Daya Bay RPC Gas System User`s Manual
(Draft V.1.1)
Daya Bay RPC Gas System User’s Manual
C. Lu, K, McDonald, W. Sands, S. Chidzik, M. Peloso
Princeton University
(5/2/2010)
Table of Contents
1. Introduction
2. Daya Bay RPC gas system
2.1 Gas cylinders
2.2 Gas mixing and fire/detector safety monitoring system
2.2.1 Gas mixing panel
2.2.2 Gas flowmeter crate
2.2.3 Gas pressure crate
2.2.4 Gas system power supply crate
2.3. Gas distribution system
2.3.1 Flow resistor and inlet overpressure protection bubbler
2.3.2 Digital bubbler
2.3.3 Digital bubbler program
2.3.4 Access the data with database program MySQL v5.0
3. Interface to the datector control system
4. Troubleshooting
5. Appendixes
(1) SystemLogic_E.pdf , SystemLogic_E.dwg
(2) Flowmeter_E.pdf, Flowmeter_E.dwg
(3) Pressure_E.pdf, Pressure_E.dwg
(4) Powersupply_E.pdf, Powersupply_E.dwg
(5) UL compliance, Marking of Gas_PanelsV2.xls
(6) msp430f1611.pdf
References
1
1. Introduction
The baseline RPC gas mixture is Ar/R134A/Isobutane/SF6 (65.5/30/4/0.5) [1], which has
been approved by Daya Bay safety officer as a non-flammable gas.
The RPC gas system will be similar to that used in the BELLE [2] and BABAR [3] experiments, in
which a gas mixing system distributes the gas mixture to the individual RPCs through simple “flow resistors”,
with the output flow from each flow branch being separately monitored by a low-cost digital bubbler [4].
Mixing of the chamber gases is performed with mass flow controllers. The electronic bubbler system
monitors the chamber gas flow by counting gas bubbles in a small oil bubbler as they pass a photogate. The
output gas bubbling rate will be sent to a centralized MySQL database. Any other authorized networked PC
can obtain all data through this MySQL database. Four gases will be input from four auto/manual switchover
panels to minimize interruptions of the gas flow during chamber operation. The gas mixing ratio is also tested
once every two hours by a local GC (Varian GC430). The test results are stored into the same MySQL
database. On the local gas control PC the bubbling rate and gas mixing ratio are displayed and updated.
An extensive detector safety and fire safety system with status monitors and interlocks is
implemented via four gas control crates: gas flowmeter crate; gas pressure crate; gas system power supply
crate and the gas system status crate.
1. Daya Bay RPC gas system
The gas system building blocks are shown in figure 1. In the following sections we’ll
describe each block in details.
Fig. 1. Daya Bay RPC gas system building blocks.
2.1 Gas cylinders
2.1.1. Gas cylinder switchover panel
Four gases are used for Daya Bay RPC gas mixture. To eliminate the down time when the
depleted gas cylinder is replaced, for each gas line a gas switchover panel is equipped. For the argon
gas an automatic gas switchover panel is used, it is shown in figure 2. For the other three gases the
manual switchover panel is employed, shown in figure 3.
2.1.1.1. Automatic switchover panel
2
a
b
c
Fig. 2. Argon cylinder automatic switchover panel. (a) Front; (b) Rear; (c) Side.
Operation procedure of this panel is as follows:
The illustration of various parts of this switchover panel is sketched in figure 3.
Fig. 3. Illustration of various parts of argon automatic switchover panel.
Once installed and before pressurizing , ensure that:
1. The line regulator is in the shut or closed position by turning the hand knob counter
clockwise until it stops;
2. The selector regulator knob is fully turned to the inlet port of the bottle that you wish to
use first.
3
After connect the argon gas manifolds to each side of the panel, and all argon gas cylinders
are hooked up to the manifolds, use the ResTek Leak Detector careful check and fix any
leakage immediately.
Purge the connecting pipe every time the gas cylinder has been replaced and the air
has entered the pipe. Each side the panel provided a VENT valve, which is shown in figure
2(c). Open the inlet isolation valve on both supply sides, then slowly open the vent valve, let
argon gas flowing through the pipe for a few seconds, thus the leftover air will be carried
away from the pipe. Close the vent valve afterwards. Repeat this procedure for other side of
the panel. Now the manifold is fully pressurized and ready to supply the downstream system.
The outlet pressure will be shown on the line regulator and controlled by its knob.
rotating the knob clockwise to increase the pressure.
When the supply side pressure drops to 100 psig, the selector regulator is then
internally switched to the other side of the gas supply. The respective inlet pressure gauges
show two sides gas pressures, therefore the operator will know which side is depleted, and
can replace the bottles.
To change the depleted bottles:
1. Shut off the main isolation valve on the depleted side;
2. Turn the selector knob so that it is now pointing towards the full bottles side;
3. Shut off the valves on all bottles of depleted side;
4. Replace the depleted bottles;
5. Open the main isolation valve on the just replaced bottle’s side;
6. Purge this side supply line.
Now this side is fully prepared to be used in next round of switchover.
2.1.1.2.
Manual switchover panel
Two types of manual switchover panel are used, one with the solenoid valve at the
outlet, shown in figure 4, is used for Isobutane gas; the other one w/o solenoid valve is used
for both R134a and SF6.
Vent2
Vent1
Vs1
Vs2
Vp2
Vp1
Fig. 4. Manual gas switchover panel used for isobutane.
4
The isobutane gas switchover panel is installed in the gas cabinet, shown in figure 5.
To Gas mixing panel
To vent
Primary
supply
inlet
Backup
supply
inlet
Fig. 5. Isobutane gas switchover panel mounted inside of the gas cabinet.
The solenoid valve controls the isobutane gas outlet. In emergency case the gas control
system will shutoff the power of this valve, therefore no isobutane gas will flow into the gas mixing
panel.
Operation procedure of this panel is as follows:
The primary gas supply cylinder is weighted by an explosion proof digital scale, when its
weight drops to a preset limit, the status crate of gas control system will show a warning light, at the
same time the detector control system will issue a warning sign on shifter’s monitoring screen to
remind the shift taker to replace the depleted isobutane cylinder. Follow the steps below to replace
the cylinder:
1, Check the weight of the backup isobutane cylinder, make sure this cylinder has enough
isobutane left over. If its net weight is less than 5lb, replace this cylinder first, then replace the
primary cylinder, otherwise direct proceed to step 2;
2, To replace the depleted isobutane cylinder first shutoff Vp1 and Vp2 valves, then open
Vs1 and Vs2 valves. Now the backup cylinder is temporally supplying isobutane to the gas mixing
panel;
3, Close the isobutane cylinder valve. Disconnect the flexible hose from the cylinder, remove
the depleted cylinder from the scale, hook up a new cylinder. Open the cylinder valve, check the
5
leakage to make sure there is no any detectable leakage with Restek leak detector on any relevant
connector;
4, Open Vent1 valve for few seconds to purge the air in the gas pipe, then shutoff Vent1;
5, Close Vs1 and Vs2, open Vp1 and Vp2. Now the primary isobutane cylinder is back to
work.
The operation for other two gas switchover panels (R134A and SF6) is the same.
2.1.2. Digital scale
Two types of digital scale are used in this system. An explosion proof scale (Force Flow
SOLO XT 200MAR-1) is used for isobutane cylinder and two regular digital scales (Scaletron
Model 2310) are used for R134A and SF6.
