name and extension are case insensitive. The library will
convert them to proper case automatically, so the user does not have to take care of that.
Also, in order to keep backward compatibility with the first version of this library, file names can be
entered as UPPERCASE string of 11 bytes in length with no dot character between the file name and
extension (i.e. “MIKROELETXT” -> MIKROELE.TXT). In this case the last 3 characters of the string
are considered to be file extension.
- file_attr: file creation and attributes flags. Each bit corresponds to the appropriate file attribute:
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Parameters
Returns
Requires
Example
Notes
Bit
Mask
Description
0
0x01
Read Only
1
0x02
Hidden
2
0x04
System
3
0x08
Volume Label
4
0x10
Subdirectory
5
0x20
Archive
6
0x40
Device (internal use only, never found on disk)
7
0x80
Not used
- Number of the start sector for the newly created swap file, if there was enough free space on CF
card to create file of required size.
- 0 - otherwise.
CF card and CF library must be initialized for file operations. See Cf_Fat_Init.
//-------------- Try to create a swap file with archive atribute, whose size
will be at least 1000 sectors.
//
If it succeeds, it sends the No. of start sector over
UART
unsigned long size;
...
size = Cf_Fat_Get_Swap_File(1000, “mikroE.txt”, 0x20);
if (size) {
UART1_Write(0xAA);
UART1_Write(Lo(size));
UART1_Write(Hi(size));
UART1_Write(Higher(size));
UART1_Write(Highest(size));
UART1_Write(0xAA);
}
Long File Names (LFN) are not supported.
MikroElektronika
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mikroC PRO for dsPIC
Library Example
The following example writes 512 bytes at sector no.620, and then reads the data and sends it over UART1 for a visual
check. Hardware configurations in this example are made for the dsPICPRO2 board and dsPIC30F6014A.
Copy Code To Clipboard
// set compact flash pinout
char Cf_Data_Port at PORTF;
sbit
sbit
sbit
sbit
sbit
sbit
sbit
sbit
CF_RDY
CF_WE
CF_OE
CF_CD1
CF_CE1
CF_A2
CF_A1
CF_A0
at
at
at
at
at
at
at
at
RD7_bit;
RD6_bit;
RD5_bit;
RD4_bit;
RD3_bit;
RD2_bit;
RD1_bit;
RD0_bit;
sbit CF_RDY_direction
sbit CF_WE_direction
sbit CF_OE_direction
sbit CF_CD1_direction
sbit CF_CE1_direction
sbit CF_A2_direction
sbit CF_A1_direction
sbit CF_A0_direction
// end of cf pinout
at
at
at
at
at
at
at
at
TRISD7_bit;
TRISD6_bit;
TRISD5_bit;
TRISD4_bit;
TRISD3_bit;
TRISD2_bit;
TRISD1_bit;
TRISD0_bit;
char SignalPort
at PORTB;
char SignalPort_direction at TRISB;
void InitCF() {
CF_CD1_direction = 1;
while (Cf_Detect() == 0)
;
Cf_Init();
while (!CF_RDY)
;
Delay_ms(2000);
}
// wait until CF card is inserted
// initialize CF
// wait for a while until the card is stabilized
//
period depends on used CF card
void TestBytes() {
unsigned int i;
///// Write numbers 0..511 to sector 590
Cf_Write_Init(590,1);
// Initialize write at sector address 590
//
for 1 sector
SignalPort = 0x03;
// Notify that write has started
Delay_ms(1000);
for (i=0; i<=511; i++)
// Write 512 bytes to sector 590
Cf_Write_Byte(i);
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SignalPort = 0x03;
Delay_ms(1000);
for (i=0; i<=511; i++)
Cf_Write_Byte(i);
// Notify that write has started
SignalPort = 0x07;
Delay_ms(1000);
// Notify that write end and read start
Cf_Read_Init(590,1);
//
//
//
//
//
//
for (i=0; i<=511; i++) {
SignalPort = Cf_Read_Byte();
Delay_ms(5);
}
Delay_ms(1000);
// Write 512 bytes to sector 590
Initialize read from sector address 590
for 1 sector
Read 512 bytes from sector address 590
Read one byte at time and display
readings on signal port
Wait for a while to see results
///// Write numbers 511..0 to sector 590
Cf_Write_Init(590,1);
// Initialize write at sector address 590
//
for 1 sector
SignalPort = 0x03;
// Notify that write has started
Delay_ms(1000);
for (i=0; i<=511; i++)
// Write 512 bytes to sector 590
Cf_Write_Byte(511-i);
SignalPort = 0x07;
Delay_ms(1000);
// Notify that write end and read start
Cf_Read_Init(590,1);
//
//
//
//
//
//
for (i=0; i<=511; i++) {
SignalPort = Cf_Read_Byte();
}
Delay_ms(5);
}
Delay_ms(1000);
Initialize read from sector address 590
for 1 sector
Read 512 bytes from sector address 590
Read one byte at time and display
readings on signal port
Wait for a while to see results
// Main program
void main() {
}
ADPCFG = 0xFFFF;
// disable A/D inputs
SignalPort_direction = 0;
SignalPort = 0x01;
InitCF();
// designate PORTC as output
// Notify test start
TestBytes();
SignalPort = 0x0F;
MikroElektronika
// Notify test end
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HW Connection
Pin diagram of CF memory card
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ECAN Library
The mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 provides a library (driver) for working with the dsPIC33FJ and pic24HJ
ECAN module.
ECAN is a very robust protocol that has error detection and signalling, self–checking and fault confinement. Faulty
ECAN data and remote frames are re-transmitted automatically, similar to the Ethernet.
Data transfer rates depend on distance. For example, 1 Mbit/s can be achieved at network lengths below 40m while
250 Kbit/s can be achieved at network lengths below 250m. The greater distance the lower maximum bitrate that can
be achieved . The lowest bitrate defined by the standard is 200Kbit/s. Cables used are shielded twisted pairs.
ECAN supports two message formats:
- Standard format, with 11 identifier bits, and
- Extended format, with 29 identifier bits
ECAN message format and DMA RAM buffer definiton can be found in the ECan_Defs.h header file located in the
ECAN project folder. Read this file carefully and make appropriate adjustments for mcu in use. Also, if a new project
is to be created this file has to be copied, adjusted and included into the project via include pragma directive with
corresponding Search Path updating.
Important :
ECAN buffers are located in DMA RAM, so two DMA channels are used for message transfer, one for each direction
(ECAN->DMA RAM, DMA RAM->ECAN). See the ECANxDmaChannelInit routine.
Consult CAN standard about CAN bus termination resistance.
CAN library routines require you to specify the module you want to use. To select the desired CAN module, simply
change the letter x in the routine prototype for a number from 1 to 2.
Number of CAN modules per MCU differs from chip to chip. Please, read the appropriate datasheet before utilizing this
library.
Library Routines
- ECANxDmaChannelInit
- ECANxSetOperationMode
- ECANxGetOperationMode
- ECANxInitialize
- ECANxSelectTxBuffers
- ECANxFilterDisable
- ECANxFilterEnable
- ECANxSetBufferSize
- ECANxSetBaudRate
- ECANxSetMask
- ECANxSetFilter
- ECANxRead
- ECANxWrite
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ECANxDmaChannelInit
Prototype
unsigned ECANxDmaChannelInit(unsigned DmaChannel, unsigned ChannelDir, void
*DmaRamBuffAdd);
Description The function preforms initialization of the DMA module for ECAN.
Parameters - DmaChannel: DMA Channel number. Valid values: 0..7.
- ChannelDir: transfer direction. Valid values: 1 (DMA RAM to peripheral) and 0 (peripheral to DMA
RAM).
- DmaRamBuffAdd: DMA RAM buffer address. DMA RAM location is MCU dependent, refer to
datasheet for valid address range.
Returns
Requires
- 0 - if DMA channel parameter is valid
- 0x0001 - if DMA channel is already in use (busy)
- 0xFFFF - if DMA channel parameter is invalid
The ECAN routines are supported only by MCUs with the ECAN module.
Microcontroller must be connected to ECAN transceiver which is connected to the ECAN bus.
Example
Notes
// channel 0 will transfer 8 words from DMA RAM at 0x4000 to ECAN1
ECAN1DmaChannelInit(0, 1, 0x4000);
- ECAN library routine require you to specify the module you want to use. To select the desired
ECAN module, simply change the letter x in the routine prototype for a number from 1 to 2.
- Number of ECAN modules per MCU differs from chip to chip. Please, read the appropriate
datasheet before utilizing this library.
ECANxSetOperationMode
Prototype
void ECANxSetOperationMode(unsigned int mode, unsigned int WAIT);
Description Sets the ECAN module to requested mode.
Parameters - mode: ECAN module operation mode. Valid values: ECAN_OP_MODE constants. See ECAN_OP_MODE
constants.
- WAIT: ECAN mode switching verification request. If WAIT == 0, the call is non-blocking. The
function does not verify if the ECAN module is switched to requested mode or not. Caller must use
ECANxGetOperationMode to verify correct operation mode before performing mode specific operation.
If WAIT != 0, the call is blocking – the function won’t “return” until the requested mode is set and no
additional verification is necessary.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
The ECAN routines are supported only by MCUs with the ECAN module.
Microcontroller must be connected to ECAN transceiver which is connected to the ECAN bus.
Example
Notes
325
// set the ECAN1 module into configuration mode (wait inside ECAN1SetOperationMode
until this mode is set)
ECAN1SetOperationMode(_ECAN_MODE_CONFIG, 0xFF);
- ECAN library routine require you to specify the module you want to use. To select the desired ECAN
module, simply change the letter x in the routine prototype for a number from 1 to 2.
- Number of ECAN modules per MCU differs from chip to chip. Please, read the appropriate datasheet
before utilizing this library.
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ECANxGetOperationMode
Prototype
unsigned int ECANxGetOperationMode();
Description The function returns current operation mode of the ECAN module. See ECAN_OP_MODE constants or
device datasheet for operation mode codes.
Parameters None.
Returns
Current operation mode.
Requires
The ECAN routines are supported only by MCUs with the ECAN module.
Microcontroller must be connected to ECAN transceiver which is connected to the ECAN bus.
Example
Notes
// check whether the ECAN1 module is in Normal mode and if it is do
something.
if (ECAN1GetOperationMode() == _ECAN_MODE_NORMAL)
{
...
}
- ECAN library routine require you to specify the module you want to use. To select the desired ECAN
module, simply change the letter x in the routine prototype for a number from 1 to 2.
- Number of ECAN modules per MCU differs from chip to chip. Please, read the appropriate datasheet
before utilizing this library.
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ECANxInitialize
Prototype
void ECANxInitialize(unsigned int SJW, unsigned int BRP, unsigned int
PHSEG1, unsigned int PHSEG2, unsigned int PROPSEG, unsigned int ECAN_CONFIG_
FLAGS);
Description Initializes the ECAN module.
The internal ECAN module is set to:
- Disable ECAN capture
- Continue ECAN operation in Idle mode
- Abort all pending transmissions
- Clear all transmit control registers
- Fcan clock : Fcy (Fosc/2)
- Baud rate is set according to given parameters
- ECAN mode is set to Normal
- Filter and mask registers remain unchanged
SAM, SEG2PHTS, WAKFIL and DBEN bits are set according to the ECAN_CONFIG_FLAGS value.
Parameters - SJW as defined in MCU’s datasheet (ECAN Module)
- BRP as defined in MCU’s datasheet (ECAN Module)
- PHSEG1 as defined in MCU’s datasheet (ECAN Module)
- PHSEG2 as defined in MCU’s datasheet (ECAN Module)
- PROPSEG as defined in MCU’s datasheet (ECAN Module)
- ECAN_CONFIG_FLAGS ECAN module configuration flags. Each bit corresponds to the appropriate
ECAN module parameter. Should be formed out of predefined ECAN flag constants. See ECAN_
CONFIG_FLAGS constants.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
The ECAN routines are supported only by MCUs with the ECAN module.
Microcontroller must be connected to ECAN transceiver which is connected to the ECAN bus.
Example
Notes
327
// initialize the ECAN1 module with appropriate baud rate and message
acceptance flags along with the sampling rules
unsigned int ecan_config_flags;
...
ecan_config_flags = _ECAN_CONFIG_SAMPLE_THRICE &
// Form value to be
used
_ECAN_CONFIG_PHSEG2_PRG_ON &
//
with
ECANInitialize
_ECAN_CONFIG_XTD_MSG &
_ECAN_CONFIG_MATCH_MSG_TYPE &
_ECAN_CONFIG_LINE_FILTER_OFF;
ECAN1Initialize(1, 3, 3, 3, 1, ecan_config_flags);
module
// initialize the ECAN1
- ECAN mode NORMAL will be set on exit.
- ECAN library routine require you to specify the module you want to use. To select the desired ECAN
module, simply change the letter x in the routine prototype for a number from 1 to 2.
- Number of ECAN modules per MCU differs from chip to chip. Please, read the appropriate datasheet
before utilizing this library.
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ECANxSelectTxBuffers
Prototype
unsigned ECANxSelectTxBuffers(unsigned txselect);
Description The function designates the ECAN module’s transmit buffers.
Parameters - txselect: transmit buffer select. By setting bits in the txselect lower byte corresponding buffers are
enabled for transmition. The ECAN module supports up to 8 transmit buffers. Also, by clearing bits in
the txselect lower byte corresponding buffers are enabled for reception.
Returns
Requires
- 0 - if input parameter is valid
- 0xFFFF - if input parameter is invalid
The ECAN routines are supported only by MCUs with the ECAN module.
Microcontroller must be connected to ECAN transceiver which is connected to the ECAN bus.
The ECAN module must be initialized. See the ECANxInitialize routine.
Example
Notes
// Buffers 0 and 2 are enabled for transmition:
ECAN1SelectTxBuffers(0x0005);
- ECAN library routine require you to specify the module you want to use. To select the desired ECAN
module, simply change the letter x in the routine prototype for a number from 1 to 2.
- Number of ECAN modules per MCU differs from chip to chip. Please, read the appropriate datasheet
before utilizing this library.
ECANxFilterDisable
Prototype
void ECANxFilterDisable(unsigned fltdis);
Description The function disables receive filters.
Parameters - fltdis: filter disable selection parameter. Each bit corresponds to appropriate filter. By settung bit the
corresponding filter is to be disabled.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
The ECAN routines are supported only by MCUs with the ECAN module.
Microcontroller must be connected to ECAN transceiver which is connected to the ECAN bus.
The ECAN module must be initialized. See the ECANxInitialize routine.
Example
Notes
// Buffers 0 and 2 are enabled for transmition:
ECAN1SelectTxBuffers(0x0005);
- ECAN library routine require you to specify the module you want to use. To select the desired ECAN
module, simply change the letter x in the routine prototype for a number from 1 to 2.
- Number of ECAN modules per MCU differs from chip to chip. Please, read the appropriate datasheet
before utilizing this library.
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ECANxFilterEnable
Prototype
void ECANxFilterEnable(unsigned flten);
Description The function enables receive filters.
Parameters - flten: filter enable selection parameter. Each bit corresponds to appropriate filter. By setting bit the
corresponding filter will be enabled.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
The ECAN routines are supported only by MCUs with the ECAN module.
Microcontroller must be connected to ECAN transceiver which is connected to the ECAN bus.
The ECAN module must be initialized. See the ECANxInitialize routine.
Example
Notes
// Filters 0, 4, 8, 12 are to be enabled:
ECAN1FilterEnable(0x1111);
- ECAN library routine require you to specify the module you want to use. To select the desired ECAN
module, simply change the letter x in the routine prototype for a number from 1 to 2.
- Number of ECAN modules per MCU differs from chip to chip. Please, read the appropriate datasheet
before utilizing this library.
ECANxSetBufferSize
Prototype
unsigned ECANxSetBufferSize(unsigned Ecan1BuffSize);
Description The function configures the total number of receive and transmit buffers in DMA RAM.
Parameters - Ecan1BuffSize: Number of ECAN DMA RAM receive and transmit buffers. Valid values: 4, 6, 8,
12, 16, 24, 32. Each buffer is 16 bytes long.
Returns
Requires
- 0 - if input parameter is valid
- 0xFFFF - if input parameter is invalid
The ECAN routines are supported only by MCUs with the ECAN module.
Microcontroller must be connected to ECAN transceiver which is connected to the ECAN bus.
The ECAN module must be initialized. See the ECANxInitialize routine.
Example
Notes
329
// DMA RAM will have 16 rx+tx buffers
ECAN1SetBufferSize(16);
- The same value should be used for DMA RAM buffer definition in the ECan_Defs.h header file
located in the ECAN project folder.
- ECAN library routine require you to specify the module you want to use. To select the desired ECAN
module, simply change the letter x in the routine prototype for a number from 1 to 2.
- Number of ECAN modules per MCU differs from chip to chip. Please, read the appropriate datasheet
before utilizing this library.
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ECANxSetBaudRate
Prototype
void ECANxSetBaudRate(unsigned int SJW, unsigned int BRP, unsigned int
PHSEG1, unsigned int PHSEG2, unsigned int PROPSEG, unsigned int ECAN_CONFIG_
FLAGS);
Description Sets ECAN module baud rate. Due to complexity of the ECAN protocol, you can not simply force the
bps value. Instead, use this function when ECAN is in Config mode. Refer to datasheet for details.
SAM, SEG2PHTS and WAKFIL bits are set according to the ECAN_CONFIG_FLAGS value.
Parameters - SJW as defined in MCU’s datasheet (ECAN Module)
- BRP as defined in MCU’s datasheet (ECAN Module)
- PHSEG1 as defined in MCU’s datasheet (ECAN Module)
- PHSEG2 as defined in MCU’s datasheet (ECAN Module)
- PROPSEG as defined in MCU’s datasheet (ECAN Module)
- ECAN_CONFIG_FLAGS ECAN module configuration flags. Each bit corresponds to the appropriate
ECAN module parameter. Should be formed out of predefined ECAN flag constants. See ECAN_
CONFIG_FLAGS constants
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
The ECAN routines are supported only by MCUs with the ECAN module.
Microcontroller must be connected to ECAN transceiver which is connected to the ECAN bus.
The ECAN module must be in Config mode, otherwise the function will be ignored. See
ECANxSetOperationMode.
Example
// set required baud rate and sampling rules
unsigned int ecan_config_flags;
...
ECAN1SetOperationMode(_ECAN_MODE_CONFIG,0xFF);
// set CONFIGURATION
mode (ECAN1 module mast be in config mode for baud rate settings)
ecan_config_flags = _ECAN_CONFIG_SAMPLE_THRICE &
// Form value to
be used
_ECAN_CONFIG_PHSEG2_PRG_ON &
// with
ECAN1SetBaudRate
_ECAN_CONFIG_XTD_MSG &
_ECAN_CONFIG_MATCH_MSG_TYPE &
_ECAN_CONFIG_LINE_FILTER_OFF;
ECAN1SetBaudRate(1, 3, 3, 3, 1, ecan_config_flags);
// set ECAN1 module
baud rate
Notes
- ECAN library routine require you to specify the module you want to use. To select the desired ECAN
module, simply change the letter x in the routine prototype for a number from 1 to 2.
- Number of ECAN modules per MCU differs from chip to chip. Please, read the appropriate datasheet
before utilizing this library.
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ECANxSetMask
Prototype
void ECANxSetMask(unsigned int ECAN_MASK, long val, unsigned int ECAN_
CONFIG_FLAGS);
Description The function configures appropriate mask for advanced message filtering.
Parameters - ECAN_MASK: ECAN module mask number. Valid values: ECAN_MASK constants. See ECAN_MASK
constants.
- val: mask register value. This value is bit-adjusted to appropriate buffer mask registers
- ECAN_CONFIG_FLAGS: selects type of messages to filter. Valid values:
- _ECAN_CONFIG_ALL_VALID_MSG,
- _ECAN_CONFIG_MATCH_MSG_TYPE & _ECAN_CONFIG_STD_MSG,
- _ECAN_CONFIG_MATCH_MSG_TYPE & _ECAN_CONFIG_XTD_MSG.
Returns
Requires
See ECAN_CONFIG_FLAGS constants.
Nothing.
The ECAN routines are supported only by MCUs with the ECAN module.
Microcontroller must be connected to ECAN transceiver which is connected to the ECAN bus.
The ECAN module must be in Config mode, otherwise the function will be ignored. See
ECANxSetOperationMode.
Example
Notes
331
// set appropriate filter mask and message type value
ECAN1SetOperationMode(_ECAN_MODE_CONFIG,0xFF);
// set
CONFIGURATION mode (ECAN1 module must be in config mode for mask settings)
// Set all mask0 bits to 1 (all filtered bits are relevant):
// Note that -1 is just a cheaper way to write 0xFFFFFFFF.
// Complement will do the trick and fill it up with ones.
ECAN1SetMask(_ECAN_MASK_0, -1, _ECAN_CONFIG_MATCH_MSG_TYPE & _ECAN_CONFIG_
XTD_MSG);
- ECAN library routine require you to specify the module you want to use. To select the desired ECAN
module, simply change the letter x in the routine prototype for a number from 1 to 2.
- Number of ECAN modules per MCU differs from chip to chip. Please, read the appropriate datasheet
before utilizing this library.
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ECANxSetFilter
Prototype
void ECANxSetFilter(unsigned int ECAN_FILTER, long val, unsigned int ECAN_
FILTER_MASK, unsigned int ECAN_FILTER_RXBUFF, unsigned int ECAN_CONFIG_
FLAGS);
Description The function configures and enables appropriate message filter.
Parameters - ECAN_FILTER: ECAN module filter number. Valid values: ECAN_FILTER constants. See ECAN_
FILTER constants.
- val: filter register value. This value is bit-adjusted to appropriate filter registers
- ECAN_FILTER_MASK: mask register corresponding to filter. Valid values: ECAN_MASK constants.
See ECAN_MASK constants.
- ECAN_FILTER_RXBUFF: receive buffer corresponding to filter. Valid values: ECAN_RX_BUFFER
constants. See ECAN_RX_BUFFER constants.
- ECAN_CONFIG_FLAGS: selects type of messages to filter. Valid values: _ECAN_CONFIG_XTD_MSG
and _ECAN_CONFIG_STD_MSG. See ECAN_CONFIG_FLAGS constants.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
The ECAN routines are supported only by MCUs with the ECAN module.
Microcontroller must be connected to ECAN transceiver which is connected to the ECAN bus.
The ECAN module must be in Config mode, otherwise the function will be ignored. See
ECANxSetOperationMode.
Example
Notes
// set appropriate filter value and message type
ECAN1SetOperationMode(_ECAN_MODE_CONFIG,0xFF);
// set
CONFIGURATION mode (ECAN1 module must be in config mode for filter settings)
// Set id of filter 10 to 3, mask2, receive buffer 7, extended messages:
ECAN1SetFilter(_ECAN_FILTER_10, 3, _ECAN_MASK_2, _ECAN_RX_BUFFER_7, _ECAN_
CONFIG_XTD_MSG);
ECAN library routine require you to specify the module you want to use. To select the desired ECAN
module, simply change the letter x in the routine prototype for a number from 1 to 2.
Number of ECAN modules per MCU differs from chip to chip. Please, read the appropriate datasheet
before utilizing this library.
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ECANxRead
Prototype
unsigned int ECANxRead(unsigned long *id, char *data, unsigned int *dataLen,
unsigned int *ECAN_RX_MSG_FLAGS);
Description If at least one full Receive Buffer is found, it will be processed in the following way:
- Message ID is retrieved and stored to location pointed by the id pointer
- Message data is retrieved and stored to array pointed by the data pointer
- Message length is retrieved and stored to location pointed by the dataLen pointer
- Message flags are retrieved and stored to location pointed by the ECAN_RX_MSG_FLAGS pointer
Parameters - id: message identifier address
- data: an array of bytes up to 8 bytes in length
- dataLen: data length address
- ECAN_RX_MSG_FLAGS: message flags address. For message receive flags format refer to the
ECAN_RX_MSG_FLAGS constants. See ECAN_RX_MSG_FLAGS constants.
Returns
Requires
- 0 if none of Receive Buffers is full
- 0xFFFF if at least one of Receive Buffers is full (message received)
The ECAN routines are supported only by MCUs with the ECAN module.
Microcontroller must be connected to ECAN transceiver which is connected to the ECAN bus.
The ECAN module must be in a mode in which receiving is possible. See ECANxSetOperationMode.
Example
Notes
333
// check the ECAN1 module for received messages. If any was received do
something.
unsigned int msg_rcvd, rx_flags, data_len;
char data[8];
unsigned long msg_id;
...
ECAN1SetOperationMode(_ECAN_MODE_NORMAL,0xFF);
// set NORMAL
mode (ECAN1 module must be in a mode in which receiving is possible)
...
rx_flags = 0;
// clear
message flags
if (msg_rcvd = ECAN1Read(&msg_id, data, &data_len, &rx_flags)) {
...
}
- ECAN library routine require you to specify the module you want to use. To select the desired ECAN
module, simply change the letter x in the routine prototype for a number from 1 to 2.
- Number of ECAN modules per MCU differs from chip to chip. Please, read the appropriate datasheet
before utilizing this library.
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ECANxWrite
Prototype
unsigned int ECANxWrite(long id, char *Data, unsigned int DataLen, unsigned
int ECAN_TX_MSG_FLAGS);
Description If at least one empty Transmit Buffer is found, the function sends message in the queue for
transmission.
Parameters - id: ECAN message identifier. Valid values: all 11 or 29 bit values, depending on message type
(standard or extended)
- Data: data to be sent
- DataLen: data length. Valid values: 0..8
- ECAN_TX_MSG_FLAGS: message flags. Valid values: ECAN_TX_MSG_FLAGS constants. See ECAN_
TX_MSG_FLAGS constants.
Returns
Requires
- 0 if all Transmit Buffers are busy
- 0xFFFF if at least one Transmit Buffer is empty and available for transmition
The ECAN routines are supported only by MCUs with the ECAN module.
Microcontroller must be connected to ECAN transceiver which is connected to the ECAN bus.
The ECAN module must
ECANxSetOperationMode.
Example
Notes
be
in
a
mode
in
which
transmission
is
possible.
See
// send message extended ECAN message with appropriate ID and data
unsigned int tx_flags;
char data[8];
unsigned long msg_id;
...
ECAN1SetOperationMode(_ECAN_MODE_NORMAL,0xFF);
// set NORMAL mode
(ECAN1 must be in a mode in which transmission is possible)
tx_flags = _ECAN_TX_PRIORITY_0 &
_ECAN_TX_XTD_FRAME &
_ECAN_TX_NO_RTR_FRAME;
ECAN1Write(msg_id, data, 1, tx_flags);
// set message flags
- ECAN library routine require you to specify the module you want to use. To select the desired ECAN
module, simply change the letter x in the routine prototype for a number from 1 to 2.
- Number of ECAN modules per MCU differs from chip to chip. Please, read the appropriate datasheet
before utilizing this library.
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ECAN Constants
There is a number of constants predefined in the ECAN library. You need to be familiar with them in order to be able to
use the library effectively. Check the example at the end of the chapter.
ECAN_OP_MODE Constants
The ECAN_OP_MODE constants define ECAN operation mode. The routine ECANxSetOperationMode expect one of
these as their argument:
Copy Code To Clipboard
const unsigned int
_ECAN_MODE_BITS
_ECAN_MODE_NORMAL
_ECAN_MODE_DISABLE
_ECAN_MODE_LOOP
_ECAN_MODE_LISTEN
_ECAN_MODE_CONFIG
_ECAN_MODE_LISTEN_ALL
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
0x00E0,
0x00,
0x01,
0x02,
0x03,
0x04,
0x07;
// Use this to access opmode
bits
ECAN_CONFIG_FLAGS Constants
The ECAN_CONFIG_FLAGS constants define flags related to the ECAN module configuration. The routines
ECANxInitialize and ECANxSetBaudRate expect one of these (or a bitwise combination) as their argument:
Copy Code To Clipboard
const unsigned int
_ECAN_CONFIG_DEFAULT
= 0xFF,
// 11111111
= 0x01,
= 0xFF,
= 0xFE,
// XXXXXXX1
// XXXXXXX0
_ECAN_CONFIG_LINE_FILTER_BIT = 0x02,
_ECAN_CONFIG_LINE_FILTER_ON = 0xFF,
_ECAN_CONFIG_LINE_FILTER_OFF = 0xFD,
// XXXXXX1X
// XXXXXX0X
_ECAN_CONFIG_SAMPLE_BIT
_ECAN_CONFIG_SAMPLE_ONCE
_ECAN_CONFIG_SAMPLE_THRICE
= 0x04,
= 0xFF,
= 0xFB,
// XXXXX1XX
// XXXXX0XX
_ECAN_CONFIG_MSG_TYPE_BIT
_ECAN_CONFIG_STD_MSG
_ECAN_CONFIG_XTD_MSG
= 0x08,
= 0xFF,
= 0xF7,
// XXXX1XXX
// XXXX0XXX
_ECAN_CONFIG_MATCH_TYPE_BIT
_ECAN_CONFIG_ALL_VALID_MSG
_ECAN_CONFIG_MATCH_MSG_TYPE
= 0x20,
= 0xDF,
= 0xFF;
// XX0XXXXX
// XX1XXXXX
_ECAN_CONFIG_PHSEG2_PRG_BIT
_ECAN_CONFIG_PHSEG2_PRG_ON
_ECAN_CONFIG_PHSEG2_PRG_OFF
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You may use bitwise AND (&) to form config word out of these values. For example:
Copy Code To Clipboard
init = _ECAN_CONFIG_SAMPLE_THRICE &
_ECAN_CONFIG_PHSEG2_PRG_ON &
_ECAN_CONFIG_STD_MSG
&
_ECAN_CONFIG_MATCH_MSG_TYPE &
_ECAN_CONFIG_LINE_FILTER_OFF;
...
ECAN1Initialize(1, 1, 3, 3, 1, init);
// initialize ECAN1
ECAN_TX_MSG_FLAGS Constants
ECAN_TX_MSG_FLAGS are flags related to transmission of ECAN message. The routine ECANxWrite expect one of
these (or a bitwise combination) as their argument:
Copy Code To Clipboard
const unsigned int
_ECAN_TX_PRIORITY_BITS
_ECAN_TX_PRIORITY_0
_ECAN_TX_PRIORITY_1
_ECAN_TX_PRIORITY_2
_ECAN_TX_PRIORITY_3
_ECAN_TX_FRAME_BIT
_ECAN_TX_STD_FRAME
_ECAN_TX_XTD_FRAME
=
=
=
=
=
0x03,
0xFC,
0xFD,
0xFE,
0xFF,
//
//
//
//
XXXXXX00
XXXXXX01
XXXXXX10
XXXXXX11
= 0x08,
= 0xFF,
= 0xF7,
// XXXXX1XX
// XXXXX0XX
_ECAN_TX_RTR_BIT
= 0x40,
_ECAN_TX_NO_RTR_FRAME = 0xFF,
_ECAN_TX_RTR_FRAME
= 0xBF;
// X1XXXXXX
// X0XXXXXX
You may use bitwise AND (&) to adjust the appropriate flags. For example:
Copy Code To Clipboard
// form value to be used with CANSendMessage:
send_config = _ECAN_TX_PRIORITY_0 &
_ECAN_TX_XTD_FRAME &
_ECAN_TX_NO_RTR_FRAME;
...
ECAN1SendMessage(id, data, 1, send_config);
ECAN_RX_MSG_FLAGS Constants
ECAN_RX_MSG_FLAGS are flags related to reception of ECAN message. If a particular bit is set then corresponding
meaning is TRUE or else it will be FALSE.
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Copy Code To Clipboard
const unsigned int
_ECAN_RX_FILTER_BITS
_ECAN_RX_FILTER_0
_ECAN_RX_FILTER_1
_ECAN_RX_FILTER_2
_ECAN_RX_FILTER_3
_ECAN_RX_FILTER_4
_ECAN_RX_FILTER_5
_ECAN_RX_FILTER_6
_ECAN_RX_FILTER_7
_ECAN_RX_FILTER_8
_ECAN_RX_FILTER_9
_ECAN_RX_FILTER_10
_ECAN_RX_FILTER_11
_ECAN_RX_FILTER_12
_ECAN_RX_FILTER_13
_ECAN_RX_FILTER_14
_ECAN_RX_FILTER_15
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
0x000F,
0x00,
0x01,
0x02,
0x03,
0x04,
0x05,
0x06,
0x07,
0x08,
0x09,
0x0A,
0x0B,
0x0C,
0x0D,
0x0E,
0x0F,
//
//
//
//
_ECAN_RX_OVERFLOW
_ECAN_RX_INVALID_MSG
_ECAN_RX_XTD_FRAME
_ECAN_RX_RTR_FRAME
=
=
=
=
0x10,
0x20,
0x40,
0x80;
//
//
//
//
Use this to access filter bits
filter0 match
filter1 match
...
// ...
// filter15 match
Set
Set
Set
Set
if
if
if
if
Overflowed else cleared
invalid else cleared
XTD message else cleared
RTR message else cleared
You may use bitwise AND (&) to extract received message status. For example:
Copy Code To Clipboard
if (MsgFlag & _ECAN_RX_OVERFLOW != 0) {
...
// Receiver overflow has occurred.
// We have lost our previous message.
}
ECAN_MASK Constants
The ECAN_MASK constants define mask codes. The routine ECANxSetMask expect one of these as their argument:
Copy Code To Clipboard
const unsigned int
_ECAN_MASK_0 = 0,
_ECAN_MASK_1 = 1,
_ECAN_MASK_2 = 2;
ECAN_FILTER Constants
The ECAN_FILTER constants define filter codes. The routine ECANxSetFilter expect one of these as their argument:
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Copy Code To Clipboard
const unsigned int
_ECAN_FILTER_0
_ECAN_FILTER_1
_ECAN_FILTER_2
_ECAN_FILTER_3
_ECAN_FILTER_4
_ECAN_FILTER_5
_ECAN_FILTER_6
_ECAN_FILTER_7
_ECAN_FILTER_8
_ECAN_FILTER_9
_ECAN_FILTER_10
_ECAN_FILTER_11
_ECAN_FILTER_12
_ECAN_FILTER_13
_ECAN_FILTER_14
_ECAN_FILTER_15
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
0,
1,
2,
3,
4,
5,
6,
7,
8,
9,
10,
11,
12,
13,
14,
15;
ECAN_RX_BUFFER Constants
The ECAN_RX_BUFFER constants define RX bufer codes codes. The routine ECANxSetFilter expect one of these as
their argument:
Copy Code To Clipboard
const unsigned int
_ECAN_RX_BUFFER_0
_ECAN_RX_BUFFER_1
_ECAN_RX_BUFFER_2
_ECAN_RX_BUFFER_3
_ECAN_RX_BUFFER_4
_ECAN_RX_BUFFER_5
_ECAN_RX_BUFFER_6
_ECAN_RX_BUFFER_7
_ECAN_RX_BUFFER_8
_ECAN_RX_BUFFER_9
_ECAN_RX_BUFFER_10
_ECAN_RX_BUFFER_11
_ECAN_RX_BUFFER_12
_ECAN_RX_BUFFER_13
_ECAN_RX_BUFFER_14
_ECAN_RX_BUFFER_15
MikroElektronika
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
0,
1,
2,
3,
4,
5,
6,
7,
8,
9,
10,
11,
12,
13,
14,
15;
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mikroC PRO for dsPIC
Library Example
The example demonstrates ECAN protocol. The 1st node initiates the communication with the 2nd node by sending
some data to its address. The 2nd node responds by sending back the data incremented by 1. The 1st node then does
the same and sends incremented data back to the 2nd node, etc.
Code for the first ECAN node:
Copy Code To Clipboard
#include “ECAN_Defs.h”
unsigned int Can_Init_Flags, Can_Send_Flags, Can_Rcv_Flags; // can flags
unsigned int Rx_Data_Len;
// received data length in bytes
char RxTx_Data[8];
// can rx/tx data buffer
char Msg_Rcvd;
// reception flag
unsigned long Tx_ID, Rx_ID;
// can rx and tx ID
void C1Interrupt(void) org 0x005A {
IFS2bits.C1IF = 0;
if(C1INTFbits.TBIF) {
C1INTFbits.TBIF = 0;
}
}
if(C1INTFbits.RBIF) {
C1INTFbits.RBIF = 0;
}
//
//
//
//
ECAN event iterrupt
clear ECAN interrupt flag
was it tx interrupt?
if yes clear tx interrupt flag
// was it rx interrupt?
// if yes clear rx interrupt flag
void main() {
// Set PLL : Fosc = ((Fin/PLLPRE)*PLLDIV)/PLLPOST ; (((10MHz/2)*32)/4) = 20MHz
// refer the pic24 family datasheet for more details
CLKDIV &= 0xFFE0; //CLKDIVbits.PLLPRE = 0;
PLLFBD = 0x1E;
//PLLFBDbits.PLLDIV = 0x1E;
CLKDIV &= 0xFF3F; //CLKDIVbits.PLLPOST = 1;
CLKDIV |= 0x00C0;
AD1PCFGH = 0xFFFF;
AD1PCFGL = 0xFFFF;
AD2PCFGL = 0xFFFF;
//
// all ports digital I/O
//
/* Clear Interrupt Flags */
IFS0=0;
IFS1=0;
IFS2=0;
IFS3=0;
IFS4=0;
/* Enable ECAN1 Interrupt */
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MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
IEC2bits.C1IE
= 1;
C1INTEbits.TBIE = 1;
C1INTEbits.RBIE = 1;
// enable ECAN1 interrupts
// enable ECAN1 tx interrupt
// enable ECAN1 rx interrupt
PORTB = 0;
TRISB = 0;
displaying
// clear PORTB
// set PORTB as output,
// for received message data
Can_Init_Flags = 0;
Can_Send_Flags = 0;
Can_Rcv_Flags = 0;
//
// clear flags
//
Can_Send_Flags = _ECAN_TX_PRIORITY_0 &
_ECAN_TX_XTD_FRAME &
_ECAN_TX_NO_RTR_FRAME;
// Form value to be used
// with CANSendMessage
Can_Init_Flags = _ECAN_CONFIG_SAMPLE_THRICE &
_ECAN_CONFIG_PHSEG2_PRG_ON &
_ECAN_CONFIG_XTD_MSG &
_ECAN_CONFIG_MATCH_MSG_TYPE &
_ECAN_CONFIG_LINE_FILTER_OFF;
// Form value to be used
// with CANInitialize
RxTx_Data[0] = 9;
ECAN1DmaChannelInit(0, 1, &ECAN1RxTxRAMBuffer);
// set initial data to be sent
// init dma channel 0 for
// dma to ECAN peripheral transfer
// init dma channel 2 for
// ECAN peripheral to dma transfer
// initialize ECAN
// set number of rx+tx buffers in
ECAN1DmaChannelInit(2, 0, &ECAN1RxTxRAMBuffer);
ECAN1Initialize(1, 3, 3, 3, 1, Can_Init_Flags);
ECAN1SetBufferSize(ECAN1RAMBUFFERSIZE);
DMA RAM
ECAN1SelectTxBuffers(0x000F);
// select transmit buffers
// 0x000F = buffers 0:3 are transmit buffers
ECAN1SetOperationMode(_ECAN_MODE_CONFIG,0xFF);
// set CONFIGURATION mode
ECAN1SetMask(_ECAN_MASK_0, -1, _ECAN_CONFIG_MATCH_MSG_TYPE & _ECAN_CONFIG_XTD_MSG);
// set all mask1 bits to ones
ECAN1SetMask(_ECAN_MASK_1, -1, _ECAN_CONFIG_MATCH_MSG_TYPE & _ECAN_CONFIG_XTD_MSG);
// set all mask2 bits to ones
ECAN1SetMask(_ECAN_MASK_2, -1, _ECAN_CONFIG_MATCH_MSG_TYPE & _ECAN_CONFIG_XTD_MSG);
// set all mask3 bits to ones
ECAN1SetFilter(_ECAN_FILTER_10, 3, _ECAN_MASK_2, _ECAN_RX_BUFFER_7, _ECAN_CONFIG_XTD_
MSG); // set id of filter10 to 3,
//
assign mask2 to filter10
//
assign buffer7 to filter10
ECAN1SetOperationMode(_ECAN_MODE_NORMAL, 0xFF); // set NORMAL mode
Tx_ID = 12111;
MikroElektronika
// set transmit ID
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mikroC PRO for dsPIC
ECAN1Write(Tx_ID, RxTx_Data, 1, Can_Send_Flags);
// send initial message
while (1) {
// endless loop
Msg_Rcvd = ECAN1Read(&Rx_ID , RxTx_Data , &Rx_Data_Len, &Can_Rcv_Flags); // receive
message
if ((Rx_ID == 3u) && Msg_Rcvd) {
// if message received check id
PORTB = RxTx_Data[0];
// id correct, output data at PORTB
RxTx_Data[0]++ ;
// increment received data
Delay_ms(10);
ECAN1Write(Tx_ID, RxTx_Data, 1, Can_Send_Flags); // send incremented data back
}
}
}
Code for the second ECAN node:
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#include "__Lib_ECAN1_Defs.h"
unsigned int Can_Init_Flags, Can_Send_Flags, Can_Rcv_Flags; // can flags
unsigned int Rx_Data_Len;
// received data length in
bytes
char RxTx_Data[8];
// can rx/tx data buffer
char Msg_Rcvd;
// reception flag
unsigned long Tx_ID, Rx_ID;
// can rx and tx ID
void C1Interrupt(void) org 0x005A {
IFS2bits.C1IF = 0;
if(C1INTFbits.TBIF) {
C1INTFbits.TBIF = 0;
}
}
if(C1INTFbits.RBIF) {
C1INTFbits.RBIF = 0;
}
// ECAN event iterrupt
// clear ECAN interrupt flag
// was it tx interrupt?
// if yes clear tx interrupt flag
// was it rx interrupt?
// if yes clear rx interrupt flag
void main() {
// Set PLL : Fosc = ((Fin/PLLPRE)*PLLDIV)/PLLPOST ; (((10MHz/2)*32)/4) = 20MHz
// refer the pic24 family datasheet for more details
CLKDIV &= 0xFFE0; //CLKDIVbits.PLLPRE = 0;
PLLFBD = 0x1E;
//PLLFBDbits.PLLDIV = 0x1E;
CLKDIV &= 0xFF3F; //CLKDIVbits.PLLPOST = 1;
CLKDIV |= 0x00C0;
AD1PCFGH = 0xFFFF;
AD1PCFGL = 0xFFFF;
AD2PCFGL = 0xFFFF;
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//
// all ports digital I/O
//
MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
/* Enable ECAN1 Interrupt */
IEC2bits.C1IE
= 1;
C1INTEbits.TBIE = 1;
C1INTEbits.RBIE = 1;
PORTB = 0;
TRISB = 0;
// enable ECAN1 interrupt
// enable ECAN1 tx interrupt
// enable ECAN1 rx interrupt
// clear PORTB
// set PORTB as output,
// for received message data displaying
Can_Init_Flags = 0;
Can_Send_Flags = 0;
Can_Rcv_Flags = 0;
//
// clear flags
//
Can_Send_Flags = _ECAN_TX_PRIORITY_0 &
_ECAN_TX_XTD_FRAME &
_ECAN_TX_NO_RTR_FRAME;
// Form value to be used
// with CANSendMessage
Can_Init_Flags = _ECAN_CONFIG_SAMPLE_THRICE &
_ECAN_CONFIG_PHSEG2_PRG_ON &
_ECAN_CONFIG_XTD_MSG &
_ECAN_CONFIG_MATCH_MSG_TYPE &
_ECAN_CONFIG_LINE_FILTER_OFF;
// Form value to be used
// with CANInitialize
ECAN1DmaChannelInit(0, 1, &ECAN1RxTxRAMBuffer);
// init dma channel 0 for
// dma to ECAN peripheral transfer
ECAN1DmaChannelInit(2, 0, &ECAN1RxTxRAMBuffer); // init dma channel 2 for
// ECAN peripheral to dma transfer
ECAN1Initialize(1, 3, 3, 3, 1, Can_Init_Flags); // initialize ECAN
ECAN1SetBufferSize(ECAN1RAMBUFFERSIZE);
// set number of rx+tx buffers in DMA RAM
ECAN1SelectTxBuffers(0x000F);
// select transmit buffers
// 0x000F = buffers 0:3 are transmit buffers
ECAN1SetOperationMode(_ECAN_MODE_CONFIG,0xFF);
// set CONFIGURATION mode
ECAN1SetMask(_ECAN_MASK_0, -1, _ECAN_CONFIG_MATCH_MSG_TYPE & _ECAN_CONFIG_XTD_MSG);
// set all mask1 bits to ones
ECAN1SetMask(_ECAN_MASK_1, -1, _ECAN_CONFIG_MATCH_MSG_TYPE & _ECAN_CONFIG_XTD_MSG);
// set all mask2 bits to ones
ECAN1SetMask(_ECAN_MASK_2, -1, _ECAN_CONFIG_MATCH_MSG_TYPE & _ECAN_CONFIG_XTD_MSG);
// set all mask3 bits to ones
ECAN1SetFilter(_ECAN_FILTER_10, 12111, _ECAN_MASK_2, _ECAN_RX_BUFFER_7, _ECAN_CONFIG_
XTD_MSG); // set id of filter10 to 12111,
// assign mask2 to filter10
// assign buffer7 to filter10
ECAN1SetOperationMode(_ECAN_MODE_NORMAL,0xFF);
// set NORMAL mode
Tx_ID = 3;
// set tx ID
while (1) {
Msg_Rcvd = ECAN1Read(&Rx_ID , RxTx_Data , &Rx_Data_Len, &Can_Rcv_Flags); // receive
message
if ((Rx_ID == 12111u) && Msg_Rcvd) {
// if message received check id
PORTB = RxTx_Data[0];
// id correct, output data at PORTB
RxTx_Data[0]++ ;
// increment received data
ECAN1Write(Tx_ID, RxTx_Data, 1, Can_Send_Flags); // send incremented data back
}
}
}
MikroElektronika
342
mikroC PRO for dsPIC
HW Connection
Example of interfacing ECAN transceiver with MCU and bus
EEPROM Library
EEPROM data memory is available with a number of dsPIC30 family and some PIC24 family MCU's. The mikroC PRO
for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 includes a library for comfortable work with MCU's internal EEPROM.
Important : Only PIC24F08KA102 and PIC24F16KA102 of PIC24 family of MCUs have EEPROM memory.
Library Routines
343
- EEPROM_Erase
- EEPROM_Erase_Block
- EEPROM_Read
- EEPROM_Write
- EEPROM_Write_Block
MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
EEPROM_Erase
Prototype
void EEPROM_Erase(unsigned long address);
Description Erases a single (16-bit) location from EEPROM memory.
Parameters - address: address of the EEPROM memory location to be erased.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Nothing.
Example
Notes
unsigned long eeAddr = 0x7FFC80;
...
EEPROM_Erase(eeAddr);
CPU is not halted for the Data Erase cycle. The user can poll WR bit, use NVMIF or Timer IRQ to
detect the end of erase sequence.
EEPROM_Erase_Block
Prototype
void EEPROM_Erase_Block(unsigned long address);
Description Erases one EEPROM row from EEPROM memory; For dsPIC30 family it is 16 words long, for
24F04KA201 and 24F16KA102 family it is 8 words long.
Parameters - address: starting address of the EEPROM memory block to be erased.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Nothing.
Example
Notes
unsigned long eeAddr = 0x7FFC20;
...
EEPROM_Erase_Block(eeAddr);
CPU is not halted for the Data Erase cycle. The user can poll WR bit, use NVMIF or Timer IRQ to
detect the end of erase sequence.
EEPROM_Read
Prototype
unsigned int EEPROM_Read(unsigned long address);
Description Reads data from specified address.
Parameters - address: address of the EEPROM memory location to be read.
Returns
Word from the specified address.
Requires
It is the user’s responsibility to obtain proper address parity (in this case, even).
Example
Notes
unsigned long eeAddr = 0x7FFC20;
unsigned int temp;
...
temp = EEPROM_Read(eeAddr);
None.
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mikroC PRO for dsPIC
EEPROM_Write
Prototype
void EEPROM_Write(unsigned long address, unsigned int data_);
Description Writes data to specified address.
Parameters - address: address of the EEPROM memory location to be written.
- data: data to be written.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Nothing.
Example
Notes
unsigned int eeWrite = 0xAAAA;
unsigned long wrAddr = 0x7FFC30;
...
EEPROM_Write(wrAddr, eeWrite);
Specified memory location will be erased before writing starts.
EEPROM_Write_Block
Prototype
void EEPROM_Write_Block(unsigned long address, unsigned int *data);
Description Writes one EEPROM row (16 words block) of data.
Parameters - address: starting address of the EEPROM memory block to be written.
- data: data block to be written.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
It is the user’s responsibility to maintain proper address alignment. In this case, address has to be a
multiply of 32, which is the size (in bytes) of one row of MCU’s EEPROM memory.
Example
Notes
unsigned int eeWrite = 0xAAAA;
unsigned long wrAddr = 0x7FFC30;
...
EEPROM_Write(wrAddr, eeWrite);
Specified memory block will be erased before writing starts.
This routine is not applicable to the 24F04KA201 and 24F16KA102 family of MCUs, due to the
architecture specifics.
Library Example
This project demonstrates usage of EEPROM library functions for dsPIC30F4013. Each EEPROM (16-bit) location can
be written to individually, or in 16-word blocks, which is somewhat faster than the former. If Writing in blocks, EEPROM
data start address must be a multiply of 16. Please read Help for more details on the library functions!
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unsigned int eeData;
unsigned long eeAddr;
unsigned int dArr[16];
void main() {
unsigned i;
345
MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
ADPCFG = 0xFFFF;
// Disable analog inputs
TRISB = 0;
LATB = 0xFFFF;
eeAddr = 0x7FFC00;
eeData = 0;
// PORTB as output
// Start address of EEPROM
// Data to be written
while (eeData <= 0x00FF) {
EEPROM_Write(eeAddr, eeData++);
while(WR_bit);
LATB = EEPROM_Read(eeAddr);
//
//
//
//
//
eeAddr += 2;
}
Delay_ms(30);
Delay_ms(1000);
eeData = 0xAAAA;
for (i=0; i<16; i++){
dArr[i] = eeData;
eeData = ~eeData;
}
// Wait 1 second.
// Initializing array of 16 integers with data
EEPROM_Write_Block(0x7FFC20, dArr);
while(WR_bit)
;
}
Write data into EEPROM
Wait for write to finish,
then, read the just-written
data.
Next address of EEPROM memory location
eeAddr = 0x7FFC20;
for (i=0; i<16; i++){
LATB = EEPROM_Read(eeAddr);
eeAddr += 2;
Delay_ms(500);
}
MikroElektronika
// Write entire row of EEPROM data
// Wait for write to finish
// Address of EEPROM where reading should start
// Read the data back
// and show it on PORTB
// Next address of EEPROM memory location
346
mikroC PRO for dsPIC
Epson S1D13700 Graphic Lcd Library
The mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 provides a library for working with Glcds based on Epson S1D13700
controller.
The S1D13700 Glcd is capable of displaying both text and graphics on an LCD panel. The S1D13700 Glcd allows
layered text and graphics, scrolling of the display in any direction, and partitioning of the display into multiple screens.
It includes 32K bytes of embedded SRAM display memory which is used to store text, character codes, and bit-mapped
graphics.
The S1D13700 Glcd handles display controller functions including :
- Transferring data from the controlling microprocessor to the buffer memory
- Reading memory data, converting data to display pixels
- Generating timing signals for the LCD panel
The S1D13700 Glcd is designed with an internal character generator which supports 160, 5x7 pixel characters in
internal mask ROM (CGROM) and 64, 8x8 pixel characters incharacter generator RAM (CGRAM).
When the CGROM is not used, up to 256, 8x16 pixel characters are supported in CGRAM.
External dependencies of the Epson S1D13700 Graphic Lcd Library
The following variables must
be defined in all projects using Description :
S1D13700 Graphic Lcd library:
extern
DATA;
sfr
char
S1D13700_
Example :
char S1D13700_DATA at PORTD;
System data bus.
extern sfr sbit S1D13700_WR; Write signal.
sbit S1D13700_WR at LATC2_bit;
extern sfr sbit S1D13700_A0; System Address pin.
sbit S1D13700_A0 at LATC0_bit;
extern sfr sbit S1D13700_RD; Read signal.
extern
RES;
sfr
sbit
S1D13700_
sbit S1D13700_RD at LATC1_bit;
sbit S1D13700_RES at LATC4_bit;
Reset signal.
extern sfr sbit S1D13700_CS; Chip select.
sbit S1D13700_CS at LATC4_bit;
extern sfr sbit S1D13700_WR_
Direction of the Write pin.
Direction;
sbit S1D13700_WR_Direction
TRISC2_bit;
at
System sbit S1D13700_A0_Direction
TRISC2_bit;
at
extern sfr sbit
DATA_Direction;
S1D13700_ Direction of the system data sbit S1D13700_DATA_Direction at
TRISD;
bus pins.
extern sfr sbit S1D13700_RD_
Direction of the Read pin.
Direction;
extern sfr sbit S1D13700_A0_ Direction of
Direction;
Address pin.
extern sfr sbit
RES_Direction;
S1D13700_
the
Direction of the Reset pin.
sbit S1D13700_RD_Direction
TRISC1_bit;
at
sbit S1D13700_RES_Direction
TRISC0_bit;
at
extern sfr sbit S1D13700_CS_ Direction of the Chip select sbit S1D13700_CS_Direction
Direction;
TRISC4_bit;
pin.
347
at
MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
Library Routines
- S1D13700_Init
- S1D13700_Write_Command
- S1D13700_Write_Parameter
- S1D13700_Read_Parameter
- S1D13700_Fill
- S1D13700_GrFill
- S1D13700_TxtFill
- S1D13700_Display_GrLayer
- S1D13700_Display_TxtLayer
- S1D13700_Set_Cursor
- S1D13700_Display_Cursor
- S1D13700_Write_Char
- S1D13700_Write_Text
- S1D13700_Dot
- S1D13700_Line
- S1D13700_H_Line
- S1D13700_V_Line
- S1D13700_Rectangle
- S1D13700_Box
- S1D13700_Rectangle_Round_Edges
- S1D13700_Rectangle_Round_Edges_Fill
- S1D13700_Circle
- S1D13700_Circle_Fill
- S1D13700_Image
- S1D13700_PartialImage
MikroElektronika
348
mikroC PRO for dsPIC
S1D13700_Init
Prototype
void S1D13700_Init(unsigned int width, unsigned char height);
Returns
Nothing.
Description Initializes S1D13700 Graphic Lcd controller.
Parameters :
Requires
- width: width of the Glcd panel.
- height: height of the Glcd panel.
Global variables :
- S1D13700_Data_Port: Data Bus Port.
- S1D13700_WR: Write signal pin.
- S1D13700_RD: Read signal pin.
- S1D13700_A0: Command/Data signal pin.
- S1D13700_RES: Reset signal pin.
- S1D13700_CS: Chip Select signal pin.
- S1D13700_Data_Port_Direction: Data Bus Port Direction.
- S1D13700_WR_Direction: Direction of Write signal pin.
- S1D13700_RD_Direction: Direction of Read signal pin.
- S1D13700_A0_Direction: Direction of Command/Data signal pin.
- S1D13700_RES_Direction: Direction of Reset signal pin.
- S1D13700_CS_Direction: Direction of Chip Select signal pin.
must be defined before using this function.
Example
// S1D13700 module connections
char S1D13700_Data_Port at PORTD;
sbit S1D13700_WR at LATC2_bit;
sbit S1D13700_RD at LATC1_bit;
sbit S1D13700_A0 at LATC0_bit;
sbit S1D13700_RES at LATC4_bit;
sbit S1D13700_CS at LATC5_bit;
char S1D13700_Data_Port_Direction at TRISD;
sbit S1D13700_WR_Direction at TRISC2_bit;
sbit S1D13700_RD_Direction at TRISC1_bit;
sbit S1D13700_A0_Direction at TRISC0_bit;
sbit S1D13700_RES_Direction at TRISC4_bit;
sbit S1D13700_CS_Direction at TRISC5_bit;
// End of S1D13700 module connections
...
// init display for 320 pixel width, 240 pixel height
S1D13700_Init(320, 240);
349
MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
S1D13700_Write_Command
Prototype
void S1D13700_Write_Command(char command);
Returns
Nothing.
Description Writes a command to S1D13700 controller.
Parameters :
- command: command to be issued :
Value
Description
S1D13700_SYSTEM_SET
General system settings.
S1D13700_POWER_SAVE
Enter into power saving mode.
S1D13700_DISP_OFF
Turn the display off.
S1D13700_DISP_ON
Turn the display on.
S1D13700_SCROLL
Setup text and graphics address
regions.
S1D13700_CS_RIGHT
Cursor moves right after write to display
memory.
S1D13700_CS_LEFT
Cursor moves left after write to display
memory.
S1D13700_CS_UP
Cursor moves up after write to display
memory.
S1D13700_CS_DOWN
Cursor moves down after write to
display memory.
S1D13700_OVLAY
Configure how layers overlay.
S1D13700_CGRAM_ADR
Configure character generator RAM
address.
S1D13700_HDOT_SCR
Set horizontal scroll rate.
S1D13700_CSRW
S1D13700_CSRR
S1D13700_GRAYSCALE
S1D13700_MEMWRITE
S1D13700_MEMREAD
Set the cursor address.
Read the cursor address.
Selects the gray scale depth, in bits-perpixel (bpp).
Write to display memory.
Read from display memory.
Requires
Glcd module needs to be initialized. See the S1D13700_Init routine.
Example
// Turn the display on
S1D13700_Write_Command(S1D13700_DISP_ON);
MikroElektronika
350
mikroC PRO for dsPIC
S1D13700_Write_Parameter
Prototype
void S1D13700_Write_Parameter(char parameter);
Returns
Nothing.
Description Writes a parameter to S1D13700 controller.
Parameters :
Requires
- parameter: parameter to be written.
Glcd module needs to be initialized. See the S1D13700_Init routine.
Previously, a command must be sent through S1D13700_Write_Command routine.
Example
S1D13700_Write_Command(S1D13700_CSRW); // set cursor address
S1D13700_Write_Parameter(Lo(start)); // send lower byte of cursor address
S1D13700_Write_Parameter(Hi(start)); // send higher byte cursor address
S1D13700_Read_Parameter
Prototype
char S1D13700_Read_Parameter();
Returns
Nothing.
Description Reads a parameter from GLCD port.
Requires
Glcd module needs to be initialized. See the S1D13700_Init routine.
Example
parameter = S1D13700_Read_Parameter();
S1D13700_Fill
Prototype
void S1D13700_Fill(char d, unsigned int start, unsigned int len);
Returns
Nothing.
Description Fills Glcd memory block with given byte.
Parameters :
Requires
Example
351
- d: byte to be written.
- start: starting address of the memory block.
- len: length of the memory block in bytes.
Glcd module needs to be initialized. See the S1D13700_Init routine.
// from the starting address of 0x3000, fill the memory block size of 0x7FFF
with 0x20
S1D13700_Fill(0x20, 0x3000, 0x7FFF);
MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
S1D13700_GrFill
Prototype
void S1D13700_GrFill(char d);
Returns
Nothing.
Description Fill graphic layer with appropriate value (0 to clear).
Parameters :
Requires
Example
- d: value to fill graphic layer with.
Glcd module needs to be initialized. See the S1D13700_Init routine.
// clear current graphic panel
S1D13700_GrFill(0);
S1D13700_TxtFill
Prototype
void S1D13700_TxtFill(char d);
Returns
Nothing.
Description Fill current text panel with appropriate value (0 to clear).
Parameters :
Requires
Example
- d: this value will be used to fill text panel.
Glcd module needs to be initialized. See the S1D13700_Init routine.
// clear current text panel
S1D13700_TxtFill(0);
S1D13700_Display_GrLayer
Prototype
void S1D13700_Display_GrLayer(char mode);
Returns
Nothing.
Description Display selected graphic layer.
Parameters :
- mode: graphic layer mode. Valid values :
Value
S1D13700_LAYER_OFF
S1D13700_LAYER_ON
S1D13700_LAYER_FLASH_2Hz
S1D13700_LAYER_FLASH_16Hz
Description
Turn off graphic layer.
Turn on graphic layer.
Turn on graphic layer and flash it at the rate of 2 Hz.
Turn on graphic layer and flash it at the rate of 16 Hz.
Requires
Glcd module needs to be initialized. See the S1D13700_Init routine.
Example
// Turn on graphic layer
S1D13700_Display_GrLayer(S1D13700_LAYER_ON);
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S1D13700_Display_TxtLayer
Prototype
void S1D13700_Display_TxtLayer(char mode);
Returns
Nothing.
Description Display selected text layer.
Parameters :
- mode: text layer mode. Valid values :
Value
Description
S1D13700_LAYER_OFF
Turn off graphic layer.
S1D13700_LAYER_ON
S1D13700_LAYER_FLASH_2Hz
S1D13700_LAYER_FLASH_16Hz
Turn on graphic layer.
Turn on graphic layer and flash it at the rate of 2 Hz.
Turn on graphic layer and flash it at the rate of 16 Hz.
Requires
Glcd module needs to be initialized. See the S1D13700_Init routine.
Example
// Display on text layer
S1D13700_Display_TxtLayer(S1D13700_LAYER_ON);
S1D13700_Set_Cursor
Prototype
void S1D13700_Set_Cursor(char width, char height, char mode);
Returns
Nothing.
Description Sets cursor properties.
Parameters :
- width: in pixels-1 (must be less than or equal to the horizontal char size).
- height: in lines-1 (must be less than or equal to the vertical char size).
- mode: cursor mode. Valid values :
Value
Description
S1D13700_CURSOR_UNDERSCORE
Set cursor shape - underscore.
S1D13700_CURSOR_BLOCK
Set cursor shape - block.
Requires
Glcd module needs to be initialized. See the S1D13700_Init routine.
Example
// set cursor with the following properties : width 5px, height 10px, cursor
shape - block
S1D13700_Set_Cursor(5, 10, S1D13700_CURSOR_BLOCK);
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S1D13700_Display_Cursor
Prototype
void S1D13700_Display_Cursor(char mode);
Returns
Nothing.
Description Displays cursor.
Parameters :
- mode: mode parameter. Valid values:
Value
Description
S1D13700_CURSOR_OFF
Turn off graphic layer.
S1D13700_CURSOR_ON
Turn on graphic layer.
S1D13700_CURSOR_FLASH_2Hz
S1D13700_CURSOR_FLASH_16Hz
Turn on graphic layer and flash it at the rate of 2 Hz.
Turn on graphic layer and flash it at the rate of 16 Hz.
Requires
Glcd module needs to be initialized. See the S1D13700_Init routine.
Example
// set cursor on
S1D13700_Display_Cursor(S1D13700_CURSOR_ON);
S1D13700_Write_Char
Prototype
Returns
void S1D13700_Write_Char(unsigned char c, unsigned int x, unsigned int y,
unsigned char mode);
Nothing.
Description Writes a char in the current text layer of Glcd at coordinates (x, y).
Parameters :
- c: char to be written.
- x: char position on x-axis (column).
- y: char position on y-axis (row).
- mode: mode parameter. Valid values :
Value
Description
S1D13700_OVERLAY_OR
In the OR-Mode, text and graphics can be displayed and the
data is logically “OR-ed”.
This is the most common way of combining text and graphics, for
example labels on buttons.
S1D13700_OVERLAY_XOR
In this mode, the text and graphics data are combined via the
logical “exclusive OR”.
S1D13700_OVERLAY_AND
The text and graphic data shown on display are combined via the
logical “AND function”.
Requires
Glcd module needs to be initialized. See the S1D13700_Init routine.
Example
S1D13700_Write_Char(‘A’,22,23,S1D13700_OVERLAY_OR);
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S1D13700_Write_Text
Prototype
Returns
void S1D13700_Write_Text(unsigned char *str, unsigned char x, unsigned char
y, char mode);
Nothing.
Description Writes text in the current text panel of Glcd at coordinates (x, y).
Parameters :
- str: text to be written.
- x: text position on x-axis (column).
- y: text position on y-axis (row).
- mode: mode parameter. Valid values :
Value
Description
S1D13700_OVERLAY_OR
In the OR-Mode, text and graphics can be displayed and the
data is logically “OR-ed”.
This is the most common way of combining text and graphics, for
example labels on buttons.
S1D13700_OVERLAY_XOR
In this mode, the text and graphics data are combined via the
logical “exclusive OR”.
S1D13700_OVERLAY_AND
The text and graphic data shown on display are combined via the
logical “AND function”.
Requires
Glcd module needs to be initialized. See the S1D13700_Init routine.
Example
S1D13700_Write_Text(“EPSON LIBRARY DEMO, WELCOME !”, 0, 0, S1D13700_OVERLAY_
OR);
S1D13700_Dot
Prototype
void S1D13700_Dot(unsigned int x, unsigned int y, unsigned short color);
Returns
Nothing.
Description Draws a dot in the current graphic panel of Glcd at coordinates (x, y).
Parameters :
- x: dot position on x-axis.
- y: dot position on y-axis.
- color: color parameter. Valid values :
Value
Description
S1D13700_BLACK
Black color.
S1D13700_WHITE
White color.
Requires
Glcd module needs to be initialized. See the S1D13700_Init routine.
Example
S1D13700_Dot(50, 50, S1D13700_WHITE);
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S1D13700_Line
Prototype
Returns
void S1D13700_Line(unsigned int x0, unsigned int y0, unsigned int x1,
unsigned int y1, unsigned char pcolor);
Nothing.
Description Draws a line from (x0, y0) to (x1, y1).
Parameters :
- x0: x coordinate of the line start.
- y0: y coordinate of the line end.
- x1: x coordinate of the line start.
- y1: y coordinate of the line end.
- pcolor: color parameter. Valid values :
Value
S1D13700_BLACK
S1D13700_WHITE
Description
Black color.
White color.
Requires
Glcd module needs to be initialized. See the S1D13700_Init routine.
Example
S1D13700_Line(0, 0, 239, 127, S1D13700_WHITE);
S1D13700_H_Line
Prototype
Returns
void S1D13700_H_Line(unsigned int x_start, unsigned int x_end, unsigned int
y_pos, unsigned short color);
Nothing.
Description Draws a horizontal line.
Parameters :
- x_start: x coordinate of the line start.
- x_end: x coordinate of the line end.
- y_pos: line position on the y axis.
- pcolor: color parameter. Valid values :
Value
Description
S1D13700_BLACK
Black color.
S1D13700_WHITE
White color.
Requires
Glcd module needs to be initialized. See the S1D13700_Init routine.
Example
S1D13700_Line(0, 0, 239, 127, S1D13700_WHITE);
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S1D13700_V_Line
Prototype
Returns
void S1D13700_V_Line(unsigned int y_start, unsigned int y_end, unsigned int
x_pos, unsigned short color);
Nothing.
Description Draws a horizontal line.
Parameters :
- y_start: y coordinate of the line start.
- y_end: y coordinate of the line end.
- x_pos: line position on the x axis.
- pcolor: color parameter. Valid values :
Value
Description
S1D13700_BLACK
Black color.
S1D13700_WHITE
White color.
Requires
Glcd module needs to be initialized. See the S1D13700_Init routine.
Example
S1D13700_Line(0, 0, 239, 127, S1D13700_WHITE);
S1D13700_Rectangle
Prototype
Returns
void S1D13700_Rectangle(unsigned int x0, unsigned int y0, unsigned int x1,
unsigned int y1, unsigned char pcolor);
Nothing.
Description Draws a rectangle on Glcd.
Parameters :
- x0: x coordinate of the upper left rectangle corner.
- y0: y coordinate of the upper left rectangle corner.
- x1: x coordinate of the lower right rectangle corner.
- y1: y coordinate of the lower right rectangle corner.
- pcolor: color parameter. Valid values :
Value
Description
S1D13700_BLACK
Black color.
S1D13700_WHITE
White color.
Requires
Glcd module needs to be initialized. See the S1D13700_Init routine.
Example
S1D13700_rectangle(20, 20, 219, 107, S1D13700_WHITE);
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S1D13700_Box
Prototype
Returns
void S1D13700_Rectangle(unsigned int x0, unsigned int y0, unsigned int x1,
unsigned int y1, unsigned char pcolor);
Nothing.
Description Draws a rectangle on Glcd.
Parameters :
- x0: x coordinate of the upper left rectangle corner.
- y0: y coordinate of the upper left rectangle corner.
- x1: x coordinate of the lower right rectangle corner.
- y1: y coordinate of the lower right rectangle corner.
- pcolor: color parameter. Valid values :
Value
Description
S1D13700_BLACK
Black color.
S1D13700_WHITE
White color.
Requires
Glcd module needs to be initialized. See the S1D13700_Init routine.
Example
S1D13700_Box(0, 119, 239, 127, S1D13700_WHITE);
S1D13700_Rectangle_Round_Edges
Prototype
Returns
void S1D13700_Rectangle_Round_Edges(unsigned int x_upper_left, unsigned int
y_upper_left, unsigned int x_bottom_right, unsigned int y_bottom_right,
unsigned short round_radius, unsigned short color);
Nothing.
Description Draws a rounded edge rectangle on Glcd.
Parameters :
- x_upper_left: x coordinate of the upper left rectangle corner.
- y_upper_left: y coordinate of the upper left rectangle corner.
- x_bottom_right: x coordinate of the lower right rectangle corner.
- y_bottom_right: y coordinate of the lower right rectangle corner.
- round_radius: radius of the rounded edge.
- pcolor: color parameter. Valid values :
Value
Description
S1D13700_BLACK
Black color.
S1D13700_WHITE
White color.
Requires
Glcd module needs to be initialized. See the S1D13700_Init routine.
Example
S1D13700_Rectangle_Round_Edges(20, 20, 219, 107, 12, S1D13700_WHITE);
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S1D13700_Rectangle_Round_Edges_Fill
Prototype
Returns
void S1D13700_Rectangle_Round_Edges_Fill(unsigned int x0, unsigned int y0,
unsigned int x1, unsigned int y1, unsigned short round_radius, unsigned
short color);
Nothing.
Description Draws a filled rounded edge rectangle on Glcd.
Parameters :
- x_upper_left: x coordinate of the upper left rectangle corner.
- y_upper_left: y coordinate of the upper left rectangle corner.
- x_bottom_right: x coordinate of the lower right rectangle corner.
- y_bottom_right: y coordinate of the lower right rectangle corner.
- round_radius: radius of the rounded edge.
- pcolor: color parameter. Valid values :
Value
Description
S1D13700_BLACK
Black color.
S1D13700_WHITE
White color.
Requires
Glcd module needs to be initialized. See the S1D13700_Init routine.
Example
S1D13700_Rectangle_Round_Edges_Fill(20, 20, 219, 107, 12, S1D13700_WHITE);
S1D13700_Circle
Prototype
Returns
void S1D13700_Circle(unsigned int x_center, unsigned int y_center, unsigned
int radius, unsigned short color);
Nothing.
Description Draws a circle on Glcd.
Parameters :
- x_center: x coordinate of the circle center.
- y_center: y coordinate of the circle center.
- radius: radius size.
- color: color parameter. Valid values :
Value
S1D13700_BLACK
S1D13700_WHITE
Description
Black color.
White color.
Requires
Glcd module needs to be initialized. See the S1D13700_Init routine.
Example
S1D13700_Circle(120, 64, 110, S1D13700_WHITE);
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S1D13700_Circle_Fill
Prototype
Returns
void S1D13700_Circle_Fill(unsigned int x_center, unsigned int y_center,
unsigned int radius, unsigned short color);
Nothing.
Description Draws a filled circle on Glcd.
Parameters :
- x_center: x coordinate of the circle center.
- y_center: y coordinate of the circle center.
- radius: radius size.
- color: color parameter. Valid values :
Value
S1D13700_BLACK
S1D13700_WHITE
Description
Black color.
White color.
Requires
Glcd module needs to be initialized. See the S1D13700_Init routine.
Example
S1D13700_Circle_Fill(120, 64, 110, S1D13700_WHITE);
S1D13700_Image
Prototype
void S1D13700_Image(const code char *pic);
Returns
Nothing.
Description Displays bitmap on Glcd.
Parameters :
- image: image to be displayed. Bitmap array is located in code memory.
Note : Image dimension must match the display dimension.
Requires
Glcd module needs to be initialized. See the S1D13700_Init routine.
Example
S1D13700_Image(image);
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S1D13700_PartialImage
Prototype
Returns
void S1D13700_PartialImage(unsigned int x_left, unsigned int y_top, unsigned
int width, unsigned int height, unsigned int picture_width, unsigned int
picture_height, code const unsigned short * image);
Nothing.
Description Displays a partial area of the image on a desired location.
Parameters :
- x_left: x coordinate of the desired location (upper left coordinate).
- y_top: y coordinate of the desired location (upper left coordinate).
- width: desired image width.
- height: desired image height.
- picture_width: width of the original image.
- picture_height: height of the original image.
- image: image to be displayed. Bitmap array is located in code memory.
Note : Image dimension must match the display dimension.
Requires
Glcd module needs to be initialized. See the S1D13700_Init routine.
Example
// Draws a 10x15 part of the image starting from the upper left corner on
the coordinate (10,12). Original image size is 16x32.
S1D13700_PartialImage(10, 12, 10, 15, 16, 32, image);
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Flash Memory Library
This library provides routines for accessing microcontroller's (internal) Flash memory.
On the dsPIC30/33 and PIC24, Flash memory is mapped to address space 3:2, which means that every 3 consecutive
bytes of Flash have 2 consecutive address locations available. That is why mikroE's library allows data to be written to
flash in two ways: "regular" and "compact". In the "regular" mode, which is used for word(16-bit) variables, the 3rd (unaddressable) flash memory byte remains unused. In the "compact" mode, which can be used for 1 byte-sized variables/
arrays, all flash bytes are being used.
All dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 MCUs use the RTSP module to perform Read/Erase/Write operations on Flash memory.
This, together with the internal structure of the Flash, imposes certain rules to be followed when working with Flash
memory:
dsPIC30:
- Erasing can be done only in 32-instructions (64 addresses, 96 bytes) memory blocks. This means that the block start address should be a multiply of 64 (i.e. have 6 lower bits set to zero).
- Data is read and written in 4-instructions (8 addresses, 12 bytes) blocks.This means that the block start address should be a multiply of 8 (i.e. have 3 lower bits set to zero).
- On the dsPIC30s, 2 address locations are assigned on every 3 bytes of (flash) program memory. Due to this specific and non-one-to-one address mapping, the mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 offers two sets of Flash handling functions: "regular" and "compact".
Using the "regular" set, the user can write one byte of data to a single address, which means that each byte of written data has its own address, but on every 2 written bytes one byte of Flash memory remains empty.
Using the "compact" set, every byte of Flash memory, including those non-addressable, is filled with data; this method can only be used for data organized in bytes.
The "compact" functions have _Compact as name suffix.
- For run-time FLASH read/write, the dsPIC30's RTSP module is being used. It organizes data into rows and panels. Each row contains write latches that can hold 4 instructions (12 bytes). The number of panels varies from one dsPIC30 MCU model to another. Because of that, the flash write sequence has been split into several operations (_Write_Init(), _Write_LoadLatch4(), _Write_DoWrite()), in order to be usable on all dsPICs.
PIC24 and dsPIC33:
- Erasing can be done only in 512-instructions (1024 addresses, 1536 bytes) memory blocks, which means that the block start address should be a multiply of 1024 (i.e. have 10 lower bits set to zero).
- Data is read and written in 64-instructions (128 addresses, 192 bytes) blocks.This means that the block start address should be a multiply of 128 (i.e. have 7 lower bits set to zero).
- On the dsPIC33 and PIC24s, 2 address locations are assigned on every 3 bytes of (flash) program memory. Due to this specific and non-one-to-one address mapping, the mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 offers two sets of Flash handling functions: "regular" and "compact".
Using the "regular" set, the user can write one byte of data to a single address, which means that each byte of written data has its own address, but on every 2 written bytes one byte of Flash memory remains empty.
Using the "compact" set, every byte of Flash memory, including those non-addressable, is filled with data; this method can only be used for data organized in bytes.
The "compact" functions have _Compact as name suffix.
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24F04KA201 and 24F16KA102 Family Specifics :
These MCU's have their Flash memory organized into memory blocks of 32 instructions (96 bytes), unlike other PIC24
devices.
Erasing can be done only in 32-instructions (64 addresses, 96 bytes) memory blocks, which means that the block start
address should be a multiply of 64 (i.e. have 6 lower bits set to zero).
Data is read and written in 32-instructions (64 addresses, 96 bytes) blocks. This means that the block start address
should be a multiply of 64 (i.e. have 6 lower bits set to zero).
Unlike other PIC24 devices, writing or erasing one block of data (32 instructions), is followed by erasing the memory
block of the same size (32 instructions).
Library Routines
dsPIC30 Functions
- FLASH_Erase32
- FLASH_Write_Block
- FLASH_Write_Compact
- FLASH_Write_Init
- FLASH_Write_Loadlatch4
- FLASH_Write_Loadlatch4_Compact
- FLASH_Write_DoWrite
- FLASH_Read4
- FLASH_Read4_Compact
PIC24 and dsPIC33 Functions
- FLASH_Erase
- FLASH_Write
- FLASH_Write_Compact
- FLASH_Read
- FLASH_Read_Compact
dsPIC30 Functions
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FLASH_Erase32
Prototype
void FLASH_Erase32(unsigned long address);
Description Erases one block (32 instructions, 64 addresses, 96 bytes)from the program FLASH memory.
