The use of cameras on bus networks

The use of cameras on bus networks
The use of cameras
on bus networks
A guide to good practice
RTIG Library Reference: RTIGPR006-D002-1.0
Note: in February 2008 DfT published technical requirements for CCTV
16 March 2007
devices used in civil traffic enforcement. This document has not yet
been updated to take these into account.
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Closed circuit television (CCTV) and related video technologies have been used
in security management for many years. Cameras have become a familiar sight,
first on site perimeters, then in supermarkets, and in town centres. Since about
2000 they have increasingly been fitted to buses
Cameras and video technology have developed significantly in recent years. The
advent of cost effective, reliable, digital imaging technology has allowed cameras
to be deployed more widely than before, while the development of video analysis
software have allowed much greater automation in their use and management.
In parallel with this there have been a series of legislative developments that have
a material impact on the operation and utility of cameras.
An RTIG scoping study in Autumn 2005 found that local authorities and bus
operators would value good-practice guidance for the use of technology systems
in support of transport security. To help meet this need, RTIG has compiled the
present document as a good-practice guide to the use of CCTV in the bus
The purpose of this document is to collate as far as possible good practice
guidance regarding the functional, technical and operational requirements for
CCTV systems for all stakeholders in the bus industry. This document is not a
prescriptive standard and the specifics of any particular system must be
determined on the bases of a risk assessment. This document may be updated
from time to time as changes in legislation, technology or good practice require.
A Short Glossary of Terms is included for information in Annex A.
A few of the statements made in this document are
statutory requirements. Those statements are presented in
a text box like this. These are rules with which you must
comply. Other statements are ‘dos’ and ‘don’ts’ based on good
practice, either taken from previously developed guidelines or
collected during the current project.
Some regulations only apply in certain circumstances. The
guidance attempts to apply a uniform standard to all
RTIG guidelines – CCTV on bus networks
circumstances and contexts, but the legal force of statements
may vary because of this.
This document itself has no formal status. It is a guideline
document and has not been formally approved. Specifically the
inclusion or exclusion of any statement from this document
should not be taken as proof of its relevance or irrelevance.
RTIG welcomes feedback on this document and will endeavour to keep the
guidance current. Please contact the RTIG secretariat at [email protected],
or by post to RTIG Secretariat, c/o Centaur Consulting Limited, Surrey
Technology Centre, Surrey Research Park, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7YG.
The editors wish to thank all those who gave their time to the Working Group that
produced this document – Neil Cohen (HOSDB), Neal Skelton (ITS UK), Keith
Waghorn (TfL), Dick Wallis (Position Systems Ltd), Adrian Waters (Infocell
Solutions) and Raymond Webb (WayOut Associates Ltd).
For those looking for more detailed advice, a list of references is provided at the
end of the document. This includes the full text of regulations which are cited in
RTIG guidelines – CCTV on bus networks
List of contents
The function of video systems ...........................................................1
Introduction ...........................................................................................................1
Security needs .......................................................................................................2
Cameras and the law.............................................................................................3
Cameras for driver security ..................................................................................4
Cameras for security outside the cab .................................................................6
Use of bus cameras for traffic monitoring ..........................................................8
Other uses of cameras..........................................................................................9
General security systems – design ..................................................11
Introduction .........................................................................................................11
Placement ............................................................................................................11
Image quality .......................................................................................................13
Lighting ................................................................................................................14
Camera control ....................................................................................................14
Recording ............................................................................................................15
Retrieval, replay and export mechanisms.........................................................17
General security systems – operations ...........................................22
Introduction .........................................................................................................22
Retention and storage ........................................................................................23
Control room security .........................................................................................27
Bus lane enforcement: a special case .............................................30
Introduction .........................................................................................................30
Placement ............................................................................................................30
Image quality .......................................................................................................31
Camera control ....................................................................................................32
Recording ............................................................................................................32
Monitoring ............................................................................................................33
The enforcement log ...........................................................................................34
Still images ..........................................................................................................35
Annex A Glossary of terms and acronyms ..........................................36
RTIG guidelines – CCTV on bus networks
Annex B Further reading ........................................................................38
Sources with legal force .....................................................................................38
Guideline sources ...............................................................................................40
Useful websites ...................................................................................................41
Annex C Extract from HOSDB guidance ..............................................43
Annex D CCTV approved training courses ..........................................45
Annex E
The future of CCTV ..................................................................46
RTIG guidelines – CCTV on bus networks
1. The function of video systems
Camera technology – still or video – is uniquely useful in recording recognisable,
visual representations of the world. It may be in colour, black and white or
combination of both including audio In a transport context this can be useful in a
number of ways:
To increase the levels of personal security for the driver and his/her passengers
To provide additional information to a driver about his/her vehicle’s immediate
travel environment, enhancing road safety
To provide information to a control room or driver about traffic conditions
To provide information to a driver or control room about non-transport activities,
including anti-social and criminal activities: vandalism, robbery/theft, disorder,
and counter -terrorism
In each case there is a spectrum of usage, from pure information (monitoring),
through information used to prompt further action (intelligence) and data
(information) that can be used in a Court of Law or used for proof of a claim
These variations impose different requirements on the cameras, and the systems
of which they are part. Some of these requirements are underpinned by
legislation, some are best practice, others simply by utility and effectiveness.
Camera based systems can be expensive to buy, integrate and operate. Although
camera technology itself is getting cheaper and more capable, it may require
considerable supporting civil engineering and IT, and the operation of a system
may require a significant element of human activity. If the system is to be
effective, it is crucial that before implementation, an assessment is carried out to
determine, whether CCTV addresses the issues, the purpose of the CCTV, and
what information is required from the system.
be clear on which functions you want your camera system to perform
– it will affect both the technical specification and operations.
Complete parts 01 and 02 of an Operational Requirements
RTIG guidelines – CCTV on bus networks
explore the potential for a camera to be used in multiple roles
consider carefully where the key costs lie before embarking on a
camera project
advertise the fact that you are using cameras, as a deterrent
Do not:
try to force each camera into multiple jobs – this may result in overspecification and excessive cost
Security needs
Security is important for both passengers and operators. The DfT guidance note
“Get on Board” cites the following:
We know from research…into the transport needs of different social groups, that
the personal security issues for passengers are as follows:
the time spent waiting for the bus is generally more fearful than the time spent
women consistently express higher levels of fear than men
fear is greater after dark for both men and women
black and minority ethnic groups are more fearful for their security than their
white counterparts
the presence of young people and people who have been drinking tends to
make other passengers more uneasy
young people have similar fears to adults, with similar gender differences
young people are more likely to be bullied or intimidated by other young people
than by adults
people with learning disabilities are particularly subject to harassment and
the presence of graffiti and vandalism contributes to perceptions of unease/fear
for adult passengers, although this is less so for young people
the majority of incidents of harassment or intimidation on bus travel – as
elsewhere – goes unreported either to operators or the police
For operators:
RTIG guidelines – CCTV on bus networks
graffiti and vandalism to buses and bus infrastructure is often a serious and
costly problem, warranting significant financial investment in preventative
measures such as CCTV
Transport for London estimates the annual cost of vehicle damage to be around
44% assaults on drivers are serious enough to result in some days being taken
off work, and a further 13% result in the victim being off work for the remainder
of their shift
assaults against staff are most likely to be associated with traffic or fare
disputes and regulating passenger boarding numbers
many operators report an increase in the problem of both staff assaults and
the school bus journey at the end of the day is often particularly problematic
bus stations tend to become magnets for people looking for relative warmth and
shelter, such as those who are homeless, and young people
travel without a valid ticket is often associated with other crime and other
nuisance behaviour
Cameras and the law
Camera use is hedged about with legal constraints and implications. These fall
essentially into two categories.
