NI 9759 User Manual - National Instruments

NI 9759 User Manual - National Instruments
USER MANUAL
NI 9759
NI Powertrain Controls Electronic Throttle Driver Module
Contents
Introduction .............................................................................................................................. 2
Pinout........................................................................................................................................ 2
Hardware .................................................................................................................................. 3
Powering the Module................................................................................................................ 3
Platform Compatibility ............................................................................................................. 3
H-Bridge Drivers ...................................................................................................................... 4
Analog Inputs ........................................................................................................................... 5
Throttle Control ........................................................................................................................ 7
Compliance and Certifications ................................................................................................. 9
Physical Specifications and Characteristics ............................................................................. 11
Introduction
The National Instruments 9759 Electronic Throttle Driver Module includes a CompactRIO
(cRIO) module for driving passenger car electronic throttle bodies up to 70 mm in diameter. A
typical example of electronic throttle bodies which this module is capable of driving is the Bosch
DV-E5 series which range from 32 mm to 68 mm in diameter. The module is capable of driving
most other electronic throttle bodies within that size range.
The NI 9759 includes a LabVIEW FPGA VI for controlling two H-Bridge driver channels
independently and a set of RT VIs which allow the user to calibrate the throttle control algorithm
in engineering units. The FPGA VI may be used by itself for driving any small DC motor other
than an electronic throttle. This manual will focus on the application of electronic throttle
position control. The features included are listed below:
Features
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
2-Ch. H-Bridge Drivers for dual electronic throttle control
2-Ch. analog input for throttle position feedback
Short circuit and over-temperature protection with fault reporting
Battery voltage, current sensing and module temperature measurements
LabVIEW FPGA VI for H-Bridge control and interface
LabVIEW RT VI for electronic throttle position control
External power supply of 7 V to 32 V
Pinout
Figure 1. NI 9759 Pin Assignments
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Hardware
The NI 9759 includes two H-Bridge drivers and analog position feedback in a NI CompactRIO
module.
Powering the Module
The NI 9759 requires power from two different sources, the CompactRIO backplane male high
density D-SUB 15-pin (HD15) connector and the external screw-terminal connector.
The HD15 connector mates with the module's female HD15 connector and provides a regulated
5 V and ground to various digital logic functions. The CompactRIO 5 V source is active
whenever the CompactRIO or R Series Expansion Chassis is properly powered. The module
should only be powered at the HD15 connector by plugging it into a CompactRIO or R Series
Expansion Chassis. The module's HD15 connector should not be connected to any other device.
The external screw-terminal connector has terminals labeled BATT (0) and GND (9). Typical
power sources will be from automotive 12 V or 24 V battery systems. The NI 9759 can accept
power from a range of 7 V to 32 V. Without throttles connected, the module requires a maximum
100 mA from the external supply. Driving a single throttle under full load requires a maximum
of 60 W peak and 30 W continuous. Driving two throttles at full load requires a maximum 120 W
peak and 60 W continuous.
The NI 9759 requires both external power and power from the CompactRIO backplane. The
NI 9759 directs the high current path through the BATT (0) and GND (9) terminals on the front
of the NI 9759 and not through the HD15 backplane connector.
Note
The NI 9759 will not be recognized by software without both power supplies
active.
The external battery supply input terminals are not reverse voltage
polarity protected. Connecting power to the NI 9759 in reverse polarity will cause
damage. This event is not covered by the warranty.
Caution
Platform Compatibility
NI Powertrain Control modules require a hardware support system to function. You cannot use
the modules independently or interfaced with third-party devices at the backplane HD15
connector. NI Powertrain Control modules are compatible with the following National
Instruments platforms:
•
CompactRIO, which consists of a CompactRIO controller, chassis, or integrated
controller/chassis.
•
NI PXI, which consists of any NI PXI chassis, NI PXI RT controller, and NI PXI-78xxR
R Series FPGA card. The NI Powertrain Control modules insert into an NI R Series
expansion chassis. Connect an NI R Series expansion chassis to the NI PXI FPGA card
using a SHC68-68-RDIO cable.
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NI Powertrain Control modules are not compatible with the National
Instruments CompactDAQ chassis.
Note
You can use NI Powertrain Control modules with NI cRIO-911x, NI cRIO-907x, and NI R Series
Expansion systems under the following conditions:
•
Leave one empty chassis slot between NI Powertrain Control modules and other NI
modules.
•
Maintain an ambient system operating temperature of 0 °C to 45 °C.
