PMD-1208FS User`s Guide
PMD-1208FS
Personal Measurement Device™ brand
USB-based
Analog and Digital I/O Module
User's Guide
Document Revision 4, May, 2005
© Copyright 2005, Measurement Computing Corporation
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enjoy the protection of the most comprehensive warranties and unmatched phone tech support. It’s the embodiment of our
two missions:
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To offer the highest-quality, computer-based data acquisition, control, and GPIB hardware and software
available—at the best possible price.
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To offer our customers superior post-sale support—FREE. Whether providing unrivaled telephone technical and
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HM PMD-1208FS.doc
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Trademark and Copyright Information
Personal Measurement Device brand, TracerDAQ, Universal Library, InstaCal, Harsh Environment Warranty,
Measurement Computing Corporation, and the Measurement Computing logo, are either trademarks or registered
trademarks of Measurement Computing Corporation.
SoftWIRE and the SoftWIRE logo are registered trademarks of SoftWIRE Technology, Inc.
PC is a trademark of International Business Machines Corp.
Microsoft, Windows, and Visual Studio are either trademarks or registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation.
LabVIEW is a trademark of National Instruments.
All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
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Notice
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Computing Corporation. Life support devices/systems are devices or systems which, a) are intended for
surgical implantation into the body, or b) support or sustain life and whose failure to perform can be
reasonably expected to result in injury. Measurement Computing Corporation products are not designed with
the components required, and are not subject to the testing required to ensure a level of reliability suitable for
the treatment and diagnosis of people.
iii
Table of Contents
Preface
About this User's Guide ......................................................................................................................vi
What you will learn from this user's guide ........................................................................................................vi
Conventions in this user's guide ........................................................................................................................vi
Where to find more information ........................................................................................................................vi
Chapter 1
Introducing the PMD-1208FS ........................................................................................................... 1-1
PMD-1208FS block diagram.......................................................................................................................... 1-2
Software features ............................................................................................................................................ 1-2
Connecting a PMD-1208FS to your computer is easy.................................................................................... 1-3
Chapter 2
Installing the PMD-1208FS ............................................................................................................... 2-1
What comes with your PMD-1208FS shipment? ........................................................................................... 2-1
Hardware ....................................................................................................................................................................... 2-1
Software......................................................................................................................................................................... 2-1
Documentation............................................................................................................................................................... 2-2
Unpacking the PMD-1208FS ......................................................................................................................... 2-2
Installing the software .................................................................................................................................... 2-2
Installing the hardware ................................................................................................................................... 2-2
Chapter 3
Functional Details ............................................................................................................................. 3-1
Theory of operation - analog input acquisition modes ................................................................................... 3-1
Software paced mode..................................................................................................................................................... 3-1
Continuous scan mode ................................................................................................................................................... 3-1
External components ...................................................................................................................................... 3-1
USB connector............................................................................................................................................................... 3-2
LED ............................................................................................................................................................................... 3-2
Screw terminal wiring.................................................................................................................................................... 3-2
Main connector and pin out ........................................................................................................................................... 3-3
Analog input terminals (CH0 IN - CH7 IN)................................................................................................................... 3-4
Analog output terminals (D/A OUT 0 and D/A OUT 1)................................................................................................ 3-6
Digital I/O terminals (Port A0 to A7, and Port B0 to B7).............................................................................................. 3-7
Power terminals ............................................................................................................................................................. 3-7
Calibration terminal ....................................................................................................................................................... 3-8
Ground terminals ........................................................................................................................................................... 3-8
External trigger terminal ................................................................................................................................................ 3-8
SYNC terminal .............................................................................................................................................................. 3-8
Counter terminal ............................................................................................................................................................ 3-9
Accuracy......................................................................................................................................................... 3-9
PMD-1208FS channel gain queue feature .................................................................................................... 3-11
Synchronizing multiple units........................................................................................................................ 3-12
Chapter 4
Specifications.................................................................................................................................... 4-1
Analog input section....................................................................................................................................... 4-1
Analog output section..................................................................................................................................... 4-3
Digital input/output......................................................................................................................................... 4-3
External trigger ............................................................................................................................................... 4-4
External clock input/output............................................................................................................................. 4-4
Counter section ............................................................................................................................................... 4-5
iv
PMD-1208FS User's Guide
Non-volatile memory...................................................................................................................................... 4-5
Microcontroller............................................................................................................................................... 4-5
Power.............................................................................................................................................................. 4-5
General ........................................................................................................................................................... 4-6
Environmental ................................................................................................................................................ 4-6
Mechanical ..................................................................................................................................................... 4-6
Main connector and pin out ............................................................................................................................ 4-6
4-channel differential mode ........................................................................................................................................... 4-7
8-channel single-ended mode......................................................................................................................................... 4-7
v
Preface
About this User's Guide
What you will learn from this user's guide
This user's guide explains how to install, configure, and use the PMD-1208FS so that you get the most
out of its USB data acquisition features.
This user's guide also refers you to related documents available on our web site, and to technical support
resources that can also help you get the most out of the PMD-1208FS.
Conventions in this user's guide
For more information on …
Text presented in a box signifies additional information and helpful hints related to the subject matter you
are reading.
Caution! Shaded caution statements present information to help you avoid injuring yourself and
others, damaging your hardware, or losing your data.
<#:#>
Angle brackets that enclose numbers separated by a colon signify a range of numbers, such as those
assigned to registers, bit settings, etc.
bold text
Bold text is used for the names of objects on the screen, such as buttons, text boxes, and check
boxes. For example:
1. Insert the disk or CD and click the OK button.
italic text
Italic text is used for the names of manuals and help topic titles, and to emphasize a word or phrase.
For example:
ƒ The InstaCal® installation procedure is explained in the DAQ Software Quick Start.
ƒ Never touch the exposed pins or circuit connections on the board
Where to find more information
The following electronic documents provide information that can help you get the most out of your
Personal Measurement Device™ brand PMD-1208FS.
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MCC's Specifications: PMD-1208FS (the PDF version of Chapter 4 in this guide) is available on our
web site at www.mccdaq.com/pdfs/PMD-1208FS.pdf.
MCC's DAQ Software Quick Start is available on our web site at
www.mccdaq.com/PDFmanuals/DAQ-Software-Quick-Start.pdf.