The most difficult area is, perhaps, the Data Protection Acts, which provide
limitations on how “personal information” can lawfully be recorded and stored,
and who has access to those images. Fortunately the Information Commissioner
has issued substantial guidance on this area. However, a CCTV system and its
owner must be registered with the Information Commissioner‟s Office under the
Data Protection Act.
…personal data must not be processed unless an entry in
respect of the data controller is included in the register
maintained by the Commissioner…
Source: Data Protection Act 1998, section 17(1)
RTIG guidelines – CCTV on bus networks
The second type of legal constraint arises where the camera data is to be used
for evidence or prosecution. Any CCTV image is admissible in court as evidence.
Its weight as evidence, however, will be enhanced if the technical quality is high,
the operational procedures are open, transparent and robust and the audit trail is
clear and well maintained.
This document sets pointers to some legal instruments but cannot be regarded
as definitive. We recommend that whenever a CCTV system is installed, legal
advice is sought as well as advice from all stakeholders in the project: including
operators, drivers, police, and the local authority etc.
Annex B lists a number of sources of information on legal constraints, though it
does not claim to be comprehensive. Note also that some of these do not apply
across the whole UK: readers in Scotland, Wales and NI may be subject to
additional or alternative legal constraints.
get legal advice prior to implementing any camera-based project
Register the CCTV system with the Information Commissioners office
and detail what the systems are being specifically used for. There is
an annual fee of £35 payable. Also ensure that this registration is kept
up to date.
Cameras for driver security
Bus drivers operate their vehicles in a wide range of geographical locations and
at most hours of the day. They are usually alone and often are entrusted with
considerable quantities of money which may present a robbery incentive.
Much has been done to protect against this, including though the deployment of
smart cards and street side payment, as well as driver protection screens, sealed
cashboxes, etc. Nevertheless, operators are keen to minimise still further the risk
of abuse and attack.
Operators have a duty under the Health and Safety at Work Act (“HSWA”) to
manage this risk, and „cab TV‟ has for a while been taking its place as part of this
RTIG guidelines – CCTV on bus networks
It shall be the duty of every employer to ensure, so far as is
reasonably practicable, the health, safety and welfare at work
of all his employees.
Source: Health and Safety at Work etc Act 1974, section 2
Cab cameras have a multiple potential benefit – as deterrent, alarm and evidence.
There is little hard analysis, but anecdote from areas such as London and
Tyneside suggests that:
the most important function is that of evidence, i.e. the ability to trace and
prosecute a driver’s attacker;
the deterrent benefit is important too.
RTIG guidelines – CCTV on bus networks
undertake a risk analysis to determine whether the implementation of
cab cameras would be materially beneficial to drivers
discuss the benefit and functional of cab cameras with drivers and
their unions in advance
expect to design the cab camera system with evidential quality
imagery in mind, as described elsewhere in this document
locate cab cameras where they have a clear view of passengers
standing by the driver, even if they are wearing headgear
locate cab cameras out of reach of passengers standing by the driver
make sure that the processes are in place to capture, store and use
the camera images as evidence
ensure that signage indicating that CCTV cameras are in operation is
clearly visible
Do not:
locate the camera in a way which obstructs other driver activity or
view of the road
Cameras for security outside the cab
Passengers too have a right to expect their journey to be safe. They also have a
very strong desire to feel safe; passengers regularly cite personal safety as one
of the most significant requirements if they are to use public transport more. A
DfT survey in 2004 found1 that “11.5% more journeys would be made on public
transport if passengers felt they were more secure”. The same survey concluded
that “people waiting for or travelling by bus…felt that locally monitored CCTV
surveillance was the most reassuring form of security”.
This safety requirement applies both on and off the vehicle; the off-vehicle
environment includes stops, shelters and stations and the physical approach to
and from these.
RTIG guidelines – CCTV on bus networks
Street-based service controllers and revenue protection officers are also entitled
to the duty of care from their employers imposed by HSWA. Because they deal
with the public, they are also at risk of attack – they do not handle cash, but they
also do not have the opportunity of a protected cab.
Both operators and local authorities have a duty under HSWA to manage these
risks. Again, cameras can provide a component of this protection.
It shall be the duty of every employer to conduct his
undertaking in such a way as to ensure, so far as is reasonably
practicable, that persons not in his employment who may be
affected thereby are not thereby exposed to risks to their
health or safety.
Source: Health and Safety at Work etc Act 1974, section 3
It shall be the duty of every employee while at work to take
reasonable care for the health and safety of himself and of
other persons who may be affected by his acts or omissions at
Source: Health and Safety at Work etc Act 1974, section 7
Cameras within the bus cabin form a relatively straightforward control
environment, and the same is generally true of stations. However shelters and
stops are a different case, where the physical security environment merges into
the wider public space. There is also a role for outward-facing vehicle-mounted
cameras to monitor street areas, particularly where stone-throwing is common.
consider whether the baseline levels of criminality on a service or
route justify the use of vehicle-mounted cameras
ensure that the distant parts of the vehicle are covered: at the back
and, particularly, on the top deck (if any)
consider installing playback screens in the driver’s cab – it makes the
point that someone is watching the cameras
RTIG guidelines – CCTV on bus networks
make sure that the processes are in place to capture, store and use
the camera images as evidence
ensure drivers know what they should do in the event of an incident –
this may include, for example, triggering the permanent recording of
camera data
consider the siting and environment of shelters on a case by case
basis to determine the potential value of shelter-mounted cameras
consider the use of covert cameras if shelter is signed
where shelter cameras are deployed partly for passenger comfort,
use other mechanisms too – particularly improved lighting
Do not:
install cameras on only a small proportion of vehicles – the deterrent
effect is largely lost unless the impact is widely wisible
distract drivers with in-cab monitors while the bus is in motion
Use of bus cameras for traffic monitoring
The presence of security cameras in the bus environment has direct potential
benefits to bus services and passengers. However it can also help with other
aspects of enforcement and security.
Bus lane enforcement is the one natural step in this. London has had camerabased bus lane enforcement for several years, and is actively developing this
area; a number of other UK authorities are taking up this idea too, particularly
now that this has been decriminalised.
A device is an approved device for the purposes of regulations
under section 144 of the Transport Act 2000 (civil penalties for
bus lane contraventions) if it is of a type which falls within any
of the following descriptions:...