Parameters - address: starting address of the FLASH memory block
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Nothing.
Example
//--- erase the 32-instruction block, starting from address 0x006000
FLASH_Erase32(0x006000);
Notes
The user should take care about the address alignment (see the explanation at the beginning of this
page).
FLASH_Write_Block
Prototype
void FLASH_Write_Block(unsigned long address, unsigned int *data_);
Description Fills one writeable block of Flash memory (4 instructions, 8 addresses, 12 bytes) in the “regular” mode.
Addresses and data are being mapped 1-on-1. This also means that 3rd byte of each program location
remains unused.
Parameters - address: starting address of the FLASH memory block
- data_: data to be written
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
The block to be written to must be erased first, either from the user code (through the RTSP), or during
the programming of MCU. Please note that block size that is to be erased is different from the one that
can be written with this function!
Example
Notes
unsigned long flash_address = 0x006000;
unsigned int Buffer[4] = {‘A’, ‘B’, ‘C’, ‘D’};
...
FLASH_Write_Block(flash_address, Buffer);
The user should take care about the address alignment (see the explanation at the beginning of this
page).
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FLASH_Write_Compact
Prototype
void FLASH_Write_Compact(unsigned
bytes);
long
address,
void
*data_,
unsigned
Description Fills a portion of Flash memory using the dsPIC30 RTSP module, in the “compact” manner. In this way,
several blocks of RTSP’s latch can be written in one pass. One latch block contains 4 instructions (8
addresses, 12 bytes). Up to 8 latch blocks can be written in one round, resulting in a total of 8*12 = 96
bytes. This method uses all available bytes of the program FLASH memory, including those that are
not mapped to address space (every 3rd byte).
Parameters - address: starting address of the FLASH memory block
- data_: data to be written
- bytes: number of bytes to be written. The amount of bytes to be written must be a multiply of 12,
since this is the size of the RTSP’s write latch(es).
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
The block to be written to must be erased first, either from the user code FLASH_Erase32, or during
the programming of MCU. Please note that block size that is to be erased is different from the one that
can be written with this function!
Example
Notes
unsigned long flash_address = 0x006000;
char Buffer[] = “supercalifragillisticexpialidotious”;
...
FLASH_Write_Compact(flash_address, Buffer, 36);
The user should take care about the address alignment (see the explanation at the beginning of this
page).
FLASH_Write_Init
Prototype
void FLASH_Write_Init(unsigned long address, void *data_);
Description Initializes RTSP for write-to-FLASH operation.
Parameters - address: starting address of the FLASH memory block
- data_: data to be written
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
The block to be written to must be erased first, either from the user code FLASH_Erase32, or during
the programming of MCU. Please note that block size that is to be erased is different from the one that
can be written with this function!
Example
//--- Initializes the Flash to be written, starting from address 0x006100,
the data is located at *pv1
void *pv1;
...
FLASH_Write_Init(0x006100, pv1);
Notes
365
The user should take care about the address alignment (see the explanation at the beginning of this
page).
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mikoC PRO for dsPIC
FLASH_Write_Loadlatch4
Prototype
void FLASH_Write_Loadlatch4();
Description Loads the current RTSP write latch with data (4 instructions, 8 addresses, 12 bytes). The data is filled
in the “regular” mode.
Parameters None.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
The block to be written to must be erased first, either from the user code FLASH_Erase32, or during
the programming of MCU. Please note that block size that is to be erased is different from the one that
can be written with this function!
This function is used as a part of the Flash write sequence, therefore the FLASH_Write_Init function
must be called before this one.
This function can be called several times before commiting the actual write-to-Flash operation FLASH_
Write_DoWrite. This depends on the organization of the RTSP module for the certain dsPIC30. Please
consult the Datasheet for particular dsPIC30 on this subject.
Example
Notes
//--- writes data from an array, in “regular” manner
unsigned int iArr[16] = {‘m’, ‘i’, ‘k’, ‘r’, ‘o’, ‘E’, ‘l’, ‘e’, ‘k’};
void * pv1;
...
pv1 = iArr;
FLASH_Write_Init(0x006100, pv1);
FLASH_Write_Loadlatch4();
FLASH_Write_Loadlatch4();
FLASH_Write_DoWrite();
None.
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FLASH_Write_Loadlatch4_Compact
Prototype
void FLASH_Write_Loadlatch4_Compact();
Description Loads the current RTSP write latch with data (4 instructions, 8 addresses, 12 bytes). The data is filled
in the “compact” mode.
Parameters None.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
The block to be written to must be erased first, either from the user code FLASH_Erase32, or during
the programming of MCU. Please note that block size that is to be erased is different from the one that
can be written with this function!
This function is used as a part of the Flash write sequence, therefore the FLASH_Write_Init function
must be called before this one.
This function can be called several times before committing actual write-to-Flash operation FLASH_
Write_DoWrite. This depends on the organization of the RTSP module for the certain dsPIC30. Please
consult the Datasheet for particular dsPIC30 on this subject.
Example
Notes
367
//--- writes data from an array of char, in “compact” manner
char cArr[] = “supercalifragillisticexpialidotious”; //35+1 bytes
void * pv1;
...
pv1 = cArr;
FLASH_Write_Init(0x006000, pv1);
//init
FLASH_Write_Loadlatch4_Compact();
//12 bytes
FLASH_Write_Loadlatch4_Compact();
//12 bytes
FLASH_Write_Loadlatch4_Compact();
//12 bytes
FLASH_Write_DoWrite();
//commit write
None.
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FLASH_Write_DoWrite
Prototype
void FLASH_Write_DoWrite();
Description Commits the FLASH write operation.
Parameters None.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
The block to be written to must be erased first, either from the user code FLASH_Erase32, or during
the programming of MCU. Please note that block size that is to be erased is different from the one that
can be written with this function!
This function is used as a part of the Flash write sequence, therefore FLASH_Write_Init and certain
number of FLASH_Write_Loadlatch4 or FLASH_Write_Loadlatch4_Compact function calls must be
made before this one.
This function is to be called once, at the and of the FLASH write sequence.
Example
Notes
//--- writes data from an array, in “regular” manner
unsigned int iArr[16] = {‘m’, ‘i’, ‘k’, ‘r’, ‘o’, ‘E’, ‘l’, ‘e’, ‘k’};
void * pv1;
...
pv1 = iArr;
FLASH_Write_Init(0x006100, pv1);
FLASH_Write_Loadlatch4();
FLASH_Write_Loadlatch4();
FLASH_Write_DoWrite();
None.
FLASH_Read4
Prototype
unsigned int* FLASH_Read4(unsigned long address, unsigned int *write_to);
Description Reads one latch row (4 instructions, 8 addresses) in the “regular” mode.
Parameters - address: starting address of the FLASH memory block to be read
- write_to: starting address of RAM buffer for storing read data
Returns
Starting address of RAM buffer for storing read data.
Requires
Nothing.
Example
//--- reads 8 bytes (4 words) from location 0x006000 and stores it to
*pv1;
unsigned int *pv1;
...
FLASH_Read4(0x006000, pv1);
Notes
The user should take care of the address alignment (see the explanation at the beginning of this
page).
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FLASH_Read4_Compact
Prototype
void* FLASH_Read4_Compact(unsigned long address, void *write_to);
Description Reads one latch row (4 instructions, 8 addresses) in the “compact” mode.
Parameters - address: starting address of the FLASH memory block to be read
- write_to: starting address of RAM buffer for storing read data
Returns
Starting address of RAM buffer for storing read data.
Requires
Nothing.
Example
//--- reads 12 bytes (4 words) from location 0x006000 and stores it to
*pv1;
unsigned int *pv1;
...
FLASH_Read4_Compact(0x006000, pv1);
Notes
The user should take care of the address alignment (see the explanation at the beginning of this
page).
PIC24 and dsPIC33 Functions
FLASH_Erase
Prototype
void FLASH_Erase(unsigned long address);
Description Erases one block (512 instructions, 1024 addresses, 1536 bytes) from the program FLASH memory.
Parameters - address: starting address of the FLASH memory block
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Nothing.
Example
//--- erase the flash memory block, starting from address 0x006400
unsigned long flash_address = 0x006400;
...
FLASH_Erase(flash_address);
Notes
369
The user should take care about the address alignment (see the explanation at the beginning of this
page).
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mikoC PRO for dsPIC
FLASH_Write
Prototype
void FLASH_Write(unsigned long address, unsigned int *data_);
Description Fills one writeable block of Flash memory (64 instructions, 128 addresses, 192 bytes) in the “regular”
mode. Addresses and data are being mapped 1-on-1. This also means that 3rd byte of each program
location remains unused.
Parameters - address: starting address of the FLASH memory block
- data_: data to be written
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
The block to be written to must be erased first, either from the user code (through the RTSP), or during
the programming of MCU. Please note that block size that is to be erased is different from the one that
can be written with this function!
Example
Notes
unsigned int iArr[64] = {‘m’, ‘i’, ‘k’, ‘r’, ‘o’, ‘E’, ‘l’, ‘e’, ‘k’, ‘t’,
‘r’, ‘o’, ‘n’, ‘i’, ‘k’, ‘a’};
void * pv1;
...
pv1 = iArr;
FLASH_Write(0x006500, pv1);
The user should take care about the address alignment (see the explanation at the beginning of this
page).
FLASH_Write_Compact
Prototype
void FLASH_Write_Compact(unsigned long address, char *data_);
Description Fills a portion of Flash memory (64 instructions, 128 addresses, 192 bytes) using the dsPIC33 and
PIC24s RTSP (Run Time Self Programming) module, in the “compact” manner. This method uses all
available bytes of the program FLASH memory, including those that are not mapped to address space
(every 3rd byte).
Parameters - address: starting address of the FLASH memory block
- data_: data to be written
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
The block to be written to must be erased first, either from the user code (FLASH_Erase), or during
the programming of MCU. Please note that block size that is to be erased is different from the one that
can be written with this function!
Example
Notes
char
cArr[]
“supercalifragillisticexpialidotiousABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPRSTUVWXYZ1234”;
void * pv1;
...
pv1 = cArr;
FLASH_Write_Compact(0x006400, pv1);
=
The user should take care of the address alignment (see the explanation at the beginning of this
page).
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FLASH_Read
Prototype
unsigned int* FLASH_Read(unsigned long address, unsigned int *write_to,
unsigned NoWords);
Description Reads required number of words from the flash memory in the “regular” mode.
Parameters - address: starting address of the FLASH memory block to be read
- write_to: starting address of RAM buffer for storing read data
- NoWords: number of words to be read
Returns
Requires
Example
Notes
Address of RAM buffer for storing read data.
unsigned Buffer[64];
unsigned long start_address = 0x6500;
...
FLASH_Read(start_address, Buffer, 10);
The user should take care of the address alignment (see the explanation at the beginning of this
page).
FLASH_Read_Compact
Prototype
void *FLASH_Read_Compact(unsigned long address, void *write_to, unsigned
NoBytes);
Description Reads required number of bytes from the flash memory in the “compact” mode.
Parameters - address: starting address of the FLASH memory block to be read
- write_to: starting address of RAM buffer for storing read data
- NoBytes: number of bytes to be read
Returns
Requires
Example
Notes
371
Address of RAM buffer for storing read data.
char Buffer[64];
unsigned long start_address = 0x6500;
...
FLASH_Read_Compact(start_address, Buffer, 10);
The user should take care of the address alignment (see the explanation at the beginning of this
page).
MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
Library Example
In this example written for dsPIC30F4013, various read/write tecniques to/from the on-chip FLASH memory are shown.
Flash memory is mapped to address space 3:2, meaning every 3 consecutive bytes of Flash have 2 consecutive
address locations available.
That is why mikroE's library allows data to be written to Flash in two ways: 'regular' and 'compact'. In 'regular' mode,
which is used for variables that are size of 2 bytes and more, the 3rd (un-addressable) byte remains unused.
In 'compact' mode, which can be used for 1 byte-sized variables/arrays, all bytes of flash are being used.
Copy Code To Clipboard
unsigned int iArr[8] = {‘m’, ‘i’, ‘k’, ‘r’, ‘o’, ‘E’, ‘l’, ‘e’};
char cArr[] = “mikroElektronika Flash example”;
char cArr2[40];
void * pv1;
unsigned bb;
void main() {
unsigned i;
pv1 = cArr;
/*
This is what FLASH_Write_Compact() does ‘beneath the hood’
*
FLASH_Write_Init(0x006000, pv1);
FLASH_Write_Loadlatch4_Compact();
FLASH_Write_Loadlatch4_Compact();
FLASH_Write_Loadlatch4_Compact();
FLASH_Write_DoWrite();
*/
//--- erase the block first
FLASH_Erase32(0x006000);
//--- write compact format to flash
FLASH_Write_Compact(0x006000, pv1, 36);
//--- read compact format
pv1 = cArr2;
FLASH_Read4_Compact(0x006000, pv1);
pv1 += 12;
FLASH_Read4_Compact(0x006008, pv1);
pv1 += 12;
FLASH_Read4_Compact(0x006010, pv1);
pv1 += 12;
*pv1 = 0; //termination
//--- show what has been written
i = 0;
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UART1_Init(9600);
UART1_Write_Text("Start");
UART1_Write(10);
UART1_Write(13);
while(cArr2[i]) {
bb = cArr2[i++];
UART1_Write(bb);
}
//
}
//--- now for some non-compact flash-write
pv1 = iArr;
//--- erase the block first
FLASH_Erase32(0x006100);
FLASH_Write_Init(0x006100, pv1);
FLASH_Write_Loadlatch4();
FLASH_Write_Loadlatch4();
FLASH_Write_DoWrite();
Graphic Lcd Library
The mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 provides a library for operating Graphic Lcd 128x64 (with commonly used
Samsung KS108/KS107 controller).
For creating a custom set of Glcd images use Glcd Bitmap Editor Tool.
Library Dependency Tree
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External dependencies of Graphic Lcd Library
The following variables must be
defined in all projects using Graphic Description :
Lcd Library:
extern sfr sbit GLCD_D0;
Data 0 line.
extern sfr sbit GLCD_D2;
Data 2 line.
extern sfr sbit GLCD_D4;
Data 4 line.
extern sfr sbit GLCD_D6;
Data 6 line.
extern sfr sbit GLCD_CS1;
Chip Select 1 line.
extern sfr sbit GLCD_RS;
Register select line.
extern sfr sbit GLCD_EN;
Enable line.
extern sfr
Direction;
extern sfr sbit GLCD_D1;
Data 1 line.
extern sfr sbit GLCD_D3;
Data 3 line.
extern sfr sbit GLCD_D5;
Data 5 line.
extern sfr sbit GLCD_D7;
Data 7 line.
extern sfr sbit GLCD_CS2;
Chip Select 2 line.
extern sfr sbit GLCD_RW;
Read/Write line.
extern sfr sbit GLCD_RST;
Reset line.
extern sfr
Direction;
extern sfr
Direction;
extern sfr
Direction;
extern sfr
Direction;
extern sfr
Direction;
extern sfr
Direction;
extern sfr
Direction;
extern sfr
Direction;
sbit
GLCD_D0_
Direction of the Data 0 pin.
sbit
GLCD_D1_
Direction of the Data 1 pin.
sbit
GLCD_D3_
Direction of the Data 3 pin.
sbit
GLCD_D4_
Direction of the Data 4 pin.
sbit
GLCD_D5_
Direction of the Data 5 pin.
sbit
GLCD_D6_
Direction of the Data 6 pin.
sbit
GLCD_D7_
Direction of the Data 7 pin.
sbit
sbit
extern sfr
Direction;
sbit
extern sfr
Direction;
sbit
extern sfr
Direction;
extern sfr
Direction;
MikroElektronika
sbit
sbit
Example :
sbit GLCD_D0 at LATB0_bit;
sbit GLCD_D1 at LATB1_bit;
sbit GLCD_D2 at LATF2_bit;
sbit GLCD_D3 at LATF3_bit;
sbit GLCD_D4 at LATD0_bit;
sbit GLCD_D5 at LATD1_bit;
sbit GLCD_D6 at LATD2_bit;
sbit GLCD_D7 at LATD3_bit;
sbit GLCD_CS1 at LATB4_bit;
sbit GLCD_CS2 at LATB5_bit;
sbit GLCD_RS at LATF0_bit;
sbit GLCD_RW at LATF1_bit;
sbit GLCD_RST at LATF5_bit;
sbit GLCD_RST at LATF5_bit;
sbit GLCD_D0_Direction at TRISB0_
bit;
sbit GLCD_D2_Direction at TRISB2_
bit;
sbit GLCD_D3_Direction at TRISB3_
bit;
sbit GLCD_D4_Direction at TRISD0_
bit;
sbit GLCD_D5_Direction at TRISD1_
bit;
sbit GLCD_D6_Direction at TRISD2_
bit;
sbit GLCD_D7_Direction at TRISD3_
bit;
GLCD_CS1_ Direction of the Chip Select 1 sbit
GLCD_CS1_Direction
TRISB4_bit;
pin.
GLCD_CS2_ Direction of the Chip Select 2 sbit
GLCD_CS2_Direction
TRISB5_bit;
pin.
at
at
GLCD_RS_ Direction of the Register select sbit GLCD_RS_Direction at TRISF0_
bit;
pin.
GLCD_RW_ Direction of the Read/Write sbit GLCD_RW_Direction at TRISF1_
bit;
pin.
GLCD_EN_
GLCD_RST_
Direction of the Enable pin.
Direction of the Reset pin.
sbit GLCD_EN_Direction at TRISF4_
bit;
sbit
GLCD_RST_Direction
TRISF5_bit;
at
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Library Routines
Basic routines:
- Glcd_Init
- Glcd_Set_Side
- Glcd_Set_X
- Glcd_Set_Page
- Glcd_Read_Data
- Glcd_Write_Data
Advanced routines:
- Glcd_Fill
- Glcd_Dot
- Glcd_Line
- Glcd_V_Line
- Glcd_H_Line
- Glcd_Rectangle
- Glcd_Rectangle_Round_Edges
- Glcd_Rectangle_Round_Edges_Fill
- Glcd_Box
- Glcd_Circle
- Glcd_Circle_Fill
- Glcd_Set_Font
- Glcd_Write_Char
- Glcd_Write_Text
- Glcd_Image
- Glcd_PartialImage
Glcd_Init
Prototype
void Glcd_Init();
Description Initializes the Glcd module. Each of the control lines are both port and pin configurable, while data
lines must be on a single port (pins <0:7>).
Parameters None.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Global variables :
- GLCD_D0 : Data pin 0
- GLCD_D1 : Data pin 1
- GLCD_D2 : Data pin 2
- GLCD_D3 : Data pin 3
- GLCD_D4 : Data pin 4
- GLCD_D5 : Data pin 5
- GLCD_D6 : Data pin 6
- GLCD_D7 : Data pin 7
- GLCD_CS1 : Chip select 1 signal pin
- GLCD_CS2 : Chip select 2 signal pin
- GLCD_RS : Register select signal pin
- GLCD_RW : Read/Write Signal pin
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Requires
- GLCD_EN : Enable signal pin
- GLCD_RST : Reset signal pin
- GLCD_D0_Direction : Direction of the Data pin 0
- GLCD_D1_Direction : Direction of the Data pin 1
- GLCD_D2_Direction : Direction of the Data pin 2
- GLCD_D3_Direction : Direction of the Data pin 3
- GLCD_D4_Direction : Direction of the Data pin 4
- GLCD_D5_Direction : Direction of the Data pin 5
- GLCD_D6_Direction : Direction of the Data pin 6
- GLCD_D7_Direction : Direction of the Data pin 7
- GLCD_CS1_Direction : Direction of the Chip select 1 pin
- GLCD_CS2_Direction : Direction of the Chip select 2 pin
- GLCD_RS_Direction : Direction of the Register select signal pin
- GLCD_RW_Direction : Direction of the Read/Write signal pin
- GLCD_EN_Direction : Direction of the Enable signal pin
- GLCD_RST_Direction : Direction of the Reset signal pin
must be defined before using this function.
Example
Notes
// Glcd pinout settings
sbit GLCD_D0 at RB0_bit;
sbit GLCD_D1 at RB1_bit;
sbit GLCD_D2 at RB2_bit;
sbit GLCD_D3 at RB3_bit;
sbit GLCD_D4 at RD0_bit;
sbit GLCD_D5 at RD1_bit;
sbit GLCD_D6 at RD2_bit;
sbit GLCD_D7 at RD3_bit;
sbit GLCD_CS1 at RB0_bit;
sbit GLCD_CS2 at RB1_bit;
sbit GLCD_RS at RB2_bit;
sbit GLCD_RW at RB3_bit;
sbit GLCD_EN at RB4_bit;
sbit GLCD_RST at RB5_bit;
sbit GLCD_D0_Direction at TRISB0_bit;
sbit GLCD_D1_Direction at TRISB1_bit;
sbit GLCD_D2_Direction at TRISB2_bit;
sbit GLCD_D3_Direction at TRISB3_bit;
sbit GLCD_D4_Direction at TRISD0_bit;
sbit GLCD_D5_Direction at TRISD1_bit;
sbit GLCD_D6_Direction at TRISD2_bit;
sbit GLCD_D7_Direction at TRISD3_bit;
sbit GLCD_CS1_Direction at TRISB0_bit;
sbit GLCD_CS2_Direction at TRISB1_bit;
sbit GLCD_RS_Direction at TRISB2_bit;
sbit GLCD_RW_Direction at TRISB3_bit;
sbit GLCD_EN_Direction at TRISB4_bit;
sbit GLCD_RST_Direction at TRISB5_bit;
...
Glcd_Init();
None.
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Glcd_Set_Side
Prototype
void Glcd_Set_Side(unsigned short x_pos);
Description Selects Glcd side. Refer to the Glcd datasheet for detailed explanation.
Parameters - x_pos: Specifies position on x-axis of the Glcd. Valid values: 0..127. Values from 0 to 63 specify the
left side, values from 64 to 127 specify the right side of the Glcd.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Glcd needs to be initialized, see Glcd_Init routine.
Example
The following two lines are equivalent, and both of them select the left side of Glcd:
Notes
Glcd_Select_Side(0);
Glcd_Select_Side(10);
For side, x axis and page layout explanation see schematic at the bottom of this page.
Glcd_Set_X
Prototype
void Glcd_Set_X(unsigned short x_pos);
Description Sets x-axis position to x_pos dots from the left border of Glcd within the selected side.
Parameters - x_pos: position on x-axis. Valid values: 0..63
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Glcd needs to be initialized, see Glcd_Init routine.
Example
Glcd_Set_X(25);
Notes
For side, x axis and page layout explanation see schematic at the bottom of this page.
Glcd_Set_Page
Prototype
void Glcd_Set_Page(unsigned short page);
Description Selects page of the Glcd.
Parameters - page: page number. Valid values: 0..7
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Glcd needs to be initialized, see Glcd_Init routine.
Example
Glcd_Set_Page(5);
Notes
For side, x axis and page layout explanation see schematic at the bottom of this page.
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Glcd_Read_Data
Prototype
unsigned short Glcd_Read_Data();
Description Reads data from from the current location of Glcd memory and moves to the next location.
Parameters None.
Returns
One byte from Glcd memory, formatted as a word (16-bit).
Requires
Glcd needs to be initialized, see Glcd_Init routine.
Glcd side, x-axis position and page should be set first. See functions Glcd_Set_Side, Glcd_Set_X,
and Glcd_Set_Page.
Example
Notes
unsigned int data_;
...
Glcd_Read_Data();
data_ = Glcd_Read_Data();
This routine needs to be called twice; After the first call, data is placed in the buffer register. After the
second call, data is passed from the buffer register to data lines.
Glcd_Write_Data
Prototype
void Glcd_Write_Data(unsigned short data_);
Returns
Nothing.
Description Writes one byte to the current location in Glcd memory and moves to the next location.
Parameters :
Requires
- data_: data to be written
Glcd needs to be initialized, see Glcd_Init routine.
Glcd side, x-axis position and page should be set first. See functions Glcd_Set_Side, Glcd_Set_X,
and Glcd_Set_Page.
Example
unsigned short data_;
...
Glcd_Write_Data(data_);
MikroElektronika
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Glcd_Fill
Prototype
void Glcd_Fill(unsigned short pattern);
Description Fills Glcd memory with the byte pattern.
To clear the Glcd screen, use Glcd_Fill(0).
To fill the screen completely, use Glcd_Fill(0xFF).
Parameters - pattern: byte to fill Glcd memory with.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Glcd needs to be initialized, see Glcd_Init routine.
Example
// Clear screen
Glcd_Fill(0);
Notes
None.
Glcd_Dot
Prototype
void Glcd_Dot(unsigned short x_pos, unsigned short y_pos, unsigned short
color);
Description Draws a dot on Glcd at coordinates (x_pos, y_pos).
Parameters - x_pos: x position. Valid values: 0..127
- y_pos: y position. Valid values: 0..63
- color: color parameter. Valid values: 0..2
The parameter color determines a dot state: 0 clears dot, 1 puts a dot, and 2 inverts dot state.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Glcd needs to be initialized, see Glcd_Init routine.
Example
// Invert the dot in the upper left corner
Glcd_Dot(0, 0, 2);
Notes
For x and y axis layout explanation see schematic at the bottom of this page.
Glcd_Line
Prototype
void Glcd_Line(int x_start, int y_start, int x_end, int y_end, unsigned
short color);
Description Draws a line on Glcd.
Parameters - x_start: x coordinate of the line start. Valid values: 0..127
- y_start: y coordinate of the line start. Valid values: 0..63
- x_end: x coordinate of the line end. Valid values: 0..127
- y_end: y coordinate of the line end. Valid values: 0..63
- color: color parameter. Valid values: 0..2
The parameter color determines the line color: 0 white, 1 black, and 2 inverts each dot.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Glcd needs to be initialized, see Glcd_Init routine.
Example
// Draw a line between dots (0,0) and (20,30)
Glcd_Line(0, 0, 20, 30, 1);
Notes
379
None.
MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
Glcd_V_Line
Prototype
void Glcd_V_Line(unsigned short y_start, unsigned short y_end, unsigned
short x_pos, unsigned short color);
Description Draws a vertical line on Glcd.
Parameters - y_start: y coordinate of the line start. Valid values: 0..63
- y_end: y coordinate of the line end. Valid values: 0..63
- x_pos: x coordinate of vertical line. Valid values: 0..127
- color: color parameter. Valid values: 0..2
Returns
The parameter color determines the line color: 0 white, 1 black, and 2 inverts each dot.
Nothing.
Requires
Glcd needs to be initialized, see Glcd_Init routine.
Example
// Draw a vertical line between dots (10,5) and (10,25)
Glcd_V_Line(5, 25, 10, 1);
Notes
None.
Glcd_H_Line
Prototype
void Glcd_H_Line(unsigned short x_start, unsigned short x_end, unsigned
short y_pos, unsigned short color);
Description Draws a horizontal line on Glcd.
Parameters - x_start: x coordinate of the line start. Valid values: 0..127
- x_end: x coordinate of the line end. Valid values: 0..127
- y_pos: y coordinate of horizontal line. Valid values: 0..63
- color: color parameter. Valid values: 0..2
Returns
The parameter color determines the line color: 0 white, 1 black, and 2 inverts each dot.
Nothing.
Requires
Glcd needs to be initialized, see Glcd_Init routine.
Example
// Draw a horizontal line between dots (10,20) and (50,20)
Glcd_H_Line(10, 50, 20, 1);
Notes
None.
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Glcd_Rectangle
Prototype
void Glcd_Rectangle(unsigned short x_upper_left, unsigned short y_upper_
left, unsigned short x_bottom_right, unsigned short y_bottom_right, unsigned
short color);
Description Draws a rectangle on Glcd.
Parameters - x_upper_left: x coordinate of the upper left rectangle corner. Valid values: 0..127
- y_upper_left: y coordinate of the upper left rectangle corner. Valid values: 0..63
- x_bottom_right: x coordinate of the lower right rectangle corner. Valid values: 0..127
- y_bottom_right: y coordinate of the lower right rectangle corner. Valid values: 0..63
- color: color parameter. Valid values: 0..2
The parameter color determines the color of the rectangle border: 0 white, 1 black, and 2 inverts each
dot.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Glcd needs to be initialized, see Glcd_Init routine.
Example
// Draw a rectangle between dots (5,5) and (40,40)
Glcd_Rectangle(5, 5, 40, 40, 1);
Notes
None.
Glcd_Rectangle_Round_Edges
Prototype
void Glcd_Rectangle_Round_Edges(unsigned short x_upper_left, unsigned short
y_upper_left, unsigned short x_bottom_right, unsigned short y_bottom_right,
unsigned short round_radius, unsigned short color);
Description Draws a rounded edge rectangle on Glcd.
Parameters - x_upper_left: x coordinate of the upper left rectangle corner. Valid values: 0..127
- y_upper_left: y coordinate of the upper left rectangle corner. Valid values: 0..63
- x_bottom_right: x coordinate of the lower right rectangle corner. Valid values: 0..127
- y_bottom_right: y coordinate of the lower right rectangle corner. Valid values: 0..63
- round_radius: radius of the rounded edge.
- color: color parameter. Valid values: 0..2
The parameter color determines the color of the rectangle border: 0 white, 1 black, and 2 inverts
each dot.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Glcd needs to be initialized, see Glcd_Init routine.
Example
// Draw a rounded edge rectangle between dots (5,5) and (40,40) with the
radius of 12
Glcd_Rectangle_Round_Edges(5, 5, 40, 40, 12, 1);
Notes
381
None.
MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
Glcd_Rectangle_Round_Edges_Fill
Prototype
void Glcd_Rectangle_Round_Edges_Fill(unsigned short x_upper_left, unsigned
short y_upper_left, unsigned short x_bottom_right, unsigned short y_bottom_
right, unsigned short round_radius, unsigned short color);
Description Draws a filled rounded edge rectangle on Glcd with color.
Parameters - x_upper_left: x coordinate of the upper left rectangle corner. Valid values: 0..127
- y_upper_left: y coordinate of the upper left rectangle corner. Valid values: 0..63
- x_bottom_right: x coordinate of the lower right rectangle corner. Valid values: 0..127
- y_bottom_right: y coordinate of the lower right rectangle corner. Valid values: 0..63
- round_radius: radius of the rounded edge
- color: color parameter. Valid values: 0..2
The parameter color determines the color of the rectangle border: 0 white, 1 black, and 2 inverts
each dot.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Glcd needs to be initialized, see Glcd_Init routine.
Example
// Draws a filled rounded edge rectangle between dots (5,5) and (40,40) with
the radius of 12
Glcd_Rectangle_Round_Edges_Fill(5, 5, 40, 40, 12, 1);
Notes
None.
Glcd_Box
Prototype
void Glcd_Box(unsigned short x_upper_left, unsigned short y_upper_left,
unsigned short x_bottom_right, unsigned short y_bottom_right, unsigned
short color);
Description Draws a box on Glcd.
Parameters :
Parameters - x_upper_left: x coordinate of the upper left box corner. Valid values: 0..127
- y_upper_left: y coordinate of the upper left box corner. Valid values: 0..63
- x_bottom_right: x coordinate of the lower right box corner. Valid values: 0..127
- y_bottom_right: y coordinate of the lower right box corner. Valid values: 0..63
- color: color parameter. Valid values: 0..2
The parameter color determines the color of the box fill: 0 white, 1 black, and 2 inverts each dot.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Glcd needs to be initialized, see Glcd_Init routine.
Example
// Draw a box between dots (5,15) and (20,40)
Glcd_Box(5, 15, 20, 40, 1);
Notes
None.
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Glcd_Circle
Prototype
void Glcd_Circle(int x_center, int y_center, int radius, unsigned short
color);
Description Draws a circle on Glcd.1
Parameters - x_center: x coordinate of the circle center. Valid values: 0..127
- y_center: y coordinate of the circle center. Valid values: 0..63
- radius: radius size
- color: color parameter. Valid values: 0..2
The parameter color determines the color of the circle line: 0 white, 1 black, and 2 inverts each dot.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Glcd needs to be initialized, see Glcd_Init routine.
Example
// Draw a circle with center in (50,50) and radius=10
Glcd_Circle(50, 50, 10, 1);
Notes
None.
Glcd_Circle_Fill
Prototype
void Glcd_Circle_Fill(int x_center, int y_center, int radius, unsigned short
color);
Description Draws a filled circle on Glcd.
Parameters - x_center: x coordinate of the circle center. Valid values: 0..127
- y_center: y coordinate of the circle center. Valid values: 0..63
- radius: radius size
- color: color parameter. Valid values: 0..2
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Glcd needs to be initialized, see Glcd_Init routine.
Example
// Draws a filled circle with center in (50,50) and radius=10
Glcd_Circle_Fill(50, 50, 10, 1);
Notes
383
None.
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mikoC PRO for dsPIC
Glcd_Set_Font
Prototype
void Glcd_Set_Font(const char *activeFont, unsigned
unsigned short aFontHeight, unsigned int aFontOffs);
short
aFontWidth,
Description Sets font that will be used with Glcd_Write_Char and Glcd_Write_Text routines.
Parameters - activeFont: font to be set. Needs to be formatted as an array of char
- aFontWidth: width of the font characters in dots.
- aFontHeight: height of the font characters in dots.
- aFontOffs: number that represents difference between the mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24
character set and regular ASCII set (eg. if ‘A’ is 65 in ASCII character, and ‘A’ is 45 in the mikroC PRO
for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 character set, aFontOffs is 20). Demo fonts supplied with the library have
an offset of 32, which means that they start with space.
The user can use fonts given in the file “__Lib_GLCDFonts” file located in the Uses folder or create
his own fonts.
List of supported fonts:
- Font_Glcd_System3x5
- Font_Glcd_System5x7
- Font_Glcd_5x7
- Font_Glcd_Character8x7
For the sake of the backward compatibility, these fonts are supported also:
Returns
- System3x5 (equivalent to Font_Glcd_System3x5)
- FontSystem5x7_v2 (equivalent to Font_Glcd_System5x7)
- font5x7 (equivalent to Font_Glcd_5x7)
- Character8x7 (equivalent to Font_Glcd_Character8x7)
Nothing.
Requires
Glcd needs to be initialized, see Glcd_Init routine.
Example
// Use the custom 5x7 font “myfont” which starts with space (32):
Glcd_Set_Font(&myfont, 5, 7, 32);
Notes
None.
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Glcd_Write_Char
Prototype
void Glcd_Write_Char(unsigned short character, unsigned short x_pos, unsigned
short page_num, unsigned short color);
Description Prints character on the Glcd.
Parameters - character: character to be written
- x_pos: character starting position on x-axis. Valid values: 0..(127-FontWidth)
- page_num: the number of the page on which character will be written. Valid values: 0..7
- color: color parameter. Valid values: 0..2
The parameter color determines the color of the character: 0 white, 1 black, and 2 inverts each dot.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Glcd needs to be initialized, see Glcd_Init routine. Use Glcd_Set_Font to specify the font for display; if
no font is specified, then default Font_Glcd_System5x7 font supplied with the library will be used.
Example
Notes
// Write character ‘C’ on the position 10 inside the page 2:
Glcd_Write_Char(‘C’, 10, 2, 1);
For x axis and page layout explanation see schematic at the bottom of this page.
Glcd_Write_Text
Prototype
void Glcd_Write_Text(char *text, unsigned short x_pos, unsigned short page_
num, unsigned short color);
Description Prints text on Glcd.
Parameters - text: text to be written
- x_pos: text starting position on x-axis.
- page_num: the number of the page on which text will be written. Valid values: 0..7
- color: color parameter. Valid values: 0..2
Returns
Requires
Example
Notes
385
The parameter color determines the color of the text: 0 white, 1 black, and 2 inverts each dot.
Nothing.
Glcd needs to be initialized, see Glcd_Init routine. Use Glcd_Set_Font to specify the font for display; if
no font is specified, then default Font_Glcd_System5x7 font supplied with the library will be used.
// Write text “Hello world!” on the position 10 inside the page 2:
Glcd_Write_Text(“Hello world!”, 10, 2, 1);
For x axis and page layout explanation see schematic at the bottom of this page.
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Glcd_Image
Prototype
void Glcd_Image(code const unsigned short *image);
Description Displays bitmap on Glcd.
Parameters - image: image to be displayed. Bitmap array can be located in both code and RAM memory (due to
the mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 pointer to const and pointer to RAM equivalency).
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Glcd needs to be initialized, see Glcd_Init routine.
Example
// Draw image my_image on Glcd
Glcd_Image(my_image);
Notes
Use the mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 integrated Glcd Bitmap Editor, Tools > Glcd Bitmap
Editor, to convert image to a constant array suitable for displaying on Glcd.
Glcd_PartialImage
Prototype
void Glcd_PartialImage(unsigned int x_left, unsigned int y_top, unsigned
int width, unsigned int height, unsigned int picture_width, unsigned int
picture_height, code const unsigned short * image);
Description Displays a partial area of the image on a desired location.
Parameters - x_left: x coordinate of the desired location (upper left coordinate).
- y_top: y coordinate of the desired location (upper left coordinate).
- width: desired image width.
- height: desired image height.
- picture_width: width of the original image.
- picture_height: height of the original image.
- image: image to be displayed. Bitmap array can be located in both code and RAM memory (due to
the mikroC PRO for PIC pointer to const and pointer to RAM equivalency).
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Glcd needs to be initialized, see Glcd_Init routine.
Example
// Draws a 10x15 part of the image starting from the upper left corner on
the coordinate (10,12). Original image size is 16x32.
Glcd_PartialImage(10, 12, 10, 15, 16, 32, image);
Notes
Use the mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 integrated Glcd Bitmap Editor, Tools > Glcd Bitmap
Editor, to convert image to a constant array suitable for displaying on Glcd.
MikroElektronika
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mikroC PRO for dsPIC
Library Example
The following drawing demo tests advanced routines of the Glcd library.
Copy Code To Clipboard
//Declarations-----------------------------------------------------------------const code char truck_bmp[1024];
//--------------------------------------------------------------end-declarations
// Glcd module connections
sbit GLCD_D7 at RD3_bit;
sbit GLCD_D6 at RD2_bit;
sbit GLCD_D5 at RD1_bit;
sbit GLCD_D4 at RD0_bit;
sbit GLCD_D3 at RB3_bit;
sbit GLCD_D2 at RB2_bit;
sbit GLCD_D1 at RB1_bit;
sbit GLCD_D0 at RB0_bit;
sbit GLCD_D7_Direction at TRISD3_bit;
sbit GLCD_D6_Direction at TRISD2_bit;
sbit GLCD_D5_Direction at TRISD1_bit;
sbit GLCD_D4_Direction at TRISD0_bit;
sbit GLCD_D3_Direction at TRISB3_bit;
sbit GLCD_D2_Direction at TRISB2_bit;
sbit GLCD_D1_Direction at TRISB1_bit;
sbit GLCD_D0_Direction at TRISB0_bit;
sbit GLCD_CS1 at LATB4_bit;
sbit GLCD_CS2 at LATB5_bit;
sbit GLCD_RS at LATF0_bit;
sbit GLCD_RW at LATF1_bit;
sbit GLCD_EN at LATF4_bit;
sbit GLCD_RST at LATF5_bit;
sbit GLCD_CS1_Direction at TRISB4_bit;
sbit GLCD_CS2_Direction at TRISB5_bit;
sbit GLCD_RS_Direction at TRISF0_bit;
sbit GLCD_RW_Direction at TRISF1_bit;
sbit GLCD_EN_Direction at TRISF4_bit;
sbit GLCD_RST_Direction at TRISF5_bit;
// End Glcd module connections
void delay2S(){
Delay_ms(2000);
}
// 2 seconds delay function
void main() {
unsigned short ii;
char *someText;
#define COMPLETE_EXAMPLE
ADPCFG = 0xFFFF;
387
// Comment this line to make simpler/smaller example
// Configure AN pins as digital
MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
Glcd_Init();
Glcd_Fill(0x00);
// Initialize GLCD
// Clear GLCD
while(1) {
#ifdef COMPLETE_EXAMPLE
Glcd_Image(truck_bmp);
delay2S(); delay2S();
#endif
// Draw image
Glcd_Fill(0x00);
// Clear GLCD
Glcd_Box(62,40,124,56,1);
Glcd_Rectangle(5,5,84,35,1);
Glcd_Line(0, 0, 127, 63, 1);
delay2S();
// Draw box
// Draw rectangle
// Draw line
for(ii = 5; ii < 60; ii+=5 ){
Delay_ms(250);
Glcd_V_Line(2, 54, ii, 1);
Glcd_H_Line(2, 120, ii, 1);
}
// Draw horizontal and vertical lines
delay2S();
Glcd_Fill(0x00);
#ifdef COMPLETE_EXAMPLE
Glcd_Set_Font(Character8x7, 8, 7, 32);
in Uses folder
#endif
Glcd_Write_Text("mikroE", 1, 7, 2);
// Clear GLCD
// Choose font, see __Lib_GLCDFonts.c
// Write string
for (ii = 1; ii <= 10; ii++)
Glcd_Circle(63,32, 3*ii, 1);
delay2S();
// Draw circles
Glcd_Box(12,20, 70,57, 2);
delay2S();
// Draw box
#ifdef COMPLETE_EXAMPLE
Glcd_Fill(0xFF);
// Fill GLCD
Glcd_Set_Font(Character8x7, 8, 7, 32);
someText = “8x7 Font”;
Glcd_Write_Text(someText, 5, 0, 2);
delay2S();
// Change font
Glcd_Set_Font(System3x5, 3, 5, 32);
someText = “3X5 CAPITALS ONLY”;
Glcd_Write_Text(someText, 60, 2, 2);
delay2S();
// Change font
MikroElektronika
// Write string
// Write string
388
mikroC PRO for dsPIC
Glcd_Set_Font(font5x7, 5, 7, 32);
someText = "5x7 Font";
Glcd_Write_Text(someText, 5, 4, 2);
delay2S();
}
}
// Change font
// Write string
Glcd_Set_Font(FontSystem5x7_v2, 5, 7, 32); // Change font
someText = "5x7 Font (v2)";
Glcd_Write_Text(someText, 5, 6, 2);
// Write string
delay2S();
#endif
HW Connection
Glcd HW connection
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mikoC PRO for dsPIC
I²C Library
The I²C full master I²C module is available with a number of the dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 MCU models. The mikroC PRO
for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 provides a library which supports the master I²C mode.
Important :
- I²C library routines require you to specify the module you want to use. To select the desired I²C module, simply change the letter x in the routine prototype for a number from 1 to 3.
- Number of I²C modules per MCU differs from chip to chip. Please, read the appropriate datasheet before utilizing this library.
Library Routines
- I2Cx_Init
- I2Cx_Start
- I2Cx_Restart
- I2Cx_Is_Idle
- I2Cx_Read
- I2Cx_Write
- I2Cx_Stop
I2Cx_Init
Prototype
void I2Cx_Init(unsigned long scl);
Description Configures and initializes the desired I²C module with default settings.
This function enables the I²C module by setting the I2CEN bit. The rest of the bits in I²C control register
remains unchanged. Default initialization (after reset) of I²C module is:
- continue operation in IDLE mode
- IPMI mode disabled
- 7-bit slave address
- slew rate control enabled
- general call address disabled
- software or receive clock stretching disabled
Parameters - scl: requested serial clock rate.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
MCU with the I²C module.
Example
// Initialize the I2C1 module with clock_rate of 100000
I2C1_Init(100000);
Notes
Refer to the MCU’s datasheet for correct values of the scl in respect with Fosc.
I²C library routines require you to specify the module you want to use. To select the desired I²C
module, simply change the letter x in the routine prototype for a number from 1 to 3.
Number of I²C modules per MCU differs from chip to chip. Please, read the appropriate datasheet
before utilizing this library.
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mikroC PRO for dsPIC
I2Cx_Start
Prototype
void I2Cx_Start();
Description Determines if the I²C bus is free and issues START signal.
Parameters None.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
MCU with at least one I²C module.
Used I²C module must be initialized before using this function. See I2Cx_Init routine.
Example
Notes
// Issue START signal
I2C1_Start();
I²C library routines require you to specify the module you want to use. To select the desired I²C
module, simply change the letter x in the routine prototype for a number from 1 to 3.
Number of I²C modules per MCU differs from chip to chip. Please, read the appropriate datasheet
before utilizing this library.
I2Cx_Restart
Prototype
void I2Cx_Restart();
Description Issues repeated START signal.
Parameters None.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
MCU with at least one I²C module.
Used I²C module must be initialized before using this function. See I2Cx_Init routine.
Example
Notes
// Issue RESTART signal
I2C1_Restart();
I²C library routines require you to specify the module you want to use. To select the desired I²C
module, simply change the letter x in the routine prototype for a number from 1 to 3.
Number of I²C modules per MCU differs from chip to chip. Please, read the appropriate datasheet
before utilizing this library.
391
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mikoC PRO for dsPIC
I2Cx_Is_Idle
Prototype
unsigned I2Cx_Is_Idle();
Description Waits for the I²C bus to become free. This is a blocking function.
Parameters None.
Returns
Requires
- 0 if I²C bus is free.
- 1 if I²C bus is not free.
MCU with at least one I²C module.
Used I²C module must be initialized before using this function. See I2Cx_Init routine.
Example
Notes
unsigned char data_;
...
if !(I2C1_Is_Idle)
I2C1_Write(data_);
...
I²C library routines require you to specify the module you want to use. To select the desired I²C
module, simply change the letter x in the routine prototype for a number from 1 to 3.
Number of I²C modules per MCU differs from chip to chip. Please, read the appropriate datasheet
before utilizing this library.
I2Cx_Read
Prototype
unsigned char I2Cx_Read(unsigned ack);
Description Reads a byte from the I²C bus.
Parameters - ack: acknowledge signal parameter. If the ack = 0, acknowledge signal will be sent after reading,
otherwise the not acknowledge signal will be sent.
Returns
Received data.
Requires
MCU with at least one I²C module.
Used I²C module must be initialized before using this function. See I2Cx_Init routine.
Also, START signal needs to be issued in order to use this function. See I2Cx_Start.
Example
Notes
unsigned char take;
...
// Read data and send the not_acknowledge signal
take = I2C1_Read(1);
I²C library routines require you to specify the module you want to use. To select the desired I²C
module, simply change the letter x in the routine prototype for a number from 1 to 3.
Number of I²C modules per MCU differs from chip to chip. Please, read the appropriate datasheet
before utilizing this library.
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I2Cx_Write
Prototype
unsigned I2Cx_Write(unsigned char data_);
Description Sends data byte via the I²C bus.
Parameters - data_: data to be sent
Returns
Requires
- 0 if there were no errors.
- 1 if write collision was detected on the I²C bus.
MCU with at least one I²C module.
Used I²C module must be initialized before using this function. See I2Cx_Init routine.
Also, START signal needs to be issued in order to use this function. See I2Cx_Start.
Example
Notes
unsigned char data_;
unsigned error;
...
error = I2C1_Write(data_);
error = I2C1_Write(0xA3);
I²C library routines require you to specify the module you want to use. To select the desired I²C
module, simply change the letter x in the routine prototype for a number from 1 to 3.
Number of I²C modules per MCU differs from chip to chip. Please, read the appropriate datasheet
before utilizing this library.
I2Cx_Stop
Prototype
void I2Cx_Stop();
Description Issues STOP signal.
Parameters None.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
MCU with at least one I²C module.
Used I²C module must be initialized before using this function. See I2Cx_Init routine.
Example
Notes
// Issue STOP signal
I2C1_Stop();
I²C library routines require you to specify the module you want to use. To select the desired I²C
module, simply change the letter x in the routine prototype for a number from 1 to 3.
Number of I²C modules per MCU differs from chip to chip. Please, read the appropriate datasheet
before utilizing this library.
393
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Library Example
This code demonstrates working with the I²C library. Program sends data to EEPROM (data is written at the address
2). After that, program reads data from the same EEPROM address and displays it on PORTB for visual check. See the
figure below how to interface the 24C02 to dsPIC30/33 and PIC24.
Copy Code To Clipboard
void main(){
ADPCFG = 0xFFFF;
// initialize AN pins as digital
LATB = 0;
TRISB = 0;
// Configure PORTB as output
I2C1_Init(100000);
I2C1_Start();
I2C1_Write(0xA2);
I2C1_Write(2);
I2C1_Write(0xF0);
I2C1_Stop();
//
//
//
//
//
//
initialize I2C communication
issue I2C start signal
send byte via I2C (device address + W)
send byte (address of EEPROM location)
send data (data to be written)
issue I2C stop signal
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
issue I2C start signal
send byte via I2C (device address + W)
send byte (data address)
issue I2C signal repeated start
send byte (device address + R)
Read the data (NO acknowledge)
issue I2C stop signal
Delay_100ms();
}
I2C1_Start();
I2C1_Write(0xA2);
I2C1_Write(2);
I2C1_Restart();
I2C1_Write(0xA3);
LATB = I2C1_Read(0u);
I2C1_Stop();
HW Connection
Interfacing 24c02 to dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 via I²C
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Keypad Library
The mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 provides a library for working with 4x4 keypad. The library routines can
also be used with 4x1, 4x2, or 4x3 keypad. For connections explanation see schematic at the bottom of this page.
External dependencies of Keypad Library
The following variable must be
defined in all projects using Keypad Description :
Library:
extern
sfr
keypadPort;
unsigned
int
Keypad Port.
Example :
unsigned keypadPort at PORTB;
Library Routines
- Keypad_Init
- Keypad_Key_Press
- Keypad_Key_Click
Keypad_Init
Prototype
void Keypad_Init();
Description Initializes given port for working with keypad.
Parameters None.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Global variable :
- keypadPort - Keypad port
must be defined before using this function.
Example
Notes
395
// Keypad module connections
char unsigned at PORTB;
// End of keypad module connections
...
Keypad_Init();
The Keypad library uses lower byte (bits <7..0>) of keypadPort.
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mikoC PRO for dsPIC
Keypad_Key_Press
Prototype
unsigned Keypad_Key_Press();
Description Reads the key from keypad when key gets pressed.
Parameters None.
Returns
The code of a pressed key (1..16).
If no key is pressed, returns 0.
Requires
Example
Notes
Port needs to be initialized for working with the Keypad library, see Keypad_Init.
unsigned kp;
...
kp = Keypad_Key_Press();
None
Keypad_Key_Click
Prototype
unsigned Keypad_Key_Click();
Description Call to Keypad_Key_Click is a blocking call: the function waits until some key is pressed and
released. When released, the function returns 1 to 16, depending on the key. If more than one key is
pressed simultaneously the function will wait until all pressed keys are released. After that the function
will return the code of the first pressed key.
Parameters None.
Returns
The code of a clicked key (1..16).
If no key is clicked, returns 0.
Requires
Port needs to be initialized for working with the Keypad library, see Keypad_Init.
Example
kp = Keypad_Key_Click();
Notes
None
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Library Example
The following code can be used for testing the keypad. It is written for keypad_4x3 or _4x4. The code returned by the
keypad functions (1..16) is transformed into ASCII codes [0..9,A..F], and then sent via UART1.
Copy Code To Clipboard
unsigned short kp, oldstate = 0;
char txt[6];
// Keypad module connections
unsigned keypadPort at PORTB;
unsigned keypadPort_Direction at TRISB;
// End Keypad module connections
void main() {
ADPCFG = 0xFFFF;
UART1_Init(9600);
Delay_ms(100);
Keypad_Init();
// Initialize Keypad
do {
kp = 0;
// Reset key code variable
// Wait for key to be pressed and released
do
// kp = Keypad_Key_Press();
// Store key code in kp variable
kp = Keypad_Key_Click();
// Store key code in kp variable
while (!kp);
// Prepare value for output, transform key to it’s ASCII value
switch (kp) {
//case 10: kp = 42; break; // ‘*’
// Uncomment this block for keypad4x3
//case 11: kp = 48; break; // ‘0’
//case 12: kp = 35; break; // ‘#’
//default: kp += 48;
case
case
case
case
case
case
case
case
case
case
case
case
case
case
case
case
}
1:
2:
3:
4:
5:
6:
7:
8:
9:
10:
11:
12:
13:
14:
15:
16:
kp
kp
kp
kp
kp
kp
kp
kp
kp
kp
kp
kp
kp
kp
kp
kp
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
}
UART1_Write(kp);
} while (1);
397
49;
50;
51;
65;
52;
53;
54;
66;
55;
56;
57;
67;
42;
48;
35;
68;
break;
break;
break;
break;
break;
break;
break;
break;
break;
break;
break;
break;
break;
break;
break;
break;
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
1
2
3
A
4
5
6
B
7
8
9
C
*
0
#
D
// Uncomment this block for keypad4x4
// Send value of pressed button to UART
MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
HW Connection
4x4 Keypad connection scheme
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398
mikroC PRO for dsPIC
Lcd Library
The mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 provides a library for communication with Lcds (with HD44780 compliant
controllers) through the 4-bit interface. An example of Lcd connections is given on the schematic at the bottom of this
page.
For creating a set of custom Lcd characters use Lcd Custom Character Tool.
Library Dependency Tree
Keypad_Key_Click
The following variables must be
defined in all projects using Lcd Description :
Library :
extern sfr sbit LCD_RS:
Register Select line.
extern sfr sbit LCD_D4;
Data 4 line.
extern sfr sbit LCD_D6;
Data 6 line.
extern
sfr
Direction;
extern sfr sbit LCD_EN:
Enable line.
extern sfr sbit LCD_D5;
Data 5 line.
extern sfr sbit LCD_D7;
Data 7 line.
extern
sfr
Direction;
extern
sfr
Direction;
extern
sfr
Direction;
extern
sfr
Direction;
extern
sfr
Direction;
sbit
LCD_RS_
Register Select direction pin.
sbit
LCD_EN_
Enable direction pin.
sbit
LCD_D4_
Data 4 direction pin.
sbit
LCD_D5_
Data 5 direction pin.
sbit
LCD_D6_
Data 6 direction pin.
sbit
LCD_D7_
Data 7 direction pin.
Example :
sbit LCD_RS at LATD0_bit;
sbit LCD_EN at LATD1_bit;
sbit LCD_D4 at LATB0_bit;
sbit LCD_D5 at LATB1_bit;
sbit LCD_D6 at LATB2_bit;
sbit LCD_D7 at LATB3_bit
sbit LCD_RS_Direction at TRISD0_
bit;
sbit LCD_EN_Direction at TRISD1_
bit;
sbit LCD_D4_Direction at TRISB0_
bit;
sbit LCD_D5_Direction at TRISB1_
bit;
sbit LCD_D6_Direction at TRISB2_
bit;
sbit LCD_D7_Direction at TRISB3_
bit;
Library Routines
399
- Lcd_Init
- Lcd_Out
- Lcd_Out_Cp
- Lcd_Chr
- Lcd_Chr_Cp
- Lcd_Cmd
MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
Lcd_Init
Prototype
void Lcd_Init();
Description Initializes Lcd module.
Parameters None.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Global variables:
- LCD_RS: Register Select (data/instruction) signal pin
- LCD_EN: Enable signal pin
- LCD_D4: Data bit 4
- LCD_D5: Data bit 5
- LCD_D6: Data bit 6
- LCD_D7: Data bit 7
- LCD_RS_Direction: Direction of the Register Select pin
- LCD_EN_Direction: Direction of the Enable signal pin
- LCD_D4_Direction: Direction of the Data 4 pin
- LCD_D5_Direction: Direction of the Data 5 pin
- LCD_D6_Direction: Direction of the Data 6 pin
- LCD_D7_Direction: Direction of the Data 7 pin
must be defined before using this function.
Example
// Lcd module connections
sbit LCD_RS at LATD0_bit;
sbit LCD_EN at LATD1_bit;
sbit LCD_D4 at LATB0_bit;
sbit LCD_D5 at LATB1_bit;
sbit LCD_D6 at LATB2_bit;
sbit LCD_D7 at LATB3_bit;
sbit LCD_RS_Direction at TRISD0_bit;
sbit LCD_EN_Direction at TRISD1_bit;
sbit LCD_D4_Direction at TRISB0_bit;
sbit LCD_D5_Direction at TRISB1_bit;
sbit LCD_D6_Direction at TRISB2_bit;
sbit LCD_D7_Direction at TRISB3_bit;
// End Lcd module connections
...
Notes
Lcd_Init();
None
MikroElektronika
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mikroC PRO for dsPIC
Lcd_Out
Prototype
void Lcd_Out(unsigned int row, unsigned int column, char *text);
Description Prints text on Lcd starting from specified position. Both string variables and literals can be passed as
a text.
Parameters - row: starting position row number
- column: starting position column number
- text: text to be written
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
The Lcd module needs to be initialized. See Lcd_Init routine.
Example
// Write text “Hello!” on Lcd starting from row 1, column 3:
Lcd_Out(1, 3, “Hello!”);
Notes
None
Lcd_Out_Cp
Prototype
void Lcd_Out_Cp(char *text);
Returns
Nothing.
Description Prints text on Lcd at current cursor position. Both string variables and literals can be passed as a
text.
Parameters - text: text to be written
Requires
The Lcd module needs to be initialized. See Lcd_Init routine.
Example
// Write text “Here!” at current cursor position:
Lcd_Out_Cp(“Here!”);
Notes
None
Lcd_Chr
Prototype
void Lcd_Chr(unsigned int row, unsigned int column, char out_char);
Description Prints character on Lcd at specified position. Both variables and literals can be passed as a
character.
Parameters - row: writing position row number
- column: writing position column number
- out_char: character to be written
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
The Lcd module needs to be initialized. See Lcd_Init routine.
Example
// Write character “i” at row 2, column 3:
Lcd_Chr(2, 3, ‘i’);
Notes
401
None
MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
Lcd_Chr_Cp
Prototype
void Lcd_Chr_Cp(char out_char);
Description Prints character on Lcd at current cursor position. Both variables and literals can be passed as a
character.
Parameters - out_char: character to be written
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
The Lcd module needs to be initialized. See Lcd_Init routine.
Example
// Write character “e” at current cursor position:
Lcd_Chr_Cp(‘e’);
Notes
None
Lcd_Cmd
Prototype
void Lcd_Cmd(char out_char);
Description Sends command to Lcd.
Parameters - out_char: command to be sent
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
The Lcd module needs to be initialized. See Lcd_Init table.
Example
// Clear Lcd display:
Lcd_Cmd(_LCD_CLEAR);
Notes
Predefined constants can be passed to the function, see Available Lcd Commands.
Available Lcd Commands
Lcd Command
Purpose
_LCD_FIRST_ROW
Move cursor to the 1st row
_LCD_THIRD_ROW
Move cursor to the 3rd row
_LCD_CLEAR
Clear display
_LCD_SECOND_ROW
Move cursor to the 2nd row
_LCD_FOURTH_ROW
Move cursor to the 4th row
_LCD_RETURN_HOME
Return cursor to home position, returns a shifted display
to its original position. Display data RAM is unaffected.
_LCD_CURSOR_OFF
Turn off cursor
_LCD_BLINK_CURSOR_ON
Blink cursor on
_LCD_MOVE_CURSOR_RIGHT
Move cursor right without changing display data RAM
_LCD_TURN_OFF
Turn Lcd display off
_LCD_SHIFT_RIGHT
Shift display right without changing display data RAM
_LCD_UNDERLINE_ON
Underline cursor on
_LCD_MOVE_CURSOR_LEFT
Move cursor left without changing display data RAM
_LCD_TURN_ON
Turn Lcd display on
_LCD_SHIFT_LEFT
Shift display left without changing display data RAM
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Library Example
The following code demonstrates usage of the Lcd Library routines:
Copy Code To Clipboard
// LCD module connections
sbit LCD_RS at LATD0_bit;
sbit LCD_EN at LATD1_bit;
sbit LCD_D4 at LATB0_bit;
sbit LCD_D5 at LATB1_bit;
sbit LCD_D6 at LATB2_bit;
sbit LCD_D7 at LATB3_bit;
sbit LCD_RS_Direction at TRISD0_bit;
sbit LCD_EN_Direction at TRISD1_bit;
sbit LCD_D4_Direction at TRISB0_bit;
sbit LCD_D5_Direction at TRISB1_bit;
sbit LCD_D6_Direction at TRISB2_bit;
sbit LCD_D7_Direction at TRISB3_bit;
// End LCD module connections
char
char
char
char
txt1[]
txt2[]
txt3[]
txt4[]
=
=
=
=
"mikroElektronika";
"EasydsPIC4A";
"Lcd4bit";
"example";
char i;
// Loop variable
void Move_Delay() {
Delay_ms(500);
}
// Function used for text moving
// You can change the moving speed here
void main(){
ADPCFG = 0xFFFF;
// Configure AN pins as digital I/O
Lcd_Init();
// Initialize LCD
Lcd_Cmd(_LCD_CLEAR);
Lcd_Cmd(_LCD_CURSOR_OFF);
Lcd_Out(1,6,txt3);
// Clear display
// Cursor off
// Write text in first row
Lcd_Out(2,6,txt4);
Delay_ms(2000);
Lcd_Cmd(_LCD_CLEAR);
// Write text in second row
Lcd_Out(1,1,txt1);
Lcd_Out(2,5,txt2);
// Write text in first row
// Write text in second row
// Clear display
Delay_ms(2000);
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// Moving text
for(i=0; i<4; i++) {
Lcd_Cmd(_LCD_SHIFT_RIGHT);
Move_Delay();
}
while(1) {
for(i=0; i<8; i++) {
Lcd_Cmd(_LCD_SHIFT_LEFT);
Move_Delay();
}
}
}
for(i=0; i<8; i++) {
Lcd_Cmd(_LCD_SHIFT_RIGHT);
Move_Delay();
}
// Move text to the right 4 times
// Endless loop
// Move text to the left 7 times
// Move text to the right 7 times
Lcd HW connection
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Manchester Code Library
The mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 provides a library for handling Manchester coded signals. The Manchester
code is a code in which data and clock signals are combined to form a single self-synchronizing data stream; each
encoded bit contains a transition at the midpoint of a bit period, the direction of transition determines whether the bit
is 0 or 1; the second half is the true bit value and the first half is the complement of the true bit value (as shown in the
figure below).
Important :
- The Manchester receive routines are blocking calls (Man_Receive_Init and Man_Synchro). This means that
MCU will wait until the task has been performed (e.g. byte is received, synchronization achieved, etc).
- Manchester code library implements time-based activities, so interrupts need to be disabled when using it.
Keypad_Key_Click
The following variables must
be defined in all projects using Description :
Manchester Code Library:
extern sfr sbit MANRXPIN;
Receive line.
extern sfr
Direction;
extern sfr sbit MANTXPIN;
extern sfr
Direction;
405
Transmit line.
sbit
MANRXPIN_
Direction of the Receive pin.
sbit
MANTXPIN_
Direction of the Transmit pin.
Example :
sbit MANRXPIN at RF0_bit;
sbit MANTXPIN at LATF1_bit;
sbit
MANRXPIN_Direction
TRISF0_bit;
sbit
MANTXPIN_Direction
TRISF1_bit;
at
at
MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
Library Routines
- Man_Receive_Init
- Man_Receive
- Man_Send_Init
- Man_Send
- Man_Synchro
- Man_Break
The following routines are for the internal use by compiler only:
- Manchester_0
- Manchester_1
- Manchester_Out
Man_Receive_Init
Prototype
unsigned int Man_Receive_Init();
Description The function configures Receiver pin. After that, the function performs synchronization procedure in
order to retrieve baud rate out of the incoming signal.
Parameters None.
Returns
Requires
- 0 - if initialization and synchronization were successful.
- 1 - upon unsuccessful synchronization.
- 255 - upon user abort.
Global variables :
- MANRXPIN : Receive line
- MANRXPIN_Direction : Direction of the receive pin
must be defined before using this function.
Example
Notes
‘ Initialize Receiver
sbit MANRXPIN at RF0_bit;
sbit MANRXPIN_Direction at TRISF0s_bit;
...
if (Man_Receive_Init() == 0) {
...
}
In case of multiple persistent errors on reception, the user should call this routine once again or
Man_Synchro routine to enable synchronization.
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Man_Receive
Prototype
unsigned char Man_Receive(unsigned int *error);
Description The function extracts one byte from incoming signal.
Parameters - error: error flag. If signal format does not match the expected, the error flag will be set
to non-zero.
Returns
A byte read from the incoming signal.
Requires
To use this function, the user must prepare the MCU for receiving. See Man_Receive_Init routines.
Example
Notes
unsigned int data = 0, error = 0;
...
data = Man_Receive(&error);
if (error)
{ /* error handling */ }
None.
Man_Send_Init
Prototype
void Man_Send_Init();
Description The function configures Transmitter pin.
Parameters None.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Global variables :
- MANTXPIN : Transmit line
- MANTXPIN_Direction : Direction of the transmit pin
must be defined before using this function.
Example
Notes
407
// Initialize Transmitter:
sbit MANTXPIN at LATF1_bit;
sbit MANTXPIN_Direction at TRISF1_bit;
...
Man_Send_Init();
None.
MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
Man_Send
Prototype
void Man_Send(unsigned char tr_data);
Description Sends one byte.
Parameters - tr_data: data to be sent
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
To use this function, the user must prepare the MCU for sending. See Man_Send_Init routine.
Example
Notes
unsigned int msg;
...
Man_Send(msg);
Baud rate used is 500 bps.
Man_Synchro
Prototype
unsigned int Man_Synchro();
Description Measures half of the manchester bit length with 10us resolution.
Parameters None.
Returns
0 - if synchronization was not successful.
Half of the manchester bit length, given in multiples of 10us - upon successful synchronization.
Requires
To use this function, you must first prepare the MCU for receiving. See Man_Receive_Init.
Example
Notes
unsigned int man__half_bit_len;
...
man__half_bit_len = Man_Synchro();
None.
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Man_Break
Prototype
void Man_Break();
Description Man_Receive is blocking routine and it can block the program flow. Call this routine from interrupt to
unblock the program execution. This mechanism is similar to WDT.
Parameters None.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Nothing.
Example
char data1, error, counter = 0;
void Timer1Int() org IVT_ADDR_T1INTERRUPT {
if (counter >= 20) {
Man_Break();
counter = 0;
}
}
// reset counter
else
counter++;
// increment counter
T1IF_bit = 0;
// Clear Timer1 overflow interrupt flag
void main() {
...
if (Man_Receive_Init() == 0) {
...
}
...
// try Man_Receive with blocking prevention mechanism
IPC0
= IPC0 | 0x1000;
// Interrupt priority level = 1
T1IE_bit= 1;
// Enable Timer1 interrupts
T1CON = 0x8030;
// Timer1 ON, internal clock FCY, prescaler
1:256
Notes
409
}
data1 = Man_Receive(&error);
T1IE_bit= 0;
// Disable Timer1 interrupts
Interrupts should be disabled before using Manchester routines again (see note at the top of this
page).
MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
Library Example
The following code is code for the Manchester receiver, it shows how to use the Manchester Library for receiving data:
Copy Code To Clipboard
// LCD module connections
sbit LCD_RS at LATD0_bit;
sbit LCD_EN at LATD1_bit;
sbit LCD_D4 at LATB0_bit;
sbit LCD_D5 at LATB1_bit;
sbit LCD_D6 at LATB2_bit;
sbit LCD_D7 at LATB3_bit;
sbit LCD_RS_Direction at TRISD0_bit;
sbit LCD_EN_Direction at TRISD1_bit;
sbit LCD_D4_Direction at TRISB0_bit;
sbit LCD_D5_Direction at TRISB1_bit;
sbit LCD_D6_Direction at TRISB2_bit;
sbit LCD_D7_Direction at TRISB3_bit;
// End LCD module connections
// Manchester module connections
sbit MANRXPIN at RF0_bit;
sbit MANRXPIN_Direction at TRISF0_bit;
sbit MANTXPIN at LATF1_bit;
sbit MANTXPIN_Direction at TRISF1_bit;
// End Manchester module connections
char error, ErrorCount, temp;
void main() {
ErrorCount = 0;
ADPCFG = 0xFFFF;
TRISB = 0;
LATB = 0;
// Configure AN pins as digital I/O
Lcd_Init();
Lcd_Cmd(_LCD_CLEAR);
// Initialize LCD
// Clear LCD display
Man_Receive_Init();
// Initialize Receiver
while (1) {
// Endless loop
Lcd_Cmd(_LCD_FIRST_ROW);
// Move cursor to the 1st row
while (1) {
temp = Man_Receive(&error);
if (temp == 0x0B)
break;
if (error)
break;
}
//
//
//
//
//
MikroElektronika
Wait for the “start” byte
Attempt byte receive
“Start” byte, see Transmitter example
We got the starting sequence
Exit so we do not loop forever
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mikroC PRO for dsPIC
do
{
}
temp = Man_Receive(&error);
// Attempt byte receive
if (error) {
// If error occured
Lcd_Chr_CP('?');
// Write question mark on LCD
ErrorCount++;
// Update error counter
if (ErrorCount > 20) {
// In case of multiple errors
temp = Man_Synchro();
// Try to synchronize again
//Man_Receive_Init(); // Alternative, try to Initialize Receiver again
ErrorCount = 0;
// Reset error counter
}
}
else {
// No error occured
if (temp != 0x0E)
// If "End" byte was received(see Transmitter example)
Lcd_Chr_CP(temp); //
do not write received byte on LCD
}
Delay_ms(25);
}
}
while (temp != 0x0E);
// If "End" byte was received exit do loop
The following code is code for the Manchester receiver, it shows how to use the Manchester Library for receiving
data:
Copy Code To Clipboard
// Manchester module connections
sbit MANRXPIN at RF0_bit;
sbit MANRXPIN_Direction at TRISF0_bit;
sbit MANTXPIN at LATF1_bit;
sbit MANTXPIN_Direction at TRISF1_bit;
// End Manchester module connections
char index, character;
char s1[] = "mikroElektronika";
void main() {
ADPCFG = 0xFFFF;
TRISB = 0;
LATB = 0;
// Configure AN pins as digital I/O
Man_Send_Init();
// Initialize transmitter
while (1) {
Man_Send(0x0B);
Delay_ms(100);
// Endless loop
// Send "start" byte
// Wait for a while
character = s1[0];
index = 0;
411
// Take first char from string
// Initialize index variable
MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
}
}
while (character) {
Man_Send(character);
Delay_ms(90);
index++;
character = s1[index];
}
Man_Send(0x0E);
Delay_ms(1000);
//
//
//
//
//
String ends with zero
Send character
Wait for a while
Increment index variable
Take next char from string
// Send "end" byte
Connection Example
Simple Transmitter connection
Simple Receiver connection
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Multi Media Card Library
The Multi Media Card (MMC) is a Flash memory card standard. MMC cards are currently available in sizes up to and
including 32 GB and are used in cellular phones, digital audio players, digital cameras and PDA’s.
mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 provides a library for accessing data on Multi Media Card via SPI communication.
This library also supports SD (Secure Digital) and high capacity SDHC (Secure Digital High Capacity) memory cards .
Secure Digital Card
Secure Digital (SD) is a Flash memory card standard, based on the older Multi Media Card (MMC) format.
SD cards are currently available in sizes of up to and including 2 GB, and are used in digital cameras, digital camcorders,
handheld computers, media players, mobile phones, GPS receivers, video games and PDAs.
Secure Digital High Capacity Card
SDHC (Secure Digital High Capacity, SD 2.0) is an extension of the SD standard which increases card's storage
capacity up to 32 GB by using sector addressing instead of byte addressing in the previous SD standard.
SDHC cards share the same physical and electrical form factor as older (SD 1.x) cards, allowing SDHC-devices to
support both newer SDHC cards and older SD-cards. The current standard limits the maximum capacity of an SDHC
card to 32 GB.
Important :
- Routines for file handling can be used only with FAT16 file system.
- Library functions create and read files from the root directory only.
- Library functions populate both FAT1 and FAT2 tables when writing to files, but the file data is being read from the
FAT1 table only; i.e. there is no recovery if the FAT1 table gets corrupted.
- If MMC/SD card has Master Boot Record (MBR), the library will work with the first available primary (logical) partition
that has non-zero size. If MMC/SD card has Volume Boot Record (i.e. there is only one logical partition and no
MBRs), the library works with entire card as a single partition. For more information on MBR, physical and logical
drives, primary/secondary partitions and partition tables, please consult other resources, e.g. Wikipedia and similar.
- Before write operation, make sure you don’t overwrite boot or FAT sector as it could make your card on PC or digital
camera unreadable. Drive mapping tools, such as Winhex, can be of a great assistance.
- Library uses SPI module for communication. The user must initialize the appropriate SPI module before using the
MMC Library.
- For MCUs with multiple SPI modules it is possible to initialize all of them and then switch by using the
SPI_Set_Active() function. See the SPI Library functions.
The SPI module has to be initialized through SPIx_Init_Advanced routine with the following parameters:
- SPI Master
- 8bit mode
- secondary prescaler 1
- primary prescaler 64
- Slave Select disabled
- data sampled in the middle of data output time
- clock idle high
- Serial output data changes on transition from active clock state to idle clock state
Tip : Once the MMC/SD card is initialized, SPI module can be reinitialized at higher a speed. See the Mmc_Init and
Mmc_Fat_Init routines.
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Library Dependency Tree
External dependencies of MMC Library
The following variable must be
defined in all projects using MMC Description :
library:
extern sfr
Select;
sbit
extern sfr sbit
Select_Direction;
Mmc_Chip_
Chip select pin.
Example :
sbit Mmc_Chip_Select at LATF0_
bit;
Mmc_Chip_ Direction of the chip select sbit
Mmc_Chip_Select_Direction
at TRISF0_bit;
pin.
Library Routines
- Mmc_Init
- Mmc_Read_Sector
- Mmc_Write_Sector
- Mmc_Read_Cid
- Mmc_Read_Csd
Routines for file handling:
- Mmc_Fat_Init
- Mmc_Fat_QuickFormat
- Mmc_Fat_Assign
- Mmc_Fat_Reset
- Mmc_Fat_Read
- Mmc_Fat_Rewrite
- Mmc_Fat_Append
- Mmc_Fat_Delete
- Mmc_Fat_Write
- Mmc_Fat_Set_File_Date
- Mmc_Fat_Get_File_Date
- Mmc_Fat_Get_File_Date_Modified
- Mmc_Fat_Get_File_Size
- Mmc_Fat_Get_Swap_File
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Mmc_Init
Prototype
unsigned int Mmc_Init();
Description Initializes MMC through hardware SPI interface.
Mmc_Init needs to be called before using other functions of this library.
Parameters None.
Returns
Requires
- 0 - if MMC/SD card was detected and successfully initialized
- 1 - otherwise
The appropriate hardware SPI module must be previously initialized.
Global variables :
- Mmc_Chip_Select: Chip Select line
- Mmc_Chip_Select_Direction: Direction of the Chip Select pin
must be defined before using this function.
Example
Notes
415
// MMC module connections
sbit Mmc_Chip_Select at LATF0_bit;
sbit Mmc_Chip_Select_Direction at TRISF0_bit;
// MMC module connections
...
// Initialize the SPI module
SPI1_Init_Advanced(_SPI_MASTER, _SPI_8_BIT, _SPI_PRESCALE_SEC_1, _SPI_
PRESCALE_PRI_64,_SPI_SS_DISABLE,
_SPI_DATA_SAMPLE_MIDDLE, _SPI_CLK_IDLE_HIGH, _SPI_ACTIVE_2_
IDLE);
// Loop until MMC is initialized
while (Mmc_Init())
;
// Reinitialize the SPI module at higher speed (change primary prescaler).
SPI1_Init_Advanced(_SPI_MASTER, _SPI_8_BIT, _SPI_PRESCALE_SEC_1, _SPI_
PRESCALE_PRI_4,_SPI_SS_DISABLE,
_SPI_DATA_SAMPLE_MIDDLE, _SPI_CLK_IDLE_HIGH, _SPI_ACTIVE_2_
IDLE);
None.
MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
Mmc_Read_Sector
Prototype
unsigned int Mmc_Read_Sector(unsigned long sector, char *dbuff);
Description The function reads one sector (512 bytes) from MMC card.
Parameters - sector: MMC/SD card sector to be read.
- dbuff: buffer of minimum 512 bytes in length for data storage.
Returns
Requires
Example
Notes
- 0 - if reading was successful
- 1 - if an error occurred
MMC/SD card must be initialized. See Mmc_Init.
// read sector 510 of the MMC/SD card
unsigned int error;
unsigned long sectorNo = 510;
char dataBuffer[512];
...
error = Mmc_Read_Sector(sectorNo, dataBuffer);
None.
Mmc_Write_Sector
Prototype
unsigned int Mmc_Write_Sector(unsigned long sector, char *dbuff);
Description The function writes 512 bytes of data to one MMC card sector.
Parameters - sector: MMC/SD card sector to be written to.
- dbuff: data to be written (buffer of minimum 512 bytes in length).
Returns
Requires
Example
Notes
- 0 - if writing was successful
- 1 - if there was an error in sending write command
- 2 - if there was an error in writing (data rejected)
MMC/SD card must be initialized. See Mmc_Init.
