Safety Manual - Pyro Combustion

Safety Manual - Pyro Combustion
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INJURY & ILLNESS
PREVENTION PROGRAM
for
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc.
2969 South Highland Drive
Las Vegas, Nevada 89109
The designated safety coordinator for Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. is:
Gary Pfizenmayer
PROVIDED BY:
©Safety Services Company
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1
Revision
6/18/2013
©Safety Services Company
personnel
involvement
training
Injury &
Illness
Prevention
Program
worksite
analysis
hazard
prevention
& control
How to Use This Manual
This manual does not ensure a safe workplace. The only way to create an accident-free and
healthy work environment is through the employees of Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc.. A
vibrant culture of safety relies on consistent concern for safer, healthier work habits and
continual improvement of Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc.’s injury and illness prevention
program through cooperation and commitment throughout the organization.
Aside from being required by law, a sensible commitment to safety and health can reduce the
cost of business by cutting workers’ compensation claims and reducing time workers spend
away from work; it also impacts productivity by drawing attention to the continual improvement
of management systems and work processes. Further, and perhaps most importantly, a
commitment to safety and health reflects care for employees.
The chapters in this manual detail some of the regulatory requirements Pyro Combustion &
Controls Inc. may be obliged to fulfill during daily operations. However, awareness of the
hazards in the workplace and how to control them demand insight only personnel in your
organization have. This manual reflects industry best practices and is in compliance with federal
and state regulations.
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OSHA published the following list as a summary of the most important responsibilities for
employers under the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970:

Provide a workplace free from serious recognized hazards and comply with standards,
rules and regulations issued under the OSHA Act.

Examine workplace conditions to make sure they conform to applicable OSHA
standards.

Make sure employees have and use safe tools and equipment and properly maintain this
equipment.

Use color codes, posters, labels or signs to warn employees of potential hazards.

Establish or update operating procedures and communicate them so that employees
follow safety and health requirements.

Provide medical examinations and training when required by OSHA standards.

Post, at a prominent location within the workplace, the OSHA poster (or the state-plan
equivalent) informing employees of their rights and responsibilities.

Report to the nearest OSHA office within 8 hours any fatal accident or one that results in
the hospitalization of three or more employees.

Keep records of work-related injuries and illnesses.
(Note: Employers with 10 or fewer employees and employers in certain low-hazard
industries are exempt from this requirement.)

Provide employees, former employees and their representatives access to the Log of
Work-Related Injuries and Illnesses (OSHA Form 300).

Provide access to employee medical records and exposure records to employees or
their authorized representatives.

Provide to the OSHA compliance officer the names of authorized employee
representatives who may be asked to accompany the compliance officer during an
inspection.

Not discriminate against employees who exercise their rights under the Act.

Post OSHA citations at or near the work area involved. Each citation must remain posted
until the violation has been corrected, or for three working days, whichever is longer.
Post abatement verification documents or tags.

Correct cited violations by the deadline set in the OSHA citation and submit required
abatement verification documentation.
In addition to OSHA standards, there may be state, local or other safety requirements that may
not be covered in this manual, but for which Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. nevertheless
remains accountable.
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Practicing safety requires planning and action within a systematic framework that encourages
participation and prioritizes worker education and training. Each chapter in this manual outlines
the responsibilities of management, the safety committee and all employees for a given safety
topic and specifies elements of training that need to be covered. While they may require
considerable effort to complete and incorporate into a comprehensive safety program for Pyro
Combustion & Controls Inc., the forms included with each chapter provide a starting place for
documentation needed for various aspects of the health and safety program.
If Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. is happy with the safety system in place, this manual can
provide support and serve as a reference for those responsible for safety. If not, this manual can
help establish such a system by providing information about safety management frameworks
proven successful in preventing occupational injuries and illnesses. This manual also provides
safety tips for a variety of topics that may be of value for employees at Pyro Combustion &
Controls Inc..
The policies and forms offered in this manual can help you create and maintain a safety and
health system that works in conjunction with other management systems already in place to
ensure a safe and healthy workplace. Ultimately, it is upon management and safety leaders to
know and understand the standards, regulations and best practices that apply to the business.
Equally, it is upon employees to follow policy and supervision and use their best judgment to
stay safe and healthy.
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Table of Contents
1
Safety & Health Program Summary ........................................................... 1-1
2
General Safety Rules .................................................................................. 2-1
3
Safety Committee Policy ............................................................................ 3-1
4
Job Hazard Analysis.................................................................................... 4-1
5
Accident Investigation................................................................................ 5-1
6
Fire Protection & Emergency Planning ...................................................... 6-1
7
Medical Services & First Aid ...................................................................... 7-1
8
Bloodborne Pathogens ................................................................................ 8-1
9
Workplace Violence Prevention ................................................................. 9-1
10 Hazard Communication............................................................................. 10-1
11 Personal Protective Equipment ................................................................ 11-1
12 Hearing Conservation ............................................................................... 12-1
13 Hand & Power Tools ................................................................................. 13-1
14 Hazardous Energy Control (Lockout/Tagout) .......................................... 14-1
15 Ladders & Stairs ....................................................................................... 15-1
16 Fall Protection ........................................................................................... 16-1
17 Heavy Equipment ...................................................................................... 17-1
18 Confined Spaces ....................................................................................... 18-1
19 Driver Safety .............................................................................................. 19-1
20 Powered Industrial Trucks (Forklifts) ...................................................... 20-1
21 Welding, Cutting & Brazing (Hotwork) ..................................................... 21-1
22 New Hire Orientation ................................................................................ 22-1
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Safety & Health Program Summary
1
Safety & Health Program Summary
1.1 Safety & Health Policy Statement
The safety and health of employees is the first consideration in operating this business. Without
question, it is every employee’s responsibility at all levels.
It is the practice of this company to comply with all laws and prevent workplace injuries and
illnesses. To do this, we must be aware of conditions that can result in injury or illness in every
work area. No employee is required to work at a job they know is unsafe or unhealthy.
Companywide cooperation in detecting hazards and, in turn, controlling them, is a condition of
employment. Employees will inform their supervisor immediately of any hazardous situation
beyond their ability or authority to correct.
Prevention of occupationally-induced injuries and illnesses is given precedence over operating
productivity when necessary. To the greatest degree possible, management will provide
safeguards for personal safety and health, in keeping with the highest standards.
We strive to maintain an occupational injury and illness prevention program conforming to best
industry practices of organizations of this type. To be successful, such a program must embody
proper attitudes toward injury and illness prevention on the part of both supervisors and
employees. It also requires cooperation in all safety and health matters, not only between
supervisor and employee, but also among coworkers.
Our objective is an injury and illness prevention program that reduces the number of injuries and
illnesses to an absolute minimum, not merely in keeping with, but surpassing the best
experience of operations similar to ours. Our goal is zero accidents and injuries.
1.2 Safety & Health Program Components
Our injury and illness prevention program includes the following:

Communicating with employees about safety issues and workplace hazards through a
range of avenues including a safety training program, a safety committee, and meetings
to exchange ideas about workplace safety and health among employees;

Providing and maintaining mechanical, physical and administrative safeguards to control
risks presented by workplace hazards to the maximum possible extent;

Conducting a program of safety and health inspections to find and eliminate unsafe
working conditions or practices, to control health hazards, and to comply with safety and
health regulations and standards;

Providing necessary personal protective equipment and instructions for proper use and
care;

Developing and enforcing safety and health rules and requiring employees to cooperate
with these rules as a condition of employment;
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Safety & Health Program Summary

Investigating promptly and thoroughly every accident, safety incident, and near miss to
determine root causes and make appropriate changes to remedy those causes;

Creating a culture of safety that encourages employees to identify workplace hazards,
recommend changes to reduce the risks they pose, and otherwise work proactively for a
safer workplace; and

Periodic review of all elements of the injury and illness prevention program to ensure
continued efficacy.
We recognize the responsibilities for occupational safety and health are shared:
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. will see that all employees are properly instructed and
supervised in safe operation of machinery, tools, equipment, processes, and practices while at
work.
This employer accepts responsibility for the leadership, effectiveness and improvement of the
injury and illness prevention program and for providing the safeguards required to ensure safe
work conditions.
Supervisors are responsible for encouraging proper attitudes toward safety and health and for
ensuring operations are performed with the utmost regard for the safety and health of all
personnel.
Employees are responsible for wholehearted, genuine implementation of all aspects of the injury
and illness prevention program — including compliance with all rules and regulations — and for
continuously following best safety and health practices while performing their duties.
1.3 Program Goals
The goal of Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. is to continue operating a profitable business while
protecting employees from injuries or illness. This can be achieved by delegating responsibility
and accountability to all involved in this company’s operation.
Responsibility: Having to answer for activities and results.
Accountability: The actions taken by management to ensure the performance of
responsibilities.
To reach our goal of a safe workplace, everyone needs to take responsibility and be held
accountable.
Owner Name
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Signature
1-2
Date
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General Safety Rules
2
General Safety Rules
Gary Pfizenmayer is responsible for the implementation and enforcement of safety rules.
2.1 Following Safety Rules
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. employees will follow these rules and all elements of the
Safety and Health Program, render every possible aid to safe operations, and report unsafe
conditions or practices that cannot be immediately remedied to a supervisor as soon as safely
possible. The compliance of all employees with Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc.’s Injury and
illness prevention program is a condition of employment.
The failure of an employee to adhere to safety policies and procedures can have a serious
impact on coworkers and the public, and may result in disciplinary action up to and including
termination.
Supervisors will insist employees observe and obey rules, regulations, processes and
procedures necessary to complete work safely. If employees are unsure of the safe method to
do a job, they must STOP and ask a supervisor.
If any employee sees an unsafe workplace situation, he or she has the authority to stop work to
address the hazard. There is always time for safety. Ensuring safe and healthy work practices is
every employee’s first priority.
2.1.1 Discipline
Employees will be disciplined for infractions of safety rules and unsafe work practices that are
observed, not just those that result in an injury. Care will be taken to ensure discipline does not
discriminate. While safety rules will be enforced rigorously, no one will be punished for reporting
unsafe work practices or for reporting illness or injury. In any disciplinary action, discipline is
given to the employee only for violation of safe work policy, not because the employee was
injured or filed a workers’ compensation claim.
Discipline for safety violations will be administered in a manner consistent with Pyro Combustion
& Controls Inc.’s system of progressive discipline.
As in all disciplinary actions, each situation is to be carefully evaluated and investigated. The
steps taken in the disciplinary process, up to and including termination, will depend on the
severity of the violation, employee history, and overall consideration for the well-being of the
company, its employees and its customers.
Each department or supervisor may have additional safety rules and policies specific to
operations. In following these rules, employees are expected to exercise sound judgment and
work in a manner to ensure the safety of themselves and coworkers.
Consistency in the enforcement of safety rules will be exercised at all times.
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General Safety Rules
2.1.2 Safety Incentive Programs
Although strict adherence to safety policies and procedures is required of all employees, Pyro
Combustion & Controls Inc. may periodically provide recognition of safety-conscious employees
and acknowledge safety-conscious work habits through a safety incentive program. Safety
incentive programs must not discourage reporting of injuries and illnesses.
Programs that reward positive safety activities and initiatives (e.g. completing a training
program, finding and correcting hazards), are more effective and less likely to involve unlawful
discrimination.
2.2 Training & Safety Communication
OSHA requires employers to train employees in the safe methods of performing their job. Pyro
Combustion & Controls Inc. is committed to instructing all employees in safe, healthy work
practices. Awareness of potential hazards and knowledge of how to control them is critical to
maintaining a safe, healthy work environment and preventing injuries. Pyro Combustion &
Controls Inc. will provide training to each employee on general safety issues and safety
procedures specific to that employee’s work assignment.
Training provides the following benefits:




Makes employees aware of job hazards;
Teaches employees to perform jobs safely;
Promotes two way communication;
Fulfills legal requirements;


Encourages safety suggestions;
and
Creates additional interest in the
safety program.
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. will only use training material appropriate in content and
vocabulary to the educational level, literacy, and language of employees, and will offer retraining
as needed to ensure safe practices.
2.2.1 Training Program
Actual demonstration of proper task performance will be used whenever possible to instruct new
workers. Workers must provide evidence of topic mastery before training is complete. Trainers
will rely on the following training techniques:

Tell them how to do the job safely;

Show them how to do the job safely;

Have them tell you how to do the job safely; and

Have them show you how to do the job safely.
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General Safety Rules
Training topics will reflect the hazards of the workplace and may include the following:





Employee’s safety responsibilities;
General safety rules;
Injury and illness prevention program contents;
Safe job procedures;
Mandatory and optional personal protective equipment;

Safe lifting and material
handling practices;



Emergency procedures;
Use of equipment; and
Use of hazardous materials.
2.2.2 New Employees
Every new employee will be given instruction by their supervisor or appropriate member of
management in the general safety requirements of their job. New employees will not begin a job
until they have demonstrated or otherwise confirmed awareness of safe practices for their tasks
and general workplace safety rules and guidelines. A copy of the general safety rules will be
provided to each new employee, and each new employee will be given access to any element
of the safety program that pertains to the work he or she will be expected to do.
2.2.3 Documentation of Training
All employee safety training will be documented. Training records will include the following
information:

The dates of the training sessions;

The contents or a summary of the training sessions;

The names and qualifications of persons conducting the training; and

The names and job titles of all persons attending the training sessions.
Employee training records will be maintained for 3 years from the date on which the training
occurred.
2.2.4 Retraining
Employees observed performing unsafe acts or not following safe work procedures will be
retrained by their supervisor or an appropriate safety trainer. A safety contact report may be
completed by the supervisor to document the training. If multiple employees are involved,
additional safety meetings will be held.
2.2.5 Safety Communication
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. will advise employees of changes relating to the safety
program. Employee safety communication procedures are designed to develop and maintain
employee involvement and interest in workplace safety and health. These activities help ensure
effective communication between management and employees on safety-related issues and
nurture a culture of safety.
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General Safety Rules
The following are some of the safety communication methods that may be used:
 Frequent accident prevention instructions and periodic practice drills;

The distribution of articles, memos, payroll stuffers and other communication concerning
workplace safety and health;

Regular safety meetings with employees that encourage participation and open, two-way
communication;

Employee bulletin boards or other displays discussing safety issues, accidents, and
general safety suggestions; and

New employee safety orientation and training.
2.2.5.1
Safety Suggestion Program
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. encourages all employees to become involved in the
development and implementation of the safety and health program. Management will request
opinions and comments from workers at all levels and respond to them respectfully and
appropriately.
All employee-initiated safety related suggestions will be channeled to the appropriate authority
by the safety committee or a supervisor, either verbally or in writing. Unresolved issues may be
relayed to Gary Pfizenmayer, the safety coordinator.
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. will not discriminate against any employee for raising concern
over safety issues, and will establish and maintain a system whereby employees may share
safety or health concerns anonymously.
2.3 Rules
The following rules are a selection of safety practices to help prevent work-related injury and
illness. It is not comprehensive; employees are expected to adhere to any safe work practice
necessary to complete their job safely.
2.3.1 Drug- and Alcohol-Impaired Workers

Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. encourages employees to discuss personal and
interpersonal problems with their supervisor; supervisors will handle all such contacts
with appropriate confidentiality and refer employees who may benefit from outside
assistance to appropriate resources.

No employee may work while his or her ability or alertness is impaired by fatigue, illness,
prescription drugs, or over-the-counter drugs.

Anyone known to be under the influence of alcohol or drugs will not be allowed on the
job while in that condition.

Notify a supervisor of any coworker demonstrating signs of impairment that may present
a safety or health hazard.
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General Safety Rules
2.3.2 General Safety

Take time to do every job safely.

Refrain from horseplay, scuffling, pranks and similar acts that may have an adverse
influence on the safety and well-being of employees.

Walk; don’t run, in the workplace.

Smoking, eating and storage of personal items are permitted only in designated areas.

Maintain awareness of potential hazards when walking about the workplace.

Use tools only for their intended purpose, and always use the right tool for the job.

Listen to instructions. If you don’t understand them, ask before starting work.

Inspect all safeguards before beginning work; ensure proper functioning of protective
devices and report any known deficiencies immediately.

Only operate equipment you can operate safely. Hazardous equipment should only be
operated after training for that equipment

Refrain from handling or tampering with equipment, machinery, or lines in a manner not
within the scope of your duties.

Report all injuries to the appropriate supervisor so arrangements can be made for
medical or first-aid treatment and appropriate reporting may be completed.

Ensure clothing and footwear are appropriate to the hazards of the job. If you are
unsure, ask your supervisor.

Always wear approved protective equipment in work areas that demand such
equipment.

Workers will heed signs, posters, or hazard bulletins posted on company premises.

Only enter hazardous areas after they are made safe to enter.
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. strictly prohibits possession of firearms, weapons, illegal drugs
or alcoholic beverages on Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. property, customer property or other
location while on the job.
2.3.3 Housekeeping

All exits, fire doors, aisles, and areas around fire extinguishers, first aid kits, emergency
equipment, electrical panels and traffic lanes will be kept clear.

Keep tools, materials or other objects off the floor to prevent trips and falls. Remove
waste from the work area promptly.

Keep work areas clean and free of debris, electrical cords and other hazards;
immediately clean spilled liquids.

Keep stairways, passageways, exits and sidewalks clean and clear of obstructions.

Sharp wires or protruding nails must be bent or capped to prevent accidental injury.

Place tools and equipment so they will not fall from elevated areas.

Only use approved cleaning agents.
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General Safety Rules
2.3.4 Fire Prevention

Firefighting equipment will be inspected on a regular basis.

Discharged, damaged or missing equipment must be reported immediately to a
supervisor. Tampering with fire equipment is prohibited.

Take precautions to prevent fires, particularly from oily waste, rags, gasoline, flammable
liquids, acetylene torches, improperly installed electrical equipment and trash.

Access to fire extinguishers must be kept clear at all times. Make note of the location of
firefighting equipment in your work area.

In case of fire, employees will consider the safety of themselves and other individuals
before saving property.

Never use gasoline or flammable solvents to clean.

Smoking is prohibited within 20 feet of flammable substances.
2.3.5 Lifting and Material Handling

Think before lifting.

Find a better way. If at all possible, use mechanical help from a pushcart or handtruck.

If the load is heavy or awkward to lift alone, get help. Team lifting cuts the load in half
and reduces likelihood of injury.

Break the load down into smaller lifts if possible. It is better to make two or more light
trips than one heavy trip.

If possible, bring the load up between the knees and waist before lifting.

Do not lift on slippery surfaces.

Test the load before doing the lift; determine how heavy it is by giving it a shove.

Ensure a good handhold on the load before attempting to lift.

Keep the load close. Walk as closely as possible to the load.

Do not jerk the load or speed up. Lift the load in a smooth and controlled manner.

Do not lift in an awkward position or twist while lifting (especially with a heavy load). Turn
and take a step.

Avoid long forward reaches and bending your back. Use a step stool or platform if
necessary.

Back injury claims are painful for workers and expensive for the company. Lift safely!

Make sure you have plenty of room to lift and to set down the object.

If you are lifting an object above your head, get a ladder or step stool.
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General Safety Rules
2.3.6 Ladder Safety

Keep portable stairways, ladders, and step stools in good condition and use them only in
a safe manner.

Inspect the ladder before using it. If it is broken, remove it from service.

Use the proper ladder for the job.

Do not use “A” frame self-supporting ladders as straight ladders.

Make sure the ladder is tall enough to reach the work area.

Do not use metal ladders for electrical work.

Avoid temporary ladders. Always use a commercially made ladder of the proper length
and strength for the work being performed.

Ladder rungs must be kept free of grease, oil, mud, or other slippery substances.

Do not place ladders in passageways, doorways, or any location where they might be hit
or jarred, unless protected by barricades or guards.

Ladders should be placed only on hard, level surfaces. Make sure ladder feet are not
placed on sandy, slippery, or sloping surfaces. Clean or sweep the area where the
ladder feet will be and make sure the rubber feet are in good shape.

Arrange work so you can face the ladder and use both hands while climbing. Do not
carry tools or equipment in your hands while climbing. If tools or equipment cannot be
safely stowed on your person, as with a belt or vest, climb the ladder, and then hoist
them with a line or hoisting device.

Secure portable ladders in place and at a pitch so the leveling indicator is in alignment or
the distance from the wall to the base of the ladder is at least 1’ away from the wall for
every 4’ of ladder height.

Straight ladders will be tied off at the top of the ladder to prevent slipping.

Be aware of objects below you; move or cover sharp objects in case you fall.

Do not stand on or work from the 2nd rung from the top or above.

Do not reach too far from the ladder, and keep your center of gravity as close to the
center of the ladder as possible.

Extension ladders need to extend at least 36" above the level being accessed.

On all ladders, do not step on cross bracing not intended to be used for climbing.

Do not use a ladder as a brace, workbench or for any other purpose than climbing.
2.3.7 Electrical Safety

Only trained, qualified, and authorized employees may work on or repair electrical
equipment.

Report exposed wires and damaged electrical equipment or wires immediately.

Extension and temporary power cords must be appropriate to the task and grounded,
but should be used only as a last resort. Frayed or defective cords will not be used.
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General Safety Rules

Never overload an outlet or circuit. Use approved power strips and extension cords in
accordance with company policy and best safety practices.

All energized equipment and installations will be de-energized before work. If the
equipment or installation must be energized, special precautions will be taken to protect
against the hazards of electric shock.

All equipment will be locked out to protect against accidental or inadvertent operation
when such operation could cause injury to personnel. Do not attempt to operate any
switch, valve, or other energy-isolating device bearing a lock.

