satellar digital system part ii: central unit user guide version 1.3

satellar digital system part ii: central unit user guide version 1.3
SATELLAR DIGITAL SYSTEM
PART II: CENTRAL UNIT
USER GUIDE VERSION 1.3
2
USER GUIDE
WIRELESS WORLD – LOCAL SOLUTION
Copyright: 2013 SATEL Oy
No part of this document may be reproduced, transmitted or stored in a retrieval system in any form or by any
means without the prior written permission of SATEL Oy. This document is provided in confidence and must not be
distributed to third parties without the express permission of SATEL Oy.
Contents
Important notice
7
Product conformity
8
Warranty and safety instructions
9
1.
Introduction to the SATELLAR product family
10
1.1
14
Mounting
2.
Technical specifications
18
3.
Typical setup
19
4.
Mechanical assembly, modular construction
20
5.
Interfaces
22
5.1
Ethernet
23
5.2
USB
23
5.3
Diagnostics, monitoring, changing settings
23
5.4
LED indicators
24
5.5
Function button
25
5.6
5.6.1
5.6.2
5.6.3
5.6.4
5.6.5
Graphical user interface
Booting screen
LCD display, information and button menu areas
Main menu
Status screen
Screen save mode
27
27
28
29
29
30
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3
2
2
6.
7.
4
5.7
5.7.1
5.7.2
5.7.3
5.7.4
5.7.5
5.7.6
WWW User interface
Login
Main menu
Status area
Categories list
Category page
Changing settings
30
30
30
31
31
32
32
5.8
SATEL NMS
33
5.9
SSH
33
Data transmission
34
6.1
6.1.1
6.1.2
6.1.3
6.1.4
Internet protocol
Example
Forming the tun0 IP address
Choosing the eth0 IP address
Setting IP routes
34
34
36
36
37
6.2
Proxy ARP
38
6.3
DHCP
39
Settings
40
7.1
7.1.1
7.1.2
7.1.3
7.1.4
7.1.5
7.1.6
Modem Settings
Radio Unit Settings categories
General
Services
Commands
Remote Devices
Time Control
40
40
40
42
43
45
46
7.2
7.2.1
7.2.2
7.2.3
Modem Info
Status
Radio Unit
Central Unit
46
47
48
49
7.3
7.3.1
7.3.2
Routing
Packet Routing Tables
IP
50
51
52
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8.
7.3.3
IP Routes
54
7.4
7.4.1
7.4.2
7.4.3
7.4.4
Serial IP
Serial IP RS-232 / USB-A
Examples
UDP and TCP protocols
Notes
58
58
61
67
68
Applications
70
8.1
Diagnostics
70
8.2
8.2.1
8.2.2
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)
SNMP category
MIB
72
74
75
8.3
8.3.1
8.3.2
8.3.3
Firmware updating
Firmware updater application
USB Stick during boot CU update method
Firmware update over-the-air
76
76
80
80
8.4
Remote settings
86
8.5
8.5.1
8.5.2
8.5.3
8.5.4
8.5.5
NMS Import
Exporting settings from modem
NMS Export advanced features
The export/import file contents
Managing export files
Importing settings to a modem
86
86
87
87
88
89
8.6
Encryption
90
8.7
Logs
91
8.8
8.8.1
8.8.2
Administration
General
IP
91
92
92
9.
Type designation
93
10.
Troubleshooting
94
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2
10.1
11.
2
12.
6
Error codes
94
SATEL open source statements
96
11.1
LGPL and GPL software
96
11.2
Written offer for LGPL and GPL source code
96
Settings selection guide
97
12.1
Modem Settings
97
12.2
Routing
100
12.3
Administration
101
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Important notice
All rights to this manual are owned solely by
SATEL OY (referred to in this user guide as
SATEL). All rights reserved. The copying of this
manual (without written permission from the
owner) by printing, copying, recording or by any
other means, or the full or partial translation of
the manual to any other language, including all
programming languages, using any electrical,
mechanical, magnetic, optical, manual or other
methods or devices is forbidden.
SATEL reserves the right to change the technical
specifications or functions of its products, or to
discontinue the manufacture of any of its products or to discontinue the support of any of its
products, without any written announcement and
urges its customers to ensure that the information
at their disposal is valid.
SATEL software and programs are delivered ”as
is”. The manufacturer does not grant any kind of
warranty including guarantees on suitability and
applicability to a certain application. Under no
circumstances is the manufacturer or the developer of a program responsible for any possible
damages caused by the use of a program. The
names of the programs as well as all copyrights
relating to the programs are the sole property
of SATEL. Any transfer, licensing to a third party,
leasing, renting, transportation, copying, editing,
translating, modifying into another programming
language or reverse engineering for any intent is
forbidden without the written consent of SATEL.
SATEL PRODUCTS HAVE NOT BEEN
DESIGNED, INTENDED NOR INSPECTED
TO BE USED IN ANY LIFE SUPPORT RELATED DEVICE OR SYSTEM - RELATED
FUNCTION NOR AS A PART OF ANY OTHER
CRITICAL SYSTEM AND ARE GRANTED NO
FUNCTIONAL WARRANTY IF THEY ARE USED
IN ANY OF THE APPLICATIONS MENTIONED.
Salo, Finland 2013
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2
Product conformity
2
SATELLAR CU
SATEL Oy hereby declares that SATELLAR Central Unit is in compliance with the essential requirements
(electromagnetic compatibility and electrical safety) and other relevant provisions of Directive 1999/5/
EC. Therefore the equipment is labelled with the following CE-marking.
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Warranty and safety instructions
Read these safety instructions carefully before using the product:
–
–
–
2
The warranty will be void if the product is used in any way that is in
contradiction with the instructions given in this manual, or if the housing of
the radio modem has been opened or tampered with.
The devices mentioned in this manual are to be used only according to the
instructions described in this manual. Faultless and safe operation of the
devices can be guaranteed only if the transport, storage, operation and
handling of the device is appropriate. This also applies to the maintenance of
the products.
To prevent damage the Central Unit (referred to in this user guide as CU)
must always be switched OFF before connecting or disconnecting the serial
connection cable. It should be ascertained that different devices used have
the same ground potential. Before connecting any power cables the output
voltage of the power supply should be checked.
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1. Introduction to the SATELLAR product family
1. Introduction to the SATELLAR product family
SATELLAR is a new generation narrow band radio modem that consists of separate units:
–
–
–
Central unit (CU)
Radio units 1W and 10W (RU)
Expansion units (XU)
1
2
RX
3
RX
TX
4
RX
RX
TX
TX
TX
RTS
RTS
RTS
RTS
CTS
CTS
CTS
CTS
TD
TD
TD
RD
STAT
PWR
TD
USB
RD
ETH
STAT
STAT
PWR
PWR
OK
5
USB
RTS
CTS
TD
TD
RD
STAT
RX
TX
RTS
CTS
PWR
USB
RD
ETH
STAT
STAT
PWR
PWR
OK
PWR
7
RX
RX
STAT
STAT
PWR
6
TX
RD
RD
ETH
STAT
PWR
TX
RTS
CTS
USB
ETH
TD
RD
STAT
STAT
PWR
PWR
SA00057
2
Figure 1.1 SATELLAR product family:
1.
SATELLAR-2DSd: Central unit (CU) with display and keypad + radio unit (RU), 1 W
2.
SATELLAR-2DS: Central unit (CU) without display and keypad + + radio unit (RU), 1 W
3.
SATELLAR-1DS: Radio unit (RU), 1 W
4.
Expansion unit (XU) to be added between CU and RU (1W or 10W) when needed
5.
SATELLAR-20DS with display:
Central unit (CU) with display and keypad + radio unit (RU), 10 W
6.
SATELLAR-20DS without display:
Central unit (CU) without display and keypad + radio unit (RU), 10 W
7.
SATELLAR-10DS: Radio unit (RU), 10 W
Using SATELLAR the customer builds an own independent radio data communication network. This
document presents the specifications and usage of the CU. The properties of other units are described
in the extent, which is necessary to read in order to understand the operation of the CU.
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1. Introduction to the SATELLAR product family
Data communication
SATELLAR operates either as a transparent radio link, essentially replacing a wire, for classic RS-232,
RS-485 or RS-422 based protocols, or as a wireless router in an IP-based network. Using SATELLAR
many network topologies are possible, everything from a point-to-point connection to a nationwide
chain with multiple branches.
Range
With SATELLAR the communication range of a point to point link is typically longer than 10 km in
urban conditions (some obstacles in the line of sight), and longer than 20 km in ideal line of sight
conditions. The range can be further extended using high gain antennas, booster modules and radio
repeaters.
Security
Data security is often a concern when using radio communication. In SATELLAR a 128-bit encryption
on the air-interface ensures privacy in the radio network.
Display and keypad
The CU is available with or without a display and keypad. The size of the display is 2.4 “, resolution is
320 x 240 pixels, and the amount of colors is 65k. The keypad has seven buttons: left, right, up, and
down arrows, OK button, and two software defined buttons.
Size: 2,4”
Resolution: 320x240 pixels
Amount of colors: 65 k
Software define buttons
RX
TX
RTS
CTS
TD
RD
STAT
ETH
STAT
PWR
OK
SA00002
PWR
USB
OK
Left, right, up and down arrows
OK button
Figure 1.2 Display and keypad
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2
1. Introduction to the SATELLAR product family
Diagnostics and configuration
Radio modems are often used in applications where reliability and independence are key properties.
To support this demand, SATELLAR has built-in diagnostic and remote configuration features.
Local use
The status of the CU can be seen from the LED indicators, which are located on the other narrow side
of the unit. More detailed information is available using the graphical user interface with a QVGA
display and 7 pushbuttons.
USB
ETH
RX
STAT
TX
RTS
CTS
TD
RD
STAT
PWR
USB
PWR
ETH
STAT
PWR
OK
SA00004
2
Figure 1.3 The status of the CU can be seen from the LED indicators
Remote use
Once deployed, status monitoring and configuration can be performed using one of the following
methods:
1.
The SATELLAR CU provides WWW pages for configuration and diagnostic,
accessible using IP connectivity (the Ethernet interface of the CU)
2.
Using the Windows based SATEL NMS PC software through the serial data
interface of the RU, the USB device port of the CU, or TCP/IP port 55555 of
the CU. (Check SW availability from SATEL)
SATELLAR can also be accessed over the air by the methods described above.
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1. Introduction to the SATELLAR product family
Flexible and expandable
SATELLAR concept has been designed to be flexible and expandable both in terms of hardware and
software functions.
Software
In the RU the modulation method, channel spacing (i.e. air interface data rate), and forward error
correction can be selected by changing the modem settings by software. Also the RF output power can
be set.
Hardware
Due to the modular mechanical structure of SATELLAR, it is possible to add hardware expansion units.
The idea is that this could be done as an update after the initial deployment. At the moment, however,
the RU does not support the update. Schedule for this will be informed later.
USB host and device connectors offer a possibility to connect commercially available USB devices
like Bluetooth and WLAN modules to the modem or e.g. to show the modem as an external memory
device to the PC.
Ruggedized
SATELLAR is constructed of die-cast aluminum to withstand the abuse typical to rough industrial environments. It operates over a wide temperature range and under severe vibration conditions to meet
the requirements of vehicular and process industry applications.
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13
2
1. Introduction to the SATELLAR product family
1.1 Mounting
NOTE!
1.
2.
The equipment must be installed in restricted access location due to high
touch temperatures of metal enclosure.
The screen of coaxial antenna cable must be grounded to protect from over
voltages from outdoor antenna.
1.
WP0010
M3×4
2x
M3×4
4x
RX
TX
RTS
CTS
TD
RD
STAT
PWR
2.
USB
ETH
STAT
PWR
OK
,8
101
mm
90
RX
TX
RTS
CTS
TD
RD
STAT
PWR
SA00006
2
SATELLAR can be mounted directly on a flat surface or to a DIN rail. When mounting on the flat
surface, two-piece mounting clips can be used. The mounting clips are delivered in the basic sales
package. DIN-rail mounting is possible either on the backside of the stack of different SATELLAR Units
or on the other narrow side of each unit (the latter case so that the LED indicators remain visible for
the user). The DIN-rail mounting clips have to be ordered separately.
USB
ETH
STAT
PWR
OK
,40
Ø3
Figure 1.4 SATELLAR-2DS, mounting on flat surface with mounting clips (includes in the delivery)
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1. Introduction to the SATELLAR product family
2
Figure 1.5 SATELLAR-20DS, mounting on flat surface with mounting clips (included in the delivery)
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15
1. Introduction to the SATELLAR product family
2
Figure 1.6 SATELLAR-2DS, mounting on the DIN-rail with mounting clips (to be ordered separately)
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1. Introduction to the SATELLAR product family
2
Figure 1.7 SATELLAR-20DS, mounting on the DIN-rail with mounting clips (to be ordered separately)
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2. Technical specifications
2. Technical specifications
2
Electrical
CPU
ARM 9 @ approx. 200 MHz
RAM
64 MB
ROM
128 MB
Display
2.4 ”, 320 x 240 pixel resolution, 65 k colours
Keypad
up, down, left, right, OK (select), and two SW defined keys
Power consumption
(no USB device connected)
2.0 W with the display
1.4 W without the display
USB interfaces
USB-host & USB-device
USB2.0 high speed
Ethernet interface
10/100 Mbps Ethernet RJ-45 with Auto-MDIX
Start time from power on
For CU/RU combination: 65 s until IP communication works
(locally and over the air). 130 s until LCD/GUI works.
Mechanical and environmental
Mechanical dimensions
130 x 21.7 x 76.5 mm
Weight
260 g
Temperature ranges
-25 - +55 deg °C, complies with the standards
-30 - +75 deg °C, functional
-40 - +85 deg °C, storage
Humidity
< 95 % @ 25 deg °C, non-condensing
Vibration
At least 10 – 500 Hz/5g without degradation in data transfer capability
Shock resistivity
Dropping height 1 m, all directions
IP rating
IP 52
Mounting:
DIN rail (side or back), two piece mounting clip, or directly on flat surface
Standards compliance
Emissions
IEC 61600-6-4
Immunity
IEC 61000-6-2
ESD
IEC 61000-4-2 level 4 for external connections
EIC 61000-4-2 level 2 for internal unit-to-unit connector
RoHS
Table 2.1
18
2002/95/EC
SATELLAR Central Unit technical specifications
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3. Typical setup
3. Typical setup
The figure below shows a typical setup when transferring IP data through the CU. When using the RU
together with the CU the recommended minimum distance between the antenna and CU is 2 m in
order to avoid degradation of the receiver sensitivity due to interference from the CU.
SATELLAR-20DS
SATELLAR-2DS
CU
USB-A
_
USB-B
E
T
H
CU
USB-A
USB-B
_
+
RU
RU
RF
9-30 VDC RS-485/RS-232
E
T
H
+
9-30 VDC RS-485/RS-232
RF
RU
CU
Datainal
termpment
equi
RX
TX
RTS
CTS
TD
USB
RD
ETH
STAT
PWR
1.