2.1.2.1.
Explosion proof digital scale
This scale is installed inside of the gas cabinet. A pneumatic load cell is mounted
underneath of the platform, through a 12 ft long PVC covered copper pipe the cell is
connected to a SOLO XT indicator, which is mounted on the gas status crate.
The warning limit for the net weight is set at 5lb. Please don’t touch any button on the
SOLO XT indicator or you’ll alter the setting, which may cause the scale malfunction. There
are two “C” cell ALKALINE batteries located behind the keypad/display. To replace the
depleted batteries, unscrew bezel ring and allow keypad/display to fall forward. Remove old
batteries and replace with new ALKALINE batteries. Carefully reinstall keypad/display.
Screw bezel ring down until finger tight to insure proper sealing.
The PVC coated copper pipe is filled with fluid, which is used to transmit the
pressure from load cell to the sensor in the indicator. Please don’t disassemble the fittings on
this pipe, otherwise the fluid in the tube will be leaking out, the scale will loose its accuracy.
Detailed operation manual can be found in the Appendix (7).
2.1.2.2. Regular digital scale
The other two digital scales are Scaletron model 2310 electronic single cylinder scale,
they are used for R134A and SF6. The procedure for replacing the depleted cylinder is
similar to the previous scale, we won’t repeat here. Detailed information about this scale can
be found in the Appendix (8).
2.2 Gas mixing and control system
After the cylinder switchover panels, four gases are connected to the inlets on the gas
mixing panel via 6mm Swagelok fittings.
This system consists of gas mixing panel and four crates: flowmeter crate, pressure
crate, power supply crate and gas status crate.
2.2.1. Gas mixing system
2.2.1.1.
Gas mixing panel
The picture of the gas mixing panel is shown in figure 6 and the block diagram is
shown in figure 7. Figure 8 shows the schematic of the mixing panel.
6
Fig. 6. Gas mixing panel (Penn Fluid System, ASY-550).
Fig. 7. Block diagram of the gas mixing panel.
7
From gas cylinders
To GC
Reserved for
venting
mixing panel
Fig. 8. Schematic of the gas mixing panel.
The gas mixing panel has incorporated the BaBar RPC/LST gas system experience and Daya
Bay RPC system’s requirement. This mixing panel can mix 4 gases, including small amount of SF6,
which is in 0.5% of total flow rate level. To mitigate the possible down time due to malfunction of
the gas flow controllers the major part of the system is constructed with the Modular Platform
Components(MPC), and surface-mounted on a substrate. All components can be replaced from top
that makes replacement easier and faster. There are two additional outlet ports on the lower-left
corner in figure 8. One port is connected to a GC system to check the gas mixing ratio once every
two hours. The other port is reserved for venting the gas mixing system in certain circumstance.
Please be advised that when you are doing the venting additional gas tubing must be provided
between this port and the room ventilation pipe.
All four gas inlets are controlled by pneumatic valves (labeled as pav/70 in figure 8), which
are actuated by pressurized air or nitrogen cylinder at 100psi via a solenoid valve. The later is
controlled by the power supply crate that will be mentioned later. With this arrangement all gas
components will be turn on/off at the same time, the mixing ratio won’t be changing after the system
interruption.
8
The pressure sensors (pt/60 in figure 8) will send the output signal to the gas pressure crate,
where the signals are compared to the preset normal pressure operating range and displayed on the
Simpson controllers.
Mass flow controllers send the measured signal to the flowmeter crate , where the flow rates
are checked if they are within the preset normal ranges.
The mass flow controllers are MKS products. Four mass flow controllers are controlled by
MKS 247D, see figure 9.
Full flow ranges of the gas flow controllers and flowmeters are as follows:
Ch.1 Tetrafluoroethane (C2H2F4) - 0-5000 sccm N2 Flow
Ch.2 Sulfur Hexafluoride (SF6) - 0-100 sccm N2 Flow
Ch.3 Isobutane (C4H10) - 0-500 sccm N2 Flow
Ch.4 Argon (Ar) - 0-2000 sccm N2 Flow
The gas flow controllers have been calibrated by soap bubbler. The calibrated Scaling Control Fact
(SCF) for four channels is summarized in Table 1.
Channel
#
Gas
Full
range for
N2 (sccm)
Gauge
factor
1
2
C4H10
Ar
500
2000
50
200
3
4
R134A
SF6
5000
100
50
100
Gas
Calculated
Correction
Scaling
Factor*
Control
Factor
(SCF)**
0.273
13.65
1.4119
300
0.3115
0.2502
16.8
26.99
Set the rear
Scaling
Control
Pot***
Calibrate
d at flow
rate
(sccm)
152
035
150
1000,250
175
035
500
20
Table 1. Gas flow controller's parameters.
*Obtained from:
http://www.teledyne-hi.com/Manual/Flow/111-052007%20Nall%20Mass%20Flowmeter.pdf
The Gas Correction Factor listed in the table is calculated for 0ºC temperature, for other temperature
it should be corrected as follows: G.C.F. (@T1) = G.C.F.(@0 ºC) x (273 + T1)/273.
** The Scaling Control Factor (SCF) are shown on the 247D rear panel potentiometers. The SCF is
the product of the Gauge Factor for the MFC in use and the Gas Correction Factor for the gas in use:
SCALING CONTROL FACTOR = GAUGE FACTOR x GAS CORRECTION FACTOR
The calculated SCF in the table assumes T1 = 21.5 ºC.
In this table the calculated SCFs and the set SCFs have some discrepancy. The set SCF means
adjusting the rear Scaling Control Pot (full range is 1000) to this value the displayed flow rate will
be same as calibrated flow rate.
*** There are certain level of discrepancy between the set value and the calculated value. Be aware
when we make the comparison, we only care about three numbers in the set value, not their absolute
value. For example, we now set the rear pot of argon channel at 035, we also can set it at 350, the
front LED will give you one more digit display accuracy, but limited by the maximum number 2000
can be displayed, if we do need the flow rate greater than 2000sccm, we have to reduce the rear pot
to 035 as we do here.
9
Fig.9. MKS 247D four-channel readout box, (Top) front panel, (Bottom) rear panel.
10
Detailed information on using this box can be found from “MKS Type 247D Four-Channel
Readout Instruction Manual”. Here we just give a brief description of this control box. MKS 247D is
designed as power supply/readout and set point source for four analog mass flow controllers. The
247D unit consists of a power supply, four signal conditioning channels, four set point circuits, and a
digital panel meter (DPM) to display the flow rate of any single channel of a MFC.
The rear panel provides four connectors, via cables they are connected to four mass flow
controllers.
The following test results are obtained with Daya Bay gas mixture. Since isobutane is a
flammable gas, its ratio in a gas mixture needs to be strictly controlled below its flammable limit.
Unless you are experts and authorized to do the system adjustment, you are not supposed to touch
ANY of the dials, knobs and switches on both front and rear panels. Otherwise you might change the
mixing ratio and make a flammable gas mixture without your notice. Please take it seriously! The
only thing you are supposed to do if you are on shift is choosing each channel by rotating the
channel select knob, and read the digital meter. Compare these numbers with the preset value, and
the displayed numbers on “Gas Flowmeter Crate”, all three sets of numbers should be very close.
