KCjunior Users Guide - Bio-Tek
BIO-TEK
®
KC
junior
User’s Guide
User's Guide to
KCjunior
TM
October 2002
Copyright  2002
PN 5271000
Revision E
Bio-Tek Instruments, Inc.
.
Notices
BIO-TEK INSTRUMENTS, INC.
Highland Park, Box 998
Winooski, Vermont
05404-0998 USA
Customer Service & Sales:
Phone:
Fax:
E-Mail:
Internet:
(888) 451-5171 (toll free in the U.S.)
(802) 655-4040 (outside the U.S.)
(802) 655-7941
[email protected]
http://www.biotek.com
Service/Technical Assistance Center (TAC):
Phone:
Fax:
E-Mail:
(800) 242-4685 (toll free in the U.S.)
(802) 655-4740 (outside the U.S.)
(802) 655-3399
[email protected]
European Coordination Center
Bio-Tek® Instruments GmbH
Kocherwaldstr. 34
D-74177 Bad Friedrichshall
Germany
Phone:
Fax:
E-Mail:
All Rights
Reserved
+49 (0) 7136-9680
+49 (0) 7136-968-111
[email protected]
Copyright © 2002, Bio-Tek® Instruments, Incorporated. This
publication is protected by copyright and all rights are reserved. No part
of this manual may be reproduced or transmitted in any form, or by any
means electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and recording,
for any purpose other than the purchaser’s personal use without written
permission of Bio-Tek® Instruments, Inc.
Printed in the United States of America.
Bio-Tek Part Number 5271000.
Trademarks
Bio-Tek® is a registered trademark, and KCjunior™, KCJr™, and
OMNI™, are trademarks of Bio-Tek Instruments, Inc.
All other trademarks are the property of their respective holders.
Restrictions and
Liabilities
Information in this document is subject to change, and does not represent
a commitment by Bio-Tek Instruments, Inc. Changes made to the
information in this document will be incorporated in new editions of the
publication. No responsibility is assumed by Bio-Tek for the use or
reliability of software or equipment that is not supplied by Bio-Tek, or its
affiliated dealers.
Limited Software
Warranty
Bio-Tek Instruments, Inc. (“Bio-Tek”) warrants, for a period of ninety
(90) days after the date of delivery, that all software manufactured and
sold by Bio-Tek (the “Software”) will conform, as to all substantial
operational features, to Bio-Tek’s then current published specifications
(meaning those specifications in effect as of the date of purchase) and
will be free of defects which, in Bio-Tek’s sole judgment, substantially
affect system performance. This Warranty is limited to the original
purchaser (the “Purchaser”) and cannot be assigned or transferred. All
claims under this Limited Warranty must be made in writing or fax to
Bio-Tek attention: Service Department.
The Purchaser must notify Bio-Tek in writing within ninety (90) days
after the date of delivery of the Software to the Purchaser of any claim
under this Limited Warranty. This 90 day period shall not be extended by
the delivery or receipt of any subsequent modifications to the Software.
Modifications to Software within a version (“Updates”) are expressly
excluded from the terms of this Warranty. If the Software is found to be
defective by Bio-Tek, Bio-Tek’s sole obligation under this Warranty is to
use efforts consistent with Bio-Tek’s regular business practices to attempt
to remedy such defect. In no event shall Bio-Tek’s liability under this
warranty exceed the original purchase price of the Software.
This is a limited warranty. This warranty contains the entire
obligation of Bio-Tek. No other warranties, express, implied, or
statutory, are given. The implied warranties of merchantability and
of fitness for any particular purpose are expressly excluded and do
not apply to the software.
Under no circumstances shall Bio-Tek be liable to the purchaser or
any other person for any direct, incidental, or consequential
damages, whether arising out of breach of warranty or otherwise.
This warranty shall not be changed or modified in any way without
the express written permission of an officer of Bio-Tek Instruments,
Inc.
This Warranty shall be NULL AND VOID if any modifications are made
to the Software by the Purchaser. Correction of difficulties or defects
traceable to Purchaser’s errors or system changes shall be billed to
Purchaser at Bio-Tek’s standard time and materials charge.
Licensing
Agreement
LICENSE: Single Use: You have the non-exclusive right to use the
enclosed programs. These programs can only be used by a single user.
You may transfer the programs from one computer to another provided
that the programs are used with only one computer at a time. You may
not electronically transfer the programs from one computer to another.
You may not distribute copies of the programs or documentation without
the prior written consent of Bio-Tek Instruments, Inc., or as stipulated in
a sub-licensing agreement.
Network Use: You have the non-exclusive right to use the enclosed
programs. These programs can only be used on a single file server. The
number of concurrent users on the network at any time may not exceed
the number of licensed copies of this software. You may transfer the
programs from one server to another provided that the programs are used
with only one server at a time. You may not distribute copies of the
programs or documentation without the prior written consent of Bio-Tek
Instruments, Inc., or as stipulated in a sub-licensing agreement. You may
not use, copy, modify, loan, lease or transfer the programs or
documentation, or any copy except as expressly provided in this
Agreement.
COPYRIGHT: The programs and the documentation are copyrighted. You
may not copy any program or the documentation except as for loading the
program into the computer/server as part of executing that program and
for back-up purposes, respectively. You must reproduce and include the
copyright notice on the back-up copy
TERMS: This license is effective until terminated. You may terminate it
by destroying the programs and documentation and all copies thereof.
This license will also terminate if you fail to comply with any term or
condition of this Agreement. You agree upon such termination to destroy
all copies of the programs and documentation.
Document
Revision
Rev / Date
Changes
A / April, 1998
First Issue.
B / May, 1999
Updated Defining General Information to include
precision and scientific notation.
Updated System Requirements to include the
Macintosh. Enhanced requirements for operating
system and display resolution.
Updated Defining Protocols, Read Method
Parameters to include pathlength correction and
spectral scanning.
Updated Defining Protocols, Reports to include
information on the new Curve Report.
Updated Reading Plates to include collecting data
from the EL301 reader.
Added Appendix A, Sample Reports.
C / December, 1999
Added support throughout for fluorescence/
luminescence readers.
Updated Defining Protocols, Reports to discuss
enhanced Matrix Reports.
Added new sample reports to Appendix A.
D / January, 2001
Updated Installing the Software to introduce a
new method for password distribution and
software registration.
Updated Setting Up the System to introduce dualreader support and the option to pre-configure
Filter Wheel Cartridges for the FLx800.
Updated Defining Protocols to introduce new
features including: partial plate reading, well
monitoring, continuous shaking for kinetic reads,
reader calibration for spectral scan reads, filter
wheel cartridge selection, the DILution function,
and some new reporting options.
Updated Reading Plates to discuss the new
Results ID, using the reader’s barcode scanner to
retrieve the Plate ID, and selecting a filter wheel
cartridge at run-time.
Updated Interpreting Results to include selection
of the Maximum Slope Unit of Measure.
Added new sample reports to Appendix A.
E / October, 2002
Updated Installing the Software with the correct
website address for software registration.
Updated Setting Up the System to include filter
position requirements for Dispense / Read
protocols.
Updated Defining Protocols to introduce new
Read Mode selections, as well as the new
Dispense / Read method type for the FLx800.
Updated Interpreting Results to describe
Dispense / Read results.
Updated Utilities to describe the new Dispenser
Control Panel feature for the FLx800.
Contents
Introduction
1-1
KCjunior................................................................................................................................. 1-1
Technical Support .................................................................................................................. 1-3
Visiting Bio-Tek’s Website...................................................................................... 1-4
Installing the Software
2-1
Read Me!................................................................................................................................ 2-1
System Requirements ............................................................................................................. 2-2
Removing an Earlier Version of KCjunior ............................................................................. 2-3
To remove KCjunior:............................................................................................... 2-3
Software Installation............................................................................................................... 2-5
To Install KCjunior:................................................................................................. 2-5
To Start KCjunior: ................................................................................................. 2-12
Where to go from here ......................................................................................................... 2-15
Password Distribution and Software Registration ................................................................ 2-16
Obtaining a password and registering the software online ..................................... 2-17
Obtaining a password if you do not have Internet access....................................... 2-17
Registering the software if you do not have Internet access................................... 2-17
Getting Started
3-1
KCjunior’s Menu Structure .................................................................................................... 3-1
Toolbar..................................................................................................................... 3-2
Results Menu ........................................................................................................... 3-3
Protocol Menu.......................................................................................................... 3-4
Utilities Menu .......................................................................................................... 3-5
Setup Menu .............................................................................................................. 3-6
Current Reader Menu............................................................................................... 3-6
View Menu............................................................................................................... 3-7
Help Menu ............................................................................................................... 3-7
Essential Information ............................................................................................................. 3-9
Protocol Definition................................................................................................... 3-9
Plate Data Acquisition ............................................................................................. 3-9
Data Reduction and Analysis ................................................................................. 3-10
Quick Start ........................................................................................................................... 3-11
Guided Tour ......................................................................................................................... 3-12
User's Guide to KCjunior
Contents • i
Setting Up the System
4-1
Reader Support....................................................................................................................... 4-1
Dual-Reader Support................................................................................................ 4-1
Connecting the Reader to the Computer................................................................................. 4-2
Reader Setup .......................................................................................................................... 4-3
System Configuration ............................................................................................................. 4-5
Well Identifiers ........................................................................................................ 4-5
Reporting Options .................................................................................................... 4-7
General Default Information .................................................................................... 4-8
Pathnames ................................................................................................................ 4-9
Filter Wheel Cartridges .......................................................................................... 4-11
Defining Protocols
5-1
Overview ................................................................................................................................ 5-1
Working with Protocols.......................................................................................................... 5-2
Where are Protocols Stored?.................................................................................... 5-2
Opening an Existing Protocol .................................................................................. 5-2
Creating a New Protocol .......................................................................................... 5-3
Modifying Protocols................................................................................................. 5-4
Saving and Closing Protocols .................................................................................. 5-4
Copying Protocols.................................................................................................... 5-5
Sharing Protocols and Databases ............................................................................. 5-5
Importing Protocols.................................................................................................. 5-6
Defining Protocol Parameters................................................................................................. 5-8
Defining General Information .................................................................................. 5-8
Read Method Parameters ....................................................................................... 5-10
Templates............................................................................................................... 5-38
Curves .................................................................................................................... 5-55
Cutoffs.................................................................................................................... 5-58
Reports ................................................................................................................... 5-61
Reading Plates
6-1
Overview ................................................................................................................................ 6-1
Working With Plates and Results ........................................................................................... 6-2
Where is Plate Data Stored?..................................................................................... 6-2
Opening an Existing Results Record ........................................................................ 6-2
Generating a New Set of Plate Data ......................................................................... 6-3
Saving and Closing Results Records ........................................................................ 6-4
Copying an Existing Results Record ........................................................................ 6-4
Sharing Results Records and Databases................................................................... 6-5
Importing Results ..................................................................................................... 6-6
ii • Contents
User's Guide to KCjunior
Reading a Plate....................................................................................................................... 6-7
Reading a Plate Without a Protocol ......................................................................... 6-7
Reading a Plate With a Protocol ............................................................................ 6-10
Simulating a Plate Read ......................................................................................... 6-12
Reading Plate Data from a File .............................................................................. 6-13
Collecting Data from an EL301 Microstrip Reader ............................................... 6-14
Reader Runtime Errors........................................................................................... 6-16
Comments/Warnings.............................................................................................. 6-16
Selecting a Filter Wheel Cartridge ......................................................................... 6-17
Exporting Data ....................................................................................................... 6-18
Viewing Results ................................................................................................................... 6-24
Interpreting Results
7-1
Overview ................................................................................................................................ 7-1
Well Notations ....................................................................................................................... 7-2
Raw Data................................................................................................................................ 7-4
Raw Endpoint Read Data ......................................................................................... 7-4
Raw and Blanked Kinetic Read Data ....................................................................... 7-5
Raw and Blanked Spectral Data............................................................................... 7-9
Raw MultiWavelength Read Data.......................................................................... 7-13
Raw Dispense / Read Data..................................................................................... 7-14
Blanked Data........................................................................................................................ 7-16
Blanked Endpoint Read Data................................................................................. 7-16
Blanked MultiWavelength Data............................................................................. 7-17
Pathlength Correction........................................................................................................... 7-17
Transformation Results ........................................................................................................ 7-19
Concentrations...................................................................................................................... 7-20
The Standard Curve ............................................................................................... 7-21
Titer Curves ........................................................................................................... 7-22
Interacting with the Graph...................................................................................... 7-24
Printing and Copying the Graph............................................................................. 7-25
Editing the Standard Curve .................................................................................... 7-25
Storing the Standard Curve .................................................................................... 7-26
Labels ................................................................................................................................... 7-27
Template............................................................................................................................... 7-28
Plate Formula Results........................................................................................................... 7-29
Statistics ............................................................................................................................... 7-30
Auto Sensitivity Results ....................................................................................................... 7-32
Automatic Sensitivity Adjustment Process ............................................................ 7-33
Results Options .................................................................................................................... 7-34
Plate Information ................................................................................................... 7-34
Well Information.................................................................................................... 7-36
Masking Wells ....................................................................................................... 7-37
Modifying Simulation Data.................................................................................... 7-38
User's Guide to KCjunior
Contents • iii
Printing Reports
8-1
Reports ................................................................................................................................... 8-1
Print Preview............................................................................................................ 8-1
Print Results ............................................................................................................. 8-2
Print Setup................................................................................................................ 8-3
Utilities
9-1
Overview ................................................................................................................................ 9-1
Incubation Control.................................................................................................................. 9-2
Carrier Out/In ......................................................................................................................... 9-4
Dispenser Control Panel ......................................................................................................... 9-5
Initializing the Dispenser ......................................................................................... 9-5
Priming the Fluid Lines............................................................................................ 9-6
Purging the Fluid Lines ............................................................................................ 9-6
Setting the Injector Position ..................................................................................... 9-6
Syringe Setup ........................................................................................................... 9-7
Diagnostics ............................................................................................................................. 9-8
Reader System Test.................................................................................................. 9-8
Universal Plate Test ............................................................................................... 9-10
Database Maintenance.......................................................................................................... 9-14
A Note on Backup Procedures ............................................................................... 9-14
Creating Archive Databases ................................................................................... 9-15
Archiving Results Records and Protocols .............................................................. 9-15
Archiving Stored Curves ........................................................................................ 9-17
Archiving Test Results ........................................................................................... 9-18
Deleting Results Records and Protocols ................................................................ 9-19
Deleting Stored Curves .......................................................................................... 9-20
Deleting Stored Transformations ........................................................................... 9-21
Deleting Test Results ............................................................................................. 9-22
Troubleshooting
10-1
Overview .............................................................................................................................. 10-1
Reader Errors ....................................................................................................................... 10-2
Communication Errors ......................................................................................................... 10-2
Comments and Warnings...................................................................................................... 10-4
Appendix A, Sample Reports
11-1
Glossary
12-1
Index
13-1
iv • Contents
User's Guide to KCjunior
Introduction
KCjunior
KCjunior interacts with and performs data analysis for select microplate
readers. With KCjunior you can:
User's Guide to KCjunior
•
Configure the software to communicate with two Bio-Tek
readers, and switch easily between them.
•
Retrieve optical density, fluorescence, or luminescence data
from a wide variety of Bio-Tek’s microplate readers.
•
Perform Endpoint, Kinetic, MultiWavelength, and Spectral Scan
reads, as well as Dispense/Read sequences. MultiWavelength,
Spectral Scan, and Dispense/Read capabilities are readerdependent.
•
Perform Fluorescence and Luminescence reads with Bio-Tek’s
FLx800.
•
Create protocols that contain instructions for the operation of the
attached microplate reader, and for analyzing data retrieved
from the reader.
•
Display, print, export, save, and archive results.
•
Export plate data to a file, or directly to a Microsoft Excel
spreadsheet.
•
Share protocol and results databases among multiple KCjunior
users.
•
Define two levels of formulas to manipulate raw or blanked
data.
•
Collect data from Bio-Tek’s automated microplate readers in the
standard 8x12 format, as well as in 2x3, 3x4, 4x6, 6x8, 6x10(T),
6x12(T), 8x12(T), 8x12(H), 8x12(M), and 16x24 formats
(reader-dependent).
•
Correct the wells on a microplate by a constant value to
effectively eliminate background absorbance.
Introduction • 1-1
1-2 • Introduction
•
Normalize absorbances to 1 cm by using the Pathlength
Correction feature.
•
Calculate the mean, standard deviation, and coefficient
of variation of any group of wells on the plate.
•
Generate a linear, quadratic, cubic, point-to-point, 2P, 4P,
or cubic-spline standard curve.
•
Calculate concentrations based on the curve generated using
the present standards, or on a previously stored curve.
•
Generate a curve using the sample dilutions as standards.
•
Extend the abscissa range of a standard curve-fitting routine
beyond the limits of the standard data points generated by the
assay (“extrapolation”).
•
Edit standard outliers and recalculate the curve.
•
Run a Universal Plate Test on most readers and then view, print,
and save the test results.
•
Run a System Test on most readers and then view, print, and
save the test results.
•
Test communication between KCjunior and the reader before
attempting to read a plate.
•
Set default communication parameters appropriate for the
attached reader.
•
Control plate incubation (reader-dependent).
User's Guide to KCjunior
Technical Support
If KCjunior fails to function successfully, try to solve the problem(s) with
the assistance of the Reader Run-Time Errors, Comments and
Warnings, and Troubleshooting sections of the User’s Guide or the
Help system.
If the software still does not function successfully:
User's Guide to KCjunior
1.
Select Help|About KCjunior from the KCjunior main screen.
A dialog resembling the following appears:
2.
Write down all of the version numbers and the serial number
(“123456” in the example above).
3.
Click the Reader Control Version button. A dialog resembling
the following appears:
4.
Write down the BTI Autoreader Control version.
5.
Prepare a list of specific steps that can be used by Bio-Tek’s
Technical Assistance Center (TAC) to reproduce the problem.
Introduction • 1-3
6.
Contact Bio-Tek Instruments. Be sure to provide a daytime
phone or fax number, or email address where you can be
reached.
Written Communication
Bio-Tek Instruments, Inc.
Technical Assistance Center
Highland Park, Box 998
Winooski, Vermont USA 05404-0998
Phone Support
Bio-Tek Instruments’ Main Number:
(802) 655-4040
Technical Assistance Center,
8:30 am to 5:30 pm EST:
(800) 242-4685
Fax Support
Technical Assistance Center:
(802) 655-3399
Electronic Communication
Email:
[email protected]
Internet Site:
www.biotek.com
Visiting Bio-Tek’s Website
www.biotek.com
If you have an Internet browser installed on your computer, you can visit
Bio-Tek’s World Wide Website, at www.biotek.com. Here you can find
information on hardware and software products, read application notes,
and more.
To visit the site from within KCjunior, select Help|Bio-Tek on the Web,
then click on Bio-Tek Home Page. KCjunior automatically loads your
browser and goes directly to the site.
1-4 • Introduction
User's Guide to KCjunior
Installing the Software
Read Me!
Complete the following to get KCjunior up and running:
1.
Ensure that the computer on which KCjunior will be installed meets
the minimum system requirements.
2.
Remove the previous version of KCjunior from your computer,
if one exists.
3.
Install KCjunior.
4.
Contact Bio-Tek to obtain a password to ensure continuous use of
the software after the 30-day trial period.
5.
Register your copy of KCjunior with Bio-Tek to record your
warranty, and to receive information on upgrades and new products.
6.
Connect your microplate reader(s) to the computer.
7.
Configure the reader(s) and KCjunior so that they can communicate
with each other.
Installing the Software covers steps 1 through 5.
See Chapter 4, Setting Up the System for information on connecting a
reader to the computer, and configuring the reader and KCjunior.
User's Guide to KCjunior
Installing the Software • 2-1
System Requirements
For KCjunior to run successfully, you will need the following:
•
Intel 486 processor / 33 MHz minimum (Pentium / 66 MHz or
greater is recommended)
•
Microsoft Windows 95, 98, 2000, NT, or XP operating system
•
8 MB of RAM minimum (16 MB or more is recommended)
•
20 MB of available hard drive space for the program files
•
1 MB for every set of 250 plates (96-well geometry) stored on
the hard drive
•
3 1/2" high density diskette drive (1.44 MB) or CD ROM drive
•
16 color display / 640x480 (800x600 recommended)
•
Keyboard, mouse, and serial ports
Important!
•
KCjunior is capable of running any protocol on a computer meeting
the minimum requirements if KCjunior is the only executing
software.
If additional software including user programs, browsers, network
connections, scanning software and/or utilities is processing
concurrently with KCjunior, overall performance may be affected.
2-2 • Installing the Software
User's Guide to KCjunior
Removing an Earlier Version of KCjunior
If you have an earlier version of KCjunior installed on your computer,
you should remove it before installing the new version. For optimal
performance, only one version of KCjunior should reside on your
computer at any one time.
Note: This process does NOT remove existing protocol or results
databases from your computer.
To remove KCjunior:
For optimal performance,
only one version of
KCjunior should reside
on your computer at any
one time.
1.
Start Windows.
•
Note: If you are prompted with the Windows password entry,
enter a valid password. If you are not prompted with the
Windows password entry, disregard this note.
2.
Click the Windows Start button, then select Settings, Control
Panel.
User's Guide to KCjunior
Installing the Software • 2-3
3.
When the Control Panel folder opens, double-click on the
Add/Remove Programs icon.
4.
When the Add/Remove Programs Properties dialog opens, highlight
KCjunior, then click Add/Remove.
5.
Follow the instructions on the screen to complete the uninstall
process.
The uninstall process leaves
your protocol and results
databases in their original
location(s) on your
computer.
2-4 • Installing the Software
User's Guide to KCjunior
Software Installation
To Install KCjunior:
1.
Start Windows.
•
Note: If you are prompted with the Windows password entry,
enter a valid password. This helps to ensure a complete
installation. If you are not prompted with the Windows
password entry, disregard this note.
2.
Close any unnecessary Windows programs.
3.
Place Disk 1 in a 3.5" diskette drive or the CD in the CD rom drive.
4.
Click the Windows Start button and select Run.
5.
When the Run dialog box appears, type <drive>:\setup.exe,
where <drive> represents the letter corresponding to the diskette
drive or CD rom drive.
•
User's Guide to KCjunior
Alternatively, use the Browse function to access the drive, then
click on setup.exe.
6.
Click OK. After a brief pause, the Welcome dialog appears:
7.
If you accept these terms, click Next. Otherwise click Cancel to
discontinue the software installation.
Installing the Software • 2-5
•
8.
9.
If you click Next, the following question appears:
If you were prompted for and entered a Windows password, or if you
were not prompted for this password, click Yes.
•
If you were prompted for a Windows password but did not enter
one, click No and go back to Step 1.
•
If you click Yes, the following warning may appear:
Click Yes to continue with the installation, or No to cancel.
•
If you click Yes, the Software License Agreement appears:
10. Click Yes if you accept the terms. Otherwise, click No to
discontinue the installation.
2-6 • Installing the Software
User's Guide to KCjunior
•
If you click Yes, the Registration dialog appears:
If you are running KCjunior
in trial mode and do not
have a serial number, enter
any number in the Serial
Number field.
11. Enter your name, company name, and the KCjunior serial number,
then click Next.
•
The Registration Verification dialog appears:
12. Click Yes to confirm and continue, or click No to make any changes.
User's Guide to KCjunior
Installing the Software • 2-7
•
The Choose Destination Location dialog appears:
13. The default location for the software is C:\KCjunior. Click Next to
accept the default location, or click Browse to specify a different
location.
•
If you click Next, an informational dialog appears:
14. Click OK to acknowledge the information.
2-8 • Installing the Software
User's Guide to KCjunior
•
The Choose Protocol Database Location dialog appears:
A protocol contains
instructions for controlling
an attached microplate
reader and information for
analyzing plate data.
Protocols are stored in the
Protocol Database. This
database is typically stored
on a computer's hard drive,
or on a network to which
the computer is attached.
15. The default Protocol Database Location is the \Database directory
within the KCjunior directory that you specified in step 13.
•
Click Next to accept the default location, or click Browse to
specify a different location. Note: This location can be changed
later from within KCjunior.
•
If a protocol database named PROTOCOL.MDB already exists
in this location, the database is renamed and an empty
PROTOCOL.MDB is installed.
¾Click Yes to rename the existing protocol database and
continue. Click No to return to the Choose Protocol
Database Location dialog.
User's Guide to KCjunior
Installing the Software • 2-9
•
After the protocol database location has been selected, another
informational dialog appears:
16. Click OK to acknowledge the information.
•
The Choose Results Database Location dialog appears:
Data for each plate is
stored in a Results Record
in the Results Database.
This database is typically
stored on a computer's hard
drive, or on a network to
which the computer is
attached.
17. The default Results Database Location is the \Database directory
within the KCjunior directory that you specified in step 13.
2-10 • Installing the Software
•
Click Next to accept the default location, or click Browse to
specify a different location. Note: This location can be changed
later from within KCjunior.
•
If a results database named RESULTS.MDB already exists in
this location, the database is renamed and an empty
RESULTS.MDB is installed.
User's Guide to KCjunior
•
After the results database location is selected, the software
installation begins.
18. Toward the end of the installation, the Select Groups dialog
appears:
19. Click Next to accept the default program folder name, or type in
a new one.
20. When Setup is complete, KCjunior instructs you to restart your
computer.
•
KCjunior will automatically restart your computer
(recommended), or you can choose to wait and restart
it yourself.
Choose an option, then click Finish. KCjunior is now installed
on your computer.
User's Guide to KCjunior
Installing the Software • 2-11
To Start KCjunior:
1.
From the Windows Start menu, access the Programs menu, then the
KCjunior menu. Click on KCjunior.
2.
If you have not yet entered your KCjunior password, the
Registration Form dialog appears:
To create a KCjunior
shortcut icon for your
Desktop:
¾ Open Windows Explorer.
Make the window small so
you can see the Desktop in
the background.
¾ In the KCjunior folder,
click and hold the right
mouse button on
KCJrWin.exe. Drag the
item onto the Desktop and
release the mouse button.
¾ Select Create
Shortcut(s) Here.
You have 30 days from the
date of installation to use
KCjunior without a
password
You have 30 days from the date of installation to use KCjunior
without a password. See Password Distribution and Software
Registration on page 2-16 for more information.
2-12 • Installing the Software
User's Guide to KCjunior
3.
Click Run KCjunior in Trial Mode if you have not yet obtained a
password.
The KCjunior product information dialog appears:
4.
Click OK to continue.
An initialization message appears, then after a few moments the
KCjunior main screen appears:
User's Guide to KCjunior
Installing the Software • 2-13
5.
The Reader Setup dialog automatically appears the first time
KCjunior is started following software installation:
The reader does not need to
be connected to the
computer to specify a
Reader Type.
If this dialog appears, select a Reader Type.
Select the reader type
“PowerWaveX” for
any PowerWaveX reader
model other than the
PowerWave XS.
•
The Reader Type represents the name of the reader to be
controlled by KCjunior.
•
Click
to drop down the list, then click on the desired reader.
Important notes:
¾Select the appropriate Reader Type before defining
protocols, even if the reader is not actually connected to
the computer.
¾Choose carefully -- it is important to select the correct
model. For example, be sure to select “ELx808I, EL808I”
for an 808 with the incubation option.
¾Select “PowerwaveX” for any PowerWaveX model other
than the PowerWave XS. Do not select “PowerWave340”
or “PowerWave340I” for a PowerWaveX 340 instrument.
¾KCjunior can be configured to communicate with any two
Bio-Tek readers, if the computer has two serial ports. See
“Reader Support” in Setting Up the System for more
information.
•
Click OK to continue.
If necessary, KCjunior will provide instructions for setting
additional communication parameters. See “Reader Setup” in
Setting Up the System for more information.
2-14 • Installing the Software
User's Guide to KCjunior
Where to go from here
•
See Password Distribution and Software Registration on page
2-16 to find out how to ensure continuous use of KCjunior after the
30-day trial period and how to register your software with Bio-Tek
Instruments.
•
Review the next section, Getting Started, to:
¾Learn about KCjunior’s menu structure, and how to navigate
around the Help system.
¾Review essential information – what you should know before
using KCjunior.
¾Get started with the Quick Start.
¾Take a guided tour to learn how to create protocols, read plates,
interpret results, and more.
•
Examine sample protocols and results records, and read the
corresponding assay descriptions:
¾From the KCjunior main screen, select Help|Help Topics.
¾Double-click on Sample Protocols and Results Records, then
double-click again on KCjunior Samples.
¾The KCjunior Samples help will appear; follow the directions
provided.
User's Guide to KCjunior
Installing the Software • 2-15
Password Distribution and Software Registration
You have 30 days from the date of installation to use KCjunior without a
password. After 30 days, KCjunior will require you to enter a unique
password in order to use the software. This password can only be
obtained from Bio-Tek Instruments, Inc.
If you are connected to the Internet, you can get your password online
and register your copy of KCjunior at the same time. Registering your
software with Bio-Tek records your warranty and ensures that you will
receive information on upgrades and new products.
Before you contact Bio-Tek, record the System ID from KCjunior’s
opening screen.
The System ID is an identifier that is unique to your computer. Bio-Tek
will create a password for you based on this number.
When you receive your password, enter it in the Password field shown
above then click OK.
2-16 • Installing the Software
•
This password only needs to be entered once. KCjunior will not
ask you for it again.
•
If you need to reinstall KCjunior on the same computer, this
password will still be valid.
•
This password will only work with your computer. Contact BioTek with any questions.
User's Guide to KCjunior
Obtaining a password and registering the
software online
If KCjunior and your Internet browser are on the same computer, launch
KCjunior and select Help|Bio-Tek on the Web, Register KCjunior / Get
Password.
KCjunior will launch your browser and go directly to Bio-Tek’s website.
A Password Distribution / Software Registration form will appear.
Follow the directions to fill out and submit the form.
If your computer is not connected to the Internet, enter this address into
your browser: http://www.biotek.com/labcore.htm. Click the Software
Registration link to access the form.
Obtaining a password if you do not have
Internet access
Call, fax, or email Bio-Tek’s Customer Service department. Tell
them you wish to obtain a password for KCjunior, and give them
your System ID.
(888) 451-5171
To call from anywhere within the United States, except from Vermont.
(802) 655-4040
To call from outside the United States, or from within Vermont.
(802)655-7941
To fax from anywhere.
[email protected]
Email address.
Registering the software if you do not have
Internet access
Be sure to register your copy of KCjunior with Bio-Tek to record your
warranty, and to receive information on upgrades and new products. If
you cannot register online, you can do so by filling out and mailing the
postage-paid registration card attached to the Customer Assurance Plan
included in your software package.
User's Guide to KCjunior
Installing the Software • 2-17
2-18 • Installing the Software
User's Guide to KCjunior
Getting Started
KCjunior’s Menu Structure
KCjunior’s functions are controlled through the main screen, shown
below:
User's Guide to KCjunior
Getting Started • 3-1
Toolbar
Use the icons on the left side of KCjunior’s toolbar when working with
results records:
•
A results record contains the raw data retrieved from the
microplate reader and related information such as Results ID,
Plate ID, plate read time, status, and temperature.
•
Click
•
Click
to read a new plate.
•
Click
to save the current results record.
•
Click
to close the current results record.
to open a list of existing results records.
Use the icons on the right side of the toolbar when working with
protocols:
3-2 • Getting Started
•
A protocol contains instructions for operating the attached
reader and for performing data reduction on the raw data
retrieved from the reader.
•
Click
•
Click
to modify the open protocol.
•
Click
to create a new protocol.
•
Click
to save the current protocol.
•
Click
to close the current protocol.
to open a list of existing protocols.
User's Guide to KCjunior
Results Menu
The Results Menu contains functions for acquiring and processing
microplate data.
User's Guide to KCjunior
Read New Plate
Read a new plate.
Open Results
Open an existing results record.
Close Results
Close the open results record. If the record has not
yet been saved, KCjunior provides the option to
save before closing.
Plate
Information
Open a dialog containing information about the
plate, such as ID, description, status, and creation
date and time.
Save Results
Save the results record.
Save As
Save the open results record under a new
Results ID.
Import Results
Import results records from a stored Results
Database into the one currently in use.
Export Data
Export plate data to a text file or directly into a
Microsoft Excel spreadsheet.
Print Results
Print results according to reporting options
specified in the Protocol.
Print Preview
See what the reports look like on the screen before
printing.
Getting Started • 3-3
Print Setup
Change the printer, paper size or source, or page
orientation.
Exit
Close KCjunior. If a results record is open and
unsaved, KCjunior provides the option to save
before exiting.
Protocol Menu
The Protocol Menu contains functions for creating, modifying, saving,
and importing assay protocols.
3-4 • Getting Started
New Protocol
Create a new protocol.
Open Protocol
Open an existing protocol.
Close Protocol
Close the open protocol. If the protocol has not yet
been saved, KCjunior provides the option to save
before closing.
Modify Protocol
Modify the current open protocol.
Save Protocol
Save the open protocol.
Save As
Copy the current open protocol to a new protocol
with a different name.
Import
Protocols
Import protocols from a stored Protocol Database
into the one currently in use.
User's Guide to KCjunior
Utilities Menu
The Utilities Menu contains special tasks, including reader diagnostics
and database maintenance.
User's Guide to KCjunior
Incubation
Control
If the attached reader supports incubation, turn the
incubator on/off, and set an incubation duration.
Carrier Out/In
Open / close door or extend / retract carrier.
Dispenser
Control Panel
Perform setup, prime, and purge tasks specific to
the FLx800 with the fluid injection capability.
Diagnostics
Perform system and alignment/accuracy tests on the
attached reader (reader-dependent).
Database
Maintenance
Create Results and Protocol Databases for
archiving. Archive or delete results, protocols,
stored curves and reader test results.
Getting Started • 3-5
Setup Menu
The Setup Menu provides access to the reader setup and system
configuration features.
Reader 1 or 2
Define communication settings for the reader(s)
attached to the computer.
Configuration
Define various default configuration parameters,
including Well IDs, Reporting Options, Pathnames,
and Filter Wheel Cartridges.
Current Reader Menu
If two readers are connected to the computer, use the Current Reader
Menu to switch between them before working with protocols or reading
plates.
3-6 • Getting Started
(Reader 1)
Designate the first reader as the Current Reader.
(Reader 2)
Designate the second reader as the Current Reader.
Select Filter
Wheel
Cartridges
This option is only available if a fluorescence/
luminescence reader (like the FLx800) is defined
as Reader 1 or Reader 2. Use it to choose from a
predefined set of filter wheel cartridges.
Get Current
Reader Status
Retrieve the current status of the attached reader.
For example, if the reader encounters an error,
select Get Current Reader Status to retrieve the
error code.
User's Guide to KCjunior
View Menu
The View Menu provides options for controlling the amount of
information displayed within the main screen.
Toolbar
Show or hide the toolbar at the top of the screen.
The default is show.
Status Bar
Show or hide the status bar at the bottom of the
screen. The default is show.
Help Menu
The Help Menu provides access to KCjunior’s help system and to
Bio-Tek’s internet site.
User's Guide to KCjunior
Help Topics
Access KCjunior’s help system (Contents, Index,
and Find).
Bio-Tek on the
Web
Go to Bio-Tek’s home page or register the software
and get your password online.
About KCjunior
Retrieve software version information. This is
useful if contacting Bio-Tek for support.
Getting Started • 3-7
Navigating the Help System
Most KCjunior dialogs contain a Help button that, when clicked, opens
an informational Help dialog.
In addition to this context-sensitive help, KCjunior provides access to the
entire Help system. From the main screen, select Help|Help Topics:
3-8 • Getting Started
•
Double-click on a book
to see a topic’s sub-topics.
•
Double-click on a page
to view the text for a topic.
•
Highlight a topic then click Open to view the text for the topic.
•
Click the Index tab to perform a keyword search.