3.
2.
r
Powely
supp VDC
9-30
15 W
+-
STAT
PWR
OK
min
2m
RF
9-30
VDC
ETH
able
5C
CAT-
SA00007
ble
RF caNC
T
h
it
w ale
m
Figure 3.1 Transferring IP data through the CU, cabling
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19
2
4. Mechanical assembly, modular construction
4. Mechanical assembly, modular construction
2
The expansion unit XU is attached between RU and CU as described in the Figure 4.1.
First remove the CU and RU from each other, see the figure. Take the rubber cover from the unitto-unit connector of the XU. Modular constraction allows you to connect the expansion unit XU
between RU and CU units. Align the tabs of the CU with the mounting holes of the XU and press the
units together, and do the same between RU unit and XU+CU units. Finally, tighten the connections
with the screws. Now the combination can be mounted either by DIN rail adapters or by a two-piece
mounting clip.
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4. Mechanical assembly, modular construction
1.
TX
RTS
CTS
TD
TD
RD
STAT
PWR
2
RX
RX
TX
RTS
CTS
USB
2.
RD
ETH
STAT
STAT
PWR
PWR
USB
OK
ETH
STAT
PWR
OK
expansion
unit, XU
RX
4.
TX
RTS
CTS
RX
TD
5.
TX
RD
RTS
RX
STAT
CTS
TX
PWR
TD
RTS
RD
CTS
STAT
TD
PWR
USB
RD
ETH
STAT
STAT
PWR
PWR
OK
3.
RU
XU
CU
6.
RX
TX
RTS
RX
TX
CTS
RTS
TD
CTS
RD
STAT
PWR
TD
RD
STAT
USB
ETH
STAT
PWR
OK
SA00024
PWR
Figure 4.1 Modular construction, mounting of the expansion unit XU
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5. Interfaces
5. Interfaces
2
The CU offers three data interfaces: Ethernet, USB host and USB device. LED indicator shows the
status of the unit and graphical user interface can be used to check and change device settings and to
see the diagnostics data.
Ethernet interface:
10/100 Mb/s, 100BASE-TX, Auto-MDIX,
full duplex capbility
USB interfaces:
USB2.0, full speed 12.0 Mb/s
USB Host:
A-type connector
The current drive capability is 500 mA
USB Device Interface:
B-type connector
Mass memory device:
Acts as a removable disc in the PC
Virtual serial port:
Acts as as serial port = SATEL NMS port
Figure 5.1 Three data interfaces: Ethernet, USB host and USB device
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5. Interfaces
5.1 Ethernet
Ethernet interface is 10/100 Mb/s 100BASE-TX with Auto-MDIX and full-duplex capability.
2
5.2 USB
The USB interfaces support USB2.0 Full Speed
(12.0 Mb/s) data rates. Both USB host and device
interfaces are available. For USB host the A
type connector is used and for USB device the
connector is B type. The current drive capability
of the USB host interface is 500 mA. The USB
device interface has two modes: Mass memory
device and Virtual serial port. The mode can be
selected in Modem Settings, General category and in addition by the function button as
described in chapter 5.5.
In the Mass memory device -mode a PC can
be connected to the USB device interface and
SATELLAR acts as a Removable Disc in the PC.
The removable disk contains copies of system
log files, which can be copied to the PC. Update
files can be copied to the removable disk and be
used in the Firmware Updater (see chapter 8.3).
Any other files copied to the removable disk are
removed when the cable is disconnected.
In Virtual serial port -mode, the USB port acts as
a serial port. When the USB port is connected to
a PC, the virtual serial port device is created in
the PC. This virtual port appears to windows as
a normal serial port: the only difference is that
an actual D9 connector is not used. This allows
programs to connect to serial ports in order to
access the CU via the USB connection.
Windows PC requires a special driver, available
from SATEL. The Virtual Serial port acts as a
SATEL NMS port, allowing a program such as
SATEL NMS PC to be used to change the settings
of SATELLAR.
5.3 Diagnostics, monitoring, changing settings
Display
RX
TX
RTS
CTS
TD
RD
STAT
USB
ETH
STAT
PWR
OK
Keypad
SA00008
PWR
CU equipped with a display and keypad offers an
easy way to check or change device settings and
see diagnostics information. The same is possible
using the Web interface of the CU or SATEL NMS
PC SW. Graphical user interface is explained
more in chapter 5.6 and the PC SW is described
in its own user manual.
Figure 5.2 Display and keypad
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5. Interfaces
5.4 LED indicators
LED Label
Status
Description
USB
OFF
USB host disabled
ON
USB host enabled, USB device detected
Blinking (0.25 s interval)
USB host enabled, no USB device detected
Blinking (0.50 s interval)
USB device setting override using function
button, see chapter 5.5
Blinking (1.0 s interval)
USB is a mass memory device
OFF
Ethernet port disabled
ON
Ethernet port enabled and connected
Blinking (0.25 s interval)
Ethernet port enabled but not connected or
operational
Blinking (0.50 s interval)
Ethernet port setting override using
function button, see chapter 5.5
ON
Normal operation mode
Blinking (0.25 s interval)
Device is starting up
OFF
Device is powered off
ON
Device is powered on
ETH
RX
TX
RTS
CTS
TD
RD
STAT
PWR
USB
ETH
STAT
PWR
OK
SA00008
2
The CU provides four LED indicators that are located on one of the narrow sides of the unit. They are
listed and described in the table below.
STAT
PWR
Table 5.1
LED indicators
NOTE: In normal operation the USB LED indicates the status of the USB host interface. When operating with the function button (chapter 5.5), the USB LED refers to the state changes in the USB device
interface.
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5. Interfaces
5.5 Function button
The function button is located below the LED indicators. It is used to control the operation of the USB
device and Ethernet interfaces as described below. The CU must be allowed to boot up completely
before the button will work.
RX
TX
RTS
CTS
TD
RD
STAT
USB
ETH
STAT
PWR
OK
Function button
SA00015
PWR
Figure 5.3 Location of the Function button
When the button is pressed for more than a second, all the LEDs turn on indicating the start of the
process. The effect depends on how long the button is kept depressed, and is indicated by turning the
LEDs off one by one. When the LEDs indicate the desired function, release the button.
USB
USB
USB
USB
USB
ETH
ETH
ETH
ETH
ETH
STAT
STAT
STAT
STAT
STAT
PWR
PWR
PWR
PWR
PWR
Figure 5.4 LED indications, see the Table 5.2
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2
5. Interfaces
Action
Length of press
[seconds]
LED indication
1 to 2
All LEDs ON.
2 to 4
The uppermost
LED (USB) is
switched off.
2
Effect
•
•
•
•
The USB device and Ethernet interface
settings are reset to states defined by user
settings.
•
•
•
•
The USB device setting is changed so that if
the user setting is Mass memory device, the
setting changes to Virtual serial port and vice
versa. Thereafter the USB LED starts to blink
until the setting is reset to the original value.
Blinking interval is 0.5 seconds if the new
device setting is Virtual serial port and 1.0
seconds if the setting is Mass memory device.
•
•
•
•
The CU IP address settings are changed.
Thereafter the IP address is 192.168.1.1, the
net mask is 255.255.255.0, and DHCP is
switched to off mode. The ETH LED blinks
until the setting is reset to the original value.
Blinking interval is 0.5 seconds.
4 to 6
The next lower
LED (ETH) is
switched off.
6 to 8
The next lower
LED (STAT) is
switched off.
•
•
•
•
No specific operation defined.
8 to 10
The fourth LED
(PWR) is switched
off.
•
•
•
•
All the LEDs start to blink rapidly until the
MCU restarts. SATELLAR CU then reboots.
> 10
All LEDs ON.
> 20
All LEDs turn ON
and remain on
even if the button
is kept down.
•
•
•
•
The selection process starts from the
beginning (11 to 12 seconds counts as 1 to 2
seconds etc.).
When button is released, the FPGA
will reboot the whole CU. This is nearly
equivalent to a Power-off reboot.
Table 5.2
26
Function button operation
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5. Interfaces
5.6 Graphical user interface
In SATELLAR device equipped with LCD display and keypad, GUI can be used to change settings and
access the various applications.
RX
TX
RTS
CTS
TD
RD
STAT
USB
ETH
STAT
PWR
OK
SA00008
PWR
Figure 5.5 Central Unit equipped with LCD display and keypad
5.6.1 Booting screen
This screen is visible while the CU is starting up.
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2
5. Interfaces
5.6.2 LCD display, information and button menu areas
Information area
2
Button menu area
Figure 5.6 Information and button menu areas
Figure 5.7 Red font indicating a value lower than the defined threshold
The top of the screen is the Information area. The following information is available (From left to right).
–
–
–
–
Modem name: Default value is “SATELLAR”. It can be changed in Modem
Settings, General category (see chapter 7.1.2).
Current date and time, if enabled (see chapter 7.1.6)
RSSI value: The signal level of the last received message. If no message has
been received in the last 5 seconds, the value is set to -128. If the reading
is lower than the defined minimum threshold value, this value is shown with
red font. The threshold can be set in Modems Settings, General category (see
chapter 7.1.2).
Voltage reading. A numeric value or a voltage bar depending on the setting
in Modem Settings, General category (see chapter 7.1.2).
On the bottom of the screen is the button menu area operated by software defined keypad buttons.
The left (round) button command is displayed on the left bottom corner of the screen and the right
(square) button command on the bottom right corner of the screen.
Software defined buttons
SA00003
OK
Figure 5.8 Software defined buttons on keypad
28
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5. Interfaces
5.6.3 Main menu
2
This menu screen contains icons which can be used to start the different applications.
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Modem Settings: See chapter 7.1
Modem Info: See chapter 7.2
Routing: See chapter 7.3
Diagnostics: See chapter 8.1
Admin Tools: See chapter 8.8
Remote settings: See chapter 8.4
Firmware updater: See chapter 8.3
To start an application, use the cursor keys to select the icon and press the round button or OK button.
5.6.4 Status screen
If “Lock Screen” command is given in main menu, or the defined time passes without keyboard input,
the screen goes to the status/lock screen mode.
In this screen some basic status values are displayed.
–
–
–
–
–
–
RX Frequency
TX Frequency
RF Output Power
Tun0 IP Address
Eth0 IP Address
Forward Error Correction (FEC) mode
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5. Interfaces
No input is allowed in this screen, except to unlock the screen. To do this, follow the instruction on
screen. If PIN code has been enabled, the correct code must be entered to unlock.
2
5.6.5 Screen save mode
After a timeout set in Modem Settings, General category (see chapter 7.1.2), the display is turned off.
When any button is pressed, the Status screen is displayed and the UI can be unlocked as normal.
5.7 WWW User interface
This interface can be used with a web browser application, such as Mozilla Firefox. The url to access
the WWW -page is http://<modem’s IP address>. By default this is http://192.168.1.1. If the current
IP address is unknown, it can be forced to 192.168.1.1 by using the function button as explained in
chapter 5.5, or using the Graphical user interface, if present. The WWW interface can also be used
across the radio link, once routes have been set (see chapter 6). In this case either of the IP addresses
defined can be used (both the eth0 and tun0 addresses work).
5.7.1 Login
The first screen of the WWW interface is the login screen. The user name is satellar and the default
password is Satel123. (The password can be changed in settings, see chapter 7.1.2)
You can also log in using the name admin and default password is Satel456. In this case an additional
application called Administration is available, see chapter 8.8.
5.7.2 Main menu
The main menu lists all the “applications” available in the WWW interface. An additional
Administration tab is available when logged in with user name admin as explained in chapter 5.7.1.
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5. Interfaces
5.7.3 Status area
The area immediately below the main menu shows the name of the radio station (settable in the
General Settings category, see chapter 7.1.2). Current status information is also available:
–
–
–
2
Voltage
Received signal strength (RSSI)
Current system time
More status information may be visible depending on the firmware versions installed.
5.7.4 Categories list
Once a Main menu application (see chapter 5.7.2) is selected, the categories related to that application are listed in the dark grey area on the left. The category labels can be clicked to open the
category page, which contain settings and information related to that category. More details about
categories can be found beginning from chapter 7.
There are also two buttons in the category area.
–
–
Refresh NMS Values – force reload of settings
from the RU and CU settings databases into
the WWW User Interface.
Reboot CU – restart the CU.
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5. Interfaces
5.7.5 Category page
2
This area to the right of Categories list shows the contents of the currently selected category. It contains settings or other information.
5.7.6 Changing settings
When changing settings in the WWW interface, select first the correct application and category, then
change the desired settings found on the category page. Finally click the Apply Changes button.
Some settings are text or numbers which can be changed by typing, while others are drop down lists,
allowing you to select from a few choices. Any changes you make are lost if you change the category
or application without clicking the Apply Changes -button.
When the Apply Changes button is clicked, all changes on the current page are added to the list of
uncommitted changes. You can then navigate to another page and Apply more changes, which are
also added to the list. When you have finished making changes, store and take the new settings into
use by clicking the Commit Changes button. You can also discard all applied changes by clicking the
Cancel applied changes button. In this case all settings are removed from the list of uncommitted
changes and all settings of all units remain as they were.
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5. Interfaces
When Commit Changes is clicked, the CU will store settings into the settings database and the Radio
Unit, and restart all necessary Linux processes. Therefore the committing process may take a relatively
long time, sometimes up to a minute.
2
NOTE: If the IP Address has been changed, the browser will be automatically redirected to the new
address, but in case the network address part of the IP address has changed, you’ll need to modify
your computer’s IP settings so that it is again in the same LAN as the modem to be able to continue
using the WWW interface.
5.8 SATEL NMS
SATEL NMS is a Network Management System. Devices that support SATEL NMS can be configured
and monitored using external software provided by SATEL. One such program is SATEL NMS PC.
Configuration and monitoring can be performed either locally using a cable, or remotely via a radio
link.
The SATELLAR Central Unit supports SATEL NMS, and provides the following features.
Connection options:
–
–
–
Connect via TCP/IP Port 55555
Connect via USB Device port when the USB port is in Virtual Serial port
mode. (See chapters 5.2 and 7.1.2 for details)
Remote connection via radio network is available when the routing settings
are correctly defined.
Most settings available via the User Interfaces of the CU are also accessible using SATEL NMS. For
this purpose, the NMSID (Network Management System IDentifier) as well as Sub-Unit number of each
setting is listed in this manual, see chapter 7. The NMSIDs are also used by the NMS Import application (see chapter 8.5).
Note that the NMS Address of the CU is the same as the RMAC Address of the attached Radio Unit.
See the Radio Unit user manual for details.
5.9 SSH
SATELLAR’s linux command line can be accessed using the SSH protocol. To do this you need a SSH
client, such as putty.exe. The user name is satellar and the password is Satel123.