MCC's Guide to Signal Connections is available on our web site at
www.mccdaq.com/signals/signals.pdf.
MCC's Universal Library User's Guide is available on our web site at
http://www.mccdaq.com/PDFmanuals/sm-ul-user-guide.pdf.
MCC's Universal Library Function Reference is available on our web site at
http://www.mccdaq.com/PDFmanuals/sm-ul-functions.pdf.
MCC's Universal Library for LabVIEW™ User’s Guide is available on our web site at
www.mccdaq.com/PDFmanuals/SM-UL-LabVIEW.pdf.
PMD-1208FS User’s Guide (this document) is available on our web site at
www.mccdaq.com/PDFmanuals/PMD-1208FS.pdf.
vi
Chapter 1
Introducing the PMD-1208FS
This user's guide contains all of the information you need to connect the PMD-1208FS to your computer
and to the signals you want to measure. The PMD-1208FS is part of the Personal Measurement Device™
brand of USB-based data acquisition products.
The PMD-1208FS is a USB 2.0 full-speed device supported under Microsoft® Windows® 98 (2nd
edition), Windows ME, Windows 2000, and Window XP. It is designed for USB 1.1 ports, and was tested
for full compatibility with both USB 1.1 and USB 2.0 ports.
Refer to the "Be sure you are using the latest system software" note in Chapter 2, "Installing the PMD1208FS," to make sure you are using the latest USB drivers.
The PMD-1208FS features eight analog inputs, two 12-bit analog outputs, 16 digital I/O connections, and
one 32-bit external event counter. The PMD-1208FS is powered by the +5 volt USB supply from your
computer. No external power is required.
The PMD-1208FS analog inputs are software configurable for either eight 11-bit single-ended inputs, or
four 12-bit differential inputs. Sixteen digital I/O lines are independently selectable as input or output in
two 8-bit ports.
A 32-bit counter can count TTL pulses.
A SYNC (synchronization) input / output line allows you to pace the analog input acquisition of one
PMD module from the clock output of another.
The PMD-1208FS is shown in Figure 1-1. I/O connections are made to the screw terminals located along
each side of the PMD-1208FS.
Figure 1-1. PMD-1208FS
1-1
PMD-1208FS User's Guide
Introducing the PMD-1208FS
PMD-1208FS block diagram
PMD-1208FS functions are illustrated in the block diagram shown here.
USB
G= 1, 2, 4, 5, 8, 10, 16, 20
Full-speed
USB 2.0
Compliant
Interface
16
Screw terminal I/O connector
Port A
SPI
DIO
8
Port B
SYNC
8 single-ended
(11-bit) channels
or
4 differential
(12-bit) channels
8
Analog output
USB
Microcontroller
2 channels
(12-bit)
2
Screw terminal I/O connector
Analog Input
TRIG_IN
CAL
CAL
32-bit
Event Counter
1 channel
1
Figure 1-2. PMD-1208FS functional block diagram
Software features
The following software ships with the PMD-1208FS free of charge.
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InstaCal installation, calibration, and test utility
TracerDAQ™ suite of virtual instruments
SoftWIRE® for Visual Studio® .NET graphical programming
MCC DAQ Components for VS .NET (installed with SoftWIRE® for VS .NET)
For information on the features of InstaCal, TracerDAQ, and SoftWIRE, refer to the DAQ Software
Quick Start booklet that shipped with the PMD-1208FS.
1-2
PMD-1208FS User's Guide
Introducing the PMD-1208FS
Connecting a PMD-1208FS to your computer is easy
Installing a data acquisition device has never been easier.
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The PMD-1208FS relies upon the Microsoft Human Interface Device (HID) class drivers. The HID
class drivers ship with every copy of Windows that is designed to work with USB ports. We use the
Microsoft HID because it is a standard, and its performance delivers full control and maximizes data
transfer rates for your PMD-1208FS. No third-party device driver is required.
The PMD-1208FS is plug-and-play. There are no jumpers to position, DIP switches to set, or
interrupts to configure.
You can connect the PMD-1208FS before or after you install the software, and without powering
down your computer first. When you connect an HID to your system, your computer automatically
detects it and configures the necessary software. You can connect and power multiple HID
peripherals to your system using a USB hub.
You can connect your system to various devices using a standard four-wire cable. The USB
connector replaces the serial and parallel port connectors with one standardized plug and port
combination.
You do not need a separate power supply module. The USB automatically delivers the electrical
power required by each peripheral connected to your system.
Data can flow two ways between a computer and peripheral over USB connections.
1-3
Chapter 2
Installing the PMD-1208FS
What comes with your PMD-1208FS shipment?
As you unpack your PMD-1208FS, verify that the following components are included.
Hardware
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PMD-1208FS
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USB cable (2 meter length)
Software
The Measurement Computing Data Acquisition Software CD contains the following software:
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InstaCal installation, calibration, and test utility
TracerDAQ suite of virtual instruments
SoftWIRE for VS .NET
SoftWIRE MCC DAQ Components for .NET
2-1
PMD-1208FS User's Guide
Installing the PMD-1208FS
Documentation
In addition to this hardware user's guide, you should also receive the DAQ Software Quick Start
(available in PDF at www.mccdaq.com/PDFmanuals/DAQ-Software-Quick-Start.pdf). Please read this
booklet completely before installing any software and hardware.
Unpacking the PMD-1208FS
As with any electronic device, you should take care while handling to avoid damage from static
electricity. Before removing the PMD-1208FS from its packaging, ground yourself using a wrist strap or
by simply touching the computer chassis or other grounded object to eliminate any stored static charge.
If any components are missing or damaged, notify Measurement Computing Corporation immediately by
phone, fax, or e-mail:
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Phone: 508-946-5100 and follow the instructions for reaching Tech Support.
Fax: 508-946-9500 to the attention of Tech Support
Email: [email protected]
Installing the software
Refer to the DAQ Software Quick Start for instructions on installing the software on the Measurement
Computing Data Acquisition Software CD. This booklet is available in PDF at
www.mccdaq.com/PDFmanuals/DAQ-Software-Quick-Start.pdf.
Installing the hardware
Be sure you are using the latest system software
Before you connect the PMD-1208FS, make sure that you are using the latest versions of the USB
drivers.
