WA73A-455 User Manual Revison C

WA73A-455 User Manual Revison C
WESTERN AVIONICS
WA73A-455
MIL-STD-1553A/B Bus Simulator Module
P/N 1U11033G01 Rev A
User Manual
UM 11033 Rev C
© Western Avionics Ltd.
13/14 Shannon Free Zone
Co. Clare
Ireland
12 February 2004
TABLE OF CONTENTS
WARRANTY .............................................................................................................................................................. 2
General Safety Summary ............................................................................................................................................. 3
Injury Precautions .................................................................................................................................................... 3
Product Damage Precautions ................................................................................................................................... 3
EU DECLARATION OF CONFORMITY ................................................................................................................. 4
DESCRIPTION ........................................................................................................................................................... 5
INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................................... 5
CONTROLS AND INDICATORS.............................................................................................................................. 9
BITE (Built-In-Test Equipment)............................................................................................................................ 12
GLOSSARY .......................................................................................................................................................... 13
SPECIFICATIONS.................................................................................................................................................... 15
INSTALLATION ...................................................................................................................................................... 21
INSTALLATION REQUIREMENTS AND CAUTIONS .................................................................................... 21
INSTALLATION PROCEDURE.......................................................................................................................... 22
INSTALLATION CHECKLIST. .......................................................................................................................... 23
OPERATION............................................................................................................................................................. 24
OVERVIEW .......................................................................................................................................................... 24
POWER-UP........................................................................................................................................................... 24
SYSTEM COMMANDS ....................................................................................................................................... 25
COMMAND OVERVIEW.................................................................................................................................... 25
Order of Commands........................................................................................................................................... 25
Bus Controller Simulator Mode......................................................................................................................... 26
Remote Terminal Simulator Mode .................................................................................................................... 30
Bus Monitor Mode............................................................................................................................................. 33
All-mode Commands......................................................................................................................................... 33
ERRORS................................................................................................................................................................ 34
Error Generation ................................................................................................................................................ 34
Error Detection .................................................................................................................................................. 36
Command Checking .......................................................................................................................................... 39
COMMAND DESCRIPTIONS............................................................................................................................. 40
Command Syntax............................................................................................................................................... 40
Detailed Descriptions......................................................................................................................................... 41
SYSFAIL, SELF TEST,AND INITIALISATION ................................................................................................ 76
PROGRAMMING EXAMPLES ........................................................................................................................... 77
Definition of BASIC Commands....................................................................................................................... 77
Programming Examples in BASIC.................................................................................................................... 78
APPENDIX A - VXIbus OPERATION. ............................................................................................................. 82
APPENDIX B -- INPUT/OUTPUT CONNECTIONS........................................................................................ 87
APPENDIX C - VXIbus GLOSSARY ................................................................................................................ 90
APPENDIX D -- APPLICATION NOTES ......................................................................................................... 92
SIMULATING DUAL REDUNDANT BUS CONTROLLERS....................................................................... 92
BUS MONITOR MODULE CHAINING ......................................................................................................... 94
RT-TO-RT TRANSFERS.................................................................................................................................. 97
APPENDIX E - PERFOMANCE VERIFICATION ......................................................................................... 103
APPENDIX F - User Service............................................................................................................................. 138
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1
WARRANTY
Western Avionics Ltd. warrants that this product will be free from defects in materials and workmanship for a period of
three (3) years from the date of shipment. If any such product proves defective during this warranty period, Western
Avionics, at its option, either will repair the defective product without charge for parts and labor, or will provide a
replacement in exchange for the defective product.
In order to obtain service under this warranty, Customer must notify Western Avionics of the defect before the expiration
of the warranty period, and make suitable arrangements for the performance of service. Customer shall be responsible
for the packaging and shipping of the defective product to the service center designated by Western Avionics, with
shipping charges pre-paid. Western Avionics shall pay for the return of the product to Customer, in all circumstances.
This warranty shall not apply to any defect, failure or damage caused by improper use or improper or inadequate
maintenance and care. Western Avionics shall not be obligated to furnish service under this warranty
a) to repair damage resulting from attempts by personnel other than Western Avionics representatives to install, repair
or service the product.
b) to repair damage resulting from improper use or connection to incompatible equipment.
c) to service a product that has been modified or integrated with other products when the effect of such modification or
integration increases the time or difficulty of servicing the product.
THIS WARRANTY IS GIVEN BY WESTERN AVIONICS WITH RESPECT TO THIS
PRODUCT IN LIEU OF ANY OTHER WARRANTIES, EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED.
WESTERN AVIONICS AND ITS VENDORS DISCLAIM ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES
OF MECHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. WESTERN
AVIONICS RESPONSIBILITY TO REPAIR OR REPLACE DEFECTIVE PRODUCTS IS
THE SOLE AND EXCLUSIVE REMEDY PROVIDED TO THE CUSTOMER FOR
BREACH OF THIS WARRANTY. WESTERN AVIONICS AND ITS VENDORS WILL
NOT BE LIABLE FOR ANY INDIRECT, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL, OR
CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES IRRESPECTIVE WHETHER WESTERN AVIONICS OR
THE VENDOR HAS ADVANCE NOTICE OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.
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2
General Safety Summary
Please review the following safety precautions to avoid injury and prevent damage to this
product or any products connected to it.
Only qualified personnel should perform service procedures.
Whilst using this product, you may need to access other parts of the system. Read the
General Safety Summary in other system manuals for warnings and cautions related to the
operating system.
Injury Precautions
Avoid Electric Overload
To avoid electric shock or fire hazard, do not apply a voltage to a
terminal that is outside the range specified for that terminal.
Ground the Product
This product is indirectly grounded through the grounding conductor of
the mainframe power cord. To avoid electric shock, the grounding
connector must be connected to earth ground. Before making
connections to the input or output terminals of this product, ensure that
the product is properly grounded.
Do Not Operate
without Covers
Use Proper Fuse
Do Not Operate in
Wet/Damp Conditions
Do Not Operate in
Explosive Atmosphere
To avoid electric shock or fire hazard, do not operate this product with
covers or panels removed.
To avoid fire hazard, use only the fuse type and rating specified for this
product.
To avoid electric shock, do not operate this product in wet or damp
conditions.
To avoid injury or fire hazard, do not operate this product in an explosive
atmosphere.
Product Damage Precautions
Use Proper Fuse
To avoid fire hazard, use only the fuse type and rating specified for this
product.
Use Proper Power Source
Do not operate this product from a power source that applies more than
the voltage specified.
Provide Proper Ventilation
To prevent product overheating, provide proper ventilation.
Do not Operate with
Suspected Failures
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If you suspect there is damage to this product, have it inspected by
service personnel.
3
EU DECLARATION OF CONFORMITY
The EU Directives covered by this Declaration:
89/336/EEC
Electromagnetic Compatibility Directive, amended by 92/31/EEC & 93/68/EEC
The Products covered by this Declaration:
WA73A-455
MIL-STD-1553 VXI Module to Part Number 1U11033G01
The Basis on which Conformity is being Declared:
The products identified above are declared under the sole responsibility of Western Avionics
Ltd, 13/14 Shannon Free Zone, Co. Clare, Ireland, to meet the intent of Directive 89/336/EEC
for Electromagnetic Compatibility, and amendments 92/31/EEC & 93/68/EEC.
Compliance was demonstrated to the following specifications:
EN 55022 (Emissions)
EN 55022 Conducted Emissions, Class A
EN 55022 Radiated Emissions, Class A
EN 50082-1 (Immunity)
EN 50082-1 Table 1.1, Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Field
EN 50082-1 Table 4.1, Fast Transient Common Mode
EN 50082-1 Table 1.2, Electrostatic Discharge
To ensure compliance with EMC requirements only high quality shielded cables having a
reliable, continuous outer shield (braid and foil) which has low impedance connections to
shielded connector housings at both ends should be connected to this product.
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WA73A-455 MIL-STD-1553A/B BUS SIMULATOR MODULE
DESCRIPTION
INTRODUCTION
NOTE: Each channel of the WA73A-455 is
truly an independent instrument.
Therefore, not only must each
separate channel be completely
programmed, but all switches on
each channel must be properly set.
Failure to do so could affect the
proper operation of the WA73A-455.
In addition, the user should pay
close attention to proper wiring if
any of the WA73A-455's auxiliary
inputs and outputs are used.
The WA73A-455 Module is a direct
replacement for the obsolete CDS /
Tektronix 73A-455, and is a truly form, fit
and function replacement for that unit.
All software developed for use on the
Tektronix 73A-455 may be run without
modification on the WA73A-455. All
interface connections to the front panel
are identical pin-to-pin format, allowing
the WA73A-455 to be used in place of
the Tektronix 73A-455, without change
to cabling.
Since each channel must be individually
programmed, the descriptions in this manual
should be taken to apply to either channel of
the module. For example, one of the
channels could be set to the 1553 Bus
Controller Simulator mode of operation, and
the other to 1553 Bus Monitor mode
operation.
The WA73A-455 Module is a printed
circuit board assembly for use in a card
cage conforming to the VXIbus
Specification.
It allows the system controller in an ATE
system to communicate with, and test
devices that conform to the MIL-STD1553A/B data bus.
The WA73A-455 Module offers three modes
of operation for each channel:
The WA73A-455 Module consists of two
identical VXIbus instruments in a singleslot VXIbus C-size package. Each of the
two separate and independent channels,
labeled A and B, has its own VXIbus
logical address, its own interrupt, and a
complete set of controls and indicators.
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•
•
•
1553 Bus Controller (BC) Simulator
1553 single or multiple Remote
Terminal (RT) Simulator
1553 Bus Monitor
In the Bus Controller Simulator mode,
each channel of the WA73A-455 has the
ability to communicate with any or all of
the 32 Remote Terminals (31 real
devices plus Broadcast Mode) specified
by MIL-STD-1553A/B.
5
Each channel is loaded by the system
controller with a bus controller message
sequence list and data lists for each RT to be
addressed. When instructed to do so by the
system controller, the selected WA73A-455
channel transmits pre-programmed messages
to the respective RT(s). Any response data
received from the RT is stored in on-card
memory for that channel.
In the RT Simulator mode, each channel of the
WA73A-455 Module can simultaneously
emulate any or all of the different RTs. The
system controller pre-loads the WA73A-455
with the appropriate response data and status
words for each simulated RT. Data received
from the 1553 bus by the WA73A-455 is stored
in on-card memory for later evaluation.
In the Bus Monitor mode, the selected channel
of the WA73A-455 Module assumes an
essentially passive role; it simply observes and
stores all bus traffic. Up to 30,000 data,
command, or status words can be stored in
channel memory for later evaluation.
The WA73A-455 allows introducing controlled
errors into the transmitted data stream for
each channel to provide worst-case testing of
the 1553 bus devices. These errors include
incorrect parity, erroneous 1553 Manchester
encoding, zero crossing errors of +/- 150ns,
dropped data bits, inter-word data gaps,
incorrect of invalid 1553 sync patterns,
incorrect RT response times, incorrect number
of data bits per word, incorrect number of
words per message, invalid signal levels, and
common-mode signal injection.
On received data, the WA73A-455 Module can
distinguish between incorrect transition time
errors, Manchester errors, dropped data-bit
errors, bit count errors, parity errors, incorrect
sync errors, terminal response time errors,
inter-word data-gap errors, word count errors,
and message format errors, such as incorrect
RT address, missing RT response, invalid
status words, invalid mode code usage, and
invalid broadcast mode usage.
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The WA73A-455 Module self test
capability is programmable with a
single command, and each channel is
tested independently.
Each channel of the module is
programmed by sending ASCII
characters to the WA73A System
from the system controller. Data is
also returned to the system controller
as ASCII characters.
Depending on the context, the two
components of the WA73A-455 may
be referred to in this manual as
VXIbus instruments, module
channels A and B, or 1553 channels.
Note that certain terms used in this
manual have very specific meanings
in the context of a VXIbus System. A
list of these terms is presented in the
VXIbus Glossary (Appendix C)
Figure 455-1: WA73A-455 Controls and Indicators
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User Selectable Header Options
and User Installed Resistors
NOTE:
R63, R67
User Install Resistors
R72, R76
User Install Resistors
W1 to W4
Headers
Users may isolate the 1553 bus line
connections to S4 by removing headers as
required.
Additionally, provision has been made for
the installation of User selected resistors,
which may be added at R63, R67, R72 and
R76, should you require special bus
loading conditions.
W5 to W8
Headers
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Headers W1 through W8 are supplied in
place, so that 1553 bus line connections are
also supplied to the S4 connector as shown
in the schematic details below.
8
CONTROLS AND INDICATORS
The following controls and indicators are
provided to select and display the
functions of the WA73A-455 Modules
operating environment. See Figure 4551 for their physical locations.
L.
A.
Ah
15h
NOTE: Each channel of the module
has a complete and separate
set of controls and indicators.
•
M
S
D
0
1
where
L.A. =
MSD =
LSD =
Switches
L
S
D
A
5
Base Physical
Addr (d)
(64 *10) + 49152 = 49792d
(64 *21) + 49152 = 50496d
Logical Address
Most Significant Digit
Least Significant Digit
Logical Address Switches
Each function module in a VXIbus
System must be assigned a unique
logical address, from 1 to 254 decimal.
The base VMEbus address of each
channel of the WA73A-455 is set to a
value between 1 and FEh (254d) by two
hexadecimal rotary switches. There are
two sets of these switches, one for each
channel. located in the upper rear
quadrant of the module.
IEEE-488 Address
Using the WA73A-455 Module in an
IEEE-488 environment requires knowing
the modules IEEE-488 address in order
to program it. Different manufacturers of
IEEE-488 interface devices may have
different algorithms for equating a logical
address with an IEEE-488 address.
If the WA73A-455 is being used in a
MATE system, VXIbus logical addresses
are converted to IEEE-488 addresses
using the algorithm specified in the
MATE IAC standard (MATE-STD-IAC).
CAUTION:
The two logical channels that comprise
the WA73A-455 should never be
assigned the same logical address.
In an IEEE-488 application, if you
override the IEEE-488 address assigned
by the slot 0 module, do not assign the
same address to the two channels.
Always consult the operating manual of
the IEEE-488 interface device being
used for recommendations on setting the
modules logical address(es).
The actual physical address of each
channel of the WA73A-455 module is on
a 64 byte boundary. If the switch
representing the most significant digit
(MSD) of the logical address is set to
position X and the switch representing
the least significant digit (LSD) is set to
position Y, then the base physical
address of the channel will be [(64d *
XYh) + 49152d]. For example:
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VMEbus Interrupt Level Select Switch
If the Halt switch is in the OFF position,
that channel will ignore the Reset bit and
no action will take place.
Each function module in a VXIbus
system can generate an interrupt on the
VMEbus to request service from the
interrupt handler located on its
commander. The VMEbus interrupt level
on which a given channel of the WA53A455 Module generates interrupts is set
by one of two BCD rotary switches
located at the centre rear of the module.
Align the desired switch position for each
channel to the markings on the module
shield.
NOTE: The module (or channel) is not
in strict compliance with the
VXIbus Specification when the
halt switch for that channel is in
the OFF position.
Control of the Reset bit depends on the
capabilities of the WA53A-455's
commander.
Clock Select Switch
Valid Interrupt level Select switch
settings are 1 through 7, with setting 1
equivalent to level 1, etc. The level
chosen should be the same as the level
set on the interrupt handler for each
channel of the WA53A-455, typically the
modules commander. Setting the switch
to an invalid interrupt level (0, 8, or 9) will
disable the modules interrupts.
These two-position slide switches are
located at the centre front of the module.
They select either internal or external
data clock for a channel of the module.
In the INT position, the internal data
clock is selected, and the 1553 bus data
rate is 1 MHz. When the switch is in the
EXT position, an external 16 MHz data
clock is selected. the external clock can
be varied over the frequency range of 15
to 17 MHz, allowing the 1553 bus data
rate to be varied from 937.5 kHz to
1.0625 MHz
Interrupts are used by the module to
return VXIbus Protocol Events to the
modules commander. Refer to the
Operation section for information on
interrupts. the VXIbus Protocol Events
supported by the module are listed in the
Specifications section.
MAC Air Switch
Halt Switch
These two-position slide switches,
located near the top rear of the module,
select the response for each channel of
the WA53A-455 Module when the Reset
bit in the modules VXIbus Control
register is set.
These slide switches are located on
bottom edge of the module. When a
channels switch is in the OFF position,
the rise and fall times of the data
generated by that channel of the
WA53A-455 Module will be between 150
and 250 nanoseconds with two 70-ohm
bus terminators. When the switch is in
the ON position, the rise and fall times of
generated data will be between 220 and
350 nanoseconds with two 70-ohm bus
terminations.
If the Halt switch is in the ON position,
then the channel of the WA53A-455
Module is reset to its power-up state and
all programmed parameters for that
channel are rest to their default values.
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10
•
NOTE: If the module loses any of its
power voltages, the FAIL LED
will be lit and SYSFAIL*
asserted. A module power
failure is indicated when the
modules PWR LED is
extinguished.
Fuses
The WA53A-455 module has fuses for
+5V, +24V, and -24V. The fuses protect
the module in case of an accidental
shorting of the power bus or any other
situation where excessive current might
be drawn.
The WA53A-455 Module has two of all of
the following LEDs located on its front
panel, one for the "A" channel and one
for the "B" channel. Since the two
channels are identical and separate, the
descriptions for each LED apply equally
to both channels.
Each of the three fuses is shared by both
instruments in the WA53A-455. The
+24V and -24V fuses are 2A socket
mounted fuses. The +5v fuse is 5A and
also socket mounted.
MSG LED
If the +5V fuse opens, the VXIbus
Resource manager will be unable to
assert SYSFAIL INHIBIT on this module
to disable SYSFAIL*.
This green LED is normally off. When lit,
it indicates that the module is processing
a VMEbus cycle. The LED is controlled
by circuitry that appears to stretch the
length of the VMEbus cycle. For
example, a five microsecond will light the
LED for approximately 0.2 seconds. The
LED will remain lit if the module is being
constantly addressed.
If a fuse opens, remove the fault before
replacing the fuse. Replacement fuse
information is given in the Specifications
section of this manual.
•
LEDs
COMM LED
The following LEDs are visible at the top
of the WA53A-455 Modules front panel
to indicate the status of the modules
operation. See Figure 455-2.
The PWR and FAIL LEDs indicate the
status of the entire WA53A-455 Module.
The remaining LEDs indicate the status
of either Bus A or Bus B.
The COMM LED lights when the
WA53A-455 Module has been triggered
to begin communications on the 1553
bus. When not lit, it indicates that the
WA53A-455 Module is available for data
or command transactions with the ATE
system controller.
PWR LED
Function LEDs
This green LED is normally lit and is
extinguished when the +5V, +24V, -24V,
or internal +15V or -15V supplies fail.
Three function LEDs indicate which
mode of operation has been selected for
the channel. The CTRL LED is lit when
the card is programmed to be in the Bus
Controller Simulator mode, the TERM
LED is lit for RT Simulator mode, and the
MON LED is lit for the Bus Monitor
mode.
FAIL LED
This normally off red LED is lit whenever
SYSFAIL* is asserted, indicating a
module failure due to loss of a power
rail.
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PATT LED
The PATT LED will light immediately
after a T command has been issued
unless a P command was previously
issued to the WA53A-455 Module; in this
case, it will light when the command or
status word pattern specified by the P
command is received from the 1553 bus.
ERR LED
This amber LED lights up whenever the
WA53A-455 Module detects a syntax
error in the data received from the
system controller. After the system
controller interrogates the error (with an
E command) the light will go out. This
LED is typically used as a debugging aid
during software development.
BITE (Built-In-Test Equipment)
The TEST command (see Operation
section) provides a complete RAM and
ROM self test for each channel. In
addition, the front panel LEDs light in
sequence to provide visual indication of
the test in progress.
Figure 455-2:
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Front Panel
Command Word
A 16-bit word sent by the bus
controller to identify or address the
RT to be involved in a bus
transaction. It also specifies whether
the terminal will be transmitting or
receiving data.
GLOSSARY
A glossary of VXIbus terms is provided
in appendix C. In addition, the following
terms specific to the WA53A-455 Module
are defined:
Data List
An individual data list may be
defined for each of the transmit
buffers (up to 32) provided on each
channel of the WA53A-455 Module.
When the module is in the Bus
Controller Simulator mode, an
individual data list contains the
command and data words to be sent
from a specific buffer. When the
module is in the RT Simulator mode,
an individual data list contains the
status and data words a simulated
RT will return to the bus controller.
Bus Communications Sequence
The WA53A-455 Module is said to be
performing a Bus Communications
Sequence during the time the card is
transmitting or receiving data over the
1553 data bus.
A Bus Communications Sequence is
initiated when the WA53A-455receives
a T (Trigger) command from the
system controller.
In the Bus Controller Simulator mode,
a Bus Communications Sequence is
completed when all messages
specified by the Bus Controller
Sequence List have been transmitted
the number of times required by the T
command.
Data Word
A 16-bit word containing the actual
data in a 1553 bus transaction.
In the RT Simulator mode, a Bus
Communications Sequence is
completed when the total number of
messages specified by the T command
have been received.
Message or Message Block
The combined transaction
(command, status and data)
associated with one command word.
In the Bus Monitor mode, the Bus
Communications Sequence is
completed when a Q command or an
External Halt Input is received by the
WA73A-455.
Remote Terminal (RT)
One of up to 31 devices connected
to the 1553 data bus that is capable
of sending data to, or receiving data
from, the bus controller.
RT Response Time List
When the WA73A-455 Module
functions as an RT simulator, the
card is preloaded with a list of RT
response times to be used when
responding to each command word
received from the bus controller.
RT response time values are used
from the RT Response Time List in
sequential order, regardless of the
RT numbers addressed by the
incoming command words.
Bus Controller
The single device attached to the 1553
data bus that is assigned the task of
initiating information transfers on the
bus.
Bus Controller Sequence List
This list specifies the order in which
messages are transmitted in the Bus
Controller Simulator mode.
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RT Response Time or Response Time Gap
The response time of an RT is the
time in microseconds between the
middle transition of the parity bit of
the last command or data word
received by the RT and the middle
transition of the sync pattern in the
status word transmitted by the RT.
Status Word
A 16-bit word returned by an RT
after being addressed by the bus
controller.
System Controller
The test system computer providing
the control and data information to
the WA73A system via a suitable
communications link.
Word
A 1553 word is a sequence of 20 bittimes consisting of a sync pattern of
three bit-times, followed by 16 bits of
data and one bit of parity.
Though each word is 20 bit-times in
length, a word contains only 16 bits
of data and is commonly referred to
as a 16-bit word. The three types of
1553 words are: command words,
status words, and data words.
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14
SPECIFICATIONS
Instrument Specifications
These specifications apply equally to both the "A" and "B" instrument channels
Configuration:
MIL-STD-1553 Bus Controller Simulator, single or multiple RT
Simulator, or Bus Monitor
1553 Bus Coupling:
Direct Coupling:
1:1 turns ratio, 55-ohm isolation resistor each leg
Transformer
Stub Coupling:
1:0.707 turns ratio.
Operating Modes:
Bus Controller
Simulator:
Programmable for 32 separate data lists.
RT Simulator:
Programmable for data collection and response from 32
separate RT associated buffers.
Bus Monitor:
Collects all data on bus in single buffer, receive-only mode.
Buffer Capability:
30,000 22-bit words - 16 bits data, 6 bits error/sync code. Can be
allocated between 32 transmit buffers, 32 receive buffers, and a
single Bus Controller Sequence List or RT Response Time List.
Allocation is totally user-controlled.
1553 Analog Output:
Level-programmable to approximately 250 different levels.
Range:
Voltage range depends on the bus loading. Differential voltage
level output range for the following bus loads is:
35 ohms, direct-coupled output 0.20 to 8.20 V ptp.
70 ohms, direct-coupled output 0.30 to 13.75 V ptp.
1000 ohms, direct-coupled output 0.75 to 34.40 V ptp.
70 ohms, transformer-coupled output, 0.60 to 24.2 V ptp.
At 1553 bus with two 70 ohm terminators, either direct-coupled
direct connection, or transformer-coupled through
MIL-STD-1553 coupler, 0.20 to 8.20 V ptp.
The above levels are for the MAC Air switch in the OFF position.
With the MAC Air switch in the ON position, the peak-to-peak
levels are approximately 10% higher than shown.
Programmable for data collection and response from 32
separate RT associated buffers.
Accuracy:
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+/- 0.3 V ptp with 35 and 75 ohm loads.
15
Noise Content:
50 mV ptp.
Current Drive:
260 mA RMS maximum, direct-coupled output.
380 mA RMS maximum, transformer-coupled output.