Safety grounds will always be used where there is a danger of shock from backfeeding
or other hazards.

Suitable attire and personal protective equipment must be worn at all times while
working on electrical equipment.

Always exercise caution when energizing electrical equipment or installations. Take
steps to protect against arc flash and exploding equipment in the event of a fault.

All power tools will be grounded or double insulated. Tools with defective cords or wiring
will not be used.

Metal jewelry should not be worn around energized circuits.

Suitable temporary barriers or barricades will be installed when access to opened
enclosures containing exposed energized equipment is not under the control of an
authorized person.

Enclosures or tight fitting covers must protect electrical installations from accidental
contact.

Metal measuring tapes, fish tapes, ropes or other metal devices are prohibited where
they may contact energized parts of equipment or circuits.
2.3.8 Company Vehicles

Only authorized employees are permitted to operate Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc.
vehicles.

Company vehicles are to be used for Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. business only.
Personal, off duty and family use is prohibited.

Drive defensively and obey all traffic and highway laws.

Always wear a seat belt, whether driver or passenger.

Report all accidents to a supervisor as soon as possible, and obtain a police report.

Keys must be removed from all unattended vehicles, and vehicles must be locked.

Inspect the vehicle before operation and report any defects or operating problems to the
appropriate supervisor so repairs can be made.

Smoking is prohibited while inside the vehicle and during vehicle refueling.
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General Safety Rules

If your driver’s license is revoked or expired, immediately notify your supervisor and do
not drive. If you receive a moving violation or any citation that may affect your eligibility
to drive a company vehicle, inform your supervisor immediately.
2.3.9 Hazardous Materials and Chemicals

Ask a supervisor about any unfamiliar material, chemical or substance.

Store all hazardous materials in suitable containers that are properly labeled.

Use chemicals that produce fumes or vapors only in well-ventilated areas.

Read all warning labels and Safety Data Sheets (SDSs) before using any chemicals.
SDSs contain a wealth of safety information and are available to employees.

Hazardous materials will be handled in accordance with the SDS and label. If protective
equipment is required, use it.

Eye protection must be worn when working with hazardous materials or chemicals.

Mixing of chemicals is prohibited at all times unless required by the label. Before you
mix, review all SDSs.

Never use solvents for hand cleaning.

Practice appropriate hygiene after handling hazardous substances, and follow special
instructions from authorized sources. Wash hands thoroughly after handling chemicals
and before eating or smoking, even if wearing protective gloves.
2.3.10
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

Use the correct PPE for any job assignment that requires it. If you do not know, ask.

PPE will be maintained in good condition and cleaned regularly.

PPE will be stored properly when not in use to protect it from damage.

Damaged or broken PPE must be returned for replacement.

Protective clothing may not hamper or restrict freedom of movement due to improper fit.
2.4 Forms and Attachments
On the following pages, please find the following document:

General Safety Rules Receipt
This form may be reproduced freely by Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. for the purposes of
implementing and maintaining a safety and health program.
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General Safety Rules
General Safety Rules Receipt
This is to certify that I have received a copy of the general safety rules.
I have read these instructions, understand them, and will comply with them while
working for Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc..
I understand that failure to follow the company injury and illness prevention program may
result in disciplinary action and possible termination of my employment with this
company.
I understand that I am to report any injury to my supervisor and report all safety hazards
as soon as safely possible.
I further understand that I have the following safety rights:
I am not required to work in any area I feel is not safe.
I am entitled to receive information about all hazards I am exposed to while
working.
I am entitled to see a copy of the company safety and health manual.
I will not be discriminated against for reporting safety concerns.
Employee Name
Signature
Date
Supervisor Name
Signature
Date
cc: Employee File
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3
Safety Committee Policy
3.1 Policy Statement
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. maintains its commitment to protect the safety and health of all
employees. To support a workplace culture that prioritizes the prevention of illness and injury, a
committee of stakeholders representing management and workers will plan and implement
safety policies and ensure best safety practices are followed throughout the workplace.
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. Safety Committee members at the time this manual was
created are:
Gary Pfizenmayer, Lacy Page, and Rob Abraham.
The safety committee will meet a minimum of 12 times per year.
The safety committee includes employer and employee representatives who are responsible for
recommending safety and health improvements in the workplace. The committee is also
responsible for identifying hazards and unsafe work practices, removing obstacles to incident
prevention, and helping the company evaluate the injury and illness prevention program.
3.2 Responsibilities
The safety committee is an essential element of the injury and illness prevention program at
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc.. It requires the cooperation of all employees.
3.2.1 Employer Responsibilities
It is the responsibility of Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. to:

Ensure every employee receives training on their roles regarding the safety committee;

Support and encourage active employee involvement in creating and supporting a
culture of safety;

Establish the authority of the Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. safety committee;

Support the safety committee and respond to its recommendations promptly;

Establish the size of the safety committee;

Accurately communicate the time and effort commitment level expected of safety
committee members; and

Fund and allow time for safety committee activities.
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3.2.2 Safety Committee Responsibilities
It is the responsibility of the Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. safety committee to:

Meet 12 times a year;

Identify hazards and unsafe work practices, remove obstacles to incident prevention,
and help the company evaluate the accident and illness prevention program;

Write bylaws to document the committee’s purpose, activities, and processes;

Report employee safety and health concerns to the committee;

Suggest items to include in the monthly meeting agenda;

Encourage other employees to report workplace hazards and suggest how to control
them;

Deliver safety training when appropriate;

Establish procedures for conducting regular workplace inspections and for making
recommendations to management to eliminate or control hazards;

Make or assist in safety inspections and accident investigations;

Work safely and encourage others to do likewise;

Help management evaluate safety programs and recommend improvements;

Establish procedures for investigating the causes of accidents and near-miss incidents;

Plan and document every official meeting;

Establish committee offices and elect officers;

Communicate and build consensus over safety and health issues in meetings;

Follow a written agenda at every meeting;

Record minutes at every safety committee meeting and post them for employees;

Plan for emergencies;

Create and maintain documents related to Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc.’s safety and
health program;

Follow bylaws established by the committee; and

Review the Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. injury and illness prevention program
annually.
3.2.3 Employee Responsibilities
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. employees are expected to:

Recommend safety solutions to the safety committee;

Participate in the selection of members and consider volunteering to join the committee;

Cooperate and provide input during workplace inspection, job hazard analysis and
accident investigation; and

Attend all required safety meetings.
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3.3 Training
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. will ensure every employee is provided training on their roles
regarding the safety committee. This training will be provided at no cost to the employee during
working hours.
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. will use only training material appropriate in content and
vocabulary to the educational level, literacy and language of employees.
3.3.1 Training Components
Gary Pfizenmayer will ensure that all employees at Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. are
informed and trained in the following minimum elements for safety committees:

The role of the safety committee in ensuring companywide safety and health; and
 How to participate in the safety committee.
Safety committee members will complete training in the following minimum elements:

The purpose of the safety committee;

How to apply safety rules;

How to conduct safety committee meetings;

Hazard identification;

The principles of accident investigation;

Whom to contact for information or for help on workplace safety and health matters; and

Company safety policy and occupational safety and health principles.
All safety committee officers will be trained to fulfill their responsibilities as officers.
3.3.2 Training Records
Training records will include the following information:

The dates of the training sessions.

The contents or a summary of the training sessions.

The names and qualifications of persons conducting the training.

The names and job titles of all persons attending the training sessions.
Employee training records will be maintained for 3 years from the date on which the training
occurred.
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3.4 Policy
3.4.1 Planning
3.4.1.1
Bylaws
The Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. Safety Committee will define its purpose, activities, and
processes in its bylaws. The document will define the scope and nature of the committee’s
activities, and serve as a guide to provide stability as representatives to the committee change.
The complexity of the document depends on the safety and health needs of Pyro Combustion &
Controls Inc. and the decisions of the committee. However, topics documented in the bylaws
should include the following.
Name, Purpose and Constituency
In its bylaws, the safety committee will establish the worksite from which committee members
are drawn, why the committee has been formed, and the committee’s goals and objectives.
Committee Composition, Officers and Terms
The bylaws will establish the size of the committee as well as what proportion of the committee
will be reserved for members of management and labor. The bylaws also need to establish the
officers the committee will appoint and how. The length of terms also needs to be determined
for officers and members of the committee.
Duties, Responsibilities and Training
In the document, the safety committee will outline the duties of each officer and members, both
in terms of their obligations to the safety committee and in terms of fulfilling their role in the
workplace. Safety committee members will need additional training, not only in how the
committee functions, but also to competently perform their responsibilities of emergency
response, inspections, etc.
Meetings, Elections and Attendance
The safety committee bylaws should specify the frequency of meetings as well as how an
absence should be handled. A portion of the document should address the number of
representatives needed to form a voting quorum as well as how the committee will resolve
issues it cannot resolve with a vote.
Agendas, Minutes and Recordkeeping
The safety committee will plan and document every official meeting. Each meeting will have a
predetermined order of business, and there needs to be a system in place to record what
happened in the meeting and document the recommendations and findings brought to the
committee during meetings.
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Investigations, Inspections and Evaluations
Bylaws describe the role of the committee in investigating near misses and accidents, as well as
how the committee will conduct workplace inspections. In the bylaws, the committee needs to
establish how it and management will communicate regarding safety concerns and
recommendations. It also needs to describe how it will assess the overall injury and illness
prevention program and its own activities to establish a means of ongoing evaluation and
improvement.
Please see the example of safety committee bylaws at the end of this chapter.
3.4.1.2
Buy-in
During planning for the safety committee, the support of both management and labor is critical.
Management will consistently support and encourage active employee involvement in creating
and supporting a culture of safety at Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc.. Management is
responsible for establishing the authority of the Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. safety
committee and after its creation will support the committee and respond to its recommendations
promptly.
3.4.1.3
Membership
Only Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. employees may serve on the safety committee. The
committee will have at least as many non-management members as management members;
however, the number of managers and non-managers on the committee should be
approximately equal. If possible, the safety committee should include representatives from a
range of departments, work operations and shifts. This helps make sure all groups of workers
feel represented and contributes to effective communication between the safety committee and
the rest of the workforce.
Members of the committee should be volunteers. Elections for members can be a helpful way to
encourage involvement in the committee’s activities.
Number of Committee Members
Gary Pfizenmayer will establish the size of the safety committee. The number of members who
will serve on the safety committee depends on the number of employees Pyro Combustion &
Controls Inc. has at the time. A workplace with up to 20 employees may only need two safety
committee members. Beyond that, however, having more members encourages wide
participation and helps fill all the committee’s roles. Somewhere between five and ten members
is sufficient for almost any safety committee.
Membership terms of one to three years work well for safety committee members and officers.
The committee will establish term length when it establishes the bylaws. Regardless of length,
terms should be staggered so at least one experienced committee member remains on the
committee at any given time.
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Officers
A safety committee can have a number of officers, depending on its size. The most important
two are the chairperson, who is “in charge” of safety meetings, and a recorder who takes
minutes. A vice-chair can serve in case the chair is unable to perform his or her duties.
Chair
It is beneficial to allow the committee to elect its chair, though the safety committee chair may
be appointed by Gary Pfizenmayer. The chairperson has the responsibility to ensure meetings
occur and are productive. The safety committee chairperson’s duties need to include, but are
not limited to:




Scheduling monthly meetings;
Developing agendas for meetings;
Coordinating and conducting meetings;
Establishing timeframes and deadlines
for safety committee projects;



Following up on the recommendations
of committee;
Acting as liaison between committee
and management; and
Promoting safety by personal example.
Vice-Chair
The vice-chair assumes the chair’s responsibilities when he or she isn’t available. This officer
should take an active role in the committee’s activities and assist in the coordination and
direction of the committee. In some safety committees, this role is filled by the recorder.
Recorder or Secretary
The recorder’s role is to support accurate and thorough recordkeeping for the committee’s
activities. The safety committee recorder’s duties include, but are not limited to:




Taking minutes at meetings;
Distributing minutes to committee
members;
Posting minutes for other employees to
review;
Maintaining safety committee file;


Keeping minutes and agendas on file
for at least three years; and
Promote safety by personal example
and communication between and
among employees and supervisors.
Other Members
The duties of all members of the safety committee include, but are not limited to:

Reporting employee safety and health concerns to the committee;

Attending all safety meetings;

Reporting accidents, near miss incidents and unsafe workplace conditions to the
committee

Suggesting items to include in the monthly meeting agenda;

Encouraging other employees to report workplace hazards and suggest how to control
them;

Delivering safety training when appropriate;

Establishing procedures for conducting workplace inspections and for making
recommendations to management to eliminate or control hazards;
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
Making or assisting in safety inspections and accident investigations;

Working safely and encouraging others to do likewise;

Helping management evaluate safety programs and recommending improvements; and

Establishing procedures for investigating the causes of accidents and near-miss
incidents.
3.4.2 Meetings
Regular, productive meetings are essential to success for the Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc.
safety and health committee. Safety committee meetings will be a time to communicate and
build consensus over safety and health issues.
Meetings will begin on time, and safety committee team members will be paid for time spent on
safety committee business, including meetings and meeting preparation. The chair is
responsible for moving the meeting along according to the established agenda. Meetings do not
have to follow strict parliamentary procedures, but they do require order to be successful. The
committee will set its own ground rules for meetings.
3.4.2.1
Frequency
Safety committee meetings should occur regularly and frequently. The frequency of meetings
should be established in the committee bylaws. Most committees find monthly meetings or
quarterly meetings are sufficient, depending on the size of the organization and the severity of
risk in the workplace.
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. safety committee meetings occur 12 times a year.
Subcommittees and working groups can meet more frequently as needed.
3.4.2.2
Agenda
The committee will follow a written agenda at every meeting. This agenda will outline the topics
of discussion and needs to be distributed to members well in advance of the meeting for review.
A committee member who requests an item to add to the agenda should give the chair ample
notice. The agenda will include the date, time and location of the meeting, and any special
group or individual who is expected to be in attendance. A safety committee meeting may only
extend beyond the time established in the agenda with committee approval. The needs of the
committee at a given meeting will shape the agenda, but a standard order of business helps.
Opening
The chair will bring the meeting to order before a roll call of members. The opening of the
meeting is when introductions of new representatives or guests occur. This is also when the
committee should review minutes from the previous meeting for additions or corrections as
needed.
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Unfinished Business
If there was discussion about issues not resolved or for which no activity was planned from
previous meetings, the committee should address them toward the beginning of the meeting.
The committee needs to review recommendations it has already made and report on actions
being taken. If recommendations are not acted upon, management will provide the committee
with an explanation of the status of the issue, including whether corrections are to be delayed
and when they will be carried out.
New Business
If new business items are on the agenda, discussion about them should happen after unfinished
business has been resolved. Discuss new inspections and reports or to discuss safety concerns
that have otherwise emerged in the time since the last meeting.
Suggestions
The Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. safety committee will solicit input in the form of feedback
or suggestions from employees. Every meeting will include time to discuss suggestions from
employees or to allow employees to address the committee about safety concerns.
Goals/Planning/Training
It is a good idea to take some time in each meeting to address progress on safety goals and
celebrate successes. If there is action to be taken before the next meeting, the committee will
assign these steps to responsible parties or create subcommittees as necessary.
Also, it is useful to use some time to provide additional safety training to safety committee
members. This training can be specific to running an effective safety committee, or it can be
general training for committee members to share with coworkers later. This element of the
safety committee meeting does not need to be very long and is a good time for guest speakers.
Establish Next Meeting
The chair will thank those in attendance and the committee will establish when the next meeting
will occur before the meeting is adjourned.
3.4.2.3
Minutes
Minutes serve as the official record of a safety committee meeting. Minutes need to be concise,
clear and thorough. The recorder or secretary is responsible for writing minutes for each
meeting and posting them where they will be easily available to all employees. Minutes remain
on file for at least three years and must include the following:




Date, time and place of the meeting;
Names of attendees and a list of
committee members who were unable
to attend;
Summary of agenda items discussed
during the meeting;
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
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Suggestions from employees and any
hazards reported during the meeting;
Recommendations from the committee
to management; and
Management’s response to committee
recommendations.
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Safety Committee Policy
3.4.3 Responsibilities
3.4.3.1
Management Commitment and Employee Involvement
The safety committee is a collaborative, consensus-focused organization within the workplace.
Its success depends not only on the ability of the committee to work toward a culture of safety,
but on the efforts of the other employees and the support of managers and supervisors.
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. supports the safety committee and its efforts to strengthen
safety in the workplace. Managers and supervisors will encourage employee involvement and
support a workplace culture where honest communication about safety issues is encouraged.
Employees should feel confident when sharing suggestions or concerns that their views will be
handled seriously and with respect.
3.4.3.2
Workplace Inspections
A comprehensive injury and illness prevention program demands a hazard assessment for most
jobs and regular inspections of all work areas. The safety committee’s role in performing these
assessments and inspections is integral to a safe workplace. Walkthroughs and inspections
should be documented and performed along with employees and supervisors who work in the
area being inspected. Thorough workplace inspections occur daily, and hazard assessments
will be as frequent as changes to the workplace or safety situations demand.
The safety committee shares responsibility for Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc.’s hazard
assessment and control system. The safety committee is responsible for:


monitoring the workplace for
hazards;
encouraging employees to report
hazards;


implementing appropriate controls; and
ensuring corrective action is taken
promptly.
A task that presents a high degree of risk to an employee demands special planning and more
frequent inspections.
Please see the “Job Hazard Analysis” chapter for more detail.
3.4.3.3
Recommendations
The safety committee should include at least one member of high-level management who can
authorize next steps for action items of the committee; however, not every issue can be dealt
with immediately. When additional authority is needed for the committee to fulfill its other
responsibilities, the committee needs to make a formal recommendation in writing to Pyro
Combustion & Controls Inc. management.
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The safety committee will draft recommendations to Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. when a
management representative on the committee can’t sufficiently respond to an issue the safety
commmitttee determines needs attention.
An effective recommendation to management should include:


3.4.3.4


the issue;
background information;
all available options; and
a suggested timeline for action.
Accidents
Accidents and near misses point to weaknesses in the safety and health program.
Investigations serve an important role in preventing accidents in the future by determining how
and why the incident occurred.
The safety committee’s role in accident investigations should be determined by the safety
committee, but the committee is responsible for ensuring accident investigations take place and
establishing how. Investigations gather information about the incident, but may require
thoughtful analysis to determine the root causes of an incident and how to control them.
Investigations will focus on correcting problems, not placing blame. Please see the “Accident
Investigation” chapter for more detail.
3.4.3.5
Emergencies
The safety committee plays a vital role in planning for emergencies, and members of the safety
committee may need to assume additional responsibilities during emergencies. Depending on
the Emergency Action Plan, safety committee members may serve as evacuation wardens, be
designated to fight incipient-stage fires with a fire extinguisher, and/or provide first-aid. Training
will reflect the job requirements assigned to safety team members. Please see the “Fire
Protection and Emergency Planning” chapter for more detail.
3.4.3.6
Training
The safety committee can play an important role in training workers about safety and supporting
a general culture of safety. Because of this, members of the safety committee will need
additional training to support their activities.
Training will be built into safety committee meetings, and safety committee members and
officers will receive training for any task they are asked to perform above regular duties.
Representatives must understand the purpose of the safety committee, how to apply OSHA’s
safety rules and how to conduct safety committee meetings. They also must have training in
hazard identification and the principles of accident investigation.
Members should know whom to contact for information or for help on workplace safety and
health matters.
The safety committee will establish and implement training programs for safety topics and
hazard awareness in the workplace. The committee will need to establish procedures to deliver
necessary training, coordinate safety meetings, and keep track of training verification
documents.
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3.4.3.7
Recordkeeping
The safety committee is responsible for creating and maintaining documents that are related to
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc.’s safety and health program. This includes but is not limited to:



A log of work-related injuries and illnesses
(OSHA’s Form 300);
Injury and illness incident reports (OSHA’s
Form 301);
A yearly summary of work-related injuries
and illnesses (OSHA’s Form 300A);




Safety training records
Committee recommendations;
Workplace hazard assessments;
and
Any required safety log.
3.4.4 Evaluation
A crucial aspect of the safety committee’s activities is an annual review of the Pyro Combustion
& Controls Inc. safety and health program. This review can be undertaken over the course of a
number of weeks or throughout the year, depending on how the committee decides to handle
the evaluation. This evaluation should be recorded and provided to management along with
recommendations as appropriate.
In addition to a review of the overall safety and health program, the Pyro Combustion & Controls
Inc. safety committee will evaluate its own activities on a yearly basis to determine changes to
procedures that may be needed.
3.5 Forms & Attachments
On the following pages, please find the following documents:

Safety Committee Bylaws

Safety Committee Checklist

Safety Committee Agenda

Safety Committee Meeting Minutes

Safety Committee Training Record Sheet
These forms may be reproduced freely by Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. for the purposes of
implementing and maintaining a safety and health program.
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Safety Committee Bylaws
Name
The name of the committee is the _____________________________________ Safety Committee.
Purpose
The purpose of the _______________________________________ Safety Committee is to bring all
__________________________ employees together to achieve and maintain a safe, healthful workplace.
Goal
The goal of the _________________________________________ Safety Committee is to eliminate workplace injuries
and illnesses by involving employees and managers in identifying hazards and suggesting how to prevent them.
Objectives
The Safety Committee has four objectives:



Involve employees in achieving a safe, healthful workplace.
Promptly review all safety-related incidents, injuries, accidents, illnesses, and deaths.
Conduct quarterly workplace inspections, identify hazards, and recommend methods for eliminating or
controlling the hazards.
 Annually evaluate the ______________________________________________ workplace safety-andhealth program and recommend to management how to improve the program.
Representatives
The _______________________________________ Safety Committee will have _____ voting representatives. _____
of the representatives will represent employees and _____ will represent management. Employee representatives can
volunteer or their peers can elect them. Management representatives will be selected by management.
Each representative will serve a continuous term of at least one year. Terms will be staggered so that at least one
experienced representative always serves on the committee.
Chair and Vice-chair
The __________________________________________ Safety Committee will have two officers: chair and vicechair. One officer will represent labor and one officer will represent management.
Terms of Service
Chair and vice-chair will each serve a one-year term.
Duties of the Chair



Schedule regular committee meetings.
Approve committee correspondence and reports.
Develop written agenda for conducting meeting.
Duties of the Vice-chair

In the absence of the chair, assume the duties of the
chair.
Election of Chair and Vice-chair


Supervise preparation of meeting minutes.
Conduct the committee meeting.