// write to sector 510 of the MMC/SD card
unsigned int error;
unsigned long sectorNo = 510;
char dataBuffer[512];
...
error = Mmc_Write_Sector(sectorNo, dataBuffer);
None.
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Mmc_Read_Cid
Prototype
unsigned int Mmc_Read_Cid(char *data_cid);
Description The function reads 16-byte CID register.
Parameters - data_cid: buffer of minimum 16 bytes in length for storing CID register content.
Returns
Requires
Example
Notes
- 0 - if CID register was read successfully
- 1 - if there was an error while reading
MMC/SD card must be initialized. See Mmc_Init.
unsigned int error;
char dataBuffer[16];
...
error = Mmc_Read_Cid(dataBuffer);
None.
Mmc_Read_Csd
Prototype
unsigned int Mmc_Read_Csd(char *data_csd);
Description The function reads 16-byte CSD register.
Parameters - data_csd: buffer of minimum 16 bytes in length for storing CSD register content.
Returns
Requires
Example
Notes
417
- 0 - if CSD register was read successfully
- 1 - if there was an error while reading
MMC/SD card must be initialized. See Mmc_Init.
unsigned int error;
char dataBuffer[16];
...
error = Mmc_Read_Csd(dataBuffer);
None.
MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
Mmc_Fat_Init
Prototype
unsigned int Mmc_Fat_Init();
Description Initializes MMC/SD card, reads MMC/SD FAT16 boot sector and extracts necessary data needed by
the library.
Parameters None.
Returns
Requires
- 0 - if MMC/SD card was detected and successfully initialized
- 1 - if FAT16 boot sector was not found
- 255 - if MMC/SD card was not detected
Global variables :
- Mmc_Chip_Select: Chip Select line
- Mmc_Chip_Select_Direction: Direction of the Chip Select pin
must be defined before using this function.
The appropriate hardware SPI module must be previously initialized. See the SPIx_Init, SPIx_Init_
Advanced routines.
Example
Notes
// MMC module connections
sbit Mmc_Chip_Select at LATF0_bit;
sbit Mmc_Chip_Select_Direction at TRISF0_bit;
// MMC module connections
#include <spi_const.h>
...
// Initialize the SPI module
SPI1_Init_Advanced(_SPI_MASTER, _SPI_8_BIT, _SPI_PRESCALE_SEC_1, _SPI_
PRESCALE_PRI_64,_SPI_SS_DISABLE,
_SPI_DATA_SAMPLE_MIDDLE, _SPI_CLK_IDLE_HIGH, _SPI_ACTIVE_2_
IDLE);
// Initialize MMC/SD card and MMC_FAT16 library globals
Mmc_Fat_Init();
// Reinitialize the SPI module at higher speed (change primary prescaler).
SPI1_Init_Advanced(_SPI_MASTER, _SPI_8_BIT, _SPI_PRESCALE_SEC_1, _SPI_
PRESCALE_PRI_4,_SPI_SS_DISABLE,
_SPI_DATA_SAMPLE_MIDDLE, _SPI_CLK_IDLE_HIGH, _SPI_ACTIVE_2_
IDLE);
MMC/SD card has to be formatted to FAT16 file system.
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Mmc_Fat_QuickFormat
Prototype
unsigned int Mmc_Fat_QuickFormat(char *mmc_fat_label);
Description Formats to FAT16 and initializes MMC/SD card.
Parameters - mmc_fat_label: volume label (11 characters in length). If less than 11 characters are provided, the
label will be padded with spaces. If null string is passed volume will not be labeled
Returns
Requires
Example
Notes
- 0 - if MMC/SD card was detected, successfully formated and initialized
- 1 - if FAT16 format was unseccessful
- 255 - if MMC/SD card was not detected
The appropriate hardware SPI module must be previously initialized.
// Initialize the SPI module
SPI1_Init_Advanced(_SPI_MASTER, _SPI_8_BIT, _SPI_PRESCALE_SEC_1, _SPI_
PRESCALE_PRI_64, _SPI_SS_DISABLE, _SPI_DATA_SAMPLE_MIDDLE, _SPI_CLK_IDLE_
HIGH, _SPI_ACTIVE_2_IDLE);
// Format and initialize MMC/SD card and MMC_FAT16 library globals
Mmc_Fat_QuickFormat(“mikroE”);
// Reinitialize the SPI module at higher speed (change primary prescaler).
SPI1_Init_Advanced(_SPI_MASTER, _SPI_8_BIT, _SPI_PRESCALE_SEC_1, _SPI_
PRESCALE_PRI_4,_SPI_SS_DISABLE,
_SPI_DATA_SAMPLE_MIDDLE,
_SPI_CLK_IDLE_
HIGH, _SPI_ACTIVE_2_IDLE);
This routine can be used instead or in conjunction with Mmc_Fat_Init routine.
If MMC/SD card already contains a valid boot sector, it will remain unchanged (except volume label
field) and only FAT and ROOT tables will be erased. Also, the new volume label will be set.
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Mmc_Fat_Assign
Prototype
unsigned int Mmc_Fat_Assign(char *filename, char file_cre_attr);
Description Assigns file for file operations (read, write, delete...). All subsequent file operations will be applied on
an assigned file.
Parameters - filename: name of the file that should be assigned for file operations. File name should be in DOS 8.3
(file_name.extension) format. The file name and extension will be automatically padded with spaces
by the library if they have less than length required (i.e. “mikro.tx” -> “mikro .tx “), so the user does no
have to take care of that. The file name and extension are case insensitive. The library will convert
them to proper case automatically, so the user does not have to take care of that.
Also, in order to keep backward compatibility with the first version of this library, file names can be
entered as UPPERCASE string of 11 bytes in length with no dot character between file name and
extension (i.e. “MIKROELETXT” -> MIKROELE.TXT). In this case last 3 characters of the string are
considered to be file extension.
- file_cre_attr: file creation and attributes flags. Each bit corresponds to the appropriate file
attribute:
Returns
Requires
Example
Notes
Bit
Mask
Description
0
0x01
Read Only
1
0x02
Hidden
2
0x04
System
3
0x08
Volume Label
4
0x10
Subdirectory
5
0x20
Archive
6
0x40
Device (internal use only, never found on disk)
7
0x80
File creation flag. If file does not exist and this flag is
set, a new file with specified name will be created.
- 1 - if file already exists or file does not exist but a new file is created.
- 0 - if file does not exist and no new file is created.
MMC/SD card and MMC library must be initialized for file operations. See Mmc_Fat_Init.
// create file with archive attribute if it does not already exist
Mmc_Fat_Assign(“MIKRO007.TXT”,0xA0);
Long File Names (LFN) are not supported.
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Mmc_Fat_Reset
Prototype
void Mmc_Fat_Reset(unsigned long *size);
Description Procedure resets the file pointer (moves it to the start of the file) of the assigned file, so that the file
can be read.
Parameters - size: buffer to store file size to. After file has been opened for reading, its size is returned through
this parameter.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
MMC/SD card and MMC library must be initialized for file operations. See Mmc_Fat_Init.
The file must be previously assigned. See Mmc_Fat_Assign.
Example
Notes
unsigned long size;
...
Mmc_Fat_Reset(size);
None.
Mmc_Fat_Read
Prototype
void Mmc_Fat_Read(unsigned short *bdata);
Description Reads a byte from the currently assigned file opened for reading. Upon function execution file pointers
will be set to the next character in the file.
Parameters - bdata: buffer to store read byte to. Upon this function execution read byte is returned through this
parameter.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
MMC/SD card and MMC library must be initialized for file operations. See Mmc_Fat_Init.
The file must be previously assigned. See Mmc_Fat_Assign.
The file must be opened for reading. See Mmc_Fat_Reset.
Example
Notes
421
char character;
...
Mmc_Fat_Read(&character);
None.
MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
Mmc_Fat_Rewrite
Prototype
void Mmc_Fat_Rewrite();
Description Opens the currently assigned file for writing. If the file is not empty its content will be erased.
Parameters None.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
MMC/SD card and MMC library must be initialized for file operations. See Mmc_Fat_Init.
The file must be previously assigned. See Mmc_Fat_Assign.
Example
Notes
// open file for writing
Mmc_Fat_Rewrite();
None.
Mmc_Fat_Append
Prototype
void Mmc_Fat_Append();
Description Opens the currently assigned file for appending. Upon this function execution file pointers will be
positioned after the last byte in the file, so any subsequent file write operation will start from there.
Parameters None.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
MMC/SD card and MMC library must be initialized for file operations. See Mmc_Fat_Init.
The file must be previously assigned. See Mmc_Fat_Assign.
Example
Notes
// open file for appending
Mmc_Fat_Append();
None.
Mmc_Fat_Delete
Prototype
void Mmc_Fat_Delete();
Description Deletes currently assigned file from MMC/SD card.
Parameters None.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
MMC/SD card and MMC library must be initialized for file operations. See Mmc_Fat_Init.
The file must be previously assigned. See Mmc_Fat_Assign.
Example
Notes
// delete current file
Mmc_Fat_Delete();
None.
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Mmc_Fat_Write
Prototype
void Mmc_Fat_Write(char *fdata, unsigned data_len);
Description Writes requested number of bytes to the currently assigned file opened for writing.
Parameters - fdata: data to be written.
- data_len: number of bytes to be written.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
MMC/SD card and MMC library must be initialized for file operations. See Mmc_Fat_Init.
The file must be previously assigned. See Mmc_Fat_Assign.
The file must be opened for writing. See Mmc_Fat_Rewrite or Mmc_Fat_Append.
Example
Notes
char file_contents[42];
...
Mmc_Fat_Write(file_contents, 42); // write data to the assigned file
None.
Mmc_Fat_Set_File_Date
Prototype
void Mmc_Fat_Set_File_Date(unsigned int year, unsigned short day,unsigned
short hours, unsigned short mins, unsigned short seconds);
Description Sets the date/time stamp. Any subsequent file write operation will write this stamp to the currently
assigned file’s time/date attributes.
Parameters - year: year attribute. Valid values: 1980-2107
- month: month attribute. Valid values: 1-12
- day: day attribute. Valid values: 1-31
- hours: hours attribute. Valid values: 0-23
- mins: minutes attribute. Valid values: 0-59
- seconds: seconds attribute. Valid values: 0-59
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
MMC/SD card and MMC library must be initialized for file operations. See Mmc_Fat_Init.
The file must be previously assigned. See Mmc_Fat_Assign.
The file must be opened for writing. See Mmc_Fat_Rewrite or Mmc_Fat_Append.
Example
Notes
423
// April 1st 2005, 18:07:00
Mmc_Fat_Set_File_Date(2005, 4, 1, 18, 7, 0);
None.
MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
Mmc_Fat_Get_File_Date
Prototype
void Mmc_Fat_Get_File_Date(unsigned int *year, unsigned short *month,
unsigned short *day, unsigned short *hours, unsigned short *mins);
Description Reads time/date attributes of the currently assigned file.
Parameters - year: buffer to store year attribute to. Upon function execution year attribute is returned through this
parameter.
- month: buffer to store month attribute to. Upon function execution month attribute is returned through
this parameter.
- day: buffer to store day attribute to. Upon function execution day attribute is returned through this
parameter.
- hours: buffer to store hours attribute to. Upon function execution hours attribute is returned through
this parameter.
- mins: buffer to store minutes attribute to. Upon function execution minutes attribute is returned
through this parameter.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
MMC/SD card and MMC library must be initialized for file operations. See Mmc_Fat_Init.
The file must be previously assigned. See Mmc_Fat_Assign.
Example
Notes
// get Date/time of file
unsigned yr;
char mnth, dat, hrs, mins;
...
file_Name = “MYFILEABTXT”;
Mmc_Fat_Assign(file_Name);
Mmc_Fat_Get_File_Date(&yr, &mnth, &day, &hrs, &mins);
None.
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Mmc_Fat_Get_File_Date_Modified
Prototype
void Mmc_Fat_Get_File_Date_Modified(unsigned int *year, unsigned short
*month, unsigned short *day, unsigned short *hours, unsigned short *mins);
Description Retrieves the last modification date/time for the currently selected file. Seconds are not being retrieved
since they are written in 2-sec increments.
Parameters - year: buffer to store year attribute to. Upon function execution year attribute is returned through this
parameter.
- month: buffer to store month attribute to. Upon function execution month attribute is returned through
this parameter.
- day: buffer to store day attribute to. Upon function execution day attribute is returned through this
parameter.
- hours: buffer to store hours attribute to. Upon function execution hours attribute is returned through
this parameter.
- mins: buffer to store minutes attribute to. Upon function execution minutes attribute is returned
through this parameter.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
The file must be assigned, see Mmc_Fat_Assign.
Example
// get modification Date/time of file
unsigned yr;
char mnth, dat, hrs, mins;
...
file_Name = “MYFILEABTXT”;
Mmc_Fat_Assign(file_Name);
Mmc_Fat_Get_File_Date_Modified(&yr, &mnth, &day, &hrs, &mins);
Mmc_Fat_Get_File_Size
Prototype
unsigned long Mmc_Fat_Get_File_Size();
Description This function reads size of the currently assigned file in bytes.
Parameters None.
Returns
This function returns size of active file (in bytes).
Requires
MMC/SD card and MMC library must be initialized for file operations. See Mmc_Fat_Init.
The file must be previously assigned. See Mmc_Fat_Assign.
Example
Notes
425
unsigned long my_file_size;
...
my_file_size = Mmc_Fat_Get_File_Size();
None
MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
Mmc_Fat_Get_Swap_File
Prototype
unsigned long Mmc_Fat_Get_Swap_File(unsigned
filename, char file_attr);
long
sectors_cnt,
char*
Description This function is used to create a swap file of predefined name and size on the MMC/SD media. If a
file with specified name already exists on the media, search for consecutive sectors will ignore sectors
occupied by this file. Therefore, it is recommended to erase such file if it already exists before calling
this function. If it is not erased and there is still enough space for a new swap file, this function will
delete it after allocating new memory space for a new swap file.
The purpose of the swap file is to make reading and writing to MMC/SD media as fast as possible,
by using the Mmc_Read_Sector() and Mmc_Write_Sector() functions directly, without potentially
damaging the FAT system. The swap file can be considered as a “window” on the media where the
user can freely write/read data. It’s main purpose in this library is to be used for fast data acquisition;
when the time-critical acquisition has finished, the data can be re-written into a “normal” file, and
formatted in the most suitable way.
Parameters - sectors_cnt: number of consecutive sectors that user wants the swap file to have.
- filename: name of the file that should be assigned for file operations. File name should be in DOS 8.3
(file_name.extension) format. The file name and extension will be automatically padded with spaces
by the library if they have less than length required (i.e. “mikro.tx” -> “mikro .tx “), so the user does no
have to take care of that. The file name and extension are case insensitive. The library will convert
them to proper case automatically, so the user does not have to take care of that.
Also, in order to keep backward compatibility with the first version of this library, file names can be
entered as UPPERCASE string of 11 bytes in length with no dot character between file name and
extension (i.e. “MIKROELETXT” -> MIKROELE.TXT). In this case last 3 characters of the string are
considered to be file extension.
- file_attr: file creation and attributes flags. Each bit corresponds to the appropriate file attribute:
Bit
Mask
Description
0
0x01
Read Only
1
0x02
Hidden
2
0x04
System
3
0x08
Volume Label
4
0x10
Subdirectory
5
0x20
Archive
6
0x40
Device (internal use only, never found on disk)
7
0x80
Not used
Returns
Number of the start sector for the newly created swap file, if there was enough free space on the MMC/
SD card to create file of required size.
0 - otherwise.
Requires
MMC/SD card and MMC library must be initialized for file operations. See Mmc_Fat_Init.
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Requires
MMC/SD card and MMC library must be initialized for file operations. See Mmc_Fat_Init.
Example
//-------------- Tries to create a swap file, whose size will be at least
100 sectors.
//If it succeeds, it sends the No. of start sector over UART
void M_Create_Swap_File(){
size = Mmc_Fat_Get_Swap_File(100);
if (size <> 0) {
UART1_Write(0xAA);
UART1_Write(Lo(size));
UART1_Write(Hi(size));
UART1_Write(Higher(size));
UART1_Write(Highest(size));
UART1_Write(0xAA);
}
}
Notes
Long File Names (LFN) are not supported.
Library Example
The following example demonstrates usage of the MMC and MMC_FAT routines.
Copy Code To Clipboard
// MMC module connections
sbit Mmc_Chip_Select
at LATF0_bit; // for writing to output pin always use latch
sbit Mmc_Chip_Select_Direction at TRISF0_bit;
// eof MMC module connections
const LINE_LEN = 43;
char err_txt[20]
= “FAT16 not found”;
char file_contents[LINE_LEN] = “XX MMC/SD FAT16 library by Anton Rieckertn”;
char
filename[14] = “MIKRO00x.TXT”;
// File names
unsigned short loop, loop2;
unsigned long i, size;
char
Buffer[512];
// UART1 write text and new line (carriage return + line feed)
void UART1_Write_Line(char *uart_text) {
UART1_Write_Text(uart_text);
UART1_Write(13);
UART1_Write(10); for(loop = 1; loop <= 99; loop++) {
UART1_Write(‘.’);
file_contents[0] = loop / 10 + 48;
file_contents[1] = loop % 10 + 48;
Mmc_Fat_Write(file_contents, LINE_LEN-1); // write data to the assigned file
}
}
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// Creates many new files and writes data to them
void M_Create_Multiple_Files() {
for(loop2 = 'B'; loop2 <= 'Z'; loop2++) {
UART1_Write(loop2);
// signal the progress
filename[7] = loop2;
// set filename
Mmc_Fat_Set_File_Date(2005,6,21,10,35,0); // Set file date & time info
Mmc_Fat_Assign(&filename, 0xA0);
// find existing file or create a new one
Mmc_Fat_Rewrite();
// To clear file and start with new data
for(loop = 1; loop <= 44; loop++) {
file_contents[0] = loop / 10 + 48;
file_contents[1] = loop % 10 + 48;
Mmc_Fat_Write(file_contents, LINE_LEN-1); // write data to the assigned file
}
}
}
// Opens an existing file and rewrites it
void M_Open_File_Rewrite() {
filename[7] = 'C';
Mmc_Fat_Assign(&filename, 0);
Mmc_Fat_Rewrite();
for(loop = 1; loop <= 55; loop++) {
file_contents[0] = loop / 10 + 65;
file_contents[1] = loop % 10 + 65;
Mmc_Fat_Write(file_contents, LINE_LEN-1);
}
}
// write data to the assigned file
// Opens an existing file and appends data to it
//
(and alters the date/time stamp)
void M_Open_File_Append() {
filename[7] = 'B';
Mmc_Fat_Assign(&filename, 0);
Mmc_Fat_Set_File_Date(2009, 1, 23, 17, 22, 0);
Mmc_Fat_Append();
Mmc_Fat_Write(" for mikroElektronika 2005n", 27);
}
// Prepare file for append
// Write data to assigned file
// Opens an existing file, reads data from it and puts it to UART
void M_Open_File_Read() {
char character;
filename[7] = ‘B’;
Mmc_Fat_Assign(&filename, 0);
Mmc_Fat_Reset(&size);
for (i = 1; i <= size; i++) {
Mmc_Fat_Read(&character);
UART1_Write(character);
}
}
MikroElektronika
// To read file, procedure returns size of file
// Write data to UART
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// Deletes a file. If file doesn't exist, it will first be created
// and then deleted.
void M_Delete_File() {
filename[7] = 'F';
Mmc_Fat_Assign(filename, 0);
Mmc_Fat_Delete();
}
// Tests whether file exists, and if so sends its creation date
// and file size via UART
void M_Test_File_Exist() {
unsigned long fsize;
unsigned int
year;
unsigned short month, day, hour, minute;
unsigned char outstr[12];
filename[7] = 'B';
//uncomment this line to search for file that DOES exists
//
filename[7] = 'F';
//uncomment this line to search for file that DOES NOT
exist
if (Mmc_Fat_Assign(filename, 0)) {
//--- file has been found - get its create date
Mmc_Fat_Get_File_Date(&year, &month, &day, &hour, &minute);
UART1_Write_Text(" created: ");
WordToStr(year, outstr);
UART1_Write_Text(outstr);
ByteToStr(month, outstr);
UART1_Write_Text(outstr);
WordToStr(day, outstr);
UART1_Write_Text(outstr);
WordToStr(hour, outstr);
UART1_Write_Text(outstr);
WordToStr(minute, outstr);
UART1_Write_Text(outstr);
//--- file has been found - get its modified date
Mmc_Fat_Get_File_Date_Modified(&year, &month, &day, &hour, &minute);
UART1_Write_Text(“ modified: “);
WordToStr(year, outstr);
UART1_Write_Text(outstr);
ByteToStr(month, outstr);
UART1_Write_Text(outstr);
WordToStr(day, outstr);
UART1_Write_Text(outstr);
WordToStr(hour, outstr);
UART1_Write_Text(outstr);
WordToStr(minute, outstr);
UART1_Write_Text(outstr);
}
//--- get file size
fsize = Mmc_Fat_Get_File_Size();
LongToStr((signed long)fsize, outstr);
UART1_Write_Line(outstr);
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}
else {
//--- file was not found - signal it
UART1_Write(0x55);
Delay_ms(1000);
UART1_Write(0x55);
}
// Tries to create a swap file, whose size will be at least 100
// sectors (see Help for details)
void M_Create_Swap_File() {
unsigned int i;
for(i=0; i<512; i++)
Buffer[i] = i;
size = Mmc_Fat_Get_Swap_File(5000, "mikroE.txt", 0x20);
for details
// see help on this function
if (size) {
LongToStr((signed long)size, err_txt);
UART1_Write_Line(err_txt);
}
}
for(i=0; i<5000; i++) {
Mmc_Write_Sector(size++, Buffer);
UART1_Write('.');
}
//-------------- Main. Uncomment the function(s) to test the desired operation(s)
void main() {
#define COMPLETE_EXAMPLE
// comment this line to make simpler/smaller example
PORTD = 0;
TRISD = 0;
PORTF = 0;
TRISF = 0;
ADPCFG = 0xFFFF;
// initialize AN pins as digital
//--- set up USART for the file read
SPI1_Init_Advanced(_SPI_MASTER, _SPI_8_BIT, _SPI_PRESCALE_SEC_1, _SPI_PRESCALE_
PRI_64,
_SPI_SS_DISABLE, _SPI_DATA_SAMPLE_MIDDLE, _SPI_CLK_IDLE_HIGH, _SPI_
ACTIVE_2_IDLE);
UART1_Init(19200);
Delay_ms(100);
MikroElektronika
// Initialize UART module at 9600 bps
// Wait for UART module to stabilize
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U1MODEbits.ALTIO = 1;
// Switch Rx and Tx pins on their alternate locations.
// This is used to free the pins for other module, namely the SPI.
//--- init the FAT library
if (!Mmc_Fat_Init()) {
// reinitialize spi at higher speed
SPI1_Init_Advanced(_SPI_MASTER, _SPI_8_BIT, _SPI_PRESCALE_SEC_1, _SPI_PRESCALE_
PRI_4,
_SPI_SS_DISABLE, _SPI_DATA_SAMPLE_MIDDLE, _SPI_CLK_IDLE_HIGH,
_SPI_ACTIVE_2_IDLE);
//--- Test start
UART1_Write_Line("Test Start.");
//--- Test routines. Uncomment them one-by-one to test certain features
M_Create_New_File();
#ifdef COMPLETE_EXAMPLE
M_Create_Multiple_Files();
M_Open_File_Rewrite();
M_Open_File_Append();
M_Open_File_Read();
M_Delete_File();
M_Test_File_Exist();
M_Create_Swap_File();
#endif
UART1_Write_Line("Test End.");
}
else {
UART1_Write_Line(err_txt); // Note: Mmc_Fat_Init tries to initialize a card more
than once.
//
If card is not present, initialization may last
longer (depending on clock speed)
}
}
HW Connection
Pin diagram of MMC memory card
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OneWire Library
The OneWire library provides routines for communication via the Dallas OneWire protocol, e.g. with DS18x20 digital
thermometer. OneWire is a Master/Slave protocol, and all communication cabling required is a single wire. OneWire
enabled devices should have open collector drivers (with single pull-up resistor) on the shared data line.
Slave devices on the OneWire bus can even get their power supply from data line. For detailed schematic see device
datasheet.
Some basic characteristics of this protocol are:
- single master system,
- low cost,
- low transfer rates (up to 16 kbps),
- fairly long distances (up to 300 meters),
- small data transfer packages.
Each OneWire device also has a unique 64-bit registration number (8-bit device type, 48-bit serial number and 8-bit
CRC), so multiple slaves can co-exist on the same bus.
Important :
- Oscillator frequency Fosc needs to be at least 4MHz in order to use the routines with Dallas digital thermometers.
- This library implements time-based activities, so interrupts need to be disabled when using OneWire library.
Library Routines
- Ow_Reset
- Ow_Read
- Ow_Write
Ow_Reset
Prototype
unsigned int Ow_Reset(unsigned int *port, unsigned int pin);
Description Issues OneWire reset signal for DS18x20.
Parameters - port: OneWire bus port
- pin: OneWire bus pin
Returns
Requires
Example
Notes
- 0 if the device is present
- 1 if the device is not present
Devices compliant with the Dallas OneWire protocol.
// Issue Reset signal on One-Wire Bus connected to pin RF6
Ow_Reset(&PORTF,6);
None.
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Ow_Read
Prototype
unsigned short Ow_Read(unsigned int *port, unsigned int pin);
Description Reads one byte of data via the OneWire bus.
Parameters - port: OneWire bus port
- pin: OneWire bus pin
Returns
Data read from an external device over the OneWire bus.
Requires
Devices compliant with the Dallas OneWire protocol.
Example
// Read a byte from the One-Wire Bus connected to pin RF6
unsigned short read_data;
...
read_data = Ow_Read(&PORTF, 6);
Notes
None.
Ow_Write
Prototype
void Ow_Write(unsigned int *port, unsigned int pin, unsigned short data_);
Description Writes one byte of data via the OneWire bus.
Parameters - port: OneWire bus port
- pin: OneWire bus pin
- data_: data to be written
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Devices compliant with the Dallas OneWire protocol.
Example
// Send a byte to the One-Wire Bus connected to pin RF6
Ow_Write(&PORTF, 6, 0xCC);
Notes
433
None.
MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
Library Example
This example reads the temperature using DS18x20 connected to pin RF6. After reset, MCU obtains temperature from
the sensor and prints it on the Lcd. Be sure to set Fosc appropriately in your project, to pull-up RF6 line and to turn off
the PORTF leds.
Copy Code To Clipboard
// LCD module connections
sbit LCD_RS at LATB4_bit;
sbit LCD_EN at LATB6_bit;
sbit LCD_D4 at LATD4_bit;
sbit LCD_D5 at LATD5_bit;
sbit LCD_D6 at LATD6_bit;
sbit LCD_D7 at LATD7_bit;
sbit LCD_RS_Direction at TRISB4_bit;
sbit LCD_EN_Direction at TRISB6_bit;
sbit LCD_D4_Direction at TRISD4_bit;
sbit LCD_D5_Direction at TRISD5_bit;
sbit LCD_D6_Direction at TRISD6_bit;
sbit LCD_D7_Direction at TRISD7_bit;
// End LCD module connections
// Set TEMP_RESOLUTION to the corresponding resolution of used DS18x20 sensor:
// 18S20: 9 (default setting; can be 9,10,11,or 12)
// 18B20: 12
const unsigned short TEMP_RESOLUTION = 9;
char *text = “000.0000”;
unsigned temp;
void Display_Temperature(unsigned int temp2write) {
const unsigned short RES_SHIFT = TEMP_RESOLUTION - 8;
char temp_whole;
unsigned int temp_fraction;
// check if temperature is negative
if (temp2write & 0x8000) {
text[0] = ‘-’;
temp2write = ~temp2write + 1;
}
// extract temp_whole
temp_whole = temp2write >> RES_SHIFT ;
// convert temp_whole to characters
if (temp_whole/100)
text[0] = temp_whole/100 + 48;
else
text[0] = ‘0’;
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mikroC PRO for dsPIC
text[1] = (temp_whole/10)%10 + 48;
text[2] = temp_whole%10
+ 48;
// Extract tens digit
// Extract ones digit
// extract temp_fraction and convert it to unsigned int
temp_fraction = temp2write << (4-RES_SHIFT);
temp_fraction &= 0x000F;
temp_fraction *= 625;
// convert temp_fraction to characters
text[4] = temp_fraction/1000
+ 48;
text[5] = (temp_fraction/100)%10 + 48;
text[6] = (temp_fraction/10)%10 + 48;
text[7] = temp_fraction%10
+ 48;
}
//
//
//
//
Extract
Extract
Extract
Extract
thousands digit
hundreds digit
tens digit
ones digit
// print temperature on LCD
Lcd_Out(2, 5, text);
void main() {
ADPCFG = 0xFFFF;
// Configure AN pins as digital
Lcd_Init();
// Initialize LCD
Lcd_Cmd(_LCD_CLEAR);
// Clear LCD
Lcd_Cmd(_LCD_CURSOR_OFF);
// Turn cursor off
Lcd_Out(1, 1, " Temperature:
");
// Print degree character, 'C' for Centigrades
Lcd_Chr(2,13,223); // different LCD displays have different char code for degree
// if you see greek alpha letter try typing 178 instead of 223
Lcd_Chr(2,14,'C');
//--- main loop
do {
//--- perform temperature reading
Ow_Reset(&PORTF, 6);
Ow_Write(&PORTF, 6, 0xCC);
Ow_Write(&PORTF, 6, 0x44);
Delay_us(120);
Ow_Reset(&PORTF, 6);
Ow_Write(&PORTF, 6, 0xCC);
Ow_Write(&PORTF, 6, 0xBE);
Delay_ms(400);
// Onewire reset signal
// Issue command SKIP_ROM
// Issue command CONVERT_T
// Issue command SKIP_ROM
// Issue command READ_SCRATCHPAD
temp = Ow_Read(&PORTF, 6);
temp = (Ow_Read(&PORTF, 6) << 8) + temp;
//--- Format and display result on Lcd
Display_Temperature(temp);
}
Delay_ms(500);
} while (1);
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mikoC PRO for dsPIC
HW Connection
Example of DS1820 connection
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mikroC PRO for dsPIC
Peripheral Pin Select Library
The Peripheral Pin Select library enables user to have more than one digital peripheral multiplexed on a single pin.
Users may independently map the input and/or output of any one of many digital peripherals to any one of these I/O
pins.
The peripherals managed by the Peripheral Pin Select library are all digital only peripherals.
A key difference between pin select and non pin select peripherals is that pin select peripherals are not associated with
a default I/O pin. The peripheral must always be assigned to a specific I/O pin before it can be used.
In contrast, non pin select peripherals are always available on a default pin, assuming that the peripheral is active and
not conflicting with another peripheral.
When a pin selectable peripheral is active on a given I/O pin, it takes priority over all other digital I/O and digital
communication peripherals associated with the pin.
Important : Before using any of the digital peripherals or its library routines, user must set the desired pins as input/
output and assign the desired peripheral to these pins.
Library Routines
- Unlock_IOLOCK
- Lock_IOLOCK
- PPS_Mapping
Unlock_IOLOCK
Prototype
void Unlock_IOLOCK();
Description Unlocks I/O pins for Peripheral Pin Mapping.
Parameters None.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Nothing.
Example
Unlock_IOLOCK();
Notes
None.
Lock_IOLOCK
Prototype
void Lock_IOLOCK();
Description Locks I/O pins for Peripheral Pin Mapping.
Parameters None.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Nothing.
Example
Lock_IOLOCK();
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mikoC PRO for dsPIC
PPS_Mapping
Prototype
unsigned PPS_Mapping(unsigned
unsigned short funct_name);
short
rp_num,
unsigned
short
direction,
Description Sets desired internal MCU module to be mapped on the requested pins.
Parameters - rp_num: Remappable pin number. Consult the appropriate datasheet for adequate values.
- direction: Sets requested pin to be used as an input or output. See Direction Parameters for
adequate values.
- funct_name: Selects internal MCU module function for usage. See Input Functions or Output
Functions for adequate values.
Returns
Requires
Example
Notes
- 0 - if non-existing peripheral pin is selected.
- 1 - if desired function is not implemented for the chosen MCU.
- 2 - if any of the other RPOUT registers is configured to output the SCK1OUT function while SCK1CM
is set (only for P24FJ256GA110 Family).
- 255 - if peripheral pin mapping was successful.
Nothing.
PPS_Mapping(15, _INPUT, _RX2_DT2)
// Sets pin 15 to be Input, and maps
RX2/DT2 Input to it
PPS_Mapping(5, _OUTPUT, _TX2_CK2);
// Sets pin 5 to be Output, and maps
EUSART2 Asynchronous Transmit/Synchronous Clock Output to it
None.
Direction Parameters
Direction Parameter
Description
_INPUT
Sets selected pin as input
_OUTPUT
Sets selected pin as output
Input Functions
Function Name
Description
_CIRX
ECAN1 Receive
_COFSI
_CSCKI
_CSDI
_FLTA1
_FLTA2
_FLTA3
_FLTA4
_FLTA5
_FLTA6
_FLTA7
_FLTA8
_IC1
MikroElektronika
DCI Frame Sync Input
DCI Serial Clock Input
DCI Serial Data Input
PWM1 Fault
PWM2 Fault
PWM3 Fault
PWM4 Fault
PWM5 Fault
PWM6 Fault
PWM7 Fault
PWM8 Fault
Input Capture 1
_IC2
_IC3
_IC4
_IC5
_IC6
_IC7
_IC8
_IC9
_INDX1
_INDX2
_INT1
_INT2
_INT3
_INT4
Input Capture 2
Input Capture 3
Input Capture 4
Input Capture 5
Input Capture 6
Input Capture 7
Input Capture 8
Input Capture 9
QEI1 Index
QEI2 Index
External Interrupt 1
External Interrupt 2
External Interrupt 3
External Interrupt 4
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mikroC PRO for dsPIC
_QEA1
_QEA2
_QEB1
_QEB2
_SCK1IN
_SCK2IN
_SCK3IN
_SDI1
_SDI2
_SDI3
_SS1IN
_SS2IN
_SS3IN
QEI1 Phase A
QEI2 Phase A
QEI1 Phase B
QEI2 Phase B
SPI1 Clock Input
SPI2 Clock Input
SPI3 Clock Input
SPI1 Data Input
SPI2 Data Input
SPI3 Data Input
SPI1 Slave Select Input
SPI2 Slave Select Input
SPI3 Slave Select Input
_T1CK
_T2CK
_T3CK
_T4CK
_T5CK
_U1CTS
_U2CTS
_U3CTS
_U4CTS
_U1RX
_U2RX
_U3RX
_U4RX
Timer1 External Clock
Timer2 External Clock
Timer3 External Clock
Timer4 External Clock
Timer5 External Clock
UART1 Clear To Send
UART2 Clear To Send
UART3 Clear To Send
UART4 Clear To Send
UART1 Receive
UART2 Receive
UART3 Receive
UART4 Receive
Output Functions
Function Name
Description
_NULL
The NULL function is assigned to all RPn outputs at device Reset and disables the RPn
output function.
_ACMP1
RPn tied to Analog Comparator Output 1
_ACMP2
_ACMP3
_ACMP4
_C1OUT
_C2OUT
_C3OUT
_COFSOS
_CSCKO
_CSDO
_CTPLS
_C1TX
_OC1
_OC2
_OC3
_OC4
_OC5
_OC6
_OC7
_OC8
439
RPn tied to Analog Comparator Output 2
RPn tied to Analog Comparator Output 3
RPn tied to Analog Comparator Output 4
Comparator 1 Output
Comparator 2 Output
Comparator 3 Output
DCI Frame Sync Output
DCI Serial Clock Output
DCI Serial Data Output
CTMU Output Pulse
ECAN1 Transmit
Output Compare 1
Output Compare 2
Output Compare 3
Output Compare 4
Output Compare 5
Output Compare 6
Output Compare 7
Output Compare 8
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mikoC PRO for dsPIC
_OC9
_OCFA
_OCFB
_PWM4H
_PWM4L
_REFCLKO
_SCK1OUT
_SCK2OUT
_SCK3OUT
_SDO1
_SDO2
_SDO3
_SS1OUT
_SS2OUT
_SS3OUT
_SYNCI1
_SYNCI2
_SYNCO1
_U1RTS
_U2RTS
_U3RTS
_U4RTS
_U1TX
_U2TX
_U3TX
_U4TX
_UPDN
_UPDN1
_UPDN2
MikroElektronika
Output Compare 9
Output Compare Fault A
Output Compare Fault B
RPn tied to PWM output pins associated with PWM Generator 4
RPn tied to PWM output pins associated with PWM Generator 4
REFCLK output signal
SPI1 Clock Output
SPI2 Clock Output
SPI3 Clock Output
SPI1 Data Output
SPI2 Data Output
SPI3 Data Output
SPI1 Slave Select Output
SPI2 Slave Select Output
SPI3 Slave Select Output
External Synchronization signal to PWM Master Time Base
External Synchronization signal to PWM Master Time Base
RPn tied to external device synchronization signal via PWM master time base
UART1 Request To Send
UART2 Request To Send
UART3 Request To Send
UART4 Request To Send
UART1 Transmit
UART2 Transmit
UART3 Transmit
UART4 Transmit
QEI direction (UPDN) status
QEI1 direction (UPDN) status
QEI2 direction (UPDN) status
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mikroC PRO for dsPIC
Port Expander Library
The mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 provides a library for communication with the Microchip’s Port Expander
MCP23S17 via SPI interface. Connections of the dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 MCU and MCP23S17 is given on the schematic
at the bottom of this page.
Important :
- The library uses the SPI module for communication. User must initialize the appropriate SPI module before using
the Port Expander Library.
- For MCUs with multiple SPI modules it is possible to initialize all of them and then switch by using the SPI_Set_
Active() function. See the SPI Library functions.
- Library does not use Port Expander interrupts.
Library Dependency Tree
External dependencies of Port Expander Library
The following variables must be
defined in all projects using Port Description :
Expander Library:
extern sfr sbit
SPExpanderRST;
extern sfr sbit
SPExpanderCS;
extern sfr sbit
SPExpanderRST_Direction;
extern sfr sbit
SPExpanderCS_Direction;
Example :
Reset line.
sbit SPExpanderRST at RF0_bit;
Chip Select line.
sbit SPExpanderCS at RF1_bit;
Direction of the Reset pin.
sbit SPExpanderRST_Direction at
TRISF0_bit;
Direction of the Chip Select sbit SPExpanderCS_Direction
TRISF1_bit;
pin.
at
Library Routines
441
- Expander_Init
- Expander_Init_Advanced
- Expander_Read_Byte
- Expander_Write_Byte
- Expander_Read_PortA
- Expander_Read_PortB
- Expander_Read_PortAB
- Expander_Write_PortA
- Expander_Write_PortB
- Expander_Write_PortAB
- Expander_Set_DirectionPortA
- Expander_Set_DirectionPortB
- Expander_Set_DirectionPortAB
- Expander_Set_PullUpsPortA
- Expander_Set_PullUpsPortB
- Expander_Set_PullUpsPortAB
MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
Expander_Init
Prototype
void Expander_Init(char ModuleAddress);
Description Initializes Port Expander using SPI communication.
Port Expander module settings :
- hardware addressing enabled
- automatic address pointer incrementing disabled (byte mode)
- BANK_0 register adressing
- slew rate enabled
Parameters - ModuleAddress: Port Expander hardware address, see schematic at the bottom of this page
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Global variables :
- SPExpanderCS: Chip Select line
- SPExpanderRST: Reset line
- SPExpanderCS_Direction: Direction of the Chip Select pin
- SPExpanderRST_Direction: Direction of the Reset pin
must be defined before using this function.
SPI module needs to be initialized. See SPIx_Init and SPIx_Init_Advanced routines.
Example
// Port Expander module connections
sbit SPExpanderRST at RF0_bit;
sbit SPExpanderCS at RF1_bit;
sbit SPExpanderRST_Direction at TRISF0_bit;
sbit SPExpanderCS_Direction at TRISF1_bit;
// End Port Expander module connections
...
Notes
// If Port Expander Library uses SPI module
SPI1_Init();
// Initialize SPI module used with PortExpander
Expander_Init(0);
// Initialize Port Expander
None.
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mikroC PRO for dsPIC
Expander_Init_Advanced
Prototype
void Expander_Init_Advanced(char *rstPort, char rstPin, char haen);
Description Initializes Port Expander using SPI communication.
Parameters - rstPort: Port Expander’s reset port
- rstPin: Port Expander’s reset pin
- haen: Port Expander’s hardware address
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
- SPExpanderCS: Chip Select line
- SPExpanderRST: Reset line
- SPExpanderCS_Direction: Direction of the Chip Select pin
- SPExpanderRST_Direction: Direction of the Reset pin
must be defined before using this function.
SPI module needs to be initialized. See SPIx_Init and SPIx_Init_Advanced routines.
Example
Notes
443
// Port Expander module connections
sbit SPExpanderRST at RF0_bit;
sbit SPExpanderCS at RF1_bit;
sbit SPExpanderRST_Direction at TRISF0_bit;
sbit SPExpanderCS_Direction at TRISF1_bit;
// End Port Expander module connections
...
// If Port Expander Library uses SPI module
SPI1_Init();
// Initialize SPI1 module used with PortExpander
Expander_Init_Advanced(&PORTB, 0, 0);
// Initialize Port Expander
None.
MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
Expander_Read_Byte
Prototype
char Expander_Read_Byte(char ModuleAddress, char RegAddress);
Description The function reads byte from Port Expander.
Parameters - ModuleAddress: Port Expander hardware address, see schematic at the bottom of this page
- RegAddress: Port Expander’s internal register address
Returns
Byte read.
Requires
Port Expander must be initialized. See Expander_Init.
Example
// Read a byte from Port Expander’s register
char read_data;
...
read_data = Expander_Read_Byte(0,1);
Notes
None.
Expander_Write_Byte
Prototype
void Expander_Write_Byte(char ModuleAddress, char RegAddress, char data_);
Description Routine writes a byte to Port Expander.
Parameters - ModuleAddress: Port Expander hardware address, see schematic at the bottom of this page
- RegAddress: Port Expander’s internal register address
- Data: data to be written
Returns
Byte read.
Requires
Port Expander must be initialized. See Expander_Init.
Example
// Write a byte to the Port Expander’s register
Expander_Write_Byte(0,1,0xFF);
Notes
None.
Expander_Read_PortA
Prototype
char Expander_Read_PortA(char ModuleAddress);
Description The function reads byte from Port Expander’s PortA.
Parameters - ModuleAddress: Port Expander hardware address, see schematic at the bottom of this page
Returns
Byte read.
Requires
Port Expander must be initialized. See Expander_Init.
Port Expander’s PortA should be configured as input. See Expander_Set_DirectionPortA and
Expander_Set_DirectionPortAB routines.
Example
Notes
// Read a byte from Port Expander’s PORTA
char read_data;
...
Expander_Set_DirectionPortA(0,0xFF);
input
...
read_data = Expander_Read_PortA(0);
// set expander’s porta to be
None.
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mikroC PRO for dsPIC
Expander_Read_PortB
Prototype
char Expander_Read_PortB(char ModuleAddress);
Description The function reads byte from Port Expander’s PortB.
Parameters - ModuleAddress: Port Expander hardware address, see schematic at the bottom of this page
Returns
Byte read.
Requires
Port Expander must be initialized. See Expander_Init.
Port Expander’s PortB should be configured as input. See Expander_Set_DirectionPortB and
Expander_Set_DirectionPortAB routines.
Example
Notes
// Read a byte from Port Expander’s PORTB
char read_data;
...
Expander_Set_DirectionPortB(0,0xFF);
input
...
read_data = Expander_Read_PortB(0);
// set expander’s portb to be
None.
Expander_Read_PortAB
Prototype
unsigned int Expander_Read_PortAB(char ModuleAddress);
Description The function reads word from Port Expander’s ports. PortA readings are in the higher byte of the result.
PortB readings are in the lower byte of the result.
Parameters - ModuleAddress: Port Expander hardware address, see schematic at the bottom of this page
Returns
Word read.
Requires
Port Expander must be initialized. See Expander_Init.
Port Expander’s PortA and PortB should be configured as inputs. See Expander_Set_DirectionPortA,
Expander_Set_DirectionPortB and Expander_Set_DirectionPortAB routines.
Example
// Read a byte from Port Expander’s PORTA and PORTB
unsigned int read_data;
...
Expander_Set_DirectionPortAB(0,0xFFFF);
// set expander’s porta and
portb to be input
...
read_data = Expander_Read_PortAB(0);
Notes
None.
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MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
Expander_Write_PortA
Prototype
void Expander_Write_PortA(char ModuleAddress, char Data_);
Description The function writes byte to Port Expander’s PortA.
Parameters - ModuleAddress: Port Expander hardware address, see schematic at the bottom of this page
- Data: data to be written
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Port Expander must be initialized. See Expander_Init.
Port Expander’s PortA should be configured as output. See Expander_Set_DirectionPortA and
Expander_Set_DirectionPortAB routines.
Example
Notes
// Write a byte to Port Expander’s PORTA
...
Expander_Set_DirectionPortA(0,0x00); // set expander’s porta to be output
...
Expander_Write_PortA(0, 0xAA);
None.
Expander_Write_PortB
Prototype
void Expander_Write_PortB(char ModuleAddress, char Data_);
Description The function writes byte to Port Expander’s PortB.
Parameters - ModuleAddress: Port Expander hardware address, see schematic at the bottom of this page
- Data: data to be written
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Port Expander must be initialized. See Expander_Init.
Port Expander’s PortB should be configured as output. See Expander_Set_DirectionPortB and
Expander_Set_DirectionPortAB routines.
Example
Notes
// Write a byte to Port Expander’s PORTB
...
Expander_Set_DirectionPortB(0,0x00); // set expander’s portb to be output
...
Expander_Write_PortB(0, 0x55);
None.
MikroElektronika
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mikroC PRO for dsPIC
Expander_Write_PortAB
Prototype
void Expander_Write_PortAB(char ModuleAddress, unsigned int Data_);
Description The function writes word to Port Expander’s ports.
Parameters - ModuleAddress: Port Expander hardware address, see schematic at the bottom of this page
- Data: data to be written. Data to be written to PortA are passed in Data’s higher byte. Data to be
written to PortB are passed in Data’s lower byte
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Port Expander must be initialized. See Expander_Init.
Port Expander’s PortA and PortB should be configured as outputs. See Expander_Set_DirectionPortA,
Expander_Set_DirectionPortB and Expander_Set_DirectionPortAB routines.
Example
Notes
// Write a byte to Port Expander’s PORTA and PORTB
...
Expander_Set_DirectionPortAB(0,0x0000);
portb to be output
...
Expander_Write_PortAB(0, 0xAA55);
// set expander’s porta and
None.
Expander_Set_DirectionPortA
Prototype
void Expander_Set_DirectionPortA(char ModuleAddress, char Data_);
Description The function sets Port Expander’s PortA direction.
Parameters - ModuleAddress: Port Expander hardware address, see schematic at the bottom of this page
- Data: data to be written to the PortA direction register. Each bit corresponds to the appropriate pin of
the PortA register. Set bit designates corresponding pin as input. Cleared bit designates corresponding
pin as output.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Port Expander must be initialized. See Expander_Init.
Example
// Set Port Expander’s PORTA to be output
Expander_Set_DirectionPortA(0,0x00);
Notes
447
None.
MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
Expander_Set_DirectionPortB
Prototype
void Expander_Set_DirectionPortB(char ModuleAddress, char Data_);
Description The function sets Port Expander’s PortB direction.
Parameters - ModuleAddress: Port Expander hardware address, see schematic at the bottom of this page
- Data: data to be written to the PortB direction register. Each bit corresponds to the appropriate pin of
the PortB register. Set bit designates corresponding pin as input. Cleared bit designates corresponding
pin as output.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Port Expander must be initialized. See Expander_Init.
Example
// Set Port Expander’s PORTB to be input
Expander_Set_DirectionPortB(0,0xFF);
Notes
None.
Expander_Set_DirectionPortAB
Prototype
void
Expander_Set_DirectionPortAB(char
Direction);
ModuleAddress,
unsigned
int
Description The function sets Port Expander’s PortA and PortB direction.
Parameters - ModuleAddress: Port Expander hardware address, see schematic at the bottom of this page
- Direction: data to be written to direction registers. Data to be written to the PortA direction register
are passed in Direction’s higher byte. Data to be written to the PortB direction register are passed
in Direction’s lower byte. Each bit corresponds to the appropriate pin of the PortA/PortB register.
Set bit designates corresponding pin as input. Cleared bit designates corresponding pin as output.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Port Expander must be initialized. See Expander_Init.
Example
// Set Port Expander’s PORTA to be output and PORTB to be input
Expander_Set_DirectionPortAB(0,0x00FF);
Notes
None.
Expander_Set_PullUpsPortA
Prototype
void Expander_Set_PullUpsPortA(char ModuleAddress, char Data_);
Description The function sets Port Expander’s PortA pull up/down resistors.
Parameters - ModuleAddress: Port Expander hardware address, see schematic at the bottom of this page
- Data: data for choosing pull up/down resistors configuration. Each bit corresponds to the appropriate
pin of the PortA register. Set bit enables pull-up for corresponding pin.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Port Expander must be initialized. See Expander_Init.
Example
// Set Port Expander’s PORTA pull-up resistors
Expander_Set_PullUpsPortA(0, 0xFF);
Notes
None.
MikroElektronika
448
mikroC PRO for dsPIC
Expander_Set_PullUpsPortB
Prototype
void Expander_Set_PullUpsPortB(char ModuleAddress, char Data_);
Description The function sets Port Expander’s PortB pull up/down resistors.
Parameters - ModuleAddress: Port Expander hardware address, see schematic at the bottom of this page
- Data: data for choosing pull up/down resistors configuration. Each bit corresponds to the appropriate
pin of the PortB register. Set bit enables pull-up for corresponding pin.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Port Expander must be initialized. See Expander_Init.
Example
// Set Port Expander’s PORTB pull-up resistors
Expander_Set_PullUpsPortB(0, 0xFF);
Notes
None.
Expander_Set_PullUpsPortAB
Prototype
void Expander_Set_PullUpsPortAB(char ModuleAddress, unsigned int PullUps);
Description The function sets Port Expander’s PortA and PortB pull up/down resistors.
Parameters - ModuleAddress: Port Expander hardware address, see schematic at the bottom of this page
- PullUps: data for choosing pull up/down resistors configuration. PortA pull up/down resistors
configuration is passed in PullUps’s higher byte. PortB pull up/down resistors configuration is
passed in PullUps’s lower byte. Each bit corresponds to the appropriate pin of the PortA/PortB
register. Set bit enables pull-up for corresponding pin.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Port Expander must be initialized. See Expander_Init.
Example
// Set Port Expander’s PORTA and PORTB pull-up resistors
Expander_Set_PullUpsPortAB(0, 0xFFFF);
Notes
449
None.
MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
Library Example
The example demonstrates how to communicate with Port Expander MCP23S17. Note that Port Expander pins A2 A1
A0 are connected to GND so Port Expander Hardware Address is 0.
Copy Code To Clipboard
// Port Expander module connections
sbit SPExpanderRST at RF0_bit;
sbit SPExpanderCS at RF1_bit;
sbit SPExpanderRST_Direction at TRISF0_bit;
sbit SPExpanderCS_Direction at TRISF1_bit;
// End Port Expander module connections
unsigned int i = 0;
void main() {
ADPCFG = 0xFFFF;
TRISB = 0x00;
LATB
= 0xFF;
// initialize AN pins as digital
// If Port Expander Library uses SPI1 module
SPI1_Init();
PortExpander
// Initialize SPI module used with
Expander_Init(0);
// Initialize Port Expander
Expander_Set_DirectionPortA(0, 0x00);
// Set Expander's PORTA to be output
Expander_Set_DirectionPortB(0,0xFF);
Expander_Set_PullUpsPortB(0,0xFF);
pins
while(1) {
Expander_Write_PortA(0, i++);
PORTB = Expander_Read_PortB(0);
Delay_ms(100);
}
// Set Expander's PORTB to be input
// Set pull-ups to all of the Expander's PORTB
// Endless loop
// Write i to expander's PORTA
// Read expander's PORTB and write it to LEDs
}
MikroElektronika
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mikroC PRO for dsPIC
HW Connection
Port Expander HW connection
451
MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
PS/2 Library
The mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 provides a library for communication with the common PS/2 keyboard.
Important :
- The library does not utilize interrupts for data retrieval, and requires the oscillator clock to be at least 6MHz.
- The pins to which a PS/2 keyboard is attached should be connected to the pull-up resistors.
- Although PS/2 is a two-way communication bus, this library does not provide MCU-to-keyboard communication; e.g.
pressing the Caps Lock key will not turn on the Caps Lock LED.
External dependencies of PS/2 Library
The following variables must be
defined in all projects using PS/2 Description :
Library:
extern sfr sbit PS2_Data;
extern sfr sbit PS2_Clock;
extern sfr
Direction;
sbit
PS/2 Data line.
PS/2 Clock line.
Example :
sbit PS2_Data at RB0_bit;
sbit PS2_Clock at RB1_bit;
PS2_Data_ Direction of the PS/2 Data sbit
PS2_Data_Direction
TRISB0_bit;
pin.
extern sfr sbit PS2_Clock_ Direction of the PS/2 Clock sbit
PS2_Clock_Direction
Direction;
TRISB1_bit;
pin.
at
at
Library Routines
- Ps2_Config
- Ps2_Key_Read
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mikroC PRO for dsPIC
Ps2_Config
Prototype
void Ps2_Config();
Description Initializes the MCU for work with the PS/2 keyboard.
Parameters None.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Global variables :
- PS2_Data: Data signal line
- PS2_Clock: Clock signal line
- PS2_Data_Direction: Direction of the Data pin
- PS2_Clock_Direction: Direction of the Clock pin
must be defined before using this function.
Example
Notes
// PS2 pinout definition
sbit PS2_Data at RB0_bit;
sbit PS2_Clock at RB1_bit;
sbit PS2_Data_Direction at TRISB0_bit;
sbit PS2_Clock_Direction at TRISB1_bit;
// End of PS2 pinout definition
...
Ps2_Config();
// Init PS/2 Keyboard
None.
Ps2_Key_Read
Prototype
unsigned int Ps2_Key_Read(unsigned short *value, unsigned short *special,
unsigned short *pressed);
Description The function retrieves information on key pressed.
Parameters - value: holds the value of the key pressed. For characters, numerals, punctuation marks, and space
value will store the appropriate ASCII code. Routine “recognizes” the function of Shift and Caps Lock,
and behaves appropriately. For special function keys see Special Function Keys Table.
- special: is a flag for special function keys (F1, Enter, Esc, etc). If key pressed is one of these,
special will be set to 1, otherwise 0.
- pressed: is set to 1 if the key is pressed, and 0 if it is released.
Returns
Requires
Example
Notes
453
- 1 if reading of a key from the keyboard was successful
- 0 if no key was pressed
PS/2 keyboard needs to be initialized. See Ps2_Config routine.
unsigned short keydata = 0, special = 0, down = 0;
...
// Press Enter to continue:
do {
if (Ps2_Key_Read(&keydata, &special, &down)) {
if (down && (keydata == 16)) break;
}
} while (1);
None.
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mikoC PRO for dsPIC
Special Function Keys
Key
Value returned
F1
1
F2
2
F3
3
F4
4
F5
5
F6
6
F7
7
F8
8
F9
9
F10
10
F11
11
F12
12
Enter
13
Page Up
14
Page Down
15
Backspace
16
Insert
17
Delete
18
Windows
19
Ctrl
20
Shift
21
Alt
22
Print Screen
23
Pause
24
Caps Lock
25
End
26
Home
27
Scroll Lock
28
Num Lock
29
Left Arrow
30
Right Arrow
31
Up Arrow
32
Down Arrow
33
Escape
34
Tab
35
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mikroC PRO for dsPIC
Library Example
This simple example reads values of the pressed keys on the PS/2 keyboard and sends them via UART.
Copy Code To Clipboard
sbit
sbit
sbit
sbit
PS2_Data
PS2_Clock
PS2_Data_Direction
PS2_Clock_Direction
at
at
at
at
RB0_bit;
RB1_bit;
TRISB0_bit;
TRISB1_bit;
unsigned short keydata = 0, special = 0, down = 0;
void main() {
ADPCFG = 0xFFFF;
// Configure AN pins as digital I/O
UART1_Init(19200);
Ps2_Config();
Delay_ms(100);
UART1_Write_Text("Ready");
UART1_Write(10);
UART1_Write(13);
// Initialize UART module at 19200 bps
// Init PS/2 Keyboard
// Wait for keyboard to finish
do {
if (Ps2_Key_Read(&keydata, &special, &down)) {
if (down && (keydata == 16)) {
UART1_Write(0x08);
}
else if (down && (keydata == 13)) {
UART1_Write('r');
terminal
//Usart_Write('n');
terminal also expects line feed
}
else if (down && !special && keydata) {
UART1_Write(keydata);
}
}
}
Delay_ms(1);
} while (1);
455
// Line Feed
// Carriage return
// Backspace
// Enter
// send carriage return to usart
// uncomment this line if usart
// for new line transition
// debounce
MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
HW Connection
Example of PS2 keyboard connection
PWM Library
The CCP module is available with a number of dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 MCUs. mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24
provides a library which simplifies using of the PWM HW Module.
Important : PWM module uses either Timer2 or Timer3 module.
Library Routines
- PWM_Init
- PWM_Set_Duty
- PWM_Start
- PWM_Stop
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mikroC PRO for dsPIC
PWM_Init
Prototype
unsigned int PWM_Init(unsigned long freq_hz, unsigned int enable_channel_x,
unsigned int timer_prescale, unsigned int use_timer_x);
// 30F1010 and dsPIC33FJ06GS101/102/202 prototype
unsigned int PWM_Init(unsigned long freq_hz, unsigned int enable_channel_x,
unsigned int timer_prescale);
Description Initializes the PWM module with duty ratio 0.
Parameters - freq_hz: PWM frequency in Hz (refer to device datasheet for correct values in respect with Fosc)
- enable_channel_x: number of PWM channel to be initialized. Refer to MCU’s datasheet for
available PWM channels
- timer_prescale: timer prescaler parameter. Valid values: 1, 8, 64, and 256
- use_timer_x: timer to be used with the PWM module. Valid values: 2 (Timer2) and 3 (Timer3)
Returns
- 0xFFFF - if timer settings are not valid
- otherwise returns calculated timer period
Requires
MCU must have the HW PWM Module.
Example
// Initializes the PWM module at 5KHz, channel 1, no clock prescale, timer2
:
unsigned int pwm_period1;
...
pwm_period1 = PWM_Init(5000, 1, 0, 2);
Notes
Number of available PWM channels depends on MCU. Refer to MCU datasheet for details.
PWM_Set_Duty
Prototype
void PWM_Set_Duty(unsigned duty, unsigned channel);
Description The function changes PWM duty ratio.
Parameters - duty: PWM duty ratio. Valid values: 0 to timer period returned by the PWM_Init function.
- channel: number of PWM channel to change duty to.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
MCU must have the HW PWM Module.
PWM channel must be properly initialized. See PWM_Init routine.
Example
Notes
457
// Set channel 1 duty ratio to 50%:
unsigned int pwm_period1;
...
PWM_Set_Duty(pwm_period1/2, 1);
Number of available PWM channels depends on MCU. Refer to MCU datasheet for details.
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PWM_Start
Prototype
void PWM_Start(char enable_channel_x);
Description Starts PWM at requested channel.
Parameters - enable_channel_x: number of PWM channel
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
MCU must have the HW PWM Module.
PWM channel must be properly configured. See the PWM_Init and PWM_Set_Duty routines.
Example
Notes
// start PWM at channel 1
PWM_Start(1);
Number of available PWM channels depends on MCU. Refer to MCU datasheet for details.
PWM_Stop
Prototype
void PWM_Stop(char disable_channel_x);
Description Stops PWM at requested channel.
Parameters - disable_channel_x: number of PWM channel
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
MCU must have the HW PWM Module.
Example
// stop PWM at channel 1
PWM_Stop(1);
Notes
Number of available PWM channels depends on MCU. Refer to MCU datasheet for details.
Library Example
The example changes PWM duty ratio on channels 1 and 2 continuously. If LEDs are connected to channels 1 and 2,
a gradual change of emitted light will be noticeable.
Copy Code To Clipboard
unsigned int current_duty, old_duty, current_duty1, old_duty1;
unsigned int pwm_period1, pwm_period2;
void InitMain() {
ADPCFG = 0xFFFF;
TRISB = 0xFFFF;
PORTD = 0;
TRISD = 0;
}
void main() {
InitMain();
current_duty = 16;
current_duty1 = 16;
MikroElektronika
//
//
//
//
Configure AN pins as digital I/O
configure PORTB pins as input
set PORTD to 0
designate PORTD pins as output
// initial value for current_duty
// initial value for current_duty1
458
mikroC PRO for dsPIC
pwm_period1 = PWM_Init(5000 , 1, 1, 2);
pwm_period2 = PWM_Init(10000, 2, 1, 3);
PWM_Start(1);
PWM_Start(2);
PWM_Set_Duty(current_duty, 1);
PWM_Set_Duty(current_duty1, 2);
while (1) {
if (RB0_bit) {
Delay_ms(20);
current_duty++;
if (current_duty > pwm_period1) {
possible pwm_period1 value
current_duty = 0;
}
PWM_Set_Duty(current_duty, 1);
}
if (RB1_bit) {
Delay_ms(20);
current_duty--;
if (current_duty > pwm_period1) {
possible pwm_period1 value (overflow)
current_duty = pwm_period1;
}
PWM_Set_Duty(current_duty, 1);
}
if (RB2_bit) {
Delay_ms(20);
current_duty1++;
if (current_duty1 > pwm_period2) {
then possible pwm_period2 value
current_duty1 = 0;
}
PWM_Set_Duty(current_duty1, 2);
}
if (RB3_bit) {
Delay_ms(20);
current_duty1--;
if (current_duty1 > pwm_period2) {
possible pwm_period1 value (overflow)
current_duty1 = pwm_period2;
}
PWM_Set_Duty(current_duty1, 2);
}
}
}
Delay_ms(5);
459
// Set current duty for PWM1
// Set current duty for PWM2
// endless loop
// button on RB0 pressed
// increment current_duty
// if we increase current_duty greater then
// reset current_duty value to zero
// set newly acquired duty ratio
// button on RB1 pressed
// decrement current_duty
// if we decrease current_duty greater then
// set current_duty to max possible value
// set newly acquired duty ratio
// button on RB2 pressed
// increment current_duty1
// if we increase current_duty1 greater
// reset current_duty1 value to zero
// set newly acquired duty ratio
// button on RB3 pressed
// decrement current_duty1
// if we decrease current_duty1 greater then
// set current_duty to max possible value
// slow down change pace a little
MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
HW Connection
PWM demonstration
PWM Motor Control Library
The PWM Motor Control module is available with a number of dsPIC30/33 MCUs. The mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and
PIC24 provides a library which simplifies using the PWM Motor Control module.
Important :
- Number of PWM modules per MCU differs from chip to chip. Please, read the appropriate datasheet before utilizing
this library.
- PWM library routines require you to specify the module you want to use. To use the desired PWM module, simply
change the letter x in the routine prototype for a number from 1 to 2.
Library Routines
- PWMx_Mc_Init
- PWMx_Mc_Set_Duty
- PWMx_Mc_Start
- PWMx_Mc_Stop
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PWMx_Mc_Init
Prototype
unsigned int PWMx_Mc_Init(unsigned int freq_hz, unsigned int pair_output_
mode, unsigned int enable_output_x, unsigned int clock_prescale_output_
postscale);
Description Initializes the Motor Control PWM module with duty ratio 0. The function calculates timer period, writes
it to the MCU’s PTPER register and returns it as the function result.
Parameters - freq_hz: PWM frequency in Hz (refer to device datasheet for correct values in respect with Fosc)
- pair_output_mode: output mode for output pin pairs: 1 = independent, 0 = complementary.
If pair_output_mode.B0 is equal to 1 then PWM channels PWM1L and PWM1H will be
independent,
If pair_output_mode.B1 is equal to 0 then PWM channels PWM2L and PWM2H will be
complementary, ...
If pair_output_mode.Bn is equal to 1 then PWM channels PWM(n+1)L and PWM(n+1)H will be
independent,
If pair_output_mode.Bn is equal to 0 then PWM channels PWM(n+1)L and PWM(n+1)H will be
complementary.
- enable_output_x: bits <7..0> are enabling corresponding PWM channels <PWM4H, PWM3H,
PWM2H, PWM1H, PWM4L, PWM3L, PWM2L, PWM1L>.
If bit value is equal to 0 then corresponding PWM channel is disabled (pin is standard I/O).
If bit value is equal to 1 then corresponding PWM channel is enabled (pin is PWM output).
For detalied explanation consult the “Motor Control PWM Module” section in device datasheet
- clock_prescale_output_postscale: PWM clock prescaler/postscaler settings. Values <0..3>
and <0..15> correspond to prescaler/postscaler <1:1, 1:4, 1:16, 1:64> and <1:1, 1:2,
..., 1:16>
Returns
Calculated timer period.
Requires
The dsPIC30/33 MCU must have the Motor Control PWM module.
Example
// Initializes the PWM1 module at 5KHz, complementary pin-pair output,
output enabled on pins 4l..1l, no clock prescale and no clock postscale:
unsigned int duty_50;
...
duty_50 = PWM1_Mc_Init(5000, 1, 0x0F, 0);
Notes
461
- Number of PWM modules per MCU differs from chip to chip. Please, read the appropriate datasheet
before utilizing this library.
- PWM library routines require you to specify the module you want to use. To use the desired PWM
module, simply change the letter x in the routine prototype for a number from 1 to 2.
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PWMx_Mc_Set_Duty
Prototype
void PWM1_Mc_Set_Duty(unsigned duty, unsigned channel);
// For dsPIC 33FJ MCUs that have PWM2 module :
void PWM2_Mc_Set_Duty(unsigned duty);
Description The function changes PWM duty ratio.
Parameters - duty: PWM duty ratio. Valid values: 0 to timer period returned by the PWMx_Mc_Init function.
- channel: number of PWM channel to change duty to.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
The dsPIC30/33 MCU must have the Motor Control PWM module.
The PWM module needs to be initalized. See the PWMx_Mc_Init function.
Example
Notes
// Set duty ratio to 50% at channel 1:
PWM1_Mc_Init(5000,1,0xF,0);
...
PWM1_Mc_Set_Duty(32767, 1);
- Number of PWM modules per MCU differs from chip to chip. Please, read the appropriate datasheet
before utilizing this library.
- PWM library routines require you to specify the module you want to use. To use the desired PWM
module, simply change the letter x in the routine prototype for a number from 1 to 2.
PWMx_Mc_Start
Prototype
void PWMx_Mc_Start();
Description Starts the Motor Control PWM module (channels initialized in the PWMx_Mc_Init function).
Parameters None.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
The dsPIC30/33 MCU must have the Motor Control PWM module.
The PWM module needs to be initalized. See the PWMx_Mc_Init function.
Example
Notes
// start the Motor Control PWM1 module
PWM1_Mc_Start();
- Number of PWM modules per MCU differs from chip to chip. Please, read the appropriate datasheet
before utilizing this library.
- PWM library routines require you to specify the module you want to use. To use the desired PWM
module, simply change the letter x in the routine prototype for a number from 1 to 2.
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PWMx_Mc_Stop
Prototype
void PWMx_Mc_Stop();
Description Stops the Motor Control PWM module.
Parameters None.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
The dsPIC30/33 MCU must have the Motor Control PWM module.
Example
// stop the Motor Control PWM1 module
PWM1_Mc_Stop();
Notes
- Number of PWM modules per MCU differs from chip to chip. Please, read the appropriate datasheet
before utilizing this library.
- PWM library routines require you to specify the module you want to use. To use the desired PWM
module, simply change the letter x in the routine prototype for a number from 1 to 2.
Library Example
The example changes PWM duty ratio on channel 1 continually. If LED is connected to the channel 1, a gradual change
of emitted light will be noticeable.
Copy Code To Clipboard
unsigned int i;
unsigned int duty_50;
void main(){
ADPCFG = 0xFFFF;
PORTB = 0xAAAA;
TRISB = 0;
Delay_ms(1000);
duty
duty_50 = PWM1_MC_Init(5000, 0, 0x01, 0);
// initialize AN pins as digital
// initialize portb as output
// Pwm_Mc_Init returns 50% of the
PWM1_MC_Set_Duty(i = duty_50, 1);
PWM1_MC_Start();
do
{
i--;
PWM1_MC_Set_Duty(i, 1);
Delay_ms(10);
if (i == 0)
i = duty_50 * 2 - 1;
PORTB = i;
}
while(1);
// Let us not allow the overflow
}
463
MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
HW Connection
PWM Motor Control demonstration
RS-485 Library
RS-485 is a multipoint communication which allows multiple devices to be connected to a single bus. The mikroC PRO
for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 provides a set of library routines for comfortable work with RS485 system using Master/
Slave architecture. Master and Slave devices interchange packets of information. Each of these packets contains
synchronization bytes, CRC byte, address byte and the data. Each Slave has unique address and receives only
packets addressed to it. The Slave can never initiate communication.
It is the user’s responsibility to ensure that only one device transmits via 485 bus at a time.
The RS-485 routines require the UART module. Pins of UART need to be attached to RS-485 interface transceiver,
such as LTC485 or similar (see schematic at the bottom of this page).
Library constants:
- START byte value = 150
- STOP byte value = 169
- Address 50 is the broadcast address for all Slaves (packets containing address 50 will be received by all Slaves
except the Slaves with addresses 150 and 169).
Important :
- The library uses the UART module for communication. The user must initialize the appropriate UART module before
using the RS-485 Library.
- For MCUs with multiple UART modules it is possible to initialize them and then switch by using the UART_Set_Active
routine.
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Library Dependency Tree
External dependencies of RS-485 Library
The following variable must be
defined in all projects using RS-485 Description :
Library:
Example :
extern sfr sbit RS485_rxtx_ Control RS-485 Transmit/
sbit RS485_rxtx_pin at RF2_bit;
pin;
Receive operation mode
extern sfr sbit RS485_rxtx_ Direction of the RS-485 sbit RS485_rxtx_pin_direction at
pin_direction;
TRISF2_bit;
Transmit/Receive pin
Library Routines
- RS485Master_Init
- RS485Master_Receive
- RS485Master_Send
- RS485Slave_Init
- RS485Slave_Receive
- RS485Slave_Send
RS485Master_Init
Prototype
void RS485Master_Init();
Description Initializes MCU as a Master for RS-485 communication.
Parameters None.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Global variables :
- RS485_rxtx_pin - this pin is connected to RE/DE input of RS-485 transceiver(see schematic at the
bottom of this page). RE/DE signal controls RS-485 transceiver operation mode.
- RS485_rxtx_pin_direction - direction of the RS-485 Transmit/Receive pin.
must be defined before using this routine.
UART HW module needs to be initialized. See UARTx_Init.
Example
Notes
465
// RS485 module pinout
sbit RS485_rxtx_pin_direction at RF2_bit; // transmit/receive control set
to PORTC.B2
sbit RS485_rxtx_pin_direction at TRISF2_bit;
// RxTx pin direction set as
output
// end RS485 module pinout
...
UART1_Init(9600);
// initialize UART1 module
RS485Master_Init();
// intialize MCU as a Master
for RS-485 communication
None
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mikoC PRO for dsPIC
RS485Master_Receive
Prototype
void RS485Master_Receive(char *data_buffer);
Description Receives messages from Slaves. Messages are multi-byte, so this routine must be called for each
byte received.
Parameters - data_buffer: 7 byte buffer for storing received data. Data will be stored in the following manner:
- data_buffer[0..2]: message content
- data_buffer[3]: number of message bytes received, 1–3
- data_buffer[4]: is set to 255 when message is received
- data_buffer[5]: is set to 255 if error has occurred
- data_buffer[6]: address of the Slave which sent the message
The routine automatically adjusts data[4] and data[5] upon every received message. These flags
need to be cleared by software.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
MCU must be initialized as a Master for RS-485 communication. See RS485Master_Init.
Example
Notes
char msg[8];
...
RS485Master_Receive(msg);
None
RS485Master_Send
Prototype
void RS485Master_Send(char
address);
*data_buffer,
char
datalen,
char
slave_
Description Sends message to Slave(s). Message format can be found at the bottom of this page.
Parameters - data_buffer: data to be sent
- datalen: number of bytes for transmition. Valid values: 0...3.
- slave_address: Slave(s) address
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
MCU must be initialized as a Master for RS-485 communication. See RS485Master_Init.
It is the user’s responsibility to ensure (by protocol) that only one device sends data via 485 bus at a
time.
Example
Notes
char msg[8];
...
// send 3 bytes of data to Slave with address 0x12
RS485Master_Send(msg, 3, 0x12);
None
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mikroC PRO for dsPIC
RS485Slave_Init
Prototype
void RS485Slave_Init(char Slave_address);
Description Initializes MCU as a Slave for RS-485 communication.
Parameters - Slave_address: Slave address
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Global variables :
- RS485_rxtx_pin - this pin is connected to RE/DE input of RS-485 transceiver(see schematic at
the bottom of this page). RE/DE signal controls RS-485 transceiver operation mode. Valid values: 1
(for transmitting) and 0 (for receiving
- RS485_rxtx_pin_direction - direction of the RS-485 Transmit/Receive pin.
must be defined before using this routine.
UART HW module needs to be initialized. See UARTx_Init.
Example
Notes
467
Initialize MCU as a Slave with address 160:
// RS485 module pinout
sbit RS485_rxtx_pin at RC2_bit;
// transmit/receive control set to
PORTC.B2
sbit RS485_rxtx_pin_direction at TRISC2_bit;
// RxTx pin direction set as
output
// End of RS485 module pinout
...
UART1_Init(9600);
// initialize UART1 module
RS485Slave_Init(160);
// intialize MCU as a Slave for RS-485
communication with address 160
None
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RS485Slave_Receive
Prototype
void RS485Slave_Receive(char *data_buffer);
Description Receives messages from Master. If Slave address and Message address field don’t match then the
message will be discarded. Messages are multi-byte, so this routine must be called for each byte
received.
Parameters - data_buffer: 6 byte buffer for storing received data, in the following manner:
- data_buffer[0..2]: message content
- data_buffer[3]: number of message bytes received, 1–3
- data_buffer[4]: is set to 255 when message is received
- data_buffer[5]: is set to 255 if error has occurred
The routine automatically adjusts data[4] and data[5] upon every received message. These flags
need to be cleared by software.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
MCU must be initialized as a Slave for RS-485 communication. See RS485Slave_Init.
Example
Notes
char msg[8];
...
RS485Slave_Read(msg);
None
RS485Slave_Send
Prototype
void RS485Slave_Send(char *data_buffer, char datalen);
Description Sends message to Master. Message format can be found at the bottom of this page.
Parameters - data_buffer: data to be sent
- datalen: number of bytes for transmition. Valid values: 0...3.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
MCU must be initialized as a Slave for RS-485 communication. See RS485Slave_Init. It is the user’s
responsibility to ensure (by protocol) that only one device sends data via 485 bus at a time.
Example
Notes
char msg[8];
...
// send 2 bytes of data to the Master
RS485Slave_Send(msg, 2);
None
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mikroC PRO for dsPIC
Library Example
This is a simple demonstration of RS485 Library routines usage.
Master sends message to Slave with address 160 and waits for a response. The Slave accepts data, increments it and
sends it back to the Master. Master then does the same and sends incremented data back to Slave, etc.
Master displays received data on PORTB, while error on receive (0xAA) and number of consecutive unsuccessful
retries are displayed on PORTD. Slave displays received data on PORTB, while error on receive (0xAA) is displayed
on PORTD. Hardware configurations in this example are made for the EasydsPIC4A board and 30f4013.
RS485 Master code:
Copy Code To Clipboard
sbit rs485_rxtx_pin at RF2_bit;
sbit rs485_rxtx_pin_direction at TRISF2_bit;
char dat[10];
char i,j;
// set transcieve pin
// set transcieve pin direction
// buffer for receving/sending messages
// Interrupt routine
void interrupt() org IVT_ADDR_U2RXINTERRUPT {
RS485Master_Receive(dat);
U2RXIF_bit = 0;
// ensure interrupt not pending
}
void main(){
long cnt = 0;
ADPCFG = 0xFFFF;
PORTB
PORTD
TRISB
TRISD
=
=
=
=
0;
0;
0;
0;
UART2_Init(9600);
Delay_ms(100);
// initialize UART2 module
RS485Master_Init();
// initialize MCU as Master
dat[0]
dat[1]
dat[2]
dat[4]
dat[5]
dat[6]
=
=
=
=
=
=
0xAA;
0xF0;
0x0F;
0;
0;
0;
// ensure that message received flag is 0
// ensure that error flag is 0
RS485Master_Send(dat,1,160);
469
MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
URXISEL1_U2STA_bit = 0;
URXISEL1_U2STA_bit = 0;
NSTDIS_bit = 1;
U2RXIF_bit = 0;
U2RXIE_bit = 1;
// no nesting of interrupts
// ensure interrupt not pending
// enable intterupt
while (1){
cnt++;
if (dat[5]) {
PORTD = 0xAA;
}
if (dat[4]) {
cnt = 0;
dat[4] = 0;
j = dat[3];
for (i = 1; i <= dat[3]; i++) {
PORTB = dat[i-1];
}
dat[0] = dat[0]+1;
Delay_ms(1);
RS485Master_Send(dat,1,160);
}
}
if (cnt > 100000) {
PORTD ++;
cnt = 0;
RS485Master_Send(dat,1,160);
if (PORTD > 10)
RS485Master_Send(dat,1,50);
}
}
// upon completed valid message receiving
//
data[4] is set to 255
// if an error detected, signal it
//
by setting portd to 0xAA
// if message received successfully
// clear message received flag
// show data on PORTB
// increment received dat[0]
// send back to master
// if sending failed 10 times
//
send message on broadcast address
//
function to be properly linked.
