User Manual
Contents
1
Getting started
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
2
Graphical user interface
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9
3
Introduction ..................................................................... 33
Start with good images .................................................. 33
Preview images ............................................................... 34
Process images ............................................................... 37
Calibrate images ............................................................ 40
Describe images ............................................................. 45
Projects
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
5
About the interface ........................................................ 15
Menu bar ......................................................................... 15
Toolbars ............................................................................ 18
Status bar ......................................................................... 19
Display zone .................................................................... 20
Workspace ...................................................................... 23
Reports ............................................................................. 24
Dockable windows ......................................................... 29
Options ............................................................................. 30
Image Pool
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
4
About the software ........................................................... 7
System requirements ........................................................ 7
Install the software ............................................................ 8
Licensing ............................................................................ 8
Launch the software ....................................................... 11
Resources ........................................................................ 12
What’s new? .................................................................... 14
Introduction ..................................................................... 49
Create a project ............................................................. 52
Create match hierarchy ................................................ 54
Create classes ................................................................ 59
Handle project items ...................................................... 59
Save projects .................................................................. 60
Manage projects ............................................................ 61
Gels
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5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
5.7
6
Spots
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6
6.7
6.8
7
Introduction ................................................................... 113
General settings ............................................................ 113
Analyze gels ................................................................. 116
Analyze classes ............................................................ 131
Annotations
9.1
9.2
9.3
9.4
9.5
9.6
4
Introduction ................................................................... 101
Display a match hierarchy .......................................... 102
Define landmarks ......................................................... 103
Automatic matching .................................................... 105
Select matches ............................................................. 106
Display matches ........................................................... 107
Edit matches ................................................................. 109
Match reports ................................................................ 110
Data analysis
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
9
Introduction ..................................................................... 83
Detect spots in non-DIGE gels ....................................... 83
Co-detect spots in DIGE gels ........................................ 87
Select spots ..................................................................... 90
Display spots ................................................................... 92
Edit spots .......................................................................... 93
MW and pI calibration ................................................... 96
Spot reports ..................................................................... 98
Matches
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.7
7.8
8
Introduction ..................................................................... 63
Manipulate images ........................................................ 63
View signal intensity ....................................................... 67
Visually compare images ............................................. 76
Grid lines ......................................................................... 79
Gel reports ....................................................................... 80
Save, export and print images ...................................... 81
Introduction ................................................................... 143
Create annotations and labels ................................... 144
Create label categories .............................................. 145
Connect to protein databases .................................... 147
Create specific links ..................................................... 150
Select annotations and labels .................................... 152
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9.7 Display annotations and labels ................................... 156
9.8 Edit annotations and labels ......................................... 157
9.9 Annotation table ........................................................... 159
10 Data integration
10.1
10.2
10.3
10.4
Convert projects from earlier software versions ........ 161
Acquire images from Twain compatible scanners ... 161
Export data .................................................................... 162
Export to spot excision robots ...................................... 163
11 Undo, redo and history
11.1 Undo, redo ..................................................................... 167
11.2 History ............................................................................ 168
Appendix A Shortcuts
A.1
A.2
A.3
A.4
A.5
A.6
Shortcut keys ................................................................. 171
Tool shortcuts ................................................................. 172
Gel shortcuts ................................................................. 172
Spot shortcuts ................................................................ 173
Annotation shortcuts ..................................................... 173
Match shortcuts ............................................................. 173
Appendix B References
B.1 Software ......................................................................... 175
B.2 Statistical methods ........................................................ 175
B.3 Further reading .............................................................. 176
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Getting started 1
1
1.1
Getting started
About the software
Melanie offers a unique and flexible solution for the comprehensive
visualization, exploration and analysis of 2-D gel data.
This version of Melanie was developed by a team of top researchers
from the Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics (SIB) in collaboration with
Geneva Bioinformatics (GeneBio) SA and GE Healthcare. Professor
Hochstrasser's group at the Geneva University Hospital contributed
their real-world experience. The application has advanced to its
current level primarily due to the input of users worldwide.
There are two modules of Melanie 7.0 available for purchase:
1.2
•
Melanie 7.0 DIGE: To be used with conventional 2-DE and DIGE
gels. It is fully functional, enabling you to add and import DIGE gels
directly in the workspace. You can also co-detect DIGE gels using
TM
the algorithm created by the GE Healthcare DeCyder software
development team as well as match, report, plot histograms and
perform statistical analyses on DIGE gels.
•
Melanie 7.0: To be used with conventional 2-DE gels. All menu
commands related to DIGE are not functional and are grayed out
in the graphical user interface.
System requirements
In order to install and run Melanie, your computer must satisfy the
following requirements:
®
®
•
Microsoft Windows XP, Vista, 7 or 8 operating systems.
•
Administrative permission to install Melanie.
•
At least 500 MB of RAM for Melanie (recommended: Intel dual-core
processor with 1GB of RAM) and 768 MB RAM for Melanie DIGE
(recommended: Intel dual-core processor with 2GB of RAM). The
amount of memory required is determined by the number and size
of image files to be processed simultaneously. Increased memory
therefore enhances the performance when many and/or large
images are analyzed.
•
A high-quality display. To take full advantage of the software
including the 3D View feature, the color resolution should be set to
24 bit (16.7 million colors). However, a color resolution of 8 bit (256
colors) is generally sufficient. It is recommended to use a screen
resolution of at least 1024 x 768 pixels.
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1 Getting started
1.3 Install the software
•
1.3
®
®
®
®
Microsoft Internet Explorer 6 or Mozilla Firefox 3 or higher
versions. A browser allows you to print reports and to access
scientific databases on the Web.
Install the software
You can install Melanie from a CD-ROM or by downloading the
installation package over the Internet. When the CD-ROM is inserted
into the appropriate drive on your computer, the Setup Wizard starts
automatically and gives a series of on-screen instructions. Alternatively,
you can double-click on the icon of the installer file (.msi or .exe file) to
launch the Setup Wizard.
The Melanie installer creates a default directory on your hard disk called
Program Files\GeneBio\Melanie 7.0, in which the program files are
placed. If you want to save the default directory in a different folder,
then browse and select the location before continuing the installation.
Once installation is complete, it is recommended to restart your
computer.
1.4
Licensing
Upon installation, Melanie is fully functional when analyzing the tutorial
images, but it does not allow spot detection and matching on other
gels. To analyze your own images, you must purchase and install an
electronic license, or request a trial license. The availability of the license
file is verified each time the software is launched.
There are two types of licenses:
•
Node-locked (Machine) license: To be used on a single computer.
It is practical when only a few computers are used for working with
Melanie. A node-locked license file must be placed on the
computer running Melanie.
•
Floating (Concurrent) license: To be used by all computers
networked to a a license server. It is useful when many users, but
not all at the same time, need access to the software. The number
of computers that can simultaneously work with Melanie depends
on the license, and is administered via the license server. A floating
license file must be placed on the computer running the license
server. This server can either be installed on a computer running
Melanie or on any other network computer (recommended: install
on a network computer that is continually running).
Read on to learn how to obtain and place a license file.
1.4.1
Find the physical address of the computer
In order for GeneBio to create a license file, the physical address of your
computer is needed. This address identifies the computer and is used by
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Getting started 1
the licensing system. If purchasing a node-locked license, send the
physical address of the computer where Melanie is to be installed. If
purchasing a floating license, send the physical address of the
computer where the license server is to be installed.
To find the physical address while running the software:
1
Launch the software.
2
Choose Help > License Info.
3
In the License Information window, click Copy to clipboard.
4
Paste the clipboard content into an email and send this to
[email protected] so that your license can be created.
To find the physical address of the license server, or when the software
is not yet installed:
1
On the computer where the license file is to be placed (for
example, the license server for a floating license), choose (All)
Programs > Accessories > Command Prompt in the Windows Start
menu.
2
In the Command Prompt window, enter ipconfig /all. There must be
a space between ipconfig and /all.
3
The response should contain several parameters for the network.
Look for the line Ethernet adapter Local Area Connection. Then look
for the Physical Address.
4
Note down the Physical Address among the displayed information,
and send it to [email protected] so that your license can be
created. The physical address must be correctly recorded for the
license file to work.
1.4.2
Install the license server
This section only pertains to floating licenses. If you have a node-locked
license, then skip to the next section.
To install the GeneBio license server:
1
On the computer where the license server is to be installed, insert
the Melanie CD-ROM.
2
Click Install GeneBio License Server.
3
In the installation window, click Next.
4
Accept the default installation path and start the installation. By
changing the default installation path, the file paths in LMTOOLS will
need to be updated accordingly.
5
Answer Yes to any question about Windows Firewall (this may or
may not appear) in order for the license server to work properly.
6
LMTOOLS automatically opens once the installation is successfully
completed.
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1 Getting started
1.4 Licensing
7
Click the Config Services tab and ensure that all options are set as
in Figure 1-1. The file paths shown (i.e., C:\Program
Files\GeneBio\License Server\) are valid if the default installation
was done.
8
Click Save Service, even if no changes were made.
9
Leave LMTOOLS open and proceed to the next section.
Figure 1-1. The Config Services tab in LMTOOLS.
1.4.3
Place a license file
You will receive the license file (with a .lic extension) from GeneBio once
you have sent the physical address of your computer.
•
For a node-locked license, the file must be placed in the Melanie
installation folder (C:\Program Files\GeneBio\Melanie 7.0 by
default).
•
For a floating license, the file must be placed in the Licenses
subfolder of the License server installation folder (C:\Program
Files\GeneBio\License server\Licenses by default).
1.4.4
Start the license server
This section only pertains to floating licenses. If you have a node-locked
license, then skip to the next section.
To start the GeneBio license server:
10
1
Select the Start/Stop/Reread tab in LMTOOLS.
2
Click Start Server (Figure 1-2).
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Getting started 1
3
Close LMTOOLS.
Figure 1-2. Starting the server from the Start/Stop/Reread tab in LMTOOLS.
1.4.5
Test the license file
In order to test that the license file is correctly placed, start Melanie on
all computers where the software is installed.
TM
For a floating license, a FLEXnet License Finder window displays asking
to specify the License Server System or License File. Choose the first
option and enter the name of the computer where the license server is
installed. Click OK.
1.5
Launch the software
Double-click the Melanie icon (Figure 1-3) found on your computer’s
desktop to start the software. Alternatively, go to (All) Programs >
Melanie 7.0 in the Windows Start menu. A splash page appears while
the software is loading. It will disappear automatically.
Figure 1-3. Melanie icon.
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1 Getting started
1.6 Resources
1.6
Resources
1.6.1
Help
Tutorials
Two tutorials are provided with Melanie. The Non-DIGE Tutorial and DIGE
Tutorial documents are available from the Help menu in the software,
from the Windows Start menu, and from the folder Doc in the software
installation directory. The corresponding image files can be found in the
folder Tutorials/Images in the software installation directory.
Non-DIGE Tutorial
The 12 sample gels used in this tutorial come from an experiment that
aims to study protein expression changes between four conditions. Cells
were grown on two different substrates (substrate A and substrate B)
and underwent one of two treatments (treatment 1 and treatment 2).
Three biological replicates have been run for each condition.
Condition
A_T1
A_T2
B_T1
B_T2
Substrate
Substrate A
Substrate A
Substrate B
Substrate B
Treatment
Treatment 1
Treatment 2
Treatment 1
Treatment 2
DIGE Tutorial
The sample gels used in this tutorial come from an experiment that aims
to study protein expression changes between control and treated
groups of bacterial cultures.
In this study, eight sample lysates were prepared; four were derived
from treated bacterial cultures and four were derived from un-treated
(control) bacterial cultures. Aliquots from each sample were taken and
pooled to prepare a standard sample (pooled internal standard). The
samples were run on four gels. The control and treated samples were
alternatively labeled with Cy3 or Cy5 (dye swap) to avoid dye-bias. The
standard was labeled with Cy2 and run on each gel in the experiment.
Gel
Gel 01
Gel 02
Gel 03
Gel 04
Cy2
Pooled internal standard
Pooled internal standard
Pooled internal standard
Pooled internal standard
Cy3
Control A
Treated B
Control C
Treated D
Cy5
Treated A
Control B
Treated C
Control D
A preparative gel, including reference markers, was run on the pooled
sample and post-stained with a Fluor total stain to pick spots and
identify them by mass spectrometry (MS).
Tutorial projects
When the software is started for the very first time, two tutorial projects
Tutorial and TutorialDIGE are restored. Each project contains the three
first images of the corresponding experiment (described above). The
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Getting started 1
project can be completed with the remaining images that can be
found in the folder Tutorials\Images in the Melanie installation directory.
In this way, you first get a view of what the project structure looks like,
and can then learn to add images to a project.
Note: If Melanie was already used on your computer before, you can
rename the file Experiment.mws in Documents and
Settings\[username]\My Documents\Melanie\Projects to make
sure the tutorial projects are restored.
User manual
Melanie is intended to be intuitive and comprehensive. In order to
exploit the software’s full potential, refer to the User Manual. You will find
detailed explanations of all the features and functionalities. The
chapters in this manual are generally organized according to the
logical sequence of a 2-DE gel analysis, although expert users will agree
that some steps can be inverted or repeated at some point.
1.6.2
Customer support
GeneBio provides technical and scientific support for Melanie. Please
contact us if any problems arise during the installation or use of the
software. Our support team is happy to help you.
How to contact us
By email: [email protected]
By phone: +41 22 379 50 50.
By fax: +41 22 379 58 58.
Product, system and license information
Launch the software and choose Help > About Melanie to obtain
product, system and license information. The product name, version
number and version date that are displayed will be requested in
technical support issues. You can view system and license information
by clicking on the corresponding buttons.
The Copy to clipboard button in the License Information window can be
used to paste license data into an email. In the System Information
window, find facts about your computer or choose File > Export to save
all the information in a text file.
We listen
The GeneBio team is attentive to your suggestions. Many of the
enhancements to the software are a direct result of conversations with
our customers. We truly appreciate any comments, criticisms or ideas
that would help us to improve the software. Please do not hesitate to
contact us by email at [email protected]
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1 Getting started
1.7 What’s new?
1.7
What’s new?
The graphical interface and user interaction modes have been entirely
revamped. The streamlined analysis in Melanie now offers enhanced
usability and speed.
Features have been redesigned to help minimize manual spot editing
and repetitive match editing. Ultimately, tasks are simplified and the
reliability of the results are increased.
The most important new features in Melanie, version 7.0 are listed below:
14
•
Fully dynamic tables, histograms, plots and 3-D views in which both
content and selection are continuously updated to stay
synchronized with the corresponding sheet that contains the gel
images.
•
Simplified import and visualization of images
•
Improved population matching
•
Management of multiple matches and composite spots
•
Reorganized menu structure with icons
•
Custom and context-related toolbars
•
One-click to choose desired layout of sheets and panes
•
Option to surround spot selections by boxes, for easier
identification
•
Single tool to select/edit spots and annotations
•
Dedicated landmark tool
•
Measure tool to compute pixel, pI, MW, or real-world (centimeter
or inch) distances between spots
•
Reviewed contrast adjustment feature
•
New 3D View
•
Customized report templates
•
Adaptive display of histograms
•
And much more…
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Graphical user interface 2
2
Graphical user interface
2.1
About the interface
The graphical user interface (GUI) is divided into four main parts, shown
in Figure 2-1. They are the Menu Bar, the Toolbars, the Status Bar, and the
Display Zone.
The Display Zone is the center of the interface. This is where gel images
are arranged in sheets and panes. The Workspace and any reports are
dockable windows found along the edges of the Display Zone.
a
b
e
f
g
d
h
c
Figure 2-1. The Melanie window. (a) Menu Bar, (b) Toolbar, (c) Status Bar, (d)
Display Zone, (e) Sheet, (f) Pane, (g) Workspace, and (h) Reports.
2.2
Menu bar
You can choose actions to be performed during your analysis from the
Menu Bar. The menus are context related. This means some of the
commands may not be available all of the time and either go away or
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2 Graphical user interface
2.2 Menu bar
are grayed out. For example, the Select menu allows you to select
spots, matches and annotations for detection and matching.
Therefore, this menu is neither available nor displayed while viewing and
editing images in the Image Pool.
Menu
Description
File
Close, save, import, export, print and other basic
operations. You can also exit Melanie.
Edit
Undo/redo the last operations, show a history of
operations, or edit (add, modify, delete) specific gels,
spots, annotations or matches. You can also edit spot sets
and enable spots.
View
Modify the settings for grid lines, profile or overview in the
display, align images, show dual color or spot overlap in
the current sheet, or change the way gels, spots,
annotations or matches are visualized.
Select
Select specific spots, spot sets, annotations or matches.
Reports
Display tabular or graphical information on about selected
gels, spots, annotations or matches, and compute
differences and similarities between gel images. The data
analys is based on robust statistics, factor analysis, and
statistical tests.
Tools
Change display, quantification, and other options at the
software level and customize the user interface (custom
toolbars, keyboard shortcuts). Create and control a
calibration tablet while working in the Image Pool .
Help
Access documentation and obtain license, product,
version, or system information.
Most menu commands also have toolbar icons and/or keyboard
shortcuts.
2.2.1
Keyboard shortcuts
Keyboard shortcuts, when available, are designated on the right-hand
side of the corresponding menu command. A list of all shortcuts is given
in the Appendix. Please note the logic behind the key combinations:
Ctrl is used to maneuver gels.
Shift is used to maneuver spots.
Alt is used to maneuver annotations.
Ctrl + Shift is used to maneuver matches.
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You can create your own keyboard shortcuts for menu commands.
CAUTION! A new keyboard shortcut must be unique. Be careful not to
duplicate a keyboard shortcut that is already assigned to another
menu command. You risk destroying an existing shortcut. However, a
given command can have several, different keyboard shortcuts.
To add your own keyboard shortcut:
1
Choose Tools > Customize.
2
Click the Keyboard tab.
3
Select the menu in the Category drop-down list and then select the
command for which you want to create a shortcut (Figure 2-2).
4
Check the Key assignments list to see if the shortcut is currently
assigned.
5
Click in the Press new shortcut key box and then press the new
combination on your keyboard.
6
Click Assign. The software warns you when the shortcut is already
assigned to another command and asks if you want to re-assign it.
Click No and come up with a different shortcut.
7
Click Close.
Figure 2-2. Defining keyboard shortcuts in the Customize window.
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2 Graphical user interface
2.3 Toolbars
2.3
Toolbars
2.3.1
Default toolbars
The standard toolbars provided are designed so that you can quickly
manipulate your gel data and apply the most frequently used features.
Each of the tools are described in detail elsewhere in the User Manual.
Tools
This toolbar contains the basic tools of the software. More importantly,
their functions (Move, Zoom, Region, Selection, Measure and
Landmark) are not available in any menu. Although they do have
corresponding keyboard shortcuts.
Display
This toolbar contains the options Undo Zoom/Move, Redo Zoom/Move,
Adjust Contrast and Cursor Information Window.
Image
The image toolbar (Rotate, Flip, Invert Gray Levels, Crop and Add Files
to Project) is contextual; it is only available when working with images in
the Image Pool.
Detect And Match Spots
This toolbar is only displayed when working with gels in a Match or Class
sheet (i.e., once gels have been imported into a project). You can
Detect, Enable Edit, Match Gels, Add Match, Delete Match and Show
Vectors.
Edit Spots
This toolbar is only available when spot edition is enabled. Choose Edit
> Spots > Edit Enabled to get into this mode.
2.3.2
Customize toolbars
Toolbars can be configured according to your individual specifications.
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Toolbar position
To change the position of a toolbar, click the left edge and drag the
toolbar to the position you want. You can drag a toolbar to any of the
edges of the GUI. When a toolbar is dragged outside of the frame of the
Melanie window, it becomes a floating window.
Toolbar format
By default, the toolbar icons in the software are small (16x16 pixels). You
can choose to display large icons (24x24 pixels) for better visibility. In
addition, when you move the mouse over an icon, a screentip appears.
Perhaps you prefer to hide all the screentips, or just remove the
keyboard shortcuts for the tools from the screentips.
To modify the toolbar format:
1
Choose Tools > Customize.
2
Click the Options tab in the Customize window.
3
Select the desired options in the Other section.
4
Click Close.
Custom toolbars
You can create your own toolbars with icons for the functions you use
most commonly.
To create a custom toolbar:
2.4
1
Choose Tools > Customize.
2
Click the Toolbars tab in the Customize window.
3
Click New to create a toolbar. Enter a name for the toolbar and
click OK. An empty toolbar is created below the existing ones.
4
Click the Commands tab in the Customize window.
5
Select the menu from the Category list. Then select the command
for which you want to create an icon and drag it to the empty
toolbar.
6
Repeat step 5 to add icons to the toolbar.
7
Click Close in the Customize window.
Status bar
The Status Bar at the bottom of the Display Zone is an important
resource. It indicates the total number of gels, spots, matches and
annotations that are selected in the current sheet.
If you move your mouse over a gel image, the Status Bar also indicates
the X and Y coordinates at the cursor position, as well as the image
intensity. The unit of the coordinates can be changed in Tools > Options,
under the Display tab.
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2.5 Display zone
2.5
Display zone
Gel images are opened in the Workspace and viewed in sheets and
panes in the Display Zone (Figure 2-3). Their layouts can be arranged
according to your requirements.
Figure 2-3. The Display Zone. There are two sheets open here, including the
Image Pool. The current sheet AB is in front and contains four panes (AT1, AT2,
BT1 and BT2). Only the pane AT1 is selected (green tab). By clicking the Layout
icon for the pane, different options (Stacked, Tiled, One Row, One Column,
Free) are displayed. Similarly, click the Layout icon in the upper right corner to
re-arrange a sheet.
2.5.1
Sheets
When no dockable windows (Workspace, reports) are open, sheets
occupy the entire Display Zone. Each sheet has a tab, with its name and
an icon representing its type:
•
Image Pool: This sheet contains images for viewing and basic
processing.
•
MatchSet: This sheet is opened by right-clicking on the name of
a match set in the Workspace. Spot detection and matching must
be carried out on this type of sheet.
•
Class: This sheet is opened by right-clicking on the name of one
or several classes in the Workspace. To carry out advanced
expression analysis, you must work in this type of sheet.
When you move the mouse cursor over a sheet tab, the screentip
specifies the type.
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Selection
The current sheet is always in front and its name is in bold. Select a sheet
by clicking on its tab.
Close
Click the Close icon in the upper right corner of the current sheet when
you are finished working with it.
Layout
The Layout icon to the left of the Close icon can be used to choose the
arrangement of the panes in a sheet.
Option
Description
Stacked
Panes in a sheet are one on top of another.
Tiled
Panes in a sheet are side by side.
One Row
Panes in a sheet are in a single horizontal line.
One Column
Panes in a sheet are in a single vertical line.
Free
You specify the number of panes laid out horizontally
and vertically in a sheet.
2.5.2
Panes
There can be one or more panes in a sheet (see Figure 2-3). Each pane
has a tab with its name. On the left side of the tab, one or more icons
describe the match or class hierarchy.
Selection
Select a pane by clicking on its tab. Use the Shift or Ctrl keys to make
multiple selections. Click the sheet tab to select all panes in a sheet.
Selected panes have green tabs.
By default, panes are laid out in Tiled mode. When working in a different
mode like Stacked, bring a hidden pane to the front by clicking on its
tab.
Layout
Click the Layout icon on the right side of the tab to change the
arrangement of the images in a pane. The options are the same as for
panes in a sheet.
2.5.3
Images
By default, the gel name is displayed in the upper left corner of an
image. The color of the name indicates whether the image is selected
(green) or not (gray). If an image name has a red corner, this means
that it is the reference image for the matching. If an image name is a
darker green or darker gray than the other images, then it is the current
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2.5 Display zone
sheet reference. All other images in the sheet are compared to this
sheet reference when using the menu commands in View > Sheet.
To hide the image names, choose View > Global > Show Gel Names.
The image name is replaced by three dots.
Move the mouse over an image name to view a screentip specifying
the match hierarchy. In a Class sheet, the class and path to which it
belongs are also given. If the image is the sheet reference, then this fact
is included in the screentip.
Selection
Select an image by clicking on its name. Use the Shift or Ctrl keys to
make multiple selections. Click the pane tab to select all images in a
pane.
When images are hidden like in Stacked mode, bring an image to the
front by clicking on its tab at the bottom of the pane. Quickly sift through
images using the Page Up and Page Down keys on your keyboard or
click on the navigation triangles in the lower right corner of a pane.
Scrollbars
The scrollbars on the right and bottom edges of each image can be
used to change the zoom factor of an image by dragging one of the
ends of the scrollbar. You can also move the visible area of the gel
horizontally or vertically by clicking in the middle of the scrollbar and
dragging left/right or up/down.
Click on the gray square at the intersection of two scrollbars to reset the
image to its full image size.
If you want to view a specific area of your gel image, choose View >
Global > Scrollbars > Adjust. In the Adjust Visible Area window, set the
exact horizontal and vertical start and end coordinates for the area to
be displayed. You can do this in terms of different units: Pixel coordinate,
Percentage and Real coordinate (pI and MW). Please note that pI_MW
annotations must be defined in order to use this function.
To hide the scrollbars, choose View > Global > Scrollbars > Show. In that
case, You can still move and zoom images by using the Move and
Zoom tools in the toolbar.
2.5.4
Switch order
You can change the order in which images are displayed by dragging
the gel name onto another image. It is then inserted before this image.
Similarly, you can re-order panes by dragging their tabs to a new
position.
Swap panes or images by choosing View > Sheet > (Navigation >)
Switch or the Ctrl+F shortcut. This reverses the last re-ordering operation
applied to a pane or image.
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2.6
Workspace
The Workspace plays an important role in the software. It allows you to
organize your gels into projects, to specify how the gels are to be
matched together, and to define your classes (or groups) for statistical
analysis. A brief description of the Workspace window is presented here.
The utility of the Workspace is discussed in another chapter.
The Workspace window is a dockable window and has two main parts:
the Workspace toolbar and the Navigator (Figure 2-4).
Figure 2-4. The expanded view of the Workspace window. The Workspace
toolbar and Navigator (at the left) are always visible. The file details in the
expanded view (at the right) are only displayed when desired.
2.6.1
Toolbar
Commands to create new projects, add files to projects, remove,
backup and restore projects are found under the
Project icon in the
Workspace toolbar. .
Click the
Expanded View icon to enlarge the Workspace window to
include details of all files selected in the Navigator. The files can be
sorted in ascending or descending order by clicking on a column
header. Click again on the Expanded View icon to hide the file
information.
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2.6.2
Navigator
The Navigator displays all files and folders you can view (Image Pool)
and analyze (projects). The look and feel is similar to Windows Explorer.
There is a hierarchical structure of folders, subfolders and files that can
be expanded or collapsed, dragged and dropped in a new location,
copied and pasted, etc.
When launching the software for the first time, there is an empty Image
Pool folder. Images are opened through the Image Pool. To further
analyze images (detect, match, carry out statistical analysis, etc.), they
must be transferred to a project. You can work on many projects in the
Workspace, each of which will contain one or more root structures with
Match and Classes subfolders.
Current sheet
Any item in bold in the Navigator corresponds to items displayed in the
current sheet.
Contextual menus
A contextual menu containing relevant options appears when you
right-click an item in the Navigator.
Navigator icons
Each folder type in the Navigator has a specific icon (Image Pool,
Project, Match, Class). In addition, images and match set folders have
icons that indicate their status. You can distinguish DIGE gels from nonDIGE gels, know which gels have been detected and matched, and
recgonize gels used as references for matching.
Icon
Meaning
Undetected image /
reference image.
Detected image /
reference image.
Matched gel /
reference gel.
Table 2-1. The Navigator icons inform you about the type and status of the image.
2.7
Reports
Reports are highly practical for organizing and describing your gel data.