•
Click the Find tab to search the entire help system for a specific
word or phrase.
•
Click Print to print the text for a topic.
•
Click Cancel to close the Help Topics dialog and return to
KCjunior.
User's Guide to KCjunior
Essential Information
KCjunior allows you to define instructions for acquiring microplate data
and for reducing and analyzing that data.
Protocol Definition
The minimum required instructions for plate data acquisition are the read
method parameters. These parameters can be combined with more
detailed data reduction instructions within a protocol. In addition to
storing read method parameters, a protocol stores templates, curve-fitting
parameters, cutoff criteria, and reporting options.
While a fully defined protocol is useful for controlling a microplate
reader and for performing data analysis, it is not a requirement that a
protocol be defined prior to plate reading. KCjunior can perform fast
reads using just the basic, user-defined read method parameters.
Plate Data Acquisition
KCjunior provides three methods for acquiring plate data: retrieve
results from a microplate reader, read data in from an existing file, or
manually enter simulation data.
Refer to the following sections under Reading a Plate starting on page
6-7 for more information:
User's Guide to KCjunior
•
“Reading a Plate Without a Protocol”
•
“Reading a Plate With a Protocol”
•
“Reading Plate Data from a File”
•
“Simulating a Plate Read”
•
“Collecting Data from an EL301 Microstrip Reader”
Getting Started • 3-9
Data Reduction and Analysis
After data reduction is performed on microplate data, results are
displayed in the Raw Data format.
Depending on the protocol definition, Blanked Data, Pathlength
Correction, Transformation Results, Concentrations, Cutoffs,
Template, and/or Plate Formula Results may also be displayed:
Results calculation is structured as follows:
Raw Data
Blanked Data
Pathlength Correction
Transformation Results
Plate Formula Results
Concentrations
Cutoffs
3-10 • Getting Started
•
The basis for calculations begins with the Raw Data.
•
If blank subtraction is performed on the Raw Data, Blanked
Data becomes the basis for calculating Transformation Results,
Plate Formula Results, Concentrations, and Cutoffs.
•
If Pathlength Correction is enabled to normalize absorbances
to 1 cm (MultiWavelength reads only), the corrected
absorbances become the basis for calculating Transformation
Results, Plate Formula Results, Concentrations, and Cutoffs.
User's Guide to KCjunior
•
If Transformation Formulas are applied, Transformation
Results become the basis for calculating Concentrations and
Cutoffs.
•
If Concentrations are calculated, they become the basis for
Cutoffs evaluation.
•
Notes:
¾For Kinetic protocols, the Maximum Slope is the basis for
calculating transformations, for curve calculation (if there
are no transformations), and for cutoff evaluation (if there
are no transformations or concentrations).
¾For Dispense/Read protocols (FLx800), Raw Data is the
only result. KCjunior does not support blank well
subtraction, pathlength correction, transformations, curvefitting, or cutoffs for this read method type.
Quick Start
When using KCjunior, you will typically follow some version of the steps
shown below:
1.
Start KCjunior.
2.
Connect a microplate reader to the computer.
3.
Select Setup|Reader to define reader setup parameters.
4.
Select Setup|Configuration to set default system parameters.
5.
Select Protocol|New Protocol to create a new protocol, or
Protocol|Open Protocol to open an existing one.
¾Define read method parameters, including read method
type, wavelengths, and plate geometry.
¾Create a Well ID template.
¾Define Curve parameters and Cutoff criteria (if required).
¾Define Reporting options.
6.
Select Plate|Read Plate to read a microplate.
7.
Review results.
8.
Select Plate|Print Results to print reports.
9.
Select Plate|Save Results to save the information.
10. Select Utilities|Database Maintenance to archive protocol and
plate data.
User's Guide to KCjunior
Getting Started • 3-11
Guided Tour
Welcome to the Guided Tour to KCjunior. This tour takes approximately
20 minutes, and shows you how to do the following:
•
Prepare the microplate reader.
•
Define and test communication parameters.
•
Create a simple quantitative protocol.
•
Design Well ID, Dilution, Transformation, and Sample ID
templates.
Let KCjunior's Help system
guide you on the tour.
•
Define curve-fitting parameters.
•
Define cutoff criteria.
•
Select reports.
•
Read a plate.
•
Interpret results.
•
Print reports and store results.
Refer to the User’s Guide when taking the tour, or let the KCjunior Help
system guide you. To access the guided tour in the help system:
1.
Start KCjunior.
2.
Select Help|Help Topics from the main screen.
3.
Double-click on
Getting Started.
4.
Double-click on
Guided Tour.
5.
Double-click on
Guided Tour, then follow the directions.
If the Help window is in your way, you can move and resize it
as you take the tour. It will stay “on top” of KCjunior.
Prepare the Reader
Refer to the reader’s user manual for assistance if necessary.
1.
Connect the reader to the computer and turn it on.
2.
Through the reader's front panel, find the Baud Rate, Data Bits,
Stop Bits, and Parity information.
3.
Note the current settings for each parameter. Make the
following changes if necessary:
¾If the Baud Rate is currently set to 1200 bps, change it to at
least 2400 bps.
¾If Data Bits is currently set to 7, change it to 8.
3-12 • Getting Started
4.
Return the reader front panel display to the main menu.
5.
Perform a reader system test if any changes were made.
User's Guide to KCjunior
Define and Test
Communication Parameters
It is important to set and test communication parameters before
attempting to read a microplate.
1.
Start KCjunior, if it is not already loaded.
2.
In KCjunior, select Setup|Reader.
3.
Select the appropriate Reader Type.
4.
Select the appropriate Com Port setting.
5.
Enter Baud Rate, Data Bits, Parity, and Stop Bits values to
match those on the reader.
6.
Click the Test Communications button.
7.
If the test fails, follow the directions provided by KCjunior, then
click Test Communications again.
8.
If the test passes, click OK to save the settings and close the
dialog.
Create a Protocol
A protocol contains instructions for controlling the reader and for
analyzing data retrieved from the reader.
1.
Click the New Protocol button in the main screen.
2.
Enter a Protocol Name using up to 16 alphanumeric characters.
3.
Set the Raw Data Limits Minimum and Maximum Values to
-3.000 and 3.000, respectively.
4.
Set the Blank Limits Minimum and Maximum Values to -1.000
and 1.000, respectively.
5.
Leave all other parameters set to their default values.
6.
Click the Read Method tab.
Define Read Method Parameters
The configuration of the Read Method parameters controls plate reading.
User's Guide to KCjunior
1.
Click the Get Reader Wavelengths button to retrieve
wavelength settings from the reader.
2.
Select a Read Method of Endpoint.
3.
Select any Primary Wavelength.
4.
Leave all other parameters set to their default values.
5.
Click the Template tab.
Getting Started • 3-13
Design Templates
In each KCjunior protocol, four unique Templates can be designed to
indicate location and related information for well and sample identifiers,
dilution values, and transformations.
Well IDs
1.
Select “Blank” from the Well Type Selections list, then click on
wells A1 and A2. Leave Blank Method set to Full.
2.
Select “Standard” from the Well Type Selections list.
3.
Set Replicates/Direction to 2 and Across, respectively.
4.
Click and hold the cursor on well B1. Drag the cursor to well
H2 and release. Seven groups of Standards should be assigned
in duplicate.
5.
Select “Sample” from the Well Type Selections list.
6.
Set Replicates/Direction to 4 and Down, respectively.
7.
Set Map Direction to Across.
8.
Click and hold the cursor on well A3. Drag the cursor to well
H12 and release. Twenty groups of Samples should be assigned
in quadruplicate.
The Well ID Template should look like this:
¾Clear any mistakes by selecting <Clear> from Well Type
Selections and highlighting the well(s) that need to be
changed.
9.
3-14 • Getting Started
Click the Concentrations button.
User's Guide to KCjunior
Concentrations
Concentrations can be assigned from within either the Well ID template
or the Curve dialog.
Here you will assign a concentration value to each standard group.
1.
Set the starting Concentration to 1.000.
2.
Click Factor, and set the Factor Value to 2.
3.
Click the title cell of the CONC column. Concentrations should
be assigned as 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, and 64.
4.
Click OK.
5.
Click the Dilutions radio button.
Dilutions
In quantitative assays, calculated concentrations are multiplied by the
dilution values to produce the final concentrations.
Here you will assign dilutions for each sample group, increasing by a
factor of 2.
1.
The starting Dilution should be set to 1.000 by default.
2.
Set the Replicates/Direction to 10 and Across, respectively.
3.
Click Factor, and set the Factor Value to 10.
4.
Set Map Direction to Down.
5.
Click and hold the cursor on well A3. Drag the cursor to D12
and release.
6.
Set the starting Dilution back to 1.000.
7.
Click and hold the cursor on well E3. Drag the cursor to H12
and release.
The Dilutions Template should look like the one shown on the
next page.
User's Guide to KCjunior
Getting Started • 3-15
8.
Click the Transformations radio button.
Transformations
Two types of transformations can be defined within one protocol:
•
A Transformation Formula is performed only on the well(s) to
which it is assigned.
•
A Plate Formula is automatically applied to every well on the
plate.
Here you will apply Transformation Formulas to subtract the Blanked
OD value from each well in column 4 from its corresponding well in
column 3.
Note: KCjunior automatically calculates formulas based on the Blanked
Data if Blank wells are defined in the Well ID Template. If no Blank
wells are defined, formulas are based on the Raw Data.
1.
In the Transformation Formula field, enter X-[A$4].
X = current well
- = subtraction
A4 = contents of well A4
[ ] indicates a well reference
$ retains the column number 4 when copying the formula
3-16 • Getting Started
2.
Highlight well A3, then click the Apply button. The formula
should appear under SMP01 in well A3.
3.
With the cursor on A3, click the right mouse button. An editing
menu should appear.
4.
Select Copy from the editing menu.
User's Guide to KCjunior
5.
Click and hold the cursor (use the left mouse button) on well B3.
Drag the cursor to well H3 and release. Wells B3 to H3 should
now be highlighted.
6.
Click the right mouse button to open the editing menu, then
click Paste.
Well B3 should contain X-[B$4], well C3 should contain
X-[C$4], and so on to H3, X-[H$4].
7.
Click the Sample IDs radio button to continue.
Sample IDs
By default, KCjunior refers to sample groups as “SMP01”, “SMP02”,
“SMP03”, and so on.
Within the Sample ID template, you can assign custom identifiers to
sample groups.
1.
Click on any well in Sample group number 1. “SMP01” will
appear in the Sample ID field.
2.
Overwrite “SMP01” with any name in the Sample ID field, then
click the Apply button. The ID will be assigned to every sample
in group 1.
3.
Repeat for several more samples.
4.
Click the Curve tab.
Define Curve Parameters
KCjunior provides three methods for generating curves:
•
A standard curve can be generated based on the standard wells
defined within the protocol.
•
A previously generated and stored curve can be referenced
from within the protocol.
•
A titer curve can be generated using multiple dilutions of
sample groups as concentrations.
Here you will define parameters to generate a point-to-point standard
curve.
User's Guide to KCjunior
1.
Select the Point-to-Point curve method.
2.
Check Extrapolate to display extrapolated concentrations −
unknown values on the Y axis which are outside the range of the
standards.
3.
Leave all other parameters set to their default values.
4.
Click the Cutoffs tab.
Getting Started • 3-17
Define Cutoffs
User-defined Cutoffs are used to classify results. During data reduction,
results are evaluated against the cutoff criteria and each well is assigned a
user-defined Label.
Here you will create three cutoff “zones”:
1.
Enter “STD01” in the first Cutoff field.
2.
Enter “STD04” in the second Cutoff field.
3.
Enter “Neg” in the first Label field, “Eqv” in the second, and
“Pos” in the third.
4.
Click the Reports tab.
Select Reports
The Reports dialog is used to select and customize reports for this
protocol.
1.
Enter any text in the Report Banner field.
2.
Check the Absorbance Report box and the accompanying Both
radio button.
3.
Check the Matrix Report box.
4.
In the Options list, highlight Well IDs, then click Add.
5.
In the Options list, highlight Calculated Concs, then click
Add.
6.
Check the Curve Report box.
7.
Click OK to close the protocol.
8.
Select Protocol|Save Protocol.
Read a Plate
1.
Click the Read Plate button.
2.
Enter a Results ID, using up to 16 alphanumeric characters.
3.
Click Read Plate.
4.
Place a microplate on the reader.
Note: For best results:
¾Wells A1 and A2 should be empty.
¾The contents of wells B1 and B2 should result in a low
optical density value at the defined Primary Wavelength.
¾C1 and C2 should read slightly higher, and so on through
H1 and H2 which should provide the highest OD.
5.
3-18 • Getting Started
Click OK.
User's Guide to KCjunior
Interpret Results
Following a successful plate read, Raw Data, Blanked Data,
Transformation Results, Concentrations, Labels and Template
information will be displayed.
1.
Click on each of the six tabs to see results.
2.
Under Concentrations, click Standard Curve to see the
standard curve.
3.
Under any tab, click Statistics to see statistical information for
every Standard, Sample, and Blank group.
Print Reports and Store Results
1.
If a printer is connected to the computer, either directly or via a
network, select Results|Print Results to print reports.
2.
To save the results record, select Results|Save Results. The
record will be stored under the Results ID in the Results
Database.
User's Guide to KCjunior
Getting Started • 3-19
3-20 • Getting Started
User's Guide to KCjunior
Setting Up the System
Reader Support
KCjunior supports most of Bio-Tek’s automated microplate readers,
including:
EL301
ELx800
PowerWave 200
EL311
EL808
PowerWave 340
EL312
ELx808
PowerWaveX
EL340
FLx800
PowerWaveX 340
EL800
µQuant
PowerWaveX Select
PowerWave XS
Dual-Reader Support
KCjunior can be configured to communicate with any two Bio-Tek
readers, if the computer has two serial ports. This allows you to, for
example, connect an absorbance reader and a fluorescence reader to one
computer and switch easily between them from within KCjunior.
Note: If you have a laptop computer, you may need to install a
communications card.
•
To configure KCjunior’s communication parameters, start by
selecting Reader 1 or Reader 2 from the Setup Menu, as shown
below.
¾See “Reader Setup” on page 4-3 for further instructions.
User's Guide to KCjunior
Setting Up the System • 4-1
•
To switch between the two readers, use the Current Reader
Menu.
¾KCjunior automatically switches readers if a protocol is
opened that is not compatible with the currently selected
reader.
Connecting the Reader to the Computer
Before KCjunior can communicate with a microplate reader, the reader(s)
must be properly connected to the computer on which KCjunior is
installed.
The following steps briefly describe how to connect the reader to the
computer. For more detailed information, refer to the reader’s user
manual.
1.
Attach the appropriate cable to an available serial port on the
back of the computer.
¾If you are going to configure KCjunior for use with two
readers, the computer must have two serial ports.
2.
Plug the other end of the cable to the serial port on the reader.
3.
Connect the power cable to the back or side of the reader.
4.
Plug all power cords into grounded electrical outlets.
¾Use of a surge protector is strongly recommended.
5.
4-2 • Setting Up the System
Use KCjunior to set up the communication parameters, as
described in the next section, Reader Setup.
User's Guide to KCjunior
Reader Setup
Important! Set and test communication parameters before attempting to
read a microplate. Follow these steps in order:
For communication
parameter changes to take
effect on an EL311, the
reader must be turned off/on
after any changes are made.
1.
Ensure that the microplate reader is connected to the computer
on which KCjunior is loaded, as described in the previous
section.
2.
From the reader’s front panel (if the reader is equipped with
one), find the Baud Rate, Data Bits, Stop Bits, and Parity
information. Refer to the reader’s user manual for assistance if
necessary.
3.
Note the current settings for each parameter. Make the
following changes if necessary:
¾If the Baud Rate is currently set to 1200, change it to
at least 2400.
¾If Data Bits (or Char Bits) is currently set to 7, change
it to 8.
4.
Perform a reader system test if any changes were made above.
5.
Important! Return the reader’s display to the main menu.
6.
Start KCjunior.
7.
Within KCjunior’s main screen, select Setup|Reader 1 or
Reader 2. The Reader Setup dialog appears:
8.
Select a Reader Type from the drop-down list.
Select the appropriate
Reader Type before
defining protocols, even if
the reader is not actually
connected to the computer.
Click Get Basecode Version
to retrieve the attached
reader’s basecode software
part number and version
number.
¾Choose carefully -- it is important to select the correct
model. For example, be sure to select “ELx808I” for an
ELx808 with the incubation option.
¾Select “PowerwaveX” for any PowerWaveX model other
than the PowerWave XS. Do not select “PowerWave340”
or “PowerWave340I” for a PowerWaveX 340 instrument.
User's Guide to KCjunior
Setting Up the System • 4-3
9.
(Optional) Click the Get Comm Defaults button to set the
communication parameters to the default values associated with
the selected Reader Type.
¾If the current communication settings are acceptable, jump
ahead to step 16.
10. Select a Com Port. The Com Port is the computer’s
communication port that is used for data transmission between
KCjunior and the reader.
¾Options include COM1, COM2, COM3, and COM4.
11. Select a Baud Rate. The Baud Rate is the transmission speed of
data, in bits per second, between KCjunior and the reader.
¾Options include 1200 (slow), 2400, 4800, 9600, 19200, and
38400 (fast). Valid settings vary among readers.
12. Set the Data Bits value to 8.
13. Select a Parity setting. Parity is a method of checking for errors
during data transmission.
¾Options include None, Odd, and Even.
14. Set the Stop Bits value to 2.
15. Specify an EOT Character. This represents the character sent
by the reader to KCjunior to indicate the end of transmission of
a plate of data.
¾The default setting is 26 (001A, ^Z).
¾For the EL311, EL312, and EL340 readers, the EOT
Character may be changed. The setting in KCjunior must
match that on the reader.
¾For the EL301 microstrip reader, the EOT Character has no
significance.
¾The FLx800 does not require an EOT Character.
¾For all other readers, the EOT Character must be set to 26.
If the EL301 is the current
reader, clicking Test
Communications only
verifies the parameter
settings. KCjunior will not
attempt to communicate
with the EL301.
16. When all parameters are set, click the Test Communications
button to attempt to establish communication with the reader.
¾If the test is successful, the communication parameters are
set correctly.
¾If the test is unsuccessful, appropriate instructions are
provided for fixing the communication parameters.
17. Click OK to save the settings, close the Reader Setup dialog,
and return to the KCjunior main screen.
4-4 • Setting Up the System
User's Guide to KCjunior
System Configuration
Various system default parameters can be configured within the
Setup|Configuration group of dialogs.
Configurable parameters include well identifiers, several reporting
options, results and protocol database pathnames, and well type colors.
Well Identifiers
KCjunior supports four different types of wells − Blank, Standard,
Sample, and Control, and processes each type as follows:
•
The average of the Blank wells is automatically subtracted from
every well on the plate.
•
The values in the Standard wells are used to generate a standard
curve.
•
KCjunior recognizes individual Sample wells and sample
groups (if multiple replicates are defined).
The mean, standard deviation, and coefficient of variation are
automatically calculated for each Sample group. If defined in
the protocol, concentrations and cutoffs are calculated for each
Sample replicate and group.
If dilutions are defined, KCjunior generates a curve for each
sample group.
•
Up to five unique sets of Control wells can be defined (see
“Customizing Well IDs” on the next page).
This well type can be used to represent a typical control
category (e.g. positive control, negative control), or to fulfill a
special requirement that the Blank, Standard, and Sample well
types do not satisfy. For example, if an assay requires two
unique Blank well identifiers, define two sets of Control wells as
follows:
Note: To perform blank subtraction for an assay using the Well
IDs shown above, a transformation formula resembling X-BLK1
must be assigned to every well from which the BLK1 mean will
be subtracted, and X-BLK2 must be assigned to every well from
which the BLK2 mean will be subtracted. See “Working with
Transformation Formulas” in Defining Protocols for more
information.
User's Guide to KCjunior
Setting Up the System • 4-5
Customizing Well IDs
Well Identifiers are
assigned to microplate wells
within the Well ID
Template. See “Designing
a Well ID Template” in
Defining Protocols for
more information.
To accommodate a variety of applications, KCjunior provides the
flexibility to customize references to the different well types. These
customized references are called Well Identifiers.
•
For example, a well that KCjunior consistently treats as a
Standard behind-the-scenes can be identified as “STD01” or
“STDRD01” or “CAL03” in a Well ID Template, in results
displays, and on printed reports.
To configure Well Identifiers:
1.
Select Setup|Configuration. The Well IDs dialog appears:
2.
Enter a Selection name and its associated Well ID for each
default well identifier.
¾The Selection name is the descriptive link between the
generic well type (i.e., Blank, Standard, Sample, Control),
and the 2 to 5 character Well ID.
Each Selection can contain up to 16 alphanumeric
characters, including spaces.
¾The Well ID is the short identifier that appears in results
displays and on printed reports. It can also be used in
transformation, plate, and cutoff formulas.
Each Well ID can contain 2 to 5 alphanumeric characters,
with no spaces.
Note: Changes to default Well IDs may affect future
modifications to existing Well ID templates. See
“Modifying an Existing Well ID Template” in Defining
Protocols for more information.
4-6 • Setting Up the System
User's Guide to KCjunior
¾Usage example: If an assay requires the use of Calibrators
to generate the standard curve, set the Selection name and
Well ID for Standard wells to “Calibrator” and “CAL”,
respectively, as shown below:
With these settings, KCjunior generates the standard curve
based on the ODs measured in the wells assigned as
“Calibrator”.
For more information, see “Designing Templates - Well ID
Templates” in Defining Protocols.
3.
Click another tab to configure additional system parameters, or
click OK to save these settings, close the dialog, and return to
the KCjunior main screen.
Reporting Options
KCjunior provides several configurable reporting options, including
precision, reader temperature, and special graph options.
To configure Reporting Options:
1.
Select Setup|Configuration. Click the Reporting Options tab.
The Reporting Options dialog appears:
2.
Set the Displayed Decimal Places value. Values such as
optical density measurements, transformation results, and
concentrations are reported with the number of decimal places
defined in this field.
¾The range is from 0 to 3 decimal places.
User's Guide to KCjunior
Setting Up the System • 4-7
3.
If the reader supports incubation, select a Temperature
Reporting option for printed reports:
¾Select Always report temperature information to report
the reader temperature even if a plate is read with a protocol
that does not specify incubation.
¾Select Report temperature if incubation requested to
report the reader temperature only when a plate is read with
a protocol that specifies incubation.
¾Select Never report temperature information to suppress
all temperature information.
4.
Specify Graph Options:
¾Check Display Curve Legend to include a legend on the
curve display and report.
¾Check Graph Interpolation Result to plot the interpolation
value on the curve display and report.
5.
Click another tab to configure additional system parameters, or
click OK to save the change, close the dialog and return to the
KCjunior main screen.
General Default Information
KCjunior provides several configurable general system parameters,
including Startup Protocol, Well Type Colors, and Use Reader’s
Barcode Scanner for Plate ID.
To configure General Default Information:
1.
Select Setup|Configuration. Click the General tab.
The General dialog appears:
4-8 • Setting Up the System
User's Guide to KCjunior
2.
Specify a Startup Protocol. Instruct KCjunior to automatically
open the most recently opened protocol, a specific protocol, or
no protocol every time the software is started.
¾If Specific Protocol is selected, choose a protocol from the
drop-down list.
3.
Change the Well Type Colors. To differentiate between the
four well types, each can be set to a different color.
¾Available colors are Red, Blue, Green, Yellow, Magenta,
Light Blue, Black, Light Gray, and Dark Gray.
4.
If the attached reader has a barcode scanner, enable Use
Reader’s Barcode Scanner for Plate ID to scan the barcode
label on the plate before it is read.
¾If this option is enabled, KCjunior attempts to scan the
barcode when the plate is pulled into the reader. If the read
is unsuccessful, KCjunior then asks the operator to enter the
Plate ID manually.
¾The scanned or manually entered Plate ID is available
as a part of the report/export header information.
¾This option is supported for single and multi-plate reads.
It is not supported for the empty plate(s) of a MultiWavelength read.
¾If the barcode returned from the reader is preceded by
an unnecessary identification character, you can check
Remove first character of barcode to have KCjunior
remove it.
5.
Click another tab to configure additional system parameters, or
click OK to save the change, close the dialog and return to the
KCjunior main screen.
Pathnames
Results records and protocols are stored in designated Results and
Protocol Databases, respectively. When opening or closing results
records and protocols, KCjunior automatically refers to the Results and
Protocol Database Pathnames for retrieval and storage.
•
Important!
If a database's location
changes, the pathname must
be reconfigured.
User's Guide to KCjunior
Select Setup|Configuration, Pathnames to see the current
configurations.
The default results and protocol databases are named RESULTS.MDB
and PROTOCOL.MDB, respectively. These databases can be copied,
moved, or renamed using any file management software.
•
For example, the protocol database may be moved to a network
to be shared by multiple users and renamed as
NTWRKPRT.MDB.
Setting Up the System • 4-9
To reconfigure the Results or Protocol Database Pathname:
1.
Close any open results records and protocols.
2.
Select Setup|Configuration. Click the Pathnames tab.
The Pathnames dialog appears:
3.
In the Results Database Path or Protocol Database Path
field, enter the new location and/or name manually, or use the
Browse button to search through the directory structure to
locate the desired database.
4.
(Optional) KCjunior provides an option to present the
Pathnames dialog each time the software is loaded, allowing the
user to change the database pathname(s). To enable this option,
check Allow Pathname Selection at Program Start.
5.
Click another tab to configure additional system parameters, or
click OK to save the changes, close the dialog and return to the
main screen.
Database Version
A small number of KCjunior features, such as Spectral Scanning, userenabled Scientific Notation, and Pathlength Correction, require the
protocol and/or results database to be at or above a certain version
number.
•
4-10 • Setting Up the System
This is only a concern if databases were created with an earlier
version of KCjunior. A software upgrade may contain new
features that require newer databases. The User's Guide and
Help System show the minimum required database version
number next to each feature that has such a requirement.
User's Guide to KCjunior
•
To see the version numbers of the currently configured protocol
and results databases, select Help|About KCjunior.
¾Protocols and results records from an “older” database can
be imported into a newer database with a higher version
number.
See “Importing Protocols” in Defining Protocols for more
information.
Filter Wheel Cartridges
If one or both of the defined readers is the FLx800 (a fluorescence/
luminescence reader), Filter Wheel Cartridges is available within the
Setup|Configuration set of tabs.
The FLx800 has one slot for a removable Excitation filter wheel
cartridge, and another for a removable Emission filter wheel cartridge.
Each cartridge has four locations for filters or plugs. A location can also
be left “open” (no filter or plug).
For a FLx800 that is used for a variety of applications, multiple
Excitation and/or Emission filter wheel cartridges may be prepared and
installed as needed. It is important for KCjunior to know the exact values
and positions of the filters/plugs/holes for the cartridge currently in use.
To simplify the filter definition process when multiple Excitation and/or
Emission filter wheel cartridges are used, the contents of each cartridge
can be entered once into KCjunior and given a name such as “Cartridge
Excitation 01”. When changing to a different cartridge, simply select its
assigned name in KCjunior’s Current Reader Menu to prepare to create
protocols and read plates.
User's Guide to KCjunior
Setting Up the System • 4-11
To add, modify, or delete a filter wheel cartridge configuration, select
Setup|Configuration. Click the Filter Wheel Cartridges tab:
•
Click Add Cartridge to configure settings for a new filter wheel
cartridge and add it to the list.
•
Select a cartridge name then click Modify Cartridge to modify
settings for an existing filter wheel cartridge.
•
Select a cartridge name then click Delete Cartridge to
permanently delete the cartridge from the list.
•
KCjunior can be configured to present a prompt just prior to a
plate read, to allow the operator to specify which filter cartridges
are installed on the instrument. When a new cartridge is
selected, KCjunior updates the instrument with the new filter
information.
¾Choose Prompt before every plate read to present the
prompt before every FLx800 plate read.
¾Choose Prompt if current cartridge selections do not
contain required filters to present the prompt only if there
is a mismatch between the protocol and the instrument’s
filter table.
¾Choose Never prompt to prevent the prompt from
appearing. Note: If there is a mismatch between the
protocol and the instrument’s filter table, KCjunior presents
an appropriate message.
4-12 • Setting Up the System
User's Guide to KCjunior
Adding or Modifying a Filter Wheel Cartridge
From within the Filter Wheel Cartridges tab, click Add Cartridge to
configure a new cartridge, or select an existing cartridge name and click
Modify Cartridge.
The Filter Wheel Cartridge Dialog appears:
Define the characteristics for this filter wheel cartridge.
1.
Enter a unique Name for the cartridge, using up to 32
alphanumeric characters.
2.
Select the Cartridge Type, Excitation or Emission.
3.
For each filter wheel position, enter the Wavelength and
Bandwidth information, or select Plug or Open.
¾It is important that the wavelength and bandwidth
information be entered correctly for each filter. The
wavelength and bandwidth values are often printed on the
side of each filter.
¾Dispense / Read protocols have special filter position
requirements; turn to the next page for more information.
4.
User's Guide to KCjunior
Click OK to save the changes and return to the previous screen,
or click Cancel to discard the changes.
Setting Up the System • 4-13
Special Filter Position Requirements for Dispense /
Read Protocols
Single filter set protocols:
•
If light shuttering is specified, a blocking filter (Plug) must be
placed in the excitation filter wheel in one of the two positions
next to the excitation filter that is specified in the protocol.
Dual filter set protocols:
4-14 • Setting Up the System
•
The two excitation filters specified in the protocol must be
positioned next to each other in the excitation filter wheel.
•
The two emission filters specified in the protocol must be
positioned next to each other in the emission filter wheel.
•
If light shuttering is specified, two blocking filters (Plugs) must
be placed in the excitation filter wheel.
User's Guide to KCjunior
Defining Protocols
Overview
A Protocol contains:
•
Instructions for controlling the attached microplate reader.
•
Information for analyzing data retrieved from the reader
(or for analyzing data entered manually or read from a file).
User-definable protocol features include:
•
Protocol name and description
•
Minimum and maximum optical density limits
•
Minimum and maximum relative fluorescence/luminescence unit
limits
•
Reading method (Endpoint, Kinetic, MultiWavelength, Spectral
Scan, or Dispense / Read), and related parameters
•
Fluorescence/Luminescence-specific parameters such as
chemistry, number of filter sets, optics position, and sensitivity
•
Template design for :
¾Well IDs
¾Dilutions
¾Transformation and Plate Formulas
¾Sample IDs
•
Curve-fitting parameters
•
Cutoff criteria
•
Reporting options
Defining Protocols describes how to customize the properties of every
feature listed above.
User's Guide to KCjunior
Defining Protocols • 5-1
Working with Protocols
This section provides information for creating, changing, accessing,
storing, and sharing protocols.
Where are Protocols Stored?
Protocols are stored inside a Protocol Database, which is a file that is
typically located on a computer’s hard drive, or on a network to which the
computer is attached.
When opening or saving protocols, KCjunior automatically refers to a
user-specified Protocol Database Pathname for retrieval and storage.
•
The Protocol Database Pathname contains the name and
location of the “current” protocol database. Multiple protocol
databases can be stored on a computer or on a network, but there
can only be one current database.
¾Example pathname: C:\KCjunior\Database\Protocol.mdb.
•
Select Setup|Configuration, Pathnames to view or modify the
current protocol database pathname. See “Pathnames” in Setting
Up the System for more information.
Opening an Existing Protocol
To open an existing protocol, begin by clicking the Open Protocol
button in the KCjunior main screen, selecting Open Protocol from the
Protocol Menu, or by selecting a name from the protocol drop-down
menu in the toolbar.
The Open Protocol dialog appears:
5-2 • Defining Protocols
•
This dialog lists the names of all protocols available in the
currently configured Protocol Database.
•
To open a protocol, highlight the desired name in the list, then
double-click the mouse button, or click the Open button.
User's Guide to KCjunior
¾If KCjunior is configured for use with two readers:
When a protocol is opened, KCjunior attempts to determine
which reader best supports the protocol, and then sets it as
the Current Reader (see “Reader Support” in Setting Up
the System for more information). Selection criteria
includes fluorescence / absorbance reading capabilities, and
read method parameters. If the readers are equally capable
of supporting the protocol, KCjunior does not change the
Current Reader.
•
To close this dialog without opening a protocol, click Cancel or
press the Esc key.
•
To select a different Protocol Database, close this dialog then
select Setup|Configuration|Pathnames.
Creating a New Protocol
To create a new protocol, begin by clicking the New Protocol button in
the KCjunior main screen, selecting New Protocol from the Protocol
Menu, or by clicking the toolbar icon.
The General Information dialog appears, requesting identification
information for the new protocol. See “Defining General Information” at
the start of Defining Protocol Parameters for more information.
Before Defining a New Protocol
Set the appropriate Reader
Type before defining a
protocol. See “Reader
Setup” in Getting Started
for more information.
User's Guide to KCjunior
The available, definable parameters for every new protocol vary
depending on the currently configured Reader Type. Note: Before
defining a new protocol, make sure the Reader Type is properly set under
Setup|Reader, and the correct reader is selected under Current Reader.
Examples:
•
If the currently selected Reader Type is ELx808, the available
Read Method Types are Endpoint and Kinetic.
•
If the currently selected Reader Type is PowerWave 340, the
available Read Method Types are Endpoint, Kinetic, and
MultiWavelength, and the available wavelength range is limited
to 340-800 nm.
Defining Protocols • 5-3
Modifying Protocols
To modify an existing protocol, begin by opening the desired protocol
(select Protocols|Open Protocol).
Once the protocol is open, click the Modify Protocol button in the
KCjunior main screen, select Modify Current Protocol from the Protocol
Menu, or click the toolbar icon.
The General Information dialog appears, containing identification
information for that protocol. See “General Information” at the start of
Defining Protocol Parameters for more information.
Saving and Closing Protocols
After creating or modifying a protocol, save the information by selecting
Save Protocol from the Protocol Menu or by clicking the toolbar icon.
•
KCjunior stores the protocol in the current protocol database
under the name defined in the General Information dialog.
To close an open protocol, select Close Protocol from the Protocol
Menu, or click the toolbar icon. If the protocol is newly created, or if
modifications were made to an existing protocol, KCjunior provides an
option to save:
5-4 • Defining Protocols
•
Click Yes to save the new or modified information and close the
protocol.
•
Click No to close the protocol without saving changes.
•
Click Cancel to close this dialog and return to the open
protocol. The new or modified information is retained but not
yet saved.
User's Guide to KCjunior
Copying Protocols
To copy the contents of an existing protocol to a new one with a different
name, begin by opening the protocol to be copied. Once the protocol is
open, select Save As from the Protocol Menu. KCjunior asks for a new
protocol name:
•
Enter a new protocol name using up to 32 alphanumeric
characters and spaces, then click OK. The new protocol is
created, saved, and kept open for modification.
•
Click Cancel to cancel this operation and return to the original
protocol.
Sharing Protocols and Databases
Since KCjunior stores protocols in a database, there are several options
for sharing protocols and protocol databases among users:
•
A protocol database can be stored on a network for multi-user
availability.
¾Each user must configure the Protocol Database
Pathname within his or her copy of KCjunior to point to
the network database.
•
A protocol database can be copied to a diskette or CD and
exchanged between users.
¾If the database has grown too large to fit on a diskette,
create an empty protocol database and then copy only the
desired protocols into the new database:
User's Guide to KCjunior
1.
Select Utilities|Database Maintenance|Create
Archive Protocol Database. The Create Empty
Protocol Database dialog appears.
2.
In the Save in field, select a location for the new
database, then enter an identifying File name.
3.
Click Save to create the database and return to the
main screen.
4.
Select Utilities|Database Maintenance|Archive
Protocols. The Archive Protocol Database
Pathname dialog appears.
Defining Protocols • 5-5
5.