Perform other duties as directed by the
chair.
The election of a new chair or vice-chair will be held during the monthly committee meeting before the month in which
the incumbent’s term expires.
If the chair or vice-chair leaves office before the term expires, an election will be held during the next scheduled
safety-committee meeting; the elected officer will serve for the remainder of the term.
Training
New representatives will receive training in safety-committee functions, hazard identification, and accidentinvestigation procedures.
Meetings
Monthly schedule — The ____________________________________________ Safety Committee will meet the
___________________ of each month, except when the committee conducts quarterly workplace safety inspections.
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Safety Committee Bylaws (Pg. 2)
Attendance and Alternates
Each representative will attend regularly scheduled safety committee meetings and participate in quarterly workplace
inspections and other committee activities. Any representative unable to attend a meeting will appoint an alternate
and inform the chair before the meeting. An alternate attending a meeting on behalf of a regular representative will be
a voting representative for that meeting.
Agenda
The agenda will prescribe the order in which the ______________________________________ Safety Committee
conducts its business. The agenda will also include the following when applicable:
 Review of new safety and health concerns
 Status report of employee safety and health concerns under review
 Review of near misses, accidents, illness, or deaths occurring since the last committee meeting.
Minutes
Minutes will be recorded at each committee meeting and posted & distributed to all employees.
The committee will submit a copy of the minutes to the _____________________________________ personnel
office; the office will retain the copy for three years. All reports, evaluations, and recommendations of the committee
will be included in the minutes. The minutes will also identify representatives who attended monthly meeting, and
representatives who were absent.
Voting Quorum
_____ voting representatives constitute a quorum. A majority vote of attending representatives is required to approve
all safety-committee decisions. Issues not resolved by majority vote will be forwarded to management for resolution.
Employee Involvement
The __________________________________________ Safety Committee will encourage employees to identify
workplace-health-and-safety hazards. Concerns raised by employees will be presented to the committee in writing;
the committee will review new concerns at the next regularly-scheduled monthly meeting.
Safety Log
The committee will maintain a log of all employee concerns, including the date received, recommendations to
management, and the date the concern was resolved.
Response
The committee will respond to employee concerns in writing and work with management to resolve them. The
committee will present written recommendations for resolving concerns to management. Within 60 days of receipt of
the written recommendations, management will respond in writing to the committee indicating acceptance, rejection,
or modification of the recommendations.
Incident and Accident Investigation
The __________________________________________ Safety Committee will review new safety- or health-related
incidents at its next regularly-scheduled meeting. Safety-related incidents include work-related near misses, injuries,
illnesses, and deaths. When necessary, the committee will provide written recommendations to management for
eliminating or controlling hazards.
Workplace Inspections
The _________________________________________ Safety Committee will conduct quarterly workplace
inspections of all Company facilities in March, June, September, and December.
Written Report
The committee will prepare a written report for management that documents the location of all health or safety
hazards found during inspection. The report will recommend options for eliminating or controlling the hazards.
Within 60 days of receipt of the written report, management will respond in writing to the committee, indicating
acceptance, rejection, or proposed modification of the recommendations.
Evaluation
The _________________________________________ Safety Committee will evaluate the Company’s workplacesafety-and-health program annually and provide a written evaluation of the program to management. The committee
will also evaluate its own activities each December and use the evaluation to develop an action plan for the next
calendar year.
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Safety Committee Checklist
Done
To
Do
Our safety committee is composed of an equal number of employer and employee
representatives.
Employee representatives are volunteers or are elected by their peers.
There are at least four representatives on the committee if the workplace has more than 20
employees – at least two representatives if the workplace has 20 or fewer employees.
The representatives elect the committee chairperson.
Representatives are paid their regular wages during safety committee training and
meetings.
Employee representatives serve on the committee for at least one year.
Representatives’ terms of service are staggered so that at least one experienced
representative is always on the committee.
Reasonable efforts are made to ensure that committee representatives represent the firm’s
major work activities.
The committee meets monthly except when representatives schedule quarterly workplace
inspections.
Committee meetings follow a written agenda.
The minutes for each meeting are maintained for at least three years.
Minutes are available to all employees to read.
All reports, evaluations, and recommendations are included in the minutes.
Management has a reasonable time to respond, in writing, to the committee’s
recommendations.
The committee has a method for collecting and reviewing employees’ safety-related
suggestions and reports of hazards.
The committee assists management in evaluating and improving the workplace safety and
health program.
The inspection team conducts workplace inspections at least quarterly.
The committee’s quarterly inspection team follows a standard procedure for identifying
safety-and-health hazards during its inspections.
The inspection team includes employer and employee representatives.
The inspection team documents, in writing, the location and identity of workplace hazards.
The inspection team – or other persons designated by the committee – does quarterly
inspections of satellite locations.
The committee has a procedure for reviewing the team’s quarterly inspection reports.
The committee recommends to management ways to control hazards and unsafe work
practices.
The committee makes recommendations to ensure all employees are accountable for
following safe work practices.
The committee has a procedure for investigating workplace accidents, illnesses, and
deaths.
Representatives understand the purpose of their safety committee and know how it
functions.
Representatives have access to applicable OSHA safety and health rules.
Representatives have received safety training for identifying workplace hazards and
investigating accidents.
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Safety Committee Policy
Safety Committee Agenda
Date: __________________
To: All committee members, alternates, bulletin board
Meeting Date and Time: ______________________________________________________
Place: ____________________________________________________________________
Agenda Items
Person Responsible
1. Old business
a. Review last month’s recommendations __________________________________
b. Follow-up on last quarterly inspection
__________________________________
2. New business
a. Hazard reports
All
b. Accident investigation reviews
___________________________________
c. Recommendations review
___________________________________
d. _____________________________ ____________________________________
e. _____________________________ ____________________________________
f. _____________________________ ____________________________________
3. Safety Committee Members Training
a. ______________________________ ____________________________________
b. ______________________________ ____________________________________
Notes:
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
Chair Person’s Signature
Date
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Safety Committee Meeting Minutes
Chairperson: ___________________________________________
Date: __________
Department: ____________________________ Time meeting started: _____________
PRESENT
ABSENT
___________________________________
_________________________________
___________________________________
_________________________________
___________________________________
_________________________________
___________________________________
_________________________________
___________________________________
_________________________________
___________________________________
_________________________________
Previous meeting minutes from _______________________ were read.
Date
Old Business
Review of last month’s recommendations
Recommendation
Description
Completed
Incomplete
Date
R-______
_________________________________
□
□
__________
R-______
_________________________________
□
□
__________
R-______
_________________________________
□
□
__________
R-______
_________________________________
□
□
__________
Follow-up on last quarterly inspection: ___________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
New Business
Hazard (inspection) reports reviewed: ___________________________________________
Hazard
Description
Recommendation
H-______
___________________________________________
R-_____________
H-______
___________________________________________
R-_____________
H-______
___________________________________________
R-_____________
H-______
___________________________________________
R-_____________
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Safety Committee Policy
Safety Committee Meeting Minutes
(pg.2)
Accident/incident investigation reviews:
Accident
Number
Near
Miss
Recommendation
Description
Number
A-______
□
_________________________________________
R-_______
A-______
□
_________________________________________
R-_______
A-______
□
_________________________________________
R-_______
A-______
□
_________________________________________
R-_______
A-______
□
_________________________________________
R-_______
Safety Committee Members Training Report: _______________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
Miscellaneous New Business: ___________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
Activity/Assignment Report:
Description
Person Assigned
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
Committee Remarks: _______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
Meeting adjourned: _____________________ Next meeting: ________________________
Time/date
___________________________________
Chair Person Signature
6/18/2013
Time/date
____________________________________
Secretary Signature
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Safety Committee Policy
Safety Committee Training Record Sheet
Trainer (include qualifications):
Date:
Content of Training:
Attendees
Print Name
Signature
(Retain at least 3 years)
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Job Hazard Analysis
4
Job Hazard Analysis
4.1 Policy Statement
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. is committed to providing a safe, healthy workplace by
eliminating or controlling all workplace hazards. Job hazard analysis systematically investigates a
job process, equipment, and the workplace environment to identify hazards and reduce risk. The
Lead Technician is responsible for seeing that facilities and workplaces are inspected for hazards
at least daily and will do so with support and assistance from employees.
4.2 Responsibilities
Job hazard analysis is a responsibility shared between Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. and its
employees.
4.2.1 Employer Responsibilities
It is the responsibility of Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. to:

Ensure safety inspections of the facility occur at least daily;

Train personnel in how to perform a job hazard analysis;

Respond quickly to control workplace hazards;

Ensure all equipment is kept in good repair;

Ensure employees follow safe job procedures; and

Repeat job hazard analysis whenever there is a significant change to any element of the
job or there has been an injury or illness.
4.2.2 Safety Committee Responsibilities
It is the responsibility of the Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. safety committee to:

Assist in job hazard analyses as necessary;

Assist in training employees to recognize and control workplace hazards;

Monitor the workplace for hazards;

Encourage employees to report hazards;

Implement appropriate controls; and

Ensure corrective action is taken promptly.
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4.2.3 Employee Responsibilities
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. employees are expected to:

Assist in job hazard analyses;

Follow safe job procedures; and

Report hazards to a supervisor immediately.
4.3 Training
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. will ensure every manager, supervisor and safety team member
participates in a job hazard analysis training program. This training will be provided at no cost to
the employee during working hours.
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. will use only training material that is appropriate in content and
vocabulary to educational level, literacy, and language of employees.
4.3.1 Training Components
Gary Pfizenmayer will ensure that every employee will be trained in the following minimum
elements:

The importance of involving employees in job safety analyses;

How to review safety records to identify areas that present hazards;

How to analyze a job to determine the level of risk it presents;

How to prioritize job hazard analysis and hazard control activities;

The basic steps of a job hazard analysis, including: breaking the job into steps, analyzing
risks, and determining controls;

How much detail to include when listing the steps of a job for a JHA;

What kinds of workplace hazards might exist and what types of risk they pose;

The hierarchy of hazard controls and the advantages of certain types of controls;

How to review a job hazard analysis and how to write a safe job procedure; and

When to reanalyze a job for hazards.
The person conducting the training will be knowledgeable in the subject matter of the training
program as it relates to the workplace the training addresses.
All employees will be trained in basic hazard identification and will be trained in their jobs
according to safe job procedures, which will be informed by the job safety analysis.
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4.3.2 Training Records
Training records will include the following information:

The dates of the training sessions;

The contents or a summary of the training sessions;

The names and qualifications of persons conducting the training; and

The names and job titles of all persons attending the training sessions.
Employee training records will be maintained for 3 years from the date on which the training
occurred.
4.4 Policy
4.4.1 Prepare
4.4.1.1
Employee Involvement
No one knows how to do a job better than the person currently doing that job. Employees who are
included in a Job Hazard Analysis (JHA) provide valuable insight and knowledge into work
procedures that is valuable in identifying hazards and controlling them. This insight can help
prevent potentially dangerous oversights.
Further, soliciting employee input demonstrates that management values everyone’s involvement
in creating a safer workplace and provides an opportunity for employees’ active involvement in
the job hazard analysis process.
4.4.1.2
Preliminary Review
Reviewing the worksite’s accident history with employees draws attention to failures in hazard
controls and deficiencies in work processes, which in turn suggests opportunities for safety
program growth. A thorough review of recorded accidents, illnesses and near misses points to
jobs, processes and tasks that require more careful consideration. It also indicates the most
immediate actions necessary to control risks that are present.
A discussion with employees about hazards they already know to exist also provides an
opportunity to discuss ideas to control them.
If there is a hazard that poses an immediate danger, do not wait until after the JHA is complete to
establish controls. Easy problems need to be corrected quickly. This demonstrates a commitment
to safety and permits more time and thought for more complicated work safety issues.
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Prioritize Hazardous Jobs
Understanding the risk posed by a job requires
consideration of two main factors: the likely
severity or impact of the injury or illness caused
by a hazard and the likelihood injury or illness
will actually occur (see Table 1). It is important,
when assessing the overall risk of a job to
determine the number of people exposed to a
hazard who could be affected by an incident.
Hazards that affect the whole worksite present
much more risk than hazards that affect only
one worker.
Risk
Assessment
Matrix
Severity of Harm
4.4.1.3
Probability of Harm
Not
Likely
Likely
Serious
Harm
Moderate
Risk
High
Risk
Significant
Harm
Low Risk
Moderate
Risk
Minor or
no harm
Low Risk
Low Risk
Very
Likely
Very
High
Risk
High
Risk
Moderate
Risk
Table 1
Jobs that present unacceptable risk should take priority. Place priority on jobs:
 With exceptionally high injury or illness rates;

Where there already have been close calls;

Where violations of standards already have occurred;

With potential to cause serious harm; and

Where simple human error could lead to severe accident or injury.
Severity
Factors that increase risk because they increase the severity of an injury or illness often rely on
chance. However, certain job elements and behaviors intensify the severity of possible incidents:





Using high-powered machinery and
heavy equipment;
Working at elevation;
Working around hazardous chemicals;

Moving heavy or cumbersome loads;
Working around or with electrically
energized equipment; and
Working in a confined space.
Probability
Factors that increase risk because they increase the likelihood of an injury or illness include:



Number of employees exposed to a hazard;
Frequency of exposure;
Duration of exposure;




Proximity to “point of danger;”
Unreasonable workload;
Working under stress; and
Environment.
4.4.2 Identify
To analyze a job’s hazards and potential hazards and determine how best to control them, it is
important to identify all significant hazards accurately and understand each within the context of
the entire job being analyzed.
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Job Hazard Analysis
4.4.2.1
Break Job Into Steps
Every job requires several steps. Each has its share of hazards that puts workers at risk.
To complete a job hazard analysis, first there must be a clear understanding of the steps required
to complete the job. The observer will watch the worker perform the job and list the steps the
worker takes to complete it.
When breaking a job into its constituent steps, it is important to balance between too much detail
and too little. Too much detail will make the analysis needlessly long, and too little will not cover
the basic steps.
Each step is one action. Some actions may not be observable, and some steps may involve
specifically not doing things.
The observation for the JHA is focused on neither the employee’s performance, nor individual
unsafe acts. It should focus on the task itself. All phases of the analysis benefit from employee
insight and feedback, and extensive employee involvement is strongly encouraged.
OSHA recommends video recording or photographing the worker performing the job and having
them explain each step and why they do it that way. These visual records can be handy
references when doing a more detailed assessment of the work.
When all the steps are documented, the observer will review them with the employee to ensure
nothing is missed.
4.4.2.2
Identify Hazards
The JHA requires answers to the following:



What can go wrong?
What are the consequences?
How could the hazard arise?


What are the other contributing factors?
How likely is it that the hazard will result in
an incident?
A good description of a possible hazard scenario will reveal the answers to those questions by
describing the hazard in terms of the environment in which it occurs, the trigger that would
precipitate an incident, how a worker faces exposure to the hazard, and the worst-case
consequences.
Again, workers provide excellent insight into the hazards they work with as well as suggestions
for how to control risks presented by hazards where they work.
The JHA should not only include actual hazards, but also potential hazards that could arise while
performing the job:

Is there danger of striking against, being struck by, or otherwise making harmful contact
with an object?

Can the worker be caught in, by, or between objects?

Is there potential for a slip or trip?

Can the employee fall from one level to another or even on the same level?
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Job Hazard Analysis

Can pushing, pulling, lifting, lowering, bending, or twisting cause strain?

Is the work environment hazardous to safety or health?

Are there concentrations of toxic gas, vapor, fumes, or dust?

Are there potential exposures to heat, cold, noise, or ionizing radiation?

Are there flammable, explosive, or electrical hazards?
Please see the table of Workplace Hazards at the end of this chapter for reference.
A list of hazards must accompany each step of the job. This provides a framework pointing to
controls already in place and controls needed to prevent hazards from causing injuries or
illnesses.
4.4.3 Control
Though awareness and thoughtfulness are excellent ways to reduce risk in the workplace, it is
not enough simply to identify workplace hazards. Hazards in the workplace that are identified
must be controlled if possible to minimize their risk. The JHA provides a systematic way to
approach hazards and their controls. To control a hazard, it is important to remember two very
basic principles. First, either eliminate the hazard itself or control worker exposure to the hazard.
Second, eliminating a hazard is more effective than controlling exposure to a hazard.
These two principles shape a hierarchy of hazard control strategies (see Figure 1). When
considering how to address the hazards in each step of a given job, controls at the top of the
hierarchy need to be considered before controls toward the bottom of the hierarchy. The more
reliable and less likely a hazard control can be circumvented, the better.
A good hazard control plan often includes a mixture of different things, such as the following:
 arrangements for training workers
 priority given to high-risk hazards;
on the main risks that remain and
 cheap, easy improvements and temporary
how they are to be controlled; and
solutions until more reliable controls are in
 regular checks to make sure the
place;
control measures stay in place, and
 long-term solutions to risks most likely to
clear responsibilities. Who will lead
cause accidents or ill health;
on what action, and by when?
 long-term solutions to risks with the worst
potential consequences;
4.4.3.1
Controlling the Hazard
The most effective strategy is to "engineer the hazard out" by using control methods that
physically remove or change a hazardous machine, work environment condition or other hazard.
If, during the JHA, you discover a hazard that can be engineered out, do it. Turn the dangerous
step into a safe step that doesn’t require safety precautions.
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• Remove hazard completely
from workplace.
• Examples: Good
housekeeping, retiring outdated
equipment
Eliminate hazard
• Find a safer alternative.
• Examples: Replace manual
processes with automatic processes,
replace toxic chemical with nontoxic
chemical.
Substitute hazard
Hazard
Controls
• Keep the hazard away from workers or
place a barrier between the hazard and
workers.
• Examples: Chemical cabinets, machine
rooms
Isolate hazard
• Adapt tools, equipment or process design to
reduce risk.
• Examples: Ventilation, machine guards
Other engineering
controls
Administrative
controls
Exposure
Controls
• Change work practices or organization.
• Examples: Regular safety meetings, training, risk
assessments, scheduling, signage
• Personal protective equipment is the last option.
• Examples: Hard hats, gloves, face shields
PPE
Figure 1 — Hierarchy of Hazard Controls
Elimination
If there are hazards that can be removed from the worksite, do this first. Good housekeeping
procedures keep many hazards under control. Removing redundant or unnecessary equipment,
materials or processes also rids the workplace of any risks associated with them.
Substitution
There may be alternative chemicals, machines, or processes to accomplish the job but pose
fewer hazards to workers. Explore ways to incorporate these alternatives into the job.
Isolation and Other Engineering Approaches
Creating a boundary between a hazard and workers can reduce risk almost as effectively as
removing the hazard from the workplace altogether. Limit access to hazards with enclosures,
machine guards and physical barriers that reduce the likelihood of exposure to a hazard before
turning to controls that rely on a person.
Redesigning equipment and installing new guards (within manufacturer specifications) can
remove or redirect hazards away from workers to prevent exposure.
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4.4.3.2
Controlling Exposure
Some jobs and processes demand a level of exposure to some workplace hazards. If this is the
case, controlling risk means controlling or eliminating the exposure and the negative effects of
exposure.
Administrative or Management Controls
Administrative hazard controls are far-reaching and varied when implemented. These controls
rely on appropriate human behavior, which is why they are lower on the hazard control hierarchy
than engineering controls. Administrative controls include:



Policies, procedures and practices to reduce
exposure;
Modifying work schedules to reduce exposure;
Monitoring the use of hazardous materials;



Alarms, signs and warnings;
The buddy system; and
Training.
Personal Protective Equipment
Personal protective equipment (PPE) is the least effective way to control hazards, but is
necessary for some hazardous jobs. The following are examples of when PPE is acceptable:

When engineering controls are not feasible or do not totally eliminate the hazard;

While engineering controls are being developed;

When safe work practices do not provide sufficient additional protection; and

During emergencies when engineering controls may not be feasible.
PPE needs to be chosen carefully to address the hazard, and fitted to the person using it.
4.4.4 Document and Evaluate
By the end of the JHA, there will be a document that clearly outlines the steps to perform the job,
the hazards encountered in each step, and appropriate controls that need to be in place to reduce
the risk posed by those hazards. This will paint a picture of a process that takes safety into
account from the start to end of the job.
However, unsafe habits have a way of introducing themselves into a process as workers find their
“own way” of performing tasks — ways that may not take into account the safety measures
identified in the JHA. Further, there may be risks that were not identified or were left insufficiently
controlled that may only become evident after the JHA is complete. Monitoring and periodic
reviews help ensure the JHA remains current to prevent accidents and injuries.
4.4.4.1
Document the Safe Job Procedure
Once the analysis is complete, communicate the results to all workers who are, or will be,
performing that job. The side-by-side format used in JHA worksheets is not an ideal one for
instructional purposes. Use a narrative-style communication format to create a safe job procedure
that is easy to understand:

Write in step-by-step format: Each step needs its own paragraph that describes the step
as one action.
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Job Hazard Analysis

Point out the hazard: If the step involves exposure to a hazard, point out the hazard in
the step. Include the possible injury or illness that could result from unprotected exposure
to the hazard.