They make it much easier to process all of the information.
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Reports are not necessarily in table format. Graphical representations of
data such as histograms, scatter plots and 3D views are treated as
reports as well. All reports are dockable windows.
Report
Description
3D View
A three-dimensional view of selected gel regions or
areas around selected spots.
Analyze Gels
Information about each selected spot match such
as its Match ID, value for each spot in the match,
and chosen statistical measures calculated on all
spots in the match.
Scatter Plots also provide information (slope, offset,
correlation coefficient, fitting error) that compare the
spot values for two gels.
The Match Statistics Table displays the number of
matches and percentage of matches for each gel
at the selected level of the match hierarchy.
The DIGE Histogram displays the frequency
distribution of the DIGE volume ratios.
Analyze
Classes
Central tendency, dispersion, and overlapping
measures for classes of gels computed for all
selected matches. Differences between the spot
values in several classes can also be quantified with
Statistical Tests such as ANOVA, Mann-Whitney U test
and Kolmogorov-Smirnov test.
Gel Table
Summarized information about the selected gels,
such as Gel ID, file name and path, gel calibration
data, gel resolution and size, number of detected
spots, user defined properties such as sample type,
staining or date of the experiment, and much more.
Predefined templates (Properties, Files, Descriptions,
Calibration) allow you to quickly display a specific
subset of fields. You can also create custom
templates.
Spot Table
Specific information about selected spots such as
Spot ID and coordinates, quantification values,
attached labels, etc.
Annotation
Table
Information about annotations, including the label
content for each category, the annotation
coordinates and Spot ID (if the annotation is linked to
a spot).
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2.7.1
Dynamic content
Report content is continuously updated. A report selection is
synchronized to reflect the most current data from the corresponding
sheet that contains the gel images.
Notice that reports are attached to their corresponding sheet. If the
sheet is closed, the reports will be closed as well.
2.7.2
Content based on enabled spots
By default, all spots are enabled and therefore represented in the
reports. But the content of reports can be limited to a subset of spots by
disabling spots that are not of interest. See 6.4.3 to learn more about
enabling/disabling spots.
2.7.3
Toolbars
Most reports have a toolbar with the following icons in addition to some
report-specific icons and functionalities that are described in later
chapters of the User Manual:
Suspend synchronization
By default, the selection in the report is continuously synchronized with
the corresponding sheet that contains the images and with other
reports. Click the Suspend Synchronization icon to stop the
synchronization and render the selection in the report independent of
the selection on the gel, and vice versa.
Save
Enter a name and select the desired format for the file to be saved.
Tables can be saved in tab-delimited text format (.txt), as a Microsoft
Excel Workbook (.xls), or in XML format (.xml). Graphics can be saved in
TM
PNG, TIFF or BMP formats.
Print
Normal print options are available when printing graphical reports.
When printing tabular reports, the table is first displayed in your default
Web browser. This is because the XSL stylesheet located in the
Template\Reports folder of the Melanie installation directory is used to
transform the XML report into an attractive table. You can then use the
print option in your browser to get a printout.
Copy to clipboard
Export your data directly into another application. First select the
desired lines in a table, or the desired graphics in a window, using the
Shift or Ctrl keys. Then copy the selection to the clipboard by choosing
the Copy to Clipboard icon. Paste directly into the preferred software.
Previous selection
Click the Previous Selection icon to skip to the first selected item
encountered when scrolling towards the top of your table. When only
one row is selected, this selects the previous row in the table.
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Next selection
Click the Next Selection icon to skip to the first selected item
encountered when scrolling towards the bottom of your table. When
only one row is selected, this selects the next row in the table.
Settings
Click this icon to change the display settings for your report. In most
cases, this means setting the visibility (hidden or shown) of the columns.
In some cases (Histograms and Match Statistics Table), you can define
other display options.
Select by value
This feature allows you to select items in the report based on a numerical
search criterion. Click the Select by Value icon, then select the measure
(i.e., column) you want to use for refinement, and finally set the lower
and/or upper limits of your search interval.
2.7.4
Customize reports
Sorting data in columns
Data in tabular reports can be sorted by the column content. If you click
once on the header of a specific column, a triangle is displayed
indicating that the column's numerical or textual data is sorted in
ascending order. When you click once more on the header, the triangle
inverts indicating that the data is sorted in the opposite order. Note that
ascending order means that numbers are sorted from 0 to 9 and text is
sorted from A to Z.
Column visibility
Load a predefined template or save your own template indicating
what columns should be hidden or shown using the Settings icon in a
report toolbar. This is particularly useful when you only want the essential
information to appear for clarity or for printing purposes.
To apply an existing report template:
1
Click the Settings icon in a report toolbar.
2
In the template window (Figure 2-5), select a template name with
the Load icon. By default, only the Gel Table has more than one
predefined template (Properties, Files, Decriptions, Calibration).
3
Click OK.
To create and save your own report template:
1
Click the Settings icon in a report toolbar.
2
In the template window, select (box is checked) the attributes that
you want to show in the report and deselect (box is unchecked) the
attributes to hide columns.
3
To save the template for later use, click the Save icon. Choose a
name from the list or select <New...> to create one. Click OK.
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4
Click OK in the template window.
To delete an existing report template:
1
Click the Settings icon in a report toolbar.
2
In the template window, click the Remove icon and choose the
template to be deleted. Click OK.
3
Click Yes when asked for confirmation.
Figure 2-5. Report template window.
Column order
You can reorganize table columns directly in a report window. To do so,
drag the column header to its new position. You will see red arrows at
the insertion point.
Column size
You can enlarge or reduce the column size. Drag the right edge of the
column header until the column is the width you want. To resize columns
so that their whole content is displayed, double-click on their separator.
The column to the left of the cursor is resized.
2.7.5
Edit table cells
In the Spot table, cells containing annotation labels are editable.
Double-click in a cell to start typing or editing your label. When finished,
a single click in any cell quits the editing mode.
Please note that annotation categories of the data type Set are
displayed as check boxes. A checked box means that the item belongs
to the Set. An empty box means that it does not belong to the Set.
The same is true for spot sets represented in any of the tables: a
checked box means that the spot belongs to the set. An empty box
means that the spot does not belong to the set.
To check several boxes (i.e., lines) simultaneously:
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2.8
1
Use the Shift or Ctrl keys to select the rows in which you want to
check or uncheck the box.
2
Click in the box of one of the selected rows. All rows are now either
checked or unchecked.
Dockable windows
The Workspace, reports, and Adjust Contrast window are dockable
windows. Dockable windows make it easier for you to work with
numerous windows at the same time. These windows can be docked
(i.e., fixed in place) against the left, right, top or bottom edges of the
Melanie window and always lie on top when visible. A visible window
can be in one of three modes:
Pinned
The pinned mode enables dockable windows to be locked into
position around the edges of the Melanie window. Once a window is
pinned, you can move it to a different location by dragging the title bar
(Figure 2-6). Guides indicate where the window may be docked. By
moving the cursor over the guides, a shaded blue box appears showing
where the window will reside if the left mouse button is released. If you
move the dockable window to a non-predefined location, it becomes
a floating window. Moving a docked window may affect the location
and size of other docked windows.
Un-pinned
A visible window in un-pinned mode automatically collapses when
not in use to become a tab at the edge of the Melanie window (in
Figure 1-7, the Workspace is in this mode). When you click on a docked
tab, the window slides back into view and is ready for use. You can also
click on Minimize to minimize a window in un-pinned mode.
Floating
A dockable window in floating mode will always appear on top. It can
be dragged to any position within the software or even outside the
Melanie window. You can switch in and out of floating mode by
double-clicking on the title bar of a dockable window.
Tabbed groups
Dockable windows can be organized into tabbed groups. This feature
extends your ability to maximize the use of limited screen space by
combining multiple dockable windows into one window. In order to
form a tabbed group, drag the title bar of a dockable window into the
center of another. You will see the nested tabs at the bottom of the
docked window. In order to separate a tabbed group, drag a tab
away from the docked window or double-click on the tab. Please note
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2.9 Options
that tabular reports and graphical reports cannot be grouped
together.
Figure 2-6. The Class Analysis Histograms window previously docked at the
right edge will now be docked to the right of the Class Analysis Table window,
in the lower left corner of the Melanie window.
2.9
Options
You can set various parameters that influence your work in Melanie.
These settings are accessed by choosing Tools > Options in the menu.
More detailed information about the options are provided in the
related chapters of the User manual. However, an overview of the
settings, per tab, is given below.
Display
• Indicate the default spot colors (for enabled, disabled, selected
and overlapped spots) and the color for the match vectors.
•
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Choose the units to express coordinates in the Status Bar and
Measure tool.
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•
Indicate whether spot selections should be surrounded by boxes,
for easier localization.
Annotation
• Define the annotation categories that should always be available
in the software, and set their attributes and display properties.
Gel descriptions
• Define the gel descriptions that should always be available in the
software.
Quantification
• Specify the spot quantification value to be used for non-DIGE
(Value) and DIGE (DIGE Value) experiments. This spot
quantification value is used in Gel and Class Analysis Reports.
•
2
Compute the spot areas in mm , based on gel resolution (default),
or pixels.
General
• Specify whether the raw image data of newly opened files should
be kept in memory.
With the option Keep image in memory selected, the image data
is continuously loaded and the software will require more memory.
With the option Keep image in memory deselected, the image
data is only loaded by the software when specific operations
(Detection, Adjust Contrast, 3D view, Profile) require the use of raw
image data. This gives you the possibility to optimize the use of
memory available to the software, but some functionality (Pixel
Intensity in the Cursor Information Window and Status Bar) will not be
available unless you activate Adjust Contrast or Profile at the same
time.
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3
3.1
Image Pool
Introduction
This chapter is about opening and processing images in the Image Pool.
You must be familiar with the concepts described in the last chapter
(the Workspace, sheets, panes and images) in order to get the most out
of it.
3.2
Start with good images
Your gels must first be converted into an image file by an appropriate
imaging device. During digitization, a gel is resolved into a twodimensional matrix of squares, or pixels. Each pixel in the generated
image file is characterized by its X and Y coordinates, and its signal
intensity, or gray value.
To make any analysis meaningful, it is important to start with good
quality image files. The following paragraphs give some helpful tips on
what resolution, depth and image formats should be used to obtain the
best possible results.
3.2.1
Resolution
The scanning resolution of a gel is critical as it influences the amount of
visible detail in the image. A low resolution corresponds to a large pixel
size or a small number of pixels (or dpi, dots per inch). When the image
resolution is too low, individual spots cannot be distinguished. On the
other hand, when the scan resolution is too high, the image file
becomes very large. This slows down the gel analysis significantly. A
resolution between 150 and 300 dpi is generally sufficient for gel
analysis.
3.2.2
Image depth
The range of potential gray levels in an image varies according to the
8
image depth. In the case of an 8-bit image, one pixel has 256 (2 )
possible gray values (0 to 255). Images scanned with a higher image
16
depth contain more information. A 16-bit image (2 = 65536 gray levels)
will reveal more subtleties. We strongly recommend an image depth of
at least 12 bits for gel analysis. 16 bits is preferred.
Please make sure to use gray scale images for your analysis, and not
color images. The extra color information (one intensity value for each
color channel) is of no value.
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3.2.3
Calibration
Some imaging devices can measure more gray levels (e.g., 100000 or
more) than can be stored in the availabe image formats. These
instruments encode the gray values using a nonlinear calibration curve
(generally encoding low intensity values with higher accuracy than the
high intensity values), to conserve as much information as possible in the
saved files. Melanie uses the calibration curve contained in these
image files to recalculate the measured gray values and use them for
display and quantification.
Other devices convert raw pixel values into real-world units (generally
optical density or OD). This means that the range of gray values is the
same no matter what the original image depth. There are image
TM
capture devices, such as the GE Healthcare ImageScanner in
conjunction with the LabScan software, that even allow you to perform
this type of calibration. When this is the case, Melanie takes into
account the conversion tables or calibration formulas stored in the files.
You can also calibrate such an image capture device within Melanie
using calibration step wedges or calibration strips.
3.2.4
Image editing
TM
General purpose graphics software such as Adobe Photoshop ignore
or even remove calibration information. Therefore, you should not use
them to flip, rotate, crop or invert your images. Instead, use the software
that came with your scanner or the dedicated tools in Melanie.
3.2.5
File format
The supported input formats are GEL (Molecular Dynamics), MEL
TM
(Melanie/ImageMaster ), TIFF (Tag Image File Format), IMG (Fuji), GSC
and 1SC (Bio-Rad). Please note that the default TIFF format does not
include calibration information, although some imaging tools do export
.tif files that contain calibration tags.
3.2.6
DIGE file naming convention
To facilitate the import of DIGE images, it is recommended that the file
names for the group of two or three images contain a common string
and their respective dye names (Cy2, Cy3, Cy5).
3.3
Preview images
3.3.1
Open images
You can open gel images that are in any of the above-mentioned input
formats (.mel, .gel, .tif, .img, .gsc, .1sc). DIGE images can also be
imported and automatically grouped by opening .ds files.
To open gel images:
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1
Do one of the following:
•
Choose File > Open.
•
In the Workspace window, click the Project icon. In the Add Files
window, search for Files of Type “All Image Files (*.mel; *.tif;
*.gel; *.img; *.ds)”.
•
In the Navigator of the Workspace window, right-click on the
Image Pool folder and select Add.
2
In the Open Files or Add Files window, browse the directory where
the image file is located, select its name and click Open. Use the
Shift or Ctrl keys to make multiple selections. Note that you can
select files from multiple DIGE gels.
3
You are prompted to:
•
For non-DIGE images: Specify the staining. If the staining cannot
be found in the list, you can type a new one. The staining
entered is only informative and does not influence the analysis,
unless you assign the Cy2, Cy3 or Cy5 stains, in which case the
images are treated as DIGE images. Click OK.
•
For DIGE images: Select the images that are part of the same
DIGE gel (Figure 3-1). By default, the software proposes image
combinations based on the file names. Click Add to confirm one
DIGE gel at a time, or Add All if the proposed combinations are
all correct. The suggested names for the created DIGE gels must
be edited and confirmed individually.
Figure 3-1. Create DIGE Gel window. The first list contains the Cy2 images to
be opened, the second the Cy3 images and the third the Cy5 images. The
software proposes the combination of images based on the file names.
Please note that the software checks the image resolution before
opening a file. If the resolution is too low, you get a warning message. If
it is higher than 225 dpi, you are able to scale the image in order to
reduce its size.
3.3.2
Image pool sheet
The gel images appear in the Image Pool folder in the Workspace and
are automatically opened in the Image Pool sheet (Figure 3-2). NonDIGE images all appear in a single pane with the name Files. A separate
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3.3 Preview images
pane is displayed for each DIGE gel, containing the images belonging
to that gel.
Remove
Gels remain in the Image Pool until they are added to a Project. When
you are finished working with an image, right-click on it and select
Remove. To remove all images in the Image Pool, right-click on the
Image Pool folder and select Remove All. Please note that this action
never affects the original image files (which always remain unchanged
in their original location).
Hide / display
If you do not want to display all gels in the Image Pool sheet, you can
right-click on certain items in the Image Pool folder and select Hide. To
show a hidden image, right-click on it and select Display.
To open the Image Pool sheet at any time, right-click on the Image Pool
folder in the Workspace and select Display.
Properties
To rename a gel or image, or to see the file path, right-click on a gel and
select Properties.
Figure 3-2. Image Pool folder in the Workspace and Image Pool sheet.
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3.4
Process images
The Image toolbar provides the basic tools to process images: Rotate,
Flip, Crop and Invert Gray Levels, which can also be found in the Edit >
Gels menu. These tools are only available when the Image Pool is the
current sheet. They are also optional and should only be applied when
needed.
Processing your images in Melanie does not affect your original image
files. Copies are saved in a temporary folder until the images are added
to a project and saved in the corresponding project folder.
Please note that these operations are simultaneously carried out on the
two or three images in a DIGE gel.
3.4.1
Rotate
Selected images can be rotated by 90° CCW (counterclockwise) or 90°
CW (clockwise). Free rotation (the third icon) can also be applied,
although it should be avoided since it modifies the original data.
To freely rotate an image:
1
Select the gel image to be rotated in the Image Pool sheet.
2
Click the Free Rotate icon.
3
A red grid appears on the image. The bold horizontal grid line plays
the role of landmark to help you visualize the rotation. It becomes
the new horizontal in your rotated image.
4
Click anywhere in the image and rotate the grid while holding the
left mouse button. Release the button when the bold line is parallel
with what should be the new horizontal in your image (Figure 3-3).
You can also manually enter a rotation angle in the Rotation Tool
window.
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Figure 3-3. Rotation Tool window. The grid is rotated until its bold line is parallel
with what should be the new horizontal reference. When the mouse button is
released, the gel image is rotated.
3.4.2
Flip
When gel images are scanned in the wrong direction, you can Flip
Horizontally or Flip Vertically to produce their correct mirror image.
3.4.3
Crop
You can crop your gel images with the Crop tool. This creates new gels
that only contain the selected area and removes the outer area.
When you crop a gel, you get the choice to create a new image (a
number is appended to the existing name) or to overwrite the image in
the Image Pool (remember that gels in the Image Pool are copies of the
original image file).
Crop area
The crop area is a region than can have an anchor attached to it. You
can position the anchor on an easily recognizable protein spot. As the
region moves with the anchor, and vice versa, you can easily crop a
similar part of each gel by correctly positioning the crop areas (of the
same size) in the gels (Figure 3-4).
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To define a crop area:
1
Click the Region tool and place the cursor at the top left position of
the area you want to crop. Hold down the left mouse button and
move the cursor to the bottom right position (a dashed box is
displayed). Release the mouse button at the end point.
2
Move a crop area by clicking inside the box and dragging it.
Change the size of the area by dragging a corner or edge. To
remove an area, double-click on the image.
3
If you want to attach an anchor to the crop area, hold the Alt key
while clicking on an easily recognizable protein spot. A dark blue
circle will be centered on the spot. Note that this anchor may be
located inside or outside the crop area.
4
To change the position of the anchor, hold the Alt key and click
another spot. To remove the anchor, hold the Alt key and click on
the anchor.
5
Propagate the crop area to the other images in your sheet by
holding the Shift key while clicking in the crop area.
6
Adjust the position of the crop area in each gel by moving it so that
the anchor is centered on the appropriate spot.
Figure 3-4. Identical crop areas in three gel images.
Crop area export / import
Crop areas can be exported and imported to ensure that the final size
of all your cropped gels is identical, even between work sessions.
To export a crop area:
1
With the Region tool, define a crop area.
2
Select the gel in which you defined the crop area.
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3.5 Calibrate images
3
Choose Edit > Gels > Crop Area > Export to save the crop area to a
file with the extension .cpt (Crop Tool).
4
Browse to locate a folder and enter a file name. Click Save.
To import a crop area:
1
Select the gels to be cropped to a previously defined crop area.
2
Choose Edit > Gels > Crop Area > Import and select the previously
saved file. Click Open.
3
The crop area appears on the selected images.
4
By clicking inside the area with the Region tool and dragging it, you
can move the crop area to superimpose the anchor on a
characteristic spot.
3.4.4
Invert gray levels
You can invert the gray levels of selected gels. This means that if your
image shows white spots on a black background, the inversion displays
black spots on a white background (the required mode for analysis in
Melanie).
CAUTION! When your images open in the software with white spots
on a black background this may indicate that you used incorrect
scanner settings or that your files are not properly imported. Please
verify your image acquisition parameters. If you think the software
does not correctly support your files (i.e., saved in one of the
recommended input formats), please contact our technical support
service.
3.5
Calibrate images
3.5.1
Display calibration information
It is recommended to use calibrated images for your gel analysis. To
verify if your images were calibrated, and possibly view the calibration
information:
•
Choose Reports > Gel Table, click the Settings icon and select the
Calibration template from the Load drop-down list. The Calibration
Unit, Formula, Name, Creator and Date are displayed in the report.
If nothing appears in these columns, the gels were not calibrated.
•
If your image was calibrated with LabScan 5.0 or 6.0, you can
select the image and choose Edit > Gels > Show Calibration Plot to
view the calibration curve. See below for details about the
calibration curve.
If you are digitizing your images using a flatbed document scanner and
do not have calibrated images yet, you can carry out and apply a
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calibration at this point, before adding your images to a project. Use a
scanned calibration step tablet to assign optical density (OD) values to
the measured pixel intensities, and ensure that darker material is
measured in the correct proportions to the lighter material.
It is generally recommended to perform this type of intensity calibration
on the image capture device once every month.
3.5.2
Create a calibration
Calibration step tablet
To calibrate the image capture device, you need to scan a calibration
step tablet or calibration strip along with your gels. These step tablets
have known intensity values (expressed in optical density, OD, or diffuse
density, DD) published by the manufacturer of the step tablet.
Please note that for the purpose of 2D gel analysis, it is only useful to
calibrate the image capture device when working in transparent
mode. No calibration needs to be done when you do reflective
scanning. When both a transparent and a reflective calibration strip are
provided, be sure to use the appropriate calibration step tablet.
Calibration tablet file
The OD values for the step tablet have to be specified in a Calibration
Tablet File, together with other information such as the height and width
of the tablet, and the number of steps.
An example of such a Calibration Tablet File (Kodak2.tab) can be
found in the Template\Tablet folder of the Melanie installation
directory. This Calibration Tablet File is made for use with the Kodak Step
Tablet no. 2. If you do not use this specific step tablet, you can copy the
file and edit the data to make your own Calibration Tablet File. You can
edit the file with tools such as Windows Notepad.
As the intensity values supplied with your step tablet are generally
expressed in diffuse density (DD), you have to convert them to OD
values. For this purpose, the manufacturer of the step tablet should
provide the appropriate relationship. For the Kodak Step Tablets no. 2
and 3, for example, this is OD = 1.4 DD.
Create calibration
You can create a calibration once you have scanned the step tablet
and have a correct Calibration Tablet File.
To create a calibration:
1
Open the step tablet image file. If necessary, rotate the image so
that the light steps are displayed at the top.
2
Choose Tools > Calibration Tablet > Create.
3
In the Load Step Tablet Definition window, browse to the folder
where you saved the Calibration Tablet File (.tab) specifically
tailored to your step tablet (see above), select the file and click
Open.
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4
A red calibration step overlay appears on the image and the
Create Calibration window is displayed (Figure 3-5).
5
Adjust the position of the steps by dragging the overlay while
holding the left mouse button. The size of a step on the red overlay
(the distance between two short horizontal lines) should correspond
exactly to the size of a step on the image. If this is not the case, you
must adjust the height of the tablet in the Calibration Tablet File.
Figure 3-5. Image of the step tablet with the red calibration step overlay. The
Create Calibration window shows the calibration curve and the OD values for
the different steps (on the left). When selecting a step in the list, the
corresponding step becomes automatically highlighted in green on the step
tablet overlay and in the calibration graph.
6
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At the left of the Create Calibration window, you see the
theoretical optical density (OD) values of the different steps in the
tablet (the values you entered in the Calibration Tablet File). Some
steps are automatically deselected (grayed out) because of their
unreliable values. You can deselect additional ones if you estimate
that they should be excluded from the calibration process. At the
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right of the Create Calibration window you see the calibration
curve between the logarithmic transmittance values on the X-axis,
and the OD intensities on the Y-axis. Note that the measured
intensity values for each step are calculated as median intensities
over all the pixels in the small rectangle area for each step (on the
step overlay). The horizontal dispersion intervals in blue (or gray for
deselected spots) represent the intensity ranges when 10% of the
less intense and 10% of the most intense pixel values are removed.
The calibration formula and error are given below the graph.
7
You can display some reports to judge the quality of your scanner
calibration (see below for more details).
8
You can also choose whether you want to force the calibration
curve to go through the origin (see Reports icon below).
9
Once you are satisfied with the calibration, close the Create
Calibration window. The software asks whether you want to apply
this new calibration. If you answer Yes, Melanie applies the
calibration to the image.
The icons in the toolbar of the Create Calibration window and their use
are:
Open another step tablet definition.
Save the calibration (with the extension .cal).
Print the calibration graph.
Copy the calibration graph to the clipboard.
Display related reports:
•
•
•
The Fitting Table displays the calibration formula.
The Calibration Table displays for each step: the step number,
the measured average gray level, the theoretical intensity value,
and the fitting error (difference between the curve and the
point).
The Force Curve Through Origin option allows to force the
calibration curve to go through zero.
3.5.3
Apply a calibration
Once you have created a calibration using a step tablet, and saved
this calibration in the step tablet image file or a calibration file (.cal), you
can apply the calibration to newly-scanned image files.
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3.5 Calibrate images
To apply a calibration to a gel:
1
Display and select the gels the calibration should be applied to.
2
Choose Edit > Gels > Apply Calibration.
3
Select the source of the calibration information. This can be an
open gel (or step tablet image) that was already calibrated or you
can select a file (.cal or .mel) from the hard disk.
All pixel and spot values subsequently calculated and displayed in the
software correspond to the calibrated values.
3.5.4
Remove a calibration
You can remove a calibration from a gel. Note that this can also be
done for gels that were already calibrated when you imported them
into the software.
To remove a calibration from a gel:
1
Display and select the gels from which you want to remove the
calibration.
2
Choose Edit > Gels > Reset Calibration.
3
Confirm your choice.
3.5.5
Control a calibration
The Control calibration mode allows you to verify whether you are using
the correct calibration. It requires a different, specially calibrated step
tablet (e.g., Kodak Step Tablet no. 3), which you compare to your
previous calibration results. So you have a calibration step tablet for
everyday use and a specially calibrated control step tablet to verify
your calibration periodically.
To control a calibration:
44
1
Scan your control step tablet (e.g., Kodak Step Tablet no. 3) and
open the image in Melanie. If necessary, rotate the image such that
the light steps are displayed at the top.
2
Choose Tools > Calibration Tablet > Control.
3
You are asked to load the calibration to be controlled. This
calibration could have previously been saved using the Save icon
in the Create Calibration window (.cal) or can simply come from a
calibrated image file (.mel) such as the calibrated step tablet
image obtained in the section above.
4
Next load the definition of the control step tablet. This Control Tablet
File must be specifically adapted to this new step tablet. That is, it
should have been edited with a tool such as Windows Notepad so
that it contains the appropriate OD values, height, width, and
number of steps corresponding to the control step tablet.
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3.6
5
The red calibration step overlay appears on the image of the
control step tablet and the Control Calibration window is displayed.
6
Select the Spot or Annotation tool in the Melanie toolbar and adjust
the position of the steps.
7
You should now verify that the calibration curve is passing through
the data points correctly and with minimum dispersion intervals. If
this is not the case, try to find out why your current calibration does
not seem to work properly.
Describe images
3.6.1
Gel descriptions
A gel description is a kind of label for the gel image. You can enter
information about your gel images to be used for later reference by
yourself or any colleagues. This information can include sample type,
gel running protocol, date of the experiment, operator name, pH
range, SDS gel percentage, or anything else you can think of that would
be useful to know about the images. All of this data is entered as Gel
Descriptions.
When opening images in the software, you are asked to specify the
staining. Staining is a standard Gel Description. This information is simply
informative, i.e., it is not used by the software except when you specify
TM
the Cy dye for DIGE images that do not have this information in their
file name.
Each image can only have one description of a given category. For
example, a gel description category Treatment could contain the
description “Drug 1” for certain images and “Drug 2” for other images
(Figure 3-6). You can define any number of categories for an image or
a given set of images.
Figure 3-6. Gel descriptions in a Gel Table (using the Descriptions template).
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3.6.2
Display gel descriptions
Gel descriptions can be displayed in a Gel Table. Select the predefined
Descriptions template in this table to display only the columns for the gel
description categories.
To display gel descriptions:
1
Choose Reports > Gel Table.
2
Click the Settings icon.