RS485 Slave code:
Copy Code To Clipboard
sbit rs485_rxtx_pin at RF2_bit;
sbit rs485_rxtx_pin_direction at TRISF2_bit;
char dat[9];
char i,j;
// set transcieve pin
// set transcieve pin direction
// buffer for receving/sending messages
// Interrupt routine
void interrupt() org IVT_ADDR_U2RXINTERRUPT{
RS485Slave_Receive(dat);
U2RXIF_bit = 0;
// ensure interrupt not pending
}
MikroElektronika
470
mikroC PRO for dsPIC
void main() {
ADPCFG = 0xFFFF;
PORTB
PORTD
TRISB
TRISD
=
=
=
=
0;
0;
0;
0;
UART2_Init(9600);
Delay_ms(100);
// initialize UART2 module
RS485Slave_Init(160);
// Intialize MCU as slave, address 160
dat[0]
dat[1]
dat[2]
dat[4]
dat[5]
dat[6]
=
=
=
=
=
=
0xAA;
0xF0;
0x0F;
0;
0;
0;
URXISEL1_U2STA_bit = 0;
URXISEL1_U2STA_bit = 0;
NSTDIS_bit = 1;
U2RXIF_bit = 0;
U2RXIE_bit = 1;
}
while (1) {
if (dat[5]) {
PORTD = 0xAA;
dat[5] = 0;
}
if (dat[4]) {
dat[4] = 0;
j = dat[3];
for (i = 1; i <= dat[3];i++){
PORTB = dat[i-1];
}
dat[0] = dat[0]+1;
Delay_ms(1);
RS485Slave_Send(dat,1);
}
}
471
// ensure that message received flag is 0
// ensure that error flag is 0
// no nesting of interrupts
// ensure interrupt not pending
// enable intterupt
// if an error detected, signal it by
//
setting portd to 0xAA
// upon completed valid message receive
//
data[4] is set to 0xFF
// increment received dat[0]
//
and send it back to master
MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
HW Connection
Example of interfacing PC to dsPIC MCU via RS485 bus with LTC485 as RS-485 transceiver
MikroElektronika
472
mikroC PRO for dsPIC
Message format and CRC calculations
Q: How is CRC checksum calculated on RS485 master side?
Copy Code To Clipboard
START_BYTE = 0x96; // 10010110
STOP_BYTE = 0xA9; // 10101001
PACKAGE:
-------START_BYTE 0x96
ADDRESS
DATALEN
[DATA1]
[DATA2]
[DATA3]
CRC
STOP_BYTE 0xA9
// if exists
// if exists
// if exists
DATALEN bits
-----------bit7 = 1 MASTER SENDS
0 SLAVE SENDS
bit6 = 1 ADDRESS WAS XORed
0 ADDRESS UNCHANGED
bit5 = 0 FIXED
bit4 = 1 DATA3 (if exists)
0 DATA3 (if exists)
bit3 = 1 DATA2 (if exists)
0 DATA2 (if exists)
bit2 = 1 DATA1 (if exists)
0 DATA1 (if exists)
bit1bit0 = 0 to 3 NUMBER OF
with 1, IT WAS EQUAL TO START_BYTE or STOP_BYTE
WAS XORed with 1, IT WAS EQUAL TO START_BYTE or STOP_BYTE
UNCHANGED
WAS XORed with 1, IT WAS EQUAL TO START_BYTE or STOP_BYTE
UNCHANGED
WAS XORed with 1, IT WAS EQUAL TO START_BYTE or STOP_BYTE
UNCHANGED
DATA BYTES SEND
CRC generation :
---------------crc_send = datalen ^ address;
crc_send ^= data[0];
// if exists
crc_send ^= data[1];
// if exists
crc_send ^= data[2];
// if exists
crc_send = ~crc_send;
if ((crc_send == START_BYTE) || (crc_send == STOP_BYTE))
crc_send++;
NOTE: DATALEN<4..0> can not take the START_BYTE<4..0> or STOP_BYTE<4..0> values.
473
MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
Software I²C Library
The mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 provides routines for implementing Software I²C communication. These
routines are hardware independent and can be used with any MCU. The Software I²C library enables you to use MCU
as Master in I²C communication. Multi-master mode is not supported.
Important :
- This library implements time-based activities, so interrupts need to be disabled when using Software I²C.
- All I²C Library functions are blocking-call functions (they are waiting for I²C clock line to become logical one).
- The pins used for the Software I²C communication should be connected to the pull-up resistors. Turning off the LEDs
connected to these pins may also be required.
- Every Software I²C library routine has its own counterpart in Hardware I²C library, except I2C_Repeated_Start.
Soft_I2C_Start is used instead of I2C_Repeated_Start.
- Working clock frequency of the Software I²C is 20kHz.
External dependencies of Software I²C Library
The following variable must be
defined in all projects using RS-485 Description :
Library:
extern sbit Soft_I2C_Scl;
extern sbit Soft_I2C_Sda;
extern sbit
Direction;
extern sbit
Direction;
Soft I²C Clock line.
Soft I²C Data line.
Example :
sbit Soft_I2C_Scl at RB11_bit;
sbit Soft_I2C_Sda at RB12_bit;
Soft_I2C_Scl_ Direction of the Soft I²C Clock sbit Soft_I2C_Scl_Direction
TRISB11_bit;
pin.
Soft_I2C_Sda_ Direction of the Soft I²C Data sbit Soft_I2C_Sda_Direction
TRISB12_bit;
pin.
at
at
Library Routines
- Soft_I2C_Init
- Soft_I2C_Start
- Soft_I2C_Read
- Soft_I2C_Write
- Soft_I2C_Stop
- Soft_I2C_Break
MikroElektronika
474
mikroC PRO for dsPIC
Soft_I2C_Init
Prototype
void Soft_I2C_Init();
Description Configures the software I²C module.
Parameters None.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Global variables :
- Soft_I2C_Scl: Soft I²C clock line
- Soft_I2C_Sda: Soft I²C data line
- Soft_I2C_Scl_Pin_Direction: Direction of the Soft I²C clock pin
- Soft_I2C_Sda_Pin_Direction: Direction of the Soft I²C data pin
must be defined before using this function.
Example
Notes
// Software I2C connections
sbit Soft_I2C_Scl
at RB11_bit;
sbit Soft_I2C_Sda
at RB12_bit;
sbit Soft_I2C_Scl_Direction at TRISB11_bit;
sbit Soft_I2C_Sda_Direction at TRISB12_bit;
// End Software I2C connections
...
Soft_I2C_Init();
None
Soft_I2C_Start
Prototype
void Soft_I2C_Start();
Description Determines if the I²C bus is free and issues START signal.
Parameters None.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Software I²C must be configured before using this function. See Soft_I2C_Init routine.
Example
// Issue START signal
Soft_I2C_Start();
Notes
475
None
MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
Soft_I2C_Read
Prototype
unsigned short Soft_I2C_Read(unsigned int ack);
Description Reads one byte from the slave.
Parameters - ack: acknowledge signal parameter. If the ack==0 not acknowledge signal will be sent after reading,
otherwise the acknowledge signal will be sent.
Returns
One byte from the Slave.
Requires
Soft I²C must be configured before using this function. See Soft_I2C_Init routine.
Also, START signal needs to be issued in order to use this function. See Soft_I2C_Start routine.
Example
Notes
unsigned short take;
...
// Read data and send the not_acknowledge signal
take = Soft_I2C_Read(0);
None
Soft_I2C_Write
Prototype
unsigned short Soft_I2C_Write(unsigned short data_);
Description Sends data byte via the I²C bus.
Parameters - data_: data to be sent
Returns
Requires
- 0 if there were no errors.
- 1 if write collision was detected on the I²C bus.
Soft I²C must be configured before using this function. See Soft_I2C_Init routine.
Also, START signal needs to be issued in order to use this function. See Soft_I2C_Start routine.
Example
Notes
unsigned short data_, error;
...
error = Soft_I2C_Write(data_);
error = Soft_I2C_Write(0xA3);
None
MikroElektronika
476
mikroC PRO for dsPIC
Soft_I2C_Stop
Prototype
void Soft_I2C_Stop();
Description Issues STOP signal.
Parameters None.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Soft I²C must be configured before using this function. See Soft_I2C_Init routine.
Example
// Issue STOP signal
Soft_I2C_Stop();
Notes
477
None
MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
Soft_I2C_Break
Prototype
void Soft_I2C_Break();
Description All Software I²C Library functions can block the program flow (see note at the top of this page). Calling
this routine from interrupt will unblock the program execution. This mechanism is similar to WDT.
Parameters None.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Nothing.
Example
// Software I2C connections
sbit Soft_I2C_Scl
at RC0_bit;
sbit Soft_I2C_Sda
at RC1_bit;
sbit Soft_I2C_Scl_Direction at TRISC0_bit;
sbit Soft_I2C_Sda_Direction at TRISC1_bit;
// End Software I2C connections
char counter = 0;
void Timer1Int() org IVT_ADDR_T1INTERRUPT {
if (counter >= 20) {
Soft_I2C_Break();
counter = 0;
}
}
// reset counter
else
counter++;
// increment counter
T1IF_bit = 0;
// Clear Timer1 overflow interrupt flag
void main() {
...
// try Soft_I2C_Init with blocking prevention mechanism
IPC0
= IPC0 | 0x1000;
// Interrupt priority level = 1
T1IE_bit= 1;
// Enable Timer1 interrupts
T1CON = 0x8030;
// Timer1 ON, internal clock FCY, prescaler
1:256
Notes
}
Soft_I2C_Init();
T1IE_bit= 0;
// Disable Timer1 interrupts
Interrupts should be disabled before using Software I²C routines again (see note at the top of this
page).
MikroElektronika
478
mikroC PRO for dsPIC
Library Example
The example demonstrates use of the Software I²C Library. The dsPIC30/33 or PIC24 MCU is connected (SCL, SDA
pins) to PCF8583 RTC (real-time clock). Program sends date/time to RTC.
Copy Code To Clipboard
char seconds, minutes, hours, day, month, year;
// Global date/time variables
// Software I2C connections
sbit Soft_I2C_Scl
at RB11_bit;
sbit Soft_I2C_Sda
at RB12_bit;
sbit Soft_I2C_Scl_Direction at TRISB11_bit;
sbit Soft_I2C_Sda_Direction at TRISB12_bit;
// End Software I2C connections
// LCD module connections
sbit LCD_RS at LATD0_bit;
sbit LCD_EN at LATD1_bit;
sbit LCD_D4 at LATB0_bit;
sbit LCD_D5 at LATB1_bit;
sbit LCD_D6 at LATB2_bit;
sbit LCD_D7 at LATB3_bit;
sbit LCD_RS_Direction at TRISD0_bit;
sbit LCD_EN_Direction at TRISD1_bit;
sbit LCD_D4_Direction at TRISB0_bit;
sbit LCD_D5_Direction at TRISB1_bit;
sbit LCD_D6_Direction at TRISB2_bit;
sbit LCD_D7_Direction at TRISB3_bit;
// End LCD module connections
//--------------------- Reads time and date information from RTC (PCF8583)
void Read_Time() {
Soft_I2C_Start();
Soft_I2C_Write(0xA0);
Soft_I2C_Write(2);
Soft_I2C_Start();
Soft_I2C_Write(0xA1);
seconds = Soft_I2C_Read(1);
minutes = Soft_I2C_Read(1);
hours = Soft_I2C_Read(1);
day = Soft_I2C_Read(1);
month = Soft_I2C_Read(0);
Soft_I2C_Stop();
// Issue start signal
// Address PCF8583, see PCF8583 datasheet
// Start from address 2
// Issue repeated start signal
// Address PCF8583 for reading R/W=1
//
//
//
//
//
//
Read seconds byte
Read minutes byte
Read hours byte
Read year/day byte
Read weekday/month byte
Issue stop signal
}
479
MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
//-------------------- Formats date and time
void Transform_Time() {
seconds = ((seconds & 0xF0) >> 4)*10 + (seconds & 0x0F);
minutes = ((minutes & 0xF0) >> 4)*10 + (minutes & 0x0F);
hours
= ((hours & 0xF0) >> 4)*10 + (hours & 0x0F);
year
=
(day & 0xC0) >> 6;
day
= ((day & 0x30) >> 4)*10
+ (day & 0x0F);
month
= ((month & 0x10) >> 4)*10 + (month & 0x0F);
}
//
//
//
//
//
//
Transform
Transform
Transform
Transform
Transform
Transform
seconds
months
hours
year
day
month
//-------------------- Output values to LCD
void Display_Time() {
(day /
(day %
(month
(month
year
Lcd_Chr(2, 6,
Lcd_Chr(2, 7,
Lcd_Chr(2, 9,
Lcd_Chr(2,10,
Lcd_Chr(2,12,
Lcd_Chr(2,13,
(hours /
(hours %
(minutes
(minutes
(seconds
(seconds
}
Lcd_Chr(1, 6,
Lcd_Chr(1, 7,
Lcd_Chr(1, 9,
Lcd_Chr(1,10,
Lcd_Chr(1,15,
10)
10)
/ 10)
% 10)
+
+
+
+
+
10)
10)
/ 10)
% 10)
/ 10)
% 10)
48);
48);
48);
48);
56);
+
+
+
+
+
+
// Print tens digit of day variable
// Print oness digit of day variable
// Print year vaiable + 8 (start from year 2008)
48);
48);
48);
48);
48);
48);
//------------------ Performs project-wide init
void Init_Main() {
ADPCFG = 0xFFFF;
// initialize AN pins as digital
}
Soft_I2C_Init();
Lcd_Init();
Lcd_Cmd(_LCD_CLEAR);
Lcd_Cmd(_LCD_CURSOR_OFF);
//
//
//
//
Initialize Soft I2C communication
Initialize LCD
Clear LCD display
Turn cursor off
Lcd_Out(1,1,"Date:");
Lcd_Chr(1,8,':');
Lcd_Chr(1,11,':');
Lcd_Out(2,1,"Time:");
Lcd_Chr(2,8,':');
Lcd_Chr(2,11,':');
Lcd_Out(1,12,"200");
// Prepare and output static text on LCD
//----------------- Main procedure
void main() {
Delay_ms(2000);
}
Init_Main();
// Perform initialization
while (1) {
Read_Time();
Transform_Time();
Display_Time();
//
//
//
//
}
Delay_ms(1000);
MikroElektronika
Endless loop
Read time from RTC(PCF8583)
Format date and time
Prepare and display on LCD
// Wait 1 second
480
mikroC PRO for dsPIC
Software SPI Library
The mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 provides routines for implementing Software SPI communication.
These routines are hardware independent and can be used with any MCU. The Software SPI Library provides easy
communication with other devices via SPI: A/D converters, D/A converters, MAX7219, LTC1290, etc.
Library configuration:
- SPI to Master mode
- Clock value = 20 kHz.
- Data sampled at the middle of interval.
- Clock idle state low.
- Data sampled at the middle of interval.
- Data transmitted at low to high edge.
The library configures SPI to the master mode, clock = 20kHz, data sampled at the middle of interval, clock idle state
low and data transmitted at low to high edge.
Important : The Software SPI library implements time-based activities, so interrupts need to be disabled when using it.
External dependencies of Software SPI Library
The following variables must
be defined in all projects using Description :
Software SPI Library:
Example :
extern sfr sbit SoftSpi_SDO; Data Out line.
sbit SoftSpi_SDO at LATF3_bit;
extern sfr sbit SoftSpi_SDI; Data In line.
sbit SoftSpi_SDI at RF4_bit;
extern sfr sbit SoftSpi_CLK; Clock line.
sbit SoftSpi_CLK at LATF6_bit;
extern sfr sbit SoftSpi_SDI_
Direction of the Data In pin.
Direction;
extern sfr sbit SoftSpi_SDO_
Direction of the Data Out pin
Direction;
extern sfr sbit SoftSpi_CLK_
Direction of the Clock pin.
Direction;
sbit SoftSpi_SDI_Direction
TRISF4_bit;
at
sbit SoftSpi_CLK_Direction
TRISF6_bit;
at
sbit SoftSpi_SDO_Direction
TRISF3_bit;
at
Library Routines
481
- Soft_SPI_Init
- Soft_SPI_Read
- Soft_SPI_Write
MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
Soft_SPI_Init
Prototype
void Soft_SPI_Init();
Description Routine initializes the software SPI module.
Parameters None.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Global variables:
- SoftSpi_SDI: Data in line
- SoftSpi_SDO: Data out line
- SoftSpi_CLK: Data clock line
- SoftSpi_SDI_Direction: Direction of the Data in pin
- SoftSpi_SDO_Direction: Direction of the Data out pin
- SoftSpi_CLK_Direction: Direction of the Data clock pin
must be defined before using this function.
Example
Notes
// Software SPI module connections
sbit SoftSpi_SDI at RF4_bit;
sbit SoftSpi_SDO at LATF3_bit;
sbit SoftSpi_CLK at LATF6_bit;
sbit SoftSpi_SDI_Direction at TRISF4_bit;
sbit SoftSpi_SDO_Direction at TRISF3_bit;
sbit SoftSpi_CLK_Direction at TRISF6_bit;
// End Software SPI module connections
...
Soft_SPI_Init(); // Init Soft_SPI
None
MikroElektronika
482
mikroC PRO for dsPIC
Soft_SPI_Read
Prototype
unsigned short Soft_SPI_Read(char sdata);
Description This routine performs 3 operations simultaneously. It provides clock for the Software SPI bus, reads
a byte and sends a byte.
Parameters - sdata: data to be sent.
Returns
Byte received via the SPI bus.
Requires
Soft SPI must be initialized before using this function. See Soft_SPI_Init routine.
Example
Notes
unsigned short data_read;
char data_send;
...
// Read a byte and assign it to data_read variable
// (data_send byte will be sent via SPI during the Read operation)
data_read = Soft_SPI_Read(data_send);
None
Soft_SPI_Write
Prototype
void Soft_SPI_Write(char sdata);
Description This routine sends one byte via the Software SPI bus.
Parameters - sdata: data to be sent.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Soft SPI must be initialized before using this function. See Soft_SPI_Init.
Example
// Write a byte to the Soft SPI bus
Soft_SPI_Write(0xAA);
Notes
None
Library Example
This code demonstrates using library routines for Soft_SPI communication. Also, this example demonstrates working
with max7219. Eight 7 segment displays are connected to MAX7219. MAX7219 is connected to SDO, SDI, SCK pins
are connected accordingly.
Copy Code To Clipboard
// DAC module connections
sbit Chip_Select at LATF0_bit;
sbit SoftSpi_CLK at LATF6_bit;
sbit SoftSpi_SDI at RF4_bit;
sbit SoftSpi_SDO at LATF3_bit;
sbit Chip_Select_Direction at
sbit SoftSpi_CLK_Direction at
sbit SoftSpi_SDI_Direction at
sbit SoftSpi_SDO_Direction at
// End DAC module connections
483
TRISF0_bit;
TRISF6_bit;
TRISF4_bit;
TRISF3_bit;
MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
unsigned int value;
void InitMain() {
TRISB0_bit = 1;
TRISB1_bit = 1;
Chip_Select = 1;
Chip_Select_Direction = 0;
Soft_SPI_Init();
}
//
//
//
//
//
Set RB0 pin as input
Set RB1 pin as input
Deselect DAC
Set CS# pin as Output
Initialize Soft_SPI
// DAC increments (0..4095) --> output voltage (0..Vref)
void DAC_Output(unsigned int valueDAC) {
char temp;
}
Chip_Select = 0;
// Select DAC chip
// Send High Byte
temp = (valueDAC >> 8) & 0x0F;
temp |= 0x30;
Soft_SPI_Write(temp);
// Store valueDAC[11..8] to temp[3..0]
// Define DAC setting, see MCP4921 datasheet
// Send high byte via Soft SPI
// Send Low Byte
temp = valueDAC;
Soft_SPI_Write(temp);
// Store valueDAC[7..0] to temp[7..0]
// Send low byte via Soft SPI
Chip_Select = 1;
// Deselect DAC chip
void main() {
ADPCFG = 0xFFFF;
}
// Configure AN pins as digital
InitMain();
// Perform main initialization
value = 2048;
// When program starts, DAC gives
//
the output in the mid-range
while (1) {
// Endless loop
}
if ((RB0_bit) && (value < 4095)) {
value++;
}
else {
if ((RB1_bit) && (value > 0)) {
value--;
}
}
// If RB0 button is pressed
//
increment value
DAC_Output(value);
Delay_ms(1);
// Send value to DAC chip
// Slow down key repeat pace
MikroElektronika
// If RB1 button is pressed
//
decrement value
484
mikroC PRO for dsPIC
Software UART Library
The mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 provides routines for implementing Software UART communication. These
routines are hardware independent and can be used with any MCU.
The Software UART Library provides easy communication with other devices via the RS232 protocol.
Important : The Software UART library implements time-based activities, so interrupts need to be disabled when using it.
Library Routines
- Soft_UART_Init
- Soft_UART_Read
- Soft_UART_Write
- Soft_UART_Break
Soft_UART_Init
Prototype
char Soft_UART_Init(unsigned int *port, unsigned int rx, unsigned int tx,
unsigned long baud_rate, unsigned int inverted);
Description Configures and initializes the software UART module.
Software UART routines use Delay_Cyc routine. If requested baud rate is too low then calculated
parameter for calling Delay_Cyc exceeds Delay_Cyc argument range.
If requested baud rate is too high then rounding error of Delay_Cyc argument corrupts Software UART
timings.
Parameters - port: software UART port address
- rx: receiver pin
- tx: transmiter pin
- baud_rate: requested baudrate. Maximum baud rate depends on the MCU’s clock and working
conditions
- inverted: if set to non-zero value, indicates inverted logic on output
Returns
Requires
Example
Notes
485
- 2 - error, requested baud rate is too low
- 1 - error, requested baud rate is too high
- 0 - successful initialization
Nothing.
This will initialize software UART and establish the communication at 9600 bps:
char error;
...
error = Soft_UART_Init(&PORTF, 4, 5, 14400, 0);
at 14400 bps
// Initialize Soft UART
The Software UART library implements time-based activities, so interrupts need to be disabled when
using it.
MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
Soft_UART_Read
Prototype
char Soft_UART_Read(char *error);
Description The function receives a byte via software UART.
This is a blocking function call (waits for start bit). Programmer can unblock it by calling Soft_UART_
Break routine.
Parameters - error: Error flag. Error code is returned through this variable. Values :
- 0 - no error
- 1 - stop bit error
- 255 - user abort, Soft_UART_Break called
Returns
Byte received via UART.
Requires
Software UART must be initialized before using this function. See the Soft_UART_Init routine.
Example
Notes
char data_;
char error;
...
// wait until data is received
do
data = Soft_UART_Read(&error);
while (error);
// Now we can work with data:
if (data_) {...}
The Software UART library implements time-based activities, so interrupts need to be disabled when
using it.
Soft_UART_Write
Prototype
void Soft_UART_Write(char udata);
Description This routine sends one byte via the Software UART bus.
Parameters - udata: data to be sent.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Software UART must be initialized before using this function. See the Soft_UART_Init routine.
Be aware that during transmission, software UART is incapable of receiving data – data transfer
protocol must be set in such a way to prevent loss of information.
Example
Notes
char some_byte = 0x0A;
...
// Write a byte via Soft UART
Soft_UART_Write(some_byte);
The Software UART library implements time-based activities, so interrupts need to be disabled when
using it.
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Soft_UART_Break
Prototype
void Soft_UART_Break();
Description Soft_UART_Read is blocking routine and it can block the program flow. Calling Soft_UART_Break
routine from the interrupt will unblock the program execution. This mechanism is similar to WDT.
Parameters None.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Nothing.
Example
char data1, error, counter = 0;
void Timer1Int() org IVT_ADDR_T1INTERRUPT {
if (counter >= 20) {
Soft_UART_Break();
counter = 0;
}
}
// reset counter
else
counter++;
// increment counter
T1IF_bit = 0;
// Clear Timer1 overflow interrupt flag
void main() {
...
if (Soft_UART_Init(&PORTF, 4, 5, 14400, 0) = 0)
Soft_UART_Write(0x55);
...
// try Soft_UART_Read with blocking prevention mechanism
IPC0
= IPC0 | 0x1000;
// Interrupt priority level = 1
T1IE_bit= 1;
// Enable Timer1 interrupts
T1CON = 0x8030;
// Timer1 ON, internal clock FCY, prescaler 1:256
Notes
487
}
data1 = Soft_UART_Read(&error);
T1IE_bit= 0;
// Disable Timer1 interrupts
The Software UART library implements time-based activities, so interrupts need to be disabled when
using it.
MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
Library Example
This example demonstrates simple data exchange via software UART. If MCU is connected to the PC, you can test the
example from the mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 USART communication terminal, launch it from the dropdown menu Tools › USART Terminal or simply click the USART Terminal Icon
.
Copy Code To Clipboard
char i, error, byte_read;
// Auxiliary variables
void main(){
ADPCFG = 0xFFFF;
TRISB = 0;
LATB = 0;
// Set PORTB as output (error signalization)
error = Soft_UART_Init(&PORTF, 4, 5, 14400, 0); // Initialize Soft UART at 14400 bps
if (error > 0) {
LATB = error;
// Signalize Init error
while(1);
// Stop program
}
Delay_ms(100);
for (i = 'z'; i >= 'A'; i--) {
Soft_UART_Write(i);
Delay_ms(100);
}
while(1) {
byte_read = Soft_UART_Read(&error);
if (error)
LATB = error;
else
Soft_UART_Write(byte_read);
byte read
}
}
MikroElektronika
// Send bytes from 'z' downto 'A'
// Endless loop
// Read byte, then test error flag
// If error was detected
//
signal it on PORTB
// If error was not detected, return
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Sound Library
The mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 provides a Sound Library to supply users with routines necessary for sound
signalization in their applications. Sound generation needs additional hardware, such as piezo-speaker (example of
piezo-speaker interface is given on the schematic at the bottom of this page).
Library Routines
- Sound_Init
- Sound_Play
Sound_Init
Prototype
void Sound_Init(unsigned int *snd_port, unsigned< int/b> snd_pin);
Description Configures the appropriate MCU pin for sound generation.
Parameters - snd_port: sound output port address
- snd_pin: sound output pin
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Nothing.
Example
// Initialize the pin RC3 for playing sound
Sound_Init(&PORTD, 3);
Notes
None.
Sound_Play
Prototype
void Sound_Play(unsigned int freq_in_hz, unsigned< int/b> duration_ms);
Description Generates the square wave signal on the appropriate pin.
Parameters - freq_in_hz: signal frequency in Hertz (Hz)
- duration_ms: signal duration in miliseconds (ms)
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
In order to hear the sound, you need a piezo speaker (or other hardware) on designated port. Also, you
must call Sound_Init to prepare hardware for output before using this function.
Example
// Play sound of 1KHz in duration of 100ms
Sound_Play(1000, 100);
Notes
489
None.
MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
Library Example
The example is a simple demonstration of how to use the Sound Library for playing tones on a piezo speaker.
Copy Code To Clipboard
void Tone1() {
Sound_Play(659, 250);
}
// Frequency = 659Hz, duration = 250ms
void Tone2() {
Sound_Play(698, 250);
}
// Frequency = 698Hz, duration = 250ms
void Tone3() {
Sound_Play(784, 250);
}
// Frequency = 784Hz, duration = 250ms
void Melody() {
Tone1(); Tone2();
Tone1(); Tone2();
Tone1(); Tone2();
Tone1(); Tone2();
Tone1(); Tone2();
Tone3(); Tone3();
}
//
Tone3();
Tone3();
Tone3();
Tone3();
Tone3();
Tone2();
Plays the melody "Yellow house"
Tone3();
Tone3();
Tone3();
Tone2(); Tone1();
void ToneA() {
Sound_Play( 880, 50);
}
void ToneC() {
Sound_Play(1046, 50);
}
void ToneE() {
Sound_Play(1318, 50);
}
void Melody2() {
unsigned short i;
for (i = 9; i > 0; i--) {
ToneA(); ToneC(); ToneE();
}
}
void main() {
ADPCFG = 0xFFFF;
TRISB = 0xF8;
LATB = 0;
Sound_Init(&PORTD, 3);
Sound_Play(880, 1000);
MikroElektronika
// Configure AN pins as digital
// Configure RB7..RB3 as input
// Play sound at 880Hz for 1 second
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while (1) {
if (Button(&PORTB,7,1,1))
Tone1();
while (RB7_bit);
}
}
// RB7 plays Tone1
// Wait for button to be released
if (Button(&PORTB,6,1,1))
Tone2();
while (RB6_bit);
// RB6 plays Tone2
if (Button(&PORTB,5,1,1))
Tone3();
while (RB5_bit);
// RB5 plays Tone3
if (Button(&PORTB,4,1,1))
Melody2();
while (RB4_bit);
// RB4 plays Melody2
if (Button(&PORTB,3,1,1))
Melody();
while (RB3_bit);
// RB3 plays Melody
// Wait for button to be released
// Wait for button to be released
// Wait for button to be released
// Wait for button to be released
HW Connection
Example of Sound Library
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SPI Library
The SPI module is available with all dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 MCUs. mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 provides a
library for initializing the Slave mode and initializing and comfortable work with the Master mode. The dsPIC30/33 and
PIC24 can easily communicate with other devices via SPI: A/D converters, D/A converters, MAX7219, LTC1290, etc.
Important :
SPI library routines require you to specify the module you want to use. To select the desired SPI module, simply change
the letter x in the routine prototype for a number from 1 to 3.
Number of SPI modules per MCU differs from chip to chip. Please, read the appropriate datasheet before utilizing this
library.
Switching between the SPI modules in the SPI library is done by the SPI_Set_Active function (both SPI modules have
to be previously initialized).
Library Routines
- SPIx_Init
- SPIx_Init_Advanced
- SPIx_Read
- SPIx_Write
- SPI_Set_Active
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SPIx_Init
Prototype
void SPIx_Init();
Description Configures and initializes the SPI module with default settings.
Default settings:
- Master mode
- 8-bit data mode
- secondary prescaler 1:1
- primary prescaler 64:1
- Slave Select disabled
- input data sampled in the middle of interval
- clock idle state low
- Serial output data changes on transition from active clock state to idle clock state
Parameters None.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
MCU must have the SPI1 module.
Example
// Initialize the SPI1 module with default settings
SPI1_Init();
Notes
SPI library routines require you to specify the module you want to use. To select the desired SPI
module, simply change the letter x in the routine prototype for a number from 1 to 3.
Number of SPI modules per MCU differs from chip to chip. Please, read the appropriate datasheet
before utilizing this library.
Switching between the SPI modules in the SPI library is done by the SPI_Set_Active function (both
SPI modules have to be previously initialized).
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SPIx_Init_Advanced
Prototype
void SPIx_Init_Advanced(unsigned master_mode, unsigned mode16, unsigned
sec_prescaler, unsigned pri_prescaler, unsigned slave_select, unsigned
data_sample, unsigned clock_idle, unsigned edge);
Description Configures and initializes the SPI module with user defined settings.
Parameters Parameters master_mode, mode16, sec_prescaler, pri_prescaler, slave_select, data_
sample, clock_idle and determine the working mode for SPI.
The master_mode parameter determines the working mode for SPI module.
Master/Slave mode
Description
Predefined library const
Master mode
_SPI_MASTER
Slave mode
_SPI_SLAVE
The parameter mode16 determines the data length mode, which can be 8-bits (per transmitions cycle)
or 16-bits.
Data Length Mode
Description
16-bit mode
Predefined library const
_SPI_16_BIT
8-bit mode
_SPI_8_BIT
The parameter sec_prescaler determines the value of the secondary SPI clock prescaler. Used
only in the Master Mode.
Secondary SPI Clock Prescaler Value
Description
Predefined library const
Secondary Prescaler 1:1
_SPI_PRESCALE_SEC_1
Secondary Prescaler 1:3
_SPI_PRESCALE_SEC_3
Secondary Prescaler 1:2
Secondary Prescaler 1:4
Secondary Prescaler 1:5
Secondary Prescaler 1:6
Secondary Prescaler 1:7
Secondary Prescaler 1:8
_SPI_PRESCALE_SEC_2
_SPI_PRESCALE_SEC_4
_SPI_PRESCALE_SEC_5
_SPI_PRESCALE_SEC_6
_SPI_PRESCALE_SEC_7
_SPI_PRESCALE_SEC_8
The parameter pri_prescaler determines the value of the primary SPI clock prescaler. Used only
in the Master Mode.
Primary SPI Clock Prescaler Value
Description
Predefined library const
Primary Prescaler 1:1
_SPI_PRESCALE_PRI_1
Primary Prescaler 16:1
_SPI_PRESCALE_PRI_16
Primary Prescaler 4:1
Primary Prescaler 64:1
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_SPI_PRESCALE_PRI_4
_SPI_PRESCALE_PRI_64
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Parameters
The parameter slave_select determines whether the Slave Select (SS) pin is used in communication.
Valid in the Slave Mode only.
Slave Select Enable/Disable
Description
Predefined library const
SS used for the Slave mode
SS not used for the Slave mode
_SPI_SS_ENABLE
_SPI_SS_DISABLE
The parameter data_sample determines the sample moment (phase) of input data.
Data Sampling Moment
Description
Predefined library const
Data sampled in the middle of data output time
Data sampled at end of data output time
_SPI_DATA_SAMPLE_MIDDLE
_SPI_DATA_SAMPLE_END
The parameter clock_idle determines the behaviour of the SPI clock (CLK) line in IDLE phase.
Clock Polarity
Description
Predefined library const
IDLE state is Lo, ACTIVE state is Hi
IDLE state is Hi, ACTIVE state is Lo
_SPI_CLK_IDLE_LOW
_SPI_CLK_IDLE_HIGH
The parameter edge determines on which clock edge data is considered to be valid.
Clock Edge
Description
Data is valid on ACTIVE-to-IDLE transition
Data is valid on IDLE-to-ACTIVE transition
Predefined library const
_SPI_ACTIVE_2_IDLE
_SPI_IDLE_2_ACTIVE
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
MCU must have the SPI module.
Example
// Set SPI1 to the Master Mode, data length is 16-bit, clock = Fcy (no clock
scaling), data sampled in the middle of interval, clock IDLE state high and
data transmitted at low to high clock edge:
SPI1_Init_Advanced(_SPI_MASTER, _SPI_16_BIT, _SPI_PRESCALE_SEC_1, _SPI_
PRESCALE_PRI_1, _SPI_SS_DISABLE, _SPI_DATA_SAMPLE_MIDDLE, _SPI_CLK_IDLE_
HIGH, _SPI_ACTIVE_2_IDLE);
Notes
SPI library routines require you to specify the module you want to use. To select the desired SPI
module, simply change the letter x in the routine prototype for a number from 1 to 3.
Number of SPI modules per MCU differs from chip to chip. Please, read the appropriate datasheet
before utilizing this library.
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SPIx_Read
Prototype
unsigned SPIx_Read(unsigned buffer);
Description Reads one word or byte (depending on mode set by init routines) from the SPI bus.
Parameters - data_out: dummy data for clock generation (see device Datasheet for SPI modules implementation
details)
Returns
Received data.
Requires
Routine requires at least one SPI module.
Used SPI module must be initialized before using this function. See the SPIx_Init and SPIx_Init_
Advanced routines.
Example
Notes
// read a byte from the SPI bus
char take, buffer;
...
take = SPI1_Read(buffer);
SPI library routines require you to specify the module you want to use. To select the desired SPI
module, simply change the letter x in the routine prototype for a number from 1 to 3.
Number of SPI modules per MCU differs from chip to chip. Please, read the appropriate datasheet
before utilizing this library.
SPIx_Write
Prototype
void SPIx_Write(unsigned data_out);
Description Writes one word or byte (depending on mode set by init routines) via the SPI bus.
Parameters - data_out: data to be sent
Returns
Received data.
Requires
Routine requires at least one SPI module.
Used SPI module must be initialized before using this function. See the SPIx_Init and SPIx_Init_
Advanced routines.
Example
Notes
// write a byte to the SPI bus
char buffer;
...
SPI1_Write(buffer);
SPI library routines require you to specify the module you want to use. To select the desired SPI
module, simply change the letter x in the routine prototype for a number from 1 to 3.
Number of SPI modules per MCU differs from chip to chip. Please, read the appropriate datasheet
before utilizing this library.
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SPI_Set_Active
Prototype
void
SPI_Set_Active(unsigned
(unsigned));
(*read_ptr)(unsigned),
void(*write_ptr)
Description Sets the active SPI module which will be used by the SPIx_Read and SPIx_Write routines.
Parameters Parameters :
Returns
Requires
- read_ptr: SPI1_Read handler
- write_ptr: SPI1_Write handler
Nothing.
Routine is available only for MCUs with multiple SPI modules.
Used SPI module must be initialized before using this function. See the SPIx_Init and SPIx_Init_
Advanced routines.
Example
SPI_Set_Active(SPI1_Read, SPI1_Write); // Sets the SPI1 module active
Notes
Number of SPI modules per MCU differs from chip to chip. Please, read the appropriate datasheet
before utilizing this library.
Library Example
The code demonstrates how to use SPI library functions for communication between SPI2 module of the MCU and
MCP4921 DAC chip.
Copy Code To Clipboard
// DAC module connections
sbit Chip_Select at LATF0_bit;
sbit Chip_Select_Direction at TRISF0_bit;
// End DAC module connections
unsigned int value;
void InitMain() {
TRISB0_bit = 1;
TRISB1_bit = 1;
Chip_Select = 1;
Chip_Select_Direction = 0;
SPI1_Init();
}
//
//
//
//
//
Set RB0 pin as
Set RB1 pin as
Deselect DAC
Set CS# pin as
Initialize SPI
input
input
Output
module
// DAC increments (0..4095) --> output voltage (0..Vref)
void DAC_Output(unsigned int valueDAC) {
char temp;
Chip_Select = 0;
// Select DAC chip
// Send High Byte
temp = (valueDAC >> 8) & 0x0F;
temp |= 0x30;
SPI1_Write(temp);
// Store valueDAC[11..8] to temp[3..0]
// Define DAC setting, see MCP4921 datasheet
// Send high byte via SPI
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// Send Low Byte
temp = valueDAC;
SPI1_Write(temp);
}
// Store valueDAC[7..0] to temp[7..0]
// Send low byte via SPI
Chip_Select = 1;
// Deselect DAC chip
void main() {
ADPCFG = 0xFFFF;
// Configure AN pins as digital
InitMain();
// Perform main initialization
value = 2048;
// When program starts, DAC gives
//
the output in the mid-range
while (1) {
}
}
// Endless loop
if ((RB0_bit) && (value < 4095)) {
value++;
}
else {
if ((RB1_bit) && (value > 0)) {
value--;
}
}
DAC_Output(value);
Delay_ms(1);
// If RB0 button is pressed
//
increment value
// If RB1 button is pressed
//
decrement value
// Send value to DAC chip
// Slow down key repeat pace
HW Connection
SPI HW connection
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SPI Ethernet Library
The ENC28J60 is a stand-alone Ethernet controller with an industry standard Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI). It is
designed to serve as an Ethernet network interface for any controller equipped with SPI.
The ENC28J60 meets all of the IEEE 802.3 specifications. It incorporates a number of packet filtering schemes to limit
incoming packets. It also provides an internal DMA module for fast data throughput and hardware assisted IP checksum
calculations. Communication with the host controller is implemented via two interrupt pins and the SPI, with data rates
of up to 10 Mb/s. Two dedicated pins are used for LED link and network activity indication.
This library is designed to simplify handling of the underlying hardware (ENC28J60). It works with any dsPIC30/33
and PIC24 with integrated SPI and more than 4 Kb ROM memory. 38 to 40 MHz clock is recommended to get from 8
to 10 Mhz SPI clock, otherwise dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 should be clocked by ENC28J60 clock output due to its silicon
bug in SPI hardware. If you try lower dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 clock speed, there might be board hang or miss some
requests.
SPI Ethernet library supports:
- IPv4 protocol.
- ARP requests.
- ICMP echo requests.
- UDP requests.
- TCP requests (no stack, no packet reconstruction).
- ARP client with cache.
- DNS client.
- UDP client.
- DHCP client.
- packet fragmentation is NOT supported.
Important :
- Global library variable SPI_Ethernet_userTimerSec is used to keep track of time for all client implementations
(ARP, DNS, UDP and DHCP). It is user responsibility to increment this variable each second in it's code if any of the
clients is used.
- For advanced users there are header files ("eth_enc28j60LibDef.h" and "eth_enc28j60LibPrivate.h") in
Uses folder of the compiler with description of all routines and global variables, relevant to the user, implemented in the
SPI Ethernet Library.
- The appropriate hardware SPI module must be initialized before using any of the SPI Ethernet library routines. Refer
to SPI Library.
- For MCUs with multiple SPI modules it is possible to initialize them and then switch by using the SPI_Set_Active()
routine.
Library Dependency Tree
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External dependencies of SPI Ethernet Library
The following variables must be
defined in all projects using SPI Description :
Ethernet Library:
extern sfr sbit SPI_Ethernet_
ENC28J60 chip select pin.
CS;
extern sfr sbit SPI_Ethernet_
ENC28J60 reset pin.
RST;
Example :
sbit SPI_Ethernet_CS at LATF1_
bit;
sbit SPI_Ethernet_Rst at LATF0_
bit;
extern sfr sbit SPI_Ethernet_ Direction of the ENC28J60 sbit
SPI_Ethernet_CS_Direction
CS_Direction;
at TRISF1_bit;
chip select pin.
extern sfr sbit SPI_Ethernet_ Direction of the ENC28J60 sbit SPI_Ethernet_Rst_Direction
RST_Direction;
at TRISF0_bit;
reset pin.
The following routines must be
defined in all project using SPI Description:
Ethernet Library:
unsigned int SPI_Ethernet_
UserTCP(unsigned
char
*remoteHost, unsigned int
remotePort,
unsigned
int TCP request handler.
localPort,
unsigned
int
reqLength,
TEthPktFlags
*flags);
unsigned int SPI_Ethernet_
UserUDP(unsigned
char
*remoteHost, unsigned int
remotePort,
unsigned
int UDP request handler.
localPort,
unsigned
int
reqLength,
TEthPktFlags
*flags);
MikroElektronika
Examples :
Refer to the library example at the bottom of
this page for code implementation.
Refer to the library example at the bottom of
this page for code implementation.
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Library Routines
- SPI_Ethernet_Init
- SPI_Ethernet_Enable
- SPI_Ethernet_Disable
- SPI_Ethernet_doPacket
- SPI_Ethernet_putByte
- SPI_Ethernet_putBytes
- SPI_Ethernet_putString
- SPI_Ethernet_putConstString
- SPI_Ethernet_putConstBytes
- SPI_Ethernet_getByte
- SPI_Ethernet_getBytes
- SPI_Ethernet_UserTCP
- SPI_Ethernet_UserUDP
- SPI_Ethernet_getIpAddress
- SPI_Ethernet_getGwIpAddress
- SPI_Ethernet_getDnsIpAddress
- SPI_Ethernet_getIpMask
- SPI_Ethernet_confNetwork
- SPI_Ethernet_arpResolve
- SPI_Ethernet_sendUDP
- SPI_Ethernet_dnsResolve
- SPI_Ethernet_initDHCP
- SPI_Ethernet_doDHCPLeaseTime
- SPI_Ethernet_renewDHCP
SPIx_Write
Prototype
void SPI_Ethernet_Init(unsigned char *mac, unsigned char *ip, unsigned char
fullDuplex);
Description This is MAC module routine. It initializes ENC28J60 controller. This function is internaly splited into 2
parts to help linker when coming short of memory.
ENC28J60 controller settings (parameters not mentioned here are set to default):
- receive buffer start address : 0x0000.
- receive buffer end address : 0x19AD.
- transmit buffer start address: 0x19AE.
- transmit buffer end address : 0x1FFF.
- RAM buffer read/write pointers in auto-increment mode.
- receive filters set to default: CRC + MAC Unicast + MAC Broadcast in OR mode.
- flow control with TX and RX pause frames in full duplex mode.
- frames are padded to 60 bytes + CRC.
- maximum packet size is set to 1518.
- Back-to-Back Inter-Packet Gap: 0x15 in full duplex mode; 0x12 in half duplex mode.
- Non-Back-to-Back Inter-Packet Gap: 0x0012 in full duplex mode; 0x0C12 in half duplex mode.
- Collision window is set to 63 in half duplex mode to accomodate some ENC28J60 revisions silicon bugs.
- CLKOUT output is disabled to reduce EMI generation.
- half duplex loopback disabled.
- LED configuration: default (LEDA-link status, LEDB-link activity).
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SPIx_Write
Parameters - mac: RAM buffer containing valid MAC address.
- ip: RAM buffer containing valid IP address.
- fullDuplex: ethernet duplex mode switch. Valid values: 0 (half duplex mode) and 1 (full duplex
mode).
Returns
Received data.
Requires
Global variables :
- SPI_Ethernet_CS: Chip Select line
- SPI_Ethernet_CS_Direction: Direction of the Chip Select pin
- SPI_Ethernet_RST: Reset line
- SPI_Ethernet_RST_Direction: Direction of the Reset pin
must be defined before using this function.
The SPI module needs to be initialized. See the SPIx_Init and SPIx_Init_Advanced routines.
Example
#define SPI_Ethernet_HALFDUPLEX
#define SPI_Ethernet_FULLDUPLEX
0
1
// mE ethernet NIC pinout
sfr sbit SPI_Ethernet_Rst at RF0_bit;
sfr sbit SPI_Ethernet_CS at RF1_bit;
sfr sbit SPI_Ethernet_Rst_Direction at TRISF0_bit;
sfr sbit SPI_Ethernet_CS_Direction at TRISF1_bit;
// end ethernet NIC definitions
unsigned char myMacAddr[6] = {0x00, 0x14, 0xA5, 0x76, 0x19, 0x3f}; // my MAC
address
unsigned char myIpAddr
= {192, 168,
1, 60 }; // my IP addr
Notes
SPI1_Init();
SPI_Ethernet_Init(myMacAddr, myIpAddr, SPI_Ethernet_FULLDUPLEX);
None.
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SPI_Ethernet_Enable
Prototype
void SPI_Ethernet_Enable(unsigned char enFlt);
Description This is MAC module routine. This routine enables appropriate network traffic on the ENC28J60 module
by the means of it’s receive filters (unicast, multicast, broadcast, crc). Specific type of network traffic
will be enabled if a corresponding bit of this routine’s input parameter is set. Therefore, more than one
type of network traffic can be enabled at the same time. For this purpose, predefined library constants
(see the table below) can be ORed to form appropriate input value.
Advanced filtering available in the ENC28J60 module such as Pattern Match, Magic Packet and
Hash Table can not be enabled by this routine. Additionaly, all filters, except CRC, enabled with this
routine will work in OR mode, which means that packet will be received if any of the enabled filters
accepts it.
This routine will change receive filter configuration on-the-fly. It will not, in any way, mess with enabling/
disabling receive/transmit logic or any other part of the ENC28J60 module. The ENC28J60 module
should be properly cofigured by the means of SPI_Ethernet_Init routine.
Parameters - enFlt: network traffic/receive filter flags. Each bit corresponds to the appropriate network traffic/
receive filter:
Bit
Mask
Description
Predefined library const
0
0x01
MAC Broadcast traffic/receive filter flag. When set,
MAC broadcast traffic will be enabled.
1
0x02
MAC Multicast traffic/receive filter flag. When set,
MAC multicast traffic will be enabled.
_SPI_Ethernet_
BROADCAST
2
0x04
not used
3
0x08
not used
none
4
0x10
not used
none
5
0x20
CRC check flag. When set, packets with invalid
CRC field will be discarded.
_SPI_Ethernet_CRC
6
0x40
not used
none
7
0x80
MAC Unicast traffic/receive filter flag. When set,
MAC unicast traffic will be enabled.
_SPI_Ethernet_UNICAST
_SPI_Ethernet_
MULTICAST
none
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Ethernet module has to be initialized. See SPI_Ethernet_Init.
Example
SPI_Ethernet_Enable(_SPI_Ethernet_CRC | _SPI_Ethernet_UNICAST); // enable
CRC checking and Unicast traffic
Notes
Advanced filtering available in the ENC28J60 module such as Pattern Match, Magic Packet
and Hash Table can not be enabled by this routine. Additionaly, all filters, except CRC, enabled with
this routine will work in OR mode, which means that packet will be received if any of the enabled filters
accepts it.
This routine will change receive filter configuration on-the-fly. It will not, in any way, mess with enabling/
disabling receive/transmit logic or any other part of the ENC28J60 module. The ENC28J60 module
should be properly cofigured by the means of SPI_Ethernet_Init routine.
503
MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
SPI_Ethernet_Disable
Prototype
void SPI_Ethernet_Disable(unsigned char disFlt);
Description This is MAC module routine. This routine disables appropriate network traffic on the ENC28J60 module
by the means of it’s receive filters (unicast, multicast, broadcast, crc). Specific type of network traffic
will be disabled if a corresponding bit of this routine’s input parameter is set. Therefore, more than one
type of network traffic can be disabled at the same time. For this purpose, predefined library constants
(see the table below) can be ORed to form appropriate input value.
Parameters - disFlt: network traffic/receive filter flags. Each bit corresponds to the appropriate network traffic/
receive filter:
Bit
Mask
Description
Predefined library const
0
0x01
MAC Broadcast traffic/receive filter flag. When set,
MAC broadcast traffic will be disabled.
1
0x02
MAC Multicast traffic/receive filter flag. When set, MAC
multicast traffic will be disabled.
_SPI_Ethernet_
BROADCAST
2
0x04
not used
3
0x08
not used
none
4
0x10
not used
none
5
0x20
CRC check flag. When set, CRC check will be disabled
and packets with invalid CRC field will be accepted.
_SPI_Ethernet_CRC
6
0x40
not used
none
0x80
MAC Unicast traffic/receive filter flag. When set, MAC
unicast traffic will be disabled.
_SPI_Ethernet_
UNICAST
7
_SPI_Ethernet_
MULTICAST
none
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Ethernet module has to be initialized. See SPI_Ethernet_Init.
Example
SPI_Ethernet_Disable(_SPI_Ethernet_CRC | _SPI_Ethernet_UNICAST); // disable
CRC checking and Unicast traffic
Notes
Advanced filtering available in the ENC28J60 module such as Pattern Match, Magic Packet
and Hash Table can not be disabled by this routine.
This routine will change receive filter configuration on-the-fly. It will not, in any way, mess with enabling/
disabling receive/transmit logic or any other part of the ENC28J60 module. The ENC28J60 module
should be properly cofigured by the means of SPI_Ethernet_Init routine.
MikroElektronika
504
mikroC PRO for dsPIC
SPI_Ethernet_doPacket
Prototype
unsigned int SPI_Ethernet_doPacket();
Description This is MAC module routine. It processes next received packet if such exists. Packets are processed
in the following manner:
- ARP & ICMP requests are replied automatically.
- upon TCP request the SPI_Ethernet_UserTCP function is called for further processing.
- upon UDP request the SPI_Ethernet_UserUDP function is called for further processing.
Parameters None.
Returns
Requires
Example
Notes
- 0 - upon successful packet processing (zero packets received or received packet processed
successfully).
- 1 - upon reception error or receive buffer corruption. ENC28J60 controller needs to be restarted.
- 2 - received packet was not sent to us (not our IP, nor IP broadcast address).
- 3 - received IP packet was not IPv4.
- 4 - received packet was of type unknown to the library.
Ethernet module has to be initialized. See SPI_Ethernet_Init.
if (SPI_Ethernet_doPacket() == 0)(1) {
...
}
// process received packets
SPI_Ethernet_doPacket must be called as often as possible in user’s code.
SPI_Ethernet_putByte
Prototype
void SPI_Ethernet_putByte(unsigned char v);
Description This is MAC module routine. It stores one byte to address pointed by the current ENC28J60 write
pointer (EWRPT).
Parameters - v: value to store
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Ethernet module has to be initialized. See SPI_Ethernet_Init.
Example
Notes
505
char data_;
...
SPI_Ethernet_putByte(data); // put an byte into ENC28J60 buffer
None.
MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
SPI_Ethernet_putBytes
Prototype
void SPI_Ethernet_putBytes(unsigned char *ptr, unsigned int n);
Description This is MAC module routine. It stores requested number of bytes into ENC28J60 RAM starting from
current ENC28J60 write pointer (EWRPT) location.
Parameters - ptr: RAM buffer containing bytes to be written into ENC28J60 RAM.
- n: number of bytes to be written.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Ethernet module has to be initialized. See SPI_Ethernet_Init.
Example
Notes
char *buffer = “mikroElektronika”;
...
SPI_Ethernet_putBytes(buffer, 16); //
buffer
put
an
RAM
array
into
ENC28J60
None.
SPI_Ethernet_putConstBytes
Prototype
void SPI_Ethernet_putConstBytes(const unsigned char *ptr, unsigned int n);
Description This is MAC module routine. It stores requested number of const bytes into ENC28J60 RAM starting
from current ENC28J60 write pointer (EWRPT) location.
Parameters - ptr: const buffer containing bytes to be written into ENC28J60 RAM.
- n: number of bytes to be written.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Ethernet module has to be initialized. See SPI_Ethernet_Init.
Example
Notes
const char *buffer = “mikroElektronika”;
...
SPI_Ethernet_putConstBytes(buffer, 16); // put a const array into ENC28J60
buffer
None.
SPI_Ethernet_putString
Prototype
unsigned int SPI_Ethernet_putString(unsigned char *ptr);
Description This is MAC module routine. It stores whole string (excluding null termination) into ENC28J60 RAM
starting from current ENC28J60 write pointer (EWRPT) location.
Parameters - ptr: string to be written into ENC28J60 RAM.
Returns
Number of bytes written into ENC28J60 RAM.
Requires
Ethernet module has to be initialized. See SPI_Ethernet_Init.
Example
Notes
char *buffer = “mikroElektronika”;
...
SPI_Ethernet_putString(buffer); // put a RAM string into ENC28J60 buffer
None.
MikroElektronika
506
mikroC PRO for dsPIC
SPI_Ethernet_putConstString
Prototype
unsigned int SPI_Ethernet_putConstString(const unsigned char *ptr);
Description This is MAC module routine. It stores whole const string (excluding null termination) into ENC28J60
RAM starting from current ENC28J60 write pointer (EWRPT) location.
Parameters - ptr: const string to be written into ENC28J60 RAM.
Returns
Requires
Example
Notes
Number of bytes written into ENC28J60 RAM.
Ethernet module has to be initialized. See SPI_Ethernet_Init.
const char *buffer = “mikroElektronika”;
...
SPI_Ethernet_putConstString(buffer); // put a const string into ENC28J60
buffer
None.
SPI_Ethernet_getByte
Prototype
unsigned char SPI_Ethernet_getByte();
Description This is MAC module routine. It fetches a byte from address pointed to by current ENC28J60 read
pointer (ERDPT).
Parameters None.
Returns
Requires
Example
Notes
Byte read from ENC28J60 RAM.
Ethernet module has to be initialized. See SPI_Ethernet_Init.
char buffer;
...
buffer = SPI_Ethernet_getByte(); // read a byte from ENC28J60 buffer
None.
SPI_Ethernet_getBytes
Prototype
void SPI_Ethernet_getBytes(unsigned char *ptr, unsigned int addr, unsigned
int n);
Description This is MAC module routine. It fetches equested number of bytes from ENC28J60 RAM starting from
given address. If value of 0xFFFF is passed as the address parameter, the reading will start from
current ENC28J60 read pointer (ERDPT) location.
Parameters - ptr: buffer for storing bytes read from ENC28J60 RAM.
- addr: ENC28J60 RAM start address. Valid values: 0..8192.
- n: number of bytes to be read.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Ethernet module has to be initialized. See SPI_Ethernet_Init.
Example
Notes
507
char buffer[16];
...
SPI_Ethernet_getBytes(buffer, 0x100, 16); // read 16 bytes, starting from
address 0x100
None.
MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
SPI_Ethernet_UserTCP
Prototype
unsigned int SPI_Ethernet_UserTCP(unsigned char *remoteHost, unsigned int
remotePort, unsigned int localPort, unsigned int reqLength, TEthPktFlags
*flags);
Description This is TCP module routine. It is internally called by the library. The user accesses to the TCP request
by using some of the SPI_Ethernet_get routines. The user puts data in the transmit buffer by using
some of the SPI_Ethernet_put routines. The function must return the length in bytes of the TCP reply,
or 0 if there is nothing to transmit. If there is no need to reply to the TCP requests, just define this
function with return(0) as a single statement.
Parameters - remoteHost: client’s IP address.
- remotePort: client’s TCP port.
- localPort: port to which the request is sent.
- reqLength: TCP request data field length.
- flags: structure consisted of two bit fields :
Copy Code To Clipboard
Returns
typedef struct {
unsigned canCloseTCP: 1; // flag which closes socket
unsigned isBroadcast: 1; // flag which denotes that the IP package has
been received via subnet broadcast address
} TEthPktFlags;
- 0 - there should not be a reply to the request.
- Length of TCP reply data field - otherwise.
Requires
Ethernet module has to be initialized. See SPI_Ethernet_Init.
Example
This function is internally called by the library and should not be called by the user’s code.
Notes
The function source code is provided with appropriate example projects. The code should be adjusted
by the user to achieve desired reply.
MikroElektronika
508
mikroC PRO for dsPIC
SPI_Ethernet_UserUDP
Prototype
unsigned int SPI_Ethernet_UserUDP(unsigned char *remoteHost, unsigned int
remotePort, unsigned int localPort, unsigned int reqLength, TEthPktFlags
*flags);
Description This is UDP module routine. It is internally called by the library. The user accesses to the UDP request
by using some of the SPI_Ethernet_get routines. The user puts data in the transmit buffer by using
some of the SPI_Ethernet_put routines. The function must return the length in bytes of the UDP reply,
or 0 if nothing to transmit. If you don’t need to reply to the UDP requests, just define this function with
a return(0) as single statement.
Parameters - remoteHost: client’s IP address.
- remotePort: client’s port.
- localPort: port to which the request is sent.
- reqLength: UDP request data field length.
- flags: structure consisted of two bit fields :
Copy Code To Clipboard
Returns
typedef struct {
unsigned canCloseTCP: 1; // flag which closes TCP socket (not relevant
to UDP)
unsigned isBroadcast: 1; // flag which denotes that the IP package has
been received via subnet broadcast address
} TEthPktFlags;
- 0 - there should not be a reply to the request.
- Length of UDP reply data field - otherwise.
Requires
Ethernet module has to be initialized. See SPI_Ethernet_Init.
Example
This function is internally called by the library and should not be called by the user’s code.
Notes
The function source code is provided with appropriate example projects. The code should be adjusted
by the user to achieve desired reply.
509
MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
SPI_Ethernet_getIpAddress
Prototype
unsigned char * SPI_Ethernet_getIpAddress();
Description This routine should be used when DHCP server is present on the network to fetch assigned IP
address.
Parameters None.
Returns
Pointer to the global variable holding IP address.
Requires
Ethernet module has to be initialized. See SPI_Ethernet_Init.
Example
Notes
unsigned char ipAddr[4]; // user IP address buffer
...
memcpy(ipAddr, SPI_Ethernet_getIpAddress(), 4); // fetch IP address
User should always copy the IP address from the RAM location returned by this routine into it’s own IP
address buffer. These locations should not be altered by the user in any case!
SPI_Ethernet_getDnsIpAddress
Prototype
unsigned char * SPI_Ethernet_getDnsIpAddress();
Description This routine should be used when DHCP server is present on the network to fetch assigned DNS IP
address.
Parameters None.
Returns
Pointer to the global variable holding DNS IP address.
Requires
Ethernet module has to be initialized. See SPI_Ethernet_Init.
Example
Notes
unsigned char dnsIpAddr[4]; // user DNS IP address buffer
...
memcpy(dnsIpAddr, SPI_Ethernet_getDnsIpAddress(), 4); // fetch DNS server
address
User should always copy the IP address from the RAM location returned by this routine into it’s own
DNS IP address buffer. These locations should not be altered by the user in any case!
SPI_Ethernet_getIpMask
Prototype
unsigned char * SPI_Ethernet_getIpMask();
Description This routine should be used when DHCP server is present on the network to fetch assigned IP subnet
mask.
Parameters None.
Returns
Pointer to the global variable holding IP subnet mask.
Requires
Ethernet module has to be initialized. See SPI_Ethernet_Init.
Example
Notes
unsigned char IpMask[4]; // user IP subnet mask buffer
...
memcpy(IpMask, SPI_Ethernet_getIpMask(), 4); // fetch IP subnet mask
User should always copy the IP address from the RAM location returned by this routine into it’s own IP
subnet mask buffer. These locations should not be altered by the user in any case!
MikroElektronika
510
mikroC PRO for dsPIC
SPI_Ethernet_confNetwork
Prototype
void
SPI_Ethernet_confNetwork(char
*dnsIpAddr);
*ipMask,
char
*gwIpAddr,
char
Description Configures network parameters (IP subnet mask, gateway IP address, DNS IP address) when DHCP
is not used.
Parameters - ipMask: IP subnet mask.
- gwIpAddr gateway IP address.
- dnsIpAddr: DNS IP address.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Ethernet module has to be initialized. See SPI_Ethernet_Init.
Example
Notes
char ipMask[4]
= {255, 255, 255, 0 }; // network mask (for example :
255.255.255.0)
char gwIpAddr[4] = {192, 168,
1, 1 }; // gateway (router) IP address
char dnsIpAddr[4] = {192, 168,
1, 1 }; // DNS server IP address
...
SPI_Ethernet_confNetwork(ipMask, gwIpAddr, dnsIpAddr); // set network
configuration parameters
The above mentioned network parameters should be set by this routine only if DHCP module is not
used. Otherwise DHCP will override these settings.
SPI_Ethernet_arpResolve
Prototype
unsigned char *SPI_Ethernet_arpResolve(unsigned char *ip, unsigned char
tmax);
Description This is ARP module routine. It sends an ARP request for given IP address and waits for ARP reply. If
the requested IP address was resolved, an ARP cash entry is used for storing the configuration. ARP
cash can store up to 3 entries. For ARP cash structure refer to “eth_enc28j60LibDef.h” header
file in the compiler’s Uses folder.
Parameters - ip: IP address to be resolved.
- tmax: time in seconds to wait for an reply.
Returns
Requires
Example
Notes
511
- MAC address behind the IP address - the requested IP address was resolved.
- 0 - otherwise.
Ethernet module has to be initialized. See SPI_Ethernet_Init.
unsigned char IpAddr[4] = {192, 168,
1, 1 }; // IP address
...
SPI_Ethernet_arpResolve(IpAddr, 5); // get MAC address behind the above IP
address, wait 5 secs for the response
The Ethernet services are not stopped while this routine waits for ARP reply. The incoming packets will
be processed normaly during this time.
MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
SPI_Ethernet_sendUDP
Prototype
unsigned int SPI_Ethernet_sendUDP(unsigned char *destIP,
sourcePort, unsigned int destPort, unsigned char *pkt,
pktLen);
unsigned
unsigned
int
int
Description This is UDP module routine. It sends an UDP packet on the network.
Parameters - destIP: remote host IP address.
- sourcePort: local UDP source port number.
- destPort: destination UDP port number.
- pkt: packet to transmit.
- pktLen: length in bytes of packet to transmit.
Returns
Requires
Example
Notes
- 1 - UDP packet was sent successfully.
- 0 - otherwise.
Ethernet module has to be initialized. See SPI_Ethernet_Init.
unsigned char IpAddr[4] = {192, 168,
1, 1 }; // remote IP address
...
SPI_Ethernet_sendUDP(IpAddr, 10001, 10001, “Hello”, 5); // send Hello message
to the above IP address, from UDP port 10001 to UDP port 10001
None.
SPI_Ethernet_dnsResolve
Prototype
unsigned char * SPI_Ethernet_dnsResolve(unsigned char *host, unsigned char
tmax);
Description This is DNS module routine. It sends an DNS request for given host name and waits for DNS reply. If
the requested host name was resolved, it’s IP address is stored in library global variable and a pointer
containing this address is returned by the routine. UDP port 53 is used as DNS port.
Parameters - host: host name to be resolved.
- tmax: time in seconds to wait for an reply.
Returns
Requires
Example
Notes
- pointer to the location holding the IP address - the requested host name was resolved.
- 0 - otherwise.
Ethernet module has to be initialized. See SPI_Ethernet_Init.
unsigned char * remoteHostIpAddr[4];
// user host IP address buffer
...
// SNTP server:
// Zurich, Switzerland: Integrated Systems Lab, Swiss Fed. Inst. of
Technology
// 129.132.2.21: swisstime.ethz.ch
// Service Area: Switzerland and Europe
memcpy(remoteHostIpAddr, SPI_Ethernet_dnsResolve(“swisstime.ethz.ch”, 5),
4);
The Ethernet services are not stopped while this routine waits for DNS reply. The incoming packets will
be processed normaly during this time.
User should always copy the IP address from the RAM location returned by this routine into it’s own
resolved host IP address buffer. These locations should not be altered by the user in any case!
MikroElektronika
512
mikroC PRO for dsPIC
SPI_Ethernet_initDHCP
Prototype
unsigned int SPI_Ethernet_initDHCP(unsigned char tmax);
Description This is DHCP module routine. It sends an DHCP request for network parameters (IP, gateway, DNS
addresses and IP subnet mask) and waits for DHCP reply. If the requested parameters were obtained
successfully, their values are stored into the library global variables.
These parameters can be fetched by using appropriate library IP get routines:
- SPI_Ethernet_getIpAddress - fetch IP address.
- SPI_Ethernet_getGwIpAddress - fetch gateway IP address.
- SPI_Ethernet_getDnsIpAddress - fetch DNS IP address.
- SPI_Ethernet_getIpMask - fetch IP subnet mask.
UDP port 68 is used as DHCP client port and UDP port 67 is used as DHCP server port.
Parameters - tmax: time in seconds to wait for an reply.
Returns
Requires
Example
Notes
- 1 - network parameters were obtained successfully.
- 0 - otherwise.
Ethernet module has to be initialized. See SPI_Ethernet_Init.
...
SPI_Ethernet_initDHCP(5); // get network configuration from DHCP server,
wait 5 sec for the response
...
The Ethernet services are not stopped while this routine waits for DNS reply. The incoming packets will
be processed normaly during this time.
When DHCP module is used, global library variable SPI_Ethernet_userTimerSec is used to keep
track of time. It is user responsibility to increment this variable each second in it’s code.
513
MikroElektronika
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SPI_Ethernet_doDHCPLeaseTime
Prototype
unsigned int SPI_Ethernet_doDHCPLeaseTime();
Description This is DHCP module routine. It takes care of IP address lease time by decrementing the global lease
time library counter. When this time expires, it’s time to contact DHCP server and renew the lease.
Parameters None.
Returns
Requires
Example
Notes
- 0 - lease time has not expired yet.
- 1 - lease time has expired, it’s time to renew it.
Ethernet module has to be initialized. See SPI_Ethernet_Init.
while(1) {
...
if (SPI_Ethernet_doDHCPLeaseTime())
... // it’s time to renew the IP address lease
}
None.
SPI_Ethernet_renewDHCP
Prototype
unsigned int SPI_Ethernet_renewDHCP(unsigned char tmax);
Description This is DHCP module routine. It sends IP address lease time renewal request to DHCP server.
Parameters - tmax: time in seconds to wait for an reply.
Returns
Requires
Example
Notes
- 1 - upon success (lease time was renewed).
- 0 - otherwise (renewal request timed out).
Ethernet module has to be initialized. See SPI_Ethernet_Init.
while(1) {
...
if (SPI_Ethernet_doDHCPLeaseTime())
SPI_Ethernet_renewDHCP(5);
// it’s time to renew the IP address lease,
with 5 secs for a reply
...
}
None.
MikroElektronika
514
mikroC PRO for dsPIC
Library Example
This code shows how to use the Ethernet mini library :
- the board will reply to ARP & ICMP echo requests
- the board will reply to UDP requests on any port :
- returns the request in upper char with a header made of remote host IP & port number
- the board will reply to HTTP requests on port 80, GET method with pathnames :
- / will return the HTML main page
- /s will return board status as text string
- /t0 ... /t7 will toggle RD0 to RD7 bit and return HTML main page
- all other requests return also HTML main page.
Copy Code To Clipboard
#include “__EthEnc28j60.h”
// duplex config flags
#define Spi_Ethernet_HALFDUPLEX
#define Spi_Ethernet_FULLDUPLEX
0x00
0x01
// half duplex
// full duplex
// mE ehternet NIC pinout
sfr sbit SPI_Ethernet_Rst at LATF0_bit; // for writing to output pin always use latch
sfr sbit SPI_Ethernet_CS at LATF1_bit; // for writing to output pin always use latch
sfr sbit SPI_Ethernet_Rst_Direction at TRISF0_bit;
sfr sbit SPI_Ethernet_CS_Direction at TRISF1_bit;
// end ethernet NIC definitions
/************************************************************
* ROM constant strings
*/
const code unsigned char httpHeader[] = “HTTP/1.1 200 OKnContent-type: “;
//
header
const code unsigned char httpMimeTypeHTML[] = “text/htmlnn”;
// HTML
type
const code unsigned char httpMimeTypeScript[] = “text/plainnn”;
// TEXT
type
unsigned char httpMethod[] = “GET /”;
/*
* web page, splited into 2 parts :
* when coming short of ROM, fragmented data is handled more efficiently by linker
*
* this HTML page calls the boards to get its status, and builds itself
javascript
*/
const code char
*indexPage =
// Change the IP address of the
to be refreshed
“<meta http-equiv=”refresh” content=”3;url=http://192.168.20.60”>
<HTML><HEAD></HEAD><BODY>
<h1>dsPIC + ENC28J60 Mini Web Server</h1>
515
HTTP
MIME
MIME
with
page
MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
<a href=/>Reload</a>
<script src=/s></script>
<table><tr><td valign=top><table border=1 style="font-size:20px ;font-family: terminal
;">
<tr><th colspan=2>ADC</th></tr>
<tr><td>AN0</td><td><script>document.write(AN0)</script></td></tr>
<tr><td>AN1</td><td><script>document.write(AN1)</script></td></tr>
</table></td><td><table border=1 style="font-size:20px ;font-family: terminal ;">
<tr><th colspan=2>PORTB</th></tr>
<script>
var str,i;
str="";
for(i=2;i<10;i++)
{str+="<tr><td bgcolor=pink>BUTTON #"+i+"</td>";
if(PORTB&(1<<i)){str+="<td bgcolor=red>ON";}
else {str+="<td bgcolor=#cccccc>OFF";}
str+="</td></tr>";}
document.write(str) ;
</script>
" ;
const code char
*indexPage2 = "</table></td><td>
<table border=1 style="font-size:20px ;font-family: terminal ;">
<tr><th colspan=3>PORTD</th></tr>
<script>
var str,i;
str="";
for(i=0;i<4;i++)
{str+="<tr><td bgcolor=yellow>LED #"+i+"</td>";
if(PORTD&(1<<i)){str+="<td bgcolor=red>ON";}
else {str+="<td bgcolor=#cccccc>OFF";}
str+="</td><td><a href=/t"+i+">Toggle</a></td></tr>";}
document.write(str) ;
</script>
</table></td></tr></table>
This is HTTP request #<script>document.write(REQ)</script></BODY></HTML>
" ;
/***********************************
* RAM variables
*/
unsigned char
myMacAddr[6] = {0x00, 0x14, 0xA5, 0x76, 0x19, 0x3f};
// my MAC
address
unsigned char
myIpAddr[4] = {192, 168, 20, 60 };
// my IP address
unsigned char
gwIpAddr[4] = {192, 168, 20, 6 };
// gateway (router) IP address
unsigned char
ipMask[4]
= {255, 255, 255, 0 };
// network mask
(for example : 255.255.255.0)
unsigned char
dnsIpAddr[4] = {192, 168, 20, 1 };
// DNS server IP address
unsigned char
unsigned char
unsigned long
MikroElektronika
getRequest[15];
dyna[31] ;
httpCounter = 0;
// HTTP request buffer
// buffer for dynamic response
// counter of HTTP requests
516
mikroC PRO for dsPIC
/*******************************************
* functions
*/
/*
* put the constant string pointed to by s to the ENC transmit buffer.
*/
/*unsigned int
putConstString(const code char *s)
{
unsigned int ctr = 0;
while(*s)
{
Spi_Ethernet_putByte(*s++);
ctr++;
}
return(ctr);
}*/
/*
* it will be much faster to use library Spi_Ethernet_putConstString routine
* instead of putConstString routine above. However, the code will be a little
* bit bigger. User should choose between size and speed and pick the implementation
that
* suites him best. If you choose to go with the putConstString definition above
* the #define line below should be commented out.
*
*/
#define putConstString SPI_Ethernet_putConstString
/*
* put the string pointed to by s to the ENC transmit buffer
*/
/*unsigned int
putString(char *s)
{
unsigned int ctr = 0;
while(*s)
{
Spi_Ethernet_putByte(*s++);
ctr++;
}
return(ctr);
}*/
/*
* it will be much faster to use library Spi_Ethernet_putString routine
* instead of putString routine above. However, the code will be a little
* bit bigger. User should choose between size and speed and pick the implementation
that
* suites him best. If you choose to go with the putString definition above
* the #define line below should be commented out.
*
*/
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#define putString
SPI_Ethernet_putString
/*
* this function is called by the library
* the user accesses to the HTTP request by successive calls to Spi_Ethernet_getByte()
* the user puts data in the transmit buffer by successive calls to Spi_Ethernet_
putByte()
* the function must return the length in bytes of the HTTP reply, or 0 if nothing to
transmit
*
* if you don't need to reply to HTTP requests,
* just define this function with a return(0) as single statement
*
*/
unsigned int
SPI_Ethernet_UserTCP(unsigned char *remoteHost, unsigned int remotePort,
unsigned int localPort, unsigned int reqLength, TEthPktFlags *flags)
{
unsigned int
len;
// my reply length
// should we close tcp socket after response is sent?