Enter the drive, directory, and file name for the newly
created empty database.
6.
Click OK. The Archive Protocols dialog appears,
listing the contents of the current Protocol Database.
7.
Select the protocol(s) to be copied. Do NOT check
Delete after archive.
8.
•
When all items have been selected, click the Archive
Protocol(s) button. The selected items are copied to
the new database.
Protocols can be imported from one database into another. See
“Importing Protocols” below for more information.
Suggestions:
¾Protocols can be imported from a “master” protocol
database stored on a network.
¾Protocols can be imported from a protocol database stored
on a diskette or on a CD.
Importing Protocols
Protocols from one Protocol Database can be imported into another.
The Protocol Database that will receive the imported protocols is the one
defined under Setup|Configuration|Pathnames.
To import protocols from another database:
1.
If a protocol is open, close it.
2.
Select Protocol|Import Protocols. The Import Protocol
Database Pathname dialog appears.
3.
In the Protocol Database Pathname field, enter the pathname
(drive, directory, and file name), of the database containing the
protocols to be imported.
Alternatively, use the Browse feature to locate and select the
database.
4.
5-6 • Defining Protocols
Click OK. The Import Protocols dialog appears, listing all
protocols in the database.
User's Guide to KCjunior
5.
Use the mouse to select the protocol(s) to be imported.
¾Press the Shift key while using the mouse to select
contiguous protocols.
¾Press the Ctrl key while using the mouse to select
non-contiguous protocols.
6.
Click the Import Protocol(s) button. The protocol import
begins.
¾If a duplicate Protocol Name is detected, KCjunior does
not overwrite the protocol.
User's Guide to KCjunior
Defining Protocols • 5-7
Defining Protocol Parameters
When creating a new protocol, a minimum set of General Information
and Read Method parameters must be defined for the protocol to be
“valid”. In addition, Templates, Curve parameters, Cutoff criteria, and
Report options can be specified. Defining Protocol Parameters
describes every step of the protocol definition process.
Defining General Information
General Information includes protocol identification,
minimum/maximum limit setting, and precision options.
To define this information for a protocol:
1.
Choose to create or modify a protocol. Select the General
Information tab. The General Information dialog appears:
2.
If this is a new protocol, enter a Protocol Name, using up to 32
alphanumeric characters. The protocol will be stored in the
current protocol database under this name.
3.
(Optional) Enter a Protocol Description, using up to 1024
alphanumeric characters.
¾Text entered here appears at the top of the Protocol
Report.
4.
5-8 • Defining Protocols
(Optional) Adjust the Raw Data Limits Minimum and
Maximum Values to define an inclusive data range for all wells.
The valid limits are reader-dependent.
User's Guide to KCjunior
Explanation:
The Raw Data Limits (OD)
Minimum Value can be set
to a number less than zero,
to accommodate dual
wavelength reads.
During data reduction, the OD, RFU, or RLU value in each well
is verified against this range. If the value falls outside the range,
two options are available:
¾Discard the out-of-range value. If Discard Out-of-Range
Values is selected, the well is reported as OUT and is
excluded from data reduction calculations. For example,
if one replicate of a sample group is reported as OUT, the
sample group mean is based on the remaining in-range
replicates.
For example, if the
Minimum Value is set to
-0.500 OD, a post-dual
wavelength subtraction
value of -0.600 OD falls
outside the valid range
¾Retain the out-of-range value. If Discard Out-of-Range
Values is not selected, KCjunior automatically sets the raw
OD, RFU, or RLU value to the Minimum or Maximum Raw
Data Limits value, as appropriate. The new value is
displayed inside brackets [2.999], and is included in further
calculations (such as group mean calculation,
transformations, and standard curve generation).
5.
(Optional) Adjust the Blank Limits Minimum and Maximum
Values to define an inclusive data range for blank wells. The
valid limits are reader-dependent.
Explanation:
During data reduction, the OD, RFU, or RLU value in each
blank well is verified against this range. If a value falls outside
the range, two options are available:
¾Discard the out-of-range value. If Discard Out-of-Range
Values is selected, the blank well is reported as OUT and is
excluded from the calculation of the blank mean.
¾Retain the out-of-range value. If Discard Out-of-Range
Values is not selected, KCjunior automatically sets the raw
OD, RFU, or RLU value to the Minimum or Maximum
Blank Limits value, as appropriate. This new value is
displayed inside brackets [0.010], and is included in the
calculation of the blank mean.
Protocol database versions
1.2 and greater support the
Precision parameters.
Select About KCjunior from
the Help menu to see the
version of the currently
selected Protocol Database.
User's Guide to KCjunior
6.
Set the Displayed Decimal Places value to 0, 1, 2, or 3. This
value overrides the setting under Setup|Configuration,
Reporting Options. Values such as optical density
measurements, transformation results, and concentrations will be
reported with the number of decimal places defined in this field,
unless Scientific Notation is enabled.
Defining Protocols • 5-9
7.
(Optional) Check Scientific Notation (Raw Data / Blanks)
to report Raw and Blanked data in scientific notation. Check
Scientific Notation (Transforms/Concentrations) to report
Transformation results and calculated Concentrations in
scientific notation.
If Scientific Notation is not enabled, KCjunior automatically
displays a very small number like 0.00004 as 0.000 instead of as
4e-05.
Read Method Parameters
The configuration of the Read Method parameters controls plate reading.
The availability of individual Read Method parameters depends on the
current reader type, and can include read method type, wavelengths, filter
sets, sensitivity, kinetic settings, number of plates, microplate geometry,
incubation and shaking instructions, and more.
Before Defining Read Method Parameters
Because the availability of various Read Method parameters is readerdependent, ensure that the desired Reader Type is selected under
Setup|Readers and also in the Current Reader menu before defining
these parameters. The reader does not need to be connected to the
computer to define Read Method parameters.
Selecting a Read Method Type
The Endpoint and Kinetic read methods are available for all readers
supported by KCjunior. For certain readers (such as the PowerWave and
the µQuant), the MultiWavelength and Spectral Scan read methods are
available. For the FLx800 with its optional reagent dispenser, the
Dispense / Read read method is available.
To select a Read Method Type, click
to open the drop-down list and
select Endpoint, Kinetic, MultiWavelength, Spectral Scan, or Dispense /
Read.
5-10 • Defining Protocols
•
After a type is selected, related definable parameters
automatically become accessible. For example, if Kinetic is
chosen, data entry fields such as Kinetic Reads and Kinetic Read
Interval becomes accessible.
•
Sample Read Method dialogs are shown on the following pages.
User's Guide to KCjunior
Read Method Dialogs for Absorbance Readers
User's Guide to KCjunior
•
During an Endpoint Read, every well on the plate is read at one
or two wavelengths. One optical density (OD) value is reported
for each well.
•
During a Kinetic Read, every well on the plate is read a defined
number of times at one or two wavelengths. One optical density
value is reported for each well for each plate read. A graph
showing OD vs. Time is reported for each well.
Defining Protocols • 5-11
(Read Method Dialogs for Absorbance Readers)
5-12 • Defining Protocols
•
During a MultiWavelength Read, the plate is read at each
defined wavelength (up to 6). The optical density value
measured at each wavelength is reported for each well.
Note: The Pathlength Correction feature can be used with
MultiWavelength reads.
•
During a Spectral Scan, multiple readings are taken across
a wavelength range on up to 8 wells. A graph showing
absorbance or transmission vs. wavelength is reported for
each well.
User's Guide to KCjunior
Read Method Dialogs for Fluorescence/Luminescence
Readers
User's Guide to KCjunior
•
During an Endpoint Read, the plate is read from one to six
times, depending on the number of filter sets specified. One
Relative Fluorescence Unit (RFU) or Relative Luminescence
Unit (RLU) value is reported for each well for each filter set.
•
During a Kinetic Read, the plate is read a defined number of
times, using one or two filter sets. One Relative Fluorescence
Unit (RFU) or Relative Luminescence Unit (RLU) is reported
for each well, for each kinetic read and for each filter set.
A graph showing RFU/RLU vs. Time is generated for each well.
Defining Protocols • 5-13
•
5-14 • Defining Protocols
During a Dispense / Read sequence (FLx800), fluid is
dispensed before or during sample measurement. KCjunior
generates a kinetic curve showing Relative Fluorescence Units
(RFU, Y axis) versus Time (X Axis) for each well.
User's Guide to KCjunior
Defining Read Method Parameters
After the Read Method Type is selected, the definable parameters
automatically adjust accordingly.
All possible Read Method parameters are described on the following
pages. See below for a list of the remaining topics in this section.
•
The following topics are specific to absorbance readers:
Selecting Primary and Reference Wavelengths, p. 5-16.
Selecting Multiple Wavelengths, p. 5-16.
Defining the Spectral Scan Wavelength Range, p. 5-20.
Defining the Number of Plates to be Read, p. 5-20.
Selecting a Read Mode, p. 5-35.
•
The following topics are specific to fluorescence/
luminescence readers:
Choosing the Chemistry, p. 5-21.
Specifying Dispense / Read Options, p. 5-21.
Selecting Filter Wheel Cartridges, p. 5-23.
Defining Filter Sets, p. 5-24.
Specifying Filter Set Options, p. 5-27.
Ejecting the Plate Between Filter Sets, p. 5-30.
•
The following topics apply to most readers:
Defining Kinetic Parameters, p. 5-31.
Selecting the Plate Geometry, p. 5-31.
Setting a Time Delay Before Reading, p. 5-32.
Monitoring Wells, p. 5-32.
Defining Incubation Parameters, p. 5-34.
Defining Shake Parameters, p. 5-34.
Validating Read Method Parameters, p. 5-36.
Retrieving Reader Wavelengths/Filters, p. 5-36.
“Sending” Reader Wavelengths, p. 5-36.
Calibrating the Reader, p. 5-37.
Calibrate Before First Read, p. 5-37.
User's Guide to KCjunior
Defining Protocols • 5-15
Selecting Primary and Reference Wavelengths
If a Primary Wavelength is specified alone, the plate is read at a single
wavelength.
Dual wavelength readings
significantly reduce optical
interference caused by
scratches or fingerprints on
the microplate.
If a Reference Wavelength is also specified, the plate is read twice,
once at each wavelength. During data reduction, KCjunior automatically
calculates the Delta OD as the difference between the two readings.
To select Primary and Reference Wavelengths:
1.
Select a Read Method Type of Endpoint or Kinetic.
2.
Enter the Primary and Reference Wavelengths in the
appropriate fields.
Alternatively, click the Get Reader Wavelengths button
to retrieve wavelength information from the reader. The reader
must be connected to the computer, and communication
parameters must be set properly.
Following successful retrieval, use the drop-down menus to
select the Primary and Reference Wavelengths.
Selecting Multiple Wavelengths
For certain reader models, KCjunior provides the ability to read a plate at
multiple (up to six) wavelengths. Common reasons for reading a plate at
multiple wavelengths include:
•
Calculating the ratio of measurements at two different
wavelengths.
•
Determining a solution’s peak absorbance by measuring at
several wavelengths.
To select Multiple Wavelengths:
1.
Select a Read Method Type of MultiWavelength.
2.
Enter up to six wavelength values in the Wavelengths fields.
Alternatively, click the Get Reader Wavelengths button to
retrieve wavelength information from the reader. The reader
must be connected to the computer, and communication
parameters must be set properly.
Following successful retrieval, click the drop-down arrows to
select the desired wavelengths.
Instruct KCjunior to
calculate and report the
difference in measurements
between an empty plate and
the sample plate.
5-16 • Defining Protocols
3.
(Optional) For any defined wavelength, check Empty Plate to
perform two reads at the corresponding wavelength − the first
read on an empty plate, and the second on the sample plate.
KCjunior automatically subtracts the value of each well of the
empty plate from the corresponding well of the sample plate.
User's Guide to KCjunior
For example, examine the Wavelength setup shown below:
The “Empty Plate” can
represent an empty dry
plate or a plate filled with
solution for blanking.
The empty plate will be read at 340 nm and 405 nm. The
sample plate will be read at 340 nm, 405 nm, and 490 nm.
4.
(Optional) Check Use Pathlength Correction to normalize
absorbances to 1 cm. This option is only available for readers
that support the MultiWavelength read method and wavelength
values up to 999 nm.
Pathlength Correction
requires the 5th and 6th
filters to be set either to
<None> or to the Test and
Reference Wavelengths,
respectively.
¾If Pathlength Correction is enabled, KCjunior:
(1) Calculates the pathlength for each well.
(2) Calculates the corrected absorbance for each well.
(3) Displays the corrected absorbance for each well under
the Pathlength Correction results tab.
¾KCjunior calculates each well’s pathlength using the
following formula:
(A977 nm - A900 nm)well / (A977 nm - A900 nm)1.0 cm water
The pathlengths can be
included on the Matrix
Report. See “Selecting
Options for the Matrix
Report” at the end of this
chapter.
The well is measured at 977 nm and again at 900 nm, then
the difference is calculated. The result is divided by the
absorbance of water at 1 cm.
977 nm and 900 nm represent default Test and Reference
Wavelengths, respectively. These wavelengths can be
changed under Advanced Options.
KCjunior uses a default value of 0.18 for the absorbance of
water at 1 cm. This default value can be overridden by
changing the Constant Value under Advanced Options.
Alternatively, click Use Bio-Cell to calculate the
absorbance of water at 1 cm value using Bio-Tek’s
Bio-Cell plate. Set the Location of the cuvette in the
plate.
User's Guide to KCjunior
Defining Protocols • 5-17
¾KCjunior calculates the corrected absorbance for each
well according to the following formula:
Awavelengthwell ÷ pathlength of well
The measurement taken at the user-defined wavelength is
divided by the calculated pathlength.
The Raw Data value of the well is used in the correction
formula, unless an empty plate is read or blank subtraction
is performed.
If an empty plate is read, the difference (or Result) in the
Raw Data readings between the full and empty plate is used
in the formula.
If blank subtraction is performed on the Raw Data or the
Result value, the Blanked Data value is used in the
formula.
¾Click the Advanced Options button to change the Test or
Reference Wavelength values, or to change the Constant
Value.
The valid range for the Test and Reference Wavelengths
fields is 200-999 nm.
To define a Constant Value other than 0.18 for use with
calculating pathlengths, click Other Value, then enter the
desired number.
Click Use Default Settings to reset the Test and Reference
Wavelengths to 977 and 900 nm, respectively, to reset
Other Value to 1, and to reselect the use of the Absorbance
of water at 1 cm value.
5-18 • Defining Protocols
User's Guide to KCjunior
Example 1:
A protocol specifies the following:
¾MultiWavelength read method type
¾Microplate read at 405 nm
¾Pre-read an empty plate at 405 nm
¾Pathlength Correction is enabled
¾The default value of 0.18 represents the absorbance of water
at 1 cm (977-900 nm).
The empty plate is read at 405 nm, to obtain the blanking
absorbances for each well.
The sample plate is initially read at the Test and Reference
Wavelengths. Well A1 readings at 977 and 900 nm are
0.175 and 0.025, respectively. The pathlength for A1 is
calculated as (0.175-0.025)/0.18, or 0.8333.
The sample plate is then read at 405 nm, and the empty
plate values are subtracted to determine the 405 Result
values. The 405 Result value for well A1 is 2.576. The
corrected value equals 2.576 / 0.8333, or 3.091.
Example 2:
A protocol specifies the following:
¾MultiWavelength read method type
¾Microplate read at 405 nm
¾Do not pre-read an empty plate
¾Pathlength Correction and Use Bio-Cell are enabled
¾Blank wells are defined in the well ID template
The Bio-Cell plate is read at the Test and Reference
Wavelengths. The absorbance of water at 1 cm (977-900
nm) value is 0.182.
The sample plate is initially read at the Test and Reference
Wavelengths. Well H1 readings at 977 and 900 nm are
0.208 and 0.034, respectively. The pathlength for H1 is
calculated as (0.208-0.034)/0.182, or 0.956.
The sample plate is then read at 405 nm, and after blank
well subtraction, the 405 Result value for well H1 is 2.619.
The corrected value equals 2.619 / 0.956, or 2.740.
User's Guide to KCjunior
Defining Protocols • 5-19
Defining the Spectral Scan Wavelength Range
During a Spectral Scan, the reader takes multiple measurements across a
wavelength range on each of up to 8 wells. A graph showing absorbance
or transmission vs. wavelength is reported for each well.
To define the Spectral Scan wavelength range:
1.
Select the Spectral Scan Read Method Type.
2.
Enter the First Scan Wavelength and Last Scan Wavelength.
The valid ranges for the First and Last Scan Wavelength fields
are 200-998 nm and 201-999 nm, respectively. The First setting
must be lower than the Last setting.
3.
Set the Scan Increment to determine which wavelengths will be
used for measurement within the wavelength range.
For example, if the wavelength range is 200-600 nm with a
Scan Increment of 10 nm, measurements are taken at 200, 210,
220, … 600 nm.
Defining the Number of Plates to be Read
Tip: For a quantitative
endpoint assay that
calculates results based on
a stored curve, use the
Number of Plates feature to
read up to 100 plates.
Up to 100 successive plate reads can be performed with one Endpoint
protocol. The plate carrier is automatically ejected after each read, to
allow for submittal of a different plate.
To define the Number of Plates to be read:
1.
Enter the number of plates to be read in the Number of Plates
field.
¾At run-time, KCjunior provides the option to assign a Plate
ID to each individual plate.
¾If the attached reader is equipped with a plate barcode
scanner and Use reader’s barcode scanner for plate ID is
selected under Setup|Configuration, General, KCjunior
scans the plate before each read to capture the plate ID.
¾The raw data for all of the endpoint reads are stored as one
record, under one Results ID, in the Results Database.
5-20 • Defining Protocols
User's Guide to KCjunior
Note: The following sections discuss read method parameters that are
specific to fluorescence and luminescence readers. Skip ahead to
page 5-31 for information on defining kinetic parameters, enabling
shaking or incubation, validating read method parameters, and more.
For general information on Read Method parameters, or for instructions
on selecting a Read Method type, see page 5-10.
Choosing the Chemistry
Click the radio button associated with the desired chemistry,
Fluorescence or Luminescence.
•
KCjunior sets certain parameters in accordance with the chosen
chemistry. For example:
¾Measurements are reported as either RFU or RLU, to
represent Relative Fluorescence Units or Relative
Luminescence Units, respectively.
¾A warning message appears if the Excitation filter is not set
to “Plug” in a Luminescence protocol (a plug is
recommended for Luminescence readings).
•
For Luminescence protocols, the instrument’s lamp
automatically turns off just prior to plate reading. Refer to the
instrument operator’s manual for more information on the lamp.
Specifying Dispense / Read Options
If the current reader is the FLx800 and it is equipped with the reagent
dispensing module, you can choose to dispense reagent before or during
sample measurement.
To define Dispense / Read options:
1.
Ensure that the Read Method Type is set to Dispense / Read.
2.
Click the Dispense / Read button.
3.
If a read will be performed, check Perform Read. If no read
will be performed, skip to step 8.
4.
If performing a read, choose Well Mode or Plate Mode.
¾In Well Mode the FLx800 reads each well individually for a
specified number of times using 1 or 2 sampling windows,
dispensing reagent as specified in Dispense Parameters (see
step 8). This mode is typically used for fast kinetic
reactions.
¾In Plate Mode the FLx800 reads a whole or partial plate for
a specified number of times, dispensing reagent as specified
in Dispense Parameters (see step 8).
User's Guide to KCjunior
Defining Protocols • 5-21
5.
If reading in Well Mode, select the number of Sampling
Windows, 1 or 2.
6.
For one or both Sampling Windows:
¾Enter a Lag Time from 0 to 600 seconds. This is the delay
before the first Sample is read.
Note: For two Sampling windows, KCjunior automatically
calculates the Sampling Start time for the second window.
The second window begins immediately after the first
finishes, unless a Lag Time greater than 0 is specified for
the second window.
¾Enter the total number of Samples (measurements to be
taken) per well, from 1 to 300.
¾Enter the Sample Interval (the delay between sample
measurements), from 0.02 to 12 seconds.
¾(Optional) Check Light Shutter to block the light when not
measuring to inhibit photo bleaching.
7.
If reading in Plate Mode:
¾Enter the total number of Kinetic Reads, from 1 to 300.
¾Enter a Kinetic Interval (delay between reads) of 1 to 9999
seconds.
¾(Optional) Check Light Shutter to block the light when not
measuring to inhibit photo bleaching.
8.
If performing a dispense, check Perform Dispense.
9.
(Optional) If no read will be performed, or if a Well Mode read
will be performed, choose a Tip Prime Option of Before First
Well or Before Every Well and then enter a dispense tube Prime
Volume of 5 to 20 ul.
¾Tip: If there is a long duration between dispenses from well
to well, consider priming Before Every Well to compensate
for any fluid loss at the dispense tip due to evaporation.
10. (Optional) If a Plate Mode read will be performed, check Prime
Tip Before Start of Processing and then enter a dispense tube
Prime Volume from 5 to 20 ul.
11. Enter a reagent Dispense Volume from 5 to 1000 ul.
¾The minimum Dispense Volume varies depending on the
Dispense Rate selected.
12. Select a fluid Dispense Rate, of 1, 2, 3, or 4.
¾With each rate selection, the corresponding ul/sec value is
displayed.
5-22 • Defining Protocols
User's Guide to KCjunior
13. (Optional) If no read will be performed, or if a Well Mode read
will be performed, enter a Lag Time from 0 to 6000 seconds.
This is the delay before the dispense.
¾Tip: If two Sampling Windows are defined and you wish to
dispense between the two windows, enter a Lag Time that
matches the calculated Sampling Start time.
14. If a Plate Mode read will be performed, enter an Inject on
Interval value from 1 to the number of Kinetic Reads. This is
the read number at which the dispense will occur.
¾Note: The kinetic curve will display a green line on the X
axis (Time) to indicate when the dispense occurred.
15. Click OK to save the changes and return to the Read Method
dialog.
¾Important: If tip priming will be performed, make sure that
the tip priming trough is installed in the instrument (refer
to the operator’s manual for placement instructions).
Selecting Filter Wheel Cartridges
For a FLx800 that is used for a variety of applications, multiple
Excitation and/or Emission filter wheel cartridges may be prepared and
installed as needed. The contents of Excitation and Emission filter wheel
cartridges are defined under Setup|Configuration. You can then select the
cartridges to be associated with each protocol.
To select filter wheel cartridges:
User's Guide to KCjunior
1.
Ensure that under Setup|Configuration|Filter Wheel
Cartridges, Excitation and Emission cartridges are defined.
2.
Click the Select Cartridges button from the Read Method
dialog. The Select Filter Wheel Cartridge dialog appears.
3.
Using the drop-down menus, select the desired Excitation and
Emission Filter Wheel cartridges.
4.
After selecting a cartridge, clicking View displays the cartridge’s
contents.
Defining Protocols • 5-23
¾Click Cancel to return to the Select Filter Wheel Cartridge
dialog.
5.
Click OK to save the changes and return to the Read Method
dialog. The contents of the Excitation and Emission drop-down
selection boxes now match the selected cartridges.
Defining Filter Sets
Each Filter Set specifies the Excitation filter, Emission filter, optics
position, sensitivity setting, and sampling information to be applied
during one plate read.
•
One to six filter sets can be defined for an Endpoint protocol.
•
One or two filter sets can be defined for Kinetic and Dispense /
Read protocols.
¾Note: Dispense / Read protocols have special filter position
requirements. See “Filter Wheel Cartridges” in Setting Up
the System for more information.
There are many applications for the use of multiple filter sets, including:
5-24 • Defining Protocols
•
Comparison of results among various sensitivity settings with
otherwise identical filter settings.
•
Assays that have more than one fluorophore per well.
•
Comparison of results between the top and bottom optics
positions (if the reader is equipped with dual-optics). Select two
filter sets with identical settings, one for the top probe and the
other for the bottom probe.
•
Comparison of results among various sampling settings.
User's Guide to KCjunior
To define Filter Sets:
1.
Ensure that the Read Method Type and Chemistry settings are
correct.
2.
If the reader is connected to the computer and turned on, click
Get Reader Filters to update KCjunior’s internal filter table
with the reader’s current settings.
3.
Select the number of Filter Sets (1 to 6 for endpoint, 1 or 2 for
kinetic).
4.
Perform steps 5 through 8 for each filter set.
5.
Select an Excitation filter and an Emission filter.
¾The Excitation filter selects a narrow band of light to which
the sample will be exposed. The Emission filter selects a
band of emitted light to be measured by the instrument’s
photomultiplier.
¾Valid selections include a wavelength/bandwidth
combination (in nanometers), “Plug” to indicate the
presence of a plug, and “Open” to indicate the absence of a
filter or plug.
¾If the desired filter cannot be found within the drop-down
list, manually enter the wavelength and bandwidth values.
Each filter is imprinted with
its wavelength/bandwidth
combination.
The correct format is wavelength/bandwidth, in
nanometers. For example, 485/20 represents the 485 nm
wavelength with a bandwidth of 20 nm. This combination
permits the transmission of light from 475 to 495 nm.
¾To prevent damage to the photomultiplier, KCjunior
(1) prohibits the saving of a protocol with overlapping
Excitation and Emission wavelengths defined; or
(2) provides a warning if the wavelengths are considered
to be “too close”, but does not prohibit the saving of the
protocol.
¾Just prior to a plate read, KCjunior communicates with the
reader to see if its filter table contains all of the
filter/bandwidth combinations defined in the protocol.
6.
Choose an Optics Position of Top or Bottom.
¾Not all fluorescence/luminescence readers are equipped
with two probes. When a plate read is initiated, KCjunior
communicates with the reader to see if the selected Optics
Position is supported.
¾If the reader is connected and is turned on, click the
Validate Read Method button to see if the currently
selected Optics Position is supported.
User's Guide to KCjunior
Defining Protocols • 5-25
7.
RFU or LFU
99999
Specify the Sensitivity setting of the photomultiplier, unless
automatic sensitivity adjustment will be used (see next step).
The signal from the range of fluorescence and luminescence
assays can be very weak, very strong, or anywhere in between.
The photomultiplier (PMT) is the device inside a fluorometer
that measures the light emitted from the sample.
0
For each assay the sensitivity (gain) of the PMT should be
adjusted to ensure that the signals from all wells fall within the
appropriate dynamic range of 0 to 99,999 relative fluorescence
or luminescence units (RFU or RLU).
R ange of sam ples
“O ptim um ” sensitivity
S am ples fall w ithin the
0 to 99999 R FU /R LU range.
Low est values are above 0.
The drawing on the left compares results with an optimum
sensitivity setting with settings that are too low or too high.
Tips for selecting the “optimum” sensitivity:
99999
RFU or LFU
¾Assays using 96- (or fewer) well plates typically require
sensitivities between 75 and 190. Assays using 384-well
or other higher-density plates will likely require higher
sensitivities because of the narrower optical probes.
¾One method for determining the optimum sensitivity
for an assay is to define multiple filter sets with the same
parameters, varying only the sensitivity setting. Another
method is to enable KCjunior’s Automatic Sensitivity
Adjustment feature (see “Specifying Filter Options”).
0
R ange of sam ples
S ensitivity is too low
S om e sam ples are
reported as 0 R FU /R LU .
¾As the sensitivity setting increases, the measurement values
increase. If many wells result in OVERFLOW (indicating
RFU or RLU values greater than 99,999), the sensitivity
setting is probably too high.
99999
R FU or LFU
¾If each well contains more than one fluorophore, one of
which might give brighter or weaker results, assign each
filter set its own sensitivity.
¾If the Sensitivity field is dimmed and inaccessible, the
Automatic Sensitivity Adjustment feature is enabled.
0
R ange of sam ples
S ensitivity is too high
S om e sam ples are
reported as 999 99 R FU /R LU .
5-26 • Defining Protocols
8.
Click the Options button to specify Sampling parameters
and/or to enable the Automatic Sensitivity Adjustment feature.
See “Specifying Filter Set Options” for further information.
User's Guide to KCjunior
Specifying Filter Set Options
Each filter set has its own configuration of options for well sampling, and
for automatic sensitivity adjustment (if required).
Click the Options button
to define Sampling and/or
Automatic Sensitivity
options for a filter set.
Sampling
KCjunior provides three Sampling options to specify the well reading
characteristics for a filter set.
Note: Click the Get Defaults button to set all three options to their
original default settings.
To define the Sampling options:
1.
Specify the Number of Samples (measurements) to take per
well. The valid entry range is 1 to 255 measurements.
The value reported for each well represents the average
of its measurements.
¾The reader spends approximately 10 milliseconds
performing each measurement.
¾Usually, the more samples per well the better the CV’s,
although selecting more than 10 samples per well typically
results in only marginal improvement. 10 is the
recommended combination of sensitivity and speed.
User's Guide to KCjunior
Defining Protocols • 5-27
2.
Set the Delay Before Sampling, in milliseconds. This is the
pause time to allow plate contents to settle before the
measurements begin. The valid entry range is 10 to 2550
milliseconds, in 10 ms increments.
¾350 milliseconds is the recommended setting to ensure the
plate is definitely stopped for measurement and for the
minimum amount of time.
3.
Set the Delay Between Samples, in milliseconds. This is the
time delay between samples. The valid range is 0 to 255
milliseconds.
¾For fluorescence assays, a delay of 10 milliseconds is
recommended. Note: Delays longer than 200 milliseconds
may “bleach” the samples.
¾For luminescence assays, longer delays between samples
may result in better CV’s.
Automatic Sensitivity Adjustment
The Help system shows how
to define pre-reading parameters for a sample assay:
KCjunior provides an Automatic Sensitivity Adjustment feature as an
alternative to the more manual method of defining multiple filter sets
with varying sensitivity settings.
1. Click the Help button
from within the Filter
Options dialog.
If this feature is enabled, KCjunior instructs the reader to perform several
pre-readings on the microplate. In general, these readings are performed
on user-specified wells using incremental sensitivity settings. Each
increase in sensitivity raises the RFU/RLU values of all of the wells.
Certain wells are monitored to ensure that they, and hence the assay, do
not overrange. KCjunior reviews the results of the pre-readings and
selects the “optimum sensitivity” for plate reading.
2. Click on the last option,
“Examples…”.
KCjunior provides two options for Automatic Sensitivity Adjustment:
•
Scale to Low/High Range. If this feature is enabled, the
instrument performs several pre-readings of the specified Low,
Test, and High Wells. With each reading, the sensitivity (gain)
of the photomultiplier is increased. The target wells are
monitored to ensure that they, and hence the assay, do not
exceed the defined High Value.
KCjunior reviews the results of the pre-readings and selects the
“optimum sensitivity” – the one that gives the best signal-tonoise ratio when comparing one (higher) set of wells with
another (lower) set of wells. The entire microplate is then read
using this sensitivity setting.
5-28 • Defining Protocols
User's Guide to KCjunior
•
Scale to High Well. If this feature is enabled, the instrument
performs several pre-readings of the specified High Well. With
each reading, the sensitivity (gain) of the photomultiplier is
increased. The target well is monitored to ensure that it, and
hence the assay, does not exceed the defined High Value.
Measurements stop when the target well reaches the High Value.
The sensitivity that produced the RFU/RLU closest to the High
Value (without exceeding it), is chosen for the microplate read.
To enable Automatic Sensitivity Adjustment and define the pre-reading
parameters for the Scale to Low/High Range option:
Note: For any of the following parameters, enter a single well location
(ex. A1), or a “rectangle” of well locations (ex. B1-C2).
1.
Specify the Low Well Range, to define the well(s) representing
the expected Base Value (see step 4).
¾Low Wells are usually blank wells, buffer wells, zero
standards, or negative controls, and are expected to yield a
low RFU or RLU.
¾This range must not overlap the Test Well Range.
2.
Specify the Test Well Range, to define the well(s) to be used in
conjunction with the Low Wells to determine signal-to-noise
ratios.
¾Test Wells are usually low standards or low positive
controls, and are expected to yield a mid-range RFU
or RLU.
¾For best results, designate as the Test Wells those wells on
the plate generating a signal at least 50% greater than the
Low Wells.
¾This range must not overlap the Low Well Range.
3.
Specify the High Well Range, to define the well(s) representing
the expected High Value (see step 5).
¾High Wells are usually the highest standards or high
positive controls, and are expected to yield a high (but not
overrange) RFU or RLU.
¾This range must not overlap the Low Well Range. It can,
however, overlap the Test Well Range.
User's Guide to KCjunior
Defining Protocols • 5-29
4.
Specify the Base Value. This is the fluorescence or
luminescence value that the Low and Test Wells must exceed
during sensitivity determination, to ensure that the plate
produces values that are large enough to be meaningful.
¾The default (and recommended) setting is 100 RFU/RLU.
5.
Specify the High Value. This is the fluorescence or
luminescence value that the High Well(s) should approach but
not exceed, in order to produce a valid signal-to-noise ratio
calculation.
¾The default setting is 90,000 RFU/RLU, and the maximum
value is 99,999. Practically, this value could be anywhere
from 10,000 to 90,000.
6.
If this is Filter Set #1, checking Use Result for All Filter Sets
instructs KCjunior to use the sensitivity determined here for all
other filter sets with Automatic Sensitivity Adjustment enabled.
To enable Automatic Sensitivity Adjustment and define the pre-reading
parameters for the Scale to High Well option:
1.
Specify the High Well. This is the target well to be measured.
¾The High Well usually represents a high standard or high
positive control, and is expected to yield a high (but not
overrange) RFU or RLU.
2.
Specify the High Value. This is the fluorescence or
luminescence value that the High Wells should approach but not
exceed.
¾The default setting is 90,000 RFU/RLU, and the maximum
value is 99,999. Practically, this value could be anywhere
from 10,000 to 90,000.
3.
If this is Filter Set #1, checking Use Result for All Filter Sets
instructs KCjunior to use the sensitivity determined here for all
other filter sets with Automatic Sensitivity Adjustment enabled.
Ejecting the Plate Between Filter Sets
For fluorescence/luminescence protocols, enable Eject between filter set
reads to:
5-30 • Defining Protocols
•
Provide the ability to add reagent to the same plate between
readings.
•
Enable the reading of an initial blank plate followed by the
sample plate.
•
Enable the reading of up to 6 different plates using one protocol
User's Guide to KCjunior
Defining Kinetic Parameters
To define Kinetic parameters:
1.
Select the Kinetic Read Method Type.
2.
Enter the number of Kinetic Reads. The Kinetic Read value
represents the number of times the entire plate will be read.
3.
Enter the Kinetic Interval in seconds. The Kinetic Interval is
the time delay between Kinetic Reads.
¾Alternatively, allow KCjunior to select the minimum kinetic
interval. Check the Fastest Interval box to instruct
KCjunior to calculate the minimum kinetic interval
appropriate for the currently selected reader type. This
helps to ensure the fastest plate read possible.
Let KCjunior automatically
calculate the minimum
Kinetic Interval.
Note: If shaking is enabled,
the Shake Duration is
included in the calculation
of the Total Read Time.
¾After the Kinetic Reads and Kinetic Interval have been
entered, KCjunior automatically calculates the approximate
Total Read Time and displays it in the ~HH:MM:SS
format.
4.
If the reader is set to run in
Rapid Mode, the minimum
kinetic interval can be set to
a lower value than the
theoretical minimum value
calculated by KCjunior.
Refer to the reader’s user
manual for instructions on
changing the reading mode.
For the ELx800, PowerWave, PowerWaveX, µQuant, and
FLx800 readers:
¾When Fastest Interval is selected, KCjunior calculates a
theoretical minimum kinetic interval.
¾If the reader is connected to the computer, click the
Validate Read Method button to verify this value. If the
KCjunior theoretical value is too low, the reader returns a
valid range for the Kinetic Interval field.
¾If the reader is not currently connected to the computer and
Fastest Interval is selected, the Kinetic Interval is verified
just prior to a plate read. If the value is too low, the reader
returns a valid range for the Kinetic Interval field.