The Simpson controllers on “Gas Flowmeter Crate” have been adjusted at the total flow rate of
2000sccm. If you are running the system at different flow rate, these readings might be somewhat
different from 247D and could be a few percent of deviation. This is due to the fact that Simpson
Controller is only making linear extrapolation for running at different full ranges, but 247D will have
more sophisticated correction.
The operation of MKS 247D is set in the ratio mode, the channel #1 (Isobutane) is the master
channel; the other three channels are slaves. On the front panel the Set Point Source Switch is set at
“Ratio” position for channel #2, 3, 4, and at “Flow” position for channel #1. If you need to change
the total flow rate and maintain the mixing ratio unchanged, you only need to change the flow rate of
the first channel by adjusting its potentiometer “Set point” on front panel of 247D.
A Varian 430 GC system has been used to verify the mixing ratio. Test results show that
from 100sccm to 1000sccm of the total flow rate the mixing ratio holds reasonably well as shown in
figure 10(A). We also tested the gas mixture in different total flow rate for a 2m x 1m IHEP RPC,
the plateau curves are very similar, see figure 10(B). That means the gas mixing ratios in the
mixtures are pretty much similar.
(A)
Fig. 10. (A) Gas mixing fraction in different total flow rates (OPERA gas mixture).
11
(B)
Fig. 10. (B) Efficiency plateau of a 2m x 1m RPC chamber in different total flow rate (OPERA gas mixture).
2.2.1.2.
Water bubbler
Based on BaBar RPC running experience we decide to add ~4000ppm water vapor
into the gas mixture. The original gas mixture is split into two branches: one branch of
the gas will be bubbling through water. The water vapor saturated gas mixture is then
mixed with the dry gas mixture in the other branch. By adjusting the flow rate in two
branches we can easily obtain the water content in the gas. Figure 11 shows a picture of
this system.
Fig. 11. Water bubbler.
The left tank is the water bubbler, gas mixture is flowing through a sintered metallic
bubbler head and entering the water, getting saturated water vapor in it, then flowing out the
tank. The right tank is used as a water reservoir. There is a tube connecting two tanks through
a valve. Keep the water level in the reservoir always higher then the level in the water
bubbler. Anytime if we need to add water into the bubbler, we only need to open the valve
and let the water flow from reservoir to bubbler.
12
2.2.2. Gas control system
The gas control system includes four crates, they are: Gas flowmeter crate; Gas
pressure crate; Power crate and Gas system status crate. The logic diagram is shown in figure
12.
Fig. 12. Logic block diagram of four gas control crates.
2.2.2.1.
Gas flowmeter crate
The gas flowmeter crate is used to display the gas flow rate from four mass flow controllers
and three flow meters, which are for the water vapor control branches: total, dry branch and
water vapor added branch. Simpson model H335 controller unit is used for the flow rate display
and safety control. A normal flow rate band is defined for each of seven flow meters through the
Simpson controller, if the flow rate is out of this preset band, the build-in relay of the Simpson
controller will be acting accordingly. Figure 13 shows the schematic of this crate1.
1
See Appendix (2) Flowmeter_E.pdf for large scale schematics.
13
The logic diagram is shown in figure 13.
Fig. 13. Gas flow meter crate.
Fig. 14. Logic diagram of the flowmeter crate.
14
This crate displays the gas flow rate measured by the flow controllers/meters, controls a relay
contact that closes on normal flow rate and opens on bad flow rate. Send this signal to gas
pressure crate, which will control the solenoid valve. The abnormal flow rate/pressure signal will
shut off the solenoid valve, which in turn will close all gas inlets to the mixing panel. In reality
the gas flow rate/pressure fluctuation due to power supply glitch and/or atmospheric pressure
sudden change is quite often during certain season. To eliminate this type of interfere there is a
“BYPASS TIMER” push button, push this button can bypass the status check logic for 5 minutes
(meanwhile a buzzer will be actuated to remind you that the bypass is acting), keep the solenoid
valves open for such time period. Usually within this period the environmental fluctuation would
calm down and return to normal, therefore the gas system will continually operate w/o interrupt.
When you see all flow rates and pressures show normal value, the Simpsons show no warning
signs on the right side bar, you should push the RESET/START button, and the “Flow Interlock
OK” green light should be back on.
There is a RESET/START button on the front panel. When the entire gas system is just
powered up, push and hold this button down until all seven flow rates displayed on the Simpson
meters reach normal value (no warning sign on any of the meters), then release the button. By
doing this the system will lock itself in a normal operation mode until the next abnormal state
occurs. After you push this button, the green light labeled as “Flow Interlock OK” should be on.
Also the water branches green light should be on, red light should be off.
The water branches are used for adding water vapor into the gas mixture. There are three
Simpson meters to display the flow rate for branch #1, #2 and the total. Branch #1 gas mixture
will be bubbling through water, then combine with the dry gas mixture from branch #2. The
metering valves on branch #1 and #2 can adjust the flow ratio between them, thus adjust the
water vapor content in the mixture.
Figure 15 shows the picture of the front and rear panels of the flowmeter crate.
A
C
B
D
Fig. 15. Gas flowmeter crate, A. Front; B. Rear; C. Internal front; D. Internal rear.
15
2.2.2.2. Gas pressure crate
The gas pressure crate is used for displaying the gas pressure at the upper stream of the flow
controller for each gas. The gas pressure sensor is Swagelok S model transducer that uses psi Gauge
reference (PTI-S-NG50-35AQ)2, it means the ambient pressure will read as 0 psi. When any gas
shows lower than preset pressure limit, this crate will generate warning signal, shut off the solenoid
valve that will in turn shut off all gas inlet ports on the gas mixing panel. Figure 16 shows the
schematics of this crate3.
The pressure can be adjusted by four gas regulators on the gas mixing panel. All gas
pressures are maintained around 20 psi, don’t let the gas pressure goes higher than 23 psi since at
higher pressure isobutane might be liquefied at lower temperature. Go to web site
http://e-data.jp/vpcal2/e/ to calculate the vapor pressure for Isobutane. At 20 ºC the vapor pressure of
isobutane is 2267.55mmHg, if the ambient pressure is 760mmHg, the pressure sensor should read as
~29 psi. At 15 ºC the vapor pressure should read as 22.88 psi. If we set the pressure at 23 psi, when
the room temperature drops to 15 ºC, Isobutane vapor will start to be liquefied.
Only the lower limit for the pressure display/control Simpsons is set, the upper limits are set
at much higher value, under no circumstance such over pressure warning will occur. If the pressure
is below the lower limit it means the gas cylinder will be completely depleted in short time, you
should check the cylinder immediately. In normal case this scenario shouldn’t happen because we
have set the automatic switchover pressure at much higher value for argon and weight limit at ~2lb
for other three gases. Before hitting these four preset limits the gas pressure should be stable.
Fig. 16. Gas pressure crate.
2
3
See the catalog page of the pressure sensor: http://www.swagelok.com/downloads/webcatalogs/EN/MS-02-225.pdf
See Appendix (3) Pressure-E.pdf for details.
16
The logic diagram of this crate is shown in figure 17.
Fig. 17. Logic diagram of the gas pressure crate.
The gas pressure display and control is also accomplished by Simpson H335 controllers. In
case of either flow rate or gas pressure is out of normal range this crate will send signal to power
supply crate to shut off the solenoid valve and consequently shut off all four gases. This crate sends
the analog signals of gas pressure to slow control system for on-line display.
The front and rear panels for the pressure crate is shown in figure 18.