Before installing the PMD-1208FS, download and install the latest Microsoft Windows updates. In
particular, when using Windows XP, make sure you have XP Hotfix KB822603 installed. This update is
intended to address a serious error in Usbport.sys when you operate a USB device. You can run Windows
Update or download the update from www.microsoft.com/downloads/details.aspx?familyid=733dd86756a0-4956-b7fe-e85b688b7f86&displaylang=en. For more information, refer to the Microsoft
Knowledge Base article "Availability of the Windows XP SP1 USB 1.1 and 2.0 update." This article is
available at support.microsoft.com/?kbid=822603.
To connect the PMD-1208FS to your system, turn your computer on, and connect the USB cable to a
USB port on your computer or to an external USB hub that is connected to your computer. The USB
cable provides power and communication to the PMD-1208FS.
2-2
PMD-1208FS User's Guide
Installing the PMD-1208FS
When you connect the PMD-1208FS for the first time, a series of Found New Hardware popup balloons
(Windows XP) or dialogs (other Windows versions) opens as the PMD-1208FS is detected by your
computer.
It is normal for multiple dialogs to open when you connect the PMD-1208FS for the first time. For
additional information, refer to the "Notes on installing and using the PMD-1208FS" that was shipped
with the PMD-1208FS.
The last popup balloon or dialog states "Your new hardware is installed and ready to use," and the LED
on the PMD-1208FS should flash and then remain lit. This indicates that communication is established
between the PMD-1208FS and your computer.
On most computers, you can install up to two PMD-1208FS units. If you need to connect more than two
PMD-1208FS units to your computer, contact Tech Support by phone (508-946-5100), fax (508-9469500), or email ([email protected])
Caution! Do not disconnect any device from the USB bus while the computer is communicating with
the PMD-1208FS, or you may lose data and/or your ability to communicate with the PMD1208FS.
If the LED turns off
If the LED is illuminated but then turns off, the computer has lost communication with the PMD-1208FS.
To restore communication, disconnect the USB cable from the computer, and then reconnect it. This
should restore communication, and the LED should turn back on.
2-3
Chapter 3
Functional Details
Theory of operation - analog input acquisition modes
The PMD-1208FS can acquire analog input data in two different modes – software paced and continuous
scan.
Software paced mode
In software paced mode, you can acquire one analog sample at a time. You initiate the A/D conversion by
calling a software command. The analog value is converted to digital and returned to the computer. You
can repeat this procedure until you have the total number of samples that you want from one channel.
The maximum throughput sample rate in software paced mode is system-dependent.
Continuous scan mode
In continuous scan mode, you can acquire data from up to eight channels. The analog data is continuously
acquired, converted to digital values, and written to an on-board FIFO buffer until you stop the scan. The
FIFO buffer is serviced in blocks as the data is transferred from the PMD-1208FS to the memory buffer
on your computer.
The maximum continuous scan rate of 50 kS/s is an aggregate rate. The total acquisition rate for all
channels cannot exceed 50 kS/s. You can acquire data from one channel at 50 kS/s, two channels at
25 kS/s, and four channels at 12.5 kS/s. You can start a continuous scan with either a software command
or with an external hardware trigger event.
External components
The PMD-1208FS has the following external components, as shown in
Figure 3-1.
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USB connector
LED
Screw terminal banks (2)
LED
Screw terminal
Pins 1 to 20
Screw terminal
Pins 21 to 40
USB
connector / cable
Figure 3-1. PMD-1208FS external components
3-1
PMD-1208FS User's Guide
Functional Details
USB connector
The USB connector is on the right side of the PMD-1208FS. This connector provides +5 V power and
communication. The voltage supplied through the USB connector is system-dependent, and may be less
than 5 V. No external power supply is required.
LED
The LED on the front of the housing indicates the communication status of the PMD-1208FS. It uses up
to 5 mA of current and cannot be disabled. Table 3-1 defines the function of the PMD-1208FS LED.
Table 3-1. LED Illumination
LED Illumination
Indication
Steady green
Blinks continuously
The PMD-1208FS is connected to a computer or external USB hub.
Data is being transferred.
Screw terminal wiring
The PMD-1208FS has two rows of screw terminals—one row on the top edge of the housing, and one
row on the bottom edge. Each row has 20 connections. Pin numbers are identified in Figure 3-2.
Figure 3-2. PMD-1208FS Screw terminal pin numbers
Screw terminal – pins 1-20
The screw terminals on the top edge of the PMD-1208FS (pins 1 to 20) provide the following
connections:
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Eight analog input connections (CH0 IN to CH7 IN)
Two analog output connections (D/A OUT 0 to D/A OUT 1)
One external trigger source (TRIG_IN)
One SYNC terminal for external clocking and multi-unit synchronization (SYNC)
One calibration terminal (CAL)
Five analog ground connections (AGND)
One ground connection (GND)
One external event counter connection (CTR)
3-2
20
19
18
17
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
4-channel differential mode pin out
CTR
SYNC
TRIG IN
GND
CAL
AGND
D/A OUT 1
D/A OUT 0
AGND
CH3 IN LO
CH3 IN HI
AGND
CH2 IN LO
CH2 IN HI
AGND
CH1 IN LO
CH1 IN HI
AGND
CH0 IN LO
CH0 IN HI
GND
Port B7
Port B6
Port B5
Port B4
Port B3
Port B2
Port B1
Port B0
GND
PC +5 V
GND
Port A7
Port A6
Port A5
Port A4
Port A3
Port A2
Port A1
Port A0
40
39
38
37
36
35
34
33
32
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
8-channel single-ended mode pin out
CTR
SYNC
TRIG IN
GND
CAL
AGND
D/A OUT 1
D/A OUT 0
AGND
CH7 IN
CH6 IN
AGND
CH5 IN
CH4 IN
AGND
CH3 IN
CH2 IN
AGND
CH1 IN
CH0 IN
Connector type
Wire gauge range
40
39
38
37
36
35
34
33
32
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
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GND
Port B7
Port B6
Port B5
Port B4
Port B3
Port B2
Port B1
Port B0
GND
PC +5 V
GND
Port A7
Port A6
Port A5
Port A4
Port A3
Port A2
Port A1
Port A0
PMD-1208FS User's Guide
Functional Details
Screw terminal – pins 21-40
The screw terminals on the bottom edge of the (pins 21 to 40) provide the following connections:
16 digital I/O connections (PortA0 to Port A7, and Port B0 to Port B7)
One power connection (PC+5 V)
Three ground connections (GND)
Main connector and pin out
Screw terminal
16 AWG to 30 AWG
3-3
PMD-1208FS User's Guide
Functional Details
Analog input terminals (CH0 IN - CH7 IN)
You can connect up to eight analog input connections to the screw terminal containing pins 1 to 20 (CH0
IN through CH7 IN.) Refer to the pinout diagrams on pages 3-3 and 3-3 for the location of these pins.