Short-circuit
Protection:
The direct-coupled output may be shorted for several minutes
without degradation of the transmitter
The transformer-coupled output should not be shorted
Shorting may cause damage to the module
1553 Analog Input:
Maximum Input:
40 V ptp differential.
Threshold:
Programmable to approximately 250 different levels
Programmable from 0.50 to 9.00 V ptp at direct-coupled input
(equivalent to 0.35 to 6.36 V ptp at transformer-coupled input.)
Transition Time
Error Detection:
Time from one threshold crossing to the next threshold crossing is
nominally expected to be 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 or 2.0 microseconds, per
MIL-STD-1553.
The receiver checks that this time is reliably within the 62.5
nanoseconds of the nominally expected time.
Word Format:
Manchester bi-phase, self-clocking, 1 MHz, 20-bit word with
command/data sync, data, and parity bits, per MIL-STD-1553A/B.
Message Format:
Programmable command or status word plus user-defined number
of data words per message.
Message capability:
Any number of messages may be specified for transmittal or
receipt, subject only to a constraint on available buffer memory
(30,000 words). A message requires one word of buffer memory for
each command, status, or data word transmitted or received.
In the Bus Controller Simulator mode, two additional words per
message are required for system overhead.
Message Rate:
Bus Controller
Simulator Mode:
RT Simulator Mode:
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(Time from the end of one message to the start of the next
message). Programmable from 14 microseconds to 65,535
microseconds on an individual basis.
(RT response time) Programmable from 4.25 microseconds to
65,535.25 microseconds on an individual message basis.
16
Bus Monitor Mode:
Message Synchronization:
Induced
Transmitter Errors:
Receiver Error Checking:
Message rate is defined by active devices on bus.
The start of an RT operation in the RT Simulator mode or the
start of data collection in the Bus Monitor mode may be
programmed to start on a user-specified pattern word received
from the 1553 bus controller.
Programmable on an individual word basis to give incorrect
parity, Manchester error, dropped bit error, sync pattern error,
or incorrect bit count (+/- 1 bit). By programming a secondary
error mode, programmable on an individual word basis to give
+/- 150-ns bit transition time error, +/- 150-ns sync transition time
error, dropped parity bit, or 1-bit inter-word gap error. In addition,
programmable on an individual message basis to give incorrect
RT response time, word count, or status word RT address. Bit
position of Manchester, dropped bit, and transition time errors
are controllable as a function of the 16-bit word data content.
Detects and distinguishes bit transition time errors, parity errors,
dropped bit errors, sync pattern errors, and receiver response
time errors on an individual word basis for subsequent return to
system controller. The response-time error test value is
programmable from 4 to 31 microseconds.
Detects inter-word data gap error, word count errors, no RT
response, or incorrect RT address on an individual message
basis for return to the system controller.
Format errors are also detected for improper mode code
operation, improper broadcast mode operation, and improper
use of status word bits.
Time base:
16 MHz crystal oscillator.
Optional switch-selectable user clock input on front-edge
connector for 16 times desired data rate. Optional clock input
from 15 to 17 MHz. Frequency tracking of 0.1% to any other
units on the data bus must be maintained.
Interrupt Capability:
The module may be programmed to interrupt the system
controller on completion of a bus communications sequence.
Programmed By:
ASCII characters. Data is transferred between the system
controller and WA73A-455 Module using either a hexadecimal or
a binary encoded format.
Auxiliary Outputs
(TTL levels):
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Reconstructed Received Data and Clock
Transmitted Data and Clock.
Pattern Recognition Output.
Status Error Output.
Data Word Received Output.
Data Bus Input Active Output.
Position Identification Output.
17
Auxiliary Inputs (Analog):
Common-mode
Voltage:
For external injection of common-mode voltage onto 1553 bus.
Maximum Input
Rating:
6 V RMS.
Auxiliary Inputs (TTL):
External 1553 Data Rate Clock.
External Halt Input.
External Trigger Input.
External Transmitter Enable Input.
Power Up:
Module is ready for programming 1 second after power-up.
Power LED on, all other LEDs off 0.5 seconds after power-up.
Default condition on power-up is:
Interrupt:
Disabled (I command)
Transmit Level:
6.38 V ptp (VT command)
Equiv. Bus Load for Transmit Level: 70 ohms (VT command)
Receive Threshold:
2.00 V ptp (VR command)
Response Gap:
4 µs (R command)
Pace Interval:
1,000 µs (S command)
RT Response Time test value:
12 µs (G command)
Mode:
Undefined (F command)
Pattern Trigger:
Disabled (P command)
Error Mode:
Primary error set selected (M command)
RT Response time List:
Unallocated (B command)
RT Sequence List:
Unallocated (B command)
Transmit and Receive Buffers:
Unallocated (B command)
High Speed Mode:
Enabled (H command)
Transition Time Error Detection:
Enabled (J command)
Request True interrupts disabled (these interrupts cause an SRQ
on IEEE-488 systems
VXIbus Compatibility:
Fully compatible with the VXIbus Specification for messagebased instruments with the Halt switch in the ON position.
VXI Device Type:
VXI message based instrument, VXIbus Revision 1.2.
VXI Protocol:
Word serial.
VXI Card Size:
C size, one slot wide.
Module-Specific
Commands:
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All module-specific commands and data are sent via the VXIbus
Byte-Available command. All module-specific commands are
made up of ASCII characters. Module-specific data may be in
either ASCII or binary format.
18
VMEbus Interface:
Data transfer bus (DTB) slave, A16, D16 only.
Interrupt Level:
Switch selectable, levels 1 (highest priority) through 7 (lowest).
Interrupt Acknowledge:
D16, lower 8 bits returned are the logical address of the module.
VXIbus
Commands Supported:
All VXIbus commands are accepted (e.g. DTACK* will be
returned). The following commands have effect on this module;
all other commands will cause an Unrecognized Command
event:
BYTE AVAILABLE (with or without END bit set)
BYTE REQUEST
BEGIN NORMAL OPERATION
READ PROTOCOL
CLEAR
TRIGGER
VXIbus Protocol
Events Supported:
VXIbus events are returned via VME interrupts. The following
events are supported:
UNRECOGNIZED COMMAND
REQUEST TRUE (This interrupt will cause IEEE 488 interface
devices to assert SRQ [service request]
VXIbus Registers:
Device Type
Register Contents:
ID
Device Type
Status
Control
Protocol
Response
Data Low
See Appendix A for definition of register contents.
FE38h (1s complement of binary value of model number)
System Specifications
These specifications apply to the complete WA73A-455 Module.
Power Requirements:
Voltage:
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All required dc power is provided by the Power Supply in the
VXIbus card cage.
+5 Volt Supply:
+24 Volt Supply:
-24 Volt Supply:
19
4.75 V dc to 5.25 V dc.
+23.2 V dc to +25.2 V dc.
-23.2 V dc to -25.2 V dc.
Current (Peak
Module Ipm)
Current (Dynamic
Module Idm)
5 volt Supply:
+24 volt supply
-24 volt supply
3.2A
0.38A
0.38A
5 volt Supply:
+24 volt supply
-24 volt supply
0.05A
0.2A
0.2A
Cooling:
Provided by the fan in the VXIbus card cage. Less than 10C
temperature rise with 2.37 litres/sec of air at a pressure drop of
0.15 mm of H2O.
Temperature:
-10 oC to +65 oC, operating (assumes ambient temperature of
55oC and airflow to assure less than 10oC temperature rise).
-40 oC to +85 oC storage.
Humidity:
Less than 95% R.H. non-condensing, -10 oC to +30 oC.
Less than 75% R.H. non-condensing, +31 oC to +40 oC.
Less than 45% R.H. non-condensing, +41 oC to +55 oC.
VXIbus Radiated
Emissions
Complies with VXIbus Specification.
VXIbus Conducted
Emissions
Complies with VXIbus Specification.
Module Dimensions:
262 mm high, 352 mm deep, 31 mm wide
(10.3 inches by 13.9 inches by 1.2 inches)
Weight:
3.36 lb. (1500 grams)
Front Panel Signal
Connectors:
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4 TNC Triaxial female connectors
50 pin sub-miniature D connector (DD50S), refer to appendix B
20
.
INSTALLATION
INSTALLATION REQUIREMENTS
AND CAUTIONS
The WA73A-455 Module is a C size VXIbus
instrument module and therefore may be
installed in any C or D size VXIbus card
cage slot other than slot 0. If the module is
being installed in a D size card cage,
consult the operating manual for the card
cage to determine how to install the module
in that particular card cage. Setting the
modules two Logical Address switches
defines the programming address of the
two instruments in this module. Refer to
the Controls and Indicators subsection for
information on selecting and setting the
WA73A-455 Modules logical address.
Tools Required
Slotted screwdriver set.
CAUTION:
Note that there are two ejector
handles on the card. To avoid
installing the card incorrectly, make
sure the ejector labeled "WA73A455" is at the top.
CAUTION:
In order to maintain proper card cage
cooling, unused card cage slots must
be covered with blank front panels.
CAUTION:
Verify that the card cage is able to
provide adequate cooling and power
for the WA73A-455 Module. Refer to
the card cage Operating Manual for
instructions on determining cooling
and power compatibility.
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CAUTION:
If the WA73A-455 Module is inserted
in a slot with any empty slots to the
left of the module, the VME daisychain jumpers must be installed on
the backplane in order for the
WA73A-455 Module to operate
properly. Check the manual of the
card cage being used for jumper
installation instructions.
INSTALLATION PROCEDURE
4)
CAUTION:
The WA73A-455 Module is a piece of
electronic equipment and therefore
has some susceptibility to electrostatic
damage (ESD). ESD precautions
must be taken whenever the module
is handled.
1)
2)
Record the modules Serial Number
(located on the shield panel) and
switch settings on the Installation
Checklist on the next page.
Use a 50 pin plug type "D" style
connector to provide the interface to
any of the optional I/O signals
available on the DD50S connector
labeled S4. It is recommended that
you wire only those signals to be
used. The transformer and directcoupled MIL-STD-1553 bus
connections are also available on the
DD50S connector as an alternative to
the triax connectors.
Verify that the Logical Address and
Interrupt Level switches are switched
to the correct value for each channel.
The two Halt switches should be in
the ON position, unless it is desired to
not allow the resource manager to
reset this module.
Note that with either Halt switch
position, a "hard" rest will occur at
power on and when SYSRST* is set
true on the VXIbus backplane. Also
note that when the Halt switch is in
the OFF position, the operation of the
module is not VXIbus compatible.
3)
The module can now be inserted into
any slot of the chassis other than slot
0. Fasten the module to the card
cage with the captive screws in the
module front panel.
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Four TNC triax female connectors are
provided at the top of the front panel.
XFMR A and XFMR B are for
transformer-coupled connections to
the MIL-STD-1553 Bus A and B, and
DIR A and DIR B for direct-coupled
connection to the MIL-STD-1553 Bus
A and B. Install the cabled TNC Triax
male connector to one of the two
connector sets.
22
INSTALLATION CHECKLIST.
Installation parameters may vary depending on the card cage being used. Be sure to
consult the card cage Operating manual before installing and operating the WA73A455 Module.
Serial Number:
________________________
Card Cage Slot Number: ____________________
Switch Settings, Channel A:
VXIbus Logical Address Switch:
Interrupt Level Switch:
Halt Switch:
_____________
______________
___________
Clock Select Switch: ___________
MAC Air Switch:
___________
XFMR A or DIR A Cable Connection Installed: __________
Switch Settings, Channel B:
VXIbus Logical Address Switch:
Interrupt Level Switch:
Halt Switch:
______________
_____________
______________
Clock Select Switch: ____________
MAC Air Switch:
____________
XFMR B or DIR B Cable Connection Installed: ____________
Performed by: __________________________
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Date: _____________
OPERATION
OVERVIEW
Each channel of the WA73A-455 Module is
programmed by ASCII characters issued
from the system controller to the WA73A455 Module via the VXIbus card cage
backplane.
NOTE:
For RT-to-controller transactions, the bus
controller sends a 16-bit command word
specifying the RT address and the number
of data words (up to 32) to be transmitted.
The RT then returns a status word with its
own address and status, followed by the
required data transmission.
Each of the channels must be
programmed separately.
The module is a VXIbus Message Based
instrument and communicates using the
VXIbus Word Serial Protocol. Refer to the
manual for the VXIbus device that will be the
WA73A-455 Modules' commander for details
on the operation of that device.
MIL-STD-1553 provides for the time-division
multiplexed communication by up to 31
avionics units (RTs) via a two-wire, high
speed, 1 MHz, command/data bus.
According to the defined protocol, a single
bus controller at any one time controls the
flow of information among the RTs. If
further information is needed, refer to the
standard (MIL-STD-1553B or MIL-HDBK1553B may be obtained from the Naval
Publications Center, or your in plant
government publication department).
Additional types of operation providing for
RT-to-RT transfers, a set of defined mode
codes, and a broadcast mode, are described
in MIL-STD-1553B.
POWER-UP
Each channel of the WA73A-455 Module
can operate in any of three modes:
Bus Controller Simulator mode
RT Simulator mode, or Bus Monitor mode.
For controller-to RT transactions, a 16-bit
command word is sent which specifies the
RT that is to receive data, and the number of
data words (up to 32) to be received. The
RT then processes the command
information and the data and returns a 16-bit
status word containing the RT address and
status information.
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Each word (command, status, or data) is a
16-bit word encoded in a Manchester biphase format that eliminates the need for
separate clock lines and minimizes any DC
voltage component on the common bus.
The 16-bit word is always preceded by a 3bit-time sync signal and followed by an odd
parity bit. The sync signal is defined as
being high for 1.5 bit-times, then low for 1.5
bit-times for a command or status word.
This sequence is reversed (low, then high)
for a data word.
24
The WA73A-455 Module will be ready for
programming five seconds after power-up.
The VXIbus Resource Manager may add an
additional one or two second delay. The
Power LED will be on, and all other LEDs
off. The MSG LED will blink during the
power-up sequence as the VXIbus Resource
Manager addresses all modules in the card
cage. The default condition of the module
after power-up is as described in the
SYSFAIL Self Test and Initialization
subsection.
SYSTEM COMMANDS
COMMAND OVERVIEW
Although these non-data commands are
initiated by the WA73A-455's commander
rather than the system controller, they have
an effect on the WA73A-455 Module. The
following VXIbus Word Serial commands will
affect the WA73A-455:
Command
Effect
Clear
The module clears its VXIbus interface.
Current module operations are
unaffected
Trigger
The WA73A-455 Module will begin
operation as a 1553 bus controller, RT
or monitor, according to the commands
that have been sent to it prior to the
VXI trigger command. External
triggering must be specified by the T
command to enable the VXI trigger
command.
Begin Normal Operation
The module begins normal operation.
Read Protocol
The module will return its protocol to its
commander.
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This section explains the order of
commands, and describes each of the three
modes: Bus Controller mode, Remote
Terminal mode, and Bus Monitor mode.
The mode descriptions give typical
examples and are general in nature,
intended to indicate some possible uses and
to suggest ideas for using the WA73A-455 in
other applications.
Each command is described in full in the
Detailed Descriptions section.
Since each channel of the WA73A-455 must
be programmed separately, references to
the WA73A-455 module apply to each
channel of the module.
Order of Commands
Command order is significant for the
WA73A-455. The K (preferably) or F
command must be the first command issued
to the WA73A-455 Module after power is
applied to the card. Once the F command
has been issued, it cannot be re-issued
unless it is preceded by a K command. After
the WA73A-455 Module has been
programmed to a given mode, other
commands can be issued in any order with
one exception: a B command must be
issued to allocate a buffer before R, S, or D
commands can be used to put data into the
buffer. New users should follow the order
shown in the following mode descriptions
until they are thoroughly familiar with the
modules' operation.
Bus Controller Simulator Mode
Commands available for use in the Bus
Controller Simulator mode, in recommended
programming order, are:
Command
Description
K
H (Optional)
F
J (Optional)
B
S
Kill/Reset
Hi Speed
Function
Jitter
Buffer
Bus Controller Sequence
List
Data
Error Generation mode
Transmit Voltage
Level/Receive Threshold
Level
Gap
Trigger
Quit
Condition
Accept
D
M (Optional)
V (Optional)
G (Optional)
T
Q (Optional)
C (Optional)
A (Optional)
The first command sent to the WA73A-455
following the K command must be a F
command to place the module in the Bus
Controller Simulator mode. After the mode
is selected, B commands are issued to
allocate buffer space for the Bus Controller
Sequence List (see the Glossary for Bus
Controller Sequence List definition), and for
up to 32 transmit/receive buffers.
Figure 455-3 is a simplified memory map to
aid in understanding how the various buffers
are set up and interact.
In the Bus Controller Simulator mode, the
typical sequence of events that will take
place when a T command is received by the
WA73A-455 module is as follows (refer to
Figure 455-3):
Bus Cntrl Sequence
List Buffer
RT 4
RT 2
RT 2
RT 4
etc.
XMIT 4 Buffer
REC 4 Buffer
XMIT 2 Buffer
REC 2 Buffer
Msg 1
Msg 2
.
.
.
Last Msg.
Area 1
Area 2
Msg 1
Msg 2
.
.
.
Last Msg.
Area 1
Area 2
Figure 455-3: Bus Controller Simulator Example
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NOTE:
1)
The WA73A-455 Module will examine
the contents of the Bus Controller
Sequence List buffer to determine the
proper order in which to use the
various buffers. The first buffer in the
list is buffer 4, so the first message
sent will be the first message (Msg 1)
contained in the transmit buffer 4.
Area 1 in receive buffer 4 will receive
and store the response to message 1.
4)
Buffer numbers are usually associated
with an RT number. In the Bus
Controller mode, however, this is not
absolutely necessary.
Any valid or invalid command word
followed by optional data words may
be contained in each message. In
addition to storing all response, status,
and data words received prior to the
next command in the receive buffer,
the WA73A-455 Module also stores the
command word in the receive buffer for
reference. The command word is
stored before the response words. (In
the case of an RT-RT command, only
the first command word is stored).
2)
3)
After the transaction for buffer 4 is
completed, the WA73A-455 Module
takes the next item in the Bus
Controller Sequence List. In the
example in Figure 455-3, this would be
in buffer 2. The sequence of events
described in step 1 is repeated, and
message 1 in transmit buffer 2's
transmit buffer is transmitted.
The next Bus Controller Sequence List
item is buffer 2 a second time. The
second message in transmit buffer 2 is
then transmitted.
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Although Figure 455-3 refers to
"Area 1" and "Area 2" for the
receive buffers, you only need to
allocate a total size for each
receive buffer. The card will
sequentially load consecutive RT
responses. That is, message 2 is
loaded immediately following
message 1, followed by message
3. etc.
The next item in the example is buffer
4 again. This instructs the WA73A-455
Module to process the next message in
transmit buffer 4. Since the last
message processed was message 1,
message 2 will be the next one
handled.
As this example demonstrates, any number
of messages can be handled for any number
of RTs in any order, limited only by the
amount of memory available on the WA73A455 Module.
To use the Bus Controller mode, first
determine the number of buffers required
and the access order. The following
constraints apply:
•
The number of words put into the
data buffer should exactly equal the
number of transmit words allocated
by the B command for proper
operation
•
Allocation of both a transmit and
receive buffer for any RT to be used
is required for proper operation
•
The function that an RT is to perform
is an important programming
consideration, since all WA73A-455
Module buffers are "wrap-around"
buffers. Attempting to load too much
information may cause the
information at the front of a buffer to
be over-written by new information.
Normally, the WA73A-455 transmit
buffers will be relatively large and the
receive buffers relatively small if the
RT is to receive, and vice versa if the
RT is to transmit.
•
The preceding steps are the minimum that
must be done to program one channel of the
WA73A-455 Module to operate as a bus
controller.
The command word needs to be
accounted for in allocating receive
buffer storage.
Allowing for these constraints, determine
the size of each buffer, and allocate the
desired buffers.
After the sequence list and transmit and
receive buffers have been allocated with
the B command, use the following steps to
load the desired information into each
buffer.
1)
2)
Use an S command to specify the
order in which the buffers will be
addressed (Bus Controller Sequence
List). The S command is also used to
specify the interval between the midtransition of the parity bit in one
message and the mid-transition of the
sync pattern in the next message
(message pacing).
The D command is issued next, to
load each transmit buffer in the
WA73A-455 Module with the proper
messages to be sent. An RT receive
message consists of a receive
command word followed by one or
more data words, while an RT
transmit message consists of only a
transmit command word. Command
and data words can be loaded into
each transmit buffer in any order.
The D command is also used to
specify the type of induced errors, if
any, that are to be placed in the data.
Errors may be introduced and tracked
on a word-by-word basis. (See the
section on Error Handling for a more
detailed explanation.)
3)
The last word of each message placed
in a transmit buffer must be marked
with a "last-word flag" in order for the
WA73A-455 to determine the end of
the message and to correlate
messages in the transmit buffers with
entries in the Bus Controller Sequence
List
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Other parameters, which are set to default
values in normal operation, can also be
programmed. For example, the V command
may be used to change the output voltage
transmission level from the default value
(6.38V ptp), or to change the receive voltage
threshold from the default value (2.00V ptp).
The value against which the RTs response
time is checked can also be changed from
the default value (4 microseconds) using the
G command. An alternate set of transmitted
data error types can be selected using the M
(Error mode) command.
After all the buffers have been allocated, the
data loaded, a bus controller sequence
established, and the optional parameters (if
any) specified, use a T command to initiate
the programmed bus communications
sequence. Execution can follow one of
three courses, as specified by the T
command.
1)
The programmed bus communications
sequence is executed a specified
number of times.
2)
The WA73A-455 Module is placed in
an endless loop and the bus
communications sequence is
continuously executed until the card is
halted with a Q command or an
External Halt Input signal.
3)
The bus communications sequence is
stepped forward by one or more
messages each time a T command is
issued.
After a sequence has been executed, you
will usually want to examine the results of
the run. An A command allows you to
examine a given buffer word by word,
looking at values for received data and
errors (if any). The C command allows
you to quickly test whether any errors
exist in a specified buffer, without having
to examine the buffer contents word by
word.
The RT address is not required to agree
with the buffer number in the Bus
Controller mode, which allows more
flexible use of the buffers. For example,
buffers might be assigned to different
sub-addresses of the same RT and the
Bus Controller Sequence list used to
specify the order in which commands are
sent to the sub-addresses.
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command to place the module in the RT
Simulator mode. After the mode selection is
made, a B command is issued to allocate
transmit and receive buffer space for each of
the up to 31 RTs to be simulated.
The transmit buffer for each RT is used to
store the message (status and data words)
that the RT will return to the bus controller,
while the receive buffer is used to store
messages (command and data words) sent
to the RT by the bus controller.
Remote Terminal Simulator Mode
Commands available for use in the RT
Simulator mode, in the recommended
order for programming, are:
Command
Description
K
H (Optional)
F
J (Optional)
B
R(Optional)
D
M (Optional)
P (Optional)
V (Optional)
Kill/Reset
Hi Speed
Function
Jitter
Buffer
RT Response Time List
Data
Error Generation mode
Sync Pattern
Transmit Voltage
Level/Receive Threshold
Level
Trigger
Quit
Condition
Accept
T
Q (Optional)
C (Optional)
A (Optional)
Transmit and receive buffers must be set up
for each RT that the WA73A-455 Module is
to simulate. If the WA73A-455 module
receives messages for an RT which has not
been defined by a B command, the
associated command and data words will be
ignored.. In the RT Simulator mode, the
buffer number must be the same as the RT
terminal number in the command word sent
by the Bus Controller.
Figure 455-4 is a simplified memory map to
aid in understanding the operation of the
WA73A-455 Module in the following
example. The block at the top of the figure
defines the order in which the bus controller
will send messages to the WA73A-455
Module in this example.
The first command sent to the WA73A-455
following the K command must be a FR
Bus Traffic
RT 5
RT 8
RT 5
RT 5
RT 5
XMIT Buffer
RT 5
REC Buffer
RT 8
XMIT Buffer
RT 8
REC Buffer
Msg 1
Msg 2
Msg 3
Area 1
Area 2
Area 3
Msg 1
Area 1
RT Response Time List
4 microseconds (default value)
Figure 455-4: RT Simulator Example
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Assuming the WA73A-455 Module has
received a T (Trigger) command, the
sequence of events that will take place when
the card begins receiving messages from
the bus controller is as follows:
1)
The first message received by the
WA73A-455 Module (message 1) is
decoded and found to be a transmit
command to RT 5. The received
message is therefore a single
command word, and is stored in RT
5's receive buffer (Area 1 in Figure
455-4)
Using this pattern, any number of RTs can
be simulated to handle any number of
messages in any order, limited only by the
amount of memory available on the WA73A455 Module.
Since, in this example, the WA73A455 Modules RT Response Time List
was left at the default of 4 µs for all
messages, the WA73A-455 Module
will transmit the first response
message contained in RT 5's transmit
buffer with a response time of 4µs.
It is the responsibility of the
programmer to load the first response
message in RT 5's transmit buffer
with a proper status word and the
proper number of data words.