3
In the Gel Table window, select the predefined Descriptions
template from the Load icon drop-down list. The boxes for the
FileName and all gel description categories (by default, only
Staining and Comment) are checked.
4
Click OK.
3.6.3
Edit gel descriptions
You can edit a gel description for one or more selected gels.
To edit gel descriptions:
1
Select the images for which you want to add or edit descriptions.
2
Choose Edit > Gels > Edit Description.
3
In the Add Gel Description window, select an existing gel
description category or create one. Click OK.
4
Enter the gel description that applies to the selected images. Click
OK.
5
The new gel descriptions are displayed in the Gel Table.
Alternatively, you can define gel descriptions by clicking on the Add
Description icon in the Gel Table toolbar. It’s behaviour is identical to
that of the Edit > Gels > Edit Description menu.
You can delete all gel descriptions of a certain category for the
selected gels by choosing Edit > Gels > Delete Description.
3.6.4
Permanent gel description categories
When gel description categories are created as described above, they
are only used for the gels that were selected during the creation of the
categories. To make gel description categories permanent in the
software (always availabe from the category list), you must define them
in the Options.
To create permanent gel description categories:.
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1
Choose Tools > Options.
2
Click the Add in the Gel Descriptions tab.
3
Enter a category name in the Add Category box and click OK.
4
The category is displayed in the permanent category list.
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To remove a permanent category, select it from the list and click Delete.
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4
4.1
Projects
Introduction
A project includes all gels, spots, matches, annotations, spot sets, and
other information produced and analyzed during the course of a
specific gel study. You can create or add many projects in the
Workspace.
A project in the Workspace can include one or more match hierarchies
(e.g., AB in Figure 4-1), each of which contains a Match folder and a
Classes folder. The Match folder describes how gels or populations of
gels, called match sets, should be matched together. The Classes folder
is where the biological question is stated, through the definintion of
classes of gels to be compared.
Figure 4-1. Project structure.
The next sections further explain the principles of match hierarchies and
classes, and how they can be used.
4.1.1
Match hierarchies
All images in an experiment are not equally easy to compare, even
when the gels are run in a highly controlled way. Typically, gels
belonging to the same biological group are easier to match (i.e.,
corresponding spots are easier to find) than images from different
biological populations.
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It is therefore recommended to use hierarchical match structures to
create more efficient match designs. Figure 4-2 and Figure 4-3 show an
example of a match hierarchy, or root match set, AB and submatch sets
A, B, AT1, AT2, BT1 and BT2. Gels or match sets with a red marker are
used as the reference in the matching and always appear first in the list.
Figure 4-2. The Match folder. In this example experiment, a set of samples from
bacteria were cultivated with either substrate A or with substrate B. Under both
growing conditions, two treatments were tested. Therefore, 4 different
populations exist. A gel was run for each of the 3 samples in a population,
giving a total of 12 gel images.
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BacteriaAB
1
A
A_T1
A_T1_Gel3
A_T1_Gel2
A_T1_Gel1
B
A_T2
A_T2_Gel3
A_T2_Gel2
A_T2_Gel1
B_T1
B_T1_Gel3
B_T1_Gel2
B_T1_Gel1
B_T2
B_T2_Gel3
B_T2_Gel2
B_T2_Gel1
Figure 4-3. A tree view of the example match hierarchy described above.
An important advantage of this type of match hierarchy is that it
minimizes the number of difficult match combinations. Instead of
having to match 9 images (those belonging to AT2, BT1 and BT2) to a
global reference (e.g., A_T1_Gel1) that is not belonging to the same
population, only 3 slightly more complex match combinations must be
performed (AT1 versus AT2, BT1 versus BT2, and A versus B). This
significantly reduces time spent on match editing.
There is another important reason why it is useful to adopt hierarchical
population matching instead of matching all images against a unique
arbitrary reference image. Only spots matched with a spot in another
gel are included in Gel and Class Analysis Tables (all spots are of course
presented in the Spot Table). The likelihood of a spot being matched is
much higher when matching with a gel from the same biological
population. Spots that are represented in a single population
(submatch set) are therefore included in the analysis, even if they are
not in the global match reference. This considerably reduces the
number of spots missed in the analysis.
CAUTION! DIGE gels are inherent match sets. A DIGE gel (the entity
with its composing images) is treated as any other non-DIGE gel
when setting up a match hierarchy.
Once created in the Workspace, you can display a complete match
hierarchy (e.g., AB in Figure 4-2) in a sheet and carry out spot detection
on all the included gels. After defining one or two landmarks, the entire
experiment is matched in a matter of seconds, and matches are
automatically propagated at each level of the match hierarchy.
4.1.2
Classes
In the Classes folder, you state your biological questions. This means that
you define a class for each set of gels that you want to compare with
other such entities. Your goal, by comparing classes and therefore the
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gels within those classes, is to find the protein expression variations
between different biological states.
The classes created in the Classes folder of a given match hierarchy
can contain any of the images in that hierarchy. One image can be in
different classes. In Figure 4-4, for example, the same 12 images can be
compared as part of the 4 classes AT1, AT2, BT1 and BT2, or as part of
the two classes T1 and T2.
You can define classes at any time, even in the very beginning of your
gel analysis study when no spots are detected. To carry out statistical
analysis, however, your gels must be detected and matched.
Figure 4-4. The Classes folder.
4.2
Create a project
4.2.1
The first time the software is launched
As long as no projects have been created or added to the Workspace
(e.g., the first time you open the software), you are prompted to create
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a project (see Figure 4-5). Enter a project name, browse to where the
project folder should be saved, and possibly add a comment.
Figure 4-5. New Project window.
4.2.2
At any time
You can create a new project at any time by selecting New from the
Project icon drop-down list in the Workspace toolbar (Figure 4-6). Again,
enter the Project Name, Location and Comment (Figure 4-5).
Figure 4-6. Project icon drop down menu in the workspace.
4.2.3
Add files to project
Use the Add Files to Project icon in the Image toolbar to add gels from
the Image Pool to a project (Figure 4-7). There is the possibility to create
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a project in the Add Files to Project window. An existing or new match
set name must be entered as well.
Figure 4-7. Add Files to Project window. A project can be created by choosing
<New...> from the Project list.
4.3
Create match hierarchy
4.3.1
Create a match set
The easiest way to create a match hierarchy is by adding gels from the
Image Pool to a project. The idea is to select only the gels that should
be added to a particular match set (e.g., gels from the same
population or same experimental batch) and then to create this match
set. Different options exist:
•
Select gels in the Image Pool folder and drag them onto a project
name. Enter a name for the new match set.
•
Select gels in the Image Pool sheet and drag them onto a project
name in the Workspace. Enter a name for the new match set.
•
Select gels in the Image Pool sheet and click Add Files to Project in
the Image toolbar. Set or create the destination project, and then
click <New...> in the MatchSets field (Figure 4-8). Enter a name for
the new match set.
Alternatively, create an empty match set by right-clicking on the
project name and selecting Create MatchSet in the contextual menu.
Drag images from the Image Pool (folder or sheet) into the new match
set. Gels selected in the Image Pool sheet can also be added to an
existing match set by clicking the Add Files to Project icon.
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Figure 4-8. Add Files to Project. The three images of population A_T1 are
selected in the Image Pool sheet. After having clicked the Add FIles to Project
icon, the destination project and new name for the MatchSet can be set.
4.3.2
Merge a match set
Once match sets have been created, they can be merged into higher
level match structures for further matching. Select the match sets, rightclick on one of them, choose Merge MatchSet from the contextual
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window, and give a name for the new match set (Figure 4-9). A
hierarchy (Figure 4-2) can be created.
Figure 4-9. Match sets BT1 and BT2 are selected for merging. Match sets AT1
and AT2 were already merged this way into a match set A.
4.3.3
Set reference
Within each match set, the gel or match set that has a red marker and
appears first in the list is used as the reference in the matching process.
To change the match reference, drag the desired gel or match set onto
the name of its parent match set so that it moves into the first position.
CAUTION! You can change the match reference as long as the
images in your match set have not been matched. Once they are,
the reference image can no longer be changed.
The reference for each match set must be carefully chosen. This is
because automatic matching compares the spots in the reference to
those in the other images. If a spot is absent from the reference, it
cannot be matched automatically (although it can be matched
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manually with spots in other gels). The rule of thumb is to choose the gel
or match set with the most and the best quality spots as the reference.
4.3.4
Use existing match sets
You may wish to carry out several analyses, using different matching
schemes. You can copy match sets to use them in another
configuration. In Figure 4-10, for example, the match sets A_T1, A_T2,
B_T1 and B_T2, were copied to be used in populations per treatment (T1,
T2) rather than growing substrate (A, B). Because existing matches are
conserved when copying match sets, this can save a lot of work.
Figure 4-10. Match sets AT1, AT2, BT1 and BT2 were copied to be used in the
match hierarchy T1T2.
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T1T2
Bacteria
3
T1
A_T1
A_T1_Gel3
A_T1_Gel2
A_T1_Gel1
T2
B_T1
B_T1_Gel3
B_T1_Gel2
B_T1_Gel1
A_T2
A_T2_Gel3
A_T2_Gel2
A_T2_Gel1
B_T2
B_T2_Gel3
B_T2_Gel2
B_T2_Gel1
Figure 4-11. A tree view of the match hierarchy in Figure 4-10. The match sets
A_T1, A_T2, B_T1, and B_T2 have been reused in a different configuration
compared to the example in Figure 4-3.
You can simply drag one or more match sets to a new destination, or
copy (right-click on the match set) and paste them in the new
destination (right-click on the destination project or match set). The
destination can be a match set or open project. Copies of the match
sets, including the existing matches, are created. A number is
appended to the orginal name. You can then rename the copied
match sets (see below).
To copy a match set in the same project, hold down the Ctrl key while
dragging the match set onto the project name.
4.3.5
Export / import a match set
The easiest way to provide others with access to the data is to export a
match hierarchy (the match set that is the parent of the project,
containing the folders Match and Classes). Simply right-click on the
parent match set and choose Export MatchSet. The entire match set
(including images, matches, spots, annotations, spot sets) is
compressed into a single .exp file.
A .exp file can be imported into a project by right-clicking on the
project name and choosing Import MatchSet.
Note that if the project data are saved in a folder on a shared network,
colleagues having access to this folder can open and work with the
project, and therefore the match sets.
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4.4
Create classes
4.4.1
Create a class
In the Match folder of a hierarchy, select all images that should be
added to a single class (group of biologically-related images). You can
select match sets as well. However, only one type of item (images or
match sets) should be selected at a time.
•
Option 1: Drag the selection onto the Classes folder of the same
hierarchy. Enter a name for the new class and click OK. You can
also use the Copy and Paste options in the contextual menus.
•
Option 2: Right-click on one of the selected items and choose Add
In Class. Enter a name for the new class and click OK.
Alternatively, create an empty class by right-clicking on the Classes
folder and selecting Create Class in the contextual menu. Drag images
or match sets into the new class.
4.5
Handle project items
Several operations are available for most items in a project, mostly by
right-clicking in contextual menus.
4.5.1
Display
To display one or more images, match sets or classes in a new sheet,
right-click on a selected item and choose Display. Please note that only
complete match sets or classes are displayed. This means that if you
select one image in a match set, all images in the match set are shown.
In the resulting sheet, only the highest level and lowest level items
(match sets or classes) are specifically visualized, in the sheet and
panes, respectively. To select intermediary levels, you can use the
corresponding icon in the pane tab of the match reference for that
level.
Once the images are displayed in a sheet, you can start working with
them. You can change the layout settings to focus on certain images
and hide others.
4.5.2
Remove
To permanently remove an item from the project, select Remove in its
contextual menu. This will delete the item from your hard disk.
4.5.3
Properties
When choosing Properties for an item, certain of its attributes are shown
such as its name, creator, file path, etc. Here is where you can change
the name of an item or enter a comment to describe the item.
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4.5.4
Move
You can rearrange your images, match sets and classes to change their
position in the list or move them into another match set or class. Just
drag your image, match set or class to the desired position. It is
generally inserted after the item you drop it on. Whenever there is a
possibility to insert it inside or after an entity, you are asked to specify.
4.6
Save projects
4.6.1
Project folder
When you create a project, you are asked to specify a name and a
location on your hard disk. All the data related to the project (images,
spots, matches, annotations, spot sets) are saved in this location, in a
folder with the name of the project. All users that have access to this
folder are able to open, view and work with the project.
The project folder contains the following files and folders:
•
Projectname.prj: This project file is the link between all the other
data files in the project folder. If you want to add an existing
project to your workspace, you must search for, and open, its .prj
file.
•
Raw Images: This folder contains the raw image files in .mel format.
•
MatchSet: This folder contains the gel (.gda) and match (.mda)
data in subfolders. The .gda files are used to store the spot
information. The .mda files contain the match information.
4.6.2
Save
The software automatically saves your work when you close a sheet or
exit the software. You can also save your work by choosing File > Save.
This saves all your data in the corresponding project folder on the hard
disk.
4.6.3
Copy
You can make a copy of a project by selecting Copy in the Project icon
drop-down list in the Workspace toolbar. This allows you to make
modifications on the copy without altering the original project.
4.6.4
Share project
If the project data are saved in a folder on a shared network,
colleagues having access to this folder can open and work with the
project. The project must be added to the colleague’s Workspace
using the procedure described below.
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4.7
Manage projects
4.7.1
Add / remove projects
Remove
You can remove a project from your workspace by selecting Remove
in the Project icon drop-down list in the Workspace toolbar. Select the
project(s) to be removed and confirm. This does not delete the project
folder from your hard disk.
To permanently remove a project folder, you must delete it from your
hard disk. Make sure that this folder is not accessed by colleagues in
your network before proceeding.
Add
A previously removed project can be re-inserted at any time. Another
user can also add it to his/her workspace.
To insert an existing project:
1
Select Add in the Project icon drop-down list in the Workspace
toolbar.
2
In the Add Files window, browse the directory where the project file
(.prj) is located, select its name and click Open.
4.7.2
Add files to project
Please note that Add in the Project icon drop-down list in the
Workspace toolbar also enables you to add project elements instead of
entire projects. You can open the following file types:
•
Project (*.prj)
•
Project Backup (*.bkp)
•
Export File (*.exp)
•
All Image Files (*.mel; *.tif; *.gel; *.img)
•
MatchSet Data (*.mda)
•
Gel Data (*.gda)
4.7.3
Backup / restore project
It is good practice to do regular backups so that you can recover your
work at any time. With the Backup function in the Workspace, one or
more project(s) can be archived by writing all project-related data
(images, spots, matches, annotations, spot sets, enabled spots) into a
single compressed file with the extension .bkp. This file can then be
restored when needed.
To backup a project:
1
In the Workspace, select Backup in the Project icon drop-down list.
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2
Select one or more projects to backup, and confirm when
prompted.
3
In the Backup Project window, browse to the directory you want,
enter a file name and click Save.
4
The backup file (with the extension .bkp) is archived.
To restore a project:
1
In the Workspace, select Restore in the Project icon drop-down list.
2
In the Restore Project window, browse the directory where the
backup file is located, select its name and click Open.
3
Select the project(s) to restore from the list. Use the Ctrl or Shift keys
to make multiple selections. Click Restore.
4
If the project already exists in the Workspace, there is the possibility
to replace it with the archived project. If the project is not present
in your workspace, you are given two options for restoring a project.
By restoring to the original file path, the files are put back in the
original project folder. By restoring to a new file path, the project is
replicated in a new location, which must be specified. Click
Restore.
4.7.4
Project visibility
When there are several projects in the Workspace, it can be useful to
temporarily hide some of them. Select Display in the Project icon dropdown list and check (or uncheck) the Visibility box in front of the projects
that should be hidden (or shown).
4.7.5
Project properties
To quickly view details (creator, comments, etc.) about a project, rightclick on the project and select Properties in the contextual menu.
You can also modify the Project Name and Comment.
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Gels 5
5
5.1
Gels
Introduction
This chapter presents operations that specifically relate to gel images.
You will learn how to manipulate images, use different tools to view
signal intensities, and discover ways to visually compare images. The last
section explains how to save, export and print gel images.
5.2
Manipulate images
The main toolbar provides the following tools to deal with images :
5.2.1
Move
Select this tool, click in the image and hold down the left mouse button
while moving the cursor. The image changes position. Release the
button at the position you want.
Apply to all gels
To move all gels in the current sheet by the same displacement, hold
down the Shift key while changing the position in one of the gels.
Double-click
To move all gels in the current sheet to the same position with the same
zoom factor, double-click on one of the gels. The corresponding
position in the different gels is estimated by interpolating between the
surrounding matches, or if no matches exist, between the two nearest
landmarks. Finally, when no landmarks exist, the gels are aligned at the
same location using the X and Y coordinates.
Alternatives
There are other ways to change positions in gels:
•
Use the View > Gels > Navigation > Move menu.
•
Use the shortcut keys for the above-mentioned menu commands.
•
Use the scrollbars.
5.2.2
Zoom
Select this tool, click repeatedly in the area of the gel where you want
to zoom in. Right-click repeatedly on the gel to zoom out.
You can also define a zoom area: place the cursor at the top left corner
of the area, hold down the left mouse button, and move to the bottom
right position (a red box is displayed). Release the mouse button at the
end point.
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Apply to all gels
To move all gels in the current sheet to the same position with the same
zoom factor, hold down the Shift key while zooming in or out on one of
the gels.
Alternatives
There are other ways to zoom gels:
•
Use the mouse scroll wheel to zoom in or out.
•
Use the View > Gels > Navigation > Zoom menu.
•
Use the shortcut keys for the above-mentioned menu commands.
•
Use the scrollbars.
•
To temporarily enlarge an area in a gel image, hold down the Ctrl
key while the Zoom tool is activated. The area under the cursor is
enlarged as if you were looking through a magnifying glass.
Overview option
When you zoom in on a gel, it can be helpful to have an overview of
where the region is localized on the full image (Figure 5-1). This overview
enables you to easily locate and move to any region you want on your
gel.
Choose View > Global > Show Overview to show or hide the overview
of each image in its lower right corner. The green rectangle in the
overview corresponds to the current view of the gel. You can drag the
green rectangle to another position to display a new region.
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Figure 5-1. Overview option activated. In the lower right corner of all images
in the Display Zone is a small overview of the entire gel with a green rectangle
corresponding to the visible gel area.
5.2.3
Region
A region is a rectangular area in an image that is of interest for
displaying a 3D View, for previewing spot detection parameters or
adjust contrast settings, for cropping, etc.
Select this tool, place the cursor at the top left corner of the area you
want to define, hold down the left mouse button, and move to the
bottom right position (a dashed box is displayed). Release the mouse
button at the end point (Figure 5-2).
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Figure 5-2. Region tool. The left gel shows a region after selection, the middle
gel during selection, and the right gel shows when the region has been
reduced to its minimum size.
Edit region
You can move a region by clicking inside the box and dragging it. You
can also change the size of the box by dragging a corner or edge. To
remove a region, double-click on the gel. Please note that if the box is
reduced to its minimum size, then its appearance changes to a blue
circle.
Apply to all gels
To define the same region on all gels in the current sheet, hold down the
Shift key while drawing the box on one of the gels or while clicking in an
existing region.
5.2.4
Measure
Select this tool to measure pixel, pI, MW, or real world (centimeter or
inch) distances between two pixels in an image. Click on a pixel (e.g.,
center of first spot), hold down the left mouse button and move to the
pixel (e.g., center of second spot) for which you want to measure the
distance. The horizontal and vertical distances between the start and
end points are displayed (Figure 5-3).
The units of the displayed coordinates can be changed by choosing
Tools > Options and looking under the Display tab.
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Figure 5-3. Measured distance between pixels on an image. In the example,
the horizontal and vertical distances between the starting (left) and end
(right) points are 2.51 cm and 1.11 cm, respectively.
5.2.5
Bookmarks
You can bookmark a view of your images in a sheet. This saves the
currently visible areas. Bookmarks allow you to return to the same area
on your gels at a later time or to show a similar area on the same images
opened in a different sheet.
Create
Choose View > Sheet > Bookmarks > Create and enter a name.
Load
To go back to previously visible areas, choose View > Sheet >
Bookmarks > Load and select the name of the corresponding
bookmark. Select the name of another sheet in the list to reproduce the
visible areas of that sheet in the current sheet.
Delete
To remove a bookmark from the list, choose View > Sheet > Bookmarks
> Delete.
5.3
View signal intensity
The digitized image is composed of individual pixels, each of which is
characterized by its X and Y coordinates, and its signal intensity (raw
pixel value). This section describes different approaches to explore the
signal intensity and adapt the way it is visualized.
5.3.1
Adjust contrast
Sometimes the gray levels displayed by default are so low that small
spots are hardly visible. To emphasize these very faint spots, you can
adjust the contrast of the image and/or display images using pseudo
colors.
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Choose View > Gels > Adjust Contrast and select a region of interest on
one or more images using the Region tool. These regions will allow you
to preview the contrast and pseudo color settings before applying
them to the selected images. The size and position of the preview
regions can be adjusted at any time. After having adjusted the settings
as described below, click Apply. The new contrast settings are saved
with the image file.
CAUTION! Any Adjust Contrast changes only influence how the
image is displayed on your screen and do not affect the underlying
data, spot detection, and quantitation.
Gray level mapping
Some scanners are able to scan 2-DE images with 100000 gray levels or
more. Because common computer screens are only able to display 256
gray levels, mapping must be undertaken between the image gray
levels and the 256 screen gray levels. By default, the software uses a
linear mapping function where the lightest point in the image is
mapped to 0 (white) and the darkest point is mapped to 255 (black).
This is illustrated in Figure 5-4. The histogram displays the frequency with
which each gray level (from 3524 to 28530) occurs in the first image of
the sheet. The low gray levels (on the left of the histogram)
corresponding to the background occur very often, whereas the high
gray levels (on the right of the histogram) corresponding to the darkest
spots are much less frequent. The red line indicates that the minimum
and maximum gray levels (3524 and 28530, respectively) are remapped
by the default linear mapping. The vertical axis for the red remapping
graph corresponds to the 256 screen gray levels.
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Figure 5-4. Adjust contrast function.
Change the default mapping
The software offers two complementary ways to change the default
mapping function in order to improve the visual display of the gels
(Figure 5-5):
•
You can define the minimum and maximum gray levels (i.e., look
at only the light or the dark regions in the images). Do this by
decreasing the size of the gray level range that is to be remapped
linearly to the screen gray levels. Move the left or right borders of
the slider that is found below the histogram function. Once the size
(interval) of the slider is decreased, you can also displace the
interval to the left or right. Alternatively, you can type valid
numbers in the boxes at the lower left and right corners of the
histogram.
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Figure 5-5. Adjustments to the gray level mapping for the selected image are
immediately reflected in the preview region. In this example, the maximum
gray level was set to 13300 by moving the right side of the slider to the left. All
pixels with a gray level higher than 13300 appear as black. By setting the
Bending slider to -3, the image becomes darker.
•
You can additionally use a non-linear mapping function. The
Bending parameter, i.e., slider to the left of the histogram, expands
or compresses the contrast at the dark or light ends of the range.
When the bending parameter is positive, the image is lighter.
When the bending parameter is negative, the image is darker.
Contrast
Select the image for which you want to see the current minimum and
maximum gray level settings. When you make changes to these
settings, the list will display Modified to reflect this fact.
Unit
Two different units can be used for displaying the gray level minimum
and maximum:
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•
Intensity uses the raw pixel values as displayed in all the reports.
When a calibration is done, these correspond to the calibrated
pixel values.
•
%: Chooses the scale as a percentage of the total gray level range
in the histogram.
Region
You can display the histogram for the gray levels in the:
•
Whole Image. This is the default option.
•
Selected Region. The software only considers the gray levels that
are present in the selected region. This option is practical in
combination with the % unit and a relatively small region. In this
case, you enter an adaptive mode that allows you to adjust to the
local gray levels. The effect is a regional increase in contrast that is
useful for viewing very faint spots.
Colors
The software offers various color palettes to visualize the intensities in
your image. The Gray+Saturation palette is helpful when you want to
visualize saturated spots or the background. It corresponds to the
default Gray option, except for the maximum gray value (saturation)
that is displayed in red, and the minimum value (background) that
appears in blue. To decrease the stringency on what is considered
saturation or background, you can modify the minimum and maximum
gray levels.
Invert
You can inverse the gray levels by checking the Invert box.
5.3.2
3D view
Another way to examine the intensity variations in gel images is by
looking at the three-dimensional view of gel regions (Figure 5-6). In this
type of view, the X and Y axes represent the pI and MW values, whereas
the pixel intensity is plotted along the third dimension (Z axis). The
resulting image shows a peak for each protein spot, with a peak height
that is proportional to the spot intensity. 3D views can be rotated in any
direction to look at the interesting spots from all sides, thus facilitating
spot editing or matching decisions.
The 3D View window can be displayed by choosing Reports > 3D View.
If spots are selected, the area around these spots is visualized for all
images in the sheet (Figure 5-7). If only regions were defined on images
in a sheet, these regions are shown in the 3D View (Figure 5-6). If both
spots are selected and regions are defined, the area around the spots
is shown by default but you can choose to display the regions.
The layout of the images in the 3D View reflects as much as possible the
layout of the images in the sheet. Bold black lines separate images that
are in different panes. You can restrict the number of images displayed
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in the 3D View by setting their Visibility in the Display Options (see
below).
CAUTION! To ensure satisfactory performance, the number of images
that can simultaneously be viewed in 3D view is limited to 24. If you
selected more than 24 images, you will be able to choose the visible
images from a list that contains information about the match sets or
classes to which the images belong.
By default, 3D views can be rotated by dragging the mouse while
holding down the left button. If your mouse has a scroll wheel, it can be
used to zoom in or out on the view. You can change to one of the other
image manipulation tools avaible in the Tools icon drop-down list (see
below for more details). Please note that all views in the 3D View
window are manipulated simultaneously.
Right-clicking is reserved for the contextual menu. It allows you to select
the spot where your cursor is positioned and to quickly access one of
the image manipulation tools described below.
The pixel gray levels are overlaid on 3D views; the top of the peaks are
therefore always darker.
Figure 5-6. 3D views of the regions defined in A_T1_Gel1 and A_T2_Gel2.
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Figure 5-7. 3D views for the selected spots.
The following tools are available in the 3D View toolbar:
Tools
To manipulate 3D views with your left mouse button, you can switch to
one of the following options:
•
Rotation: Rotate the images using your mouse.
•
Zoom/Contrast: Zoom in or out by dragging the mouse
horizontally. Adjust the contrast, or height of the spots, by dragging
the mouse vertically on the view.
•
Translation: Choose one of the suboptions (Z, Y, X, XY) to move
the views along the desired axis.
•
Auto Rotate: Let the images rotate automatically around the Z axis
so that you can view the spots from all sides.
•
Show Default View: Return to the original view.
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•
Stack
Stack: Display the images one on top of the other, instead of using
the default tiled view.
•
Next/Previous: Move to the next or previous image in the stack.
•
Animate: Switch automatically between the different images in the
stack. This option is useful for visualizing the expression variations in
a set of images.
•
Transparent Mode: Display one of the images (Reference) with a
transparent surface. This option is useful for visualizing expression
variations in a single, static view. To move one view with respect to
the other, choose Translation in the Tools icon. Hold down the Ctrl
key (gray) or the Shift key (green for the Reference) while dragging
the view.
•
Set Reference: Select the image to be used as the Reference for
the Transparent Mode.
•
Transparency Settings: Choose the color for the display of the
Reference, and increase or decrease the transparency.
•
Display options
Visibility: Select the images to be displayed in the 3D View window.
•
Spot Shape: Set the way the spots are displayed in the 3D View
(Crossed, Outlined, Filled, None).