Identify safety precautions: If the step involves exposure to a hazard, also point out the
safety precautions to stay safe and healthy.

Paint a ‘word picture’: Write the procedure in a way that someone unfamiliar with the
task could perform it safely. The safe job procedure can serve as a training document as
well as a safety document. Avoid jargon and technical terms so new employees can easily
understand the process.

Write in the second person, present tense: Treat the safe job procedure as a set of
instructions. Tell the person who is doing the job exactly how to do it.

Write clearly: While it is important to be concise, it is more important to be clear and
accurate. Keep sentences short. Clear writing helps make sure all workers can
understand the instructions and follow them. If employees speak a language other than
English, translate the job procedure into the language they speak so there is as little
confusion as possible.
4.4.4.2
Monitor and Review
Periodically reviewing your JHA ensures it is current and continues to prevent workplace
accidents and injuries. Even if the job does not change, unnoticed hazards may become
apparent. It is particularly important to review job hazard analyses if an illness or injury occurs.
Based on the circumstances, the job procedure may need to change to prevent similar incidents
in the future. If an employee’s failure to follow proper job procedures results in a “close call or
near miss,” discuss the situation with all employees who perform the job and remind them of
proper procedures. Any time you revise a job hazard analysis, it is important to train all
employees affected by the changes in the new job methods, procedures, or protective measures.
Hazard identification, and risk assessment and control are ongoing processes. Make sure to
undertake a hazard identification and risk control analysis whenever there is a change to the
workplace, including when work systems, tools, machinery or equipment change, or when the
existing process is otherwise potentially out of date or no longer valid.
4.5 Forms & Attachments
On the following pages, please find the following documents:

Workplace Hazards

Job Hazard Analysis Worksheet

Safe Job Procedure Form

Job Hazard Analysis Training Documentation
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Workplace Hazards
Description
Slips/Trips/Falls
Conditions that result in falls (impacts) from height or walking surfaces (such as
slippery floors, poor housekeeping, uneven walking surfaces, exposed ledges,
etc.)
Failure
Self-explanatory; typically occurs when devices exceed designed capacity or are
inadequately maintained.
Caught-in/
Caught-on/
Crush
Skin, muscle, or body part exposed to crushing, caught-between, cutting,
tearing, shearing items or equipment.
Struck By
Accelerated mass that strikes the body causing injury or death. (Examples are
falling objects and projectiles.)
Struck Against
Injury to a body part as a result of coming into contact of a surface in which
action was initiated by the person. (An example is when a screwdriver slips.)
Toxic
A chemical that exposes a person by absorption through the skin, inhalation, or
through the blood stream that causes illness, disease, or death. The amount of
chemical exposure is critical in determining hazardous effects. Check Safety
Data Sheets (SDS), and/or OSHA 1910.1200 for chemical hazard information.
Flammable
A chemical that, when exposed to a heat ignition source, results in combustion.
Typically, the lower a chemical’s flash point and boiling point, the more
flammable the chemical. Check SDS for flammability information.
Corrosive
A chemical that, when it comes into contact with skin, metal, or other materials,
causes damage. Acids and bases are examples of corrosives.
Chemical
Reaction
Self-explanatory.
Explosion
Chemical
Impact
Mechanical
Hazard
Pressurization
Sudden and violent release of a large amount of gas/energy due to a significant
pressure difference such as rupture in a boiler or compressed gas cylinder.
Temperature Extreme
Temperatures that result in heat stress, exhaustion, or metabolic slow down
such as hypothermia or hyperthermia.
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Contact with exposed conductors or a device that is incorrectly or inadvertently
grounded, such as when a metal ladder comes into contact with power lines.
60Hz alternating current (common house current) is very dangerous because it
can stop the heart.
Fire
Use of electrical power that results in electrical overheating or arcing to the point
of combustion or ignition of flammables, or electrical component damage.
Static / ESD
The moving or rubbing of wool, nylon, other synthetic fibers, and even flowing
liquids can generate static electricity. This creates an excess or deficiency of
electrons on the surface of material that discharges (spark) to the ground
resulting in the ignition of flammables or damage to electronics.
Electrical
Shock/
Short Circuit
Loss of Power
Damage of tissue due to overexertion (strains and sprains) or repetitive motion.
Human Error
A system design, procedure, or equipment that is likely to cause error. (A switch
goes up to turn something off).
Vibration
Vibration that can cause damage to nerve endings, or material fatigue that
results in a safety-critical failure. (Examples are abraded slings and ropes,
weakened hoses and belts.)
Ionizing
Alpha, Beta, Gamma, neutral particles, and X-rays that cause injury (tissue
damage) by ionization of cellular components.
Non-Ionizing
Ultraviolet, visible light, infrared, and microwaves that cause injury to tissue by
thermal or photochemical means.
Noise
Noise levels that result in hearing damage (an 8-hour time-weighted average
greater than 85 decibels) or inability to communicate safety-critical information.
Radiation
Ergonomics
Strain
Safety-critical equipment failure as a result of loss of power.
Visibility
Weather Phenomena
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Lack of lighting or obstructed vision that results in an error or other hazard.
Self-explanatory.
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Job Hazard Analysis
Date:
Job Hazard Analysis Worksheet
Department/Project:
Hazard(s)
Created By:
Step
Job/Activity:
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
Controls
©Safety Services Company
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Job Hazard Analysis
8)
9)
10)
11)
12)
Required Training:
Step
Hazard(s)
Job Hazard Analysis Worksheet (pg. 2)
Required Personal Protective Equipment:
Special Inspection Requirements:
Controls
Please attach any diagrams, flowcharts or photographs that may be helpful in hazard assessment.
©Safety Services Company
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Job Hazard Analysis
Safe Job Procedure
DO NOT undertake this job unless a supervisor has instructed you in the safe use of all equipment and appropriate safety
precautions for work processes associated with the job. Any employee who undertakes this job must have explicit supervisor
permission to do so.
Job Performed
Potential Hazards:
Personal Protective Equipment
□
□
Respiratory
Hand
Protection
Protection
Other (Specify):
□
Eye
Protection
□
Face
Protection
□
Special
Footwear
□
Hearing
Protection
□
Special
Clothing
Safe Work Procedures
(Attach additional sheets if necessary)
Pre-Operation
Operation
Post-Operation
Competent Personnel
These individuals are permitted to perform the job and supervise others learning to do this job
Name:
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Title:
Contact:
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Job Hazard Analysis
Job Hazard Analysis Training
Trainer (include qualifications):
Date:
Content of Training:
Attendees
Print Name
Signature
(Retain at least 3 years)
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Accident Investigation
5
Accident Investigation
5.1 Policy Statement
Safety incidents indicate the failure of safety control systems and demand changes to prevent
future harm. In order to implement necessary changes and prevent future harm, Pyro
Combustion & Controls Inc. will investigate accidents and near-misses to identify causes and
make safety recommendations.
The purpose of workplace accident investigations at Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. is to find
facts to guide future actions, not to find fault or assign blame.
Fatalities and catastrophes, defined as an event that requires inpatient hospitalization of three
or more employees, must be reported to OSHA within 8 hours. Serious accidents where an
employee is admitted to a hospital for treatment or observation as a result of injuries suffered
from a workplace accident, must be reported to OSHA within 24 hours.
If an employee with an occupational injury or illness receives a medical emergency procedure,
Gary Pfizenmayer or designate will document the incident on OSHA’s Form 301 “Injury and
Illness Incident Report” and record the injury or illness on the OSHA’s Form 300 “Log of Work
Related Injuries and Illnesses”. See “29 CFR 1904.7 — Recordkeeping Forms and Recording
Criteria”.
5.2 Responsibilities
Accident investigations are a responsibility shared between Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc.
and its employees.
5.2.1 Employer Responsibilities
It is the responsibility of Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. to:

Provide accident investigation training to supervisors and safety committee members;

Ensure that every accident is investigated to find and remedy the root causes;

Respond promptly to any recommendation following an accident;

Ensure all corrective actions have been taken to prevent the recurrence of an accident;

Avoid blaming individuals in incident investigations for safety purposes;

Report to the appropriate authority, as required by law, any catastrophe, fatality, injury or
work-related illness; and

Share with employees the findings of accident investigations.
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5.2.2 Safety Committee Responsibilities
It is the responsibility of the Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. safety committee to:

Help establish and maintain an accident investigation procedure that encourages
employee involvement, management support, and company-wide accountability;

Provide support to respond to recommendations and implement changes to prevent
future incidents; and

Review workplace safety incidents to identify areas of concern and recommend
necessary actions.
5.2.3 Employee Responsibilities
Every Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. employee is expected to:

Immediately report any work-related accident, injury or near-miss to the appropriate
supervisor;

Actively cooperate with investigators during accident investigations; and

Participate in recommending changes to processes, systems and the workplace, and
help implement changes as necessary, to prevent future accidents.
5.3 Training
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. will ensure every employee is provided training on their role in
the accident investigation process. This training will be provided at no cost to the employee
during working hours.
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. will use only training material that is appropriate in content and
vocabulary to educational level, literacy, and language of employees.
5.3.1 Training Components
Gary Pfizenmayer will ensure that all employees at Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. are
informed and trained in the following minimum elements for accident investigation:

What an accident is and why accidents occur;

What a near-miss is and why it is as important to understand the causes of near-misses
as the causes of accidents;

How to report an accident;

A general overview of the accident investigation process;

Why accident investigations are important and the purpose of them; and

Different levels of causes for accidents.
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Managers, Supervisors and Safety Committee Members will complete training in the following
minimum elements for accident investigation:

Legal requirements of accident reporting;

Securing an accident scene;

Planning an accident investigation;

Collecting information from an accident scene;

Conducting interviews as part of an accident investigation;

Photographing and sketching an accident;

Creating a timeline of an accident;

Root cause analysis techniques;

Accident investigation reports; and

Recommending change to prevent accidents.
5.3.2 Training Records
Training records will include the following information:

The dates of the training sessions;

The contents or a summary of the training sessions;

The names and qualifications of persons conducting the training; and
 The names and job titles of all persons attending the training sessions.
Employee training records will be maintained for 3 years from the date on which the training
occurred.
5.4 Policy
5.4.1 Background
It is easy to think of an accident simply as a single event that results in injury or illness to an
employee and possibly property damage. In reality, an accident is the culmination of a series of
events. Accidents are the end of an unplanned, unintended and undesired process. They are
complex and in some industries exceedingly rare, often with several events that can be
identified as causes.
It is also easy to think of accidents as being the result of poor chance or fate. However, a
competent person can examine workplace conditions, behaviors and underlying systems to
predict what kind of accidents will occur. There is certainly an element of chance that
precipitates an incident, however all accidents can be prevented by eliminating and controlling
workplace hazards.
A serious accident may result in disability, severe property damage or even death; a minor
accident may only cause an inconvenience; near misses may not harm anyone or anything.
However, accidents of any kind and near misses all point to failures in safety systems that
demand a closer look to prevent more harm in the future.
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5.4.1.1
Investigations
An accident investigation may have different purposes, including:

Identifying and describing the actual course of events;

Identifying the direct and root causes / contributing factors of the accident;

Identifying risk reducing measures to prevent future, comparable accidents;

Investigating and evaluating the basis for potential criminal prosecution;

Fulfilling legal requirements or processing workers’ compensation claims; and

Evaluating the question of guilt in order to assess the liability for compensation.
Police, insurance investigators or safety regulators may investigate an accident for other
reasons, but Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. accident investigations emphasize finding the
root causes of the accident to prevent future accidents from happening again.
Investigators are interested not only in individual harmful events, but also the events, systems
and processes that led to the accident. Accident investigations need to determine exactly what
happened, but more importantly must look for deeper causes — the how and why.
Incidents that involve no injury or property damage should still be investigated to determine
which hazards should be corrected. The same principles apply to a quick inquiry of a minor
incident and to the more formal investigation of a serious event.
5.4.1.2
Procedures for Accident Investigations
The best time to develop accident investigation procedures is before the accident occurs.
The plan should include procedures that determine:

Who to notify when an accident occurs;

Who may notify outside agencies (fire, police, etc.);

Who will conduct investigations;

Who will maintain recordkeeping documents;

What training is required for accident investigators;

Who receives and acts on investigation reports;
and

Timetables for conducting hazard correction.
At Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc., pre-accident
investigation planning is a team effort between the safety
committee and Gary Pfizenmayer. Nevertheless, there are
some key steps to help ensure an accident investigation
will accomplish its goal of preventing future incidents. See
Figure 1 for an outline of the general steps of an accident
investigation.
Figure 1
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5.4.1.3
Reporting accidents
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. will investigate all lost-time injuries. Any fatality or the
hospitalization of three or more employees must be reported to OSHA within 8 hours. Serious
accidents must be reported to OSHA within 24 hours.
Employees will report all accidents and near miss incidents that result in personal injury,
property damage, chemical spill, or other emergency situation to the assigned supervisor at the
time of the event, and Emergency Medical Service, Fire Department, or Hazmat Services will be
immediately summoned as needed.
5.4.2 Immediate Action
5.4.2.1
Secure Accident Scene
The first action to take at an accident scene is to prevent further injuries and make the area
safe. Administer first aid (or ensure it is administered) or summon appropriate emergency
responders as necessary.
Sometimes, an investigation can begin while the victim is being assisted by emergency
responders. However, the priority is always taking care of the victim, and usually investigations
don’t begin until emergency response is completed. Material evidence will most likely not be in
its original location, but effective interviews can shed light on the scene at the time of the
accident.
In either situation, at this point gathering as much pertinent information as possible for later
analysis takes priority over figuring out the cause of the accident, but the top priority should
always be the safety and well-being of workers and the public.
5.4.2.2
Preliminary Investigation
It is important to start the investigation as soon as possible. Time between the accident and the
investigation can lead to a deterioration of evidence and undermine the accuracy of the
investigation.
Material Evidence
There is a temptation to immediately clean up the accident scene so people can get back to
work, but an effective procedure will protect material evidence for the investigation.
Securing the scene of an accident is important to do quickly. Tape, rope, cones, or even
personnel can secure the accident scene.
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Memory
Memories are not nearly as reliable as most people think. Further, trauma from the accident can
impact how the memory of an incident is retained. Over time and through conversations with
other workers, distortions of what people believe they saw and heard begin to emerge or grow.
Moving quickly to investigate an accident helps ensure memories an investigator hears about an
incident are as reliable as possible.
5.4.2.3
Plan Investigation
Most investigation planning should happen well in advance of an accident. However, some
details of the investigation can only be seen after the fact. The nature of the accident will
determine the extent of the investigation, the resources that will be needed, what types of
investigative processes will be required, who will need to be interviewed, etc.
Build Team
Ideally, someone experienced in accident causation and investigative techniques will conduct
accident investigations. An investigator who is also fully knowledgeable of the work processes,
procedures, peoples, and general work environment of a particular situation will be able to shed
some light on the causes of the accident.
In most cases, the supervisor should help investigate, together with at least one employee
representative from the safety committee, the safety coordinator and/or whoever is in charge of
worksite inspections. Other members of the team can include:

employees with knowledge of the work;

a union representative, if applicable;

employees with experience in investigations; or

an impartial expert from outside the company.
It is important the team represents a variety of expert perspectives on workplace safety and the
job being performed when the accident happened. However, everyone on the team should be
trained in appropriate investigative techniques and not be involved in any disciplinary
proceedings that might emerge out of the incident if at all possible.
It is important to keep the investigation for safety purposes separate from any possible
disciplinary action. Accident investigations will always focus on identifying safety failures and
remedying them promptly.
5.4.3 Collect Information
The next step is to gather useful information about what directly and indirectly contributed to the
accident. When collecting information to better understand an incident or accident, consider all
possible sources.
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5.4.3.1
Photograph and Video
Photographs and video recording can help in the preparation of a report as well as in analyzing
conditions at the site of the incident. Photographic evidence should be taken as soon as safely
possible. Following are some techniques useful in taking photographs at incident scenes:

Photograph the overall area before moving to detail the precise incident site.

Take photos from different perspectives and angles; close up and from a distance.

Use witnesses to help you decide what to shoot; note their comments.

Record what photos you take in a log that includes details like when the shot was taken,
by whom, where, what the shot contains, identifying number on a sketch of the area, and
a brief description of what the photograph is trying to identify.

Keep the photos in a safe place along with notes, evidence and sketches from the
accident investigation.

Narrate video with details like those above.
5.4.3.2
Sketch Scene
Sketches complement information in photo or video, indicating distances among elements of the
accident scene.
It is important to be as precise as possible when making sketches. Following are some things to
remember:

Make sketches large and clear.

Include basic facts (Date, time, location, identity of objects, victims, etc.)

Define spatial relationships with identifiable points of reference and compass directions

Include important measurements and note key concepts.

Indicate what has been included in photographs.

Mark where people were standing.
Eventually, a precise diagram can reflect the information in a sketch, but it is important to get as
much information as possible immediately after the accident.
5.4.3.3
Interview Witnesses
Witnesses are the easiest way to gather an understanding of how the accident occurred and the
conditions that led to the accident. Witnesses include people who saw the incident, the injured
person and people whose behavior, actions and/or inactions — either intentionally or
unintentionally — contributed to the incident. This can include supervisors and trainers,
maintenance personnel, and anyone else tied to the investigation.
When interviewing, it is important to remember emotions can run high in the wake of an
accident, especially a catastrophic one. The accident investigation is a cooperative effort to
create a safer workplace by gathering and understanding information. Keep an open mind and
listen with a calm, relaxed, unhurried demeanor.
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
Only use a tape recorder with permission; offer a copy of the tape to the interviewee.

Express to the individual that the information given is important, but put the person at
ease. Explain the purpose and your role. Sincerely express concern regarding the
accident and desire to prevent a similar occurrence.

Interview witnesses separately and ensure witnesses can discuss the incident with you
in relative privacy where possible. Don’t promise confidentiality though.

Take the witness to the scene if it is comfortable. If you can’t conduct a private interview
at the location, find an office or meeting room that the interviewee considers a "neutral"
location.

Allow witnesses to have a support person present but ensure the support person is not
directly linked to the incident and is not a witness. If there is a collective bargaining
agreement, and a worker requests union representation, do not continue the interview
until representation has been secured.

Direct an eyewitness to "explain what happened." If you don’t ask them to explain, you
may be left with a simple "no," and that’s that. Open-ended questions elicit much more
information than close-ended questions, but “why” questions can put an interviewee on
guard. Look for facts and observations, ignore speculation.

Take notes casually, but with care. Allow the interviewee to review notes of the interview
to ensure accuracy and help bring details to mind. Give the interviewee a copy of the
notes you take to help reduce any thought that you’re trying to conceal information.

Repeat the facts and sequence of events back to the person to avoid misunderstandings
and establish the correct version of events.

Request interviewees offer their own suggestions as to how the incident could have
been avoided.