Typical specifications of National Instruments modules might not apply when
used in a system with NI Powertrain Control modules.
Note
National Instruments guarantees warranted specifications for all National
Instruments modules except thermocouple modules when used in a system with
NI Powertrain Control modules.
Note
National Instruments recommends the NI 9214 for thermocouple
measurements in CompactRIO systems using NI Powertrain Control modules.
Note
NI Powertrain Control modules do not support Scan Interface mode,
auto-detection, or ID mode.
Note
H-Bridge Drivers
The NI 9759 includes a CompactRIO (cRIO) module for driving passenger car electronic throttle
bodies up to 70 mm in diameter. A typical example of electronic throttle bodies which the
NI 9759 is capable of driving, is the Bosch DV-E5 series which range from 32 mm to 68 mm in
diameter. The NI 9759 is capable of driving most other electronic throttle bodies within that size
range.
Each H-Bridge circuit is capable of driving 3 A continuously and a 6 A peak. It provides current
sensing feedback as well as over-current and over-temp protection. In the case of a short circuit,
where 10 A is exceeded or a temperature of 140 °C is exceeded within the driver FETs, a fault
flag will be generated and the circuit will shutdown until the fault condition is removed. Monitor
the current and temperature values and disable the circuit programmatically if current exceeds
6 A or the internal module temperature exceeds 85 °C. The temperature is automatically
monitored within the throttle_rt_control.vi.
Each H-Bridge circuit automatically eliminates shoot-through current and provides internal
clamp diodes for inductive loads.
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Analog Inputs
The NI 9759 provides two external analog inputs for accepting 0 V to 5 V signals. The primary
purpose of these inputs is for measuring potentiometer voltages. A regulated 5 V output and
ground terminal is provided for powering the potentiometer(s) of an electronic throttle body.
Caution The 5 V output is not protected against short circuit to higher voltage
sources. Do not short this terminal to the H-Bridge driver terminals or BATT
terminal.
Other analog signals are also measured internal to the module and reported by the supplied VIs.
All measured analog signals are listed below:
•
Battery Voltage (V)
•
H-Bridge 1 Current (A)
•
H-Bridge 2 Current (A)
•
H-Bridge 1 Fault Line (reported with boolean, T=Fault, F=No Fault)
•
H-Bridge 2 Fault Line (reported with boolean, T=Fault, F=No Fault)
•
External Analog Input 1 (0 V to 5 V, Screw-Terminal 6)
•
External Analog Input 2 (0 V to 5 V, Screw-Terminal 7)
•
Internal Temperature
All eight analog inputs are sampled with a single multiplexed A/D converter at an aggregate rate
of 17.84 kHz. Each analog signal is sampled at 2.23 kHz. The A/D result can be used directly at
the FPGA level in ADC counts or at the RT level in converted engineering units.
The external analog inputs are protected from -6 V to +12 V inputs.
The external analog inputs are for connecting all wires of an electronic throttle directly to the
NI 9759. You can programmatically use the analog values for throttle control feedback. Other
analog inputs from another module may also be used to provide throttle position. Most electronic
throttle bodies have redundant position signals. When using only one electronic throttle, both
position signals may be connected to the NI 9759 and redundant throttle position is available.
When two electronic throttle bodies are used, only one position signal from each throttle may be
connected to the NI 9759, and redundant throttle position is not available. The additional
position signals may be connected to other analog inputs from other modules, making redundant
throttle position available for both throttles. A redundant position algorithm must be provided
by the user.
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Figure 2 and 3 below show the typical connections for controlling single or dual throttles,
respectively. Table 1 below shows the terminal connections to a standard Bosch DV-E5
electronic throttle body.
Figure 2. Terminal Connections to a Single Electronic Throttle Body
Figure 3. Terminal Connections to Dual Electronic Throttle Bodies
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Table 1. Connection Table Specific for Standard Bosch DV-E5 Electronic Throttle Bodies
DV-E5 Pin
Description
Module Terminal
(Throttle1/Throttle2)
Description
1
Motor -
T2/T4
H1A/H2A
2
Potentiometer Ground
T8
GND
3
Potentiometer Reference
T5
5V Out
4
Motor +
T1/T3
H1B/H2B
5
Potentiometer 2 Signal
T6/T7
AN1/AN2
6
Potentiometer 1 Signal
T6/T7
AN1/AN2
Table 2. Standard Bosch DV-E5 Throttle Bodies
Throttle Body Diameter (mm)
Bosch Part Number
32
0 280 750 148
40
0 280 750 149
54
0 280 750 150
60
0 280 750 151
68
0 280 750 152
Visit ni.com/info and enter Info Code THROTTLE for more information about parts and
accessories for the NI 9759.