2)
The next command received instructs
the WA73A-455 Module to simulate
RT 8 in the transmit mode. The
received command word will be
stored in Area 1 of RT 8's receive
buffer. Four µs later, message 1 from
RT 8's transmit buffer will be sent to
the bus controller. It is the
responsibility of the programmer to
load the first response message in RT
8's transmit buffer with a proper
status word and the proper number of
data words.
3)
When the third command word is
received, a request for RT 5 to
transmit again, message 2 in RT 5's
transmit buffer is returned to the
system controller. The received
command word is stored in Area 2 of
RT 5's receive buffer.
4)
RT 5 is next sent a receive command.
The incoming command word and
data word(s) will be stored in Area 3
of RT 5's receive buffer. Four µs after
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the last data word is received,
message 3 from RT 5's transmit
buffer will be sent to the bus
controller. For proper operation,
message 3 in buffer 5 must be
programmed as a status word and no
data words.
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After the buffers for each simulated RT have
been defined with the B command, the next
step is to use the D command to load each
transmit buffer with the proper status and
data words to be returned to the bus
controller. The proper status and data
words are defined based on the sequence of
commands that will be transmitted by the
1553 bus controller. The D command is also
used to specify the type of induced errors, if
any, that are to be placed in the data.
Errors may be introduced and tracked on a
word-by-word basis. (See the section on
Error Generation for a more detailed
explanation.
These steps represent the minimum steps
required to program the WA73A-455 Module
as an RT simulator. Optional commands are
also available which extend the flexibility of
the WA73A-455 Module by allowing worstcase testing of various 1553 data bus
parameters.
In the above example, the 4µs default RT
response time was used when responding to
each bus controller command. If desired, a
specific RT response time can be associated
with each message received by the WA73A455 Module. To do so, a B command is first
used to define the size of the RT Response
Time List. (The default size is a one-entry list
containing a value of 4 microseconds) The
R command is then used to place response
time entries in the list.
Each time a message is received, the next
available response time from the RT
Response Time List will be used to
determine the length of time the WA73A455 Module will wait before responding to
the received bus controller command. For
example, if ten response times were
defined, the first response time would be
used when processing the first message on
the bus, the second response time when
processing the second message on the
bus, etc. If message 11 was received, the
first response time in the RT Response
Time List would be used again, since the
RT Response Time List is a "wrap-around"
list.
Additional optional commands V,P and M
are available in this mode. The V (Voltage)
command is used to set the transmit
voltage level and receive threshold voltage
level, and functions as previously
described for the Bus Controller Simulator
mode of operation.
The P (Pattern) command instructs the
WA73A-455 Module not to begin
processing messages immediately after
receipt of a T (Trigger) command, but
rather to wait until a command word is
received that contains the 16-bit data
pattern defined by the P command.
Message processing will begin with the first
command word that contains the required
pattern. The P command can also be
combined with the External Trigger Input to
create various types of WA73A-455
Module triggering sequences (see the T
command in the Detailed Description subsection).
Transmitted data error types can be
selected using the M (Error mode)
command.
After all the buffer have been allocated, the
data loaded, and the optional parameters
(if any) specified, a T command is issued to
initiate the programmed bus
communications sequence. Execution can
follow one of two courses, as specified by
the T command:
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1)
The number of messages specified
by the T command are processed.
2)
The WA73A-455 Module is placed in
an endless loop, and messages are
processed until the card is sent a Q
command or an External Halt.
NOTE:
The WA73A-455 Module in the
RT mode will remain in a bus
active mode until the number of
messages as specified by the T
command is received. If the
messages are not sent, a Q
command may be required to
terminate the Bus Active mode.
After a sequence has been executed, you
will normally want to examine the results.
The A command allows you to examine a
given buffer word by word, looking at values
for received data and errors (if any).
The C command allows you to quickly test
whether any errors exist in a specified
buffer, without having to examine the buffer
contents word by word.
Output pulse will be placed on the Position
Identification Output line.
Bus Monitor Mode
A Q command or an External Halt Input
signal must be used to stop data collection.
The A and C commands have the same
meaning and use as described previously for
the Bus Controller Simulator and RT
Simulator modes (except that only one
buffer, rather than 32 buffers, is defined).
Commands available for use in the Bus
Monitor mode, in the recommended order of
programming, are:
Command
Description
K
H (Optional)
F
J (Optional)
M (Optional)
P (Optional)
V (Optional)
Kill/Reset
Hi Speed
Function
Jitter
Error Generation mode
Sync Pattern
Transmit Voltage
Level/Receive Threshold
Level
Trigger
Quit
Condition
Accept
T
Q
C (Optional)
A (Optional)
The V, P, and M commands, as described
for the Remote Terminal mode, are also
available in this mode.
All-mode Commands
The following commands are available in
every mode:
Command
As for the first two modes, an F command
must be the first command issued following
a K command, to place the WA73A-455
Module in the Bus Monitor Mode.
A 30,000-word buffer is automatically
allocated. The 30,000-word buffer takes
approximately one second to allocate in the
hi-speed mode. If several modules are
chained together as bus monitor modules
using the Position Identification Output and
External Trigger Input (see Application Note
455-III in Appendix E), they may all be
issued an F command prior to data
collection to minimize test execution time.
A T command is issued, followed optionally
by an F and a number from 1 to 30000,
instructing the WA73A-455 Module to begin
collecting all 1553 bus data.
If an F does not follow the T command, the
30,000-word buffer will function as a wraparound buffer containing the last 30,000
words received. If a F follows the T
command, the 30,000 word buffer will
contain the first 30,000 words received. The
optional number following the F specifies the
position at which the Position Identification
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Description
E
Error - Returns an error code to the
system controller which describes any
syntax error detected during
programming.
H
Hi-Speed - Enables optimized versions
of the D (Data), T (Trigger) and A
(Accept) commands which significantly
improves the execution time of each of
those commands. The time required to
initialize memory in the monitor mode
with the FM command is also reduced
significantly.
I
Interrupt - Indicates to the WA73A-455
Module if an interrupt is to be sent to
the system controller upon completion
of a sequence of 1553 bus
transactions.
J
Jitter - Enables or disables the
detection of transition time errors in the
WA73A-455 receiver circuitry.
K
Kill - Resets card to power-up state
with all parameters set to defaults.
ERRORS
The WA73A-455 Module allows several
types of errors to be generated to provide for
worst-case testing of 1553 bus devices. In
addition, errors associated with the 1553 bus
can be detected, classified, and stored.
Error Generation
Two different modes of error generation are
provided by the M command. Error
generation in each mode occurs on an
individual word basis. The following types of
errors can be generated in the primary error
mode:
Sync Error Early
-- The sync pattern
mid-transition will occur one-half bittime or 500 nanoseconds before the
time required by MIL-STD-1553.
17-bit Word -- An additional bit will be
added to the transmission prior to the
parity bit for a total word time of 21
bits, including sync and parity.
15-bit Word -- The last specified bit prior
to the parity bit will be omitted from
the transmission for a total word time
of 19 bits, including sync and parity.
Drooped Bit -- Whenever the 1553 bus is
active, it is at either a high or low
state. If a dropped bit is specified,
the bus will go to zero volts for one
bit-time at a time other than the 3
sync bit-times or the parity bit-time.
The total duration of the word will
remain 20 bit-times. The position in
the word where the error is generated
is controlled in the same manner as
that described above for a
Manchester error.
An alternate error mode is provided
primarily to allow testing of a bus controller's
or RT's ability to handle bit transitions of
+/- 150 nanoseconds in received data
without degradation of receiver
performance. The additional error types
that can be generated in the alternate error
mode are:
Sync Error Late
-- The sync pattern
mid-transition will occur one-half bittime or 500 nanoseconds after the
time required by MIL-STD-1553.
Incorrect Parity -- Even parity will be
generated rather than odd parity as
specified in MIL-STD-1553.
Early Sync Transition Time -- The sync
pattern mid-transition will occur 150
nanoseconds before the time specified
by MIL-STD-1553.
Manchester error -- Manchester encoding
specifies that the polarity of the data
during the first half of a bit-time shall
be opposite the polarity of the data
during the last half of the bit-time.
When a Manchester error is specified,
the data will be either high or low for
the full bit-time depending on whether
the data bit is a 1 or 0. The bit
position of the error is controlled by
the value of the last 4 bits of the word.
A hexadecimal value of E through 0 in
these 4 bits will generate the error in
the first through fifteenth data bits
respectively. A hexadecimal value of
F will generate the error at the last bittime prior to the parity bit.
Late Sync Transition Time -- The sync
pattern mid-transition will occur 150
nanoseconds after the time required
by MIL-STD-1553.
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Dropped Parity Bit -- Whenever the 1553
bus is active, it is at either a high or
low state. A Dropped Parity Bit will
generate zero volts for the parity bittime. The total duration of the word
will remain 20 bit-times, although if the
word is the last word in a message, it
will indistinguishable from a 19-bit
word duration.
34
Interword Message Gaps of 14 µs or more
may be generated by specifying an
end-of-message flag in the middle of a
message. In the Bus Controller
Simulator mode, the RT for which the
error is generated is entered twice in
the Bus Controller Sequence List.
Single-bit Interword Message Gap - A gap
of one µs between two otherwise valid
words in a supposedly contiguous
message is generated. The gap
follows the word for which the error is
specified.
14-bit Word/Single-bit Interword Message
Gap - This error will generate a word
of 2 µs less than normal duration
followed by a gap of 1 µs.
An Incorrect RT Address in a status word is
generated by specifying an RT
address for the status word different
than the RT transmit buffer where the
status word is contained.
Early Bit Transition Time -- For one
bit-time other than the three sync
bit-times or the parity bit-time, the
mid-bit transition will occur 150
nanoseconds early. The position in
the word where the error is generated
is controlled in the same manner as
that described previously for a
Manchester error.
No RT Response may be generated in the
RT Simulator mode by programming
the response time to an excessive
value so that the response is to the
following message on the bus One
entry in the RT Response Time List
must be deleted, corresponding to the
missing response.
Transmit/Receive Bit may be made
incompatible with the direction of the
data flow. In the Bus Controller
Simulator mode, this is accomplished
by setting the T/R bit to RT transmit,
then sending data words following the
command word, or by clearing the
T/R bit to indicate RT receive, and
then failing to send data word(s)
following the command word.
Late Bit Transition Time -- For one bit-time
other than the three sync bit-times or
the parity bit-time, the mid-bit
transition will occur 150 nanoseconds
late. The position in the word where
the error is generated is controlled in
the same manner as that described
previously for a Manchester error.
Only one type of error may be specified for
a particular word; however, each word may
have a different type of error, as allowed by
the programmed error mode, or no error.
In the RT Simulator mode,
transmit/receive bit incompatibility is
accomplished by having only a status
word prior to the end-of-message flag
when the RT is expecting a request to
transmit data, or sending data words in
addition to the status word when the
RT is expecting to receive data.
Additional message-formatting errors may
be generated as follows:
Incorrect Sync errors may be generated by
specifying a data sync for a command
or status word, or a command sync for
a data word in the data list.
Word Count errors may be generated in the
Bus Controller Simulator mode by
making the number of data words
following the command word
different from the word count specified
in the command word. Similarly, word
count errors may be generated in the
RT Simulator mode by making the
number of words following the status
words different from that specified by
the incoming command word.
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Sync error (4)
When an invalid sync pattern that is
also not a valid Manchester pattern
(to distinguish this error from a Too
Many Bits error) occurs at the time
when a sync pattern is expected (at
the beginning of a transmission or 20
bit-times after the start of the last valid
sync pattern), then a Sync error will be
recorded. At the beginning of the
transmission, the width of the 1.5 µs
first half of the sync pulse is also
tested. The width must be from 1.4 to
1.72 µs.
An error which causes more than 32 words
of data to be transmitted, in either the
Bus Controller Simulator or RT
Simulator mode, can be generated by
placing the end-of-message flag in a
transmit buffer after more than 32
words.
A Response Time error can be generated
by programming an excessive
response time (up to 65,535 µs) with
the R command.
Any other errors which are dependant on
the command or status word contents or the
number of words transmitted may be
simulated by defining those invalid words or
messages in the transmit buffers. They
include improper mode code usage, invalid
subaddress, illegal commands, and
improper use of the status word bits.
Too Many Bits (5)
Lack of a valid sync pattern or gap
(zero level on the bus) within 20 bittimes after the last valid sync pattern
will be recorded as a Too Many Bits
error. This error will actually be
reported on the word following the
word in error. When a Single Error bit
is detected on the last word of a
message, an error may not be
reported, since this condition is
indistinguishable from permissible
noise during transmitter shutdown.
When several extra bits are detected
on the last word of a message, they
will be treated as an additional data
word, typically a word with too few
bits.
Error Detection
Error types detected by the WA73A-455,
their decimal assignment (value of second
byte in response to the A command), and
definitions are:
Excessive Gap Time (1)
If an RT does not respond to a
controller command from the WA73455 Module within the time specified
by the G (Gap) command, an
Excessive Gap Time error will be
recorded. This error is recorded for
each word of the RT's response
message unless an error of higher
priority is detected.
Too Few Bits (6)
A valid sync pattern that occurs less
than 20 bit-times following the last
valid sync pattern, or a gap (zero level
on the bus) that occurs and doesn't
recover within 20 bit-times (to
distinguish it from a Dropped Bit error)
after the last valid sync pattern, will be
recorded as a Too Few Bits error
Parity error (2)
If an even parity is detected in an
otherwise acceptable 20-bit word, a
Parity error will be recorded.
Manchester error (3)
An invalid Manchester pattern (signal
during the last half of a bit-time is not
opposite the level during the first half
of the bit-time) that is also not a valid
sync pattern (to distinguish this error
from a Too Few Bits error) will be
recorded as a Manchester error.
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Although this is a useful "quality of
signal" test when the WA73A-455 is
closely attached to a unit under test,
the error may need to be ignored
under actual bus operational
conditions (due to bus noise or
transmission reflection problems).
This error will actually be reported an
the word following the word in error
unless the condition occurs on the last
word of a message, in which case the
error is reported on the failing word.
In addition, if the error occurs in other
than the last word in a message, the
sync pattern of the following word will
cause Manchester error to be
recorded on the failing word.
Word Count error (9)
In the Bus Controller Simulator mode,
a Word Count error will be recorded if
an RT does nor respond with the
number of words requested by the
command word.
Dropped Bit (7)
A gap (zero level on the bus) of one or
more bit-times that recovers within 20
bit-times after the start of the last valid
sync pattern will be recorded as a
Dropped Bit error. The dropped-biterror latch will not be cleared until the
start of the next message and
Dropped Bit errors will be recorded on
all words remaining in the present
message.
In the Bus Monitor mode, a Word
Count error will be reported if either
the bus controller command or the
remote terminal response does not
contain the proper number of words.
In the RT Simulator mode, a Word
Count error will be recorded if the bus
controller under test sends a
command word that is not consistent
with the transmit/receive bit and
number of words specified in that
command word. A Word Count error
will be reported only on the first word
of a message.
Incorrect Bit Transition Time (8)
All 0-to-1 and 1-to-0 transitions of the
bus are checked to see whether they
are within 62.5 to 125 nanoseconds of
the expected transition time. The
acceptance window is 187.5
nanoseconds wide, and slides from
62.5 to 125 nanoseconds on either
side of the expected transition time,
depending on the phase relationship
between the incoming signal and the
internal WA73A-455 Module 16 MHz
clock.
Message Format error (10)
The message received was not a valid
1553 format for the particular mode
selected. The error must be caused by
something other than a wrong number
of data words. A Message Format
error will be reported on each word of
the message in error. The error may,
or course, be overridden by a higher
priority error, an a word-by-word basis
Message format error detection is
described in more detail in the
Command Checking section
Once an Incorrect Bit Transition Time
error occurs in a message, data may
not be recorded correctly until the
start of the next message, and the
error will be recorded for all words
until the end of the message. This
error detection may be inhibited with
the J command. Crossing times are
measured at the receiver threshold
point (1.0 and -1.0 volts for a 2.0 V ptp
receive threshold setting, for
example).
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No data error (11)
No data has been loaded into the
receive buffer.
Interword Gap error (12)
A word is followed by an unexpected
gap, or a word is not followed by an
expected gap. This error is
distinguished from a "word count" error
in that the proper number of data
words occurred between two
command words; but a gap occurred
at other than the end of the message,
or no gap occurred between
messages. The error is reported on a
word-by-word basis.
Only one of the above errors will be
recorded for a particular word. If more
than one error exists in a word, error
logging will proceed according to the
following priorities:
Highest
Next highest
Next highest
Next highest
Next highest
Next highest
Next highest
Next highest
Next highest
Lowest
-
error type 8
error type 7
error type 6, 5
error type 4
error type 3
error type 2
error type 1
error type 9
error type 10
error type 12
Error types 9, 10, and 12 are reported only
when using the formatted hexadecimal
format (HF) when accepting data with the
A (Accept) command.
In MIL-STD-1553A applications where
mode codes and status word bits are less
well defined, the HF format should not be
used.
A decimal value 11 in the error code field
indicates that no more data is available.
This does not indicate an error.
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Command Checking
This section describes in detail the Message
Format errors (error type 10) detected by the
WA73A-455 Module.
Mode code commands are checked for
proper presence or absence of a data word
and direction of the data word (depending
on the mode code), and also for proper use
of the broadcast command.
Broadcast commands are checked for
absence of a response.
RT-to-RT commands are checked for
response by both RT's, consistent RT
numbers, proper use of the T/R bit, word
count in both command words, and
consistent actual word count.
RT-to-RT broadcast commands are checked
for no response by a receive RT.
Illegal use of mode codes in an RT-to-RT
transfer is checked.
The contents of the status word in both
normal and RT-to-RT transfers are checked
for the following:
•
Reserved bits should not be set.
•
The instrumentation bit should not be set
in a status word.
•
The busy bit should be accompanied by
no data words even if data words are
requested.
•
A message error bit will be marked as a
message format error.
•
Broadcast received bit and dynamic bus
controller acceptance bits are checked to
see that they only occur in response to a
transmit status mode command.
The C (Condition) command also checks for
the above format errors.
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NOTE:
Proper use of the format checking
requires that the receive buffer
not have been wrapped. The C
command also requires that the
data be followed by at least one
No Data Word indication.
NOTE:
Checking of RT-to-RT format
errors in the RT Simulator mode
is limited. The use of the RT
Simulator in RT-to-RT transfer
must be restricted to well-defined
situations and is discussed further
in the Application Note on RT-toRT Transfers in Appendix D.
COMMAND DESCRIPTIONS
Command Syntax
Command protocol and syntax for the
WA73A-455 module are as follows:
•
Each command consists of a single
line of up to 240 characters.
Parameters may not be "wrapped
around" (continued on the next line).
Every command must end with a
carriage-return <CR>. Line-feeds
<LF> are optional. In some cases a
line feed may significantly slow down
an operation.
•
If a given parameter is to be skipped,
left at its previous value, or have its
default value accepted, its position
must still be denoted using
consecutive commas.
•
If a character is not enclosed by
brackets, that character itself is sent,
otherwise:
[]
encloses the symbol for the
actual argument to be sent.
These argument symbols are
defined under each command
heading.
<CR> indicates a carriage-return.
<LF>
•
indicates a line-feed.
All characters must be sent in upper
case form.
This module does not accept superfluous
spaces. Some controllers automatically add
spaces to fill the command string. If your
controller adds these spaces, see your
controller manual to determine how to
suppress the spaces.
In the command descriptions, MSB indicates
the Most Significant Bit, and LSB indicates
the Least Significant Bit.
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Detailed Descriptions
A detailed description of each command, in alphabetical order, is given on the following pages.
Command:
A
(Accept)
Syntax:
Az1, z2, z3
Purpose:
The A (Accept) command specifies the data which the WA73A-455 Module is
to pass back to the system controller in response to the next system controller
input request, and the format for this data. This is a required command.
Description:
This description contains the definition of the z1, z2, z3 parameters, the syntax
of the returned data for each format, how to use the A command, a tutorial,
and examples.
In the Bus Controller Simulator mode or RT Simulator mode, z1 specifies the
number of the receive buffer (0-31) from which the data and error
information are to be collected. In the Bus Monitor mode, z1 must be an
asterisk (*, Octal 52), indicating the single large receive buffer allocated in the
Bus Monitor mode.
z2 is a number from 1 to 30000 that specifies the location within the selected
receive buffer for the start of data and error collection. Data will be read
back starting at the location in the buffer.
z3 is one of the following ASCII characters, which specifies the format of the
returned data:
H
Hexadecimal - only word level checking
HF
Hexadecimal with Message Format Checking - word level
checking, checks for word count and message format errors.
HE Hexadecimal with Extended Message Format Checking - word
level checking, checks for word count and message format errors,
identifies command versus status words, and indicates whether a
gap in data activity follows the word.
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Binary
BL
Blocked Binary
z3
Controller receives:
H, HF, or HE
six hexadecimal characters, followed by <CR> and <LF> for
each input request
B
three 8-bit binary bytes followed by <CR> and <LF>
characters.
BL
three 8-bit binary bytes with no <CR> or <LF> until a NoData word is detected. The No-data word three bytes will
then be followed by <CR> and <LF> characters. If a
No-Data word is not detected (the receive buffer has
wrapped), the system controller may terminate input in the
Blocked Binary mode at any time by issuing a new output
command to the card.
41
After the Accept command is issued, the system controller normally begins
requesting input from the WA73A-455 Module. The complete syntax of the
returned data for each format is as follows:
H and HF Format:
(6 hex characters)
1st character 0 indicates a data word
1 indicates a status or command word
2nd character - Error code/No Data
Value
Error
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
A
B
C
No Errors
Excessive Response Time
Incorrect Parity
Manchester Error
Sync Error
Too Many Bits
Too Few Bits
Dropped Bit Error
Bit Transition Time Error
Word Count Error*
Message Format Error*
No Additional Data
Interword Gap Error*
* Available only when z3 is specified as HF or HE
For a complete description of error types, see the Error Handling
subsection.
3rd through 6th characters Hexadecimal equivalent of the 16 data bits in the command, status, or
data word. The MSB of byte 3 is the first data bit transmitted on the
bus. The LSB of byte 6 is the last data bit transmitted on the data bus.
7th character - Carriage-return <CR>.
8th character - Line-feed <LF>.
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HE Format: (6 hex characters)
The data is formatted the same as the HF format characters 3 through 8. For
the HE format, the first and second characters are redefined as follows:
1st character Value
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Word Type
Data Word
Command Word
RT-RT Transmit Command
Status Word
Data Word
Command Word
RT-RT Transmit Command
Status Word
Gap Following
No
No
No
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
2nd character Codes 0 through C are the same as the HF format. An additional code
D has been added for the HE format, which indicates that no data was
received because the Trigger command to the module was aborted by a
Q (Quit), K (Kill) or External Halt input before the trigger actually
occurred.
B and BL Format: (three 8-bit binary bytes)
1st ByteThe three most significant bits are set to 0. The next bit is 0 if the word
is a data word and 1 if the word is a status word or command word.
The four least significant bits contain the error code, defined as follows:
Low Order
Four Bits
Error/No Data
0000
0001
0010
0011
0100
0101
0110
0111
1000
1011
No Errors
Excessive Response Time
Incorrect Parity
Manchester Error
Sync Error
Too Many Bits
Too Few Bits
Dropped Bit Error
Bit Transition time Error
No Additional Data
For a complete description of error types, see the Error Handling
subsection.
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2nd and 3rd BytesThese bytes contain the 16 data bits of the command, status, or data
word. The MSB of the second byte is the MSB of the 16-bit data word
and the first data bit transmitted on the bus. The LSB of the third byte
is the LSB of the 16-bit data word and the last data bit transmitted on
the bus.
Using the Accept Command
The Accept command is a required command. If an Accept command,
Condition command, Error command, or TEST command is not sent before
requesting a response from the WA73A-455, a ?<CR><LF> will be returned
in response to an Input Request.
When the A command is used to return binary or hexadecimal data to the
system controller, keep in mind that each data buffer is a wrap-around
buffer. The WA73A-455 Module will continue sending data to the system
controller from the specified buffer until the system controller stops
requesting input.
For example, if a given buffer is 50 words long, and the system controller
requests 100 words, the buffer will be transmitted twice. If each buffer is
specified to be slightly larger than the expected amount of data to be
received into the buffer, then the No Additional data code can be used by the
system controller to determine when to stop requesting input from the
WA73A-455 Module.
In the Blocked Binary Accept command format, the No Additional data code
is used to append a <CR> and <LF>. In IEEE-488 systems, the <LF> may
be used to generate an EOI and automatically terminate input following the
first No Data word.
Tutorial:
Derivation of MIL-STD-1553B Command Word Content From Hexadecimal
Data
MIL-STD-1553B requires a specific format for the bus controller command
word. The first five bits transmitted are the RT Terminal Address, the sixth
bit is the Transmit/Receive bit, the next five are the RT Sub-address, and the
last five bits are the word count. As an example, the command word content
of "D423h" would be derived as follows:
1.