Source: Bus Lanes (Approved Devices) (England),
RTIG guidelines – CCTV on bus networks
The London experience has been that while this takes considerable resource,
there is a clear and substantial cost-benefit case for camera-based bus lane
enforcement based on the demonstrable success in improving bus vehicle
journey times2. The move to more intelligent digital systems is expected to
significantly improve this case, particularly by making the camera analyst more
Once cameras are available and a process in place for bus lane enforcement, it is
straightforward to use them for other traffic violations. The easiest step is to
other decriminalised (civil law) areas, notably parking contraventions.
In TfL‟s experience, bus-based (moving) cameras can be good at providing a
security “sweep” for fixed offences, such as illegal parking; static cameras can
be good at capturing moving targets such as a vehicle driving in a bus lane.
Combining the management of moving and fixed camera operations can be
Pursuing offenders who challenge a Penalty Charge Notice (PCN) can be labour
intensive, but most will back down in the face of photographic evidence.
Interestingly, the TfL experience is that while only 1% of bus lane infringements
are challenged, the figure is more like 20% for parking violations. (The figures for
both were much higher when the PCN was sent out without a photo.)
recognise that bus and shelter cameras may have a use for other
enforcement and security areas
work closely with other potential users to ensure that the most is
made of a camera deployment; this includes, in particular, traffic
managers and the police
Other uses of cameras
Two other uses of cameras deserve a mention.
TfL, personal communication.
RTIG guidelines – CCTV on bus networks
The first is a rather specific use: the protection of an operator against vexatious
or fraudulent claims. From time to time passengers or other road users may claim
that they have suffered injury from a vehicle, and sue. Without evidence it is
almost always more costly to contest than simply to settle out of court. A number
of operators have cited anecdotal evidence of this being used as a scam, i.e. to
gain money from fraudulent claims. Cameras can assist by providing evidence,
not just in court but by deterring potential scammers from making fraudulent
claims in the first place.
The second is a much more traditional use. Bus Garages depots, and stations, as
industrial premises, can benefit from CCTV security, to protect against risks such
as burglary and the theft of valuables, equipment, or vehicles. While it is possible
that vehicle-mounted systems could contribute to this during the working day,
these site security systems are likely to be separate from those directly related to
service security. In any case, CCTV should be seen as one of a basket of
measures which contribute to premises security. It is always worth ensuring that
premises are adequately secured before installing an expensive CCTV system.
consider whether these other risks would benefit from the deployment
and use of camera systems
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2. General security systems – design
A CCTV system, like any other system, must be designed adequately to perform
its functions. There are a number of aspects to this.
Some – the placement of cameras, lighting, and camera control – are part of the
environment and essentially independent of technology. Others – image quality,
recording and retrieval systems – are very much technology linked.
Most new CCTV systems are digital. However, many analogue systems are still in
operation. The two recording technologies do not always behave in the same
way; some of the advice given below is therefore specific to neither one nor the
Private and Family life should not be exposed by CCTV systems
in the public domain.
Source: The Human Rights Act 1998
Cameras may be static (permanently sited) or mobile (may be moved from one
location to another, or may be vehicle mounted). Cameras may be digital or
analogue and may be hardwired, networked or wireless networked.
On street, it is often advisable to have at least two cameras for each location: one
of these will provide the context and the other will provide close up information
and identification. Together these provide the evidence necessary for a
On buses, cameras should be positioned such that they provide the information
they need. For instance, if a camera will be used by the driver to ensure all
passengers are clear of the rear door, then a camera needs to be positioned such
that a clear view of the rear door is afforded.
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Although a camera need not be visible, the First Data Protection Principle
dictates that a sign should be mounted in clear sight indicating that CCTV
recording is taking place.
Cameras should be positioned to avoid accessibility by vandals as far as
possible. The camera should have a protective housing to protect the camera
from the damp, heat, light and physical damage.
position cameras so they monitor only intended areas
consult owners of other properties if your cameras will cover
properties which are not your own.
screen out electronically all private areas owned by third parties in the
case of systems used at Stations and Depots. Adequate screen may
not be possible on vehicles, but will be used to reduce intrusion as
much as possible.
consider changes in light according to time of day and season when
placing a camera, to avoid glare and silhouetting
consider how you will get power to the camera and data from the
camera when placing it
place CCTV cameras to create the required field of view
place CCTV cameras specifically on problem services and in problem
shelters to identify perpetrators of vandalism
locate cameras in stations or services which are not easily supervised
by staff or are a target for offences
have two cameras for each street location, a wide angle camera for
context and a close up camera for identification
avoid reflections from safety screens etc
review camera locations annually and move them in response to
changing crime problems
Do not:
position cameras such that they intrude into the private, domestic or
family life
position cameras where they may be inadvertently knocked by
passengers or pedestrians
position cameras where they are easily accessible to vandals
position cameras where their line of sight may be obstructed by
seasonal foliage growth
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mount cameras where vibration, wind and structural bending may
cause excessive picture movement
Image quality
It is critical to determine the purpose of the CCTV camera in order to ensure that
the appropriate resolution is achieved. What will the observer of the image need
to see? Generally, the more detail obtained in the image, the smaller the area
covered by the camera. Therefore, if it is necessary to be able to see a license
plate or identify a person, some of the context around the license plate or person
will be lost.
The requirements for each of the different categories of observer task –
monitoring and control, detection, recognition, or identification – have been
standardised by the Home Office using the Rotakin® system (see Annex C).
ensure that the resolution of the image produced is adequate for the
use to which the image will be put
ensure that the observer can resolve the image in sufficient detail for
both live monitoring and recorded review
ensure that “reasonable” system checks are made in line with the
recommendations laid down in the Data Protection Act 1998 to
ensure that equipment is maintained, cleaned and performing
keep a record of any servicing from the date of purchase
view recorded pictures or printouts, not the live screen, to assess
system performance
Do not:
reduce picture quality to fit the available storage capacity of the
system; it is better to have a little useful imagery than lots of useless
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Cameras should be placed in a position which will provide adequate light for
good picture quality and contrast. There should be plenty of light and as few
shadows as possible. Night-time recordings require either sufficient lighting to
enable a visible light camera to capture clear images, or cameras with infrared
ensure lighting is adequate for a clear image as far as possible
Avoid placing cameras where backlighting and glare will compromise
the quality of the image.
design lighting in shelters and stations to minimise shadows which
would affect the quality of a CCTV image
use cameras capable of night vision and backlight correction where
surveillance will occur 24 hours a day and sufficient lighting has not
been installed
add a lens hood to the camera where strong light on the lens may be
a problem
Do not:
place cameras such that strong direct light falls on the lens, causing
flare and loss of detail
expect cameras which operate in very low light levels to compensate
for poor lighting
Camera control
Some cameras show a fixed field of view; others can be controlled, for example
using Pan-Tilt-Zoom (PTZ) controls. The recording process may also be
Recording may in some circumstances benefit from automatic triggers. For
example, TfL‟s bus lane enforcement cameras are triggered to record only when
the vehicle is in an enforcement zone. Driver safety cameras may be triggered by
the panic button, so that the driver initiates recording if he is threatened or
attacked. This cuts down significantly on storage requirements, but risks missing
incidents while the camera is off.