Selecting the Plate Geometry
The reader does not need
to be connected to the
computer to select a
Plate Geometry.
The Plate Geometry represents the number of rows and columns in a
microplate. For example, a Plate Geometry of 8x12 represents the
standard 96-well plate.
8x12 is the default for every reader type. Depending on the current
reader, additional geometry selections can include 2x3, 3x4, 4x6, 6x8,
6x10(Terasaki), 6x12(Terasaki), 8x12 (Hellma), 8x12 (Metric),
8x12(Terasaki), 16x24, and BioCell.
User's Guide to KCjunior
Defining Protocols • 5-31
To select a Plate Geometry:
1.
Ensure that under Setup|Reader, the desired Reader Type is
currently selected.
2.
Use the drop-down menu to view a list of available geometry
options for the current reader type.
3.
Click once on the desired Plate Geometry type.
4.
(Optional) If partial plate reading is supported by the current
reader, click the button to the right of the Geometry field to
define the well(s) to be read.
¾Define a “rectangle” of wells to be read by entering the
First Well and Last Well, or by highlighting the desired
wells in the grid.
For example, to read columns 4 through 7 of a 6x8 plate, set
First Well to A4 and Last Well to F7, or highlight columns
4, 5, 6, and 7 in the grid.
¾To set the First and Last Well values to coordinate with the
currently selected Geometry, click Read Full Plate.
¾Click OK to return to the Read Method dialog.
Setting a Time Delay Before Reading
Set a Delay Before Read to
allow time for stabilization.
Use this feature to set a delay between the time the operator initiates the
plate read and the time the plate read actually begins.
Notes: For MultiWavelength reads, if Read Empty Plate is enabled, the
delay begins after the empty plate(s) are read. For multiple-plate
Endpoint reads, the delay occurs before each plate is read.
To set a Delay Before Read:
1.
Enter the time (in seconds), in the Delay Before Reading field.
Monitoring Wells
If the currently selected reader supports well monitoring, the Monitor
Well option is available.
This feature enables the instrument to repeatedly read a single well or a
group of wells and evaluate the measurements against pre-defined
criteria. Once the criteria are met, the plate read begins.
To define Monitor Well parameters:
5-32 • Defining Protocols
1.
Check the Monitor Well box.
2.
Click the Monitor Well Parameters button. The Monitor Well
Parameters dialog appears:
User's Guide to KCjunior
KCjunior database versions
1.4 and greater support the
Monitor Well feature.
From the main menu, select
Help|About KCjunior to see
the version numbers for the
currently selected protocol
and results databases.
3.
Specify the monitoring Criteria:
¾Note: For the EL311/312/340 readers, the criteria is limited
to the entry of a Comparison Value (OD). When the
selected well reaches the defined comparison value,
monitoring stops and the plate read begins.
¾From the first drop-down list, select a statistic of At Least
One Well, Average of wells, or All Wells.
Note: If only one well will be monitored, select any
statistic. The behavior will be the same for all three
options.
¾From the second drop-down list, select a logical operator, <,
<=, >, or >=.
¾Enter a limit value. This is the target measurement value
for the selected well(s). The valid range is readerdependent.
¾Examples:
At Least One Well >= 0.050 OD: The plate read will begin
when at least one of the selected wells is greater than or
equal to 0.050 OD.
Average of Wells > 0.300 OD: The plate read will begin
when the average value of the selected wells is greater than
0.300 OD.
All Wells < 80000 LFU: The plate read will begin when all
of the selected wells measure less than 80000 LFU.
4.
(Optional) Enter a Delay Between Reads, in seconds. This is
the delay between readings of the selected well(s).
¾0 indicates no delay.
User's Guide to KCjunior
Defining Protocols • 5-33
5.
Highlight up to 8 wells to be monitored.
¾If a well is shaded, it has been selected and will be
monitored.
¾Any well(s) on the plate can be monitored, even if the
protocol specifies only a partial plate read.
¾Click the Clear Plate button to clear the currently selected
wells.
¾Note: For the EL311/312/340 readers, select only one well.
6.
Click OK to save the settings and return to the Read Method
parameters dialog.
Defining Incubation Parameters
If the currently selected reader supports plate incubation, the Incubation
option is available.
To define Incubation parameters:
1.
Ensure that under Setup|Reader, the desired Reader Type is
currently selected.
¾The reader does not need to be connected to the computer
to define Incubation parameters.
2.
Check the Incubation box. The Temperature field becomes
accessible.
3.
Enter the setpoint temperature (°C) in the Temperature field.
This is the temperature to which the plate chamber will be
heated prior to plate reading. The valid range is from 20°C (or
4°C above room temperature, whichever is greater), to 50°C.
Defining Shake Parameters
If the currently selected reader supports plate shaking, the Shake
parameters are accessible in the Read Method dialog.
To define Shake parameters:
1.
Ensure that under Setup|Reader, the desired Reader Type is
currently selected.
¾The reader does not need to be connected to the computer
to define Shake parameters.
2.
Select a Shake Method from the drop-down menu. Available
options include None, Shake First Read and Shake Every Read.
¾If Shake First Read is selected, the plate is shaken prior to
the first plate reading.
¾If Shake Every Read is selected, the plate is shaken prior
to every plate reading. This option typically applies to the
kinetic read method.
5-34 • Defining Protocols
User's Guide to KCjunior
Not every reader that
supports plate shaking
supports the Variable
intensity setting.
3.
Select the Shake Intensity. Available options include Low,
Medium, High, and Variable. If Variable is selected, the plate
is shaken at varying intensities over the defined duration.
4.
Set the Shake Duration. The valid range is 1-60 seconds.
5.
(Optional) For kinetic protocols, if Shake Every Read is
enabled, the Continuous Shake option is available. If selected,
the plate shakes continuously between the kinetic reads.
Selecting a Read Mode
If the currently selected reader supports multiple Read Modes, choose a
mode of Normal, Rapid, or Sweep:
•
Normal mode is the default and its exact behavior is reader-
dependent. In general this mode results in slower plate reading
and yields the most precise results.
•
With Rapid mode, reading is faster than with Normal mode.
•
With Sweep mode, reading is very fast because the carrier
“sweeps” the plate through the reader without stopping.
Notes:
The selection of one read mode over another generally depends on the
desired outcome of the assay (better precision versus faster plate
reading).
All readers that support multiple read modes support the Normal mode.
Many readers also support the Rapid mode. The PowerWave Robotic
instrument supports the Sweep mode (more readers may support this
mode in the future).
Just before the plate read, KCjunior checks to see if the attached reader
supports the Read Mode currently selected. If the reader does not
support the current Read Mode, a different one must be selected.
User's Guide to KCjunior
Defining Protocols • 5-35
Validating Read Method Parameters
The Validate Read Method button is available in the Read Method
dialog for some readers. When this button is clicked, KCjunior
communicates with the reader to verify the defined Kinetic Interval, and
also verifies that all required fields contain valid entries.
To validate the read method parameters:
1.
Ensure that under Setup|Reader, the desired Reader Type is
currently selected, and that the communication parameters are
set correctly.
2.
Ensure the reader is attached to the computer and turned on.
3.
Define the read method parameters.
4.
Click the Validate Read Method button.
KCjunior attempts to communicate with the reader.
If communication is successful, the parameters are validated and
the results are displayed. If a change is required, KCjunior
provides the necessary instructions.
Retrieving Reader Wavelengths/Filters
KCjunior provides the capability to retrieve wavelength/filter information
from the attached reader, and store that information in the drop-down
Wavelength or Filter selection menus.
To retrieve Wavelength/Filter information from a reader:
1.
Attach the reader to the computer and turn it on.
2.
Ensure that under Setup|Reader, the desired Reader Type is
currently selected, and that the communication parameters are
set correctly.
3.
Click the Get Reader Wavelengths button (or the Get Reader
Filters button) from the Read Method dialog.
KCjunior attempts to communicate with the reader.
If communication is successful, the Wavelength/Filter dropdown menus are updated to match the reader’s current settings.
“Sending” Reader Wavelengths
For the PowerWave, PowerWaveX, and µQuant readers: Just prior to
plate reading, if the protocol contains wavelengths that are not present in
the reader’s filter table KCjunior instructs the reader to calibrate the new
wavelengths.
5-36 • Defining Protocols
User's Guide to KCjunior
Calibrating the Reader
The Calibrate Reader button is available in the Read Method dialog for
readers that support calibration. When this button is clicked, the reader
runs a calibration routine and performs a system test.
Note: For Spectral Scan reads, there is a Calibrate Before First Read
checkbox instead of a Calibrate Reader button. See the next topic.
To calibrate the reader and perform a system test:
1.
Ensure that under Setup|Reader, the desired Reader Type is
currently selected, and that the communication parameters are
set correctly.
2.
Ensure the reader is attached to the computer and turned on.
3.
Ensure that the Wavelengths are specified appropriately.
4.
Click the Calibrate Reader button from the Read Method
dialog.
KCjunior attempts to communicate with the reader.
If communication is successful, the reader performs
calibration and then runs the system test.
5.
When the system test is complete, the results are displayed.
Click OK to close the results and return to the Read Method
dialog.
Calibrate Before First Read
For Spectral Scan reads, the Calibrate Before First Read option is
available.
User's Guide to KCjunior
•
If this box is checked, the reader calibrates at all of the
wavelengths defined in the protocol, just prior to plate scanning.
•
If this box is not checked, the reader calibrates at only those
wavelengths that have not yet been calibrated since the reader
was turned on.
Defining Protocols • 5-37
Templates
Within each KCjunior protocol, four unique Templates can be designed
to indicate location and related information for Well IDs, Dilutions,
Transformations, and Sample IDs:
•
Well Identifiers play an important role in calculations such as
blank subtraction, curve generation, and cutoff evaluation.
•
Dilutions can be specified to indicate a reduction in the amount
of concentration in solutions.
•
Transformations are user-definable formulas that can be
applied to one or more wells.
•
Sample IDs can be defined to distinctly identify sample wells.
To design templates:
1.
Choose to create or modify a protocol.
2.
Click the Template tab. The Well ID Template appears.
3.
Define or modify Well ID information, or click the Dilutions,
Transformations, or Sample IDs radio button to select a
different template type.
After a template type is selected, related definable parameters
automatically become accessible. For example, if the Well ID
Template is selected, data entry fields such as Well Type
Selection, Blank Method, and [Replicate] Number become
accessible.
Regardless of the template type, the information entry screens
are conveniently arranged with rows and columns that align with
the selected Plate Geometry.
A sample Template information entry screen for the 8x12 plate
geometry is shown below:
Instructions for defining Default Well IDs and designing
Templates are provided on the following pages.
5-38 • Defining Protocols
User's Guide to KCjunior
Defining Default Well IDs
Define the default Well IDs
before designing Templates.
Well IDs are used to identify the four well types supported by KCjunior –
Blank, Standard, Sample, and Control. Common IDs for these well types
are BLK, STD, SMP, and CTRL, respectively.
Default Well IDs are defined within the System Configuration dialog,
found under Setup|Configuration. Define these IDs before creating any
templates. For more information, see “Setting Up the System - System
Configuration” in Getting Started.
Assigning Well Identifiers
Well information, such as type, location, replicates, and blanking method,
is defined in the Well ID Template.
Note: The parameters
available within the Well ID
Template for the Spectral
Scan reading method are
limited to well type
selections of Blank and
Sample, and Sample
Numbering. One to eight
wells can be scanned, and
the wells do not have to be
contiguous.
Designing a New Well ID Template
Design the Well ID template
before defining dilutions,
transformations, or
sample IDs.
To design a Well ID Template:
1.
Ensure that the Default Well IDs for Blank, Standard, Sample,
and Control wells are defined appropriately under
Setup|Configuration.
2.
Ensure that the correct Plate Geometry is selected under the
Read Method tab.
3.
From within the Well ID Template, select a well type from the
Well Type Selections drop-down menu.
¾The Well Type Selection names are the descriptive links
between the generic well type (i.e., Blank, Sample,
Standard, and Control), and the 2 to 5 character Well ID.
Well Type Selection names and Well IDs are configured
under Setup|Configuration, Well IDs.
User's Guide to KCjunior
Defining Protocols • 5-39
4.
If applicable, define the Number of Replicates, Replicate
Direction, and Map Direction associated with that ID:
¾Specify the Number of Replicates for the selected well
type. The Number of Replicates value represents the
number of individual replicates (1, 2, 3) within a single
group (SMP, BLK, STD). KCjunior automatically
increments the numeric ID suffix.
¾Specify the Replicate Direction, Down or Across. The
Replicate Direction is the direction in which individual
replicates within a single group are mapped.
A direction of Down maps replicates down columns,
e.g. A1-B1, C1-D1.
A direction of Across maps replicates across rows,
e.g. A1-A2, A3-A4.
¾Specify the Map Direction, Down or Across. The Map
Direction is the direction in which the groups are mapped.
5.
If applicable, enter the Standard or Sample Number to be
associated with the starting replicate group.
For example:
¾Setting Standard Number to 1 labels the starting standard
group “[ID]01”, such as “STD01”.
¾Setting Sample Number to 6 labels the starting sample
group “[ID]06”, such as “SMP06”.
6.
For well types of Standard and Sample, check Auto-Increment
to automatically increment each subsequent group number by
one.
7.
After selecting the Well Type and defining any additional
information, assign the Well ID to one or more wells in the
template.
¾To assign an ID to a single well, click once on the desired
well.
¾To assign an ID to multiple contiguous wells, move the
mouse cursor to the “starting” well, then click and hold the
left mouse button. Drag the mouse cursor across and/or
down to the “ending” well, then release the mouse button.
¾If the plate contains more than 8 rows and/or 12 columns,
the template is viewable in quadrants. To select a quadrant
for well ID assignment, click on the appropriate Quadrant
number.
5-40 • Defining Protocols
User's Guide to KCjunior
8.
If the template contains Blank wells, select a Blanking Method.
Available methods are Full, Half, Quarter, Row, Column, and
Constant.
If Constant is selected, set a Blank Constant value. The valid
Blank Constant range is -9.9999e+99 to 9.9999e+99.
The Blanking Methods are described below:
Full
The average of the blank wells is subtracted from
every well on the plate.
Half
The average of the blank wells in the first half of
the plate (column-oriented) is subtracted from
each well of the first half of the plate.
The average of the blank wells in the second half
of the plate is subtracted from each well of the
second half of the plate.
Quarter
The average of the blank wells in the first
quadrant of the plate (column-oriented) is
subtracted from each well of the first quadrant.
The average of the blank wells in the second
quadrant is subtracted from each well of the
second quadrant, etc.
9.
Row
The average of the blank wells in each row is
subtracted from each well of that row.
Column
The average of the blank wells in each column is
subtracted from each well of that column.
Constant
Each well of the plate is reduced by the value of
a Blank Constant.
If the template contains Standard wells, define the associated
Concentrations.
•
Before defining concentrations, ensure that the Well ID
template contains Standard well IDs as required to support
the desired curve fit type. For more information, see
“Defining Curve Parameters - Selecting a Curve Method” in
Defining Protocols.
To define Concentrations, click the Concentrations button
from within the Well ID Template.
User's Guide to KCjunior
Defining Protocols • 5-41
The Concentrations dialog appears:
¾Within the Concentrations dialog, the Standard IDs that
were defined in the template appear in sequential order in
the STANDARD column. The concentrations associated
with each Standard ID appear in the CONC column.
¾Individual concentrations can be entered manually in the
CONC column, or they can be assigned using the AutoNumbering feature:
Enter the Starting Concentration – the concentration value
to be assigned to the first standard.
Note: Valid concentration values include 0 and 1.0000e-99
to 9.9999e+99.
Choose the method by which to increase the concentration
values for subsequent standards: Delta to increase each
standard exactly by a defined value, or Factor to increase
standards by a defined factor value.
Enter the Delta or Factor value, as appropriate.
Click the mouse button at the top of the CONC column to
assign the concentrations.
Click OK to save the information and return to the Well ID
Template.
10. When the Well ID Template is complete, the Dilutions,
Transformations, and Sample ID Templates can be designed.
¾Click the Dilutions radio button to assign Dilutions.
¾Click the Transformations radio button to define
Transformation and Plate Formulas.
¾Click the Sample IDs radio button to assign sample
identifiers.
5-42 • Defining Protocols
User's Guide to KCjunior
Modifying an Existing Well ID Template
Before modifying an existing Well ID Template, consider the following:
•
Changes made to the Well ID Template may affect the Dilution,
Transformation, and Sample ID Templates as well.
For example, if all 'PC' wells are removed from the Well ID
Template, any Transformation containing 'PC' will become
invalid, and should be modified or removed.
•
Changes made to the default Well IDs may affect modifications
to the Well ID Template.
When a Well ID Template is created, the default Well IDs that
were defined via Setup|Configuration are assigned to template
wells, as illustrated below:
KCjunior requires that within one template, a single Well ID
must be defined for wells of type Blank, Standard, and Sample.
Because of this, it is useful to know if any default Well IDs have
been changed before modifying an existing Well ID Template.
In the following example, the user plans to add one more blank
well to a template in a previously saved protocol. In the time
since the protocol was last saved, the default well ID for wells of
type Blank had been changed.
¾The original Well ID Template was created as shown
above, with two wells of type Blank, with the ID BLK. The
protocol was then saved with this template setup.
¾Via Setup|Configuration, a change was made to the default
Well ID for wells of type Blank; they are now referred to as
BLANK instead of BLK.
¾To add another Blank well, Well Type Selection is set to
Blank, then well C1 is “clicked” to assign the ID. Now the
template looks like this:
¾This is currently an invalid template. To make the template
valid, two options are available:
User's Guide to KCjunior
Defining Protocols • 5-43
Option 1: With the Well Type Selection still set to Blank,
click wells A1 and B1 to change them to BLANK. The
template is now valid. Note: If any transformations in this
protocol referred to “BLK”, all references would have to be
changed to “BLANK” to ensure validity.
Option 2: Via Setup|Configuration, change the default
Well ID for Blank wells back to BLK. Return to the Well
ID Template. With Well Type Selection set to Blank, click
on well C1 to assign the ID BLK. The template is now
valid.
Defining Dilutions
KCjunior provides the ability to assign dilutions to sample and control
wells.
•
In quantitative assays, calculated concentrations are multiplied
by the dilutions to produce the final concentrations.
•
In titer assays, for each sample group containing multiple
dilutions KCjunior automatically attempts to generate a curve
using the dilutions as concentrations.
To define Dilutions:
1.
Ensure that Sample and/or Control wells are defined
appropriately within the Well ID Template.
2.
Access the Dilutions Template:
A dilution value of 1
indicates the sample is not
diluted (1:1).
A dilution value of 2
indicates the sample is
diluted 1:2. The resulting
concentration for the
sample will be multiplied
by 2.0 to achieve the true
concentration.
5-44 • Defining Protocols
User's Guide to KCjunior
3.
To assign dilutions and manually increase the dilution values:
¾Enter the starting dilution value in the Dilution field.
The valid dilution range is from 1.0000e-99 to 9.9999e+99.
¾Specify the Number of Replicates and Replicate
Direction.
The Number of Replicates represents the number of
contiguous wells to be assigned the same dilution value.
The Replicate Direction is the direction in which
contiguous wells should be assigned the same dilution
value, Down or Across.
¾Within the template, click one or more wells to assign the
current dilution value.
¾To assign the next dilution, change the value in the Dilution
field, then click one or more wells.
4.
To assign dilutions and let KCjunior increase the dilution
values:
¾Enter the starting dilution value in the Dilution field.
The valid dilution range is from 1.0000e-99 to 9.9999e+99.
¾Specify the Number of Replicates and Replicate
Direction, as explained in step 3.
¾Select a Fill Count method of Delta or Factor.
Choose Delta to increase each dilution exactly by a defined
value. Choose Factor to increase dilutions by a defined
factor value
¾Enter a Delta Value or Factor Value, as appropriate.
¾Specify a Map Direction of Down or Across. This is the
direction in which increasing dilutions should be mapped.
¾Highlight a block of contiguous wells to assign dilutions.
5.
To clear any mistakes:
¾Set the Dilution value to 1.000.
¾Set Replicates to 1.
¾De-select the Fill Count.
¾Highlight the well(s) to be reset to 1.000.
User's Guide to KCjunior
Defining Protocols • 5-45
Defining Transformations
Transformations are user-defined formulas applied to plate data for
analysis or for data transformation before calculating concentrations
or cutoffs.
The basis for formula calculation may be Raw Data, Blanked Data,
data normalized by Pathlength Correction, or the Maximum Slope,
depending on the protocol definition. See “Essential Information” in
Getting Started to review the results calculation structure.
Results calculationTwo types of formulas can be defined within one
protocol:
•
Transformation Formulas. These formulas are manually
assigned to individual wells. Results of these formulas serve as
the basis for curve generation and cutoff evaluation.
•
Plate Formulas. These formulas are automatically applied to
every well on the plate that has a Well ID assigned. Results of
these formulas do not serve as the basis for curve generation or
cutoff evaluation.
To define Transformations:
1.
Ensure that Well IDs are defined appropriately in the Well ID
Template.
2.
Access the Transformations Template:
Click the Help button and
then click the light bulb icon
for tips on:
• Making a column wider
or a row higher.
• Removing a
transformation
from a well.
• Highlighting all wells
at once.
¾Use this template to define, modify, and apply
Transformation and Plate Formulas.
5-46 • Defining Protocols
User's Guide to KCjunior
Working with Transformation Formulas
To apply an existing Transformation Formula to one or more wells:
1.
To the right of the Transformation Formula field, click the
down arrow to see a list of available formulas.
2.
Click on the desired formula to select it.
3.
To apply the formula to all wells, click the Apply To All Wells
button.
4.
To apply the formula to specific wells, use the mouse to
highlight one well or a block of wells, then click the Apply to
Selection button.
5.
To access Copy, Paste, and Undo features, click either the right
mouse button or the Options button.
To define and apply a new Transformation Formula:
1.
Type the formula in the Transformation Formula field. See
“Formula Syntax” at the end of this section for more
information.
Alternatively, let KCjunior assist with defining a new
Transformation Formula:
¾Click the
button to the right of the Transformation
Formula field to access the Formula dialog:
See “Formula Syntax”
for information on
mathematical values and
symbols, and location
indicators.
¾Assemble the formula using a combination of Functions,
Well IDs, Mathematical values and symbols, and Location
indicators.
A Function performs a specific operation on the contents
inside the parenthesis, such as the calculation of a mean
value or the Standard Deviation.
The Well IDs list contains those Well IDs that are valid for
this protocol. Each Well ID represents the mean value of its
group (CTL1 represents the mean of all wells labeled as
“CTL1”). The identifier X represents the current value of
the well.
User's Guide to KCjunior
Defining Protocols • 5-47
¾Functions and Well IDs can be entered manually, or they
can be selected from the list boxes.
To add an item from a list box to the Formula field,
highlight the desired item then double-click.
To insert an item between two existing items in the Formula
field, begin by clicking the mouse once in the Formula field
where the new item should appear. Highlight the desired
item in the list box, then double-click to insert.
¾Mathematical values and symbols can be entered
manually, or selected by clicking the appropriate buttons.
¾Location indicators can be entered manually, or selected
by clicking the appropriate buttons.
¾KCjunior provides the option to perform a verification of
the formula and check for syntax errors. When the formula
is fully assembled, click the Verify button.
If the test is successful, the message “Formula is valid”
appears.
If the test is unsuccessful, a message will appear describing
the error(s). Edit the formula accordingly, then click Verify
again.
¾Click OK to close the Formula dialog and return to the
Transformations Template. The newly created formula will
appear in the Transformation Formula field.
2.
(Optional) Click the Add to List button to save the new
Transformation Formula..
3.
To apply the formula to all wells, click the Apply to All Wells
button.
To apply the formula to specific wells, use the mouse to
highlight one well or a block of wells to which the formula
should be applied, then click the Apply to Selection button.
5-48 • Defining Protocols
User's Guide to KCjunior
KCjunior performs basic formula validation at this time. For
example, if a formula references a well that is invalid for the
current plate geometry, a formula validation error message
appears.
To perform a more thorough validation, highlight the well
containing the formula in question, open the Formula dialog,
then click the Verify button.
4.
To access Copy, Paste, and Undo features, click either the right
mouse button or the Options button.
Working With Plate Formulas
To apply an existing Plate Formula:
1.
To the right of the Plate Formula field, click the down arrow to
see a list of available formulas.
2.
Click on the desired formula to select it.
¾During data reduction, this formula is automatically applied
to every well that has been assigned a Well ID.
To define and apply a new Plate Formula:
1.
Type the formula in the Plate Formula field.
See “Formula Syntax”, “Order of Precedence”, and “Examples”
later in this section for more information.
Alternatively, let KCjunior assist with defining a new Plate
Formula.
¾Click the
button next to the Plate Formula field to
access the Formula dialog.
See “To define and apply a new Transformation Formula”
under Working with Transformation Formulas for
instructions.
2.
User's Guide to KCjunior
(Optional) Click the Add to List button to save the new Plate
Formula.
Defining Protocols • 5-49
Formula Syntax
In KCjunior, a formula contains a combination of Functions, Well IDs,
Mathematical values and symbols, and Location indicators. Formula
elements are listed and described below:
+
-
*
The + operator represents addition.
•
PC + NC calculates the sum of the PC mean and the NC mean.
•
X + 0.005 calculates the sum of the current well and 0.005.
The - operator can represent either subtraction or negation.
•
PC - BLK subtracts the BLK mean from the PC mean.
•
X-BLK subtracts the BLK mean from the current well.
The * operator represents multiplication.
•
SMP01*10 multiplies the mean of the sample replicate group
SMP01 by 10.
•
/
()
X*100 multiplies the current well by 100.
The / operator represents division.
•
PC/NC divides the PC mean by the NC mean.
•
X/[A2] divides the current well by the value in well A2.
Parentheses ( ) represent an inclusive unit for calculation.
•
(PC-NC)/100 divides the difference between the PC mean and
the NC mean by 100.
•
([B4]/STD1)*100 divides well B4 by the STD1 mean, then
multiplies the result by 100.
CV( )
The CV function calculates the coefficient of variation of the contents
inside the parenthesis. The CV represents the standard deviation as a
percentage of the mean: (standard deviation/mean)*100.
The CV function supports up to five parameters, each of which must
equate to a single value.
•
CV(3.124, 3.094, 2.997) returns 2.161.
•
CV(CTRL1, CTRL2) returns the coefficient of variation for all
replicates of both control groups.
If there is a single parameter inside the parenthesis then it is assumed to
be a Well ID.
•
5-50 • Defining Protocols
CV(PC) returns the coefficient of variation for the group PC.
User's Guide to KCjunior
DIL
The DIL function brings forth the currently assigned dilution value in the
well. This value can then be included in a formula.
The DIL function has no parameters associated with it. It returns a single
value, the dilution defined for the well in the Dilutions template.
•
DIL returns the currently defined dilution value for the well, such
as 10.000.
•
DIL * X multiplies the defined dilution value by the current value
in the well. For example, with a quantitative assay, the X value
may represent the calculated concentration for the well.
•
FS( )
DIL is not valid within a Cutoff formula.
The FS function is available for fluorescence and luminescence
protocols, and is used to specify a particular filter set for use in the
formula.
•
FS(4) * 100 multiplies the result in each well of Filter Set #4 by
100.
•
FS(1) / FS(2) divides the result in each well of Filter Set #1 by
the result in the corresponding well of Filter Set #2.
•
To control the basis for standard curve and concentrations
calculation in a multiple filter set read, apply FS(<filter set
number>) to every well in the Transformation Template.
KCjunior automatically uses the results calculated for that filter
set when generating the curve and calculating concentrations.
•
MEAN( )
FS is not valid within a Cutoff formula.
The MEAN function calculates the average of the contents inside the
parenthesis. It supports up to five parameters, each of which must equate
to a single value.
•
MEAN(7, 16, 4) returns 9.
•
MEAN(PC, NC) returns the mean of the PC and the NC replicate
groups.
If there is a single parameter inside the parenthesis then it is assumed to
be a Well ID.
•
User's Guide to KCjunior
MEAN(BLK) returns the mean of the BLK wells.
Defining Protocols • 5-51
SD( )
The SD function calculates the standard deviation of the contents inside
the parenthesis. The Standard Deviation is a measure of the distribution
of individual values relative to the mean.
The SD function supports up to five parameters, each of which must
equate to a single value.
•
SD(3.124, 3.094, 2.997) returns 0.06638.
•
SD(CTRL1, CTRL2) returns the standard deviation for all
replicates of both control groups.
If there is a single parameter inside the parenthesis then it is assumed to
be a Well ID.
•
WV( )
SD(NC) returns the standard deviation of the group NC.
The WV function references the set of data at the wavelength specified
inside the parenthesis.
•
WV(450) references the set of data read at or calculated for 450
nm. (In a MultiWavelength read, if an empty plate is read at
450 nm, WV(450) represents the Result, or the difference in
readings between the actual microplate and the empty plate).
•
WV(405)/WV(630) in a well divides its 405 nm result by its 630
nm result.
•
To control the basis for standard curve and concentrations
calculation in a MultiWavelength read, apply
WV(<wavelength>) to every well in the Transformation
Template.
KCjunior automatically uses the measurements at that
wavelength when generating the curve and calculating
concentrations.
•
[]
$
5-52 • Defining Protocols
WV is not valid within a Cutoff formula.
Use brackets [ ] to reference a well by its location on the plate.
For example:
•
(([A2]-[A12])/2)+[A12]
•
X-([C2]-[C3])
Use a dollar ($) sign to retain the row and/or column reference when
copying formulas from cell to cell in the template.
•
[A1], [$A1], [A$1], and [$A$1] all refer to well A1.
•
[A1] copied from A1 to B1 becomes [B1].
•
[$A1] copied from A1 to B2 becomes [$A2].
•
[A$1] copied from A1 to B2 becomes [B$1].
User's Guide to KCjunior
X
The letter X represents the value of the current well.
•
X-BLK in well G6 subtracts the BLK mean from the value in
well G6.
•
X-[A2] in well A1 subtracts the value in well A2 from the value
in well A1.
•
<well id>
X is not valid within a Cutoff formula
Any Well IDentifier used in a formula represents the group mean or
average.
•
PC represents the mean of all PC wells on the plate.
•
SMP01 represents the mean of all SMP01 wells on the plate.
•
SD(BLK) calculates the standard deviation of the BLK wells.
Order of Precedence
KCjunior processes formulas according to a certain order of
precedence:
1st: ( ) parenthesis
2nd: - unary minus
3rd: * and /
4th: + and •
Operators * and / are of equal precedence
•
Operators + and - are of equal precedence
•
Within an expression, operators of equal precedence are
processed from left to right
Examples:
Values in three PC wells: 3.002, 3.186, 2.998
Values in three NC wells: 0.868, 0.798, 0.824
(PC-NC)/100 = 0.02232
(MEAN(PC,NC))/100 = 0.01946
User's Guide to KCjunior
Defining Protocols • 5-53
Identifying Samples
KCjunior provides the ability to assign custom identifiers, such as
“Jones” or “003672865A”, to sample groups. These identifiers are
referred to as Sample IDs, and they are defined within the Sample ID
Template.
To define Sample IDs:
1.
Ensure that Sample wells are defined appropriately within the
Well ID Template.
2.
Access the Sample ID Template:
3.
In this template, highlight a sample well to prepare it for
identification. The well ID will appear in the Sample ID field.
Only one replicate within a sample group needs to be
highlighted.
5-54 • Defining Protocols
4.
Replace the contents of the Sample ID field with the new sample
group identifier, using up to 16 alphanumeric characters.
5.
Click the Apply button to assign the ID to the highlighted
sample group.
6.
Repeat for the remaining sample wells.
User's Guide to KCjunior
Curves
KCjunior provides three methods for generating curves:
•
A standard curve can be generated based on the standard wells
defined within the protocol.
•
A previously generated and stored curve can be referenced
from within the protocol.
•
A titer curve can be generated using multiple dilutions of
sample groups as concentrations.
The basis for curve calculation may be Raw Data, Blanked Data, data
normalized by Pathlength Correction, or Maximum Slope, depending on
the protocol definition. See “Essential Information” in Getting Started to
review the results calculation structure.
To define Curve parameters:
1.
If this is a titer protocol, ensure that samples and dilutions have
been defined.
If the curve will be based on standards, ensure that the Standard
well IDs are assigned within the Well ID Template.
Note: Each curve-fitting method requires a minimum number
of standards:
2.
User's Guide to KCjunior
Linear
2
2 Parameter
4
Quadratic
3
4 Parameter
4
Cubic
4
Point-to-Point
2
Cubic-Spline
3
Access the Curve dialog:
Defining Protocols • 5-55
3.
If the standard curve will be based on a stored curve:
¾Click Use Stored Curve at the bottom of the Curve dialog.
¾Select a stored curve from the drop-down list.
¾No other Curve parameters need to be defined.
4.
Select a Curve Method from the drop-down list.
Available options are Linear, Quadratic, Cubic, 2 Parameter,
4 Parameter, Point-to-Point, and Cubic Spline:
Linear: A simple best-fit, straight line is plotted using the
values of the standards.
Quadratic: Uses the quadratic equation ax2+bx+c=y to plot the
standard values. Using this curve, any particular data point for a
standard which deviates from the ideal value does not affect the
entire curve.
Cubic: Uses the equation ax3+bx2+cx+d=y to plot the standard
values. The cubic curve is affected even less than the quadratic
fit when any particular standard has a poor value.
2 Parameter: Also known as Logit-Log. Characterized by a
skewed sigmoidal plot that eventually becomes asymptotic to the
upper and lower standard values. The logistic equation is
algebraically transformed to a simpler form, where
experimentally determined values are used for the responses at
concentrations of zero and infinity.
4 Parameter: Characterized by a skewed sigmoidal plot that
eventually becomes asymptotic to the upper and lower standard
values. The four parameters are left asymptote, right asymptote,
slope, and slope at the inflection point.
Point-to-Point: Follows each standard point with no averaging
of the values to “smooth” the curve.
Cubic Spline: A piecewise polynomial approximation
consisting of joining a set of data points by a series of straight
lines, which is then “smoothed” by using a cubic fit.
5.
Enter a name for the graph in the Graph Report Name field,
using up to 16 alphanumeric characters.
¾This name appears on Standard Curve reports.
6.
Select a Y Axis Scale of Linear or Log.
¾For most curve methods, if a logarithmic scale is selected,
then logarithmic numbers are used for both the calculation
of the curve and the plotting of the curve.
For the 2 Parameter and 4 Parameter curve methods,
however, the logarithmic scale is applied only to the
plotting of the curve. The curve is calculated using linear
numbers.
5-56 • Defining Protocols
User's Guide to KCjunior
7.
Specify a Y Axis Label, using up to 32 alphanumeric characters.
This label appears on displayed and printed reports.
¾Common labels are “Optical Density”, “RFU”, and “RLU”.
8.
Select an X Axis Scale of Linear or Log.
¾For most curve methods, if a logarithmic scale is selected,
then logarithmic numbers are used for both the calculation
of the curve and the plotting of the curve.
For the 2 Parameter and 4 Parameter curve methods,
however, the logarithmic scale is applied only to the
plotting of the curve. The curve is calculated using linear
numbers.
9.
Specify an X Axis Label, using up to 32 alphanumeric
characters. This label appears on displayed and printed reports.
¾A common label is “Concentration”.
10. If the Standards are defined with multiple replicates, enable
standard averaging by clicking Average Standards.
¾If Average Standards is enabled, KCjunior uses the
average of the standard replicates when generating the
curve.
¾If Average Standards is disabled, KCjunior uses the
individual standard replicates when generating the curve.
¾Note: The Point-to-Point and Cubic Spline curve methods
automatically use the average of the standard replicates.
11. If required, click Extrapolate to display extrapolated
concentrations (unknown values on the Y axis which are outside
the range of the standards).