•
Display Options: Display the X (pink), Y (purple) and Z (blue) axes,
the coordinates of the point on which these axes are centered,
and change the way the surfaces of the 3D Views are visualized
(Grid, Wireframe, Smooth).
•
Color Palette: Combine the 3D View with one of the color palettes
available.
5.3.3
Profile
It is sometimes difficult to judge whether spots should be split, are
saturated or not, or have other problems such as so-called donut
structures (low intensities in the center compared to the borders). It is
important to identify such problems as they will lead to incorrect spot
quantitation.
The Profile function, activated or deactivated by choosing View >
Global > Show Profile can help in such cases. Red curves represent the
intensity variations of the gel in the vertical and horizontal directions at
the position of the mouse cursor (Figure 5-8). The Profile can clarify the
intensity changes in a gel and assist in making editing decisions, without
the need to open an additional window, as is the case with the 3D View
tool.
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Figure 5-8. Profile feature. Red curves represent the intensity variations of the
gel in the vertical (right) and horizontal (bottom) directions at the position of
the mouse cursor. Green lines indicate the exact position of the cursor,
whereas the numbers indicate the minimum and maximum gray levels in a
specific profile view.
5.3.4
Cursor information
At any given time, the Cursor Information window can be used to
display information on pixels such as the pixel intensity and the X and Y
coordinates expressed in pixels, in pI and MW units (if available), and in
cm or inches. Note that if spots are detected, the Cursor Information
window also displays spot information.
The Cursor Information window is availabe by choosing View > Global >
Cursor Information, or by clicking the corresponding icon in the Display
toolbar. Just place the cursor over the pixel for which you want to
display information.
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5.4 Visually compare images
5.4
Visually compare images
When working in MatchSet or Classes sheets, the software provides
different tools to visually compare images to the sheet reference.
5.4.1
Sheet reference
You can set the sheet reference by choosing View > Sheet > Set
Reference. All other images in the sheet are compared to this reference
image for the options in the View > Sheet menu (Align Images, Show
Dual Color,Spot Overlap) .
5.4.2
Align images
The Align Images feature facilitates the visual comparison of images
that demonstrate large variations in protein migration. Choose View >
Sheet > Align Images to activate it. It is especially helpful when the
images are in Stacked mode. It warps (Figure 5-9) the images in the
sheet so that they are better superimposed with the sheet reference
and therefore with each other. This allows easy identification of
corresponding spots.
To align images, the software needs to know which positions in the
different images correspond to each other, that is, represent the same
protein form. This is done by defining landmarks. The alignment
algorithm then deforms the images to superimpose the landmarks.
CAUTION! As opposed to matching, landmarks do not need to be
linked with spots to carry out image alignment. Therefore, no spots
need to be detected.
To align images in a sheet:
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1
Set the desired image as the sheet reference, with View > Sheet >
Set Reference.
2
Select the Landmark tool and define a few landmarks, bearing in
mind the rules listed below.
3
Choose View > Sheet > Align Images.
4
If parts of your images are still not sufficiently aligned, you can add
extra landmarks. The alignment is automatically updated.
5
To view the original images, choose View > Sheet > Align Images.
The original images replace the aligned ones..
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(a)
(b)
Figure 5-9. Image (a) before and (b) after alignment. The match vectors and
landmarks are displayed.
Note that the addition of suspect or badly positioned landmarks can
worsen the alignment results. The following rules must be considered
when defining landmarks:
•
The number of landmarks should be kept to a minimum. There is no
point in putting a landmark on each spot.
•
Landmarks should be well distributed over the whole images
(covering both the X and Y directions). To correct for local
distortions, it is recommended to define landmarks around the
distorted regions rather than within those regions.
•
Landmarks should only be defined on spots that clearly represent
the same protein form. Protein variants definitely should not be
used as landmarks.
•
Landmarks should be placed on small, sharp spots (of similar area),
rather than on large diffuse ones (which may differ considerably in
size) because in the latter case the error in the position is much
more substantial.
•
Landmarks should be added gradually so that you can monitor
their individual influence on the alignment (automatically updated
after each landmark addition). Immediately remove landmarks
that decrease the alignment quality.
•
When a spot is missing on a gel (sometimes happens to border
spots), you should not put a landmark (i.e., validate a landmark) in
a hypothetical spot position. Missing landmarks are not an issue.
The Align Images feature is a purely visual tool. It is not used in, and will
not improve, the matching process. The only reason to align your
images is to ease their visual comparison (possibly in combination with
the Dual Color mode). Alternatively, double-click in an image (with the
Move tool selected) to locally superimpose the different images:
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•
If the images are matched, the image positions are synchronized
based on the surrounding matches.
•
If the images are not matched but have landmarks, the image
positions are synchronized based on a simple interpolation
between the two nearest landmarks.
•
If no matches or landmarks are present, the image positions are
synchronized based on the same image location (X,Y
coordinates).
5.4.3
Show dual color
Choose View > Sheet > Show Dual Color to display each of the images
(the sheet reference and the current image) in one of two colors: red
and cyan (Figure 5-10). Remember that you can select the sheet
reference by choosing View > Sheet > Set Reference. When the pixel
colors of the two superimposed gels are added:
•
Overlapping spots appear as shades of gray.
•
Cyan spots are present only in the current gel.
•
Red spots are present only in the sheet reference.
•
Halos of cyan or red around dark spots indicate that the protein is
over or under expressed, respectively, compared to the sheet
reference.
The less color you see in the dual color mode, the more similar the gels.
Of course, this is only true if the gels are correctly aligned (see above)
and superimposed.
CAUTION! It is recommended to perform any operations related to
gel alignment (especially the definition of landmarks), before
entering the Dual Color mode to avoid a slow down due to the
recalculation of the overlaid images.
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Figure 5-10. Dual color view.
5.4.4
Spots overlapped
Chooose View > Sheet > Spot Overlap once spots have been detected
and the visible spots on the sheet reference will be shown in blue on the
image (Figure 5-11). Thus, you can easily compare the position and size
of the red spots in the current gels with the blue spots on the sheet
reference (shown in Crossed or Outlined mode).
You can change the default color to be used for overlapped spots by
going to the Display tab in Tools > Options, and clicking the Overlapped
box. Remember that you can change the sheet reference by choosing
View > Sheet > Set Reference.
(a)
(b)
Figure 5-11. Spots overlapped with (a) outlined and (b) crossed spot shapes.
5.5
Grid lines
5.5.1
Display grid lines
Choose View > Global > Grid Lines > Show to display grid lines over your
images (Figure 5-12). Grid lines can be used to evaluate distances
between spots, in terms of pixel coordinates, pI/MW units, or real world
units (cm or inch). Grid lines are also a helpful way to visualize
deformations in aligned gels because the grid lines are warped in the
same way as the image.
5.5.2
Edit grid lines
Choose View > Global > Grid Lines > Edit to change the grid properties.
The software trys to partition the visible area into the Number of
subdivisions entered by the user (Figure 5-12). The graduations can be
attached to the Gel or the Screen. This means that the software divides
the gel width/height or the visible screen area by the number of
subdivisions. The Coordinate Units can be Centimeters, Inches, Pixels, or
pI/MW units, provided data is available in the annotation category
pI_MW. The pI/MW grid can also be displayed over gels that do not
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5.6 Gel reports
contain this information, but that were matched to a gel having pI and
MW values.
.
Figure 5-12. Grid lines in cm attached to the gel image.
5.6
Gel reports
5.6.1
Gel table
Choose Reports > Gel Table to display a table (Figure 5-13) with
summarized information about the images in the current sheet:
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•
File name, ID, path, size, modification and creation dates.
•
Image height and width expressed in pixels (Rows and Columns),
pixel size (PixSize).
•
Minimum and maximum gray levels before (MinGray and
MaxGray) and after calibration (MinValue and MaxValue).
•
Calibration information (Calibration Formula, Unit, Name, Creator
and Date).
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•
Number of spots and annotations.
•
Staining method and user-defined gel descriptions.
•
MatchSet to which the image belongs and the Class to which it
was assigned.
Figure 5-13. Gel Table.
You can customize the Gel Table to display only the columns of interest.
Four predefined report templates are already available from the Load
icon in the Settings of the Gel Table toolbar:
•
Properties: Shows various properties of the gel images: File Name,
image height and width in pixels, maximum gray levels before and
after calibration, Modification Date, as well as the MatchSet and
Class to which it belongs.
•
Files: Shows information on the image files: File Name, ID, Path, Size,
Creation and Modification Dates, as well as the MatchSet and
Class to which they belong.
•
Descriptions: Shows the user-defined gel descriptions.
•
Calibration: Provides calibration-related information: File Name, ID
and Path, as well as Calibration Formula, Name, Creator and Date.
Click the Add Description icon in the table toolbar to add or edit the
Comment, Staining or other user-defined gel description fields for
selected gels.
5.7
Save, export and print images
5.7.1
Save
The software automatically saves your images and all associated data
as part of the project when you close a sheet or exit the software. You
can also save your work by choosing File > Save.
5.7.2
Export
Rather than saving your gel images in the Melanie file format, you may
want to export them to a different file format (TIFF, BMP or PNG). The gel
images are exported as 8-bit, flat, rasterized images without any
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structure. This means that gel components such as spots and
annotations are saved exactly as they appear on the screen, but are
no longer recognizable as Melanie objects and therefore become part
of the image. Consequently, exported gel images should only be used
for presentation purposes and not for further analysis with any software
package.
Please note that you can adapt the size of the exported image by
zooming in or out. If a region is selected on the image, you are given the
choice to export the entire image or the selected region only.
Alternatively, you can export images to the clipboard for direct pasting
into another software. The procedure is very similar to exporting images
to files. However, you can only export one image at a time to the
clipboard.
Finally, you can also export a view of the current sheet.
The following export options are available in the File > Export menu:
•
Image to Clipboard
•
Image to File
•
Sheet to Clipboard
•
Sheet to File
5.7.3
Print images and sheets
Print options
The software provides various printing options in the File > Print menu:
•
•
Images: Print selected images or image areas (if defined with
the Region tool). This option prints one image per page.
Sheet: Print the current sheet.
Whatever your choice, the image is printed as it is displayed on the
screen retaining objects and properties such as spots, annotations,
contrast mapping and pseudo colors, alignment, zoom, grid, etc.
CAUTION! With a zoom factor of 1, the printed gel image takes the
full paper width. You can adapt the zoom factor to decrease the
size of the printed image.
Page Setup
You can change print parameters such as printer name, paper size,
paper orientation, etc. Choose File > Page Setup. This command opens
the standard print window where printer-related settings can be
modified.
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6.1
Spots
Introduction
Once gels have been added to a project and you have taken a good
look at them, you are ready to detect spots. A spot delineates a small
region in the gel where protein is present. This shape is automatically
differentiated by a spot detection algorithm and quantified; its intensity,
area and volume are computed.
There are two different spot detection algorithms implemented:
6.2
•
Non-DIGE images are detected with the Melanie algorithm.
•
DIGE images are co-detected with GE Healthcare’s DeCyder 2D
algorithm.
Detect spots in non-DIGE gels
6.2.1
Procedure
The Melanie spot detection algorithm is optimized to give relevant
biological results with minimum user interaction. You can preview spot
detection and fine-tune just a few parameters before automatically
locating all the spots in your image.
To detect spots automatically:
1
Display the gels to be detected by selecting a match set in the
Workspace. Right-click and select Display in the contextual menu.
2
Choose View > Spots > Outlined to visualize the spot borders.
3
Click the Region tool. Draw preview regions on one or more gels.
Note that you can still draw, resize or move regions while setting the
detection parameters.
4
Select the gel images for spot detection.
5
Choose Edit > Spots > Detect.
6
The Detect Spots window appears on-screen and the spots in the
preview regions of the selected images are detected with the
default parameters. If you do not want to recalculate the spots in
the preview regions for each parameter change, turn the Auto
Preview option off. To manually refresh the preview regions, simply
click the Preview button.
7
Adjust the detection parameters (Figure 6-1). In particular optimize
Smooth to detect all real spots and split the overlapping ones.
Subsequently, filter out the noise by changing the Saliency and Min
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6.2 Detect spots in non-DIGE gels
Area values. See below for more details on spot detection
parameters.
8
When you are satisfied with the preview, click OK to detect all spots
in the selected gels using the specified parameter values. Note that
you can still change your gel selection at this point.
9
The spot shapes are displayed on the images.
Figure 6-1. Adjusting spot detection parameters in real time.
6.2.2
Spot detection parameters
Spot detection parameters are best adjusted in the following order:
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•
Smooth: Set this parameter first. It fixes the number of times Melanie
smooths the image before detecting spots, using a smooth-bydiffusion algorithm. The Smooth parameter should be optimized to
detect all real spots and split as many overlapping spots as
possible without being concerned about noise spots (these can be
filtered out with the Saliency and Min Area parameters).
•
Saliency: This parameter is a measure based on the spot curvature.
It indicates how far a spot stands out with respect to its
environment. Real spots generally have high saliency values
whereas artifacts and background noise have small saliencies.
Although the Saliency is an efficient quantity for filtering spots, it is
also highly dependent on the images (e.g., image resolution and
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depth). Some gels need a saliency value of 10 for correct filtering.
Others may necessitate a value of 5000. To estimate the saliency
range to use with your images, you can display the Cursor
Information window or Spot Table and look at the saliency value
given for a spot that you would like to suppress. Enter this value in
the Saliency field in the Detect Spots window. The spot detection
algorithm then discards all spots with saliencies smaller than the
specified threshold.
•
Min Area: After setting an appropriate Saliency to filter out all noise
spots, there may still be noise in your gel that cannot be eliminated
without suppressing real spots. This often happens with dust
particles that consist of a few very dark pixels. Get rid of these
artifacts by using the Min Area parameter. It eliminates spots that
have an area smaller than the specified threshold (expressed in
number of pixels).
6.2.3
Spot quantification
The software automatically computes the amount of protein present in
each spot. Figure 6-2 illustrates the principles of spot quantification in
the Melanie algorithm. Measuring the protein quantification values in
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6.2 Detect spots in non-DIGE gels
this way has the advantage of being more robust and reproducible
when calculating protein expression variations (relative quantification).
0.75 * Intensity
Intensity
Intensity
Figure 6-2. Spot quantification. The 3D View in Melanie reflects the spot shape
and volume of what will effectively be quantified. The spot outline
corresponds to the area at 75% of the spot height when measured from the
peak.
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•
Intensity: The software first calculates the intensity of a spot. The
intensity is based on the highest calibrated pixel intensities in the
spot from which the background has been withdrawn. The
background is defined as the minimum pixel value in the spot
neighborhood.
•
Area: The area of a spot is not determined at the spot base
because the base is often arbitrary and difficult to determine. It is
calculated at an intermediary height of the spot. More precisely,
Melanie computes the area at 75% of the spot intensity, as
measured from the peak of the spot. The spot outlines displayed in
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Melanie exactly encircle this computed spot area (expressed in
2
mm ).
•
Vol: The volume of a spot is calculated as the volume above the
spot outline, which is situated at 75% of the spot height (as
measured from the peak of the spot). In Figure 6-2, the measured
volume of the spot is hatched. Please note that the volume values,
like the intensities, depend on pixel intensity calibration.
•
%Vol: The relative volume of a spot is calculated as indicated
below. It is a normalized value that remains relatively independent
of variations due to protein loading and staining by considering
the total volume over all the spots in the image. This means that in
an image where, globally, the spots are darker than in another
image, the majority of spot volumes is higher. However, the bulk of
%Vol should be similar to those in the compared image, at least for
gels with similar spot patterns.
Vol
%Vol = ----------------------- × 100
n
Vol S
S=1
where VolS is the volume of spot S in a gel containing n
∑
CAUTION! When you look at a detected spot in the 3D View, you will
notice that the borders are not localized at the base of the spot,
especially for intense spots. This is normal because the spot contours
displayed effectively reflect the quantified parts of the spot, and
they do not correspond to the 'whole' spot, which is difficult to
define.
6.3
Co-detect spots in DIGE gels
The co-detection algorithm is designed to simultaneously process one,
two or three images derived from a single gel.
•
Single detection: one image.
•
Double detection: two images.
•
Triple detection: three images.
Single detection is performed on images of fluorescently post-stained
gels used for picking, a case where there is a single image associated
with the gel.
Double and triple detection takes advantage of the inherent coTM
migration benefits of the CyDye DIGE Fluor dyes. A set of co-run
images are merged together thereby incorporating all spot features in
a single image. Spot detection and spot boundary definition is then
performed using pixel data from all the individual raw images and the
merged image. The resultant spot map is overlaid back onto the original
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image files. Since the spot boundaries and the detection areas are
identical for all images, the spots are effectively already matched. This
process results in highly accurate volume ratio calculations.
6.3.1
Procedure
To perform spot detection on DIGE images:
1
Display the gels to be detected by selecting a match set in the
Workspace. Right-click and select Display in the contextual menu.
2
If desired, select a subset of gels to be detected.
3
Choose Edit > Spots > Detect.
4
In the DIGE Spot Detection window, enter an estimation (see
below) of the Number of Spots present in the images. Click OK.
6.3.2
Spot detection parameter
When detecting DIGE images, you must enter an estimation of the
Number of Spots present in the images. It is recommended that this
value be overestimated to compensate for the detection of nonproteinaceous spots on the image, e.g., dust particles which can
subsequently be excluded from the analysis using spot filtering.
If all the spots are not identified, the spot detection process can be
repeated with a higher number of estimated spots.
For example, for a mammalian lysate run on an 24 cm pH 4-7
TM
Immobiline™ DryStrip and a large format gel, such as the Ettan DALT
Gel (20 cm x 26 cm), a value of 2500 for the estimated Number of Spots
should be satisfactory.
6.3.3
Spot quantification
Volume, area, intensity, slope, and volume ratio for individual spots are
automatically calculated and included in the Spot Table and Cursor
Information window.
•
Vol: Spot volumes (sum of pixel intensities within the spot boundary)
are always expressed with background subtracted. Background is
subtracted on a spot specific basis by excluding the lowest 10th
percentile pixel value on the spot boundary from all other pixel
values within the spot boundary. The spot volume is the sum of
these corrected values.
•
Vol ratio: Volume ratios (volume of current image spot/volume of
DIGE reference image spot) indicate the change in spot volume
between two images.
CAUTION! When using single detection the volume ratio value is 1.0
for all spots since there is no second image.
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6.3.4
Exclude spots
To exclude small, non-proteinaceous spots on DIGE images, it is
recommended to filter the spots based on the Volume. More precisely,
spots that have a maximum volume in the two or three images that is
lower than a given threshold can be deleted.
To exclude DIGE spots based on maximum volume:
1
Choose Reports > Spot Table.
2
Click the Select by Value icon in the toolbar of the table.
3
Select Volume in the displayed list. Make sure the >= box is checked
and enter a value to be used as the cutoff for the volume. Deselect
the <= box and click OK (Figure 6-3).
4
All spots with a volume higher than the given threshold are
selected, together with their matched spots (which may have
volumes that are smaller than the threshold). These are the spots
that are kept.
5
Choose Select > Spots > Inverse Selection.
6
The current selection includes all spots for which the maximum
volume in any of the two or three DIGE images is lower than the
given threshold.
7
Choose Edit > Spots > Delete to permanently delete the selected
spots from your DIGE gels.
Figure 6-3. Select by Value can be used to filter spots based on their volume.
Please note that instead of deleting spots, you can exclude them from
the analysis by disabling them.
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6.4 Select spots
6.4
Select spots
6.4.1
Select
Spots can be selected with the Select tool. Once selected, they are
highlighted in green (Figure 6-3), unless the default spot colors were
modified. Note that all matched spots are selected as well.
If an annotation is attached to a spot, the annotation is also selected.
Similarly, if you select an annotation or label with the Select tool, the
linked spot is also selected.
To select more than one spot, select the first one and then hold down
the Shift key while clicking on additional spots.
To select all spots in a region, place the cursor at the top left position of
the desired region, hold down the left mouse button, and then drag the
cursor to the bottom right position. All spots in the designated region are
selected.
To deselect all spots, click in the gel (not on a spot).
Surrounding box
By default, spot selections are surrounded by green boxes. This makes it
is easier to localize selected spots, especially when working at low zoom
factors. To deactivate this option, choose Tools > Options, and uncheck
the corresponding box in the Display tab.
Alternatives
There are other ways to select spots:
•
Choose a command in the Select menu.
•
Select spots in reports.
6.4.2
Spot sets
It is possible to focus your analysis on particular spots by creating and
saving spot sets for later selection or combination.
Create
Select spots you want to include in a spot set, either manually or by
selection in a report. Then choose Edit > Spot Sets > Create, enter a
name for the new spot set and click OK.
Spot sets can be visualized as columns in various reports (Figure 6-4). If
they are not displayed by default, you can add them by checking the
corresponding box in the Settings of the report window (only for tabular
reports). Once the column is displayed, you will see a checked box for
spots that belong to the set, or an empty box for spots that do not
belong to the set. Click in a box to change its state. If several spots are
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selected, you can change the state by clicking in one box while holding
down the Shift key.
Figure 6-4. Spot sets Anova p<0.001 and Ratio > 2 in a Class Analysis Table.
New spot sets can be created by clicking on the Create Spot Set icon.
Spot sets can also be created by clicking the Create Spot Set icon in a
report toolbar. All currently selected spots are automatically included in
the newly created spot set.
Delete
Delete a spot set by choosing Edit > Spot Sets > Delete and selecting
the spot set(s) to be deleted.
Combine
You can combine two spot sets using logical operators, in order to
create a new spot set or change the current selection (Figure 6-5). Four
operators are available:
•
And: Keeps spots that belong to both spot sets.
•
Or: Keeps spots that belong to either one or both spot sets.
•
Not equal: Keeps spots that belong to only one of the two spot sets.
•
Exclude: Keeps spots that belong to the first spot set and do not
belong to the second spot set.
Figure 6-5. Combine Spot Sets window.
To combine two spot sets:
1
Choose Edit > Spot Sets > Combine.
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2
From the Inputs drop-down lists, select the spot sets to be
combined. The current selection can also be used as input.
3
Specify the operator (And, Or, Not Equal or Exclude).
4
Enter a new name for the resulting spot set. Alternatively, the output
can be immediately reflected in the current selection. Click OK.
Select
To select spot sets, choose Select > Spot Sets.
6.4.3
Enabled spots
By default, all spots are enabled and therefore represented in the
reports. To exclude a specific subset of spots, you can disable protein
spots that are not of interest, or specifically define a set of spots to be
enabled. Only enabled spots appear in reports.
The options related to the creation, saving or loading of sets of enabled
spots can be chosen from the Edit > Enabled Spots menu:
Set
Select the spots you want to focus your analysis on and choose this
option to enable the selected spots. After deselection, excluded spots
are disabled and appear in yellow.
Add
Use this option to add selected spots to the current set of enabled spots.
Remove
Use this option to remove selected spots from the current set of enabled
spots.
Save
Use this option to save the currently enabled spots as a new spot set.
Enter a name and click OK.
Load
Use this option to enable spots belonging to an existing spot set.
Select
To select the enabled spots, choose Select > All Enabled Spots.
6.5
Display spots
6.5.1
Spot shape
Once spots are detected, you can choose how to display their shapes
(outlined, crossed, filled, outline/filled) on the gels from the View > Spots
menu.
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6.5.2
Spot color
By default, enabled spots are displayed in red, disabled spots in yellow,
selected spots in green and overlapped spots in blue. You can change
these default colors in the Display tab in the Options window
(accessible by choosing Tools > Options). Click the colored box you
want to change and the Color window opens. Choose the preferred
color from the spectrum and click OK.
6.5.3
Spot ID
You can display Spot IDs for selected spots with View : Spots : Show ID.
To hide all Spot IDs again, choose View : Spots : Hide All ID.
6.6
Edit spots
CAUTION! Except for deleting spots, spot editing is not allowed on
DIGE gels.
Quantitative protein data, and in particular the spot volume, are highly
dependent on an optimal and reproducible definition of the spot
borders and a correct splitting of partially overlapped spots. To
guarantee reproducibility of quantitative work it is therefore
recommended to create spots by using the automatic spot detection
algorithm in the software and to avoid manual editing as much as
possible.
However, spot detection differences can still occur. In particular, some
spots are differently split in gels to be compared. The software offers the
following solutions to deal with detection variations between gels
without calling for spot editing:
•
Exploit the capability to create multiple matches. In practice, this
means that you can match “composite spots” that are treated as
unique entities in the quantitation.
•
Exploit the capability to propagate all or selected spots from one
image to the other images.
CAUTION! Both solutions require prior matching. Therefore, before
doing any spot editing, first match your images and only then
consider to use one of the options described below.
6.6.1
Manual editing
You must enter the special spot-editing mode to manually edit spots.
Choose Edit > Spots > Edit Enabled, or click the corresponding icon in
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6.6 Edit spots
the Detect And Match Spots toolbar. The Edit Spots toolbar displays.
Selecting the Edit Enabled option again disables spot editing.
CAUTION! For edited spots, the Saliency value becomes zero. This
can be used to quickly check which spots have been edited.
The following spot editing tools are available:
Create spots
Click this icon and draw the outline of the new spot. Alternatively,
double-click the desired location in your image, and set the disc radius
for the circular spot to be drawn in the Create Spot window.
Delete spots
Click this icon, select the spot to be deleted, and confirm.
Split spots
Click this icon, select a spot to be split, and draw a line through the spot
at the position where the separation should occur. Make sure you start
and finish outside the spot.
Merge spots
Click this icon, select two or more spots to be merged, and draw a
trajectory through the selected spots by making sure to start and finish
in the same spot.
Grow spots
Click this icon, select a spot to be grown, and outline the area you
would like to add by making sure to start and finish within the selected
spot.
Shrink spots
Click this icon, select a spot to be shrunk, and outline the area you
would like to suppress by making sure to start and finish outside the
selected spot.
6.6.2
Composite spots
As shown in Figure 6-6, the software allows you to match several spots in
one gel with multiple spots in other gels. In the figure, the three selected
spots in gel A_T1_Gel1 are matched to the single green spot in
A_T2_Gel1 and the two selected spots in B_T1_Gel1, and so on.
Once the match has been effectively created, the three spots in
A_T1_Gel1, for example, are treated as a single entity in the
quantification. The quantification value for A_T1_Gel1 displayed in the
different reports is the one obtained after combination of the values
from the three individual spots.
This is an efficient solution for dealing with spot detection differences
without subjective and time-consuming spot editing. When selecting a
spot on a gel, any matched spots on the other images are
automatically selected as well. As a result, defining a multiple match is
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very easy and quick. You just need to select all spots to be matched
and click the Add Match icon in the Detect And Match Spots toolbar.
Figure 6-6. Composite spots can be defined through multiple matches
6.6.3
Propagate spots
You can propagate all or selected spots from one image to the other
matched images (Figure 6-7). This allows you to quantify identical areas
on all gels.
•
For matched spots: the spot in the destination image is replaced
with the shape of the spot in the source image.
•
For non-matched spots: the spot from the source image is copied
to the equivalent location in the destination image. This position is
extrapolated from the surrounding match vectors.
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6.7 MW and pI calibration
Matches are automatically created between the original and the
propagated spots.
Figure 6-7. All spots from gel A_T1_Gel1 have been propagated to the other
images.
To propagate spots from one matched image to another:
6.7
1
Select spots on one image.
2
Choose Edit > Spots > Propagate.
3
Select one or more images you want to copy the spots to.
4
The new spots are added to the selected images.
MW and pI calibration
If you have a gel with pI/MW standards, the software can compute
approximate pI and MW values for all the spots/pixels in this image, as
well as any other images matched to it.
The principle is rather simple. You just have to define pI_MW annotations
for a certain number of spots/pixels in the gel. The calculated pI and
MW values for all spots in this gel and any matched gels are
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automatically available in the Spot Report or Cursor Information
window (see below). In addition, pI and MW grid lines can be displayed
over the images.