// library closes tcp socket by default if canCloseTCP flag is not reset here
// flags->canCloseTCP = 0; // 0 - do not close socket
// otherwise - close socket
if(localPort != 80)
{
return(0);
}
// I listen only to web request on port 80
// get 10 first bytes only of the request, the rest does not matter here
for(len = 0; len < 10; len++)
{
getRequest[len] = SPI_Ethernet_getByte();
}
getRequest[len] = 0;
len = 0;
if(memcmp(getRequest, httpMethod, 5))
{
return(0);
}
httpCounter++;
// only GET method is supported here
// one more request done
if(getRequest[5] == ‘s’)
// if request path name starts with s, store
dynamic data in transmit buffer
{
// the text string replied by this request can be interpreted as javascript
statements
// by browsers
len = putConstString(httpHeader); // HTTP header
len += putConstString(httpMimeTypeScript);
// with text MIME type
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// add AN0 value to reply
WordToStr(ADC1_Get_Sample(0), dyna) ;
len += putConstString("var AN0=") ;
len += putString(dyna) ;
len += putConstString(";") ;
// add AN1 value to reply
WordToStr(ADC1_Get_Sample(1), dyna) ;
len += putConstString("var AN1=") ;
len += putString(dyna);
len += putConstString(";");
// add PORTB value (buttons) to reply
len += putConstString("var PORTB=");
WordToStr(PORTB, dyna);
len += putString(dyna);
len += putConstString(";");
// add PORTD value (LEDs) to reply
len += putConstString("var PORTD=");
WordToStr(PORTD, dyna);
len += putString(dyna);
len += putConstString(";");
// add HTTP requests counter to reply
WordToStr(httpCounter, dyna);
len += putConstString("var REQ=");
len += putString(dyna);
len += putConstString(";");
}
else if(getRequest[5] == 't')
starts with t, toggle PORTD (LED) bit number that comes after
{
unsigned char
bitMask = 0;
// if request path name
// for bit mask
if(isdigit(getRequest[6]))
// if 0 <= bit number <=
9, bits 8 & 9 does not exist but does not matter
{
bitMask = getRequest[6] - '0';
// convert ASCII to integer
bitMask = 1 << bitMask;
// create bit mask
PORTD ^= bitMask;
// toggle PORTD with xor operator
}
}
if(len == 0)
{
len =
len +=
len +=
len +=
}
// what do to by default
putConstString(httpHeader);
putConstString(httpMimeTypeHTML);
putConstString(indexPage);
putConstString(indexPage2);
return(len);
with the number of bytes to transmit
}
519
//
//
//
//
HTTP
with
HTML
HTML
header
HTML MIME type
page first part
page second part
// return to the library
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/*
* this function is called by the library
* the user accesses to the UDP request by successive calls to Spi_Ethernet_getByte()
* the user puts data in the transmit buffer by successive calls to Spi_Ethernet_
putByte()
* the function must return the length in bytes of the UDP reply, or 0 if nothing to
transmit
*
* if you don't need to reply to UDP requests,
* just define this function with a return(0) as single statement
*
*/
unsigned int
SPI_Ethernet_UserUDP(unsigned char *remoteHost, unsigned int remotePort,
unsigned int destPort, unsigned int reqLength, TEthPktFlags *flags)
{
unsigned int
len;
// my reply length
// reply is made of the remote host IP address in human readable format
ByteToStr(remoteHost[0], dyna);
// first IP address byte
dyna[3] = '.';
ByteToStr(remoteHost[1], dyna + 4);
// second
dyna[7] = '.';
ByteToStr(remoteHost[2], dyna + 8);
// third
dyna[11] = '.';
ByteToStr(remoteHost[3], dyna + 12);
// fourth
dyna[15] = ':';
// add separator
// then remote host port number
WordToStr(remotePort, dyna + 16);
dyna[21] = '[';
WordToStr(destPort, dyna + 22);
dyna[27] = ']';
dyna[28] = 0;
// the total length of the request is the length of the dynamic string plus the
text of the request
len = 28 + reqLength;
// puts the dynamic string into the transmit buffer
SPI_Ethernet_putBytes(dyna, 28);
buffer
// then puts the request string converted into upper char into the transmit
while(reqLength--)
{
SPI_Ethernet_putByte(toupper(SPI_Ethernet_getByte()));
}
return(len);
}
MikroElektronika
// back to the library with the length of the UDP reply
520
mikroC PRO for dsPIC
/*
* main entry
*/
void
main()
{
ADPCFG |= 0xFFFC;
//
PRI_4,
// all digital but rb0(AN0) and rb1(AN1)
PORTB = 0;
TRISB = 0xFFFF;
// set PORTB as input for buttons and adc
PORTD = 0;
TRISD = 0;
// set PORTD as output,
ADC1_Init();
// Enable ADC module
/*
* starts ENC28J60 with :
* reset bit on RC0
* CS bit on RC1
* my MAC & IP address
* full duplex
*/
SPI1_Init();
// init SPI communication with ethernet board
SPI1_Init_Advanced(_SPI_MASTER, _SPI_8_BIT, _SPI_PRESCALE_SEC_1, _SPI_PRESCALE_
_SPI_IDLE_2_ACTIVE);
_SPI_SS_DISABLE, _SPI_DATA_SAMPLE_MIDDLE, _SPI_CLK_IDLE_LOW,
SPI_Ethernet_Init(myMacAddr, myIpAddr, 1); // init ethernet board
// dhcp will not be used here, so use preconfigured addresses
SPI_Ethernet_confNetwork(ipMask, gwIpAddr, dnsIpAddr);
while(1)
// do forever
{
/*
* if necessary, test the return value to get error code
*/
SPI_Ethernet_doPacket();
// process incoming Ethernet packets
}
521
/*
* add your stuff here if needed
* Spi_Ethernet_doPacket() must be called as often as possible
* otherwise packets could be lost
*/
}
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HW Connection
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SPI Ethernet ENC24J600 Library
The ENC24J600 is a stand-alone Ethernet controller with an industry standard Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI). It is
designed to serve as an Ethernet network interface for any controller equipped with SPI.
The ENC24J600 meets all of the IEEE 802.3 specifications applicable to 10Base-T and 100Base-TX Ethernet. It
incorporates a number of packet filtering schemes to limit incoming packets. It also provides an internal, 16-bit wide
DMA module for fast data throughput and hardware assisted IP checksum calculations. Communication with the host
controller is implemented via two interrupt pins and the SPI, with data rates of 10/100 Mb/s. Two dedicated pins are
used for LED link and network activity indication.
This library is designed to simplify handling of the underlying hardware (ENC24J600). It works with any dsPIC30/33
and PIC24 with integrated SPI and more than 4 Kb ROM memory. 38 to 40 MHz clock is recommended to get from 8
to 10 Mhz SPI clock, otherwise dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 should be clocked by ENC24J600 clock output due to its silicon
bug in SPI hardware. If you try lower dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 clock speed, there might be board hang or miss some
requests.
SPI Ethernet ENC24J600 library supports:
- IPv4 protocol.
- ARP requests.
- ICMP echo requests.
- UDP requests.
- TCP requests (no stack, no packet reconstruction).
- ARP client with cache.
- DNS client.
- UDP client.
- DHCP client.
- packet fragmentation is NOT supported.
Important :
- Global library variable SPI_Ethernet_24j600_userTimerSec is used to keep track of time for all client
implementations (ARP, DNS, UDP and DHCP). It is user responsibility to increment this variable each second in it's
code if any of the clients is used.
- For advanced users there are header files ("__EthEnc24j600.h" and "__EthEnc24j600Private.h") in Uses
folder of the compiler with description of all routines and global variables, relevant to the user, implemented in the SPI
Ethernet ENC24J600 Library.
- The appropriate hardware SPI module must be initialized before using any of the SPI Ethernet ENC24J600 library
routines. Refer to SPI Library.
- For MCUs with multiple SPI modules it is possible to initialize them and then switch by using the SPI_Set_Active()
routine.
Library Dependency Tree
523
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External dependencies of SPI Ethernet ENC24J600 Library
The following variables must be
defined in all projects using SPI Description :
Ethernet ENC24J600 Library:
extern
sfr
sbit
Ethernet_24j600_CS;
SPI_
ENC24J600 chip select pin.
Example :
sbit SPI_Ethernet_24j600_CS
LATF1_bit;
at
extern
sfr
sbit
SPI_
SPI_Ethernet_24j600_CS_
Direction of the ENC24J600 sbit
Ethernet_24j600_CS_
Direction at TRISF1_bit;
chip select pin.
Direction;
The following routines must be
defined in all project using SPI Description :
Ethernet ENC24J600 Library:
unsigned
int
SPI_
E t h e r n e t _ 2 4 j 6 0 0 _
UserTCP(unsigned
char
*remoteHost, unsigned int
TCP request handler.
remotePort,
unsigned
int
localPort,
unsigned
int
reqLength, TEthj600PktFlags
*flags);
unsigned
int
SPI_
E t h e r n e t _ 2 4 j 6 0 0 _
UserUDP(unsigned
char
*remoteHost, unsigned int
UDP request handler.
remotePort,
unsigned
int
localPort,
unsigned
int
reqLength, TEthj600PktFlags
*flags);
MikroElektronika
Example :
Refer to the library example at the bottom of
this page for code implementation.
Refer to the library example at the bottom of
this page for code implementation.
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Library Routines
525
- SPI_Ethernet_24j600_Init
- SPI_Ethernet_24j600_Enable
- SPI_Ethernet_24j600_Disable
- SPI_Ethernet_24j600_doPacket
- SPI_Ethernet_24j600_putByte
- SPI_Ethernet_24j600_putBytes
- SPI_Ethernet_24j600_putString
- SPI_Ethernet_24j600_putConstString
- SPI_Ethernet_24j600_putConstBytes
- SPI_Ethernet_24j600_getByte
- SPI_Ethernet_24j600_getBytes
- SPI_Ethernet_24j600_UserTCP
- SPI_Ethernet_24j600_UserUDP
- SPI_Ethernet_24j600_getIpAddress
- SPI_Ethernet_24j600_getGwIpAddress
- SPI_Ethernet_24j600_getDnsIpAddress
- SPI_Ethernet_24j600_getIpMask
- SPI_Ethernet_24j600_confNetwork
- SPI_Ethernet_24j600_arpResolve
- SPI_Ethernet_24j600_sendUDP
- SPI_Ethernet_24j600_dnsResolve
- SPI_Ethernet_24j600_initDHCP
- SPI_Ethernet_24j600_doDHCPLeaseTime
- SPI_Ethernet_24j600_renewDHCP
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SPI_Ethernet_24j600_Init
Prototype
void SPI_Ethernet_24j600_Init(unsigned char *mac, unsigned char *ip, unsigned
char fullDuplex);
Description This is MAC module routine. It initializes ENC24J600 controller. This function is internaly splited into 2
parts to help linker when coming short of memory.
ENC24J600 controller settings (parameters not mentioned here are set to default):
- receive buffer start address : 0x0000.
- receive buffer end address : 0x19AD.
- transmit buffer start address: 0x19AE.
- transmit buffer end address : 0x1FFF.
- RAM buffer read/write pointers in auto-increment mode.
- receive filters set to default: CRC + MAC Unicast + MAC Broadcast in OR mode.
- flow control with TX and RX pause frames in full duplex mode.
- frames are padded to 60 bytes + CRC.
- maximum packet size is set to 1518.
- Back-to-Back Inter-Packet Gap: 0x15 in full duplex mode; 0x12 in half duplex mode.
- Non-Back-to-Back Inter-Packet Gap: 0x0012 in full duplex mode; 0x0C12 in half duplex mode.
- Collision window is set to 63 in half duplex mode to accomodate some ENC24J600 revisions silicon bugs.
- CLKOUT output is disabled to reduce EMI generation.
- half duplex loopback disabled.
- LED configuration: default (LEDA-link status, LEDB-link activity).
Parameters - mac: RAM buffer containing valid MAC address.
- ip: RAM buffer containing valid IP address.
- configuration: ethernet negotiation, duplex and speed mode settings. For this purpose, predefined
library constants (see the list below) can be combined using logical AND to form appropriate value :
Description :
Predefined library const
Set Auto-negotiation
SPI_Ethernet_24j600_AUTO_NEGOTIATION
SPI_Ethernet_24j600_MANUAL_NEGOTIATION
Set manual negotiation.
SPI_Ethernet_24j600_HALFDUPLEX
Set Half duplex Mode
Set Full duplex Mode
Set transmission speed of 10Mbps
Set
transmission
100Mbps
speed
of
SPI_Ethernet_24j600_FULLDUPLEX
SPI_Ethernet_24j600_SPD10
SPI_Ethernet_24j600_SPD100
Note :
- It is advisable to use only the Auto-negotiation setting. If manual negotiation is used, then duplex and
speed mode setting must be set also.
- Duplex and speed mode may be set only when using manual negotiation.
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Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Global variables :
- SPI_Ethernet_24j600_CS: Chip Select line
- SPI_Ethernet_24j600_CS_Direction: Direction of the Chip Select pin
must be defined before using this function.
The SPI module needs to be initialized. See the SPIx_Init and SPIx_Init_Advanced routines.
Example
#include
“__EthEnc24J600.h”
// mE ethernet NIC pinout
sfr sbit SPI_Ethernet_24j600_CS at RF1_bit;
sfr sbit SPI_Ethernet_24j600_CS_Direction at TRISF1_bit;
// end ethernet NIC definitions
unsigned char myMacAddr[6] = {0x00, 0x14, 0xA5, 0x76, 0x19, 0x3f}; // my MAC
address
unsigned char myIpAddr
= {192, 168,
1, 60 }; // my IP addr
Notes
527
SPI1_Init();
SPI_Ethernet_24j600_Init(myMacAddr, myIpAddr, SPI_Ethernet_24j600_MANUAL_
NEGOTIATION
&
SPI_Ethernet_24j600_FULLDUPLEX
&
SPI_Ethernet_24j600_
SPD100);
None.
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mikoC PRO for dsPIC
SPI_Ethernet_24j600_Enable
Prototype
void SPI_Ethernet_24j600_Enable(unsigned int enFlt);
Description This is MAC module routine. This routine enables appropriate network traffic on the ENC24J600
module by the means of it’s receive filters (unicast, multicast, broadcast, crc). Specific type of network
traffic will be enabled if a corresponding bit of this routine’s input parameter is set. Therefore, more
than one type of network traffic can be enabled at the same time. For this purpose, predefined library
constants (see the table below) can be ORed to form appropriate input value.
Advanced filtering available in the ENC24J600 module such as Pattern Match, Magic Packet and
Hash Table can not be enabled by this routine. Additionaly, all filters, except CRC, enabled with this
routine will work in OR mode, which means that packet will be received if any of the enabled filters
accepts it.
This routine will change receive filter configuration on-the-fly. It will not, in any way, mess with enabling/
disabling receive/transmit logic or any other part of the ENC24J600 module. The ENC24J600 module
should be properly cofigured by the means of SPI_Ethernet_24j600_Init routine.
Parameters - enFlt: network traffic/receive filter flags. Each bit corresponds to the appropriate network traffic/
receive filter:
Bit
Mask
Description
Predefined library const
0
0x01
MAC Broadcast traffic/receive filter flag. When set,
MAC broadcast traffic will be enabled.
1
0x02
MAC Multicast traffic/receive filter flag. When set,
MAC multicast traffic will be enabled.
_SPI_Ethernet_24j600_
BROADCAST
2
0x04
not used
3
0x08
not used
4
0x10
not used
none
5
0x20
CRC check flag. When set, packets with invalid
CRC field will be discarded.
6
0x40
not used
_SPI_Ethernet_24j600_
CRC
0x80
MAC Unicast traffic/receive filter flag. When set,
MAC unicast traffic will be enabled.
7
_SPI_Ethernet_24j600_
MULTICAST
none
none
none
_SPI_Ethernet_24j600_
UNICAST
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Ethernet module has to be initialized. See SPI_Ethernet_24j600_Init.
Example
SPI_Ethernet_24j600_Enable(_SPI_Ethernet_24j600_CRC | _SPI_Ethernet_24j600_
UNICAST); // enable CRC checking and Unicast traffic
Notes
Advanced filtering available in the ENC24J600 module such as Pattern Match, Magic Packet
and Hash Table can not be enabled by this routine. Additionaly, all filters, except CRC, enabled with
this routine will work in OR mode, which means that packet will be received if any of the enabled filters
accepts it.
This routine will change receive filter configuration on-the-fly. It will not, in any way, mess with enabling/
disabling receive/transmit logic or any other part of the ENC24J600 module. The ENC24J600 module
should be properly cofigured by the means of SPI_Ethernet_24j600_Init routine.
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SPI_Ethernet_24j600_Disable
Prototype
void SPI_Ethernet_24j600_Disable(unsigned int disFlt);
Description This is MAC module routine. This routine disables appropriate network traffic on the ENC24J600
module by the means of it’s receive filters (unicast, multicast, broadcast, crc). Specific type of network
traffic will be disabled if a corresponding bit of this routine’s input parameter is set. Therefore, more
than one type of network traffic can be disabled at the same time. For this purpose, predefined library
constants (see the table below) can be ORed to form appropriate input value.
Parameters - disFlt: network traffic/receive filter flags. Each bit corresponds to the appropriate network traffic/
receive filter:
Bit
Mask
Description
Predefined library const
0
0x01
MAC Broadcast traffic/receive filter flag. When set,
MAC broadcast traffic will be disabled.
1
0x02
MAC Multicast traffic/receive filter flag. When set,
MAC multicast traffic will be disabled.
_SPI_Ethernet_24j600_
BROADCAST
2
0x04
not used
3
0x08
not used
none
4
0x10
not used
none
5
0x20
CRC check flag. When set, CRC check will be
disabled and packets with invalid CRC field will be
accepted.
_SPI_Ethernet_24j600_
CRC
6
0x40
not used
none
MAC Unicast traffic/receive filter flag. When set,
MAC unicast traffic will be disabled.
_SPI_Ethernet_24j600_
UNICAST
7
0x80
_SPI_Ethernet_24j600_
MULTICAST
none
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Ethernet module has to be initialized. See SPI_Ethernet_24j600_Init.
Example
SPI_Ethernet_24j600_Disable(_SPI_Ethernet_24j600_CRC | _SPI_Ethernet_24j600_
UNICAST); // disable CRC checking and Unicast traffic
Notes
529
- Advanced filtering available in the ENC24J600 module such as Pattern Match, Magic Packet
and Hash Table can not be disabled by this routine.
- This routine will change receive filter configuration on-the-fly. It will not, in any way, mess with
enabling/disabling receive/transmit logic or any other part of the ENC24J600 module.
- The ENC24J600 module should be properly cofigured by the means of SPI_Ethernet_24j600_Init
routine.
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mikoC PRO for dsPIC
SPI_Ethernet_24j600_doPacket
Prototype
unsigned int SPI_Ethernet_24j600_doPacket();
Description This is MAC module routine. It processes next received packet if such exists. Packets are processed
in the following manner:
- ARP & ICMP requests are replied automatically.
- upon TCP request the SPI_Ethernet_24j600_UserTCP function is called for further processing.
- upon UDP request the SPI_Ethernet_24j600_UserUDP function is called for further processing.
Parameters None.
Returns
Requires
Example
Notes
- 0 - upon successful packet processing (zero packets received or received packet processed
successfully).
- 1 - upon reception error or receive buffer corruption. ENC24J600 controller needs to be restarted.
- 2 - received packet was not sent to us (not our IP, nor IP broadcast address).
- 3 - received IP packet was not IPv4.
- 4 - received packet was of type unknown to the library.
Ethernet module has to be initialized. See SPI_Ethernet_24j600_Init.
if (SPI_Ethernet_24j600_doPacket() == 0)(1) {
...
}
// process received packets
SPI_Ethernet_24j600_doPacket must be called as often as possible in user’s code.
SPI_Ethernet_24j600_putByte
Prototype
void SPI_Ethernet_24j600_putByte(unsigned char v);
Description This is MAC module routine. It stores one byte to address pointed by the current ENC24J600 write
pointer (EWRPT).
Parameters - v: value to store
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Ethernet module has to be initialized. See SPI_Ethernet_24j600_Init.
Example
Notes
char data_;
...
SPI_Ethernet_24j600_putByte(data); // put an byte into ENC24J600 buffer
None.
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mikroC PRO for dsPIC
SPI_Ethernet_24j600_putBytes
Prototype
void SPI_Ethernet_24j600_putBytes(unsigned char *ptr, unsigned int n);
Description This is MAC module routine. It stores requested number of bytes into ENC24J600 RAM starting from
current ENC24J600 write pointer (EWRPT) location.
Parameters - ptr: RAM buffer containing bytes to be written into ENC24J600 RAM.
- n: number of bytes to be written.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Ethernet module has to be initialized. See SPI_Ethernet_24j600_Init.
Example
Notes
char *buffer = “mikroElektronika”;
...
SPI_Ethernet_24j600_putBytes(buffer, 16); // put an RAM array into ENC24J600
buffer
None.
SPI_Ethernet_24j600_putConstBytes
Prototype
void SPI_Ethernet_24j600_putConstBytes(const unsigned char *ptr, unsigned
int n);
Description This is MAC module routine. It stores requested number of const bytes into ENC24J600 RAM starting
from current ENC24J600 write pointer (EWRPT) location.
Parameters - ptr: const buffer containing bytes to be written into ENC24J600 RAM.
- n: number of bytes to be written.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Ethernet module has to be initialized. See SPI_Ethernet_24j600_Init.
Example
Notes
531
const char *buffer = “mikroElektronika”;
...
SPI_Ethernet_24j600_putConstBytes(buffer, 16); // put a const array into
ENC24J600 buffer
None.
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SPI_Ethernet_24j600_putString
Prototype
unsigned int SPI_Ethernet_24j600_putString(unsigned char *ptr);
Description This is MAC module routine. It stores whole string (excluding null termination) into ENC24J600 RAM
starting from current ENC24J600 write pointer (EWRPT) location.
Parameters - ptr: string to be written into ENC24J600 RAM.
Returns
Number of bytes written into ENC24J600 RAM.
Requires
Ethernet module has to be initialized. See SPI_Ethernet_24j600_Init.
Example
Notes
char *buffer = “mikroElektronika”;
...
SPI_Ethernet_24j600_putString(buffer); // put a RAM string into ENC24J600
buffer
None.
SPI_Ethernet_24j600_putConstString
Prototype
unsigned int SPI_Ethernet_24j600_putConstString(const unsigned char *ptr);
Description This is MAC module routine. It stores whole const string (excluding null termination) into ENC24J600
RAM starting from current ENC24J600 write pointer (EWRPT) location.
Parameters - ptr: const string to be written into ENC24J600 RAM.
Returns
Requires
Example
Notes
Number of bytes written into ENC24J600 RAM.
Ethernet module has to be initialized. See SPI_Ethernet_24j600_Init.
const char *buffer = “mikroElektronika”;
...
SPI_Ethernet_24j600_putConstString(buffer);
ENC24J600 buffer
//
put
a
const
string
into
None.
SPI_Ethernet_24j600_getByte
Prototype
unsigned char SPI_Ethernet_24j600_getByte();
Description This is MAC module routine. It fetches a byte from address pointed to by current ENC24J600 read
pointer (ERDPT).
Parameters None.
Returns
Requires
Example
Notes
Byte read from ENC24J600 RAM.
Ethernet module has to be initialized. See SPI_Ethernet_24j600_Init.
char buffer;
...
buffer = SPI_Ethernet_24j600_getByte(); // read a byte from ENC24J600
buffer
None.
MikroElektronika
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SPI_Ethernet_24j600_getBytes
Prototype
void SPI_Ethernet_24j600_getBytes(unsigned char *ptr, unsigned int addr,
unsigned int n);
Description This is MAC module routine. It fetches equested number of bytes from ENC24J600 RAM starting from
given address. If value of 0xFFFF is passed as the address parameter, the reading will start from
current ENC24J600 read pointer (ERDPT) location.
Parameters - ptr: buffer for storing bytes read from ENC24J600 RAM.
- addr: ENC24J600 RAM start address. Valid values: 0..8192.
- n: number of bytes to be read.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Ethernet module has to be initialized. See SPI_Ethernet_24j600_Init.
Example
Notes
char buffer[16];
...
SPI_Ethernet_24j600_getBytes(buffer, 0x100, 16); // read 16 bytes, starting
from address 0x100
None.
SPI_Ethernet_24j600_UserTCP
Prototype
unsigned
int
SPI_Ethernet_24j600_UserTCP(unsigned
char
*remoteHost,
unsigned int remotePort, unsigned int localPort, unsigned int reqLength,
TEthj600PktFlags *flags);
Description This is TCP module routine. It is internally called by the library. The user accesses to the TCP request
by using some of the SPI_Ethernet_24j600_get routines. The user puts data in the transmit buffer by
using some of the SPI_Ethernet_24j600_put routines. The function must return the length in bytes of
the TCP reply, or 0 if there is nothing to transmit. If there is no need to reply to the TCP requests, just
define this function with return(0) as a single statement.
Parameters - remoteHost: client’s IP address.
- remotePort: client’s TCP port.
- localPort: port to which the request is sent.
- reqLength: TCP request data field length.
- flags: structure consisted of two bit fields :
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Returns
typedef struct {
unsigned canCloseTCP: 1; // flag which closes socket
unsigned isBroadcast: 1; // flag which denotes that the IP package has
been received via subnet broadcast address
} TEthj600PktFlags;
- 0 - there should not be a reply to the request.
- Length of TCP reply data field - otherwise.
Requires
Ethernet module has to be initialized. See SPI_Ethernet_24j600_Init.
Example
This function is internally called by the library and should not be called by the user’s code.
Notes
The function source code is provided with appropriate example projects. The code should be adjusted
by the user to achieve desired reply.
533
MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
SPI_Ethernet_24j600_UserUDP
Prototype
unsigned
int
SPI_Ethernet_24j600_UserUDP(unsigned
char
*remoteHost,
unsigned int remotePort, unsigned int destPort, unsigned int reqLength,
TEthj600PktFlags *flags);
Description This is UDP module routine. It is internally called by the library. The user accesses to the UDP request
by using some of the SPI_Ethernet_24j600_get routines. The user puts data in the transmit buffer by
using some of the SPI_Ethernet_24j600_put routines. The function must return the length in bytes of
the UDP reply, or 0 if nothing to transmit. If you don’t need to reply to the UDP requests, just define this
function with a return(0) as single statement.
Parameters - remoteHost: client’s IP address.
- remotePort: client’s port.
- localPort: port to which the request is sent.
- reqLength: UDP request data field length.
- flags: structure consisted of two bit fields :
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Returns
typedef struct {
unsigned canCloseTCP: 1; // flag which closes TCP socket (not relevant
to UDP)
unsigned isBroadcast: 1; // flag which denotes that the IP package has
been received via subnet broadcast address
} TEthj600PktFlags;
- 0 - there should not be a reply to the request.
- Length of UDP reply data field - otherwise.
Requires
Ethernet module has to be initialized. See SPI_Ethernet_24j600_Init.
Example
This function is internally called by the library and should not be called by the user’s code.
Notes
The function source code is provided with appropriate example projects. The code should be adjusted
by the user to achieve desired reply.
SPI_Ethernet_24j600_getIpAddress
Prototype
unsigned char * SPI_Ethernet_24j600_getIpAddress();
Description This routine should be used when DHCP server is present on the network to fetch assigned IP
address.
Parameters None.
Returns
Pointer to the global variable holding IP address.
Requires
Ethernet module has to be initialized. See SPI_Ethernet_24j600_Init.
Example
Notes
unsigned char ipAddr[4]; // user IP address buffer
...
memcpy(ipAddr, SPI_Ethernet_24j600_getIpAddress(), 4); // fetch IP address
User should always copy the IP address from the RAM location returned by this routine into it’s own IP
address buffer. These locations should not be altered by the user in any case!
MikroElektronika
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mikroC PRO for dsPIC
SPI_Ethernet_24j600_getGwIpAddress
Prototype
unsigned char * SPI_Ethernet_24j600_getGwIpAddress();
Description This routine should be used when DHCP server is present on the network to fetch assigned gateway
IP address.
Parameters None.
Returns
Pointer to the global variable holding gateway IP address.
Requires
Ethernet module has to be initialized. See SPI_Ethernet_24j600_Init.
Example
Notes
unsigned char gwIpAddr[4]; // user gateway IP address buffer
...
memcpy(gwIpAddr, SPI_Ethernet_24j600_getGwIpAddress(), 4); // fetch gateway
IP address
User should always copy the IP address from the RAM location returned by this routine into it’s own
gateway IP address buffer. These locations should not be altered by the user in any case!
SPI_Ethernet_24j600_getDnsIpAddress
Prototype
unsigned char * SPI_Ethernet_24j600_getDnsIpAddress();
Description This routine should be used when DHCP server is present on the network to fetch assigned DNS IP
address.
Parameters None.
Returns
Pointer to the global variable holding DNS IP address.
Requires
Ethernet module has to be initialized. See SPI_Ethernet_24j600_Init.
Example
Notes
535
unsigned char dnsIpAddr[4]; // user DNS IP address buffer
...
memcpy(dnsIpAddr, SPI_Ethernet_24j600_getDnsIpAddress(), 4); // fetch DNS
server address
User should always copy the IP address from the RAM location returned by this routine into it’s own
DNS IP address buffer. These locations should not be altered by the user in any case!
MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
SPI_Ethernet_24j600_getIpMask
Prototype
unsigned char * SPI_Ethernet_24j600_getDnsIpAddress();
Description This routine should be used when DHCP server is present on the network to fetch assigned DNS IP
address.
Parameters None.
Returns
Pointer to the global variable holding DNS IP address.
Requires
Ethernet module has to be initialized. See SPI_Ethernet_24j600_Init.
Example
Notes
unsigned char dnsIpAddr[4]; // user DNS IP address buffer
...
memcpy(dnsIpAddr, SPI_Ethernet_24j600_getDnsIpAddress(), 4); // fetch DNS
server address
User should always copy the IP address from the RAM location returned by this routine into it’s own
DNS IP address buffer. These locations should not be altered by the user in any case!
SPI_Ethernet_24j600_confNetwork
Prototype
void SPI_Ethernet_24j600_confNetwork(char *ipMask, char *gwIpAddr, char
*dnsIpAddr);
Description Configures network parameters (IP subnet mask, gateway IP address, DNS IP address) when DHCP
is not used.
Parameters - ipMask: IP subnet mask.
- gwIpAddr gateway IP address.
- dnsIpAddr: DNS IP address.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Ethernet module has to be initialized. See SPI_Ethernet_24j600_Init.
Example
Notes
char ipMask[4]
= {255, 255, 255, 0 }; // network mask (for example :
255.255.255.0)
char gwIpAddr[4] = {192, 168,
1, 1 }; // gateway (router) IP address
char dnsIpAddr[4] = {192, 168,
1, 1 }; // DNS server IP address
...
SPI_Ethernet_24j600_confNetwork(ipMask, gwIpAddr, dnsIpAddr); // set network
configuration parameters
The above mentioned network parameters should be set by this routine only if DHCP module is not
used. Otherwise DHCP will override these settings.
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SPI_Ethernet_24j600_arpResolve
Prototype
unsigned char *SPI_Ethernet_24j600_arpResolve(unsigned char *ip, unsigned
char tmax);
Description This is ARP module routine. It sends an ARP request for given IP address and waits for ARP reply. If
the requested IP address was resolved, an ARP cash entry is used for storing the configuration. ARP
cash can store up to 3 entries. For ARP cash structure refer to “__EthEnc24j600.h” header file in
the compiler’s Uses folder.
Parameters - ip: IP address to be resolved.
- tmax: time in seconds to wait for an reply.
Returns
Requires
Example
Notes
- MAC address behind the IP address - the requested IP address was resolved.
- 0 - otherwise.
Ethernet module has to be initialized. See SPI_Ethernet_24j600_Init.
unsigned char IpAddr[4] = {192, 168,
1, 1 }; // IP address
...
SPI_Ethernet_24j600_arpResolve(IpAddr, 5); // get MAC address behind the
above IP address, wait 5 secs for the response
The Ethernet services are not stopped while this routine waits for ARP reply. The incoming packets will
be processed normaly during this time.
SPI_Ethernet_24j600_sendUDP
Prototype
unsigned int SPI_Ethernet_24j600_sendUDP(unsigned char *destIP, unsigned
int sourcePort, unsigned int destPort, unsigned char *pkt, unsigned int
pktLen);
Description This is UDP module routine. It sends an UDP packet on the network.
Parameters - destIP: remote host IP address.
- sourcePort: local UDP source port number.
- destPort: destination UDP port number.
- pkt: packet to transmit.
- pktLen: length in bytes of packet to transmit.
Returns
Requires
Example
Notes
537
- 1 - UDP packet was sent successfully.
- 0 - otherwise.
Ethernet module has to be initialized. See SPI_Ethernet_24j600_Init.
unsigned char IpAddr[4] = {192, 168,
1, 1 }; // remote IP address
...
SPI_Ethernet_24j600_sendUDP(IpAddr, 10001, 10001, “Hello”, 5); // send Hello
message to the above IP address, from UDP port 10001 to UDP port 10001
None.
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mikoC PRO for dsPIC
SPI_Ethernet_24j600_dnsResolve
Prototype
unsigned char * SPI_Ethernet_24j600_dnsResolve(unsigned char *host, unsigned
char tmax);
Description This is DNS module routine. It sends an DNS request for given host name and waits for DNS reply. If
the requested host name was resolved, it’s IP address is stored in library global variable and a pointer
containing this address is returned by the routine. UDP port 53 is used as DNS port.
Parameters - host: host name to be resolved.
- tmax: time in seconds to wait for an reply.
Returns
Requires
Example
Notes
- pointer to the location holding the IP address - the requested host name was resolved.
- 0 - otherwise.
Ethernet module has to be initialized. See SPI_Ethernet_24j600_Init.
unsigned char * remoteHostIpAddr[4];
// user host IP address buffer
...
// SNTP server:
// Zurich, Switzerland: Integrated Systems Lab, Swiss Fed. Inst. of
Technology
// 129.132.2.21: swisstime.ethz.ch
// Service Area: Switzerland and Europe
memcpy(remoteHostIpAddr,
SPI_Ethernet_24j600_dnsResolve(“swisstime.ethz.
ch”, 5), 4);
The Ethernet services are not stopped while this routine waits for DNS reply. The incoming packets will
be processed normaly during this time.
User should always copy the IP address from the RAM location returned by this routine into it’s own
resolved host IP address buffer. These locations should not be altered by the user in any case!
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SPI_Ethernet_24j600_initDHCP
Prototype
unsigned int SPI_Ethernet_24j600_initDHCP(unsigned char tmax);
Description This is DHCP module routine. It sends an DHCP request for network parameters (IP, gateway, DNS
addresses and IP subnet mask) and waits for DHCP reply. If the requested parameters were obtained
successfully, their values are stored into the library global variables.
These parameters can be fetched by using appropriate library IP get routines:
- SPI_Ethernet_24j600_getIpAddress - fetch IP address.
- SPI_Ethernet_24j600_getGwIpAddress - fetch gateway IP address.
- SPI_Ethernet_24j600_getDnsIpAddress - fetch DNS IP address.
- SPI_Ethernet_24j600_getIpMask - fetch IP subnet mask.
UDP port 68 is used as DHCP client port and UDP port 67 is used as DHCP server port.
Parameters - tmax: time in seconds to wait for an reply.
Returns
Requires
Example
Notes
- 1 - network parameters were obtained successfully.
- 0 - otherwise.
Ethernet module has to be initialized. See SPI_Ethernet_24j600_Init.
...
SPI_Ethernet_24j600_initDHCP(5); //
server, wait 5 sec for the response
...
get
network
configuration
from
DHCP
The Ethernet services are not stopped while this routine waits for DNS reply. The incoming packets will
be processed normaly during this time.
When DHCP module is used, global library variable SPI_Ethernet_24j600_userTimerSec is
used to keep track of time. It is user responsibility to increment this variable each second in it’s code.
539
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mikoC PRO for dsPIC
SPI_Ethernet_24j600_doDHCPLeaseTime
Prototype
unsigned int SPI_Ethernet_24j600_doDHCPLeaseTime();
Description This is DHCP module routine. It takes care of IP address lease time by decrementing the global lease
time library counter. When this time expires, it’s time to contact DHCP server and renew the lease.
Parameters None.
Returns
Requires
Example
Notes
- 0 - lease time has not expired yet.
- 1 - lease time has expired, it’s time to renew it.
Ethernet module has to be initialized. See SPI_Ethernet_24j600_Init.
while(1) {
...
if (SPI_Ethernet_24j600_doDHCPLeaseTime())
... // it’s time to renew the IP address lease
}
None.
SPI_Ethernet_24j600_renewDHCP
Prototype
unsigned int SPI_Ethernet_24j600_renewDHCP(unsigned char tmax);
Description This is DHCP module routine. It sends IP address lease time renewal request to DHCP server.
Parameters - tmax: time in seconds to wait for an reply.
Returns
Requires
Example
Notes
- 1 - upon success (lease time was renewed).
- 0 - otherwise (renewal request timed out).
Ethernet module has to be initialized. See SPI_Ethernet_24j600_Init.
while(1) {
...
if (SPI_Ethernet_24j600_doDHCPLeaseTime())
SPI_Ethernet_24j600_renewDHCP(5);
// it’s time to renew the IP address
lease, with 5 secs for a reply
...
}
None.
Library Example
This code shows how to use the Ethernet mini library :
-the board will reply to ARP & ICMP echo requests
-the board will reply to UDP requests on any port :
- returns the request in upper char with a header made of remote host IP & port number
-the board will reply to HTTP requests on port 80, GET method with pathnames :
- / will return the HTML main page
- /s will return board status as text string
- /t0 ... /t7 will toggle RD0 to RD7 bit and return HTML main page
- all other requests return also HTML main page.
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MikroElektronika
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SPI Graphic Lcd Library
mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 provides a library for operating Graphic Lcd 128x64 (with commonly used
Samsung KS108/KS107 controller) via SPI interface.
For creating a custom set of Glcd images use Glcd Bitmap Editor Tool.
Important :
- When using this library with dsPIC33 and PIC24 family MCUs be aware of their voltage incompatibility with certain
number of Samsung KS0108 based Glcd modules.
So, additional external power supply for these modules may be required.
- Library uses the SPI module for communication. The user must initialize the appropriate SPI module before using the
SPI Glcd Library.
- For MCUs with multiple SPI modules it is possible to initialize all of them and then switch by using the SPI_Set_Active()
routine. See the SPI Library functions.
- This Library is designed to work with the mikroElektronika's Serial Lcd/Glcd Adapter Board pinout, see schematic at
the bottom of this page for details.
Library Dependency Tree
External dependencies of SPI Lcd Library
The implementation of SPI Lcd Library routines is based on Port Expander Library routines.
External dependencies are the same as Port Expander Library external dependencies.
Library Routines
Basic routines:
- SPI_Glcd_Init
- SPI_Glcd_Set_Side
- SPI_Glcd_Set_Page
- SPI_Glcd_Set_X
- SPI_Glcd_Read_Data
- SPI_Glcd_Write_Data
Advanced routines:
541
- SPI_Glcd_Fill
- SPI_Glcd_Dot
- SPI_Glcd_Line
- SPI_Glcd_V_Line
- SPI_Glcd_H_Line
MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
- SPI_Glcd_Rectangle
- SPI_Glcd_Rectangle_Round_Edges
- SPI_Glcd_Rectangle_Round_Edges_Fill
- SPI_Glcd_Box
- SPI_Glcd_Circle
- SPI_Glcd_Circle_Fill
- SPI_Glcd_Set_Font
- SPI_Glcd_Write_Char
- SPI_Glcd_Write_Text
- SPI_Glcd_Image
- SPI_Glcd_PartialImage
SPI_Glcd_Init
Prototype
void SPI_Glcd_Init(char DeviceAddress);
Description Initializes the Glcd module via SPI interface.
Parameters - DeviceAddress: SPI expander hardware address, see schematic at the bottom of this page
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Global variables :
- SPExpanderCS: Chip Select line
- SPExpanderRST: Reset line
- SPExpanderCS_Direction: Direction of the Chip Select pin
- SPExpanderRST_Direction: Direction of the Reset pin
must be defined before using this function.
The SPI module needs to be initialized. See SPIx_Init and SPIx_Init_Advanced routines.
Example
// Port Expander module connections
sbit SPExpanderRST at LATF0_bit;
sbit SPExpanderCS at LATF1_bit;
sbit SPExpanderRST_Direction at TRISF0_bit;
sbit SPExpanderCS_Direction at TRISF1_bit;
// End Port Expander module connections
...
Notes
// If Port Expander Library uses SPI module :
SPI1_Init(); // Initialize SPI module used with PortExpander
SPI_Glcd_Init(0);
None.
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mikroC PRO for dsPIC
SPI_Glcd_Set_Side
Prototype
void SPI_Glcd_Set_Side(char x_pos);
Description Selects Glcd side. Refer to the Glcd datasheet for detail explanation.
Parameters - x_pos: position on x-axis. Valid values: 0..127
The parameter x_pos specifies the Glcd side: values from 0 to 63 specify the left side, values from 64
to 127 specify the right side.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Glcd needs to be initialized for SPI communication, see SPI_Glcd_Init routine.
Example
The following two lines are equivalent, and both of them select the left side of Glcd:
Notes
SPI_Glcd_Set_Side(0);
SPI_Glcd_Set_Side(10);
For side, x axis and page layout explanation see schematic at the bottom of this page.
SPI_Glcd_Set_Page
Prototype
void SPI_Glcd_Set_Page(char page);
Description Selects page of Glcd.
Returns
Requires
- page: page number. Valid values: 0..7
Glcd needs to be initialized for SPI communication, see SPI_Glcd_Init routine.
Example
SPI_Glcd_Set_Page(5);
Notes
For side, x axis and page layout explanation see schematic at the bottom of this page.
SPI_Glcd_Set_X
Prototype
void SPI_Glcd_Set_X(char x_pos);
Description Sets x-axis position to x_pos dots from the left border of Glcd within the selected side.
Parameters - x_pos: position on x-axis. Valid values: 0..63
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Glcd needs to be initialized for SPI communication, see SPI_Glcd_Init routine.
Example
SPI_Glcd_Set_X(25);
Notes
For side, x axis and page layout explanation see schematic at the bottom of this page.
543
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mikoC PRO for dsPIC
SPI_Glcd_Read_Data
Prototype
char SPI_Glcd_Read_Data();
Description Reads data from the current location of Glcd memory and moves to the next location.
Returns
One byte from Glcd memory.
Requires
Glcd needs to be initialized for SPI communication, see SPI_Glcd_Init routine.
Glcd side, x-axis position and page should be set first. See the functions SPI_Glcd_Set_Side, SPI_
Glcd_Set_X, and SPI_Glcd_Set_Page.
Parameters None.
Example
Notes
char data_;
...
data_ = SPI_Glcd_Read_Data();
None.
SPI_Glcd_Write_Data
Prototype
void SPI_Glcd_Write_Data(char data_);
Description Writes one byte to the current location in Glcd memory and moves to the next location.
Parameters - data_: data to be written
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Glcd needs to be initialized for SPI communication, see SPI_Glcd_Init routine.
Glcd side, x-axis position and page should be set first. See the functions SPI_Glcd_Set_Side, SPI_
Glcd_Set_X, and SPI_Glcd_Set_Page.
Example
Notes
char data_;
...
SPI_Glcd_Write_Data(data_);
None.
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544
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SPI_Glcd_Fill
Prototype
void SPI_Glcd_Write_Data(char data_);
Description Writes one byte to the current location in Glcd memory and moves to the next location.
Parameters - data_: data to be written
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Glcd needs to be initialized for SPI communication, see SPI_Glcd_Init routine.
Glcd side, x-axis position and page should be set first. See the functions SPI_Glcd_Set_Side, SPI_
Glcd_Set_X, and SPI_Glcd_Set_Page.
Example
Notes
char data_;
...
SPI_Glcd_Write_Data(data_);
None.
SPI_Glcd_Dot
Prototype
void SPI_Glcd_Dot(char x_pos, char y_pos, char color);
Description Draws a dot on Glcd at coordinates (x_pos, y_pos).
Parameters - x_pos: x position. Valid values: 0..127
- y_pos: y position. Valid values: 0..63
- color: color parameter. Valid values: 0..2
The parameter color determines the dot state: 0 clears dot, 1 puts a dot, and 2 inverts dot state.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Glcd needs to be initialized for SPI communication, see SPI_Glcd_Init routine.
Example
// Invert the dot in the upper left corner
SPI_Glcd_Dot(0, 0, 2);
Notes
545
For x and y axis layout explanation see schematic at the bottom of this page..
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SPI_Glcd_Line
Prototype
void SPI_Glcd_Line(int x_start, int y_start, int x_end, int y_end, char
color);
Description Draws a line on Glcd.
Parameters :
Parameters - x_start: x coordinate of the line start. Valid values: 0..127
- y_start: y coordinate of the line start. Valid values: 0..63
- x_end: x coordinate of the line end. Valid values: 0..127
- y_end: y coordinate of the line end. Valid values: 0..63
- color: color parameter. Valid values: 0..2
Parameter color determines the line color: 0 white, 1 black, and 2 inverts each dot.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Glcd needs to be initialized for SPI communication, see SPI_Glcd_Init routine.
Example
// Draw a line between dots (0,0) and (20,30)
SPI_Glcd_Line(0, 0, 20, 30, 1);
Notes
For x and y axis layout explanation see schematic at the bottom of this page..
SPI_Glcd_V_Line
Prototype
void SPI_Glcd_V_Line(char y_start, char y_end, char x_pos, char color);
Description Draws a vertical line on Glcd.
Parameters - y_start: y coordinate of the line start. Valid values: 0..63
- y_end: y coordinate of the line end. Valid values: 0..63
- x_pos: x coordinate of vertical line. Valid values: 0..127
- color: color parameter. Valid values: 0..2
Returns
Parameter color determines the line color: 0 white, 1 black, and 2 inverts each dot.
Nothing.
Requires
Glcd needs to be initialized for SPI communication, see SPI_Glcd_Init routine.
Example
// Draw a vertical line between dots (10,5) and (10,25)
SPI_Glcd_V_Line(5, 25, 10, 1);
Notes
None.
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SPI_Glcd_H_Line
Prototype
void SPI_Glcd_H_Line(char x_start, char x_end, char y_pos, char color);
Description Draws a horizontal line on Glcd.
Parameters - x_start: x coordinate of the line start. Valid values: 0..127
- x_end: x coordinate of the line end. Valid values: 0..127
- y_pos: y coordinate of horizontal line. Valid values: 0..63
- color: color parameter. Valid values: 0..2
Returns
The parameter color determines the line color: 0 white, 1 black, and 2 inverts each dot.
Nothing.
Requires
Glcd needs to be initialized for SPI communication, see SPI_Glcd_Init routine.
Example
// Draw a horizontal line between dots (10,20) and (50,20)
SPI_Glcd_H_Line(10, 50, 20, 1);
Notes
None.
SPI_Glcd_Rectangle
Prototype
void SPI_Glcd_Rectangle(char x_upper_left, char y_upper_left, char x_bottom_
right, char y_bottom_right, char color);
Description Draws a rectangle on Glcd.
Parameters - x_upper_left: x coordinate of the upper left rectangle corner. Valid values: 0..127
- y_upper_left: y coordinate of the upper left rectangle corner. Valid values: 0..63
- x_bottom_right: x coordinate of the lower right rectangle corner. Valid values: 0..127
- y_bottom_right: y coordinate of the lower right rectangle corner. Valid values: 0..63
- color: color parameter. Valid values: 0..2
The parameter color determines the color of the rectangle border: 0 white, 1 black, and 2 inverts
each dot.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Glcd needs to be initialized for SPI communication, see SPI_Glcd_Init routine.
Example
// Draw a rectangle between dots (5,5) and (40,40)
SPI_Glcd_Rectangle(5, 5, 40, 40, 1);
Notes
547
None.
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SPI_Glcd_Rectangle_Round_Edges
Prototype
void SPI_Glcd_Rectangle_Round_Edges(unsigned short x_upper_left, unsigned
short y_upper_left, unsigned short x_bottom_right, unsigned short y_bottom_
right, unsigned short round_radius, unsigned short color);
Description Draws a rounded edge rectangle on Glcd.
Parameters - x_upper_left: x coordinate of the upper left rectangle corner. Valid values: 0..127
- y_upper_left: y coordinate of the upper left rectangle corner. Valid values: 0..63
- x_bottom_right: x coordinate of the lower right rectangle corner. Valid values: 0..127
- y_bottom_right: y coordinate of the lower right rectangle corner. Valid values: 0..63
- round_radius: radius of the rounded edge.
- color: color parameter. Valid values: 0..2
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Glcd needs to be initialized, see SPI_Glcd_Init routine.
Example
// Draw a rounded edge rectangle between dots (5,5) and (40,40) with the
radius of 12
SPI_Glcd_Rectangle_Round_Edges(5, 5, 40, 40, 12, 1);
Notes
None.
SPI_Glcd_Rectangle_Round_Edges_Fill
Prototype
void
SPI_Glcd_Rectangle_Round_Edges_Fill(unsigned
short
x_upper_left,
unsigned short y_upper_left, unsigned short x_bottom_right, unsigned short
y_bottom_right, unsigned short round_radius, unsigned short color);
Description Draws a filled rounded edge rectangle on Glcd with color.
Parameters - x_upper_left: x coordinate of the upper left rectangle corner. Valid values: 0..127
- y_upper_left: y coordinate of the upper left rectangle corner. Valid values: 0..63
- x_bottom_right: x coordinate of the lower right rectangle corner. Valid values: 0..127
- y_bottom_right: y coordinate of the lower right rectangle corner. Valid values: 0..63
- round_radius: radius of the rounded edge
- color: color parameter. Valid values: 0..2
The parameter color determines the color of the rectangle border: 0 white, 1 black, and 2 inverts each
dot.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Glcd needs to be initialized, see SPI_Glcd_Init routine.
Example
// Draws a filled rounded edge rectangle between dots (5,5) and (40,40) with
the radius of 12
SPI_Glcd_Rectangle_Round_Edges_Fill(5, 5, 40, 40, 12, 1);
Notes
None.
MikroElektronika
548
mikroC PRO for dsPIC
SPI_Glcd_Box
Prototype
void SPI_Glcd_Box(char x_upper_left, char y_upper_left, char x_bottom_right,
char y_bottom_right, char color);
Description Draws a box on Glcd.
Parameters - x_upper_left: x coordinate of the upper left box corner. Valid values: 0..127
- y_upper_left: y coordinate of the upper left box corner. Valid values: 0..63
- x_bottom_right: x coordinate of the lower right box corner. Valid values: 0..127
- y_bottom_right: y coordinate of the lower right box corner. Valid values: 0..63
- color: color parameter. Valid values: 0..2
The parameter color determines the color of the box fill: 0 white, 1 black, and 2 inverts each dot.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Glcd needs to be initialized for SPI communication, see SPI_Glcd_Init routine.
Example
// Draw a box between dots (5,15) and (20,40)
SPI_Glcd_Box(5, 15, 20, 40, 1);
Notes
None.
SPI_Glcd_Circle
Prototype
void SPI_Glcd_Circle(int x_center, int y_center, int radius, char color);
Description Draws a circle on Glcd.
Parameters - x_center: x coordinate of the circle center. Valid values: 0..127
- y_center: y coordinate of the circle center. Valid values: 0..63
- radius: radius size
- color: color parameter. Valid values: 0..2
The parameter color determines the color of the circle line: 0 white, 1 black, and 2 inverts each dot.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Glcd needs to be initialized for SPI communication, see SPI_Glcd_Init routine.
Example
// Draw a circle with center in (50,50) and radius=10
SPI_Glcd_Circle(50, 50, 10, 1);
Notes
549
None.
MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
SPI_Glcd_Circle_FIll
Prototype
void SPI_Glcd_Circle_Fill(int x_center, int y_center, int radius, char
color);
Description Draws a filled circle on Glcd.
Parameters - x_center: x coordinate of the circle center. Valid values: 0..127
- y_center: y coordinate of the circle center. Valid values: 0..63
- radius: radius size
- color: color parameter. Valid values: 0..2
The parameter color determines the color of the circle : 0 white, 1 black, and 2 inverts each dot.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Glcd needs to be initialized for SPI communication, see SPI_Glcd_Init routine.
Example
// Draw a circle with center in (50,50) and radius=10
SPI_Glcd_Circle_Fill(50, 50, 10, 1);
Notes
None.
MikroElektronika
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mikroC PRO for dsPIC
SPI_Glcd_Set_Font
Prototype
void SPI_Glcd_Set_Font(const code char *activeFont, char aFontWidth, char
aFontHeight, unsigned int aFontOffs);
Description Sets font that will be used with SPI_Glcd_Write_Char and SPI_Glcd_Write_Text routines.
Parameters None.
Returns
- activeFont: font to be set. Needs to be formatted as an array of char
- aFontWidth: width of the font characters in dots.
- aFontHeight: height of the font characters in dots.
- aFontOffs: number that represents difference between the mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24
character set and regular ASCII set (eg. if ‘A’ is 65 in ASCII character, and ‘A’ is 45 in the mikroC PRO
for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 character set, aFontOffs is 20). Demo fonts supplied with the library have
an offset of 32, which means that they start with space.
The user can use fonts given in the file __Lib_GLCDFonts file located in the Uses folder or create
his own fonts.
List of supported fonts:
- Font_Glcd_System3x5
- Font_Glcd_System5x7
- Font_Glcd_5x7
- Font_Glcd_Character8x7
For the sake of the backward compatibility, these fonts are supported also:
Requires
Example
Notes
551
- System3x5 (equivalent to Font_Glcd_System3x5)
- FontSystem5x7_v2 (equivalent to Font_Glcd_System5x7)
- font5x7 (equivalent to Font_Glcd_5x7)
- Character8x7 (equivalent to Font_Glcd_Character8x7)
Glcd needs to be initialized for SPI communication, see SPI_Glcd_Init routine.
// Use the custom 5x7 font “myfont” which starts with space (32):
SPI_Glcd_Set_Font(myfont, 5, 7, 32);
None.
MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
SPI_Glcd_Write_Char
Prototype
void SPI_Glcd_Write_Char(char
color);
chr1,
char
x_pos,
char
page_num,
char
Description Prints character on Glcd.
Parameters - chr1: character to be written
- x_pos: character starting position on x-axis. Valid values: 0..(127-FontWidth)
- page_num: the number of the page on which character will be written. Valid values: 0..7
- color: color parameter. Valid values: 0..2
The parameter color determines the color of the character: 0 white, 1 black, and 2 inverts each dot.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Glcd needs to be initialized for SPI communication, see SPI_Glcd_Init routine.
Use the SPI_Glcd_Set_Font to specify the font for display; if no font is specified, then the default
Font_Glcd_System5x7 font supplied with the library will be used.
Example
Notes
// Write character ‘C’ on the position 10 inside the page 2:
SPI_Glcd_Write_Char(‘C’, 10, 2, 1);
For x axis and page layout explanation see schematic at the bottom of this page.
SPI_Glcd_Write_Text
Prototype
void SPI_Glcd_Write_Text(char
color);
text[],
char
x_pos,
char
page_num,
char
Description Prints text on Glcd.
Parameters - text: text to be written
- x_pos: text starting position on x-axis.
- page_num: the number of the page on which text will be written. Valid values: 0..7
- color: color parameter. Valid values: 0..2
The parameter color determines the color of the text: 0 white, 1 black, and 2 inverts each dot.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Glcd needs to be initialized for SPI communication, see SPI_Glcd_Init routine.
Example
Notes
Use the SPI_Glcd_Set_Font to specify the font for display; if no font is specified, then the default
Font_Glcd_System5x7 font supplied with the library will be used.
// Write text “Hello world!” on the position 10 inside the page 2:
SPI_Glcd_Write_Text(“Hello world!”, 10, 2, 1);
For x axis and page layout explanation see schematic at the bottom of this page.
MikroElektronika
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mikroC PRO for dsPIC
SPI_Glcd_Image
Prototype
void SPI_Glcd_Image(const code char *image);
Description Displays bitmap on Glcd.
Parameters - image: image to be displayed. Bitmap array can be located in both code and RAM memory (due to
the mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 pointer to const and pointer to RAM equivalency).
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Glcd needs to be initialized for SPI communication, see SPI_Glcd_Init routine.
Example
// Draw image my_image on Glcd
SPI_Glcd_Image(my_image);
Notes
Use the mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 integrated Glcd Bitmap Editor, Tools > Glcd Bitmap
Editor, to convert image to a constant array suitable for displaying on Glcd.
SPI_Glcd_PartialImage
Prototype
void SPI_Glcd_PartialImage(unsigned int x_left, unsigned int y_top, unsigned
int width, unsigned int height, unsigned int picture_width, unsigned int
picture_height, code const unsigned short * image);
Description Displays a partial area of the image on a desired location.
Parameters - x_left: x coordinate of the desired location (upper left coordinate).
- y_top: y coordinate of the desired location (upper left coordinate).
- width: desired image width.
- height: desired image height.
- picture_width: width of the original image.
- picture_height: height of the original image.
- image: image to be displayed. Bitmap array can be located in both code and RAM memory (due to
the mikroC PRO for PIC pointer to const and pointer to RAM equivalency).
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Glcd needs to be initialized for SPI communication, see SPI_Glcd_Init routine.
Example
// Draws a 10x15 part of the image starting from the upper left corner on
the coordinate (10,12). Original image size is 16x32.
SPI_Glcd_PartialImage(10, 12, 10, 15, 16, 32, image);
Notes
553
Use the mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 integrated Glcd Bitmap Editor, Tools > Glcd Bitmap
Editor, to convert image to a constant array suitable for displaying on Glcd.
MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
Library Example
The example demonstrates how to communicate to KS0108 Glcd via the SPI module, using serial to parallel convertor
MCP23S17.
Copy Code To Clipboard
const code char truck_bmp[1024];
// Port Expander module connections
sbit SPExpanderRST at LATF0_bit;
sbit SPExpanderCS at LATF1_bit;
sbit SPExpanderRST_Direction at TRISF0_bit;
sbit SPExpanderCS_Direction at TRISF1_bit;
// End Port Expander module connections
void Delay2s(){
Delay_ms(2000);
}
// 2 seconds delay function
void main() {
char counter;
char *someText;
#define COMPLETE_EXAMPLE
ADPCFG = 0xFFFF;
// If Port Expander Library uses SPI1 module
SPI1_Init();
PortExpander
SPI_Glcd_Init(0);
SPI_Glcd_Fill(0x00);
Delay2s();
while(1) {
#ifdef COMPLETE_EXAMPLE
SPI_Glcd_Image(truck_bmp);
Delay2s(); Delay2s();
#endif
SPI_Glcd_Fill(0x00);
Delay2s;
SPI_Glcd_Box(62,40,124,56,1);
SPI_Glcd_Rectangle(5,5,84,35,1);
SPI_Glcd_Line(0, 63, 127, 0,1);
Delay2s();
for(counter = 5; counter < 60; counter+=5 ) {
Delay_ms(250);
SPI_Glcd_V_Line(2, 54, counter, 1);
SPI_Glcd_H_Line(2, 120, counter, 1);
}
MikroElektronika
// initialize AN pins as digital
// Initialize SPI module used with
// Initialize Glcd via SPI
// Clear Glcd
// Draw image
// Clear Glcd
// Draw box
// Draw rectangle
// Draw line
// Draw horizontal and vertical line
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mikroC PRO for dsPIC
Delay2s();
#ifdef COMPLETE_EXAMPLE
SPI_Glcd_Fill(0x00);
SPI_Glcd_Set_Font(Character8x7, 8, 8, 32);
in Uses folder
SPI_Glcd_Write_Text("mikroE", 5, 7, 2);
#endif
for (counter = 1; counter <= 10; counter++)
SPI_Glcd_Circle(63,32, 3*counter, 1);
Delay2s();
#ifdef COMPLETE_EXAMPLE
SPI_Glcd_Box(12,20, 70,63, 2);
Delay2s();
}
// Clear Glcd
// Choose font, see __Lib_GLCDFonts.c
// Write string
// Draw circles
// Draw box
SPI_Glcd_Fill(0xFF);
SPI_Glcd_Set_Font(Character8x7, 8, 7, 32);
someText = "8x7 Font";
SPI_Glcd_Write_Text(someText, 5, 1, 2);
Delay2s();
// Fill Glcd
// Change font
SPI_Glcd_Set_Font(System3x5, 3, 5, 32);
someText = "3X5 CAPITALS ONLY";
SPI_Glcd_Write_Text(someText, 5, 3, 2);
Delay2s();
// Change font
SPI_Glcd_Set_Font(font5x7, 5, 7, 32);
someText = "5x7 Font";
SPI_Glcd_Write_Text(someText, 5, 5, 2);
Delay2s();
// Change font
// Write string
// Write string
// Write string
SPI_Glcd_Set_Font(FontSystem5x7_v2, 5, 7, 32); // Change font
someText = "5x7 Font (v2)";
SPI_Glcd_Write_Text(someText, 5, 7, 2);
// Write string
Delay2s();
#endif
}
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HW Connection
SPI Glcd HW connection
MikroElektronika
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mikroC PRO for dsPIC
SPI Lcd Library
The mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 provides a library for communication with Lcd (with HD44780 compliant
controllers) in 4-bit mode via SPI interface.
For creating a custom set of Lcd characters use Lcd Custom Character Tool.
Important :
- When using this library with dsPIC33 and PIC24 family MCUs be aware of their voltage incompatibility with certain
number of Lcd modules.
So, additional external power supply for these modules may be required.
- Library uses the SPI module for communication. The user must initialize the appropriate SPI module before using the
SPI Lcd Library.
- For MCUs with multiple SPI modules it is possible to initialize all of them and then switch by using the SPI_Set_
Active() routine. See the SPI Library functions.
- This Library is designed to work with the mikroElektronika's Serial Lcd Adapter Board pinout, see schematic at the
bottom of this page for details.
Library Dependency Tree
External dependencies of SPI Lcd Library
The implementation of SPI Lcd Library routines is based on Port Expander Library routines.
External dependencies are the same as Port Expander Library external dependencies.
Library Routines
557
- SPI_Lcd_Config
- SPI_Lcd_Out
- SPI_Lcd_Out_Cp
- SPI_Lcd_Chr
- SPI_Lcd_Chr_Cp
- SPI_Lcd_Cmd
MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
SPI_Lcd_Config
Prototype
void SPI_Lcd_Config(char DeviceAddress);
Description Initializes the Lcd module via SPI interface.
Parameters - DeviceAddress: SPI expander hardware address, see schematic at the bottom of this page
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Global variables :
- SPExpanderCS: Chip Select line
- SPExpanderRST: Reset line
- SPExpanderCS_Direction: Direction of the Chip Select pin
- SPExpanderRST_Direction: Direction of the Reset pin
must be defined before using this function.
The SPI module needs to be initialized. See SPIx_Init and SPIx_Init_Advanced routines.
Example
Notes
// Port Expander module connections
sbit SPExpanderRST at LATF0_bit;
sbit SPExpanderCS at LATF1_bit;
sbit SPExpanderRST_Direction at TRISF0_bit;
sbit SPExpanderCS_Direction at TRISF1_bit;
// End Port Expander module connections
// If Port Expander Library uses SPI1 module
SPI1_Init();
// Initialize SPI module used with
PortExpander
SPI_Lcd_Config(0);
// initialize Lcd over SPI interface
None.
SPI_Lcd_Out
Prototype
void SPI_Lcd_Out(char row, char column, char *text);
Description Prints text on the Lcd starting from specified position. Both string variables and literals can be passed
as a text.
Parameters - row: starting position row number
- column: starting position column number
- text: text to be written
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Lcd needs to be initialized for SPI communication, see SPI_Lcd_Config routine.
Example
// Write text “Hello!” on Lcd starting from row 1, column 3:
SPI_Lcd_Out(1, 3, “Hello!”);
Notes
None.
MikroElektronika
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mikroC PRO for dsPIC
SPI_Lcd_Out_Cp
Prototype
void SPI_Lcd_Out_CP(char *text);
Description Prints text on the Lcd at current cursor position. Both string variables and literals can be passed as a
text.
Parameters - text: text to be written
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Lcd needs to be initialized for SPI communication, see SPI_Lcd_Config routine.
Example
// Write text “Here!” at current cursor position:
SPI_Lcd_Out_CP(“Here!”);
Notes
None.
SPI_Lcd_Chr
Prototype
void SPI_Lcd_Chr(char Row, char Column, char Out_Char);
Description Prints character on Lcd at specified position. Both variables and literals can be passed as character.
Parameters - Row: writing position row number
- Column: writing position column number
- Out_Char: character to be written
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Lcd needs to be initialized for SPI communication, see SPI_Lcd_Config routine.
Example
// Write character “i” at row 2, column 3:
SPI_Lcd_Chr(2, 3, ‘i’);
Notes
None.
SPI_Lcd_Chr_Cp
Prototype
void SPI_Lcd_Chr_CP(char Out_Char);
Description Prints character on Lcd at current cursor position. Both variables and literals can be passed as
character.
Parameters - Out_Char: character to be written
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Lcd needs to be initialized for SPI communication, see SPI_Lcd_Config routine.
Example
// Write character “e” at current cursor position:
SPI_Lcd_Chr_Cp(‘e’);
Notes
559
None.
MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
SPI_Lcd_Cmd
Prototype
void SPI_Lcd_Cmd(char out_char);
Description Sends command to Lcd.
Parameters - out_char: command to be sent
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Lcd needs to be initialized for SPI communication, see SPI_Lcd_Config routine.
Example
// Clear Lcd display:
SPI_Lcd_Cmd(_LCD_CLEAR);
Notes
Predefined constants can be passed to the routine, see Available SPI Lcd Commands.
SPI_Lcd_Cmd
SPI Lcd Command
Purpose
_LCD_FIRST_ROW
Move cursor to the 1st row
_LCD_SECOND_ROW
_LCD_THIRD_ROW
_LCD_FOURTH_ROW
_LCD_CLEAR
Move cursor to the 2nd row
Move cursor to the 3rd row
Move cursor to the 4th row
Clear display
_LCD_RETURN_HOME
Return cursor to home position, returns a shifted display
to its original position. Display data RAM is unaffected.
_LCD_CURSOR_OFF
Turn off cursor
_LCD_UNDERLINE_ON
_LCD_BLINK_CURSOR_ON
_LCD_MOVE_CURSOR_LEFT
_LCD_MOVE_CURSOR_RIGHT
_LCD_TURN_ON
_LCD_TURN_OFF
_LCD_SHIFT_LEFT
_LCD_SHIFT_RIGHT
MikroElektronika
Underline cursor on
Blink cursor on
Move cursor left without changing display data RAM
Move cursor right without changing display data RAM
Turn Lcd display on
Turn Lcd display off
Shift display left without changing display data RAM
Shift display right without changing display data RAM
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mikroC PRO for dsPIC
Library Example
Default Pin Configuration
Use SPI_Lcd_Init for default pin settings (see the first figure below).
Copy Code To Clipboard
char *text = "mikroElektronika";
// Port Expander module connections
sbit SPExpanderRST at LATF0_bit;
sbit SPExpanderCS at LATF1_bit;
sbit SPExpanderRST_Direction at TRISF0_bit;
sbit SPExpanderCS_Direction at TRISF1_bit;
// End Port Expander module connections
char i;
// Loop variable
void Move_Delay() {
Delay_ms(500);
}
// Function used for text moving
// You can change the moving speed here
void main() {
ADPCFG = 0xFFFF;
// initialize AN pins as digital
// If Port Expander Library uses SPI1 module
SPI1_Init();
// Initialize SPI module used with PortExpander
SPI_Lcd_Config(0);
SPI_Lcd_Cmd(_LCD_CLEAR);
SPI_Lcd_Cmd(_LCD_CURSOR_OFF);
SPI_Lcd_Out(1,6, "mikroE");
SPI_Lcd_Chr_CP('!');
SPI_Lcd_Out(2,1, text);
// SPI_Lcd_Out(3,1,"mikroE");
// SPI_Lcd_Out(4,15,"mikroE");
// Initialize Lcd over SPI interface
// Clear display
// Turn cursor off
// Print text to Lcd, 1st row, 6th column
// Append '!'
// Print text to Lcd, 2nd row, 1st column
// For Lcd with more than two rows
// For Lcd with more than two rows
Delay_ms(2000);
// Moving text
for(i=0; i<4; i++) {
Spi_Lcd_Cmd(_LCD_SHIFT_RIGHT);
Move_Delay();
}
while(1) {
for(i=0; i<8; i++) {
Spi_Lcd_Cmd(_LCD_SHIFT_LEFT);
Move_Delay();
}
}
// Move text to the right 4 times
// Endless loop
// Move text to the left 7 times
for(i=0; i<8; i++) {
// Move text to the right 7 times
Spi_Lcd_Cmd(_LCD_SHIFT_RIGHT);
Move_Delay();
}
}
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mikoC PRO for dsPIC
Lcd HW connection by default initialization (using SPI_Lcd_Init)
MikroElektronika
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mikroC PRO for dsPIC
SPI Lcd8 (8-bit interface) Library
The mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 provides a library for communication with Lcd (with HD44780 compliant
controllers) in 8-bit mode via SPI interface.
For creating a custom set of Lcd characters use Lcd Custom Character Tool.
Important :
- When using this library with dsPIC33 and PIC24 family MCUs be aware of their voltage incompatibility with certain
number of Lcd modules.
So, additional external power supply for these modules may be required.
- Library uses the SPI module for communication. The user must initialize the appropriate SPI module before using the
SPI Lcd8 Library.
- For MCUs with multiple SPI modules it is possible to initialize all of them and then switch by using the SPI_Set_Active()
routine. See the SPI Library functions.
- This Library is designed to work with the mikroElektronika's Serial Lcd/Glcd Adapter Board pinout, see schematic at
the bottom of this page for details.
Library Dependency Tree
External dependencies of SPI Lcd Library
The implementation of SPI Lcd Library routines is based on Port Expander Library routines.
External dependencies are the same as Port Expander Library external dependencies.
Library Routines
563
- SPI_Lcd8_Config
- SPI_Lcd8_Out
- SPI_Lcd8_Out_Cp
- SPI_Lcd8_Chr
- SPI_Lcd8_Chr_Cp
- SPI_Lcd8_Cmd
MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
SPI_Lcd8_Config
Prototype
void SPI_Lcd8_Config(char DeviceAddress);
Description Initializes the Lcd module via SPI interface.
Parameters - DeviceAddress: SPI expander hardware address, see schematic at the bottom of this page
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Global variables :
- SPExpanderCS: Chip Select line
- SPExpanderRST: Reset line
- SPExpanderCS_Direction: Direction of the Chip Select pin
- SPExpanderRST_Direction: Direction of the Reset pin
must be defined before using this function.
The SPI module needs to be initialized. See SPIx_Init and SPIx_Init_Advanced routines.
Example
// Port Expander module connections
sbit SPExpanderRST at LATF0_bit;
sbit SPExpanderCS at LATF1_bit;
sbit SPExpanderRST_Direction at TRISF0_bit;
sbit SPExpanderCS_Direction at TRISF1_bit;
// End Port Expander module connections
...
Notes
// If Port Expander Library uses SPI1 module
SPI1_Init();
// Initialize SPI module used
with PortExpander
SPI_Lcd8_Config(0);
// intialize Lcd in 8bit mode
via SPI
None.
MikroElektronika
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mikroC PRO for dsPIC
SPI_Lcd8_Out
Prototype
void SPI_Lcd8_Out(unsigned short row, unsigned short column, char *text);
Description Prints text on Lcd starting from specified position. Both string variables and literals can be passed as
a text.
Parameters - row: starting position row number
- column: starting position column number
- text: text to be written
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Lcd needs to be initialized for SPI communication, see SPI_Lcd8_Config routine.
Example
// Write text “Hello!” on Lcd starting from row 1, column 3:
SPI_Lcd8_Out(1, 3, “Hello!”);
Notes
None.
SPI_Lcd8_Out_Cp
Prototype
void SPI_Lcd8_Out_CP(char *text);
Description Prints text on Lcd at current cursor position. Both string variables and literals can be passed as a
text.
Parameters - text: text to be written
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Lcd needs to be initialized for SPI communication, see SPI_Lcd8_Config routine.
Example
// Write text “Here!” at current cursor position:
SPI_Lcd8_Out_Cp(“Here!”);
Notes
None.
SPI_Lcd8_Chr
Prototype
void SPI_Lcd8_Chr(unsigned short row, unsigned short column, char out_
char);
Description Prints character on Lcd at specified position. Both variables and literals can be passed as character.
Parameters - row: writing position row number
- column: writing position column number
- out_char: character to be written
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Lcd needs to be initialized for SPI communication, see SPI_Lcd8_Config routine.
Example
// Write character “i” at row 2, column 3:
SPI_Lcd8_Chr(2, 3, ‘i’);
Notes
565
None.
MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
SPI_Lcd8_Chr_Cp
Prototype
void SPI_Lcd8_Chr_CP(char out_char);
Description Prints character on Lcd at current cursor position. Both variables and literals can be passed as
character.
Parameters - out_char: character to be written
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Lcd needs to be initialized for SPI communication, see SPI_Lcd8_Config routine.
Example
Print “e” at current cursor position:
Notes
// Write character “e” at current cursor position:
SPI_Lcd8_Chr_Cp(‘e’);
None.
SPI_Lcd8_Cmd
Prototype
void SPI_Lcd8_Cmd(char out_char);
Description Sends command to Lcd.
Parameters - out_char: command to be sent
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Lcd needs to be initialized for SPI communication, see SPI_Lcd8_Config routine.
Example
// Clear Lcd display:
SPI_Lcd8_Cmd(_LCD_CLEAR);
Notes
Predefined constants can be passed to the routine, see Available SPI Lcd8 Commands.
MikroElektronika
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mikroC PRO for dsPIC
Available SPI Lcd8 Commands
SPI Lcd8 Command
Purpose
_LCD_FIRST_ROW
Move cursor to the 1st row
_LCD_SECOND_ROW
_LCD_THIRD_ROW
_LCD_FOURTH_ROW
_LCD_CLEAR
Move cursor to the 2nd row
Move cursor to the 3rd row
Move cursor to the 4th row
Clear display
_LCD_RETURN_HOME
Return cursor to home position, returns a shifted display
to its original position. Display data RAM is unaffected.
_LCD_CURSOR_OFF
Turn off cursor
_LCD_UNDERLINE_ON
_LCD_BLINK_CURSOR_ON
_LCD_MOVE_CURSOR_LEFT
_LCD_MOVE_CURSOR_RIGHT
_LCD_TURN_ON
_LCD_TURN_OFF
_LCD_SHIFT_LEFT
_LCD_SHIFT_RIGHT
Underline cursor on
Blink cursor on
Move cursor left without changing display data RAM
Move cursor right without changing display data RAM
Turn Lcd display on
Turn Lcd display off
Shift display left without changing display data RAM
Shift display right without changing display data RAM
Library Example
This example demonstrates how to communicate Lcd in 8-bit mode via the SPI module, using serial to parallel convertor
MCP23S17.
Copy Code To Clipboard
char *text = "mikroElektronika";
// Port Expander module connections
sbit SPExpanderRST at LATF0_bit;
sbit SPExpanderCS at LATF1_bit;
sbit SPExpanderRST_Direction at TRISF0_bit;
sbit SPExpanderCS_Direction at TRISF1_bit;
// End Port Expander module connections
char i;
// Loop variable
void Move_Delay() {
Delay_ms(500);
}
// Function used for text moving
// You can change the moving speed here
void main() {
// If Port Expander Library uses SPI1 module
SPI1_Init();
// Initialize SPI module used with PortExpander
567
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SPI_Lcd8_Config(0);
SPI_Lcd8_Cmd(_LCD_CLEAR);
SPI_Lcd8_Cmd(_LCD_CURSOR_OFF);
SPI_Lcd8_Out(1,6, "mikroE");
SPI_Lcd8_Chr_CP('!');
SPI_Lcd8_Out(2,1, text);
// SPI_Lcd8_Out(3,1,"mikroE");
// SPI_Lcd8_Out(4,15,"mikroE");
// Initialize Lcd over SPI interface
// Clear display
// Turn cursor off
// Print text to Lcd, 1st row, 6th column
// Append '!'
// Print text to Lcd, 2nd row, 1st column
// For Lcd with more than two rows
// For Lcd with more than two rows
Delay_ms(2000);
// Moving text
for(i=0; i<4; i++) {
Spi_Lcd8_Cmd(_LCD_SHIFT_RIGHT);
Move_Delay();
}
while(1) {
for(i=0; i<8; i++) {
Spi_Lcd8_Cmd(_LCD_SHIFT_LEFT);
Move_Delay();
}
}
for(i=0; i<8; i++) {
Spi_Lcd8_Cmd(_LCD_SHIFT_RIGHT);
Move_Delay();
}
// Move text to the right 4 times
// Endless loop
// Move text to the left 7 times
// Move text to the right 7 times
}
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SPI Lcd8 HW connection
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SPI T6963C Graphic Lcd Library
The mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 provides a library for working with Glcds based on TOSHIBA T6963C
controller via SPI interface. The Toshiba T6963C is a very popular Lcd controller for the use in small graphics modules.
It is capable of controlling displays with a resolution up to 240x128. Because of its low power and small outline it is
most suitable for mobile applications such as PDAs, MP3 players or mobile measurement equipment. Although this
controller is small, it has a capability of displaying and merging text and graphics and it manages all interfacing signals
to the displays Row and Column drivers.
For creating a custom set of Glcd images use Glcd Bitmap Editor Tool.
Important :
- When using this library with dsPIC33 and PIC24 family MCUs be aware of their voltage incompatibility with certain
number of T6963C based Glcd modules. So, additional external power supply for these modules may be required.
- Glcd size based initialization routines can be found in setup library files located in the Uses folder.
- The user must make sure that used MCU has appropriate ports and pins. If this is not the case the user should adjust
initialization routines.
- The library uses the SPI module for communication. The user must initialize the appropriate SPI module before using
the SPI T6963C Glcd Library.
- For MCUs with multiple SPI modules it is possible to initialize both of them and then switch by using the SPI_Set_
Active() routine. See the SPI Library functions.
- This Library is designed to work with mikroElektronika's Serial Glcd 240x128 and 240x64 Adapter Boards pinout, see
schematic at the bottom of this page for details.
- To use constants located in __Lib_SPIT6963C_Const.h file, user must include it the source file : #include
"__SPIT6963C.h".
Some mikroElektronika's adapter boards have pinout different from T6369C datasheets. Appropriate relations between
these labels are given in the table below :
Adapter Board
T6369C datasheet
RS
C/D
R/W
/RD
E
/WR
Library Dependency Tree
External dependencies of SPI T6963C Graphic Lcd Library
The implementation of SPI T6963C Graphic Lcd Library routines is based on Port Expander Library routines.
External dependencies are the same as Port Expander Library external dependencies.
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Library Routines
- SPI_T6963C_config
- SPI_T6963C_writeData
- SPI_T6963C_writeCommand
- SPI_T6963C_setPtr
- SPI_T6963C_waitReady
- SPI_T6963C_fill
- SPI_T6963C_dot
- SPI_T6963C_write_char
- SPI_T6963C_write_text
- SPI_T6963C_line
- SPI_T6963C_rectangle
- SPI_T6963C_rectangle_round_edges
- SPI_T6963C_rectangle_round_edges_fill
- SPI_T6963C_box
- SPI_T6963C_circle
- SPI_T6963C_circle_fill
- SPI_T6963C_image
- SPI_T6963C_PartialImage
- SPI_T6963C_sprite
- SPI_T6963C_set_cursor
- SPI_T6963C_clearBit
- SPI_T6963C_setBit
- SPI_T6963C_negBit
The following low level library routines are implemented as macros. These macros can be found in the __SPIT6963C.h
header file which is located in the SPI T6963C example projects folders.