A
C
B
D
Fig. 18. Gas pressure crate, A. Front; B. Rear; C. Internal front; D. Internal rear.
17
2.2.2.3.
Gas system power supply crate
The power supply crate provides the DC power to all flow meters, solenoid valves. Figure 19
shows its schematics4.
Fig. 19. Gas system power supply crate.
The logic diagram of this crate is shown in figure 20.
4
See Appendix (4) Power-E.pdf for details.
18
Fig. 20. Logic diagram of the gas system power supply crate.
Power supply crate provides DC power (+/- 15V) to three MKS flow meters. It also
provides +24V DC power to the solenoid valve. It takes status information from flow crate,
pressure crate, then controls RPC HV interlock and solenoid power output. In case of any
abnormal state occurring, such as low flow rate, low pressure warning, it will actuate the RPC
HV interlock, shut off solenoid valve.
There are four lights on the front panel: +15V, -15V, +24V, (solenoid) Valves open.
In normal case all of them should be on.
Figure 21 shows the front and rear panels of the power supply crate.
A
C
B
D
Fig. 21. Gas power supply crate, A. Front; B. Rear; C. Internal front; D. Internal rear.
2.2.2.4.
Gas status crate
Fig. 22 shows the gas status crate.
The front panel of the gas status crate is divided into two regions: the right region
displays RPC gas system status and the left region is fire safety system status.
19
Gas system status region shows: 1, Actual weights of isobutane, R134A and SF6 gas
cylinders and their weight low warning LEDs. Any of these three gas cylinders hits its preset low
weight limit, this warning red LED will light up to warn you it is the time for replacing the
depleted gas cylinder. Two adjustable black knobs are used to zeroing R134A and SF6 scales.
Place an empty gas cylinder on scale then adjust the knob until displaying 0.0 on the weight
window. By doing this the measured weight on the scale will be the net weight of the content left
in the cylinder. The low weight limit has been set at ~1kg. If the net weight reaches ~1kg, the
respective weight low LED will turn on. The isobutane scale is different because of its
flammable nature. A Force Flow XT200MAR-1GC digital cylinder scale is used. The cabinet
platform with hydraulic load cell is installed inside of the gas cabinet. Since there is no electrical
element is used for the load cell it is safe in the hazardous environment. The SOLO XT digital
indicator is mounted in the Gas Status Crate, which is located outside of the gas cabinet, through
a 6 ft long tubing filled with pneumatic fluid the indicator is connected to the load cell. Although
a quick connector is used at the indicator side, we can easily disconnect the tubing from the
indicator, but don’t leave it disconnected for more than 5 minutes. 2, Relative humidity of the
fresh gas mixture (flowing into the RPC module) and the return gas mixture (flowing out the
RPC module). Two gas sub-branches are monitored. By rotating the Gas Humidity switch the %
of relative humidity for channel #1 or channel #2 will be displayed on the Simpson controllers.
Fire safety system region displays % of LEL measured by HAD #1 and #2, gas cabinet
air ventilation velocity. HAD sensor #1 is installed at lower section inside of the gas cabinet,
HAD sensor #2 is mounted outside of the gas cabinet. They have been calibrated to % of
isobutane LEL. When the measured level reaches 10% LEL, the warning LED will turn on. If the
level reaches 25% LEL, the solenoid valve that controls the opening of all four pneumatic valves
in front of each gas inlet will shut off, thus all gas inlet ports on the gas mixing panel will shut
off. The gas cabinet air ventilation is monitored by a Pitot tube, which is installed inside of 6”
diameter ventilation pipe. This 6’ long ventilation pipe is hooked up to the exhausting port on the
top of the gas cabinet. At the end of this pipe a 6” diameter explosion proof fan is used to suck
the air out of the gas cabinet. By measuring the air flow velocity in the ventilation pipe we’ll be
able to tell if the air flow rate meets the Uniform Fire Code requirement: 150 - 200 linear ft/min
of air through the window opening. The window opening is 13” × 17” = 7.8 × area of 6”
diameter pipe, therefore the minimum air flow velocity needs to be ~ 1100 ft/min. The
manufacture provided curves of air velocity vs. gauge reading with Pitot tube5 are shown in Fig.
23. We set the ventilation warning limit at 0.075” water, which is corresponding to 1100 ft/min
air flow velocity.
5
http://www.dwyer-inst.com/PDF_files/160_IOM.pdf
20
E
A
B
C
D
F
Fig. 22. Gas status crate, A. Front; B. Rear; C. Internal front; D. Internal rear; E. Internal left; F. Internal right.
21
Set warning limit here
Fig. 23. Air velocity vs. gauge reading with Pitot tube.
2.3 Gas distribution/digital
bubbler system
The gas mixture flowing out of the mixing system needs to be distributed to every RPC in an
experimental hall. The design goal of the gas distribution system can be summarized as follows:
• Uniformly distribute the gas mixture to every RPC in the system;
• Divide the RPC gas flow in one experimental hall into several panel-branches, of which each
will be further split to 16 sub-branches. In case of one sub-branch having leaky RPC the rest
of the system should not be affected;
• At the end of each sub-branch should implement a monitoring device to check the gas
tightness for this sub-branch.
The Daya Bay near hall gas distribution/digital bubbler system consists of seven panelbranches. A sketch diagram of this system is shown in figure 24.
22
Fig. 24. Daya Bay near hall RPC gas distribution system (part).
We split the gas flow into 7 panel-branches with a gas distribution manifold that is shown in
the insert of Fig. 24. Because it is hard to control all downstream gas flow resistors having same
flow resistance, it has been revealed that some distribution panels are having higher flow resistance
than others, so the overall flow rate for 7 panel-branches won’t be the same. It can be seen in Fig. 25
bottom plot. The solution is adding an additional flow resistor to each branch of the gas manifold.
These flow resistors are made of 5cm long, 0.5mm ID S.S. tubes. With these flow resistors the
23
uniformity of the bubbling rate distribution among all 112 channels is much better, see the top plot
of Fig. 25.
Fig. 25. The gas bubbling rate distribution for 112 channels. Top plot: with the flow resistors;
bottom plot: w/o the flow resistors.
One panel-branch of gas distribution/digital bubbler system is sketched in Fig. 26(A), its
photo is in Fig. 26(B).
24
Fig. 26(A). One panel-branch of gas distribution/digital bubbler system
Fig. 26(B) Gas distribution (bottom) and digital bubbler (top) panels.
2.3.1 Flow resistor and inlet overpressure protection bubbler
We have calculated the pressure drop ΔP for the RPC gas flow path. The RPC itself won't
bring in noticeable pressure drop due to large cross section. The major pressure drop is coming from
25
the long tubing. A CERN web site provides a calculator to calculate such pressure drop:
http://detector-gas-systems.web.cern.ch/detector-gas-systems/Tools/deltaP.htm
Figure 27 shows the verification of this calculator with some real test done by Bob Messner6 of
BaBar. Since the pressure drop is proportional to d4 a small variation of the tube’s ID can make big
difference to the pressure drop as illustrated in Fig. 26. For the same 1/4” OD tubing the Polyflo
tubing has smaller ID, its pressure drop is almost twice as higher than Teflon tubing.
Fig. 27. Verification of CERN pressure drop calculator.