¾On data displays and reports, extrapolated concentrations
are enclosed by parenthesis, for example (27.345).
¾Note: The Cubic Spline curve method does not permit the
display of extrapolated concentrations.
12. (Optional) To calculate the concentration for a specific value,
enable Calculate Interpolation Value, then enter the desired
value.
Valid Interpolation Values include 0 and 1.0000e-99 to
9.9999e+99.
¾If a curve generates successfully, KCjunior calculates a
concentration for the entered Interpolation Value. The
Interpolation Value is displayed on the Standard Curve
dialog and on the Standard Curve report.
User's Guide to KCjunior
Defining Protocols • 5-57
Cutoffs
Cutoffs are used to classify results. During data reduction, KCjunior
evaluates results against user-defined cutoff criteria and assigns each well
a user-defined Label.
The basis for cutoff evaluation may be Raw Data, Blanked Data, data
normalized by Pathlength Correction, or Maximum Slope, depending on
the protocol definition. See “Essential Information” in Getting Started to
review the results calculation structure.
To define Cutoffs and Labels:
See “Data Reduction and
Analysis” under Essential
Information to review the
calculation structure which
determines the basis for
cutoff evaluation.
1.
If a cutoff value or formula contains references to specific Well
IDs, ensure that the IDs are defined in the Well ID Template.
2.
Access the Cutoffs dialog:
3.
Enter the cutoff values or formulas in the Cutoff fields. These
are the criteria against which the plate data will be evaluated.
¾Up to four cutoffs can be specified. Each cutoff can be any
one of the following:
A simple numeric value, such as 1.500 or 50000.
A well ID, such as NC or LPC.
A formula combining numeric values and well IDs, such as
STD01*0.800.
¾Multiple cutoffs must be entered in ascending order, down
the screen.
In the following example, the NC mean must equate to a
value that is less than that of the PC mean for the cutoff
evaluation to be valid.
5-58 • Defining Protocols
User's Guide to KCjunior
4.
Click the
button to the right of a Cutoff field to let
KCjunior assist with formula definition and verification.
The Formula dialog appears:
¾Assemble the formula using a combination of Functions,
Well IDs, Mathematical values and symbols, and Location
indicators.
¾Functions and Well IDs can be entered manually, or they
can be selected from the list boxes.
A Function performs a specific operation on the contents
inside the parenthesis, such as the calculation of a mean
value or the Standard Deviation.
The Well IDs list contains those Well IDs that are valid for
this protocol. Each Well ID represents the mean of its
replicate group.
To add an item from a list box to the Formula field,
highlight the desired item then double-click.
To insert an item between two existing items in the Formula
field, begin by clicking the mouse once in the Formula field
where the new item should appear. Highlight the desired
item in the list box, then double-click to insert.
User's Guide to KCjunior
Defining Protocols • 5-59
¾Mathematical values and symbols can be entered
manually, or selected by clicking the appropriate buttons.
¾Location indicators can be entered manually, or selected
by clicking the appropriate buttons.
¾When the formula is fully assembled, click the Verify button
to check for syntax errors.
If the test is successful, the message “Formula is valid”
appears.
If the test is unsuccessful, a descriptive message appears.
Edit the formula accordingly and click Verify again.
¾Click OK to close the Formula dialog and return to the
Cutoff dialog. The newly created formula will appear in the
appropriate Cutoff field.
5.
Specify the text to be associated with each cutoff zone in the
Label fields. These labels will be assigned to wells after
evaluation.
¾Each label can contain up to five alphanumeric characters.
¾The number of labels must exceed the number of cutoff
values or formulas by one.
¾In the following example, labels will be applied to wells as
follows:
Neg if the value in the well is less than 10.0.
Eqv if the value in the well is greater than or equal to 10.0
and less than 20.0.
Pos if the value in the well is greater than or equal to 20.0.
5-60 • Defining Protocols
User's Guide to KCjunior
Reports
KCjunior provides up to seven different reports, depending on the current
protocol settings. The contents of some of these reports can be further
customized for greater flexibility with data presentation.
To select the reports for use with a particular protocol:
1.
Choose to modify an existing protocol or create a new one.
2.
Select the Reports tab. The Reports dialog appears.
3.
Define a Report Banner, using up to 32 alphanumeric
characters. This banner appears at the top of each printed
report.
4.
Check the box or radio button next to every report and
corresponding option(s) to be printed.
Appendix A at the end of
the User's Guide contains
sample reports.
Most reports require that
well identifiers be assigned
in the template. The Raw
Data Report, however,
can be printed even if no
well ID’s are assigned.
¾The Protocol Report lists many of the parameters defined
in this protocol.
Click Show Template to include a row x column matrix
containing all defined Well IDs.
Click Show Formula to list the Transformation and/or Plate
Formulas.
¾The Raw Data Report contains the raw and/or blanked
optical density data or relative fluorescence/luminescence
data in one or more matrices corresponding with the plate
geometry.
Click Raw Data, Blanked Data, or Both, as appropriate.
User's Guide to KCjunior
Defining Protocols • 5-61
For MultiWavelength reads, one matrix prints for each
wavelength.
For Fluorescence and Luminescence reads, one matrix
prints for each filter set.
¾The Maximum Slope Report is available with kinetic
protocols. It reports the maximum slope calculated for
every well, in a matrix corresponding with the plate
geometry.
For Fluorescence and Luminescence kinetic protocols
with two filter sets defined, two maximum slope values will
print for each well (one for each
filter set).
¾The Formula Report contains the results of the
Transformation Formula(s) and/or Plate Formula in a matrix
corresponding with the plate geometry.
Click Transformation Formula, Plate Formula, or Both,
as appropriate.
Click Show Formula to list the Transformation and/or Plate
Formulas.
¾The Column Report lists Sample IDs/Well IDs, well
location, up to three categories of measurement values, and
assigned cutoff labels, if appropriate.
Information can be sorted by Sample ID or by location in
the plate (down or across).
If sorting is by Sample ID, the report also contains the
mean, standard deviation, and coefficient of variation for
each Sample ID / Well ID.
¾The Matrix Report contains well-specific information
in a matrix corresponding with the plate geometry.
The contents of this report can be customized:
In the Options box, highlight up to 8 items to appear on the
report, then click the Add button. The selected item(s) will
appear in the Selections box.
Available options depend on the current protocol settings.
See “Selecting Options for the Matrix Report” on the next
page for more information.
To remove an item from the Selections box, highlight the
item and click the Remove button.
To insert a reporting option between items in the Selection
box, highlight the item in the Selection box above which the
new option will be inserted, highlight the data set in the
Options box, then click Add.
5-62 • Defining Protocols
User's Guide to KCjunior
¾The Curve Report contains the graphical representation of
the standard, titer, or spectral scan curve, as appropriate for
the protocol.
5.
Select OK to close the protocol and retain the new settings, or
click another tab to define additional information.
•
The contents of some of these reports can be further customized
for greater flexibility with data presentation.
•
Appendix A of the “User's Guide to KCjunior” contains
samples of each report type.
•
Most reports require that well identifiers be assigned in the
template. The Raw Data Report, however, can be printed even
if no well ID's are assigned.
Selecting Options for the Matrix Report
The options available for printing depend on the current protocol settings,
and can include some or all of the following:
•
Well ID
•
Raw, Blanked, and/or Corrected Data
¾Endpoint and Kinetic absorbance reads: The options to
include raw or blanked data in the Matrix Report are
presented as “Raw Data” or “Blanked Data”.
¾Endpoint and Kinetic fluorescence/luminescence reads:
There are multiple “Raw” and “Blank” options available for
the Matrix Report, one for each filter set defined.
For example, if the Read Method options specify 3 filter
sets, and there are blank wells defined in the template, the
selectable Matrix Report options include the following:
Raw(1)
Raw(2)
Raw(3)
Blank(1)
Blank(2)
Blank(3)
Raw(1) represents the raw data values obtained with filter
set 1, Blank(1) represents the values obtained with filter set
1 after blank subtraction, and so on.
User's Guide to KCjunior
Defining Protocols • 5-63
¾MultiWavelength absorbance reads: An option is presented
for each individual wavelength. For example, if the
protocol specifies reading at 405, 450, and 490 nm, with
blanking, the options include the following:
Raw(405)
Raw(450)
Raw(490)
Blank(405)
Blank(450)
Blank(490)
If Read Empty Plate is enabled for a wavelength, the Raw
and Blanked data sets for that wavelength represent the
results after empty plate subtraction.
If Pathlength Correction is enabled, the “Corr” option is
presented for each wavelength. This data set represents
results after blank subtraction and pathlength correction.
•
Pathlengths
¾The Pathlengths option is available for MultiWavelength
protocols with Pathlength Correction enabled.
•
Max Slope
¾The Max Slope option is available for Kinetic protocols, to
report the maximum slope calculated for every well.
¾For fluorescence/luminescence Kinetic protocols with two
filter sets defined, Max Slope (1) and Max Slope (2)
represent the maximum slopes calculated for every well, for
filter sets #’s 1 and 2, respectively.
•
Transformations
•
Plate Transformations
•
Standard Conc/Dilutions
¾Standard concentrations or dilutions are included as they are
defined in the protocol, under the Curve tab.
5-64 • Defining Protocols
•
Calculated Concentrations
•
Cutoff Labels
User's Guide to KCjunior
Reading Plates
Overview
The terms “plate data” and “results” refer to the set of measurements
either retrieved from a microplate reader, entered manually by the
operator, or read from an existing data file, and the results of any
calculations performed on those measurements.
Reading Plates describes how to use KCjunior to:
User's Guide to KCjunior
•
Read a microplate with, and retrieve plate data from, the
attached reader.
•
Simulate a plate read.
•
Copy data from a spreadsheet and paste it into a KCjunior plate.
•
Import plate data from an archive results database into the
current results database.
•
Share plate data and results databases among multiple KCjunior
users.
•
Read data from a KCJr for DOS plate file or from an OmniSystem absorbance file.
•
Export plate data to a text file or directly into a Microsoft Excel
spreadsheet.
•
View, store, and access results.
Reading Plates • 6-1
Working With Plates and Results
This section describes accessing, generating, modifying, storing, and
sharing plate data.
Where is Plate Data Stored?
Data for each plate is stored in a Results Record in the Results
Database. Each record is identified by a user-assigned Results ID.
One results record stores all of the raw optical density, fluorescence, or
luminescence values for a plate that was read once (as with a single-plate
endpoint protocol), or for a plate that was read multiple times (as with a
kinetic, multi-wavelength, spectral scan, or multi-plate endpoint
protocol).
Results Databases are typically stored on a computer’s hard drive, or on a
network to which the computer is attached. When opening or saving
results records, KCjunior automatically refers to the Results Database
Pathname for retrieval and storage.
•
The Results Database Pathname represents the location and
name of the “current” results database.
¾Example pathname: C:\KCjunior\Database\Results.mdb.
•
The results database pathname can be viewed or changed under
Setup|Configuration, Pathnames.
Opening an Existing Results Record
To open an existing results record, begin by clicking the Open Results
button in the KCjunior main screen, selecting Results|Open Results, or
by selecting a name from the Results drop-down menu in the toolbar.
The Open Results dialog appears, as shown below:
Click on the Results column
header to sort the list by
name, in ascending or
descending order. Or click
on the Creation Date
column header to sort by
creation date and time.
6-2 • Reading Plates
User's Guide to KCjunior
•
To open an existing results record, highlight the desired
Results record name in the list, then double-click the mouse
button or click the Open button.
•
To change the sort order, click on the Results column header
and/or the Creation Date column header.
•
To close this dialog without opening a record, click Cancel or
press the Esc key.
Generating a New Set of Plate Data
Plate data can be retrieved from a microplate reader, generated manually
(referred to as simulation data), or read from a file.
To generate any new set of plate data, begin by clicking on the Read
Plate button in the KCjunior main screen, selecting Results|Read Plate,
or by clicking the toolbar icon.
The Read Plate dialog appears, providing three options for generating
the plate. For more information see:
•
“Reading a Plate” on page 6-7
•
“Simulating a Plate Read” on page 6-12
•
“Reading Plate Data from a File” on page 6-13
Before Reading a New Plate
A microplate can be read with or without a Protocol. A protocol
contains information for the operation of the microplate reader, as well as
instructions for analyzing data retrieved from the reader.
To read a plate without a protocol (to perform a fast read), simply click
the Read Plate button from within the Read Plate dialog. KCjunior
requests minimal read method information then initiates the plate read. If
desired, a protocol can be opened or defined after the data is retrieved
from the reader.
To define or open a protocol before reading a plate, refer to the Defining
Protocols section of this User’s Guide.
User's Guide to KCjunior
Reading Plates • 6-3
Saving and Closing Results Records
After generating or modifying a plate, save the information by selecting
Results|Save Results or by clicking the toolbar icon. Results records
are stored in the current Results Database.
KCjunior either automatically saves the record under the Results ID
assigned prior to microplate reading, or requests the entry of a Results ID
if not previously assigned.
To close an open record, select Results|Close Results or click the
toolbar icon. If the record is new, or if modifications were made to an
existing record, KCjunior provides an option to save:
•
Click Yes to save the new or modified information and close the
record.
•
Click No to close the record without saving changes.
•
Click Cancel to close this dialog and return to the main view.
The new or modified information is retained but not yet saved.
Copying an Existing Results Record
KCjunior provides an option to copy all of the contents of an existing
results record to a new record with a different name.
To copy an existing record, begin by opening it. Once it is open,
immediately select Save As from the Results Menu. KCjunior asks for a
new name:
6-4 • Reading Plates
•
Enter a new name, then click OK to create the new results
record, save it in the current Results Database, and keep it open
for modification.
•
Click Cancel to cancel this operation and return to the original
results record.
User's Guide to KCjunior
Sharing Results Records and Databases
Since KCjunior stores results records in a database, there are several
options for sharing records and databases among users:
•
A results database can be stored on a network for multi-user
availability.
¾Each user must configure the Results Database Pathname
within his or her copy of KCjunior to point to the network
database.
•
A results database can be copied to a diskette or CD and
exchanged between users.
If the database has grown too large to fit on a diskette, create
an empty results database, then copy only the desired results
records into the new database:
1.
Select Utilities|Database Maintenance|Create Archive
Results Database. The Create Empty Results Database
dialog appears.
2.
In the Save in field select a location for the new database,
then enter an identifying File name.
3.
Click Save to create the database and return to the main
screen.
4.
Select Utilities|Database Maintenance|Archive Results.
The Archive Results Database Pathname dialog appears.
5.
Enter the drive, directory, and file name for the newly
created empty database.
6.
Click OK. The Archive Results dialog appears, listing the
contents of the current Results Database.
7.
Select the record(s) to be copied. Do NOT check Delete
after archive.
8.
•
Click the Archive Results button. The selected records are
copied to the new database.
Results records can be imported from one database into another.
See Importing Results below for more information.
Suggestions:
¾Results records can be imported from a “master” results
database stored on a network.
¾Results records can be imported from a results database
stored on a diskette.
User's Guide to KCjunior
Reading Plates • 6-5
Importing Results
Results records from one results database can be imported into another
results database. The Results Database that will receive the imported
records is the one defined under Setup|Configuration|Pathnames.
To import results records from a stored database:
1.
If a results record is currently open, close it.
2.
Select Results|Import Results. The Import Results Database
Pathname dialog appears.
3.
In the Results Database Pathname field, enter the pathname
(drive, directory, and file name), of the database containing the
records to be imported.
Alternatively, use the Browse feature to locate and select the
database.
4.
Click OK. The Import Results dialog appears, listing all
records in the database.
¾Click the Results and Creation Date column headers to
sort the records alphabetically or by date.
5.
Use the mouse to select the record(s) to import.
¾Press the Shift key while using the mouse to select
contiguous records.
¾Press the Ctrl key while using the mouse to select noncontiguous records.
6.
Click the Import Results button. KCjunior imports the selected
records.
¾If a duplicate record name is detected, KCjunior does not
overwrite the record.
6-6 • Reading Plates
User's Guide to KCjunior
Reading a Plate
A microplate can be read with or without pre-defining or opening a
Protocol. A protocol contains information for the operation of the
microplate reader, as well as instructions for analyzing data retrieved
from the reader.
Reading a Plate Without a Protocol
If a “fast read”is required (that is, with no protocol open), KCjunior
requests minimal information then initiates the plate read. Following the
read, a protocol can be created or opened to analyze the data.
Note: The spectral scan read method requires a protocol to define the
wells to be scanned.
To perform a Fast Read:
1.
Ensure that the reader is properly attached to the computer, and
that the correct reader type and communication parameters are
defined under Setup|Reader.
See “Setting up the System” in Getting Started for more
information.
2.
Initiate the read by clicking the Read Plate button in the
KCjunior main screen, selecting Results|Read Plate, or by
clicking the toolbar icon.
The Read Plate dialog appears:
User's Guide to KCjunior
Reading Plates • 6-7
3.
Enter a Results ID, using up to 32 alphanumeric characters.
The ID is optional in this dialog, but it will be required later if
the results are to be stored in the Results Database.
¾If performing a multiple-plate endpoint read, all of the
plates in the read will be stored in the Results Database (in
one record) under this Result ID.
4.
(Optional) Enter a Plate Description, using up to 1024
alphanumeric characters.
5.
Click the Read Plate button.
The Read Method dialog appears:
6.
Define the basic Read Method parameters. See “Defining Read
Method Parameters” in Defining Protocols for more
information.
7.
(Optional) If the attached reader supports calibration, click the
Calibrate Reader button to calibrate the reader at the defined
wavelength(s).
8.
Click OK to continue with the read.
A second Read Plate dialog appears.
6-8 • Reading Plates
User's Guide to KCjunior
9.
(Optional) Manually assign a Plate ID to this plate.
¾For multiple plate endpoint absorbance protocols, each
individual plate can have its own Plate ID assigned. This
prompt appears before each plate is read.
10. Place the plate on the carrier, then click OK to initiate the plate
read.
¾If the attached reader is equipped with a barcode scanner
and Use Reader’s Barcode Scanner for Plate ID is
enabled in KCjunior under Setup|Configuration|General,
KCjunior attempts to scan the plate. If no barcode is
detected, or if the attached reader is not equipped with a
barcode scanner, the Plate ID can be entered manually.
¾Click the Abort Read button to halt the read in progress.
Data reduction is based on any data retrieved up to the time
the button was clicked.
¾When the plate read is complete, KCjunior automatically
retrieves the measurements from the reader, performs data
reduction, and displays the results. See Viewing Results or
Interpreting Results for more information.
11. To save the results:
•
Select Results|Save Results, or press CTRL+S.
KCjunior requests a Results ID if one was not defined
before the plate read. Enter the ID using up to 32
alphanumeric characters. This is the name under which the
record will be stored in the Results Database.
Click OK to save the results.
12. To apply a protocol to the results, leave the results record open
and do one of the following:
¾Open an existing protocol. If the read method parameters
are compatible, KCjunior automatically recalculates the
results. If the read method parameters are not compatible,
KCjunior provides further instructions.
¾Create a new protocol. KCjunior automatically transfers
the read method parameters defined for the fast read into the
new protocol.
User's Guide to KCjunior
Reading Plates • 6-9
Reading a Plate With a Protocol
To read a microplate with a protocol:
1.
Ensure that the reader is properly attached to the computer, and
that the correct reader type and communication parameters are
selected under Setup|Reader.
2.
Open an existing protocol or define a new one.
See either “Opening an Existing Protocol” or “Defining Protocol
Parameters” in Defining Protocols for more information.
3.
Initiate the read by clicking on the Read Plate button in the
KCjunior main screen, selecting Protocol|Read Plate, or by
clicking the toolbar icon.
The Read Plate dialog appears:
4.
Enter a Results ID, using up to 32 alphanumeric characters.
The ID is optional in this dialog, but it will be required later if
the results are to be stored in the Results Database.
¾If performing a multiple-plate endpoint read, all of the
plates read will be stored in the Results Database under this
ID (although they can each have their own Plate ID).
5.
6-10 • Reading Plates
Enter a Plate Description, using up to 1024 alphanumeric
characters. This description is optional.
User's Guide to KCjunior
6.
Click the Read Plate button. A second Read Plate dialog
appears.
7.
(Optional) Manually assign a Plate ID to this plate.
¾For multiple plate endpoint absorbance protocols, each
individual plate can have its own Plate ID assigned. This
prompt appears before each plate is read.
8.
Place the plate on the reader, then click OK to begin the plate
read.
¾If the attached reader is equipped with a barcode scanner
and Use Reader’s Barcode Scanner for Plate ID is
enabled in KCjunior under Setup|Configuration|General,
KCjunior attempts to scan the plate. If no barcode is
detected, or if the attached reader is not equipped with a
barcode scanner, the Plate ID can be entered manually.
¾Click the Abort Read button to halt the read in progress.
Data reduction is based on any data retrieved up to the time
the button was clicked.
¾When the plate read is complete, KCjunior automatically
retrieves the measurements from the reader, performs data
reduction, and displays the results. See Viewing Results or
Analyzing and Manipulating Results for more information.
9.
To save the results:
¾Select Results|Save Results, or press CTRL+S.
KCjunior requests a Results ID if one was not defined
before the plate read. Enter the ID using up to 32
alphanumeric characters. This is the name under which the
record will be stored in the Results Database.
Click OK to save the results.
User's Guide to KCjunior
Reading Plates • 6-11
Simulating a Plate Read
Note: Simulation Data is
not supported for the
spectral scan read method.
KCjunior provides the option to simulate a plate read by entering plate
data manually, or by copying data from a spreadsheet and pasting it into a
KCjunior plate. Simulation data typically represents previously acquired
measurements entered into KCjunior for analysis.
Simulation data can be generated with or without a protocol open, and it
can be saved, accessed, and modified. To simulate a plate read:
1.
Ensure that under Setup|Reader, the desired Reader Type is
currently selected. The reader does not need to be connected to
the computer to simulate a plate read.
2.
If desired, open an existing protocol or define a new one.
3.
Initiate the simulation by clicking the Read Plate button in the
KCjunior main screen, selecting Results|Read Plate, or by
clicking the toolbar icon.
The Read Plate dialog appears.
4.
Enter a Results ID, using up to 32 alphanumeric characters.
The ID is optional in this dialog, but it will be required later if
the results are to be stored in the Results Database.
¾If performing a multiple-plate endpoint read, all of the
plates in the read will be stored in the Results Database
under this Results ID.
5.
Enter a Plate Description, using up to 1024 alphanumeric
characters. This description is optional.
6.
Click the Simulation Data button.
Note: If there is no protocol open, the Read Method dialog
appears. Enter the basic Read Method parameters, then click
OK to continue.
The Simulation Data dialog appears, in a format corresponding with
the defined Plate Geometry.
7.
Enter OD, RFU, or RLU values directly into the appropriate
“wells”, or copy values from the spreadsheet and paste them
here by pressing Ctrl+V.
¾If a dual-wavelength Endpoint or Kinetic absorbance read
is defined, the value entered in each well must represent the
delta OD for that well.
¾Set the Kinetic Read value to simulate each plate reading in
the kinetic reading cycle.
¾Set the Wavelength value to simulate each wavelength
reading in a MultiWavelength read.
8.
6-12 • Reading Plates
When the data entry is complete, click OK. KCjunior performs
data reduction based on the defined protocol parameters, if
applicable, and then displays the results.
User's Guide to KCjunior
Reading Plate Data from a File
KCjunior can read plates that were generated with Bio-Tek’s KCJr for
DOS software, and absorbance files generated by Bio-Tek’s OMNI
System.
To read plate data from one of these files:
1.
If desired, create a protocol or open an existing one. The read
method parameters should be appropriate for the file to be
opened.
Note: Before creating or defining a protocol to accommodate a
multi-wavelength Omni-System absorbance file, make sure the
reader type specified under Setup|Reader supports multiwavelength reads. The reader does not need to be connected to
the computer to read plate data from a file.
2.
Select Results|Read Plate, or click the Read Plate button in
the main screen.
The Read Plate dialog appears.
3.
Enter a Results ID, using up to 32 alphanumeric characters.
The ID is optional in this dialog, but it will be required later if
the results are to be stored in the Results Database.
4.
(Optional) Enter a Plate Description, using up to 1024
alphanumeric characters.
5.
Click the Read From File button. A standard Open File dialog
appears.
6.
Locate and highlight the desired file, then click Open.
KCjunior examines the file to determine certain characteristics
such as read method, wavelengths, number of reads, and kinetic
interval (if applicable). If there are no discrepancies, KCjunior
opens the file and calculates the results.
If KCjunior is unable to determine one or more of these
characteristics, a Read File dialog appears, requesting entry of
the unknown values.
The Read File dialog contains as much information as KCjunior
was able to retrieve from the file. Any unknown values must be
entered before results calculation can begin.
¾If a field is dimmed and inaccessible, KCjunior requires no
further input.
¾If the Read Method field drop-down box is accessible,
choose Endpoint or Kinetic as applicable.
¾If the Primary Wavelength field contains 0, enter a
wavelength from 1 to 999.
User's Guide to KCjunior
Reading Plates • 6-13
¾If the Reference Wavelength field contains 0, enter a
wavelength from 1 to 999, or leave it set to 0 if no reference
wavelength is required.
¾If the Kinetic Interval field is accessible, enter a value (in
seconds) from 1 to 9999.
¾Click OK to accept the values. KCjunior validates the
settings and then calculates the results.
7.
To save the results, select Results|Save Results, or press
CTRL+S.
8.
KCjunior requests a Results ID if one was not defined before
the plate read. Enter the ID using up to 32 alphanumeric
characters. This is the name under which results will be stored
in the Results Database.
9.
Select OK to save the results.
Collecting Data from an EL301 Microstrip Reader
The EL301 microstrip reader does not support computer control for its
operation. Optical density data stored in the reader, however, can be
transferred to KCjunior for analysis.
•
KCjunior accepts EL301 data in Absorbance (ABSORB) mode,
and does not accept data in the Ratio (RATIO), Linear Equation
(LINEQU), or Difference (DIFF) modes.
•
KCjunior accepts data for up to 96 wells with each transfer.
¾To transfer two or three plates of data to KCjunior, send
them separately and save each plate under a different name.
•
If a blank well was read, the EL301 automatically performs
blank subtraction before data transfer.
•
If a dual-wavelength read is performed, the EL301 automatically
calculates the Delta OD before data transfer.
To collect data from an EL301 reader:
1.
Perform the necessary microstrip reads.
2.
Connect the reader to the computer on which KCjunior is
loaded.
¾Consult the EL301 Operator's Manual for instructions on
“Connecting the Model EL301 to an External Computer”.
6-14 • Reading Plates
User's Guide to KCjunior
3.
In KCjunior, define the Reader Setup parameters as follows:
Reader Type: EL301
Com Port: Communication port on computer
Baud Rate: 1200
Data Bits: 8
Parity: None
Stop Bits: 2
EOT Character: 4
4.
Open an existing or define a new protocol.
¾The Well ID Template should correspond with the type of
strip(s) read.
8-well strips: A1 to H1, A2 to H2, … A12 to H12.
12-well strips: A1 to A12, B1 to B12, … F1 to F12.
16-well strips: A1 to H2, A3 to H4, … A11 to H12.
5.
Select Results|Read Plate, or click the Read Plate button.
KCjunior displays the prompt “Press DATA OUT key on reader
when ready”.
6.
Within the reader's main menu, select the data to be transferred,
then press the DATA OUT key. The optical density values are
transferred to KCjunior.
¾On the EL301 display, make sure the cursor is positioned
under the Strip Number to send data for one strip, or under
the Plate Letter to send data for up to six strips.
The picture above shows the cursor positioned under the
Strip Number. Data for File 1, Plate A, Strip 3 will be sent
to KCjunior.
The picture above shows the cursor positioned under the
Plate Letter. Data for File 4, Plate A, Strips 1 to 6 will be
sent to KCjunior.
User's Guide to KCjunior
Reading Plates • 6-15
¾Do not position the cursor under the File Number, as
shown below:
¾Consult the EL301 Operator's Manual for more information
on “Data Output to Peripheral Devices”.
7.
Data retrieved from the EL301 can be analyzed, manipulated,
saved, and printed in the same manner as any other set of plate
data in KCjunior.
¾Overrange reads, unread strips, and unread wells appear as
****** in KCjunior.
Reader Runtime Errors
If the reader experiences an error, KCjunior attempts to perform data
reduction with any data that it received prior to the failure.
For example, if the reader experiences an error during the 10th of 12
kinetic reads, results are generated based on reads 1 through 9. KCjunior
also displays appropriate error messages with the results.
•
Refer to the reader’s user guide for information on error
messages displayed on the reader.
•
See Communication Errors in the Troubleshooting section for
more information on KCjunior’s error and warning messages.
Comments/Warnings
Following data reduction, if an error is detected or a condition is present
that requires notification, a Comments / Warnings button becomes
available in the results display. Click this button to see the comments
and/or warnings generated for the plate.
•
6-16 • Reading Plates
See Comments and Warnings in the Troubleshooting section
for specific information on data reduction comments and
warnings.
User's Guide to KCjunior
Selecting a Filter Wheel Cartridge
Depending on the prompt options settings in the Setup|Configuration|
Filter Wheel Configuration dialog, the Select Filter Wheel Cartridge
dialog may appear (applies to FLx800 reader only).
This dialog shows the Excitation and Emission filters required by the
protocol. The selected filter wheel cartridges must contain filters to
support the protocol.
1.
Using the drop-down menus, select the desired Excitation and
Emission Filter Wheel cartridges.
¾The contents of Excitation and Emission filter wheel
cartridges are defined under Setup|Configuration.
2.
After selecting a cartridge, clicking View displays the cartridge’s
contents.
¾Click Cancel to return to the Select Filter Wheel Cartridge
dialog.
3.
Click OK to save the changes.
¾If the selected cartridge(s) do not contain the necessary
filters to support the current protocol, either select a
different cartridge or modify the protocol.
User's Guide to KCjunior
Reading Plates • 6-17
Exporting Data
Plate data can be exported to a file or directly into a Microsoft Excel
spreadsheet.
The data options available for export depend on the current protocol
parameters. For example, if the protocol performs blanking, uses
transformations, and generates a standard curve, the raw data, blanked
data, transformation results, and/or calculated concentrations can be
exported.
Note: If no protocol is open, the raw data can still be exported.
To export data to a file or to an Excel spreadsheet:
1.
Open/Create a protocol (if desired), then read/open a plate.
2.
Select Results|Export Data. The Export Data dialog appears:
¾Review the items under “Essential Exporting Information”
on page 6-23 before performing a data export.
3.
From within the Export Data dialog, choose an Export
Destination.
¾Choose File to export the data to a text file. The Export
File and Delimiter options are presented. See “Exporting
Data to a File” on page 6-19.
¾Choose Directly to Microsoft Excel to export the file to an
Excel spreadsheet. The Start Excel Now button and First
Excel Cell Location option are presented. See “Exporting
Data Directly to Microsoft Excel” on page 6-21.
6-18 • Reading Plates
User's Guide to KCjunior
Exporting Data to a File
To export data to a file:
Select Results|Export Data
to open the Export Data
dialog.
1.
From within the Export Data dialog, choose the Export
Destination option File.
2.
Select the Data Option(s) to be exported.
¾In the Data Options box, highlight the item(s) to be
exported, then click the Add button. The selected item(s)
will appear in the Selections box.
¾To remove an item from the Selections box, highlight the
item and click the Remove button (or double-click).
¾To insert a data option between two items in the Selection
box, highlight the item in the Selection box above which the
new item will be inserted, highlight the item in the Data
Options box, then click Add.
3.
Check Output report header to include the Plate ID and the
date and time of the plate reading.
4.
Check Output data descriptions to include identifying
information for each set of plate data.
¾See “Sample Output with Report Header and Data
Descriptions” on page 6-23.
5.
Check Output empty row between plates to add a blank line
after each set of plate data.
¾See “Sample Output with Empty Row Between Plates”
on page 6-23.
6.
Enter a valid path and file name in the Export File field.
¾Example: C:\KCjunior\Results\Export 01.txt
¾Long file names are supported. If no file extension is
specified, KCjunior automatically uses .txt (text file).
¾Alternatively, click Browse to search the directory
structure. Locate and highlight the desired file name, then
click Open to select it, or travel to the desired file storage
location, enter a new file name, then click Open to
create/select it.
¾The file can be stored on a computer's hard drive, on a
network to which the computer is attached, or on a floppy
disk.
¾If the file name already exists, KCjunior provides the option
to overwrite the entire contents of the file or to append the
new data to the end of the file.
User's Guide to KCjunior
Reading Plates • 6-19
7.
Choose a Delimiter, or define a new one.
¾KCjunior uses delimiters to separate individual values such
as raw ODs, calculated concentrations, and transformation
results.
¾Choose Tab or Comma, or choose Other and enter a
custom delimiter, such as | or #.
Example: If the comma delimiter is used, exported Raw
Data will resemble the following:
1.235,0.267,0.541,1.749,0.232,2.418
0.784,0.154,1.982,0.247,1.583,3.148
2.961,0.235,1.287,1.768,0.336,0.234
0.984,2.514,1.674,3.992,1.852,0.235
¾Tip: If the file will be imported by another application,
check to see which delimiter(s) that application accepts.
8.
Click the Export button.
¾If the file name already exists, KCjunior provides the option
to overwrite the entire contents of the file or to append the
new data to the end of the file.
¾Note: If exporting data for a multiple-plate endpoint read,
the Export Endpoint Plates dialog appears.
Specify the First and Last plates to export, then click OK
to continue.
Export format: All selected data sets are exported for the
first plate, then for the second plate, and so on through the
last plate.
6-20 • Reading Plates
User's Guide to KCjunior
Exporting Data Directly to Microsoft Excel
To export data to Microsoft Excel:
Select Results|Export Data
to open the Export Data
dialog.
1.
From within the Export Data dialog, choose the Export
Destination option Directly to Microsoft Excel.
2.
If exporting to an existing Excel spreadsheet:
¾Click Start Excel now to launch Excel immediately.
¾Open the spreadsheet.
¾Review the spreadsheet to determine what data is expected
and where it should be stored.
¾Important! If the spreadsheet contains formulas or other
important information, take the following into consideration
to avoid overwriting these cells, and to ensure that the data
exports to the correct cells:
'well' is the KCjunior term referring to a location in the
microplate, and 'cell' is the Microsoft Excel term referring
to a location in the spreadsheet.
The spreadsheet may contain formulas that reference other
cells in the spreadsheet. Be sure to define the export
parameters so that the correct set of plate data is sent to the
correct cells.
KCjunior exports data starting with well A1 in the specified
First Excel Cell Location.
¾Switch back to KCjunior.
3.
Select the Data Option(s) to be exported.
¾In the Data Options box, highlight the item(s) to be
exported, then click the Add button. The selected item(s)
will appear in the Selections box.
After each export, KCjunior
retains the list of Selections
(up to 15), for use with the
next export. This is
particularly useful if
exporting the same set(s)
of plate data for multiple
plates.
¾To remove an item from the Selections box, highlight the
item and click the Remove button (or double-click).
¾To insert a data option between two items in the Selection
box, highlight the item in the Selection box above which the
new item will be inserted, highlight the item in the Data
Options box, then click Add.
4.
Check Output report header to include the Plate ID and the
date and time of the plate reading.
5.
Check Output data descriptions to include identifying
information for each set of plate data.
¾See “Sample Output with Report Header and Data
Descriptions” on page 6-23.
User's Guide to KCjunior
Reading Plates • 6-21
6.
Check Output empty row between plates to add an empty row
after each set of plate data.
¾See “Sample Output with Empty Row Between Plates”
on page 6-23.
7.
Specify the location (ex. A1, C3, K15) of the first cell in the
current Microsoft Excel spreadsheet.
¾This is where the first entry will be made in the spreadsheet.