571
- SPI_T6963C_displayGrPanel
- SPI_T6963C_displayTxtPanel
- SPI_T6963C_setGrPanel
- SPI_T6963C_setTxtPanel
- SPI_T6963C_panelFill
- SPI_T6963C_grFill
- SPI_T6963C_txtFill
- SPI_T6963C_cursor_height
- SPI_T6963C_graphics
- SPI_T6963C_text
- SPI_T6963C_cursor
- SPI_T6963C_cursor_blink
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SPI_Lcd8_Cmd
Prototype
void SPI_T6963C_config(unsigned int width, unsigned char height, unsigned
char fntW, char DeviceAddress, unsigned char wr, unsigned char rd, unsigned
char cd, unsigned char rst);
Description Initializes T6963C Graphic Lcd controller.
Display RAM organization:
The library cuts RAM into panels : a complete panel is one graphics panel followed by a text panel
(see schematic below).
+---------------------+
+ GRAPHICS PANEL #0
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+---------------------+
+ TEXT PANEL #0
+
+
+
+---------------------+
+ GRAPHICS PANEL #1
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+---------------------+
+ TEXT PANEL #1
+
+
+
+---------------------+
/\
|
|
|
|
| PANEL 0
|
\/
/\
|
|
|
|
| PANEL 1
|
|
\/
Parameters - width: width of the Glcd panel
- height: height of the Glcd panel
- fntW: font width
- DeviceAddress: SPI expander hardware address, see schematic at the bottom of this page
- wr: write signal pin on Glcd control port
- rd: read signal pin on Glcd control port
- cd: command/data signal pin on Glcd control port
- rst: reset signal pin on Glcd control port
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Global variables :
- SPExpanderCS: Chip Select line
- SPExpanderRST: Reset line
- SPExpanderCS_Direction: Direction of the Chip Select pin
- SPExpanderRST_Direction: Direction of the Reset pin
must be defined before using this function.
The SPI module needs to be initialized. See the SPIx_Init and SPIx_Init_Advanced routines.
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Example
// Port Expander module connections
sbit SPExpanderRST at LATF0_bit;
sbit SPExpanderCS at LATF1_bit;
sbit SPExpanderRST_Direction at TRISF0_bit;
sbit SPExpanderCS_Direction at TRISF1_bit;
// End Port Expander module connections
...
Notes
// Initialize SPI module
SPI1_Init();
SPI_T6963C_Config(240, 64, 8, 0, 0, 1, 3, 4);
None.
SPI_T6963C_writeData
Prototype
void SPI_T6963C_writeData(unsigned char data_);
Description Writes data to T6963C controller via SPI interface.
Parameters - data_: data to be written
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Toshiba Glcd module needs to be initialized. See SPI_T6963C_Config routine.
Example
SPI_T6963C_writeData(data_);
Notes
None.
SPI_T6963C_writeCommand
Prototype
void SPI_T6963C_writeCommand(unsigned char data_);
Description Writes command to T6963C controller via SPI interface.
Parameters - data_: command to be written
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Toshiba Glcd module needs to be initialized. See SPI_T6963C_Config routine.
Example
SPI_T6963C_writeCommand(SPI_T6963C_CURSOR_POINTER_SET);
Notes
None.
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SPI_T6963C_setPtr
Prototype
void SPI_T6963C_setPtr(unsigned int p, unsigned char c);
Description Sets the memory pointer p for command p.
Parameters - p: address where command should be written
- c: command to be written
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Toshiba Glcd module needs to be initialized. See SPI_T6963C_Config routine.
Example
SPI_T6963C_setPtr(SPI_T6963C_grHomeAddr
POINTER_SET);
Notes
+
start,
SPI_T6963C_ADDRESS_
None.
SPI_T6963C_waitReady
Prototype
void SPI_T6963C_waitReady();
Description Pools the status byte, and loops until Toshiba Glcd module is ready.
Parameters None.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Toshiba Glcd module needs to be initialized. See SPI_T6963C_Config routine.
Example
SPI_T6963C_waitReady();
Notes
None.
SPI_T6963C_fill
Prototype
void SPI_T6963C_fill(unsigned char v, unsigned int start, unsigned int
len);
Description Fills controller memory block with given byte.
Parameters - v: byte to be written
- start: starting address of the memory block
- len: length of the memory block in bytes
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Toshiba Glcd module needs to be initialized. See SPI_T6963C_Config routine.
Example
SPI_T6963C_fill(0x33,0x00FF,0x000F);
Notes
None.
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SPI_T6963C_dot
Prototype
void SPI_T6963C_dot(int x, int y, unsigned char color);
Description Writes a char in the current text panel of Glcd at coordinates (x, y).
Returns
Requires
- x: dot position on x-axis
- y: dot position on y-axis
- color: color parameter. Valid values: SPI_T6963C_BLACK and SPI_T6963C_WHITE
Toshiba Glcd module needs to be initialized. See SPI_T6963C_Config routine.
Example
SPI_T6963C_dot(x0, y0, SPI_T6963C_BLACK);
Notes
None.
SPI_T6963C_write_char
Prototype
void SPI_T6963C_write_char(unsigned char c, unsigned char x, unsigned char
y, unsigned char mode);
Description Writes a char in the current text panel of Glcd at coordinates (x, y).
Parameters - c: char to be written
- x: char position on x-axis
- y: char position on y-axis
- mode: mode parameter. Valid values: SPI_T6963C_ROM_MODE_OR, SPI_T6963C_ROM_MODE_
XOR, SPI_T6963C_ROM_MODE_AND and SPI_T6963C_ROM_MODE_TEXT
Mode parameter explanation:
- OR Mode: In the OR-Mode, text and graphics can be displayed and the data is logically “OR-ed”. This
is the most common way of combining text and graphics for example labels on buttons.
- XOR-Mode: In this mode, the text and graphics data are combined via the logical “exclusive OR”.
This can be useful to display text in negative mode, i.e. white text on black background.
- AND-Mode: The text and graphic data shown on display are combined via the logical “AND
function”.
- TEXT-Mode: This option is only available when displaying just a text. The Text Attribute values are
stored in the graphic area of display memory.
For more details see the T6963C datasheet.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Toshiba Glcd module needs to be initialized. See SPI_T6963C_Config routine.
Example
SPI_T6963C_write_char(“A”,22,23,SPI_T6963C_ROM_MODE_AND);
Notes
None.
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SPI_T6963C_write_text
Prototype
void SPI_T6963C_write_text(unsigned char *str, unsigned char x, unsigned
char y, unsigned char mode);
Description Writes text in the current text panel of Glcd at coordinates (x, y).
Parameters - str: text to be written
- x: text position on x-axis
- y: text position on y-axis
- mode: mode parameter. Valid values: SPI_T6963C_ROM_MODE_OR, SPI_T6963C_ROM_MODE_
XOR, SPI_T6963C_ROM_MODE_AND and SPI_T6963C_ROM_MODE_TEXT
Mode parameter explanation:
- OR Mode: In the OR-Mode, text and graphics can be displayed and the data is logically “OR-ed”. This
is the most common way of combining text and graphics for example labels on buttons.
- XOR-Mode: In this mode, the text and graphics data are combined via the logical “exclusive OR”.
This can be useful to display text in negative mode, i.e. white text on black background.
- AND-Mode: The text and graphic data shown on the display are combined via the logical “AND
function”.
- TEXT-Mode: This option is only available when displaying just a text. The Text Attribute values are
stored in the graphic area of display memory.
For more details see the T6963C datasheet.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Toshiba Glcd module needs to be initialized. See SPI_T6963C_Config routine.
Example
SPI_T6963C_write_text(“Glcd LIBRARY DEMO, WELCOME !”, 0, 0, SPI_T6963C_ROM_
MODE_XOR);
Notes
None.
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SPI_T6963C_line
Prototype
void SPI_T6963C_line(int
pcolor);
x0,
int
y0,
int
x1,
int
y1,
unsigned
char
Description Draws a line from (x0, y0) to (x1, y1).
Parameters - x0: x coordinate of the line start
- y0: y coordinate of the line end
- x1: x coordinate of the line start
- y1: y coordinate of the line end
- pcolor: color parameter. Valid values: SPI_T6963C_BLACK and SPI_T6963C_WHITE
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Toshiba Glcd module needs to be initialized. See SPI_T6963C_Config routine.
Example
SPI_T6963C_line(0, 0, 239, 127, SPI_T6963C_WHITE);
Notes
None.
SPI_T6963C_rectangle
Prototype
void SPI_T6963C_rectangle(int x0, int y0, int x1, int y1, unsigned char
pcolor);
Description Draws a rectangle on Glcd.
Parameters - x0: x coordinate of the upper left rectangle corner
- y0: y coordinate of the upper left rectangle corner
- x1: x coordinate of the lower right rectangle corner
- y1: y coordinate of the lower right rectangle corner
- pcolor: color parameter. Valid values: SPI_T6963C_BLACK and SPI_T6963C_WHITE
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Toshiba Glcd module needs to be initialized. See SPI_T6963C_Config routine.
Example
SPI_T6963C_rectangle(20, 20, 219, 107, SPI_T6963C_WHITE);
Notes
None.
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SPI_T6963C_rectangle_round_edges
Prototype
void SPI_T6963C_rectangle_round_edges(int x0, int y0, int x1, int y1, int
round_radius, unsigned char pcolor);
Description Draws a rounded edge rectangle on Glcd.
Parameters - x0: x coordinate of the upper left rectangle corner
- y0: y coordinate of the upper left rectangle corner
- x1: x coordinate of the lower right rectangle corner
- y1: y coordinate of the lower right rectangle corner
- round_radius: radius of the rounded edge.
- pcolor: color parameter. Valid values: SPI_T6963C_BLACK and SPI_T6963C_WHITE
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Toshiba Glcd module needs to be initialized. See SPI_T6963C_Config routine.
Example
SPI_T6963C_rectangle_round_edges(20, 20, 219, 107, 12, SPI_T6963C_WHITE);
Notes
None.
SPI_T6963C_rectangle_round_edges_fill
Prototype
void SPI_T6963C_rectangle_round_edges_fill(int x0, int y0, int x1, int y1,
int round_radius, unsigned char pcolor);
Description Draws a filled rounded edge rectangle on Glcd.
Parameters - x0: x coordinate of the upper left rectangle corner
- y0: y coordinate of the upper left rectangle corner
- x1: x coordinate of the lower right rectangle corner
- y1: y coordinate of the lower right rectangle corner
- round_radius: radius of the rounded edge
- pcolor: color parameter. Valid values: SPI_T6963C_BLACK and SPI_T6963C_WHITE
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Toshiba Glcd module needs to be initialized. See SPI_T6963C_Config routine.
Example
SPI_T6963C_rectangle_round_edges_fill(20,
WHITE);
Notes
20,
219,
107,
12,
SPI_T6963C_
None.
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SPI_T6963C_box
Prototype
void SPI_T6963C_box(int x0, int y0, int x1, int y1, unsigned char pcolor);
Description Draws a box on the Glcd
Parameters - x0: x coordinate of the upper left box corner
- y0: y coordinate of the upper left box corner
- x1: x coordinate of the lower right box corner
- y1: y coordinate of the lower right box corner
- pcolor: color parameter. Valid values: SPI_T6963C_BLACK and SPI_T6963C_WHITE
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Toshiba Glcd module needs to be initialized. See SPI_T6963C_Config routine.
Example
SPI_T6963C_box(0, 119, 239, 127, SPI_T6963C_WHITE);
Notes
None.
SPI_T6963C_circle
Prototype
void SPI_T6963C_circle(int x, int y, long r, unsigned char pcolor);
Description Draws a circle on the Glcd.
Parameters - x: x coordinate of the circle center
- y: y coordinate of the circle center
- r: radius size
- pcolor: color parameter. Valid values: SPI_T6963C_BLACK and SPI_T6963C_WHITE
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Toshiba Glcd module needs to be initialized. See SPI_T6963C_Config routine.
Example
SPI_T6963C_circle(120, 64, 110, SPI_T6963C_WHITE);
Notes
None.
SPI_T6963C_circle_fill
Prototype
void SPI_T6963C_circle_fill(int x, int y, long r, unsigned char pcolor);
Description Draws a filled circle on the Glcd.
Parameters - x: x coordinate of the circle center
- y: y coordinate of the circle center
- r: radius size
- pcolor: color parameter. Valid values: SPI_T6963C_BLACK and SPI_T6963C_WHITE
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Toshiba Glcd module needs to be initialized. See SPI_T6963C_Config routine.
Example
SPI_T6963C_circle_fill(120, 64, 110, SPI_T6963C_WHITE);
Notes
None.
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SPI_T6963C_image
Prototype
void SPI_T6963C_image(const code char *pic);
Description Displays bitmap on Glcd.
Parameters - pic: image to be displayed. Bitmap array can be located in both code and RAM memory (due to the
mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 pointer to const and pointer to RAM equivalency).
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Toshiba Glcd module needs to be initialized. See SPI_T6963C_Config routine.
Example
SPI_T6963C_image(my_image);
Notes
Image dimension must match the display dimension.
Use the integrated Glcd Bitmap Editor (menu option Tools › Glcd Bitmap Editor) to convert image to
a constant array suitable for displaying on Glcd.
SPI_T6963C_PartialImage
Prototype
void SPI_T6963C_PartialImage(unsigned int x_left, unsigned int y_top,
unsigned int width, unsigned int height, unsigned int picture_width, unsigned
int picture_height, code const unsigned short * image);
Description Displays a partial area of the image on a desired location.
Parameters - x_left: x coordinate of the desired location (upper left coordinate).
- y_top: y coordinate of the desired location (upper left coordinate).
- width: desired image width.
- height: desired image height.
- picture_width: width of the original image.
- picture_height: height of the original image.
- image: image to be displayed. Bitmap array can be located in both code and RAM memory (due to
the mikroC PRO for PIC pointer to const and pointer to RAM equivalency).
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Toshiba Glcd module needs to be initialized. See SPI_T6963C_Config routine.
Example
// Draws a 10x15 part of the image starting from the upper left corner on
the coordinate (10,12). Original image size is 16x32.
SPI_T6963C_PartialImage(10, 12, 10, 15, 16, 32, image);
Notes
Image dimension must match the display dimension.
Use the integrated Glcd Bitmap Editor (menu option Tools › Glcd Bitmap Editor) to convert image to a
constant array suitable for displaying on Glcd.
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SPI_T6963C_sprite
Prototype
void SPI_T6963C_sprite(unsigned char px, unsigned char py, const code char
*pic, unsigned char sx, unsigned char sy);
Description Fills graphic rectangle area (px, py) to (px+sx, py+sy) with custom size picture.
Parameters - px: x coordinate of the upper left picture corner. Valid values: multiples of the font width
- py: y coordinate of the upper left picture corner
- pic: picture to be displayed
- sx: picture width. Valid values: multiples of the font width
- sy: picture height
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Toshiba Glcd module needs to be initialized. See SPI_T6963C_Config routine.
Example
SPI_T6963C_sprite(76, 4, einstein, 88, 119); // draw a sprite
Notes
If px and sx parameters are not multiples of the font width they will be scaled to the nearest lower
number that is a multiple of the font width.
SPI_T6963C_set_cursor
Prototype
void SPI_T6963C_set_cursor(unsigned char x, unsigned char y);
Description Sets cursor to row x and column y.
Parameters - x: cursor position row number
- y: cursor position column number
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Toshiba Glcd module needs to be initialized. See SPI_T6963C_Config routine.
Example
SPI_T6963C_set_cursor(cposx, cposy);
Notes
None.
SPI_T6963C_clearBit
Prototype
void SPI_T6963C_clearBit(char b);
Description Clears control port bit(s).
Parameters - b: bit mask. The function will clear bit x on control port if bit x in bit mask is set to 1.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Toshiba Glcd module needs to be initialized. See SPI_T6963C_Config routine.
Example
// clear bits 0 and 1 on control port
SPI_T6963C_clearBit(0x03);
Notes
581
None.
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mikoC PRO for dsPIC
SPI_T6963C_setBit
Prototype
void SPI_T6963C_setBit(char b);
Description Sets control port bit(s).
Parameters - b: bit mask. The function will set bit x on control port if bit x in bit mask is set to 1.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Toshiba Glcd module needs to be initialized. See SPI_T6963C_Config routine.
Example
// set bits 0 and 1 on control port
SPI_T6963C_setBit(0x03);
Notes
None.
SPI_T6963C_negBit
Prototype
void SPI_T6963C_negBit(char b);
Description Negates control port bit(s).
Parameters - b: bit mask. The function will negate bit x on control port if bit x in bit mask is set to 1.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Toshiba Glcd module needs to be initialized. See SPI_T6963C_Config routine.
Example
// negate bits 0 and 1 on control port
SPI_T6963C_negBit(0x03);
Notes
None.
SPI_T6963C_displayGrPanel
Prototype
void SPI_T6963C_displayGrPanel(unsigned int n);
Description Display selected graphic panel.
Parameters - n: graphic panel number. Valid values: 0 and 1.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Toshiba Glcd module needs to be initialized. See SPI_T6963C_Config routine.
Example
// display graphic panel 1
SPI_T6963C_displayGrPanel(1);
Notes
None.
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SPI_T6963C_displayTxtPanel
Prototype
void SPI_T6963C_displayTxtPanel(unsigned int n);
Description Display selected text panel.
Parameters - n: text panel number. Valid values: 0 and 1.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Toshiba Glcd module needs to be initialized. See SPI_T6963C_Config routine.
Example
// display text panel 1
SPI_T6963C_displayTxtPanel(1);
Notes
None.
SPI_T6963C_setGrPanel
Prototype
void SPI_T6963C_setGrPanel(unsigned int n);
Description Compute start address for selected graphic panel and set appropriate internal pointers. All subsequent
graphic operations will be preformed at this graphic panel.
Parameters - n: graphic panel number. Valid values: 0 and 1.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Toshiba Glcd module needs to be initialized. See SPI_T6963C_Config routine.
Example
// set graphic panel 1 as current graphic panel.
SPI_T6963C_setGrPanel(1);
Notes
None.
SPI_T6963C_setTxtPanel
Prototype
void SPI_T6963C_setTxtPanel(unsigned int n);
Description Compute start address for selected text panel and set appropriate internal pointers. All subsequent
text operations will be preformed at this text panel.
Parameters - n: text panel number. Valid values: 0 and 1.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Toshiba Glcd module needs to be initialized. See SPI_T6963C_Config routine.
Example
// set text panel 1 as current text panel.
SPI_T6963C_setTxtPanel(1);
Notes
583
None.
MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
SPI_T6963C_panelFill
Prototype
void SPI_T6963C_panelFill(unsigned char v);
Description Fill current panel in full (graphic+text) with appropriate value (0 to clear).
Parameters - v: value to fill panel with.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Toshiba Glcd module needs to be initialized. See SPI_T6963C_Config routine.
Example
clear current panel
SPI_T6963C_panelFill(0);
Notes
None.
SPI_T6963C_grFill
Prototype
void SPI_T6963C_grFill(unsigned char v);
Description Fill current graphic panel with appropriate value (0 to clear).
Parameters - v: value to fill graphic panel with.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Toshiba Glcd module needs to be initialized. See SPI_T6963C_Config routine.
Example
// clear current graphic panel
SPI_T6963C_grFill(0);
Notes
None.
SPI_T6963C_txtFill
Prototype
void SPI_T6963C_txtFill(unsigned char v);
Description Fill current text panel with appropriate value (0 to clear).
Parameters - v: this value increased by 32 will be used to fill text panel.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Toshiba Glcd module needs to be initialized. See SPI_T6963C_Config routine.
Example
// clear current text panel
SPI_T6963C_txtFill(0);
Notes
None.
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SPI_T6963C_cursor_height
Prototype
void SPI_T6963C_cursor_height(unsigned char n);
Description Set cursor size.
Parameters - n: cursor height. Valid values: 0..7.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Toshiba Glcd module needs to be initialized. See SPI_T6963C_Config routine.
Example
SPI_T6963C_cursor_height(7);
Notes
None.
SPI_T6963C_graphics
Prototype
void SPI_T6963C_graphics(unsigned int n);
Description Enable/disable graphic displaying.
Parameters - n: graphic enable/disable parameter. Valid values: 0 (disable graphic dispaying) and 1 (enable
graphic displaying).
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Toshiba Glcd module needs to be initialized. See SPI_T6963C_Config routine.
Example
// enable graphic displaying
SPI_T6963C_graphics(1);
Notes
None.
SPI_T6963C_text
Prototype
void SPI_T6963C_text(unsigned int n);
Description Enable/disable text displaying.
Parameters - n: text enable/disable parameter. Valid values: 0 (disable text dispaying) and 1 (enable text
displaying).
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Toshiba Glcd module needs to be initialized. See SPI_T6963C_Config routine.
Example
// enable text displaying
SPI_T6963C_text(1);
Notes
585
None.
MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
SPI_T6963C_cursor
Prototype
void SPI_T6963C_cursor(unsigned int n);
Description Set cursor on/off.
Parameters - n: on/off parameter. Valid values: 0 (set cursor off) and 1 (set cursor on).
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Toshiba Glcd module needs to be initialized. See SPI_T6963C_Config routine.
Example
// set cursor on
SPI_T6963C_cursor(1);
Notes
None.
SPI_T6963C_cursor_blink
Prototype
void SPI_T6963C_cursor_blink(unsigned int n);
Description Enable/disable cursor blinking.
Parameters - n: cursor blinking enable/disable parameter. Valid values: 0 (disable cursor blinking) and 1 (enable
cursor blinking).
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Toshiba Glcd module needs to be initialized. See SPI_T6963C_Config routine.
Example
// enable cursor blinking
SPI_T6963C_cursor_blink(1);
Notes
None.
Library Example
The following drawing demo tests advanced routines of the SPI T6963C Glcd library. Hardware configurations in this
example are made for the EasydsPIC3 board and dsPIC30F4013.
Copy Code To Clipboard
#include "__SPIT6963C.h"
/*
* bitmap pictures stored in ROM
*/
const code char mikroE_240x128_bmp[];
const code char einstein[];
// Port Expander module connections
sbit SPExpanderRST at LATF0_bit;
sbit SPExpanderCS at LATF1_bit;
sbit SPExpanderRST_Direction at TRISF0_bit;
sbit SPExpanderCS_Direction at TRISF1_bit;
// End Port Expander module connections
void main() {
char txt1[] = " EINSTEIN WOULD HAVE LIKED mE";
char txt[] = " GLCD LIBRARY DEMO, WELCOME !";
MikroElektronika
586
mikroC PRO for dsPIC
unsigned
unsigned
unsigned
unsigned
char
int
char
int
panel;
i;
curs;
cposx, cposy;
#define COMPLETE_EXAMPLE
//
//
//
//
Current panel
General purpose register
Cursor visibility
Cursor x-y position
// comment this line to make simpler/smaller example
ADPCFG = 0xFFFF;
TRISB0_bit
TRISB1_bit
TRISB2_bit
TRISB3_bit
TRISB4_bit
=
=
=
=
=
1;
1;
1;
1;
1;
//
//
//
//
//
Set
Set
Set
Set
Set
RB0
RB1
RB2
RB3
RB4
as
as
as
as
as
input
input
input
input
input
// If Port Expander Library uses SPI1 module
SPI1_Init();
// Initialize SPI module used with PortExpander
//
//
// If Port Expander Library uses SPI2 module
SPI2_Init();
// Initialize SPI module used with PortExpander
/*
* init display for 240 pixel width and 128 pixel height
* 8 bits character width
* data bus on MCP23S17 portB
* control bus on MCP23S17 portA
* bit 2 is !WR
* bit 1 is !RD
* bit 0 is !CD
* bit 4 is RST
* chip enable, reverse on, 8x8 font internaly set in library
*/
SPI_T6963C_Config(240, 128, 8, 0, 2, 1, 0, 4);
Delay_ms(1000);
/*
* Enable both graphics and text display at the same time
*/
SPI_T6963C_graphics(1);
SPI_T6963C_text(1);
panel = 0;
i = 0;
curs = 0;
cposx = cposy = 0;
/*
* Text messages
*/
SPI_T6963C_write_text(txt, 0, 0, SPI_T6963C_ROM_MODE_XOR);
SPI_T6963C_write_text(txt1, 0, 15, SPI_T6963C_ROM_MODE_XOR);
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/*
* Cursor
*/
SPI_T6963C_cursor_height(8);
SPI_T6963C_set_cursor(0, 0);
SPI_T6963C_cursor(0);
// 8 pixel height
// move cursor to top left
// cursor off
/*
* Draw rectangles
*/
SPI_T6963C_rectangle(0, 0, 239, 127, SPI_T6963C_WHITE);
SPI_T6963C_rectangle(20, 20, 219, 107, SPI_T6963C_WHITE);
SPI_T6963C_rectangle(40, 40, 199, 87, SPI_T6963C_WHITE);
SPI_T6963C_rectangle(60, 60, 179, 67, SPI_T6963C_WHITE);
/*
* Draw a cross
*/
SPI_T6963C_line(0, 0, 239, 127, SPI_T6963C_WHITE);
SPI_T6963C_line(0, 127, 239, 0, SPI_T6963C_WHITE);
/*
* Draw solid boxes
*/
SPI_T6963C_box(0, 0, 239, 8, SPI_T6963C_WHITE);
SPI_T6963C_box(0, 119, 239, 127, SPI_T6963C_WHITE);
#ifdef COMPLETE_EXAMPLE
/*
* Draw circles
*/
SPI_T6963C_circle(120,
SPI_T6963C_circle(120,
SPI_T6963C_circle(120,
SPI_T6963C_circle(120,
SPI_T6963C_circle(120,
SPI_T6963C_circle(120,
SPI_T6963C_circle(120,
64,
64,
64,
64,
64,
64,
64,
10, SPI_T6963C_WHITE);
30, SPI_T6963C_WHITE);
50, SPI_T6963C_WHITE);
70, SPI_T6963C_WHITE);
90, SPI_T6963C_WHITE);
110, SPI_T6963C_WHITE);
130, SPI_T6963C_WHITE);
SPI_T6963C_sprite(76, 4, einstein, 88, 119);
SPI_T6963C_setGrPanel(1);
panel
SPI_T6963C_image(mikroE_240x128_bmp);
// Draw a sprite
// Select other graphic
// Draw an image
#endif
for(;;) {
/*
* If RB0 is pressed, display only graphic panel
*/
MikroElektronika
// Endless loop
588
mikroC PRO for dsPIC
1
if(RB0_bit) {
SPI_T6963C_graphics(1);
SPI_T6963C_text(0);
Delay_ms(300);
}
#ifdef COMPLETE_EXAMPLE
/*
* If RB1 is pressed, toggle the display between graphic panel 0 and graphic panel
*/
else if(RB1_bit) {
panel++;
panel &= 1;
SPI_T6963C_displayGrPanel(panel);
Delay_ms(300);
}
#endif
/*
* If RB2 is pressed, display only text panel
*/
else if(RB2_bit) {
SPI_T6963C_graphics(0);
SPI_T6963C_text(1);
Delay_ms(300);
}
/*
* If RB3 is pressed, display text and graphic panels
*/
else if(RB3_bit) {
SPI_T6963C_graphics(1);
SPI_T6963C_text(1);
Delay_ms(300);
}
/*
* If RB4 is pressed, change cursor
*/
else if(RB4_bit) {
curs++;
if(curs == 3) curs = 0;
switch(curs) {
case 0:
// no cursor
SPI_T6963C_cursor(0);
break;
case 1:
// blinking cursor
SPI_T6963C_cursor(1);
SPI_T6963C_cursor_blink(1);
break;
case 2:
// non blinking cursor
SPI_T6963C_cursor(1);
SPI_T6963C_cursor_blink(0);
break;
}
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mikoC PRO for dsPIC
Delay_ms(300);
}
/*
* Move cursor, even if not visible
*/
cposx++;
if(cposx == SPI_T6963C_txtCols) {
cposx = 0;
cposy++;
if(cposy == SPI_T6963C_grHeight / SPI_T6963C_CHARACTER_HEIGHT) {
cposy = 0;
}
}
SPI_T6963C_set_cursor(cposx, cposy);
}
Delay_ms(100);
}
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590
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HW Connection
SPI T6963C Glcd HW connection
591
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mikoC PRO for dsPIC
T6963C Graphic Lcd Library
The mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 provides a library for working with Glcds based on TOSHIBA T6963C
controller. The Toshiba T6963C is a very popular Lcd controller for the use in small graphics modules. It is capable of
controlling displays with a resolution up to 240x128. Because of its low power and small outline it is most suitable for
mobile applications such as PDAs, MP3 players or mobile measurement equipment. Although small, this contoller has
a capability of displaying and merging text and graphics and it manages all the interfacing signals to the displays Row
and Column drivers.
For creating a custom set of Glcd images use Glcd Bitmap Editor Tool.
Important :
- When using this library with dsPIC33 and PIC24 family of MCUs be aware of their voltage incompatibility with certain
number of T6963C based Glcd modules. So, additional external power supply for these modules may be required.
- ChipEnable(CE), FontSelect(FS) and Reverse(MD) have to be set to appropriate levels by the user outside of the
T6963C_Init() function. See the Library Example code at the bottom of this page.
- Glcd size based initialization routines can be found in setup library files located in the Uses folder.
- The user must make sure that used MCU has appropriate ports and pins. If this is not the case the user should adjust
initialization routines.
Some mikroElektronika's adapter boards have pinout different from T6369C datasheets. Appropriate relations between
these labels are given in the table below :
Adapter Board
T6369C datasheet
RS
C/D
R/W
/RD
E
/WR
Library Dependency Tree
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Library Dependency Tree
The following variables
must be defined in all
projects using T6963C
Graphic Lcd library:
Description :
extern
sfr
T6963C_ctrlwr;
sbit
Write signal.
sbit
Read signal.
sbit
Command/Data signal.
sbit
Reset signal.
extern sfr unsigned
T6963C Data Port.
int T6963C_dataPort;
extern
sfr
T6963C_ctrlrd;
extern
sfr
T6963C_ctrlcd;
extern
sfr
T6963C_ctrlrst;
extern
sfr
sbit
T 6 9 6 3 C _ c t r l w r _ Direction of the Write pin.
Direction;
extern
sfr
sbit
T 6 9 6 3 C _ c t r l r d _ Direction of the Read pin.
Direction;
extern
sfr
sbit
Direction of the Command/
T6963C_ctrlcd_
Data pin.
Direction;
extern
sfr
sbit
T 6 9 6 3 C _ c t r l r s t _ Direction of the Reset pin.
Direction;
593
Example :
char T6963C_dataPort
at PORTB;
sbit T6963C_ctrlwr at
LATF2_bit;
sbit T6963C_ctrlrd at
LATF1_bit;
sbit T6963C_ctrlcd at
LATF0_bit;
sbit
T6963C_ctrlrst
at LATF4_bit;
sbit
T6963C_ctrlwr_
Direction at TRISF2_
bit;
sbit
T6963C_ctrlrd_
Direction at TRISF1_
bit;
sbit
T6963C_ctrlcd_
Direction at TRISF0_
bit;
sbit T6963C_ctrlrst_
Direction at TRISF4_
bit;
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mikoC PRO for dsPIC
Library Routines
- T6963C_init
- T6963C_writeData
- T6963C_writeCommand
- T6963C_setPtr
- T6963C_waitReady
- T6963C_fill
- T6963C_dot
- T6963C_write_char
- T6963C_write_text
- T6963C_line
- T6963C_rectangle
- T6963C_rectangle_round_edges
- T6963C_rectangle_round_edges_fill
- T6963C_box
- T6963C_circle
- T6963C_circle_fill
- T6963C_image
- T6963C_PartialImage
- T6963C_sprite
- T6963C_set_cursor
The following low level library routines are implemented as macros. These macros can be found in the __T6963C.h
header file which is located in the T6963C example projects folders.
- T6963C_clearBit
- T6963C_setBit
- T6963C_negBit
- T6963C_displayGrPanel
- T6963C_displayTxtPanel
- T6963C_setGrPanel
- T6963C_setTxtPanel
- T6963C_panelFill
- T6963C_grFill
- T6963C_txtFill
- T6963C_cursor_height
- T6963C_graphics
- T6963C_text
- T6963C_cursor
- T6963C_cursor_blink
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SPI_T6963C_cursor
Prototype
void T6963C_init(unsigned int width, unsigned char height, unsigned char
fntW);
Description Initalizes the Graphic Lcd controller.
Display RAM organization:
The library cuts the RAM into panels : a complete panel is one graphics panel followed by a text panel
(see schematic below).
+---------------------+
+ GRAPHICS PANEL #0
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+---------------------+
+ TEXT PANEL #0
+
+
+
+---------------------+
+ GRAPHICS PANEL #1
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+---------------------+
+ TEXT PANEL #1
+
+
+
+---------------------+
/\
|
|
|
|
| PANEL 0
|
\/
/\
|
|
|
|
| PANEL 1
|
|
\/
Parameters - width: width of the Glcd panel
- height: height of the Glcd panel
- fntW: font width
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Global variables :
- T6963C_dataPort: Data Port
- T6963C_ctrlwr: Write signal pin
- T6963C_ctrlrd: Read signal pin
- T6963C_ctrlcd: Command/Data signal pin
- T6963C_ctrlrst: Reset signal pin
- T6963C_ctrlwr_Direction: Direction of Write signal pin
- T6963C_ctrlrd_Direction: Direction of Read signal pin
- T6963C_ctrlcd_Direction: Direction of Command/Data signal pin
- T6963C_ctrlrst_Direction: Direction of Reset signal pin
must be defined before using this function.
595
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Example
// T6963C module connections
char T6963C_dataPort at PORTB;
// DATA port
sbit
sbit
sbit
sbit
sbit
sbit
sbit
sbit
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
T6963C_ctrlwr at LATF2_bit;
T6963C_ctrlrd at LATF1_bit;
T6963C_ctrlcd at LATF0_bit;
T6963C_ctrlrst at LATF4_bit;
T6963C_ctrlwr_Direction at TRISF2_bit;
T6963C_ctrlrd_Direction at TRISF1_bit;
T6963C_ctrlcd_Direction at TRISF0_bit;
T6963C_ctrlrst_Direction at TRISF4_bit;
WR write signal
RD read signal
CD command/data signal
RST reset signal
WR write signal
RD read signal
CD command/data signal
RST reset signal
// Signals not used by library, they are set in main function
sbit T6963C_ctrlce at LATF3_bit;
// CE signal
sbit T6963C_ctrlfs at LATF6_bit;
// FS signal
sbit T6963C_ctrlmd at LATF5_bit;
// MD signal
sbit T6963C_ctrlce_Direction at TRISF3_bit;
// CE signal direction
sbit T6963C_ctrlfs_Direction at TRISF6_bit;
// FS signal direction
sbit T6963C_ctrlmd_Direction at TRISF5_bit;
// MD signal direction
// End T6963C module connections
Notes
...
// init display for 240 pixel width, 128 pixel height and 8 bits character
width
T6963C_init(240, 128, 8);
None.
T6963C_writeData
Prototype
void T6963C_writeData(unsigned char mydata);
Description Writes data to T6963C controller.
Parameters - mydata: data to be written
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Toshiba Glcd module needs to be initialized. See the T6963C_init routine.
Example
T6963C_writeData(AddrL);
Notes
None.
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T6963C_writeCommand
Prototype
void T6963C_writeCommand(unsigned char mydata);
Description Writes command to T6963C controller.
Parameters - mydata: command to be written
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Toshiba Glcd module needs to be initialized. See the T6963C_init routine.
Example
T6963C_writeCommand(T6963C_CURSOR_POINTER_SET);
Notes
None.
T6963C_setPtr
Prototype
void T6963C_setPtr(unsigned int p, unsigned char c);
Description Sets the memory pointer p for command p.
Parameters - p: address where command should be written
- c: command to be written
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Toshiba Glcd module needs to be initialized. See the T6963C_init routine.
Example
T6963C_setPtr(T6963C_grHomeAddr + start, T6963C_ADDRESS_POINTER_SET);
Notes
None.
T6963C_waitReady
Prototype
void T6963C_waitReady();
Description Pools the status byte, and loops until Toshiba Glcd module is ready.
Parameters None.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Toshiba Glcd module needs to be initialized. See the T6963C_init routine.
Example
T6963C_waitReady();
Notes
None.
597
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T6963C_fill
Prototype
void T6963C_fill(unsigned char v, unsigned int start, unsigned int len);
Description Fills controller memory block with given byte.
Parameters - v: byte to be written
- start: starting address of the memory block
- len: length of the memory block in bytes
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Toshiba Glcd module needs to be initialized. See the T6963C_init routine.
Example
T6963C_fill(0x33,0x00FF,0x000F);
Notes
None.
T6963C_dot
Prototype
void T6963C_dot(int x, int y, unsigned char color);
Description Draws a dot in the current graphic panel of Glcd at coordinates (x, y).
Parameters - x: dot position on x-axis
- y: dot position on y-axis
- color: color parameter. Valid values: T6963C_BLACK and T6963C_WHITE
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Toshiba Glcd module needs to be initialized. See the T6963C_init routine.
Example
T6963C_dot(x0, y0, pcolor);
Notes
None.
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T6963C_write_char
Prototype
void T6963C_write_char(unsigned char c, unsigned char x, unsigned char y,
unsigned char mode);
Description Writes a char in the current text panel of Glcd at coordinates (x, y).
Parameters - c: char to be written
- x: char position on x-axis
- y: char position on y-axis
- mode: mode parameter. Valid values: T6963C_ROM_MODE_OR, T6963C_ROM_MODE_XOR,
T6963C_ROM_MODE_AND and T6963C_ROM_MODE_TEXT
Mode parameter explanation:
- OR Mode: In the OR-Mode, text and graphics can be displayed and the data is logically “OR-ed”. This
is the most common way of combining text and graphics for example labels on buttons.
- XOR-Mode: In this mode, the text and graphics data are combined via the logical “exclusive OR”.
This can be useful to display text in the negative mode, i.e. white text on black background.
- AND-Mode: The text and graphic data shown on display are combined via the logical “AND
function”.
- TEXT-Mode: This option is only available when displaying just a text. The Text Attribute values are
stored in the graphic area of display memory.
For more details see the T6963C datasheet.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Toshiba Glcd module needs to be initialized. See the T6963C_init routine.
Example
T6963C_write_char(‘A’,22,23,T6963C_ROM_MODE_AND);
Notes
None.
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T6963C_write_text
Prototype
void T6963C_write_text(unsigned char *str, unsigned char x, unsigned char
y, unsigned char mode);
Description Writes text in the current text panel of Glcd at coordinates (x, y).
Parameters - str: text to be written
- x: text position on x-axis
- y: text position on y-axis
- mode: mode parameter. Valid values: T6963C_ROM_MODE_OR, T6963C_ROM_MODE_XOR,
T6963C_ROM_MODE_AND and T6963C_ROM_MODE_TEXT
Mode parameter explanation:
- OR Mode: In the OR-Mode, text and graphics can be displayed and the data is logically “OR-ed”. This
is the most common way of combining text and graphics for example labels on buttons.
- XOR-Mode: In this mode, the text and graphics data are combined via the logical “exclusive OR”.
This can be useful to display text in the negative mode, i.e. white text on black background.
- AND-Mode: The text and graphic data shown on display are combined via the logical “AND
function”.
- TEXT-Mode: This option is only available when displaying just a text. The Text Attribute values are
stored in the graphic area of display memory.
For more details see the T6963C datasheet.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Toshiba Glcd module needs to be initialized. See the T6963C_init routine.
Example
T6963C_write_text(“Glcd LIBRARY DEMO, WELCOME !”, 0, 0, T6963C_ROM_MODE_
XOR);
Notes
None.
T6963C_line
Prototype
void T6963C_line(int x0, int y0, int x1, int y1, unsigned char pcolor);
Description Draws a line from (x0, y0) to (x1, y1).
Parameters - x0: x coordinate of the line start
- y0: y coordinate of the line end
- x1: x coordinate of the line start
- y1: y coordinate of the line end
- pcolor: color parameter. Valid values: T6963C_BLACK and T6963C_WHITE
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Toshiba Glcd module needs to be initialized. See the T6963C_init routine.
Example
T6963C_line(0, 0, 239, 127, T6963C_WHITE);
Notes
None.
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T6963C_rectangle
Prototype
void T6963C_rectangle(int
pcolor);
x0,
int
y0,
int
x1,
int
y1,
unsigned
char
Description Draws a rectangle on Glcd.
Parameters - x0: x coordinate of the upper left rectangle corner
- y0: y coordinate of the upper left rectangle corner
- x1: x coordinate of the lower right rectangle corner
- y1: y coordinate of the lower right rectangle corner
- pcolor: color parameter. Valid values: T6963C_BLACK and T6963C_WHITE
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Toshiba Glcd module needs to be initialized. See the T6963C_init routine.
Example
T6963C_rectangle(20, 20, 219, 107, T6963C_WHITE);
Notes
None.
T6963C_rectangle_round_edges
Prototype
void T6963C_rectangle_round_edges(int x0, int y0, int x1, int y1, int round_
radius, unsigned char pcolor);
Description Draws a rounded edge rectangle on Glcd.
Parameters - x0: x coordinate of the upper left rectangle corner
- y0: y coordinate of the upper left rectangle corner
- x1: x coordinate of the lower right rectangle corner
- y1: y coordinate of the lower right rectangle corner
- round_radius: radius of the rounded edge.
- pcolor: color parameter. Valid values: T6963C_BLACK and T6963C_WHITE
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Toshiba Glcd module needs to be initialized. See the T6963C_init routine.
Example
T6963C_rectangle_round_edges(20, 20, 219, 107, 12, T6963C_WHITE);
Notes
None.
601
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T6963C_rectangle_round_edges_fill
Prototype
void T6963C_rectangle_round_edges_fill(int x0, int y0, int x1, int y1, int
round_radius, unsigned char pcolor);
Description Draws a filled rounded edge rectangle on Glcd.
Parameters - x0: x coordinate of the upper left rectangle corner
- y0: y coordinate of the upper left rectangle corner
- x1: x coordinate of the lower right rectangle corner
- y1: y coordinate of the lower right rectangle corner
- round_radius: radius of the rounded edge
- pcolor: color parameter. Valid values: T6963C_BLACK and T6963C_WHITE
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Toshiba Glcd module needs to be initialized. See the T6963C_init routine.
Example
T6963C_rectangle_round_edges_fill(20, 20, 219, 107, 12, T6963C_WHITE);
Notes
None.
T6963C_box
Prototype
void T6963C_box(int x0, int y0, int x1, int y1, unsigned char pcolor);
Description Draws a box on Glcd
Parameters - x0: x coordinate of the upper left box corner
- y0: y coordinate of the upper left box corner
- x1: x coordinate of the lower right box corner
- y1: y coordinate of the lower right box corner
- pcolor: color parameter. Valid values: T6963C_BLACK and T6963C_WHITE
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Toshiba Glcd module needs to be initialized. See the T6963C_init routine.
Example
T6963C_box(0, 119, 239, 127, T6963C_WHITE);
Notes
None.
T6963C_circle
Prototype
void T6963C_circle(int x, int y, long r, unsigned char pcolor);
Description Draws a circle on Glcd.
Parameters - x: x coordinate of the circle center
- y: y coordinate of the circle center
- r: radius size
- pcolor: color parameter. Valid values: T6963C_BLACK and T6963C_WHITE
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Toshiba Glcd module needs to be initialized. See the T6963C_init routine.
Example
T6963C_box(0, 119, 239, 127, T6963C_WHITE);
Notes
None.
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T6963C_circle_fill
Prototype
void T6963C_circle_fill(int x, int y, long r, unsigned char pcolor);
Description Draws a filled circle on Glcd.
Parameters - x: x coordinate of the circle center
- y: y coordinate of the circle center
- r: radius size
- pcolor: color parameter. Valid values: T6963C_BLACK and T6963C_WHITE
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Toshiba Glcd module needs to be initialized. See the T6963C_init routine.
Example
T6963C_circle_fill(120, 64, 110, T6963C_WHITE);
Notes
None.
T6963C_image
Prototype
void T6963C_image(const code char *pic);
Description Displays bitmap on Glcd.
Parameters - pic: image to be displayed. Bitmap array can be located in both code and RAM memory (due to the
mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 pointer to const and pointer to RAM equivalency).
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Toshiba Glcd module needs to be initialized. See the T6963C_init routine.
Example
T6963C_image(my_image);
Notes
Image dimension must match the display dimension.
Use the integrated Glcd Bitmap Editor (menu option Tools › Glcd Bitmap Editor) to convert image to
a constant array suitable for displaying on Glcd.
603
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T6963C_PartialImage
Prototype
void T6963C_PartialImage(unsigned int x_left, unsigned int y_top, unsigned
int width, unsigned int height, unsigned int picture_width, unsigned int
picture_height, code const unsigned short * image);
Description Displays a partial area of the image on a desired location.
Parameters - x_left: x coordinate of the desired location (upper left coordinate).
- y_top: y coordinate of the desired location (upper left coordinate).
- width: desired image width.
- height: desired image height.
- picture_width: width of the original image.
- picture_height: height of the original image.
- image: image to be displayed. Bitmap array can be located in both code and RAM memory (due to
the mikroC PRO for PIC pointer to const and pointer to RAM equivalency).
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Toshiba Glcd module needs to be initialized. See T6963C_init routine.
Example
// Draws a 10x15 part of the image starting from the upper left corner on
the coordinate (10,12). Original image size is 16x32.
T6963C_PartialImage(10, 12, 10, 15, 16, 32, image);
Notes
Image dimension must match the display dimension.
Use the integrated Glcd Bitmap Editor (menu option Tools › Glcd Bitmap Editor) to convert image to
a constant array suitable for displaying on Glcd.
T6963C_sprite
Prototype
void T6963C_sprite(unsigned char px, unsigned char py, const code char *pic,
unsigned char sx, unsigned char sy);
Description Fills graphic rectangle area (px, py) to (px+sx, py+sy) with custom size picture.
Parameters - px: x coordinate of the upper left picture corner. Valid values: multiples of the font width
- py: y coordinate of the upper left picture corner
- pic: picture to be displayed
- sx: picture width. Valid values: multiples of the font width
- sy: picture height
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Toshiba Glcd module needs to be initialized. See the T6963C_init routine.
Example
T6963C_sprite(76, 4, einstein, 88, 119); // draw a sprite
Notes
If px and sx parameters are not multiples of the font width they will be scaled to the nearest lower
number that is a multiple of the font width.
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T6963C_set_cursor
Prototype
void T6963C_set_cursor(unsigned char x, unsigned char y);
Description Sets cursor to row x and column y.
Parameters - x: cursor position row number
- y: cursor position column number
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Toshiba Glcd module needs to be initialized. See the T6963C_init routine.
Example
T6963C_set_cursor(cposx, cposy);
Notes
None.
T6963C_clearBit
Prototype
void T6963C_clearBit(unsigned int b);
Description Clears control port bit(s).
Parameters - b: bit mask. The function will clear bit x on control port if bit x in bit mask is set to 1.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Toshiba Glcd module needs to be initialized. See the T6963C_init routine.
Example
// clear bits 0 and 1 on control port
T6963C_clearBit(0x0003);
Notes
None.
T6963C_setBit
Prototype
void T6963C_setBit(unsigned int b);
Description Sets control port bit(s).
Parameters - b: bit mask. The function will set bit x on control port if bit x in bit mask is set to 1.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Toshiba Glcd module needs to be initialized. See the T6963C_init routine.
Example
// set bits 0 and 1 on control port
T6963C_setBit(0x0003);
Notes
605
None.
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T6963C_negBit
Prototype
void T6963C_negBit(unsigned int b);
Description Negates control port bit(s).
Parameters - b: bit mask. The function will negate bit x on control port if bit x in bit mask is set to 1.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Toshiba Glcd module needs to be initialized. See the T6963C_init routine.
Example
// negate bits 0 and 1 on control port
T6963C_negBit(0x0003);
Notes
None.
T6963C_displayGrPanel
Prototype
void T6963C_displayGrPanel(unsigned int n);
Description Display selected graphic panel.
Parameters - n: graphic panel number. Valid values: 0 and 1.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Toshiba Glcd module needs to be initialized. See the T6963C_init routine.
Example
// display graphic panel 1
T6963C_displayGrPanel(1);
Notes
None.
T6963C_displayTxtPanel
Prototype
void T6963C_displayTxtPanel(unsigned int n);
Description Display selected text panel.
Parameters - n: text panel number. Valid values: 0 and 1.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Toshiba Glcd module needs to be initialized. See the T6963C_init routine.
Example
// display text panel 1
T6963C_displayTxtPanel(1);
Notes
None.
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T6963C_setGrPanel
Prototype
void T6963C_setGrPanel(unsigned int n);
Description Compute start address for selected graphic panel and set appropriate internal pointers. All subsequent
graphic operations will be preformed at this graphic panel.
Parameters - n: graphic panel number. Valid values: 0 and 1.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Toshiba Glcd module needs to be initialized. See the T6963C_init routine.
Example
// set graphic panel 1 as current graphic panel.
T6963C_setGrPanel(1);
Notes
None.
T6963C_setTxtPanel
Prototype
void T6963C_setTxtPanel(unsigned int n);
Description Compute start address for selected text panel and set appropriate internal pointers. All subsequent
text operations will be preformed at this text panel.
Parameters - n: text panel number. Valid values: 0 and 1.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Toshiba Glcd module needs to be initialized. See the T6963C_init routine.
Example
// set text panel 1 as current text panel.
T6963C_setTxtPanel(1);
Notes
None.
T6963C_panelFill
Prototype
void T6963C_panelFill(unsigned char v);
Description Fill current panel in full (graphic+text) with appropriate value (0 to clear).
Parameters - v: value to fill panel with.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Toshiba Glcd module needs to be initialized. See the T6963C_init routine.
Example
clear current panel
T6963C_panelFill(0);
Notes
607
None.
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T6963C_grFill
Prototype
void T6963C_grFill(unsigned char v);
Description Fill current graphic panel with appropriate value (0 to clear).
Parameters - v: value to fill graphic panel with.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Toshiba Glcd module needs to be initialized. See the T6963C_init routine.
Example
// clear current graphic panel
T6963C_grFill(0);
Notes
None.
T6963C_txtFill
Prototype
void T6963C_txtFill(unsigned char v);
Description Fill current text panel with appropriate value (0 to clear).
Parameters - v: this value increased by 32 will be used to fill text panel.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Toshiba Glcd module needs to be initialized. See the T6963C_init routine.
Example
// clear current text panel
T6963C_txtFill(0);
Notes
None.
T6963C_cursor_height
Prototype
void T6963C_cursor_height(unsigned char n);
Description Set cursor size.
Parameters - n: cursor height. Valid values: 0..7.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Toshiba Glcd module needs to be initialized. See the T6963C_init routine.
Example
T6963C_cursor_height(7);
Notes
None.
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T6963C_graphics
Prototype
void T6963C_graphics(unsigned int n);
Description Enable/disable graphic displaying.
Parameters - n: graphic enable/disable parameter. Valid values: 0 (disable graphic dispaying) and 1 (enable
graphic displaying).
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Toshiba Glcd module needs to be initialized. See the T6963C_init routine.
Example
// enable graphic displaying
T6963C_graphics(1);
Notes
None.
T6963C_text
Prototype
void T6963C_text(unsigned int n);
Description Enable/disable text displaying.
Parameters - n: on/off parameter. Valid values: 0 (disable text displaying) and 1 (enable text displaying).
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Toshiba Glcd module needs to be initialized. See the T6963C_init routine.
Example
// enable text displaying
T6963C_text(1);
Notes
None.
T6963C_cursor
Prototype
void T6963C_cursor(unsigned int n);
Description Set cursor on/off.
Parameters - n: on/off parameter. Valid values: 0 (set cursor off) and 1 (set cursor on).
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Toshiba Glcd module needs to be initialized. See the T6963C_init routine.
Example
// set cursor on
T6963C_cursor(1);
Notes
609
None.
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T6963C_cursor_blink
Prototype
void T6963C_cursor_blink(unsigned int n);
Description Enable/disable cursor blinking.
Parameters - n: cursor blinking enable/disable parameter. Valid values: 0 (disable cursor blinking) and 1 (enable
cursor blinking).
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Toshiba Glcd module needs to be initialized. See the T6963C_init routine.
Example
// enable cursor blinking
T6963C_cursor_blink(1);
Notes
None.
Library Example
The following drawing demo tests advanced routines of the T6963C Glcd library. Hardware configurations in this
example are made for the dsPICPRO2 board and dsPIC30F6014A.
Copy Code To Clipboard
#include
"__T6963C.h"
// T6963C module connections
char T6963C_dataPort at PORTB;
// DATA port
sbit
sbit
sbit
sbit
sbit
sbit
sbit
sbit
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
T6963C_ctrlwr at LATF2_bit;
T6963C_ctrlrd at LATF1_bit;
T6963C_ctrlcd at LATF0_bit;
T6963C_ctrlrst at LATF4_bit;
T6963C_ctrlwr_Direction at TRISF2_bit;
T6963C_ctrlrd_Direction at TRISF1_bit;
T6963C_ctrlcd_Direction at TRISF0_bit;
T6963C_ctrlrst_Direction at TRISF4_bit;
WR write signal
RD read signal
CD command/data signal
RST reset signal
WR write signal
RD read signal
CD command/data signal
RST reset signal
// Signals not used by library, they are set in main function
sbit T6963C_ctrlce at LATF3_bit;
// CE signal
sbit T6963C_ctrlfs at LATF6_bit;
// FS signal
sbit T6963C_ctrlmd at LATF5_bit;
// MD signal
sbit T6963C_ctrlce_Direction at TRISF3_bit;
// CE signal direction
sbit T6963C_ctrlfs_Direction at TRISF6_bit;
// FS signal direction
sbit T6963C_ctrlmd_Direction at TRISF5_bit;
// MD signal direction
// End T6963C module connections
/*
* bitmap pictures stored in ROM
*/
const code char mikroE_240x128_bmp[];
const code char einstein[];
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void main() {
char txt1[] = " EINSTEIN WOULD HAVE LIKED mE";
char txt[] = " GLCD LIBRARY DEMO, WELCOME !";
unsigned
unsigned
unsigned
unsigned
char
int
char
int
panel;
i;
curs;
cposx, cposy;
#define COMPLETE_EXAMPLE
//
//
//
//
Current panel
General purpose register
Cursor visibility
Cursor x-y position
// comment this line to make simpler/smaller example
ADPCFG = 0xFFFF;
// Configure AN pins as digital
TRISB8_bit = 1;
TRISB9_bit = 1;
TRISB10_bit = 1;
TRISB11_bit = 1;
TRISB12_bit = 1;
//
//
//
//
//
T6963C_ctrlce_Direction = 0;
T6963C_ctrlce = 0;
T6963C_ctrlfs_Direction = 0;
T6963C_ctrlfs = 0;
T6963C_ctrlmd_Direction = 0;
T6963C_ctrlmd = 0;
Set
Set
Set
Set
Set
RF0
RF1
RF2
RF3
RF4
as
as
as
as
as
input
input
input
input
input
// Enable T6963C
// Font Select 8x8
// Column number select
// Initialize T6963C
T6963C_init(240, 128, 8);
/*
* Enable both graphics and text display at the same time
*/
T6963C_graphics(1);
T6963C_text(1);
panel = 0;
i = 0;
curs = 0;
cposx = cposy = 0;
/*
* Text messages
*/
T6963C_write_text(txt, 0, 0, T6963C_ROM_MODE_XOR);
T6963C_write_text(txt1, 0, 15, T6963C_ROM_MODE_XOR);
/*
* Cursor
*/
T6963C_cursor_height(8);
T6963C_set_cursor(0, 0);
T6963C_cursor(0);
611
// 8 pixel height
// Move cursor to top left
// Cursor off
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/*
* Draw rectangles
*/
T6963C_rectangle(0, 0, 239, 127, T6963C_WHITE);
T6963C_rectangle(20, 20, 219, 107, T6963C_WHITE);
T6963C_rectangle(40, 40, 199, 87, T6963C_WHITE);
T6963C_rectangle(60, 60, 179, 67, T6963C_WHITE);
/*
* Draw a cross
*/
T6963C_line(0, 0, 239, 127, T6963C_WHITE);
T6963C_line(0, 127, 239, 0, T6963C_WHITE);
/*
* Draw solid boxes
*/
T6963C_box(0, 0, 239, 8, T6963C_WHITE);
T6963C_box(0, 119, 239, 127, T6963C_WHITE);
#ifdef COMPLETE_EXAMPLE
/*
* Draw circles
*/
T6963C_circle(120, 64,
T6963C_circle(120, 64,
T6963C_circle(120, 64,
T6963C_circle(120, 64,
T6963C_circle(120, 64,
T6963C_circle(120, 64,
T6963C_circle(120, 64,
10, T6963C_WHITE);
30, T6963C_WHITE);
50, T6963C_WHITE);
70, T6963C_WHITE);
90, T6963C_WHITE);
110, T6963C_WHITE);
130, T6963C_WHITE);
T6963C_sprite(76, 4, einstein, 88, 119);
// Draw a sprite
T6963C_setGrPanel(1);
// Select other graphic panel
T6963C_image(mikroE_240x128_bmp);
// Draw an image
#endif
for(;;) {
// Endless loop
/*
* If RF0 is pressed, display only graphic panel
*/
if(RB8_bit) {
T6963C_graphics(1);
T6963C_text(0);
Delay_ms(300);
}
#ifdef COMPLETE_EXAMPLE
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1
/*
* If RF1 is pressed, toggle the display between graphic panel 0 and graphic panel
*/
else if(RB9_bit) {
panel++;
panel &= 1;
T6963C_displayGrPanel(panel);
Delay_ms(300);
}
#endif
/*
* If RF2 is pressed, display only text panel
*/
else if(RB10_bit) {
T6963C_graphics(0);
T6963C_text(1);
Delay_ms(300);
}
/*
* If RF3 is pressed, display text and graphic panels
*/
else if(RB11_bit) {
T6963C_graphics(1);
T6963C_text(1);
Delay_ms(300);
}
/*
* If RF4 is pressed, change cursor
*/
else if(RB12_bit) {
curs++;
if(curs == 3) curs = 0;
switch(curs) {
case 0:
// no cursor
T6963C_cursor(0);
break;
case 1:
// blinking cursor
T6963C_cursor(1);
T6963C_cursor_blink(1);
break;
case 2:
// non blinking cursor
T6963C_cursor(1);
T6963C_cursor_blink(0);
break;
}
Delay_ms(300);
}
613
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/*
* Move cursor, even if not visible
*/
cposx++;
if(cposx == T6963C_txtCols) {
cposx = 0;
cposy++;
if(cposy == T6963C_grHeight / T6963C_CHARACTER_HEIGHT) {
cposy = 0;
}
}
T6963C_set_cursor(cposx, cposy);
}
Delay_ms(100);
}
HW Connection
T6963C Glcd HW connection
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TFT Library
Thin film transistor liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) is a variant of liquid crystal display (LCD) which uses thin-film
transistor (TFT) technology to improve image quality (e.g., addressability, contrast).
TFT LCD is one type of active matrix LCD, though all LCD-screens are based on TFT active matrix addressing.
TFT LCDs are used in television sets, computer monitors, mobile phones, handheld video game systems, personal
digital assistants, navigation systems, projectors, etc.
The mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 provides a library for working with HX8347-D 320x240 TFT Lcd controller.
The HX8347-D is designed to provide a single-chip solution that combines a gate driver, a source driver, power supply
circuit for 262,144 colors to drive a TFT panel with 320x240 dots at maximum.
The HX8347-D is suitable for any small portable battery-driven and long-term driving products, such as small PDAs,
digital cellular phones and bi-directional pagers.
External dependencies of TFT Library
The following variables
must be defined in all
projects using TFT
library:
Description :
Example :
extern sfr char TFT_
TFT Data Port.
DataPort;
char TFT_DataPort at
LATE;
extern sfr sbit TFT_
Write signal.
WR;
sbit TFT_WR at LATD13_
bit;
extern sfr char TFT_ Direction of the TFT Data
DataPort_Direction;
Port.
extern sfr sbit TFT_
Read signal.
RD;
extern sfr sbit TFT_
Chip Select signal.
CS;
extern sfr sbit TFT_ Command/Register Select
RS;
signal.
extern sfr sbit TFT_
Reset signal.
RST;
extern sfr sbit TFT_
Direction of the Write pin.
WR_Direction;
extern sfr sbit TFT_
Direction of the Read pin.
RD_Direction;
extern sfr sbit TFT_ Direction of the Chip Select
CS_Direction;
pin.
extern sfr sbit TFT_ Direction of the Register
RS_Direction;
Select pin.
extern sfr sbit TFT_
Direction of the Reset pin.
RST_Direction;
615
char
TFT_DataPort_
Direction at TRISE;
sbit TFT_RD at LATD12_
bit;
sbit TFT_CS at LATC3_
bit;
sbit TFT_RS at LATB15_
bit;
sbit TFT_RST at LATC1_
bit;
sbit TFT_WR_Direction
at TRISD13_bit;
sbit TFT_RD_Direction
at TRISD12_bit;
sbit TFT_CS_Direction
at TRISC3_bit;
sbit TFT_RS_Direction
at TRISB13_bit;
sbit TFT_RST_Direction
at TRISC1_bit;
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Library Routines
- TFT_Init
- TFT_Set_Index
- TFT_Write_Command
- TFT_Write_Data
- TFT_Set_Active
- TFT_Set_Font
- TFT_Write_Char
- TFT_Write_Text
- TFT_Fill_Screen
- TFT_Set_Pen
- TFT_Set_Brush
- TFT_Dot
- TFT_Line
- TFT_H_Line
- TFT_V_Line
- TFT_Rectangle
- TFT_Rectangle_Round_Edges
- TFT_Circle
- TFT_Image
- TFT_PartialImage
- TFT_Image_Jpeg
- TFT_RGBToColor16bit
- TFT_Color16bitToRGB
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TFT_Init
Prototype
void TFT_Init(unsigned int display_width, unsigned char display_height);
Returns
Nothing
Description Initializes TFT display in the 8-bit working mode.
Parameters :
Requires
- width: width of the TFT panel
- height: height of the TFT panel
Global variables :
- TFT_DataPort: Data Port
- TFT_WR: Write signal pin
- TFT_RD: Read signal pin
- TFT_CS: Chip Select signal pin
- TFT_RS: Register Select signal pin
- TFT_RST: Reset signal pin
- TFT_DataPort_Direction: Direction of Data Port
- TFT_WR_Direction: Direction of Write signal pin
- TFT_RD_Direction: Direction of Read signal pin
- TFT_CS_Direction: Direction of Chip Select signal pin
- TFT_RS_Direction: Direction of Register Select signal pin
- TFT_RST_Direction: Direction of Reset signal pin
must be defined before using this function.
Example
// TFT display connections
char TFT_DataPort at LATE;
sbit TFT_WR at LATD13_bit;
sbit TFT_RD at LATD12_bit;
sbit TFT_CS at LATC3_bit;
sbit TFT_RS at LATB15_bit;
sbit TFT_RST at LATC1_bit;
char TFT_DataPort_Direction at TRISE;
sbit TFT_WR_Direction : at TRISD13_bit;
sbit TFT_RD_Direction at TRISD12_bit;
sbit TFT_CS_Direction at TRISC3_bit;
sbit TFT_RS_Direction at TRISB15_bit;
sbit TFT_RST_Direction at TRISC1_bit;
// End of TFT display connections
// Initialize 240x320 TFT display
TFT_Init(240, 320);
617
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TFT_Set_Index
Prototype
void TFT_Set_Index(unsigned short index);
Returns
Nothing
Description Accesses register space of the controller and sets the desired register.
Parameters :
Requires
Example
- index: desired register number.
TFT module needs to be initialized. See the TFT_Init routine.
// Access register at the location 0x02
TFT_Set_Index(0x02);
TFT_Write_Command
Prototype
void TFT_Write_Command(unsigned short cmd);
Returns
Nothing
Description Accesses data space and writes a command.
Parameters :
Requires
Example
- cmd: command to be written.
TFT module needs to be initialized. See the TFT_Init routine.
// Write a command
TFT_Write_Command(0x02);
TFT_Write_Data
Prototype
void TFT_Write_Data(unsigned int _data);
Returns
Nothing
Description Writes date into display memory.
Parameters :
Requires
Example
- _data:data to be written.
TFT module needs to be initialized. See the TFT_Init routine.
// Send data
TFT_Write_Data(0x02);
MikroElektronika
618
mikroC PRO for dsPIC
TFT_Set_Active
Prototype
Returns
void TFT_Set_Active(void (*Set_Index_Ptr)(unsigned short), void (*Write_
Command_Ptr)(unsigned short), void (*Write_Data_Ptr)(unsigned int));
Nothing
Description This function sets appropriate pointers to a user-defined basic routines in order to enable multiple
working modes.
Parameters :
Requires
Example
- Set_Index_Ptr: Set_Index handler.
- Write_Command_Ptr: _Write_Command handler.
- Write_Data_Ptr: Write_Data handler.
None.
// Example of establishing 16-bit communication between TFT display and
PORTD, PORTE of MCU :
void Set_Index(unsigned short index) {
TFT_RS = 0;
Lo(LATD) = index;
TFT_WR = 0;
TFT_WR = 1;
}
void Write_Command(unsigned short cmd) {
TFT_RS = 1;
Lo(LATD) = cmd;
TFT_WR = 0;
TFT_WR = 1;
}
void Write_Data(unsigned int _data) {
TFT_RS = 1;
Lo(LATE) = Hi(_data);
Lo(LATD) = Lo(_data);
TFT_WR = 0;
TFT_WR = 1;
}
void main(){
TRISE = 0;
TRISD = 0;
TFT_Set_Active(Set_Index,Write_Command,Write_Data);
TFT_Init(320, 240);
}
619
.....
MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
TFT_Set_Font
Prototype
Returns
void TFT_Set_Font(const char far *activeFont, unsigned int font_color, char
font_orientation);
Nothing
Description Sets font, its color and font orientation.
Parameters :
- activeFont: desired font. Currently, only TFT_defaultFont (Tahoma14x16) is supported.
- font_color: sets font color :
Value
Description
CL_AQUA
Aqua color
CL_BLACK
CL_BLUE
CL_FUCHSIA
CL_GRAY
CL_GREEN
CL_LIME
CL_MAROON
CL_NAVY
CL_OLIVE
CL_PURPLE
CL_RED
CL_SILVER
CL_TEAL
CL_WHITE
CL_YELLOW
Black color
Blue color
Fuchsia color
Gray color
Green color
Lime color
Maroon color
Navy color
Olive color
Purple color
Red color
Silver color
Teal color
White color
Yellow color
- font_orientation: sets font orientation :
Value
Description
FO_HORIZONTAL
Horizontal orientation
FO_VERTICAL
Vertical orientation
Requires
TFT module needs to be initialized. See the TFT_Init routine.
Example
TFT_Set_Font(TFT_defaultFont, CL_BLACK, FO_HORIZONTAL);
MikroElektronika
620
mikroC PRO for dsPIC
TFT_Write_Char
Prototype
void TFT_Write_Char(unsigned int c, unsigned int x, unsigned int y);
Returns
Nothing.
Description Writes a char on the TFT at coordinates (x, y).
Requires
Example
- c: char to be written.
- x: char position on x-axis.
- y: char position on y-axis.
TFT module needs to be initialized. See the TFT_Init routine.
TFT_Write_Char(‘A’,22,23,);
TFT_Write_Text
Prototype
void TFT_Write_Text(unsigned char *text, unsigned int x, unsigned int y);
Returns
Nothing.
Description Writes text on the TFT at coordinates (x, y).
Parameters :
Requires
Example
621
- text: text to be written.
- x: text position on x-axis.
- y: text position on y-axis.
TFT module needs to be initialized. See the TFT_Init routine.
TFT_Write_Text(“TFT LIBRARY DEMO, WELCOME !”, 0, 0,);
MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
TFT_Fill_Screen
Prototype
void TFT_Fill_Screen(unsigned int color);
Returns
Nothing.
Description Fills screen memory block with given color.
Parameters :
- color: color to be filled :
Value
Description
CL_AQUA
Aqua color
CL_BLACK
CL_BLUE
CL_FUCHSIA
CL_GRAY
CL_GREEN
CL_LIME
CL_MAROON
CL_NAVY
CL_OLIVE
CL_PURPLE
CL_RED
CL_SILVER
CL_TEAL
CL_WHITE
CL_YELLOW
Black color
Blue color
Fuchsia color
Gray color
Green color
Lime color
Maroon color
Navy color
Olive color
Purple color
Red color
Silver color
Teal color
White color
Yellow color
Requires
TFT module needs to be initialized. See the TFT_Init routine.
Example
TFT_Fill_Screen(CL_BLACK);
MikroElektronika
622
mikroC PRO for dsPIC
TFT_Dot
Prototype
void TFT_Dot(int x, int y, unsigned int color);
Returns
Nothing.
Description Draws a dot on the TFT at coordinates (x, y).
Parameters :
- x: dot position on x-axis.
- y: dot position on y-axis.
- color: color parameter. Valid values :
Value
Description
CL_AQUA
Aqua color
CL_BLACK
CL_BLUE
CL_FUCHSIA
CL_GRAY
CL_GREEN
CL_LIME
CL_MAROON
CL_NAVY
CL_OLIVE
CL_PURPLE
CL_RED
CL_SILVER
CL_TEAL
CL_WHITE
CL_YELLOW
Black color
Blue color
Fuchsia color
Gray color
Green color
Lime color
Maroon color
Navy color
Olive color
Purple color
Red color
Silver color
Teal color
White color
Yellow color
Requires
TFT module needs to be initialized. See the TFT_Init routine.
Example
TFT_Dot(50, 50, CL_BLACK);
623
MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
TFT_Set_Pen
Prototype
void TFT_Set_Pen(unsigned int pen_color, char pen_width);
Returns
Nothing.
Description Sets color and thickness parameter for drawing line, circle and rectangle elements.
Parameters :
- pen_color: Sets color.
Value
Description
CL_AQUA
Aqua color
CL_BLACK
CL_BLUE
CL_FUCHSIA
CL_GRAY
CL_GREEN
CL_LIME
CL_MAROON
CL_NAVY
CL_OLIVE
CL_PURPLE
CL_RED
CL_SILVER
CL_TEAL
CL_WHITE
CL_YELLOW
Black color
Blue color
Fuchsia color
Gray color
Green color
Lime color
Maroon color
Navy color
Olive color
Purple color
Red color
Silver color
Teal color
White color
Yellow color
- pen_width: sets thickness.
Requires
TFT module needs to be initialized. See the TFT_Init routine.
Example
TFT_Set_Pen(CL_BLACK, 10);
MikroElektronika
624
mikroC PRO for dsPIC
TFT_Set_Brush
Prototype
Returns
void TFT_Set_Brush(char brush_enabled, unsigned int brush_color, char
gradient_enabled, char gradient_orientation, unsigned int gradient_color_
from, unsigned int gradient_color_to);
Nothing.
Description Sets color and gradient which will be used to fill circles or rectangles.
Parameters :
- brush_enabled: enable brush fill.
Value
Description
1
Enable brush fill.
0
Disable brush fill.
- brush_color: set brush fill color.
Value
Description
CL_AQUA
Aqua color
CL_BLACK
CL_BLUE
CL_FUCHSIA
CL_GRAY
CL_GREEN
CL_LIME
CL_MAROON
CL_NAVY
CL_OLIVE
CL_PURPLE
CL_RED
CL_SILVER
CL_TEAL
CL_WHITE
CL_YELLOW
625
Black color
Blue color
Fuchsia color
Gray color
Green color
Lime color
Maroon color
Navy color
Olive color
Purple color
Red color
Silver color
Teal color
White color
Yellow color
MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
Description - gradient_enabled: enable gradient
Value
Description
1
Enable gradient.
0
Disable gradient.
- gradient_orientation: sets gradient orientation :
Value
Description
LEFT_TO_RIGHT
Left to right gradient orientation
TOP_TO_BOTTOM
Top to bottom gradient orientation
- gradient_color_from: sets the starting gradient color.
Value
Description
CL_AQUA
Aqua color
CL_BLACK
CL_BLUE
CL_FUCHSIA
CL_GRAY
CL_GREEN
CL_LIME
CL_MAROON
CL_NAVY
CL_OLIVE
CL_PURPLE
CL_RED
CL_SILVER
CL_TEAL
CL_WHITE
CL_YELLOW
MikroElektronika
Black color
Blue color
Fuchsia color
Gray color
Green color
Lime color
Maroon color
Navy color
Olive color
Purple color
Red color
Silver color
Teal color
White color
Yellow color
626
mikroC PRO for dsPIC
Description - gradient_color_to: sets the ending gradient color.
Value
Description
CL_AQUA
Aqua color
CL_BLACK
CL_BLUE
CL_FUCHSIA
CL_GRAY
CL_GREEN
CL_LIME
CL_MAROON
CL_NAVY
CL_OLIVE
CL_PURPLE
CL_RED
CL_SILVER
CL_TEAL
CL_WHITE
CL_YELLOW
Black color
Blue color
Fuchsia color
Gray color
Green color
Lime color
Maroon color
Navy color
Olive color
Purple color
Red color
Silver color
Teal color
White color
Yellow color
Requires
TFT module needs to be initialized. See the TFT_Init routine.
Example
// Enable gradient from black to white color, left-right orientation
TFT_Set_Brush(0, 0, 1, LEFT_TO_RIGHT, CL_BLACK, CL_WHITE);
TFT_Line
Prototype
void TFT_Line(int x1, int y1, int x2, int y2);
Returns
Nothing.
Description Draws a line from (x1, y1) to (x2, y2).
Parameters :
Requires
Example
627
- x1: x coordinate of the line start.
- y1: y coordinate of the line end.
- x2: x coordinate of the line start.
- y2: y coordinate of the line end.
TFT module needs to be initialized. See the TFT_Init routine.
TFT_Line(0, 0, 239, 127);
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mikoC PRO for dsPIC
TFT_H_Line
Prototype
void TFT_H_Line(int x_start, int x_end, int y_pos);
Returns
Nothing.
Description Draws a horizontal line on TFT.
Parameters :
Requires
Example
- x_start: x coordinate of the line start.
- x_end: x coordinate of the line end.
- y_pos: y coordinate of horizontal line.
TFT module needs to be initialized. See the TFT_Init routine.
// Draw a horizontal line between dots (10,20) and (50,20)
TFT_H_Line(10, 50, 20);
TFT_V_Line
Prototype
void TFT_V_Line(int y_start, int y_end, int x_pos);
Returns
Nothing.
Description Draws a vertical line on TFT.
Parameters :
Requires
Example
- y_start: y coordinate of the line start.
- y_end: y coordinate of the line end.
- x_pos: x coordinate of vertical line.
TFT module needs to be initialized. See the TFT_Init routine.
// Draw a vertical line between dots (10,5) and (10,25)
TFT_V_Line(5, 25, 10);
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628
mikroC PRO for dsPIC
TFT_Rectangle_Round_Edges
Prototype
Returns
void TFT_Rectangle_Round_Edges(unsigned int x_upper_left, unsigned int
y_upper_left, unsigned int x_bottom_right, unsigned int y_bottom_right,
unsigned int round_radius);
Nothing.
Description Draws a rounded edge rectangle on TFT.
Parameters :
Requires
Example
- x_upper_left: x coordinate of the upper left rectangle corner.
- y_upper_left: y coordinate of the upper left rectangle corner.
- x_bottom_right: x coordinate of the lower right rectangle corner.
- y_bottom_right: y coordinate of the lower right rectangle corner.
- round_radius: radius of the rounded edge.
TFT module needs to be initialized. See the TFT_Init routine.
TFT_Rectangle_Round_Edges(20, 20, 219, 107, 12);
TFT_Circle
Prototype
void TFT_Circle(int x_center, int y_center, int radius);
Returns
Nothing.
Description Draws a circle on TFT.
Parameters :
Requires
Example
- x: x coordinate of the circle center.
- y: y coordinate of the circle center.
- r: radius size.
TFT module needs to be initialized. See the TFT_Init routine.
TFT_Circle(120, 64, 110);
TFT_Image
Prototype
Returns
void TFT_Image(unsigned int left, unsigned int top, code const far unsigned
short * image, unsigned short stretch);
Nothing.
Description Displays an image on a desired location.
Parameters :
Requires
Example
629
- left: position of the image’s left edge.
- top:position of the image’s top edge.
- image: image to be displayed. Bitmap array is located in code memory.
- stretch: stretches image by a given factor (if 2, it will double the image.).
TFT module needs to be initialized. See the TFT_Init routine.
TFT_Image(0, 0, image, 1);
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mikoC PRO for dsPIC
TFT_Partial_Image
Prototype
Returns
void TFT_Partial_Image(unsigned int left, unsigned int top, unsigned int
width, unsigned int height, code const far unsigned short * image, unsigned
short stretch);
Nothing.