To define pI_MW annotations on an image:
1
Select the image for which you know the pI and MW values for
several protein spots. Spots may or may not have already been
detected in this image.
2
Click Select in the toolbar.
3
Double-click on a spot (pixel) for which you know the pI and/or MW
values.
4
Select the pI_MW category in the Create Annotation by Click
window.
5
Enter the known pI and MW values, respectively, separated by a
space. Replacing one of the values with -1 means that no value is
set.
6
Do this for a sufficient number of protein spots that are distributed
over the whole image area. Obviously, the more spots and
annotations, the better the approximated pI and MW values will be.
Melanie does the following to calculate approximate pI and MW
values. In the case of pI, it looks up the two closest annotations to the
left and to the right of the spot for which the pI will be determined and
then interpolates between these two points. Since Melanie does not
have any information about the experimental (possibly non-linear) pI
scale, the calculated values are only approximate. In the case of MW
of the spots, the procedure is similar, except that Melanie searches for
the closest spots above and below the spot for which the MW will be
determined and it makes a logarithmic interpolation.
Extrapolating pI and MW values is more complicated. For example, if
the pI of a spot on the extreme right side of your gel is to be determined,
the software looks for the two closest spots to the left of the spot in
question. If these two spots are sufficiently distant from each other (in
order to decrease the error), the value for the spot in question can then
be extrapolated.
Normally, the pI and MW values in the Spot Report or Cursor Information
window should be the same as in the defined pI_MW annotations.
However, this is only the case if the annotations are attached to actual
spots and not just to pixel positions in the image. If an annotation is
attached to a pixel, the pI and MW values for the spot that lies closest
to it will be slightly different from that of the pixel (to which the
annotation is attached). You can solve this ambiguity by linking the
annotation to the spot.
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6.8 Spot reports
6.8
Spot reports
6.8.1
Spot Table
The Spot Table (Figure 6-8), obtained by choosing Reports > Spot Table,
displays summarized information about enabled spots:
•
Name of the image on which they were detected.
•
Spot ID (see below), and Match ID if the spot was matched.
•
Coordinates of the spot’s center of gravity (X and Y).
•
Quantification values: Intensity, Area, Vol, and %Vol. Depending
on the spot detection algorithm used, the Saliency, Vol Ratio, and
Slope will also be given.
•
Calculated pI and MW values, if pI_MW annotations were defined
on the image, or a matched image.
•
All linked labels and spot sets.
Figure 6-8. Spot Table.
Spot ID
Each spot in a gel has a unique identifier, called the Spot ID. Spot IDs of
deleted spots are not reused. Melanie attributes a new ID to each new
spot. When a spot is split, the child spot for which the coordinates are
closest to the parent spot keeps the existing spot ID, the other child spot
gets a new ID. When two spots are merged, the resulting spot is
attributed the ID of the initial spot that was closest to the new center of
gravity.
6.8.2
Cursor information
The Cursor Information window is available from the menu View >
Global > Cursor Information Window or by clicking the corresponding
icon in the Display toolbar. It can be used at any time to display
information on pixels and spots located at the position of your mouse
cursor (Figure 6-9).
Information on the pixel under the cursor:
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•
Name of the image.
•
Calibrated pixel intensity.
•
X and Y coordinates, expressed in pixels, in pI and MW units (if
available), and in cm or inches.
Information on the spot under the cursor:
•
Spot ID.
•
Quantification values: Intensity, Area, Vol, and %Vol. Depending
on the spot detection algorithm used, the Saliency, Vol Ratio, and
Slope are also provided.
Figure 6-9. Cursor Information window.
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7.1
Matches
Introduction
You know how to create an efficient match hierarchy, possibly with
different levels of match sets, and to display this hierarchy in a sheet.
You can also detect spots in all the gels in such a hierarchy. You are now
ready to initiate the matching process itself.
Matching is a key operation in 2-DE image analysis. Basically, the image
matching algorithm compares gel images to find matches between
related spots, that is, spots representing the same protein in the gels. A
match is therefore composed of spot n-tuples (S1, S2, ..., Sn) where S1 is
a Spot ID in the first gel, ..., and Sn a Spot ID in the last gel.
The matching algorithm always starts from the reference image or
match set, and looks for each spot in this reference, if corresponding
spots in the other images are found. If a spot is absent from the
reference, it cannot be matched automatically. However, if you have
several match sets in your hierarchy, there is a good chance that the
spot is on the reference of at least one of them. If so, the spot will turn
up in the analysis. Subsequently, additional spots can be matched to it
manually (Figure 7-1).
Matches are propagated at each level of the hierarchy. This means
that once all match sets are effectively matched, spots from one gel
can be directly compared with those in any of the other gels.
CAUTION! A DIGE gel is an inherent match set for which the co-run
images are automatically matched. To subsequently match
different DIGE gels, proceed like any other match sets.
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7.2 Display a match hierarchy
Figure 7-1. Reference and matching. The selected spot is absent from groups
AT1 and AT2, including the sheet reference A_T1_Gel1. Since the spot is
present in the references B_T1_Gel1 and B_T2_Gel1, it is matched to
corresponding spots and turns up in the analysis (Gel and Class Analysis
Tables).
7.2
Display a match hierarchy
In the example below, the match hierarchy AB was displayed by rightclicking on its name in the Workspace and selecting Display. In the
resulting sheet, only the lowest level (AT1, AT2, BT1, BT2) and highest level
(AB) items are specifically visualized, in the panes and sheet,
respectively. To select intermediary levels (A, B), you can use the
corresponding icon in the pane tab of the reference (e.g., AT1) for that
level (A).
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At the same time, the red markers in these icons indicate what item in a
given match level is used as the reference in the matching.
Figure 7-2. Match hierarchy AB displayed in a sheet. Note that the layout of
the sheet and panes was changed to optimize the use of space and to get a
better overview of the hierarchy. The match level A was selected by clicking
on the corresponding icon in the pane tab of match set AT1.
7.3
Define landmarks
Melanie is designed to match gels with minimum user intervention.
Nevertheless, when the gels are very distorted or different, you may
need to help the matching process by specifying a few landmarks.
Landmarks are points that relate corresponding spots in each of the
gels to be matched.
We recommend trying to match your gels with only a single landmark or
possibly none at all. In some cases, no landmarks are required. More
often, a single landmark is sufficient for quick and efficient matching. If
the matching results are not satisfactory, you can repeat the automatic
matching procedure using additional landmarks.
The following rules should be considered when defining landmarks:
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7.3 Define landmarks
•
Keep the number of landmarks to a minimum.
•
Only define landmarks on clearly corresponding spots. Protein
variants should definitely not be used as landmarks.
•
Landmarks should be placed on small, sharp spots rather than on
large, diffuse ones (to reduce the error in the position).
•
Landmarks essentially correct global deformations of gels.
Therefore, it is recommended not to put landmarks on spots in
locally distorted regions because this can worsen the matching
results. Rather place landmarks around such regions.
Landmark
Landmarks can be defined using the dedicated tool as described
below.
To define landmarks:
1
Click the Landmark icon in the toolbar.
2
Place the mouse cursor over a known, well-defined spot in the first
reference gel and click. A validated landmark symbol (bold orange
circle) appears on the spot (Figure 7-3).
3
In the other images, drag the non-validated symbols (green circle
with orange plus sign) onto the corresponding spots. If the symbol is
already on a good spot, double-click to validate it.
4
Repeat steps 2 and 3 to add more landmarks.
In certain gels, the symbols only become visible once the landmark has
been validated in the reference. In the example, the landmark must be
validated in the image B_T2_Gel1 before any symbols appear in the
images B_T2_Gel2 and B_T2_Gel3.
Sometimes, you may want to move or zoom your images during the
landmarking process. When you click the Move or Zoom tools, the
orange landmark symbols disappear, and only labels with the landmark
numbers are left. When you click the Landmark tool again, the symbols
are reactivated and you can continue defining landmarks.
To delete landmarks, you must delete the corresponding annotations.
Choose Select > Annotations > By Category and select Landmarks in
the list. Then choose Edit > Annotations > Labels > Delete.
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Figure 7-3. Placing of landmarks. Note the difference between the validated
and non-validated landmark symbols.
In general, it is good to validate one or two landmarks on all the images
in the hierarchy, so that they are used for matching at all levels. If it turns
out after the matching that the gels within the lowest hierarchies (e.g.,
AT1, AT2, BT1 and BT2) have been properly matched, but that the higher
level matches (e.g., A and B) are not satisfactory, you can add
additional landmarks to the higher levels only. Do this by validating the
landmark only on the reference images.
7.4
Automatic matching
An entire hierarchy can be matched automatically.
To match the gels in a match hierarchy:
1
Select the gels to be matched in the sheet. In principle, all the gels,
even in a multilevel hierarchy, can be selected.
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7.5 Select matches
2
Choose Edit > Matches > Match Gels. Or click
toolbar.
Match Gels in the
3
If several match sets are selected, you are asked to choose the
ones to be matched in the Match Gels window (Figure 7-4). Items
preceded by a ~ sign still require matching. Use the Ctrl or Shift keys
to make multiple selections. All match sets can be selected at the
same time. Click OK.
Figure 7-4. Match Gels window. In this example, all seven match sets were
selected for matching. The items preceded by a ~ sign are not yet matched.
Match vectors are displayed in blue. The vector pattern is proof of
consistency. If there is a mismatch, the vector has a different length
and/or orientation.
If the matching did not work properly, you can rematch a particular
match level after having added additional landmarks to the
appropriate images.
7.5
Select matches
7.5.1
Select
When you select a spot with the Select tool, the matched spots are
automatically selected.
Alternatives
There are other ways to select matches:
•
Choose an option in the Select > Matches menu (All, Inverse
Selection, Multiple Matches).
•
Select matches in reports.
7.5.2
Match count
The software allows you to select spots present:
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•
In a certain number of gels: the Match Count in a Gel Analysis
Table gives the number of gels in which the spot is present
(detected and matched).
•
In a certain number of classes: The Match Count in a Class Analysis
Table gives the number of classes in which the spot is present
(detected and matched).
Click the Select By Value icon in these tables to refine your selection. For
example, select only spots that are present in at least X out of Y gels, or
X out of Y classes.
7.6
Display matches
You can visualize matches by selecting them. The software also
provides the following tools to display matches.
7.6.1
Show vectors
Right after matching, the software automatically displays the match
vectors in blue. Vectors link the spots in a gel with the corresponding
spots in the sheet reference. This sheet reference has a darker green gel
name and should not be mistaken for the match reference, which has
a red component. The sheet reference can be changed by choosing
View > Sheet > Set Reference.
A blue upside down triangle on a spot indicates that the spot was
matched to one or more spots in other gels, but not to a spot in the
sheet reference (Figure 7-5).
A spot with a triangle means that the corresponding position in the
sheet reference lies outside the visible area (Figure 7-5).
To hide the match vectors, or on the contrary, to display them when
they are not visible, choose View > Matches > Show Vectors.
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Figure 7-5. Different representations of matches. The selected spots in match
set AT2 with a blue upside down triangle are matched, but not with a spot in
the sheet reference. Spots with blue triangles, as the one indicated with a
green arrow, are matched, but the corresponding position in the sheet
reference lies outside the visible area.
To minimize the match vectors (after having moved or zoomed an
image), select the Move tool and double-click in the image so that it is
synchronized with the other images and the sheet reference.
You can change the default color for the match vectors by choosing
Tools > Options and going to the Display tab.
7.6.2
Show ID
Choose View > Matches > Show ID to display Match IDs for selected
spots on selected gels. Obviously, the gels must be matched. To hide
the Match IDs again, possibly in selected gels only, choose View >
Matches > Hide All ID.
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7.7
Edit matches
Sometimes it may be necessary to manually add or delete matches
after the automatic matching procedure. Use the options in the Edit >
Matches menu, or the corresponding icons in the Detect and Match
Spots toolbar.
Note that matches were created in a hierarchical manner. This means
that spots may be properly matched in one match set level, but not in
another. To delete your matches, it is therefore important to select the
appropriate images/panes.
Delete match
Select spots that were incorrectly matched, make sure the appropriate
match level (gels/panes) is selected, and click the Delete Match icon to
remove the spots from the match.
Add match
Select all spots to be matched and click the Add Match icon to add the
spots to the match.
While selecting spots, you may see that some spots were already
matched. When selecting one of them, the others are automatically
selected. This makes it very easy to add matches. Nevertheless, you
must make sure that the existing matches are correct. If this is not the
case, delete them before proceeding.
Multiple matches
Melanie enables the creation of multiple matches (Figure 7-6). In
contrast to a single match, where only a single spot is selected per gel,
a multiple match implies that one or more spots in one image can be
matched to several spots in other images.
All the spots from such a multiple match on a given gel image are
considered as a single spot in the subsequent data analysis. The
calculated quantification values for this composite spot reflect the size,
intensity, and abundance of the combined spots. Therefore, this is an
excellent solution to avoid spot editing.
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Figure 7-6. Multiple matches. The selected spot was correctly matched
throughout match set A and within BT2. But due to spot splitting in B_T1_Gel1,
it was not matched within match sets BT1 and B. Rather than merging the two
spots in B_T1_Gel1, the spots can both be included in the match and treated
as a single entity in the spot quantification.
Review matches
To review matching, choose Select > Matches > All and specify the
hierarchical level at which you want to select the matches. Matched
spots are highlighted in green. The matching of any red spots should be
scrutinized. However, this can also be done during data analysis.
7.8
Match reports
7.8.1
Match statistics table
Choose Reports > Analyze Gels > Match Statistics Table to display the
number and percent of matches found for each of the images. By
default, the numbers are calculated based on All MatchSets in the
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hierarchy. But you can select a particular match set by clicking the
Choose MatchSet icon in the toolbar of the Match Statistics Table
(Figure 7-7).
Figure 7-7. Match Statistics Table.
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8
8.1
Data analysis
Introduction
To study the variations in protein expression among a series of gels, the
gels should be matched together (be part of the same match
hierarchy).
Data analysis can be carried out at two different levels:
8.2
•
Analyze Gels: Study protein expression changes within a set of gels,
without taking populations into consideration. This type of analysis
can be carried out on both MatchSet and Classes sheets. The
analytical methods used include scatter plots, descriptive statistics,
histograms, and factor analysis.
•
Analyze Classes: Find significant protein expression changes
between classes of gels. For this type of analysis, images must be
placed in classes and opened in a Classes sheet. The analytical
methods used include descriptive statistics per class, histograms,
overlapping measures, and statistical tests.
General settings
The following concepts and settings are used in the different analytical
methods described later in this chapter.
8.2.1
Quantification value
The quantification value found in various tables, graphs and plots is a
software option. Choose Tools > Options and go to the Quantification
tab to set:
•
Value: To be used for the analysis of conventional 2-D gels. You
can choose between Intensity, Area, Vol, or %Vol. The default
value is %Vol.
•
DIGE Value: To be used for the analysis of DIGE gels. You can
choose between Intensity, Area, Vol, %Vol, or Vol Ratio. The default
value is Vol Ratio.
Note: Although Vol Ratio are displayed in the tables, graphs and plots,
the internal calculation of the statistical values (such as central
tendency, dispersion and Anova) is based on the Log Vol Ratio.
8.2.2
Statistics
Central tendency and dispersion are the most frequently-used
descriptive statistics. They are calculated in Gel or Class Analysis Tables
and Histograms.
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These statistics are in fact numbers that summarize spot values from a
match. The central tendency allows you to localize a center for the
data, whereas the dispersion indicates how closely the data points fall
around the center.
CAUTION! Absent spots, with zero values, are also considered in the
calculation of statistics (for both central tendencies and dispersion).
Specify and display the statistics by clicking the Statistics icon in a report
toolbar (Figure 8-1):
Figure 8-1. Statistics common to Gel or Class Analysis Tables and Histograms.
The third section is specific to different report types and is described in the
corresponding sections of the User Manual.
Central tendency
The central tendency gives the general location of a variable. This is
commonly calculated by the arithmetic mean (also known as the
average or center of gravity of a distribution), the median (the middle
value which divides the sample in two equal parts) or the midrange
(middle location between the two sample extremes).
Mean and midrange values are very sensitive to extreme values
(outliers) and can be seriously affected by a single observation. On the
other hand, the median is highly resistant to outliers. A compromise is
given by the trimmed mean (or trimmed midrange) where a predefined
number of outliers are removed from the sample. The trimmed measures
are more robust than the mean (or midrange) but are more sensitive
than the median.
The percentage slider in the Statistics window allows you to remove
outliers and obtain the different central tendencies. A 100% value
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means that all the spot values available in a match are used to
calculate the statistics (no outliers are suppressed). With a value of 80%,
for example, 10% of the minimum values and 10% of the maximum
values are discarded from the sample and the trimmed measure is
calculated with the remaining values.
•
Select Mean and the arithmetic mean is calculated, that is, the
sum of all the sample values divided by the sample size.
•
Select Midrange and the midpoint of the sample value is
calculated, that is, the middle location between the two sample
extremes.
•
Obtain a Trimmed Mean (or Trimmed Midrange) by selecting Mean
(or Midrange) and discarding the desired percentage of outliers
with the percentage slider.
•
Obtain the Median by selecting Mean and discarding 50% of the
values at each of the extremities, that is, select 0% in the
percentage slider.
•
Select Reference... and the value from the spot in a specified
reference gel is taken as the central tendency. This option is only
available for Gel Analysis Reports.
Dispersion
The dispersion measures the variability of the sample data as indicated
by how clustered or scattered the data points are around their center
value. There are numerous measures of variability: standard deviation,
range, interquartile range, and so on.
Like the statistics for central tendency, these measures make use of all
the available sample data and can be heavily influenced by outliers.
Therefore, you can also restrict the sample to the central values by
trimming out the extreme values with the percentage slider.
•
Select Mean Squared Deviation (M.S.D.) and the square root of the
average squared difference of each sample value to the center
location is calculated.
•
Select Mean Absolute Deviation (M.A.D.) and the mean of the
absolute difference between each value and the central value is
calculated. It is not affected as much by outliers as the Mean
Squared Deviation because the differences are not squared.
•
Select Half-range Size and the difference between the largest and
the smallest values divided by 2 is calculated.
Examples
• The Mean 100% and the Mean Squared Deviation 100% are the
most commonly-used statistics (Figure 8-2, a). Note that the
standard deviation is the Mean Squared Deviation multiplied by
N ⁄ ( N – 1 ) , where N is the sample size. This difference comes
from the fact that the standard deviation should be an unbiased
estimator.
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•
The Median (Mean 0%) and Mean Absolute Deviation 100% are
much more robust to outliers than the statistics above (Figure 8-2,
b).
•
The Midrange 100% and Half-range 100% define an interval that
includes all sample values (Figure 8-2, c).
•
The Midrange 50% and Half-range 50% are known as order statistics
and interquartile ranges (Figure 8-3).
(a)
(b)
(c)
Figure 8-2. Histograms showing the sensitivities of central and dispersion
values. (a) Mean 100% and M.S.D. 100%, (b) Median and M.A.D. (c) Midrange
100% and Half-range 100%.
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
Figure 8-3. Histograms showing the effect of suppressing outliers. Midrange
and half-range values are given for (a) 100%, (b) 80%, (c) 50% and (d) 33%.
8.3
Analyze gels
8.3.1
Scatter plots
To analyze gel similarities or experimental variations such as disparities in
stain intensity or sample loading, you can produce Scatter Plots for
matched spots (Figure 8-4) by choosing Reports > Analyse Gels >
Scatter Plots.
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Figure 8-4. Scatter plot for matched spots.
Scatter plots give an idea of the relationship between the spot values
from two gels by searching for the linear dependence between the
spot values of one gel (variable X) and the corresponding values in the
sheet reference (variable Y). Remember that you can change the
sheet reference (darker gel name) by choosing View > Sheet > Set
Reference.
The linear dependence is defined as the best-fit line through the data
points. The best-fit line is described by a slope and its offset from the
equation y = slope × x + offset.
The goodness-of-fit for this approximation is given by the correlation
coefficient Corr. This coefficient can vary between -1 and 1, where an
absolute value near 1 indicates a good fit. The spot values of one gel
can be predicted, to some extent, by the values of the other gel. On the
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other hand, a low value indicates that the data could not be
approximated by a straight line.
The types of conclusions that can be drawn from the regression line
equations and the correlation coefficients are:
1.0 × x + 0
and Corr = 1
indicates that the spot values for all
matched spots are the same in the two
gels.
1.2 × x + 0
and Corr =
0.95
indicates that almost all spot values are
approximately 20% higher in the sheet
reference.
1.0 × x +
0.2
and Corr =
0.95
indicates that almost all spot values are
shifted by +0.2 with respect to the sheet
reference.
In general, when the data are highly correlated (Corr close to 1) but the
best-fit line is far from identity (1.0 × x + 0), you should search for possible
reasons to explain why your values are systematically biased. Stain
intensity variations, differences in protein loading, or image acquisition
problems are some typical causes.
In the Scatter Plots window you can visualize a scatter plot for each gel
in the sheet versus the sheet reference, together with the best-fit line,
correlation coefficient and the number of matches displayed.
Scatter plots are interactive. You can click on the points representing
the matched spots. This in turn selects the spots in the gels and other
reports.
Slider
Move the slider in the toolbar of the Scatter Plots window to view the
scatter plots for the other images in the sheet.
Scatter table
Click the Scatter Table icon in the toolbar to show or hide the table
below the plot. The Scatter Table displays, for each pair of matched
spots in the scatter plot, the corresponding spot values in the gels and
the error in relation to the regression line.
Copy formula to clipboard
Select the Copy Formula to Clipboard option from the Save icon in the
drop-down list to copy the regression formula and correlation
coefficient to the clipboard for use in other applications.
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8.3.2
Gel analysis table
The Gel Analysis Table and Histograms provide valuable tools for looking
at unusual matches within a set of gel images. Analyzing protein
expression changes, checking spot detection or verifying matching
operations are just a few of the potential uses. Choose Reports >
Analyse Gels > Table to display the Gel Analysis Table (Figure 8-5). This
report describes, for each match:
•
The spot values from each gel.
•
The Max value, that is, the highest of all these spot values.
•
The Central Tendency and Dispersion over all the gels in the sheet,
regardless of whether they belong to different populations or not.
•
The Coefficient of Variation (Coef. Variation), which is the
dispersion divided by the central tendency. It measures the relative
variability of the spots in a match by correcting for the magnitude
of the data values, thus giving a measure that has no units. When
you choose the Median and Mean Absolute Deviation statistics,
this measure is also known as the Coefficient of Dispersion.
•
The Range Ratio, which is the maximum value divided by the
smallest value in the sample specified. To specify the sample, click
the Statistics icon in the Gel Analysis Table toolbar, and suppress
outliers by setting the percentage slider in the Range Ratio section
to the desired value.
•
The Separability, which is the highest difference between two
consecutively sorted values in the whole sample. It measures the
greatest gap that you can have if you want to split the spot values
in a match into two separate classes.
•
The Match Count, which is the number of gels in which the spot is
present and matched.
Figure 8-5. Gel Analysis Table.
In addition to the standard functionalities for saving, printing, copying
content to the clipboard and navigating in the report, the following
tools in the Gel Analysis Report are particularly useful:
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Select by value
Select items in the table based on a numerical search criterion. Choose
the measure (i.e., column) to be used for refinement, and set the lower
and/or upper limits of your search interval.
Create spot set
Create a spot set to annotate spots of interest for use at a later stage.
All currently selected spots are automatically included in the newly
created spot set, which appears as a column in the table. You see a
checked box for spots that belong to the set, or an empty box for spots
that do not belong to the set.
Factor analysis table
Carry out a factor analysis.
Statistics
Set the statistics to be used in the report. These settings are common to
the Gel Analysis Table and Gel Analysis Histograms.
Settings
Some of the above-mentioned columns may not be displayed by
default. Click the Settings icon to show or hide columns in the table.
Normalization
In order to simplify comparisons across matches, the spot values in the
Gel Analysis Table can be normalized relative to their gel analysis
statistics. Select the desired type of normalization in the drop-down list
in the toolbar. The following options are available:
Value
Raw spot value.
Relative
Spot value – Central tendency
Ratio
Spot value
---------------------------------------Central tendency
Normalized
Spot value – Central tendency
---------------------------------------------------------------------Dispersion
CAUTION! The Relative and Normalized options are not available for
DIGE experiments when Vol Ratio is selected as the quantification
measure.
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8.3.3
Gel analysis histograms
Histograms are a way to look at matched spots. The Gel Analysis
Histograms window (Figure 8-6) is displayed by choosing Reports >
Analyze Gels > Histograms.
In the histograms, the vertical orange bars correspond to the spot
values, the blue horizontal line represents the chosen central tendency
and the red lines delimit the range defined by [Central value Dispersion, Central value + Dispersion]. The Match ID is displayed at the
bottom of each histogram.
Figure 8-6. Gel Analysis Histograms.
The following tools in the Gel Analysis Histograms are very useful:
Slider
To see the matches displayed on additional pages, use the slider in the
toolbar. When a match is selected on an image or in another report, it
is automatically highlighted in a histograms window.
Statistics
Set the statistics to be used in the histograms. These settings are
common to the Gel Analysis Table and Gel Analysis Histograms.
Settings
Click the Settings icon to select one of the following options:
•
Sorted Values, to sort the spot values in ascending order (Figure
8-7).
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(a)
(b)
Figure 8-7. Histograms on matches with (a) unsorted values and (b) values
sorted in ascending order.
•
Adaptive Gradations, to adjust the histogram gradations
according to the spot values in each match. Deselect this option
to display an identical gradation in all histograms (Figure 8-8).
(a)
(b)
Figure 8-8. Histograms on matches with adaptive gradations set (a)
individually for each histogram and (b) according to the minimum and
maximum values in all histograms.
•
Show Labels, to display a table with the gel names. Alternatively,
when you place the mouse over a letter in the histograms, a
screentip displays the full image name and the spot value in the
image.
Normalization
You can display normalized spot values to simplify the comparisons
across matches. These normalized values are particularly useful in
combination with the histograms:
Value
Raw spot value.
Relative
Spot value – Central tendency
This normalization sets the central tendency values to 0,
and if the Adaptive Gradations option (see above) is
deactivated, you have a good overview of the
dispersion and therefore of the homogeneity of the
matches. This normalization is sensitive to high spot
values.
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Ratio
Spot value
---------------------------------------Central tendency
This normalization divides all values by the central
tendency and thus gives a ratio for all data. If you
deactivate the Adaptive Gradations option (see
above), all histograms have the same scale and thus it
becomes easier to detect matches that do not have
homogenous values. This normalization is more sensitive
to low spot values.
Normalized
Spot value – Central tendency
---------------------------------------------------------------------Dispersion
This normalization is a compromise between the two
normalizations described above and is sensitive to all
values.
CAUTION! The Relative and Normalized options are not available for
DIGE experiments when Vol Ratio is selected as the quantification
measure.
8.3.4
Factor analysis
The visual task of comparing gels is rather difficult when dealing with a
large number of gels that consist of thousands of spots. It can be hard
to assess whether different sample populations exist and to characterize
their different protein expression profiles. Factor analysis helps here by
condensing the information contained in such huge data sets into a
smaller number of factors, or dimensions, that explain most of the
variance observed. The factor analysis tool is used to examine the
interrelationships between large numbers of variables (i.e.,, spot values
for a series of gels) and to explain these relationships (e.g., gel
populations) in terms of common underlying factors (or associations
with specific spot patterns).
Factor analysis is a complex statistical technique, whose
comprehensive description is beyond the scope of this manual. For
more information, references are given in the Appendix.
Perform a factor analysis
A factor analysis is carried out on all or selected matches in the Gel
Analysis Table. You must judge which of the options described below is
most applicable to your analysis.