This tool can calculate up to three gas components. We use it to calculate a gas mixture
(66/30/4 Ar/R134A/Isobutane) that is very similar to Daya Bay RPC gas mixture. For 2 volume
changes/day the flow rate in each sub-branch (4 RPCs) will be 5.6 sccm . The calculated pressure
6
Bob Messner, private communication.
26
drop through 30m long, 4mm ID (1/4' OD) Polyflo tubing (30m long tubing is about the round trip
of the gas flow path) ΔP = 0.29cm WC. The digital bubbler's oil height is set at 0.5cm. Total
pressure drop through the system is 0.8cm WC. After the flow resistor an inlet bubbler is
implemented in parallel to RPC, it is used as the inlet overpressure protection for the RPC. We set
the overpressure protection bubbler at 3cm WC.
We use Upchurch Scientific U-101 S.S. tube as the flow resistor, which is 0.01” bore
diameter and 5cm long. The pressure drop with normal flow rate would be 29 cm WC that is more
than 100 times of the pressure drop for 30m long 1/4” Polyflo tubing, it means the flow resistance
for the entire gas flow path is dominated by the flow resistor.
Figure 28 shows an inlet protection bubbler crate. Each crate consists of 16 channels. For
each channel a straw tube is dipped into an oil well with a depth of ~ 3cm. The inlet gas pressure
will be manifested as the gas column in the straw tube above the oil level (indicated as h in the
insert). The maximum inlet pressure will be limited at ~3cm oil. If the gas pressure overpasses this
limit, the gas mixture will escape through this protection channel, thus the RPC chambers won’t
suffer the overpressure.
Gas column above the oil level, its height indicates the inlet gas pressure,
see the right side insert.
Fig. 28. Gas inlet overpressure protection bubblers.
2.3.2. Digital bubbler
For a gas detector system the oil bubblers are always used at the outlets of the chambers to
isolate the gas chamber from air. Besides this basic function the digital gas bubbler can provide a
quick on-line diagnosis of gas flow; according to BaBar and Belle it turns out to be a very useful
system. We use a similar digital bubbler design as Belle RPC used [6]. In this system the bubblers
are instrumented with photogates. Its working principle is illustrated in figure 29. Without gas
bubble the light reaches the photogate through oil without interruption. When a bubble passes, it will
reflect partial light, and the light intensity at that moment would be reduced, thus generates a pulse
signal to the photogate PC board.
27
To digital bubbler
readout board
(A)
(B)
(C)
Figure 29. Digital gas bubbler. (A) Mechanical structure of the bubbler (for illustration
purpose only, not the same as used in our gas system); (B) Working principle of the
photogate; (C) The digital bubbler output signal recorded by microcontroller, it shows 8
A schematic of the digital bubbler photogate PC board is shown in figure 30. This is a 16channel board that provides input signal to the microcontroller readout board. Each of the
microcontroller board can handle 16 channels. TI MSP430F1611[7] microcontroller is used on the
board, figure 31(A) shows the functional block diagram of MSP430x161x chip. It has 10KB RAM
and 48KB flash memory. The build-in 12-bit ADC can sequentially sample 8 channels of the input
at one moment with the sampling rate set by a 32768-Hz (215) watch crystal oscillator. When the
ADC finishes the sampling for the first 8 channels it will generate a switch signal that subsequently
will be sent to two MAX4674 multiplexer chips, each of which can handle 4 channels. Thus the next
8 channels will be sampled by the ADC. The system will be running for a few seconds that is long
enough to collect several cycles of the bubbles. All the data is stored in the RAM memory of the
microcontroller. At the end of the data taking cycle the program will set all 8 bits up to 1 for a
specific register U1TXBUF that is the serial port interface on the microcontroller. A host PC is
supervising the microcontroller readout board through RS232 port. It checks U1TXBUF routinely, if
all 8 bits are up, it will readout the data from RAM and store the data in the PC, then starts over the
whole process again. A USB extender pair is used to connect the USB port on PC to a USB hub with
7 USB slots. The CAT5E cable used to connect the pair of USB extender can be as long as 100ft.
Each USB slot through a USB to RS232 convertor cable is connected to a digital bubbler readout
board. For the far hall we need 11 16-channel bubblers, and for the near hall we need 7 16-channel
bubblers. Therefore at near hall we only need one such hub, and at far hall we need two hubs to
handle all digital bubblers.
28
Fig. 30. Digital bubbler photogate PC board schematics.
The hardware of the16 channel digital bubbler with the oil catcher is shown in figure 31.
Fig. 31. 16-channel digital bubbler with oil catcher.
The schematic of the microcontroller readout test board and its picture are shown in figure
32(B, C). Figure 33 is a photo of this system.
29
Fig. 32(A) MSP430x161x functional block diagram.
Fig. 32(B) Digital bubbler readout board schematic
30
Fig. 32(C). Photo of the digital bubbler readout PC board
Host PC and
its USB port
Through flat cables
connect to bubbler
photogate PC
Digital bubbler
readout crate
USB extender with
100 ft CAT-5E
7-Port USB hub
with 7 USB to
RS232 converters
Fig. 33 Digital bubbler readout crate and its host PC with USB extender/100 ft long CAT-5E cable.
31
The cable interconnection of the digital bubbler system is shown in figure 34.
Fig. 34 Interconnection of the digital bubbler system.
The host PC will be in electronics room, the digital bubbler hardware and readout crate will
be located on the RPC module supporting platform, the distance between two locations is around
20m. Use of the USB extender and one 100 ft CAT5E cable should be long enough to link them
together.
2.3.3.
TI microcontroller readout software
32
The software development tool for the TI microcontroller readout board is IAR
Embedded Workbench. The version 3.30A is a free distributed version. Please don’t upgrade to
newer free distributed version that won’t work properly for the bubbler readout program. Click
the icon
on the Desktop, it will pop up the following window:
Fig. 34. IAR Embedded Workbench window.
Click File on the top menu bar, then Open|Workspace, the bubbler software workspace is in the
following directory: C:\ Bubbler16ch-TI-Readout\bubbler16ch-v2.eww. The opened workspace is
shown in Fig. 35. The program is written in C.
33
Fig. 35. Workspace of TI microcontroller readout software: bubbler16ch-v2.eww.
2.3.4. Digital bubbler GUI
To open the digital bubbler GUI go to directory C:\DayaBay Bubbler GUI\ as shown in
figure 36, click setup.exe, it will bring up the bubbler GUI window as shown in figure 37 (please be
advised the Date Modified of setup.exe might be different from what we show here).
You also can simply click Daya Bay RPC Gas Bubbler icon
popup the same window.
on the desktop, it will
Fig. 36. Directory of the digital bubbler GUI program
34
Fig. 37. Bubbler GUI window
Click File on the top menu bar will bring up a drop-down menu with five choices: Open –
open the executable TI microcontroller acquisition program and wait for uploading to its flash
memory; Close – close the Bubbler program, the Bubbler Program window will disappear
immediately; Check communication – test the RS232 connection between microcontroller and the
host PC, in this version the COM ports we used are starting from COM21 up, in case of bad
communication you may want to check the host PC Ports setting, which can be accessed through
Start | Control Panel | System | Hardware | Device Manager | Ports (COM & LPT). Click on + sign
on the left of Ports, it will expand the Ports to show all Com Ports, where you can check if COM
Port names are from COM21 up in sequential order; Option – select the number of boards to be used
in the run; Set-Check Serial Number – Set each COM Port with a unique name and upload the
executable TI txt file to the readout board connected to this Port. In the following we’ll go through
the process step by step:
1) Click Open, select file C:\bubbler16ch-TI-Readout\Debug\Exe\bubbler16ch.txt, and click
it to highlight, then click Open;
2) Type 21 into the small window under Port, BD01 (must be capital BD) into the small
window under Serial Number, click Upload TI txt File button, it will upload the txt file to
the microcontroller’s flash memory. When finish the window should look like figure 37.