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No camera should rely on the bus driver to operate or control in any way which
may act as a distraction while driving.
Where cameras are manned by an operator, the operator should only give
evidence on the process of how the CCTV data was gathered and appropriate
logs and audit trail
consider whether PTZ control is required, and if so who will control
the camera
ensure that where cameras are connected to a monitoring station,
there is a secure link
ensure help points at shelters or stations have CCTV which is
automatically activated when the help button is pressed.
Images may be transmitted over wireless or wired networks to a recording
medium. Wired networks use coaxial cable, Cat 5 cable or optical fibre. They are
relatively cheap, are largely unaffected by the environment and permit large
amounts of data to be transmitted. Wireless cameras can be beneficial where the
use of wires is not practical. These often operate on the 2.4GHz frequency band
which is used by numerous other systems, making the likelihood of interference
high. This may also mean that data is less secure or may become corrupted.
As CCTV moves towards fully digital systems, cameras communicating via the
Internet Protocol (IP) are expected to become increasingly popular. It allows
information to be transmitted across a data network and can be wired or wireless
as necessary or practical.
Video contains a large amount of information and storage, particularly for
extended use systems, can be expensive. There is often, therefore, a trade-off to
be made between image quality, frame rate and length of recording between
media reuse. The actual quality selected will depend on the purpose of the
Digital recording systems store video on a hard drive like that found in a
standard computer. The hard drive has a finite storage capacity and so a digital
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CCTV system can only retain video on the system for a finite time before it is
overwritten. If an incident occurs, it therefore needs to be copied to a permanent
storage medium such as a DVD.
For recognition of individuals within a relatively slow-moving context, the
minimum frame rate (image rate if digital) should be no less than of one frame
per 2 seconds. For after-the-fact analysis of an incident the frame rate should
be much higher: around 5 frames per second.
For immediate use within a managed environment – e.g. where on-bus
recordings are reviewed at the end of a working run and the operator takes a
decision on whether the recording contains any useful content – an overwrite
interval of 5-7 days may be acceptable. For police use, where it may take an
investigating officer some while to establish that a particular recording is of
evidential value, the overwrite time should be much longer – ideally at least a
Bear in mind that you should not compromise image quality to try to fit more
data onto a hard drive. The more data is compressed, the poorer the image
quality will be.
To be usable as evidence, the imagery needs not only to be good quality but tied
closely to the real world. Location is likely to be established adequately by the
visuals, but it is also important to know the date and time the recording was
made. Each frame, therefore, needs to be “timestamped” with an accurate
recording time at the point the recording is made.
ensure recording equipment is kept clean, dry and secure
ensure that the frame rate is adequate for the purpose of the system
ensure that the recording capacity is adequate for the purpose of the
ensure that the recording facility is rated for use in its operating
environment – temperature, vibration etc
keep a record of the make, model, format and reference of any
equipment used as part of the Audit Trail
ensure a record is kept of the camera location and number and the
vehicle’s fleet number.
ensure that the camera records accurate current time on each frame
synchronise the camera clock to a suitable reference source (e.g.
Rugby), taking into account summer time changes
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ensure that the internal camera clock is accurate within +/-10 seconds
over a 14 day period and is re-synchronised at least once in that
With analogue systems the main factors affecting the recording quality are
physical or magnetic damage to the tape. Tape has a finite lifetime: it cannot be
indefinitely reused.
ensure that the recording head is kept clean to avoid damaging video
allow video tapes and recording equipment to reach local ambient
temperature before use to prevent condensation damage
test tapes before use to ensure that they are still capable of taking a
high quality recording
keep a record of the number of times which a tape is used – it will
probably be necessary to destroy the tape after 10-12 uses
Degauss the video tape before reusing or destroying
Digital recording generally suffers less from physical problems but has other
ensure that hard drives are tested regularly
encrypt digital images which are transmitted from the roadside to a
central facility where possible
Do not:
allow electronic access controls, passwords or encryption devices to
prevent access by authorised personnel
Retrieval, replay and export mechanisms
Where recordings are to be used for evidence, a master recording needs to be
retained and carefully controlled. This impacts both analogue and digital systems
– though differently.
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The investigator must retain material obtained in a criminal
investigation which may be relevant to the investigation.
All material which may be relevant to an investigation must be
retained until a decision is taken whether to institute
proceedings against a person for an offence.
If a criminal investigation results in proceedings being
instituted, all material which may be relevant must be retained
at least until the accused is acquitted or convicted or the
prosecutor decides not to proceed with the case.
Source: The Criminal Procedure and Investigations Act 1996
Code of Practice (5.1, 5.7, and 5.8)
The constable may require any information which is contained
in a computer and is accessible from the premises to be
produced in a form in which it can be taken away and in which
it is visible and legible if he has reasonable grounds for
believing it is evidence in relation to an offence which he is
investigating or any other offence.
Source: Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984
ensure that for any recording (digital or analogue) a master or
evidence copy is kept for reference; this should be stored securely,
with access controlled
ensure that for any recording, a working copy is available from which
stills and sections of video can be made by investigators
ensure the time and date associated with each picture is legible
ensure a system operator is always available at short notice to replay
and export recordings
ensure that a simple system operator’s manual is available locally to
assist with replay and export
ensure that system operators know the retention period of the system
and export time for various amounts of data
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Tape is very delicate and can easily be damaged by improper handling, storage
or replay.
Some analogue CCTV recording systems are capable of simultaneous twin
recordings. One of these will be the evidence tape must be kept, secure and
unedited for use by the police, if necessary. A working tape is used from which
an operator can work or stills can be made. If the system is not capable of
simultaneous twin recordings, a copy of the first recording should be made and
the original sealed for use as the evidence tape.
Avoid replaying original video recordings except (i) to make a copy (ii)
in the context of a court when suitably instructed
Digital recordings suffer much less from degradation. They are also much less
bound to their medium. A recording file can be copied, bit for bit, to a backup file
so that a working copy is always available. Nevertheless, using digital CCTV
represents a significant issue in the retrieval, replay and export of those images
as evidence.
It is always preferable to extract video data in the native format to avoid reduction
in picture quality and maintain the evidential integrity of the data. Methods that
involve format conversion, such as scan conversion or recording to videotape,
should only be used if there is no method available to transfer the data in its
native format.
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There may be instances where the police require not just the recording of an
incident, but the hard drive itself because of a major crime or terrorist incident.
Generally this will happen because the volume of data is so large that it is the
only practical method available or there are no export options. Because of this
possibility, CCTV systems should have removable – and spare – hard drives to
take the place of any which are currently in police possession. It must be
stressed that this is the exception and not the rule, and that in most instances bit
for bit cloned copies of the CCTV data can be exported to another medium such
as a CD or DVD.
Give the police both the master/primary evidence and working copy
along with any stills if the CCTV data is in relation to a crime.
ensure that the CCTV system has a suitable export facility: connector
socket (e.g. USB), network port or removable hard drive, DVD writer.
make provision for a stock of say 10% of spare removable hard drives
transfer images recorded onto a hard drive or any reusable recording
medium onto a “write once read many” (WORM) recordable medium.