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33
6. Data transmission
6. Data transmission
2
The CU is used to transfer data over the IP protocol. Multiple IP protocols are supported, such as TCP/
IP, UDP and ICMP. A prerequisite for wireless IP transmission is that the RU is configured to packet
routing protocol mode as explained in the RU user manual.
6.1 Internet protocol
Each CU has an IP address belonging to the Local Area Network (LAN) to which they are connected
via their Ethernet interface. Each CU also has another IP address belonging to a second LAN, the
SATELLAR RU LAN. This LAN is formed by the radio protocol. These two interfaces are called eth0 and
tun0 according to standard Linux naming conventions. The CU acts as an IP router device, routing IP
packets between its Ethernet interface (eth0) and the radio network provided by SATELLAR RUs (tun0).
6.1.1 Example
In the Figure 6.1 shown on the next page is presented a network which has three (3) data terminal
equipment devices (DTEs) connected to CU through Ethernet. Each CU is connected to a RU, together
forming a SATELLAR-2DSd Radio Station (in this case RU type is: 1 W, with display and keypad). In
addition there are two standalone RUs acting as repeater stations. Each of the stations has a unique
station address (RMAC) which is a number freely selectable in the range of 1 … 4094. The station
addresses are used at the radio protocol level when sending messages through the radio path. (The
radio protocol is explained in the RU user manual.)
Each DTE belongs to a LAN on the eth0 interface of a SATELLAR. To be able to communicate with
each other, IP routing must be correctly configured in each DTE and each SATELLAR.
How the station addresses are used for routing the data through the radio path, is explained in the RU
user manual. This is called Packet Routing. For the network topology seen on Figure 6.1 the Packet
Routes routing table looks like the following:
Radio unit
Next hop (neighbor)
Addresses behind (remotes)
A
2
3, 4, 5
B
3
1, 2, 5
C
3
1, 2, 4
D
1
-
3
4, 5
2
1
4
-
5
-
E
Table 6.1
34
Packet Routes routing table for Figure 6.1
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6. Data transmission
DTE A
Station A
(RU+CU)
Eth0: 192.168. 1.1/24
Tun0: 10.10.32.1/19
Station address: 1
IP: 192.168.1.100
Default gateway:
192.168.1.1
RX
TX
RTS
CTS
TD
RD
STAT
PWR
USB
2
ETH
STAT
PWR
OK
RU-145000
CU-1U210
0
Station D
(RU)
Station address: 2
RX
TX
RTS
CTS
TD
RD
STAT
PWR
RU-145000
Station E
(RU)
Station address: 3
RX
TX
RTS
CTS
TD
RX
TX
RTS
CTS
TD
RD
RD
STAT
STAT
PWR
PWR
RU-145000
RU-145000
USB
ETH
STAT
PWR
OK
CU-1U210
0
Station B
(RU+CU)
Eth0: 192.168.4.1/24
Tun0: 10.10.32.4/19
Station address: 4
DTE B
IP: 192.168.4.100
Default gateway:
192.168.4.1
RX
TX
RTS
CTS
TD
RD
STAT
PWR
USB
ETH
STAT
PWR
OK
RU-145000
CU-1U210
0
SA00020
Station C
(RU+CU)
Eth0: 192.168.5.1/24
Tun0: 10.10.32.5/19
Station address: 5
DTE C
IP: 192.168.5.100
Default gateway:
192.168.5.1
Figure 6.1 Routing example
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6. Data transmission
6.1.2 Forming the tun0 IP address
2
Whenever the station address (RMAC) of a SATELLAR is changed, the IP address for the tun0 interface
is automatically determined: If the station address is X, the tun0 IP address is set to 10.10.32.X, netmask 19.
In case the station address (X) is larger than 254, the tun0 address is of the form 10.10.A.B, where A
= 32 + (X / 254), rounded down and B = 1 + (X % 254) [% being the modulus operator]. For example, RMAC 500 translates to tun0 address 10.10.33.247.
In case a subnet with network address 10.10.32.0/19 is already in use in a system, a SATELLAR radio
network can be configured to use another tun0 network Base Address. To do this, use the Admin
Settings application (see chapter 8.8.2). All modems MUST use the same tun0 Base Address.
6.1.3 Choosing the eth0 IP address
Eth0 IP addresses must be selected according to two rules.
–
–
Each CU’s eth0 interface must belong to a different subnet.
The CU and the corresponding DTE must belong to the same subnet.
Additionally
–
–
It is a good practice to set the CU IP address as 192.168.X.1 where X is the
station address (RMAC), if possible.
The default gateway for the DTE should be the corresponding CU, unless
there is another gateway present in the LAN. In this case the routing tables of
the gateway must be modified accordingly.
The rules can be clarified with the help of Figure 6.1: Routing example.
The station A has
–
–
–
36
Station address (RMAC) 1 à tun0 address is 10.10.32.1
Eth0 address 192.168.1.1/24 (i.e. subnet mask is 255.255.255.0)
Therefore DTE A must have an address 192.168.1.X, e.g. 192.168.1.100 and
its default gateway must be 192.168.1.1
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6. Data transmission
The station B has
–
–
–
Station address (RMAC) 4 à tun0 address is 10.10.32.4
Eth0 address must be chosen so that it belongs to a subnet different from
station A, e.g. 192.168.4.1/24
Therefore DTE B must have an address 192.168.4.X, e.g. 192.168.4.100 and
its default gateway must be 192.168.4.1
2
The station C has
–
–
–
Station address (RMAC) 5 à tun0 address is 10.10.32.5
Eth0 address must be chosen so that it belongs to a subnet different from
stations A and B, e.g. 192.168.5.1/24
Therefore DTE C must have an address 192.168.5.X, e.g. 192.168.5.100
and its default gateway must be 192.168.5.1
Stations D and E act only as repeaters without a CU and therefore no local Ethernet connection.
So they have no IP addresses – just station addresses.
6.1.4 Setting IP routes
After all the addresses have been set it is still required to define IP routes for each of the CU. Routing
data must include the address and net mask of each of the destination subnets (LANs) that need to be
reached and the gateway it can be reached through. The gateway address is the tun0 address of the
target CU.
For the network in the Figure 6.1 the IP routing tables of each CU equipped station are:
Station
Destination/net mask
Gateway
A
192.168.4.0/24
10.10.32.4
192.168.5.0/24
10.10.32.5
192.168.1.0/24
10.10.32.1
192.168.5.0/24
10.10.32.5
192.168.1.0/24
10.10.32.1
192.168.4.0/24
10.10.32.4
B
C
Table 6.2
IP routing tables for each CU in Figure 6.1
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6. Data transmission
The usage of different addresses and routing tables can be clarified by an example where DTE A wants
to send a message to DTE B.
1.
2
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
The destination IP address, 192.168.4.100, belongs to a subnet different
from the source address, 192.168.1.100. The message is therefore routed to
the default gateway of DTE A, i.e. to CU of station A.
CU of station A recognizes that the destination address belongs to sub network 192.168.4.0 which is reachable through gateway 10.10.32.4. The message is therefore forwarded to tun0 interface which translates the gateway
address to the RMAC address, 4 in this case.
At this point the packet routing protocol of the RU enters the picture: it reads
the destination RMAC address and consults the packet routing table to find
out that a message to address 4 must be sent to address 2. (Address of station D).
Station A’s RU now reserves the radio path using the CSMA/CA algorithm to
send the data to station D.
Station D receives the data and recognizes that the final destination address
is 4. Station D consults its packet routing table and sees that the message to
address 4 must be sent to address 3 (station E) and then reserves the radio
path to send the message.
Station E receives the message and then forwards it to station B (as above)
which is the final destination station.
The packet routing protocol in station B recognizes that the received data
is intended for this station and therefore forwards the data to the CU/tun0
interface.
The IP router software component of the CU of station B recognizes that the
destination IP address differs from its own IP address but belongs to the same
sub network. Therefore it forwards the message to eth0 interface and then
the message finally reaches the destination, i.e. DTE B.
6.2 Proxy Arp
Proxy ARP option enables SATELLAR to act as a “Pseudo-bridge” or a hidden router. When this option
is enabled, SATELLAR responses with its own MAC address to all ARP (Address Resolution Protocol)
requests addressed to a remote network. This causes the other hosts in the same local network to send
their packets to the SATELLAR, which then routes those packets according to its configured IP Routes.
This behavior makes it look like the hosts on each side of the bridge belong to the same physical
network segment (Default=OFF).
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6. Data transmission
6.3 DHCP
The CU supports the DHCP (Dynamic Host Control Protocol) in either Server or Client mode. DHCP
can also be set to off, which is the default setting.
2
In client mode, the CU attempts to contact a DHCP server in the Ethernet subnet to get the eth0 IP
address.
In server mode, the CU provides IP addresses to other devices in the Ethernet subnet.
Typically SATELLAR networks are configured with DHCP OFF, because static IP addresses are needed
to access remote devices reliably.
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39
7. Settings
7. Settings
2
The CU has several settings, which affect the operation of the IP routing and other things. The CU
can also be used to change the settings of the RU as well as any other units present. There are several
interfaces to use when viewing info and changing settings (see chapter 5.6)
The settings are grouped into categories used in the LCD and WWW GUIs. Each setting is
also listed with the sub-unit number and NMSID for use with NMS Protocol and NMS Import
features. See chapter 5.8 for information about NMSIDs and chapter 8.5 for information about NMS
Import.
NOTE: See the settings selection quide at the end of the manual.
7.1 Modem Settings
Figure 7.1 Modem Settings by CU: Graphical user interface (GUI/LCD)
7.1.1 Radio Unit Settings categories
For explanation of categories Network Protocol Mode, Radio, Serial Connector Configuration, Data
Port Settings, Serial Data Flow Control and Packet Mode Radio Access Control, see the RU user
manual chapter 7, subchapters 7.1 through 7.3 respectively.
7.1.2 General
These are general and miscellaneous settings of the radio station and CU.
Attribute
Explanation
Sub unit
NMSID
Name
Name of the radio station. This is freely selectable by the user,
up to a maximum length of 32 characters. The name can be
used to identify the radio station. It is shown in the WWW
interface and GUI/LCD screen, for example.
0
1.769
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7. Settings
Attribute
Explanation
Sub unit
NMSID
PIN Code
Code to unlock the GUI/LCD Screen of the CU (if present).
1
1.3200
Temperature unit
Fahrenheit, Kelvin or Celsius. Used by the Diagnostics graph
for modem temperature.
1
1.3201
UI Voltage Critical Level
When the Voltage reading drops to this level, it is displayed in
red in the GUI/LCD and WWW interfaces.
1
1.3202
UI RSSI Critical Level
When RSSI drops to this level it is displayed in red.
1
1.3203
UI Voltage Display mode
Select the way to display voltage in the GUI/LCD: either
numeric or as a bar
1
1.3204
UI Voltage Bar Min
If display mode is set to Bar, this Voltage level corresponds to
the minimum level of the voltage indicator, i.e. no bars.
1
1.3205
UI Voltage Bar Max
If display mode is Bar, this Voltage level corresponds to
Maximum bars
1
1.3206
PIN Code Required
If set to Yes, user must enter PIN code to unlock the GUI/LCD
and keyboard.
1
1.3224
USB Device Mode
Choose how the CU will act when connected to a PC: Mass
memory or Serial port. See also chapter 7.3.
1
1.3225
Display Brightness
A value from 0 to 255, this setting controls the brightness of the
LCD screen’s backlight.
1
1.3258
Web GUI Password
Set the password of user “satellar”. This affects the WWW
password and linux command line login password for this user.
The password is case-sensitive. Default password is “Satel123”.
1
1.3259
GUI Color profile
Choose a color profile for the GUI/LCD. Default is “Black”
1
1.3261
LCD Timeout
The time in seconds without keys pressed before the LCD (if
present) of the CU is powered off.
1
1.3275
Table 7.1
Modem settings, General
Figure 7.2 Modem Settings, General by CU: Graphical user interface (GUI/LCD)
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41
2
7. Settings
7.1.3 Services
2
This category can be used to disable unused features of the CU and fine-tune some operational
parameters. Usually these settings should not be modified, as some of the settings disable essential
services of the device.
Attribute
Explanation
Sub unit
NMSID
SSHD State
Turn the SSH server ON or OFF
1
1.3230
HTTPD State
Turn the Web server ON or OFF. WARNING: If this is turned off,
the WWW interface becomes unavailable. It can be turned back on
using the GUI/LCD (if present) or SATEL NMS protocol.
1
1.3231
NMSBluetoothd
State
Turn ON or OFF the possibility of giving SATEL NMS commands to
the device using a wireless Bluetooth serial connection. A supported
USB Bluetooth dongle must be connected to the CU. (List of
supported devices available separately)
1
1.3232
NMSTcpsocketd
State
Turn ON or OFF the possibility of using SATEL NMS commands over
a TCP/IP connection to the device. The default TCP port is 55555.
1
1.3233
NMSLoggerd
State
This service is required by the diagnostics features. It monitors
diagnostic values and stores them in a database, where they can be
viewed using the Diagnostics application.
1
1.3234
If this service is disabled, the status bar RSSI and Voltage readings
are also disabled.
Linklayer State
This feature is required by IP data transfer. WARNING: IF THIS IS
DISABLED, NO IP DATA CAN BE TRANSMITTED TO THE RADIO
NETWORK. Diagnostics can still be gathered and settings can still
be changed.
1
1.3235
NMSGathererd
timeout
Time in milliseconds to wait for NMS messages sent to the RU before
giving up. It is usually not necessary to modify this value
1
1.3237
NMSLoggerd
Interval
How often the Diagnostic values are updated, in milliseconds.
1
1.3238
NMSLoggerd
Timeout
Time in milliseconds to wait for diagnostic NMS messages before
giving up. In case a CU is set up to monitor other devices in the
network (using the “Modem Settings/Remote Devices” settings
category), it may become necessary to increase this value if the
network is very large.
1
1.3239
NMSLoggerd
Retries
Number of times to retry lost diagnostic NMS messages. This value
should be kept low to avoid congestion in heavy traffic situations.
1
1.3240
RU Commslogd
State
Set logging of NMS messages between the CU and the RU ON
or OFF. The log can be viewed in the “Logs” page of the WWW
interface.
1
1.3262
USB Host Control
Set the power control features of the USB host port on or off.
1
1.3269
UI Power Control
When UI Power Control is ON, the GUI/LCD Screen is turned off
after the defined timeout (See Modem Settings/General).
1
1.3274
Table 7.2
42
Modem settings, Services
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7. Settings
2
Figure 7.3 Modem Settings, Services by CU: Graphical user interface (GUI/LCD)
7.1.4 Commands
This chapter has commands to reset the unit(s) or restore settings to various states, for example to
initialize a device to its original status or reboot device.