The TI txt file will remain in the flash memory until you upload a different TI txt file to
change it. If you have 7 boards, you need to repeat this procedure for other 6 boards.
35
Fig. 38. The TI microcontroller data acquisition program has been uploaded to board #1.
3) Click × on the upper-right corner of the window to close it;
4) Open the bubbler GUI again as mentioned at the beginning of 2.3.3. the window shown
in figure 37 will appear again;
5) Click Run button, it will run the uploaded program on the readout boards you have
selected, the LEDs in front of these boards will flash for a few seconds. On right pane of
the window “Com21 is working”, …, “Com27 is working” displays the progress as
shown in figure 39;
Fig. 39. GUI finishes the data taking.
36
6) Wait for a few more seconds to let the microcontroller finish the data taking, then click
Download Data button. (If the data taking process has not finished while you move the
mouse point over Download Data button, it won’t change shade of the box, and has no
effect if you click.) The data in RAM memory of the microcontroller will be transferred
to host PC meanwhile the progress bar on top of Status pane will show the transferring
status. Upon finishing the data transfer a 12 column-plots will popup. Each plot shows 16
vertical bars, each of which represents the bubbling rate for its corresponding sub-branch.
Click on each histogram a larger histogram will popup, which is clear enough to read the
bubbling rate. Click × sign on the upper-right corner of the large plot will close this
window. An example is shown in figure 39.
Fig. 40. Flowrate plots for all 112 channels.
In figure 37 there are several other buttons. The Minutes window is used for setting the time
interval between each data taking. After click the Download Data button the program will
automatically repeat the data download/data taking cycle according to this Minutes setting. To stop
the timer click Stop The Timer button, it will halt the program and change the label to Start The
Timer. Click the button again will resume the program.
2.3.5. Access the data with database program MySQL v5.0
37
The bubbling frequency data are collected in a database called dayabay, table name is
dyb_gas_dybnearbubbler, dyb_gas_dybfarbubbler or dyb_gas_lanearbubbler according to the
location of the gas system. The raw data files, which can be used to plot the pulse curve for each
channel, are stored in subdirectory C:\yyyy\mmddyyyy\hh_mm_ss. Each day has a subdirectory
such as C:\2010\04212010, and each run has next level of subdirectory, such as …\20_46_43. Files
with _p attached are ascii data files, which can be directly read by Excel. From any networked
computer you can access this database if MySQL v5.0 and MySQL GUI Tools software are installed.
These software can be downloaded from web for free. To run the database query click on MySQL
Query Browser icon displayed on the left pane after click Windows Taskbar Start button. It will
bring up a MySQL Query Browser window as shown in figure 41.
Fig. 41 MySQL Query Browser window
In this window the name of Server Host should be replaced by the host PC’s IP address, such as
128.112.84.90, which is the IP address of the host PC on Princeton network, and type in the
password. Click OK a Query Browser window will pop up as shown in figure 42.
38
Fig. 42 MySQL Query Browser intial window
On the right pane of this window under database “dayabay” there are 6 tables:
dyb_gas_dybfarbubbler, …. Move mouse to any table’s name, click and hold, then move the point to
the empty window on the top, several buttons will show up on the bottom of the window. One of the
buttons is SELECT, move the point to there, then release the mouse, a command line “SELECT *
FROM dyb_gas_dybnearbubbler d;” automatically created in this empty window, click the Execute
button on the right, the database window will fill up with the recorded data for the selected table as
shown in figure 43.
39
Fig. 43. MySQL query results window.
The database table consists of 113 columns: Date_Time – the data created Date and Time;
DB01C1,…, DB07C16, total 112 columns, each column records the bubbling rate for the
corresponding channel. Click File and highlight Export Results, click it, on the drop-down menu you
can select various file format. For example if you want to export the data to Excel format, click the
fourth line. If you already checked the Query Options | Open results in associated application after
export (Click Tool menu, then Options), it will direct open an Excel file with the data set you have
selected. A sample Excel strip plot is shown in figure 44, we can see the bubbling rate distribution
among 112 channels measured by the digital bubbler is reasonably uniform. The flow rate vs.
bubbling rate from 500sccm to 3.5slm range is shown in figure 45. Below 2 SLM the linearity is
quite good, thereafter the flow rate becomes lower than linear extrapolated value, it could be the gas
volume for each bubble might not be same under different flow rate.
Below 2 SLM the linear fitting is F.R. (SLM) = 0.883*x – 0.213; above 2 SLM the fitting
becomes quadruple F.R. (SLM) = 0.713*x2 – 2.75*x +4.44, where x is the bubbling rate in Hz unit.
40
Fig. 44 Bubbling rate distribution of 112 channels.
Fig. 45. Gas flow rate vs. bubbling rate.
2.3.6. The developing tool of the GUI — Microsoft Visual Studio 2008
The GUI is written in C# with the software development tool Microsoft Visual Studio. Click
Start on Windows, then click the icon
on the left pane (this icon also
available on the desktop), Visual Studio 2008 window will pop up as shown in figure 46.
41
Fig. 46. Visual Studio 2008 window.
On the left side Recent Projects pane, there is one existing project name Daya Bay Princeton 2009,
move mouse over it, on the bottom of the Visual Studio window it will show the solution file’s name
with its directory tree: C:\...\Desktop\Visual Studio 07312009\Projects\Daya Bay Princeton
2008\Daya Bay Princeton 2009.sln, click it, it will open the entire solution/project as shown in figure
47.
42
Fig. 47. Solution “Daya Bay Princeton 2008” opened in Visual Studio.
3.
Interface to the Detector Control System (DCS)
Daya Bay RPC gas system will send signals to the detector control system for on-line
monitor and emergency control. The following is a list of items to be sent to the DCS:
• Gas flow rate for all four components, the total flow rate and dry/wet branches flow rate
for the gas mixture;
• Gas bubbling rate for every sub-branches to locate the leaking RPC module;
• Gas mixture humidity;
• Gas pressure before the mass flow controller;
• Cylinder weight for Isobutane, R134A and SF6;
• Ventilation air flow rate monitoring;
• HAD sensors monitoring;
• Stand-alone weather station device in the gas room will monitor the room temperature/air
pressure.
All of these signals are summarized in the table 2.
43
Source Crate
Flowmeter crate
Connector
Flow crt - J2
Flow crt - J2
Flow crt - J2
Flow crt - J2
Flow crt - J2
Flow crt - J2
Flow crt - J2
Name
Flow rate(Isobutane)
Flowr rate(Argon)
Flow rate(R134A)
Flow rate(SF6)
Total flow rate
Branch #1 flow rate
Branch #2 flow rate
Pressure crate
Prs
Prs
Prs
Prs
crt
crt
crt
crt
-
J6
J6
J6
J6
Pressure(Isobutane)
Pressure(Argon)
Pressure(R134A)
Pressure(SF6)
Gas status crate
Stts
Stts
Stts
Stts
Stts
Stts
Stts
Stts
Stts
Stts
Stts
Stts
Stts
Stts
crt
crt
crt
crt
crt
crt
crt
crt
crt
crt
crt
crt
crt
crt
-
J3
J7
J8
J3
J3
J3
J4
J4
J4
J6
J6
J6
J9
J9
HAD sensor status
HAD #1 analog out
HAD #2 analog out
Ventillation status
Ventillation status
Emergency shutoff(out)
Flow rate status
Pressure status
HV interlock
R134A weight
Isobutane weight
SF6 weight
Humidity(fresh)
Humidity(return)
Weather information
Tong
Tong
Tong
Tong
Tong
Tong
Guan
Guan
Guan
Guan
Guan
Guan
U.