To carry out a factor analysis:
1
Click the Factor Analysis Table icon in the Gel Analysis Table
toolbar.
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2
If any matches are selected, the software asks whether you want to
use all or only the selected rows.
3
The Factor Analysis Table (Figure 8-9) is displayed with the lines
corresponding to the axes that can be drawn in the Factor
Projection Plot. Select two axes to be displayed in this plot
(generally the first two ones).
4
Click the Factor Projection Report icon in the Factor Analysis Table
toolbar.
Figure 8-9. Factor Analysis Table.
The Factor Projection Plot (Figure 8-10) displays the projection of each
match (cross) and each gel (blue vector) on the two factorial axes. The
blue curve represents a part of the correlation circle; its form is linked to
the scale of the axes. When matches are selected on the plot, they are
automatically highlighted on the gels and/or any open reports.
The Factor Projection Table (Figure 8-10) displays the contribution of
each match to the two axes displayed in the Factor Projection Plot. The
Quality measures whether the projection of the match is well
represented on the factorial subspace.
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Figure 8-10. Factor Projection Report includes the Factor Projection Plot (top)
and the Factor Projection Table (bottom).
You can use the following tools in the Factor Projection Report:
Factor analysis table
Display the Factor Analysis Table from which the two axes for the current
Factor Projection Report were selected.
Factor projection table
Show or hide the Factor Projection Table corresponding to the
displayed plot.
Factor projection plot
Show or hide the Factor Projection Plot corresponding to the displayed
table.
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Displayed items
Choose the items to be displayed from the drop-down list in the toolbar
of the plot. You can choose matches (crosses), gels (blue vectors), or
both.
Matches displayed
Enter the number of matches to be displayed in the plot.
Interpret a factor analysis
How to interpret a factor analysis is explained with an example of six gels
run to compare the effect of two treatments T1 (A_T1_Gel1, A_T1_Gel2,
A_T1_Gel3) and T2 (A_T2_Gel1, A_T2_Gel2, A_T2_Gel3) on bacteria
cultivated on substrate A. The gels were detected and matched, and
a Gel Analysis Table displayed.
The Factor Analysis Table (Figure 8-9) summarizes the variance
accounted for by successive axes (or factors), expressed as a percent
of the total variance. Thus, factor 1 accounts for 91.8% of the variance,
factor 2 for 5.4%, and so on. The coordinates for each gel projected on
these axes is also listed.
The number of factors equals the number of gels being analyzed. Factor
analysis cannot be performed with less than two gels and so at least two
factors are always calculated. Of course, the more gels you use, the
more reliable the results are likely to be, and the more factors are
calculated. Since the first factors are generally the best ones for
characterizing gels and matches that behave similarly than any
subsequent ones, the factors are ranked in order of importance.
Figure 8-11 shows the Factor Projection Plot obtained when the first two
axes in Figure 8-9 were selected. In the example, only the 20 most
significant matches are displayed on the projection plot. If all matches
were shown, one would find that many of them cluster around the origin
of the graph. This illustrates that the majority of matches, i.e., protein
spots, are not meaningful in classifying the gels. The further away a spot
is from the origin, the more important it is likely to be in terms of
characterizing the gels.
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Figure 8-11. Factor Projection Report. The ten matches with highest
contribution to the second axis are selected.
To find a possible meaning for a given factor, one should first identify the
matches that largely contribute to this factor. The Factor Projection
Table is used for this purpose. When sorting the matches according to
their contribution to the first axis, one discovers that the matches at the
top of the table are those with the highest relative volumes, as found in
the Gel Analysis Table. In fact, the first axis is generally correlated with
protein abundance.
Please note that the Factor Projection Table also contains the Quality
for each match. This number tells you how close the distance of the
projection is to reality. Matches with very similar behavior (similar
expression profiles across gels) are close in space. However, when
projected onto a two-dimensional subspace, matches that are actually
far apart may appear close together. It is therefore important to look at
the Quality to judge whether matches are effectively close. If the values
are high for both matches, the chance is great that they are indeed
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nearby and have a similar behavior. If one of the matches has a low
value, any interpretation becomes tentative.
Gels that are adjacent on the graph are likely to be similar to each
other. They may correspond to the same population. This is clearly the
case in the example above. The gels from T1 cluster together below the
horizontal axis, whereas the gels corresponding to T2 lie above.
The closer a match is to a given set of gels, the more characteristic it is
likely to be of those gels. That is, the more important the match is in
determining why those gels are different from other gels. In Figure 8-11,
one can observe that the matches 48, 123, 180, 181 and 248 are close
to the gels belonging to T1. The histograms in Figure 8-12 show that these
matches have high spot values for the T1 gels and low values for the T2
gels. Matches 237 and 338, on the other hand, are characteristic of the
T2 population, with higher spot values in the T2 gels. In our example, the
second axis appears very important for separating the gels into two
classes. It is related to the ratio between the mean spot values in each
population of gels. The matches in the upper part of the graph have
ratios that favor the T2 population, while those below the horizontal axis
have ratios that favor the T1 gels.
Comments on factor analysis
Factor analysis is used to examine the protein expression pattern within
each match. The quality of the output depends on the quality of spot
matching. Hence, it may be useful to exclude spots that are not well
matched across all gels (using Match Count in the Gel Analysis Table).
Nevertheless, in cases where a majority of spots were properly
matched, the inclusion of all matches in the factor analysis can yield
good results with no preliminary match filtering necessary.
This statistical method, based on data variation and their standard
deviations, highlights the natural formation of populations among the
gels and allows identification of matches (i.e., matched spots) that are
characteristic of these classes. However, one should be very critical
when analyzing factor analysis plots since the results can be greatly
influenced by outliers, bad matches, and so on. Factor analysis can
provide valuable indications in some cases, but not in others.
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Figure 8-12. Gel Analysis Histograms for the ten matches ranked highest for
their contribution to the second axis in the factor analysis example. Matches
48, 123, 180, 181 and 248 are characteristic of population T1, matches 237 and
338 are characteristic of population T2.
8.3.5
DIGE histogram
A DIGE Histogram can be displayed when detected DIGE gels are
selected. It shows, for each non-reference image, data associated with
detected spots in the image, plotted against Log Volume Ratio on the
X-axis (Figure 8-13). It has two different Y-axes:
•
The left Y-axis displays the spot frequency. The blue curve
represents the frequency distribution of the log volume ratios.
•
The right Y-axis represents the Measure parameter (see below)
selected from the Measure tool in the DIGE Histogram window. A
plotted single data point on the histogram represents an individual
protein spot.
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The name of the DIGE reference for the current image, used for the
calculation of the Log Volume Ratio, appears at the lower right corner
of the DIGE Histogram window.
The DIGE Histogram is dynamic. You can click on the data points
representing spots to select them on the gels and any other open
reports.
Figure 8-13. DIGE Histogram.
Two report-specific tools are available:
Slider
Move the slider in the toolbar of the DIGE Histogram window to view the
histograms for the other images in the sheet.
Measure
Select one of the following options from the Measure icon:
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•
Max Slope: Largest gradient associated with the co-detected
spots.
•
Area: Number of pixels within the spot boundary.
•
Max Intensity: Largest pixel value associated with the co-detected
spots.
•
Max Volume: Volume of the largest co-detected spot.
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8.4
Analyze classes
8.4.1
Specify classes
To identify protein expression variations between populations of gels,
you need to specify what gels belong to which population by creating
classes. Classes are created in the Workspace.
Oftentimes, you already know the populations for your set of gels. This is
the case when you are comparing gels from healthy tissue extracts with
those from disease-associated samples. When you have no preliminary
knowledge of the populations in the set of gels, you can draw possible
conclusions from factor analysis.
8.4.2
Overlapping measures
Spot values for a given match within each class can be summarized by
the central tendency and dispersion. In addition to these descriptors,
the software computes overlapping measures between the class
intervals, where class intervals are defined by the ranges [Central value
- Dispersion, Central value + Dispersion].
The overlapping measures quantify the overlap between these
intervals, and thus gauge how different the protein expression changes
between the classes really are. They take into account both the
difference between the central tendency in each population and the
dispersion. The following overlapping measures are available:
•
Gap: Maximum difference between the range of the current class
and the range of one of the other classes (Figure 8-14, c-b in the
case of Class A). Negative values indicate overlap whereas
positive values are non-overlapping class ranges.
•
Ratio: Maximum ratio between the lower limit of one of the other
classes and the upper limit of the current class (Figure 8-14, c/b in
the case of Class A). Absolute values smaller than 1 indicate
overlap, whereas absolute values higher than 1 show that there is
no overlap. In order to easily distinguish matched spots that are
over or under expressed in one of the classes, the ratio value is
preceded by a minus sign when the protein spot is under
expressed for the class in question, compared to the other class.
Positive values are attributed to the Ratio value in the overexpressed class.
•
Normalized: Maximum percentage of the current class range not
overlapping with the range of one of the other classes (Figure 8-14,
(c-a)/(b-a) in the case of Class A). A value smaller than 1 indicates
overlap. For example, 0.25 implies that 25% of the current class
range is not recovered by one of the other classes. In the same
way, a value of 1.5 indicates that there is a gap equivalent to 50%
of the current class range to the furthest other class. The
normalized overlapping is not symmetrical, the value from Class A
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NON-OVERLAPPING CLASSES
compared to Class B is not the same as the value from Class B
compared to Class A.
0
2
6
8
1.5
Class A a
b
c
Class B
d
2
Gap:
Ratio:
Normalized:
0
OVERLAPPING CLASSES
4
2
Class A
Class B
2.0
1.4
1.5
2.0
1.4
2.0
[c-b]
[c/b]
[(c-a)/(b-a)]
4
6
8
0.75
Class A a
b
c
Class B
d
0.5
Gap:
Ratio:
Normalized:
Class A
Class B
-1.0 [c-b]
0.8 [c/b]
0.75 [(c-a)/(b-a)]
-1.0
0.8
0.5
Figure 8-14. Scheme demonstrating how the Gap, Ratio, and Normalized
values are calculated for two non-overlapping classes (upper part) and two
overlapping classes (lower part). Arrows above or below each class range
illustrate how the Normalized measure relates to this class range.
Please note that the formulas mentioned above only apply to Class A in
the current example. Their purpose here is to illustrate the principles of
overlapping measures. Many different cases (and therefore formulas)
exist.
A value of 1e6 (1000000) in the Class Analysis Histograms characterizes
the case where the protein is completely absent from a class. The
software cannot compute ranges. A value of 0 for the Ratio or
Normalized measures indicates that the particular class is entirely
covered by another one.
CAUTION! The Gap, Ratio and Normalized options are not available
for DIGE experiments when Vol Ratio is selected as the quantification
measure.
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CAUTION! As indicated in their definition, the Gap, Ratio, and
Normalized values always calculate the MAXIMUM difference, ratio
or percentage with respect to ANY of the other classes. This means
that when the Ratio values for three populations (e.g., A, B, C) are
compared, the software calculates the ratio of A with respect to B
and of A with respect to C, but only displays the highest value in the
column for class A. The number shown does not indicate with
respect to which class the value was obtained. The idea is to quickly
enable you to find a match (i.e., protein marker) that distinguishes
the current class from any of the other classes. Once such protein
markers are found, the Class Analysis Histograms can be used to
study the match in more detail.
8.4.3
Fold change
Instead of using overlapping measures between the class intervals, you
may simply want to look at the fold change between the central
tendency of one class and the central tendency of one or several other
classes, ignoring the dispersion. Melanie provides two options:
The Fold value displays the fold-change between the class with the
lowest central value and the class with the highest central value. It is
available in a separate column of the Class Analysis Table (see 8.4.5
Class analysis table).
It is possible to display, for each class, the fold-change against a
selected reference class X. That is, the ratio of the central tendency for
the class versus the central tendency for the selected reference class.
To display these ratios, select the option versus Class X in the Displayed
value drop down of the Class Analysis Table that corresponds to the
desired reference class X (see 8.4.5 Class analysis table).
8.4.4
Statistical tests
The software provides three statistical tests: ANOVA, Mann-Whitney U
test, and the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. These tests are used to analyze
differences in protein expression between classes of gels. The idea is to
draw conclusions about the significance of the protein expression
changes by extrapolating information from the data you collected. For
example, when you have two samples (classes) with different means
(i.e., different means for the spot values of a particular match), you
might want to know whether the data were sampled from populations
with different means or whether the populations have the same mean
with the observed difference being a coincidence of random
sampling.
In fact, there is no way to definitely conclude which of the two
possibilities is true. All you can do is calculate the probability of
observing a certain difference (or larger) between sample means in an
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experiment of this size, for populations that in reality have the same
mean. If the probability is small, you can conclude that the difference
is not likely to be caused by random sampling and assume instead that
the populations have different means.
CAUTION! You can display the desired statistical values for each
match in the Class Analysis Table. These values should be considered
as qualitative indications of the variations in protein expression
between two populations. To draw quantitative conclusions, you
must verify that the restrictive assumptions of the various tests are
met. In addition, one should always check the results by visual
inspection of the spots, since the conclusions may be erroneous due
to inaccuracies in detection or matching.
CAUTION! The given statistical values are useless when the samples
(classes) do not consist of more than two gels. Your objective should
always be to work with the largest possible sample sizes.
One-way ANOVA
Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is one of the most important statistical
tests available for biologists. It is essentially an extension of the logic of
Student's t-tests to those situations where the comparison of the means
of several groups is required. Thus, when comparing two means,
ANOVA gives the same results as the t-test for independent samples.
One-way ANOVA tests the null hypothesis that all populations have
identical means. It generates a P value that answers this question: If the
null hypothesis is true, what is the probability that randomly selected
samples vary as much (or more) than actually occurred?
It is based on the same assumptions as the t-test:
•
The samples are randomly selected from, or at least representative
of, the larger populations.
•
The two samples are independent. There is no relationship
between the individuals in one sample as compared to the other.
•
The data are sampled from populations that approximate a
Gaussian distribution.
If you are not able to assume that your data are sampled from Gaussian
populations, then non-parametric tests like the Mann-Whitney or
Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests can provide a better analysis. Please note
that these test only allow you to compare two samples at the same
time.
Mann-Whitney or Wilcoxon test
The Mann-Whitney U test or rank sum test is the non-parametric
substitute for the two-sample t-test when the assumption of normality
(Gaussian bell-shaped distribution) is not valid. It is equivalent to the
Wilcoxon rank sum test. It should only be used for comparing two
unpaired samples. The assumptions of the Mann-Whitney U test are:
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•
The variable of interest is continuous (not discrete) and the
measurement scale is at least ordinal. This means that repeated
values (ties) are not acceptable. When ties are present in your
data, there is an approximation provided in the calculations, but
the exact results no longer hold.
•
The distributions of the two samples are identical (although not
necessarily normal) and differ only in location (i.e., central
tendency).
•
The two samples are independent.
To perform the Mann-Whitney test, the software first ranks all the spot
values from low to high, paying no attention to which of the two classes
(e.g., X and Y) each value belongs. Then each value is given a rank
number. The smallest number gets a rank of 1. The largest number gets
a rank of N, where N is the total number of spot values in the two classes.
If two values are the same, then they both get the average of the two
ranks for which they tie. Finally, the ranks in each class are summed, thus
giving WX and WY, which are used to calculate the Mann-Whitney test
statistic, U. The formula for UX is as follows (the formula for UY is obtained
by replacing X by Y):
nX ( nX + 1 )
U X = W X – ------------------------2
The smaller of the two calculated U values corresponds to the number
of shifts needed in order that the spot values from the two populations
do not overlap. For the first example in Figure 8-15, no shifts are
necessary since the spot values of classes X and Y are already
separated. On the contrary, for the second example the Mann-Whitney
test indicates that the first two values from Y (or the three last values
from X) have to be swapped four times in order to separate the
samples.
The software displays the smaller of the two calculated U values in the
Class Analysis Table. The lower the number, the higher the probability is
that the means of the two samples are different. Knowing this value,
and the sample size, you can easily look up the probabilities in a MannWhitney table.
Caution should be used when analyzing the results of a Mann-Whitney
test. First, the assumptions are often violated. This is the case when spots
are completely absent in one of the classes (in this case you have
repeated values of 0). Moreover, if you have small samples, the MannWhitney test is meaningless. If the total sample size is seven or less, the
test always gives a probability (of finding different means, in the case of
identical populations) greater than 0.05, no matter how little the
samples differ.
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Y
Spot values
X
X
Ranks
X
Y
1.5
1.5
3
4
5
Y
Spot values
0.000
0.000
0.044
0.059
0.068
0.144
0.237
0.240
0.249
0.255
0.308
6
7
8
9
10
11
0.034
0.045
0.056
0.058
0.064
0.069
0.075
0.078
0.104
0.106
0.126
WX
nX
UX
51 15
6 5
30 0
WX
nX
UX
Ranks
Y
X
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
25 41
6 5
4 26
Figure 8-15. Two examples to illustrate the Mann-Whitney and KolmogorovSmirnov tests. In (a) the two classes do not overlap at all, whereas in (b) 4 shifts
are needed to completely separate the spot values of the two classes. The
bold values correspond to the spot values and ranks from class Y, the others
belong to class X.
Kolmogorov-Smirnov test
The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test tries to determine if two data sets differ
significantly. It is used to test whether or not two samples may
reasonably be assumed to come from the same distribution. It has the
advantage of making no assumption about the distribution of the data
and is frequently preferred over the Mann-Whitney rank sum test where
there are many ties (repeated values). Please note that this generally
comes at a price. Other tests (e.g., the t-test) may be more sensitive if
the data meet the requirements needed for that test. The assumptions
of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test are:
•
The probability distributions are continuous.
•
The measurement scale is at least ordinal.
•
The two samples are mutually independent.
In the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, the data points in each sample (spot
values for a particular match in a class) are sorted in ascending order
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and converted into an empirical distribution function (EDF). This function
gives the fraction of data points to the left of a given value z. For the
second example in Figure 8-15, the ordered data points from class X
are: 0.034, 0.045, 0.056, 0.064, 0.069, and 0.078. The fraction of data
points to the left of each of these z values can easily be calculated and
plotted (full line) in an Empirical Distribution Plot (Figure 8-16):
It is clear that no data lie strictly below 0.034, 17% = 0.17 = 1/6 of the data
is strictly smaller than 0.045, 33% = 0.33 = 2/6 of the data is strictly smaller
than 0.056, 50% = 0.50 = 3/6 of the data is strictly smaller than 0.064, and
so on.
The same procedure can be followed for the second sample (class Y in
our example, the dashed line in Figure 8-16). The Kolmogorov-Smirnov
test statistic D is then defined as the maximum distance between the
empirical distribution functions (EDF) for the two samples. In the
example, D is 0.63 (0.83-0.20). If D is greater than a particular decision
limit (critical value found in a Kolmogorov-Smirnov table), there is a
statistically significant difference between the two samples. However,
the test provides no insight as to what causes the difference.
Fraction of data points to the left
of Spot value z
Empirical Distribution Plot
1.00
0.80
0.60
D
0.40
0.20
Class X
Class Y
0.00
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08
0.1
0.12
0.14
Spot value z
Figure 8-16. The Empirical Distribution Plot for the spot values of match 613
(Figure 8-15), in Classes X and Y. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistic D
corresponds to the maximum distance between the two empirical distribution
functions.
8.4.5
Class analysis table
The Class Analysis Table provides valuable data for finding significant
protein expression changes between populations of gels. Using this
data, it is possible to differentiate one class from the others based on just
a few matches/spots. Choose Reports > Analyse Classes > Table to
display the Class Analysis Table (Figure 8-17). For each match, there is a
description of:
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•
The Center (central tendency), Dispersion, Gap, Ratio or
Normalized values for each class, or fold change versus a selected
reference class X (versus Class X) depending on the selection
made in the drop-down list (see below). By default, the Center
values are displayed.
•
The Max value, that is, the highest from all these class values.
•
The Match Count, which is the number of classes in which the spot
is present and matched.
•
The results from the statistical tests: the ANOVA probability P, the
Wilcoxon U statistic, and the Kolmogorov D statistic.
•
The Fold-change between the class with the lowest Center value
and the class with the highest Center value.
•
The columns corresponding to spot sets.
Figure 8-17. Class Analysis Table.
In addition to the standard functionalities for saving, printing, copying
content to the clipboard and navigating in the report, the following
tools in the Class Analysis Table are particularly useful:
Select by value
Select items in the table based on a numerical search criterion. Choose
the measure (i.e., column) to be used for refinement, and set the lower
and/or upper limits of your search interval.
Create spot set
Create a spot set to annotate spots of interest for use at a later stage.
All currently selected spots are automatically included in the newly
created spot set, which appears as a column in the table. You see a
checked box for spots that belong to the set, or an empty box for spots
that do not belong to the set.
Statistics
Set the statistics to be used for calculating the Center and Dispersion
value of each class, and consequently the Gap, Ratio and Normalized
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values. These settings are common to the Class Analysis Table and Class
Analysis Histograms.
CAUTION! The Center and Dispersion values define the interval that
characterizes the protein sample of each class in a match. To
characterize a class only by the central value, set the Dispersion
percentage slider to 0%. This is useful if you want to calculate the
difference or ratio between the central values of your classes. With
the Mean (100%) selected as Central Tendency and the Dispersion
slider set to 0%, the Gap and Ratio values that are calculated in the
Class Analysis Table correspond to the classical way to calculate the
difference or ratio between populations.
Alternatively, you can use the Fold and versus Class X options (see
8.4.3 Fold change).
Settings
Some of the above-mentioned columns may not be displayed by
default. Click the Settings icon to show or hide columns from the table.
Displayed value
The displayed statistical descriptor or overlapping measure can be
selected from the drop-down list in the toolbar. You can display the
Center (central tendency), Dispersion, Gap, Ratio or Normalized values
for the different classes, as well as the ratio versus a selected reference
class (versus Class X).
CAUTION! The Gap, Ratio and Normalized options are not available
for DIGE experiments when Vol Ratio is selected as the quantification
measure.
8.4.6
Class analysis histograms
You can visually investigate the statistical and overlapping descriptors
of populations by displaying Class Analysis Histograms. Just choose
Reports > Analyse Classes > Histograms.
When the Center (central tendency) value is selected for display in the
drop-down list, the Class Analysis Histograms display all the individual
spot values in each match, separated for each class by vertical gray
lines (Figure 8-18). The classes are characterized by their central
tendency (blue horizontal line) and dispersion interval (bounded by the
outer red lines). The Match IDs appear below each histogram.
When displaying the Dispersion, Gap, Ratio or Normalized values (Figure
8-19), each class is represented by a single value (red bar).
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Figure 8-18. Class Analysis Histograms with Center values displayed.
Figure 8-19. Class Analysis Histograms with Ratio displayed.
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The histograms can be selected to highlight the corresponding spots on
the gels and in any open reports.
The following tools in the Class Analysis Histograms are very useful:
Slider
To see the matches displayed on additional pages, use the slider in the
toolbar. When a match is selected on an image or in another report, it
is automatically highlighted in a histograms window.
Statistics
Set the statistics to be used for calculating the Center and Dispersion
value of each class, and consequently the Gap, Ratio and Normalized
values. These settings are common to the Class Analysis Table and Class
Analysis Histograms.
Settings
Click the Settings icon to activate one of the following options:
•
Sorted Values, to sort the classes according to their central value
and sort the spot values inside each class (Figure 8-20). This can
simplify the search for non-overlapping intervals.
(a)
(b)
Figure 8-20. Class Analysis Histograms with (a) unsorted values and (b) values
sorted in ascending order.
•
Adaptive Gradations, to adjust the histogram gradations
according to the values in each histogram. Deselect this option to
display an identical gradation in all histograms (Figure 8-21).
(a)
(b)
Figure 8-21. Class Analysis Histograms with adaptive gradations set (a)
individually for each histogram and (b) according to the minimum and
maximum values in all histograms.
•
Show Labels, to display a table with the gel or class names.
Alternatively, when you place the mouse over a letter in the
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histograms, a screentip displays the full image or class name and
the value in that image or class.
Displayed value
The displayed statistical descriptor or overlapping measure needs to be
selected in the drop-down list in the toolbar. You can display the Center
(central tendency), Dispersion, Gap, Ratio or Normalized values for the
different classes.
CAUTION! The Gap, Ratio and Normalized options are not available
for DIGE experiments when Vol Ratio is selected as the quantification
measure.
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9
9.1
Annotations
Introduction
Individual pixels and spots in a gel image can be labeled with
annotations. Annotations are used to flag items with their specific
characteristics (protein name, database accession number and so on)
or to mark spots with common characteristics. They also offer the
possibility of linking and associating gel objects to external query
engines or data sources of any format (text, html, spreadsheet,
multimedia, database) located locally or on the Internet.
Figure 9-1. Annotations are composed of an annotation basis (square or
cross), an annotation flagpole and a set of labels (flag).
An annotation is defined by its position on the gel (X and Y coordinates)
and its set of labels. Each label belongs to a predefined or user-defined
category. As shown in Figure 9-1, each annotation is composed of a
basis, which can be a square or a cross depending on whether the
annotation is attached to a spot or a pixel, a flagpole, and a flag that
consists of a set of colored labels.
Spot and pixel annotations
You can create two types of annotations (Figure 9-1):
•
Annotations linked to pixels are visualized with a cross basis. They
are simply connected to a pixel and have the same coordinates
as that pixel.
•
Annotations linked to spots are visualized with a square basis. They
are linked to a spot and have the same coordinates as that spot,
that is, as the spot's center of gravity. These annotations are
automatically selected when the linked spot is selected and vice
versa.
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9.2 Create annotations and labels
9.2
Create annotations and labels
9.2.1
Create annotations
The creation of annotations essentially consists of taking three steps.
1
Select the spots or pixel on which you would like to create an
annotation:
•
Choose the Select tool and double-click on a spot or a pixel.
•
Select several spots, make sure to select only the images on
which you want to create new annotations, and choose Edit >
Annotations > Add.
2
Choose one of the existing categories or create a new category.
The creation of new categories is described in Section 9.3.
3
Enter the desired label content.
9.2.2
Add labels to existing annotations
Labels can be added to an existing annotation. The procedure is almost
identical to that described above, with some slight differences in the
first step.
1
Select the annotation to which you would like to add a label:
•
Choose the Select tool and double-click at the basis of the
annotation to which your label should be added.
•
Select several annotations, make sure to select only the
images on which you want to create new labels, and choose
Edit > Annotations > Labels > Add.
2
Choose one of the existing categories or create a new category.
The creation of new categories is described in Section 9.3.
3
Enter the desired label content.
Note: One annotation may have many labels, but it can only contain
one label from each category. If one spot contains several
proteins, it may need to carry different labels from the same
category. You can do this by linking additional annotations to
the spot.
9.2.3
Link annotations to spots
The software allows you to link an annotation to a spot. This is helpful
when you want to link an additional annotation to a spot (to attach
multiple labels of the same category), or when you missed a spot to
which you wanted to link a newly created annotation. You may also
decide that, finally, an annotation should not be linked to a given spot.
To link an annotation with a spot, click on the annotation basis and drag
it to a spot. If, for some reason, an annotation already exists within a spot
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but is not yet linked, you can also select the annotation and choose Edit
> Annotations > Link with Spot.
To unlink an annotation from a spot, select the annotation and drag it
outside the spot or choose Edit > Annotations > Unlink from Spot.
9.3
Create label categories
9.3.1
Predefined label categories
The software offers some predefined label categories:
•
Ac: This category is provided to hold the protein's accession
number (AC) taken from a user-defined database and can be the
linke to Melanie's remote database query engine. When such a link
is defined, double-clicking on a label of this category displays the
corresponding protein entry in the selected database with the
default Internet browser.
•
pI_MW: This category contains the known isoelectric point (pI) and
molecular weight (MW) information, which is subsequently used to
compute approximate pI and MW values for any point in a gel.