If Output Report Header is enabled, the header is stored in
this location, followed by a blank row. The first data value
(such as the contents of well A1), is stored below the
specified “first cell”. Subsequent values then fill in to the
right of and below the first data value.
¾See the sample Excel spreadsheet after data export below:
¾Tip: If performing multiple exports to the same
spreadsheet, use the First Excel Cell Location and Output
empty row between plates features to append one data set
to another, with a row between each set.
8.
Click the Export button.
¾Note: If exporting data for a multi-plate endpoint read, the
Export Endpoint Plates dialog appears.
Specify the First and Last plates to export, then click OK
to continue.
Export format: All selected data sets are exported for the
first plate, then for the second plate, and so on through the
last plate.
¾KCjunior launches Excel if it is not already open and then
exports the data to the current Sheet.
6-22 • Reading Plates
User's Guide to KCjunior
Tip: To avoid overwriting the contents of “Sheet1” in
Microsoft Excel, choose another Sheet before performing
the next data export.
Essential Exporting Information
•
Certain numeric data is annotated by KCjunior when it is
displayed. Numeric data is exported, however, without these
annotations.
Examples of annotations include: Masked wells contain
a strike-through, extrapolated concentrations are surrounded
by ( ), and ambiguous concentrations are surrounded by { }.
•
Data that is currently a string, such as OUT, *****, or ?????, is
exported exactly as it is displayed in KCjunior.
•
Data for all wells on the plate is exported, even if the well is
considered to be “empty”.
For all data options, a well is empty if no ID is assigned to it.
For some data options (such as Blanked Data), a well is empty if
its Raw Data value is currently masked.
•
The export utility is not available for the spectral scan read
method.
Sample Output with Report Header and
Data Descriptions
Raw Data (405)
0.000,0.500,0.667,0.750,0.800,0.833,0.857,0.875,0.889,0.900
1.423,1.429,1.433,1.438,1.441,1.444,1.447,1.450,1.990,1.991
1.992,1.992,1.993,1.993,1.993,1.993,2.017,2.019,2.021,2.022
2.028,2.029,2.031,2.032,2.033,2.035,2.036,2.037,2.038,2.039
Sample Output with Empty Row Between Plates
Kinetic Read 1 (00:00:00)
0.000,0.500,0.667,0.750,0.800,0.833,0.857,0.875
1.423,1.429,1.435,1.438,1.421,1.434,1.497,1.450
1.992,1.992,1.993,1.993,1.993,1.993,2.017,2.019
2.028,2.029,2.031,2.032,2.033,2.035,2.036,2.037
(empty row here)
Kinetic Read 2 (00:10:00)
1.010,1.465,1.557,1.793,1.510,1.835,1.987,1.675
2.423,2.429,2.433,2.438,2.441,2.484,2.447,2.450
2.982,2.942,2.895,2.045,2.963,2.223,3.017,3.019
3.028,3.029,3.031,3.032,3.033,3.035,3.036,3.037
User's Guide to KCjunior
Reading Plates • 6-23
Viewing Results
When plate reading is complete, or after simulation data has been entered
or data has been read from a file, KCjunior displays the results in a
format similar to the one shown below:
Initially, Raw Data results are displayed. Depending on the protocol
definition, KCjunior may also display Blanked Data, Pathlength
Correction, Transformation Results, Concentrations, Labels,
Template, and Plate Formula Results.
Some “quick tips” are listed here. Detailed information can be found in
the next section, Interpreting Results.
•
To view a particular type of data, click on its “tab”.
•
To view statistical information for a particular type of data, click
on its tab then click the Statistics button.
•
To “mask” a well (temporarily exclude it from calculations),
place the cursor over the desired well, click the right mouse
button, then select Mask Well.
•
To access more detailed information about the plate, place the
cursor in the matrix, click the right mouse button, then select
Plate Information.
•
To access more detailed information for a particular well, place
the cursor over the desired well, click the right mouse button,
then select Well Information.
•
If a Comments / Warnings button is available, click it to see
the data reduction comments and/or warnings generated for the
plate.
•
To export data to a file or directly into Microsoft Excel, select
Results|Export Data.
•
6-24 • Reading Plates
To copy the data to another application, highlight the desired
wells, then press CTRL+C. Switch to the destination
application, then press CTRL+V (or select a Paste option).
User's Guide to KCjunior
Interpreting Results
Overview
When plate reading is complete, or after simulation data has been entered
or data has been read from a file, KCjunior displays the results, as shown
below:
The Raw Data set of results is always displayed. Raw Data represents
the measurements that were either retrieved from the microplate reader,
entered manually, or read from a file. Results are arranged with rows and
columns that align with the specified plate geometry.
Depending on the protocol definition, Blanked Data, Pathlength
Correction, Transformation Results, Concentrations, Labels,
Template, and Plate Formula Results may also be displayed.
Interpreting Results begins by describing the Well Notations that may
appear in one or more results categories, then explains how to interpret
each of the eight possible sets of results.
User's Guide to KCjunior
Interpreting Results • 7-1
Well Notations
Within the results displays, different circumstances may cause the result
in a well to be displayed with a special symbol, such as a strike-through
or parenthesis ( ), or to be completely replaced with symbols such as
?????? or OUT.
The following list describes the well notations that may appear in results
displays and on reports:
•
If a well contains OUT in place of an OD, RFU, or RLU, the raw
data value fell outside the acceptable min/max data range
defined in the protocol, and it has been excluded from further
calculations.
¾See “General Information” in Defining Protocols for
information on setting Raw Data Limits and Blank Limits.
•
If an OD, RFU, or RLU value is enclosed in brackets [2.999],
the raw data value fell outside the acceptable min/max data
range defined in the protocol, and was automatically set to the
upper or lower limit of this range as appropriate.
•
If a Raw data value contains a strike-through (2.684), it has
been masked, or temporarily removed from calculations. See
Results Options at the end of this section for information on
masking and unmasking wells.
•
A well containing DIV/0 indicates a failed attempt to divide by
zero.
•
A well containing asterisks (******) indicates a well status error.
•
If the concentration in a well is enclosed in parenthesis
(20.345), it was calculated through extrapolation.
•
If the concentration in a well is enclosed in curly braces
{10.765}, it is ambiguous.
•
An empty well indicates no result was calculated. Possible
reasons include:
¾If a protocol is open, no Well ID was assigned to this
location.
¾The Raw Data value is currently masked.
¾The Raw Data value is out of range (OUT).
¾If the well is empty under Concentrations, Extrapolation
may be disabled.
7-2 • Interpreting Results
User's Guide to KCjunior
•
A well containing question marks (??????) indicates that a
value could not be calculated. Possible reasons include:
¾The well references another well with a status of:
Well Read Error
OUT
Masked
Divide by Zero
Well Failure
¾A calculation within or involving the well:
attempted an invalid logarithmic function.
is syntactically invalid.
references an invalid location.
references an invalid Well ID.
attempted a Standard Deviation on a well group with an
insufficient sample population.
attempted a Coefficient of Variation on a well group with an
insufficient sample population.
¾The well is in a blank sector that contains blanks but none
of them are valid.
¾Cutoffs could not be evaluated for the well.
¾A concentration had no valid solutions on the generated
curve.
¾The curve could not be generated.
User's Guide to KCjunior
Interpreting Results • 7-3
Raw Data
Raw Data represents the original measurements that were either retrieved
from the microplate reader, entered manually, or read from a file.
The format of the Raw Data display differs based on the defined Read
Method (Endpoint, Kinetic, MultiWavelength, or Spectral Scan), as
described on the following pages.
Raw Endpoint Read Data
Raw Data results for an endpoint read are shown below:
•
For single-wavelength absorbance reads, each well contains
the OD measured at the Primary wavelength.
•
For dual-wavelength absorbance reads, each well contains the
delta OD value calculated by the reader.
The reader calculates the delta OD by subtracting the
measurement at the Reference wavelength from the
measurement at the Primary wavelength.
•
For fluorescence and luminescence reads, 1 to 6 sets of raw
data are presented, depending on the number of filter sets
specified in the protocol.
Initially, the RFU/RLU values for filter set #1 are presented.
Use the drop-down menu at the bottom of the screen to choose a
different filter set.
•
7-4 • Interpreting Results
For multi-plate endpoint reads, use the Plate Number selection
box to choose a different plate.
User's Guide to KCjunior
Raw and Blanked Kinetic Read Data
Raw and blanked kinetic data are viewed under the Raw Data tab. View
options include sets of individual kinetic reads, the kinetic curve for each
well, and the maximum slope for each well.
To switch between the different views, click the appropriate Kinetic View
Options radio button.
Individual Kinetic Reads
Raw Data results for individual kinetic reads are shown below:
Kinetic data is initially displayed in this format, reporting the raw values
for each well of Kinetic Read #1.
User's Guide to KCjunior
•
For single-wavelength absorbance reads, each well contains
the OD measured at the Primary wavelength.
•
For dual-wavelength absorbance reads, each well contains the
delta OD value calculated by the reader. The reader calculates
the delta OD by subtracting the measurement at the Reference
wavelength from the measurement at the Primary wavelength.
•
For fluorescence or luminescence reads, each well contains
the RFU or RLU value calculated for the the first filter set
defined in the protocol. If two filter sets are defined, use the
Filter Set drop-down menu to choose a different filter set.
Interpreting Results • 7-5
•
If blank wells were defined in the Well ID template, click the
Blanked Data radio button to view the data after blank
subtraction.
•
To view the results for a different kinetic read, enter the desired
read number in the Kinetic Read field (or click the up/down
arrow buttons).
•
Click the Calculation Options button to adjust the kinetic read
limits, to alter the maximum slope calculation, or to choose a
different maximum slope unit of measure.
Kinetic Curves
Kinetic read results are shown below, in the Kinetic Curve format:
To print the Kinetic Curves
display as shown here:
Press Alt+Print Screen to
copy the screen shot to the
Clipboard, paste the
Clipboard contents into (for
example) an empty word
processing document, then
print the document.
•
In this format, each well initially displays a graph of the data
points corresponding to the OD, RFU, or RLU readings taken
over time.
•
If blank subtraction was performed, the kinetic curves are
automatically based on the Blanked values.
•
Click the Calculation Options button to adjust the kinetic read
limits, to alter the maximum slope calculation, or to choose a
different maximum slope unit of measure.
•
To enlarge the view of the curve in an individual well, place the
cursor over the desired well and click the left mouse button.
The Kinetic Curve dialog appears:
7-6 • Interpreting Results
User's Guide to KCjunior
¾The Kinetic Curve and its Maximum Slope and R-Square
values are displayed for the well.
¾Click OK to return to the Kinetic Curve results display.
Maximum Slope
Kinetic read results are shown below, in the Maximum Slope format:
User's Guide to KCjunior
•
The Maximum Slope is initially based on the total number of
kinetic points (“single slope”).
•
If blank subtraction is performed, the maximum slope is
automatically based on the Blanked values.
•
Click the Calculation Options button to adjust the kinetic read
limits, to alter the maximum slope calculation, or to choose a
different maximum slope unit of measure.
Interpreting Results • 7-7
Adjusting Kinetic Read Limits
Kinetic calculations initially include all measurements taken over the
duration of the plate read. Kinetic read limits can be adjusted so that
calculations are based on a subset of the total number of measurements.
1.
From within any kinetic results display, click the Calculation
Options button to open the Kinetic Calculations dialog:
2.
To change the number of points for inclusion in the kinetic
calculations, enter a new First Read and/or Last Read value,
then click OK.
The kinetic results redisplay, showing only the points in the new
calculation range. The Maximum Slope automatically
recalculates, based on the new calculation range.
Altering the Maximum Slope Calculation
The Maximum Slope is initially calculated based on the total number of
kinetic points (“single slope”). The number of successive points for
inclusion in the slope calculation can be adjusted:
1.
7-8 • Interpreting Results
From within any kinetic results display, click the Calculation
Options button to open the Kinetic Calculations dialog:
User's Guide to KCjunior
2.
Deselect Single Slope.
3.
Enter a new value in the Points / Slope field.
4.
(Optional) Select a Maximum Slope Unit of Measure. The
default is mOD/min.
5.
Click OK. The kinetic results redisplay. The Maximum Slope
automatically recalculates, based on the new Points/Slope value.
Raw and Blanked Spectral Data
Raw and blanked spectral scan data are viewed under the Raw Data tab.
View options include sets of ODs at each wavelength, the spectral curve
for each well, and the peak OD and corresponding wavelength for each
well.
To switch between the different views, click the appropriate Scan View
Options radio button.
Individual Spectral Reads
Raw Data results for individual spectral reads are shown below:
Spectral data is initially displayed in this format, reporting the Raw OD
read for each well at the First Scan Wavelength.
User's Guide to KCjunior
•
To view the Raw ODs for a different wavelength, enter the
desired wavelength value in the Wavelength field (or use the
up/down arrow buttons).
•
If a blank well was defined in the Well ID template, click the
Blanked Data radio button to view the ODs after blank
subtraction.
Interpreting Results • 7-9
•
Click the Calculation Options button to adjust the wavelength
range used for calculations for all scanned wells.
•
Click the Spectral Chart button to select up to 8 spectral curves
to overlay in one graph.
Spectral Chart
Spectral scan results are shown below, in the Spectral Chart format:
•
In this format, each well displays a graph of the data points
corresponding to the OD readings taken across a wavelength
range.
•
To enlarge the view of the curve in an individual well, place the
cursor over the desired well and click the left mouse button.
•
If blank subtraction was performed, the spectral scan curves are
automatically based on the Blanked ODs.
•
Click the Calculation Options button to adjust the wavelength
range used for calculations for all scanned wells.
•
Click the Spectral Chart button to select up to 8 spectral curves
to overlay in one graph.
•
To enlarge the view of the curve in an individual well, place the
cursor over the desired well and click the left mouse button.
The Spectral Scan Curve dialog will appear:
7-10 • Interpreting Results
User's Guide to KCjunior
¾The Spectral Scan Curve initially contains all ODs read at
all wavelengths as defined in the protocol.
¾The Peak OD and its corresponding wavelength display at
the bottom of the graph.
¾Move the mouse cursor over a data point to see its exact
OD and Wavelength values.
¾Click Print/Copy to print the graph or to copy it to the
clipboard.
¾Click Options to adjust the curve calculations and/or the
display options for this well.
Peak OD/Wavelength
Typical spectral scan results are shown below, in the Peak
OD/Wavelength format:
User's Guide to KCjunior
•
The peak (highest) optical density reading and its corresponding
wavelength value are reported for each well.
•
The Peak OD is initially based on the complete wavelength
range as defined in the protocol. If the wavelength range is
adjusted, the Peak OD is redetermined based on the new range.
Interpreting Results • 7-11
•
If blank subtraction was performed, the Peak OD is
automatically based on the Blanked ODs.
•
Click the Calculation Options button to adjust the wavelength
range used for calculations for all scanned wells.
•
Click the Spectral Chart button to select up to 8 spectral curves
to overlay in one graph.
Adjusting the Wavelength Range Used for Calculations
Spectral scan calculations initially include all measurements taken across
the wavelength range as defined in the protocol. The wavelength range
can be adjusted so that calculations are based on a subset of the full
wavelength range.
1.
From within the Spectral Scan results display, click the
Calculation Options button to open the Spectral Scan
Calculations dialog.
2.
To change the range of wavelengths for inclusion in the spectral
scan curve for all scanned wells, enter a new First Wavelength
and/or Last Wavelength value, then click OK.
The Spectral Scan results will redisplay. The spectral curves
will show only the points within the new wavelength range, and
the Peak ODs will be recalculated.
Curve Display Options
Click the Calculations Options button to change the curve display.
The available curve display options include:
7-12 • Interpreting Results
•
Display Points only.
•
Display Line only. This is a point-to-point line, shown without
the individual data points.
•
Display Points and Line. This is a point-to-point line, and the
data points are displayed. See the example below:
User's Guide to KCjunior
Raw MultiWavelength Read Data
Raw Data results for a MultiWavelength read are shown below:
•
Each well contains the OD value measured at the wavelength
displayed in the Wavelength field. Use the drop-down list to
choose a different wavelength.
•
If an empty plate was read at a particular wavelength, results
will be provided for the Empty plate, the Read plate, and the
difference between the two (Result).
The read method parameters shown to the left correspond with
the results shown above.
Read Method parameters
User's Guide to KCjunior
Interpreting Results • 7-13
Raw Dispense / Read Data
Raw data results and kinetic curves are viewed under the Raw Data tab.
To switch between the different views, click the appropriate Kinetic View
Options radio button.
Individual Reads
Raw Data results for individual kinetic reads are shown below:
Data is initially reported in this format, reporting the raw values for each
well of Kinetic Read #1.
7-14 • Interpreting Results
•
Each well contains the RFU or RLU value calculated for the the
first filter set defined in the protocol. If two filter sets are
defined, use the Filter Set drop-down menu to choose a different
filter set.
•
The word ‘Dispense’ in a well indicates that a dispense or
dispense-related activity occurred (well mode only).
•
To view the results for a different kinetic read, enter the desired
read number in the Kinetic Read field (or click the up/down
arrow buttons).
User's Guide to KCjunior
Kinetic Curves (Dispense/Read)
Kinetic read results are shown below, in the Kinetic Curve format:
•
Each well initially displays a graph of the data points
corresponding to the RFU/RLU readings taken over time.
•
To enlarge the view of the curve in any well, click once on the
desired well.
¾Place the cursor over a data point to see its RFU/RLU
value and reading Time.
¾Depending on the current Dispense/Read parameters, you
can adjust the X Axis Scale and/or select an Interval
(sampling window) to view.
¾A dotted green line indicates the start of a dispense.
¾A green triangle indicates that a dispense or dispenserelated activity occurred (well mode only).
User's Guide to KCjunior
Interpreting Results • 7-15
Blanked Data
Blanked Data represents Raw Data that has undergone blank subtraction.
The format of the Blanked Data results display differs based on the
defined Read Method − Endpoint, Kinetic, MultiWavelength, or Spectral
Scan.
Note: To view Blanked data for a Kinetic or Spectral Scan read, click
the Raw Data tab, then click the Blanked Data radio button under Kinetic
or Scan View Options. See “Raw and Blanked Kinetic Read Data” on
page 7-5 or “Raw and Blanked Spectral Data” on page 7-9 for more
information.
Blanked Endpoint Read Data
Blanked Data results for an Endpoint read are shown below:
•
If a single-wavelength absorbance read was performed, each
well contains the OD measured at the Primary wavelength, less
the average of the blank wells.
•
If a dual-wavelength absorbance read was performed, each
well contains the delta OD value calculated by the reader, less
the average of the blank wells.
•
For fluorescence and luminescence reads, 1 to 6 sets of data
are presented, depending on the number of filter sets specified in
the protocol.
Initially, the RFU/RLU values for filter set #1 are presented.
Use the drop-down menu at the bottom of the screen to choose a
different filter set.
7-16 • Interpreting Results
User's Guide to KCjunior
Blanked MultiWavelength Data
Blanked Data results for a MultiWavelength read are shown below:
•
Each well contains the OD value after blank subtraction.
•
Use the drop-down list to view Blanked Data for a different
wavelength.
•
If an empty plate is read for a particular wavelength, the empty
plate measurements are subtracted from the raw data
measurements to generate the Result values (e.g. “405 Result”).
Blank subtraction is then performed on the Result values.
Pathlength Correction
Pathlength Correction can be enabled to normalize absorbances to
1 cm. Its use is controlled within a MultiWavelength protocol’s Read
Method dialog. See page 5-16 for more information.
If Pathlength Correction is enabled, KCjunior first calculates the
pathlength for each well. The absorbance in each well is then divided by
the pathlength, resulting in the corrected absorbance.
When calculations are complete, the corrected absorbances are displayed
under the Pathlength Correction results tab.
Typical results are shown on the next page:
User's Guide to KCjunior
Interpreting Results • 7-17
•
The Corrected ODs are initially displayed.
•
Click the Pathlengths radio button to view the pathlength value
for each well.
•
Each corrected well contains the result of the following
formula:
(A[wavelength]well) ÷ pathlength of well
The method used to calculate pathlengths depends on the
Pathlength Correction parameters defined under the Read
Method tab in the protocol. See page 5-16 for more
information.
•
To view the corrected absorbances at a different wavelength,
choose a value from the Wavelength drop-down menu.
•
If Bio-Tek’s Bio-Cell plate was used to calculate the
absorbance of water at 1 cm value, click the Bio-Cell Results
button to see the absorbance readings at the Test and Reference
Wavelengths.
7-18 • Interpreting Results
User's Guide to KCjunior
Transformation Results
Transformation Results are displayed if at least one Transformation
Formula was applied to one or more wells on the plate.
Transformation Formulas
are applied according to a
certain structure. See
“Essential Information” in
Getting Started for more
information.
•
Each well contains the result of its Transformation Formula,
if one was applied. Otherwise, the well contains its Raw,
Blanked, or Corrected value.
•
For Kinetic reads, Transformation Formulas are applied to the
Maximum Slope.
•
For MultiWavelength reads, Transformation Formulas are
applied to the Raw or Blanked Data for the first defined
wavelength, unless the WV function is used to specify a different
wavelength.
•
For multiple Filter Set reads, Transformation Formulas are
applied to the Raw or Blanked Data for the first defined filter
set, unless the FS function is used to specify a different filter set.
See “Defining Transformations - Formula Syntax” in Defining
Protocols, for more information on the WV and FS functions.
User's Guide to KCjunior
Interpreting Results • 7-19
Concentrations
Concentrations are reported if curve parameters are defined in the
protocol and if the curve generated successfully.
Concentrations are
calculated for every well on
the plate, based on the
standard curve and
according to a certain
structure. See “Essential
Information” in Getting
Started for more
information.
7-20 • Interpreting Results
•
Each well contains its calculated concentration.
•
For Endpoint reads, curves are based on the OD, RFU, or RLU
values.
•
For Kinetic reads, curves are based on the Maximum Slope
values.
•
For MultiWavelength reads, curves are based on the
measurements at the first defined wavelength unless
Transformation Formulas utilizing the WV function are applied
to specify a different wavelength.
•
For multiple Filter Set reads, curves are based on the
measurements at the first defined filter set, unless
Transformation Formulas utilizing the FS function are applied to
specify a different filter set.
•
See “Defining Transformations - Formula Syntax” in Defining
Protocols, for more information on the WV and FS functions.
•
Click the Standard Curve button to view the graph (see next
page).
User's Guide to KCjunior
The Standard Curve
The Standard Curve dialog displays the calculated curve and provides
options for printing, copying, and storing the curve, and for editing
standard outliers and/or curve parameters:
To access advanced
graphing options, place the
cursor inside the graph and
click the right mouse button.
•
Click Print/Copy to print the graph, or copy it to the Clipboard.
¾A Curve Report can be printed if it is selected as a
reporting option within the protocol. See page 5-61 for
more information.
•
If the Calculate Interpolation Value curve parameter is selected
in the protocol, click Interpolation to see the concentration
calculated for the value.
•
Click Curve Params to change any curve fitting parameters.
•
Click Edit Stds… to suppress or restore one or more standards.
Note: This feature is not available for titer or stored curves.
Alternatively, click on a standard point in the graph to
temporarily exclude it from curve calculations. Click again to
restore the standard.
User's Guide to KCjunior
•
Click Store the Curve to store a standard curve for use with
other protocols.
•
Toggle the Display Legend setting to include/exclude a legend
in the graph.
•
Click OK to close the Standard Curve dialog. Any changes to
the standards will be reflected in the results calculations.
•
Click the right mouse button inside the graph to access
advanced graphing options.
Interpreting Results • 7-21
Titer Curves
If titer curves were generated, clicking the Standard Curve button opens
the Sample List dialog:
•
Select up to 8 samples to be overlaid in one graph.
•
Press the Shift key while using the mouse to select contiguous
IDs (ex. SMP01-04).
•
Press the Ctrl key while using the mouse to select noncontiguous IDs (ex. SMP02, 05, 07, 08).
•
Click the OK button to view the graph:
¾If Graph Interpolation Result is enabled under
Setup|Configuration|Reporting Options, the interpolation
value will be plotted on the curve.
The value will not be reported, however, if more than one
sample is selected.
¾Data points cannot be edited within this dialog. To exclude
a well from the curve, return to the Raw Data results display
and Mask the desired well.
7-22 • Interpreting Results
User's Guide to KCjunior
¾Click Print/Copy to print the graph, or copy it to the
Clipboard.
Note: A Titer curve report can also be printed if it is
selected as a reporting option within the protocol.
¾Click Titer Results to view Curve Parameters, R-Square
values, and Interpolation results for all samples on the plate.
¾Toggle the Display Legend setting to include/exclude a
legend in the graph.
¾Click the right mouse button inside the graph to access
advanced graphing options.
¾Click OK to close the Titer Curve dialog.
Titer Results
Regardless of the number of titer curves selected for viewing, the Titer
Results dialog shows results for all samples defined for the plate.
User's Guide to KCjunior
•
The curve fitting method chosen in the protocol and its equation
are displayed under Curve Type.
•
If defined in the protocol, the Interpolation Value is provided.
•
Each Sample ID is listed in alphabetical order.
•
For each sample, the Curve Parameters and corresponding
R-Square values are reported.
•
If an interpolation value was defined, its calculated value for
each titer curve is reported in the Interpolation column.
Interpreting Results • 7-23
Interacting with the Graph
The displayed graph can be scaled, moved, and zoomed, and the altered
display can then be printed or copied to the Clipboard. The graph report
name and and curve equation information does not scale, move, or zoom
with the graph.
Note: At any time, press “r” to reset the graph to its original size and
position.
To scale the graph:
1.
Press and hold the Ctrl key.
2.
Press and hold both mouse buttons (or the middle button
of a 3-button mouse).
3.
Move the mouse down to increase the graph size, or up to
decrease the graph size.
To move the graph:
1.
Press and hold the Shift key.
2.
Press and hold both mouse buttons (or the middle button
of a 3-button mouse).
3.
Move the mouse to change the position of the graph.
To zoom in on a portion of the graph:
1.
Press and hold the Ctrl key.
2.
Press and hold the left mouse button.
3.
Drag the mouse to select the zoom area.
4.
Release the mouse button before releasing the Ctrl button.
To zoom in on a portion of the graph and have the axes adjust
accordingly:
1.
Press and hold the Shift key.
2.
Press and hold the left mouse button.
3.
Drag the mouse to select the zoom area.
4.
Release the mouse button before releasing the Shift button.
Advanced Graphing Options
Clicking the right mouse button from within the graph provides access
to many advanced graphing options, including:
7-24 • Interpreting Results
•
Creating a border around the entire chart.
•
Changing the color of the background, foreground, lines, and
symbols.
•
Scaling the X and/or Y axis to better focus in on the curve.
User's Guide to KCjunior
•
Changing the title and font of the X and/or Y axis.
•
Adding a legend to the graph.
•
Adding informative labels to the graph.
Printing and Copying the Graph
The graph and any edits made to it can be copied to the clipboard or
printed.
To print or copy the graph:
1.
Click the Print/Copy button. A selection list will appear:
2.
Click the Print Chart button to print the graph.
3.
Click the Copy Chart to Clipboard button to copy the graph to
the Clipboard. The graph can then be pasted into another
program.
4.
Click Cancel to return to the graph.
Editing the Standard Curve
After the standard curve has been generated, one or more standards can
be temporarily excluded from the recalculation of the curve. This feature
does not apply to titer curves or stored curves.
There are two ways to edit the standard curve:
1.
From within the Standard Curve dialog, click once on the
standard point to be excluded. The selected standard will dim,
and the curve will automatically attempt to recalculate.
¾Restore an edited standard by clicking on it once. The
curve will automatically recalculate.
2.
User's Guide to KCjunior
Click the Edit Stds… button to open the Edit Standards Dialog.
This dialog lists each standard with its Y-Axis Value,
Concentration (as defined in the protocol), and current Status.
Interpreting Results • 7-25
¾If the Status field is empty, the standard is currently
included in the curve calculation. Click the checkbox to
suppress the standard.
¾If the Status field contains “Suppressed” the standard is
currently suppressed. Click the checkbox to restore the
standard.
¾Click OK to close the dialog and return to the Standard
Curve dialog. The curve will automatically recalculate.
Storing the Standard Curve
The standard curve can be stored for use by another protocol. This
feature does not apply to titer curves.
To store a standard curve:
1.
From within the Standard Curve dialog, click the Store the
Curve button.
The Stored Curve dialog will appear.
7-26 • Interpreting Results
2.
Enter a unique name and click OK to store the curve and return
to the Standard Curve dialog.
3.
Click OK to close the Standard Curve dialog and return to the
Concentrations results display.
User's Guide to KCjunior
Labels
Labels are displayed if cutoffs are defined in the protocol.
•
Each well contains the Label assigned to it after cutoff
evaluation.
•
For Endpoint reads, cutoff evalution is based on the OD, RFU,
or RLU values.
•
For Kinetic reads, evaluation is based on the Maximum Slope
values.
•
For MultiWavelength reads, evaluation is based on the
measurements at the first defined wavelength unless
Transformation Formulas utilizing the WV function are applied
to specify a different wavelength.
•
For multiple Filter Set reads, evaluation is based on the
measurements at the first defined filter set, unless
Transformation Formulas utilizing the FS function are applied to
specify a different filter set.
See “Defining Transformations - Formula Syntax” in Defining
Protocols, for more information on the WV and FS functions.
•
User's Guide to KCjunior
Click the Cutoff Values button to see the cutoff criteria, the
calculated cutoff value(s), and the labels assigned to each cutoff
zone.
Interpreting Results • 7-27
Template
Well identification information can be viewed under the Template tab.
•
The Well ID or Sample ID and corresponding
concentration/dilution value are displayed for each well.
•
Well IDs are used to identify the four well types supported by
KCjunior – Blank, Standard, Sample, and Control.
7-28 • Interpreting Results
User's Guide to KCjunior
Plate Formula Results
Plate Formula Results are displayed if a Plate Formula is defined in the
protocol.
•
Each well contains the result of the Plate Formula defined in the
protocol.
•
For Endpoint reads, the Plate Formula is based on the OD,
RFU, or RLU values.
•
For Kinetic reads, the Plate Formula is based on the Maximum
Slope values.
•
For MultiWavelength reads, Plate Formulas are applied to the
Raw or Blanked Data for the first defined wavelength, unless the
WV function is used to specify a different wavelength.
•
For multiple Filter Set reads, Plate Formulas are applied to the
Raw or Blanked Data for the first defined filter set, unless the
FS function is used to specify a different filter set.
See “Defining Transformations - Formula Syntax” in Defining
Protocols, for more information on the WV and FS functions.
User's Guide to KCjunior
Interpreting Results • 7-29
Statistics
Within each results display, the Statistics button is available if a Well ID
Template is defined in the protocol.
When the Statistics button is clicked, KCjunior automatically calculates
and displays the mean, standard deviation, and coefficient of variation of
every replicate group.
•
Click the Samples, Statistics, or Controls button to see a
different set of statistics, or click OK to return to the results
display.
•
For MultiWavelength reads, the Raw Data column contains the
Read (or Result, if an empty plate was read) values for the first
defined wavelength. The Blank Data column contains the
blanked data for the first defined wavelength.
•
For multiple Filter Set reads, the Raw and Blank Data columns
contain the raw and blanked values for the first defined filter set.
•
If viewing statistics for a titer protocol, click the Titer Results
button to view curve parameters, r-square values, and
interpolation results for all samples on the plate.
•
The information provided in the Statistics dialog depends on
the protocol parameters. The following may be displayed:
Well ID
The identifier assigned to each well.
Loc
The location of the Well ID in the plate.
Note: If viewing statistics for a protocol that
uses a stored curve, the Loc values for the
standards will contain XXX.
7-30 • Interpreting Results
User's Guide to KCjunior
Blank Data
If the protocol specifies blanking and does
not contain transformation formulas, the
Blank Data will be displayed.
Calc Conc
If concentrations were calculated, they will
be displayed in the Calc Conc column.
Corrected
If Pathlength Correction is enabled in the
protocol (MultiWavelength reads only) to
normalize absorbances to 1 cm, the
Corrected ODs will be displayed.
Concentration
If viewing statistics for a protocol that uses
a stored curve, the concentration values
(as defined in the protocol) will be displayed
in the Concentration column.
Dilution
If dilutions were assigned in the protocol,
they will be displayed in the Dilutions
column.
Label
If cutoff criteria are specified, the Label will
be displayed for every replicate and group
mean.
Max Slope
The Max Slope is reported for kinetic
protocols.
Mean
The Mean is automatically calculated for
every multiple-replicate standard, control,
blank, and sample group.
Note: The Mean is not displayed for
samples/controls with multiple dilutions.
Raw Data
If the protocol does not specify blanking or
contain transformation formulas, the Raw
Data will be displayed.
Std Dev, CV%
The Standard Deviation and CV% are
automatically calculated for every multiplereplicate standard, control, blank, and
sample group.
Note: CV% = 100*(Std Dev/Mean)
User's Guide to KCjunior
Transform
If the protocol contains transformation
formulas, the results will be displayed in the
Transform column.
Y-Axis Data
If viewing statistics for a protocol that uses a
stored curve, the Y-Axis Data will be
displayed for the standards.
Interpreting Results • 7-31
Auto Sensitivity Results
For fluorescence and luminescence readers, KCjunior provides an
Automatic Sensitivity Adjustment feature as an alternative to the more
manual method of defining multiple filter sets with varying sensitivity
settings. See “Defining Filter Sets” under Defining Protocols for more
information. If this feature is enabled, KCjunior instructs the reader to
perform several pre-readings on the microplate. In general, these
readings are performed on user-specified wells using incremental
sensitivity settings. Each increase in sensitivity raises the RFU/RLU
values of all of the wells.
If the Automatic Sensitivity Adjustment option Scale to High/Low
Range is selected, KCjunior compares the results of the pre-readings and
selects the sensitivity that gives the best signal-to-noise ratio when
comparing one (higher) set of wells with another (lower) set of wells.
The entire microplate is then read using this sensitivity setting.
A graph showing the results of these pre-readings can be viewed from the
results dialog, by clicking the Auto Sensitivity button. The Auto
Sensitivity Results dialog appears:
7-32 • Interpreting Results
•
This graph can be viewed during or following the automatic
sensitivity adjustment process.
•
Each point represents the signal-to-noise ratio calculated at a
particular sensitivity setting.
•
To change the filter set(s) shown in the graph, select or deselect
the Filter Set checkboxes.
•
This graph is not saved with the plate. Click Print/Copy to print
the graph or to copy/paste it into another application.
User's Guide to KCjunior
•
If the message “There is no valid auto sensitivity data to
display” appears, an error occurred during the auto sensitivity
adjustment process. See “Comments and Warnings” in the
Troubleshooting section of this guide for more information.
Automatic Sensitivity Adjustment Process
The automatic sensitivity adjustment process (for the Scale to Low/High
Range option) is performed as follows:
•
Using the filter set parameters provided, an initial reading is
performed on the designated “pre-reading” wells, using a
sensitivity setting of 25.
•
A signal-to-noise ratio is calculated. If it is found to be valid,
the sensitivity setting and the value are retained for further
evaluation.
•
The sensitivity is then increased by increments of 25 and
additional readings are made until one of the following
conditions are met:
Condition 1 (success)
If two successive valid signal-to-noise ratios are within either
0.1 or 5 percent of each other, then 2 additional readings are
performed using sensitivity settings at one-quarter increments
between the sensitivity of those readings. For example, if the
signal-to-noise ratio at sensitivities 50 and 75 are 120.31 and
120.38, respectively, then additional readings will be performed
at sensitivities 55, 60, 65, and 70.
The valid signal-to-noise ratios of the 6 successive readings are
then compared to determine the highest value. The sensitivity of
the highest signal-to-noise ratio is then chosen for the actual
filter set read. If the highest signal-to-noise ratio occurs at
multiple sensitivity settings, then the highest sensitivity will be
selected.