Write down the bit pattern corresponding to the hexadecimal value,
D423:
1001 0100 0010 0011
2.
Reblock the bits in groups of 5, 1, 5 and 5 bits to correspond to the
command word format: 11010 1 0001 00011
3.
Determine the decimal value for each block, for example, 11010 equals
decimal 26.
The resulting command word contents for this example are:
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Example:
RT Address
26
T/R Bit
Set
Sub-address
1
Word Count
3
To obtain data beginning at the start of the buffer associated with RT 26,
using hexadecimal data format, the following Accept command would be
issued:
A26,1,H
If buffer 26 contained a status word and three data words, with the second
data word containing an incorrect parity bit, the following might be returned
to the system controller if input was requested five times from the WA73A455 Module:
Input
Request
1st Byte
1st
2nd
3rd
4th
5th
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Data Returned:
H, HF, HE Format
2nd Byte
10D100<CR><LF>
00B6AD<CR><LF>
02B6AF<CR><LF>
0008F6<CR><LF>
0B0000<CR><LF>
B Format
3rd Byte
<00010000><11010001><00000000><CR><LF>
<00000000><10110110><10101101><CR><LF>
<00000010><10110110><10101111><CR><LF>
<00000000><00001000><11110110><CR><LF>
<00001011><00000000><00000000><CR><LF>
45
Command:
B (Buffer)
Syntax:
Bz1, z2
Purpose:
The B (Buffer) command is used to allocate WA73A-455 Module buffers.
Description:
The Buffer command allocates the size of the 32 transmit and receive buffers
in the Bus Controller and Remote Terminal modes. It also allocates the size
of the Sequence List buffer in the Bus Controller mode and the Response
Time List buffer in the Remote Terminal mode. The Buffer command is a
required command.
Misuses of the Buffer command is the most common cause of improper
operation in new applications. Careful attention to the Buffer Specification
Rules on the required parameters for the Bus controller and Remote Terminal
modes on the next page will help minimize problems in using this command.
Bus Controller Simulator Mode:
In the Bus Controller Simulator Mode, the B command is used to allocate the
32 transmit and receive buffers as well as a buffer for the Bus Controller
Sequence List.
Transmit buffer
z1 the buffer number (0 to 31). Setting z1 to an "*" (Octal 52) will
size all 32 buffers to the same size.
z2
a T followed by the decimal size of the buffer.
Receive buffer
z1 the buffer number (0 to 31). Setting z1 to an "*" (Octal 52) will
size all 32 buffers to the same size.
z2
an R followed by the decimal size of the buffer.
Bus Controller Sequence List buffer
z1 an S followed by the decimal size of the Bus Controller Sequence
List.
z2
Not used
Transmit and receive buffer numbers are very often associated with RTs of the
same number. However, in the Bus Controller Simulator mode, this is not
absolutely necessary. In this mode, buffers may also be used for subaddresses,
or to agree with the sequence of messages (buffer 0 for the first message,
buffer 1 for the 2nd message, etc.), for example.
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RT Simulator Mode:
In the RT Simulator Mode, the B command is used to size the receive and
transmit buffers for each simulated RT and the optional RT Response Time List
buffer, if required
Transmit buffer
z1 the RT number (0 to 31). Setting z1 to an "*" (Octal 52) will size
all 32 buffers to the same size.
z2
a T followed by the decimal size of the buffer.
Receive buffer
z1 the buffer number (0 to 31). Setting z1 to an "*" (Octal 52) will
size all 32 buffers to the same size.
z2
a R followed by the decimal size of the buffer.
RT Response Time List buffer
z1 a R followed by the decimal size of the buffer.
z2
not used.
In the RT Simulator mode, the WA73A-455 Module detects the RT address of
an incoming command word and uses that to select the buffer number to
respond from. The buffer number therefore must be associated with an RT
(buffer 8 used to respond to RT 8 command words, etc.) in the RT Simulator
Mode. An incorrect RT address in a status word may be simulated, however.
The buffer number only has to agree with the RT address of the incoming
command word. The status word RT address may be different than the buffer
number.
Bus Monitor Mode:
The B command is not required in the Bus Monitor Mode. In the Bus Monitor
Mode, a single 30,000 word receive buffer is automatically allocated by the
WA73A-455 Module.
Buffer Specification Rules:
The buffers allocated by the B command are wrap-around buffers, so if
additional data are written into a full buffer, the additional data will be stored
starting at the first location in the buffer.
If the sequence list is to execute more than once, or if a transmit buffer is to be
transmitted more than once, it must be allocated exactly equal to the number
of words to be loaded by the commands that define the contents of the buffer
(the Sequence or Data commands), otherwise, improper transmission will
result.
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The WA73A-455 Module, when triggered, will transmit any undefined data
when it reaches the end of the defined data. Only when it reaches the end of
the buffer will it return to the top of the buffer.
Transmit and receive buffers must be allocated in pairs. Improper operation
will result if a transmit buffer is allocated for a given buffer without also
allocating a receive buffer. If received data is not of interest, then a one-word
receive buffer may be allocated and the data ignored.
In the Bus Controller mode, the bus controller command word is stored in the
receive buffer for easy correlation of command and response. So, when sizing
the receive buffer, allow one additional location for each command/response.
Examples:
Bus controller Simulator Mode:
To set up a Bus Controller Sequence List with space for one entry, a transmit
buffer of one word for buffer 17, and a receive buffer of 34 words for buffer 17,
the following commands would be issued:
BS1
B17,T1
B17,R34
These allocations would be appropriate for a 32 data word transmit message
to Remote Terminal 17, for example. The 34 word receive buffer allows
storage of the command word (which is stored in the receive buffer on
transmission), the returned status word, and 32 data words.
RT Simulator Mode:
To set up transmit buffers for 33 words each and receive buffers of two words
each for RT's 23 and 9 (representing, for example, one status word an 32 data
words in the transmit buffer, and one command word followed by a No Data
word in the receive buffer), the following four commands would be issued:
B23,T33
B23,R2
B9,T33
B9,R2
In this example, it is assumed that the default RT Response Time List of a
single word is acceptable. If a different response time is desired for RT9 and
RT23, use the command BR2 to allocate an RT Response Time List of 2
words.
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Command:
C (Condition)
Syntax:
Cz
Purpose:
The C (Condition) command is used to examine all data stored in the
WA73A-455 Module memory for a given RT buffer, on a block-by-block
basis, to determine if any message block contains an error.
Description:
z is a decimal number (0 to 31) which specifies the buffer for which a condition
check is to be made. In the Bus Monitor mode, the z parameter is ignored
and may be omitted.
After issuing the C command, the system controller will request input from the
WA73A-455, and receive a response consisting of a single digit (0, 1, or 2)
followed by a <CR> and <LF>. The response digit indicates the state of the
receive buffer for the specified RT:
0
Indicates that the buffer contains no data words with errors
1
Indicates that the buffer contains at least one word containing one of the
following errors:
Too few bits
Incorrect parity
Too many bits
Excessive response time
Sync error
Manchester error
Dropped bit error
Bit transition time error
Word count error
Message format error
Interword gap error
2
Indicates that condition checking is not possible because the number of
words received exceeded the size of the specified buffer, causing the
WA73A-455 Module to wrap memory and overwrite messages at the
beginning of the buffer, or that the received data exactly filled the buffer
and the WA73A-455 Module was unable to positively indicate that the
data was valid. To use the C command, receive buffers should be sized
to allow at least one No Additional Data word at the end of the buffer.
Normally, the C command will be used when the WA73A-455 Module is
programmed to process a finite number of messages. It indicates to the
system controller whether or not it is necessary to issue an A command and
examine each word in the receive buffer.
See the Error Detection subsection for a complete description of what the
detected errors mean, including a discussion of the types of errors included as
message format errors.
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Command:
D (Data)
Syntax:
Dz1, z2, z3, z4,…….
Purpose:
The D (Data) command specifies the data list for any one of the 32 transmit
buffers in the Bus Controller or Remote Terminal modes.
Description:
z1 specifies the number (0 to 31) of the buffer to which the data list applies.
z2 is a number in the range of 1 to 30000 that specifies the starting buffer
position for the data list. The z2 value is provided to allow definition or
update of the data values in the buffer without having to start at the top of
the buffer.
z3 is either H (Hexadecimal) or B (Binary), specifying the format of the data.
z4 is the actual data list.
In Bus Controller Simulator mode, the D command loads into memory the
command and data words to be sent from the specified buffer.
In RT Simulator mode, the D command loads into memory the status and data
words that a specific RT will send to the bus controller in response to a
command word with an RT address equal to the RT buffer number as
specified by z1.
The D command allows an end-of-message flag to be programmed and can
therefore be used to program multiple messages in a buffer.
Hexadecimal Format
If z3 is an H, then the format of z4 is groups of six ASCII characters as defined
below. Each six character value is separated by commas, and each message
is separated or terminated with a semicolon. Examples are given below:
1st Character
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0
Indicates a data word.
1
Indicates a command or status word.
2
Indicates a data word to be followed by a low TTL pulse on the Position
Identification Output. The TTL pulse occurs during the sync pattern of
the following word.
3
Indicates a command or status word to be followed by a low TTL pulse
on the Position Identification Output. The TTL pulse occurs during the
sync pattern of the following word.
50
If the last word in a message is programmed with a 2 or 3, the Position
Identification Output pulse will be generated during the beginning of the
next transmitted command word for that RT.
2nd Character - Error code, 0 through 7.
For primary error mode (no M command, or M0 command programmed):
Value
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Error
No errors
Sync transition 500 ns early
Incorrect parity
Manchester error
Sync transition 500 ns late
17-bit word
15-bit word
Dropped bit
If the alternate error mode has been programmed (M1 command):
Value
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Error
No errors
Mid-sync transition 150 ns early
Dropped parity bit
Mid-bit transition 150 ns late
Mid-sync transition 150 ns late
1-µs gap following word
14-bit word followed by 1-µs gap
Mid-bit transition 150 ns early
3rd through 6th Characters The 16-bit command, status, or data word, which is represented by four
hexadecimal digits. The MSB of the first hexadecimal digit is the first bit
transmitted on the MIL-STD-1553 bus following the sync pattern. The LSB of
the fourth hexadecimal digit is the last bit of the 16-bit word transmitted before
the parity bit.
The delimiters following z4 must be commas (,) unless z4 is the last word of a
message. If z4 is the last word of a message, then a semicolon (;) must be
used. This convention must be followed even if z4 is the last word in a line of
data. Remember that a line of data is restricted to a maximum of 240
characters.
A colon rather than a semicolon may be used to separate messages and end
the last message. Leading zeros are assumed if less than six hexadecimal
digits are specified.
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Binary Format:
If z3 is a B, then each command, sync, or data word consists of three 8-bit
bytes.
The first byte is formatted as follows:
8th Bit (MSB
Set to 1 if this is the last word to be loaded by this D
command; allows <CR> or <LF> characters to be sent again
to the WA73A-455 Module.
7th Bit
Set to 1 if this word is to be followed by a low TTL pulse at the
Position Identification Output; set to 0 otherwise.
6th Bit
Set to 1 if this is the last word of a 1553 bus message
th
5 Bit
4th through
1st Bits
Set to 1 if this is a command or status word; set to 0 if this is a
data word.
The low order four bits are used to contain the error code:
For primary error mode (no M command, or M0 command
programmed):
Low Order
Four Bits
0000
0001
0010
0011
0100
0101
0110
0111
Error
No errors
Sync transition 500 ns early
Incorrect parity
Manchester error
Sync transition 500 ns late
17-bit word
15-bit word
Dropped-bit error
If the alternate error mode has been programmed (M1 command):
Low Order
Four Bits
0000
0001
0010
0011
0100
0101
0110
0111
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Error
No errors
Mid-sync transition 500 ns early
Dropped parity bit
Mid-bit transition 150 ns late
Mid-sync transition 150 ns late
1-µs gap following word
14-bit word followed by 1-µs gap
Mid-bit transition 150 ns early
52
The second and third bytes contain the 1553 bus data word. The MSB of the
second byte is the first bit of the 16-bit word transmitted following the sync
pattern. The LSB of the third byte is the last bit of the 16-bit word transmitted
prior to the parity bit.
In the binary format, the restriction of 240 characters per line does not apply.
A line may be of any length. If desired, the binary transfer can be separated
into smaller transfers by using bit 7 of byte 1 to indicate the end of the
transfer, and z2 of the D command to position the start of the next transfer.
Examples:
Example 1:
If the WA73A-455 Module is functioning as a bus controller simulator, and you
wish to load the command word and three data words shown below into
transmit buffer 26 (used for RT 26 in this example), beginning at buffer
position 1, use the following D command:
Hexadecimal Format:
D26,1,H,10D023,05B6AD,00B6AF,0008F6;
Type
Word
CMD
DATA
DATA
DATA
Binary Data
MSB
LSB
1101000000100011
1011011010101101
1011011010101111
0000100011110101
Hex.
Data
Errors
D023
D6AD
B6AF
08F6
None
17-bit word
None
None
To load the same data to RT 26 using binary format, use the following D
command:
Binary Format: D26,1,B,d1d2d3d4……d12
Where d1 through d12 represents twelve 8-bit bytes (three 8-bit bytes for each
of 4 words) sent to the WA73A-455 Module. The binary values of the bytes d1
through d12 are shown below.
Byte
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
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Notes
Cmd Word
D0
23
Data w / err 5
B6
AD
Data / No Errors
B6
AF
Data / End of Msg / Last 3 Bytes
08
F6
Value
00010000
11010000
00100011
00000101
10110110
10101101
00000000
10110110
10101111
10100000
00001000
11110110
53
In the BASIC programming language, binary data is often transmitted by using
the CHRS function to build a string. A string WRT$, for example above, would
be created as follows:
WRT$ = "D26, 1,B" + CHR$(16) + CHR$(208) + CHR$(35) + CHR$(5) +
CHRS(182) + CHR$(173) + CHR$(0) + CHR$(182) + CHR$(175) +
CHR$(160) + CHR$(8) + CHR$(246)
Note that byte 10 above has last bit 8 and bit 6 both set to indicate end of
message and also to indicate the end of the binary transfer.
Example 2:
This example illustrates how to derive a four character hexadecimal command
word for a desired command per MIL-STD-1553. Assume an RT address of
27, the T/R bit set, a subaddress of 1, and a word count of 17. The 16-bit
pattern required for this command is as follows:
RT 27
11011
T/R Bit Set
1
Subaddr 1
00001
Word Count 17
10001
Combine the bits and separate into groups of four as follows:
1101
1100
0011
0001
The resulting four hexadecimal characters are :
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DC31.
Command:
E (Error)
Syntax:
E
Purpose:
When the WA73A-455 Module receives a command from the system
controller that it is unable to recognize, the ERR LED on the front panel of
the module is lit. Use the E command to determine the type of error that
caused the ERR LED to light.
Description:
The E command instructs the WA73A-455 Module to return the appropriate
two-digit syntax error code as a response to the next input request to the
WA73A-455 Module.
The possible error codes are:
Value
00
01
02
03
04
05
06
07
08
09
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
Error
No error
Unrecognizable command
Command line too long
Memory full
Invalid A (Accept) command
Invalid B (Buffer) command
Invalid C (Condition) command
Invalid D (Data) command
Invalid E (Error) command
Invalid F (Function) command
Invalid G (Gap) command
Invalid I (Interrupt) command
Invalid M (Error Mode) command
Invalid P (Pattern) command
Invalid Q (Quit) command
Invalid R (Response Time) command
Invalid S (Sequence) command
Invalid T (Trigger) command
Invalid V (Voltage) command
Invalid input request
When the error code is returned following the E command, the error code is
cleared and the ERR LED is turned off.
In an ATE system, it may be useful to determine if a syntax error has
occurred, especially during program development. The E command may be
sent after each command to determine if the command caused a
programming error. If no error has occurred, then error code 00 will be
returned, indicating no syntax error.
If an E, A, C, or TEST command is not sent before requesting a response
from the WA73A-455, a ?<CR><LF> will be returned in response to an input
request to this module.
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Command:
F (Function)
Syntax:
Fz
Purpose:
The F (Function) command selects the WA73A-455 Modules function: bus
controller simulator, RT simulator, or bus monitor.
Description:
z is one of the following:
C - Bus Controller Simulator
R - RT Simulator
M - Bus Monitor
The K (preferable) or F command must be the first command issued to the
WA73A-455 Module after power is applied to the card. After the F command
has been issued, the F command cannot be re-issued unless it is preceded by
a K command.
An FM command requires approximately 1 second to allocate 30,000 word
buffer. If multiple cards are to be chained together in the Bus Monitor Mode to
achieve continuous collection of more than 30,000 words, the F command
should be issued to all cards before sending the T command to the first card in
the chain.
If the card is not in the high speed mode, (see H command), allocation of the
buffer requires approximately 7 seconds.
Example:
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The command FM will cause the MON LED to light and the WA73A-455
module to function as a bus monitor.
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Command:
G (Gap)
Syntax:
Gz
Purpose:
When the WA73A-455 Module is functioning as a bus controller simulator, it
automatically checks the response time of each RT with which it
communicates. The G command specifies the time in microseconds against
which each RTs response time will be checked.
Description:
z is a 1- or 2-digit decimal number from 4 to 31 that specifies the value of the
response time gap in microseconds. (See the Glossary for a definition of RT
Response Time.)
If an RT responds but fails to respond in the time programmed by the G
command, the response-time error will be logged along with the first word
(status or data) received from the RT. If the RT does not respond at all, there
will simply be no data in the respective RTs receive buffer.
If the RT waits to respond until the WA73A-455 Module has begun outputting
its next message, a "data collision" or "bus crash" will occur on the bus, and
data may be garbled. (A "data collision" is defined as two devices attempting
to transmit on the 1553 bus at the same time.) If this happens, the offending
RTs receive buffer will contain no additional data, since the receive logic on
the WA73A-455 module is disabled while the card is transmitting data.
Example:
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The command sequence G12 would set the response time gap test value to
12 microseconds as specified by MIL-STD-1553B.
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Command:
H (High Speed)
Syntax:
Hz
Purpose:
The H (High Speed) command optimizes the execution time of the F
(Function), D (Data), T (Trigger) and the A (Accept) commands.
Description:
z is a decimal number (0 or 1) which specifies:
0 - Disable high speed operation
1 - Enable high speed operation (default)
On power-up, the high speed mode will be enabled.
The set of commands chosen for optimal performance allows use of the
modules in applications where one or two small messages may need to be
updated in response to the results of a previous message in a 50 millisecond
time frame.
The high speed operation is not intended to accommodate complex Real Time
simulation applications.
During the FM command, the High Speed mode speeds up the allocation of
the 30,000 word receive buffer from 7 to 1 seconds.
Example:
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The command sequence H1 enables high speed operation.
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Command:
I (Interrupt)
Syntax:
Iz
Purpose:
The I (Interrupt) command enables the interrupts from the WA73A-455
Module.
Description:
z is decimal number (0 or 1) which specifies:
0 - Disable interrupt generation (default)
1 - Enable interrupt generation
If the interrupt mode is enabled, the WA73A-455 Module will generate an
interrupt when a 1553 bus communications sequence is completed. The
interrupt is cleared when the system controller requests input from the
WA73A-455 Module.
The interrupt generates a VXIbus interrupt at the level set by the Interrupt
Level Select switch (see Switches subsection). in IEEE-488 applications, this
interrupt may be used to generate a Service Request (SRQ), assuming the
Interrupt Level Select switch on the handler module for the WA73A-455 is set
at the same level as the Interrupt Level Select switch on the WA73A-455.
Example:
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The command sequence I1 enables interrupts.
59
Command:
J (Jitter)
Syntax:
Jz
Purpose:
The J (Jitter) command disables transition time error detection by the
receiver of the WA73A-455.
Description:
z is a decimal number (0or 1) which specifies:
0 - Enable transition time error detection (default)
1 - Disable transition time error detection
At power-up and following a K (Kill) command the transition time error
detection is enabled.
The transition time detection measures the time from one threshold crossing
to the next threshold crossing, which is nominally expected to be 0.5, 1.0, 1.5
or 2.0 microseconds, per MIL-STD-1553.
The receiver checks that this time is reliably within 62.5 nanoseconds of the
nominally expected time (threshold crossing points are +1.0 V and -1.0 V for
rising and falling signals respectively when the receiver threshold is
programmed to 2.0 V ptp.).
A receiver transition time error (Error 8) may be generated when the time from
one threshold crossing to the next is out of tolerance by more than 62.5
nanoseconds.
Although this is a useful "quality of signal" test when the WA73A-455 is closely
attached to a unit under test, the error may need to be ignored under actual
bus operating conditions, due to the transmission reflection problems
associated with the system level cabling between devices on the bus and the
WA73A-455 receiver.
Example:
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Issuing the command sequence J1 will disable the transition time error
detection until another K (Kill) command is issued.
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Command:
K (Kill)
Syntax:
K
Purpose:
The K command instructs the WA73A-455 Module to restore its power-up
conditions.
Description:
The status of the WA73A-455 after a K command is as follows:
Interrupt:
Transmit Level:
Equivalent Bus Load for
Transmit Level:
Receive Threshold:
Response Gap:
Pace Interval:
RT Response Time
Test Value:
Mode:
Pattern Trigger:
Error Mode:
RT Response
Time List:
RT Sequence List:
Transmit and
Receive Buffers:
Hi Speed Mode:
Transition Time
Error Detection:
Example:
NOTE:
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Disabled (I command)
6.38V ptp (V command)
70 ohms (V command)
2.00Vptp(V command)
4 µs (R command)
1,000 µs (S command)
12 µs (G command)
Undefined (F command)
Disabled (P command)
Primary error set selected (M command)
Unallocated (B command)
Unallocated (B command)
Unallocated (B command)
Disabled (H command)
Enabled (J command)
Issuing the K command at any time will restore the WA73A-455 Module to its
initial power-up condition as defined above.
The Q and K commands are the only commands that can be issued to
the WA73A-455 Module while a bus communications sequence is in
progress without hanging up the system controller. For further
discussion of how to avoid hanging up the system controller during bus
communications, see the note following the T command.
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Command:
M (Error Mode)
Syntax:
Mz
Purpose:
The M (Error Mode) command selects one of two different sets of
transmitted error conditions.
Description:
z is a decimal number (0 or 1) which specifies:
0 - Primary transmit error set selected (default)
1 - Alternate transmit error set selected
See the D command for the types of errors included in the primary and
alternate transmit error set. The Error Generation subsection gives a
complete description of both the primary and alternate error types.
Example:
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The command sequence M1 would enable the alternate error set. An error
code of 2 in all data lists transmitted thereafter would generate a dropped
parity bit rather than an incorrect parity bit (also see Data command).
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Command:
P (Pattern Recognition)
Syntax:
Kz
Purpose:
The P (pattern Recognition) command is an optional command, available
only in the RT Simulator and Bus Monitor modes, which is used to program a
pattern-recognition word. When a P command is programmed, the WA73A455 Module will not begin operation following a T (Trigger) command until a
command or status word is received that matches the pattern-recognition
word. Data word recognition is not available with this command.
Description:
z is a four character hexadecimal string which defines the bit pattern (16-bits)
of the received command word.
If the characters CLR are sent for the z string, the WA73A-455 Module will
disable the P command and will then receive and process the first command
following a T command.
On power-up, or after receipt of a HALT command, z is set to CLR.
In the RT Simulator mode, it will begin collecting and responding with data.
The P command is typically used to synchronize the WA73A-455 Module with
the 1553 data stream so that a desired sequence of responses will be given
as a result of a bus controllers sequence of command words.
In the Bus Monitor mode, it will begin collecting data. The P command and
the External Trigger Input give additional flexibility in determining when the
start of the 1553 bus data capture will begin.
Example:
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The command "PD020" would hold operation of the WA73A-455 Module until
a command word with the bit pattern 1101000000100000 was received
(receive command word to RT 26 at subaddress 1 for 32 words).
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Command:
Q (Quit)
Syntax:
Q
Purpose:
The Q (Quit) command allows the system controller to terminate a bus
communications sequence at any time. It also allows the ATE system
controller to regain control of a WA73A-455 Module that cannot finish its bus
communication sequence because the unit under test (UUT) is not
communicating with the WA73A-455 Module.
Description:
The Q command is the only way to terminate the Bus Monitor collection mode
and still preserve the collected data. In the Bus Monitor or Remote Terminal
mode, the Q command terminates bus activity as soon as a gap in data traffic
occurs. It terminates bus activity in the Bus Controller mode at the time when
the next message would have started.
Example:
If a bus communications sequence is in progress, issuing the Q command to
the WA73A-455 Module will halt the bus communications sequence and
resume command/response communications with the WA73A-455 Module.