U.
U.
U.
U.
U.
Temperature(storage)
Humidity(storage)
Atm. pres.(storage)
Temperature(mix)
Humidity(mix)
Atm. pres.(mix)
Digital bubbler
GC430
LAN
LAN
bubble rate
Gas mixing ratio
Signal Type
DC level
DC level
DC level
DC level
DC level
DC level
DC level
DC
DC
DC
DC
Signal Range
0 - 10V
0 - 10V
0 - 10V
0 - 10V
0 - 10V
0 - 10V
0 - 10V
level
level
level
level
switch
DC current
DC current
switch
DC current
switch
switch
switch
switch
DC current
DC current
DC current
DC level
DC level
0
0
0
0
-
10V
10V
10V
10V
O(alarm)/C(normal)
0 - 5V
0 - 5V
O(alarm)/C(normal)
4 - 20mA
click set/reset
O(alarm)/C(normal)
O(alarm)/C(normal)
O(alarm)/C(normal)
4 - 20mA
4 - 20mA
4 - 20mA
0 - 5V
0 - 5V
Slow Control
1
1
1
1
3
3
3
2
2
2
2
4
4
4
4
4
10
1
2
7
5
5
5
6
6
8
8
8
8
8
8
Database
Database
Database
Database
9
4
Table 2. Signals sent to Detector Control System.
Warning!!! The table shown above might be only part of its original excel file, to get the excel file
please move the mouse at any place inside the table and double click, the original excel file will
show up. You can move to any cell to look at the content in that cell. The slope column lists various
physical parameters, such as weight, air flow velocity, % of isobutane Lower Exposure Limit (LEL),
relative humidity, etc. and their calibration curves. Slow control system can use these curves to
calculate the physical parameters from the output analog signals (DC voltage or current). They
should match the display on the controllers of various gas control crates. For your convenience we
reproduce these calibration parameters as follows:
y Isobutane flow rate: 20 sccm/V;
y SF6 flow rate: 2 sccm/V;
44
y
y
y
y
y
y
y
y
y
y
y
Argon flow rate: 2 slm/V;
R134A flow rate: 200 sccm/V;
Branch (wet and dry) and total flow rate: 2 slm/V;
Gas pressure: P = 20 psi/V;
Hazardous gas sensor: % of isobutane LEL = 20% LEL/V;
Ventilation air flow velocity: V(m/min) = -0.0666*I(mA)4+3.0867*I3-53.24*I2+434.05*I1064.5;
R134A, SF6 weight scales: W(kg) = 3.102*I(mA)-12.465;
Isobutane scale: W(kG) = 4.119*I(mA)-16.59;
Humidity sensors: R.H. (%) = 20% R.H./V;
Ventilation Open(alarm)/Close(normal) contact = ~∞ Ω/ ~0Ω;
Gas flow rate, pressure, HAD sensor Open(alarm)/Close(normal) contacts = ~∞ Ω/ ~25Ω.
45
4.
Troubleshooting
This section is evolving with the running experience; your feedback is most welcome.
Symptoms
Possible cause
All gas flow meters
show zero flow
rates.
(1) The solenoid valve doesn't open,
all pneumatic valves are closed.
(2) Nitrogen gas cylinder does not have
enough gas pressure (< 4 atm ).
(3) Any gas channel has lower than
preset lower flow limit, thus shut off
the solenoid valve.
Buzzer activated.
Bypass button has been pushed
unintentionally.
Histograms show
all zero
COM port lost connection.
No data file saved
In the relevant
subdirectory,
but the database
records are OK.
Solenoid Valve
Open LED not
on, no any other
warning light
on, but there is
no gas flow in
all 4 channels.
A possible minor software bug may
be the cause, a single bad data
blocked the following data file operation.
Remedy
(1) Check if all four gases have
pressures higher than low limits.
(2) Change N2 cylinder.
(3) Check 247D to see if there is any
switch unintentionally being turned
off.
After 5' it will turns off automatically.
(1) Check COM port communication: Start|
Control Panel|System|Hardware|Device
Manage, click Ports(COM & LPT) to see
if all required COM ports are there and in right
Order. Unplug the USB cable, then plug in,
sometime it may solve the problem.
(2) Sometime the electric interference,
such as plug a new device into the
same power strip, may disturb the COM
port communication. The above method
may also solve the problem.
Restart the Bubbler GUI may solve
this problem. Will fix the software bug.
Check with detector control
system to make sure they are not
activating the emergency shut off
state and the wall mounted fire
emergency push button is not on.
46
5.
Appendixes
(1) SystemLogic_E.pdf , SystemLogic_E.dwg
(2) Flowmeter_H2.pdf, Flowmeter_H2.dwg
(3) Pressure_H2.pdf, Pressure_H2.dwg
(4) Powersupply_H3_1.pdf, Powersupply_H3_1.dwg
(5) status_H1_4.pdf, status_H1_4.dwg
(6) UL compliance
All parts used in the gas system are checked for their UL compliance, detailed
information is summarized in Marking of Gas_PanelsV2.xls. All parts are UL compliant.
(7) msp430f1611.pdf (“MSP430x15x, MSP430x16x, MSP430x161x Mixed Signal
Microcontroller”): http://focus.ti.com/lit/ds/symlink/msp430f1611.pdf
(8) SOLO XT Chlor-scale 150, installation & operation manual (XT 150-manual.pdf)
(9) Scaletron Model 2310 electronic scale manual, (2310-operating-instructions.pdf)
See also here: http://www.scaletronscales.com/pdf/2310-operating-instructions.pdf
References
1. C. Lu and K. McDonald, DayaBay RPC Gas Safety System Design (June 19, 2008), DocDB #2691.
2. A. Abashian et al., Nucl. Instr. Meth. A449, 112 (2000).
3. S. Foulkes et al., Gas system upgrade for the BaBar IFR detector at SLAC, Nucl. Instr. Meth. A 538, 801
(2005).
4. M. Ahart et al., Flow Control and Measurement for RPC Gases, Belle Note 135 (Aug. 26, 1996),
http://wwwphy.princeton.edu/~marlow/rpc/gas/flow.ps
5. A. Paoloni et al. Gas mixture studies for streamer operation of Resistive Plate Chambers at low
rate, NIM A583(2007)264
6. Daniel Marlow, “Glass Resistive Plate Chamber in the Belle Experiment”, Seminar at Rice University, July
9, 1999. http://wwwphy.princeton.edu/~marlow/talks/rice/rice.pdf
7. “MSP430x15x, MSP430x16x, MSP430x161x Mixed Signal Microcontroller”, Texas Instruments.