Condition 2 (success)
If Condition 1 is not met after a sensitivity reading of 250 or
before the sensitivity at which one or more of the High Wells
exceeds the High Value, then the sensitivity of the highest valid
signal-to-noise ratio acheived is chosen for the actual filter set
read. If the highest signal-to-noise ratio occurs at multiple
sensitivity readings, then the highest sensitivity is selected.
Condition 3 (failure)
If Condition 2 is not met because there are no valid signal-tonoise ratios, then an error message will appear and the read will
be terminated.
User's Guide to KCjunior
Interpreting Results • 7-33
Condition 4 (failure)
If none of the previous conditions are met, then an error message
will appear and the read will be terminated.
Signal-to-Noise Ratio Calculation
•
If there are multiple Low Wells and Test Wells defined in the
protocol, the signal-to-noise ratio is calculated as follows:
(Mean of the Test Wells - Mean of the Low Wells) /
Total Standard Deviation
where Total Standard Deviation = SQRT((Std Dev of the
Test Wells)^2 + (Std Dev of the Low Wells)^2))
•
If there is a single Low Well and/or a single Test Well, the
signal-to-noise ratio is calculated as follows:
(Mean of the Test Wells - Mean of the Low Wells) /
Mean of the Low Wells
Results Options
From within any results matrix, highlighting a well and clicking the right
mouse button produces a sub-menu with a variety of options:
Accessibility to some Results Options depends on the protocol definition,
the current results display, and the method of obtaining plate data. For
example, “Modify Simulation Data” is not available if the plate data was
retrieved from a microplate reader.
All Results Options are described below and on the following pages.
Plate Information
Detailed Plate Information is available from within any results display.
To access this information:
7-34 • Interpreting Results
1.
Highlight any well in any results matrix.
2.
Click the right mouse button. The Results Options menu will
appear.
User's Guide to KCjunior
3.
Select Plate Information. The Plate Information dialog
appears:
¾The Plate ID is an optional identifier associated with the
plate. It is entered at run time, either manually or via a
reader’s plate barcode scanner. The ID can be changed here
if the result file has not yet been saved.
¾The date and time of the plate reading is displayed in the
Plate Read Time field.
¾The possible Plate Status values are:
OK if the plate was read without error.
Aborted if the plate read was aborted before completion.
Reader Control Error if the reader experienced a failure
before the completion of the read and could no longer
respond to KCjunior.
Reader Error [code] if the reader experienced a failure
before the completion of the read and was able to
communicate an error code.
¾The Reader field contains the reader model with which the
plate was read.
¾The name of the person to whom KCjunior is registered
appears as the default in the Created By field. The name
can be changed here if the plate has not yet been saved.
¾If applicable, the Temperature will be reported, in degrees
Celsius. This value reflects the temperature of the
incubation chamber at the time the plate was read.
¾If the Monitor Well feature was enabled in the protocol, the
dialog displays the elapsed time between the start of the
User's Guide to KCjunior
Interpreting Results • 7-35
monitoring process and the point when the monitored
well(s) met the specified criteria.
¾The Plate Description can be defined or edited in this
dialog.
¾To see the Read Method parameters defined for this plate,
click the Read Method button.
¾Click OK to save any changes and return to the previous
dialog.
¾Click Cancel to close this dialog without saving changes.
Well Information
Detailed Well Information is available for any well, from within the Raw
Data results display. To access this information for a particular well:
1.
Click the Raw Data results tab.
2.
Place the cursor over the desired well and click the right mouse
button. The Results Options menu will appear.
3.
Select Well Information. The Well Information dialog will
appear:
¾The Well Location represents the well’s location in the
microplate, in row by column format.
¾For a multiple-plate Endpoint read, the Read Number
represents the plate for which the raw data value in this well
was measured.
¾If the read is Kinetic, the Kinetic Read represents the read
during which the raw data value in this well was measured.
¾For a MultiWavelength read, the Wavelength field shows
the wavelength associated with the current Read Value, and
Empty, Read, or Result, as appropriate for the data set.
¾The Read Value is the original unchanged Raw Data value.
Note: A Read Value of -99.99 or -99,999 indicates a well
error (see Read Status, Error on the next page).
7-36 • Interpreting Results
User's Guide to KCjunior
¾The possible Read Status values are:
OK if the well was read without error.
Out if the Read Value falls outside the acceptable min/max
data range and Discard Out of Range Values is selected.
Over if the Read Value exceeds the upper limit of the
acceptable min/max data range and Discard Out of Range
Values is not selected.
Under if the Read Value falls below the lower limit of the
acceptable min/max data range and Discard Out of Range
Values is not selected.
Error if the reader determined the OD, RFU, or RLU of the
well to be significantly out-of-range.
¾If the Read Status is Over or Under, the Adjusted Value
contains the Raw Data Limits or Blank Limits Maximum or
Minimum Value as defined in the protocol.
¾Click OK to close the dialog and return to the results
display.
Masking Wells
Within any results display, individual wells can be masked, or
temporarily excluded, from a recalculation of the results. For example, a
standard replicate with an atypical absorbance can be temporarily masked
and excluded from the recalculation of the standard curve.
To Mask a well:
1.
Place the cursor over the desired well and click the right mouse
button once. The Results Options menu will appear.
2.
Select Mask Well to mask the current well.
If the read is kinetic, the well will be masked only in the current
kinetic read. Select Mask All Reads to mask the current well
across all kinetic reads.
¾In the Raw Data results display, the value in a masked well
appears with a line running through it (ex. 1.275).
¾In other results displays, the well will be empty.
To Unmask a well:
1.
Place the cursor over the desired well and click the right mouse
button. The Results Options menu will appear.
2.
Select √ Mask Well to unmask the current well.
If the read is kinetic, the well will only be unmasked in the
current kinetic read. Select Unmask All Reads to unmask the
current well from all kinetic reads.
User's Guide to KCjunior
Interpreting Results • 7-37
Modifying Simulation Data
If results were generated based on manually entered measurements, the
measurements can be modified from within the Raw Data results display.
To modify manually-entered (simulated) data:
1.
Click the Raw Data tab.
2.
Place the cursor over the desired well and click the right mouse
button once. The Results Options menu will appear.
3.
Select Modify Simulation Data. The Simulation Well dialog
will appear:
¾The Well Location represents the well's location in the
microplate, in row x column format.
¾If the read is kinetic, the Read Number represents the read
during which the value for this well was measured.
¾The Read Value is the current value in the well.
4.
7-38 • Interpreting Results
Edit the Read Value, then click OK to return to the Raw Data
results display.
User's Guide to KCjunior
Printing Reports
Reports
After plate data has been acquired and data reduction is complete,
KCjunior can generate a user-customizable set of reports. Available
reports include the Protocol, Raw Data, Maximum Slope, Formula,
Column, and Curve Reports, as well as the configurable Matrix Report.
Reporting options are selected and customized within a protocol, under
the Report tab. See “Defining Protocol Parameters - Reports” in
Defining Protocols for more information.
Note: A protocol must be open to print most reports. If no protocol is
open, however, a Raw Data Report containing just the raw plate data can
be printed.
Print Preview
Before actually printing reports, select Results|Print Preview to see what
they will look like.
•
For multiple-plate endpoint reads, the Print Endpoint Plates
dialog appears.
¾The Number of Plates field contains the total number of
plates that were read.
¾Adjust the First Plate to Print and Last Plate to Print
values to preview a subset of the total number of plates.
¾Click OK to continue with the preview.
User's Guide to KCjunior
Printing Reports • 8-1
•
The Print Preview dialog can display one or two pages at a
time.
¾Click
to view the next page of the report.
¾Click
to view the previous page.
¾Click
or
to change the view.
¾Click
to access the Print dialog, to select a
printer and related options.
¾Click
to close the print preview dialog and
return to the KCjunior main screen.
Print Results
Select Results|Print Results to print the reports.
•
If printing reports for a multiple-plate endpoint read, the Print
Endpoint Plates dialog appears.
¾The Number of Plates field contains the total number of
plates that were read.
¾Adjust the First Plate to Print and Last Plate to Print
values to preview a subset of the total number of plates.
¾Click OK to continue with the preview.
8-2 • Printing Reports
User's Guide to KCjunior
Print Setup
To change the printer, paper size or source, or page orientation, select
Results|Print Setup to access a standard Windows Print Setup dialog.
The Print Setup dialog appears:
User's Guide to KCjunior
•
To select a different printer, click the Printer Name drop-down
arrow.
•
To change print properties such as paper type and resolution,
click the Properties button.
•
To select a different paper size, click the Paper Size drop-down
arrow.
•
To select a different paper source, click the Paper Source dropdown arrow.
•
To select the paper orientation, click the Portrait or Landscape
radio button.
•
Click OK to save the changes and return to the KCjunior main
screen.
Printing Reports • 8-3
8-4 • Printing Reports
User's Guide to KCjunior
Utilities
Overview
Special reader and database maintenance services are accessible through
the Utilities menu, including:
•
Incubation Control (reader-dependent)
•
Carrier Out/In (reader-dependent)
•
Dispenser Control Panel
•
Reader System Test
•
Universal Plate Test
•
Database Maintenance functions:
¾Creating empty Results and Protocol Databases for
archiving.
¾Archiving results records, protocols, stored curves, and
reader system and universal plate tests.
¾Deleting protocols from the current Protocol Database.
¾Deleting results records, stored curves, and reader system
and universal plate tests from the current Results Database.
User's Guide to KCjunior
Utilities • 9-1
Incubation Control
If the attached reader supports incubation, the Incubation Control utility
is available.
Use this utility to set the incubation setpoint temperature and duration,
then to turn on the reader’s incubator and allow it to stabilize before
performing a plate read.
•
Note: For the EL312I and EL340I readers, the Incubation
Control utility does not set or monitor the reader temperature.
This utility can, however, be used as a timer while the
incubation temperature rises to and settles at a setpoint.
See step 6 for more information.
An alternative method for controlling incubation is to define incubation
information in a protocol. If the protocol is open, KCjunior will
automatically turn on the reader's incubator when a plate read is initiated.
The plate read will begin when the incubation temperature reaches and
stabilizes at the setpoint temperature.
To use the Incubation Control utility:
1.
Ensure that the reader is properly connected to the computer,
and that all communication parameters are set correctly.
2.
Select Utilities|Incubation Control .
The Incubation Control dialog appears:
Incubate a plate now.
3.
To turn the incubator on and incubate a plate now:
¾Click the On radio button.
¾Enter the Set Point temperature.
The valid range for most readers is from 20°C (or 4°C
above room temperature, whichever is greater), to 50°C.
¾Deselect Indefinite duration.
¾Enter the incubation Duration in seconds.
9-2 • Utilities
User's Guide to KCjunior
¾Click Start. The Read Plate dialog appears, showing the
Actual Temperature of the reader as it rises toward the
setpoint.
Click the Override button to begin the incubation before the
setpoint temperature is reached.
Note: The acceptable temperature range for plate reading
for most readers is +/- 2°C of the setpoint temperature.
Because of this, KCjunior may provide the “Place plate on
carrier” indication when the reader temperature is within
2°C of the set point temperature. The incubator temperature
will continue to rise and then stabilize at the set point
temperature.
¾When the setpoint temperature is reached, place the plate in
the carrier, then click OK.
The plate incubation will begin. KCjunior will display the
Time Remaining.
Click the Abort Incubation button to stop the plate
incubation.
¾When the incubation is complete, remove the plate from the
carrier.
Incubate a plate later.
4.
To turn the incubator on now and incubate a plate later:
¾Click the On radio button.
¾Enter the Set Point temperature.
The valid range for most readers is from 20°C (or 4°C
above room temperature, whichever is greater), to 50°C.
User's Guide to KCjunior
Utilities • 9-3
¾Select Indefinite duration.
¾Click Set.
The Incubation dialog will close and the reader
temperature will begin to increase or decrease
appropriately.
Turn the incubator off.
5.
To turn the incubator off:
¾Click the Off radio button.
¾Select Indefinite duration.
¾Click Set. The Incubation dialog will close and the reader
temperature will begin to decrease to room temperature.
Set a timer.
6.
To set a timer (EL312I and EL340I readers only):
¾Manually set the temperature on the EL312I or EL340I.
Refer to the reader's user manual for instructions.
¾In KCjunior's Incubation dialog, enter the Set Point
temperature (optional, for visual effect only).
¾Click the Start button to start the timer.
¾When the timer reaches 0, KCjunior will provide an
indication to place the plate in the carrier.
Carrier Out/In
If the reader type specified under Setup|Reader supports computercontrolled operation of the plate carrier or door, the Carrier Out and
Carrier In options are accessible in the Utilities Menu.
•
Select Carrier Out to open the door or to extend the plate
carrier.
•
Select Carrier In to close the door or to retract the plate carrier.
Dispenser Control Panel
For the FLx800 reader with the optional reagent dispense capability,
KCjunior provides a Dispenser Control Panel. The panel displays the
current dispenser status and provides access to dispenser-specific
functions such as prime and purge.
To access the Dispenser Control Panel:
9-4 • Utilities
1.
Ensure that the reader is properly connected to the computer,
and that all communication parameters are set correctly.
2.
Ensure that FLx800 is selected as the Current Reader.
3.
Select Utilities|Dispenser Control Panel.
User's Guide to KCjunior
•
Sampling Windows Supported: The maximum number of
unique sample measurement scenarios supported per well per
kinetic read in a Dispense / Read protocol.
•
Number of Dispensers Supported: The maximum number of
dispensers that the reader currently supports.
For each dispenser, the following information is provided:
•
Connected: Indicates whether or not the reader recognizes that
the dispenser is connected.
•
Initialized: Indicates whether or not the dispenser is initialized
and ready for use.
•
Primed: Indicates whether or not the prime operation has been
run since the dispenser was last initialized.
•
Injector Position: Displays the reader’s current injector
position setting (Top or Bottom).
•
Dispense Events: The maximum number of dispenses
supported per well in a Dispense / Read protocol.
Initializing the Dispenser
If the dispenser was connected before the reader was turned on, or if a
system test was run, the dispenser should initialize automatically. If for
any reason the dispenser does not initialize automatically, you can
initialize it from KCjunior. This may be necessary if the dispenser was
connected to the reader after the reader was turned on, or following the
installation of a new syringe.
To initialize the dispenser:
User's Guide to KCjunior
1.
Select Utilities|Dispenser Control Panel.
2.
Click Initialize Dispenser. The dispenser’s syringe drive will
move to its home position and its sensors will be verified.
Utilities • 9-5
Priming the Dispenser
The dispenser’s syringe and tubing must be fully primed with the desired
fluid before plate reading can begin. In addition, the FLx800 operator’s
manual contains decontamination procedures that require the dispenser to
be primed.
Important: A special priming plate (Bio-Tek part number 7142002)
must be placed in the carrier prior to priming.
To prime the dispenser:
1.
Fill the supply bottle with the desired fluid.
2.
Place the priming plate on the carrier.
3.
In KCjunior, select Utilities|Dispenser Control Panel.
4.
Click Prime Dispenser.
5.
Enter the desired Prime Volume, from 5 to 5000 ul.
6.
Select a Prime Dispense Rate from 1 to 4.
¾Note: With each rate selection, the corresponding ul/sec
value is displayed.
7.
Click Start Prime to begin the prime.
Purging the Dispenser
KCjunior provides a utility for purging fluid from the dispenser by
pumping the fluid in reverse, back into the supply bottle.
Important: The tip priming trough must be placed in the carrier prior to
purging. During this process, the carrier is positioned so that the tip
priming trough sits under the fluid injector head.
To purge the dispenser:
9-6 • Utilities
1.
Ensure that the tip priming trough is in place on the carrier (see
the FLx800 operator’s manual for placement instructions).
2.
In KCjunior, select Utilities|Dispenser Control Panel.
3.
Click Purge Dispenser.
4.
Enter the desired Purge Volume, from 5 to 5000 ul.
5.
Click Start Purge to begin the purge.
User's Guide to KCjunior
Setting the Injector Position
The FLx800’s fluid injector head can be positioned either next to the top
probe or directly above the bottom probe. Refer to the FLx800
operator’s manual for details.
If the fluid injector head is moved, the reader software must be
reconfigured accordingly; this can only be done through KCjunior.
To configure the injector position setting:
1.
In KCjunior, select Utilities|Dispenser Control Panel.
2.
Click Set Injector Position.
3.
Click the radio button associated with the Injector Position
(next to top probe, or above bottom probe).
4.
Click Set Position. The message “Injector position setting
successfully completed” should appear.
5.
Click OK to return to the Dispenser Control Panel. The Injector
Position field will display the new position.
Syringe Setup
KCjunior provides access to special Syringe Setup functions for
maintenance and calibration purposes.
•
Important: Do not change the syringe position or calibrate the
dispenser unless instructed to do so as part of installation,
upgrade, or maintenance.
Moving the Syringe to its Maintenance Position
If the syringe needs to be installed or replaced, it must first be moved to
its Maintenance Position. To do this from KCjunior:
1.
Select Utilities|Dispenser Control Panel.
2.
Click Syringe Setup.
3.
Click Move Syringe to Maintenance Position.
The syringe plunger will move to its furthest-from-home
position. The syringe can then be disconnected from the drive
bracket and unscrewed from the valve (see the FLx800
operator’s or service manual for further details).
User's Guide to KCjunior
Utilities • 9-7
Diagnostics
The Reader System Test and the Universal Plate Test should be
performed routinely to validate and document the consistency of a
reader’s optical and electronic performance, alignment, accuracy,
reproducibility, and linearity.
Reader System Test
The Reader System Test validates and documents the consistency of
reader optical and electronic performance. For most readers, this test can
be performed from within KCjunior.
To perform a Reader System Test:
1.
Ensure that the reader is properly connected to the computer,
and that all communication parameters are set correctly.
2.
From the Utilities menu, select Diagnostics, then Reader
System Test.
The System Test dialog appears:
9-8 • Utilities
3.
Enter the Reader Serial Number, and an appropriate Comment
if desired.
4.
Click the Run Test button. KCjunior performs the test and
displays the results. Sample test results are shown on the next
page.
User's Guide to KCjunior
¾Results should show SYSTEM TEST PASS.
¾If the test fails and the reader begins “beeping”, press the
Stop button on the reader. The reader should then send an
error code to KCjunior, resembling the following:
***SYSTEM TEST FAIL*** ERROR (0302) DETECTED
Refer to the reader’s user manual for a list of error codes
and their potential causes.
¾Click Print to print the results, or OK to close the results.
Test results are automatically saved in the Results Database.
Reader System Test History
When a Reader System Test is complete, the test results are automatically
saved to the Results Database. These test results can viewed at any time.
To view historical Reader System Test results:
1.
Select Utilities|Diagnostics|Reader System Test History.
The View Test dialog appears, listing the test results:
¾The list is sorted by date. To switch between ascending
and descending sort order, click the Test Results column
header.
User's Guide to KCjunior
Utilities • 9-9
2.
Highlight the desired test, then click the View Test button to
view the results.
3.
Click OK to close the results and return to the View Test dialog.
4.
View another test, or click the Exit button to return to the main
screen.
Universal Plate Test
The Universal Plate Test utilizes Bio-Tek’s Universal Calibration Test
Plate to validate and document the consistency of reader alignment,
accuracy, reproducibility, and linearity. For most readers, this test can be
performed from within KCjunior.
To perform the Universal Plate Test:
1.
Ensure that the reader is properly connected to the computer,
and that all communication parameters are set correctly.
2.
The reader should be equipped with the necessary filters to
perform the test. Refer to the calibration data table that came
with the test plate to determine the required wavelengths.
3.
Select Utilities|Diagnostics|Universal Plate Test to access the
Universal Test Plate Dialog.
4.
Examine the contents of the Universal Plate ID list box. The
Universal Plate ID list box should contain a list of data sheets
associated with the universal test plate. There should be one
data sheet for each wavelength used for the test.
¾If all of the required data sheets exist for the test plate,
highlight the first Plate ID (Wavelength) to test, then skip
ahead to step 5.
¾If one or more data sheets need to be created, click the New
Data Sheet button. See “Setting Up a New Data Sheet” for
more information.
9-10 • Utilities
User's Guide to KCjunior
¾If one or more data sheets needs to be viewed or modified,
highlight a data sheet and click the View/Modify button.
¾To delete a data sheet, highlight the desired item in the
Universal Plate ID list, then click Delete Data Sheet.
KCjunior will request confirmation before deletion.
5.
If necessary, modify the Operator name.
6.
Enter the Reader Serial Number and any Comments.
7.
If supported by the reader, Perform Peak Wavelength Test is
accessible. If this box is checked, the Peak Wavelength Test
will be included in the universal plate test.
8.
Click the Run Test button. The reader performs the test and
KCjunior displays the results.
9.
Click Print to print the results, or OK to close the results.
Test results are automatically saved in the Results Database.
10. Repeat steps 4-8 for the remaining wavelengths.
11. Click the Exit button to return to the main screen.
Setting Up a New Data Sheet
A data sheet contains exact spectrophotometric calibration data
associated with a neutral density filter at 1 of 8 possible wavelengths.
To create a set of data sheets (one for each wavelength), for use with the
Universal Plate Test:
1.
User's Guide to KCjunior
Click New Data Sheet from the Universal Plate Test dialog.
The Data Sheet dialog appears:
Utilities • 9-11
2.
Select a Universal Plate.
¾#9000547 does not have a filter in the C6 location. It is the
standard test plate that can be used on any Bio-Tek reader.
If this plate is selected, the Peak Wavelength Test will not
be performed.
¾#7260522 has a filter in the C6 location, for the Peak
Wavelength test. It is the test plate that is used on readers
that support spectral scanning.
3.
Enter the test plate’s Serial Number.
4.
Enter a Wavelength, or select one from the drop-down list.
5.
Refer to the calibration data table that came with the test plate to
determine the expected OD for each test well at the selected
wavelength.
For each Location (C1, D4, E2, F5, G3, H6), enter the OD
associated with that well at the selected wavelength.
For readers that support spectral scanning, a Peak Wavelength
value is required. Enter the value in nanometers (nm).
9-12 • Utilities
6.
Click OK to save the data sheet and return to the Universal Test
Plate dialog.
7.
Repeat the above steps to create a data sheet for each Universal
Test Plate ID (Wavelength) to be tested.
User's Guide to KCjunior
Universal Plate Test History
When a Universal Plate Test is complete, the test results are
automatically saved in the Results Database. These test results can
viewed at any time.
To view historical Universal Plate Test results:
1.
Select Utilities|Diagnostics|Universal Plate Test History.
The View Test dialog appears, listing all test results:
¾The list is sorted by date. To switch between ascending
and descending order, click the Test Results column
header.
User's Guide to KCjunior
2.
Highlight the desired test, then click the View Test button to
view the results.
3.
Click OK to close the results and return to the View Test dialog.
4.
View another test, or click the Exit button to return to the main
screen.
Utilities • 9-13
Database Maintenance
Protocols, results records, stored curves, system test results, and universal
plate test results can be copied into archive databases that can then be
stored as a part of normal backup procedures.
During the archive process:
•
Protocols are copied to an Archive Protocol Database.
•
Results records, stored curves, system test results, and universal
plate test results are copied to an Archive Results Database.
Archived or otherwise unnecessary protocols, results records, stored
curves, stored transformations, system test results, and universal plate test
results can be deleted from the Protocol and Results Databases currently
in use.
A Note on Backup Procedures
It is strongly recommended that you backup (safely store) your protocol
and results databases regularly. Here are some suggestions:
•
Routinely copy the complete protocol and results databases from
your hard drive to the network or to a floppy diskette. Note:
Check to ensure that network files are automatically backed up.
See “Pathnames” under Setting Up the System to find out where
these databases are stored.
¾Enhance this suggestion by first copying certain protocols,
results records, stored curves, and/or test results to archive
protocol and results databases. Then copy the archive
databases to the network or to a floppy diskette.
Continue to review “Database Maintenance” for
instructions.
•
Instead of keeping your protocol and results databases on your
hard drive, store them on the network.
See “Sharing Protocols and Databases” under Defining
Protocols and “Sharing Results Records and Databases” under
Reading Plates for more information.
9-14 • Utilities
User's Guide to KCjunior
Creating Archive Databases
Before protocols can be archived, an Archive Protocol Database must
be created. Before results records, stored curves, system test results, and
universal plate test results can be archived, an Archive Results
Database must be created.
During the archive process, selected items are copied from the current
Results and Protocol Databases into the archive databases. Look under
Setup|Configuration|Pathnames to see the names and locations of the
currently configured Results and Protocol Databases.
To create an archive database:
1.
Select Utilities|Database Maintenance|Create Archive
(Results or Protocol) Database.
The Create Empty (Results or Protocol) Database dialog
appears.
2.
In the Save in field select a location for the new database.
3.
Enter an identifying File name, such as ArchRslts.mdb or
ArchProt.mdb.
4.
Click Save to create the database and return to the main screen.
Archiving Results Records and Protocols
When results records and protocols are archived they are copied from the
current Results and Protocol Databases, respectively, into the archive
databases.
To archive results records and protocols:
1.
Make sure that archive databases have been created.
2.
Select Utilities|Database Maintenance|Archive Results or
Protocols.
User's Guide to KCjunior
Utilities • 9-15
The Archive Results or Protocol Database Pathname dialog
appears.
3.
Enter the drive, directory, and file name of the archive database,
or use the Browse button to locate this information.
4.
Click OK. The Archive Results or Archive Protocols dialog
appears, listing the contents of the current Results or Protocol
Database.
5.
Select the results record(s) or protocol(s) to be archived:
¾If archiving results records, click the Results and Creation
Date column headers to sort the records alphabetically or by
date.
¾Use the mouse to select the items(s) to be archived. Press
the Shift key while using the mouse to select contiguous
items. Press the Ctrl key while using the mouse to select
non-contiguous items.
¾Check Delete after archive to permanently delete the
item(s) from the current database after being copied to the
archive database.
6.
Click the Archive Results or Archive Protocol(s) button.
The selected items are copied to the archive database and then
deleted from the current database (if Delete after archive is
checked).
¾If a duplicate Results Record or Protocol Name is
detected, KCjunior will not overwrite the results record or
protocol.
9-16 • Utilities
User's Guide to KCjunior
Archiving Stored Curves
When stored curves are archived, they are copied from the current
Results Database into the Archive Results Database.
To archive stored curves:
1.
Make sure that an Archive Results Database has been created.
2.
Select Utilities|Database Maintenance|Archive Stored
Curves. The Archive Results Database Pathname dialog
appears.
3.
Enter the drive, directory, and file name of the archive database,
or use the Browse button to locate this information.
4.
Click OK. The Archive Stored Curves dialog appears, listing
the curves stored in the current Results Database.
5.
Select the curve(s) to be archived:
¾Use the mouse to select the items(s) to be archived. Press
the Shift key while using the mouse to select contiguous
items. Press the Ctrl key while using the mouse to select
non-contiguous items.
¾Check Delete after archive to permanently delete the
item(s) from the current database after being copied to the
archive database.
6.
Click the Archive Curve(s) button. The selected items are
copied to the archive database and then deleted from the current
database (if Delete after archive is checked).
¾If a duplicate Curve Name is detected, KCjunior does not
overwrite the curve.
User's Guide to KCjunior
Utilities • 9-17
Archiving Test Results
When Reader System and Universal Plate Test Results are archived they
are copied from the current Results Database into the Archive Results
Database.
To archive test results:
1.
Make sure that an Archive Results Database has been created.
2.
Select Utilities|Database Maintenance|Archive System Test
Results or Universal Plate Test Results.
The Archive Results Database Pathname dialog appears.
3.
Enter the drive, directory, and file name of the archive database,
or use the Browse button to locate this information.
4.
Click OK. The Archive System Test Results or Archive
Universal Plate Test Results dialog appears, listing the test
results stored in the current Results Database.
5.
Select the test result(s) to be archived:
¾To switch between ascending and descending sort order,
click the Test Results column header.
¾Use the mouse to select the items(s) to be archived. Press
the Shift key while using the mouse to select contiguous
items. Press the Ctrl key while using the mouse to select
non-contiguous items.
¾Check Delete after archive to permanently delete the
item(s) from the current database after being copied to the
archive database.
9-18 • Utilities
User's Guide to KCjunior
6.
Click the Archive Test(s) button. The selected items are copied
to the Archive Results Database and then deleted from the
current database (if Delete after archive is checked).
¾If a duplicate Date/Time is detected, KCjunior does not
overwrite the existing test results.
Deleting Results Records and Protocols
After results records and protocols have been safely archived, or if certain
results records or protocols are no longer needed, they can be deleted
from the current Results and Protocol Databases.
To delete results records and protocols:
1.
Close any open records/protocols.
2.
Select Utilities|Database Maintenance|Delete Results or
Delete Protocols.
The Delete Results or Delete Protocols dialog appears, listing
all results records or protocols in the current database.
3.
Select the results record(s) or protocol(s) to be deleted:
¾If deleting results records, click the Results and Creation
Date column headers to sort the records alphabetically or by
date.
¾Use the mouse to select the item(s) to be deleted. Press the
Shift key while using the mouse to select contiguous items.
Press the Ctrl key while using the mouse to select noncontiguous items.
4.
User's Guide to KCjunior
Click the Delete Results or Delete Protocol(s) button. The
selected items are permanently removed from the current
database.
Utilities • 9-19
Deleting Stored Curves
After stored curves have been safely archived, or if certain curves are no
longer needed, they can be deleted from the current Results Database.
To delete stored curves:
1.
Close any open protocols.
2.
Select Utilities|Database Maintenance|Delete Stored Curves.
The Delete Stored Curves dialog appears, listing all curves
stored in the current Results Database.
3.
Select the curve(s) to be deleted.
¾Use the mouse to select the items(s) to be deleted. Press the
Shift key while using the mouse to select contiguous curves.
Press the Ctrl key while using the mouse to select noncontiguous curves.
4.
9-20 • Utilities
Click the Delete Curve(s) button. The selected item(s) are
permanently removed from the current Results Database.
User's Guide to KCjunior
Deleting Stored Transformations
If certain stored transformations are no longer needed, they can be
deleted from the current Protocol Database.
To delete stored transformations:
1.
Close any open protocols.
2.
Select Utilities|Database Maintenance|Delete Stored
Transformations.
The Delete Stored Transformations dialog appears, listing all
formulas stored in the current Protocol Database.
3.
Select the formula(s) to be deleted.
¾Use the mouse to select the items(s) to be deleted. Press the
Shift key while using the mouse to select contiguous
formulas. Press the Ctrl key while using the mouse to select
non-contiguous formulas.
4.
User's Guide to KCjunior
Click the Delete Formula(s) button. The selected item(s) are
permanently removed from the current Protocol Database.
Utilities • 9-21
Deleting Test Results
After System Test and Universal Plate Test results have been safely
archived, or if certain test results are no longer needed, they can be
deleted from the current Results Database.
To delete stored System Test or Universal Plate Test results:
1.
Close any open plates.
2.
Select Utilities|Database Maintenance|Delete System Test
Results or Delete Universal Plate Test Results.
The Delete System Test Results or Delete Universal Plate
Test Results dialog appears, listing all test results stored in the
current Results Database.
3.
Select the test(s) to be deleted.
¾Use the mouse to select the items(s) to be deleted. Press the
Shift key while using the mouse to select contiguous tests.
Press the Ctrl key while using the mouse to select noncontiguous tests.
4.
9-22 • Utilities
Click the Delete Test(s) button. The selected item(s) are
permanently removed from the current Results Database.
User's Guide to KCjunior
Troubleshooting
Overview
There are three categories of error and warning messages that may appear
in KCjunior:
•
Reader errors that occur during a plate read.
•
Communication errors between the computer and the attached
microplate reader.
•
Data reduction comments and warnings.
This section describes every communication error and data reduction
warning or comment that may occur while running KCjunior, and in
many cases provides suggestions for fixing the error.
User's Guide to KCjunior
Troubleshooting • 10-1
Reader Errors
If the reader experiences an error during a plate read, KCjunior may
present a message resembling the following:
•
If a reader error message is presented, note the error code
(ex. AF90), then refer to the reader’s Operator’s Manual for
more information. The manual should contain a table of
possible error codes.
•
KCjunior will attempt to save any data that was retrieved from
the reader before the error occurred. The Plate Status will be
updated with the reader error code. To check the Plate Status,
select Plate|Plate Information.
Communication Errors
Reader Status Failure
KCjunior is unable to communicate with the attached reader.
Suggestions:
•
Select Setup|Reader, then click Test Communications.
KCjunior will provide appropriate messages for reconfiguring
the communication parameters.
•
Make sure that the proper Reader Type is selected under
Setup|Reader, then run the reader system test.
•
If the reader just experienced a failure, the reader system test
must be run before plate reading can resume.
Reader Timeout Error
KCjunior received no response from the reader.
Suggestions:
10-2 • Troubleshooting
•
The reader should be on and at its main display when
communicating with KCjunior.
•
Try to perform a reader system test from within KCjunior.
User's Guide to KCjunior
If you cannot communicate with the reader, run the test from
reader front panel. If the test fails, refer to the reader's user
manual for assistance.
•
If the error appeared while performing a kinetic read:
Close all unnecessary programs that are running concurrently
with KCjunior (see “System Requirements” in Installing the
Software for more information).
If the error persists with a fast kinetic read, you may need to
lengthen the kinetic interval.
Serial Read Error
An error occurred when KCjunior attempted to communicate with the
reader.
Suggestions:
•
Make sure that the reader is on and ready to accept serial
commands.
•
Check to see if the correct serial cable is being used, and that it
is properly connected to the PC and the reader.
•
Check that the communication settings under Setup|Reader are
correct for this reader.
The communication parameters can be tested from within the
Setup|Reader dialog.
Serial Write Error
An error occurred when KCjunior attempted to communicate with the
reader.
Suggestions:
•
Make sure that the reader is on and ready to accept serial
commands.
•
Check that the communication settings under Setup|Reader are
correct for this reader.
The communication parameters can be tested from within the
Setup|Reader dialog.
User's Guide to KCjunior
Troubleshooting • 10-3
Comments and Warnings
?????? indicates a calculation could not be performed
If a well contains ??????, one of the following occurred during data
reduction:
•
The well references another well with a status of:
¾Well Read Error
¾OUT
¾Masked
¾Divide by Zero
¾Well Failure
•
A calculation within or involving the well:
¾attempted an invalid logarithmic function.
¾is syntactically invalid.
¾references an invalid location.
¾references an invalid Well ID.
¾attempted a Standard Deviation on a well group with an
insufficient sample population.
¾attempted a Coefficient of Variation on a well group with an
insufficient sample population.
•
The well is in a blank sector that contains blanks but none of
them are valid.
•
Cutoffs could not be evaluated for the well.
•
A concentration had no valid solutions on the generated curve.
•
The curve could not be generated.
[ ] indicates a well was set to the maximum valid value
The Raw Data value measured for this well exceeded the upper limit of
the valid data range that was defined in the protocol. KCjunior is
currently configured to use this altered value in further calculations.
Suggestions:
•
To extend the upper limit of this range, or to exclude this and all
out-of-range wells from further calculations:
1.
10-4 • Troubleshooting
Click
to access the General Information dialog.
User's Guide to KCjunior
2.
Do one of the following:
Set the Raw Data or Blank Limits Maximum Value to the
desired OD, RFU, or RLU.
Select Discard Out-of-Range Values for Raw Data Limits
or Blank Limits, as appropriate. All out-of-range wells will
be reported as OUT.
3.
Click OK to accept the change.
[ ] indicates a well was set to the minimum valid value
The Raw Data value measured for this well fell below the lower limit of
the valid data range that was defined in the protocol. KCjunior is
currently configured to use this altered value in further calculations.
Suggestions:
•
To extend the lower limit of this range, or to exclude this and all
out-of-range wells from further calculations:
1.