Use only one command at the time and do not to save any other settings at the same time.
Also, refresh NMS values after Radio Unit value restore.
To issue a command, select “Reset” or “Reboot”, for example. The command is sent when settings are
committed, as detailed in chapter 5.7.6.
Command
Explanation
Sub unit NMSID
Restore Default Factory Settings Radio Unit
The RU’s settings, including Frequency,
Packet routing tables, RMAC etc. are
restored to the state they were in when the
unit left the factory.
0
1.3085
Restore Default Factory Settings Central Unit
The CU’s settings, including IP, routing
etc. are restored to the state they were in
when the unit left the factory.
1
1.3085
Reset Radio Unit
Resets the Radio Unit. This command is
mostly used by NMS Protocol to discard
unsaved changes. It is not usually
necessary to use this command when
configuring the modem using the WWW
or LCD user interfaces.
0
1.3090
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7. Settings
Command
Explanation
Sub unit NMSID
Reset Central Unit
Resets the Central Unit. This command
is mostly used by NMS Protocol to
discard unsaved changes. It is not usually
necessary to use this command when
configuring the modem using the WWW
or LCD user interfaces.
1
1.3090
2
(Note that despite being called the Reset
command, the CU is not actually reset.
Only unsaved settings are cleared. )
Reboot Central Unit
Reboot the CU (by resetting the MCU).
The reboot lasts approximately one a
minute (see technical specification for
accurate values)
1
1.3093
Statistical Counters Clear
Clears (resets to zero) all Radio Unit
statistical counters.
1
1.3109
Table 7.3
Modem settings, Commands
Figure 7.4 Modem Settings, Commands by CU: Graphical user interface (GUI/LCD)
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7. Settings
7.1.5 Remote Devices
This controls how the CU diagnostics service (NMSLoggerd) handles remote radio stations. By default,
no online remote monitoring is done.
Setting
Explanation
Sub unit
NMSID
Pre-cache All Settings of Device N
(N equals the RMAC address of the radio
station). Enable this to have the CU remotely
fetch all settings from the remote device. This
will cause significant radio traffic. (Not usually
recommended)
1
1.3264
Diagnostics Polling of Device N
(N equals the RMAC address of the radio
station). Enable this to have the CU monitor the
diagnostics values of the remote device. The
diagnostics become available in the Diagnostics
page. This will cause additional radio traffic
which may be significant depending on the size
of the network, defined time intervals, timeouts
and retries (see chapter 7.1.3) and the number
of devices monitored. This setting is not shown,
unless at least one Packet Route is defined (see
chapter 7.3.1)
1
1.3265
Table 7.4
Modem settings, Remote devices
Figure 7.5 Modem Settings, Remote devices by CU: Graphical user interface (GUI/LCD)
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2
7. Settings
7.1.6 Time Control
2
Control current date and time, time zone and Network Time Protocol (NTP) settings.
Note that SATELLAR does not have battery-backed real time clock hardware, therefore time is not
accurately preserved during power off and reboot. Using an external NTP server can help mitigate
this.
Time is used mainly for logging purposes and accurate real-time is not essential for the operation of
SATELLAR.
Setting
Explanation
Sub unit
NMSID
Time
Operation
Mode
No time operation – default. Other time settings have no effect.
1
1.3282
Manual time operation. Time and time zone settings are used, NTP settings
are not used.
NTP Time. Time setting is not used; instead the NTP protocol is used.
NTP Server
Address
Current time is fetched from the defined NTP Server Address. Only works if
Time operation mode is set to NTP time.
1
1.3283
NTP Interval
Time is refreshed from the NTP server after the interval defined in this
settings has passed. Default is 100 seconds. Please be aware this setting will
consume some radio bandwidth if used in remote SATELLARs, therefore very
small values are not recommended.
1
1.3284
Time
Current time given in “YYYY-MM-DD hh:mm:ss” format. This setting is only
taken into use if Time operation mode is set to Manual time operation.
1
1.3285
Select time zone. Used in both NTP time and Manual time modes.
1
1.3286
Time Zone
Table 7.5
Modem settings, Time control
7.2 Modem Info
This application contains information about the radio station. These values cannot be changed.
Figure 7.6 Modem Info by CU: Graphical user interface (GUI/LCD)
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7. Settings
7.2.1 Status
Information about the current general state of the radio station. The values on this page may be
refreshed by pressing the F5 Key, or selecting Refresh from a menu, when viewed via the WWW interface on a standard web browser.
Item
Explanation
Sub unit
NMSID
Temperature
Measured inside the RU radio module. See RU
user manual for details.
0
1.32
Voltage
Measured by the RU from the voltage input
terminals. Precision of the reading is 0.1 Volts, but
actual measurement accuracy may vary, see RU
user manual for details.
0
1.33
Bytes From Radio
How much data (including NMS messages) has
been received by the RU from radio.
0
1.38
Bytes to Radio
How much data (including NMS messages) has
been transmitted by the RU to radio.
0
1.39
Watchdog Error Count RU
Number of resets the RU’s Watchdog has
performed.
0
1.45
Watchdog Error Count CU
Number of reboots the CU’s Watchdog has
performed.
1
1.45
Last RSSI
Signal strength of the last received radio message.
0
1.111
Alive Timer
Time in seconds the RU has been running since the
last reset.
0
1.113
Transmitted Packet Count
Number of Packet Routing packets transmitted by
Radio Unit to the radio since last reset of the RU.
0
1.120
Received Packet Count
Number of Packet Routing packets received by
Radio Unit from the radio since last reset of the
RU.
0
1.121
Detector Signal To Noise Ratio
Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) measured by the RU
from last received data packet, in decibels (dB).
0
1.122
Ethernet Status
As a result of settings or auto MDI-X negotiation
the Ethernet status may change. This item shows
the current status. Connected/Not connected, 10
or 100Mb/s, Full or Half duplex.
1
1.3257
Last Boot Reason RU
Reason for the last restart. User command,
Watchdog error, Power up etc.
0
9.795
Last Boot Reason CU
Reason for the last restart. User command,
Watchdog error, Power up etc.
1
9.795
Table 7.6
Modem info, Status
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7. Settings
2
Figure 7.7 Modem info, Status by CU: Graphical user interface (GUI/LCD)
7.2.2 Radio Unit
This page shows information about the RU. See the Radio Unit User Guide for details.
Figure 7.8 Modem info, Radio unit by CU: Graphical user interface (GUI/LCD)
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7. Settings
7.2.3 Central Unit
This page shows information about the CU.
2
Item
Explanation
Sub unit
NMSID
FPGA Watchdog Restarts
Count of restarts the hardware watchdog has
performed.
1
1.123
FPGA Total Restarts
Total count of restarts the hardware has performed.
1
1.124
Firmware version
The version of the file system of the CU. This information
is needed when updating the firmware using Firmware
Updater (see chapter 8.3)
1
1.650
Model
Product model name. Normally this is “Satellar CU”
1
1.772
Ethernet MAC Address
The Media Access Control (MAC) address of the built-in
Ethernet interface.
1
1.3210
Kernel version
The version of the Linux kernel of the CU. This
information is needed when updating the firmware using
Firmware Updater (see chapter 8.3). This is the version
of SATELLAR kernel build, not the Linux kernel version it
is based on.
1
1.3215
Serial Nbr RW
The serial number of the CU, equal to the one printed
on the sticker on the device.
1
9.652
Board 1 *
Hardware information about the PCB.
1
various
Interface board *
Hardware information about the interface board
(Ethernet and USB connectors).
1
various
* Exact numbers and names of these items depend on the current HW configuration of the device
Table 7.7
Modem info, Central unit
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7. Settings
2
Figure 7.9 Modem info, Central unit by CU: Graphical user interface (GUI/LCD)
7.3 Routing
The routing application allows changing the Packet routing tables, IP settings and routes. This is similar
to Modem Settings.
Figure 7.10 Routing by CU: Graphical user interface (GUI/LCD)
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7. Settings
7.3.1 Packet Routing Tables
This category controls the packet routing tables of the RU. The interface is a little different on the GUI/
LCD and WWW. In both cases you can:
–
–
Add new packet routes
View current routes
– Delete selected routes
– Add remote stations to a route
– Delete remote stations
from a route
See RU user manual for more information about Packet Routing.
Figure 7.11 Packet routing tables by CU: Graphical user interface (GUI/LCD)
Figure 7.12 Packet routing tables by CU: WWW user interface
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7. Settings
7.3.2 IP
This category contains the Internet Protocol settings.
2
Setting
Explanation
Sub unit
NMSID
IP Address
0 and 1
One of these is the Tun0 address. This cannot be directly modified. The
Eth0 address can be modified.
1
1.3208
QoS set
The functionality controlled by this setting is not finished in the current
firmware version. Please ignore it for the time being.
1
1.3227
DHCP State
OFF, Client or Server. Default is OFF. See chapter 6.2 for details.
1
1.3229
Ethernet Speed
Auto, 10 Mbps or 100 Mbps. Some Ethernet devices will not work
correctly if speed is set to Auto. In this case select the correct speed
using this setting.
1
1.3255
Automatic
IP State
OFF or ON. Default is OFF. If set to ON, the eth0 address is set to
172.20.X.1/14, where X equals the RMAC address. In this case, the eth0
IP address cannot be modified until Automatic IP State is set to OFF.
1
1.3263
Ethernet Current
IP Address
Show the current eth0 address. If the address has been overridden by the
function button as detailed in chapter 5.5, this value is 192.168.1.1, even
if the setting on this same page has been set to another value.
1
1.3270
Ethernet Current
Ethernet mask
As above, shows the actual netmask in use at this time.
1
1.3271
Ethernet Duplex
Settable to FULL or HALF. Some Ethernet devices require this to be set
to Half.
1
1.3276
IP Queue Max
Time Length
The IP router of the CU buffers the IP packets going to the radio
interface. This setting controls how long individual packets are kept in
the buffer before being deleted. See below for more information.*
1
1.3280
IP Queue Max
Packets
This setting controls the maximum number of packets in the outgoing IP
packet buffer.*
1
1.3281
IP MTU Size
MTU=Maximum Transmission Unit. MTU of a communications protocol
of a layer is the size (in bytes) of the largest protocol data unit that the
layer can pass onwards. The largest number is 1500-byte packet.
1
1.3317
A larger MTU brings greater efficiency. Large packets increase lag and
minimum latency. Corruption of a single bit in a packet requires that
the entire packet is retransmitted. Retransmissions of larger packets take
longer.
Proxy ARP
52
Proxy ARP option enables SATELLAR to act as a “Pseudo-bridge” or a
hidden router. When this option is enabled, SATELLAR responses with
its own MAC address to all ARP requests (Address Resolution Protocol)
addressed to a remote network. This causes the other hosts in the same
local network to send their packets to the SATELLAR, which then routes
those packets according to its configured IP Route. This behavior makes
it look like the host on each side of the bridge belong to the same
physical network segment (Default=OFF).
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7. Settings
Setting
Explanation
Sub unit
NMSID
IP Header
Compression
To save bandwidth and improve performance by reducing unnecessary
protocol overheads.
1
1.3324
On relatively low bandwidth networks, using header compression results
in better response times due to smaller packet sizes. A small packet
also reduces the probability of packet loss due to bit errors on wireless
links resulting in better utilization of the radio spectrum. Both end points
must agree if they support header compression and on the releated
parameters to be negotiated.
2
The information carried in the header helps the applications to
communicate over large distances connected by multiple links or hops
in the network. By observing the fields that remain constant or change
in specific patterns it is possible either not to send them in each packet
or to represent them in a smaller number of bits than would have been
required originally. This process is described as compression. Header
compression module is a part of the protocol stack on the devices.
* IP Queue handling: When the radio channel is experiencing heavy traffic, IP packets cannot always
be sent immediately. They are placed in a queue waiting for the radio channel to become free. (See
RU user manual for more information). Note that the radio queue should not be set to too large values, because the TCP/IP protocol will resend IP packets if it has not received a response in time. Too
long IP queue will in this case just cause more duplicate packets to be sent, to no useful effect. Also
some real-time or near-real-time applications, typically those using the UDP protocol, require packets
to be at most a few seconds old, therefore buffering them for tens of seconds is not useful.
Table 7.8
Routing, Internet protocol settings
Figure 7.13 Routing, IP by CU: Graphical user interface (GUI/LCD)
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7. Settings
7.3.3 IP Routes
2
This category allows adding, modifying and removing IP routes. For examples of typical routes, see
chapter 6.1.
Figure 7.14 Routing, IP Routes by CU: Graphical user interface (GUI/LCD)
A short introduction to IP routing
The SATELLAR IP radio network consists of Local Area Networks (LANs) and routers (the SATELLAR
CUs). One of the LANs is the radio network, reached through the tun0 interface of each SATELLAR.
This LAN is common to all SATELLARs. The other LANs are the Ethernet LANs (reached through the
eth0 interface).
A router’s defined task is to route IP packets between LANs. To do this, the router needs routing tables
which tell it how to reach any other network. Therefore each router must have defined routes to all the
LANs.
The task of defining routes is made easier by the concept of default route, also known as default gateway. All IP packets are sent to the default gateway, unless there is a specific route telling otherwise.
All IP routes consist of two pieces of information.
–
–
The target network address (including netmask)
The target gateway address.
Together these two tell the router that an IP packet belonging to a certain network (i.e. LAN or subnet)
must be sent to a certain gateway. For example a route defined as 192.168.2.0/24 10.10.32.2, tells
that all IP packets which have a destination address that falls under the 192.168.2.0/24 network
address (for example 192.168.2.7) must be sent to the gateway 10.10.32.2.
Note that there must also be a return route defined in the other end router back to the original LAN.
(Sometimes a default route is enough for this). Typically SATELLARs at remote sites will act as the
default gateway for the Ethernet LAN they are connected to.
Consider the network in the Figure 7.15. There are four Ethernet LANs (1 through 4), connected by
SATELLAR radios (R1 through R4). The radios are connected by a fifth LAN, the radio LAN. LAN 1 is
also connected to the internet via a gateway (router, ADSL etc.).
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Internet
LAN 1
router
LAN 2
2
R1
R2
RX
RX
TX
TX
RTS
RTS
CTS
CTS
TD
RD
STAT
PWR
TD
USB
USB
RD
ETH
STAT
STAT
PWR
PWR
ETH
STAT
PWR
OK
OK
Radio LAN
RX
RX
TX
TX
RTS
RTS
CTS
CTS
TD
RD
STAT
PWR
TD
USB
USB
RD
ETH
STAT
STAT
PWR
PWR
ETH
STAT
PWR
OK
R4
LAN 3
LAN 4
SA00021
R3
OK
Figure 7.15 IP routing
Before designing the IP routes, we must define the desired connectivity. To keep the amount of routes
smaller, we decide that LANs 2, 3 and 4 do not need to have access to each other, because our central station is in LAN 1 and it will receive status messages from sensors connected to the other LANs.