You can configure the analog input channels as eight single-ended channels or four differential channels.
When configured for differential mode, each analog input has 12-bit resolution. When configured for
single-ended mode, each analog input has 11-bit resolution, due to restrictions imposed by the A/D
converter.
Single-ended configuration
When all of the analog input channels are configured for single-ended input mode, eight analog channels
are available. The input signal is referenced to signal ground (GND), and delivered through two wires:
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The wire carrying the signal to be measured connects to CH# IN.
The second wire connects to AGND.
The input range for single-ended mode is ±10 V. No other ranges are supported in single-ended mode.
Figure 3-3 illustrates a typical single-ended measurement connection.
Figure 3-3. Single-ended measurement connection
The following example shows the single-ended measurement data acquired by TracerDAQ.
Figure 3-4. TracerDAQ plot of single-ended measurement data
3-4
PMD-1208FS User's Guide
Functional Details
Single-ended measurements using differential channels
To perform a single-ended measurement using differential channels, connect the signal to "CHn IN HI"
input, and ground the associated "CHn IN LO" input.
Differential configuration
When all of the analog input channels are configured for differential input mode, four analog channels are
available. In differential mode, the input signal is measured with respect to the low input.
The input signal is delivered through three wires:
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The wire carrying the signal to be measured connects to CH0 IN HI, CH1 IN HI, CH2 IN HI, or CH3
IN HI.
The wire carrying the reference signal connects to CH0 IN LO, CH1 IN LO, CH2 IN LO, or CH3 IN
LO.
The third wire connects to GND.
A low-noise precision programmable gain amplifier (PGA) is available on differential channels to
provide gains of up to 20 and a dynamic range of up to 12-bits. Differential mode input voltage ranges are
±20 V, ±10 V, ±5 V, ±4 V, ±2.5 V, ±2.0 V, 1.25 V, and ±1.0 V.
In differential mode, the following two requirements must be met for linear operation:
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Any analog input must remain in the −10V to +20V range with respect to ground at all times.
The maximum differential voltage on any given analog input pair must remain within the selected
voltage range.
The input [common-mode voltage + signal] of the differential channel must be in the
−10 V to +20 V range in order to yield a useful result. For example, you input a 4 V pp sine wave to
CHHI, and apply the same sine wave 180° out of phase to CHLO. The common mode voltage is 0 V. The
differential input voltage swings from 4 V-(-4 V) = 8 V to -4 V-4 V = -8V. Both inputs satisfy the -10 V
to +20 V input range requirement, and the differential voltage is suited for the ±10 V input range (see
Figure 3-5).
+4V
CHHI
Measured Signal
0V
-4V
+/-8V
8V Differential
+4V
CHLO
-4V
Figure 3-5. Differential voltage example: common mode voltage of 0 V
If you increase the common mode voltage to 11 V, the differential remains at ±8 V. Although the
[common-mode voltage + signal] on each input now has a range of +7 V to +15 V, both inputs still satisfy
the -10 V to +20 V input requirement (see Figure 3-6).
+15V
CHHI
Measured Signal
+11V
+/-8V
8V Differential
CHLO
+11V
+7V
Figure 3-6. Differential voltage example: common mode voltage of 11 V
3-5
PMD-1208FS User's Guide
Functional Details
If you decrease the common-mode voltage to -7 V, the differential stays at ±8 V. However, the solution
now violates the input range condition of -10 V to +20 V. The voltage on each analog input now swings
from -3V to -11V. Voltages between -10 V and -3 V are resolved, but those below -10 V are clipped (see
Figure 3-7).
-3V
CHHI
-7V
Measured Signal
3V
-11V
8V Differential
+/-7V
-3V
CHLO -7V
-11V
Figure 3-7. Differential voltage example: common mode voltage of -7 V
Since the analog inputs are restricted to a −10 V to +20 V signal swing with respect to ground, all ranges
except ±20V can realize a linear output for any differential signal with zero common mode voltage and
full scale signal inputs. The ±20 V range is the exception. You cannot put −20 V on CHHI and 0 V on
CHLO since this violates the input range criteria.
Table 3-2 shows some possible inputs and the expected results.
Table 3-2. Sample inputs and differential results
CHHI
CHLO
Result
-20 V
-15 V
-10 V
-10 V
0V
0V
+10 V
+10 V
+15 V
+20 V
0V
+5 V
0V
+10 V
+10 V
+20 V
-10 V
0V
-5 V
0
In Valid
In Valid
-10 V
-20 V
-10 V
-20 V
+20 V
+10 V
+20 V
+20 V
For more information on analog signal connections
For more information on single-ended and differential inputs, refer to the Guide to Signal Connections
(this document is available on our web site at www.mccdaq.com/signals/signals.pdf)
Analog output terminals (D/A OUT 0 and D/A OUT 1)
You can connect up to two analog output connections to the screw terminal pins 13 and 14 (D/A OUT 0
and D/A OUT 1). Refer to the pinout diagrams on pages 3-3 and 3-3 for the location of these pins.
Each channel can be paced individually at rates up to 10,000 updates per second. Both channels can be
paced simultaneously using the same time base at 5000 updates per channel. The 0-4.096 V output range
provides a convenient 1 mV per LSB when setting the output voltage levels.
3-6
PMD-1208FS User's Guide
Functional Details
Digital I/O terminals (Port A0 to A7, and Port B0 to B7)
You can connect up to 16 digital I/O lines to the screw terminal containing pins 21 to 40 (Port A0 to
Port A7, and Port B0 to Port B7.) Refer to the pinout diagrams on pages 3-3 and 3-3 for the location of
these pins. You can configure each digital port for either input or output.