Click
to access the General Information dialog.
2.
Do one of the following:
Set the Raw Data or Blank Limits Minimum Value to the
desired OD, RFU, or RLU.
Select Discard Out-of-Range Values for Raw Data Limits
or Blank Limits, as appropriate. All out-of-range wells will
be reported as OUT.
3.
Click OK to accept the change.
( ) indicates an extrapolated concentration
The concentration for this well was calculated through extrapolation.
If Extrapolate is enabled in the protocol, the curve is extended outside
the total range of the standards in order to calculate a concentration for an
OD, RFU, or RLU value beyond the highest and lowest standard values.
Suggestion:
•
User's Guide to KCjunior
To disable Extrapolation:
1.
Click
to modify the protocol.
2.
Click the Curve tab.
3.
Deselect Extrapolate.
4.
Click OK to accept the change and recalculate the results.
Troubleshooting • 10-5
{ } indicates ambiguous concentrations
Two or more concentrations were calculated for the Y-value in this well.
•
KCjunior automatically reports the largest concentration.
***** indicates a well read error
A well read error may be caused by one of the following:
•
The reader determined that the OD, RFU, or RLU in this well
was significantly out-of-range, then set the error status before
sending data to KCjunior.
•
If plate data was read from an Omni-System absorbance file, the
absorbance file may contain an invalid status (1, 2, 89, or 99) for
that well, indicating an error during plate processing or data
reduction.
A memory allocation error has occurred.
KCjunior was unable to access system memory.
Suggestions:
•
This error may occur if so many programs are open at once that
system memory is overly consumed. Close any unnecessary
programs.
•
Make sure that your computer meets the minimum system
requirements, listed on page 2-2 in “Installing the Software”.
BTI shared library could not be found
The file BTI_DLL.DLL is missing from the Windows\System directory.
Suggestions:
•
Search your hard drive to see if the file has been moved. If you
find the file, move it back to the Windows\System directory.
•
If you cannot find the file, reinstall KCjunior.
Cutoff X could not be calculated
A cutoff formula defined in the protocol could not be calculated.
Suggestions:
10-6 • Troubleshooting
•
Check the Cutoff dialog in the protocol to ensure that cutoffs are
defined correctly.
•
If a cutoff references a well ID (ex. “PC”), this error may
indicate that all replicates of the well ID are invalid.
User's Guide to KCjunior
Cutoff X is not greater than the previous cutoff
Two or more cutoffs are defined in the protocol and they are not in
ascending order.
Suggestions:
•
Check the Cutoff dialog in the protocol to ensure that cutoffs are
defined correctly.
•
If a cutoff references a well ID (ex. “STD02”), this error may
indicate that the actual mean value for the well ID greatly varies
from its expected value.
DIV/0
DIV/0 represents an attempt to divide by zero.
Suggestion:
•
This error is most likely to appear in the Statistics dialog after an
unsuccessful attempt at a CV% calculation. Click the Statistics
button to view the results. Any DIV/0 warnings will appear in
the CV% column.
Error during auto sensitivity
This message indicates a failure during the auto sensitivity adjustment
process. The most likely reason is an error during the calculation of the
signal-to-noise ratio.
Review the Auto Sensitivity selections in the protocol:
•
Ensure that the Low, Test, and High Wells are assigned
correctly.
¾The Low Well(s) are usually blank wells, buffer wells, zero
standards, or negative controls.
¾The Test Well(s) are usually low standards or low positive
controls.
¾The High Well(s) are usually the highest standards or high
positive controls.
User's Guide to KCjunior
•
The Base Value should be greater than zero. The default setting
is 100.
•
If the High Value is set too low, the Low, Test, and/or High
Wells can overrange before two valid signal-to-noise ratios can
be calculated.
Troubleshooting • 10-7
Grayed numbers indicate a suppressed standard
If, in the Results displays, a standard well contains a “grayed” value, this
indicates that the standard has been suppressed.
•
To restore the standard, click Standard Curve, click Edit
Stds…, then change the Status of the desired well.
Illegal log function attempted on a standard
This error typically results during curve generation if the Y-Scale value is
set to Log and the OD, RFU, or RLU value for a standard or dilution well
is 0.000.
•
For titer curves, the warning will report the Sample ID(s)
experiencing the error.
Insufficient valid standards for this curve type
To generate a successful curve, the selected curve method requires more
standards than are currently valid on the plate.
Suggestions:
•
Check the Raw Data values for the standards. If one or more
standards is reported as OUT, this means that the OD, RFU, or
RLU value fell outside the minimum/maximum data range
defined in the protocol and is excluded from further calculations.
•
If you just edited one or more standard outliers, there may now
be too few remaining valid standards.
•
The minimum number of required valid standards for each curve
method are:
Linear and Point-to-Point (2)
Quadratic and Cubic-Spline (3)
Cubic, 2 Parameter and 4 Parameter (4).
No valid blanks in sector X
All blank wells in one or more sectors in the plate are invalid.
Suggestion:
•
If all blank wells in a sector are reported as OUT, the Raw Data
values for these wells exceeded the minimum/maximum data
range defined in the protocol.
Click
to open the General Information dialog to see the
current Raw Data Limits and Blank Data minimum and
maximum settings.
10-8 • Troubleshooting
User's Guide to KCjunior
OUT indicates a well exceeded the min/max range
The Raw Data value measured for this well fell outside the valid data
range as determined by the reader or as defined in the protocol. Out-ofrange values are currently being excluded from further calculations.
Suggestion:
•
To include out-of-range wells in further calculations:
1.
If a protocol is open, click
Information dialog.
to access the General
If no protocol is open, select Protocol|New Protocol. The
General Information dialog will appear.
2.
Alter the Raw Data Limits and/or Blank Limits Minimum
and Maximum values, if necessary.
3.
Deselect Discard Out-of-Range Values for Raw Data
Limits or Blank Limits, as appropriate.
4.
Click OK to accept the change(s).
All wells that were previously reported as OUT will be set
to the minimum/maximum values as appropriate and
displayed in brackets. These altered values will now be
used in further calculations.
The Pathlengths could not be generated
This warning will appear if, during the read, the Abort Read button was
clicked to halt the read in progress before the necessary pathlength
correction wavelengths were read.
Plate was aborted during read
This warning will appear if, during a read, the Abort Read button was
clicked to halt the read in progress.
•
KCjunior will attempt to perform data reduction based on any
data retrieved up to the time the button was clicked.
Reader control error occurred during read
This warning will appear if, during a plate read the reader experiences a
failure and is unable to respond to the computer.
•
The reader control error may appear if there is a serial
communication failure during the plate read.
•
If the reader control error appears, try the following:
¾Turn off the reader.
¾Ensure that the serial cable is properly connected.
User's Guide to KCjunior
Troubleshooting • 10-9
¾Close KCjunior then reboot the computer.
¾Turn the reader on. Run a system test.
¾Launch KCjunior.
¾Under Setup|Reader, check the communication
parameters, then click Test Communications. If the test is
successful, try re-reading the plate.
•
Refer to the reader’s Operator’s Manual for information on
specific reader failures and corrective action.
Strikethrough indicates a masked well
A well with a strikethrough 2.577 indicates that the well is “masked”, or
temporarily excluded from calculations.
To unmask the well:
1.
Highlight the well and click the right mouse button.
2.
Select ' Mask Well.
3.
KCjunior will automatically recalculate the results.
Stored curve does not exist
The protocol references a stored curve that does not exist in the current
Results Database.
Suggestions:
•
Choose to modify the protocol then click the Curve tab. Select
a different Stored Curve.
•
Open the System|Configuration|Pathnames dialog. Change
the Results Database Path name to access a different database.
Too many standards for curve type
Too many standards or unique dilutions (titer assay) were defined for the
curve type.
•
10-10 • Troubleshooting
For example, the 2P (Logit-Log) and 4P curve types allow a
maximum number of 24 standard groups.
User's Guide to KCjunior
Unable to generate curve
The curve could not be generated. Possible reasons include:
•
No solution is available for the given set of points.
•
If this is a titer assay, there may be insufficient dilutions defined
for the selected curve method.
•
There are insufficient valid standards due to OUT, masked,
suppressed, or failed (*.***) well conditions, or other data
reduction failures.
•
The concentrations are all equal, resulting in a slope of infinity.
Unable to initialize curve standards
If this is a titer assay, all replicates within a sample group are currently
invalid.
•
Invalid notations include:
¾OUT (well is out-of-range)
¾*.*** (well status error)
¾Strikethrough 2.765 (well is masked).
User's Guide to KCjunior
Troubleshooting • 10-11
10-12 • Troubleshooting
User's Guide to KCjunior
Appendix A
Sample Reports
This section contains sample KCjunior reports. Reports are selected
within a protocol, under the Reports tab. See “Reports” in Defining
Protocols for more information.
User's Guide to KCjunior
Appendix A, Sample Reports • 11-1
Protocol Report for an absorbance assay, showing Formula information.
11-2 • Appendix A, Sample Reports
User's Guide to KCjunior
Protocol Report for a fluorescence assay, showing the Template information.
User's Guide to KCjunior
Appendix A, Sample Reports • 11-3
Raw Data Report.
11-4 • Appendix A, Sample Reports
User's Guide to KCjunior
Maximum Slope Report (6x8 Plate Geometry).
User's Guide to KCjunior
Appendix A, Sample Reports • 11-5
Formula Report with Transformation and Plate Formula information.
11-6 • Appendix A, Sample Reports
User's Guide to KCjunior
Column Report, page 1 of 2.
User's Guide to KCjunior
Appendix A, Sample Reports • 11-7
Column Report, page 2 of 2.
11-8 • Appendix A, Sample Reports
User's Guide to KCjunior
Column Report showing Titer Results Information.
User's Guide to KCjunior
Appendix A, Sample Reports • 11-9
Matrix Report for an absorbance assay.
11-10 • Appendix A, Sample Reports
User's Guide to KCjunior
Matrix Report for a fluorescence assay.
User's Guide to KCjunior
Appendix A, Sample Reports • 11-11
Standard Curve Report.
11-12 • Appendix A, Sample Reports
User's Guide to KCjunior
Curve Report showing two overlaid spectral scan curves.
User's Guide to KCjunior
Appendix A, Sample Reports • 11-13
Curve Report showing three overlaid titer curves.
11-14 • Appendix A, Sample Reports
User's Guide to KCjunior
Glossary
List of Terms
Abscissa
The coordinate representing the distance of a point from the y-Axis in a
plane Cartesian coordinate system, measured along a line parallel to the
x-Axis.
Ambiguous Curve
A curve is ambiguous if multiple concentrations exist for a given OD,
RFU, or RLU value.
Average Standards
In a protocol, if standard groups are defined with multiple replicates, the
Average Standards option is available.
•
If Average Standards is enabled, KCjunior uses the average of
the standard replicates when generating the curve.
•
If Average Standards is disabled, KCjunior uses the individual
standard replicates when generating the curve.
Coefficient of Variation (CV)
The coefficient of variation represents the standard deviation expressed
as a percentage of the mean: (Standard Deviation / Mean) * 100.
In formulas, the coefficient of variation is represented by CV( ).
User's Guide to KCjunior
Glossary • 12-1
Database
A database is a computer file that contains multiple records of
information.
In KCjunior:
•
The protocol database contains multiple records called
“protocols”. Within each record (protocol) is a set of fields,
containing information specific to that protocol, such as protocol
description, read method type, and curve method type.
•
The results database contains multiple records called “results
records”. Within each record is a set of fields, containing
information specific to that plate, such as Results ID, Plate ID,
read status, and raw plate data values.
Dilution
The amount by which a sample is mixed with a solution to bring the
specie of interest into the operating range of the analysis.
Endpoint Read
During an endpoint absorbance read, every well on the plate is read with
one (single) or two (dual) wavelengths.
•
One optical density (OD) value is reported for each well.
During an endpoint fluorescence or luminescence read, the plate is
read from one to six times, depending on the number of filter sets
specified.
•
One Relative Fluorescence Unit (RFU) or Relative
Luminescence Unit (RLU) value is reported for each well for
each filter set.
Extrapolation
KCjunior provides the option of displaying extrapolated concentrations
− unknown values on the Y axis which are outside the range of the
standards.
On data displays and reports, extrapolated concentrations are enclosed by
parenthesis, for example (20.345).
12-2 • Glossary
User's Guide to KCjunior
Kinetic Read
During a kinetic absorbance read, every well on the plate is read a
defined number of times with one (single) or two (dual) wavelengths.
•
One optical density value is reported for each well for each plate
read. In addition, a graph showing OD vs. Time is reported for
each well.
During a kinetic fluorescence or luminescence read, the plate is read a
defined number of times, using one filter set.
•
One Relative Fluorescence Unit (RFU) or Relative
Luminescence Unit (RLU) is reported for each well for each
kinetic read. In addition, a graph showing RFU/RLU vs. Time
is generated for each well.
MultiWavelength Read
During a MultiWavelength read, every well on the plate is read once at
each defined wavelength (up to 6).
The optical density value measured at each wavelength is reported for
each well.
Optical Density (OD)
The amount of light at a specific wavelength that is absorbed by the
chromophore. It is the reciprocal of transmission (1/T).
Protocol
A protocol is one of many records in a protocol database containing
user-defined information for performing a plate read and data reduction.
RFU/RLU
RFU stands for Relative Fluorescence Unit, RLU stands for Relative
Luminescence Unit.
In KCjunior, if the current reader is set to a fluorescence/luminescence
reader (such as the FLx800), the Protocol|Read Method dialog contains
a Chemistry parameter.
If the Chemistry is set to Fluorescence, the plate measurement values
are reported as RFU (ex. 87954 RFU). If the Chemistry is set to
Luminescence, the plate measurement values are reported as RLU (ex.
57697 RLU).
User's Guide to KCjunior
Glossary • 12-3
R-Square
Also referred to as the Coefficient of Determination, R-Square indicates
the strength of a regression function (curve fit). If the value is 1.0, then
the fit is very strong, meaning that all of the points lie on the curve.
Standard Deviation (SD)
The standard deviation is a measure of how widely values are dispersed
from the average value (the mean).
In formulas, standard deviation is represented by SD( ).
Template
In each KCjunior protocol, four unique templates can be designed to
indicate location and related information for Well IDs, Dilutions,
Transformations, and Sample IDs.
Transformations
Transformations are user-defined formulas applied to plate data for
analysis, or for data transformation before calculating concentrations or
cutoffs.
Two types of transformations can be defined within one protocol:
•
A transformation formula is performed only on the well(s) to
which it is assigned. If Transformation Formulas are applied,
the results serve as the basis for curve generation and cutoff
evaluation.
•
A plate formula is automatically applied to every well on the
plate that has been assigned a Well ID.
Well Identifier
KCjunior supports four different types of wells − Blank, Standard,
Sample, and Control.
To accommodate a variety of applications, KCjunior provides the
flexibility to customize references to these wells. These customized
references are called Well Identifiers.
12-4 • Glossary
User's Guide to KCjunior
Index
2 Parameter curve 5:56
4 Parameter curve 5:56
A
Aborting a read in progress 6:9, 6:11, 10:9
Add to List button 5:48, 5:49
Addition (in a formula) 5:50
Adjusted value 7:37
Algorithm for auto sensitivity
adjustment 7:33
Allow pathname selection at
program start 4:12
Ambiguous curve 12:1
Apply to all wells 5:47, 5:48
Apply to selection 5:47, 5:48
Archive
Archive protocol database 9:15
Archive results database 9:15
Archiving results records and protocols 9:15
Archiving stored curves 9:17
Archiving test results 9:18
Creating archive databases 9:15
Auto sensitivity adjustment
Algorithm 7:33
Base value 5:30
Defining the pre-reading parameters 5:28
High value 5:30
High well range 5:29
Low well range 5:29
Overview 5:28
Test well range 5:29
Use result for all filter sets 5:30
Viewing results of pre-readings 7:32
Average standards 5:57, 12:1
B
Backup procedures 9:14
Bandwidth
Defining in a filter set 5:25
Warnings 5:25
User's Guide to KCjunior
Barcode scanning 4:10, 6:11
Basecode version 4:3
Base value 5:30
Baud rate 4:3, 4:4
Bio-Cell(tm) 5:17, 7:18
Bio-Tek, contacting 1:3
Blank Data 7:5, 7:9, 7:16
Blank limits, setting 5:9
Blanking method 5:39, 5:41
Blanks, defining 4:5, 5:38
Bottom optical probe 5:25
C
Calibrate before first read 5:37
Calibrating the reader 5:37, 6:8
Chemistry 5:21
Closing a results record 6:4
Coefficient of variation (CV) 5:50, 7:30, 12:1
Colors, changing 4:5, 4:9
Communication
Connecting the reader to the computer 4:2
Errors 6:17, 10:2
Get communication defaults 4:4
Port 4:4
Reader system test 4:4, 9:8
Testing communication 4:5
Comparison value (OD) 5:33
Computer
Minimum system
requirements 2:1, 2:2
Conc x dilution 5:51
Concentrations
Calculated concentrations 7:20
Defining expected 5:42
Viewing results 7:20
Configuring setup parameters 4:5, 5:39
Configuring well identifiers 4:7
Connecting the reader to the computer 4:2
Constant value 5:18
Contacting Bio-Tek Instruments, Inc. 1:3
Continuous shake 5:35
Index • 13-1
Control panel, dispenser 9:4
Controls, defining 4:6, 5:38
Copying a results record 6:4
Copying formulas 5:47
Copying plate data to another application 6:24
Corrected absorbance 5:18
Create archive database 9:16
Cubic curve 5:56
Cubic spline curve 5:56
Current reader menu 3:6, 4:2
Current reader status 3:6
Curve
Average Standards 5:57
Curve Method 5:56
Editing parameters 7:21
Extrapolate 5:57, 7:2
Graph Report Name 5:56, 7:21
Outliers 7:25
Overlaying 7:22
Printing 5:63, 7:25
Report 5:61
Sample curves 7:22
Spectral scan 7:11
Standard 5:55, 7:21
Stored 5:55
Titer 5:55, 7:22
X and Y Axes Label, Scale 5:57
Cutoffs
Analyzing results 7:27
Defining 5:58
Labels 5:58, 7:27
CV function 5:50, 12:1
D
Data bits 4:3, 4:4
Data reduction 3:10, 7:1-7:29
Errors 10:5, 10:7, 10:12
Database 4:9, 5:2, 5:5, 6:2, 6:5, 12:1
Database maintenance
A note on backup procedures 9:14
Archiving results records and protocols 9:15
Archiving stored curves 9:17
Archiving test results 9:18
Creating archive databases 9:15
Deleting results records and protocols 9:19
Deleting stored curves 9:20
Deleting stored transformations 9:21
Deleting test results 9:22
Database version 4:10
Decimal places, changing the number of 4:8, 5:9
Delay before reading 5:32
Delay before sampling 5:28
13-2 • Index
Delay between samples 5:28
Delete after archive 6:5, 9:17, 9:18
Delimiter, choosing for data export 6:18
Delta OD 5:16, 6:12, 7:4, 7:5
DILution function 5:51
Dilutions
Defined 12:1
Defining 5:44
Valid dilution range 5:45
Dispense / Read
Read method type 5:14, 5:21
Viewing results 7:14
Dispenser (FLx800)
Control panel 9:4
Filter position requirements 4:14
Initializing 9:5
Injector Position 9:7
Priming 9:6
Purging 9:6
Syringe setup 9:7
Display curve legend 4:9
Display settings 2:2
Displayed decimal places, 5:9
Division (in a formula) 5:50
Dual-reader support 4:1, 4:2, 5:3
E
Editing standard outliers 7:25
Eject plate between filter sets 5:30
Emission filter 5:24, 5:25
Emission filter wheel 4:11, 5:23
EL301 microstrip reader 6:14
Empty plate, MultiWavelength read 5:16
End of transmission character 4:4
Endpoint read 5:10
Defined 12:1
Multiple endpoint reads 5:10, 5:20
Results 7:4
EOT character 4:4
Error code, retrieving from reader 3:6
Errors and warnings
A memory allocation error has occurred 10:7
Ambiguous concentrations 10:7
BTI shared library could not be found 10:7
Calculation could not be performed 10:5
Cutoff could not be calculated 10:7
Cutoff is not greater than previous 10:8
DIV/0 7:2, 10:8
Error during auto sensitivity 10:8
Extrapolated concentration 10:6
Grayed numbers indicate a suppressed standard
10:9
User's Guide to KCjunior
Illegal log function attempted 10:9
Insufficient valid standards 10:9
No valid blanks in sector 10:9
OUT 10:10
Pathlengths could not be generated 10:10
Plate was aborted during read 10:10
Reader control error occurred during read 10:10
Reader error 10:2
Reader Status Failure 10:2
Reader Timeout Error 10:3
Serial Read Error 10:3
Serial Write Error 10:3
Stored curve does not exist 10:11
Strikethrough indicates masked well 10:11
Too many standards for curve type 10:11
Unable to generate curve 10:12
Unable to initialize curve standards 10:12
Well read error 10:7
Well was set to maximum valid value 10:5
Well was set to minimum valid value 10:6
Excel, exporting data to 6:21
Excitation filter 5:24, 5:25
Excitation filter wheel 4:11, 5:23
Extrapolate 5:57, 7:2
Exporting data
Copying results data and pasting it in another
application 6:24
Delimiters 6:18
Directly to Microsoft Excel 6:21
Including an empty row or blank line 6:18
Including text headers 6:18
Specifying the first Excel cell location 6:18
To a text file 6:18
To an existing Excel spreadsheet 6:18
F
Fast read 6:7
Fastest kinetic interval 5:31
Filter position requirements for Dispense / Read
protocols 4:14
Filter set (FS) function 5:51, 7:19, 7:20, 7:27, 7:29
Filter sets
Auto sensitivity 5:24, 5:28
Defining 5:24
Optics position 5:25
Options 5:27
Referencing in a formula 5:51
Sampling 5:27
Selecting the set for curve calculations 5:51, 5:56
Sensitivity 5:26
Filter wheel cartridges
Configuration 4:11
User's Guide to KCjunior
Emission 4:11, 5:23
Excitation 4:11, 5:23
Selecting at run-time 6:17
Selecting within a protocol 5:23
Filters, retrieving from reader 5:36
First Excel cell location for data export 6:18
Fluorescence
Auto sensitivity results 7:32
Blanked Data 7:16
Chemistry 5:21
Dispense / Read 5:10, 5:21
Endpoint read 5:10
Kinetic read 5:10
Raw Data 7:4
Relative Fluorescence Unit (RFU) 12:1
FLx800
Configuring filter wheel cartridges 4:11
Filter set definition in protocol 5:24
Filter wheel cartridge selection in protocol 5:23
FLx800 dispenser
Filter position requirements 4:14
Initializing 9:5
Injector position 9:7
Priming 9:6
Purging 9:6
Syringe setup 9:7
Formula
Coefficient of variation (CV) 5:50
Copying from well to well 5:47
DIL function 5:51
Help with creating 5:47, 5:49, 5:60
Filter sets (FS) 5:51
MEAN function 5:51
Order of precedence 5:53
Plate formula 5:49
Saving 5:48, 5:49
Standard deviation (SD) 5:52
Syntax rules 5:50
Transformation formula 5:47
Validating 5:48, 5:49
Value of current well (X) 5:53
Viewing results 7:19, 7:29
Wavelength (WV) 5:52
Well location reference [ ] 5:52
Well reference <well ID> 5:53
FS (filter set) function 5:51, 7:19, 7:20, 7:27, 7:29
G
Get basecode version 4:3
Get communication defaults 4:4
Get current reader status 3:6
Get reader wavelengths 5:16, 5:36
Index • 13-3
Getting Help 3:8
Glossary 12:1
Graph
Copying 7:23, 7:25
Moving, scaling, zooming 7:24
Printing 5:61, 7:23, 7:25
Graph interpolation result 4:8
Graphing options
Axes scaling 7:24
Borders and colors 7:24
Legends and labels 7:24
Spectral scan curve display options 7:12
Guided tour 2:15, 3:12
H
Help menu 3:7
Help system 3:8
High value 5:30
High well range 5:29
I
Importing
Protocols 5:6
Results records 6:5, 6:6
Incubation
Defining read method parameters 5:34
Incubation control utility 9:2
Override button 9:3
Setting a delay before reading 5:32
Inject on interval 5:23
Interpolation
Calculate interpolation value 5:57
Graph interpolation result 4:9
Interpolation result 7:21, 7:22, 7:23
K
KCJr. for DOS plate files, opening 6:3, 6:13
Kinetic
Fastest interval 5:31
Interval 5:31
Max slope unit of measure 7:8, 7:9
Reads, number of 5:31
Kinetic read 5:10
Defined 12:1
Results 7:5
13-4 • Index
L
Labels 5:58, 7:27
Lag time 5:22
Legend, displaying in graph 4:9, 7:21, 7:22, 7:23
Lin or Log axes 5:56, 5:57, 7:24, 7:25
Linear curve 5:56
Logit Log curve 5:56
Low well range 5:29
Luminescence
Auto sensitivity results 7:32
Blanked Data 7:16
Chemistry 5:21
Dispense / Read 5:10, 5:21
Endpoint read 5:10
Kinetic read 5:10
Raw Data 7:4
Relative Luminescence Unit (RLU) 12:1
M
Masking reads, wells 7:37
Maximum slope
Curves 3:11, 5:55
Cutoffs 3:11, 5:58
Statistics 7:30
Transformations 3:11, 5:46
Unit of measure 7:8, 7:9
MEAN function 5:51
Microsoft Excel, exporting plate data to 6:18
Microsoft Windows operating system 2:2
Minimum and maximum raw and blanked data
values 5:8, 5:9
Monitoring wells
Defining the criteria 5:33
Elapsed time 7:35
Selecting the well(s) to monitor 5:34
Multiple-plate endpoint read 5:20, 6:10
Multiple wavelengths
Empty plate 5:16
Pathlength correction 3:10, 5:17
Referencing in a formula (WV) 5:52
Selecting 5:16
Selecting the set for curve calculation 5:52, 5:55
Viewing results 7:4, 7:5
Multiplication (in a formula) 5:50
MultiWavelength read 5:10, 12:1
User's Guide to KCjunior
N
Network, sharing databases 5:5, 6:5
Number of plates 5:10, 5:20
Number of samples 5:27
O
OD 5:9, 12:1
OMNI System absorbance files, opening 6:3, 6:13
Opening a results record 6:2
Optical density 5:9, 12:1
Optics position 5:25
Optimum sensitivity 5:26, 5:28
OUT indication 6:15, 7:2, 7:37, 10:5
Outliers, editing 7:21, 7:25
Output empty row between plates 6:18
Output text headers 6:18
‘Over’ indication 7:37
P
Parenthesis, using in a formula 5:50
Parity 4:4
Partial plate reading 5:32
Password, obtaining from Bio-Tek 2:16, 2:17
Pathlength correction 3:10, 5:17, 7:17
Pathnames 4:5, 4:10, 4:12, 5:2, 5:6
Peak OD 7:11
Peak wavelength 9:12
Peak wavelength test 9:10
Plate
Closing 6:4
Copying 6:4
Description 6:8, 6:10, 6:12, 6:13, 7:35
Exporting data 6:19
Geometry 5:32
ID 4:10, 5:20, 7:35, 6:8, 6:9, 9:10
Importing 6:5
Opening a results record 6:2
Partial plate reading 5:32
Plate status 7:35
Reading 6:15
Saving 6:4
Shaking 5:34
Plate formula 5:46, 5:49
Plate geometry 5:32
Plate ID 4:10, 5:20, 6:9, 6:11, 6:18
Multi-plate read 6:9, 6:10, 6:11
Plate information 7:34
Plate mode reading 5:21
Point-to-Point curve 5:56
PowerWaveX reader models 2:14, 4:3
User's Guide to KCjunior
Primary wavelength 5:16
Printing reports 5:61, 8:1
Print preview 8:1–8:2
Print results 8:2
Print setup 8:3
Product information 1:3
Protocol
Blank limits 5:9
Copying 5:5
Defined 3:9
Deleting 9:19
Description 5:8
Importing 5:6
Name 5:8
Raw data limits 5:8
Read Method Type 3:11, 5:10
Report Options 5:8
Saving and closing 5:4
Sharing protocols among users 5:5
Protocol database
Archive protocol database 9:15
Creating an empty database 5:5
Importing protocols 5:6
Pathnames 4:10
PROTOCOL.MDB 4:10
Sharing protocols and databases 5:5
Version 4:12
Q
Quadratic curve 5:56
R
Rapid read mode 5:35
Raw Data 7:4
Printing 8:1
Viewing results 7:1
Raw data limits, setting 5:8
Raw Data report
Selecting 5:61
Printing 8:1
Read from file 6:3, 6:13
Read full plate 5:32
Read Method
Auto sensitivity adjustment 5:28
Calibrate before first read 5:37
Calibrate Reader 5:37, 6:8
Chemistry 5:21
Delay Before Read 5:32
Fastest kinetic interval 5:31
Filter sets 5:25
Get Reader Wavelengths 5:16, 5:36
Index • 13-5
Kinetic Interval 5:31
Kinetic Reads 5:31
Monitor well 5:32
Number of Plates 5:10, 5:20
Plate Geometry 5:31
Read Method Type 3:11, 5:10
Sampling 5:27
Sensitivity 5:26
Total kinetic read time 5:31
Validating parameters 5:31
Wavelengths 5:16
Read mode, selecting 5:35
Reader 1 or 2 4:1
Reader calibration 5:37, 6:8
Reader errors 7:35, 10:2, 10:10
Reader setup
Baud Rate 4:4
Com Port 4:4
Data Bits 4:4
EOT Character 4:4
Get Comm Defaults 4:4
Parity 4:4
Reader Type 2:14, 4:3, 5:10
Stop Bits 4:4
Test Communications 4:5
Reader system test 9:8
Reader system test history 9:9
Reader type 2:14, 4:3, 5:10
Reading a plate 6:13, 6:15
Reading a plate with a protocol 6:10
Reading a plate without a protocol 6:7
Reading plate data from a file 6:3, 6:13
Reconfiguring pathnames 4:5, 4:10, 5:2, 5:6
Reference wavelength 5:16
Referencing a well location in a formula 5:52
Registering KCjunior 2:15
Relative fluorescence/luminescence units 12:1
Removing KCjunior from your computer 2:3
Report options 5:8
Reports
Available types 5:61, 11:1
Display curve legend 4:9
Graph interpolation result 4:9
Print preview/setup 8:1–8:3
Print results 8:2
Printing 8:1
Sample printouts 11:1
Selecting in a protocol 5:61
Results
Analyzing 6:24
Auto sensitivity results 7:32
Blanked Data 7:16
Concentrations 7:20
13-6 • Index
Cutoff values 7:27
Database 4:9, 4:10, 6:2
Labels 7:27
Manipulating 7:34
Pathlength correction 7:17
Plate Formula Results 7:29
Printing reports 8:1
Raw Data 7:1, 7:4
Results records 6:2
Statistics 7:30
Template 7:28
Transformation Results 7:19
Viewing 6:24
Viewing statistics 7:30
Results database 2:10
Archive results database 9:14
Creating an empty database 6:5
Importing results 6:6
Pathnames 4:10
RESULTS.MDB 4:10
Sharing results records and databases 6:5
Version 4:12
Results ID 5:20, 6:2, 6:8, 6:9, 6:10
Results record
Copying 6:4
Deleting 9:19
Exporting data 6:18
ID 6:2, 6:8, 6:9, 6:10
Importing 6:5, 6:6
Opening 6:2
Saving 6:4, 6:9, 6:11
Sharing records and databases 6:5
RFU/RLU 12:1
R-square 12:1
S
Sample curves 7:22
Sample interval 5:21
Sample names, assigning 5:54
Sample protocols and results 2:15
Sample reports, 11:1
Samples
Defining 4:5, 5:38
Identifying 5:54
Sampling 5:27
Delay before sampling 5:28
Delay between samples 5:28
Number of samples 5:27
Sampling windows 5:22, 9:5
Saving a results record 6:4, 6:9, 6:11
Scanning a plate barcode label 4:10, 6:9, 6:11
Scientific notation 5:9, 5:10
User's Guide to KCjunior
Screen resolution 2:2
SD (standard deviation) function 5:52, 12:1
Select cartridges 5:23
Sensitivity
Auto sensitivity adjustment 5:28
Optimum sensitivity 5:26, 5:28
Specifying within a filter set 5:26
Setup configuration 4:5, 5:39
Setup Menu 3:6
Shake
Continuous during kinetics 5:35
Defining parameters 5:34
Intensity 5:34
Method 5:34
Sharing protocols and databases 5:5
Sharing results records and databases 6:5
Simulating a plate read 6:3, 6:12
Simulation data 6:3, 6:12, 6:24, 7:34, 7:38
Software registration 2:15
Software serial/version number 1:3
Spectral scan
Adjusting the wavelength range used for
calculations 7:12
Calculation options 7:10
Calibrate before first read 5:37
Curve display options 7:12
Peak OD 7:11
Protocol definition 5:20
Raw and blanked spectral data 7:9
Spectral chart 7:10
Standard curve
Editing 7:25
Printing 5:61, 7:25
Storing 7:26
Titer curve 7:22
Viewing 7:21
Standard deviation (SD) 5:52, 12:1
Standard outliers, editing 7:21, 7:25
Standards, defining 4:6, 5:38
Starting protocol 4:9
Statistics 7:30
Status
Plate status values 7:35
Read status values 7:37
Stop bits 4:4
Stopping a read 6:9, 6:11, 10:9
Stored curves
Archiving 9:8
Deleting from database 9:21
Use stored curve 5:56
Storing a standard curve 7:26
Subtraction (in a formula) 5:50
User's Guide to KCjunior
Surge protector 4:2
Sweep mode 5:35
Symbols, in results 10:5
System configuration 4:5, 5:39
System requirements, minimum 2:2
System test, reader 9:8
T
Technical support 1:3
Temperature, setting 5:34, 9:1-9:2
Template
Assigning well IDs 5:38
Dilutions 5:44
Sample Ids 5:54
Transformations 5:46
Viewing results 7:28
Test well range 5:29
Testing communication 4:5
Tip prime option 5:22
Titer
Curves 7:22, 7:26
Defining dilutions 5:44
Interpolation value 5:57
Statistics 7:30
Top optical probe 5:25
Total kinetic read time 5:31
Transformations
Defining 5:46
Deleting stored 9:22
Formula syntax 5:50
Plate formula 5:46, 5:49
Transformation formula 5:46, 5:47
Tutorial 2:15, 3:12
U
‘Under’ indication 7:37
Uninstalling KCjunior 2:3
Universal plate test 9:10
Universal plate test history 9:14
Use result for all filter sets 5:30
Utilities
Carrier Out/In 9:4
Database maintenance 9:14
Diagnostics 9:8–9:13
Dispenser control panel 9:4-9:7
Incubation control 9:1–9:2
Reader system test 9:8
Universal plate test 9:10
Utilities menu 3:5
Index • 13-7
V
Validate a formula 5:48, 5:49
Validate read method parameters 5:31
View menu 3:7
W
Wavelength function (WV) 5:52, 7:19, 7:20,
7:27, 7:29
Wavelengths
Multiple 5:16
Primary 5:16
Reference 5:16
Retrieving from reader 5:16, 5:36
Well identifiers 4:5, 5:38
Well IDs
Assigning 5:38, 5:39
Defining defaults 5:39
Modifying an existing template 5:43
Referencing in a formula 5:53
Template 5:38
Well information 7:36
Well location, referencing in a formula 5:52
Well mode reading 5:21
Well notations 7:1, 7:2
Well reference [ ] 5:52
Well type colors 4:5, 4:9
Windows operating system 2:2
(WV) wavelength function 5:52, 7:19, 7:20,
7:27, 7:29
X
X (in a formula) 5:53
13-8 • Index
User's Guide to KCjunior
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