Throttle Control
NI provides a flexible throttle position control algorithm with the NI 9759. Follow the throttle
control example included in the driver package for implementing throttle control in your engine
control application. Perform throttle control at a rate of 100 to 200 Hz, even if your engine
control algorithms require execution at another rate, a separate timed loop can be created to
implement throttle control. The throttle control VI uses position values in terms of degrees, but
percentages can be used instead.
The throttle control algorithm calculates a final voltage to be applied to the throttle body DC
motor. The final voltage is applied by means of a PWM duty cycle, with battery voltage being
the maximum possible voltage. The control voltage may be compensated for actual battery
voltage, if it deviates from the nominal battery voltage, according to BattCompEnable. The
compensated voltage is converted to a signed PWM duty cycle at a fixed frequency of 500 Hz.
The throttle control VI output results are in terms of 40 MHz clock ticks to be wired to the FPGA
period and pulse width parameters.
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The throttle control algorithm involves four major functions:
1.
The angle setpoint (reference), ThetaR is compensated by a user defined lead and lag time.
These parameters will sharpen or dull the changes in setpoint.
2.
A proportional, integral and derivative action is calculated based on two sets of PID gains,
above or below the default limp-home region. The reason for two sets of gains is because
electronic throttle bodies typically have stiffer spring return rates applied to angles below
the limp-home region.
3.
A limp-home compensation value is added to the PID value to assist with travel through the
limp-home region. This compensation can minimize the flat control spot often found as the
throttle plate moves through the limp-home region.
4.
A stiction compensation value is added to the PID value to assist with small error control.
When the throttle plate approaches the setpoint, stiction in the throttle motor gearing can be
significant enough such that PID control alone will cause integral overshoot. Stiction
compensation will apply small alternating forces to assist the PID integral action.
5.
Battery voltage compensation is optionally added to the final output to compensate for
battery voltage fluctuations away from the nominal voltage.
In general, the final voltage u (V) is a sum of three components and optionally multiplied by a
battery compensation factor:
u (V) = [PID(V) + Stiction Comp(V) + Limp-Home Comp(V)] x Battery Comp Factor
The first calibration which the user should tune is throttle angle versus sensor voltage. A linear
equation can be used, as well as a two-point 1D lookup table.
1.
Manually close the throttle plate completely to determine the minimum sensor voltage. If
the radii of the throttle body opening and the throttle plate are measured, then the minimum
throttle angle can be calculated by using an inverse cosine calculation, or by approximating
the small angle with sine.
2.
Manually open the throttle plate to wide-open-throttle, noting the maximum sensor voltage.
3.
Assume the wide-open-throttle angle to be 90 degrees.
4.
After calibrating for position versus voltage, enter the value for ThetaLH (default
limp-home position). It is recommended that the sensor voltages entered into the position
calibration for the upper and lower limits be slightly narrowed so that position control at
these points does not overwork the driver, trying to achieve positions that are not possible
as sensing conditions change. Another way to prevent this condition is to limit the setpoint
range to a small position away from the physical limits.
5.
Implement a filter on throttle position. A second order, lowpass Butterworth filter with a
cuttoff frequency of 25 Hz is suggested. The filter is most effective during small-error
control.
6.
The throttle_rt_data_convert_revx.vi already implements a 25 Hz filter on the
analog input voltages. If this VI is used for position, a filter is not required.
7.
Begin control calibration with zero for all Lead/Lag, PID and compensation calibration
parameters.
8.
Begin tuning PID gains for angles above ThetaLH.
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9.
Introduce TLead and TLag values as necessary.
10. Begin tuning PID gains for angles below ThetaLH. ULH and US compensation should be
tuned last. The default values saved for the example application were derived for a 68 mm
Bosch DV-E5 throttle body. The default values will work well for smaller throttle bodies,
with minor adjustments.
Note ThetaR should not be allowed to exceed the minimum and maximum angles
of the throttle. This will force the controller to drive more current than the throttle or
module can sustain. The force exerted may also mechanically damage the throttle
body.