When you configure the digital bits for input, you can use the digital I/O terminals to detect the state of
any TTL level input. Refer to the switch shown in Figure 3-8 and the schematic shown in Figure 3-9. If
the switch is set to the +5 V input, Port A0 reads TRUE (1). If you move the switch to GND, Port A0
reads FALSE.
Figure 3-8. Digital connection Port A0 detecting the state of a switch
Port A0
+GND
+5V
Figure 3-9. Schematic showing switch detection by digital channel Port A0
For more information on digital signal connections
For more information on digital signal connections and digital I/O techniques, refer to the Guide to Signal
Connections (available on our web site at www.mccdaq.com/signals/signals.pdf).
Power terminals
The PC +5V connection (pin 30) is on the bottom screw terminal of the PMD-1208FS. Refer to the
pinout diagrams on pages 3-3 and 3-3 for the location of this pin. This terminal draws power from the
USB connector. The +5 V screw terminal is a 5 volt output that is supplied by the host computer.
Caution! The +5 V terminal is an output. Do not connect to an external power supply or you may
damage the PMD-1208FS and possibly the computer.
The maximum total output current that can be drawn from all PMD-1208FS connections (power, analog
and digital outputs) is 420 mA. This maximum applies to most personal computers and self-powered
USB hubs. Bus-powered hubs and notebook computers may limit the maximum available output current
to 100 mA.
3-7
PMD-1208FS User's Guide
Functional Details
Just connecting the PMD-1208FS to your computer draws 80 mA of current from the USB +5 V supply.
Once you start running applications with the PMD-1208FS, each DIO bit can draw up to 2.5 mA, and
each analog output can draw 15 mA. The maximum amount of +5 V current available for experimental
use, over and above that required by the PMD-1208FS, is the difference between the total current
requirement of the PMD (based on the application), and the allowed current draw of the PC platform
(500 mA for desktop PCs and self-powered hubs, or 100 mA for bus-powered hubs and notebook
computers).
With all outputs at their maximum output current, you can calculate the total current requirement of the
PMD-1208FS USB +5 V as follows:
(PMD-1208FS @ 80 mA) + (16 DIO @ 2.5 mA ea) + (2 AO @ 15 mA ea ) = 150 mA
For an application running on a PC or powered hub, the maximum available excess current is 500
mA−150 mA = 350 mA. This number is the total maximum available current at the PC +5 V screw
terminals. Measurement Computing highly recommends that you figure in a safety factor of 20% below
this maximum current loading for your applications. A conservative, safe user maximum in this case
would be in the 350-380 mA range.
Since laptop computers typically allow up to 100 mA, the PMD-1208FS in a fully-loaded configuration
may be above that allowed by the computer. In this case, you must determine the per-pin loading in the
application to ensure that the maximum loading criteria is met. The per-pin loading is calculated by
simply dividing the +5 V by the load impedance of the pin in question.
Calibration terminal
The CAL connection (pin 16) is an output you should use only to calibrate the PMD-1208FS. Refer to the
pinout diagrams on pages 3-3 and 3-3 for the location of this pin. Calibration of the PMD-1208FS is
software-controlled via InstaCal.
Ground terminals
The four analog ground (AGND) connections provide a common ground for all PMD-1208FS input
channels. Four ground (GND) connections provide a common ground for the DIO, TRIG_IN, CTR,
SYNC and PC +5V connections. Refer to the pinout diagrams on pages 3-3 and 3-3 for the location of
the AGND and GND terminal pins.
External trigger terminal
The TRIG_IN connection (pin 18) can be configured for either rising or falling edge. Refer to the pinout
diagrams on pages 3-3 and 3-3 for the location of the TRIG_IN terminal pin.
SYNC terminal
The SYNC connection (pin 19) is a bidirectional I/O signal. You can use it for two purposes:
ƒ
ƒ
Configure as an external clock input to externally source the A/D conversions. The SYNC terminal
supports TTL-level input signals of up to 50 kHz.
Configure as an output to synchronize with a second PMD unit and acquire data from 16 channels.
Refer to the pinout diagrams on pages 3-3 and 3-3 for the location of this pin. For more information, refer
to page 3-12.
3-8
PMD-1208FS User's Guide
Functional Details
Counter terminal
The CTR connection (pin 20) is input to the 32-bit external event. Refer to the pinout diagrams on pages
3-3 and 3-3 for the location of this pin. The internal counter increments when the TTL levels transition
from low to high. The counter can count frequencies of up to 1 MHz.
Accuracy
The overall accuracy of any instrument is limited by the error components within the system. Quite often,
resolution is incorrectly used to quantify the performance of a measurement product. While "12-bits" or
"1 part in 4096" does indicate what can be resolved, it provides little insight into the quality of an
absolute measurement. Accuracy specifications describe the actual results that can be realized with a
measurement device.
There are three types of errors which affect the accuracy of a measurement system:
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
offset
gain
nonlinearity.
The primary error sources in the PMD-1208FS are offset and gain. Nonlinearity is small in the PMD1208FS, and is not significant as an error source with respect to offset and gain.
Figure 3-10 shows an ideal, error-free, PMD-1208FS transfer function. The typical calibrated accuracy of
the PMD-1208FS is range-dependent, as explained in the "Specifications" chapter of this document. We
use a ±10 V range here as an example of what you can expect when performing a measurement in this
range.
Input Voltage
+FS
Output Code
0
2048
4095
-FS
Figure 3-10. Ideal ADC transfer function
The PMD-1208FS offset error is measured at mid-scale. Ideally, a zero volt input should produce an
output code of 2048. Any deviation from this is an offset error. Figure 3-11 shows the PMD-1208FS
transfer function with an offset error. The typical offset error specification on the ±10 V range is
±9.77 mV. Offset error affects all codes equally by shifting the entire transfer function up or down along
the input voltage axis.
3-9
PMD-1208FS User's Guide
Functional Details
The accuracy plots in Figure 3-11 are drawn for clarity and are not drawn to scale.
Input Voltage
+FS
Ideal
Offset=9.77mV
0
2
2048
Output Code
9.77mV
4095
Actual
-FS
Figure 3-11. ADC transfer function with offset error
Gain error is a change in the slope of the transfer function from the ideal, and is typically expressed as a
percentage of full-scale. Figure 3-12 shows the PMD-1208FS transfer function with gain error. Gain error
is easily converted to voltage by multiplying the full-scale (FS) input by the error.