Conclude interviews by thanking interviewees for their contribution. Ask them to contact
you if they think of anything else. If possible, tell witnesses personally of the outcome of
the investigation before it becomes public knowledge.
5.4.3.4
Consult Records
When searching for information, investigations should not stop at the scene of the accident,
physical evidence or the people involved. Documents related to the incident can provide
incredible insight into the causes of an accident, especially root causes. Some examples of
useful documents follow:





technical data sheets;
health and safety
committee minutes;
inspection reports;
company policies;
maintenance reports;




past accident reports;
job hazard analyses
and safe-work
procedures;
training records and
reports;
work schedules;


injury and illness logs;
and
any other document that
may shed light on the
safety-related systems
in place where the
accident took place.
Finding the causes of the accident based on available information may be difficult because
events must be analyzed not only to identify direct causes for the accident, but also related root
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causes. Surface causes can be obvious. However, it may take a great deal more time to
unearth weaknesses in management systems, or root causes, that contributed to the conditions
and practices associated with the accident (see Figure 2).
5.4.4 Organize and Analyze the Facts
5.4.4.1
Develop Sequence of Events
When all the evidence is collected and all the interviews are complete, a timeline of the accident
should emerge. Each event on the timeline describes an actor and an action. The actor effects
change through action or inaction. Actors do not have to be personnel. Equipment or processes
can impact the system to precipitate an accident.
When developing the sequence of events, do not hesitate to stretch the timeline further back as
deeper causes begin to emerge. Accidents often result from long-term oversights and failures
that have taken some time to have a negative impact.
If gaps in the timeline are apparent, they need to be filled in. If re-interviewing witnesses or
investigating the evidence fails to fill the gaps, develop a “best guess” supported by the rest of
the timeline and available evidence.
The sequence of events should describe what happened in such a way that someone unfamiliar
can understand what likely happened.
5.4.4.2
Determine the Causes
When the timeline is established the next step is to determine the causes of the accident. The
key question for an investigator to establish cause is “Why?” Why did an unsafe condition
emerge in the workplace? Why did the worker end up exposed to the unsafe condition?
However, to dig to root causes of an accident requires asking “Why?” over and again.
5.4.5 Implement Solutions
While an accident investigation is partly a reactive safety process, if it ends in recommendations
for effective control strategies and system improvements, the investigation helps prevent similar
accidents in the future.
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ACCIDENT
Personal Injury
Property Damage
WHY
?
WHY
?
Direct Cause
Unplanned Release of
Energy and/or
Hazardous Material
WHY
?
Indirect Causes
Unsafe
act(s)
Unsafe
Condition(s)
WHY
?
Management Safety Policy &
Decisions
Root Causes
Personal Factors
WHY
?
Environmental Factors
Figure 2
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5.4.5.1
Write the Report
An accident or incident investigation aims to create systemic change and ensure everyday
safeguards remain in place to reduce risk and promote safety in the workplace. However, the
information uncovered in the investigation and recommendations that come from the
investigation need to be available to people with authority. A report that includes the pertinent
information about the causes of an incident and concrete recommendations helps the
investigation to positively impact the safety culture of Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc..
Please see the “Accident/Incident Report” at the end of this chapter for an example template for
an incident report.
Background: This section of the report covers the basic information about the accident: when
the accident occurred, where and who was involved.
Description: The description of the incident should be a timeline of the incident — a step-bystep narrative of what occurred. How far before and after the incident itself the narrative should
stretch will depend on the incident and the findings of the investigation. Include enough
information to give a person who was not there a clear understanding of the accident. Be
specific. Include a diagram of the event.
Findings: Report results of the root-cause analysis with complete thoughts, not short notes.
Remember to describe both hazardous conditions and unsafe actions. Findings need to include
direct and indirect surface causes. Findings should also clearly outline the root causes of the
accident and frame recommendations. Remember, the point of the investigation is not to assign
blame. Findings will describe unsafe actions of individuals, but any lack of hazard controls or
deficient safety systems at the organizational level is what the report aims to remedy.
Recommendations: Recommendations can be only as effective as the findings on which they
are based. In the report, recommendations need to be specific and help those in authority take
the first steps to implement the recommendations. Include who will be responsible to implement
the recommendations, a timeline and estimated cost if that can be determined.
Summary: Review the causes of the accident and the corrective steps that were
recommended.
Review and Follow-up: This can be included as part of the recommendations. Necessary
changes require a system of accountability. Suggesting a specific timeframe and specific
individuals with appropriate authority to enact recommendations will drive the needed changes.
Incorporating accident follow-up and accountability into safety committee activities is a useful
way to build widespread accountability for the types of safety system changes workplace
accidents often demand.
Attachments: Be sure to include the notes from interviews, photographs and any other
pertinent information and evidence from the investigation with the report.
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5.4.6 Policy evaluation and recordkeeping
Accident investigation procedure and this policy will be
evaluated annually and revised as necessary.
5.4.6.1
Reporting Catastrophes and Fatalities
Fatalities and catastrophes — defined as an event that
requires inpatient hospitalization of three or more employees
— must be reported to OSHA within 8 hours. Serious
accidents where an employee is admitted to a hospital for
treatment or observation as a result of injuries suffered from a
workplace accident, must be reported to OSHA within 24
hours. 1-800-321-OSHA (1-800-321-6742)
5.4.6.2
OSHA’s Form 300, 300A and 301
Unless in a low-hazard industry (list to right) or employing 10
or fewer individuals, all recordable injuries and illnesses will be
recorded appropriately. See “1904.7 — Recordkeeping Forms
and Recording Criteria.”
If an employee with an occupational injury or illness receives a
medical emergency procedure, Gary Pfizenmayer or designate
will document the incident on OSHA’s Form 301 “Injury and
Illness Incident Report” and record the injury or illness on the
OSHA’s Form 300 “Log of Work Related Injuries and
Illnesses”.
Yearly, OSHA’s form 300A “Summary of Work-Related Injuries
and Illnesses” will be completed based on the information in
form 300 and posted from February 1 to April 30 of the year
following the year covered by the form.
See “29 CFR 1904.7 — Recordkeeping Forms and Recording
Criteria.”
5.5 Forms & Attachments
SICs of recordkeeping-exempt industries
525
542
544
545
546
549
551
552
554
557
56
573
58
591
592
594
599
60
61
62
63
64
653
654
67
722
723
724
725
726
729
731
732
733
737
738
764
78
791
792
793
801
802
803
804
807
809
81
82
832
835
839
841
86
87
On the following pages, please find the following documents:

29 CFR 1904.7 — Recording and Reporting
Occupational Injuries and Illness

Accident/Incident Report

Accident Investigation Training Documentation
899
Hardware Stores
Meat and Fish Markets
Candy, Nut, and Confectionary Stores
Dairy Products Stores
Retail Bakeries
Miscellaneous Food Stores
New and Used Car Dealers
Used Car Dealers
Gasoline Service Stations
Motorcycle Dealers
Apparel and Accessory Stores
Radio, Television, and Computer Stores
Eating and Drinking Places
Drug Stores and Proprietary Stores
Liquor Stores
Miscellaneous Shopping Goods Stores
Retail Stores, Not Elsewhere Classified
Depository Institutions (Banks and
Savings Institutions)
Nondepository Institutions (Credit
Institutions)
Security and Commodity Brokers
Insurance Carriers
Insurance Agents, Brokers, and Services
Real Estate Agents and Managers
Title Abstract Offices
Holding and Other Investment Offices
Photographic Studios, Portrait
Beauty Shops
Barber Shops
Shoe Repair and Shoeshine Parlors
Funeral Service and Crematories
Miscellaneous Personal Services
Advertising Services
Credit Reporting and Collection Services
Mailing, Reproduction, and Stenographic
Services
Computer and Data Processing Services
Miscellaneous Business Services
Reupholstery and Furniture Repair
Motion Picture
Dance Studios, Schools, and Halls
Producers, Orchestras, Entertainers
Bowling Centers
Offices and Clinics of Medical Doctors
Offices and Clinics of Dentists
Offices of Osteopathic Physicians
Offices of Other Health Practitioners
Medical and Dental Laboratories
Health and Allied Services, Not
Elsewhere Classified
Legal Services
Educational Services (Schools,
Colleges, Universities, and Libraries)
Individual and Family Services
Child Day Care Centers
Social Services, Not Elsewhere
Classified
Museums and Art Galleries
Membership Organizations
Engineering, Accounting, Research,
Management, and Related Services
Services, Not Elsewhere Classified
These forms may be reproduced freely by Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. for the purposes of
implementing and maintaining a safety and health program.
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29 CFR 1904.7 — Recording and Reporting Occupational Injuries and Illness
a)
Basic requirement. You must consider an injury or illness to meet the general recording criteria, and therefore to be
recordable, if it results in any of the following: death, days away from work, restricted work or transfer to another job, medical
treatment beyond first aid, or loss of consciousness. You must also consider a case to meet the general recording criteria if it
involves a significant injury or illness diagnosed by a physician or other licensed health care professional, even if it does not
result in death, days away from work, restricted work or job transfer, medical treatment beyond first aid, or loss of
consciousness.
b)
Implementation.
1)
How do I decide if a case meets one or more of the general recording criteria? A work-related injury or illness must
be recorded if it results in one or more of the following:
i)
ii)
iii)
Death. See § 1904.7(b)(2).
iv)
v)
vi)
Medical treatment beyond first aid. See § 1904.7(b)(5).
Days away from work. See § 1904.7(b)(3).
Restricted work or transfer to another job. See § 1904.7(b)(4).
Loss of consciousness. See § 1904.7(b)(6).
A significant injury or illness diagnosed by a physician or other licensed health care professional. See § 1904.7(b)(7).
2)
How do I record a work-related injury or illness that results in the employee's death? You must record an injury or
illness that results in death by entering a check mark on the OSHA 300 Log in the space for cases resulting in death. You
must also report any work-related fatality to OSHA within eight (8) hours, as required by § 1904.39.
3)
How do I record a work-related injury or illness that results in days away from work? When an injury or illness
involves one or more days away from work, you must record the injury or illness on the OSHA 300 Log with a check mark
in the space for cases involving days away and an entry of the number of calendar days away from work in the number of
days column. If the employee is out for an extended period of time, you must enter an estimate of the days that the
employee will be away, and update the day count when the actual number of days is known.
i)
Do I count the day on which the injury occurred or the illness began? No, you begin counting days away on the
day after the injury occurred or the illness began.
ii)
How do I record an injury or illness when a physician or other licensed health care professional
recommends that the worker stay at home but the employee comes to work anyway? You must record these
injuries and illnesses on the OSHA 300 Log using the check box for cases with days away from work and enter the
number of calendar days away recommended by the physician or other licensed health care professional. If a
physician or other licensed health care professional recommends days away, you should encourage your employee
to follow that recommendation. However, the days away must be recorded whether the injured or ill employee follows
the physician or licensed health care professional's recommendation or not. If you receive recommendations from
two or more physicians or other licensed health care professionals, you may make a decision as to which
recommendation is the most authoritative, and record the case based upon that recommendation.
iii)
How do I handle a case when a physician or other licensed health care professional recommends that the
worker return to work but the employee stays at home anyway? In this situation, you must end the count of days
away from work on the date the physician or other licensed health care professional recommends that the employee
return to work.
iv)
How do I count weekends, holidays, or other days the employee would not have worked anyway? You must
count the number of calendar days the employee was unable to work as a result of the injury or illness, regardless of
whether or not the employee was scheduled to work on those day(s). Weekend days, holidays, vacation days or
other days off are included in the total number of days recorded if the employee would not have been able to work on
those days because of a work-related injury or illness.
v)
How do I record a case in which a worker is injured or becomes ill on a Friday and reports to work on a
Monday, and was not scheduled to work on the weekend? You need to record this case only if you receive
information from a physician or other licensed health care professional indicating that the employee should not have
worked, or should have performed only restricted work, during the weekend. If so, you must record the injury or
illness as a case with days away from work or restricted work, and enter the day counts, as appropriate.
vi)
How do I record a case in which a worker is injured or becomes ill on the day before scheduled time off such
as a holiday, a planned vacation, or a temporary plant closing? You need to record a case of this type only if
you receive information from a physician or other licensed health care professional indicating that the employee
should not have worked, or should have performed only restricted work, during the scheduled time off. If so, you
must record the injury or illness as a case with days away from work or restricted work, and enter the day counts, as
appropriate.
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vii) Is there a limit to the number of days away from work I must count? Yes, you may "cap" the total days away at
180 calendar days. You are not required to keep track of the number of calendar days away from work if the injury or
illness resulted in more than 180 calendar days away from work and/or days of job transfer or restriction. In such a
case, entering 180 in the total days away column will be considered adequate.
viii) May I stop counting days if an employee who is away from work because of an injury or illness retires or
leaves my company? Yes, if the employee leaves your company for some reason unrelated to the injury or illness,
such as retirement, a plant closing, or to take another job, you may stop counting days away from work or days of
restriction/job transfer. If the employee leaves your company because of the injury or illness, you must estimate the
total number of days away or days of restriction/job transfer and enter the day count on the 300 Log.
ix)
4)
If a case occurs in one year but results in days away during the next calendar year, do I record the case in
both years? No, you only record the injury or illness once. You must enter the number of calendar days away for the
injury or illness on the OSHA 300 Log for the year in which the injury or illness occurred. If the employee is still away
from work because of the injury or illness when you prepare the annual summary, estimate the total number of
calendar days you expect the employee to be away from work, use this number to calculate the total for the annual
summary, and then update the initial log entry later when the day count is known or reaches the 180-day cap.
How do I record a work-related injury or illness that results in restricted work or job transfer? When an injury or
illness involves restricted work or job transfer but does not involve death or days away from work, you must record the
injury or illness on the OSHA 300 Log by placing a check mark in the space for job transfer or restriction and an entry of
the number of restricted or transferred days in the restricted workdays column.
i)
How do I decide if the injury or illness resulted in restricted work? Restricted work occurs when, as the result of
a work-related injury or illness:
(A)
You keep the employee from performing one or more of the routine functions of his or her job, or from working
the full workday that he or she would otherwise have been scheduled to work; or
(B)
A physician or other licensed health care professional recommends that the employee not perform one or more
of the routine functions of his or her job, or not work the full workday that he or she would otherwise have been
scheduled to work.
ii)
What is meant by "routine functions"? For recordkeeping purposes, an employee's routine functions are those
work activities the employee regularly performs at least once per week.
iii)
Do I have to record restricted work or job transfer if it applies only to the day on which the injury occurred or
the illness began? No, you do not have to record restricted work or job transfers if you, or the physician or other
licensed health care professional, impose the restriction or transfer only for the day on which the injury occurred or
the illness began.
iv)
If you or a physician or other licensed health care professional recommends a work restriction, is the injury
or illness automatically recordable as a "restricted work" case? No, a recommended work restriction is
recordable only if it affects one or more of the employee's routine job functions. To determine whether this is the
case, you must evaluate the restriction in light of the routine functions of the injured or ill employee's job. If the
restriction from you or the physician or other licensed health care professional keeps the employee from performing
one or more of his or her routine job functions, or from working the full workday the injured or ill employee would
otherwise have worked, the employee's work has been restricted and you must record the case.
v)
How do I record a case where the worker works only for a partial work shift because of a work-related injury
or illness? A partial day of work is recorded as a day of job transfer or restriction for recordkeeping purposes, except
for the day on which the injury occurred or the illness began.
vi)
If the injured or ill worker produces fewer goods or services than he or she would have produced prior to the
injury or illness but otherwise performs all of the routine functions of his or her work, is the case considered
a restricted work case? No, the case is considered restricted work only if the worker does not perform all of the
routine functions of his or her job or does not work the full shift that he or she would otherwise have worked.
vii) How do I handle vague restrictions from a physician or other licensed health care professional, such as that
the employee engage only in "light duty" or "take it easy for a week"? If you are not clear about the physician or
other licensed health care professional's recommendation, you may ask that person whether the employee can do all
of his or her routine job functions and work all of his or her normally assigned work shift. If the answer to both of
these questions is "Yes," then the case does not involve a work restriction and does not have to be recorded as
such. If the answer to one or both of these questions is "No," the case involves restricted work and must be recorded
as a restricted work case. If you are unable to obtain this additional information from the physician or other licensed
health care professional who recommended the restriction, record the injury or illness as a case involving restricted
work.
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viii) What do I do if a physician or other licensed health care professional recommends a job restriction meeting
OSHA's definition, but the employee does all of his or her routine job functions anyway? You must record the
injury or illness on the OSHA 300 Log as a restricted work case. If a physician or other licensed health care
professional recommends a job restriction, you should ensure that the employee complies with that restriction. If you
receive recommendations from two or more physicians or other licensed health care professionals, you may make a
decision as to which recommendation is the most authoritative, and record the case based upon that
recommendation.
5)
ix)
How do I decide if an injury or illness involved a transfer to another job? If you assign an injured or ill employee
to a job other than his or her regular job for part of the day, the case involves transfer to another job. Note: This does
not include the day on which the injury or illness occurred.
x)
Are transfers to another job recorded in the same way as restricted work cases? Yes, both job transfer and
restricted work cases are recorded in the same box on the OSHA 300 Log. For example, if you assign, or a physician
or other licensed health care professional recommends that you assign, an injured or ill worker to his or her routine
job duties for part of the day and to another job for the rest of the day, the injury or illness involves a job transfer. You
must record an injury or illness that involves a job transfer by placing a check in the box for job transfer.
xi)
How do I count days of job transfer or restriction? You count days of job transfer or restriction in the same way
you count days away from work, using § 1904.7(b)(3)(i) to (viii), above. The only difference is that, if you permanently
assign the injured or ill employee to a job that has been modified or permanently changed in a manner that
eliminates the routine functions the employee was restricted from performing, you may stop the day count when the
modification or change is made permanent. You must count at least one day of restricted work or job transfer for
such cases.
How do I record an injury or illness that involves medical treatment beyond first aid? If a work-related injury or
illness results in medical treatment beyond first aid, you must record it on the OSHA 300 Log. If the injury or illness did not
involve death, one or more days away from work, one or more days of restricted work, or one or more days of job transfer,
you enter a check mark in the box for cases where the employee received medical treatment but remained at work and
was not transferred or restricted.
i)
ii)
What is the definition of medical treatment? "Medical treatment" means the management and care of a patient to
combat disease or disorder. For the purposes of Part 1904, medical treatment does not include:
(A)
Visits to a physician or other licensed health care professional solely for observation or counseling;
(B)
The conduct of diagnostic procedures, such as x-rays and blood tests, including the administration of
prescription medications used solely for diagnostic purposes (e.g., eye drops to dilate pupils); or
(C)
"First aid" as defined in paragraph (b)(5)(ii) of this section.
What is "first aid"? For the purposes of Part 1904, "first aid" means the following:
(A)
Using a non-prescription medication at nonprescription strength (for medications available in both prescription
and non-prescription form, a recommendation by a physician or other licensed health care professional to use a
non-prescription medication at prescription strength is considered medical treatment for recordkeeping
purposes);
(B)
Administering tetanus immunizations (other immunizations, such as Hepatitis B vaccine or rabies vaccine, are
considered medical treatment);
(C)
Cleaning, flushing or soaking wounds on the surface of the skin;
(D)
Using wound coverings such as bandages, Band-Aids™, gauze pads, etc.; or using butterfly bandages or SteriStrips™ (other wound closing devices such as sutures, staples, etc., are considered medical treatment);
(E)
Using hot or cold therapy;
(F)
Using any non-rigid means of support, such as elastic bandages, wraps, non-rigid back belts, etc. (devices with
rigid stays or other systems designed to immobilize parts of the body are considered medical treatment for
recordkeeping purposes);
(G)
Using temporary immobilization devices while transporting an accident victim (e.g., splints, slings, neck collars,
back boards, etc.).
(H)
Drilling of a fingernail or toenail to relieve pressure, or draining fluid from a blister;
(I)
Using eye patches;
(J)
Removing foreign bodies from the eye using only irrigation or a cotton swab;
(K)
Removing splinters or foreign material from areas other than the eye by irrigation, tweezers, cotton swabs or
other simple means;
(L)
Using finger guards;
(M)
Using massages (physical therapy or chiropractic treatment are considered medical treatment for recordkeeping
purposes); or
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(N)
Drinking fluids for relief of heat stress.
iii)
Are any other procedures included in first aid? No, this is a complete list of all treatments considered first aid for
Part 1904 purposes.
iv)
Does the professional status of the person providing the treatment have any effect on what is considered
first aid or medical treatment? No, OSHA considers the treatments listed in § 1904.7(b)(5)(ii) of this Part to be first
aid regardless of the professional status of the person providing the treatment. Even when these treatments are
provided by a physician or other licensed health care professional, they are considered first aid for the purposes of
Part 1904. Similarly, OSHA considers treatment beyond first aid to be medical treatment even when it is provided by
someone other than a physician or other licensed health care professional.
v)
What if a physician or other licensed health care professional recommends medical treatment but the
employee does not follow the recommendation? If a physician or other licensed health care professional
recommends medical treatment, you should encourage the injured or ill employee to follow that recommendation.
However, you must record the case even if the injured or ill employee does not follow the physician or other licensed
health care professional's recommendation.
6)
Is every work-related injury or illness case involving a loss of consciousness recordable? Yes, you must record a
work-related injury or illness if the worker becomes unconscious, regardless of the length of time the employee remains
unconscious.
7)
What is a "significant" diagnosed injury or illness that is recordable under the general criteria even if it does not
result in death, days away from work, restricted work or job transfer, medical treatment beyond first aid, or loss
of consciousness? Work-related cases involving cancer, chronic irreversible disease, a fractured or cracked bone, or a
punctured eardrum must always be recorded under the general criteria at the time of diagnosis by a physician or other
licensed health care professional.
Note to § 1904.7: OSHA believes that most significant injuries and illnesses will result in one of the criteria listed in § 1904.7(a):
death, days away from work, restricted work or job transfer, medical treatment beyond first aid, or loss of consciousness. However,
there are some significant injuries, such as a punctured eardrum or a fractured toe or rib, for which neither medical treatment nor
work restrictions may be recommended. In addition, there are some significant progressive diseases, such as byssinosis, silicosis,
and some types of cancer, for which medical treatment or work restrictions may not be recommended at the time of diagnosis but
are likely to be recommended as the disease progresses. OSHA believes that cancer, chronic irreversible diseases, fractured or
cracked bones, and punctured eardrums are generally considered significant injuries and illnesses, and must be recorded at the
initial diagnosis even if medical treatment or work restrictions are not recommended, or are postponed, in a particular case.
OSHA incident reporting forms and work-related injury and illness logs are available at
http://www.osha.gov/recordkeeping/new-osha300form1-1-04.pdf
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Accident/Incident Report
Date of Accident
Time
Day of Week
Shift
□S □M □T □W □T □F □S
□1 □2 □3
Department
INJURED PERSON
Name:
Age:
Address:
Phone:
Job Title:
Supervisor Name:
Length of Employment at Company:
Length of Employment at Job:
Employee Classification:
□ Full Time □ Part Time □ Contract □ Temporary
□ Bruising
□ Dislocation
□ Strain/Sprain
□ Scratch/ Abrasion
□ Internal
□ Fracture
□ Amputation
□ Foreign Body
□ Laceration/Cut
□ Burn/Scald
□ Chemical Reaction
NATURE OF INJURY
□ Other (specify)
Injured Body Part
:
Remarks:
Name and Address of Treating Physician or Facility:
TREATMENT
□ First Aid
□ Emergency Room
□ Dr.’s Office
□ Hospitalization
DAMAGED PROPERTY
Property, Equipment, or Material Damaged
Describe Damage
Object or Substance Inflicting Damage:
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Accident/Incident Report pg. 2
INCIDENT DESCRIPTION
Describe what happened (attach photographs or diagrams if necessary)
Make sketches or illustrations to help describe incident:
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Accident/Incident Report pg.3
ROOT CAUSE ANALYSIS (Check All that Apply)
Unsafe Acts
Unsafe Conditions
Management Deficiencies
□ Lack of written policies &
procedures
□ Improper work technique
□ Poor workstation design/layout
□ Safety rule violation
□ Congested work area
□ Safety rules not enforced
□ Improper PPE or PPE not
used
□ Hazardous substances
□ Hazards not identified
□ Operating without authority
□ Fire or explosion hazard
□ PPE unavailable
□ Failure to warn or secure
□ Inadequate ventilation
□ Insufficient worker training
□ Operating at improper
speeds
□ Improper material storage
□ Insufficient supervisor training
□ Bypassing safety devices
□ Improper tool or equipment
□ Improper maintenance
□ Guards not used
□ Insufficient knowledge of job
□ Inadequate supervision
□ Improper loading or
placement
□ Slippery conditions
□ Inadequate job planning
□ Improper lifting
□ Poor housekeeping
□ Inadequate hiring practices
□ Servicing machinery in
motion
□ Excessive noise
□ Inadequate workplace
inspection
□ Horseplay
□ Inadequate hazard guards
□ Inadequate equipment
□ Drug or alcohol use
□ Defective tools/equipment
□ Unsafe design or construction
□ Unnecessary haste
□ Insufficient lighting
□ Unrealistic scheduling
□ Unsafe act of others
□ Inadequate fall protection
□ Poor process design
□ Other:
□ Other:
□ Other:
ACCIDENT / INCIDENT ANALYSIS
Using the root cause analysis list, explain the cause(s) of the incident in as much detail as possible.
Attach a sheet if there is not enough room.
How bad could the accident have been?
What is the chance of the accident
happening again?
□ Very Serious □ Serious □ Minor
□ Frequent □ Occasional □ Rare
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Accident/Incident Report
p. 4
RECOMMENDATIONS AND FOLLOW-UP
Describe actions that will be taken to prevent recurrence:
(attach another sheet if necessary)
Deadline
By Whom
Complete
SUMMARY
INVESTIGATION TEAM
Name
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Position
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Accident Investigation
Accident Investigation Training
Trainer (include qualifications):
Date:
Content of Training:
Attendees
Print Name
6/18/2013
Signature
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Accident Investigation
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Fire Protection & Emergency Planning
6
Fire Protection & Emergency Planning
6.1 Policy Statement
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. has implemented this policy for the protection of our
employees against the fire and other emergency situations in the workplace. Gary Pfizenmayer
will supervise the Emergency Action Plan and Fire Protection Program.
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. will have a written Emergency Action Plan (EAP) and Fire
Protection Program (FPP). The EAP and FPP will be posted in the workplace, and remain
available to employees for review along with the names and job titles of every person in the
chain of command during emergency situations.
6.2 Responsibilities
Fire prevention and emergency planning is a responsibility shared between Pyro Combustion &
Controls Inc. and its employees.
6.2.1 Employer Responsibilities
It is the responsibility of Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. to:

Ensure adequate workplace safeguards against hazards, including appropriate exit
routes, fire alarms and fire protection systems.