This should happen as early as practical in the recording chain, so as
to simplify the audit chain management
if file compression is used to store data, ensure that the algorithm is
appropriate for the reconstruction of data for replay. Test the quality of
playback video under different conditions of lighting etc
ensure that the system is able to quickly export video and stills to a
removable storage-medium, including timestamps
export video in the native file format wherever possible and at the
same quality that they were stored on the system
To simplify and speed the use by investigators of the recorded video, it is highly
desirable that any digital camera system comes with playback software which
provides some specific functions.
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ensure that the manufacturer provides any software required to view
or replay the exported pictures
ensure that files can be replayed immediately once exported to
removable media
ensure playback software:
has variable speed control including frame by frame, forward
and reverse viewing;
displays a single camera at full resolution;
enables the synchronised display of single and multiple
cameras and maintains the aspect ratio;
permits the recording from each camera to be searched by
time and date;
allows printing and/or saving of pictures in faithful format (e.g.
bitmap) including time and date.
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3. General security systems – operations
The operational aspects of any CCTV system will be crucial to its success and to
its usefulness to the Police in any prosecutions that result. The CCTV operator
who sits in the office watching the output of the CCTV camera will add the
necessary human element which will ultimately decide whether a transgression
has taken place. Therefore it is vital that secure, robust and consistent
operational practices are in place. This section details both the recommended
and required operational practices for a successful CCTV system.
CCTV recordings will have greater evidential weight if it can be shown that a
robust Audit Trail has been maintained throughout their life, from event to court
room. This includes ensuring that appropriate logs are kept, indicating who has
had access to recordings and when. In the event that a recording is used as
evidence, it can help show that the security of the data has not been
Operators have a duty under the Data Protection Act 1998 to ensure that the data
which they hold is accurate, relevant, and not excessive. The Information
Commissioner‟s Office has written a Data Protection Manual which provides
checklists for those who hold data to evaluate whether they are compliant with
Data Protection Act requirements. Wherever possible, regular self-evaluation for
compliance should be undertaken to show that internal procedures are welldefined, robust and regularly reviewed.
Finally, unless the equipment used to capture and process the images is working
properly there can be no confidence in the recordings which are extracted from it.
As part of the operation of the system a routine maintenance programme should
be in place. This will include regular cleaning/clearing, repair and replacement,
and ensuring that the date and time is accurate.
The Public has a right of access to data including video images.
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Source: The Data Protection Act 1998
Private and Family life should not be exposed by CCTV systems
in the public domain.
Source: The Human Rights Act 1998
Where public CCTV is used, any directed surveillance must be
Source: The Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act 2000
register your CCTV operation with the Office of the Data Protection
Commissioner detailing the exact nature of the use of the CCTV
camera systems. Ensure that any audio recording systems in place
are also detailed.
ensure that Operational Manuals are available to all staff involved in
CCTV operations, and that appropriate training is conducted
carry out regular self-audits and self-assessments to ensure that
procedures are robust and well-defined
keep logs detailing who has had access to CCTV footage and when;
more than one log may be necessary
display camera enforcements signs in areas where a system operates
including references to any audio recording systems
Carry out regular safety checks of the system and its operators
Retention and storage
Personal data processed for any purpose or purposes shall not
be kept for longer than is necessary for that purpose or those
Source: Data Protection Act 1998, Schedule I, Part I
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Appropriate technical and organisational measures shall be
taken against unauthorised or unlawful processing of personal
data and against accidental loss or destruction of, or damage
to, personal data.
Source: Data Protection Act 1998 Schedule 1, Part 1
All video recordings (working and evidence) remain the property of the data
controller which made the recording. It is his responsibility to ensure that they
are suitably managed in accordance with both data protection legislation, and the
legitimate requirements of the criminal justice system.
keep a catalogue of stored recordings (working and evidence) for
keep all recordings (working and evidence) made during a monitoring
period in secure storage and in an unaltered state until destruction
give each video recording an individual reference number for unique
identification regardless of format
keep an audit log of the movement and viewing of all working and
evidence video recordings. The log begins when the monitoring
period begins and ends when the media is released from secure
storage to be degaussed or destroyed
keep all recordings (working and evidence) for a period of at least a
month regardless of whether there are any contraventions on the tape
control access to the system and recorded images to prevent
tampering and unauthorised viewing
keep a record of who accessed the system and when
ensure that the system is capable of securing relevant pictures for
review or export at a later date
Do not:
remove an evidence recording from storage unless it is required for
adjudication evidence or it is no longer required for evidential
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remove a working recording from storage unless it is required to:
generate stills or on screen prints or photographs
view by authorised personnel or staff when considering
representations or appeals
for viewing under strictly controlled conditions.
for copying or release to third parties
for monitoring purposes to obtain statistics on the performance
of the scheme
for additional monitoring purposes
prevent authorised access (e.g. by police or CSI) with electronic
access controls using proprietary software or hardware
As with operation, analogue tape storage is principally constrained by the need to
prevent physical or magnetic damage to the tapes.
store video tapes short-term (3 months or under) vertically, in their
cases, in a constant environment which will not suffer from extremes
and away from any electric or magnetic field. This will normally mean:
maintained between 15°C and 24°C
maintained at a relative humidity of 35% - 55%
remember that long-term storage of video tapes can compromise the
quality of images – there is no clear guidance available on lifetime
store tapes on or in steel furniture with steel shelving which is fire
cut small holes if polythene bags if these are used for storage, e.g. of
evidence videos, to prevent condensation damage
ensure that tapes are rewound before they are stored
ensure that all tapes are degaussed before reuse or disposal
ensure that the evidential video is stored with the record protect
device activated to avoid accidental erasure.
Do not:
reuse a tape until all contraventions recorded on it have been fully
and finally settled
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reuse tapes containing classified or important information (e.g. tapes
which have recorded video of a serious crime)
degauss a tape more than 12 times
release a working video for reuse until all contraventions on it have
been fully and finally settled
store video tapes in airtight containers because of the risk of
condensation damage
store tapes in direct sunlight
store paper in video cassette boxes: paper dust is abrasive and may
damage the tape
store video tapes in the recorder
Digital evidence can be fragile is different ways. It can be altered, damaged or
destroyed by improper handling or storage. Therefore special precautions must
be in place to collect, document and preserve this type of evidence.
See also the Code of Practice of Legal Admissibility of Information Stored
Electronically (BIP 0008-1:2004), available from BSI.
store digital recordings in a away from sunlight and heat sources
ensure that special sequences or individual pictures can be protected
to prevent overwriting before they can be viewed in an investigation
store digital material away from magnetic sources
store digital material away from extremes of humidity
store discs in individual cases
ensure that discs are labelled on the upper side of the disc only and
not on the data side
store hard drives in individual boxes with foam inserts
securely delete or physically destroy (e.g. shred) digital images once
they are no longer required
Do not:
Convert digital CCTV data back to analogue as this causes
deterioration of the data and can also lead to data corruption.