All previously programmed card parameters such as Receiver Threshold
Level, Response Time Gap Value, etc., will be unchanged. Any data
programmed into buffers, or collected from the 1553 bus and stored into
buffers, will also remain unchanged.
NOTE:
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The Q and K commands are the only commands that can be issued to the
WA73A-455 Module while a bus communications sequence is in progress
to resume command/response communications with the WA73A-455
Module. Any other commands sent during a bus communications
sequence will be lost.
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Command:
R
(RT Response Time List)
Syntax:
Rz1, z2, z2,…… z2.
Purpose:
The R (RT Response Time List) command is an optional command used only
in the RT Simulator Mode. The R command associates a specific RT
response time (other than the 4-µs default value) with each message received
by the WA73A-455 Module.
Description:
Before the R command can be used, a B (Buffer) command must be issued to
establish the size of the RT Response Time List buffer.
z1 is a decimal number between 1 and the maximum number of possible
entries in the RT Response Time List buffer as defined by the B command.
z1 defines the starting position in the RT Response Time List into which the
first response time will be loaded.
z2 represents the response time in microseconds to be entered into the RT
Response Time List. z2 may range in value from 4 to 65535.
The actual response time measured between the transition of the received
parity bit and the mid-transition of the response sync pattern when
programmed from the 4 to 65,535 microseconds is nominally 4.25 to
65,535.25 microseconds. The accuracy of the crystal on the WA73A-455
Module is 0.01%. For precise long response times, these two possible
sources of error should be taken into account.
The R command can be used to generate a no-response condition by
programming a value that would cause the response to occur as if responding
to the following message. The response would originate from the transmit
buffer associated with the last RT addressed. When using the R command in
this manner, one less entry should be specified in the RT Response Time List
for each response skipped.
Example:
When more than one response-time entry is contained in the RT Response
Time List, the next available response time from the list determines how long
the WA73A-455 Module will wait before responding to a bus controller
command word.
If the R command R1,5;10;8;9 were issued, the response times associated
with the first nine received bus controller
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Terminal Response
Command Word
1st
2nd
3rd
4th
5th
6th
7th
8th
9th
Time Used
5 µs
10 µs
8 µs
9 µs
5 µs
10 µs
8 µs
9 µs
5 µs
Note that the RT Response Time List applies to the order in which bus
command words are received, and not the RTs addressed to respond.
A BR4 Buffer Allocation command is required prior to the R command for the
above example.
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Command:
S
(Sequence List)
Syntax:
Sz1, z2[,z3],z2[,z3],….… z2[,z3]
Purpose:
The S (Sequence List) command is used in the Bus Controller Simulator Mode
ONLY. The S command specifies the order in which transmit buffers will send
their messages; the messages themselves are taken from the data list
associated with each buffer.
The S command is also used to specify the "pace" interval, or time between
messages transmitted by the WA73A-455 Module. The pace interval is
defined as the time between the last parity transition of one message and the
first sync transition in the following message transmitted by the WA73A-455
Module.
Description:
z1 is a decimal number from 1 to 30000 that specifies the location in the Bus
Controller Sequence List where loading of buffer numbers is to begin.
z2 is a decimal number from 1 to 31 that specifies the transmit buffer number
to be loaded into the Sequence List.
z3 is an optional parameter in the range of 14 to 65535 which specifies the
pace interval in microseconds. If z3 is not specified, the default value is 1000.
NOTE:
The value of the z3 parameter corresponding to a z2 parameter specifies
the interval prior to that message. To obtain the fastest response to an
external trigger, the first z3 in the message list should be set to 14.
When pace intervals of less than 1,000 microseconds are chosen, care must
be taken to insure that the pace interval is long enough to allow for the RT
response message plus the RT response time of the prior message. The
following equation can be used to calculate the minimum z3 pace interval:
z3 = 20 ( A + B + 2)
where:
A= total number of words including the status word in the RT response
message
B= maximum RT response time in microseconds
If the pace interval is less than the minimum time specified in the above
equation, a "data collision" on the 1553 bus may occur. A "data collision" will
result in garbled data since two devices, the WA73A-455 Module and the RT,
will be transmitting at the same time. Whatever RT data is received prior to
the data collision will be stored in the receive buffer.
Interval gaps of a minimum of 14 microseconds within a message can be
generated as an error by specifying (in the data list in the D command) an
end-of-message flag before the required number of words are sent, and
specifying the buffer number twice in the S command. The second entry
should have the pace value set to the desired gap duration between the two
partial messages.
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Example:
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To send messages from buffers 3, 8, 21, 3, and 9 in that order, the command
sequence S1,3;8;21;3;9 would be used. The messages would be
automatically paced at the default value of 1,000 microseconds. Later, to
send the third message from buffer 16 instead of buffer 21, and to decrease
the pace interval between the second and third messages to 670
microseconds, the command sequence S3,16,670 would be sent to the
WA73A-455 Module. This redefines the 3rd entry in the test only.
68
Command:
T
(Trigger)
Syntax:
Tz1[,z2]
Purpose:
The T (Trigger) command initiates a 1553 bus communications sequence.
Description:
Bus Controller Simulator Mode:
z1 specifies the number of times the Bus Controller Sequence List must be
executed to complete the bus communications sequence. If z1 is a decimal
number between 1 and 32767, the entire Bus Controller Sequence List will be
executed the number of times specified, beginning with the first entry in the
list. If z1 is an "*" (Octal 52), the WA73A-455 Module will repeatedly execute
the entire list until a K or Q command, or External Halt Input signal is received
by the card.
If z1 is the letter S followed by a number in the range 1 to 32767, then the
WA73A-455 Module will step through the Bus Controller Sequence List,
counting messages, until the indicated number of messages has been
processed. The first TS command will begin counting with the first entry in the
list. Subsequent TS commands will continue counting from the point where
the previous command stopped.
z2 is an optional parameter which enables or disables External Trigger Input,
as follows:
z2
0
1
External Trigger Input
Input disabled (default)
Input enabled - bus communications will not proceed until an
External Trigger Input is received by the WA73A-455 Module.
RT Simulator Mode:
z1 specifies the number of messages that must be processed by the WA73A455 Module to complete a bus communications sequence. If z1 is a decimal
number between 1 and 32767, the number of messages specified must be
processed before the WA73A-455 Module will complete the current bus
communications sequence. If z1 is an "*" (Octal 52), the WA73A-455 Module
will continuously process messages until a K or Q command, or External Halt
Input signal is received by the card.
The z2 parameter function is the same as described above for the Bus
Controller Simulator Mode.
Bus Monitor Mode:
The z1 parameter is optional in the Bus Monitor Mode. If z1 is not present, the
WA73A-455 Module continuously collects bus traffic in its 30,000-word buffer,
wrapping the buffer as necessary, and saving the last 30,000 words of data.
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If z1 is an F, the WA73A-455 Module will collect only the first 30,000 words of
bus traffic. If the F is followed by a number from 1 to 30000, a low-going TTL
pulse will be output on the Position Identification Output pin after the
corresponding buffer position has been filled. This pulse can be used to
externally trigger an additional monitor card.
When the T command is issued in the Bus Monitor Mode, the WA73A-455
Module begins continuously collecting 1553 bus data until a K or Q command,
or External Halt Input signal is received by the module. Or, if the TF
command is sent, until 30000 words are collected.
The z2 parameter function is the same as described above for the Bus
Controller Simulator Mode. If the External Trigger Input is used, then the
unused z1 position must be indicated by a comma, i.e., T,1
Using the Trigger Command:
When a bus communications sequence is initiated with a T (Trigger)
command, internal control of the WA73A-455 Module is passed from the
modules Z80A microprocessor to the 1553 transmitter/receiver interface.
After the transmitter/receiver has control of the WA73A-455 Module, the card
will not respond to any commands issued to it except for the Q (Quit), K (Kill),
or an External Halt Input signal, until the bus communications sequence
initiated by the T command is complete. If any command other than Q, K or
Halt is issued to the card while bus communications sequence is in progress,
the WA73A-455 Module will ignore the commands.
To avoid sending commands which will be ignored during a bus
communications sequence, the WA73A-455 Modules interrupt capability (I
command) should be enabled before the T command is issued. With its
interrupt enabled, the WA73A-455 Module will generate a Request True event
when a bus communications sequence is complete (generates an SRQ on
IEEE-488 controlled systems), indicating that commands will be accepted.
The next command that is normally issued to the WA73A-455 Module
following a T command is an A or C command. To avoid having the command
ignored, structure the system controller's software so that an A or C command
is not issued to the WA73A-455 Module until an interrupt is received.
Both the External Trigger and Pattern command conditionally trigger a card
and can be active at the same time. Figure 455-5 shows the triggering
hierarchy when the External Trigger Input and/or P command are used.
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T command
issued
z2 parameter
of T command
equals 1?
Wait for
External Trigger
Input Pulse
Y
N
P command specified
Y
Wait for pattern
N
Begin processing
1553 bus data
Figure 455-5: Triggering Hierarchy
The source for the external trigger is either pin 41 (pin 43 for channel B) of the
DD50S connector on the front panel, or the VXIbus word serial command
Trigger. The VXIbus Trigger command is typically generated by Group
Execute Trigger in IEEE-488 controlled systems.
Examples:
In the Bus Controller Simulator Mode, to execute the programmed Bus
Controller Sequence List 27 times, the WA73A-455 module would be triggered
using the command sequence T27. Following completion of the bus
communications sequence, the first message to the first terminal in the Bus
Controller Sequence List could be transmitted again by issuing the command
T1.
If the WA73A-455 Module was in the RT Simulator Mode and the command
T326,1 was given, the module would wait for an external trigger, then respond
to 326 command words by sending simulated RT messages to the controller
for processing.
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Command:
V
(Voltage)
Syntax:
Vz1[,z2]
Purpose:
The V (Voltage) command programs the WA73A-455 Modules peak-to-peak
transmit voltage level and receive threshold level.
Description:
When the peak-to-peak transmit level is being programmed, z1 is the
character T followed by a 2- to 4-digit decimal number from 20 to 3440. The
decimal number specifies the peak-to-peak transmit voltage level from 0.20V
to 34.40V in 0.01V steps which are then rounded off to the nearest of up to
250 levels.
To program the receive voltage threshold level, z1 is the character R followed
by a decimal number in the range of 50 to 900. The decimal number specifies
the peak-to-peak receive voltage threshold level of 0.50V to 9.00V in 0.01V
steps rounded off to the nearest of up to 250 levels.
z2 is optional, used with transmit voltage commands only. If used, it is a 2- to
4-digit number from 35 to 1000, which specifies the equivalent impedance at
the 1553 bus interface, assuming a 55-ohm isolation impedance in each leg of
the connection to the bus interface.
The voltages programmed by the V command are peak-to-peak voltages
occurring on a 1553 bus for a load of z2 ohms for either a direct-coupled or
transformer-coupled connection, as shown below. The voltage programmed
by the V command corresponds to V volts peak-to-peak in the following
diagram.
2Z2 Ω
WA73A-455
55Ω
Ω
J1
55Ω
Ω
.707 TURNS RATIO
TRANSFORMER COUPLER
V volts
PTP
55Ω
Ω
J2
55Ω
Ω
1553 BUS
2Z2 Ω
Figure 455-6:
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Direct and Transformer-Coupled Circuit Connections
72
Approximate voltage ranges and nominal increment levels for some
representative bus impedance values are as follows:
Bus
Impedance
35 ohms
70 ohms
1000 ohms
Voltage Range
0.20 V to 8.20 V in 0.033 V ptp steps
0.30 V to 13.75 V in 0.055 V ptp steps
0.75 V to 34.40 V in 0.138 V ptp steps
To determine approximate maximum output levels for other impedance's than
those listed above, use the formula:
V MAX = 38.9z2 / (z2 + 132)
If an unacceptable voltage level is programmed with the V command, the ERR
LED will light, and the command will be ignored. The default voltage will be
programmed instead. The default voltage settings on power-up are transmit
level of 6.38 V ptp into 70 ohms and a 2.00 V ptp receive threshold level.
Successful programming of the transmit or receive level may be checked with
the E (Error) command.
For transformer coupled connections to the WA73A-455, the voltage (V)
specified is that which would result on the bus side of a coupler, as shown in
Figure 455-6 above. The voltage at the transformer-coupled output (J2) of the
WA73A-455 Module is approximately 0.707Vz2 / (110+ z2 ).
The V command provides an easily programmable method of specifying the
output level for various loads. The normal 1553 bus is loaded with two 70 ohm
terminators, or 35 ohms. Waveform characterizes of the WA73A-455 Module
are not noticeably degraded for a 35-ohm to 1,000-ohm impedance range.
NOTE:
The WA73A-455 Module is not internally loaded, and a minimum load of
1000 ohms is usually required for proper operation.
Transmit and Receive Threshold
Programmable transmit output levels and receive threshold level usage provides a
level of parametric testing that has not been available in automated MIL-STD-1553
testing. It is expected that higher receive thresholds than those used in a standard
MIL-STD-1553 product may be used to test the adequacy of transmitters in a
system, and similarly, that lower transmit levels than normal may be used to test
the adequacy of the receivers in a system.
It is not recommended that test levels be set exactly equal to the parameters being
tested. Due to noise, cable reflections and losses, and the fact that no test
equipment, including the WA73A-455, can perfectly set transmit levels or receive
thresholds to a specified level, particularly at 1 MHz. It is recommended that the
transmit level be set no less than 15% higher than the designed receive threshold
(30% in particularly noisy systems).
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For example, if the receivers threshold is designed to be 0.7 V ptp in a transformer
coupled system, this corresponds to 1.0 V ptp on the bus, and the transmit level
should be set to no lower than 1.15 V (VT115, 70 or VT115, 35 depending on
whether the system is operated in a test environment with a single 70 ohm load, or
in an actual system application with two 70 ohm terminators.) If more accurate
testing than this is required, manual testing with an oscilloscope is still
recommended.
Transmit levels should not be set near the maximum when the receive threshold is
near the minimum. The WA73A-455 receive circuitry is optimized for error
detection and is sensitive to poor bit transition timing, trailing output symmetry
when transmitters are not perfectly balanced, and proper leading sync patterns. A
high transmit level on the WA73A-455 can intermittently cause one of these errors
in its own receiver when the receive level is set low. It is recommended that the
transmit level (referred to the bus) be set no higher than five times the receive
threshold (again referred to the bus). For example, if a receive threshold of
VR100 is used, a transmit level no higher than VT500 should be used. (the above
assumes the load argument of the VT command accurately represents the loading
of the bus. The WA73A-455 has no knowledge of the actual load on the bus and
is dependent on the programmer to provide that information. The default value is
70 ohm.
If parametric testing of the transmit and receive levels are not required, any
combination of levels between the above limits work well. The default levels of
VT680, 70 and VR200 work very well with one or two 70 ohm terminators and use
of the VT and VR commands can be avoided in such applications.
Example:
The command sequence VT500,35 would program the transmit voltage level to
5.00V ptp, assuming a normal 1553 bus terminated at each end with 70 ohms.
Using the command VR200 would set a receive voltage threshold level of
2.00V ptp.
CAUTION:
Connection of the WA73A-455 Modules transformer-coupled outputs to
anything other than a 1553 coupling transformer with isolation resistors on the
bus interface side is NOT recommended, since there are no isolation resistors
on the WA73A-455 Modules transformer-coupled outputs to protect the
circuitry against sustained bus collisions.
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Command:
TEST
Syntax:
TEST
Purpose:
The TEST command initiates the self test of PROM and RAM memory.
Description:
The TEST sequence takes approximately 30 seconds to run. Test in progress
is visually indicated by binary counting on five of the six LEDs at the top front
of the module. The command must be issued for each channel to fully test the
module.
The results of the test are obtained by issuing an input request to the module.
Result formats are as follows:
For a successful test:
OK, Vx,x
Vx,x indicates the version and revision level of the firmware.
For a RAM error:
RAM,xxxx-x,xx,xx
The arguments following RAM provides additional information on
the failure (memory page and location within page).
For a PROM error:
PROM,Uxx
This indicates that the single PROM memory device on the
WA73A-455 Module has failed. The Uxx argument has no meaning
for the WA73A-455.
Self test reports only the first error detected.
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SYSFAIL, SELF TEST,AND
INITIALISATION
The default condition of each channel of the
WA73A-455 Module after completion of the
power-up is:
The WA73A-455 Module will execute a self
test of RAM and PROM for either channel on
command. This module does not have a
power-up self test.
A test can be run at any time during normal
operation by using the TEST command. At
the end of a test initiated by the TEST
command, the module is restored to its pretest state.
During a commanded self test or after a hard
or soft reset:
1)
SYSFAIL* is not asserted.
2)
The module restores itself to its pretest state. If the test fails, any error
messages will be queued by the
module for later reporting with the E
command.
A VXIbus hard reset occurs when another
device, such as the VXIbus Resource
Manager, asserts the backplane line
SYSRST*. A VXIbus soft reset occurs
when another device, such as the WA73A455's commander, sets the Reset bit in the
WA73A-455's Control register and the Halt
switch is ON.
SYSFAIL* Operation
SYSFAIL* becomes active if the module
loses any of its power voltages. When the
card cage Resource Manager detects
SYSFAIL* set, it will attempt to inhibit the
line. This will cause the WA73A-455 module
to deactivate SYSFAIL* in all cases except
when +5volt power is lost.
The WS73A-455 Module continuously
monitors the +5V dc and +/- 24V dc power
supplies. If all power supplies are valid, on
power-up:
1)
The SYSFAIL* (VME system failure)
line will never be set active, and the
FAIL LED will not be lit. If any of the
supplies fails, either at power-up or
during operation, the SYSFAIL line will
be set active and the FAIL LED will be
lit and remain lit.
2)
The module enters the VXIbus
PASSED state (Ready for normal
operation) on power-up.
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Interrupt:
Disabled (I command)
Transmit Level:
6.38V ptp (VT
command)
Equivalent Bus Load for Transmit Level:
70 ohms (VT command)
Receive Threshold: 2.00Vptp(V command)
Response Gap:
4 µs (R command)
Pace Interval: 1,000 µs (S command)
RT Response Time Test Value:
12 µs
(G command)
Mode:
Undefined (F command)
Pattern Trigger:
Disabled (P command)
Error Mode:
Primary error set selected
(M command)
RT Response Time List: Unallocated (B
command)
RT Sequence List: Unallocated (B
command)
Transmit and Receive Buffers: Unallocated
(B command)
Hi Speed Mode:
Enabled (H command)
Transition Time Error Detection:
Enabled (J command)
Request True interrupts disabled (these
interrupts cause an SRQ on IEEE-488
systems).
76
in the variable ADDRESS%. Following
the output of data, the variable
STATUS% contains a "0" if the transfer
was successful and an "8" if an
operating timeout occurred in the PC.
PROGRAMMING EXAMPLES
This section contains example programs
which demonstrate how the various
programmable features of the WA73A-455
Module are used. The examples are written
in BASIC using IBM PC or equivalent
computer as the system controller.
Additional examples are included in the
Application Notes in Appendix E.
END Terminates the program.
FOR/NEXT
Repeats the instructions between the
FOR and NEXT statements for a
defined number of iterations.
GOSUB n
Runs the subroutine beginning with line
n. EX: GOSUB 750 - runs the
subroutine beginning on line 750. The
end of the subroutine is delineated with
a RETURN statement. When the
subroutine reaches the RETURN
statement, execution will resume on
the line following the GOSUB
command.
Definition of BASIC Commands.
The programming examples in this manual
are written in Microsoft GW BASIC. These
examples use the GW BASIC commands
described below. If the programming
language you are using does not conform
exactly to these definitions, use the
command in that language that will give the
same result.
Command
Result
CALL ENTER (R$, LENGTH%,
ADDRESS%, STATUS%)
The CALL ENTER statement inputs
data into the string R$ from the IEEE488 instrument whose decimal primary
address is contained in the variable
ADDRESS%. Following the input, the
variable LENGTH% contains the
number of bytes read from the
instrument. The variable STATUS%
contains the number "0" if the transfer
was successful or an "8" if an operating
system timeout occurred in the PC.
Prior to using the CALL ENTER
statement, the string R$ must be set to
a string of spaces whose length is
greater than or equal to the maximum
number of bytes expected from the
WA73A-455
CALL SEND (ADDRESS%, WRT$,
STATUS%)
The CALL SEND statement outputs the
contents of the string variable WRT$ to
the IEEE-488 instrument whose
decimal primary address is contained
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GOTO n
Program branches to line n. EX:
GOTO 320 - directs execution to
continue at line 320.
IF/THEN
Sets up a conditional (IF/THEN)
statement. Used with other
commands, such as PRINT or GOTO,
so that IF the stated condition is met,
THEN the command following is
effective. EX: IF I = 3 THEN GOTO
450 - will continue operation at line
450 when the value of variable I is 3.
REM
All characters following a REM
command are not executed. REM
statements are used for documentation
and user instruction.
EX: REM **CLOSE ISOLATION
RELAYS**
RETURN
Ends a subroutine and returns
operation to the line after the last
executed GOSUB command.
Programming Examples in BASIC
The following sample BASIC programs show
how commands for one channel of the
WA73A-455 might be used. These
examples assume that the WA73A-455
Module is installed in a VXIbus card cage
which is being controlled via an IEEE-488
interface from an external system controller,
such as an IBM PC or equivalent. The
VXIbus IEEE-488 interface is assumed to
have an IEEE-488 primary address of
decimal 21 and to have converted the "A"
channels logical address to an IEEE-488
address of decimal 24 and the "B" channels
logical address to an IEEE-488 address of
decimal 25.
Example 1:
The following example presents a program listing for programming the "A" channel of the
WA73A-455 Module as a Bus Controller in a Continuous Mode so that the resulting data
stream can be viewed on an oscilloscope. Following that, a program is presented for
programming one channel as a bus controller and a second channel or module as a remote
terminal, handling a two-message sequence between them, and examining the received data
in each module.
Line 10 through 40 initialize the PC's IEEE-488 interface card as a system controller with an
IEEE-488 address of decimal 21. Line 50 assigns the decimal IEEE-488 address of the
WA73A-455 to the variable ADDR455%.
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
DEF SEG = &HC440
Defines memory location of an IBM PC IEEE-488 Interface Module.
SEND = 9 : INIT = 0 : ENTER = 21
Initialize PROM offsets for IBM PC IEEE-488 Interface Module.
PC.ADDRESS% = 21 : CONTROL% = 0
Define IEEE-488 Interface Modules IEEE-488 address, and define it to be a
controller.
CALL INIT (PC.ADDRESS%, CONTROL%)
ADDR455% = 24
Define WA73A-455's "A" channel IEEE-488 address.
CRLF$ = CHR$(13) + CHR$(10)
Define a <CR><LF> string
WRT$ = "K" + CRLF$
CALL SEND(24, WRT$, STATUS%)
WRT$ = "FC" + CRLF$
CALL SEND(24, WRT$, STATUS%)
Set the module to bus controller mode.
WRT$ = "BS2" + CRLF$
CALL SEND(24, WRT$, STATUS%)
Allocate a two-word Bus Controller Sequence List buffer.
WRT$ = "S1,15:15,200:" + CRLF$
CALL SEND(24, WRT$, STATUS%)
Load the Bus Controller Sequence List such that the two messages sent by the 455
module will be from the transmit buffer for RT#15, with the first message preceded
by a 1000 µsec delay (default value) and the second preceded with a 200 µsec
delay.
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150 WRT$ = "B15,R99" + CRLF$
160 CALL SEND(24, WRT$, STATUS%)
Allocate a 99-word receive buffer to store responses from RT#15.
NOTE:
Any time either a transmit or receive buffer is allocated for an RT, both must be
allocated for proper operation of the module.
170 WRT$ = "B15,T4" + CRLF$
180 CALL SEND(24, WRT$, STATUS%)
Allocate a 4-word transmit buffer for RT#15.
190 WRT$ = "D15,1,H,107C24:107822,1111,2222:" + CRLF$
200 CALL SEND(24, WRT$, STATUS%)
Load two messages in the transmit data list buffer for RT#15. The first message
requests RT#15 to transmit 4 words. The second message requests RT#15 to receive 2
words of data whose hexadecimal contents are "1111" and "2222".
210 WRT$ = "T*" + CHR$(13)
220 CALL SEND(24, WRT$, STATUS%)
Trigger the 455 Module to continuously execute the Bus Controller Sequence List.
Suppress line feed for the trigger command.
Measure across Pins 2 and 15 of the front panel connector differentially using an oscilloscope
with a suitable bus load. If the oscilloscope has a 50 ohm termination, it may be used.
The two messages should now be observable on the oscilloscope, separated by a 200
microsecond gap with 1 millisecond between successive message pairs. The peak-to-peak
amplitude of the signal will be about 6.38 V ptp for a 70 ohm bus load, ranging down to 3.2 V
ptp for a 35 ohm load or up to 16 V ptp for a 1000 ohm bus load.