Ensure development and implementation of FPP and EAP.

Ensure training of employees in accordance with this policy.
6.2.2 Safety Committee Responsibilities
It is the responsibility of the Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. safety committee to:

Develop and implement fire prevention plan and emergency action plan.

Train new employees in fire prevention and emergency action plans and provide
continued employee safety training according to Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. policy.

Inform employees about fire hazards in the workplace specific to their task.
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Fire Protection & Emergency Planning
6.2.3 Employee Responsibilities
Every Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. employee is expected to:

Report a fire or other emergency.

Follow fire prevention plan and emergency action plan.

Report any suspected problem with fire control systems to Gary Pfizenmayer, a
supervisor or a member of the safety committee.

Assist in fire hazard assessment.
6.3 Training
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. will ensure every employee is provided training on fire
protection and emergency planning. This training will be provided at no cost to the employee
during working hours.
Training will be provided:

At the time of assignment.

At least annually thereafter; annual training for all employees will be provided within one
year of their previous training.
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. will provide additional training when tasks or procedures are
added or changed that may affect the employee’s work. It is acceptable for additional training to
be limited to addressing only the changes or additions to the employees’ exposure.
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. will use only training material that is appropriate in content and
vocabulary to the educational level, literacy, and language of employees.
6.3.1 Training Components
Gary Pfizenmayer will ensure all employees at Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. are informed
and trained in the following minimum elements for the Emergency Action Plan and Fire
Protection Program:

Fire hazards at the worksite

Means of controlling or removing fire hazards at the worksite

Procedures for reporting a fire or other emergency.

Procedures for emergency evacuation for all areas of work, including type of evacuation
and exit route assignments.

Safe assembly areas designated for all work areas in the event of evacuation.

Procedures to be followed by employees who are requested to remain to operate critical
plant operations before they evacuate, if applicable.
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Fire Protection & Emergency Planning

Procedures to account for all employees after evacuation.

Procedures to be followed by employees performing rescue or medical duties.

The members in the chain of command who may be contacted by employees for
information about the plans or for an explanation of their duties under the plans.

Proper operation of fire extinguishers provided by the company if the EAP allows
employees to fight incipient stage fires rather than evacuate.

The hazards involved in incipient stage firefighting. Employees are instructed to ensure
the local emergency response service (Fire Department) is notified before attempting to
extinguish any fire, and that if a fire is not immediately extinguished, or the fire recurs to
evacuate immediately.
6.3.2 Training Records
Training records will include the following information:

The dates of the training sessions;

The contents or a summary of the training sessions;

The names and qualifications of persons conducting the training; and

The names and job titles of all persons attending the training sessions.
Employee training records will be maintained for 3 years from the training.
6.4 Policy
6.4.1 Fire Prevention Plan
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. is committed to providing a safe workplace
and will ensure procedures are in place to protect employees from the
advent of any emergency, including fire emergencies. Accordingly, Pyro
Combustion & Controls Inc. will ensure there is a Fire Protection
Program written and available to employees as required by OSHA
regulations. This plan will include the following:

A list of all major fire hazards, proper handling and storage
procedures for hazardous materials, potential ignition
sources and their control, and the type of fire protection
equipment necessary to control each major hazard;

Procedures to control accumulations of flammable and
combustible waste materials;
Identify
Hazards
Control
Hazards
Educate/Train

Procedures for regular maintenance of safeguards installed on
heat-producing equipment to prevent the accidental ignition of
combustible materials;

The name or job title of employees responsible for maintaining equipment to prevent or
control sources of ignition or fires; and

The name or job title of employees responsible for the control of fuel source hazards.
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Fire Protection & Emergency Planning
6.4.1.1
Determining Fire Hazards
A fire is essentially the rapid oxidation of a chemical. It requires
heat, oxygen and fuel in the right proportion. Different types of
fuel react in different ways and require different levels of heat
and oxygen to ignite; however, once the chemical reaction
begins, fire provides a source of heat for continued ignition until
one of the essential aspects of combustion — fuel, heat or
oxygen — is removed and the reactions end. See figure 1.
The Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. safety committee will
perform an area-by-area assessment of fire hazards and record
Figure 1
them by location on the “Major Fire Hazards” list. The
assessment will ascertain and document whether the hazard is a fuel or ignition source, control
systems in place to protect against fire, and the name or job title of the individual who is
responsible for removing or minimizing the listed hazard.
The goal is to systematically eliminate fire hazards wherever possible; ensure a means to
prevent a fire if the hazard cannot be removed; inform employees about fire hazards in their
workspace; and identify the party responsible for controlling any given fire hazard. Fire hazard
identification plays a central role in the FPP, and all employees are expected to contribute their
efforts to identify and mitigate fire hazards in the workplace.
Employees will familiarize themselves with the safety data sheet of any hazardous chemicals
with which they work and know proper handling and storage procedures to reduce hazards.
Flammable and combustible material will be stored and staged in amounts as small as possible
for operations and away from sources of ignition. It is important for employees to monitor the
workplace for changes that might pose additional fire hazards.
6.4.1.2
Fire Protection Equipment and Safeguards
Alarm Systems
An alarm system to alert employees and the local fire department will provide a distinctive signal
in case of fire or other emergency. The alarm needs to be heard above ambient noise levels
and/or seen over ambient light levels. Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. will establish how the
alarm should be sounded and maintain the alarm system. Employee training will include an
explanation of the system and the preferred means of reporting an emergency. (A verbal alert is
sufficient for employers with fewer than 10 employees, provided all employees can hear it.) After
the alarm is sounded during an emergency or a test, the alarm system will be reset as quickly
as possible. If the system has components that wear out quickly — or are consumed or
destroyed for the alarm — spare components will be readily available to reset the system with
as little delay as possible.
The alarm code and reporting instructions must be posted conspicuously at phones and at
employee entrances.
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Fire Protection & Emergency Planning
If the employee alarm system is used to alert fire brigade members, or for any other purpose, it
must use a distinctive signal for each purpose.
Inspection, Maintenance and Testing
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. will provide for the testing of all alarm systems and making
sure they remain in operating condition. All maintanance and repair of alarm systems will be
performed only by qualified, trained personnel. At least every two months, a qualified individual
will test systems that do not require employee supervision, replacing power supplies as
necessary. Tests for systems that are capable of being supervised will occur annually.
Portable Fire Extinguishers
Any portable fire extinguisher provided will:



Be fully charged and operable;
Be kept in a conspicuous place when not in
use;
Not use carbon tetrachloride,
chlorobromomethane, or other toxic
vaporizing extinguishing agents;

not be operated by inverting the extinguisher
to rupture a cartridge or initiate an
uncontrollable pressure-generating chemical
reaction to expel the extinguishing agent.

be protected from freezing (if subject to
freezing)
All portable fire extinguishers will be selected based on the fire hazards present and distributed
to minimize travel distances for employees to use. See Table 1.
Each 3,000 square feet of protected buildings during construction requires a fire extinguisher
rated at least 2A, spaced within 100 feet of any point of the protected area. In multi-story
construction, each floor needs its own extinguisher rated at least 2A, adjacent to the stairwell.
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. will provide a fire extinguisher rated not less than 10B within
50 feet of anywhere there is more than 5 gallons of flammable or combustible liquids being used
on the jobsite (aside from vehicle fuel tanks).
Inspection, Maintenance and Testing
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. is responsible for the inspection, maintenance and testing of
all portable fire extinguishers in the workplace. Maintenance checks of portable fire
extinguishing equipment will occur at least annually. The dates of fire extinguisher checks will
be recorded; the record of these checks will be retained for at least a year after the last check or
the life of the shell (whichever is less). An individual trained to perform hydrostatic testing will
test each portable fire extinguisher with suitable equipment. Such testing is also called for when
portable fire extinguishers show new evidence of corrosion or mechanical wear.
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Fire Protection & Emergency Planning
Water Type
Class A
Fires
Wood,
Paper, Trash,
Having
Glowing
Embers
Class B
Fires
Flammable
Liquids,
Gasoline,
Oils, Paints,
Grease, Etc.
Class C
Fires
Electric
Equipment
Class D
Fires
Combustible
Metals
Method of
Operation
Range
Maintenance
Foam
Carbon
Dioxide
Dry chemical
Sodium or
potassium
Multi-purpose ABC
bicarbonate
Stored
Pressure
Cartridge
operated
Water
pump
tank
Soda
acid
Foam
CO2
Cartridge
Operated
Stored
pressure
Stored
pressure
Cartridge
operated
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
No
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Special extinguishing agents approved by recognized testing laboratories
Pull pin
squeeze
handle
30’-40’
Check air
pressure
gauge
monthly
Turn
upside
down and
bump
30’-40’
Weigh
gas
cartridge
—
add water
if required
annually
Pump
handle
Turn
upside
down
Turn
upside
down
Pull pin
squeeze
lever
30’-40’
30’-40’
30’-40’
3’-8’
Discharge
and fill
with water
annually
Discharge
annually
—
recharge
Discharge
annually
—
recharge
Weigh
semiannually
Rupture
Cartridge
squeeze
lever
5’-20’
Weigh
gas
cartridge
—
check
condition
of dry
chemical
annually
Pull pin
squeeze
handle
Pull pin
squeeze
handle
5’-20’
5’-20’
Check
pressure
gauge
and
condition
of dry
chemical
annually
Check
pressure
gauge
and
condition
of dry
chemical
annually
Rupture
Cartridge
squeeze
lever
5’-20’
Weigh
gas
cartridge
—
check
condition
of dry
chemical
annually
Table 1
Each extinguisher in the workplace will be accompanied by a record securely fixed to the
extinguisher that indicates:

The name of the person or agency who performed the last test, and the test date;

The signature of the person who performed the test; and

The serial number or other identifier of the fire extinguisher that was tested.
Training
Where employees have been provided portable fire extinguishers, Pyro Combustion & Controls
Inc. will provide training over general principles of fire extinguisher use and the hazards involved
with incipient-stage firefighting. This training will occur upon hire and be repeated annually.
Alternatives to Portable Fire Extinguishers
During construction activities, a 55-gallon drum with two fire pails may substitute for a fire
extinguisher with a 2A rating.
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A ½-inch diameter garden-type hose no longer than 100 feet can substitute for the same, as
long as it can discharge at least 5 gallons per minute and the stream ranges at least 30 feet
horizontally.
Further, 100 feet or fewer of 1½-inch hose with a nozzle capable of discharging water at 25
gallons or more per minute, may be substituted, provided that the hose line can reach all points
in the area. (Make sure the hose connections are compatible with local firefighting equipment.)
Other Fire Protection Systems
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. will meet or exceed all legal requirements for any fire
protection system in the workplace and keep in good working order all safeguards designed to
protect employees during emergencies, including fire retardant paints and solutions. Any other
fire protection systems in use will also meet applicable regulatory requirements and may include
the following:


Temperature limit
switches
Flashback arresters


Fixed extinguishing
systems
Automatic sprinkler
systems



Fire detection systems
Fire brigades
Standpipe and hose
systems
During demolition activities involving combustible materials, charged hose lines, supplied by
hydrants, water tank trucks with pumps, or equivalent, must be available.
Water Supply
A water supply adequate for the operation of firefighting equipment must be available as soon
as there is an accumulation of combustible materials.
Underground water mains must be made available as soon as practicable where they are to be
provided.
Sprinklers
If there will be an automatic sprinkler fire protection system, install and place it in service as
soon as permitted following completion of each story.
During demolition or alterations, keep automatic sprinkler installations in service as long as
reasonable. Only authorized personnel may operate sprinkler control valves. Expedite sprinkler
system modifications made to permit alterations or additional demolition so that the automatic
protection may be returned to service as quickly as possible. Check sprinkler control valves
daily at close of work to ensure protection is in service.
No one may occupy a portion of a structure (except as permitted under law) that must be
protected by automatic sprinklers until the sprinkler system is operable and has been approved.
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Standpipes
If standpipes are required, or exist in structures being altered, they shall be brought up as soon
as applicable laws permit and shall be maintained as construction progresses in such a manner
that they are always ready for fire protection use. Standpipes shall be provided with Siamese
fire department connections on the outside of the structure, at the street level, which shall be
conspicuously marked. Local codes may specify lighting or painting requirements. There shall
be at least one standard hose outlet at each floor.
During demolition, maintain a standpipe as long as possible in operable condition for firefighting
use. Do not demolish the standpipe further than one floor below the floor being demolished.
6.4.1.3
Fire Protection
Controlling fire hazards (e.g. accumulations of flammable and combustible materials) and
ensuring safe storage of building materials is a priority of the highest order for Pyro Combustion
& Controls Inc. and its employees. Controlling fuel sources demands all workers maintain a tidy
work area and dispose of refuse in the appropriate receptacle; it also calls for due consideration
of piles and stacks or materials at the worksite. Controlling means of ignition requires following
appropriate safety guidelines especially around electricity, open flame, or any work that may
produce arc, sparks, excessive heat, etc.
Ignition Hazards
Electrical wiring onsite must be installed safely by qualified personnel and in compliance with
applicable regulations.
If equipment is powered by an internal combustion engine, make sure it is located so that the
exhausts are well away from combustible materials. If the exhausts are piped outside, verify
there is a 6 in. clearance between piping and combustible materials.
If portable battery powered lighting equipment is used in connection with flammable gases or
liquids, ensure it is approved for hazardous locations.
During the cleaning or ventilation of tanks and vessels that contain hazardous concentrations of
flammable gases or vapors nozzles, lines, or hoses for air, inert gas, or steam must be bonded
to the tank or vessel shell and neither attached nor detached in hazardous concentrations of
flammable gases or vapors.
All debris and refuse must be disposed of promptly (at the end of each shift or more frequently
as required), especially if it is combustible. If material is to be disposed of by burning onsite,
such disposal must be approved and must comply with all relevant safety controls. Ensure
materials susceptible to spontaneous ignition (oily rags) are stored only in a listed disposal
container.
Hotwork must be completed according to appropriate guidelines, and appropriate fire watch
must be established and maintained to ensure safety of any operation that presents a fire
hazard.
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No Smoking, No Open Flame
Smoking is prohibited at the jobsite at all times. Signs must be posted according to local
requirements alerting employees and the public to this prohibition
Open fires may not be ignited or maintained at the worksite. Approved heaters shall only be
used in designated locations in such a way to prevent fires.
Temporary Buildings
No temporary building may adversely affect a means of exit.
Temporary buildings erected within another building must be of noncombustible construction or
of combustible construction with a fire resistance rating of at least 1 hour.
Temporary buildings, not inside another building and not used for the storage, handling, or use
of flammable or combustible liquids, flammable gases, explosives, or blasting agents, or similar
hazardous occupancies, shall be located at least 10 feet from another building or structure.
Groups of temporary buildings, not exceeding 2,000 square feet in aggregate, shall, for the
purposes of this part, be considered a single temporary building.
Open Yard Storage
Combustible materials may not be piled higher than 20 feet and must be piled in such a way to
ensure the stability of the pile.
Where driveways go between or around combustible storage piles, they must be at least 15 feet
wide and free from any obstruction. A driveway grid formed by such driveways may not exceed
50 ft. by 150 ft.
Make sure the storage area is clean and any plant life is controlled to prevent additional fire
hazards. Piles of combustible material must be organized and orderly and 10 feet or more from
buildings. Ensure appropriate fire extinguishers (at least 2A) are easily accessible.
Indoor Storage
Make sure materials stored indoors do not block exits or impede exit in any way and are piled to
maintain a 36” clearance between the top of the stored material and sprinkler heads.
Maintain safe clearance between material piles and lights or heating elements. Also, provide a
barricade or ensure at least 24” around the path of travel to fire doors. Never store material
within 36” of a fire door.
Access for Firefighting
Vehicle access to a construction, remodel or demolition site must be maintained at all times
within 100 feet (consult local codes) of available fire department connections. Temporary
vehicle access must be maintained until permanent access is established. Such roads may
need to be inspected by local authorities to comply with local laws. Horizontal and vertical
clearance for such access routes must be sufficient for emergency vehicle approach and meet
applicable local codes.
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6.4.1.4
Flammable and Combustible Liquids
Flammable and combustible liquids must be stored and handled in approved containers and
tanks. Handling and use of flammable liquid materials in quantities of 5 gallons or less requires
approved safety cans or DOT-approved containers. Flammable liquids that are hard to pour
may be stored, handled and used in quantities of one gallon or less in their original container.
Ensure flammable or combustible liquids are kept clear of areas used for exits or safe passage
of people.
This section applies to the handling, storage, and use of flammable and combustible liquids with
a flashpoint below 200°F but not to:

Bulk transportation of flammable and combustible liquids; and

Storage, handling, and use of fuel oil tanks and containers connected with oil burning
equipment.
Indoor Storage
Outside of an approved storage cabinet,
limit storage of flammable or combustible
liquids to 25 gallons. An approved
storage cabinet must adhere to the
following specifications:
Total
allowable
Fire
Maximum
quantities
Resistance
size
gals. / sq. ft.
/ floor area
Yes
2 hrs.
500 sq. ft.
10
No
2 hrs.
500 sq. ft.
4
Yes
1 hr.
150 sq. ft.
5
No
1 hr.
150 sq. ft.
2
Table 2
* Fire protection system will be sprinkler, water, spray, carbon dioxide
or other system approved by a nationally recognized testing
laboratory for this purpose
Fire
Protection
Provided*

The bottom, sides, and top shall
be constructed of an exterior
grade of plywood at least 1 in.
thick, which shall not break down
or delaminate under standard fire
test conditions.

All joints shall be rabbeted and fastened in two directions with flathead wood screws.

When more than one door is used, there shall be a rabbeted overlap of not less than 1
inch.

Steel hinges shall be mounted in such a manner as to not lose their holding capacity due
to loosening or burning out of the screws when subjected to fire.

Such cabinets shall be painted inside and out with fire retardant paint.

Approved metal storage cabinets are acceptable.