The sensors do not need to communicate with each other. LAN 1 must however have access to the
internet, so it can be reached from off-site for remote monitoring.
Router
Default gateway
Other routes
router
WAN/internet
LAN 2 via R1
(Note that interface routes are omitted for
simplicity, as they are automatically added)
LAN 3 via R1
LAN 4 via R1
R1
router
LAN 2 via R2
LAN 3 via R3
LAN 4 via R4
R2
R1
none
R3
R1
none
R4
R1
none
Table 7.10 Interface routes, see Figure 7.15
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7. Settings
The next step is to decide the actual IP address and netmask for each LAN. You also decide which
device will be the default gateway of each LAN.
2
LAN name
network IP address
Netmask
Default gateway
LAN 1
192.168.1.0
24
router
LAN 2
192.168.2.0
24
R2
LAN 3
192.168.3.0
24
R3
LAN 4
192.168.4.0
24
R4
Radio LAN (Automatic)
10.10.32.0
19
R1
Table 7.11 IP address and net mask, see Figure 7.15
Please remember that the Radio LAN (tun0) addresses of each modem are automatically set based on
the RMAC addresses (see chapter 6.1.2). If we assume that each RMAC of radios R1…R4 is the same
as their number, we get the following IP addresses for the modems:
Device
RMAC address
tun0 IP address
eth0 IP address (suggestion)
router
-
-
192.168.1.1
R1
1
10.10.32.1
192.168.1.2
R2
2
10.10.32.2
192.168.2.1
R3
3
10.10.32.3
192.168.3.1
R4
4
10.10.32.4
192.168.4.1
Table 7.12 IP address, see Figure 7.15
Now we can define the routing tables with actual addresses:
Device
Target network
gateway
router
0.0.0.0/0
<WAN IP address or interface>
Default route is to internet
192.168.2.0/24
192.168.1.2
LAN 2 via R1
R1
R2
notes
192.168.3.0/24
192.168.1.2
LAN 3 via R1
192.168.4.0/24
192.168.1.2
LAN 4 via R1
0.0.0.0/0
192.168.1.1
Default route is via the router to internet
192.168.2.0/24
10.10.32.2
LAN 2
LAN 3
192.168.3.0/24
10.10.32.3
192.168.4.0/24
10.10.32.4
LAN 4
0.0.0.0/0
10.10.32.1
Default route is via the radio network to R1
R3
0.0.0.0/0
10.10.32.1
Default route is via the radio network to R1
R4
0.0.0.0/0
10.10.32.1
Default route is via the radio network to R1
<default gateway of the LAN as
defined above>
We omit the details, but in principle each
device in LANs 2, 3 and 4 will set the
SATELLAR as their default gateway. Devices
in LAN 1 use router as their default gateway.
<other
0.0.0.0/0
devices in
the LANs>
Table 7.13 Routing tables with actual address, see Figure 7.15
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7. Settings
To insert these routing tables to the SATELLAR CUs, use the Routing Application, IP Routes category.
Note that you also need to change the routing in your other routers to gain full connectivity. In case of
demonstrating and testing, the “router” is usually your PC.
2
Adding routing tables to SATELLAR
To add a new route, insert the route in the text area and click on the Add New Route button.
For example, to add a route to LAN 192.168.2.0/24 via the radio address 10.10.32.2, insert this:
To edit existing routes, use the Edit routes area:
–
–
To delete a route, mark the checkbox and click on the Delete Selected button
To change a route, change the text and click on the Apply Changes button.
If you have entered an invalid route, SATELLAR will print a red error text and the invalid route is not
added. Finally, remember to click on the Commit Changes button, or Cancel applied changes if you
made a mistake.
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7. Settings
7.4 Serial IP
2
Serial IP is a feature where data coming from serial port is converted to IP packets and set to designated IP address. Correspondingly the received IP packets are converted and forwarded to serial
interface. Serial IP configuration handling is divided into two sections for two interfaces:
–
–
RS-232 connection in the radio unit (RU) and
USB-Serial dongle attached to USB-A port of the central unit (CU).
Central Unit handles all the IP related data traffic and the air interface is IP based. Central
Unit is needed for stations using the serial IP (CU, router). Central Unit is not required if
the station is acting only as a repeater (no terminal connection).
NOTE! IP routing to the destination is not required if the IP data traffic is not entered to the
SATELLAR radio modem via RJ45 connector and the sender target address is defined to be
TUN0 address (radio address).
–
–
The IP ports are selectable from port 1 to 65535. There are several ports
already in use for various applications (NOTE! Application layer), e.g. http
80, https 443, SSH 21 and 22. Typically ports 1024 - 65535 are reserved
for general purpose. EXCEPTIONS: Ports 54441, 54442 and 55555 are
reserved for SATELLAR use.
Due to the IP based data transfer, the transmission delays variate. The
SCADA system shall be adjusted according to the SATELLAR Serial IP delays.
7.4.1 Serial IP RS-232 / USB-A
This section includes configurations related to both RS-232 and USB-A interface connection / serial IP
functionality.
Attribute
Explanation
Sub unit
NMSID
Serial IP Mode
Server – Used in cases where the data transfer is initiated
by some remote host. Server cannot open a connection, it
can only answer to the request for opening the connection
by Client.
1
3287
Client – Used typically in cases where most of data transfer is
initiated by this device. Client sends the request to the Server
for the connection to be opened.
Send Only - In this mode device is able only to send data to
from serial port to defined IP address and port i.e. not able
to receive any sending.
Receive Only – In this mode device is able to only receive
data to defined IP listening port and forward it to serial port .
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Attribute
Explanation
Sub unit
NMSID
Port Rate
Rate of serial port – from 1200 to 460800 bps.
Default is 19200.
1
3288
Port Data Bits
Serial Port Data Bits - 7 or 8.
1
3289
Port Parity
Serial Port Parity - No Parity, Odd, Even.
1
3290
Port Stop Bits
Serial Port Stop Bits – 1 bit or 2 bits.
1
3291
Protocol
TCP, UDP, Telnet or Bulk Mode.
Must be coherent in network.
1
3292
Listening Port
IP Port for listening incoming messages. *
1
3293
Sending Port
IP Port for sending outgoing messages. **
1
3294
Sender Target Address
IP address for sending outgoing messages. **
1
3295
Sender Retry Count
Count for how many times messages are attempted to resent
in TCP protocol if send does not succeed. ***
1
3296
Sender Retry Interval
The gap time between resending attempts (in TCP mode) in
milliseconds. ***
1
3297
UDP Listener Port Timeout
Timeout for releasing the listener of one connection in
UDP mode in seconds. This means that if there is no
data received in defined time, connection is closed. New
connection can be established at any time again. ****
1
3298
Remote Control Port Mode
Defines whether the RFC 2217 configuration possibility set
on or off, default being off.
1
3299
Remote Control Port Rate
Port rate of remote control connection. Default is 115200.
1
3300
Remote Control Port
IP port of configuration.
1
3301
*
**
***
****
2
Parameter is effective when message listening is on (Server, Client, Receive Only).
Parameter is effective when message sending is on (Server, Client, Send Only).
Parameter is effective when message sending is on (Server, Client, Send Only) with TCP protocol.
Parameter is effective when message listening is on (Server, Client, Receive Only) with UDP protocol.
Table 7.14 The configurations related to both RS-232 and USB-A interface connection / serial IP functionality
NOTE: The connection will be established only by the Client and only to the device acting in Server
mode. Once the connection has been established, the data traffic can be both ways. The connection
will be kept open as long as the SATELLAR central units are running. The connection is closed by the
Client or the connection is opened to another destination by the Client.
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7. Settings
2
Figure 7.16 Configuration of Serial IP RS-232 via WWW-interface
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7. Settings
7.4.2 Examples
7.4.2.1 Point-to-point
Example “Point-to-point” presents the basic feature and usage of configuration parameters.
2
Two user devices DTE A and B are connected to SATELLARs via serial port connection and the
SATELLARs are configured to have a radio connection.
RX
RX
TX
TX
RTS
RTS
CTS
CTS
TD
RD
STAT
PWR
TD
USB
RD
ETH
STAT
STAT
PWR
PWR
USB
ETH
STAT
PWR
OK
SA00060
OK
User device
DTE A
SATELLAR A
(RU+CU)
Tun0 IP 10.10.32.1
SATELLAR B
(RU+CU)
Tun0 IP 10.10.32.2
User device
DTE B
Figure 7.17 Point to point -example
SATELLAR A is having Tun0 IP 10.10.32.1 and SATELLAR B Tun0 IP 10.10.32.2 (can be obtained from
screen saver or from Routing – IP category). SATELLAR B is a client which is the side that initiates the
connection. It has been configured to listen messages from serial port, to send them to target address
and port. SATELLAR A is a server side that has been configured to listen dedicated IP port and to
forward messages to serial port. Transmission is always started from client side; it creates the connection between the SATELLARs. There are some differences for this when using UDP, see chapter 7.4.2.5
UDP.
First, the serial port in both SATELLARs must be configured to match the User device configuration.
After that, the SATELLAR devices are able to communicate with each others.
Parameter
SATELLAR A
SATELLAR B
Mode
Server
Server
Protocol
TCP
TCP
Listening Port
2005
Irrelevant in this mode
Sending Port
Irrelevant in this mode
2005
Sender Target Address
10.10.32.2
10.10.32.1
Table 7.15 Configuration of SATELLAR a and B devices in Point to point- example
The basic idea is to cross-configure SATELLAR devices to communicate with each other. Protocol can
be also UDP as long as it is same in both ends.
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7. Settings
7.4.2.2 TCP Server
SATELLAR is configured to listen to defined IP Port number and forward data from the port to the serial
port (IP to Serial-conversion).
2
Internet
RX
RX
TX
TX
RTS
RTS
CTS
CTS
TD
RD
STAT
PWR
TD
USB
RD
ETH
STAT
STAT
PWR
PWR
USB
ETH
STAT
PWR
OK
SA00061
OK
User device
DTE A
SATELLAR A
(RU+CU)
SATELLAR B
(RU+CU)
User device
DTE B
Figure 7.18 TCP Server, conversion from IP to serial port
DTE A
Ethernet IP Address 192.168.1.1
IP Route 192.168.2.0/24 via 192.168.1.2
Application able to send messages to dedicated address
and port configured to send to 192.168.2.10 port 2006
SATELLAR A
Ethernet IP Address 192.168.1.2
RMAC 1 i.e. Tun0 10.10.32.1
Packet Route to 2
IP Route 192.168.2.0/24 via 10.10.32.2
SATELLAR B
Ethernet IP Address 192.168.2.10
RMAC 2 i.e. Tun0 10.10.32.2
Packet Route to 1
IP Route 192.168.1.0/24 via 10.10.32.1
Serial IP configuration as above
Serial port configuration in line with User device DTE B
DTE B
Serial port configuration in line with SATELLAR B
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User Device DTE A has an Ethernet IP address 192.168.1.1. SATELLAR B has two IP addresses Tun0
10.10.32.2 and Eth0 192.168.2.10 which both can be used depending on the routing configuration in
User device DTE A. Ethernet address is used in this example.
SATELLAR A does not have any Serial IP connection and it is configured to have radio connection with
SATELLAR B. User device DTE A must be set to route messages to SATELLAR B via SATELLAR A. In this
case SATELLAR A has an IP 192.168.1.2, User device DTE A must have a route 192.168.2.0/24 via
192.168.1.2 and must also have an application able to send messages to dedicated address and port,
in this case to port 2006 at 192.168.2.10.
Parameter
SATELLAR B
Mode
Server
Protocol
TCP
Listening Port
2006
Table 7.16 Serial port conficuration of SATELLAR B
Sending of parameters is not necessary, since TCP is capable of sending replies back when connection
has been opened.
7.4.2.3 TCP Client
In TCP client case whenever data comes from the serial port, the data is buffered and sent to target
address. This can be e.g. some on-demand service sending some e.g. log data whenever there is
something to send. Setup is similar to server case.
Internet
RX
RX
TX
TX
RTS
RTS
CTS
CTS
TD
RD
STAT
PWR
TD
USB
RD
ETH
STAT
STAT
PWR
PWR
USB
ETH
STAT
PWR
OK
SA00061
OK
User device
DTE A
SATELLAR A
(RU+CU)
SATELLAR B
(RU+CU)
User device
DTE B
Figure 7.19 TCP Client
DTE A: IP address 192.168.1.1
SATELLAR A: IP address 192.168.1.2
SATELLAR B: IP address 192.168.2.10
User Device DTE A has IP address: 192.168.1.1, SATELLAR A: 192.168.1.2 and SATELLAR B:
192.168.2.10. SATELLARs are configured to have the radio connection and IP routes are configured so
that devices are able to communicate with each other i.e. route from User device DTE A to SATELLAR B
via SATELLAR A and from SATELLAR B to User device DTE A via SATELLAR A.
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User device DTE A must now have an application that opens port listening to messages coming from
SATELLAR B. SATELLAR A does not have any Serial IP configuration. SATELLAR B has following serial
port configuration, where it is assumed that User Device DTE A has port 2005 open:
Parameter
SATELLAR B
Mode
Client
Protocol
TCP
Sending Port
2005
Sender Target Address
192.168.1.1
Table 7.17 Serial port conficuration of SATELLAR B
7.4.2.4 Multipoint-to-point
Multipoint-to-point case can be presented as an extended case of TCP Client.
RX
TX
RTS
CTS
TD
RD
STAT
PWR
USB
ETH
STAT
PWR
OK
TCP Port 2005
SATELLAR B
RX
TX
IP Connection
RTS
TCP Port 2005
CTS
TD
RD
STAT
PWR
USB
ETH
User device
DTE B
STAT
PWR
OK
TCP Port 2010
User device
DTE A
SATELLAR A
RX
TX
RTS
CTS
TD
RD
IP address:
19.21.68.10
STAT
PWR
USB
ETH
STAT
PWR
OK
SATELLAR D
SA00062
2
TCP Port 2010
User device
DTE C
Figure 7.20 Multipoint-to-point -example
In this example the User device DTE A is capable of simultaneously listening to several ports. Both
SATELLAR B and SATELLAR C are configured to send messages to User device DTE A, but to different
ports. Following configuration is set to SATELLAR B and SATELLAR D, when User device DTE A has IP
address 192.168.1.1:
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Parameter
SATELLAR B
SATELLAR C
Mode
Client
Client
Protocol
TCP
TCP
Sending Port
2005
2010
Sender Target Address
192.168.1.1
192.168.1.1
2
Table 7.18 The configuration of SATELLAR B and SATELLAR C
One option for this kind of tasking is serial port virtualizing that can be done e.g. with HW VSP application: http://www.hw-group.com/products/hw_vsp/index_en.html
The application creates virtual serial ports which are actually IP addresses and ports i.e. user defines
IP address and port combination which then creates a (virtual) serial port to system. By this way different applications can use these connections as serial ports although they are actually IP connections.