The accuracy plots in Figure 3-12 are drawn for clarity and are not drawn to scale.
Input Voltage
+FS
Ideal
Gain error=+0.2%, or +20 mV
Gain error=-0.2%, or -20 mV
Actual
Output Code
0
2048
4095
-FS
Figure 3-12. ADC Transfer function with gain error
For example, the PMD-1208FS exhibits a typical calibrated gain error of ±0.2% on all ranges. For the
±10 V range, this would yield 10 V × ±0.002 = ±20 mV. This means that at full scale, neglecting the
effect of offset for the moment, the measurement would be within 20 mV of the actual value. Note that
gain error is expressed as a ratio. Values near ±FS are more affected from an absolute voltage standpoint
than are values near mid-scale, which see little or no voltage error.
Combining these two error sources in Figure 3-13, we have a plot of the error band of the PMD-1208FS
for the ±10 V range. This is a graphical version of the typical accuracy specification of the product.
3-10
PMD-1208FS User's Guide
Functional Details
The accuracy plots in Figure 3-13 are drawn for clarity and are not drawn to scale
Input Voltage
Ideal +9.77mV + 20 mV
+FS
Ideal
Ideal -(9.77mV + 20 mV)
9.77mV
Output Code
0
2048
4095
Ideal +9.77mV + 20 mV
-FS
Ideal
Ideal -(9.77mV + 20 mV)
Figure 3-13. Error band plot
PMD-1208FS channel gain queue feature
The PMD-1208FS's channel gain queue feature allows you to set up a scan sequence with a unique perchannel gain setting and channel sequence.
The channel gain queue feature removes the restriction of using an ascending channel sequence at a fixed
gain. This feature creates a channel list which is written to local memory on the PMD-1208FS. The
channel list is made up of a channel number and range setting. An example of a four-element list is
shown in Table 3-3.
Table 3-3. Sample channel gain queue list
Element
Channel
Range
0
1
2
3
CH0
CH0
CH7
CH2
BIP10V
BIP5V
BIP10V
BIP1V
When a scan begins with the gain queue enabled, the PMD-1208FS reads the first element, sets the
appropriate channel number and range, and then acquires a sample. The properties of the next element are
then retrieved, and another sample is acquired. This sequence continues until all elements in the gain
queue have been selected. When the end of the channel list is detected, the sequence returns to the first
element in the list.
This sequence repeats until the specified number of samples is gathered. You must carefully match the
gain to the expected voltage range on the associated channel—otherwise, an over range condition can
occur. Although this condition does not damage the PMD-1208FS, it does produce a useless full-scale
reading. It can also introduce a long recovery time from saturation, which can affect the next
measurement in the queue.
3-11
PMD-1208FS User's Guide
Functional Details
Synchronizing multiple units
You can connect the SYNC pin of two PMD-1208FS units together in a master/slave configuration and
acquire data from the analog inputs of both devices using one clock. When the SYNC pin is configured as
an output, the internal A/D pacer clock is sent to the screw terminal. You can use this signal as a clock
input to a second PMD by connecting it to the SYNC pin of the second PMD.
When used as a clock input, the SYNC pin operates in one of two modes – Continuous or Gated.
In the default Continuous mode, a PMD-1208FS ignores the first clock pulse in order to ensure adequate
setup time. Use this mode if the unit is being paced from a continuous clock source, such as a generator.
In the Gated mode, it is assumed that the clock signal will be held off for an adequate amount of time for
setup to occur. No clock pulses are ignored. Use this mode if the PMD-1208FS is set up as a slave and
the source of the external clock is another PMD.
The SYNC pin (pin 19) is set for pacer output by default. To synchronize a master PMD-1208FS with a
slave PMD-1208FS and acquire data, follow the steps below.
1.
Connect the SYNC pin of the master PMD-1208FS to the SYNC pin of the slave PMD-1208FS.
2.
Run InstaCal.
3.
From the PC Board List on the InstaCal main form, double-click on the PMD-1208FS you want to
use as a slave. The Board Configuration dialog opens.
4.
Select Gated from the Ext. Clock Type drop-down list.
5.
Set the Universal Library EXTCLOCK option with cbAInScan()/AInScan for the slave PMD1208FS to enable pacing from the master PMD device.
This InstaCal option does not affect internally paced acquisition. It only affects scans that use the
EXTCLOCK option.
An example of a master/slave configuration is shown below.
Master
Slave
PMD-1608FS
PMD-1208FS
Configure the
SYNC pin
for output
SYNC pin
pin 19
Slave
PMD-1208FS
Set the Universal Library
EXTCLOCK option with
cbAInScan()/AInScan()
for the slave PMD-1208FS
Configure the
SYNC pin
for input
Figure 3-14. Configuring for synchronous data acquisition
When you are operating one PMD-1208FS, do not set the EXTCLOCK option unless you are using an
external clock for A/D pacing.
3-12
Chapter 4
Specifications
Typical for 25 °C unless otherwise specified.
Specifications in italic text are guaranteed by design.
Analog input section
Table 4-1. Analog input specifications
Parameter
A/D converter type
Input voltage range for linear operation, single-ended
mode
Input common-mode voltage range for linear
operation, differential mode
Absolute maximum input voltage
Input current (Note 1)
Conditions
Specification
CHx to GND
Successive approximation type
±10 volts (V) max
CHx to GND
-10 V min, +20 V max
CHx to GND
Vin = +10 V
Vin = 0 V
Vin = -10 V
±28 V max
70 microamperes (µA) typ
-12 µA typ
-94 µA typ
8 single-ended / 4 differential,
software selectable
±10 V, G=2
±20 V, G=1
±10 V, G=2
±5 V,
G=4
±4 V,
G=5
±2.5 V, G=8
±2.0 V, G=10
±1.25 V, G=16
±1.0 V, G=20
Software selectable
250 samples per second (S/s) typ, PCdependent
50 kilosamples per second (kS/s)
Software configurable channel, range,
and gain.