Compliance and Certifications
Safety
This product meets the requirements of the following standards of safety for electrical equipment
for measurement, control, and laboratory use:
•
IEC 61010-1, EN 61010-1
•
UL 61010-1, CSA 61010-1
Electromagnetic Compatibility
This product meets the requirements of the following EMC standards for electrical equipment
for measurement, control, and laboratory use:
•
EN 61326-1 (IEC 61326-1): Class A emissions; Industrial immunity
•
EN 55011 (CISPR 11): Group 1, Class A emissions
•
AS/NZS CISPR 11: Group 1, Class A emissions
•
FCC 47 CFR Part 15B: Class A emissions
•
ICES-001: Class A emissions
Caution
When operating this product, use shielded cables and accessories.
CE Compliance
This product meets the essential requirements of applicable European Directives as follows:
•
2006/95/EC; Low-Voltage Directive (safety)
•
2004/108/EC; Electromagnetic Compatibility Directive (EMC)
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Environmental Management
NI is committed to designing and manufacturing products in an environmentally responsible
manner. NI recognizes that eliminating certain hazardous substances from our products is
beneficial to the environment and to NI customers.
For additional environmental information, refer to the Minimize Our Environmental Impact web
page at ni.com/environment. This page contains the environmental regulations and
directives with which NI complies, as well as other environmental information not included in
this document.
Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE)
At the end of the product life cycle, all products must be sent to
a WEEE recycling center. For more information about WEEE recycling centers,
National Instruments WEEE initiatives, and compliance with WEEE Directive
2002/96/EC on Waste and Electronic Equipment, visit ni.com/environment/
weee.
EU Customers
Battery Replacement and Disposal
This device contains a long-life coin cell battery. If you need
to replace it, use the Return Material Authorization (RMA) process or contact an
authorized National Instruments service representative. For more information
about compliance with the EU Battery Directives 2006/66/EC about Batteries
and Accumulators and Waste Batteries and Accumulators, visit ni.com/
environment/batterydirective.
Battery Directive
Cd/Hg/Pb
⬉ᄤֵᙃѻક∵ᶧ᥻ࠊㅵ⧚ࡲ⊩ ˄Ё೑ RoHS˅
Ё೑ᅶ᠋ National Instruments ヺড়Ё೑⬉ᄤֵᙃѻકЁ䰤ࠊՓ⫼ᶤѯ᳝ᆇ⠽䋼ᣛҸ
(RoHS)DŽ݇Ѣ National Instruments Ё೑ RoHS ড়㾘ᗻֵᙃˈ䇋ⱏᔩ ni.com/
environment/rohs_chinaDŽ (For information about China RoHS compliance,
go to ni.com/environment/rohs_china.)
Ferrite Requirement for EMC Compliance
Install clamp-on ferrite beads onto both the power supply cable and the signal cables. Power to
the module must be off when adding ferrites. Ferrites must be connected to the power cable and
the signal cable as close to the module as possible. Placing the ferrite elsewhere on the cable
noticeably impairs its effectiveness. Determine the clamp-on ferrite beads to install based on
your application. Use the following ferrites or other similar ferrites:
•
Power cables to CompactRIO and module: Laird 28A0592-0A2 (2 total)
•
AN1, AN2, GND: Wurth Electronics 7427154 (four turns through ferrite)
•
H1B, H1A, H2B, H2A: Wurth Electronics 7427154 (four turns through ferrite)
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Physical Specifications and Characteristics
Weight............................................................... 145 g (5.11 oz.)
Maximum Altitude ........................................... 2000 m
Operating Temperature ..................................... -40 °C to 70 °C
Maximum Ambient Temperature ..................... 60 °C
Operating Humidity .......................................... 10% to 90% RH, noncondensing
Pollution Degree ............................................... 2
Ingress Protection ............................................. IP30
For indoor use only.
If you need to clean the module, wipe it with a dry towel.
Safety Guidelines
Do not operate the NI 9759 in a manner not specified in these operating
instructions. Product misuse can result in a hazard. You can compromise the safety
protection built into the product if the product is damaged in any way. If the product
is damaged, return it to National Instruments for repair.
Caution
NI 9759 User Manual
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Refer to the NI Trademarks and Logo Guidelines at ni.com/trademarks for more information on National Instruments trademarks. Other
product and company names mentioned herein are trademarks or trade names of their respective companies. For patents covering National
Instruments products/technology, refer to the appropriate location: Help»Patents in your software, the patents.txt file on your media, or the
National Instruments Patents Notice at ni.com/patents. You can find information about end-user license agreements (EULAs) and third-party
legal notices in the readme file for your NI product. Refer to the Export Compliance Information at ni.com/legal/export-compliance
for the National Instruments global trade compliance policy and how to obtain relevant HTS codes, ECCNs, and other import/export data.
© 2013 National Instruments. All rights reserved.
376108A-01
Sep13
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