You should enter the pI value first and MW value second,
separated by a space. By replacing one of the values by -1, you
indicate to the program that no value is set (probably because
you do not know it).
•
Comment: This category is an example of a general category
where users may store their comments.
9.3.2
Create new categories
When you create a new category during one of the procedures
described in Section 9.2, you must enter the constraints and attributes
for the new category in the Create Category window (Figure 9-2). This
section explains the different options.
CAUTION! User-defined categories are only available from the
category list as long as there is at least one label of this category in
the open gels (in any of the open sheets). To create categories that
are permanently available, you must define them in the Annotations
tab of the Options window (available by choosing Tools > Options).
The same category constraints must be defined.
At any moment, you can change the category constraints by choosing
Edit > Annotations > Categories > Edit Attibutes, or rename a category
by choosing Edit > Annotations > Categories > Rename a Category.
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9.3 Create label categories
Figure 9-2. Create Category window.
Data type
By default, the labels can contain any character. However, to ensure
coherent annotation data, the label contents can be constrained to
one of the following Data Types:
•
Text. Can contain any character.
•
Number: Can only contain numerical values.
•
Auto-Numbering. An incremental number (per gel) is entered
automatically as the new label.
•
Set. Use this data type to mark spots with common properties. The
labels in such a category do not contain specific information. They
only display the name of the category to which they belong. Note
that labels of this category are displayed in the form of check
boxes in tables. A checked box indicates that the spot belongs to
the category.
Is unique
When you check the Is Unique box, you indicate that each label on a
gel within the new category should be unique. The software will not
accept a new label when an identical one already exists. You are
asked to enter a new label.
External engine
Melanie offers the possibility to link spots on gel images to protein data
in 2-DE or other databases. All you have to do is input the appropriate
query format (database address and query engine) in the External
Engine field of the new label category and enter valid database
accession numbers (AC) as labels. This functionality is further described
in Section 9.4.
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When you subsequently double-click on a label of such a category, the
software opens your default Internet browser and launches an HTTP
query that takes the form of a Web page address.
Please note that you can define a different query engine for each label
category and therefore you can link one protein spot to different
database entries.
Display properties
User-defined categories use a gray background color by default. You
can change the default color by clicking on the Color box. The new
background color is used for all labels of that specific category.
It is often not desirable to have all annotation categories displayed,
because this can clutter the display. You can therefore choose to hide
the category by default, by clicking the By default hidden box. In this
case, you must choose View > Annotations > Visible Categories to make
the category visible by checking its box.
9.4
Connect to protein databases
9.4.1
Introduction
Melanie can link spots on gel images to protein data in 2-DE or other
databases. Such databases contain information on proteins identified
on 2-DE images, such as pI and MW values, bibliographical references
to protein related literature, information on protein functions, etc. If your
computer has Internet access, you can remotely query and retrieve
protein data related to spots on your gels.
CAUTION! The Melanie software provides access to several
databases on the Internet. It is the responsibility of the user to
acquire the database licenses, if needed. In particular, the PROSITE
and SWISS-2DPAGE databases are copyrighted, and all commercial
users of these databases are required to purchase a database
license from GeneBio. No license fee is charged to academic users
for non-commercial use. For questions about obtaining a license
subscription for the PROSITE and SWISS-2DPAGE databases, please
contact GeneBio (www.genebio.com).
Melanie takes advantage of the fact that virtually all databases on the
Web, and in particular those containing 2-DE and other protein data,
use CGI scripts to enable data queries. A CGI (Common Gateway
Interface) script is a program or script file executed on a Web server in
response to a user request. The CGI script transmits information (such as
a database accession number or object identifier) from the client to a
database engine, receives back the results, and displays them to the
client.
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9.4 Connect to protein databases
9.4.2
Set the database
To query a remote database through the Internet, you must send HTTP
queries (for instance, http://www.expasy.org/swiss-2dpage/P02649) to
a CGI script on a server. The HTTP query must be composed of:
•
The database HTTP address (http://www.expasy.org/).
•
The database query engine (swiss-2dpage/).
•
The database accession number (P02649).
In Melanie, the database HTTP address and query engine are entered
as constraints to the annotation category (see Figure 9-3). Type them in
as one string in the External Engine field (for example, http://
www.expasy.org/swiss-2dpage/).
Figure 9-3. Setting the External Engine as a category constraint.
Federated 2-D PAGE databases
A list of federated 2-D PAGE databases, with the required database
query formats, can be found at http://www.expasy.org/ch2d/2daccess.html, or by clicking on the Url button to the right of the External
Engine field. Copy the desired database address and query engine
from this site.
Other databases
It is possible to find the required query format for databases that are not
federated or that do not contain 2-DE data. Directly query the
database until you find a specific protein (or other) entry. Then copy the
address of the corresponding Web page in your browser to the External
Engine field of the Create Category window, without including the
accession or identification number of the current entry. Generally, this
address consists of the database HTTP address and query engine
followed by a question mark (?) or equal sign (=).
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For example, you might display the entry for the protein structure 1BMT
in the well-known Protein Data Bank (PDB): http://www.rcsb.org/pdb/
explore/explore.do?structureId=1BMT. The required query format for
Melanie is: http://www.rcsb.org/pdb/explore/explore.do?structureId=
9.4.3
Query the database
The database accession number (for example P02649) is entered as a
label of the particular category linked to a spot.
When you subsequently double-click on the label while the Selection
tool is selected, Melanie opens your default Internet browser and
launches an HTTP query that takes the form of a Web page address.
As a result, the entry for the protein with the given accession number
opens in your browser (Figure 9-4). In the case of the above example,
this would be the entry for Human Apo E (Gels) in the SWISS-2DPAGE
database.
Figure 9-4. The SWISS-2DPAGE entry for Human Apo E. Entries from this
database contain full protein names, bibliographic references, annotations
(such as protein function or pathological variations), and the pI and MW of the
related spots on the 2-DE maps. It also includes cross-references to numerous
other databases.
9.4.4
Connext to an executable
Analogous to an HTTP query, where the content of a label is transmitted
to a CGI script on a server, Melanie allows you to pass on the content
of a label as the first parameter to any executable. When you doubleclick on a label that has an executable defined in the External Engine
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9.5 Create specific links
field of the label category, the executable runs with the label content
as a parameter.
To define an executable in the External Engine field, click on the Exe
button and locate the .exe file.
9.5
Create specific links
As seen above, it is possible to link labels to remote database entries by
defining an external search engine for a particular category. By using
specific keywords in the labels of any category, you can also create
links to Web pages, files, and text (Figure 9-5).
To create a specific link, you should add an annotation to a gel and
include the following items in the label field:
•
A short descriptor that will be the visible part of the label.
•
A keyword indicating the type of link (http:, file:, text:).
•
A link content, which contains the information necessary to
establish the link or the content of the link (in the case of a text link).
To indicate that a label is linked, its short descriptor is followed by three
dots. When you double-click on such a linked label, you do not enter
the typical editing mode, but the link (Web page, file or text) is
automatically opened with the appropriate software. Alternatively, to
open any linked label, choose View > Annotations > Linked Data in the
menu.
Note that you can define links in any label category but you can only
have one link per label.
9.5.1
Http link:
You can link spots or pixels to specific Web pages. A double-click on an
http-linked label will launch your Internet browser and automatically
call the corresponding Web page.
You can, for example, create a direct link to the ExPASy Proteomics
Server (Figure 9-5). In this case, the label content should contain the
string “http:” followed by the address of the Web page.
9.5.2
File link:
You can link spots or pixels to software files. Double-clicking on a filelinked label launches the specified file with the default system
application associated to the file extension.
The linked files can be placed in a specific directory, which is defined
by choosing Tools > Options in the menu and by setting the Annotations
folder in the Annotations tab. In this case, you only need to give the
name and file extension when creating the link. You can create
subfolders in the Annotation folder to arrange your files. The file names
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indicated in the labels must then contain the name of the subfolder
(e.g., AA composition\AA P10413.xls).
Alternatively, you can link labels with files located anywhere on your
system. You should then include the complete file path when
referencing the file.
For example, you can link a protein spot to an Excel file containing the
amino acid composition of a protein (Figure 9-5). The label should then
consist of the string “file:” followed by the file name (with its extension).
9.5.3
Text link:
In some cases, you might want to associate a long text comment with
a specific protein spot, but without overloading the display. The solution
is to create a text link, rather than a very long annotation label. Doubleclicking on the linked label is sufficient to display a window containing
the entire text (Figure 9-5).
Text links are particularly useful for attaching bibliographic references to
a spot, for instance, or any other comment such as the one in Figure 9-5.
Please note that the string "text:" must first be inserted, followed by the
text you would like to associate with the spot.
To connect general information about the gel, other tools are better
adapted. Comments can be attached to projects, match sets, and
classes in the workspace. Additionally, you can specify gel descriptions.
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9.6 Select annotations and labels
Figure 9-5. The annotation on the spot containing protein P10413 includes
linked labels such as a link to a Web site (top), a link to a file (bottom right) and
a text link (bottom left).
9.6
Select annotations and labels
9.6.1
Select
Annotations and labels can be selected with the Select tool. The
selected labels or annotations are highlighted in green and displayed
in front of the other annotations (Figure 9-6).
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(a)
(b)
Figure 9-6. (a) Annotation hidden by some other annotations. (b) Same
annotation displayed in front of all other annotations, after selection.
If the annotation is attached to a spot, the spot is also selected. Similarly,
if you select a spot, the attached annotation is selected.
To select a label, click on the label. You can select more than one label
by using the Shift key.
To select an annotation, click on the annotation basis. To select more
than one annotation, select the first one, then hold down the Shift key
and select additional annotations.
To select all annotations in a region, position the cursor at the top left
position of the desired region, hold down the left mouse button, and
then drag the cursor to the bottom right position. All annotations in the
defined region are selected. To select annotations in more than one
region, hold down the Shift key while selecting additional regions.
To deselect all annotations, click on a gel (not on an annotation).
9.6.2
Select menu
You can select specific labels and annotations with the options in the
Select > Annotations menu. Please note that this also selects hidden
annotations.
•
By Content: This feature enables the selection of labels (belonging
to one or several categories that must be selected) based on their
content. When the Regular Expression box in the window is not
checked, the entered string of characters is taken literally, and the
program selects all labels containing this string. By activating the
Regular Expression option, regular expressions can be used in the
search field (see below for details). For example, to select all labels
containing the string P00, you can either type the expression .*P00.*
and choose the Regular Expression field in the window, or type P00
and deselect the Regular Expression field.
•
By Category: This feature enables the selection of all labels
belonging to one or several categories. Use the Shift and Ctrl keys
to pick several category names at a time.
•
All: This highlights all annotations in the selected gels.
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9.6 Select annotations and labels
•
Common Labels: This option allows the retrieval of all sets of
identical labels within a gel or among a series of gels, for all the
categories chosen in the window.
Regular expressions
Regular expressions provide a mechanism to select specific strings from
a set of character strings. Regular expressions use symbols and syntax
elements to describe a generalized pattern. Melanie invokes the
standard Extended Regular Expressions to search patterns in labels, the
essentials of which are summarized in Table 9-1 .
154
Syntax
Description
Example
.
Matches any one character.
e.oli matches:eaoli,
eboli, ecoli...
[…]
Matches any character listed
between the brackets. [a-z]
indicates the range of
characters between A and Z
and [0-9] is any numeral from 0
to 9.
P[a-d] matches:Pa, Pb,
Pc, Pd
[^…]
Matches any character except
those listed between the
brackets.
P[^bd] matches:Pa, Pc,
Pe but not Pb or Pd
?
Matches the preceding element
zero or one times.
P0?1 matches:P1 and
P01.
+
Matches the preceding element
one or more times.
P0+1 matches:P01,
P001, P0001, ...
*
Matches the preceding element
zero or more times.
P0*1 matches:P1, P01,
P001, P0001, ...
{n}
Matches the preceding element
exactly n times.
P0{3}1 matches:P0001
but not P01 or P001
{n,}
Matches the preceding element
at least n times.
P0{2,}1 matches:P001,
P0001, … but not P01
{n,m}
Matches the preceding element
at least n times, but not more
than m times.
P0{1,3}1 matches:P01
P001, and P0001, but
not P1 or P00001
()
The characters between
parentheses form a
subexpression.
P(24)+ matches:P24,
P2424, P242424, ...
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Syntax
Description
Example
|
Matches the expression before
or after the vertical line. Mostly
used within a subexpression.
P(ab|cd)1
matches:Pab1 and
Pcd1
^
A circumflex outside a bracket
expression anchors the element
it starts with to the beginning of
a string; such an element can
match only a sequence starting
at the first character of a string.
^(ec).* matches:ecoli,
ecoli_eftu but not
eftu_ecoli
$
A dollar sign outside a bracket
expression anchors the element
it terminates with to the end of a
string; such an element can
match only a sequence ending
at the last character of a string.
.*(ecoli)$
matches:ecoli,
eftu_ecoli but not
ecoli_eftu
.
Matches any one character.
e.oli matches:eaoli,
eboli, ecoli...
Table 9-1. Regular expressions available to search patterns in labels. Please
note that the term element used in the description indicates a character or a
subexpression.
The characters ^.[$()|*+?{\ have a special meaning in certain
contexts. You must exclude them from the expression with a backslash
(\) if you want them to be taken literally. This means that if your labels
contain any of these special characters, you must precede them with
a backslash if you want to include them as normal characters in your
search expression. Note that you must also release the backslash
character itself from the expression. For example, the search pattern
R\*.* returns the result R*3.24 but not R/2.87.
Nevertheless, bracketed expressions are an exception to the rule. Inside
bracketed expressions, all special characters, including the backslash,
lose their special meaning (for instance, [*\+?{}.] matches exactly any
of the characters inside the brackets).
The order of precedence for the regular expressions described above is
as shown in Table 9-2 . For example, the regular expression abc2|3de
matches either the string abc2 or the string 3de (rather than the string
abc2de or abc3de) because concatenation has a higher order of
precedence than alternation.
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Escaped characters
\<Special character>
Bracket expression
[]
Grouping
()
Single-character
duplication
* + ? {m,n}
Concatenation
Anchoring
^$
Alternation
|
Table 9-2. Order of precedence (from high to low) for regular expressions.
9.6.3
Reports
You can select annotations by selecting their corresponding lines in the
Annotation Table, available by choosing Reports > Annotation Table.
9.7
Display annotations and labels
You can change the way annotations and labels are displayed.
9.7.1
Annotation flag position
Sometimes you may want to move an annotation flag because you are
preparing an illustration or just want to see what lies underneath. To
interactively change an annotation's flag position, click on one of the
labels and drag the flag to the desired position (Figure 9-7).
(a)
(b)
Figure 9-7. (a) Default and (b) modified annotation flag position.
9.7.2
Visibility of annotations and labels
You can quickly cover entire gel images with a considerable number of
annotations and labels, which are not always necessary at any given
moment in the analysis. Therefore, you can hide all annotations or
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certain label categories in selected gels. These options are available
from the View > Annotations menu:
•
Visible categories: Sets the visibility state of the various categories
on the selected gels. To hide a category, make sure its box is
unchecked. On the other hand, select an empty check box to
show the corresponding category. You can click once or twice in
a grayed check box (category that takes different visibility states in
the various selected images) to hide or show the corresponding
label category in the selected gels.
•
Show All: Makes all the annotations on the selected gels visible,
including the labels that were hidden.
•
Hide All: Hides all the annotations on the selected gels, including
the cyan cross or square that remains visible when all labels, but
not annotations, are hidden.
When you click on an annotation that has hidden labels, all of its labels
are displayed on the screen during the time it remains selected (Figure
9-8). The hidden labels disappear when the annotation is deselected.
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
Figure 9-8. (a) Unselected annotation with two labels. (b) Unselected
annotation with 1 label hidden. (c) Unselected annotation with all labels
hidden. (d) When the annotation is selected the hidden labels become
visible.
9.8
Edit annotations and labels
You can add and modify annotations and labels in different ways. The
Select tool is helpful if you want to add or modify a single label or just a
few labels. The menu options are more adapted to the creation of a
large number of annotations or labels simultaneously. Reports are useful
for editing existing annotations.
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9.8 Edit annotations and labels
9.8.1
Select
When double-clicking on a label while the Select tool is activated, the
Edit Label window is displayed. Change the text in this box to modify
your label content.
The Select tool should also be used to change the position of an
annotation. In this case, simply select an annotation and drag its basis
to the new location.
9.8.2
Edit menu
Various options for editing labels or annotations are available from the
Edit > Annotations menu. All of these features can be used to edit
several labels or annotations at a time.
Delete annotations and labels
Two possibilities are available for deleting selected labels or
annotations:
•
Edit > Annotations > Delete deletes the selected annotations.
•
Edit > Annotations > Labels > Delete deletes the selected labels.
To delete labels from a specific category only, first select all labels from
the desired category with Select > Annotations > By Category.
Edit labels
You can change the content of selected labels (belonging to a single
category) by choosing Edit > Annotations > Labels > Delete and
entering the desired modifications in the Edit Labels window.
Copy / paste annotations
You can select annotations in a given gel image and copy them to the
corresponding locations in other gels. This is a simple means of creating
a set of similar annotations in a series of gels. Subsequently, you may
need to adjust the annotation positions.
Select annotations on one image and choose Edit > Annotations >
Labels > Copy. Then select the gels into which you want to paste the
annotations and choose Edit > Annotations > Labels > Paste. Adjust the
annotation positions using the Select tool.
Copy / paste labels
Instead of copying entire annotations, you can also copy distinct labels
from one gel to selected spots or annotations in a series of gels.
Select the labels you would like to copy and choose Edit > Annotations
> Labels > Copy. Then select spots or existing annotations into which you
want to paste the labels and choose Edit > Annotations > Labels > Paste.
Propagate to matched
When gels have been matched, labels selected in one gel can be
copied to their corresponding spots in other gels by choosing Edit >
Annotations > Labels > Propagate to Matched. This is particularly useful
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when you have annotated one image during analysis, and want to
propagate the labels to all matched gels.
Duplicate labels
You can copy selected labels to another category by choosing Edit >
Annotations > Labels > Duplicate. Since the selected labels may belong
to different categories, this option can be used to merge several
categories into a new one. However, only one label per annotation can
be duplicated at a time.
9.8.3
Annotation table
You can edit labels via the Annotation table, available from Reports >
Annotation Table. Make sure you have displayed the desired categories
for editing, by clicking the Settings icon.
Create labels and label categories
Click on the Add Label icon in the Annotation Table to create new
labels for selected spots. During this process, you can create a new
label category, which will be inserted as an extra column in the table.
Add or modify labels
You can directly add new labels to the appropriate cells of the
Annotation Table, or edit existing ones. Double-click in a cell to start
typing your label, or modifying an existing label. When finished, a single
click in any cell quits the editing mode.
Please note that categories using the Data Type Set are displayed in the
form of check boxes in the table. These boxes show whether the
corresponding item belongs to the category (checked box) or not.
9.8.4
Import annotations
You can import annotations from a file into open gels. Choose Edit >
Annotations > Import to import annotations from an Annotation Report
or a tab-delimited text file containing the required columns: SpotID, X,
Y, and a column for each category to be imported.
If the Spot ID is not known, use -1 in this field (or remove this column) and
the software will position the label in the corresponding X and Y positions
of the gel. If X and Y positions are not known, use -1 in these fields and
the software will position the label on the spot with the corresponding
Spot ID.
9.9
Annotation table
The Annotation Table (Figure 9-9), availble by choosing Reports >
Annotation Table provides specific information about annotations, and
consequently labels and categories:
•
Name of the image on which the annotation was created.
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•
SpotID, if the annotation is attached to a spot.
•
Coordinates of the annotation.
•
Calculated pI and MW values, if pI_MW annotations were defined
on the image, or a matched image.
•
A column for each label category, with the label content in the
corresponding cells.
Figure 9-9. Annotation Table.
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10 Data integration
10.1 Convert projects from earlier software versions
Melanie can
Convert Projects created with versions 4, 5 and 6 of
Melanie and ImageMaster 2D Platinum. Images analyzed with older
versions must be added to a project in order to be imported into this
new version and for spots, annotations and match data to be
recovered. You can do this batch conversion for many projects at a
time.
Choose File > Import > ImageMaster 2D Platinum or Melanie Data, and
indicate the folder where some or all of your projects (.prj files) are
saved. The software searches and displays all project files found in this
folder, and allows you to select projects for conversion (Figure 10-1).
Then you must indicate the location where the converted projects
should be saved. After conversion, the projects are automatically
inserted in the workspace.
Figure 10-1. Select projects from previous Melanie or ImageMaster versions for
Batch File Conversion.
10.2 Acquire images from Twain compatible scanners
Melanie can also acquire images directly from TWAIN compatible
scanners.
10.2.1
Select source
You must indicate the scanning source by choosing File > Import >
Twain > Select Source. All TWAIN compatible scanners attached to your
PC are automatically recognized by Melanie. This selection only needs
to be done once (unless you want to change to a new image capture
device).
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10.3 Export data
10.2.2
Acquire
Launch the scan with File > Import > Twain > Acquire. The scanner
software opens, giving you the opportunity to change the necessary
settings, and subsequently initiate the scanning process. Once this is
done, the image is saved in Melanie file format and added to the
Image Pool.
10.3 Export data
10.3.1 Reports
Data obtained in the analysis can be exported for use in other
applications by saving the various tabular reports. Tables can be saved
in text format (.txt), as a Microsoft Excel Workbook (.xls), or in XML (.xml)
format. See below for more details on XML.
Graphical reports can be saved in PNG, TIFF or BMP formats.
10.3.2 XML
XML stands for eXtensible Markup Language and was created as a
cross-platform, software, and hardware independent tool to structure,
store, and exchange information. It allows the creation of customized
tags, enabling the definition, transmission, validation, and interpretation
of data between applications and organizations.
XML files can be viewed in the latest versions of Web browsers such as
Internet Explorer, Netscape and Mozilla Firefox. However, as XML was
designed to describe data and not to display data, it does not look like
a Web page. An XML document contains color-coded root and child
elements. A plus (+) or minus (-) sign to the left of the elements can be
clicked to expand or collapse the element structure. If you want to view
the raw XML source, you must select View > Source from the browser
menu.
XML does not use predefined tags, as is the case for HTML. Therefore, the
browser does not understand the meaning of the tags and does not
know how to display the XML document. Therefore, XSL (eXtensible
Stylesheet Language) stylesheets must be used in addition to the XML
document to transform the XML into the sort of document that is
recognized by the browser. This is the case when tabular reports or the
history are printed from Melanie. The software uses the XSL stylesheets
located in the Template folder of the Melanie installation directory to
print attractive documents. If you are familiar with XML and XSL, you can
even create personalized templates for printing. Note that XSL
stylesheets can also be used to convert an XML file into another XML file.
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The main interest in XML format is that external applications can easily
extract necessary data. Moreover, the files can be converted to other
user-defined formats.
CAUTION! Because the XSL stylesheets are specific to the browser you
use, you will find that different versions (both for printing reports and
the history) are installed with the software (in the Template\Report
and Template\Script folders of the installation directory). Melanie will
therefore ask you to choose the appropriate XSL template each
time you print a report or history. Look at which template works with
your browser and delete the other one. In this way, the software
automatically opens the remaining file and does not ask you to
make a choice.
10.3.3 Gel and report identifiers
Melanie allocates a unique identifier (ID) to each project, match set,
gel image, etc. This is useful to assure data consistency, allow reliable
identification of objects across a computer network and enable
database integration.
The IDs in Melanie are UUIDs (Universal Unique IDentifiers), which are 128bit numbers that are guaranteed to be unique through combinations of
hardware addresses, time stamps and random seeds. These IDs allow
the Melanie objects to be uniquely recognized. The software can
therefore detect, for example, if you delete a gel and replace it with
another one with the same name.
CAUTION! You must be very careful when manipulating project,
match set, gel and other Melanie files outside the software, in order
not to corrupt the data.
10.4 Export to spot excision robots
Please note that in addition to exporting spots to an excision robot, it
may be useful to save them as part of a spot set, or annotate them. This
allows you to easily select them later on to add experimental data such
as mass spectrometry information.
10.4.1 Bruker Proteineer SP spot picker
Melanie can export spot coordinates of selected spots directly to the
Bruker Proteineer SP spot picker, by choosing File > Export > Spots to
Picker > Bruker Proteineer SP. For more details about this functionality,
please see the documentation provided by Bruker Daltonics.
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10.4 Export to spot excision robots
10.4.2 GE Healthcare Ettan spot picker
To use the Ettan Spot Picker, two adhesive markers should be placed on
the gel before scanning. These markers are used for the calibration of
the coordinates, that is, for determining the correspondence between
the X and Y positions of the analyzed gel image and the coordinates of
the actual gel located on the spot picker (Figure 10-2).
Once the gel has been digitized and analyzed with Melanie, the
software can generate a pick list. This list contains the location, in pixels,
of the center of each spot you wish to pick, as well as the pixel
coordinates for the centers of the two reference markers.
To export a file with spot coordinates for use by the spot picker, you first
have to open the image files and perform image analysis (spot
detection is mandatory). You should then annotate the reference
markers. If a reference marker is well detected during the automatic
spot detection process (nice round spot perfectly centered on the
marker), you can just add an annotation on the marker spot. The basis
of such an annotation is displayed as a small square, and its coordinates
correspond to the center of the spot. If a reference marker is not well
detected (irregular shape or consisting of several spots), it is better to
delete the existing spot(s) and create an annotation on the pixel that is
in the center of the marker. This kind of pixel annotation has a crossed
basis and its coordinates correspond to the pixel it is attached to. Note
that the two options can be used in a single gel (one marker with a spot
annotation and the other with a pixel annotation), as long as the
annotations are centered on the markers.
To create a pick list:
1
Identify the two reference markers on your image.
2
Zoom the image to better see the left reference marker.
3
Check if the marker is detected as a nice, round spot. If it is not,
select the spot(s) on the marker and delete by choosing Edit > Spots
> Delete.
4
Click on the Select tool.
5
Double-click on the marker spot, or if such a spot is not present, on
the pixel that is in the middle of the marker.
6
Select the Comment category.
7
Enter IR1 as the label text.
8
If an annotation attached to a pixel is not in the center of the
reference marker, you can move it to the appropriate position. Do
this by clicking on its basis (cross) and holding down the left mouse
button while dragging the annotation to its new position.
9
Move your gel to see the second (right) reference marker.
10 Repeat the procedure, but enter the label text IR2 this time.
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11 Once the two markers have been annotated, select spots to pick
(Figure 10-2).
12 Choose File > Export > Spots to Picker > GE Healthcare Ettan.
13 For each gel, you will be asked to save a pick list in text or XML
format (only the text file can be read by the Ettan Spot Picker).
Figure 10-2. Reference markers IR1 and IR2. IR1 is attached to a pixel (cross
basis). IR2 is attached to a spot. Both options can be used in a single gel. Spots
to be picked are selected (highlighted in green).
10.4.3 Genetix GelPix spot picker
To export spot coordinates of selected spots directly to the Genetix
GelPix spot picker, choose File > Export > Spots to Picker > Genetix
GelPix.
10.4.4 Genomic Solutions ProPic spot picker
The ProPic spot picker produces a TIFF file of the entire gel holder area
with a resolution of 1035 x 1317 pixels, each pixel representing
approximately 330 x 330 microns of the image area. This ProPic image
can be analyzed with Melanie and spot coordinates in the image can
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10 Data integration
10.4 Export to spot excision robots
be exported back to the ProPic spot picker in a predetermined file
format. The ProPic software subsequently translates the image X, Y
coordinates into ProPic robot X, Y coordinates by using a robot map.