Example 2:
The following program listing shows how the second channel can be set up as RT#15 to
respond to messages sent from the first channel. The two command messages are sent one
time and received data in each channels receive buffer is examined.
Lines 10 through 40 initialize the PC's IEEE-488 interface card as a system controller with an
IEEE-488 address of decimal 21. Line 50 assigns the decimal IEEE-488 address of the first
channel to variable ADDR455%. Line 60 assigns the second channel to an IEEE-488 address
of 25, using the variable BDDR455%.
10
20
30
40
50
DEF SEG = &HC400
Defines memory location of IBM PC IEEE-488 Interface Module.
SEND = 9 : INIT = 0 : ENTER = 21
Initialize PROM offsets for IBM PC IEEE-488 Interface Module.
PC.ADDRESS% = 21 : CONTROL% = 0
Define IEEE-488 Interface Modules IEEE-488 address, and define it to be a
controller.
CALL INIT (PC.ADDRESS%, CONTROL%)
ADDR455% = 24
Define "A" channels IEEE-488 address
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60
70
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
170
180
190
200
210
220
230
240
250
260
270
280
290
300
310
320
330
340
350
360
370
380
390
400
410
420
430
440
BADDR455% = 25
Define the "B" channels IEEE-488 address
CRLF$ = CHR$(13) + CHR$(10)
WRT$ = "K" + CRLF$
CALL SEND(BDDR455%, WRT$, STATUS%)
WRT$ = "FR" + CRLF$
CALL SEND(BDDR455%, WRT$, STATUS%)
Reset the second channel and program it as a remote terminal.
WRT$ = "B15,R99" + CRLF$
CALL SEND(BDDR455%, WRT$, STATUS%)
Allocate a 99-word receive buffer for RT address 15
WRT$ = "B15,T6" + CRLF$
CALL SEND(BDDR455%, WRT$, STATUS%)
Allocate a 6-word transmit buffer for RT address 15
WRT$ = "D15,1,H,107800,3333,4444,5555,6666:107800:" + CRLF$
CALL SEND(BDDR455%, WRT$, STATUS%)
Define status word and four data words for first message; define status word for
second message
WRT$ = "T2" + CRLF$
CALL SEND(BDDR455%, WRT$, STATUS%)
Program module to accept and respond to 2 messages.
WRT$ = "K" + CRLF$
CALL SEND(ADDR455%, WRT$, STATUS%)
WRT$ = "FC" + CRLF$
CALL SEND(ADDR455%, WRT$, STATUS%)
Program the first channel as a bus controller the same as in the preceding example.
WRT$ = "BS2" + CRLF$
CALL SEND(ADDR455%, WRT$, STATUS%)
WRT$ = "S1,15:15,200:" + CRLF$
CALL SEND(ADDR455%, WRT$, STATUS%)
WRT$ = "B15,R99" + CRLF$
CALL SEND(ADDR455%, WRT$, STATUS%)
WRT$ = "B15,T4" + CRLF$
CALL SEND(ADDR455%, WRT$, STATUS%)
WRT$ = "D15,1,H,107C24:107822,1111,2222:" + CRLF$
CALL SEND(ADDR455%, WRT$, STATUS%)
WRT$ = "T1" + CHR$
CALL SEND(ADDR455%, WRT$, STATUS%)
Send the two-message sequence one at a time.
WRT$ = "A15,1,HF" + CRLF$
CALL SEND(ADDR455%, WRT$, STATUS%)
Program the first channel to return RT#15's response data.
For I = 1 TO 9
RD$ = SPACE$(25)
CALL ENTER(RD$, LENGTH%, ADDR455%, STATUS%): PRINT RD$
NEXT I
Print the first 9 words in receive buffer.
WRT$ + "A15,1,HF" + CRLF$
CALL SEND(BDDR455%, WRT$, STATUS%)
Program the RT module (second channel) to look at data received from bus
controller module
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450
460
470
480
FOR I = 1 TO 5
RD$ = SPACE$(25)
CALL ENTER(RD$, LENGTH%, BDDR455%, STATUS%): PRINT RD$
NEXT I
Print first 5 words in buffer
490 STOP
The printout for the bus controller module includes the two command words sent out. They
are stored by the WA73A-455 Module in the receive buffer as part of its normal function to
allow correlation of commands with responses. The printout of the nine words from the bus
controller receive buffer should be as follows:
107C24
107800
003333
004444
005555
006666
107822
107800
0B0000
First bus controller command word
RT status word
RT data words
Second bus controller command word
RT status word
No more data
The printout of the five words from the RT receive buffer should be as follows:
107C24
107822
001111
002222
0B0000
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First bus controller command word
Second bus controller command word
Bus controller data word
No more data
81
APPENDIX A - VXIbus OPERATION.
The WA73A-455 Module is a C size single
slot VXIbus Message-Based Word Serial
instrument. It uses the A16, D16 VME
interface available on the backplane P1
connector and does not require any A24 or
A32 address space. The module is a D16
interrupter.
1.
The commander reads the 455's
Response register and checks if the
Write Ready bit is true. If it is, the
commander proceeds to the next
step. If not, the commander continues
to poll the Write Ready bit until it
becomes true.
The WA73A-455 Module is neither a
VXIbus commander or a VMEbus master,
and therefore does not have a VXIbus
signal register. The WA73A-455 is a
VXIbus message based servant.
2.
The commander writes the Byte
Available command (0BCxx or 0BDxx,
depending on the End bit) to the 455's
Data Low register.
The WA73A-455 Module has no registers
beyond those defined for VXIbus message
based devices. All communications with
the module are through the Data Low
register, the Response register or the
VXIbus interrupt cycle. Any attempt by
another module to read or write to any
undefined location of the WA73A-455's
address space may cause incorrect
operation of the module.
The module supports the Normal Transfer
mode of the VXIbus, using the Write Ready
and Read Ready bits of the module's
response register.
A Normal Transfer mode of the WA73A455 Module proceeds as follows:
1.
The commander reads the 455's
Response register and checks if the
Write Ready bit is true. If it is, the
commander proceeds to the next
step. If not, the commander continues
to poll the Write Ready bit until it
becomes true.
2.
The commander writes the Byte
Request command (0DEFFh) to the
WA73A-455's Data Low register.
3.
The commander reads the WA73A455's Response register and checks if
the Read Ready bit is true. If it is, the
commander proceeds to the next
step. If not, the commander continues
to poll the Read Ready bit until it
becomes true.
4.
CAUTION:
If the user's card cage has other
manufacturer's computer boards
operating in the role of VXIbus foreign
devices, the assertion of BERR* (as
defined by the VXIbus Specifications)
may cause operating problems on
these boards.
As with all VXIbus devices, the WA73A-455
module has registers located within a 64
byte block in A16 address space.
The base address of the WA73A-455
device's registers is determined by the
device's unique logical address and can be
calculated as follows:
Base Address = V * 40H + C000H
The commander reads the WA73A455's Data Low register.
where V is the device's logical address as
set by the Logical Address switches.
A Normal Transfer mode write to the
WA73A-455 Module proceeds as follows:
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WA73A-455 Configuration Registers
Below is a list of the WA73A-455
Configuration Registers with a complete
description of each. In the list, RO = Read
Only, WO = Write Only, and W = Write.
The address is relative to the module's
base address.
REGISTER DEFINITIONS
Register
Address
Type
Value (Bits 15-0)
ID Register
Device Type
Status
Control
Offset
Protocol
Response
Data High
Data Low
Data Low
0000H
0002H
0004H
0004H
0006H
0008H
000AH
000CH
000EH
000EH
RO
RO
R
W
WO
RO
RO
1011 1111 1111 1100 (BFFCh)
See Device Type definition below
1X11 1111 1111 1111 (BFFFh or FFFFh)
0111 1111 1111 110X (7FFCh or 7FFDh)
Not used
1111 1111 1111 1111 (FFFFh)
Defined by state of interface
Not used
See Data Low definition below
See Data Low definition below
W
R
BIT DEFINITIONS
Register
Bit Location
Bit Usage
ID
15-14
13-12
11-0
Device Class
Address Space
Manufact. ID
15-0
Device Type
15
14
A24/32 Active
MODID*
13-4
3
2
1-0
Device Dependant
Extended*
Passed
Device dependant
Device
Type
Status
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WA73A-455 Value
WA73A-455 Usage
10
11
1111 1111 1100
Message Based
A16 Only
BFFC (Old CDS #)
1111 1110 0011 1000 FE38 (1's comp of 455)
83
1
1
0
11 1111 1111
1
1
11
Not used
MODID line not active
MODID line active
Not used
Not used
Always passed
Not used
BIT DEFINITIONS (continued)
Register
Bit Loc.
Bit Usage
455 Value
455 Usage
Control
15
14-2
1
A24/32 Enable
Device dependant
SYSFAIL Inhibit
1 or 0
111 1111 1111 11
1
Not used
Not used
Disables module from
driving Sysfail
Enables module to drive
Sysfail
Reset
Not reset
0
Protocol
Response
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Reset
1
0
15
14
13
12
11
CMDR*
Signal Reg*
Master*
Interrupter
FHS*
1
1
1
1
1
10
Shared Memory*
1
9-4
3-0
Reserved
Device dependant
11 1111
1111
15
14
13
12
11
10
Defined value of 0
Reserved
DOR
DIR
ERR*
Read Ready
0
1
1
1
1
1 or 0
Per VXI
Per VXI
Data Output Ready
Data Input Ready
Not used
Indicates that the
instrument portion of the
module had data
available to be read. Set
by the instrument
following a "Byte
Request" command,
and cleared on a read
from the Data Low
register or on reset.
9
Write Ready
1 or 0
Cleared upon receipt of
a "Byte Available"
command. Set when the
instrument is ready to
receive a data byte or
on reset.
8
7
6-0
FHS Active*
Locked*
Device dependant
1
1
111 1111
Not used
Not used
Not used.
84
Servant Only
No Signal Reg.
Slave only
Interrupter
No Fast Handshake
capability.
No Shared Memory
capability
Not used
Not used
Data High - not implemented
Data Low Register
The Data Low register is used to send the 16-bit VXI Word Serial commands and read the
response to those commands, as required. The Word Serial commands supported by the 455
module are:
Begin Normal Operation - begin normal operation of the module.
Byte Available - the Word Serial command which contains the module-specific
command and data bytes used to operate the 455 module.
Byte Request - the Word Serial command sent to the 455 Module before reading
response data and status (the response to the Accept or Error commands, for
example). The data is returned in bits 7-0. Bit 8 is set for end-of-message.
Clear - clears the VXIbus interface and any pending commands.
Trigger - triggers the 455 module for communication on the MIL-STD-1553 bus,
assuming the module has been properly programmed and armed for external trigger
operation by the T command.
Read Protocol - reads the VXIbus protocol of the 455 module. The response is read
from the Data Low register and returns the following bit arguments and contents:
VXIbus Version Level:
Bit 15
0
VXIbus Version 1.2 Device
Device dependant (unused):
Bits
14 13 12 11
1
1
1
1
Reserved:
Bits 10
1
9
1
8
1
7
1
6
1
5
1
Triggered*: (supports trigger command)
Bit 4
1
This module does not support trigger command
I4*: (supports VXIbus 488.2 Instrument protocol)
Bit 3
1
This module does not support 488.2 protocol)
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I*: (supports VXIbus Instrument protocol)
Bit 2
1
This module supports instrument protocol.
ELW*: (supports Extended Long-word Serial protocol)
Bit 1
1
This module does not support ELW protocol.
LW*: (supports Long-word Serial protocol.
Bit 0
1
This module does not support LW protocol.
WA73A-455 Interrupts
The WA73A-455 will interrupt its commander with the following "event" if it does not
recognize a VXIbus Word Serial command:
Unrecognized Command Event:
15
1
14
1
13
1
12
0
11
1
10
1
9
1
8
1
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
ß----------Logical Address-------------à
This event is generated by the module in response to any command sent to the data
low register other than the following:
Byte Available Command
Byte Request Command
Begin Normal Operation Command
Clear Command
Read Protocol Command
Trigger Command.
Request True:
15
1
14
1
13
1
12
1
11
1
10
1
9
0
8
1
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
ß------------Logical Address------------à
This event is generated as programmed by the I command.
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APPENDIX B -- INPUT/OUTPUT CONNECTIONS
Four TNS Triax female connectors are provided at the top of the front panel. The top two
connectors XFMR A and XFMR B are for transformer-coupled connections to the MIL-STD1553 Bus A and B. The lower two connectors, DIR A and DIR B, are for direct-coupled
connection to the MIL-STD-1553 Bus A and B. Install cabled TNC Triax male connectors to
one of these connector sets.
The bottom 50 pin DD50S connector labeled S4 is used to provide the interface to the
optional I/O signals for channel A and B. A corresponding DD50P connector is the required
mating connector. It is recommended that you only wire those signals to be used. The
transformer- and direct-coupled MIL-STD-1553 bus connections are also available on the
DD50S connector as an alternative to the triax connectors. Eight on-board jumpers located at
W1 through W8 can be removed to disconnect these four connections if required.
The signal assignments for the DD50S connector are listed below. The channel A pin number
is shown first, and the channel B pin number second. When viewing the connector from the
front, pin 1 is on the bottom right, and pin 50 is on the top left.
Pin Number
A
B
Signal
18 33 Common Mode Voltage Input
35 49 Analog Ground return for Common Mode Voltage Input
1
17 1553 Direct-Coupled Bus High
34 50 1553 Direct-Coupled Bus Low
2
16 1553 Transformer-Coupled Bus High
19 32 1553 Transformer-Coupled Bus Low
7
11 External Clock Input, TTL, 16 times 1553 data rate, will drive 1 TTL load.
21 30 Transmit/Reconstructed Receive Clock Output, TTL, will drive 6 LSTTL loads.
8
10 Data Bus Input Active Output, open collector, 10K pull up, 5mA sink capability.
39 45 Position Identification Output, TTL, Low True, 0.5 µs minimum width, will drive 6
LSTTL loads.
6
12 Pattern Recognition Output, will drive 10 LSTTL loads, Low True.
41 43 External Trigger Input, TTL, Low True, minimum pulse width 50 ns.
22 29 Transmitted Data High Output, TTL, Manchester bi-phase, Low True, Serial, will
drive 6 LSTTL loads.
38 46 Transmitted data Low Output, TTL, Manchester bi-phase, Low True, Serial, will
drive 6 LSTTL loads.
5
13 Reconstructed Received Data Low Output, TTL, Manchester bi-phase, Low True,
Serial, will drive 4 LSTTL loads. Data is valid on rising edge of reconstructed
clock (pin 21, 30).
24 27 Data Word Received Output, TTL, 1 µs high pulse at end of each received word,
will drive 6 LSTTL loads.
23 28 Message Error Output, TTL, Low True, 125 ns minimum width, will drive 10 LSTTL
loads.
40 44 External Halt Input, TTL, Low True, 50 ns minimum pulse width.
3, 9, 15, 20, 31, 42: Digital Ground
36, 37, 47, 48
Analog Ground
25, 26
Reserved.
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Common Mode Voltage Input
(Pins 18, 33)
The Common Mode Voltage Input allows
injection of a common-mode voltage onto
the 1553 data bus. Maximum input level
is +/- 11 V dc to 2 MHz.
of simultaneous transmission in dualredundant bus systems
Position Identification Output (Pins 39, 45)
The Position Identification Output provides
a low TTL pulse associated with any
specified transmit word in either the Bus
controller Simulator or RT Simulator Mode
(see the D command). The width of this
pulse is between 62.5 and 450 microseconds.
The pulse will occur during the sync pattern
of the transmitted word following the
specified transmit word for the same RT.
This output is useful for triggering an
oscilloscope in a large, repeating message
sequence.
1553 Bus Signals Direct Coupled
(Pins 1, 17, 34, 50)
Direct-coupled 1553 bus signals.
1553 Bus Signals Transformer Coupled
(Pins 2, 16, 19, 32)
Transformer-coupled 1553 bus signals.
External Clock Input (Pins 7, 11)
The External Clock input varies the 1553
data bus bit rate by supplying an external
clock signal. The external clock signal
must be provided at a frequency of sixteen
times the desired 1553 data bus bit rate.
The external clock may vary between 15
MHz and 17 MHz, giving a 0.9375 MHz to
1.0625 MHz bit rate on the 1553 data bus.
The Position Identification Output also
provides a low TTL pulse at any one
specified position in the bus monitor
collection buffer. In the Bus Monitor Mode,
this output can be used to indicate memory
is nearly full and to externally trigger data
collection to another WA73A-455 Module
programmed to the Bus Monitor Mode (see
Applications Note 455-III).
Transmitter/Reconstructed Received
Data/Clock Output (Pins 21, 30)
This output provides a 1 MHz clock for
both transmitted and received data. This
clock synchronizes itself to each new
received data input. The next transmission
of data is then synchronous with that
clock. This clock is active at all times.
Pattern Recognition Output (Pins 6, 12)
This output is used when the WA73A-455
Module is in the RT Simulator Mode or the
Bus Monitor Mode. The output will be set
low when a received command word
matches the 16-bit word programmed by
the P command. It will remain low until a
new bus transaction sequence is initiated
with the T command.
The clock transitions positive
approximately 75 nsec prior to the mid-bit
transition of the TTL Transmit Data
Outputs (pins 22, 29, 38 and 46) and the
TTL Reconstructed Receive Data output
(pins 5, 13)
External Trigger Input (Pins 41, 43)
The External Trigger Input is only active
when the z2 parameter of the T command
is a 1. In this case, the WA73A-455 Module
will not initiate a 1553 bus communications
sequence until an External Trigger Input is
received on this pin or a VXIbus Trigger
command is sent. After receiving the
External Trigger Input signal, the WA73A455 Module will begin communication on
the 1553 bus within 100 microseconds.
Repeatability of the time interval is +/- 3.5
microseconds.
Data Bus Input Active Output (Pins 8, 10)
The Data Bus Input Active is an output
that is active high to indicate that data is
being received by the WA73A-455
Module.
The Data Bus Input Active outputs from
more than one WA73A-455 output channel
may be connected together and will indicate
an active high only if all modules so
connected are simultaneously receiving
data. The output may be used for detection
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Transmitted Data High Output (Pins 22, 29)
This TTL output is active low for a
transmitted high level on the 1553 bus. It is
at an inactive high a) when the module is
transmitting a low level on the bus, or b) if
this module is receiving data, or c) the bus
is inactive.
Data Word Received Output (Pins 24, 27)
The Data Word Received Output generates
a 1-microsecond TTL high pulse each time
a command, status, or data word is
received. This output is active in the Bus
Controller Simulator, RT Simulator, and Bus
Monitor Modes.
This output is a TTL version of the actual
analog transmit level and reflects the
Manchester bi-phase data and parity
format, and includes the sync patterns. The
actual analog output is delayed by about
100 nanoseconds from this TTL output.
The 1 MHz Transmit Clock Output (pins 21,
30) transitions positive approximately 75
nanoseconds prior to the mid-bit transition
of this signal.
Message Error Output (Pins 23, 28)
The Message Error Output is only active
when the WA73A-455 Module is functioning
as a bus controller. The Message Error
Output line will pulse low each time a status
word is received with bit 6 (Message Error)
set.
External Halt Input (Pins 40, 44)
The External Halt Input is used to terminate
a 1553 bus communications sequence.
When a halt input is received, the WA73A455 Module will terminate 1553 bus
communications and accept additional
programming commands. This input is the
hardware equivalent of the Q command.
The External Halt signal will be examined,
and the halt request honored, as described
for the Q command.
Transmitted Data Low Output (Pins 38, 46)
This TTL output is active low for a
transmitted low level on the 1553 bus. It is
at an inactive high a) when the module is
transmitting a high level on the bus, or b) if
this module is receiving data, or c) the bus
is inactive.
This output is a TTL version of the actual
analog transmit level and reflects the
Manchester bi-phase data and parity
format, and includes the sync patterns. The
actual analog output is delayed by about
100 nanoseconds from this TTL output.
The 1 MHz Transmit Clock Output (pins 21,
30) transitions positive approximately 75
nanoseconds prior to the mid-bit transition
of this signal.
Reconstructed Received Data Low Output
(Pins 5, 13)
This output provides a TTL representation
of the received data including the sync
pattern, Manchester bi-phase data, and
parity bits. This output is active low for a
low receive level on the bus. It is inactive
high for a high receive level, or if the bus is
inactive. The 1 MHz Reconstructed
Receive Clock Output (pins 21, 30)
synchronizes to this incoming signal and
transitions high approximately 75
nanoseconds prior to the mid-bit transition
of this signal.
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APPENDIX C - VXIbus GLOSSARY
Certain terms used in this manual have very
specific meanings in the context of a
VXIbus System. A list of these terms is
presented below.
device's commander/servant
relationship.
Reset Bit
Bit 0 in the Control register of the
module. When set to a one (1) by
the module's commander or resource
manager, the device is forced into a
reset state.
Commander
A VXIbus device that has bus master
capability and has VXIbus servants
under it in the system hierarchy. A
commander may be a servant as well.
Resource Manager
A message based commander located
at logical address 0, which provides
configuration management services,
including self test, address map
configuration, commander/servant
mapping, and diagnostic management.
Fast Handshake
Compared to the Normal Transfer
Mode of the VXIbus, the Fast
Handshake Transfer Mode reduces
the number of VMEbus data transfer
cycles by 50%. Upon receipt of a
request for data, a fast handshake
module is able to return data in less
than 20 µs, so that the VXI bus fast
handshake protocol can be used by
the module's commander. Using fast
handshake protocol, data can be
written and read without checking the
Ready bits in the module's Response
register.
Servant
A VXIbus device that may or may not
have bus master capability, that is
under control of a commander in the
VXIbus system hierarchy. A servant
may also be a commander.
Soft Reset
This state is entered when the Reset
bit in the module's Control register is
set to one (1) by the module's
commander. While in this state, a
device is inactive, interrupts which are
pending are unasserted, all pending
bus requests are unasserted, and the
onboard processor is halted.
The device's VMEbus slave interface
is active in this state; however, the
device is incapable of responding to
any commands other than RESET and
SYSFAIL INHIBIT.
Hard Reset
This is the state of the module when
the SYSRESET* line is true. While in
this state, the module is inactive and
its Status and Control registers are
cleared. The SYSFAIL* line is driven
low, and the Failed LED is lit.
Interrupt Handler
The module in the VXIbus system
that generates the hardware interrupt
acknowledge for a particular VME
interrupt level. The software
interrupt handler may or may not be
on the same module as the hardware
interrupt handler.
SYSFAIL INHIBIT
Bit 1 in the Control register of the
module. When set to a one (1) by the
VXIbus Resource manager, the device
is disabled from driving the SYSFAIL*
line. The WA73A-455 module is
designed so that the Sysfail Inhibit bit
will work under all conditions except
when +5V power is lost.
Logical Address
A unique eight bit number which
identifies each VXIbus device in a
system. It defines the device's A16
register addresses, and indicates the
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VXI Commands
These are commands passed from a
commander to a servant within the
VXIbus environment. A command
may or may not be prompted by an
external event. For example, an
IEEE-488 GROUP EXECUTE
TRIGGER will generate a Trigger
command to all addressed devices.
However, a BEGIN NORMAL
OPERATIONS command is generated
by the VXIbus resource manager and
has no external source.
VXI Events
Events are passed from a servant to a
commander. They may be generated
by the servant either in response to a
command (for example, Unrecognized
Command event) or due to a condition
detected in the module (internal error).
VXI Message Based Instrument
An intelligent instrument that
implements the defined VXIbus
registers and, at a minimum, the word
serial protocol.
VXI Word Serial Protocol
The simplest requires communication
protocol supported by Message Based
devices in a VXIbus system. It utilizes
the A16 communications registers to
transfer data using a simple polling
handshake method.
488-VXIbus Interface
An IEEE-488 to VXIbus Interface
Device is a message based device
which provides communication
between the IEEE-488 bus and
VXIbus instruments.
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APPENDIX D -- APPLICATION NOTES
APPLICATION NOTE
SIMULATING DUAL REDUNDANT BUS CONTROLLERS
For this reason, an external front connector
WA73A-455 Module input is provided for
each channel to aid in this timing control.
The two channels of the WA73A-455
module can be used to simulate a dual
redundant MIL-STD-1553 Bus Controller.
The techniques described below can be
extended to three of four WA73A-455
channels to handle triple- or quadredundant Bus Controller operations.
Pins 41 and 43 re external trigger inputs
that will trigger a WA73A-455 Module that
has been preloaded with data and triggered
with an external trigger option of the T
command. Transmission will start a
minimum of 100 microseconds after the
active low input has been applied.
Transmission initiation can be programmed
for longer time by setting the pace value for
the first message in the sequence
command to longer than the minimum 14
microsecond value. There is an uncertainty
of +/- 3.5 microseconds in the trigger time.