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Control room security
Access to the control room should be strictly controlled with regard to British
Standard (BS7499). It should be both secure and lockable. All monitoring,
recording and control equipment should be located in this room and any working
or evidence tapes and other relevant records must be kept in secure locked
cabinets either in this room or similar secure environment. The control room
must never be left unattended and unlocked for any period, however short.
ensure that the control room Operating Procedure is well documented
in a user manual which is accessible to all operators
design and operate the control room in accordance with the technical
requirements for analogue/digital recordings and retrieval above
keep all recordings in a secure location for seven years, where
applicable in criminal cases
release copies of sections of working video recordings only to
legitimate enforcement and investigative authorities
keep a detailed record of the release of any recording including the
information to whom it was released and the reason for release
provide the police with a statement verifying the integrity of the
recording upon release
ensure that all monitoring operations take place in a secure and
lockable room
permit visitors access to the Control Room only when authorised by
the named Senior Officer
Adhere to the recommendations laid down with regard to British
Standard (BS) 7499
Do not:
release working video recordings without proof of identity and
release any recordings to members of the public, notwithstanding the
Freedom of Information Act and the Data Protection Act.
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Category of licensable activity [under the Private Security
Industry Act 2001] …involves the use of CCTV equipment to
monitor the monitor the activities of a member of the public in a
public or private place; or identify a particular person including
the use of CCTV in these cases to record images that are
viewed on non-CCTV equipment, for purposes other than
identifying a trespasser and protecting property
Source: The Private Security Industry (Licences) (Amendment)
(No. 2) Regulations 2005
The Private Security Industry Act 2001 requires contracted operatives involved in
public space surveillance to be licensed under the Security Industry Authority
(SIA). Licensing must be preceded by training at an accredited CCTV training
course (see Annex D). All applications are submitted to a Criminal Record Bureau
(CRB) check to ensure that the person is both qualified and fit to hold the SIA
license. The license is issued in the form of a wearable, credit card sized badge.
Employers may also find it prudent to undertake relevant staff checks as laid
down in British Standard (BS) 7858.
It is essential that when recruiting operators for CCTV operation and monitoring
that those tasks which will fall to the operator are analysed and well understood.
HOSDB research has indicated that operators need to show a range of
competencies to undertake CCTV monitoring. These include: good interpersonal
skills, good stress tolerance, good self control, excellent manual dexterity, and
an excellent ability to apply specialist knowledge (including current legislation,
operational procedures and systems, knowledge of the area covered by the
cameras, and police systems and procedures).
ensure staff are properly trained and qualified in the use of CCTV
ensure that a senior officer has responsibility for access to the Control
Room and for the release of video tapes and still images.
ensure that staff who are to monitor CCTV have undergone a sight
test since it is a visually demanding job
ensure that system operators know the retention period of the system
and export time for various amounts of data
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ensure that a Code of Practice and a Control Room Procedures
Manual are made available to staff who will be monitoring CCTV
ensure that all staff employed for the monitoring of CCTV cameras
are made aware of their obligation to work to the rules of
ensure that all staff who undertake enforcement of traffic regulations
using CCTV has successfully completed an approved CCTV training
ensure that details pertaining to British Standard (BS) 7858 are
Audit log
An audit log must be kept to track the movement of all evidential media. In all
cases the audit log must begin when monitoring begins and ends when the
evidential recording is released from secure storage to be degaussed, deleted or
destroyed. A detailed record must be kept of any recording which is released.
This should include the reason for release.
A recording should only be released to an authorised representative from
the parking and traffic appeals service (copies to the appellant)
the Police
lawyers acting on the behalf of appellants
lawyers acting on the behalf of defendants or victims
third party prosecuting authority such as HM Customs and Revenue or the
Health and Safety Executive
this may also apply to Data Subject Access requests
Proof of identity and a signature must be required before release.
Do remember that the Audit Log or Logs may form part of the evidence which is
submitted and its consistency, accuracy and clarity will add weight to any video
evidence which is submitted. The Audit Log should be kept safe and secure and
should only be completed by those authorised to do so.
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4. Bus lane enforcement: a special case
In addition to the general provisions discussed in section 2, there are additional
requirements that must be adopted in specific circumstances. One particular
context is the use of CCTV for bus lane enforcement.
Originally limited to London, bus lane enforcement is (subject to Government
approval) now available to all English local authorities, under Statutory
Instrument 2005 no 2757, The Bus Lane Contraventions (Penalty Charges,
Adjudication and Enforcement) (England) Regulations 2005. CCTV may be used
subject to SI2005 no 2756, The Bus Lanes (Approved Devices) (England) Order
Transport for London and the London Boroughs have been using CCTV cameras
to enforce traffic regulations since 1999. CCTV is monitored by a trained operator
keeps a contemporaneous record of any contraventions witnessed during the
CCTV recording. If, on review, the contravention is deemed to be clear and
indisputable, the registered keeper of the vehicle and the circumstances of the
contravention are noted. A Penalty Charge Notice (PCN) is then sent to the keeper
of the vehicle within 14 days of the contravention.
Note that the requirements and guidance presented in this section is in addition
to Section 2, which should still be followed even if the only CCTV application
used is traffic enforcement.
Regulation (extract)
2.(c) The equipment includes a camera which is capable of
producing (i) a close-up legible image of the registration plate
of any vehicle in the bus lane or, as the case may be, the
selected area; and (ii) a wider angle image of the carriageway
such as will enable information to be provided about any
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circumstances which may have caused the vehicle to be in the
bus lane or the selected area.
Source: Statutory Instrument 2005 No. 2756 – The Bus Lanes
(Approved Devices) (England) Order 2005
Placement of enforcement cameras is worth considering carefully. During the
passage of the Road Traffic Act 1991 considerable debate surrounded the
positioning of traffic enforcement cameras. At the time, it was advised that
cameras be placed to capture the rear view of the offending vehicle, in part to
allay the public perception that these cameras would be used for surveillance of
the individual.
However, since then it has become evident that although the offending vehicle
has been identified, the offending individual has not. Therefore, it may be
preferable to have two cameras which provide both a rear and a frontal view
(Code of Practice for Operational Use of Enforcement Equipment – ACPO, 2004).
For enforcement use, cameras must be paired, in such a way as to ensure that
both contextual and identifying video is shot.
Many situations will need a combination of permanent and temporary cameras.
Permanent cameras are best for situations where repeated offences are likely to
occur such as bus lanes, junctions or a congestion charge zone. A temporary or
mobile camera may be best if it needs to respond to changing crime patterns or if
the area which the camera will need to cover is large. It may also be more cost
effective to use mobile CCTV units to cover a variety of ad hoc situations, than to
have multiple fixed cameras in multiple locations.
Image quality
Regulation (extract)
3. The equipment includes a recording system in which…
(b) recordings are made at a minimum rate of 5 frames per
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(c) each frame is timed (in hours, minutes and seconds), dated
and sequentially numbered automatically…;
(d) the location of the bus lane or selected area being surveyed
is shown;
Source: Statutory Instrument 2005 No. 2756 – The Bus Lanes
(Approved Devices) (England) Order 2005
Slow scan video is not acceptable for bus lane enforcement.