7.4.2.5 UDP
UDP mode can be used similar to TCP modes with some extension.
In point-to-point case the mode of the device can be either client or server. Due to nature of protocol
both devices need to be able to send and receive independent of other device. See chapter 7.4.3 UDP
and TCP protocols for more detailed protocol explanation.
Parameter
SATELLAR A
SATELLAR B
Mode
Server
Server
Protocol
TCP
TCP
Listening Port
2005
2006
Sending Port
2006
2005
Sender Target Address
10.10.32.2
10.10.32.1
Table 7.19 Example of point-to-point case
When using UDP in Server mode in generally and some replies are needed to be sent, also the target
address needs to be set. This concerns also the Client mode and listening of replies.
Parameter
SATELLAR B
Mode
Server
Protocol
UDP
Listening Port
2006
Sending Port
2005
Sender Target Address
192.168.1.1
Table 7.20 The conficuration of SATELLAR B
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7.4.2.6 Send or receive only
These features are limited versions of presented features. The example is similar to point-to-point.
2
RX
RX
TX
TX
RTS
RTS
CTS
CTS
TD
RD
STAT
PWR
TD
USB
RD
ETH
STAT
STAT
PWR
PWR
USB
ETH
STAT
PWR
OK
SA00060
OK
User device
DTE A
SATELLAR A
(RU+CU)
Tun0 IP 10.10.32.1
SATELLAR B
(RU+CU)
Tun0 IP 10.10.32.2
User device
DTE B
Figure 7.21 Send or receive only -example
SATELLAR A is having Tun0 IP 10.10.32.1 and SATELLAR B Tun0 IP 10.10.32.2. SATELLAR A is configured to send to SATELLAR B and SATELLAR B is configured to listening defined port.
Parameter
SATELLAR A
SATELLAR B
Mode
Send only
Receive only
Protocol
UDP
UDP
Listening Port
Irrelevant in this mode
2006
Sending Port
2006
Irrelevant in this mode
Sender Target Address
10.10.32.2
Irrelevant in this mode
Table 7.21 The conficuration of SATELLAR A and SATELLAR B
The User device DTE A can only send and the User device DTE B can only listen the messages.
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7.4.3 UDP and TCP protocols
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP) are both based on Internet
Protocol (IP) suite. They are used for relaying datagrams - also known as network packets – from the
source host to the destination host solely based on the addresses. Packets are structured by Open
Systems Interconnection (OSI) model layer principles. OSI model structures packets to different layers
and TCP and UDP packets can quite simply be presented with these layers:
–
–
–
–
Data link layer: Physical addresses i.e. source and destination MAC addresses
Internet layer: IPv4 / IPv6 addresses and related header
Transport Layer: TCP, UDP or similar protocol data (ports etc.) and related header
Application Layer: Actual user data
Following tables present the structure of data. Data link layer data comes first and in the end there is
frame footer. Between the frame data and footer is IP packet data. In IP packet internet layer data is
first, then the transport layer i.e. protocol related data and finally actual user data.
Data Link layer
Frame header (8 bytes)
Frame data (14 bytes)
IP + UDP packet (below)
Frame footer i.e. CRC (4 bytes)
IP Packet
bits
0-3
4-7
0
Version
Internet Header Differentiated
Length
Services Code
Point
8-13
32
Identification
64
Time To Live
96
Source Address
128
Destination Address
160+
Data (UDP Packet)
14-15
16-18
Explicit
Congestion
Notification
Total Length
Flags
Protocol
19-31
Fragment Offset
Header Checksum
UDP Packet
bits
0-7
0
Source Port
8 – 15
Destination Port
16 – 23
32
Length
Checksum
64+
Data (actual user data)
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7. Settings
Thus IP + UDP Packet headers are altogether 28 bytes. TCP packet is alike the UDP with some more
information in TCP section such as sequence number. TCP header is thus larger (20 bytes) than UDP
(8 bytes).
2
The difference between the protocols is the administration of packets and how the received packets
are supposed to be handled. UDP is a not connection based simple transmission model without
implicit handshaking dialogues for providing reliability, ordering, or data integrity. Thus, datagrams
may arrive out of order, appear duplicated, or go missing without notice. UDP assumes that error
checking and correction is either not necessary or performed in the application, avoiding the overhead of such processing at the network interface level. TCP on the other hand is connection based
protocol which provides error checking, ordering and general reliability.
Time-sensitive applications often use UDP because dropping packets is preferable to waiting for
delayed packets. Also as described above, the size of headers - i.e. packet overhead - is smaller with
UDP which may make difference when the size of actual data is always small. Examples of applications
using UDP are DHCP, DNS and voice and video applications. On the other hand, if error correction
facilities, ordering and general reliability is needed, an application may use the TCP. Examples of
using TCP are HTTP, FTP, SMTP and SSH.
7.4.4 Notes
There are some noticeable issues, which are related to serial IP functionality.
7.4.4.1 USB Serial dongle connection
Availability of USB serial connection is informed with different notes. When USB serial dongle is connected, the following text is shown in the screen: USB serial dongle connected.
If not connected, then note about interface being not available is shown.
Please make sure that Serial IP Mode is OFF when USB serial dongle is not connected.
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7.4.4.2 RS-232 port availability
In some occasions RS-232 is reserved and cannot be used for Serial IP functionality. Following text is
displayed in such occasions.
2
7.4.4.3 Disconnecting USB Serial dongle
When disconnecting the USB Serial dongle the Serial IP Mode must to be set OFF. Detaching the
dongle when the mode is not OFF sets the device in to a fault state and may even reboot the device.
If the Serial IP Mode is ON, but the dongle is not connected, following warning text is displayed at
web UI: USB serial IP mode is on but dongle is not connected!! Pelase set the mode off.
7.4.4.4 Incompatible parameter combinations
There are some parameter combination cases that can make the connection ends incompatible:
– Different protocols: It must be verified that both connection ends have
the same protocol. When one connection end uses TCP and other UDP,
connection cannot work.
– Compatible modes: If both ends have either send only or receive only mode
on, connection does not work as assumed. On the other hand, when using
send only on one end and receive only on other end, it must be verified that
send only is in the end intended to send data.
– Ports and addresses: Ports and addresses must match in the setup. I.e. the
sending target address and port must match with IP address of listener and
the port that is opened for listening.
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8. Applications
8. Applications
2
This chapter explains the additional applications available in the CU.
8.1 Diagnostics
This application is used to view graphs of measured diagnostics.
The following Diagnostics graphs are available:
Diagnostic
Explanation
CU RAM Usage
Memory used by all running processes and kernel in the CU.
CU CPU Load
Shows the percentage of CU CPU (MCU) processing power used.
NMS Timeouts
Local RU NMS message timeouts. Values higher than 0 indicate the RU
is busy with data traffic and unable to answer all settings or diagnostics
NMS messages sent by the CU.
RSSI
Signal strength of all received radio messages.
Temperature
As measured at the RU RF Power Amplifier. See RU User Manual for
accuracy and other information.
Voltage
As measured at the RU power in connector. See RU User Manual for
accuracy and other information.
Table 8.1
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Figure 8.1 Diagnostics by CU: Graphical user interface (GUI/LCD)
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8. Applications
8.2 Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)
2
An “Internet-standard protocol for managing devices on IP networks.” It is used mostly in network
management systems to monitor network-attached devices for conditions that warrant administrative
attention. SNMP is simply a protocol for collecting and organizing information. SNMP itself does not
define which information (which variables) a managed system should offer. Rather, SNMP uses an
extensible design, where the available information is defined by management information bases .
In typical SNMP uses, one or more administrative computers, called managers, have the task of monitoring or managing devices on a network. Each managed system executes, at all times, a software
component called an agent which reports information via SNMP to the manager.
Essentially, SNMP agents expose management data on the managed systems as variables. The
protocol also permits active management tasks, such as modifying and applying a new configuration
through remote modification of these variables.
An SNMP-managed network consists of three key components:
–
–
–
Managed device
Agent — software which runs on managed devices
Network management system (NMS) — software which runs on the manager
Typical radio modem or system monitoring can be RSSI-values, Voltage or Temperature. Setting type
configuration consists of IP- or radio parameters.
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Status of SNMP application is set similarly to other CU applications i.e. in Services category.
Attribute
Explanation
Sub unit
NMSID
SNMPD State
Status of SNMP application is named as SNMPD state.
Options are ON and OFF, OFF being the default.
1
3266
Table 8.2
2
The settings of SNMP status
Figure 8.2 Services settings view
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8. Applications
8.2.1 SNMP category
SNMP category includes the settings related to SNMP usage.
2
Attribute
Explanation
Sub unit
NMSID
SNMP RO Community
Read-only community phrase i.e. word that for reading
values via SNMP. In other words, when reading
something with SNMP this phrase must be used as a
community word. Maximum length is 255 characters.
Default RO Community phrase is ‘public’
1
3241
SNMP RW Community
Read-write community phrase i.e. word that for
writing values via SNMP. When writing something
with SNMP this phrase must be used as a community
word. RW community word can be used for reading
also. Maximum length is 255 characters. Default RW
Community phrase is ‘private’.
1
3242
SNMP RW Community IP
Read-write community IP defines the network space
i.e. scope of IPs that can use read-write options.
E.g. 192.168.1.0 means IPs from 192.168.1.0 to
192.168.1.1.255. Default is 0.0.0.0 i.e. all IPs are
allowed.
1
3243
SNMP Notification IP
IP where the notifications are being sent when such are
available.
1
3244
Table 8.3
The settings of SNMP category
Figure 8.3 SNMP settings view
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8.2.2 MIB
MIB i.e. Management Information Base is a file that is used along the SNMP to define the set of
parameters that are available with SNMP. MIBs include hierarchical name space including individual
parameters that called as OIDs - Object Identifiers. SATELLAR has its own MIB but it needs two SATEL
generic MIBs to be able to work with typical SNMP application hierarchy mechanisms. These MIBs are
available at www.SATEL.com/downloads.
Available parameters are basically the same as in GUIs and also defined similar way also (read-write
or read-only). Parameters can be seen by browsing them with graphical SNMP applications after
importing MIBs or e.g. with snmptranslate tool with following command.
snmptranslate -Tp -IR satel
Basic structure of MIB is following
–
satelSATELLARNMS
– satelSATELLARNMSInfo
– satelSATELLARNMSInfoRU
– satelSATELLARNMSInfoCU
– satelSATELLARNMSSettings
– satelSATELLARNMSSettingsRU
– satelSATELLARNMSSettingsCU
– satelSATELLARNMSRouting
– satelSATELLARNMSCancelCommit
These follow the idea of GUIs so that NMSInfo includes same parameters as Modem Info category,
NMSSettings include same parameters as Modem Settings and NMSRouting same parameters as
Routing category.
CancelCommit is an individual parameter and is used for making the saving functional analog
to GUIs. When setting some parameter, user stores them into temporary storage in Satellar same
way as they are applied in web GUI. To store the values permanently and make them effective,
CancelCommit is set to value 1. To cancel settings that are not yet stored and to clear the temporary
storage, CancelCommit is set to 0.
8.2.2.1 Applications, examples
NET-SNMP – Console based application for various SNMP usages.
Dude – a simple Windows-GUI application.
Spiceworks – a browser-based application.
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8. Applications
8.3 Firmware updating
2
The currently installed firmware version numbers are available in the Modem Info Application, RU and
CU categories.
There are three different ways to do the firmware updating:
–
–
–
to use the firmware updater application in CU by the LCD GUI or in the WWW interface
to use the USB Stick during boot CU update method
to use the firmware update over-the-air
8.3.1 Firmware updater application
The Firmware updater application can be used to update the firmware of the RU or the CU. This
application is available in the WWW interface and the LCD GUI, but the operation is slightly different.
When updating the firmware using Firmware Updater, previous settings are NOT lost, unless the
release notes for the new firmware specify differently.
Figure 8.4 Firmware updater by CU: Graphical user interface (GUI/LCD)
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8.3.1.1 Choosing the right update file
First you must determine which firmware you are updating. It is possible to update either the RU or the
CU firmware.
The RU firmware update file is named “satellar-ru.x.y.z.w.update”, where “x.y.z.w” is the version number
of the new firmware. Simply choose the update file, which has the version number you wish to update
to.
The CU firmware update file is named “satellar_xxxxyyyy.update” where xxxx is the old firmware
version number and yyyy is the new firmware version number. When updating the CU firmware using
Firmware Updater, it is necessary to know the current filesystem version number, so that the correct
update file can be chosen. For example, if you need to install a new firmware version satel-2863,
and your current filesystem version number is satel-2775, you need an update file named “satellar_27752863.update”. The current firmware version can be seen in Modem Info, CU category.
The CU firmware update file consists of two different files, the kernel image and the filesystem. Due
to the relatively large size of the full filesystem image (typically 11 MB), the update includes only the
changed parts of the image, so the update file size is kept to a minimum. This is called an incremental,
or patch, update.
The following table illustrates the different possibilities.
Update file
Example of
update file name
Images contained
in the update file
Typical size,
approximately
Update method
RU update file
satellar_rmu5.3.0.2.update
RU firmware
image.
300 kB
Firmware Updater
CU update
file
satellar_27752863.update
(typical total size: 4.3 MB)
CU kernel image.
2.4 MB
Firmware Updater
CU file system
incremental
upgrade patch.
1.9 MB
Table 8.4
Choosing the update file
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2
8.3.1.2 Uploading the update file
When you have the correct update file on your computer, open SATELLAR WWW GUI, and go to the
Firmware Updater application. Then click on the Browse… button and then locate the file using the
window that opens. Then click on Send to transfer the file to SATELLAR CU.
Note that this step is NOT yet the actual update; it is just a file transfer.
Alternatively, the update file can be placed on an USB memory stick. In the latter case, the file will
become visible in the list of Available update files when the memory stick is inserted into SATELLAR’s
USB port and the web page is reloaded. Allow a few seconds after inserting the stick before reloading
the page.
8.3.1.3 Starting the firmware update process
After a file has been uploaded or a USB memory stick containing the file has been inserted, it appears
on the list of available update files.
The following image shows that three update files are available:
–
–
–
A RU update file, eg. version 5.3.0.0, on the USB memory stick
Another RU update file, eg. version 5.3.0.2, uploaded to the CU
A CU update file, containing a filesystem patch eg. from version 2667 to
2757 and a kernel image, uploaded to the CU.
When the file is available, click “Select for update” to start the update process using that file (see
chapter 8.3.1.4).
Unneeded files can be deleted from the CU by checking the checkbox in the “x” column and clicking
“Delete Selected”.
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8.3.1.4 The firmware update process
The update process is time-consuming, but in case the update is interrupted by a power failure etc, the
process can be resumed. The process can also be cancelled at any time.