Since the robot mapping assumes that each X, Y coordinate in the
image always corresponds to the same position on the robot bed, the
ProPic image must remain in its original form. It can never be resized,
cropped or rotated.
The ProPic image is a picture of the current state of the gel from which
the spots are to be picked. It is not necessarily the image used to
determine the spots to pick. One can select spots from any analytical
image (of the same gel) obtained from a different resolution system and
analyzed with Melanie. However, the analytical image needs to be
aligned to the ProPic image so that Melanie can export the aligned X
and Y coordinates of the selected spots. Please bear in mind that
proper alignment is crucial at this stage, especially for images of “old”
gels that underwent significant shape change since they were originally
imaged and analyzed, and for gel images that were acquired on a
high-resolution system.
To export a spot coordinate file to the ProPic spot picker:
166
1
Inspect your analytical gel image in Melanie and select the spots
you want to export to the spot picker. Annotate these spots or save
them in a spot set so that you can easily re-select them at a later
stage.
2
Place your gel on the ProPic robot bed, produce the ProPic image
and open it in Melanie. Use the gel image as is. Do not resize, crop,
flip, or rotate the image.
3
Align your analytical gel image to the ProPic image, using a
sufficient number of landmarks.
4
Select all spots to be cut with the spot excision robot from the
analytical image.
5
Make sure only the analytical gel image is selected.
6
Choose File > Export > Spots to Picker > Genomic Solutions ProPic.
7
Enter a file name and destination folder. The file is automatically
given a .tds extension (TwoDSpotlist).
8
Melanie exports the aligned X and Y coordinates for each selected
spot. In other words, the coordinate system of the ProPic image will
be used.
Melanie User Manual Edition AC
Undo, redo and history 11
11 Undo, redo and history
11.1 Undo, redo
The software allows you to cancel any unwanted modifications to the
images or layout of the current sheet by choosing Edit > Undo in the
menu (Figure 11-1).
Figure 11-1. Undo window.
Each action in the Undo/Redo list is preceded by the time at which it
was carried out. This information helps you to identify the particular
sequence of actions that you would like to cancel.
By default, all actions are displayed. If you specifically want to track
permanent changes that have been made to the image data
(essentially the commands available under the Edit menu), then
choose Only Edit from the Filter drop-down list.
All operations performed can be reversed except for modifications to
the Workspace and functionalities linked to opening and saving files.
This includes image rotation, flipping, cropping, and the inversion of
gray levels.
To undo specific actions:
1
Choose Edit > Undo.
2
Select a prior action to be undone.
3
Click OK. The selected action and all following actions are undone
automatically.
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11 Undo, redo and history
11.2 History
If you are not satisfied with your latest undo or you canceled too many
operations, you can obviously reapply the actions.
To redo specific actions:
1
Choose Edit > Redo.
2
Select the action to be redone.
3
Click OK. The selected action and any preceding actions are
redone.
11.2 History
You can display a history of the modifications that have been carried
out during the present work session on the images or layout of the
current sheet. Choose Edit > History > Show to open the History window
(Figure 11-2).
Figure 11-2. History window.
Please note that the action names displayed in the History window are
the same as those used in Undo/Redo. As for Undo/Redo, you can
choose Only Edit from the Filter drop-down list to restrict the displayed
actions to those that bring about permanent modifications to the
image data.
Some actions are preceded by a + or - node allowing the item to be
expanded or collapsed. Once an action is expanded (by clicking on
the plus sign), you see parameters and values that further describe the
action.
Modifications to the Workspace and functionalities linked to opening
and saving files (including image rotation, flipping, cropping, and
inversion of gray levels) are not included in the History.
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Undo, redo and history 11
Insert marker
You can place a marker in the History by choosing Edit > History > Insert
Marker.
Clear
Clear the list of actions in the History by choosing Edit > History > Clear.
Refresh
Please note that the content of the History is not automatically updated
when you work on the images while the History window is still open. Click
the Refresh icon to update the list.
Save, print, copy
By using the options in the Save icon drop-down list in the History
window, the content of the History can be:
•
Saved in an XML type file with the extension .hst.
•
Printed. It will first display in your Web browser using the XSL
stylesheet located in the Template\Script folder of the Melanie
installation directory. Use the print option in your browser to get a
paper copy.
•
Copied to the clipboard.
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11 Undo, redo and history
11.2 History
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Shortcuts A
Appendix A Shortcuts
A.1
Shortcut keys
Several menu commands can be activated by keyboard shortcuts.
They are indicated to the right of the corresponding command in the
menus. Please note the logic behind the key combinations:
Ctrl for gels.
Shift for spots.
Alt for annotations.
Ctrl + Shift for matches.
Some exceptions do exist. The most important ones are the following
two shortcuts used for undoing and redoing actions carried out on a
gel.
Shortcut
Menu Command
Ctrl+Z
Edit > Undo...
Ctrl +Shift+Z
Edit > Redo...
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A Shortcuts
A.2 Tool shortcuts
A.2
Shortcut
Tool
Ctrl+1
Move
Ctrl+2
Zoom
Ctrl+3
Region
Ctrl+4
Selection
Ctrl+5
Measure
Ctrl+6
Landmark
A.3
172
Tool shortcuts
Gel shortcuts
Shortcut
Menu Command
Ctrl+F
View > Sheet > Navigation > Switch
Ctrl+I
View > Global > Grid Lines > Show
Ctrl+J
View > Global > Grid Lines > Edit…
Ctrl+O
File > Open…
Ctrl+P
View > Global > Show Profile
Ctrl+S
File > Save
Ctrl+W
File > Close > Sheet
Ctrl+<Down>
View > Gels > Navigation > Move > Down
Ctrl+<Left>
View > Gels > Navigation > Move > Left
Ctrl+<Right>
View > Gels > Navigation > Move > Right
Ctrl+<Up>
View > Gels > Navigation > Move > Up
F2
View > Show All
F3
View > Hide All
F5
Select > Unselect All
Page Down
View > Sheet > Navigation > Previous Page
Page Up
View > Sheet > Navigation > Next Page
Shift+<Down>
View > Gels > Navigation > Zoom > Out
Shift+<Up>
View > Gels > Navigation > Zoom > In
Melanie User Manual Edition AC
Shortcuts A
A.4
Spot shortcuts
Shortcut
Menu Command
Shift+1
View > Spots > Crossed
Shift+2
View > Spots > Outlined
Shift+3
View > Spots > None
Shift+A
Select > Spots > All
Shift+E
Edit > Spots > Edit Enabled
Shift+N
Select > Spots > Inverse Selection
Shift+X
Edit > Spots > Delete
A.5
Annotation shortcuts
Shortcut
Menu Command
Alt+A
Select > Annotations > All
Alt+C
Edit > Annotations > Labels > Copy
Alt+D
Edit > Annotations > Delete
Alt+E
Edit > Annotations > Labels > Edit…
Alt+F
Edit > Annotations > Add…
Alt+H
View > Annotations > Hide All
Alt+J
View > Annotations > Visible Categories…
Alt+L
Edit > Annotations > Link with Spot
Alt+U
Edit > Annotations > Unlink from Spot
Alt+V
Edit > Annotations > Labels > Paste
Alt+X
Edit > Annotations > Labels > Delete
Alt+Y
View > Annotations > Show All
A.6
Match shortcuts
Shortcut
Menu Command
Ctrl+Shift+A
Select > Matches > All
Ctrl+Shift+G
Edit > Matches > Add Match
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A Shortcuts
A.6 Match shortcuts
174
Shortcut
Menu Command
Ctrl+Shift+J
View > Matches > Show ID
Ctrl+Shift+K
View > Matches > Hide All ID
Ctrl+Shift+N
Select > Matches > Inverse Selection
Ctrl+Shift+U
Edit > Matches > Delete Match
Ctrl+Shift+Y
View > Matches > Show Vectors
Melanie User Manual Edition AC
References B
Appendix B References
B.1
Software
Appel RD, Hochstrasser DF, Roch C, Funk M, Muller AF and Pellegrini C
(1988) Automatic classification of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis
pictures by heuristic clustering analysis: A step toward machine
learning. Electrophoresis 9: 136-142.
Appel RD, Hochstrasser DF, Funk M, Vargas JR, Pellegrini C, Muller AF
and Scherrer J-R (1991) The MELANIE project - from a biopsy to
automatic protein map interpretation by computer. Electrophoresis 12:
722-735.
Appel RD, Palagi PM, Walther D, Vargas JR, Sanchez J-C, Ravier F,
Pasquali C and Hochstrasser DF (1997) Melanie II - a third generation
software package for analysis of two-dimensional electrophoresis
images: I. Features and user interface. Electrophoresis 18: 2724-2734.
Appel RD, Vargas JR, Palagi PM, Walther D and Hochstrasser DF (1997)
Melanie II - a third generation software package for analysis of twodimensional electrophoresis images: II. Algorithms. Electrophoresis 18:
2735-2748.
Appel RD and Hochstrasser DF (1998) Computer analysis of 2-D images.
In: Link AJ (ed) Methods in Molecular Biology, Vol 112: 2-D Protocols for
Proteome Analysis, pp 363-381. Totowa NJ: Humana Press.
ExPASy Molecular Biology Server (2003) The Melanie 2-DE analysis
software. [Online] http://www.expasy.org/melanie.
Miller MJ, Olson AD and Thorgeirsson SS (1984) Computer analysis of
two-dimensional gels: automatic matching. Electrophoresis 5: 297-303.
Pun T, Hochstrasser DF, Appel RD, Funk M, Villars-Augsburger V and
Pellegrini C (1988) Computerized classification of two-dimensional gel
electrophoretograms by correspondence analysis and ascendant
hierarchical clustering. Applied and Theoretical Electrophoresis 1: 3-9.
Vargas RJ (1996) Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis computer
analysis systems: from image acquisition to protein identification. Ph.D.
thesis, Faculty of Science, Geneva University.
Wilkins MC, Hochstrasser DF, Sanchez J-C, Bairoch A and Appel RD
(1996) Integrating two-dimensional gel databases using the Melanie II
software. Trends in Biochemical Sciences 21: 496-497.
B.2
Statistical methods
Armitage P and Berry G (1987) Statistical methods and medical
research. Oxford, London: Blackwell Scientific Publications.
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B References
B.3 Further reading
Kim JO and Mueller CW (1978) Introduction to factor analysis: What is
and how to do it? Newbury Park: Sage Publications.
Tabachnick B and Fidell LS (1996) Using multivariate statistics (3rd
edition). New York: Harper Collins College Publishers.
B.3
Further reading
Appel RD, Bairoch A, Sanchez J-C, Vargas JR, Golaz O, Pasquali C and
Hochstrasser DH (1996) Federated 2-DE database: a simple means of
publishing 2-DE data. Electrophoresis 17: 540-546.
Appel RD, Sanchez J-C, Bairoch A, Golaz O, Ravier F, Pasquali C,
Hughes GJ and Hochstrasser DF (1996) The SWISS-2DPAGE database of
two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Nucleic Acids
Research 22: 3581-3582.
Binz PA, Mueller M, Walther D, Bienvenut WV, Gras R, Hoogland C,
Bouchet G, Gasteiger E, Fabbretti R, Gay S, Palagi P, Wilkins MR, Rouge
V, Tonella L, Paesano S, Rossellat G, Karmime A, Bairoch A, Sanchez JC,
Appel RD and Hochstrasser DF (1999) A molecular scanner to automate
proteomic research and to display proteome images. Analytical
Chemistry 71: 4981-4988.
Binz PA, Wilkins MR, Gasteiger E, Bairoch A, Appel RD and Hochstrasser
DF (1999) Internet resources for protein identification and
characterization. In: Kellner R, Lottspeich F, Meyer HE (eds)
Microcharacterization of Proteins, 2nd ed., pp. 277-300. Weinheim:
Wiley-VCH.
ExPASy Molecular Biology Server (2003) [Online] http://
www.expasy.org.
Hoogland C, Baujard V, Sanchez J-C, Hochstrasser DF and Appel RD
(1997) Make2ddb: a simple package to set up a 2-DE database on the
WWW. Electrophoresis 18: 2755-2758.
Hoogland C, Sanchez J-C, Bairoch A, Hochstrasser DF and Appel RD
(1999) The SWISS-2DPAGE database: what has changed during the last
year. Nucleic Acids Research 27: 289-291.
Link AJ (ed) (1998) Methods in molecular biology, Vol 112: 2-D Protocols
for Proteome Analysis. Totowa NJ: Humana Press.
Lopez MF (2000) Better approaches to finding the needle in a haystack:
optimizing proteome analysis through automation. Electrophoresis 21:
1082-1093.
Sanchez J-C, Wilkins M, Appel RD and Hochstrasser DF (1997) Identifying
proteins for proteome studies. In: Creighton ET (ed) Protein Function: a
practical approach, 2nd ed., pp. 1–27. IRL Press.
Wilkins MR, Williams KL, Appel RD and Hochstrasser DF (eds) (1997)
Proteome research: new frontiers in functional genomics. Berlin
Heidelberg: Springer Verlag.
176
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References B
Unlu M, Morgan ME, and Minden JS (1997) Difference gel
electrophoresis: a single gel method for detecting changes in protein
extracts. Electrophoresis 18: 2071–2077.
Tonge R, Shaw J, Middleton B, Rowlinson R, Rayner S, Young J, Pognan
F, Hawkins E, Currie I and Davison M (2001) Validation and development
of fluorescence two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis
proteomics technology. Proteomics 1: 377–396.
Melanie User Manual Edition AC
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B References
B.3 Further reading
178
Melanie User Manual Edition AC
Index
Symbols
% 70
%vol 85
.bmp 81
.gda 60
.mda 60
.png 81
.prj 60
.tif 81
Numerics
3D view 71
animate 74
auto rotate 73
color palette 74
display options 74
next/previous 74
rotation 73
set reference 74
show 73
spot shape 74
stack 74
tools 73
translation 73
transparency settings 74
transparent mode 74
visibility 74
zoom/contrast 73
A
access code 10
adaptive gradations 121, 141
add
files to project 53, 61
labels 159
matches 109
spots 92
adjust
contrast 67
region contrast 71
algorithm 85
matching 101
align images 76
all 153
analysis
class 113
gel 113
analyze
classes 24, 113, 131
gels 113, 116
Melanie User Manual Edition AC
179
animate 74
annotations 143
copy 158
create 143
create categories 159
delete 158
display 156
flag position 156
hide 156
import 159
MW and pI 96
options 30
paste 158
report 156, 159
select 152
shortcuts 173
show 156
table 24
tool 152
apply
calibration 43
move to all gels 63
region to all gels 66
zoom to all gels 64
area 85, 130
auto rotate 73
automatic matching 105
autonumbering 146
B
backup 61
BMP 81
bookmarks
create 67
delete 67
load 67
Bruker Proteineer SP spot picker 163
by
category 153
content 153
C
calibration 33
apply 43
control 43
copy to clipboard 43
create 40
fitting table 43
images 40
MW and pI 96
open 43
print 43
remove 43
save 43
180
Melanie User Manual Edition AC
table 43
tablet file 40
categories 159
center 137
central tendency 114, 119, 137
CGI script 147
choose matchset 110
classes
analysis 131
analysis histograms 139
analysis table 137
create 59
folder 51
co-detection 87
coef. variation 119
coefficient variation 119
color palette 74
colors 71
combine spot sets 90
command prompt 9
common labels 153
compare images 76
composite spots 94
concurrent license 8
contact
information 13
us 13
contextual menus 24
contrast 70, 73
control calibration 43
copy
annotations 158
formula to clipboard 116
labels 158
to clipboard 26
Corr 116
correlation coefficient 116
create
annotation categories 159
annotations 143
calibration 40
gel descriptions category 45
label categories 145
labels 143
match hierarchy 54
pick list 164
projects 52
specific link 150
spot set 120, 138
spot sets 90
spots 93
toolbar 18
crop 37
area 37
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181
export area 37
import area 37
current sheet 24
cursor information 75, 98
customer support 13
customize
reports 27
toolbars 18
D
data
analysis 113
type 146
database options 30
DD 40
DeCyder 2D algorithm 83
default mapping 69
define landmarks 103
delete
annotations 158
labels 158
matches 109
spot sets 90
spots 93
describe images 45
descriptions 45
desktop shortcut 11
DIGE 7, 83
co-detect spots 87
exclude spots 89
file naming convention 33
histogram 129
spot detection parameter 88
spot quantification 88
value 113
disable spots 92
dispersion 115, 119, 137
display
annotations 156
calibration information 40
gel descriptions 45
labels 156
match hierarchy 102
matches 107
options 30, 74
projects 59
properties 147
spots 92
zone 15, 20
displayed
items 125
value 138, 141
dockable windows 20
floating 29
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minimize 29
pinned 29
tabbed groups 29
un-pinned 29
double detection 87
dual color 78
duplicate labels 159
E
EDF 136
edit 15
annotations 159
enabled 92
gel descriptions 45
grid lines 79
matches 109
region 66
spots 93
table cells 28
empirical distribution
function 136
plot 136
enabled spots 92
ExPASy 150
export 81, 162
crop area 37
match set 58
spot coordinate file 163
spot excision robot 163
external engine 147
external protein databases
query 149
set 148
F
factor analysis 123, 131
comments 128
interpret 126
table 120, 125
factor projection
plot 125
table 125
files 15
format 33
link 150
names 33
first time software launched 52
fitting table 43
flag position 156
FLEXlm license finder 11
flip 37
floating 29
license 8
free 20, 21
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183
rotate 37
further reading 176
G
gap 131, 137
Gaussian distribution 134
GE Healthcare Ettan spot picker 163
gels 63
analysis histograms 121
analysis table 119
description options 30
descriptions 45
export 81
ID 163
print 81
reports 80
save 81
shortcuts 172
table 24, 45, 80
general settings 113
Genetix GelPix spot picker 165
Genomic Solutions ProPic spot picker 165
good images 33
graphical user interface 15
gray level mapping 68
gray+saturation 71
grid lines
display 79
edit 79
show 79
grow spots 93
GUI 15
H
half-range size 115
help 12, 15
hide
annotations 156
ID 108
labels 156
histograms
class analysis 139
DIGE 129
gel analysis 121
history 168
clear 169
copy 169
insert marker 169
print 169
refresh 169
save 169
http
link 150
queries 147
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I
image pool 20, 35
display 35
hide 35
properties 35
remove 35
sheet 35
images 63
calibrate 40
calibration 33
compare 76
depth 33
describe 45
editing 33
export 81
file format 33
file names 33
good 33
manipulate 63
open 34
preview 34
print 81, 82
process 37
resolution 33
save 81
selection 21
to clipboard 82
to file 82
import 159, 162
annotations 159
crop area 37
labels 159
match set 58
install
license server 9
software 8
installation cd-rom 8
installer 8
intensity 70, 85
interface 15
interpret a factor analysis 126
invert 71
gray levels 37
ipconfig 9
is unique 146
K
keyboard shortcuts 16
Kolmogorov-Smirnov 136
L
labels 159
add 159
copy 158
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185
create 143
create categories 145
delete 158
display 156
duplicate 159
hide 156
modify 159
paste 158
report 156, 159
select 152
show 156
landmarks 77
define 103
tool 103
launch
software 11
software first time 52
license
file 10
information 13
server 9
licensing 8
LMTOOLS 9, 10
load spots 92
log volume ratio 129
M
machine license 8
MAD 115
manage projects 61
manipulate images 63
Mann-Whitney 134
manual editing 93
mapping
default 69
gray levels 68
match
count 106, 119, 137
ID 108
match sets
existing 57
export 58
import 58
merge 55
matches
add 109
create hierarchy 54
delete 109
display 107
display hierarchy 102
displayed 125
edit 109
gels tool 105
hierarchy 49, 101
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multiple 109
reference 101
report 110
review 109
shortcuts 173
statistics table 110
vectors 107
matching 101
automatic 105
reference 55
max 119, 137
intensity 130
slope 130
volume 130
mean 114
absolute deviation 115
squared deviation 115
measure 66, 129
measures overlapping 131
median 114
menu
bar 15
select 153
merge
match set 55
spots 93
midrange 114
min area 84
minimize 29
modify labels 159
move
alternatives 63
apply to all gels 63
double-click 63
projects 59
tool 63
MSD 115
multiple matches 109
MW 96
N
navigator 23
contextual menus 24
icons 24
next in selection 26
next/previous 74
node-locked license 8
non-DIGE 7, 83
detect spots 83
spot detection parameters 84
spot quantification 85
normalization 120, 121
normalized 120, 122, 131, 137
number 146
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187
O
OD 40
one
column 20, 21
row 20, 21
one-way ANOVA 134
open images 34
options 30, 113
print 82
overlapping
measures 131
spots 79
overview option 64
P
page setup 82
panes 20
close 21
free 21
layout 21
one column 21
one row 21
selection 21
stacked 21
tiled 21
paste
annotations 158
labels 158
physical address 8
pI 96
pick list 164
pinned 29
pixel distances 66
place a license file 10
plots
empirical distribution 136
scatter 116
PNG 81
populations 51
preview images 34
previous in selection 26
print 26, 81
images 82
options 82
sheets 82
process images 37
product information 13
profile 74
projectname.prj 60
projects
add 61
backup 61
convert data to new version 161
create 52
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display 59
folder 60
import older versions 161
manage 61
move 59
properties 59
remove 59, 61
restore 61
save 60
propagate spots 95
properties 59
purchase
software 7, 8
Q
quantification
options 30
value 113
query external protein databases 149
quick start manual 13
R
range ratio 119
ratio 120, 122, 131, 137
raw images 60
recycle bin 60
redo 167
reference 114
match 55
set 76
sheet 76
references 176
software 175
statistical methods 175
region
adjust contrast 71
apply to all gels 66
edit 66
tool 65
regular expressions 153
relative 120, 122
remove
calibration 43
projects 59
spots 92
rename category 159
reports 15, 159
3D view 24, 71
analyze classes 24
analyze gels 24
annotation 159
annotations 156
columns 27
customize 27
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189
edit labels 159
export 162
factor projection 123
gel 80
gel analysis histograms 121
ID 163
import 162
labels 156, 159
match 110
spot 98
toolbar 26
resolution 33
restore 61
review matches 109
rotate 37
rotation 73
S
saliency 84
save 26, 81
projects 60
spots 92
scatter
plots 116
table 116
scrollbars 21
select 15, 90
annotations 152
by category
select
all
153
by content 153
by value 26, 89, 120, 138
common labels 153
enabled spots 92
labels 152
matches 106
menu 153
spot sets 92
tool 106, 152
selected region 71
separability 119
set 146
external protein databases 148
reference 55, 74, 76
spots 92
settings 26, 120, 121, 138, 141
setup wizard 8
sheets 20
align images 76
close 20
current 24
free 20
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image pool 35
layout 20
one column 20
one row 20
print 82
reference 76
selection 20
stacked 20
tiled 20
to clipboard 82
to file 82
shortcuts 171
annotations 173
gels 172
matches 173
redo 171
spots 173
tools 172
undo 171
show
annotations 156
default 3D view 73
dual color 78
ID 108
labels 121, 156
overview 64
profile 74
vectors 107
shrink spots 93
signal intensity 67
single detection 87
slider 116, 121, 129, 141
smooth 84
software references 175
sorted values 121, 141
specific links
create 150
file 150
http 150
text 150
specify classes 131
spot
coordinate file 163
excision robots 163
ID 98
spot pickers 163
Bruker Proteineer SP 163
GE Healthcare Ettan 163
Genetix GelPix 165
Genomic Solution ProPic 165
spots 83
add 92
co-detection parameter 88
color 92
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191
composite 94
create 93
delete 93
detection algorithm 83
DIGE co-detection 87
disable 92
display 92
edit 93
enabled 92
frequency 129
grow 93
load 92
manual editing 93
merge 93
non-DIGE detection 83
overlapped 79
propagate 95
remove 92
report 98
save 92
select 90
sets 90
shape 74, 92
shortcuts 173
shrink 93
table 24, 98
stack 74
stacked 20, 21
start the license server 10
statistical methods references 175
statistics 113, 120, 121, 138, 141
tests 132, 133
status bar 15, 19
step tablets 40
student’s t-test 132, 133, 134
suspend synchronization 26
switch order 21
system
information 13
requirements 7
T
tabbed groups 29
tables
annotation 24
calibration 43
class analysis 137
edit cells 28
factor analysis 123
fitting 43
gel 24, 80
gel analysis 119
match statistics 110
scatter 116, 118
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spot 24, 98
technical support 13
tests
ANOVA 132, 133, 134
Kolmogorov-Smirnov 132, 133, 136
Mann-Whitney 132, 133, 134
student’s t 132, 133
Wilcoxon 134
text 146
link 150
TIFF 81
tiled 20, 21
toolbar 15, 18
create 19
format 19
position 19
tools 15
add files to project 53
adjust contrast 67
annotation 152
cursor information 75
landmark 103
match gels 105
measure 66
move 63
profile 74
region 65
select 90, 106, 152
shortcuts 172
show dual color 78
zoom 63
translation 73
transparency settings 74
transparent mode 74
trial period 8
trimmed
mean 114
midrange 114
triple detection 87
t-test 132, 133
Twain compatible scanners 161
U
undo 167
unit 70
un-pinned 29
update gels 159
user manual 13
UUID 163
V
value 113, 120, 122
vectors 107
view 15
Melanie User Manual Edition AC
193
signal intensity 67
visibility 74
vol 85, 88
ratio 88
W
whole image 71
Wilcoxon 134
workspace 20
class folder 59
classes 59
match folder 54
match hierarchy 54
navigator 23
projects 52
toolbar 23
X
XML format 162
Z
zoom 63, 73
alternatives 64
apply to all gels 64
overview option 64
194
Melanie User Manual Edition AC
This version of Melanie has been developed by the Swiss Institute
of Bioinformatics in collaboration with Geneva Bioinformatics
(GeneBio) SA and GE Healthcare. Melanie is powering the ImageMaster 2D Platinum gel analysis software sold by GE Healthcare.
All intellectual property rights on this User Manual, as well as on
Melanie, belong to the Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics. GeneBio
owns the worldwide exclusive distribution rights on this intellectual
property. No part of this User Manual may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical,
including photocopy, recording or any information storage or
retrieval system, without permission in writing from the Swiss Institute
of Bioinformatics or GeneBio.
© 2004–2014 Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics – All rights reserved.
Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics
CMU, 1 Rue Michel-Servet, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland
Melanie provides access to several databases on the Internet. It is
the responsability of the user to acquire the database licenses, if
needed. In particular, the PROSITE and SWISS-2DPAGE databases
are copyright, and all commercial users of these databases are
required to purchase a database license from GeneBio. Please
contact GeneBio at [email protected] for more information.
Geneva Bioinformatics (GeneBio) SA
c/o Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, CMU - 1, rue Michel Servet, 1211
Geneva, Switzerland
Melanie uses the DeCyder co-detection algorithm.
© 2008 General Electric Company - All rights reserved.
Melanie uses the TIFF library.
© 1988–1999 Sam Leffler and 1991–1999 Silicon Graphics, Inc – All
rights reserved.
Melanie uses software developed by the Apache Software Foundation (http://www.apache.org).
© 1999–2007 The Apache Software Foundation – All rights reserved.
www.genebio.com
Geneva Bioinformatics (GeneBio) SA
c/o Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics
CMU - 1, rue Michel Servet
1211 Geneva
Switzerland
Cy, CyDye, DeCyder, Ettan, ImageMaster, Immobiline and ImageScanner are trademarks of GE Healthcare companies. GE is a trademark of General Electric Company.
All third party trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
All goods and services are sold subject to the terms and conditions of
the license agreement communicated to you by GeneBio. GeneBio
reserves the right, subject to any regulatory and contractual approval,
if required, to make changes in specifications and features shown
herein, or discontinue the product described at any time without
notice or obligation. Contact GeneBio at [email protected] for
the most current information.
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