Camera control
Regulation (extract)
3. (e) Where any part of the equipment is controlled manually,
two simultaneous recordings [must be] made of the camera
output viewed by the operator.
Source: Statutory Instrument 2005 No. 2756 – The Bus Lanes
(Approved Devices) (England) Order 2005
There are specific provisions for recording manually-controlled cameras.
Where cameras are manned by an operator for the purpose of confirming data for road
traffic violations, the operator is the primary witness of any infraction and the video
recording is the record of what the operator witnesses. Appropriate logs should be kept
of infractions witnessed, and witness statements produced.
Regulation (extract)
2.(d) [The camera must be] connected by secure data links to a
recording system.
4. The equipment is [must be] (a) synchronised with the
"Rugby" atomic clock or another independent national standard
clock; and (b) accurate within plus or minus 10 seconds over a
14-day period and [be] re-synchronised at least once during
that period.
6. Where the equipment includes a facility for simultaneous
voice-over recording, it incorporates a time mark from the clock
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with which the recording system is synchronised, denoting
contemporaneous recording with the vision track.
Source: Statutory Instrument 2005 No. 2756 – The Bus Lanes
(Approved Devices) (England) Order 2005
Analogue CCTV recording systems should be capable of simultaneous twin
recordings. A digital CCTV recording will be made to a hard drive from which an
evidence copy and a working copy can be made. A working tape is needed from
which an operator can work or stills can be made. An evidence tape must be kept,
secure and unedited for use by the police, if necessary.
Regulation (extract)
5. Where the equipment includes a facility to print a still
(a) of any frame recorded on the videotape; or
(b) from a digital record,
any printed image is endorsed with the time and date when the
frame was captured and its unique number.
6. Where the equipment includes a facility for simultaneous
voice-over recording, it incorporates a time mark from the clock
with which the recording system is synchronised, denoting
contemporaneous recording with the vision track.
Source: Statutory Instrument 2005 No. 2756 – The Bus Lanes
(Approved Devices) (England) Order 2005
Contraventions of traffic regulations must be identified in real time and at the
time when they are committed. No pre-recorded video images may be studied to
identify contraventions committed at a previous time. The operator‟s view of the
traffic contravention is the primary evidence that a traffic contravention occurred
(Code of Practice for Operation of CCTV Enforcement Cameras, 2006).
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The operator must identify the time and sufficient vehicle identification
information at the time of the contravention using a logbook or approved audio
voice-over equipment. The working copy of the video is the physical copy of the
operator‟s view. The operator will then be able to return to the working video at a
later date to produce still images which can be used to issue Penalty Charge
Notices (PCNs).
The enforcement log
Operators are required to keep logs of incidents as they see them in real time.
this log should contain information on:
date and time;
operator, camera ID, date, etc;
the incident and vehicles involved: location, VRN(s), vehicle description –
make/model/colour, actions witnessed, etc
A separate Control Room Log should also be kept which records the monitoring
that has been undertaken: date, camera operator, camera ID, location, start and
finish time, equipment problems, etc. This Log should be signed by the Control
Room Supervisor.
Where a contravention has been observed, the authorised officer will be required
to make a witness statement which declares that at the time that the
contravention was observed the equipment was approved by the Secretary for
State and was in full working order. Reference should be made to the Control
Room Log. The Statement should also enumerate what evidence (e.g. stills) is
being produced in support of this statement and under what circumstances the
evidence was produce (e.g. what camera). See Code of Practice for Operation of
CCTV Enforcement Cameras in London Boroughs (Template, ALG 2006) for
sample witness statements.
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Still images
Someone who has received a PCN is entitled to view the section of video
recording the contravention. Still images are often supplied with the Penalty
Charge Notice (PCN) as an alternative to viewing the video evidence. A still image
is a single frame of a video recording printed onto paper. This single image then
becomes the property of the recipient. Still images should only be supplied at the
discretion of the Senior Officer.
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Glossary of terms and acronyms
ACPO – Association of Chief Police Officers
BSI – British Standards Institution
Cat 5 – Category 5 cabling standard – up to 100Mbit/s
CCD – Charge-coupled device – electronic component for capturing digital
CCIR – Comité Consultatif International de Radio – now part of the International
Telecommunications Union, the global telecoms standards organisation
CCTV – Closed Circuit Television
GHz – Gigahertz (measure of frequency)
HOSDB – Home Offices Scientific Development Branch
IP – Internet Protocol (communications standard)
JPEG – Joint Pictures Expert Group (digital still image standard, involving
MPEG – Motion Pictures Expert Group (digital video standard, involving
PCN – Penalty Charge Notice
Rotakin – HOSDB standard test for CCTV technology
RTIG – Real Time Information Group
SIA – Security Industry Association
SIO – Senior Investigating Officer a Term normally given to the police officer in
overall charge of an investigation
TfL – Transport for London
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VRN – Vehicle Registration Number
WORM – Write Once Read Many (characteristic of storage device)
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Further reading
Sources with legal force
Bus Lanes (Approved Devices) (England) Order 2005: Statutory Instrument 2005
number 2756. Available at:
Bus Lane Contraventions (Penalty Charges, Adjudication and Enforcement)
(England) Regulations 2005: Statutory Instrument 2005 number 2757. Available
Criminal Procedure and Investigations Act 1996 Code of Practice. Available
Data Protection Act 1998. Available at:
Data Protection Act 1998 Code of Practice (2000). Available
Freedom of Information Act 2000. Available at:
Health and Safety at Work etc Act 1974. Available at:
Human Rights Act 1998. Available at:
Code of Practice of Legal Admissibility of Information Stored Electronically (BIP
0008-1:2004, 2:2005, 3:2005). May be ordered from BSI:
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London Local Authorities Act 1996. Available at:
London Local Authorities Act 2000. Available at:
Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984. May be ordered from The Stationary
Private Security Industry Act 2001
The Private Security Industry (Licences) Regulations 2004 (Statutory Instrument
2004 No. 255)
The Private Security Industry (Licences) (Amendment) (No. 2) Regulations 2005
(Statutory Instrument 2005 No. 2118)
Railways and Transport Safety Act 2003. Available at:
Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act 2000. Available at:
Road Traffic Regulation Act 1984. May be ordered from The Stationary
Road Traffic Act 1991. Available at:
RTIG guidelines – CCTV on bus networks
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Statutory Instrument 2001 No 690: Transport for London (Bus Lanes) Order 2001.
Available at:
BS 8418 Installation and remote monitoring of detector activator CCTV systems –
Code of Practice
BS 10008 Evidential Weight and legal admissibility of electronic information –
Specification (2008)
Guideline sources
UK Police Requirements for Digital CCTV Systems (Home Office Scientific
Development Branch, 2005)
Neil Cohen, Simon Walker, Ken MacLennan-Brown, Retrieval of Video Evidence
and Production of Working copies from Digital CCTV Systems (Home Office
Scientific Development Branch, 2006).