12 bits, no missing codes
11 bits
±36.25 mV max
±1 least significant bit (LSB) typ
±0.5 LSB typ
±1 LSB typ
5 milliamperes (mA) max
20 µA min, 100 µA typ
External digital: TRIG_IN
Number of channels
Input ranges, single-ended mode
Input ranges, differential mode
Throughput (Note 2)
Channel gain queue
Resolution (Note 3)
CAL accuracy
Integral linearity error
Differential linearity error
Repeatability
CAL current
Trigger source
Software paced
Continuous scan
Up to 16
elements
Differential
Single-ended
CAL = 2.5 V
Source
Sink
Software
selectable
Note 1:
Input current is a function of applied voltage on the analog input channels. For a given
input voltage, Vin, the input leakage is approximately equal to (8.181*Vin-12) µA.
Note 2:
Maximum throughput scanning to PC memory is machine dependent. The rates specified
are for Windows XP only. Maximum rates on operating systems that predate XP may be
less and must be determined through testing on your machine.
4-1
PMD-1208FS User's Guide
Note 3:
Specifications
The AD7870 converter only returns 11-bits (0-2047 codes) in single-ended mode.
Table 4-2. Accuracy, differential mode
Range
Accuracy (LSB)
±20 V
±10 V
±5 V
±4 V
±2.5 V
±2 V
±1.25 V
±1 V
5.1
6.1
8.1
9.1
12.1
14.1
20.1
24.1
Table 4-3. Accuracy, single-ended mode
Range
Accuracy (LSB)
±10 V
4.0
Table 4-4. Accuracy components, differential mode - All values are (±)
Range
% of Reading
Gain Error at full scale (FS)
(millivolts (mV))
Offset (mV)
Accuracy at FS (mV)
±20 V
±10 V
±5 V
±4 V
±2.5 V
±2 V
±1.25 V
±1 V
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
40
20
10
8
5
4
2.5
2
9.766
9.766
9.766
9.766
9.766
9.766
9.766
9.766
49.766
29.766
19.766
17.766
14.766
13.766
12.266
11.766
Table 4-5. Accuracy components, single-ended mode - All values are (±)
Range
% of Reading
Gain Error at FS (mV)
Offset (mV)
Accuracy at FS (mV)
±10 V
0.2
20
19.531
39.531
Table 4-6. Noise performance, differential mode
Range
Typical counts
Least significant bitroot mean square (LSBrms)
±20 V
±10 V
±5 V
±4 V
±2.5 V
±2 V
±1.25 V
±1 V
2
2
3
3
4
5
7
8
0.30
0.30
0.45
0.45
0.61
0.76
1.06
1.21
Table 4-7. Noise performance, single-ended mode
Range
Typical Counts
LSBrms
±10 V
2
0.30
4-2
PMD-1208FS User's Guide
Specifications
Analog output section
Table 4-8. Analog output specifications
Parameter
Conditions
Resolution
Output range
Number of channels
Throughput (Note 4)
Software paced
Single channel, continuous scan
Dual channel, continuous scan,
simultaneous update
Initializes to 000h code
Power on and reset
voltage
Output drive
Slew rate
Note 4:
Specification
12-bits, 1 in 4096
0 – 4.096 V, 1 mV per LSB.
2
250 S/s single channel typical, PC dependent
10 kS/s
5 kS/s
Each D/A OUT
15 mA
0.8 V/microsecond (µs) typ
Maximum throughput scanning to PC memory is machine dependent. The rates specified
are for Windows XP only. Maximum rates on operating systems that predate XP may be
less and must be determined through testing on your machine
Table 4-9. Analog output accuracy, all values are (±)
Range
Accuracy (LSB)
0-4.096 V
4.0 typ, 45.0 max
Table 4-10. Analog output accuracy components, all values are (±)
Range
0-4.096 V
Note 5:
% of FSR
0.1 typ, 0.9 max
Gain Error at FS (mV)
Offset (mV)
Accuracy at FS (mV)
4.0 typ, 36.0 max
(Note 5)
1.0 typ, 9.0 max
4.0 typ, 45.0 max
Negative offsets will result in a fixed zero-scale error or “dead band.” At the maximum
offset of -9 mV, any input code of less than 0x009 will not produce a response in the
output.
Digital input/output
Table 4-11. Digital I/O specifications
Digital type
Number of I/O
Configuration
Pull up/pull-down
configuration
Input high voltage
Input low voltage
Output high voltage
(IOH = -2.5 mA)
Output low voltage
(IOL = 2.5 mA)
Power on and reset state
CMOS
16 (Port A0 through A7, Port B0 through B7)
2 banks of 8
All pins pulled up to Vs via 47 K resistors (default). Positions available for pull
down to ground. Hardware selectable via zero ohm (Ω) resistors as a factory
option.
2.0 V min, 5.5 V absolute max
0.8 V max, –0.5 V absolute min
3.8 V min
0.7 V max
Input
4-3
PMD-1208FS User's Guide
Specifications
External trigger
Table 4-12. Digital trigger specifications
Parameter
Conditions
Specification
Trigger source (Note 6)
Trigger mode
External Digital
Software selectable
TRIG_IN
Edge sensitive: user configurable for CMOS compatible
rising or falling edge.
10 µs max
1 µs min
4.0 V min, 5.5 V absolute max
1.0 V max, –0.5 V absolute min
±1.0 µA
Trigger latency
Trigger pulse width
Input high voltage
Input low voltage
Input leakage current
Note 6:
TRIG_IN is a Schmitt trigger input protected with a 1.5 kilohm (kΩ) series resistor.
External clock input/output
Table 4-13. External clock I/O specifications
Parameter
Conditions
Pin name
Pin type
Software selectable direction
Input clock rate
Clock pulse width
Input leakage current
Input high voltage
Input low voltage
Output high voltage (Note 7)
Output low voltage (Note 7)
Note 7:
Specification
SYNC
Bidirectional
Outputs internal A/D pacer clock.
Receives A/D pacer clock from external source.
50 KHz, maximum
1 µs min
5 µs min
±1.0 µA
4.0 V min, 5.5 V absolute max
1.0 V max, –0.5 V absolute min
3.3 V min
3.8 V min
1.1 V max
0.6 V max
Output (default)
Input
Input mode
Output mode
Input mode
IOH = -2.5 mA
No Load
IOL = 2.5 mA
No Load
SYNC is a Schmitt trigger input and is over-current protected with a 200 Ω series resistor.