The WA73A-455 Module is programmed by
ASCII character strings from a calculator,
computer or some other type of controller.
The WA73A-455 Module contains an onboard microprocessor which does some
setup compatibility tests of buffer allocation,
sequence, and data commands before it
allows transmission on the 1553 bus in
response to a T command. Since the time
it takes to perform these checks is
application dependant, it is difficult to time
the start or completion of one module's
operation with respect to an event on the
other module totally through software
control.
EXTERNAL
EXTERNAL
CONTROL
DISCRETE
TRIGGER
An external discrete may therefore be used
to halt one channel and start the next
channel with a delay time repeatability of
+/- 3.5 microseconds.
EXTERNAL
TRIGGER
WA73A-455 Channel 1
43
WA73A-455 Channel 2
called the position identification output
(Pin 39, A channel; Pin 45, B channel).
A low TTL pulse may be output on this pin
on a software specified word near the end
of the transmit list using the capability of
the D command.
A second method of transferring control
from one channel to another involves
using a known event on the first channel
to trigger the second channel. This is
accomplished by transmitting a finite
message sequence on the first channel
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This output can be connected to the
external trigger input of the second
channel. Using the timing control
technique described above, the second
channel's transmission can follow an
event in the first channel's transmission by
100 microseconds or more with a delay
time repeatability of +/- 3.5 microseconds.
By programming the position identification
pulse to occurs at least 100 microseconds
before the second channel's desired
starting time, this allows programming the
second channel to start within 4
microseconds of some event on the first
channel.
An application of this would be to
experimentally program the delay between
the first and second channels to the
desired point, using an oscilloscope.
Because of the +/- 3.5 microsecond
random uncertainty in triggering the
second channel, running this test many
times allows testing a dual redundant RT's
response to a superceding command with
a 7 microsecond uncertainty.
The uncertainty and randomness of the
delay is an excellent test of an RT's
superceding command operation.
WA73A-455 Channel 1
39
WA73A-455 Channel 2
43
EXTERNAL
TRIGGER
command error, and sets the message
error bit in response to a transmit status
mode code in the following command.
The first channel of the WA73A-455
Module can be programmed as a bus
controller to output a data error followed
by a request for status mode code. When
the status word comes back with the
message error bit set, the message error
bit output can be used to trigger the
second channel to transmit. The second
channel's transmission can be
programmed to follow the status word
message error bit detection a minimum of
100 microseconds later with a
predictability of +/- 3.5 microseconds.
A third method for triggering the channel
uses the message error bit returned in the
status word by a remote terminal. The
WA73A-455 Module contains a hardware
output that supplies a low pulse any time
the status word message error bit is
detected by the module, when in Bus
Controller Mode. This output is useful for
testing transfer of an RT to its redundant
bus following an error transmitted by the
bus controller.
For example, if an RT detects an error
(such as Manchester error or parity error)
on a data word following a valid command
word, the RT will not respond to the
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POSITION
IDENTIFICATION
OUTPUT
WA73A-455 Channel 1
23
MESSAGE
ERROR OUTPUT
WA73A-455 Channel 2
43
EXTERNAL
TRIGGER
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APPLICATION NOTE
BUS MONITOR MODULE CHAINING
The WA73A-455 Module provides a trigger
command capability to output a position
identification output (pin 39 on channel A,
pin 43 on channel B) which will output a low
TTL pulse at a user-defined position in the
30,000-word bus monitor receive buffer,
and a command to stop data collection after
the 30000 word buffer is full. This output
can be used to trigger an already set up
additional monitor module through its
external trigger input.
The WA73A-455 Module in the Bus Monitor
Mode requires a Q command or external
halt input to take it out of the Bus
Communication Mode so that the system
controller can read data from the module.
The module does not indicate to the system
controller when it is full. Using the Q
command is not practical unless some
means of knowing when the module will be
full and providing compatible software
timing.
The external trigger input takes
approximately 70 microseconds after being
activated before collection of data starts.
Collection of data also does not start until a
word with a command sync pattern appears
on the bus. To guarantee that no data is
missed during transfer from one module to
another, the maximum message length of
33 words plus an additional 4 words to
accommodate the 70 microseconds must
be still collected on the first module
following the output of the position
identification pulse. This means the
position identification pulse should be
programmed at least 33 words before the
end of the 30000 word buffer.
The best way of taking the Bus Monitor off
the bus is to connect the external halt pin of
the module to the position identification
pulse of the next module in the chain. This
ensures that the receiver on the module will
not be deactivated until the next module
has started collection. For the last module
in the chain, the module's position
identification output may be connected to its
own external halt input.
WA73A-455
MODULE 1
Channel A
39
Pulse
Id
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In the following diagram, both channels of
each of two WA73A-455 Modules are
connected to make a 120,000 word buffer.
WA73A-455
MODULE 1
Channel B
40
Ext
Halt
43
Ext
Trg
45
Pulse
Id
WA73A-455
MODULE 2
Channel A
44
41
Ext
Halt
Ext
Trg
94
39
Pulse
Id
WA73A-455
MODULE 2
Channel B
40
Ext
Halt
43
Ext
Trg
45
Ext
Halt
44
Pulse
Id
The following example would program triggering and data collection on the above two modules.
The program assumes the four instruments on the two modules have IEEE-488 addresses of 24
and 25 for channels A and B of module 1, and 26 and 27 for channels A and B of module 2
Lines 10 through 40 initialize the PC's IEEE-488 interface module as a system controller with an
IEEE-488 address of decimal 21.
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
170
180
190
200
210
220
230
240
250
260
270
280
290
300
310
320
330
DEF SEG = &HC400
Defines memory location of IBM PC IEEE-488 Interface Module.
SEND = 9 : INIT = 0 : ENTER = 21
Initialize PROM offsets for IBM PC IEEE-488 Interface Module.
PC.ADDRESS% = 21 : CONTROL% = 0
Define IEEE-488 Interface Module's IEEE-488 address, and define it to be a controller.
CALL INIT (PC.ADDRESS%, CONTROL%)
ADR1% = 24
ADR2% = 25
ADR3% = 26
ADR4% = 27
Assign IEEE-488 addresses of 24, 25, 26 and 27 for the four channels.
WRT$ = "K" + CHR$(13)
CALL SEND(ADR1%, WRT$, STATUS%)
WRT$ = "FM" + CHR$(13)
CALL SEND(ADR1%, WRT$, STATUS%)
WRT$ = "K" + CHR$(13)
CALL SEND(ADR2%, WRT$, STATUS%)
WRT$ = "FM" + CHR$(13)
CALL SEND(ADR2%, WRT$, STATUS%)
WRT$ = "K" + CHR$(13)
CALL SEND(ADR3%, WRT$, STATUS%)
WRT$ = "FM" + CHR$(13)
CALL SEND(ADR3%, WRT$, STATUS%)
WRT$ = "K" + CHR$(13)
CALL SEND(ADR4%, WRT$, STATUS%)
WRT$ = "FM" + CHR$(13)
CALL SEND(ADR4%, WRT$, STATUS%)
Reset and program all four channels to bus monitor mode. This program initializes the
four channels in parallel
WRT$ = "PXXXX" + CHR$(13)
CALL SEND(ADR1%, WRT$, STATUS%)
Optional command to start collection at user-specified command word pattern.
WRT$ = "TF29900" + CHR$(13)
CALL SEND(ADR1%, WRT$, STATUS%)
WRT$ = "TF29900,1" + CHR$(13)
CALL SEND(ADR2%, WRT$, STATUS%)
WRT$ = "TF29900,1" + CHR$(13)
CALL SEND(ADR3%, WRT$, STATUS%)
WRT$ = "TF29900,1" + CHR$(13)
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340 CALL SEND(ADR4%, WRT$, STATUS%)
Program first channel to start collection, putting a position identification pulse on the
29,900th word. Channels 2 through 4 are also programmed to start based on the
external trigger.
350 WRT$ = "A,1,H" + CHR$(13)
360 CALL SEND(ADR1%, WRT$, STATUS%)
Start collection on channel 1 when module has been externally halted.
370 FOR I = 1 TO 30000
380 RD$ = SPACE$(255)
390 CALL ENTER(RD$, LENGTH%, ADR1%, STATUS%)
400 GOSUB "STORE"
User subroutine to utilize data as desired
410 NEXT I
420 WRT$ = "A,1,H" + CHR$(13)
430 CALL SEND(ADR2%, WRT$, STATUS%)
440 FOR I = 1 TO 30000
450 RD$ = SPACE$(255)
460 CALL ENTER(RD$, LENGTH%, ADR2%, STATUS%)
470 GOSUB "STORE"
480 NEXT I
Repeat for channel 2.
Repeat lines 420 to 480 for channels 3 and 4
490 WRT$ = "A,1,H" + CHR$(13)
500 CALL SEND(ADR3%, WRT$, STATUS%)
510 FOR I = 1 TO 30000
520 RD$ = SPACE$(255)
530 CALL ENTER(RD$, LENGTH%, ADR3%, STATUS%)
540 GOSUB "STORE"
550 NEXT I
Repeat of lines 420 to 480 for channel 3
560 WRT$ = "A,1,H" + CHR$(13)
570 CALL SEND(ADR4%, WRT$, STATUS%)
580 FOR I = 1 TO 30000
590 RD$ = SPACE$(255)
600 CALL ENTER(RD$, LENGTH%, ADR4%, STATUS%)
610 GOSUB "STORE"
620 NEXT I
Repeat of lines 420 to 480 for channels 4
630 STOP
PING-PONGING BUS MONITOR CHANNELS
Ping-ponging the WA73A-455 module channel A and B inputs as bus monitors for continuous
data collection is usually not practical because of limitations in the WA73A-455 module-tosystem controller transfer rate. In the Binary read Mode, the WA73A-455 Module is capable
of returning one 1553 word (3 bytes) in 556 microseconds (depending on system controller).
The 1553 bus traffic must occur at less than 1 word per 550 measurements to get one
channel's responses back to the system controller while the other channel is filling up with
present data bus traffic.
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APPLICATION NOTE
RT-TO-RT TRANSFERS
This application note describes the programming of one channel of a WA73A-455 Module as
the Bus Controller, transmitting RT, or the receiving RT in an RT-to-RT transfer. The format of
an RT-to-RT transfer on the MIL-STD-1553 bus is as follows:
RCV
RT# 0
XMT
N RT# 1
N
BUS CONTROLLER
DOUBLE COMMAND WORD
GAP
XMT STATUS
WORD 1
RT#
BITS
TRANSMIT RT
TRANSMITS STATUS AND N WORDS
GAP
RCV STATUS
RT#
BITS
RECEIVE RT
STATUS
rather than the normal 4 to 12
microseconds. This is because the
WA73A-455 programmed as an RT is
designed to irrevocably start its response
time counter at the occurrence of the first
gap it sees following a command stream on
the bus. This is the gap following the
transmit RT command word from the bus
controller. The 130 microsecond response
time will, therefore, accommodate the time
for the transmitting RT's status word and
five data words plus some gap time before
responding with the status word.
The following program lists the commands
that would be sent to a WA73A-455 module
channel simulating RT#3 as a transmitting
RT, to a WA73A-455 module channel
simulating RT#9 as a receiving RT, and to a
WA73A-455 module channel simulating a
Bus Controller in an RT-to-RT transfer of
five words.
If only one or two of the three RT-to RT
participants are being simulated by the
WA73A-455 Module and the remainder by
the actual hardware, then, of course, only
those one or two channels would need to
be programmed.
The reason for placing the status word in
the buffer for RT#3 is that when a WA73A455 Module is programmed as an RT does
respond, it uses the last valid word with a
command sync to select the RT buffer from
which to transmit. Since the last valid
command or status word is the status word
from the transmitting RT (which has RT
address 3 in the RT# bit locations), the RT's
status word response must be in buffer 3.
The programming of the -455 Module as a
Bus Controller or transmitting RT in an RTto-RT transfer is straightforward. The
programming of the -455 Module as a
receiving RT in an RT-to-RT transfer,
however, requires some special
consideration relating to the WA73A-455
Module design.
Programming
In the following program for the receiving
RT in lines 260 to 310, note that the
receiving RT status word has been loaded
in RT#3's buffer in the -455 Module, even
though the receiving RT is really at RT
address 9. Also, the response time has
been programmed to 130 microseconds
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…… WORD N
The following program assumes the Bus
Controller, transmitting RT, and receiving
RT WA73A-455 channels have IEEE-488
addresses 24, 25, and 26 respectively.
97
Lines 10 through 40 initialize the PC's IEEE-488 interface module as a system controller with
IEEE-488 address of decimal 21.
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
170
180
190
200
210
220
230
240
250
260
270
280
290
300
DEF SEG = &HC400
Defines memory location of IBM PC IEEE-488 Interface Module.
SEND = 9 : INIT = 0 : ENTER = 21
Initialize PROM offsets for IBM PC IEEE-488 Interface Module.
PC.ADDRESS% = 21 : CONTROL% = 0
Define IEEE-488 Interface Module's IEEE-488 address, and define it as a controller.
CALL INIT (PC.ADDRESS%, CONTROL%)
ADRBC% = 24
ADRXRT% = 25
ADRRRT% = 26
Assign Bus controller, transmit RT, and receive RT IEEE-488 addresses 24, 25, 26
WRT$ = "K" + CHR$(13)
CALL SEND(ADRRT%, WRT$, STATUS%)
Reset transmitting RT module.
WRT$ = "FR" + CHR$(13)
CALL SEND(ADRRT%, WRT$, STATUS%)
Program module as an RT.
WRT$ = "B3,R99" + CHR$(13)
CALL SEND(ADRRT%, WRT$, STATUS%)
Allocate a receive buffer at RT address 3.
WRT$ = "B3,T6" + CHR$(13)
CALL SEND(ADRRT%, WRT$, STATUS%)
Allocate a transmit buffer of 6 words.
WRT$ = "D3,1,H,101800,1111,2222,3333,4444,5555:" + CHR$(13)
CALL SEND(ADRRT%, WRT$, STATUS%)
Load transmit buffer with status word and 5 data words.
WRT$ = "T1" + CHR$(13)
CALL SEND(ADRRT%, WRT$, STATUS%)
Trigger module to handle one message on bus.
WRT$ = "K" + CHR$(13)
CALL SEND(ADRRRT%, WRT$, STATUS%)
Reset receiving RT module.
WRT$ = "FR" + CHR$(13)
CALL SEND(ADRRRT%, WRT$, STATUS%)
Program module as an RT.
WRT$ = "R1,130" + CHR$(13)
CALL SEND(ADRRRT%, WRT$, STATUS%)
Program a response time of 130 µsec.
WRT$ = "B3,R99" + CHR$(13)
CALL SEND(ADRRRT%, WRT$, STATUS%)
Allocate a receive buffer at RT address 3.
WRT$ = "B3,T1" + CHR$(13)
CALL SEND(ADRRRT%, WRT$, STATUS%)
Allocate a transmit buffer for 1 status word.
WRT$ = "D3,1,H,104800:" + CHR$(13)
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310 CALL SEND(ADRRRT%, WRT$, STATUS%)
Load transmit list with status word. The characters 48 define status word to be from RT 9
320 WRT$ = "T1" + CHR$(13)
330 CALL SEND(ADRRRT%, WRT$, STATUS%)
Trigger module to handle one message on bus.
340 WRT$ = "K" + CHR$(13)
350 CALL SEND(ADRBC%, WRT$, STATUS%)
Reset Bus Controller module.
360 WRT$ = "FC" + CHR$(13)
370 CALL SEND(ADRBC%, WRT$, STATUS%)
Program module as bus controller.
380 WRT$ = "BS1" + CHR$(13)
390 CALL SEND(ADRBC%, WRT$, STATUS%)
Allocate a message buffer size of 1.
400 WRT$ = "B3,R99" + CHR$(13)
410 CALL SEND(ADRBC%, WRT$, STATUS%)
Allocate a receive buffer at RT address 3.
420 WRT$ = "B3,T2" + CHR$(13)
430 CALL SEND(ADRBC%, WRT$, STATUS%)
Allocate transmit buffer for two words.
440 WRT$ = "S1,3" + CHR$(13)
450 CALL SEND(ADRBC%, WRT$, STATUS%)
Specify message to come from transmit buffer #3.
460 WRT$ = "D3,1,H,104825, 101C25:" + CHR$(13)
470 CALL SEND(ADRBC%, WRT$, STATUS%)
Load transmit list with 2 contiguous command words.
480 WRT$ = "T1" + CHR$(13)
490 CALL SEND(ADRBC%, WRT$, STATUS%)
Trigger module to transmit RT-to-RT command on bus.
500 WRT$ = "A3,1,H" + CHR$(13)
510 CALL SEND(ADRBC%, WRT$, STATUS%)
Program bus controller module to return receive buffer contents in hexadecimal.
520 PRINT""
530 FOR I = 1 TO 9
540 RD$ = SPACE$ (255)
550 CALL ENTER (RD$, LENGTH%, ADRBC%, STATUS%):PRINT RD$
560 NEXT I
Read and print 9 words.
570 PRINT""
580 WRT$ = "A3,1,H" + CHR$(13)
590 CALL SEND(ADRXRT%, WRT$, STATUS%)
Program transmitting RT to return received data.
600 FOR I = 1 TO 2
610 RD$ = SPACE$ (255)
620 CALL ENTER (RD$, LENGTH%, ADRXRT%, STATUS%):PRINT RD$
630 NEXT I
Read and print 2 words.
640 PRINT""
650 WRT$ = "A3,1,H" + CHR$(13)
660 CALL SEND(ADRRRT%, WRT$, STATUS%)
Program receiving RT to return received data.
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670
680
690
700
710
FOR I = 1 TO 8
RD$ = SPACE$ (255)
CALL ENTER (RD$, LENGTH%, ADRRT%, STATUS%):PRINT RD$
NEXT I
STOP.
The following data will be returned from the bus controller receiver.
104825
101800
001111
002222
003333
004444
005555
104800
0B0000
First command word stuffed by 455 Module in receive buffer.
Transmit RT status word
Transmit RT data words
Receive RT status word
No more data
The following data will be returned from the transmitting RT receive buffer.
101C25
0B0000
The second command word from the bus controller.
No more data. An RT only collects command or status words with an RT
address the same as the buffer numbers plus any data words following that
command word.
The following data will be returned from the receiving RT receive buffer.
101C25
101800
001111
002222
003333
004444
005555
0B0000
The second command word from the bus controller.
The status word from the transmitting RT
Data words
No more data
An additional WA73A-455 instrument channel programmed as a bus monitor would collect all
nine words involved in the transaction.
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RT-to-RT Timeout Test
A special requirement for RT's supporting RT-to-RT transfer capability is that a receiving RT
time out when looking for a transmitting RT message occurring between 54 and 60
microseconds following the parity transition of the second command word in the bus controller
RT-to-RT command sequence. This requirement is to prevent the receiving RT from getting
hung up because of a malfunctioning transmitting RT. One channel can be used for this test
as both the bus controller and transmitting RT, which responds more than 14 microseconds
after the bus controller command sequence. The channel is programmed as a bus controller,
and then programmed to simulate both devices.
Lines 10 through 40 initialize the PC's IEEE-488 interface module as a system controller with
IEEE-488 address of decimal 21.
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
170
180
190
200
210
220
210
DEF SEG = &HC400
Defines memory location of IBM PC IEEE-488 Interface Module.
SEND = 9 : INIT = 0 : ENTER = 21
Initialize PROM offsets for IBM PC IEEE-488 Interface Module.
PC.ADDRESS% = 21 : CONTROL% = 0
Define IEEE-488 Interface Module's IEEE-488 address, and define it as a controller.
CALL INIT (PC.ADDRESS%, CONTROL%)
ADR455% = 24
Assign IEEE-488 address 24 to WA73A-455 Module.
WRT$ = "K" + CHR$(13)
CALL SEND(ADR455%, WRT$, STATUS%)
Reset module program as bus controller and transmitting RT.
WRT$ = "FC" + CHR$(13)
CALL SEND(ADR455%, WRT$, STATUS%)
WRT$ = "BS2" + CHR$(13)
CALL SEND(ADR455%, WRT$, STATUS%)
WRT$ = "B3,R99" + CHR$(13)
CALL SEND(ADR455%, WRT$, STATUS%)
WRT$ = "B3,T5" + CHR$(13)
CALL SEND(ADR455%, WRT$, STATUS%)
Program module as a bus controller, allocate sequence, transmit and receive buffers.
WRT$ = "S1,3:3,54" + CHR$(13)
CALL SEND(ADR455%, WRT$, STATUS%)
Set interval between controller command and RT command and data to 54 µsec.
WRT$ = "D3,1,H,104822,101C22:101800,1111,2222:" + CHR$(13)
CALL SEND(ADR455%, WRT$, STATUS%)
Program RT-to-RT command words and transmitting RT message.
WRT$ = "T1" + CHR$(13)
CALL SEND(ADR455%, WRT$, STATUS%)
Trigger sequence.
WRT$ = "A3,3,H" + CHR$(13)
CALL SEND(ADR455%, WRT$, STATUS%)
Read third word in receive buffer.
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240 RD$ = SPACE$ (255)
250 CALL ENTER (RD$, LENGTH%, ADR455%, STATUS%)
260 IF MID$(RD$,3,4)<>"4822":PRINT"CHANNEL TIMEOUT TOO SOON":GOTO 440
If not receiving RT status, fail channel.
270 WRT$ = "S2,360" + CHR$(13)
280 CALL SEND(ADR455%, WRT$, STATUS%)
290 WRT$ = "T1" + CHR$(13)
300 CALL SEND(ADR455%, WRT$, STATUS%)
Reprogram interval to 60 µsec.
310 WRT$ = "A3,3,H" + CHR$(13)
320 CALL SEND(ADR455%, WRT$, STATUS%)
Read third word in receive buffer.
330 RD$ = SPACE$ (255)
340 CALL ENTER (RD$, LENGTH%, ADR455%, STATUS%)
350 IF MID$(RD$,1,6)<>"0B0000":PRINT"CHANNEL TIMEOUT TOO LATE"
If not a no-response, fail channel
440 END
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APPENDIX E - PERFOMANCE VERIFICATION
This procedure verifies the performance of the WA73A-455 MIL-STD-1553 A/B
Bus Simulator Modules. Perform the verification in your current VXIbus system
if it meets the minimum requirements specified in the paragraph labeled
Required Equipment. It is not necessary to complete the entire procedure if you
are only interested in a specific performance area. However, the verification of
some parameter rely on the correct operation of previously validate functions so
it is best to follow the order presented.
Use the steps in this chapter to verify the mainframe operates properly.
General Information and Conventions
The following conventions apply throughout this procedure:
•
Each of the voltage and bit tests direct you to figures that help you visualize
what the signal should look like. You will be referred to a different figure of a
valid signal when the sample rate or voltage level changes.
•
Programming of the WA73A-455 assumes no particular interface. Refer to
Programming Examples in Basic for a list of the ASC commands that need
to be sent to the WA73A-455. Form the commands properly for the interface
that you use.
•
This procedure checks one or two channels of the WA73A-455, then
instructs you to repeat the procedure for the other channel.
NOTE: Refer to the Command Syntax section of this manual for command
protocol and syntax information.
Prerequisites
The performance checks in this section are valid when the following
requirements are met:
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The WA73A-455 passes the power-on self test.
•
All covers are in place and the WA73A-455 is installed in an approved
VXIbus mainframe according to the instructions in the Installation section of
the Operating manual.
•
The WA73A-455 warms up for at least 20 minutes in an ambient environment
as specified in the Specifications section of the Operating Manual.
103
Required Equipment
The following equipment is necessary to complete the performance verification
checks:
•
Digitizing oscilloscope with at least 100 MHz bandwidth, a sample frequency
of 1 Ghz, and a minimum of 2 channels.
•
A platform to send commands to the WA73A-455 and receive data back from
the WA73A-455.
•
A cable to connect the direct coupled output of the WA73A-455 from Direct A
to Direct B. This cable will need to have a TNC Triax connector on each end
and a 35 +/- 0.1% ohm load across the bus high to bus low connection to
simulate a 70 ohm 1553 bus load. Allow enough space to connect an
oscilloscope probe on both ends of the resistor. Mark which side of the
resistor is BUS+ and BUS-. Refer to figure 455-7.
•
One DD50S connector to monitor signals from the WA73A-455.
Centre pin
on connector
Channel A
Shield to
connector case
Outer grip
on connector
Bus low
connection
for scope
Channel B
Centre pin
on connector
Figure 455-7: Cable Diagram
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35 Ω
Bus high
connection
for scope
Performance Verification Check
Use the checks in this section to verify the performance of the WA73A-455.
Verify Clock Stability
Follow the steps below to verify that the clock and dividers are working properly:
1.
Connect channel 1 of the oscilloscope to S4 pin 39 (position identification
output Bus A
NOTE: Program the Bus A side of the -455 Module using the logical address.