Neil Cohen, J Gattuso, Ken MacLennan-Brown, CCTV Operation Requirements
Manual (Home Office Scientific Development Branch, Publication Number 55/06,
Code of Practice for Operational Use of Enforcement Equipment (ACPO, 2004)
Digital Imaging Procedure, (Police Scientific Development Branch, 2002)
Diffley C and Wallis E, CCTV: Making it Work, Recruitment and Selection of CCTV
Operators (Police Scientific Development Branch, 1998)
Neil, DC, Mather P and Brown EC, Guidelines for Handling Video Tape (Police
Scientific Development Branch, publication no. 21/98 ,1999)
Get on Board: an Agenda for Improving Personal Security – Guidance
(Department for Transport, April 2002)
Good Practice Guide for Computer Based Electronic Evidence (ACPO)
RTIG guidelines – CCTV on bus networks
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Skelton, Neal and Raymond Webb Protocol for the handling of digital images on
public transport vehicles
CCTV Code of Practice (Information Commissioner‟s Office, 2000)
Data Protection Audit Manual (Information Commissioner‟s Office, 2001)
Code of Practice for Operation of CCTV Enforcement Cameras in London
Boroughs (Template, ALG 2006)
Webb, Raymond (Metropolitan Police) and Neal Skelton (Police Scientific Development
Branch). Protocol for the handling of digital images on public transport vehicles (Private
Useful websites Website of the Security Industry Authority Website of the Security Industry Training Organisation Website of the CCTV User Group Official publication of the CCTV User Group Website of the Information
Commissioner‟s office – dealing with organisations that hold information
f Link to the Information Commissioner‟s Office CCTV code of practice Website of the Home Office Website of the Home Office
CCTV initiative Main HMSO website link to publications HMSO website link to the
Data Protection Act 1998
RTIG guidelines – CCTV on bus networks
Page 41 HMSO website link to the
Freedom of Information Act 2000 Website of the Health and Safety Executive Department of Constitutional Affairs Liberty‟s website - Details of the Human rights Acts and
Privacy issues
RTIG guidelines – CCTV on bus networks
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Extract from HOSDB guidance
Prosecution requires clear, accurate and high quality surveillance images, which
monitor, detect, recognise and identify any intruder or criminal activity. To assist
developers, the Home Office Scientific Development Branch (HOSDB) developed
the Rotakin system to test and measure the image quality of analogue CCTV
systems. The Rotakin® system and is now a recommendation of the British and
European standard BS EN 50132-7:1996.
These guidelines are related to the image height of a standing man defined using
the Rotakin standard test target 1.6 metres high. When the image of Rotakin 
fills the screen vertically the image height is said to be 100%R.
The figures are based on a 625 line CCIR standard system and assume all
equipment is correctly adjusted and operated within its design range.
There are at present no comparable set of video standards for digital systems,
where the problems of picture quality are quite different. Developing digital
system guidance is currently the subject of work within HOSDB.
Monitor and
An observer can
determine the number,
direction and speed of
Not less than
movement of people
whose presence is known
to him
Assuming that the image
contrast of the target is
sufficiently above the
threshold of human
sensitivity and that the
picture is not unduly
cluttered with non targets
Following an alert an
observer can, after a
search, ascertain with a
high degree of certainty
whether or not a person
is visible in the pictures
displayed to him
Assuming that the image
contrast of the target is
sufficiently above the
threshold of human
sensitivity and that the
picture is not unduly
cluttered with non targets
Not less than
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Viewers can say with a
high degree of certainty
whether or not the
individual shown in the
same as someone they
have seen before
Picture quality and detail
should be sufficient to
enable the identity of a
subject to be established
beyond reasonable doubt
Reading a car
licence plate
Not less than
Assuming that the angle
of view and lighting is
suitable and no
significant degrading
effects such as image
blur due to motion or out
of focus are evident
Not less that
Assuming that the angle
of view and lighting is
suitable and no
significant degrading
effects such as image
blur due to motion or out
of focus are evident
Saloon car not
less than 50%
picture height
Assuming that the angle
of view and lighting is
suitable and no
significant degrading
effects such as image
blur due to motion or out
of focus are evident
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CCTV approved training courses
(as at Jan 2007)
Training Course
Training Provider
Level 2 Certificate for CCTV
Operatives (Public Space
ASET Level 2- Operating CCTV
for Public Space Surveillance
Date of Approval
Level 2 Award for CCTV
Operators (Public Space
City and Guilds
BTEC Level 2 Intermediate Award
in CCTV Camera Enforcement
London Borough of
Croydon, London
Borough of Camden
December 2003
CCTV Traffic Enforcement BTEC
Unit (Anyone taking this training
course will have to have already
successfully completed
modules which provide them with
control room operators training.)
August 2004
Tavcom CRO8 – CCTV for
Transport Analysts – BTEC Level
3 Award. This 3 day residential
course covers best practice
around the retrieval, production
and despatch of on-vehicle CCTV
May 2005
Level 2 Award in CCTV
Operations (Public Space
NOCN Award in CCTV Operations
(Public Space Surveillance)
VINCI Park CCTV Enforcement
Training Programme
January 2006
RTIG guidelines – CCTV on bus networks
Page 45
The future of CCTV
CCTV is a rapidly developing technology, particularly now that it can be achieved
by digital cameras. Each component of the system is benefiting from continuous
improvements and downward cost trends – image detectors, image compression
algorithms, encryption software, storage solutions, communications (fixed and
radio), image analysis, etc.
This makes it difficult to be definitive about what kind of system should be
employed in the future: the economics of CCTV may have change dramatically.
For instance, large hard discs are available but still expensive – hence the tradeoff discussed in Section 2 between image quality, frame rate and overwrite
interval. This is quite likely to be resolved as prices fall.
CCTV is also surrounded by legislation and regulation, and this may also change.
Relatively small changes (for example, in where liability for security lies) could
change the willingness of organisations to invest. Although we cannot foresee
such changes, it is noteworthy that the subject of digital identity is a very hot
topic at the moment, as are certain aspects of criminal justice procedure.
As technology improves, some new opportunities may arise which are not
covered by these guidelines. For instance, it might become technically
straightforward to record sound synchronously with CCTV video. (At present the
bus environment is too noisy and acoustically complex.) Such recording would
almost certainly require a number of independent microphones and some
sophisticated filtering systems. For evidence purposes this would need to be tied
tightly to the video. This is not yet covered by the existing secondary legislation.
Another potential change arises from the development of automated image
analysis. Machine “intelligence” can already be set to detect, for example,
abandoned objects or individual faces – though the systems are expensive and
reliability is not yet consistent. Such automation clearly has the potential to
improve dramatically the depth and coverage of security monitoring, without
requiring armies of operators. This change would impact dramatically on
operations in complex ways.
RTIG guidelines – CCTV on bus networks
Page 46
means of
Finally, at present CCTV on vehicles (and some roadside CCTV) is recorded to
disc, and then viewed later. This means there is no opportunity of
contemporaneous monitoring and response. If it were economically feasible to
communicate video out from the bus to a control centre, there would be much
more opportunities to respond early to (or event forestall) security incidents.
Again, the procedural change required would be substantial. TfL are understood
to be considering this at the moment.
Future updates to these Guidelines will, of course, take into account relevant
technical developments of this kind.
RTIG guidelines – CCTV on bus networks
Page 47
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