2
First the devices to be updated must be selected. Normally choose only device 0 (local device).
Click the Start transfer -button, and you will get this message:
The progress of update is indicated by a progress bar, which is automatically refreshed with 5-second
intervals. The transfer may be cancelled at any time by clicking on “Cancel transfer”, and no harm will
be done to the target unit.
When transfer has finished, the RU is restarted and is ready to use.
When updating a CU, it will also be automatically restarted. The restart will take longer than usual;
because part of the update process takes place during the booting process. The progress of the
update can be seen on the LCD screen. In case no screen is available, the STAT LED blinks while booting and updating is in progress.
The CU firmware update can last up to 10 minutes. Do NOT turn off, restart or reboot the CU during this time. IF the CU is restarted or turned off, the firmware update process fails and the previous
firmware version remains in use.
After restart has completed, please check the Firmware versions from Modem Info, RU and CU
categories (see chapters 8.5 and 8.4) to see that the Firmware versions have been updated to the new
version.
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8.3.2 USB Stick during boot CU update method
2
This method is completely different from the Firmware Updater application. The files used are not
.update files; instead they are RAW kernel and/or file system images. The files are placed on a USB
Memory Stick and renamed according to the table below. The USB stick is then inserted, and then
SATELLAR is rebooted. The update is done automatically during the device boot.
The progress of the update process is displayed on the LCD screen. In case the CU is not equipped
with a LCD screen, you can follow the process by the STAT LED. While the STAT LED is blinking, the
update is underway.
Image updated
kernel1)
filesystem2)
Table 8.5
Files needed
File name example
Rename file
name to
Approximate
duration of update
kernel image
satel-0.2757_uImage
uImage
5 minutes
signature file
satel-0.2757_uImage.sig
uImage.sig
filesystem image
satel-0.2757_rootfs.jffs2
rootfs.jffs2
signature file
satel-0.2757_rootfs.jffs2.
sig
rootfs.jffs2.sig
10 minutes or more
Update process
Note about kernel update using this method: After the device has booted, it must be restarted again
to actually start using the new kernel.
1)
Note about filesystem update using this method: This method removes all files AND settings, including IP settings, stored in the CU. RU settings such as Frequency are not affected. (CU settings can be
identified by the sub-unit number “1”). The advantage of this method is that the previous file system
version number is not needed; you can update any filesystem version over any other.
2)
8.3.3 Firmware update over-the-air
This chapter explains how the firmware of devices in an installed, running network consisting of
SATELLAR 2DS and 20DS devices in Packet routing / TCP/IP mode can be remotely updated.
Both SATELLAR CU and RU firmware can be updated using this method. The method has the following
steps:
–
–
–
–
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Preparation
Transfer of files
Update process
Confirmation
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The time taken is dependent on the relatively slow (compared to the size of the update packets) transfer speed over radio. While comparatively slow, the time may still be less than doing the updates by
hand, i.e. going to the site physically and doing an USB-memory-stick update. This depends fully on
the size and geography of the installed network.
8.3.3.1 Preparation steps
Before starting the firmware update, make sure the following preconditions are fulfilled.
Step 1. Plan the time needed for the update process
You should plan your update process so you know the downtime of the data system beforehand and
can proceed with less uncertainty.
Table 1 lists the time needed for some examples. All times are calculated without any other traffic in
the radio network. (I.e. data transfer has been stopped)
Air speed
Update file size
Transfer time
38.4 kbps
4.5 MBytes
28 minutes (measured)
50 minutes
38.4 kbps
3.5 MBytes
24 minutes
(approximate)
45 minutes
19.2 kbps
4.5 MBytes
45 minutes
(approximate)
1 hour 10 minutes
300 kB
5 minutes (approximate)
15 minutes
19.2 kbps
Table 8.6
Total update time per device (approximate)
Update file transmit time examples
Notes about the time needed:
Transmit time is the critical factor. Total time includes data transfer, delays such as using the WWW
interface manually, which can be speeded up with a little practice, and the time taken by the CU to
actually install the update, a process which is done separately from file transfer. Actually, you can stagger the process by starting the update process in one modem while the update file is being transferred
to the next modem. This “staggering” method can save time. Alternatively, transfer all files first (one
after the other), then update all modems at once.
Do not start multiple uploads at the same time, as this will cause slower transfer speeds and potentially
cause some transfers to fail. (It could be worth trying for overnight transfers, though)
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2
8. Applications
Transfer CU 1
2
SA00063
Staggering:
Update CU 1
Transfer CU 2
Update CU 2
Transfer CU 3
Update CU 3
Time
Alternative:
Transfer CU 1
Update CU 1
Transfer CU 2
Update CU 2
Transfer CU 3
Update CU 3
Time
Step 2. Make sure there is a connection to all SATELLAR 2DS and 20DS devices
You need a working TCP/IP connection to all modems. This can be confirmed by opening the WWW
setup interface of each remote SATELLAR device by writing the IP address of the device in the address
bar of your web browser.
The update is done via the WWW interface of each modem. The HTTP protocol used to control the
update and transfer the files is running in the SATELLAR radio network. For this reason the update cannot be done if the Protocol Mode setting in your network is not set to “Packet Routing” or IP connections to all devices do not work for some other reason. You can use either the “radio IP addresses” or
the “Ethernet IP addresses” of the Central Units for ping tests and WWW interface access.
If you are using a PC which is connected to other LANs or the Internet at the same time as you are
connected to the SATELLAR network, you need to add a temporary IP route to your PC configuration
for the purpose of connecting to the SATELLAR network. Assuming your local SATELLAR unit connected via Ethernet has IP 192.168.1.1 and your PC is 192.168.1.2 and this connection is working,
you can then use this command in windows to add the temporary route:
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First, start cmd.exe using administrator privileges. Then enter the following command:
c:\> route add 10.10.32.0 mask 255.255.255.224 192.168.1.1
2
Now you can access all SATELLARs by using their radio IP address, such as 10.10.32.2, 10.10.32.3
etc.
A simpler way is to disconnect the PC from all other networks and set your local SATELLAR unit as the
default gateway. This way you don’t need to use the ROUTE command.
Step 3. Organize your modems into browser tabs
This is a very useful feature in modern web browsers. If you put each SATELLAR unit’s web interface
into a separate web browser tab, it is easy to go through the update process. This is also helpful if
using the staggering method to save time.
Step 4. Identify the current firmware versions
It is possible that your modems have different firmware versions. When the CU firmware is updated it
is important to know what the current version number is. Go to “Modem info, CU” menu (See chapter
7.2.3) in the WWW interface of each of the modems and look at file system version (NMSID 1.650).
For RU firmware, the current version is not important.
If you have different CU firmware versions, it can be helpful to record the version on a piece of paper
or excel sheet for easy reference while updating or you could check the version every time using the
WWW modem info page.
If you transfer the wrong file to the CU you have just lost 25 minutes or more time, because the wrong
update file cannot be used to upgrade the firmware!
Step 5. Gather the needed update files
See CU User Manual chapter 8.2.1 for help identifying the correct files. Make a note which files go
into which modems, if your network has different versions currently installed.
Step 6. Stop all other data traffic
To speed up the file transfer and reduce the risk of transfer errors, it is recommended to stop all other
traffic from your radio network while updating.
8.3.3.2 Transferring the files
Actual transfer of the .update file is done exactly as detailed in the chapter 8.2.2. Note that while the
file is uploaded, there is no progress indication, other than what is provided by your web browser.
Typically uploads are not tracked by web browsers, while downloads have very good progress indicators.
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8. Applications
When one upload is complete, this screen appears:
2
Figure 8.5 Update file transfer complete
Now you can start the update process as indicated in next chapter, and then start file upload for the
next modem.
8.3.3.3 Updating
To start each firmware update, just click on the “Select for update” link text (see Figure 1) as explained
in the user manual chapter 8.3.1.3, and follow instructions in chapter 8.3.1.4.
Note especially:
–
–
Select only the target device ‘0’
Update is done in two stages, “transfer” and “reboot”.
– Transfer is quick, a minute at most (Do not confuse this with file transfer)
– Reboot, which can take more than 10 minutes for the CU. (The actual
update is done at this stage)
While the firmware is being updated (about 10 minutes for CU firmware), little or no data is being sent
or received, so this time can be used for transferring another update file to another modem.
8.3.3.4 Confirming the update
After 10 minutes or so, the web interface should reload automatically. You can also refresh the page
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8. Applications
manually using your browser (hit F5). Note that the modem is unresponsive while the reboot process in
underway.
When the web interface is responding again, go to “Modem Info” and confirm the version number
from either the “CU” or “RU” category as appropriate. You should do this step at once for all modems
(by going through the browser tabs in order) as the last step of the update process. If any modem does
NOT display the new version number, you should:
–
–
–
Refresh the web page (press F5)
if still old version, reboot the updated device (RU or CU)
if still old version, retry the update (select for update, also double-check the
from version is correct)
– if still old version, confirm the original .update file is valid and re-transmit,
effectively doing the whole process again for the affected modem(s).
When all modems are running the new firmware versions, re-start your data traffic.
Updates do not normally change any settings, but if they do, there should be a mention of this in the
release notes.
8.3.3.5 Verification of update integrity
When the system has been booted up after the update, a verification process ensures that it is working properly. This will take appr. 2.5 minutes. If the process detects that something is not working
correctly, it reverts the system to previously used version. The system shall not be rebooted during the
verification process. Rebooting reverts the system to old version too.
Web UI shows the verification state like this:
In GUI there is a do not reboot-icon that indicates the same thing. Green arrow points to this icon:
In addition to these, STAT and PWR LEDs are blinking simultaneously at a rate of
faster (half second) and slower (one second) blinks until the verification is over.
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2
8. Applications
8.4 Remote settings
2
This application is only available in the LCD GUI. It is used to change settings of a
remote SATELLAR, over the air. (The same functionality can be achieved in the WWW interface by
contacting the WWW server in the target SATELLAR directly, by using its IP number. Remember that
both tun0 and eth0 IP numbers can be used.)
Figure 8.6 Remote settings by CU: Graphical user interface (GUI/LCD)
8.5 NMS Import
This application is available in the WWW interface only. It allows to export and import settings as
text files. For example you can export all modem settings into a file and save it to your computer as a
backup. You can also edit this file and send it back to the modem, or to another modem. The modified
file could contain only one or a few settings, not all settings originally found in the file are needed. This
can be used to change the same few settings to multiple modems relatively quickly. (By creating a file
with just the settings to be changed, and importing it to all the modems).
8.5.1 Exporting settings from modem
When exporting settings, SATELLAR CU creates a file which contains the settings. The file can then be
saved on a computer and kept as a backup, or edited using a text editor and sent back to the modem.
The following procedure can be used to export all user settings from a radio station (both CU and RU).
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1.
Go to the NMS Import Application of WWW GUI. The page looks like this:
2.
Ignore the query file, User level and sub-unit selections for now. Just click on
the Export button. SATELLAR now generates the export file.
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3.
The new export file appears at the top of the page, under Available import
files:
4.
Click on “satellar_export.nmst” to download the export file to your computer.
2
8.5.2 NMS Export advanced features
These optional features are available:
Option
Effect
Query file
If you wish to export only some specific settings, create a text file
containing only the NMSIDs, one per row, and use it as the query
file. Click Browse to select the file and Upload to send it to the
modem.
Example query file contents:
1.398
1.33
1.80
Use query file
Mark this checkbox to use the query file that was uploaded. The
resulting export file will only contain the values of the NMSIDs that
were specified in the query file.
User level
Level 1 is the normal level. Sometimes SATEL technical support may
request you to export level 5 or 9 settings in case the information is
needed to solve a problem. Level 5 or 9 settings cannot be changed.
Sub-unit
Choose All to export both RU and CU settings. Sub-unit 0 exports
only RU settings and sub-unit 1 exports only CU settings.
Table 8.7
NMS Export advanced features
8.5.3 The export/import file contents
The export file is a text file in UNIX format. This means that the windows default text editor ‘notepad.
exe’, does not correctly split the text into lines, instead all text appears on one long line. The file should
not be edited with an editor which does not support Unix-style text. We recommend using a better text
editor, such as ‘Notepad++’ which is freely available on the net.
The file contains a list of NMSIDs, followed by the ‘=’ character and the value assigned to that
NMSID. There are also comment rows, which usually give the name of the following NMSID and possibly the list of valid values.
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8. Applications
Example 1:
#Address (RMAC)
0:1.398=1
2
The first row is a comment, identified by the ‘#’ character. Everything on comment rows is ignored
when importing. This comment tells us that the next NMSID is the address.
The next row begins with a zero, followed by a colon character ‘:’. The zero indicates the sub-unit is the
RU (1 would be CU). Next number is the NMSID, which is ‘1.398’. After the equal sign ‘=’ is the value,
which is 1. The address of the RU is therefore set to 1.
Example 2:
#Protocol Mode
#0 = Basic-RX Priority, 1 = Basic-TX Priority, 2 = Basic-Repeater, 6 = Packet Routing
0:1.409=6
The two comment rows tell that this is the Protocol Mode setting, and valid choices are 0, 1, 2, or 6.
The comment explains what each number means. The actual NMSID row again shows that sub-unit is
0 (RU), the NMSID is ‘1.409’ and the current value is ‘6’.
8.5.4 Managing export files
You can use export files as backup to store the settings of devices in your network, so in case you need
to replace the hardware, you can just import the saved settings to the new hardware. In this case it is
useful to name the export files to the name of the radio station, for example.
Remember that the file extension must remain as .nmst, otherwise you are free to rename the file.
Avoid using special characters in the name.
Another way to use export/import files is to create a file containing all the settings, which are common
to all modems in your network. Some such settings are RX and TX frequencies (0:1.256 and 0:1.257),
bandwidth, airspeed, encryption keys, network ID, TUN Base Address (1:1.3212) etc. These settings
must be the same in each modem for the network to work. If you put all these settings in a single file,
you can easily import it to all modems, saving time and avoiding errors caused by inputting all the
settings by hand.
Another use related to the above is to copy some settings from one modem to another. In this case
you should carefully edit the file after exporting, removing any settings you do not wish to modify in the
target device. For example you might want to create a copy of a modem you have already configured, except for the Address and IP settings, which should remain as they are. In this case remove the
relevant rows from the file before importing it to the target modem.
Always be careful of typing errors when editing the file. If any errors appear in the file, the whole
import process fails (see next paragraph).
NMS Commands, such as Save User settings, Restore User settings and Reset should NOT be used in
an import file.
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8.5.5 Importing settings to a modem
To send an import file to the modem follow this procedure:
1.
Click the Browse… button under the NMS Import file upload heading, select
your file in the window that opens, and finally click the Send button.
2.
The file will appear under the Available import files heading. Click on the
“Use file” link to import the settings.
3.
The importing process result is shown in a text box.