47
Appendix (1) SystemLogic_E.pdf (Double click on the plot will show the original pdf file)
48
Appendix (2) Flowmeter_H2.pdf (Double click on the plot will show the original pdf file)
49
Appendix (3) Pressure_H2.pdf (Double click on the plot will show the original pdf file)
50
Appendix (4) Powersupply_H3_1.pdf (Double click on the plot will show the original pdf file)
51
Appendix (5) status_H1_4.pdf (Double click on the plot will show the original pdf file)
52
Appendix (6) UL marking of gas system control crates components
PART # Discription
QTY DISTRIBUTOR DISTRIB #
MFG ‐ PN
VOLTAGE
MARKINGs
ASSEMBLY
*Data Sheet or Web Page
UR is a UL symbol for components.
12V converter
15V/‐15V converter
24V Power Supply
Piezo Transducer
LED Lenses
LED Cable Assembly
LEDs
Fuse Holder
Fuse
Relay khau‐17d11‐12
Relay Socket 14Pin
RELAY RETAINING CLIP
Relay khau‐17d13‐24
Relay krpa‐11dn‐24
Relay Socket 8Pin
Relay krpa‐14ag‐240 (240V)
Relay Socket 11Pin
Relay Hold‐Down Clip
Panel Indicator Red
Panel Indicator Green
Power Socket
PushBotton Switch
Simpson H335
Terminal Block 8
Timer 0‐15 min
Pot 5M Ohms 2W
Knob/Dial
PCB for DB15 Conn
Chassis 17"x 5.25"x 14"
Chassis 17"x 7"x 14"
Chassis 17"x 10.5"x 14"
Conn Circular 19
Conn Circular 19 Wall Mount
Conn Circular 19
Cable Clamp Size:16
Cable Clamp Size:12
Conn Circular 8
Conn Circular 8 Wall Mount
Conn Circular 8 Wall Mount
Conn Circular 8
Cable Clamp Size:10
Conn Circular 4 Wall Mount
Conn Circular 4
Crimp Pin AWG26‐24 pkg25
Crimp Socket AWG26‐24 pkg25
Crimp Pin AWG22‐20 pkg25
Crimp Socket AWG22‐20 pkg25
Conn DB15 Conn Housing 3Pin
Conn Housing 6Pin
Conn Header 6Pin
Crimp Term AWG20‐18 pkg100
Pin Header 6Pin
Conn Housing 8Pin
Conn Housing 6Pin
Conn Housing 4Pin
1
1
1
1
1
1
10
5
5
1
2
2
1
1
1
2
2
3
2
2
3
1
11
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
3
3
1
3
9
9
9
1
1
8
8
8
1
1
1
1
7
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
2
MKS 247D 4‐channel readout box
1
Newark
Newark
Newark
Allied
Newark
Newark
72K1628
72K0352
72K1614
854‐0047
26K6372
88K1063
Lambda ZWS5‐12
Lambda SCD601515
Lambda ZWS10‐24
Mallory SC250PR
VCC CMS442CTP‐PK10
VCC CNX440X024112‐PK10
Newark
Newark
Newark
Avnet
Newark
Newark
Newark
Newark
Newark
Newark
Newark
Allied
Allied
Newark
Allied
Newark
Newark
Newark
Allied
Newark
PCBExpress
67K0275
26K8480
16M9048
27E166
57F3402
16M9052
21F1087
57F3431
21F1098
57F3432
57F3400
679‐9768
679‐9771
94F083
814‐1069
60M3124
28F717
86K9982
753‐1248
95F7003
Littelfuse H3453LS7
Littelfuse 313xxxP
Tyco KHAU‐17D11‐12
Tyco 27E166
Tyco 20C217
Tyco KHAU‐17D13‐24
Tyco KRPA‐11DN‐24
Tyco 27E122
Tyco KRPA‐14AG‐240
Tyco 27E123
Tyco 20C176
CML 1031D1
CML 1033D5
Switchcraft EAC309
IDEC AB6M‐M1P‐G
Simpson H335‐4‐13‐2‐2‐0
Cinch 8‐141
ARTISAN CONTROLS 438US
Honeywell 53C35MEG
EHC EH712F2S
29 sq in
220V
220V
220V
220V
*UL(UR) CSA CE
*UL(UR) CSA CE
*UL(UR) CSA CE
*UL(UR)
< 5V
< 5V
220V
220V
12V
24V
*UL(UR) CSA
UL CSA
*UL(UR) CSA
*UL
24V
24V
24V
220V
220V
*UL(UR) CSA
*UL(UR) CSA
220V
220V
220V
220V
220V
220V
220V
*UL CSA
*UL CSA
UL CSA
*UL(UR)
UL CE
*UL CSA
*UL
*UL(UR) CSA
*UL(UR) CSA
15V
Proline 10-006ca
Proline 10-010ca
Proline 10-018ca
Newark
Newark
Newark
Newark
Newark
Newark
Newark
Newark
Newark
Newark
Newark
Newark
Newark
Newark
Newark
Newark
Newark
Newark
Newark
Newark
Newark
Newark
Newark
Newark
Newark
MKS
16F5736
16F5728
16F5744
16F5825
16F5823
16F5734
16F5726
16F5718
16F5742
16F5822
16F5725
16F5733
93K6211
88K2682
93K6208
88K2677
42K6543
38C8766
38C8769
13C2876
35C3725
27C1933
13C2635
35H6565
13C2636
Souriau UTG616‐19PN
Souriau UTG016‐19S
Souriau UTG616‐19SN
Souriau UTG16AC
Souriau UTG12AC
Souriau UTG612‐8PN
Souriau UTG012‐8S
Souriau UTG012‐8P
Souriau UTG612‐8SN
Souriau UTG10AC
Souriau UTG010‐4S
Souriau UTG610‐4PN
Souriau SM24ML1D70
Souriau SC24ML1D70
Souriau SM20ML1D70
Souriau SC20ML1D70
Tyco 1‐5747299‐4
Molex 09‐50‐3031
Molex 09‐50‐3061
Molex 26‐60‐4060
Molex 08‐52‐0113
Molex 22‐23‐2061
Molex 10‐11‐2083
Molex 10‐11‐2063
Molex 10‐11‐2043
24V
24V
24V
*UL
*UL
*UL
24V
24V
24V
24V
*UL
*UL
*UL
*UL
24V
24V
24V
24V
24V
24V
15V
220V
15V
15V
*UL
*UL
*UL CSA
*UL
*UL
*UL
15V
220V
15V
24V
*UL
*UL
*UL
*UL
220V
Power Crate
Power Crate
Pressure Crate
Interlock Crate
Pwr & Press
Pwr & Press
Pwr & Press
All
All
Power Crate
Pwr & Press
Pwr & Press
Pressure Crate
Pressure Crate
Pressure Crate
Interlock Crate
Interlock Crate
Interlock Crate
Interlock Crate
Interlock Crate
All
Interlock Crate
Press & Interlock
Press & Interlock
Interlock Crate
Interlock Crate
Interlock Crate
Power Crate
Power Crate
Pressure Crate
Interlock Crate
Inter & Pwr
Inter & Pwr
Inter & Pwr
Inter & Pwr
Pressure Crate
Pressure Crate
Pressure Crate
Pressure Crate
Pressure Crate
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
Power Crate
Power Crate
Power Crate
Power Crate
Power Crate
Power Crate
Pwr & Press
Power Crate
Pwr & Press
A similar device 247C has past BNL safety te
53
Appemdix (8) SOLO XT150 digital scale manual.
Read XT150-manual.pdf for the details.
54
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