4-4
PMD-1208FS User's Guide
Specifications
Counter section
Table 4-14. Counter specifications
Pin name (Note 8)
Counter type
Number of channels
Input source
Resolution
Schmidt trigger hysteresis
Input leakage current
Maximum input frequency
High pulse width
Low pulse width
Input high voltage
Input low voltage
Note 8:
CTR
Event counter
1
CTR screw terminal
32 bits
20 mV to 100 mV
±1 µA
1 MHz
500 ns min
500 ns min
4.0 V min, 5.5 V absolute max
1.0 V max, –0.5 V absolute min
CTR is a Schmitt trigger input protected with a 1.5 K Ω series resistor.
Non-volatile memory
Table 4-15. Non-volatile memory specifications
EEPROM
EEPROM Configuration
1,024 bytes
Address Range
Access
Description
0x000-0x07F
0x080-0x1FF
0x200-0x3FF
Reserved
Read/write
Read/write
128 bytes system data
384 bytes cal data
512 bytes user area
Microcontroller
Table 4-16. Microcontroller specifications
Type
Program Memory
Data Memory
High performance 8-bit RISC microcontroller
16,384 words
2,048 bytes
Power
Table 4-17. Power specifications
Parameter
Conditions
Supply current (Note 9)
+5V USB power available
(Note 10)
Output current (Note 11)
Note 9:
Specification
Connected to self-powered hub
Connected to externally-powered root port hub
Connected to bus-powered hub
Connected to self-powered hub
Connected to externally-powered root port hub
Connected to bus-powered hub
80 mA
4.5 V min, 5.25 V max
4.1 V min, 5.25 V max
420 mA max
20 mA max
This is the total current requirement for the PMD-1208FS which includes up to 10 mA for
the status LED.
4-5
PMD-1208FS User's Guide
Specifications
Note 10: Self-powered hub refers to a USB hub with an external power supply. Self-powered hubs
allow a connected USB device to draw up to 500 mA.
Root port hubs reside in the PC’s USB host controller. The USB port(s) on your PC are
root port hubs. All externally powered root port hubs (desktop PCs) provide up to 500 mA
of current for a USB device. Battery-powered root port hubs provide 100 mA or 500 mA,
depending upon the manufacturer. A laptop PC that is not connected to an external power
adapter is an example of a battery-powered root port hub.
Bus powered hubs receive power from a self-powered or root port hub. In this case the
maximum current available from the USB +5 V is 100 mA. The minimum USB +5 V
voltage level can be as low as 4.1 V.
Note 11: This refers to the total amount of current that can be sourced from the USB +5 V, analog
outputs and digital outputs.
General
Table 4-18. General specifications
Parameter
Conditions
Specification
Device type
Device compatibility
USB 2.0 full speed
USB 1.1, USB 2.0
Environmental
Table 4-19. Environmental specifications
Operating Temperature range
Storage temperature range
Humidity
0 to 70 °C
-40 to 85 °C
0 to 90% non-condensing
Mechanical
Table 4-20. Mechanical specifications
Dimensions
USB cable length
User connection length
79 millimeters (mm) long x 82 mm wide x 25 mm high
3 meters max
3 meters max
Main connector and pin out
Table 4-21. Main connector specifications
Connector type
Wire gauge range
Screw terminal
16 AWG to 30 AWG
4-6
PMD-1208FS User's Guide
Specifications
4-channel differential mode
Pin
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
Signal Name
CH0 IN HI
CH0 IN LO
AGND
CH1 IN HI
CH1 IN LO
AGND
CH2 IN HI
CH2 IN LO
AGND
CH3 IN HI
CH3 IN LO
AGND
D/A OUT 0
D/A OUT 1
AGND
CAL
GND
TRIG IN
SYNC
CTR
Pin
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
Signal Name
Port A0
Port A1
Port A2
Port A3
Port A4
Port A5
Port A6
Port A7
GND
PC+5V
GND
Port B0
Port B1
Port B2
Port B3
Port B4
Port B5
Port B6
Port B7
GND
Pin
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
Signal Name
Port A0
Port A1
Port A2
Port A3
Port A4
Port A5
Port A6
Port A7
GND
PC+5V
GND
Port B0
Port B1
Port B2
Port B3
Port B4
Port B5
Port B6
Port B7
GND
8-channel single-ended mode
Pin
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
Signal Name
CH0 IN
CH1 IN
AGND
CH2 IN
CH3 IN
AGND
CH4 IN
CH5 IN
AGND
CH6 IN
CH7 IN
AGND
D/A OUT 0
D/A OUT 1
AGND
CAL
GND
TRIG IN
SYNC
CTR
4-7
Declaration of Conformity
Manufacturer:
Address:
Measurement Computing Corporation
16 Commerce Boulevard
Middleboro, MA 02346
USA
Category:
Electrical equipment for measurement, control and laboratory use.
Measurement Computing Corporation declares under sole responsibility that the product
PMD-1208FS
to which this declaration relates is in conformity with the relevant provisions of the following standards
or other documents:
EU EMC Directive 89/336/EEC: Electromagnetic Compatibility, EN 61326 (1997) Amendment 1
(1998)
Emissions: Group 1, Class A
ƒ
EN 55011 (1998)/CISPR 11: Radiated and Conducted emissions.
Immunity: EN61326, Annex A
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
EN 61000-4-2 (1995): Electrostatic Discharge immunity, Criteria C.
EN 61000-4-3 (1997): Radiated Electromagnetic Field immunity Criteria A.
EN 61000-4-8 (1995): Power Frequency Magnetic Field immunity Criteria A.
Power line and I/O tests to EN61000-4-4, EN61000-4-5, EN61000-4-6, and EN61000-4-11 were not
required. The device is DC powered from an I/O cable which is less than three meters long.
Declaration of Conformity based on tests conducted by Chomerics Test Services, Woburn, MA 01801,
USA in August, 2004. Test records are outlined in Chomerics Test Report #EMI3948.04.
We hereby declare that the equipment specified conforms to the above Directives and Standards.
Carl Haapaoja, Vice-President of Design Verification
Measurement Computing Corporation
16 Commerce Boulevard,
Middleboro, Massachusetts 02346
(508) 946-5100
Fax: (508) 946-9500
E-mail: [email protected]
www.mccdaq.com
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