4.
In case of any errors, the process stops and an error message is displayed.
The error message will tell which NMS ID caused the error. For example, an
error message such as this: “ERROR: Value set of 1.769/-1 for 0.0 failed”
means that the NMS ID with the problem was 1.769, and the subunit was 0
(the first number in 0.0 or 1.0 is the subunit). If an error happens, NO values
are saved. Fix the error and try again.
2
After an import, the Refresh button should be used, to fully synchronize the actual settings and those
displayed by the WWW GUI.
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8. Applications
8.6 Encryption
2
The Encryption Application is used to set the encryption keys of the radio protocol of the RU. See the
RU User Manual for information about encryption.
You have two choices to input encryption keys. The easiest way is to use a password, and SATELLAR
then automatically generates encryption keys from the password. Type your password in the
“Password” text field. The web page will show an indicator about how strong the password is. Then
click the Generate and save keys button. The same password will always generate the same keys.
The other way to insert encryption keys is to manually insert them. This option is for power users who
wish to generate keys themselves.
You can insert either one or both keys at the same time. The key that is left empty is not saved.
Note that as a security measure, the encryption keys or passwords in the device cannot be read back,
but you can see a CRC checksum in Modem Info->RU, which can be used to verify if modems have
the same keys inserted.
8.7 Logs
Logs are available on the WWW interface only. These can be used to debug problems. If you contact
SATEL representative with a problem report, it may be a good idea to include copies of the logs in
your report, or SATEL may request you to provide copies.
–
–
–
–
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Kernel Messages: Linux kernel messages
System Messages: Linux system messages
Service Messages: Messages of the SATELLAR Services
RU NMS Log: internal NMS traffic between the RU and the CU
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8. Applications
8.8 Administration
This application contains settings which are not usually needed and have a high possibility of rendering the modem inoperable if they are set into incorrect values.
2
To access the Administration application in the LCD GUI, select the Admin Tools icon and press Start.
This application requires a PIN code.
Figure 8.7 Admin tools / Access to Administration applications by CU: Graphical user interface (GUI/LCD)
LCD GUI default pin code
0000
To access Administration application in the WWW User Interface, you need to log out and log in using
the admin password.
WWW username
admin
WWW default password
Satel456
After login, the WWW interface has an additional “Administration” tab.
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8. Applications
The following setting categories are available in the Administration application.
8.8.1 General
2
Item
Explanation
Sub unit
NMSID
Boot Counter RU
This value indicates the number of reboots for the RU.
0
1.119
Error Report RU
The currently active error codes. If an internal error
caused the unit(s) to reboot, these values will show what
caused the error. In case of problems, please send a
screen capture of this page to SATEL technical support.
0
1.797
1
1.797
Error Report CU
ADMIN PIN Code
Allows changing the admin pin code.
1
1.3245
Web GUI Admin Password
Allows changing the WWW interface admin password.
1
1.3260
Table 8.8
Admin tools, General
Figure 8.8 Admin tools, General by CU: Graphical user interface (GUI/LCD)
8.8.2 IP
Item
Explanation
Sub unit
NMSID
TUN Base Address
This can be used to change the IP Network address of the
radio network. It must be the same in all modems of a
network. Only change this if your system already uses the
10.10.32.0/19 network. The default is 10.10.32.0/19.
1
1.3212
For more information, see chapter 6.1.2.
Table 8.9
Admin tools, IP
Figure 8.9 Admin tools, IP by CU: Graphical user interface (GUI/LCD)
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9. Type designation
9. Type designation
The label of the CU is located on the back of the CU.
2
Type: SATEL-TA14
Model: SATELLAR CU
Ser.no:
MAC:
Pb
Made by SATEL OY - www.satel.com
Made in Finland
3.
1.
RX
RX
TX
TX
RTS
RTS
CTS
CTS
TD
TD
RD
STAT
PWR
STAT
ETH
PWR
STAT
PWR
2.
RD
USB
OK
USB
ETH
STAT
OK
SA00025
PWR
Figure 9.1 Location of the labels in CU
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10. Troubleshooting
10. Troubleshooting
2 10.1 Error codes
If the MCU detects an error in operation, it indicates the error state by LEDs in the following way:
At first all the LEDs are switched on for one second. Thereafter all the LEDs are switched off for one
second and then an error code is shown for three seconds. This sequence is repeated for approximately one minute or until the MCU is restarted. In some cases the error causes the unit to restart
automatically.
Error state indication:
1s
1s
3 s (error code)
USB
USB
USB
ETH
ETH
ETH
STAT
STAT
STAT
PWR
PWR
PWR
RX
TX
RTS
CTS
TD
RD
STAT
ETH
STAT
PWR
OK
SA00009
PWR
USB
Figure 10.1 Error state and error code indicated by LEDs
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10. Troubleshooting
For displaying the error codes the four LEDs indicates a binary number, USB LED is the first (MSB) and
PWR LED the last (LSB). LED switched on means bit ‘1’. The error codes are the following:
Binary
Error code
Description
0001
1
USB over current
0010
2
USB under voltage
0011
3
Ethernet interface problem
0100…1111
4…15
Reserved for future needs
0000
0
Not used
2
USB
ETH
STAT
PWR
USB
ETH
STAT
PWR
USB
ETH
STAT
PWR
Table 10.1 Error codes
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11. SATEL open source statements
11. SATEL open source statements
2 11.1 LGPL and GPL software
This SATEL product contains open source software (OSS), licensed under LGPLv2, GPLv2, GPLv3 and
other licenses.
License details for LGPLv2.1 are available from http://www.gnu.org/licenses/lgpl-2.1.html
License details for GPLv2 are available from http://www.gnu.org/licenses/old-licenses/gpl-2.0.html
License details for GPLv3 are available from http://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl-3.0.html
ALL OPEN SOURCE SOFTWARE used in this software is distributed WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY and
is subject to copyrights of one or more respective authors. For more details, see the GPL and LGPL
license texts.
11.2 Written offer for LGPL and GPL source code
Where such specific license terms entitle you to the source code of such software, SATEL will provide
upon written request via email and/or traditional paper mail the applicable LGPL and GPL source
code files via CD-ROM for a nominal fee to cover shipping and media charges as allowed under
those respective licenses.
Contact SATEL Technical support for more details: Please visit http://www.satel.com.
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12. Settings selection guide
12. Settings selection guide
2
12.1 Modem Settings
Menu
Submenu
Value (* = default)
Network
Protocol Mode
NetID
Address (RMAC)
Protocol Mode
Radio
TX Frequency
RX Frequency
RF Output Power
Satel NG * (max 8 characters)
0001 * (1 - 4093)
Basic-RX Priority
Basic-TX Priority
Basic-Repeater
Packet Routing *
460.000000 MHz (Depends on hardware configuration)
460.000000 MHz (Depends on hardware configuration)
100 mW
200 mW
300 mW
400 mW
500 mW
600 mW
700 mW
800 mW
900 mW
1000 mW *
-114 dBm *
OFF * / ON
OFF, Half FEC, Two-thirds FEC
12.50, 25.00 kHz *
9600, 19200 *, 28800, 38400 bps
with 25kHz Channel Spacing
4800, 9600, 14400, 19200 bps
with 12.50 kHz Channel Spacing
NONE
MCU UARTS TO SATBUS *
DATA UART TO RADIO D9 RD/TD
DATA UART TO RADIO D9 RD/TD - NMS TO D9 DTR/DSR
DATA UART TO RADIO D9 RD/TD - NMS TO D9 RTS/CTS
DATA UART TO RADIO D9 RD/TD - NMS TO SATBUS
MCU UARTS TO SATBUS CAN
RS-232 (with handshaking)
RS-422, RS-485, FD-RS485 (without handshaking)
Signal Threshold
Over.the-Air Encryption
Forward Error Correction
Channel Spacing
Air Speed
Serial
Connector
Configuration
Radio Unit Port
Assignment
DTE Port Physical Communication
Mode
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12. Settings selection guide
Menu
Submenu
Value (* = default)
Data Port
Settings
Rate
Data Bits
Parity
Stop Bits
TX Delay
CRC
Handshaking CTS Line
Handshaking RTS Line
Handshaking CD Line
Pause Length
Maximum Number of Accepted
Errors
Network Topology
Retransmissions
Training Sequency Length
Back Off Counter
Name
PIN Code
Temperature Unit
UI Voltage Critical Level
UI RSSI Critical Level
UI Voltage Display Mode
UI Voltage Bar Min
UI Voltage Bar Max
PIN Code Required
USB Device Mode
Display Brightness
Web GUI Password
GUI Color Profile
LCD Timeout
SSHD State
HTTPD State
NMSBluetoothd State
NMSTcpsocketd State
NMSLoggerd State
Linklayer State
NMSGathererd Timeout
NMSLoggerd Interval
NMSLoggerd Timeout
NMSLoggerd Retries
RU Commslogd State
SNMPD State
USB Host Control
UI Power Control
1200, 2400, 4800, 9600, 19200 *, 38400, 57600 bps
7, 8 bits *
No Parity Check *, Even, Odd
1 bit *, 2 bits
0 * (0 - 65535)
OFF / ON *
Clear To Send, TX buffer state *, RSSI Treshold, Always ON
Ignored *, Flow control, Reception control
RSSI treshold *, Data on channel, Always ON
3 bytes * (3 - 255)
0 * (0 - 255)
2
Serial Data
Flow Control
Packet Mode
Radio Access
Control
General
Services
98
Point-to-point *, Repeater, Fast mode
OFF / ON *
Full * / Half
8 * (4 - 63)
SATELLAR * (1 - 30 characters)
0000 * (4 numbers: 0000-9999)
Celsius *, Fahrenheit, Kelvin
9 V * (9 - 30 V)
-110 dBm * (-100 - -118 dBm)
Numeric * / Bar
9 * (9 - 30 V)
30 * (9 - 30 V)
No * / Yes
Serial Port * / Mass Memory
255 * (0 - 255)
Satel123 * (8 characters)
Blue / Black *
2560 s * (1 - 65535 s)
OFF / ON *
OFF / ON *
OFF / ON *
OFF / ON *
OFF / ON *
OFF / ON *
5000 ms * (1000 - 65535 ms)
3000 ms * (1000 - 65535 ms)
5000 ms * (1000 - 65535 ms)
2 * (0 - 10)
OFF / ON *
OFF / ON
OFF / ON *
OFF / ON *
SATEL OY // SATELLAR MANUAL // PART II // CENTRAL UNIT // USER GUIDE // V. 1.3
12. Settings selection guide
Menu
Commands
Submenu
Restore Default Factory Settings
Radio Unit
Restore Default Factory Settings
Central Unit
Reset Radio Unit
Reset Central Unit
Reboot Central Unit
Statistical Counters Clear
Remote Devices Pre-Cache All
Settings of Device
SNMP
SNMP RO Community
SNMP RW Community
SNMP RW Community IP
SNMP Notification IP
Time Control
Time Operation Mode
NTP Server Address
NTP Interval
Time
Time Zone
Value (* = default)
Do not reset / Reset
Do not reset / Reset
2
Do not reset / Reset
Do not reset / Reset
Do not reboot / Reboot
Do not clear / Clear
OFF * / ON
public
private
0.0.0.0
192.168.1.2
No time operation *, Manual time operation, NTP time
192.168.1.1 *
100 s *
1980-02-01 00:00:00 * (format YYYY-MM-DD hh:mm:ss)
Greenwhich Mean Time *
Central European Time (GMT+1)
East European Time (GMT+2)
Moscow Time (GMT+3)
Iran Standard Time (GMT+3:30)
Iran Daylight Saving Time (GMT+4:30)
Mauritius Time (GMT+4)
Afganistan Time (GMT+4:30)
Pakistan Time (GMT+5)
Indian Standard Time (GMT+5:30)
Nepal Time(GMT+5:45)
Bhutan Time(GMT+6)
Myanmar Time (GMT+6:30)
Bangladesh Standard Time(GMT+7)
China Standard Time(GMT+8)
Apo Island Time (GMT+8:15)
Australian Central Western Standard Time (GMT+8:45)
Japan Standard Time (GMT+9)
Australian Central Standard Time(GMT+9:30)
Australian Eastern Standard Time (GMT+10)
Australian Central Daylight Time (GMT+10:30)
Vanuatu Time (GMT+11)
New Zealand Standard Time (GMT+12)
New Zealand Daylight Time (GMT+13)
Chatham Island Standard Time (GMT+12:45)
SATEL OY // SATELLAR MANUAL // PART II // CENTRAL UNIT // USER GUIDE // V. 1.3
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12. Settings selection guide
Menu
Submenu
Value (* = default)
Chatham Island Daylight Time (GMT+13:45)
Line Island Time (GMT+14)
Baker Island Time (GMT-12)
Samoa Standard Time (GMT-11)
Hawaiian Standard Time (GMT-10)
Marquesas Island Time (GMT-9:30)
Alaska Standard Time (GMT-9)
Pacific Standard Time (GMT-8)
Mountain Standard Time (GMT-7)
Central Standard Time (GMT-6)
Eastern Standard Time (GMT-5)
Venezuela Standard Time (GMT-4:30)
Atlantic Standard Time (GMT-4)
Atlantic Daylight Time (GMT-3)
Newfoundland Standard Time (GMT-3:30)
Newfoundland Daylight Time (GMT-2:30)
Brazilian Standard Time (GMT-3)
Brazilian Eastern Standard Time (GMT-2)
2
12.2 Routing
Menu
Submenu
Packet
Routing
Tables
IP
see chapter 7.3.1
IP Routes
100
Value (* = default)
IP Address (eth0)
QoS Set
DHCP State
Ethernet Speed
Automatic IP State
Ethernet Duplex
IP Queue Max Time Length
IP Queue Max Packets
IP MTU Size
Proxy ARP
IP Header Compression
see chapter 7.3.3
192.168.2.1/24 *
ignored
OFF * / ON
Auto *, 10 Mbps, 100 Mbps
OFF * / ON
Full * / Half
15000 ms * (1 - 65535 ms)
30 * (1 - 65535)
1500 Bytes
OFF * / ON
ON * / OFF
SATEL OY // SATELLAR MANUAL // PART II // CENTRAL UNIT // USER GUIDE // V. 1.3
12. Settings selection guide
12.3 Administration
Menu
Submenu
Value (* = default)
General
ADMIN PIN Code
Web GUI Admin Password
TUN Base Address
0000 * (0000 - 9999)
Satel456 * (8 characters)
10.10.32.0/19 *
IP
SATEL OY // SATELLAR MANUAL // PART II // CENTRAL UNIT // USER GUIDE // V. 1.3
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101
SATEL Oy
Meriniitynkatu 17, P.O.Box 142
FI-24101 Salo, Finland
Tel. +358 2 777 7800
[email protected]
www.satel.com
WIRELESS WORLD – LOCAL SOLUTION
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