2.
Send the following commands to Bus A:
FC <cr/lf>
B0,T1 <cr/lf>
B0,R1 <cr/lf>
BS1 <cr/lf>
S1,0,50 <cr/lf>
D0,1,H,300821; <cr/lf>
VT820,35 <cr/lf>
T* <cr/lf>
3.
Verify that the Bus A CTRL, PATT, and COMM lights are illuminated.
4.
Measure the time on channel 1, between the falling edge of one pulse to the
falling edge of the next pulse. A measurement of 70 µs ± 7 0 ns indicates
that the clock and dividers are working properly.
5.
Send the following command to the WA73A-455 to make the transmitter quit
and reset:
K <cr/lf>
6.
Connect channel 1 of the oscilloscope to S4 pin 45 (position identification
output Bus B).
7.
Send the following commands to Bus B:
FC <cr/lf>
B0,T1 <cr/lf>
B0,R1 <cr/lf>
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BS1 <cr/lf>
S1,0,50;<cr/lf>
D0,1,H,300821;<cr/lf>
VT820,35<cr/lf>
T*<cr/lf>
8.
Verify that the WA73A-455 Bus B CTRL, PATT, and Comm lights are on.
9.
Measure the time on channel 1, between the falling edge of one pulse to the
falling edge of the next pulse. Refer to Figure 455-8 to verify a measurement
of 70 µs ± 70 ns. This measurement indicates that the clock and dividers
are working properly.
10. Send the following command to the WA73A-455 to make the transmitter quit
and reset:
K <cr/lf>
Clock Accuracy
70 µs ± 70ns
Figure 455-8:
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Clock Accuracy
106
Verify 1553 Bus
Output Levels
Follow the steps below to verify that the 1553 bus output levels are accurate:
1.
Connect one TNC Triax connector to the Direct A connector.
2.
Connect a second TNC Triax connector to the Direct B connector.
3.
Connect oscilloscope channel 1 to S4 pin 39. Connect channel 2 to BUS+
on the resistor.
4.
Place the probe ground connection on the BUS- side of the resistor.
5.
Set the oscilloscope to trigger off channel 1.
Ignore the overshoot and ringing on the peaks of the pulses when measuring the
peak-to-peak amplitude of the 1553 message on channel 2. Refer to Figure 445-8
to verify the peak-to-peak measurement.
Amplitude Test, Volts Peak-to-Peak. Follow the steps below verify the peak-topeak voltage reading:
1.
Send the following commands to Bus A:
FC<cr/lf>
B0,T1<cr/lf>
B0,R1<cr/lf>
BS1<cr/lf>
S1,0,50;<cr/lf>
D0,1,H,300821;<cr/lf>
VT820,35<cr/lf>
T*<cr/lf>
2.
Measure the peak-to-peak amplitude. Verify that the reading is
8.20 V p-p ± 300 mV. Refer to Figure 455-9.
3.
Send the following command to the WA73A-455 to make the
transmitter quit and reset:
K<cr/lf>
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Amplitude test
8.20 V P-P ± 300 mV
Figure 455-9:
Amplitude Test, Volts Peak-to-Peak
Amplitude Test, Millivolt Peak-to-Peak. Follow the steps below verify the peakto-peak voltage reading:
1.
Send the following commands to Bus A:
FC<cr/lf>
B0,T1<cr/lf>
B0,R1<cr/lf>
BS1<cr/lf>
S1,0,50;<cr/lf>
D0,1,H,300821;<cr/lf>
VT020,35<cr/lf>
T*<cr/lf>
2.
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Measure the peak-to-peak amplitude. Verify that the reading is
200 mV p-p ± 300 mV. Refer to Figure 455-10
108
3.
Send the following command to the WA73A-455 to make the
transmitter quit and reset:
K<cr/lf>
Figure 455-10:
Amplitude Test, Millivolts Peak-to-Peak
Amplitude Test for Bus B. Follow the steps below to check the amplitude for
Bus B.
1.
Connect oscilloscope channel 1 to S4 pin 45.
2.
Send the following commands to Bus B:
FC<cr/lf>
B0,T1 <cr/lf>
B0,R1 <cr/lf>
BS1 <cr/lf>
S1,0,50;<cr/lf>
D0,1,H,300821<cr/lf>
VT820,35<cr/lf>
T*<cr/lf>
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3.
Measure the peak--to-peak amplitude of the 1553 message on channel 2.
Verify that the reading is 8.20 V p-p ± 300 mV. Refer to Figure 455-9.
4.
Send the following command to the WA73A-455 to make the transmitter quit
and reset.
K<cr/lf>
5.
Send the following commands to Bus B:
FC<cr/lf>
B0,T1<cr/lf>
B0,R1<cr/lf>
BS1<cr/lf>
S1,0,50;<cr/lf>
D0,1,H,300821;<cr/lf>
VT020,35<cr/lf>
T*<cr/lf>
6.
Measure the peak-to-peak amplitude of the 1553 message on
channel 2. Refer to Figure 455-10 to verify that the reading is
200 mV p-p ± 300 mV p-p
7.
Send the following command to the WA73A-455 to make the transmitter quit
and reset.
K<cr/lf>
Error Injection Test
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Follow the steps below to verify that these is no error in the injection
transmission. Refer to figure 455-11
1.
Connect one TNC Triax connector to the Direct A connector.
2.
Connect a second TNC connector to the Direct B connector.
3.
Connect oscilloscope channel 1 to S4 pin 39 and channel 2 to
BUS+ on the resistor.
4.
Place the probe ground connection on the BUS- side of the
resistor.
5.
Set the oscilloscope to trigger of channel 1.
110
Figure 455-11:
No Error Injection
Midsync Transition Error 500ns Early. Follow the steps below to generate a
midsync transition reading.
1.
Send the following commands to Bus A.
FC<cr/lf>
B0,T1<cr/lf>
B0,R1<cr/lf>
BS1<cr/lf>
S1,0,50;<cr/lf>
M0<cr/lf>
D0,1,H,31AAAA;<cr/lf>
VT820,35<cr/lf>
T*<cr/lf>
2.
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Measure from the beginning of the sync to the midsync. Verify that the
reading is 1 µs ± 70 ns. Refer to figure 455-12.
111
Figure 455-12:
Midsync Transition 500 ns Early
Invalid Parity Error. Follow the steps below to generate an invalid parity error:
1. Send the following commands to the WA73A-455 to make the transmitter quit
and reset:
K<cr/lf>
2.
Send the following commands to Bus A:
FC<cr/lf>
B0,T1<cr/lf>
B0,R1<cr/lf>
BS1<cr/lf>
S1,0,50;<cr/lf>
M0<cr/lf>
D0,1,H,32AAAA;<cr/lf>
VT820,35<cr/lf>
T*<cr/lf>
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3.
Verify that the parity bit is the opposite of Figure 455-11 (no error injection
transmission). Refer to Figure 455-13 for an example of an invalid parity.
Figure 455-13:
Invalid Parity
Manchester Error. Follow the steps below to generate a Manchester error:
NOTE: A Manchester error is when the bus is held high or low for a complete
bus cycle (≥ 1 µs).
1.
Send the following commands to the WA73A-455 to make the transmitter
quit and reset:
K<cr/lf>
2.
Send the following commands to Bus A:
FC<cr/lf>
B0,T1<cr/lf>
B0,R1<cr/lf>
BS1<cr/lf>
S1,0,50;<cr/lf>
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M0<cr/lf>
D0,1,H,33AAAA;<cr/lf>
VT820,35<cr/lf>
T*<cr/lf>
3.
Compare Figure 455-14 (no Manchester error) to Figure 455-15 (with a
Manchester error) to insure that there is a Manchester error.
Figure 455-14:
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No Manchester Error
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Figure 455-15:
Manchester Error
Invalid Parity Error. Follow the steps below to generate an invalid parity error:
1.
Send the following commands to the WA73A-455 to make the transmitter
quit and reset:
K<cr/lf>
2.
Send the following commands to Bus A:
FC<cr/lf>
B0,T1<cr/lf>
B0,R1<cr/lf>
BS1<cr/lf>
S1,0,50;<cr/lf>
M0<cr/lf>
D0,1,H,34AAAA;<cr/lf>
VT820,35<cr/lf>
T*<cr/lf>
Refer to Figure 455-16 to verify measured value is 2µs ± 70ns.
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Figure 455-16:
Midsync Transition 500 ns Late
17-bit Word Error. Follow the steps below to add one bit to the 16-bit word.
Refer to Figure 455-17.
1.
Send the following commands to the WA73A-455 to make the transmitter
quit and reset:
K<cr/lf>
2.
Send the following commands to Bus A:
FC<cr/lf>
B0,T1<cr/lf>
B0,R1<cr/lf>
BS1<cr/lf>
S1,0,50;<cr/lf>
M0<cr/lf>
D0,1,H,35AAAA;<cr/lf>
VT820,35<cr/lf>
T*<cr/lf>
3.
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Verify that an additional bit has been added.
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Figure 455-17:
17-bit Word
15-bit Word Error. Follow the steps below to subtract one bit from the 16-bit
word. Refer to Figure 455-18.
1.
Send the following commands to the WA73A-455 to make the transmitter
quit and reset:
K<cr/lf>
2.
Send the following commands to Bus A:
FC<cr/lf>
B0,T1<cr/lf>
B0,R1<cr/lf>
BS1<cr/lf>
S1,0,50;<cr/lf>
M0<cr/lf>
D0,1,H,36AAAA;<cr/lf>
VT820,35<cr/lf>
T*<cr/lf>
3.
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Verify that a bit has been removed.
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Figure 455-18:
15-bit Word
Dropped Bit Error. Follow the steps below to hold the reference level at 0.0V for
the bit transition time. Release the reference level for the next transition. Refer
to Figure 455-19.
1.
Send the following commands to the WA73A-455 to make the transmitter
quit and reset:
K<cr/lf>
2.
Send the following commands to Bus A:
FC<cr/lf>
B0,T1<cr/lf>
B0,R1<cr/lf>
BS1<cr/lf>
S1,0,50;<cr/lf>
M0<cr/lf>
D0,1,H,37AAAA;<cr/lf>
VT820,35<cr/lf>
T*<cr/lf>
3.
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Verify that a bit has been dropped in the same position as Figure 455-19.
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Figure 455-19:
Dropped Bit
Dropped Bit on Position 16. Follow the steps below to check the ability of the
WA73A-455 to place a dropped bit on position 16. Refer to Figure 455-20.
1.
Send the following commands to the WA73A-455 to make the transmitter
quit and reset:
K<cr/lf>
2.
Send the following commands to Bus A:
FC<cr/lf>
B0,T1<cr/lf>
B0,R1<cr/lf>
BS1<cr/lf>
S1,0,50;<cr/lf>
M0<cr/lf>
D0,1,H,37AAA0;<cr/lf>
VT820,35<cr/lf>
T*<cr/lf>
3.
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Verify that there is a dropped bit in position 16 as Figure 455-20
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Figure 455-20:
Dropped Bit on Position 16
Dropped Bit on Position 1. Follow the steps below to check the ability of the
WA73A-455 to place a dropped bit on position 1. Refer to Figure 455-21.
1.
Send the following commands to the WA73A-455 to make the transmitter
quit and reset:
K<cr/lf>
2.
Send the following commands to Bus A:
FC<cr/lf>
B0,T1<cr/lf>
B0,R1<cr/lf>
BS1<cr/lf>
S1,0,50;<cr/lf>
M0<cr/lf>
D0,1,H,37AAAE;<cr/lf>
VT820,35<cr/lf>
T*<cr/lf>
3.
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Verify that there is a dropped bit in position 1, as Figure 455-21
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Figure 455-21:
Dropped Bit on Position 1
Valid Mid-bit Transition Time. Follow the steps below to check for a valid midbit transition of 150ns ± 70 ns. Refer to Figure 455-22.
1.
Send the following commands to the WA73A-455 to make the transmitter
quit and reset:
K<cr/lf>
2.
Send the following commands to Bus A:
FC<cr/lf>
B0,T1<cr/lf>
B0,R1<cr/lf>
BS1<cr/lf>
S1,0,50;<cr/lf>
M1<cr/lf>
D0,1,H,33AAAD;<cr/lf>
VT820,35<cr/lf>
T*<cr/lf>
3.
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Verify that there is an invalid bit time. Refer to Figure 455-22 for a valid midbit transition. Refer to Figure 455-23 for the invalid mid-bit transition.
121
Figure 455-22:
Figure 455-23:
4.
Valid mid-bit Transition
Invalid mid-bit Transition
Send the following commands to the WA73A-455 to make the transmitter
quit and reset:
K<cr/lf>
This completes the transmitter testing for Channel A of the WA73A-455. Repeat the transmitter
testing for channel B of the WA73A-455, beginning with the Error Injection Test. Connect
oscilloscope channel 1 to S4 pin 45 for all channel B tests.
The 1553 bus tester transmitter tests are complete if all tests are successful.
When you complete the transmitter testing for both channel A and channel B, proceed with the rest
of the tests, beginning with Receiver Amplitude Test.
If problems are encountered, contact your representative for service assistance. For technical
assistance, please contact our support staff at [email protected] or phone 353-61-472233.
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Receiver Amplitude Test
Follow the steps below to verify the receiver amplitude:
1.
Remove the channel 1 and channel 2 oscilloscope probes from the bus
resistor.
2.
Connect the bus cable between Direct A and Direct B connectors of the
WA73A-455.
3.
Send the following commands to channel B Remote Terminal (RT).
K<cr/lf>
FR<cr/lf>
B20,T3<cr/lf>
B20,R3<cr/lf>
D20,1,H,10A000,001111,00EEEE;<cr/lf>
VT820,35<cr/lf>
VR785<cr/lf>
T1<cr/lf>
4.
Send the following commands to channel A Bus Controller (BC).
K<cr/lf>
FR<cr/lf>
B1,T1<cr/lf>
B1,R5<cr/lf>
BS1<cr/lf>
S1,1,1000;<cr/lf>
D1,1,H,10A422;<cr/lf>
VT820,35<cr/lf>
VR785<cr/lf>
T1<cr/lf>
5.
Wait approximately 100 µs before sending out any other commands.
6.
Send the following commands to the BC:
Q<cr/lf>
A1,1,H<cr/lf>
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7.
Read back the following five words from the BC:
10A422
10A000
001111
00EEEE
0B0000
The first two bytes of each word may differ, but the last four bytes must
match each of the above listed words.
8.
Send the following commands to the RT:
Q<cr/lf>
A20,1,H<cr/lf>
9.
Read back the following two words from the RT:
10A422
0B0000
The first two bytes of each word may differ, but the last four bytes must
match each of the above listed words.
10. Send the following commands to channel B:
VR890<cr/lf>
T1<cr/lf>
11. Send the following commands to channel A:
VR890<cr/lf>
T1<cr/lf>
12. Wait approximately 100 µs before sending out any other commands.
13. Send the following commands to the BC:
Q<cr/lf>
A1,1,H<cr/lf>
14. Read back the following word from the BC:
10A422
0B0000
The last four bytes should match the above words.
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15. Send the following commands to channel B:
VT150,35<cr/lf>
VR75<cr/lf>
T1<cr/lf>
16. Send the following commands to channel A:
VT150,35<cr/lf>
VR75<cr/lf>
T1<cr/lf>
17. Wait approximately 100 µs before sending out any other commands.
18. Send the following commands to the BC:
Q<cr/lf>
A1,1,H<cr/lf>
19. Read back the following five words from the BC:
10A422
10A000
001111
00EEEE
0B0000
The first two bytes of each word may differ, but the last four bytes must
match each of the above listed words.
20. Send the following commands to the RT:
Q<cr/lf>
A20,1,H<cr/lf>
21. Read back the following two words from the RT:
10A422
0B0000
The first two bytes of each word may differ, but the last four bytes must
match each of the above listed words.
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22. Send the following commands to channel B:
VR050,35<cr/lf>
T1<cr/lf>
23. Send the following commands to channel A:
VR050,35<cr/lf>
T1<cr/lf>
24. Wait approximately 100 µs before sending out any other commands.
25. Send the following commands to the BC:
Q<cr/lf>
A1,1,H<cr/lf>
26. Read back the following word from the BC:
10A422
0B0000
The first two bytes of each word may differ, but the last four bytes must
match each of the above listed words.
This completes he Receiver Amplitude Test.
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Receiver Error
Detection Test
Follow the steps below to complete the Receiver Error Detection test:
1.
Send the following commands to channel B:
K<cr/lf>
FR<cr/lf>
B20,T3<cr/lf>
B20,R3<cr/lf>
D20,1,H,10A000,001111,00EEEE;<cr/lf>
VT620,35<cr/lf>
VR200<cr/lf>
T1<cr/lf>
2.
Send the following commands to channel A:
K<cr/lf>
FR<cr/lf>
B1,T1<cr/lf>
B1,R5<cr/lf>
BS1<cr/lf>
S1,1,1000;<cr/lf>
D1,1,H,10A422;<cr/lf>
VT620,35<cr/lf>
VR200<cr/lf>
T1<cr/lf>
3.
Wait approximately 100 µs before sending out any other commands.
4.
Send the following commands to the BC:
Q<cr/lf>
A1,1,H<cr/lf>
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5.
Read back the following five words from the BC:
10A422
10A000
001111
00EEEE
0B0000
Each word must match the above listed word.
6.
Send the following commands to the RT:
Q<cr/lf>
A20,1,H<cr/lf>
7.
Read back the following two words from the RT:
10A422
0B0000
Each word must match the above listed word.
8.
Send the following commands to channel B:
D20,3,H,02EEEE;<cr/lf>
T1<cr/lf>
9.
Send the following commands to channel A:
T1<cr/lf>
10. Wait approximately 100 µs before sending out any other commands.
11. Send the following commands to the BC:
Q<cr/lf>
A1,1,H<cr/lf>
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12. Read back the following five words from the BC:
10A422
10A000
001111
02EEEE
0B0000
Each word must match the above listed word
13. Send the following commands to the RT:
Q<cr/lf>
A20,1,H<cr/lf>
14. Read back the following two words from the RT:
10A422
0B0000
Each word must match the above listed word.
15. Send the following commands to channel B:
D20,3,H,03EEEE;<cr/lf>
T1<cr/lf>
16. Send the following commands to channel A:
T1<cr/lf>
17
Wait approximately 100 µs before sending out any other commands.
18. Send the following commands to the BC:
Q<cr/lf>
A1,1,H<cr/lf>
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19. Read back the following five words from the BC:
10A422
10A000
001111
03EEEE
0B0000
Each word must match the above listed word.
20. Send the following commands to the RT:
Q<cr/lf>
A20,1,H<cr/lf>
21. Read back the following two words from the RT:
10A422
0B0000
Each word must match the above listed word.
22. Send the following commands to channel B:
D20,3,H,04EEEE;<cr/lf>
T1<cr/lf>
23. Send the following commands to channel A:
T1<cr/lf>
24. Wait approximately 100 µs before sending out any other commands.
25. Send the following commands to the BC:
Q<cr/lf>
A1,1,H<cr/lf>
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26. Read back the following five words from the BC:
10A422
10A000
001111
04EEEE
0B0000
Each word must match the above listed word.
27. Send the following commands to the RT:
Q<cr/lf>
A20,1,H<cr/lf>
28. Read back the following two words from the RT:
10A422
0B0000
Each word must match the above listed word.
29. Send the following commands to channel B:
D20,2,H,051111,00EEEE;<cr/lf>
T1<cr/lf>
30. Send the following commands to channel A:
T1<cr/lf>
31. Wait approximately 100 µs before sending out any other commands.
32. Send the following commands to the BC:
Q<cr/lf>
A1,1,H<cr/lf>
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33. Read back the following five words from the BC:
10A422
10A000
001111
05EEEE
0B0000
Each word must match the above listed word.
34. Send the following commands to the RT:
Q<cr/lf>
A20,1,H<cr/lf>
35. Read back the following two words from the RT:
10A422
0B0000
Each word must match the above listed word.
36. Send the following commands to channel B:
D20,2,H,001111,06EEEE;<cr/lf>
T1<cr/lf>
37. Send the following commands to channel A:
T1<cr/lf>
38. Wait approximately 100 µs before sending out any other commands.
39. Send the following commands to the BC:
Q<cr/lf>
A1,1,H<cr/lf>
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40. Read back the following five words from the BC:
10A422
10A000
001111
06EEEE
0B0000
Each word must match the above listed word.
41. Send the following commands to the RT:
Q<cr/lf>
A20,1,H<cr/lf>
42. Read back the following two words from the RT:
10A422
0B0000
Each word must match the above listed word.
43. Send the following commands to channel B:
D20,2,H,072222;<cr/lf>
T1<cr/lf>
44. Send the following commands to channel A:
T1<cr/lf>
45. Wait approximately 100 µs before sending out any other commands.
46. Send the following commands to the BC:
Q<cr/lf>
A1,1,H<cr/lf>
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47. Read back the following five words from the BC:
10A422
10A000
001111
072222
0B0000
Each word must match the above listed word.
48. Send the following commands to the RT:
Q<cr/lf>
A20,1,H<cr/lf>
49. Read back the following two words from the RT:
10A422
0B0000
Each word must match the above listed word.
50. Send the following commands to channel B:
BR1<cr/lf>
R1,5<cr/lf>
D20,3,H,00EEEE;<cr/lf>
T1<cr/lf>
51. Send the following commands to channel A:
G4<cr/lf>
T1<cr/lf>
52. Wait approximately 100 µs before sending out any other commands.
53. Send the following commands to the BC:
Q<cr/lf>
A1,1,H<cr/lf>
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54. Read back the following five words from the BC:
10A422
11A000
001111
01EEEE
0B0000
Each word must match the above listed word.
55. Send the following commands to the RT:
Q<cr/lf>
A20,1,H<cr/lf>
56. Read back the following two words from the RT:
10A422
0B0000
Each word must match the above listed word.
57. Send the following commands to channel B:
BR1<cr/lf>
R1,4<cr/lf>
D20,3,H,00EEEE;<cr/lf>
T1<cr/lf>
58. Send the following commands to channel A:
G5<cr/lf>
D1,1,H,10A420;<cr/lf>
T1<cr/lf>
59. Wait approximately 100 µs before sending out any other commands.
60. Send the following commands to the BC:
Q<cr/lf>
A1,1,H<cr/lf>
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61. Read back the following five words from the BC:
10A422
10A000
001111
00EEEE or 0CEEEE
0B0000
Each word must match the above listed word.
62. Send the following commands to the RT:
Q<cr/lf>
A20,1,H<cr/lf>
63. Read back the following two words from the RT:
10A422
0B0000
Each word must match the above listed word.
64. Repeat the Receiver Error Detection Test, reversing the function of the
WA73A-455 by making channel A the RT, and channel B the BC.
The receiver tests are complete if all tests are successful.
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Memory and CPU Test
Follow the steps below to verify the performance of the memory and CPU:
1.
Send the following commands to channel A:
TEST<cr/lf>
2.
Wait until all of the lights on channel A of the WA73A-455 module have quit
blinking.
3.
Verify the WA73A-455 displays the following message:
OK, Vx,x
NOTE. Vx,x indicates the version and revision level of the firmware.
If the above message is received, then there are no errors in the memory or CPU.
4.
Repeat the memory and CPU test for channel B.
If all performance checks in this section are verified, then the WA73A-455 is
operational.
If problems are encountered, contact your representative for service assistance.
For technical assistance with application questions, please contact our support
staff at [email protected] or phone 353-61-472233.
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APPENDIX F - User Service.
This appendix contains service-related information that covers the following topics:
•
Preventative maintenance
•
User replaceable parts.
Preventative Maintenance.
You should perform inspection and cleaning as preventative maintenance. Preventative
maintenance, when done regularly, may prevent malfunction and enhance reliability. Inspect and
clean the module as often as conditions require by following these steps:
1.
Turn off power and remove module from VXIbus mainframe.
2.
Remove loose dust on the outside of the instrument with a lint-free cloth.
3.
Remove any remaining dirt with lint-free cloth dampened with a general purpose detergentand-water solution. Do not use abrasive cleaners or organic solvents.
User-Replaceable Parts.
Replacement parts are available from the manufacturer. To assist in provision of correct parts, it is
important to include the following information with your order.
•
Part Number
•
Serial Number.
User-Replaceable Parts.
Part Description
Part Number
User Manual
UM11033
Fuse, 2 Amp, Time delay
529-588
Fuse, 5 Amp, Time delay
529-620
Screw, Pozi-drive, Metric 2.5 x 12 CSK
SC-M2.5-12-CSK
Screw, Pozi-drive, Metric 2.5 x 6 CSK
SC-M2.5-6-CSK
Stand-off spacer, Plain,
SP-6-2.5-4
Stand-off spacer, Hex,
SP-HEX-M2.5-12
Parts may be ordered by email by contacting [email protected], by phone at 353-61-472233, or
by fax at 353-61-471675.
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