Description Displays a partial area of the image on a desired location.
Parameters :
Requires
Example
- left: left coordinate of the image.
- top: top coordinate of the image.
- width: desired image width.
- height: desired image height.
- image: image to be displayed. Bitmap array is located in code memory.
- stretch: stretches image by a given factor (if 2, it will double the image.).
TFT module needs to be initialized. See the TFT_Init routine.
// Draws a 10x15 part of the image starting from the upper left corner on
the coordinate (10,12)
TFT_PartialImage(10, 12, 10, 15, image, 1);
TFT_Image_Jpeg
Prototype
Returns
char TFT_Image_Jpeg(unsigned int left, unsigned int top, code const far
unsigned short *image);
- 0 - if image is loaded and displayed successfully.
- 1 - if error occured.
Description Displays a JPEG image on a desired location.
Parameters :
Requires
Example
- left: left coordinate of the image.
- top: top coordinate of the image.
- image: image to be displayed. Bitmap array is located in code memory.
TFT module needs to be initialized. See the TFT_Init routine.
TFT_Image_Jpeg(0, 0, image);
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630
mikroC PRO for dsPIC
TFT_RGBToColor16bit
Prototype
Returns
unsigned int TFT_RGBToColor16bit(char rgb_red, char rgb_green, char rgb_
blue);
Returns a color value in the following bit-order : 5 bits red, 6 bits green and 5 bits blue color.
Description Converts 5:6:5 RGB format into true color format.
Parameters :
Requires
Example
- rgb_red: red component of the image.
- rgb_green: green component of the image.
- rgb_blue: blue component of the image.
TFT module needs to be initialized. See the TFT_Init routine.
color16 = TFT_Image_Jpeg(150, 193, 65);
TFT_Color16bitToRGB
Prototype
Returns
void TFT_Color16bitToRGB(unsigned int color, char *rgb_red, char *rgb_green,
char *rgb_blue);
Nothing.
Description Converts true color into 5:6:5 RGB format.
Parameters :
Requires
Example
631
- color: true color to be converted.
- rgb_red: red component of the input color.
- rgb_green: green component of the input color.
- rgb_blue: blue component of the input color.
TFT module needs to be initialized. See the TFT_Init routine.
TFT_Color16bitToRGB(start_color, &red_start, &green_start, &blue_start);
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HW Connection
TFT HW connection
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mikroC PRO for dsPIC
Touch Panel Library
The mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 provides a library for working with Touch Panel.
Library Dependency Tree
External dependencies of Touch Panel Library
The following variables must be defined in Description:
all projects using Touch Panel Library:
Example:
extern sfr sbit DriveA;
sbit DriveA at LATC13_bit;
extern sfr sbit DriveB;
DriveA line.
DriveB line.
extern sfr sbit DriveA_Direction;
Direction of the DriveA pin.
extern sfr sbit DriveB_Direction;
Direction of the DriveB pin.
sbit DriveB at LATC14_bit;
sbit
DriveA_Direction
TRISC13_bit;
sbit
DriveB_Direction
TRISC14_bit;
at
at
Library Routines
633
- TP_Init
- TP_Set_ADC_Threshold
- TP_Press_Detect
- TP_Get_Coordinates
- TP_Calibrate_Bottom_Left
- TP_Calibrate_Upper_Right
- TP_Get_Calibration_Consts
- TP_Set_Calibration_Consts
MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
TP_Init
Prototype
void TP_Init(unsigned int display_width, unsigned
unsigned int readX_ChNo, unsigned int readY_ChNo);
int
display_height,
Description Initialize touch panel display. Default touch panel ADC threshold value is set to 3900.
Parameters
- display_width: set display width.
- display_height: set display height.
- readX_ChNo: read X coordinate from desired ADC channel.
- readY_ChNo: read Y coordinate from desired ADC channel.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Before calling this function initialize ADC module.
Example
ADC1_Init();
TP_Init(128, 64, 6, 7);
Notes
None.
// Initalize ADC module
// Initialize touch panel, dimensions 128x64
TP_Set_ADC_Threshold
Prototype
void TP_Set_ADC_Threshold(unsigned int threshold);
Description Set custom ADC threshold value, call this function after TP_Init.
Parameters
- threshold: custom ADC threshold value.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
TP_Init has to be called before using this routine.
Example
TP_Set_ADC_Threshold(3900);
Notes
None.
MikroElektronika
// Set touch panel ADC threshold
634
mikroC PRO for dsPIC
TP_Press_Detect
Prototype
char TP_Press_Detect();
Description Detects if the touch panel has been pressed.
Parameters None.
Returns
- 1 - if touch panel is pressed.
- 0 - otherwise.
Requires
Global variables:
- DriveA: DriveA.
- DriveB: DriveB.
- DriveA_Direction: Direction of DriveA pin.
- DriveB_Direction: Direction of DriveB pin.
must be defined before using this function.
Example
// Touch Panel module connections
sbit DriveA at LATC13_bit;
sbit DriveB at LATC14_bit;
sbit DriveA_Direction at TRISC13_bit;
sbit DriveB_Direction at TRISC14_bit;
// End Touch Panel module connections
if (TP_Press_Detect()) {
...
}
Notes
635
None.
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mikoC PRO for dsPIC
TP_Get_Coordinates
Prototype
char TP_Get_Coordinates(unsigned
coordinate);
int
*x_coordinate,
unsigned
int
*y_
Description Get touch panel coordinates and store them in x_coordinate and y_coordinate parameters.
Parameters
- x_coordinate: x coordinate of the place of touch.
- y_coordinate: y coordinate of the place of touch.
Returns
- 1 - if reading is within display dimension range.
- 0 - if reading is out of display dimension range.
Requires
Nothing.
Example
if (TP_Get_Coordinates(&x_coord, &y_coord) == 0) {
...
}
Notes
None.
TP_Calibrate_Bottom_Left
Prototype
void TP_Calibrate_Bottom_Left();
Description Calibrate bottom left corner of the touch Panel.
Parameters None.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Nothing.
Example
TP_Calibrate_Bottom_Left();
Notes
None.
MikroElektronika
// Calibration of bottom left corner
636
mikroC PRO for dsPIC
TP_Calibrate_Upper_Right
Prototype
void TP_Calibrate_Upper_Right();
Description Calibrate upper right corner of the touch panel.
Parameters None.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Nothing.
Example
TP_Calibrate_Upper_Right();
Notes
None.
// Calibration of upper right corner
TP_Get_Calibration_Consts
Prototype
void TP_Get_Calibration_Consts(unsigned int *x_min, unsigned int *x_max,
unsigned int *y_min, unsigned int *y_max);
Description Gets calibration constants after calibration is done and stores them in x_min, x_max, y_min and
y_max parameters.
Parameters
- x_min: x coordinate of the bottom left corner of the working area.
- x_max: x coordinate of the upper right corner of the working area.
- y_min: y coordinate of the bottom left corner of the working area.
- y_max: y coordinate of the upper right corner of the working area.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Nothing.
Example
TP_Get_Calibration_Consts(&x_min,
calibration constants
Notes
None.
637
&y_min,
&x_max,
&y_max);
//
Get
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mikoC PRO for dsPIC
TP_Set_Calibration_Consts
Prototype
void TP_Set_Calibration_Consts(unsigned int
unsigned int y_min, unsigned int y_max);
x_min,
unsigned
int
x_max,
Description Sets calibration constants.
Parameters
- x_min: x coordinate of the bottom left corner of the working area.
- x_max: x coordinate of the upper right corner of the working area.
- y_min: y coordinate of the bottom left corner of the working area.
- y_max: y coordinate of the upper right corner of the working area.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Nothing.
Example
TP_Set_Calibration_Consts(148, 3590, 519, 3370);
constants
Notes
None.
// Set calibration
Library Example
The following drawing demo tests routines of the Touch Panel library:
Copy Code To Clipboard
// Glcd module connections
sbit GLCD_D7 at RD3_bit;
sbit GLCD_D6 at RD2_bit;
sbit GLCD_D5 at RD1_bit;
sbit GLCD_D4 at RD0_bit;
sbit GLCD_D3 at RB3_bit;
sbit GLCD_D2 at RB2_bit;
sbit GLCD_D1 at RB1_bit;
sbit GLCD_D0 at RB0_bit;
sbit GLCD_D7_Direction at TRISD3_bit;
sbit GLCD_D6_Direction at TRISD2_bit;
sbit GLCD_D5_Direction at TRISD1_bit;
sbit GLCD_D4_Direction at TRISD0_bit;
sbit GLCD_D3_Direction at TRISB3_bit;
sbit GLCD_D2_Direction at TRISB2_bit;
sbit GLCD_D1_Direction at TRISB1_bit;
sbit GLCD_D0_Direction at TRISB0_bit;
MikroElektronika
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mikroC PRO for dsPIC
sbit GLCD_CS1 at LATB4_bit;
sbit GLCD_CS2 at LATB5_bit;
sbit GLCD_RS at LATF0_bit;
sbit GLCD_RW at LATF1_bit;
sbit GLCD_EN at LATF4_bit;
sbit GLCD_RST at LATF5_bit;
sbit GLCD_CS1_Direction at TRISB4_bit;
sbit GLCD_CS2_Direction at TRISB5_bit;
sbit GLCD_RS_Direction at TRISF0_bit;
sbit GLCD_RW_Direction at TRISF1_bit;
sbit GLCD_EN_Direction at TRISF4_bit;
sbit GLCD_RST_Direction at TRISF5_bit;
// End Glcd module connections
// Touch Panel module connections
sbit DriveA at LATC13_bit;
sbit DriveB at LATC14_bit;
sbit DriveA_Direction at TRISC13_bit;
sbit DriveB_Direction at TRISC14_bit;
// End Touch Panel module connections
bit
write_erase;
char
pen_size;
char write_msg[] = “WRITE”;
char clear_msg[] = “CLEAR”;
char erase_msg[] = “ERASE”;
unsigned int x_coord, y_coord;
void Initialize() {
ADPCFG = 0xFF3F;
}
// GLCD menu messages
// set AN6 and AN7 channel pins as analog
DriveA_Direction = 0;
DriveB_Direction = 0;
// Set DriveA pin as output
// Set DriveB pin as output
Glcd_Init();
Glcd_Fill(0);
// Initialize GLCD
// Clear GLCD
ADC1_Init();
TP_Init(128, 64, 6, 7);
TP_Set_ADC_Threshold(3900);
// Initalize ADC module
// Initialize touch panel
// Set touch panel ADC threshold
void Calibrate() {
Glcd_Dot(0,63,1);
// Draw bottom left dot
Glcd_Write_Text(“TOUCH BOTTOM LEFT”,12,3,1);
TP_Calibrate_Bottom_Left();
// Calibration of bottom left corner
Delay_ms(1000);
639
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mikoC PRO for dsPIC
Glcd_Dot(0,63,0);
Glcd_Dot(127,0,1);
Glcd_Write_Text(“
Glcd_Write_Text(“TOUCH UPPER
TP_Calibrate_Upper_Right();
}
// Clear bottom left dot
// Draw upper right dot
“,12,3,1);
RIGHT”,12,4,1);
// Calibration of upper right corner
Delay_ms(1000);
void main() {
Initialize();
Glcd_Write_Text(“CALIBRATION”,12,3,1);
Delay_ms(1000);
Glcd_Fill(0);
// Clear GLCD
Calibrate();
Glcd_Fill(0);
Glcd_Write_Text(“WRITE ON SCREEN”, 20, 5, 1) ;
Delay_ms(1000);
Glcd_Fill(0);
// Clear GLCD
Glcd_V_Line(0,7,0,1);
Glcd_Write_Text(clear_msg,1,0,0);
Glcd_V_Line(0,7,97,1);
Glcd_Write_Text(erase_msg,98,0,0);
// Pen Menu:
Glcd_Rectangle(41,0,52,9,1);
Glcd_Box(45,3,48,6,1);
Glcd_Rectangle(63,0,70,7,1);
Glcd_Box(66,3,67,4,1);
Glcd_Rectangle(80,0,86,6,1);
Glcd_Dot(83,3,1);
write_erase = 1;
pen_size = 1;
while (1) {
if (TP_Press_Detect()) {
// After a PRESS is detected read X-Y and convert it to 128x64 space
if (TP_Get_Coordinates(&x_coord, &y_coord) == 0) {
if ((x_coord < 31) && (y_coord < 8)) {
Glcd_Fill(0);
MikroElektronika
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mikroC PRO for dsPIC
// Pen Menu:
Glcd_Rectangle(41,0,52,9,1);
Glcd_Box(45,3,48,6,1);
Glcd_Rectangle(63,0,70,7,1);
Glcd_Box(66,3,67,4,1);
Glcd_Rectangle(80,0,86,6,1);
Glcd_Dot(83,3,1);
Glcd_V_Line(0,7,0,1);
Glcd_Write_Text(clear_msg,1,0,0);
Glcd_V_Line(0,7,97,1);
if (write_erase)
Glcd_Write_Text(erase_msg,98,0,0);
else
Glcd_Write_Text(write_msg,98,0,0);
}
// If write/erase is pressed
if ((x_coord > 96) && (y_coord < 8)) {
if (write_erase) {
write_erase = 0;
Glcd_Write_Text(write_msg,98,0,0);
Delay_ms(500);
}
else {
write_erase = 1;
Glcd_Write_Text(erase_msg,98,0,0);
Delay_ms(500);
}
}
// If pen size is selected
if ((x_coord >= 41) && (x_coord <= 52) && (y_coord <= 9))
pen_size = 3;
if ((x_coord >= 63) && (x_coord <= 70) && (y_coord <= 7))
pen_size = 2;
if ((x_coord >= 80) && (x_coord <= 86) && (y_coord <= 6))
pen_size = 1;
if (y_coord < 11)
continue;
switch (pen_size) {
case 1 : {
if ( (x_coord >= 0) && (y_coord >= 0) && (x_coord <= 127) && (y_coord <= 63) )
Glcd_Dot(x_coord, y_coord, write_erase);
break;
}
641
MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
case 2 : {
if ( (x_coord >= 0) && (y_coord >= 0) && (x_coord <= 127-1) && (y_coord <= 63-1) )
Glcd_Box(x_coord, y_coord, x_coord + 1, y_coord + 1, write_erase);
break;
}
case 3 : {
if ( (x_coord >= 1) && (y_coord >= 1) && (x_coord <= 127-2) && (y_coord <= 63-2) )
Glcd_Box(x_coord-1, y_coord-1, x_coord + 2, y_coord + 2, write_erase);
break;
}
}
}
}
}
}
MikroElektronika
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mikroC PRO for dsPIC
Touch Panel TFT Library
The mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 provides a library for working with Touch Panel for TFT.
Library Dependency Tree
External dependencies of Touch Panel TFT Library
The following variables must be
defined in all projects using Touch Description:
Panel TFT Library:
extern sfr sbit DriveX_Left;
DriveX_Left line.
extern sfr sbit DriveX_Right;
DriveX_Right line.
extern sfr sbit DriveY_Up;
DriveY_Up line.
extern sfr sbit DriveY_Down;
DriveY_Down line.
extern sfr sbit DriveX_Left_ Direction of the DriveX_Left pin.
Direction;
extern sfr sbit DriveX_Right_ Direction of the DriveX_Right pin.
Direction;
extern sfr
Direction;
sbit
DriveY_Up_ Direction of the DriveY_Up pin.
extern sfr sbit DriveY_Down_ Direction of the DriveY_Down pin.
Direction;
Example:
sbit DriveX_Left
at LATB13_bit;
sbit DriveX_Right
at LATB11_bit;
sbit
DriveY_Up
at LATB12_bit;
sbit DriveY_Down
at LATB10_bit;
sbit
DriveX_
Left_Direction
at TRISB13_bit;
sbit
DriveX_
Right_Direction
at TRISB11_bit;
sbit DriveY_Up_
Direction
at
TRISB12_bit;
sbit
DriveY_
Down_Direction
at TRISB10_bit;
Library Routines
643
- TP_TFT_Init
- TP_TFT_Set_ADC_Threshold
- TP_TFT_Press_Detect
- TP_TFT_Get_Coordinates
- TP_TFT_Calibrate_Min
- TP_TFT_Calibrate_Max
- TP_TFT_Get_Calibration_Consts
- TP_TFT_Set_Calibration_Consts
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mikoC PRO for dsPIC
TP_TFT_Init
Prototype
void TP_TFT_Init(unsigned int display_width, unsigned int display_height,
unsigned int readX_ChNo, unsigned int readY_ChNo);
Description Initialize TFT touch panel display. Default touch panel ADC threshold value is set to 900.
Parameters
- display_width: set display width.
- display_height: set display height.
- readX_ChNo: read X coordinate from desired ADC channel.
- readY_ChNo: read Y coordinate from desired ADC channel.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Before calling this function initialize ADC module.
Example
ADC1_Init();
// Initalize ADC module
TP_TFT_Init(320, 240, 13, 12); // Initialize touch panel
Notes
None.
TP_TFT_Set_ADC_Threshold
Prototype
void TP_TFT_Set_ADC_Threshold(unsigned int threshold);
Description Set custom ADC threshold value, call this function after TP_TFT_Init.
Parameters
- threshold: custom ADC threshold value.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
TP_TFT_Init has to be called before using this routine.
Example
TP_TFT_Set_ADC_Threshold(900);
Notes
None.
MikroElektronika
// Set touch panel ADC threshold
644
mikroC PRO for dsPIC
TP_TFT_Press_Detect
Prototype
char TP_TFT_Press_Detect();
Description Detects if the touch panel has been pressed.
Parameters None.
Returns
- 1 - if touch panel is pressed.
- 0 - otherwise.
Requires
Global variables:
- DriveX_Left: DriveX_Left pin.
- DriveX_Right: DriveX_Right pin.
- DriveY_Up: DriveY_Up pin.
- DriveY_Down: DriveY_Down pin.
- DriveX_Left_Direction: Direction of DriveX_Left pin.
- DriveX_Right_Direction: Direction of DriveX_Right pin.
- DriveY_Up_Direction: Direction of DriveY_Up pin.
- DriveY_Down_Direction: Direction of DriveY_Down pin.
must be defined before using this function.
Example
// Touch Panel module connections
sbit DriveX_Left at LATB13_bit;
sbit DriveX_Right at LATB11_bit;
sbit DriveY_Up at LATB12_bit;
sbit DriveY_Down at LATB10_bit;
sbit DriveX_Left_Direction at TRISB13_bit;
sbit DriveX_Right_Direction at TRISB11_bit;
sbit DriveY_Up_Direction at TRISB12_bit;
sbit DriveY_Down_Direction at TRISB10_bit;
// End Touch Panel module connections
if (TP_TFT_Press_Detect()) {
...
}
Notes
645
None.
MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
TP_TFT_Get_Coordinates
Prototype
char TP_TFT_Get_Coordinates(unsigned int *x_coordinate, unsigned int *y_
coordinate);
Description Get touch panel coordinates and store them in x_coordinate and y_coordinate parameters.
Parameters
Returns
- x_coordinate: x coordinate of the place of touch.
- y_coordinate: y coordinate of the place of touch.
- 1 - if reading is within display dimension range.
- 0 - if reading is out of display dimension range.
Requires
Nothing.
Example
if (TP_TFT_Get_Coordinates(&x_coord, &y_coord) == 0) {
...
}
Notes
None.
TP_TFT_Calibrate_Min
Prototype
void TP_TFT_Calibrate_Min();
Description Calibrate bottom left corner of the touch Panel.
Parameters None.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Nothing.
Example
TP_TFT_Calibrate_Min();
Notes
None.
MikroElektronika
// Calibration of bottom left corner
646
mikroC PRO for dsPIC
TP_TFT_Calibrate_Max
Prototype
void TP_TFT_Calibrate_Max();
Description Calibrate upper right corner of the touch panel.
Parameters None.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Nothing.
Example
TP_TFT_Calibrate_Max();
Notes
None.
// Calibration of upper right corner
TP_TFT_Get_Calibration_Consts
Prototype
void TP_TFT_Get_Calibration_Consts(unsigned int *x_min, unsigned int *x_
max, unsigned int *y_min, unsigned int *y_max);
Description Gets calibration constants after calibration is done and stores them in x_min, x_max, y_min and
y_max parameters.
Parameters
- x_min: x coordinate of the bottom left corner of the working area.
- x_max: x coordinate of the upper right corner of the working area.
- y_min: y coordinate of the bottom left corner of the working area.
- y_max: y coordinate of the upper right corner of the working area.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Nothing.
Example
TP_TFT_Get_Calibration_Consts(&x_min, &y_min, &x_max, &y_max);
Notes
None.
647
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TP_TFT_Set_Calibration_Consts
Prototype
void TP_TFT_Set_Calibration_Consts(unsigned int x_min, unsigned int x_max,
unsigned int y_min, unsigned int y_max);
Description Sets calibration constants.
Parameters
- x_min: x coordinate of the bottom left corner of the working area.
- x_max: x coordinate of the upper right corner of the working area.
- y_min: y coordinate of the bottom left corner of the working area.
- y_max: y coordinate of the upper right corner of the working area.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Nothing.
Example
TP_TFT_Set_Calibration_Consts(173, 776, 75, 760);
constants
Notes
None.
// Set calibration
HW Connection
MikroElektronika
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mikroC PRO for dsPIC
UART Library
The UART hardware module is available with a number of dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 MCUs. The mikroC PRO for
dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 UART Library provides comfortable work with the Asynchronous (full duplex) mode.
Important:
- UART library routines require you to specify the module you want to use. To select the desired UART module, simply
change the letter x in the routine prototype for a number from 1 to 4.
- Switching between the UART modules in the UART library is done by the UART_Set_Active function (UART modules
have to be previously initialized).
- Number of UART modules per MCU differs from chip to chip. Please, read the appropriate datasheet before utilizing
this library.
Library Routines
649
- UARTx_Init
- UARTx_Init_Advanced
- UARTx_Data_Ready
- UARTx_Tx_Idle
- UARTx_Read
- UARTx_Read_Text
- UARTx_Write
- UARTx_Write_Text
- UART_Set_Active
MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
UARTx_Init
Prototype
void UARTx_Init(unsigned long baud_rate);
Description Configures and initializes the UART module.
The internal UART module module is set to:
- continue operation in IDLE mode
- default Tx and Rx pins
- loopback mode disabled
- 8-bit data, no parity
- 1 STOP bit
- transmitter enabled
- generate interrupt on transmission end
- interrupt on reception enabled
- Address Detect mode disabled
Parameters
- baud_rate: requested baud rate
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Routine requires the UART module.
Example
// Initialize hardware UART1 module and establish communication at 2400
bps
UART1_Init(2400);
Notes
Refer to the device data sheet for baud rates allowed for specific Fosc.
For the dsPIC33 and PIC24 MCUs, the compiler will choose for which speed the calculation is to be
performed (high or low). This does not mean that it is the best choice for desired baud rate.
If the baud rate error generated in this way is too big then UARTx_Init_Advanced routine, which allows
speed select be used.
UART library routines require you to specify the module you want to use. To select the desired UART
module, simply change the letter x in the routine prototype for a number from 1 to 4.
Switching between the UART modules in the UART library is done by the UART_Set_Active function
(UART modules have to be previously initialized).
Number of UART modules per MCU differs from chip to chip. Please, read the appropriate datasheet
before utilizing this library.
MikroElektronika
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mikroC PRO for dsPIC
UARTx_Init_Advanced
Prototype
// dsPIC30 prototype
void UARTx_Init_Advanced(unsigned
unsigned int stop_bits);
long
unsigned
int
parity,
// dsPIC33 and PIC24 prototype
void UARTx_Init_Advanced(unsigned long baud_rate, unsigned
unsigned int stop_bits, unsigned int high_low_speed);
int
parity,
baud_rate,
Description Configures and initializes the UART module with user defined settings.
Parameters
- baud_rate: requested baud rate
- parity: parity and data selection parameter.
Valid values:
Data/Parity Mode
Description
Predefined library const
8-bit data, no parity
_UART_8BIT_NOPARITY
8-bit data, odd parity
_UART_8BIT_ODDPARITY
8-bit data, even parity
9-bit data, no parity
_UART_8BIT_EVENPARITY
_UART_9BIT_NOPARITY
- stop_bits: stop bit selection parameter.
Valid values:
Stop bits
Description
Predefined library const
One stop bit
_UART_ONE_STOPBIT
Two stop bit
_UART_TWO_STOPBITS
- high_low_speed: high/low speed selection parameter. Available only for dsPIC33 and PIC24
MCUs.
Valid values:
High/Low Speed
Description
Low Speed UART
Hi Speed UART
651
Predefined library const
_UART_LOW_SPEED
_UART_HI_SPEED
MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Routine requires the UART module.
Example
// dsPIC30 family example
// Initialize hardware UART1 module and establish communication at 2400 bps,
8-bit data, even parity and 2 STOP bits
UART1_Init_Advanced(2400, 2, 1);
// dsPIC33 and PIC24 family example
// Initialize hardware UART2 module and establish communication at 2400 bps,
8-bit data, even parity, 2 STOP bits and high speed baud rate calculations
UART2_Init_Advanced(2400, 2, 1, 1);
Notes
Refer to the device data sheet for baud rates allowed for specific Fosc.
UART library routines require you to specify the module you want to use. To select the desired UART
module, simply change the letter x in the routine prototype for a number from 1 to 4.
Switching between the UART modules in the UART library is done by the UART_Set_Active function
(UART modules have to be previously initialized).
Number of UART modules per MCU differs from chip to chip. Please, read the appropriate datasheet
before utilizing this library.
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UARTx_Data_Ready
Prototype
unsigned UARTx_Data_Ready();
Description The function tests if data in receive buffer is ready for reading.
Parameters
None.
Returns
- 1 if data is ready for reading
- 0 if there is no data in the receive register
Requires
Routine requires at least one UART module.
Used UART module must be initialized before using this routine. See UARTx_Init and UARTx_Init_
Advanced routines.
Example
unsigned receive;
...
// read data if ready
if (UART1_Data_Ready())
receive = UART1_Read();
Notes
UART library routines require you to specify the module you want to use. To select the desired UART
module, simply change the letter x in the routine prototype for a number from 1 to 4.
Number of UART modules per MCU differs from chip to chip. Please, read the appropriate datasheet
before utilizing this library.
653
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mikoC PRO for dsPIC
UARTx_Tx_Idle
Prototype
char UARTx_Tx_Idle();
Description Use the function to test if the transmit shift register is empty or not.
Parameters
None.
Returns
- 1 if the data has been transmitted
- 0 otherwise
Requires
Routine requires at least one UART module.
Used UART module must be initialized before using this routine. See UARTx_Init and UARTx_Init_
Advanced routines.
Example
// If the previous data has been shifted out, send next data:
if (UART1_Tx_Idle() == 1) {
UART1_Write(_data);
}
Notes
UART library routines require you to specify the module you want to use. To select the desired UART
module, simply change the letter x in the routine prototype for a number from 1 to 4.
Number of UART modules per MCU differs from chip to chip. Please, read the appropriate datasheet
before utilizing this library.
MikroElektronika
654
mikroC PRO for dsPIC
UARTx_Read
Prototype
unsigned UARTx_Read();
Description The function receives a byte via UART. Use the UARTx_Data_Ready function to test if data is ready
first.
Parameters
None.
Returns
Received byte.
Requires
Routine requires at least one UART module.
Used UART module must be initialized before using this routine. See UARTx_Init and UARTx_Init_
Advanced routines.
Example
unsigned receive;
...
// read data if ready
if (UART1_Data_Ready())
receive = UART1_Read();
Notes
UART library routines require you to specify the module you want to use. To select the desired UART
module, simply change the letter x in the routine prototype for a number from 1 to 4.
Number of UART modules per MCU differs from chip to chip. Please, read the appropriate datasheet
before utilizing this library.
655
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mikoC PRO for dsPIC
UARTx_Read_Text
Prototype
void UARTx_Read_Text(char *Output, char *Delimiter, char Attempts);
Description Reads characters received via UART until the delimiter sequence is detected. The read sequence is
stored in the parameter output; delimiter sequence is stored in the parameter delimiter.
This is a blocking call: the delimiter sequence is expected, otherwise the procedure exits (if the
delimiter is not found).
Parameters
- Output: received text
- Delimiter: sequence of characters that identifies the end of a received string
- Attempts: defines number of received characters in which Delimiter sequence is expected. If
Attempts is set to 255, this routine will continuously try to detect the Delimiter sequence.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Routine requires at least one UART module.
Used UART module must be initialized before using this routine. See UARTx_Init and UARTx_Init_
Advanced routines.
Example
Read text until the sequence “OK” is received, and send back what’s been received:
UART1_Init(4800);
Delay_ms(100);
while (1) {
if (UART1_Data_Ready() == 1) {
UART1_Read_Text(output, “OK”, 10);
found
UART1_Write_Text(output);
}
}
Notes
// initialize UART1 module
// if data is received
// reads text until ‘OK’ is
// sends back text
UART library routines require you to specify the module you want to use. To select the desired UART
module, simply change the letter x in the routine prototype for a number from 1 to 4.
Number of UART modules per MCU differs from chip to chip. Please, read the appropriate datasheet
before utilizing this library.
MikroElektronika
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mikroC PRO for dsPIC
UARTx_Write
Prototype
void UARTx_Write(unsigned char data);
Description The function transmits a byte via the UART module.
Parameters
- data: data to be sent
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Routine requires at least one UART module.
Used UART module must be initialized before using this routine. See UARTx_Init and UARTx_Init_
Advanced routines.
Example
unsigned char data = 0x1E;
...
UART1_Write(data);
Notes
UART library routines require you to specify the module you want to use. To select the desired UART
module, simply change the letter x in the routine prototype for a number from 1 to 4.
Number of UART modules per MCU differs from chip to chip. Please, read the appropriate datasheet
before utilizing this library.
657
MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
UARTx_Write_Text
Prototype
void UARTx_Write_Text(char * UART_text);
Description Sends text via UART. Text should be zero terminated.
Parameters
- UART_text: text to be sent
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Routine requires at least one UART module.
Used UART module must be initialized before using this routine. See UARTx_Init and UARTx_Init_
Advanced routines.
Example
Read text until the sequence “OK” is received, and send back what’s been received:
UART1_Init(4800);
Delay_ms(100);
while (1) {
if (UART1_Data_Ready() == 1) {
UART1_Read_Text(output, “OK”, 10);
found
UART1_Write_Text(output);
}
}
Notes
// initialize UART1 module
// if data is received
// reads text until ‘OK’ is
// sends back text
UART library routines require you to specify the module you want to use. To select the desired UART
module, simply change the letter x in the routine prototype for a number from 1 to 4.
Number of UART modules per MCU differs from chip to chip. Please, read the appropriate datasheet
before utilizing this library.
MikroElektronika
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mikroC PRO for dsPIC
UART_Set_Active
Prototype
void UART_Set_Active(unsigned (*read_ptr)(), void (*write_ptr)(unsigned
char _data), unsigned (*ready_ptr)(), unsigned (*tx_idle_ptr)());
Description Sets active UART module which will be used by UARTx_Data_Ready, UARTx_Read and UARTx_
Write routines.
Parameters
Parameters:
- read_ptr: UARTx_Read handler
- write_ptr: UARTx_Write handler
- ready_ptr: UARTx_Data_Ready handler
- tx_idle_ptr: UARTx_Tx_Idle handler
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Routine is available only for MCUs with multiple UART modules.
Used UART module must be initialized before using this routine. See UARTx_Init and UARTx_Init_
Advanced routines.
Example
UART1_Init(9600);
UART2_Init(9600);
// initialize UART1 module
// initialize UART2 module
RS485Master_Init();
// initialize MCU as Master
UART_Set_Active(&UART1_Read, &UART1_Write, &UART1_Data_Ready, &UART1_Tx_Id
le);
// set UART1 active
RS485Master_Send(dat,1,160);
// send message through UART1
UART_Set_Active(&UART2_Read, &UART2_Write, &UART2_Data_Ready, &UART2_Tx_Id
le);
// set UART2 active
RS485Master_Send(dat,1,160);
// send through UART2
Notes
659
None.
MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
Library Example
This example demonstrates simple data exchange via UART. If MCU is connected to the PC, you can test the example
from the mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 USART communication terminal, launch it from the drop-down menu
Tools › USART Terminal or simply click the USART Terminal Icon
.
Copy Code To Clipboard
char uart_rd;
void main() {
UART1_Init(9600);
Delay_ms(100);
// Initialize UART module at 9600 bps
// Wait for UART module to stabilize
//
U1MODEbits.ALTIO = 1; // un-comment this line to have Rx and Tx pins on their
alternate
// locations. This is used to free the pins for other module,
namely the SPI.
UART1_Write_Text(“Start”);
UART1_Write(10);
UART1_Write(13);
}
while (1) {
if (UART1_Data_Ready()) {
uart_rd = UART1_Read();
UART1_Write(uart_rd);
}
}
MikroElektronika
//
//
//
//
Endless loop
If data is received,
read the received data,
and send data via UART
660
mikroC PRO for dsPIC
HW Connection
RS232 HW connection
661
MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
USB Library
Universal Serial Bus (USB) provides a serial bus standard for connecting a wide variety of devices, including computers,
cell phones, game consoles, PDA’s, etc.
USB Library contains HID routines that support HID class devices, and also the generic routines that can be used with
vendor specified drivers.
USB HID Class
The HID class consists primarily of devices that are used by humans to control the operation of computer systems.
Typical examples of HID class devices include:
- Keyboards and pointing devices, for example: standard mouse devices, trackballs, and joysticks.
- Front-panel controls, for example: knobs, switches, buttons, and sliders.
- Controls that might be found on devices such as telephones, VCR remote controls, games or simulation devices, for example: data gloves, throttles, steering wheels, and rudder pedals.
- Devices that may not require human interaction but provide data in a similar format to HID class devices, for example, bar-code readers, thermometers, or voltmeters.
Many typical HID class devices include indicators, specialized displays, audio feedback, and force or tactile feedback.
Therefore, the HID class definition includes support for various types of output directed to the end user.
Descriptor File
Each project based on the USB library should include a descriptor source file which contains vendor id and name,
product id and name, report length, and other relevant information. To create a descriptor file, use the integrated USB
HID terminal of mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24(Tools › USB HID Terminal). The default name for descriptor
file is USBdsc.c, but you may rename it.
Library Routines
- HID_Enable
- HID_Read
- HID_Write
- HID_Disable
- USB_Interrupt_Proc
- USB_Polling_Proc
- Gen_Enable
- Gen_Read
- Gen_Write
MikroElektronika
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mikroC PRO for dsPIC
HID_Enable
Prototype
void HID_Enable(char *readbuff, char *writebuff);
Description Enables USB HID communication.
Parameters
- readbuff: Read Buffer.
- writebuff: Write Buffer.
These parameters are used for HID communication.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Nothing.
Example
HID_Enable(&readbuff,&writebuff);
Notes
This function needs to be called before using other routines of USB HID Library.
HID_Read
Prototype
char HID_Read(void);
Description Receives message from host and stores it in the Read Buffer.
Parameters
None.
Returns
If the data reading has failed, the function returns 0. Otherwise, it returns number of characters
received from the host.
Requires
USB HID needs to be enabled before using this function. See HID_Enable.
Example
// retry until success
while(!HID_Read())
;
Notes
None.
663
MikroElektronika
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HID_Write
Prototype
char HID_Write(char *writebuff, char len);
Description Function sends data from Write Buffer writebuff to host.
Parameters
- writebuff: Write Buffer, same parameter as used in initialization; see HID_Enable.
- len: specifies a length of the data to be transmitted.
Returns
If the data transmitting has failed, the function returns 0. Otherwise, it returns number of transmitted
bytes.
Requires
USB HID needs to be enabled before using this function. See HID_Enable.
Example
// retry until success
while(!HID_Write(&writebuff,64))
;
Notes
Function call needs to be repeated as long as data is not successfuly sent.
HID_Disable
Prototype
void HID_Disable(void);
Description Disables USB HID communication.
Parameters
None.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
USB HID needs to be enabled before using this function. See HID_Enable.
Example
HID_Disable();
Notes
None.
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664
mikroC PRO for dsPIC
USB_Interrupt_Proc
Prototype
void USB_Interrupt_Proc(void);
Description This routine is used for servicing various USB bus events. Should be called inside USB interrupt
routine.
Parameters
None.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Nothing.
Example
void USB1Interrupt() iv IVT_ADDR_USB1INTERRUPT {
USB_Interrupt_Proc();
}
Notes
Do not use this function with USB_Polling_Proc, only one should be used. To enable servicing through
interrupt, USB_INTERRUPT constant should be set (it is set by default in descriptor file).
USB_Polling_Proc
Prototype
void USB_Polling_Proc(void);
Description This routine is used for servicing various USB bus events. It should be periodically, preferably every
100 microseconds.
Parameters
None.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Nothing.
Example
while(1) {
USB_Polling_Proc();
kk = HID_Read();
if (kk != 0) {
for(cnt=0; cnt < 64; cnt++)
writebuff[cnt]=readbuff[cnt];
HID_Write(&writebuff,64);
}
}
Notes
Do not use this functions with USB_Interrupt_Proc. To enable servicing by polling, USB_INTERRUPT
constant should be set to 0 (it is located in descriptor file).
665
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mikoC PRO for dsPIC
Gen_Enable
Prototype
void Gen_Enable(char* readbuff, char* writebuff);
Description Initialize the USB module of the MCU.
Parameters
- readbuff: Read Buffer.
- writebuff: Write Buffer.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
USB needs to be enabled before using this function. See HID_Enable.
Example
Gen_Enable(&readbuff,&writebuff);
Notes
None.
Gen_Read
Prototype
char Gen_Read(char *readbuff, char length, char ep);
Description Generic routine that receives the specified data from the specified endpoint.
Parameters
- readbuff: Received data.
- length: The length of the data that you wish to receive.
- ep: Endpoint number you want to receive the data into.
Returns
Returns the number of received bytes, otherwise 0.
Requires
USB needs to be enabled before using this function. See HID_Enable.
Example
while(Gen_Read(readbuff,64,1)==0)
;
Notes
None.
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666
mikroC PRO for dsPIC
Gen_Write
Prototype
char Gen_Write(char* writebuff, char length, char ep);
Description Sends the specified data to the specified endpoint.
Parameters
- writebuff: The data that you want to send.
- length: the length of the data that you wish to send.
- ep: Endpoint number you want to send the data into.
Returns
Returns the number of transmitted bytes, otherwise 0.
Requires
USB needs to be enabled before using this function. See HID_Enable.
Example
while(Gen_Write(writebuff,64,1)==0)
;
Notes
None.
667
MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
Library Example
This example establishes connection with the HID terminal that is active on the PC. Upon connection establishment,
the HID Device Name will appear in the respective window. After that software will wait for data and it will return
received data back. Examples uses USBdsc.c descriptor file, which is in the same folder, and can be created by the
HID Terminal.
Copy Code To Clipboard
char cnt;
char readbuff[64];
char writebuff[64];
void USB1Interrupt() iv IVT_ADDR_USB1INTERRUPT {
USB_Interrupt_Proc();
}
void main(void){
AD1PCFGL = 0xFFFF;
HID_Enable(&readbuff,&writebuff);
while(1){
while(!HID_Read())
;
for(cnt=0;cnt<64;cnt++)
writebuff[cnt]=readbuff[cnt];
}
}
while(!HID_Write(&writebuff,64))
;
HW Connection
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668
mikroC PRO for dsPIC
DSP Libraries
mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 includes various libraries for DSP engine. All DSP routines work with fractional
Q15 format.
Digital Signal Processing Libraries
669
- FIR Filter Library
- IIR Filter Library
- FFT Library
- Bit Reverse Complex Library
- Vectors Library
- Matrices Library
MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
FIR Filter Library
mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 includes a library for finite impulse response (FIR) filter. All routines work with
fractional Q15 format.
A finite impulse response (FIR) filter is a type of a digital filter, whose impulse response (the filter’s response to a delta
function) is finite because it settles to zero in a finite number of sample intervals.
Library Routines
- FIR_Radix
FIR_Radix
Prototype
unsigned FIR_Radix(unsigned FilterOrder, const unsigned
unsigned BuffLength, unsigned *ptrInput, unsigned Index);
*ptrCoeffs,
Description This function applies FIR filter to ptrInput.
Parameters - FilterOrder: order of the filter + 1
- ptrCoeffs: pointer to filter coefficients in program memory
- BuffLength number of input samples
- ptrInput: pointer to input samples
- Index: index of current sample
Returns
Requires
with :
N - buffer length
k - current index
Nothing.
Example
const unsigned BUFFFER_SIZE = 32;
const unsigned FILTER_ORDER = 20;
const COEFF_B[FILTER_ORDER+1] = {
0x0000, 0x0048, 0x0133, 0x02D3, 0x052B, 0x0826,
0x0BA0, 0x0F62, 0x1329, 0x16AA, 0x199A, 0x16AA,
0x1329, 0x0F62, 0x0BA0, 0x0826, 0x052B, 0x02D3,
0x0133, 0x0048, 0x0000
};
ydata unsigned input[BUFFFER_SIZE];
// Input buffer
unsigned inext;
// Input buffer index
...
unsigned CurrentValue;
CurrentValue = FIR_Radix(FILTER_ORDER+1, // Filter order
COEFF_B,
// b coefficients of the filter
BUFFFER_SIZE,
// Input buffer length
input,
// Input buffer
inext);
// Current sample
Notes
Input samples must be in Y data space.
MikroElektronika
670
mikroC PRO for dsPIC
IIR Filter Library
mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 includes a library for Infinite Impulse Response (IIR) filter. All routines work
with fractional Q15 format.
A infinite impulse response (IIR) filter is a type of a digital filter, whose impulse response (the filter’s response to a delta
function) is non-zero over an infinite length of time.
Library Routines
IIR_Radix
IIR_Radix
Prototype
unsigned IIR_Radix (const int BScale, const int AScale, const signed *ptrB,
const signed *ptrA, unsigned FilterOrder, unsigned *ptrInput, unsigned
InputLen, unsigned *ptrOutput, unsigned Index);
Description This function applies IIR filter to ptrInput.
Parameters - BScale: B scale factor.
- AScale: A scale factor.
- ptrB: pointer to B coefficients (in program memory).
- ptrA: pointer to A coefficients (in program memory).
- FilterOrder: order of the filter + 1.
- ptrInput: address of input samples.
- InputLen: number of samples.
- ptrOutput: pointer to output samples. Output length is equal to Input length.
- Index: index of current sample.
Returns
Requires
Nothing.
Example
const unsigned int BUFFER_SIZE = 8;
const unsigned int FILTER_ORDER = 6;
const signed int COEFF_B[FILTER_ORDER+1] = {0x0548, 0x1FAE, 0x4F34, 0x699B,
0x4F34, 0x1FAE, 0x0548};
const signed int COEFF_A[FILTER_ORDER+1] = {0x4000, 0xB3FE, 0x5389, 0xD4D8,
0x10DD, 0xFCB0, 0x0052};
const unsigned int SCALE_B = 2;
const unsigned int SCALE_A = -1;
unsigned int inext;
// Input buffer index
ydata unsigned int input[BUFFER_SIZE];
// Input buffer
ydata unsigned int output[BUFFER_SIZE];
// Output buffer
...
unsigned int CurrentValue;
CurrentValue = IIR_Radix(SCALE_B,
SCALE_A,
COEFF_B,
// b coefficients of the filter
COEFF_A,
// a coefficients of the filter
FILTER_ORDER+1, // Filter order + 1
input,
// Input buffer
BUFFER_SIZE,
// Input buffer length
output,
// Input buffer
inext);
// Current sample
Notes
Input and output samples must be in Y data space.
671
MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
FFT Library
mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 includes a library for FFT calculation. All routines work with fractional Q15 format.
Library Dependency Tree
Library Routines
- FFT
FFT
Prototype
void FFT(unsigned log2N, const unsigned *TwiddleFactorsAddress, unsigned
*Samples);
Description Function applies FFT transformation to input samples, input samples must be in Y data space.
- f(n): array of complex input samples
- WN: TwiddleFactors
- N = 2m, mϵZ
The amplitude of current FFT sample is calculated as:
Parameters - log2N: buffer length (must be the power of 2).
- TwiddleFactorsAddress: address of constant array which contains complex twiddle factors. The
array is expected to be in program memory. See Twiddle Factors for adequate array values.
- Samples: array of input samples. Upon completion, complex array of FFT samples is placed in the
Samples: parameter.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Nothing.
Example
ydata unsigned InputSamples[512];
...
// Perform FFT (DFT), 7 stages, 128 samples of complex pairs
FFT(8, TwiddleCoeff_256, InputSamples);
Notes
Complex array of FFT samples is placed in Samples parameter. Input Samples are arranged in manner
Re,Im,Re,Im... (where Im is always zero). Output samples are arranged in the same manner but Im
parts are different from zero. Output samples are symmetrical (First half of output samples (index from
0 to N/2) is identical as second half of output samples(index from N/2 to N).
Input data is a complex vector such that the magnitude of the real and imaginary parts of each of its
elements is less than 0.5. If greater or equal to this value the results could produce saturation. Note
that the output values are scaled by a factor of 1/N, with N the length of the FFT. input is expected in
natural ordering, while output is produced in bit reverse ordering.
MikroElektronika
672
mikroC PRO for dsPIC
Twiddle Factors:
TwiddleCoeff_64
const unsigned TwiddleCoeff_64[64] = {
0x7FFF, 0x0000, 0x7F62, 0xF374, 0x7D8A,
0x7642, 0xCF04, 0x70E3, 0xC3A9, 0x6A6E,
0x5A82, 0xA57E, 0x5134, 0x9D0E, 0x471D,
0x30FC, 0x89BE, 0x2528, 0x8583, 0x18F9,
0x0000, 0x8000, 0xF374, 0x809E, 0xE707,
0xCF04, 0x89BE, 0xC3A9, 0x8F1D, 0xB8E3,
0xA57E, 0xA57E, 0x9D0E, 0xAECC, 0x9592,
0x89BE, 0xCF04, 0x8583, 0xDAD8, 0x8276,
0xE707,
0xB8E3,
0x9592,
0x8276,
0x8276,
0x9592,
0xB8E3,
0xE707,
0x7A7D,
0x62F2,
0x3C57,
0x0C8C,
0xDAD8,
0xAECC,
0x8F1D,
0x809E,
0xDAD8,
0xAECC,
0x8F1D,
0x809E,
0x8583,
0x9D0E,
0xC3A9,
0xF374};
0xF374,
0xDAD8,
0xC3A9,
0xAECC,
0x9D0E,
0x8F1D,
0x8583,
0x809E,
0x809E,
0x8583,
0x8F1D,
0x9D0E,
0xAECC,
0xC3A9,
0xDAD8,
0xF374,
0x7E9D,
0x7885,
0x6DCA,
0x5ED7,
0x4C40,
0x36BA,
0x1F1A,
0x0648,
0xED38,
0xD4E1,
0xBE32,
0xAA0A,
0x9930,
0x8C4A,
0x83D6,
0x8027,
0xED38,
0xD4E1,
0xBE32,
0xAA0A,
0x9930,
0x8C4A,
0x83D6,
0x8027,
0x8163,
0x877B,
0x9236,
0xA129,
0xB3C0,
0xC946,
0xE0E6,
0xF9B8};
TwiddleCoeff_128
const unsigned TwiddleCoeff_128[128] = {
0x7FFF, 0x0000, 0x7FD9, 0xF9B8, 0x7F62,
0x7D8A, 0xE707, 0x7C2A, 0xE0E6, 0x7A7D,
0x7642, 0xCF04, 0x73B6, 0xC946, 0x70E3,
0x6A6E, 0xB8E3, 0x66D0, 0xB3C0, 0x62F2,
0x5A82, 0xA57E, 0x55F6, 0xA129, 0x5134,
0x471D, 0x9592, 0x41CE, 0x9236, 0x3C57,
0x30FC, 0x89BE, 0x2B1F, 0x877B, 0x2528,
0x18F9, 0x8276, 0x12C8, 0x8163, 0x0C8C,
0x0000, 0x8000, 0xF9B8, 0x8027, 0xF374,
0xE707, 0x8276, 0xE0E6, 0x83D6, 0xDAD8,
0xCF04, 0x89BE, 0xC946, 0x8C4A, 0xC3A9,
0xB8E3, 0x9592, 0xB3C0, 0x9930, 0xAECC,
0xA57E, 0xA57E, 0xA129, 0xAA0A, 0x9D0E,
0x9592, 0xB8E3, 0x9236, 0xBE32, 0x8F1D,
0x89BE, 0xCF04, 0x877B, 0xD4E1, 0x8583,
0x8276, 0xE707, 0x8163, 0xED38, 0x809E,
673
MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
TwiddleCoeff_256
const unsigned TwiddleCoeff_256[256] = {
0x7FFF, 0x0000, 0x7FF6, 0xFCDC, 0x7FD9,
0x7F62, 0xF374, 0x7F0A, 0xF055, 0x7E9D,
0x7D8A, 0xE707, 0x7CE4, 0xE3F4, 0x7C2A,
0x7A7D, 0xDAD8, 0x798A, 0xD7D9, 0x7885,
0x7642, 0xCF04, 0x7505, 0xCC21, 0x73B6,
0x70E3, 0xC3A9, 0x6F5F, 0xC0E9, 0x6DCA,
0x6A6E, 0xB8E3, 0x68A7, 0xB64C, 0x66D0,
0x62F2, 0xAECC, 0x60EC, 0xAC65, 0x5ED7,
0x5A82, 0xA57E, 0x5843, 0xA34C, 0x55F6,
0x5134, 0x9D0E, 0x4EC0, 0x9B17, 0x4C40,
0x471D, 0x9592, 0x447B, 0x93DC, 0x41CE,
0x3C57, 0x8F1D, 0x398D, 0x8DAB, 0x36BA,
0x30FC, 0x89BE, 0x2E11, 0x8894, 0x2B1F,
0x2528, 0x8583, 0x2224, 0x84A3, 0x1F1A,
0x18F9, 0x8276, 0x15E2, 0x81E2, 0x12C8,
0x0C8C, 0x809E, 0x096B, 0x8059, 0x0648,
0x0000, 0x8000, 0xFCDC, 0x800A, 0xF9B8,
0xF374, 0x809E, 0xF055, 0x80F6, 0xED38,
0xE707, 0x8276, 0xE3F4, 0x831C, 0xE0E6,
0xDAD8, 0x8583, 0xD7D9, 0x8676, 0xD4E1,
0xCF04, 0x89BE, 0xCC21, 0x8AFB, 0xC946,
0xC3A9, 0x8F1D, 0xC0E9, 0x90A1, 0xBE32,
0xB8E3, 0x9592, 0xB64C, 0x9759, 0xB3C0,
0xAECC, 0x9D0E, 0xAC65, 0x9F14, 0xAA0A,
0xA57E, 0xA57E, 0xA34C, 0xA7BD, 0xA129,
0x9D0E, 0xAECC, 0x9B17, 0xB140, 0x9930,
0x9592, 0xB8E3, 0x93DC, 0xBB85, 0x9236,
0x8F1D, 0xC3A9, 0x8DAB, 0xC673, 0x8C4A,
0x89BE, 0xCF04, 0x8894, 0xD1EF, 0x877B,
0x8583, 0xDAD8, 0x84A3, 0xDDDC, 0x83D6,
0x8276, 0xE707, 0x81E2, 0xEA1E, 0x8163,
0x809E, 0xF374, 0x8059, 0xF695, 0x8027,
0xF9B8,
0xED38,
0xE0E6,
0xD4E1,
0xC946,
0xBE32,
0xB3C0,
0xAA0A,
0xA129,
0x9930,
0x9236,
0x8C4A,
0x877B,
0x83D6,
0x8163,
0x8027,
0x8027,
0x8163,
0x83D6,
0x877B,
0x8C4A,
0x9236,
0x9930,
0xA129,
0xAA0A,
0xB3C0,
0xBE32,
0xC946,
0xD4E1,
0xE0E6,
0xED38,
0xF9B8,
0x7FA7,
0x7E1E,
0x7B5D,
0x776C,
0x7255,
0x6C24,
0x64E9,
0x5CB4,
0x539B,
0x49B4,
0x3F17,
0x33DF,
0x2827,
0x1C0C,
0x0FAB,
0x0324,
0xF695,
0xEA1E,
0xDDDC,
0xD1EF,
0xC673,
0xBB85,
0xB140,
0xA7BD,
0x9F14,
0x9759,
0x90A1,
0x8AFB,
0x8676,
0x831C,
0x80F6,
0x800A,
0xF695,
0xEA1E,
0xDDDC,
0xD1EF,
0xC673,
0xBB85,
0xB140,
0xA7BD,
0x9F14,
0x9759,
0x90A1,
0x8AFB,
0x8676,
0x831C,
0x80F6,
0x800A,
0x8059,
0x81E2,
0x84A3,
0x8894,
0x8DAB,
0x93DC,
0x9B17,
0xA34C,
0xAC65,
0xB64C,
0xC0E9,
0xCC21,
0xD7D9,
0xE3F4,
0xF055,
0xFCDC};
0xFCDC,
0xF695,
0xF055,
0xEA1E,
0xE3F4,
0xDDDC,
0xD7D9,
0xD1EF,
0xCC21,
0xC673,
0xC0E9,
0xBB85,
0x7FEA,
0x7F87,
0x7ED6,
0x7DD6,
0x7C89,
0x7AEF,
0x790A,
0x76D9,
0x7460,
0x719E,
0x6E97,
0x6B4B,
0xFB4A,
0xF505,
0xEEC6,
0xE892,
0xE26D,
0xDC59,
0xD65C,
0xD079,
0xCAB2,
0xC50D,
0xBF8C,
0xBA33,
TwiddleCoeff_512
const unsigned TwiddleCoeff_512[512] = {
0x7FFF, 0x0000, 0x7FFE, 0xFE6E, 0x7FF6,
0x7FD9, 0xF9B8, 0x7FC2, 0xF827, 0x7FA7,
0x7F62, 0xF374, 0x7F38, 0xF1E4, 0x7F0A,
0x7E9D, 0xED38, 0x7E60, 0xEBAB, 0x7E1E,
0x7D8A, 0xE707, 0x7D3A, 0xE57D, 0x7CE4,
0x7C2A, 0xE0E6, 0x7BC6, 0xDF61, 0x7B5D,
0x7A7D, 0xDAD8, 0x7A06, 0xD958, 0x798A,
0x7885, 0xD4E1, 0x77FB, 0xD367, 0x776C,
0x7642, 0xCF04, 0x75A6, 0xCD92, 0x7505,
0x73B6, 0xC946, 0x7308, 0xC7DB, 0x7255,
0x70E3, 0xC3A9, 0x7023, 0xC248, 0x6F5F,
0x6DCA, 0xBE32, 0x6CF9, 0xBCDA, 0x6C24,
MikroElektronika
674
mikroC PRO for dsPIC
0x6A6E,
0x66D0,
0x62F2,
0x5ED7,
0x5A82,
0x55F6,
0x5134,
0x4C40,
0x471D,
0x41CE,
0x3C57,
0x36BA,
0x30FC,
0x2B1F,
0x2528,
0x1F1A,
0x18F9,
0x12C8,
0x0C8C,
0x0648,
0x0000,
0xF9B8,
0xF374,
0xED38,
0xE707,
0xE0E6,
0xDAD8,
0xD4E1,
0xCF04,
0xC946,
0xC3A9,
0xBE32,
0xB8E3,
0xB3C0,
0xAECC,
0xAA0A,
0xA57E,
0xA129,
0x9D0E,
0x9930,
0x9592,
0x9236,
0x8F1D,
0x8C4A,
0x89BE,
0x877B,
0x8583,
0x83D6,
0x8276,
0x8163,
0x809E,
0x8027,
675
0xB8E3,
0xB3C0,
0xAECC,
0xAA0A,
0xA57E,
0xA129,
0x9D0E,
0x9930,
0x9592,
0x9236,
0x8F1D,
0x8C4A,
0x89BE,
0x877B,
0x8583,
0x83D6,
0x8276,
0x8163,
0x809E,
0x8027,
0x8000,
0x8027,
0x809E,
0x8163,
0x8276,
0x83D6,
0x8583,
0x877B,
0x89BE,
0x8C4A,
0x8F1D,
0x9236,
0x9592,
0x9930,
0x9D0E,
0xA129,
0xA57E,
0xAA0A,
0xAECC,
0xB3C0,
0xB8E3,
0xBE32,
0xC3A9,
0xC946,
0xCF04,
0xD4E1,
0xDAD8,
0xE0E6,
0xE707,
0xED38,
0xF374,
0xF9B8,
0x698C,
0x65DE,
0x61F1,
0x5DC8,
0x5964,
0x54CA,
0x4FFB,
0x4AFB,
0x45CD,
0x4074,
0x3AF3,
0x354E,
0x2F87,
0x29A4,
0x23A7,
0x1D93,
0x176E,
0x113A,
0x0AFB,
0x04B6,
0xFE6E,
0xF827,
0xF1E4,
0xEBAB,
0xE57D,
0xDF61,
0xD958,
0xD367,
0xCD92,
0xC7DB,
0xC248,
0xBCDA,
0xB796,
0xB27F,
0xAD97,
0xA8E2,
0xA463,
0xA01C,
0x9C11,
0x9843,
0x94B5,
0x9169,
0x8E62,
0x8BA0,
0x8927,
0x86F6,
0x8511,
0x8377,
0x822A,
0x812A,
0x8079,
0x8016,
0xB796,
0xB27F,
0xAD97,
0xA8E2,
0xA463,
0xA01C,
0x9C11,
0x9843,
0x94B5,
0x9169,
0x8E62,
0x8BA0,
0x8927,
0x86F6,
0x8511,
0x8377,
0x822A,
0x812A,
0x8079,
0x8016,
0x8002,
0x803E,
0x80C8,
0x81A0,
0x82C6,
0x843A,
0x85FA,
0x8805,
0x8A5A,
0x8CF8,
0x8FDD,
0x9307,
0x9674,
0x9A22,
0x9E0F,
0xA238,
0xA69C,
0xAB36,
0xB005,
0xB505,
0xBA33,
0xBF8C,
0xC50D,
0xCAB2,
0xD079,
0xD65C,
0xDC59,
0xE26D,
0xE892,
0xEEC6,
0xF505,
0xFB4A,
0x68A7,
0x64E9,
0x60EC,
0x5CB4,
0x5843,
0x539B,
0x4EC0,
0x49B4,
0x447B,
0x3F17,
0x398D,
0x33DF,
0x2E11,
0x2827,
0x2224,
0x1C0C,
0x15E2,
0x0FAB,
0x096B,
0x0324,
0xFCDC,
0xF695,
0xF055,
0xEA1E,
0xE3F4,
0xDDDC,
0xD7D9,
0xD1EF,
0xCC21,
0xC673,
0xC0E9,
0xBB85,
0xB64C,
0xB140,
0xAC65,
0xA7BD,
0xA34C,
0x9F14,
0x9B17,
0x9759,
0x93DC,
0x90A1,
0x8DAB,
0x8AFB,
0x8894,
0x8676,
0x84A3,
0x831C,
0x81E2,
0x80F6,
0x8059,
0x800A,
0xB64C,
0xB140,
0xAC65,
0xA7BD,
0xA34C,
0x9F14,
0x9B17,
0x9759,
0x93DC,
0x90A1,
0x8DAB,
0x8AFB,
0x8894,
0x8676,
0x84A3,
0x831C,
0x81E2,
0x80F6,
0x8059,
0x800A,
0x800A,
0x8059,
0x80F6,
0x81E2,
0x831C,
0x84A3,
0x8676,
0x8894,
0x8AFB,
0x8DAB,
0x90A1,
0x93DC,
0x9759,
0x9B17,
0x9F14,
0xA34C,
0xA7BD,
0xAC65,
0xB140,
0xB64C,
0xBB85,
0xC0E9,
0xC673,
0xCC21,
0xD1EF,
0xD7D9,
0xDDDC,
0xE3F4,
0xEA1E,
0xF055,
0xF695,
0xFCDC,
0x67BD,
0x63EF,
0x5FE4,
0x5B9D,
0x571E,
0x5269,
0x4D81,
0x486A,
0x4326,
0x3DB8,
0x3825,
0x326E,
0x2C99,
0x26A8,
0x209F,
0x1A83,
0x1455,
0x0E1C,
0x07D9,
0x0192,
0xFB4A,
0xF505,
0xEEC6,
0xE892,
0xE26D,
0xDC59,
0xD65C,
0xD079,
0xCAB2,
0xC50D,
0xBF8C,
0xBA33,
0xB505,
0xB005,
0xAB36,
0xA69C,
0xA238,
0x9E0F,
0x9A22,
0x9674,
0x9307,
0x8FDD,
0x8CF8,
0x8A5A,
0x8805,
0x85FA,
0x843A,
0x82C6,
0x81A0,
0x80C8,
0x803E,
0x8002,
0xB505,
0xB005,
0xAB36,
0xA69C,
0xA238,
0x9E0F,
0x9A22,
0x9674,
0x9307,
0x8FDD,
0x8CF8,
0x8A5A,
0x8805,
0x85FA,
0x843A,
0x82C6,
0x81A0,
0x80C8,
0x803E,
0x8002,
0x8016,
0x8079,
0x812A,
0x822A,
0x8377,
0x8511,
0x86F6,
0x8927,
0x8BA0,
0x8E62,
0x9169,
0x94B5,
0x9843,
0x9C11,
0xA01C,
0xA463,
0xA8E2,
0xAD97,
0xB27F,
0xB796,
0xBCDA,
0xC248,
0xC7DB,
0xCD92,
0xD367,
0xD958,
0xDF61,
0xE57D,
0xEBAB,
0xF1E4,
0xF827,
0xFE6E};
MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
Bit Reverse Complex Library
mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 includes a Bit Reverse Complex Library for DSP engine. All routines work with
fractional Q15 format.
Library Routines
- BitReverseComplex
BitReverseComplex
Prototype
void BitReverseComplex(unsigned log2N, unsigned *ReIm);
Description This function does Complex (in-place) Bit Reverse re-organization.
Parameters - N: buffer length (must be the power of 2).
- ReIm: output sample(from FFT).
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Nothing.
Example
ydata unsigned InputSamples[512];
...
// Perform FFT (DFT), 7 stages, 128 samples of complex pairs
// Twiddle factors are taken from the <TwiddleFactors.c>
FFT(8, TwiddleCoeff_256, InputSamples);
Notes
// DFT butterfly algorythm bit-reverses output samples.
// We have to restore them in natural order
BitReverseComplex(8, InputSamples);
Input samples must be in Y data space.
MikroElektronika
676
mikroC PRO for dsPIC
Vectors Library
mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 includes a library for working and using vectors. All routines work with fractional
Q15 format.
Library Routines
- Vector_Set
- Vector_Power
- Vector_Subtract
- Vector_Scale
- Vector_Negate
- Vector_Multiply
- Vector_Min
- Vector_Max
- Vector_Dot
- Vector_Correlate
- Vector_Convolve
- Vector_Add
Vector_Set
Prototype
void Vector_Set(unsigned *input, unsigned size, unsigned value);
Description Sets size elements of input to value, starting from the first element.
Parameters - input: pointer to original vector
- size: number of vector elements
- value: value written to the elements
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Nothing.
Example
unsigned vec2[3] = {1,1,1};
Notes
677
Vector_Set(vec2, 3, 0x4000);
- size must be > 0
- Length of input is limited by available RAM
MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
Vector_Power
Prototype
unsigned Vector_Power(unsigned numElems, unsigned *srcV);
Description Function returns result of power value (powVal) in radix point 1.15
Parameters - numElems: number elements in vector(s)
- srcV: pointer to source vector
Returns
Requires
Example
Notes
Nothing.
unsigned vec1[3] = {1,2,3};
Vector_Power(3, vec1);
- [W0..W2] used, not restored
- [W4] used, not restored
- AccuA used, not restored
- CORCON saved, used, restored
Vector_Subtract
Prototype
void Vector_Subtract(unsigned *dest, unsigned *v1, unsigned *v2, unsigned
numElems);
Description This function does subtraction of two vectors.
dstV[n] = v1[n] - v2[n], n ϵ [0, numElems-1]
Parameters -
dest: result vector
v1: first vector
v2: second vector
numElems: must be less or equal to minimum size of two vectors.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Nothing.
Example
Notes
unsigned vec1[3] = {1,2,3};
unsigned vec2[3] = {1,1,1};
unsigned vecDest[3];
Vector_Subtract(vecDest, vec1, vec2, 3);
- AccuA used, not restored.
- CORCON saved, used, restored.
MikroElektronika
678
mikroC PRO for dsPIC
Vector_Scale
Prototype
void Vector_Scale(unsigned N, int ScaleValue, unsigned *SrcVector, unsigned
*DestVector);
Description This function does vector scaling with scale value.
dstV[n] = sclVal * srcV[n], n ϵ [0, numElems-1]
Parameters -
N: buffer length (number of elements to be scaled)
ScaleValue: scale value
SrcVector: pointer to original vector
DestVector: pointer to scaled vector
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Nothing.
Example
Notes
unsigned vec1[3] = {1,2,3};
unsigned vecDest[3];
Vector_Scale(3, 2, vec1, vecDest);
- [W0..W5] used, not restored
- AccuA used, not restored
- CORCON saved, used, restored
Vector_Negate
Prototype
void Vector_Negate(unsigned
numElems);
*srcVector,
unsigned
*DestVector,
unsigned
Description This function does negation of vector.
dstV[n] = (-1)*srcV1[n] + 0, n ϵ [0, numElems]
Parameters - srcVector: pointer to original vector
- destVector: pointer to result vector
- numElems: number of elements in vector(s)
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Nothing.
Example
Notes
679
unsigned vecDest[3];
unsigned vec1[3] = {1,2,3};
Vector_Negate(vec1, vecDest, 3);
- Negate of 0x8000 is 0x7FFF
- [W0]..[W5] used, not restored
- AccuA used, not restored
- CORCON saved, used, restored
MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
Vector_Multiply
Prototype
void Vector_Multiply(unsigned *v1, unsigned *v2, unsigned *dest, unsigned
numElems);
Description This function does multiplication of two vectors.
dstV[n] = srcV1[n] * srcV2[n], n ϵ [0, numElems-1]
Parameters -
v1: pointer to first vector
v2: pointer to second vector
dest: pointer to result vector
numElems: number elements in vector(s) (must be less or equal to minimum size of two vectors)
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Nothing.
Example
Notes
unsigned vec1[3] = {1,2,3};
unsigned vec2[3] = {1,1,1};
unsigned vConDest[10];
Vector_Multiply(vec1, vConDest, vec2, 3);
- [W0..W5] used, not restored
- AccuA used, not restored
- CORCON saved, used, restored
Vector_Min
Prototype
unsigned
Vector_Min(unsigned
*MinIndex);
*Vector,
unsigned
numElems,
unsigned
Description This function finds minimal value in vector.
minVal = min (srcV[n]), n ϵ [0, numElems-1]
If srcV[i] = srcV[j] = minVal, and i < j, then MinIndex = j.
Parameters - Vector: pointer to original vector
- numElems: number of elements in vector
- MinIndex: pointer to index of minimum value
Returns
Minimum value (minVal).
Requires
Nothing.
Example
Notes
unsigned vec1[3] = {1,2,3};
unsigned index;
unsigned rslt;
rslt = Vector_Min(vec1, 3, &index);
- [W0..W5] used, not restored
MikroElektronika
680
mikroC PRO for dsPIC
Vector_Max
Prototype
unsigned
Vector_Max(unsigned
*MaxIndex);
*srcV,
unsigned
numElems,
unsigned
Description This function find maximal value in vector.
maxVal = max (srcV[n]), n ϵ [0, numElems-1]
If srcV[i] = srcV[j] = maxVal, and i < j, then maxIndex = j.
Parameters - srcV: pointer to original vector
- numElems: number of elements in vector(s)
- MaxIndex: pointer to index of maximum value
Returns
Minimum value (maxVal).
Requires
Nothing.
Example
Notes
unsigned vec1[3] = {1,2,3};
unsigned index;
unsigned rslt;
rslt = Vector_Max(vec1, 3, &index);
- [W0..W5] used, not restored
Vector_Dot
Prototype
unsigned Vector_Dot(unsigned *v1, unsigned *v2, unsigned numElems);
Description Function calculates vector dot product.
Parameters - v1: pointer to first vector
- v2: pointer to second vector
- numElems: number of elements in vector(s)
Returns
Dot product value :
Requires
Nothing.
Example
Notes
681
unsigned vec2[3] = {1,1,1};
unsigned rslt;
rslt = Vector_Dot(vec2,vec2,3);
- [W0..W2] used, not restored
- [W4..W5] used, not restored
- AccuA used, not restored
- CORCON saved, used, restored
MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
Vector_Correlate
Prototype
void Vector_Correlate(unsigned *v1, unsigned *v2, unsigned *dest, unsigned
numElemsV1, unsigned numElemsV2);
Description Function calculates Vector correlation (using convolution).
where:
x[n] defined for n Î [0, N)
y[n] defined for n Î [0, M), M £ N
r[n] defined for n Î [0, N+M-1)
Parameters -
v1: pointer to first vector
v2: pointer to second vector
dest: pointer to result vector
numElemsV1: number of the first vector elements
numElemsV2: number of the second vector elements
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Nothing.
Example
Notes
unsigned vConDest[10];
unsigned vec2[3] = {1,1,1};
Vector_Correlate(vec2,vec2,vConDest,3,3);
[W0..W7] used, not restored
MikroElektronika
682
mikroC PRO for dsPIC
Vector_Convolve
Prototype
void Vector_Convolve(unsigned *v1, unsigned *v2, unsigned *dest, unsigned
numElemsV1, unsigned numElemsV2);
Description Function calculates Vector using convolution.
, n ϵ [0, M)
, n ϵ [M, N)
, n ϵ [N, N+M-1)
Parameters -
v1: pointer to first vector
v2: pointer to second vector
dest: pointer to result vector
numElemsV1: number of the first vector elements
numElemsV2: number of the second vector elements
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Nothing.
Example
Notes
683
unsigned vec2[3] = {1,1,1};
unsigned vConDest2[10];
Vector_Convolve(vec2,vec2,vConDest2,3,3);
- [W0..W7] used, not restored
- [W8..W10] saved, used, restored
- AccuA used, not restored
- CORCON saved, used, restored
MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
Vector_Add
Prototype
void Vector_Add(unsigned
numElems);
*dest,
unsigned
*v1,
unsigned
*v2,
unsigned
Description Function calculates vector addition.
dstV[n] = srcV1[n] + srcV2[n] , n ϵ [0, numElems-1)
Parameters -
dest: pointer to result vector
v1: pointer to first vector
v2: pointer to second vector
numElemsV1: number of vector(s) elements
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Nothing.
Example
Notes
unsigned vec1[3] = {1,2,3};
unsigned vec2[3] = {1,1,1};
unsigned vecDest[3];
Vector_Add(vecDest, vec1, vec2, 3);
- [W0..W4] used, not restored
- AccuA used, not restored
- CORCON saved, used, restored
MikroElektronika
684
mikroC PRO for dsPIC
Matrices Library
mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 includes a library for operating and working with matrices. All routines work
with fractional Q15 format.
Library Routines
Matrix_Transpose
Matrix_Subtract
Matrix_Scale
Matrix_Multiply
Matrix_Add
Matrix_Transpose
Prototype
void Matrix_Transpose(unsigned
unsigned numCols);
*src,
unsigned
*dest,
unsigned
numRows,
Description Function does matrix transposition.
dstM[i][j] = srcM[j][i]
Parameters -
src: pointer to original matrix
dest: pointer to result matrix
numRows: number of rows in the source matrix
numCols: number of cols in the source matrix
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Nothing.
Example
Notes
685
int mx1[6] = {1,2,3,4,5,6};
int mxDest[9];
Matrix_Transpose(mx1, mxDest, 2,3);
[W0..W5] used, not restored
MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
Matrix_Subtract
Prototype
void Matrix_Subtract(unsigned *src1, unsigned *src2, unsigned *dest, unsigned
num_rows, unsigned num_cols);
Description Function does matrix subtraction.
dstM[i][j] = srcM1[i][j] - srcM2[i][j]
Parameters -
src1: pointer to the first matrix
src2: pointer to the second matrix
dest: pointer to the result matrix
numRows: number of rows in the source matrix
numCols: number of cols in the source matrix
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Nothing.
Example
int mx1[6] = {1,2,3,4,5,6};
int mx2[6] = {2,2,2,2,2,2};
int mxDest[9];
Notes
Matrix_Subtract(mx1, mx2, mxDest, 2, 3);
- [W0..W4] used, not restored
- AccuA used, not restored
- AccuB used, not restored
- CORCON saved, used, restored
Matrix_Scale
Prototype
void Matrix_Scale(unsigned ScaleValue,
unsigned numRows, unsigned numCols);
unsigned
*src1,
unsigned
*dest,
Description Function does matrix scale.
dstM[i][j] = sclVal * srcM[i][j]
Parameters -
ScaleValue: scale value
src1: pointer to the original matrix
dest: pointer to the result matrix
numRows: number of rows in the source matrix
numCols: number of cols in the source matrix
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Nothing.
Example
int mx1[6] = {1,2,3,4,5,6};
int mxDest[9];
Notes
Matrix_Scale(0x4000, mx1, mxDest, 2,3);
- [W0..W5] used, not restored
- AccuA used, not restored
- CORCON saved, used, restored
- numRows*numCols < 214
MikroElektronika
686
mikroC PRO for dsPIC
Matrix_Multiply
Prototype
void Matrix_Multiply(unsigned *src1, unsigned *src2, unsigned *dest, unsigned
numRows1, unsigned numCols2, unsigned numCols1Rows2);
Description Function does matrix multiplication.
with:
i ϵ [0, numRows1-1]
j ϵ [0, numCols2-1]
k ϵ [0, numCols1Rows2-1]
Parameters
-
src1: pointer to the first matrix
src2: pointer to the second matrix
dest: pointer to result matrix
numRows1: number of rows in the first matrix
numCols2: number of columns in the second matrix
numCols1Rows2: number of columns in the first matrix and rows in the second matrix
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Nothing.
Example
int mx1[6] = {1,2,3,4,5,6} ;
int mx2[6] = {2,2,2,2,2,2} ;
int mxDest[9];
Matrix_Multiply(mx1,mx2,mxDest,2,2,3);
Notes
687
- [W0..W7] used, not restored
- [W8..W13] used, and restored
- AccuA used, not restored
- CORCON saved, used, restored
MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
Matrix_Add
Prototype
void Matrix_Add(unsigned *src1, unsigned *src2, unsigned *dest, unsigned
numRows, unsigned numCols);
Description Function does matrix addition.
dstM[i][j] = srcM1[i][j] + srcM2[i][j]
Parameters
-
src1: pointer to the first matrix
src2: pointer to the second matrix
dest: pointer to the result matrix
numRows1: number of rows in the first matrix
numCols2: number of columns in the second matrix
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Nothing.
Example
int mx1[6] = {1,2,3,4,5,6};
int mx2[6] = {2,2,2,2,2,2};
int mxDest[9];
Matrix_Add(mx1,mx2, mxDest,2,3);
Notes
- [W0..W4] used, not restored
- AccuA used, not restored.
- CORCON saved, used, restored.
- numRows1*numCols2 < 214
MikroElektronika
688
mikroC PRO for dsPIC
Standard ANSI C Libraries
- ANSI C Ctype Library
- ANSI C Math Library
- ANSI C Stdlib Library
- ANSI C String Library
ANSI C Ctype Library
The mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 provides a set of standard ANSI C library functions for testing and mapping
characters.
Important:
- Not all of the standard functions have been included.
- The functions have been mostly implemented according to the ANSI C standard, but certain functions have been
modified in order to facilitate dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 programming. Be sure to skim through the description before using
standard C functions.
Library Functions
689
- isalnum
- isalpha
- iscntrl
- isdigit
- isgraph
- islower
- ispunct
- isspace
- isupper
- isxdigit
- toupper
- tolower
MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
isalnum
Prototype
unsigned int isalnum(char character);
Description Function returns 1 if the character is alphanumeric (A-Z, a-z, 0-9), otherwise returns zero.
Example
res = isalnum(‘o’);
res = isalnum(‘\r’);
// returns 1
// returns 0
isalpha
Prototype
unsigned int isalpha(char character);
Description Function returns 1 if the character is alphabetic (A-Z, a-z), otherwise returns zero.
Example
res = isalpha(‘A’);
res = isalpha(‘1’);
// returns 1
// returns 0
iscntrl
Prototype
unsigned int iscntrl(char character);
Description Function returns 1 if the character is a control or delete character(decimal 0-31 and 127), otherwise
returns zero.
Example
res = iscntrl(‘\r’);
res = iscntrl(‘o’);
// returns 1
// returns 0
isdigit
Prototype
unsigned int isdigit(char character);
Description Function returns 1 if the character is a digit (0-9), otherwise returns zero.
Example
res = isdigit(‘o’);
res = isdigit(‘1’);
MikroElektronika
// returns 1
// returns 0
690
mikroC PRO for dsPIC
isgraph
Prototype
unsigned int isgraph(char character);
Description Function returns 1 if the character is a printable, excluding the space (decimal 32), otherwise
returns zero.
Example
res = isgraph(‘o’);
res = isgraph(‘ ‘);
// returns 1
// returns 0
islower
Prototype
unsigned int islower(char character);
Description Function returns 1 if the character is a lowercase letter (a-z), otherwise returns zero.
Example
res = islower(‘0’);
res = islower(‘A’);
// returns 1
// returns 0
ispunct
Prototype
unsigned int ispunct(char character);
Description Function returns 1 if the character is a punctuation (decimal 32-47, 58-63, 91-96, 123-126),
otherwise returns zero.
Example
res = ispunct(‘.’);
res = ispunct(‘1’);
// returns 1
// returns 0
isspace
Prototype
unsigned int isspace(char character);
Description Function returns 1 if the character is a white space (space, tab, CR, HT, VT, NL, FF), otherwise
returns zero.
Example
691
res = isspace(‘ ‘);
res = isspace(‘1’);
// returns 1
// returns 0
MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
isupper
Prototype
unsigned int isupper(char character);
Description Function returns 1 if the character is an uppercase letter (A-Z), otherwise returns zero.
Example
res = isupper(‘A’);
res = isupper(‘a’);
// returns 1
// returns 0
isxdigit
Prototype
unsigned int isxdigit(char character);
Description Function returns 1 if the character is a hex digit (0-9, A-F, a-f), otherwise returns zero.
Example
res = isxdigit(‘A’);
res = isxdigit(‘P’);
// returns 1
// returns 0
toupper
Prototype
unsigned int toupper(char character);
Description If the character is a lowercase letter (a-z), the function returns an uppercase letter. Otherwise, the
function returns an unchanged input parameter.
Example
res = toupper(‘a’);
res = toupper(‘B’);
// returns A
// returns B
tolower
Prototype
unsigned int tolower(char character);
Description If the character is an uppercase letter (A-Z), function returns a lowercase letter. Otherwise, function
returns an unchanged input parameter.
Example
res = tolower(‘A’);
res = tolower(‘b’);
MikroElektronika
// returns a
// returns b
692
mikroC PRO for dsPIC
ANSI C Math Library
The mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 provides a set of standard ANSI C library functions for floating point math
handling.
Important:
- Not all of the standard functions have been included.
- The functions have been mostly implemented according to the ANSI C standard, but certain functions have been
modified in order to facilitate dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 programming. Be sure to skim through the description before using
standard C functions.
Library Functions
- acos
- asin
- atan
- atan2
- ceil
- cos
- cosh
- exp
-fabs
- floor
- frexp
- ldexp
- log
- log10
- modf
- pow
- sin
- sinh
- sqrt
- tan
acos
Prototype
double acos(double x);
Description Function returns the arc cosine of parameter x; that is, the value whose cosine is x. The input parameter
x must be between -1 and 1 (inclusive). The return value is in radians, between 0 and Π (inclusive).
Example
693
doub = acos(0.5);
// doub = 1.047198
MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
asin
Prototype
double asin(double x);
Description Function returns the arc sine of parameter x; that is, the value whose sine is x. The input parameter
x must be between -1 and 1 (inclusive). The return value is in radians, between -Π/2 and Π/2
(inclusive).
Example
doub = asin(0.5);
// doub = 5.235987e-1
atan
Prototype
double atan(double f);
Description Function computes the arc tangent of parameter f; that is, the value whose tangent is f. The return
value is in radians, between -Π/2 and Π/2 (inclusive).
Example
doub = atan(1.0);
// doub = 7.853982e-1
atan2
Prototype
double atan2(double y, double x);
Description This is the two-argument arc tangent function. It is similar to computing the arc tangent of y/x, except
that the signs of both arguments are used to determine the quadrant of the result and x is permitted to
be zero. The return value is in radians, between -Π and Π (inclusive).
Example
doub = atan2(2., 1.);
// doub = 4.636475e-1
ceil
Prototype
double ceil(double x);
Description Function returns value of parameter x rounded up to the next whole number.
Example
doub = ceil(0.5);
MikroElektronika
// doub = 1.000000
694
mikroC PRO for dsPIC
cos
Prototype
double cos(double f);
Description Function returns the cosine of f in radians. The return value is from -1 to 1.
Example
doub = cos(PI/3.);
// doub = 0.500008
cosh
Prototype
double cosh(double x);
Description Function returns the hyperbolic cosine of x, defined mathematically as (ex+e-x)/2. If the value of x
is too large (if overflow occurs), the function fails.
Example
doub = cosh(PI/3.);
// doub = 1.600286
exp
Prototype
double exp(double x);
Description Function returns the value of e — the base of natural logarithms — raised to the power x (i.e. ex).
Example
doub = exp(0.5);
// doub = 1.648721
fabs
Prototype
double fabs(double d);
Description Function returns the absolute (i.e. positive) value of d.
Example
doub = fabs(-1.3);
// doub = 1.3
floor
Prototype
double floor(double x);
Description Function returns the value of parameter x rounded down to the nearest integer.
Example
695
doub = floor(15.258);
// doub = 15.000000
MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
frexp
Prototype
double frexp(double value, int *eptr);
Description Function splits a floating-point value into a normalized fraction and an integral power of 2. The return
value is the normalized fraction and the integer exponent is stored in the object pointed to by eptr.
ldexp
Prototype
double ldexp(double value, int newexp);
Description Function returns the result of multiplying the floating-point number num by 2 raised to the power n (i.e.
returns x * 2n).
Example
doub = ldexp(2.5, 2);
// doub = 10
log
Prototype
double log(double x);
Description Function returns the natural logarithm of x (i.e. loge(x)).
Example
doub = log(10);
// doub = 2.302585E
log10
Prototype
double log10(double x);
Description Function returns the base-10 logarithm of x (i.e. log10(x)).
Example
doub = log10(100.);
MikroElektronika
// doub = 2.000000
696
mikroC PRO for dsPIC
modf
Prototype
double modf(double val, double *iptr);
Description Function returns the signed fractional component of val, placing its whole number component into the
variable pointed to by iptr.
Example
doub = modf(6.25, &iptr);
// doub = 0.25, iptr = 6.00
pow
Prototype
double pow(double x, double y);
Description Function returns the value of x raised to the power y (i.e. xy). If x is negative, the function will
automatically cast y into unsigned long.
Example
doub = pow(10.,5.);
// doub = 9.999984e+4
sin
Prototype
double sin(double f);
Description Function returns the sine of f in radians. The return value is from -1 to 1.
Example
doub = sin(PI/2.);
// doub = 1.000000
sinh
Prototype
double sinh(double x);
Description Function returns the hyperbolic sine of x, defined mathematically as (ex-e-x)/2. If the value of x is
too large (if overflow occurs), the function fails.
Example
697
doub = sinh(PI/2.);
// doub = 2.301296
MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
sqrt
Prototype
double sqrt(double x);
Description Function returns the non negative square root of x.
Example
doub = sqrt(10000.);
// doub = 100.0000
tan
Prototype
double tan(double x);
Description Function returns the tangent of x in radians. The return value spans the allowed range of floating point
in the mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24.
Example
doub = tan(PI/4.);
// doub = 0.999998
tanh
Prototype
double tanh(double x);
Description Function returns the hyperbolic tangent of x, defined mathematically as sinh(x)/cosh(x).
Example
doub = tanh(-PI/4.);
MikroElektronika
// doub = -0.655793
698
mikroC PRO for dsPIC
ANSI C Stdlib Library
The mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 provides a set of standard ANSI C library functions of general utility.
Important:
- Not all of the standard functions have been included.
- The functions have been mostly implemented according to the ANSI C standard, but certain functions have been
modified in order to facilitate dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 programming. Be sure to skim through the description before using
standard C functions.
Library Dependency Tree
Library Functions
- abs
- atof
- atoi
- atol
- div
- ldiv
- uldiv
- labs
- max
- min
- rand
- srand
- xtoi
abs
Prototype
int abs(int a);
Description Function returns the absolute (i.e. positive) value of a.
Example
699
result = abs(-12);
// result = 12
MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
atof
Prototype
double atof(char *s);
Description Function converts the input string s into a double precision value and returns the value. Input string
s should conform to the floating point literal format, with an optional whitespace at the beginning. The
string will be processed one character at a time, until the function reaches a character which it doesn’t
recognize (including a null character).
Example
doub = atof(“-1.23”);
// doub = -1.23
atoi
Prototype
int atoi(char *s);
Description Function converts the input string s into an integer value and returns the value. The input string s
should consist exclusively of decimal digits, with an optional whitespace and a sign at the beginning.
The string will be processed one character at a time, until the function reaches a character which it
doesn’t recognize (including a null character).
Example
result = atoi(“32000”);
// result = 32000
atol
Prototype
long atol(char *s);
Description Function converts the input string s into a long integer value and returns the value. The input string s
should consist exclusively of decimal digits, with an optional whitespace and a sign at the beginning.
The string will be processed one character at a time, until the function reaches a character which it
doesn’t recognize (including a null character).
Example
result = atol(“-32560”);
// result = -32560
div
Prototype
div_t div(int number, int denom);
Description Function computes the result of division of the numerator number by the denominator denom; the
function returns a structure of type div_t comprising quotient (quot) and remainder (rem), see Div
Structures.
Example
dt = div(1234,100);
MikroElektronika
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mikroC PRO for dsPIC
ldiv
Prototype
ldiv_t ldiv(long number, long denom);
Description Function is similar to the div function, except that the arguments and result structure members all have
type long.
Function computes the result of division of the numerator number by the denominator denom; the
function returns a structure of type ldiv_t comprising quotient (quot) and remainder (rem), see Div
Structures.
Example
dl = ldiv(-123456, 1000);
uldiv
Prototype
uldiv_t uldiv(unsigned long number, unsigned long denom);
Description Function is similar to the div function, except that the arguments and result structure members all have
type unsigned long.
Function computes the result of division of the numerator number by the denominator denom; the
function returns a structure of type uldiv_t comprising quotient (quot) and remainder (rem), see
Div Structures.
Example
dul = uldiv(123456,1000);
labs
Prototype
long labs(long x);
Description Function returns the absolute (i.e. positive) value of long integer x.
Example
result = labs(-2147483647);
max
Prototype
int max(int a, int b);
Description Function returns greater of the two integers, a and b.
Example
701
result = max(123,67);
// function returns 123
MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
min
Prototype
int min(int a, int b);
Description Function returns lower of the two integers, a and b.
Example
result = min(123,67);
// function returns 67
rand
Prototype
int rand();
Description Function returns a sequence of pseudo-random numbers between 0 and 32767. The function will
always produce the same sequence of numbers unless srand is called to seed the start point.
Example
while(1)
result = rand()
;
srand
Prototype
void srand(unsigned x);
Description Function uses x as a starting point for a new sequence of pseudo-random numbers to be returned by
subsequent calls to rand. No values are returned by this function.
Example
srand(9);
xtoi
Prototype
unsigned xtoi(char *s);
Description Function converts the input string s consisting of hexadecimal digits into an integer value. The input
parameter s should consist exclusively of hexadecimal digits, with an optional whitespace and a sign
at the beginning. The string will be processed one character at a time, until the function reaches a
character which it doesn’t recognize (including a null character).
Example
result = xtoi(“1FF”);
MikroElektronika
// result = 511
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mikroC PRO for dsPIC
Div Structures
Copy Code To Clipboard
typedef struct divstruct {
int quot;
int rem;
} div_t;
typedef struct ldivstruct {
long quot;
long rem;
} ldiv_t;
typedef struct uldivstruct {
unsigned long quot;
unsigned long rem;
} uldiv_t;
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mikoC PRO for dsPIC
ANSI C String Library
The mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 provides a set of standard ANSI C library functions useful for manipulating
strings and RAM memory.
Important:
- Not all of the standard functions have been included.
- The functions have been mostly implemented according to the ANSI C standard, but certain functions have been
modified in order to facilitate dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 programming. Be sure to skim through the description before using
standard C functions.
Library Functions
- memchr
- memcmp
- memcpy
- memmove
- memset
- strcat
- strchr
- strcmp
- strcpy
- strlen
- strncat
- strncpy
- strspn
- strncmp
- strstr
- strcspn
- strpbrk
- strrchr
- strtok
memchr
Prototype
void *memchr(void *p, char n, unsigned int v);
Description Function locates the first occurrence of char n in the initial v bytes of memory area starting at the
address p. The function returns the pointer to this location or 0 if the n was not found.
For parameter p you can use either a numerical value (literal/variable/constant) indicating memory
address or a dereferenced value of an object, for example &mystring or &PORTB.
Example
char txt[] = “mikroElektronika”;
res = memchr(txt, ‘e’, 16);
// example locates first occurrence of the
letter ‘e’ in the string ‘txt’ in the first 16 characters of the string
MikroElektronika
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mikroC PRO for dsPIC
memcmp
Prototype
int memcmp(void *s1, void *s2, int n);
Description Function compares the first n characters of objects pointed to by s1 and s2 and returns zero if
the objects are equal, or returns a difference between the first differing characters (in a left-to-right
evaluation). Accordingly, the result is greater than zero if the object pointed to by s1 is greater than the
object pointed to by s2 and vice versa.
Example
char txt[] = “mikroElektronika”;
char txt_sub[] = “mikro;
res = memcmp(txt, txt_sub, 16); // returns 69, which is ASCII code of the
first differing character - letter ‘E’
memcpy
Prototype
void *memcpy(void *d1, void *s1, int n);
Description Function copies n characters from the object pointed to by s1 into the object pointed to by d1. If
copying takes place between objects that overlap, the behavior is undefined. The function returns
address of the object pointed to by d1.
Example
char txt[] = “mikroElektronika”;
char txt_sub[] = “mikr;
res = memcpy(txt+4, txt_sub, 4); // string ‘txt’ will be populated with
the first 4 characters of the ‘txt_sub’ string, beginning from the 4th
character
// routine returns the address of the first
populated character, if memory areas of the strings don’t overlap
memmove
Prototype
void *memmove(void *to, void *from, int n);
Description Function copies n characters from the object pointed to by from into the object pointed to by to. Unlike
memcpy, the memory areas to and from may overlap. The function returns address of the object
pointed to by to.
Example
char txt[] = “mikroElektronika”;
char txt_sub[] = “mikr;
res = memmove(txt+7, txt_sub, 4); // string ‘txt’ will be populated with first
4 characters of the ‘txt_sub’ string, beginning from the 7th character
// routine returns the address of the first
populated character (memory areas of the object may overlap)
705
MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
memset
Prototype
void *memset(void *p1, char character, int n);
Description Function copies the value of the character into each of the first n characters of the object pointed
by p1. The function returns address of the object pointed to by p1.
Example
char txt[] = “mikroElektronika”;
memset(txt, ‘a’, 2); // routine will copy the character ‘a’ into each of
the first ‘n’ characters of the string ‘txt’,
strcat
Prototype
char *strcat(char *to, char *from);
Description Function appends a copy of the string from to the string to, overwriting the null character at the end
of to. Then, a terminating null character is added to the result. If copying takes place between objects
that overlap, the behavior is undefined. to string must have enough space to store the result. The
function returns address of the object pointed to by to.
Example
char txt[] = “mikroElektronika”;
char *res;
txt[3] = 0;
res = strcat(txt, “_test”);
// routine will append the ‘_test’ at the
place of the first null character, adding terminating null character to the
result
// routine returns the address of the ‘txt’
string
strchr
Prototype
char *strchr(char *ptr, char chr);
Description Function locates the first occurrence of character chr in the string ptr. The function returns a pointer
to the first occurrence of character chr, or a null pointer if chr does not occur in ptr. The terminating
null character is considered to be a part of the string.
Example
char txt[] = “mikroElektronika”;
char *res;
res = strchr(txt, ‘E’); // routine will locate the character ‘E’ in the
‘txt’ string, and return the address of the character
MikroElektronika
706
mikroC PRO for dsPIC
strcmp
Prototype
int strcmp(char *s1, char *s2);
Description Function compares strings s1 and s2 and returns zero if the strings are equal, or returns a difference
between the first differing characters (in a left-to-right evaluation). Accordingly, the result is greater
than zero if s1 is greater than s2 and vice versa.
Example
char txt = “mikroElektronika”;
char txt_sub = “mikro”;
int res;
res = strcmp(txt,txt_sub);
// compares strings ‘txt’ and ‘txt_sub’ and
returns returns a difference between the first differing characters, in this
case 69
strcpy
Prototype
char *strcpy(char *to, char *from);
Description Function copies the string from into the string to. If copying is successful, the function returns to. If
copying takes place between objects that overlap, the behavior is undefined.
Example
char txt = “mikroElektronika”;
char txt_sub = “mikro_test”;
int res;
res = strcpy(txt,txt_sub);
// copies string ‘txt_sub’ to ‘txt’
strlen
Prototype
int strlen(char *s);
Description Function returns the length of the string s (the terminating null character does not count against
string’s length).
Example
char txt = “mikroElektronika”;
int result;
result = strlen(txt);
= 16
707
// calculates the length of the ‘txt’ string, result
MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
strncat
Prototype
char *strncat(char *to, char *from, int size);
Description Function appends not more than size characters from the string from to to. The initial character of
from overwrites the null character at the end of to. The terminating null character is always appended
to the result. The function returns to.
Example
char txt = “mikroElektronika”;
char txt_sub = “mikro”;
char *result;
txt[5] = 0;
result = strncat(txt,txt_sub,4);
// routine appends first 4 characters
from the string ‘txt_sub’ at the place of first null character in the ‘txt’
string
strncpy
Prototype
char *strncpy(char *to, char *from, int size);
Description Function copies not more than size characters from string from to to. If copying takes place
between objects that overlap, the behavior is undefined. If from is shorter than size characters,
then to will be padded out with null characters to make up the difference. The function returns the
resulting string to.
Example
char txt = “mikroElektronika”;
char txt_sub = “mikro_test”;
int res;
res = strncpy(txt,txt_sub,4);
‘txt_sub’ to ‘txt’
// copies first 4 characters form the string
strspn
Prototype
int strspn(char *str1, char *str2);
Description Function returns the length of the maximum initial segment of str1 which consists entirely of characters
from str2. The terminating null character at the end of the string is not compared.
Example
char txt = “mikroElektronika”;
char txt_sub = “mikro_test”;
int res;
result = strspn(txt,txt_sub);
MikroElektronika
// routne returns 4
708
mikroC PRO for dsPIC
strncmp
Prototype
int strncmp(char *s1, char *s2, char len);
Description Function lexicographically compares not more than len characters (characters that follow the null
character are not compared) from the string pointed by s1 to the string pointed by s2. The function
returns a value indicating the s1 and s2 relationship:
Value
< 0
= 0
> 0
Example
Meaning
s1 “less than” s2
s1 “equal to” s2
s1 “greater than” s2
char txt = “mikroElektronika”;
char txt_sub = “mikro”;
int res;
res = strncmp(txt_sub,txt,3); // compares the first 3 characters from the
string ‘txt’ with the sting ‘txt_sub’ and returns a difference
strstr
Prototype
char *strstr(char *s1, char *s2);
Description Function locates the first occurrence of the string s2 in the string s1 (excluding the terminating null
character).
The function returns pointer to first occurrence of s2 in s1; if no string was found, function returns 0.
If s2 is a null string, the function returns 0.
Example
char txt = “mikroElektronika”;
char txt_sub = “mikro”;
char *res;
res = strstr(txt_sub,txt);
709
MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
strcspn
Prototype
char *strcspn(char * s1, char *s2);
Description Function computes the length of the maximum initial segment of the string pointed to by s1 that
consists entirely of characters that are not in the string pointed to by s2.
The function returns the length of the initial segment.
Example
char txt = “mikroElektronika”;
char txt_sub = “mikro”;
char *res;
res = strcspn(txt_sub,txt);
strpbrk
Prototype
char *strpbrk(char * s1, char *s2);
Description Function searches s1 for the first occurrence of any character from the string s2. The terminating null
character is not included in the search. The function returns pointer to the matching character in s1. If
s1 contains no characters from s2, the function returns 0.
Example
char txt = “mikroElektronika”;
char txt_sub = “mikro”;
char *res;
res = strpbrk(txt_sub,txt);
strrchr
Prototype
char *strrchr(char * ptr, char chr);
Description Function searches the string ptr for the last occurrence of character chr. The null character
terminating ptr is not included in the search. The function returns pointer to the last chr found in
ptr; if no matching character was found, function returns 0.
Example
char txt = “mikroElektronika”;
res = strrchr(txt_sub,’k’);
the ‘txt’ string
MikroElektronika
// returns the pointer to the ‘k’ character of
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mikroC PRO for dsPIC
strtok
Prototype
char *strtok(char *s1, char *s2);
Returns
The strtok function returns a pointer to the first character of a token, or a null pointer if there is no
token.
Description A sequence of calls to the strtok function breaks the string pointed to by s1 into a sequence of tokens,
each of which is delimited by a character from the string pointed to by s2. The first call in the sequence
has s1 as its first argument, and is followed by calls with a null pointer as their first argument. The
separator string pointed to by s2 may be different from call to call.
The first call in the sequence searches the string pointed to by s1 for the first character that is not
contained in the current separator string pointed to by s2. If no such character is found, then there are
no tokens in the string pointed to by s1 and the strtok function returns a null pointer. If such character
is found, it is the start of the first token.
The strtok function then searches from there for a character that is contained in the current separator
string. If no such character is found, the current token extends to the end of the string pointed to by
s1, and subsequent searches for a token will return a null pointer. If such a character is found, it is
overwritten by a null character, which terminates the current token. The strtok function saves a pointer
to the following character, from which the next search for a token will start.
Each subsequent call, with a null pointer as the value of the first argument, starts searching from the
saved pointer and behaves as described above.
Example
char x[10] ;
void main(){
strcpy(x, strtok(“mikroEl”, “Ek”));
strcpy(x, strtok(0, “kE”));
}
711
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Miscellaneous Libraries
- Button Library
- Conversions Library
- PrintOut Library
- Setjmp Library
- Sprint Library
- Time Library
- Trigonometry Library
Button Library
The Button Library provides routines for detecting button presses and debouncing (eliminating the influence of contact
flickering upon pressing a button).
Library Routines
- Button
strrchr
Prototype
unsigned int Button(unsigned int *port, unsigned int pin, unsigned int time,
unsigned int active_state);
Description The function eliminates the influence of contact flickering upon pressing a button (debouncing). The
Button pin is tested just after the function call and then again after the debouncing period has expired.
If the pin was in the active state in both cases then the function returns 255 (true).
Parameters
Returns
- port: button port address
- pin: button pin
- time: debouncing period in milliseconds
- active_state: determines what is considered as active state. Valid values: 0 (logical zero) and
1 (logical one)
-255 if the pin was in the active state for given period.
- 0 otherwise
Requires
Nothing.
Example
if (Button(&PORTD, 0, 1, 1))
PORTB = 0xFF;
...
Notes
None.
MikroElektronika
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mikroC PRO for dsPIC
unsigned int oldstate;
void main() {
ADPCFG = 0xFFFF;
TRISD = 0xFFFF;
TRISB = 0x0000;
// initialize AN pins as digital
// initialize portd as input
// initialize portb as output
do {
if (Button(&PORTD, 0, 1, 1))
// detect logical one state
oldstate = 1;
if (oldstate && Button(&PORTD, 0, 1, 0)) { // detect logical one to logical zero
transition
LATB = ~LATB;
// toggle portb
oldstate = 0;
}
} while(1);
}
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Conversions Library
The mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 Conversions Library provides routines for numerals to strings and BCD/
decimal conversions.
Library Dependency Tree
Library Routines
You can get text representation of numerical value by passing it to one of the following routines:
- ByteToStr
- ShortToStr
- WordToStr
- IntToStr
- LongToStr
- LongWordToStr
- FloatToStr
- WordToStrWithZeros
- IntToStrWithZeros
- LongWordToStrWithZeros
- LongIntToStrWithZeros
- ByteToHex
- ShortToHex
- WordToHex
- IntToHex
- LongWordToHex
- LongIntToHex
- Rtrim
- Ltrim
The following functions convert decimal values to BCD and vice versa:
- Bcd2Dec
- Dec2Bcd
- Bcd2Dec16
- Dec2Bcd16
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ByteToStr
Prototype
void ByteToStr(unsigned short input, char *output);
Description Converts input byte to a string. The output string has fixed width of 4 characters including null character
at the end (string termination). The output string is right justified and remaining positions on the left (if
any) are filled with blanks.
Parameters
- input: byte to be converted
- output: destination string
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Destination string should be at least 4 characters in length.
Example
unsigned short t = 24;
char txt[4];
...
ByteToStr(t, txt); // txt is “ 24” (one blank here)
Notes
None.
ShortToStr
Prototype
void ShortToStr(short input, char *output);
Description Converts input signed short number to a string. The output string has fixed width of 5 characters
including null character at the end (string termination). The output string is right justified and remaining
positions on the left (if any) are filled with blanks.
Parameters
- input: signed short number to be converted
- output: destination string
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Destination string should be at least 5 characters in length.
Example
short t = -24;
char txt[5];
...
ShortToStr(t, txt);
Notes
715
// txt is “ -24” (one blank here)
None.
MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
WordToStr
Prototype
void WordToStr(unsigned input, char *output);
Description Converts input word to a string. The output string has fixed width of 6 characters including null character
at the end (string termination). The output string is right justified and the remaining positions on the left
(if any) are filled with blanks.
Parameters
- input: word to be converted
- output: destination string
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Destination string should be at least 6 characters in length.
Example
unsigned t = 437;
char txt[6];
...
WordToStr(t, txt);
Notes
// txt is “
437” (two blanks here)
None.
IntToStr
Prototype
void IntToStr(int input, char *output);
Description Converts input signed integer number to a string. The output string has fixed width of 7 characters
including null character at the end (string termination). The output string is right justified and the
remaining positions on the left (if any) are filled with blanks.
Parameters
- input: signed integer number to be converted
- output: destination string
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Destination string should be at least 7 characters in length.
Example
int j = -4220;
char txt[7];
...
IntToStr(j, txt);
Notes
// txt is “ -4220” (one blank here)
None.
MikroElektronika
716
mikroC PRO for dsPIC
LongToStr
Prototype
void LongToStr(long input, char *output);
Description Converts input signed long integer number to a string. The output string has fixed width of 12 characters
including null character at the end (string termination). The output string is right justified and the
remaining positions on the left (if any) are filled with blanks.
Parameters
- input: signed long integer number to be converted
- output: destination string
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Destination string should be at least 12 characters in length.
Example
long jj = -3700000;
char txt[12];
...
LongToStr(jj, txt);
// txt is “
-3700000” (three blanks here)
Notes
None.
LongWordToStr
Prototype
void LongWordToStr(unsigned long input, char *output);
Description Converts input unsigned long integer number to a string. The output string has fixed width of 11
characters including null character at the end (string termination). The output string is right justified
and the remaining positions on the left (if any) are filled with blanks.
Parameters
- input: unsigned long integer number to be converted
- output: destination string
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Destination string should be at least 11 characters in length.
Example
unsigned long jj = 3700000;
char txt[11];
...
LongWordToStr(jj, txt);
// txt is “
3700000” (three blanks here)
Notes
None.
717
MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
FloatToStr
Prototype
unsigned char FloatToStr(float fnum, unsigned char *str);
Description Converts a floating point number to a string.
The output string is left justified and null terminated after the last digit.
Parameters
Returns
Requires
Example
Notes
- fnum: floating point number to be converted
- str: destination string
- 3 if input number is NaN
- 2 if input number is -INF
- 1 if input number is +INF
- 0 if conversion was successful
Destination string should be at least 14 characters in length.
float ff1 = -374.2;
float ff2 = 123.456789;
float ff3 = 0.000001234;
char txt[15];
...
FloatToStr(ff1, txt); // txt is “-374.2”
FloatToStr(ff2, txt); // txt is “123.4567”
FloatToStr(ff3, txt); // txt is “1.234e-6”
Given floating point number will be truncated to 7 most significant digits before conversion.
MikroElektronika
718
mikroC PRO for dsPIC
WordToStrWithZeros
Prototype
void WordToStrWithZeros(unsigned int input, char *output);
Description Converts input word to a string. The output string has fixed width of 6 characters including null character
at the end (string termination).
The output string is right justified and remaining positions on the left (if any) are filled with zeros.
Parameters
- input: unsigned integer to be converted
- output: destination string
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Destination string should be at least 6 characters in length.
Example
unsigned short t = 437;
char txt[6];
...
WordToStrWithZeros(t, txt);
Notes
// txt is “0437” (one zero here)
None.
IntToStrWithZeros
Prototype
void IntToStrWithZeros(int input, char *output);
Description Converts input integer to a string. The output string has fixed width of 7 characters including null
character at the end (string termination).
The output string is right justified and remaining positions on the left (if any) are filled with zeros.
Parameters
- input: integer number to be converted
- output: destination string
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Destination string should be at least 7 characters in length.
Example
short t = -3276;
char txt[7];
...
IntToStrWithZeros(t, txt);
Notes
719
// txt is “-03276” (one zero here)
None.
MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
LongWordToStrWithZeros
Prototype
void LongWordToStrWithZeros(unsigned long input, char *output);
Description Converts input longword to a string. The output string has fixed width of 11 characters including null
character at the end (string termination).
The output string is right justified and the remaining positions on the left (if any) are filled with zeros.
Parameters
- input: unsigned long number to be converted
- output: destination string
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Destination string should be at least 11 characters in length.
Example
unsigned t = 12345678;
char txt[11];
...
LongWordToStrWithZeros(t, txt);
Notes
// txt is “0012345678” (two zeros)
None.
LongIntToStrWithZeros
Prototype
void LongIntToStrWithZeros(long input, char *output);
Description Converts input signed long integer number to a string. The output string has fixed width of 12 characters
including null character at the end (string termination).
The output string is right justified and the remaining positions on the left (if any) are filled with zeros.
Parameters
- input: signed long number to be converted
- output: destination string
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Destination string should be at least 12 characters in length.
Example
int j = -12345678;
char txt[12];
...
LongIntToStrWithZeros(j, txt);
Notes
// txt is “-0012345678” (one zero here)
None.
MikroElektronika
720
mikroC PRO for dsPIC
ByteToHex
Prototype
void ByteToHex(char input, char *output);
Description Converts input number to a string containing the number’s hexadecimal representation. The output
string has fixed width of 3 characters including null character at the end (string termination).
Parameters
- input: byte to be converted
- output: destination string
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Destination string should be at least 3 characters in length.
Example
unsigned short t = 2;
char txt[3];
...
ByteToHex(t, txt); // txt is “02”
Notes
None.
ShortToHex
Prototype
void ShortToHex(unsigned short input, char *output);
Description Converts input number to a string containing the number’s hexadecimal representation. The output
string has fixed width of 3 characters including null character at the end (string termination).
Parameters
- input: signed short number to be converted
- output: destination string
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Destination string should be at least 3 characters in length.
Example
short t = -100;
char txt[3];
...
ShortToHex(t, txt);
Notes
721
// txt is “9C”
None.
MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
WordToHex
Prototype
void WordToHex(unsigned input, char *output);
Description Converts input number to a string containing the number’s hexadecimal representation. The output
string has fixed width of 5 characters including null character at the end (string termination).
Parameters
- input: unsigned integer to be converted
- output: destination string
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Destination string should be at least 5 characters in length.
Example
unsigned t = 1111;
char txt[5];
...
WordToHex(t, txt);
Notes
// txt is “0457”
None.
IntToHex
Prototype
void IntToHex(int input, char *output);
Description Converts input number to a string containing the number’s hexadecimal representation. The output
string has fixed width of 5 characters including null character at the end (string termination).
Parameters
- input: signed integer number to be converted
- output: destination string
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Destination string should be at least 5 characters in length.
Example
int j = -32768;
char txt[5];
...
IntToHex(j, txt);
Notes
// txt is “8000”
None.
MikroElektronika
722
mikroC PRO for dsPIC
LongWordToHex
Prototype
void LongWordToHex(unsigned long input, char *output);
Description Converts input number to a string containing the number’s hexadecimal representation. The output
string has fixed width of 9 characters including null character at the end (string termination).
Parameters
- input: unsigned long integer number to be converted
- output: destination string
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Destination string should be at least 9 characters in length.
Example
unsigned long jj = 65535;
char txt[9];
...
LongWordToHex(jj, txt); // txt is “0000FFFF”
Notes
None.
LongIntToHex
Prototype
void LongIntToHex(long int input, char *output);
Description Converts input number to a string containing the number’s hexadecimal representation. The output
string has fixed width of 9 characters including null character at the end (string termination).
Parameters
- input: signed long integer number to be converted
- output: destination string
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Destination string should be at least 9 characters in length.
Example
long int jj = -2147483648;
char txt[9];
...
LongIntToHex(jj, txt); // txt is “80000000”
Notes
None.
723
MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
Dec2Bcd
Prototype
unsigned short Dec2Bcd(unsigned short decnum);
Description Converts input unsigned short integer number to its appropriate BCD representation.
Parameters
- decnum: unsigned short integer number to be converted
Returns
Converted BCD value.
Requires
Nothing.
Example
unsigned short a, b;
...
a = 22;
b = Dec2Bcd(a);
// b equals 34
Notes
None.
Bcd2Dec
Prototype
unsigned short Bcd2Dec(unsigned short bcdnum);
Description Converts 8-bit BCD numeral to its decimal equivalent.
Parameters
- bcdnum: 8-bit BCD numeral to be converted
Returns
Converted decimal value.
Requires
Nothing.
Example
unsigned short a, b;
...
a = 34;
b = Bcd2Dec(22);
// b equals 22
Notes
None.
MikroElektronika
724
mikroC PRO for dsPIC
Dec2Bcd16
Prototype
unsigned Dec2Bcd16(unsigned decnum);
Description Converts unsigned 16-bit decimal value to its BCD equivalent.
Parameters
- decnum unsigned 16-bit decimal number to be converted
Returns
Converted BCD value.
Requires
Nothing.
Example
unsigned a, b;
...
a = 2345;
b = Dec2Bcd16(a);
Notes
// b equals 9029
None.
Bcd2Dec16
Prototype
unsigned Bcd2Dec16(unsigned bcdnum);
Description Converts 16-bit BCD numeral to its decimal equivalent.
Parameters
- bcdnum 16-bit BCD numeral to be converted
Returns
Converted decimal value.
Requires
Nothing.
Example
unsigned a, b;
...
a = 0x1234;
b = Bcd2Dec16(a);
Notes
725
// a equals 4660
// b equals 1234
None.
MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
Rtrim
Prototype
char *Rtrim(char *string);
Description Trims the trailing spaces from array given with *string
Parameters
- string: array to be trimmed.
Returns
The function returns the address of the first non-space character.
Requires
Nothing.
Example
char *res;
res = Rtrim(“
mikroe”);
// trims the trailing spaces and returns the
address of the first non-space character
Notes
None.
Ltrim
Prototype
char *Ltrim(char *string);
Description 66
Trims the leading spaces from array given with *string
Parameters
- string: array to be trimmed.
Returns
The function returns the address of the first non-space character.
Requires
Nothing.
Example
char *res;
res = Ltrim(“ mikroe”); // trims the leading spaces and returns the address
of the first non-space character
Notes
None.
MikroElektronika
726
mikroC PRO for dsPIC
PrintOut Library
The mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 provides the PrintOut routine for easy data formatting and printing.
Library Dependency Tree
Library Routines
-PrintOut
PrintOut
Prototype
void PrintOut(void (*prntoutfunc)(char ch), const char *f,...);
Description PrintOut is used to format data and print them in a way defined by the user through a print handler
function.
Parameters
- prntoutfunc: print handler function
- f: format string
The f argument is a format string and may be composed of characters, escape sequences, and
format specifications. Ordinary characters and escape sequences are copied to the print handler in
order in which they are interpreted. Format specifications always begin with a percent sign (%) and
require additional arguments to be included in the function call.
The format string is read from left to right. The first format specification encountered refers to the
first argument after the f parameter and then converts and outputs it using the format specification.
The second format specification accesses the second argument after f, and so on. If there are more
arguments than format specifications, the extra arguments are ignored. Results are unpredictable
if there are not enough arguments for the format specifications. The format specifications have the
following format:
% [flags] [width] [.precision]
[{ l | L }]
conversion_type
Each field in the format specification can be a single character or a number which specifies a particular
format option. The conversion_type field is where a single character specifies that an argument is
interpreted as a character, string, number, or pointer, as shown in the following table:
727
MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
Parameters
conversion_type
Argument Type
d
int
o
unsigned int
u
x
unsigned int
Output Format
Signed decimal number
Unsigned decimal number
Unsigned octal number
unsigned int
Unsigned
hexadecimal
0123456789abcdef
number
using
X
unsigned int
Unsigned
hexadecimal
0123456789ABCEDF
number
using
f
double
Floating-point number using the format [-]dddd.dddd
e
double
Floating-point number using the format [-]d.dddde[-]
dd
E
double
Floating-point number using the format [-]d.ddddE[-]
dd
g
double
Floating-point number using either e or f format,
whichever is more compact for the specified value and
precision
c
int
int is converted to an unsigned
resulting character is written
s
char *
String with a terminating null character
%
<none>
p
void *
char, and the
Pointer value, the X format is used
A % is written. No argument is converted. The complete
conversion specification shall be %%.
The flags field is where a single character is used to justify the output and to print +/- signs and blanks,
decimal points, and octal and hexadecimal prefixes, as shown in the following table.
flags
-
Meaning
Left justify the output in the specified field width.
+
Prefix the output value with + or - sign if the output is a signed type.
#
Prefix a non-zero output value with 0, 0x, or 0X when used with o, x, and X field types,
respectively. When used with the e, E, f, g, and G field types, the # flag forces the
output value to include a decimal point. In any other case the # flag is ignored.
s p a c e Prefix the output value with a blank if it is a signed positive value. Otherwise, no blank is
(‘ ‘) prefixed.
*
Ignore format specifier.
The width field is a non-negative number that specifies a minimum number of printed characters. If a
number of characters in the output value is less than width, blanks are added on the left or right (when
the - flag is specified) in order to pad to the minimum width. If the width is prefixed with 0, then zeros
are padded instead of blanks. The width field never truncates a field. If the length of the output value
exceeds the specified width, all characters are output.
MikroElektronika
728
mikroC PRO for dsPIC
Parameters The precision field is a non-negative number that specifies the number of characters to print,
number of significant digits, or number of decimal places. The precision field can cause truncation or
rounding of the output value in the case of a floating-point number as specified in the following table.
flags
Meaning of the precision field
d, u, o, x, X The precision field is where you specify the minimum number of digits that will
be included in the output value. Digits are not truncated if the number of digits
in an argument exceeds that defined in the precision field. If the number of
digits in the argument is less than the precision field, the output value is padded
on the left with zeros.
f
The precision field is where you specify the number of digits to the right of the
decimal point. The last digit is rounded.
e, E
The precision field is where you specify the number of digits to the right of the
decimal point. The last digit is rounded.
g
The precision field is where you specify the maximum number of significant
digits in the output value.
c, C
The precision field has no effect on these field types.
s
The precision field is where you specify the maximum number of characters in
the output value. Excess characters are not output.
The optional characters l or L may immediately precede conversion_type to respectively specify
long versions of the integer types d, i, u, o, x, and X.
You must ensure that the argument type matches that of the format specification. You can use type
casts to ensure that the proper type is passed to printout.
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Nothing.
Example
Print mikroElektronika example’s header file to UART.
void PrintHandler(char c){
UART1_Write(c);
}
void main(){
UART1_Init(9600);
Delay_ms(100);
729
MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
Example
PrintOut(PrintHandler, “/*\r\n”
“ * Project name:\r\n”
“
PrintOutExample (Sample usage of PrintOut()
function)\r\n”
“ * Copyright:\r\n”
“
(c) MikroElektronika, 2006.\r\n”
“ * Revision History:\r\n”
“
20060710:\r\n”
“
- Initial release\r\n”
“ * Description:\r\n”
“
Simple demonstration on usage of the PrintOut()
function\r\n”
“ * Test configuration:\r\n”
“
MCU:
PIC30F4013\r\n”
“
Dev.Board:
EasydsPIC4A\r\n”
“
Oscillator:
HS, %10.3fMHz\r\n”
“
Ext. Modules:
None.\r\n”
“
SW:
mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33
and PIC24\r\n”
“ * NOTES:\r\n”
“
None.\r\n”
“ */\r\n”, Get_Fosc_kHz()/1000.);
}
Notes
None.
MikroElektronika
730
mikroC PRO for dsPIC
Setjmp Library
The Setjmp library contains functions and types definitions for bypassing the normal function call and return
discipline.
jmp_buf is an array of unsigned int type suitable for holding information needed to restore a calling environment. Type
declaration is contained in the sejmp.h header file which can be found in the include folder of the compiler.
Library Routines
- Setjmp
- Longjmp
Setjmp
Prototype
int Setjmp(jmp_buf env);
Description This function saves calling position for a later use by Longjmp.
Parameters
Returns
- env: buffer suitable for holding information needed for restoring calling environment
- 0 if the return is from direct invocation
- nonzero value if the return is from a call to Longjmp (this value will be set by the Longjmp
routine)
Requires
Nothing.
Example
jmp_buf buf;
...
Setjmp(buf);
Notes
None.
731
MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
Longjmp
Prototype
void Longjmp(jmp_buf env, int val);
Description Restores calling environment saved in env buffer by the most recent invocation of Setjmp. If there
has been no such invocation, or the function containing the invocation of Setjmp has terminated in the
interim, the behavior is undefined.
Parameters
- env: buffer holding the information saved by the corresponding Setjmp invocation
- val: value to be returned by the corresponding Setjmp function
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Invocation of Longjmp must occur before return from the function in which Setjmp was called
encounters.
Example
jmp_buf buf;
...
Longjmp(buf, 2);
Notes
None.
Library Example
This example demonstrates function cross calling using the Setjmp and Longjmp functions. When called, Setjmp
saves its calling environment in its jmp_buf argument for a later use by Longjmp. Longjmp, on the other hand,
restores the environment saved by the most recent invocation of Setjmp with the corresponding jmp_buf argument.
MikroElektronika
732
mikroC PRO for dsPIC
Copy Code To Clipboard
#include <Setjmp.h>
jmp_buf buf;
// Note: Program flow diagrams are indexed according
// to the sequence of execution
void func33(){
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
Delay_ms(1000);
asm nop;
Longjmp(buf, 2);
asm nop;
}
void func(){
portb = 3;
if (Setjmp(buf) == 2)
portb = 1;
else
func33();
}
void main() {
PORTB = 0;
TRISB = 0;
asm nop;
func();
}
asm nop;
Delay_ms(1000);
PORTB = 0xFFFF;
733
2<------------|
|
|
|
|
3---------------->|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
1<--------|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
3<----------------|
4-->|
|
|
|
|
|
2------------>|
|
|
4<--|
|
5----->| |
| |
| |
| |
| |
| |
| |
| |
| |
1-------->|
|
5<-----|
MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
Sprint Library
The mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 provides the standard ANSI C Sprintf function for easy data formatting.
Note: In addition to ANSI C standard, the Sprint Library also includes two limited versions of the sprintf function
(sprinti and sprintl)
These functions take less ROM and RAM and may be more convenient for use in some cases.
Library Dependency Tree
Functions
- sprintf
- sprintl
- sprinti
sprintf
Prototype
void sprintf(char *wh, const code char *f,...);
Returns
The function returns the number of characters actually written to destination string.
Description
sprintf is used to format data and print them into destination string.
Parameters:
- wh: destination string
- f: format string
The f argument is a format string and may be composed of characters, escape sequences, and
format specifications. Ordinary characters and escape sequences are copied to the destination string
in the order in which they are interpreted. Format specifications always begin with a percent sign (%)
and require additional arguments to be included in the function call.
The format string is read from left to right. The first format specification encountered refers to the
first argument after f and then converts and outputs it using the format specification. The second
format specification accesses the second argument after f, and so on. If there are more arguments
than format specifications, then these extra arguments are ignored. Results are unpredictable if there
are not enough arguments for the format specifications. The format specifications have the following
format:
% [flags] [width] [.precision] [{ l | L }] conversion_type
Each field in the format specification can be a single character or a number which specifies a particular
format option. The conversion_type field is where a single character specifies that the argument is
interpreted as a character, string, number, or pointer, as shown in the following table:
MikroElektronika
734
mikroC PRO for dsPIC
Description
conversion_type
Argument Type
d
int
o
unsigned int
u
x
unsigned int
Output Format
Signed decimal number
Unsigned decimal number
Unsigned octal number
unsigned int
Unsigned
hexadecimal
0123456789abcdef
number
using
X
unsigned int
Unsigned
hexadecimal
0123456789ABCEDF
number
using
f
double
Floating-point number using the format [-]dddd.dddd
e
double
Floating-point number using the format [-]d.dddde[-]
dd
E
double
Floating-point number using the format [-]d.ddddE[-]
dd
g
double
Floating-point number using either e or f format,
whichever is more compact for the specified value and
precision
c
int
int is converted to an unsigned
resulting character is written
s
char *
String with a terminating null character
p
%
void *
<none>
char, and the
Pointer value, the X format is used
A % is written. No argument is converted. The complete
conversion specification shall be %%.
The flags field is where a single character is used to justify the output and to print +/- signs and blanks,
decimal points, and octal and hexadecimal prefixes, as shown in the following table.
flags
-
Meaning
Left justify the output in the specified field width.
+
Prefix the output value with + or - sign if the output is a signed type.
#
Prefix a non-zero output value with 0, 0x, or 0X when used with o, x, and X field types,
respectively. When used with the e, E, f, g, and G field types, the # flag forces the
output value to include a decimal point. In any other case the # flag is ignored.
s p a c e Prefix the output value with a blank if it is a signed positive value. Otherwise, no blank is
(‘ ‘) prefixed.
*
Ignore format specifier.
The width field is a non-negative number that specifies the minimum number of printed characters.
If a number of characters in the output value is less than width, then blanks are added on the left or
right (when the - flag is specified) to pad to the minimum width. If width is prefixed with 0, then zeros
are padded instead of blanks. The width field never truncates a field. If a length of the output value
exceeds the specified width, all characters are output.
735
MikroElektronika
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
Parameters The precision field is a non-negative number that specifies a number of characters to print, number
of significant digits or number of decimal places. The precision field can cause truncation or rounding
of the output value in the case of a floating-point number as specified in the following table.
flags
Meaning of the precision field
d, u, o, x, X The precision field is where you specify the minimum number of digits that will
be included in the output value. Digits are not truncated if the number of digits
in an argument exceeds that defined in the precision field. If the number of
digits in the argument is less than the precision field, the output value is padded
on the left with zeros.
f
The precision field is where you specify the number of digits to the right of the
decimal point. The last digit is rounded.
e, E
The precision field is where you specify the number of digits to the right of the
decimal point. The last digit is rounded.
g
The precision field is where you specify the maximum number of significant
digits in the output value.
c, C
The precision field has no effect on these field types.
s
The precision field is where you specify the maximum number of characters in
the output value. Excess characters are not output.
The optional characters l or L may immediately precede conversion_type to respectively specify
long versions of the integer types d, i, u, o, x, and X.
You must ensure that the argument type matches that of the format specification. You can use type
casts to ensure that the proper type is passed to sprintf.
sprintl
Prototype
void sprintl(char *wh, const code char *f,...);
Returns
The function returns the number of characters actually written to destination string.
Description
The same as sprintf, except it doesn’t support float-type numbers.
sprinti
Prototype
void sprinti(char *wh, const code char *f,...);
Returns
The function returns the number of characters actually written to destination string.
Description
The same as sprintf, except it doesn’t support long integers and float-type numbers.
MikroElektronika
736
mikroC PRO for dsPIC
Library Example
This is a demonstration of the standard C library sprintf routine usage. Three different representations of the same
floating poing number obtained by using the sprintf routine are sent via UART.
Copy Code To Clipboard
double ww = -1.2587538e+1;
char buffer[15];
void main(){
UART1_Init(4800);
Delay_ms(10);
// Initialize UART module at 4800 bps
UART1_Write_Text(“Floating point number representation”); // Write message on UART
}
sprintf(buffer, “%12e”, ww);
UART1_Write_Text(“rne format:”);
UART1_Write_Text(buffer);
// Format ww and store it to buffer
// Write message on UART
// Write buffer on UART
sprintf(buffer, “%12f”, ww);
UART1_Write_Text(“rnf format:”);
UART1_Write_Text(buffer);
// Format ww and store it to buffer
// Write message on UART
// Write buffer on UART
sprintf(buffer, “%12g”, ww);
UART1_Write_Text(“rng format:”);
UART1_Write_Text(buffer);
// Format ww and store it to buffer
// Write message on UART
// Write buffer on UART
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Time Library
The Time Library contains functions and type definitions for time calculations in the UNIX time format which counts the
number of seconds since the “epoch”. This is very convenient for programs that work with time intervals: the difference
between two UNIX time values is a real-time difference measured in seconds.
What is the epoch?
Originally it was defined as the beginning of 1970 GMT. (January 1, 1970 Julian day) GMT, Greenwich Mean Time, is
a traditional term for the time zone in England.
The TimeStruct type is a structure type suitable for time and date storage. Type declaration is contained in __Time.h
which can be found in the mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 Time Library Demo example folder.
Library Routines
- Time_dateToEpoch
- Time_epochToDate
- Time_dateDiff
Time_dateToEpoch
Prototype
long Time_dateToEpoch(TimeStruct *ts);
Description This function returns the UNIX time : number of seconds since January 1, 1970 0h00mn00s.
Parameters
- ts: time and date value for calculating UNIX time.
Returns
Number of seconds since January 1, 1970 0h00mn00s.
Requires
Nothing.
Example
#include
“__Time.h”
...
TimeStruct
ts1;
long
epoch ;
...
//what is the epoch of the date in ts ?
epoch = Time_dateToEpoch(&ts1) ;
Notes
None.
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Time_epochToDate
Prototype
void Time_epochToDate(long e, TimeStruct *ts);
Description Converts the UNIX time to time and date.
Parameters
- e: UNIX time (seconds since UNIX epoch)
- ts: time and date structure for storing conversion output
Returns
Nothing.
Requires
Nothing.
Example
#include
“__Time.h”
...
TimeStruct
ts2;
long
epoch ;
...
//what date is epoch 1234567890 ?
epoch = 1234567890 ;
Time_epochToDate(epoch, &ts2) ;
Notes
None.
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Time_dateDiff
Prototype
long Time_dateDiff(TimeStruct *t1, TimeStruct *t2);
Description This function compares two dates and returns time difference in seconds as a signed long. Result is
positive if t1 is before t2, result is null if t1 is the same as t2 and result is negative if t1 is after t2.
Parameters
- t1: time and date structure (the first comparison parameter)
- t2: time and date structure (the second comparison parameter)
Parameters None.
Returns
Time difference in seconds as a signed long.
Requires
Nothing.
Example
#include
“__Time.h”
...
TimeStruct
ts1, ts2;
long
diff ;
...
// how many seconds between these two dates contained in ts1 and ts2
buffers?
diff = Time_dateDiff(&ts1, &ts2) ;
Notes
None.
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Library Example
Demonstration of Time library routines usage for time calculations in UNIX time format.
Copy Code To Clipboard
#include
“__Time.h”
TimeStruct ts1, ts2;
long epoch;
long diff;
void main() {
ts1.ss
ts1.mn
ts1.hh
ts1.md
ts1.mo
ts1.yy
=
=
=
=
=
=
0;
7;
17;
23;
5;
2006;
/*
* What is the epoch of the date in ts ?
*/
epoch = Time_dateToEpoch(&ts1);
//
/*
* What date is epoch 1234567890 ?
*/
epoch = 1234567890;
Time_epochToDate(epoch, &ts2);
}
//
1148404020
{0x1E, 0x1F,0x17, 0x0D, 0x04, 0x02, 0x07D9}
/*
* How much seconds between this two dates?
*/
diff = Time_dateDiff(&ts1, &ts2);
// 86163870
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Trigonometry Library
The mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 implements fundamental trigonometry functions. These functions are
implemented as look-up tables. Trigonometry functions are implemented in integer format in order to save memory.
Library Routines
- sinE3
- cosE3
sinE3
Prototype
int sinE3(unsigned angle_deg);
Description The function calculates sine multiplied by 1000 and rounded to the nearest integer:
result = round(sin(angle_deg)*1000)
Parameters
- angle_deg: input angle in degrees
Returns
The function returns the sine of input parameter multiplied by 1000.
Requires
Nothing.
Example
int res;
...
res = sinE3(45);
Notes
// result is 707
Return value range: -1000..1000.
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cosE3
Prototype
int cosE3(unsigned angle_deg);
Description The function calculates cosine multiplied by 1000 and rounded to the nearest integer:
result = round(cos(angle_deg)*1000)
Parameters
- angle_deg: input angle in degrees
Returns
The function returns the cosine of input parameter multiplied by 1000.
Requires
Nothing.
Example
int res;
...
res = cosE3(196);
Notes
743
// result is -193
Return value range: -1000..1000.
MikroElektronika
CHAPTER 10
mikoC PRO for dsPIC
Tutorials
Managing Project
Projects
The mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 organizes applications into projects, consisting of a single project file
(extension .mcpds) and one or more source files (extension .c). mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 IDE allows
you to manage multiple projects (see Project Manager). Source files can be compiled only if they are part of a project.
The project file contains the following information:
- project name and optional description,
- target device,
- device flags (config word),
- device clock,
- list of the project source files with paths,
- header files (*.h),
- binary files (*.mcl),
- image files,
- other files.
Note that the project does not include files in the same way as preprocessor does, see Add/Remove Files from
Project.
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New Project
The easiest way to create a project is by means of the New Project Wizard, drop-down menu Project › New Project or
by clicking the New Project Icon
from Project Toolbar.
New Project Wizard Steps
Start creating your New project, by clicking Next button:
Step One - Select the device from the device drop-down list:
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Step Two - Enter the oscillator frequency value:
Step Three - Specify the location where your project will be saved:
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Step Four - Add project file to the project if they are avaiable at this point. You can always add project files later using
Project Manager:
Step Five - Select inital Library Manager state:
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Step Six - Click Finish button to create your New Project:
Related topics: Project Manager, Project Settings
New Project
The easiest way to create a project is by means of the New Project Wizard, drop-down menu Project › New Project or
by clicking the New Project Icon
from Project Toolbar.
New Project Wizard Steps
Start creating your New project, by clicking Next button:
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Step One - Select the device from the device drop-down list:
Step Two - Enter the oscillator frequency value:
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Step Three - Specify the location where your project will be saved:
Step Four - Add project file to the project if they are avaiable at this point. You can always add project files later using
Project Manager:
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Step Five - Select inital Library Manager state:
Step Six - Click Finish button to create your New Project:
Related topics: Project Manager, Project Settings
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Customizing Projects
You can change basic project settings in the Project Settings window. You can change chip, and oscillator frequency.
Any change in the Project Setting Window affects currently active project only, so in case more than one project is open,
you have to ensure that exactly the desired project is set as active one in the Project Manager. Also, you can change
configuration bits of the selected chip in the Edit Project window.
Managing Project Group
mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 IDE provides convenient option which enables several projects to be open
simultaneously. If you have several projects being connected in some way, you can create a project group.
The project group may be saved by clicking the Save Project Group Icon
The project group may be reopened by clicking the Open Project Group Icon
group is stored in the project group file (extension .mcdsgroup)
from the Project Manager window.
. All relevant data about the project
Add/Remove Files from Project
The project can contain the following file types:
- .c source files
- .h header files
- .mcl binary files
- .pld project level defines files
- image files
- .ihex EEPROM files
- .hex, .asm and .lst files, see output files. These files can not be added or removed from project.
- other files
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The list of relevant files is stored in the project file (extension .mcpds).
To add a file to the project, click the Add File to Project Icon
or press Insert button on your keyboard. Each
added source file must be self-contained, i.e. it must have all necessary definitions after preprocessing.
To remove file(s) from the project, click the Remove File from Project Icon
keyboard.
or press Delete button on your
Project Level Defines:
Project Level Defines (.pld) files can also be added to project. Project level define files enable you to have defines that
are visible in all source files in the project. A file must contain one definition per line in the following form:
<symbol>=<value>
Define a macro named symbol. To specify a value, use =<value>. If =<value> is omitted, 1 is assumed. Do not enter
white-space characters immediately before the “=”. If a white-space character is entered immediately after the “=”, the
macro is defined as zero token. This option can be specified repeatedly. Each appearance of symbol will be replaced
by the value before compilation.
For example, lets make a project level define named pld_test. First of all, create a new file with the .pld extension,
pld_test_file.pld.
Next, open it, and write something like this:
pld_test=3
Once you have done this, save the file. In the Project Manager, add pld_test_file.pld file by right-clicking the
Project Level Defines node.
In the source code write the following:
#if pld_test == 3
...
#endif
There are number of predefined project level defines. See predefined project level defines
Note: For inclusion of the header files (extension .h), use the preprocessor directive #include. See File Inclusion for
more information.
Related topics: Project Manager, Project Settings, Edit Project
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Add/Remove Files from Project
The project can contain the following file types:
- .c source files
- .h header files
- .mcl binary files
- .pld project level defines files
- image files
- .ihex EEPROM files
- .hex, .asm and .lst files, see output files. These files can not be added or removed from project.
- other files
The list of relevant files is stored in the project file (extension .mcpds).
To add a file to the project, click the Add File to Project Icon
or press Insert button on your keyboard. Each
added source file must be self-contained, i.e. it must have all necessary definitions after preprocessing.
To remove file(s) from the project, click the Remove File from Project Icon
keyboard.
MikroElektronika
or press Delete button on your
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Project Level Defines:
Project Level Defines (.pld) files can also be added to project. Project level define files enable you to have defines that
are visible in all source files in the project. A file must contain one definition per line in the following form:
<symbol>=<value>
Define a macro named symbol. To specify a value, use =<value>. If =<value> is omitted, 1 is assumed. Do not
enter white-space characters immediately before the “=”. If a white-space character is entered immediately after the
“=”, the macro is defined as zero token. This option can be specified repeatedly. Each appearance of symbol will be
replaced by the value before compilation.
For example, lets make a project level define named pld_test. First of all, create a new file with the .pld extension,
pld_test_file.pld.
Next, open it, and write something like this:
pld_test=3
Once you have done this, save the file. In the Project Manager, add pld_test_file.pld file by right-clicking the
Project Level Defines node.
In the source code write the following:
#if pld_test == 3
...
#endif
There are number of predefined project level defines. See predefined project level defines
Note: For inclusion of the header files (extension .h), use the preprocessor directive #include. See File Inclusion for
more information.
Related topics: Project Manager, Project Settings, Edit Project
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Source Files
Source files containing source code should have the extension .c. The list of source files relevant to the application
is stored in project file with extension .mcpds, along with other project information. You can compile source files only
if they are part of the project.
Use the preprocessor directive #include to include header files with the extension .h. Do not rely on the preprocessor
to include source files other than headers — see Add/Remove Files from Project for more information.
Managing Source Files
Creating new source file
To create a new source file, do the following:
1. Select File › New Unit from the drop-down menu, or press Ctrl+N, or click the New File Icon
from the File
Toolbar.
2. A new tab will be opened. This is a new source file. Select File › Save from the drop-down menu, or press Ctrl+S, or
click the Save File Icon
from the File Toolbar and name it as you want.
If you use the New Project Wizard, an empty source file, named after the project with extension .c, will be created
automatically. The mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 does not require you to have a source file named the same
as the project, it’s just a matter of convenience.
Opening an existing file
1. Select File › Open from the drop-down menu, or press Ctrl+O, or click the Open File Icon
from the File
Toolbar. In Open Dialog browse to the location of the file that you want to open, select it and click the Open button.
2. The selected file is displayed in its own tab. If the selected file is already open, its current Editor tab will become
active.
Printing an open file
1. Make sure that the window containing the file that you want to print is the active window.
2. Select File › Print from the drop-down menu, or press Ctrl+P.
3. In the Print Preview Window, set a desired layout of the document and click the OK button. The file will be printed
on the selected printer.
Saving file
1. Make sure that the window containing the file that you want to save is the active window.
2. Select File › Save from the drop-down menu, or press Ctrl+S, or click the Save File Icon
Toolbar.
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from the File
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Saving file under a different name
1. Make sure that the window containing the file that you want to save is the active window.
2. Select File › Save As from the drop-down menu. The New File Name dialog will be displayed.
3. In the dialog, browse to the folder where you want to save the file.
4. In the File Name field, modify the name of the file you want to save.
5. Click the Save button.
Closing file
1. Make sure that the tab containing the file that you want to close is the active tab.
2. Select File › Close from the drop-down menu, or right click the tab of the file that you want to close and select Close
option from the context menu.
3. If the file has been changed since it was last saved, you will be prompted to save your changes.
Search Paths
You can specify your own custom search paths: select Project › Edit Search Paths... option from the drop-down
menu:
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Following options are available:
Icon
Description
Add Search Path.
Remove Search Path.
Purge Invalid Paths.
Paths for Source Files (.c)
You can specify either absolute or relative path to the source file. If you specify a relative path, mikroC PRO for
dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 will look for the file in following locations, in this particular order:
1. the project folder (folder which contains the project file .mcpds),
2. your custom search paths,
3. mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 installation folder > Uses folder.
Paths for Header Files (.h)
Header files are included by means of preprocessor directive #include. If you place an explicit path to the header file
in preprocessor directive, only that location will be searched.
You can specify either absolute or relative path to the header. If you specify a relative path, mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33
and PIC24 will look for the file in following locations, in this particular order:
1. the project folder (folder which contains the project file .h),
2. mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 installation folder > Include folder.
3. your custom search paths
Related topics:File Menu, File Toolbar, Project Manager, Project Settings
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Edit Project
Edit Project gives you option to change MCU you wish to use, change its oscillator frequency and build type. Also, Edit
Project enables you to alter specific configuration bits of the selected device.
As you alter these bits, appropriate register values will be updated also. This can be viewed in the Configuration
Registers pane.
When you have finished configuring your device, you can save bit configuration as a scheme, using button.
In case you need this scheme in another project, you can load it using button.
There is also a button which lets you select default configuration bit settings for the selected device.
Related topics: Project Settings, Customizing Projects
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Source Files
Source files containing source code should have the extension .c. The list of source files relevant to the application is
stored in project file with extension .mcpds, along with other project information. You can compile source files only if
they are part of the project.
Use the preprocessor directive #include to include header files with the extension .h. Do not rely on the preprocessor
to include source files other than headers — see Add/Remove Files from Project for more information.
Managing Source Files
Creating new source file
To create a new source file, do the following:
1. Select File › New Unit from the drop-down menu, or press Ctrl+N, or click the New File Icon
from the File
Toolbar.
2. A new tab will be opened. This is a new source file. Select File › Save from the drop-down menu, or press Ctrl+S, or
click the Save File Icon
from the File Toolbar and name it as you want.
If you use the New Project Wizard, an empty source file, named after the project with extension .c, will be created
automatically. The mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 does not require you to have a source file named the same
as the project, it’s just a matter of convenience.
Opening an existing file
1. Select File › Open from the drop-down menu, or press Ctrl+O, or click the Open File Icon
from the File
Toolbar.
In Open Dialog browse to the location of the file that you want to open, select it and click the Open button.
2. The selected file is displayed in its own tab. If the selected file is already open, its current Editor tab will become
active.
Printing an open file
1. Make sure that the window containing the file that you want to print is the active window.
2. Select File › Print from the drop-down menu, or press Ctrl+P.
3. In the Print Preview Window, set a desired layout of the document and click the OK button. The file will be printed
on the selected printer.
Saving file
1. Make sure that the window containing the file that you want to save is the active window.
2. Select File › Save from the drop-down menu, or press Ctrl+S, or click the Save File Icon
Toolbar.
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from the File
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mikroC PRO for dsPIC
Saving file under a different name
1. Make sure that the window containing the file that you want to save is the active window.
2. Select File › Save As from the drop-down menu. The New File Name dialog will be displayed.
3. In the dialog, browse to the folder where you want to save the file.
4. In the File Name field, modify the name of the file you want to save.
5. Click the Save button.
Closing file
1. Make sure that the tab containing the file that you want to close is the active tab.
2. Select File › Close from the drop-down menu, or right click the tab of the file that you want to close and select Close
option from the context menu.
3. If the file has been changed since it was last saved, you will be prompted to save your changes.
Search Paths
You can specify your own custom search paths: select Project › Edit Search Paths... option from the drop-down
menu:
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Following options are available:
Icon
Description
Add Search Path.
Remove Search Path.
Purge Invalid Paths.
Paths for Source Files (.c)
You can specify either absolute or relative path to the source file. If you specify a relative path, mikroC PRO for
dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 will look for the file in following locations, in this particular order:
1. the project folder (folder which contains the project file .mcpds),
2. your custom search paths,
3. mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 installation folder > Uses folder.
Paths for Header Files (.h)
Header files are included by means of preprocessor directive #include. If you place an explicit path to the header file
in preprocessor directive, only that location will be searched.
You can specify either absolute or relative path to the header. If you specify a relative path, mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33
and PIC24 will look for the file in following locations, in this particular order:
1. the project folder (folder which contains the project file .h),
2. mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 installation folder > Include folder.
3. your custom search paths
Related topics:File Menu, File Toolbar, Project Manager, Project Settings,
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Clean Project Folder
This menu gives you option to choose which files from your current project you want to delete.
Files marked in bold can be easily recreated by building a project. Other files should be marked for deletion only with a
great care, because IDE cannot recover them.
Related topics: Customizing Projects
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Compilation
When you have created the project and written the source code, it’s time to compile it. Select Project › Build from the
drop-down menu, or click the Build Icon
from the Build Toolbar. If more more than one project is open you
can compile all open projects by selecting Project › Build All Projects from the drop-down menu, or click the Build All
Projects Icon
from the Build Toolbar.
Progress bar will appear to inform you about the status of compiling. If there are some errors, you will be notified in
the Messages Window. If no errors are encountered, the mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 will generate output
files.
Output Files
Upon successful compilation, the mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 will generate output files in the project folder
(folder which contains the project file .mcpds). Output files are summarized in the table below:
Format
Description
File Type
Intel HEX
Intel style hex records. Use this file to program .hex
MCU.
Binary
mikro Compiled Library. Binary distribution of .mcl
application that can be included in other projects.
List File
Overview of MCU memory allotment: instruction .lst
addresses, registers, routines and labels.
Assembler File
Human readable assembly with symbolic names, .asm
extracted from the List File.
Assembly View
After compiling the program in the mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24, you can click the View Assembly icon
or select Project › View Assembly from the drop-down menu to review the generated assembly code (.asm file) in a
new tab window.
Assembly is human-readable with symbolic names.
Related topics: Project Menu, Project Toolbar, Messages Window, Project Manager, Project Settings
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Creating New Library
mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 allows you to create your own libraries. In order to create a library in mikroC
PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 follow the steps bellow:
1. Create a new source file, see Managing Source Files
2. Save the file in one of the subfolders of the compiler’s Uses folder:
DriveName:\Program Files\Mikroelektronika\mikroC PRO for dsPIC\Uses\
3. Write a code for your library and save it.
4. Add __Lib_Example file in some project, see Project Manager. Recompile the project.
If you wish to use this library for all MCUs, then you should go to Tools › Options › Output settings, and check Build all files as library box.
This will build libraries in a common form which will work with all MCUs. If this box is not checked, then library will be built for selected MCU.
Bear in mind that compiler will report an error if a library built for specific MCU is used for another one.
5. Compiled file __Lib_Example.mcl should appear in ...\mikroC PRO for dsPIC\Uses\ folder.
6. Open the definition file for the MCU that you want to use. This file is placed in the compiler’s Defs folder:
DriveName:\Program Files\Mikroelektronika\mikroC PRO for dsPIC\Defs\
and it is named MCU_NAME.mlk, for example 30F4013.mlk
7. Add the the following segment of code to <LIBRARIES> node of the definition file (definition file is in XML format):
<LIB>
<ALIAS>Example_Library</ALIAS>
<FILE>__Lib_Example</FILE>
<TYPE>REGULAR</TYPE>
</LIB>
8. Add Library to mlk file for each MCU that you want to use with your library.
9. Click Refresh button in Library Manager
10. Example_Library should appear in the Library manager window.
Multiple Library Versions
Library Alias represents unique name that is linked to corresponding Library .mcl file. For example UART library for
30F4013 is different from UART library for 30F6014 MCU. Therefore, two different UART Library versions were made,
see mlk files for these two MCUs. Note that these two libraries have the same Library Alias (UART) in both mlk files.
This approach enables you to have identical representation of UART library for both MCUs in Library Manager.
Related topics: Library Manager, Project Manager, Managing Source Files
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Using Microchip MPLAB® IDE with mikroElektronika compilers
This new feature will boost your productivity by enabling you to import your code in a non-mikroElektronika enironment
- Microchip’s MPLAB®.
With the introduction of COFF File in mikroElektronika compiler, it is possible to debug and analyze your code through
a software or hardware simulator.
Debugging Your Code
If your program has been built correctly, the compiler should generate a .hex file and a .cof file. The cof file
contains all the information necessary for high-level debugging in MPLAB®, and it should be loaded by selecting the
File › Import... menu in the MPLAB®.
Once you have done this, you have two choices: either to use MPLAB® ICD 2 Debugger, if you have the appropriate
hardware, or MPLAB® Simulator.
Trademarks:
The Microchip name and logo, the Microchip logo, Accuron, dsPIC, KEELOQ, KEELOQ logo, microID, MPLAB,
PIC, PICmicro, PICSTART, PRO MATE, rfPIC and SmartShunt are registered trademarks of Microchip Technology
Incorporated in the U.S.A. and other countries.
Related topics: COFF File, Using MPLAB® ICD 2 Debugger, Using MPLAB® Simulator
Using MPLAB® ICD 2 Debugger
Important:
- It is assumed that MPLAB® and USB drivers for MPLAB® ICD 2 Debugger are previously installed.
- Procedure described below is also relevant for MPLAB® ICD 3 Debugger.
- Be sure to import compiled .hex file prior to importing .cof file, because it contains configuration bit settings which
are essential for the proper functioning of the user code.
To successfully use MPLAB® ICD 2 Debugger with generated .cof file, follow the steps below:
1. First of all, start mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 and open the desired project. In this example, UART project for EasydsPIC4A board and dsPIC30F4013 will be opened.
2. Open Tools › Options › Output settings, and check the “Generate COFF file” option, and click the OK button.
3. After that, compile the project by pressing Ctrl + F9.
4. Connect USB cable and turn on power supply on EasydsPIC4A.
5. Program the MCU by pressing F11.
6. Connect external power supply, USB cable from PC and modular interface cable to the MPLAB® ICD 2 Debugger’s appropiate sockets, like on the picture below :
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7. Connect second end of the modular interface cable to the ICD (RJ12) socket of EasydsPIC4A :
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8. Put the J11 and J10 Jumpers in the correct position, as showed in the picture below:
9. Next, open MPLAB®, and select the appropriate device by choosing Configure › Select Device... :
10. After device selection, click on the File › Import. Open file dialog box should appear. Then, go to the project folder
and open the generated HEX file, UART.hex.
Note: This is very important, because hex file contains configuration bit settings which are essential for the proper
functioning of the user code.
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11. Next, click the File › Import. Open file dialog box should appear. Then, go to the project folder and open the generated COFF file, UART.cof:
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12. Then, select the MPLAB® ICD 2 from the Debugger › Select Tool menu for hardware debugging:
13. Complete the MPLAB® ICD 2 Setup Wizard from the Debugger menu (if needed).
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14. After completing MPLAB® ICD 2 Setup Wizard, click on the Debugger › Connect:
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15. Finally, click on the Debugger › Program:
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16. Now, you can start debugging the code by clicking Step Over button
F8:
on the Debug toolbar, or by pressing
Related topics: COFF File, Using MPLAB® Simulator
Using MPLAB® Simulator
Note: It is assumed that MPLAB® is previously installed.
1. First of all, start mikroC PRO for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 Help and open the desired project. In this example, UART project for EasydsPIC4A board and dsPIC30F4013 will be opened.
2. Open Tools › Options › Output settings, and check the “Generate COFF file” option, and click the OK button.
3. After that, compile the project by pressing Ctrl + F9.
4. Next, open MPLAB®, and select the appropriate device by choosing Configure › Select Device... :
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5. After device selection, click on the File › Import. Open file dialog box should appear. Then, go to the project folder and open the generated COFF file, UART.cof :
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6. Then, select the MPLAB® SIM from the Debugger › Select Tool menu for software debugging:
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mikroC PRO for dsPIC
7. Now, you can start debugging the code by clicking Step Over button
F8:
on the Debug toolbar, or by pressing
Related topics: COFF File, Using MPLAB® ICD 2 Debugger
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Frequently Asked Questions
This is a list of frequently asked questions about using mikroElektronika compilers.
If your question is not answered on this page, please contact mikroElektronika Support Desk.
Can I use your compilers and programmer on Windows Vista (Windows 7) ?
Our compilers and programmer software are developed to work on and tested on Windows 98, Windows 2000, Windows
ME, Windows XP (32 and 64 bit), Windows Vista (32 and 64 bit) and Windows 7 (32 and 64 bit) and they work fine on
these operating systems.
You can find the latest drivers on our website.
I am getting “Access is denied” error in Vista, how to solve this problem ?
Please turn off User Account Control (UAC). This should make your software fully functional. To do this, follow the path
in your Windows Vista (logged in as administrator) Control Panel › User Accounts › Turn User Account Control on
or off, uncheck Use User Account Control (UAC) and click OK.
What are differences between mikroC PRO, mikroPascal PRO and mikroBasic PRO
compilers ? Why do they have different prices ?
Basically, there is little differences between these compilers. mikroC PRO is standardized with ANSI C, and it is much
more complex and it is far more difficult to write the compiler for it. We used a lot more resources for making it than what
we used for mikroPascal and mikroBasic. We also worked on some very complex topics such as floating point, typedef,
union, a completely new debugger and many other. Because of that there is difference in price.
Why do your PIC compilers don’t support 12F508 and some similar chips ?
Unfortunately our PIC compilers don’t support 12F508 and similar chips because these chips are designed to use 12-bit
wide instructions. Our compiler support MCUs which use 14-bit or wider instructions.
What are limitations of demo versions of mikroElektronika’s compilers ?
The only limitation of the free demo version is that it cannot generate hex output over 2K of program words. Although it
may sound restrictive, this margin allows you to develop practical, working applications without ever thinking of demo
limit. If you intend to develop really complex projects in one of our compilers, you should consider purchasing the
license key.
Why do I still get demo limit error when I purchased and installed license key ?
If you are first time installing and registering compiler, you need to follow instructions exactly as described in registration
procedure. License is valid only for the computer from which request is made, so license requested from one computer
won’t work on another computer. You can find on our site manual and video describing in detail how to get your license.
If you previously had an older version of our compiler and have working license key for it but it doesn’t work with new
compiler, you have to repeat registration procedure from the new compiler and you will get a new license.
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I have bought license for the older version, do I have to pay license for the new version
of the compiler ?
No, once you pay for the license key you get a lifetime license. When we release a new major release of the compiler,
you might need to repeat registration procedure from your new compiler and you will get new license free of charge.
Do your compilers work on Windows Vista (Windows 7) ?
Yes!
What does this function/procedure/routine do ?
Please see your compiler’s Help where all of the functions are explained in detail.
I try to compile one of the provided examples and nothing happens, what is the
problem?
You need to open project, not file. When you want to open an example, go to Project › Open Project, then browse
through projects and choose project file. Now you will be able to compile and program with success.
Can I get your library sources ? I need to provide all sources with my project.
It is our company’s policy not to share our source code.
Can I use code I developed in your compilers in commercial purposes ? Are there some
limitations ?
Regarding your code, there are no limitations. Your application is your own property and you can do whatever you like
with it. If you want to include some of code we provide with our compilers or on our site, you may include them in your
project, however, you are not allowed to charge your users for these.
Why does an example provided with your compilers doesn’t work ?
All of the examples provided with our compilers are tested and work fine. You need to read commented header of the
example and be sure that you have used the same MCU example is written for and that you have hardware connections
(DIP switches, jumpers etc.) set as described.
Your example works if I use the same MCU you did, but how to make it work for another
MCU ?
You should read your MCU’s datasheet. Different MCUs can have different pin assignments and may require different
settings. If you need help regarding this, you can find free online books on our website and recommend you starting
there. You can also ask for help on our forum.
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I need this project finished, can you help me ?
We currently do not do custom projects, however, we can give you some directions when you start working on your
project and come to a problem. Also, our forum is very active community and as you can find there experts in different
fields, we encourage you to look for help there.
Do you have some discount on your compilers/development systems for students/
professors ?
Since large percentage of our customers are schools, laboratories and students, our prices are already scaled for these
kinds of users. If you plan ordering more than one of our products, see special offers page on our website. Also, you
can contact our Sales Department and see if you are eligible for some additional discount.
I have a question about your compilers which is not listed here. Where can I find an
answer ?
Firstly, look for it in your compiler’s Help. If you don’t find an answer there, please create a support ticket on our
website.
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If you have any questions, comments or business proposals, do not hesitate to contact us at [email protected]
If you are experiencing some problems with any of our products or just need additional information, please place your ticket at
www.mikroe.com/en/support
If you want to learn more about our products, please visit our website at www.mikroe.com
Mouser Electronics
Authorized Distributor
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