Cabinets shall be labeled in conspicuous lettering, “Flammable-Keep Fire Away.”
Any one storage cabinet is limited to 60 gallons of flammable liquids, and 120 gallons of
combustible liquids. Any one storage area is limited to three storage cabinets. Higher quantities
must be stored inside a storage room.
Indoor Storage Rooms
Storage rooms inside must be sufficiently fire-resistive for their use and comply with test
specifications outlined in “Standard Methods of Fire Test of Building Construction and Material,
NFPA 251-1969” and table 2.
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If there is an automatic extinguishing system it must be designed and installed in an approved
manner:

Openings to other rooms or buildings require noncombustible liquid-tight raised sills or
ramps at least 4 inches in height, or the floor in the storage area shall be at least 4
inches below the surrounding floor;

Openings shall be provided with approved self-closing fire doors;

The room shall be liquid-tight where the walls join the floor;

A permissible alternate to the sill or ramp is an open-grated trench, inside of the room,
which drains to a safe location;

Where other portions of the building or other buildings are exposed, windows shall be
protected as set forth in the Standard for Fire Doors and Windows, NFPA No. 80-1970,
for Class E or F openings;

Wood of at least 1-inch nominal thickness may be used for shelving, racks, dunnage,
scuffboards, floor overlay, and similar installations;

Materials which will react with water and create a fire hazard shall not be stored in the
same room with flammable or combustible liquids;

Wiring and equipment in such rooms must be approved for Class I, Division 1,
Hazardous Locations as outlined in CFR 1926.449;

In every inside storage room there shall be maintained one clear aisle at least 3 feet
wide; and

Containers over 30 gallons capacity shall not be stacked one upon the other.
Each indoor storage room must be equipped with either a gravity or a mechanical exhausting
system. Such a system must adhere to the following specifications:

It must commence not more than 12 inches above the floor;

It must be designed to provide for a complete change of air within the room at least 6
times per hour;

If a mechanical exhausting system is used, it shall be controlled by a switch located
outside of the door;

The ventilating equipment and any lighting fixtures shall be operated by the same switch;

An electric pilot light shall be installed adjacent to the switch if flammable liquids are
dispensed within the room;

Where gravity ventilation is provided, the fresh air intake, as well as the exhausting
outlet from the room, shall be on the exterior of the building in which the room is located;
Limit the quantity of flammable or combustible liquids in the vicinity of spraying operations to the
minimum required for operations, ordinarily not to exceed a supply for 1 day or one shift. Bulk
storage of portable containers of flammable or combustible liquids shall be in a separate,
constructed building detached from other important buildings or cut off in a standard manner.
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Storage Outside Buildings
Flammable and combustible liquids in excess of that permitted in inside storage rooms shall be
stored outside of buildings.
Limit groupings of containers (not more than 60 gallons each) to 1,100 gallons in any one pile or
area. Piles or groups must be separated by a 5-foot clearance and placed 20 feet or further
away from a building.
Within 200 feet of such piles, ensure a 12-foot-wide access for fire control approach.
The area reserved for storing flammable and combustible liquids must be graded to divert spills
away from building. Alternatively, the area may be surrounded by a curb or dike at least 12
inches high if provisions are made for draining off accumulations of ground or rain water, or
spills of the stored liquids. Drains must terminate at a safe location and be accessible to
operation under fire conditions.
Outdoor Portable Tank Storage
 Portable tanks shall not be nearer than 20 feet from any building.

Two or more portable tanks, grouped together, having a combined capacity in excess of
2,200 gallons, shall be separated by a 5-foot-clear area.

Individual portable tanks exceeding 1,100 gallons shall be separated by a 5-foot-clear
area.

Within 200 feet of each portable tank, there shall be a 12-foot-wide access way to permit
approach of fire control apparatus.

Storage areas shall be kept free of weeds, debris, and other combustible material not
necessary to the storage.

Portable tanks, not exceeding 660 gallons, shall be provided with emergency venting
and other devices, as required by chapters III and IV of NFPA 30-1969, The Flammable
and Combustible Liquids Code.

Portable tanks, in excess of 660 gallons, shall have emergency venting and other
devices, as required by chapters II and III of “The Flammable and Combustible Liquids
Code, NFPA 30-1969”.
Fire Control for Flammable or Combustible Liquid Storage
 At least one portable fire extinguisher, having a rating of not less than 20-B units, shall
be located outside of, but not more than 10 feet from, the door opening into any room
used for storage of more than 60 gallons of flammable or combustible liquids.

At least one portable fire extinguisher having a rating of not less than 20-B units shall be
located not less than 25 feet, nor more than 75 feet, from any flammable liquid storage
area located outside.

When sprinklers are provided, they shall be installed in accordance with the “Standard
for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems, NFPA 13-1969”.
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
At least one portable fire extinguisher having a rating of not less than 20-B:C units shall
be provided on all tank trucks or other vehicles used for transporting and/or dispensing
flammable or combustible liquids.
Dispensing Liquids
 Areas where combustible liquids are transferred more than 5 gallons at a time must be
separated from other activity by 25 ft. or construction with a fire resistance rating of 1
hour. Drainage in such areas to control spills is required as is ventilation sufficient to
maintain flammable vapor concentrations below 10 percent of the lower flammable limit.

Flammable liquid transfer between two containers requires the containers to be
electrically bonded.

Draw or transfer flammable or combustible liquids from vessels, containers, or tanks
within a building or outside only through a closed piping system, from safety cans, by
means of a device drawing through the top, or from a container, or portable tanks, by
gravity or pump, through an approved self-closing valve. Transferring by means of air
pressure on the container or portable tanks is prohibited.

Protect dispensing units against collision damage.

Dispensing devices and nozzles for flammable liquids shall be of an approved type.
Handling Liquids at Point of Final Use
 Keep Flammable liquids in closed containers when not in use.

Dispose of leakage or spillage of flammable or combustible liquids promptly and safely.

Flammable liquids may be used only where there are no open flames or other sources of
ignition within 50 feet of the operation, unless conditions warrant greater clearance.
Service and Refueling Areas
Flammable or combustible liquids shall be stored in approved closed containers, in tanks
located underground, or in above-ground portable tanks;

Tank trucks must comply with the requirements covered in the “Standard for Tank
Vehicles for Flammable and Combustible Liquids, NFPA No. 385-1966”;

The dispensing hose shall be an approved type;

The dispensing nozzle shall be an approved automatic-closing type without a latch-open
device;

Do not abandon underground tanks;

Provide clearly identified and easily accessible switch(es)at a location remote from
dispensing devices to shut off the power to all dispensing devices in the event of an
emergency;

Heating equipment of an approved type may be installed in the lubrication or service
area where there is no dispensing or transferring of flammable liquids, provided the
bottom of the heating unit is at least 18 inches above the floor and is protected from
physical damage;
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
Heating equipment installed in lubrication or service areas, where flammable liquids are
dispensed, shall be of an approved type for garages, and shall be installed at least 8 feet
above the floor;

There shall be no smoking or open flames in the areas used for fueling, servicing fuel
systems for internal combustion engines, receiving or dispensing of flammable or
combustible liquids;

Post conspicuous and legible signs prohibiting smoking;

Shut off motors of equipment being fueled during the fueling operation; and

Provide each service or fueling area with at least one fire extinguisher having a rating of
not less than 20-B:C located so that an extinguisher will be within 75 feet of each pump,
dispenser, underground fill pipe opening, and lubrication or service area.
6.4.1.5
Employee Education
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. is committed to informing employees about all fire hazards
with which they may come into contact. Gary Pfizenmayer or a designate from the safety
committee will review the FPP with all employees and inform them of any fire hazards a new
assignment might present.
6.4.2 Emergency Action Plan
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. is committed to providing a safe workplace and ensuring
procedures are in place to protect employees in the event of any emergency. Accordingly, Pyro
Combustion & Controls Inc. will ensure there is an Emergency Action Plan, written and available
to employees, that includes:

Procedures for reporting a fire or other emergency;

Procedures for emergency evacuation, including type of evacuation and exit route
assignments;

Procedures to account for all employees after evacuation;

Procedures to be followed by employees performing rescue / medical duties and
operating critical plant operations; and

The name or job title of every employee from whom other employees can find out more
about the plan.
6.4.2.1
Employee Involvement
The continued development and thorough implementation of the EAP is a company-wide effort
that demands concerted effort of Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. management, the Pyro
Combustion & Controls Inc. safety committee and all employees. Accordingly, employees will be
involved in every step of the EAP from planning to training to implementation in an emergency
situation.
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Gary Pfizenmayer, or an approved designate, will review the EAP with all employees to ensure
they understand procedures that should be followed in an emergency.
Employees should report or remedy workplace hazards and unsafe work practices as soon as
they may do so safely.
6.4.2.2
Possible Workplace Emergencies
In the planning and implementation of the Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. EAP, employees will
consider the range of emergencies that may require response and develop contingencies that
respond to the unique workplace impact of these emergencies.
Weather
Weather-related events include hurricanes, tornadoes, blizzards, floods and severe storms.
Supervisors must communicate unexpected schedule changes because of severe weather to
employees as quickly as possible. Such events may result in a loss of power or communication
and may limit the ability of first-responders to respond quickly.
Medical
Medical emergencies are the most likely workplace emergency. Response time is critical to a
positive outcome during a severe medical emergency. Onsite medical first responders will know
first aid and CPR, but no employee will perform first aid beyond their training or capability. If first
aid trained personnel are not available, stop any bleeding with firm pressure (avoiding contact
with body fluid) and in case of choking, clear the air passages. In the event of a medical
emergency, it is imperative to call 911 promptly.
Threat of Violence
Threats of violence can come through a range of modes of communication, directed at a single
employee, a group of employees or the entire workplace. Every threat is serious. If you receive
or are aware of a threat of violence, contact a member of the safety committee or a supervisor
immediately, but only if you are able to do so safely. Please see the chapter on “Workplace
Violence Prevention” for more information about how to prevent and respond to threats of
violence and violence in the workplace.
Fire
The fire prevention plan requires involvement of all employees to prevent fire emergencies.
Response to a fire emergency depends on whether your workplace has decided to allow all
employees or some employees to fight incipient-stage fires. Members of the safety committee
and supervisors may have to serve as evacuation wardens, and if the emergency action plan
demands it, an employee may need to shut down critical operations before evacuation. A quick,
orderly evacuation accompanied by a call to 911 is the acceptable response to an out-of-control
fire.
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Explosion
If there are flammable substances at your worksite, take extra care during planning to address
the hazards they present. Explosions do not offer any warnings, and often, panic presents the
biggest obstacle to safety in the wake of such a disaster. Further, explosions often accompany
fires, adding complexity to fire response planning.
Earthquake
When an earthquake strikes, the greatest risks come from above. Collapsing ceilings and falling
objects can severely injure workers. If the workplace is in an earthquake-prone location,
consider earthquake drills and make sure you and your coworkers know to protect their head
and neck under sturdy furniture or against an inside wall. A severe earthquake will occupy
emergency workers, and onsite rescue and triage may be a task that falls into the hands of the
safety committee. No employee should perform first aid or attempt rescue beyond training or
capacity to do so safely.
6.4.2.3
Chain of Command
During an emergency, it is critical that employees understand the chain of command in the
emergency action plan. In consideration of chain of command, it is also important to recognize
that the authority of local emergency response officials, like members of the fire department,
supersedes the authority of any Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. employee.
Emergency Scene Commander
Gary Pfizenmayer is the safety coordinator at Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc.. Unless the
involvement is precluded by unforeseen contingencies, the safety coordinator acts as the scene
commander in the event of a workplace emergency. Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. will
determinine whether an emergency exists, oversee procedures during an emergency, and notify
and coordinate with outside emergency services.
Emergency Scene Coordinators
The emergency action plan requires the worksite to have enough people trained to assist in the
safe and orderly evacuation of employees and assist the safety coordinator/emergency scene
commander in emergency procedures. The number of scene responders depends on the
number of employees, the size and complexity of the
Number of Emergency Scene
worksite and the hazards posed by likely emergencies.
Responders for Typical Workplaces
Table 3 provides a good guideline when considering
Employees Emergency
Emergency
how many coordinators will be necessary to implement
in
Scene
Scene
Workplace Commander Coordinator
the EAP. Scene coordinators should know CPR and first
aid and would benefit from additional safety training,
11-19
1
including workplace violence response. Their duties in
20-49
1-2
an emergency include, but are not limited to the
50-99
1
2-5
following:

Checking for employees who may be unable to
evacuate;
100-249
5-12
250+
12+
Table 3
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
Knowing who may need assistance during evacuation and how to assist them;

Coordinating emergency activities;

Using their knowledge of workplace layout, escape routes, and hazards to ensure a
swift, safe evacuation; and

Verifying all employees are in designated safe areas following an evacuation.
6.4.2.4
Procedures
Reporting Emergencies
Employees should report emergencies as quickly as they may do so safely. Emergencies may
be reported through manual pull stations or other alarm systems. If the EAP calls for employees
to call Gary Pfizenmayer or other assigned staff, those numbers will be posted at every phone.
Major emergencies demand an immediate call to 911 to prevent damage, injury or death. After
the report of an emergency, the alarm system will notify employees about the emergency.
Workplace Evacuation
Routes and Exits
The EAP will include a floor diagram with arrows to designate exit route assignments based on
location within the building. There should be secondary routes and exits whenever possible. It is
important every employee knows the building’s exit routes and keeps them free of obstacles
and debris at all times. For more information about exit routes, please see the floor diagram and
consult “Exit Routes” in this chapter.
Evacuation Assistance
Scene coordinators or other assigned personnel will act as evacuation wardens to ensure
employees move from danger to safety during an emergency. An employee designated to assist
in evacuations will need to know which employees need extra assistance and be trained and
prepared to offer this assistance. Further, any visitors on premises may need assistance during
evacuations. It is useful to implement a system to account for visitors, like a sign-in sheet, to
promote facility security and account for everyone in case of an emergency.
Services During Evacuation
Workplaces with equipment and processes that take time to shut down or with systems that may
pose a hazard if not shut down may include, as part of the EAP, a partial evacuation procedure.
The roles of those performing critical operations during evacuation should be clear, and anyone
left behind must be able to recognize when to abandon the task and evacuate. The same goes
for workplaces that plan for employees to fight incipient-stage fires.
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Accounting for Employees
The emergency action plan requires Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. account for employees
after an evacuation. Employees will gather in an established assembly area (or areas) after an
evacuation. After the evacuation is complete, Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. or an approved
designate will perform a head count and note the names and last known whereabouts of anyone
missing. Accuracy in accounting for employees during an evacuation is vital to prevent a
dangerous search-and-rescue operation if one is not needed. Procedures should include a way
to account for visitors, customers and suppliers who are onsite as well.
Sheltering in place
Not every emergency requires evacuation. Certain contaminants and disasters present greater
hazards outside than inside. If an emergency does not require evacuation, it may demand
employers instead “shelter-in-place.” Gary Pfizenmayer will determine the extent of evacuation
and whether employees need to shelter in place. Sheltering in place means taking refuge in an
interior room with no or few windows until the emergency has passed. In many cases, local
authorities will issue advice to shelter-in-place via TV or radio. In case of chemical release,
special precautions to protect against toxic atmospheres may be necessary. Including shelterin-place preparations in the EAP demands a means of alerting employees in distinguishable
ways and additional training on shelter-in-place procedures.
First Aid and Rescue
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. will ensure the availability of medical personnel for advice and
consultation. In the absence of an onsite clinic, at least one person on staff will be trained to
render first aid. An amount and dispersal of first aid supplies appropriate to the size of the
facility, number of employees and hazards present will remain readily available. First aid
supplies will be added or replaced as frequently as necessary to ensure availabilty. Facilities for
rinsing or drenching eyes or body will be provided as hazards demand. First Aid kits will include
or will be accompanied by appropriate personal protective equipment for anticipated hazards,
including exposure to bloodborne pathogens while performing first aid. More information is
available in the chapter entitled “Medical Services and First Aid.”
Critical Information
As part of the personnel file, there will be a record of emergency contact information for
employees in case an employee is unable to contact next of kin. The confidential record should
include physician information and any other medical information the employee shares for use in
case of an emergency.
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Multi-employer Workplaces
If Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. shares a building or worksite with other employers, consider
working with them to develop a building-wide emergency plan. If a building-wide plan is not
feasible, take all necessary steps to ensure the EAP does not conflict with the plans of other
employers in the building.
Personal Protective Equipment
During some emergencies, it is necessary for an employee to encounter hazards that require
personal protective equipment. A medical emergency involving blood, for instance, will call for
gloves as indicated in the bloodborne pathogen exposure control plan. Training, preparation and
procedures will include consideration for any necessary PPE.
6.4.2.5
Training and Review
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. and the safety committee will review the plan with employees
covered by the plan as it is being developed. The plan will also be communicated to employees
when they are first assigned to their job, when the plan changes, or when there is a change to
an employee’s responsibilities under the plan. The plan is subject to annual review and update
to reflect changes in the workplace and respond to new or changed hazards.
6.4.3 Exit Routes
During an emergency, swift evacuation can ensure the safety and well-being of employees. To
facilitate evacuation and to protect employees should an emergency require employees to
evacuate, Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. will adhere to all applicable regulations to ensure
safe exit routes remain available to employees in case fire or other emergency demands
evacuation of the workplace.
6.4.3.1
Basic Requirements
An exit route must be established and separated by fire resistant materials as quickly as
possible during construction, and a safe means of egress must be maintained during renovation
and demolition.
If the route connects three or fewer stories, construction materials separating the exit from other
parts of the workplace must have a one-hour fire resistance rating. (More stories call for a twohour resistance rating.) An opening to an exit will only have self-closing, laboratory-tested fire
doors as necessary to allow individuals into the route.
Enclosure of and protection of openings for means of egress must occur as soon as possible
after exterior walls/windows are in place.
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6.4.3.2
Adequate Exit Routes
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. will ensure sufficient exit routes for the workplace. While a
single exit route is permissable in small workplaces (as long as safe evacuation is possible), two
exit routes, located as far as practical from each other helps employees evacuate safely should
one exit route be blocked by smoke or fire. More exit routes must be available should the
number of employees, or size and configuration of the workplace demand them to ensure every
employee can evacuate safely in an emergency.
Consult local codes to ensure safe means of egress in any construction. Exit stairways and
means of egress in multi-story buildings must be provided immediately after floor decking is
installed. In new multi-story buildings, one of the exit stairs may be obstructed for construction,
but do not obstruct exit stairs for more than two contiguous floor levels.
6.4.3.3
Exit Discharge
Exits must discharge outside or to a space with access to the outside that is large enough to
accommodate the number of people taking that route. If there are stairs that continue past the
evacuation level, some means must interrupt travel to indicate proper direction to discharge
area.
6.4.3.4
Unlocked, Side-Hinged
Under no circumstances will an exit door be locked from the inside. Nothing can restrict the use
of an exit door or any means of egress established in the fire protection plan in an emergency.
All exit doors will be side-hinged. It is preferable for doors to swing out in the direction of exit
travel, and required for rooms designed to hold more than 50 people or in a high-hazard area.
6.4.3.5
Capacity and Size Requirements
Exit routes must be able to handle the maximum occupant load for that floor. The capacity may
not decrease as the route approaches the exit discharge.
The ceiling of an exit route must be at least seven feet six inches high. Any projection from the
ceiling must not reach a point less than six feet eight inches from the floor.
An exit access must be at least 28 inches wide at all points. Where there is only one exit access
leading to an exit or exit discharge, the width of the exit and exit discharge must be at least
equal to the width of the exit access. The width of an exit route must be sufficient to
accommodate the maximum permitted occupant load of each floor served by the exit route.
Objects that project into the exit route must not reduce the width of the exit route to less than the
minimum width requirements for exit routes.
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6.4.3.6
Outdoor Exit Routes
An outdoor exit route must be:
 protected by guardrails if a fall hazard
is present;
 covered or otherwise protected from
slipping hazards like ice or snow;
6.4.3.7


reasonably straight, smooth, solid, and
substantially level; and
free of dead ends longer than 20 ft.
Minimize Dangers
Exit routes will be unobstructed and clear of hazardous materials or flammable furnishings. An
exit route that goes toward a high hazard area requires barriers or partitions to provide a
suitable shield from the hazard for workers.
6.4.3.8
Lighting and Marking
Exit routes should be adequately lit, clearly
visible and marked by a sign reading
“EXIT.” Decorations and signs must not
obstruct or obscure the visibility of the exit
door. If a doorway could be mistaken for
an exit, it must be marked “Not an Exit” or
a sign that identifies its use. If the direction
to the exit is not apparent, signs must be
posted to indicate the direction for evacuation.
EXIT
6”
3
/4”
Figure 2
Exit signs must be illuminated to a surface value of five foot-candles or greater. A self-luminous
or electroluminescent sign is required to have a luminance surface value of at least .06
footlamberts. The letters on an exit sign should be at least 6” high with a stroke width of ¾”. See
figure 2
6.4.3.9
Construction, Repairs, Alterations
Employees may not occupy any workplace during construction, repairs or alterations unless all
exit routes and required safety standards are maintained. Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. will
ensure removal of or appropriately minimize hazards beyond normal conditions during
construction activities.
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6.5 Forms & Attachments
On the following pages, please find the following documents:

Major Fire Hazards list

Emergency Action Plan

Fire Prevention Training Documentation

Emergency Action Plan Training Documentation
These forms may be reproduced freely by Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. for the purposes of
implementing and maintaining a safety and health program.
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Example
Site
Gate
Location
cigarette butts
at gate
Fire Hazard
Fuel
source
hazard
Yes
Ignition
source
hazard
Handling, storage, and/or
maintenance procedures and other
relevant protections (include PPE)
Major Fire Hazards
Yes
Ensure all materials have been
completely extinguished and properly
disposed of. Fire extinguisher is
inside office.
Name or job title
of responsible party
Housekeeping: Employees, Custodian
Fire extinguisher: Gary Pfizenmayer
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Fire Protection & Emergency Planning
Emergency Action Plan
to be posted at all facilities and workplaces
Company Name: Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc.
Job Location:
Street Address: 2969 South Highland Drive
City: Las Vegas
State: Nevada
ZIP Code: 89109
Prepared By:
Title:
Phone Number:
Signature:
Date:
PURPOSE
This plan is for the safety and well-being of the employees of Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc.. It
identifies necessary management and employee actions during fires and other emergencies. Education
and training are provided so that all employees know and understand the Emergency Action Plan.
LOCATON OF PLAN
The Emergency Action Plan can be found at the station or office of:
Upon request, an OSHA representative may obtain a copy of the plan from:
EXIT ROUTES
Draw a diagram of jobsite or facility exit routes in space below. Locate meeting place or “RollCall” area on diagram
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Emergency Action Plan (Pg. 2)
ACCOUNTING FOR EMPLOYEES
After exiting jobsite or facility, all employees are to assemble for “Roll-Call” at this location:
Note location on above diagram
The following are responsible for ensuring that employees comply with this requirement:
Name and Title:
Name and Title:
CRITICAL OPERATIONS
To minimize damage from the emergency, the following personnel are responsible for shutting
down the listed critical operations:
Personnel Names
Critical Operations
As soon as shutdowns are completed, the employees who performed critical operations must
take the nearest exit route in accordance with general emergency procedures.
RESCUE AND MEDICAL DUTIES
The following personnel are certified and trained in both CPR and general first aid.
Name and Title
Phone Number
REPORTING EMERGENCIES
The following personnel have the duty of contacting public responders to come to the
emergency scene. The personnel are listed in descending order of availability:
Name and Title
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Emergency Action Plan (Pg. 3)
ALARM SYSTEMS AND NOTIFICATION OF EMERGENCIES
In the event of a workplace or facility emergency, employees will be notified as follows:
TYPES OF EVACUATION
OSHA requires this Company to have an established system of types of evacuation to follow for
different emergency circumstances. The following listing represents Company policy for various
emergency situations:
PARTIAL EVACUATION: Code Yellow – 3 rings or horn blasts
RESPONDERS (trained extinguisher personnel and trained rescue and medical personnel)
FULL EVACUATION: Code Red – 4 rings or horn blasts: RESPONDERS (n/a)
NOTE: If there is more than one evacuation type, the alarm signal for each must be distinctive.
OTHER: (describe)
PUBLIC EMERGENCY RESPONSE INFORMATION
911 emergency services DO / DO NOT cover the area this Emergency Action Plan covers. (circle
one)
Local Police Department:
Local Fire Department:
Local Ambulance/EMS:
Local Hospital:
FURTHER INFORMATION
For further information or explanation about any duties under this Plan, contact:
Name and Title:
Name and Title:
This Emergency Action Plan is authorized and approved by (Name and Title):
Signature
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Fire Prevention Training
Trainer (include qualifications):
Date:
Content of Training:
Attendees
Print Name
Signature
(Retain at least 3 years)
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Emergency Action Plan Training
Trainer (include qualifications):
Date:
Content of Training:
Attendees
Print Name
Signature
(Retain at least 3 years)
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7
Medical Services & First Aid
7.1 Policy Statement
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. is committed to the safety and health of our employees and to
ensuring prompt medical attention for any injury that occurs at work.
Part of that commitment includes having readily available medical personnel. Where there is no
medical facility in proximity to the worksite, Gary Pfizenmayer and other personnel as needed
will be trained to provide first aid. First-aid kits are located at: Each vehicle
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. will provide, at no cost, medical services for employee
evaluations, employment requirements and special conditions of work.
7.2 Responsibilities
The availability of medical attention in the event of a medical emergency is a responsibility
shared between Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. and its employees.
7.2.1 Employer Responsibilities
It is the responsibility of Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. to:

Ensure every employee receives training that explains the first-aid response plan.

Determine who must be trained to render first aid and ensure every employee expected
to render first aid will be trained in appropriate practices and techniques, including
response to site-specific hazards.

Ensure the first-aid response plan, amount of first-aid-trained personnel, first-aid
equipment and all other hazard controls reflect workplace hazards as determined in job
hazard analyses and worksite inspections.

Ensure first-aid kits remain fully stocked and any emergency response equipment is in
good repair.

Respond to recommendations and concerns from Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc.
employees and the safety committee.
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7.2.2 Safety Committee Responsibilities
It is the responsibility of the Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. safety committee to:

Participate in the creation of a first-aid response plan.

Participate in all job hazard analyses and recommend changes to the first-aid policy and
first-aid response plan to increase workplace safety.

Recommend changes to first-aid policy and procedures.
7.2.3 Employee Responsibilities
Every Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. employee is expected to:

Follow the first-aid policy and the first-aid response plan

Understand the hazards presented by “Good Samaritan” first aid response.
7.3 Training
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. will ensure every employee receives training that covers the
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. first-aid response plan. All personnel expected to render first
aid will be certified by an approved first-aid training organization. All training for workplace
safety will be provided at no cost to the employee during working hours.
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. will provide training:

At the time of assignment to tasks where occupational exposure may take place.

At least annually thereafter; annual training will be provided within one year of previous
training.
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. will use only training material that is appropriate in content and
vocabulary to educational level, literacy, and language of employees.
7.3.1 Training Components
The training program for medical services and first aid will contain at a minimum the following
elements:

Location and contents of workplace first-aid kits;

“Good Samaritan” hazards and bloodborne pathogens; and

Self-care and incident reporting.
The person conducting the training will be knowledgeable in the subject matter of the training
program as it relates to the workplace.
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Any Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. employee who is expected to render first aid as part of his
or her job duties will receive additional training from an external organization (e.g. American
Heart Association, American Red Cross, the National Safety Council) including, but not limited
to:

Recommended first-aid practices, especially those that may be necessary for hazards
specific to the Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. workplace;

Bloodborne pathogen exposure control; and

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation incorporating use of automated external defibrillators (if
present at worksite).
If a third-party first aid training provider is unable to provide first aid training specific to hazards
at Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc., first aid responders require supplementary training over the
appropriate response to injuries that may result from worksite-specific hazards.
7.3.2 Training Records
Training records will include the following information:

The dates of the training sessions;

The contents or a summary of the training sessions;

The names and qualifications of persons conducting the training; and

The names and job titles of all persons attending the training sessions.
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. will maintain employee-training records for 3 years from the
date on which the training occurred.
7.4 Policy
7.4.1 Planning
As with any element of the Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. Safety and Health Program, the
first-aid response plan demands leadership from management and the active involvement of
employees. The goal is a first-aid response plan based on hazards in the workplace and training
for employees according to the risks they face while performing their job duties.
7.4.1.1
Hazard Assessment
A job hazard analysis (see chapter on “Job Hazard Analysis”) will not only inform the extent and
nature of first-aid training for a given job, but also determine the first-aid supplies that need to be
available.
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7.4.1.2
First-Aid Response Planning
Gary Pfizenmayer, working with members of the safety committee, will determine a first-aid
response plan appropriate to the worksite.
The first-aid response plan can be incorporated into the emergency action plan and will:

Fit the work location, type of work, and environmental conditions;

Identify available emergency medical services, their numbers and where they are
posted;

Describe the type of first-aid training employees receive, if applicable;

Identify the location(s) of first-aid supplies and/or first-aid station;

Identify the contents of first-aid kits;

Describe how first-aid supplies, kits and equipment will be inspected and maintained and
by whom; and

List all first-aid trained employees.
Emergency Medical Services
Knowledge of available emergency medical services and their estimated response times to the
worksite throughout the day can be useful when planning the first-aid response plan.
7.4.1.3
Sharing First-aid Response Plan Information
First-aid policies and procedures are most effective when they are in writing. Whether in writing
or not, the first-aid response plan needs to be communicated in such a way that every worker,
can understand and follow the plan.
7.4.2 Implementation
7.4.2.1
First-Aid Kits
First-aid supplies will remain available in adequate
quantities and be readily accessible at Each
vehicle. The contents of the kit listed in The
American National Standard (ANSI) Z308.1-1998
"Minimum Requirements for Workplace First-aid
Kits" (table 1) should be adequate for most small
worksites. Gary Pfizenmayer or the appropriate
safety committee member(s) will determine the
need for additional first-aid kits at the worksite,
additional types of first-aid equipment and
supplies, and additional quantities and types of
supplies in first-aid kits to accommodate larger
operations or multiple operations conducted at the
same location.
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ANSI Z308.1-1998
Minimum Requirements for Workplace First-aid Kits
Quantity
Description
1 ea.
absorbent compress (at least 4” X 8”)
16 ea.
adhesive bandages (1” X 3”)
5 yd.
adhesive tape
10 ea.
antiseptic applications (.5g)
6 ea.
burn treatment applications (.5g)
4 ea.
sterile pads (at least 3” X 3”)
2 pr.
medical exam gloves
Triangular bandage
(at least 40” X 40” X 56”)
1 ea.
Table 1
©Safety Services Company
Fire Protection & Emergency Planning
7.4.2.2
Sudden Cardiac Arrest
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation
OSHA standards require training in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in some employment
situations where sudden cardiac arrest from asphyxiation, electrocution, or exertion may occur:
permit-required confined spaces; logging operations; electric power generation, transmission,
and distribution; dive teams; and power transmission and distribution construction. However,
sudden cardiac arrest is a potential risk at all worksites, and those trained in first aid benefit
greatly from learning CPR regardless of work hazards.
Automated External Defibrillators
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. will determine the need for an automated external defibrillator
(AED) program as part of the first-aid response plan. Training will reflect whether an AED is
included.
If an AED is available at the worksite, CPR training will incorporate AED training.
7.4.2.3
Corrosives, Irritants or Corrosive Materials
If workplace hazard analysis determines hazards from corrosive materials, strong irritants or
toxic chemicals, the Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. first-aid plan will include appropriate
hazard controls. These controls include eye irrigation equipment, eye wash stations and
emergency showers.
Even worksites without high risk levels from corrosives, irritants and toxic chemicals may find
eye irrigation equipment and eyewash equipment appropriate to address workplace hazards.
However, some state requirements and specific chemical safety procedures require such
equipment on worksites. Where such requirements exist, Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. will
adhere to applicable workplace safety and health regulations and industry best practices.
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7.4.3 Training
First-aid training courses provided to Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. employees will include
instruction in general and workplace hazard-specific knowledge and skills.
First-aid trained employees should repeat training periodically to maintain and update
knowledge and skills.
See Potential First-Aid Training Elements at the end of this chapter for more.
7.4.3.1
Bloodborne Pathogens
If an employee renders first-aid as part of his or her job duties, the employee must meet the
requirements of the Occupational Exposure to Bloodborne Pathogens standard and be trained
accordingly. Please see the chapter on “Bloodborne Pathogens” for more information.
Additionally, employees who have not received first-aid training need to understand the hazards
presented by delivering first aid to a coworker. While Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc.
discourages the administration of first aid by any employee who has not been trained in first aid,
“Good Samaritan” first aid delivery is always a possibility.
7.4.4 Record Keeping
All safety and health incidents and near-misses will be documented and investigated according
to the policy on “Accident Investigation.” This includes prompt notification to OSHA of
catastrophic or deadly incidents and may include other reporting requirements.
7.4.5 Program Review
Gary Pfizenmayer will review the first-aid response plan and all elements at least annually to
ensure all elements sufficiently address the safety needs of Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc.
and its employees. Recommended first-aid techniques and knowledge change over time, and
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. policy will reflect those changes.
7.5 Forms & Attachments
On the following pages, please find the following documents:

First-Aid Response Plan

Medical Services and First-Aid Training Documentation
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First-Aid Response Plan
Company:
Date:
This plan was written for: (site or location this plan covers)
The following person/position is responsible for managing our first-aid response plan:
The emergency medical service to be called:
Summon the emergency medical service by doing the following:
(In most cases, it will be to call 911 or some other phone number, but a direct alarm or some other
method may be the preferred way.)
Emergency phone numbers are posted at the following location(s):
Other means to summon aid are at the following location:
When employees need first aid they must do the following:
Employees on site who are first-aid trained:
First-aid kits (or a first aid station) are located at:
The following person/position is responsible for inspecting the first-aid kits:
The Company’s Designated Medical Provider is:
Person Preparing Plan:
Signature:
Supervisor’s Name:
Date:
Signature:
Date:
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Potential First-Aid Training Elements
OSHA suggests a number of elements to include when planning first-aid training programs.
1.Teaching Methods
Training programs should incorporate the following principles:

Basing the curriculum on a consensus of scientific evidence where available;

Having trainees develop “hands-on” skills through the use of mannequins and partner
practice;

Having appropriate first-aid supplies and equipment available;

Exposing trainees to acute injury and illness settings as well as to the appropriate
response through the use of visual aids;

Including a course information resource for reference both during and after training;

Allowing enough time for emphasis on commonly occurring situations;

Emphasizing skills training and confidence-building over classroom lectures; and

Emphasizing quick response to first-aid situations.
2. Preparing to Respond to a Health Emergency
The training program should include instruction or discussion in the following:

Prevention as a strategy in reducing fatalities, illnesses and injuries;

Interacting with the local EMS system;

Maintaining a current list of emergency telephone numbers (police, fire, ambulance,
poison control) accessible to all employees;

Understanding the legal aspects of providing first-aid care, including Good Samaritan
legislation, consent, abandonment, negligence, assault and battery, State laws and
regulations;

Understanding the effects of stress, fear of infection, panic; how they interfere with
performance; and what to do to overcome these barriers to action;

The importance of universal precautions and body substance isolation to provide
protection from bloodborne pathogens and other potentially infectious materials;

Learning about personal protective equipment — gloves, eye protection, masks, and
respiratory barrier devices; and

Appropriate management and disposal of blood-contaminated sharps and surfaces; and
awareness of OSHA’s Bloodborne Pathogens standard.
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3. Assessing the Scene and the Victim(s)
The training program should include instruction in the following:

Assessing the scene for safety, number of injured, and nature of the event;

Assessing the toxic potential of the environment and the need for respiratory protection;

Establishing the presence of a confined space and the need for respiratory protection
and specialized training to perform a rescue;

Prioritizing care when there are several injured;

Assessing each victim for responsiveness, airway patency (blockage), breathing,
circulation, and medical alert tags;

Taking a victim’s history at the scene, including determining the mechanism of injury;

Performing a logical head-to-toe check for injuries;

Stressing the need to continuously monitor the victim;

Emphasizing early activation of EMS;

Indications for and methods of safely moving and rescuing victims; and

Repositioning ill/injured victims to prevent further injury.
4. Responding to Life-Threatening Emergencies
The training program should be designed or adapted for the specific worksite and may include
first-aid instruction in the following:

Establishing responsiveness;

Establishing and maintaining an open and clear airway;

Performing rescue breathing;

Treating airway obstruction in a conscious victim;

Performing CPR;

Using an AED;

Recognizing the signs and symptoms of shock and providing first aid for shock due to
illness or injury;

Assessing and treating a victim who has an unexplained change in level of
consciousness or sudden illness;

Controlling bleeding with direct pressure;
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Fire Protection & Emergency Planning

Poisoning
o Ingested poisons: alkali, acid, and systemic poisons. Role of the Poison Control
Center (1-800-222-1222);
o
o
o
Inhaled poisons: carbon monoxide; hydrogen sulfide; smoke; and other chemical
fumes, vapors, and gases. Assessing the toxic potential of the environment and the
need for respirators;
Knowledge of the chemicals at the worksite and of first aid and treatment for
inhalation or ingestion;
Effects of alcohol and illicit drugs so that the first-aid provider can recognize the
physiologic and behavioral effects of these substances.

Recognizing asphyxiation and the danger of entering a confined space without
appropriate respiratory protection. Additional training is required if first-aid personnel will
assist in the rescue from the confined space.

Responding to Medical Emergencies
o Chest pain
o Stroke
o Breathing problems
o Anaphylactic reaction
o Hypoglycemia in diabetics taking insulin
o
o
o
Seizures
Pregnancy complications
Abdominal injury
o
o
Reduced level of consciousness
Impaled object
5. Responding to Non-Life-Threatening Emergencies
The training program should be designed for the specific worksite and include first-aid
instruction for the management of the following:

Wounds;
o Assessment and first aid for wounds including abrasions, cuts, lacerations,
punctures, avulsions, amputations and crush injuries;
o Principles of wound care, including infection precautions;
o Principles of body substance isolation, universal precautions and use of personal
protective equipment.

Burns;
o Assessing the severity of a burn;
o Recognizing whether a burn is thermal, electrical, or chemical and the appropriate
first aid; and
o
Reviewing corrosive chemicals at a specific worksite, along with appropriate first aid.
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
Temperature extremes;
o Exposure to cold, including frostbite and hypothermia;
o

Exposure to heat, including heat cramps, heat exhaustion and heat stroke.
Musculoskeletal injuries;
o Fractures;
o
o
Sprains, strains, contusions and cramps;
Head, neck, back and spinal injuries;
o
Appropriate handling of amputated body parts.

Eye injuries
o First aid for eye injuries;
o First aid for chemical burns.

Mouth and teeth injuries
o Oral injuries; lip and tongue injuries; broken and missing teeth;
o

The importance of preventing aspiration of blood and/or teeth.
Bites and stings;
o Human and animal bites;
o Bites and stings from insects; instruction in first-aid treatment of anaphylactic shock.
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Medical Services and First Aid Training
Trainer (include qualifications):
Date:
Content of Training:
Attendees
Print Name
Signature
(Retain at least 3 years)
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Bloodborne Pathogens
8
Bloodborne Pathogens
8.1 Policy Statement
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. is committed to the safety and health of our employees and to
preventing the spread of bloodborne pathogens. Therefore, Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc.
adheres to the following bloodborne pathogen policy and Exposure Control Plan (ECP). If an
employee is exposed to bloodborne pathogens — such as those designated as responsible for
first aid and medical assistance or those doing work in certain medical or sanitation facilities — all
measures within this program will be taken to prevent spread of disease.
8.2 Responsibilities
Preventing the spread of bloodborne illnesses is a responsibility shared between Pyro
Combustion & Controls Inc. and its employees.
8.2.1 Employer Responsibilities
It is the responsibility of Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. to:

enact and enforce an exposure control plan to prevent occupational exposure to
potentially infectious materials;

identify employees who, as part of their job duties, may reasonably be anticipated to come
into contact with blood and other potentially infectious materials;

provide for post-exposure evaluation and follow-up should an employee be exposed to
potentially infectious materials;

ensure employees have received appropriate bloodborne pathogens training; and

ensure adequate supply of Personal Protective Equipment.
8.2.2 Safety Committee Responsibilities
It is the responsibility of the Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. safety committee to:

develop and implement a site-specific exposure control plan;

identify employees who, as part of their job duties, may reasonably be anticipated to come
into contact with blood and other potentially infectious materials;

develop, conduct, and document training for bloodborne pathogens safety;

investigate exposure incidents and recommend work practice changes, if necessary; and

recommend personal protective equipment (PPE) if necessary.
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8.2.3 Employee Responsibilities
Every Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. employee is expected to:

Offer input on ECP as appropriate, including identification, evaluation and selection of new
control methods;

Follow all elements of the bloodborne pathogens policy and training; and

Notify supervisor if they encounter any problems.
8.3 Training
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. will ensure every employee who might reasonably anticipate
coming into occupational exposure to potentially infectious materials participate in a bloodborne
pathogen training program. Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. will provide this training at no cost to
the employee during working hours.
Training will be provided:

At the time of assignment to tasks where occupational exposure may take place.

At least annually thereafter; annual training for all employees will be provided within one
year of their previous training.
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. will provide additional training when tasks or procedures are
added or changed that affect the employee’s occupational exposure. It is acceptable for
additional training to be limited to addressing only the changes or additions to the employees’
exposure.
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. will use only training material that is appropriate in content and
vocabulary to educational level, literacy, and language of employees.
8.3.1 Training Components
The training program will contain at a minimum the following elements:

An accessible copy of the regulatory text of CFR 1910.1030, this bloodborne pathogen
policy and exposure control plan, and an explanation of its contents;

A general explanation of the epidemiology and symptoms of bloodborne diseases;

An explanation of the modes of transmission of bloodborne pathogens;

An explanation of the appropriate methods for recognizing tasks and other activities that
may involve exposure to blood and other potentially infectious materials;

An explanation of the use and limitations of methods to prevent or reduce exposure,
including engineering controls, work practices, and personal protective equipment;
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
Information on the types, proper use, location, removal, handling, decontamination, and
disposal of personal protective equipment;

An explanation of the basis for selection of personal protective equipment;

Information on the hepatitis B vaccine, including information on its efficacy, safety, method
of administration, the benefits of being vaccinated, and that the vaccine and vaccination
will be offered free of charge to employees who face occupational exposure;

Information on the appropriate actions to take and persons to contact in an emergency
involving blood or other potentially infectious materials;

An explanation of the procedure to follow if an exposure incident occurs, including the
method of reporting the incident and the medical follow-up that will be made available;

Information on the post-exposure evaluation and follow-up that the employer is required to
provide for the employee following an exposure incident;

An explanation of the signs and labels and/or color coding; and

An opportunity for interactive questions and answers with the person conducting the
training session.
The person conducting the training will be knowledgeable in the subject matter of the training
program as it relates to the workplace.
8.3.2 Training Records
Training records will include the following information:

The dates of the training sessions;

The contents or a summary of the training sessions;

The names and qualifications of persons conducting the training; and

The names and job titles of all persons attending the training sessions.
Employee training records will be maintained for 3 years from the date on which the training
occurred.
8.4 Policy
Bloodborne pathogens are diseases caused by microorganisms that live in the bloodstream and
are spread through blood and other body fluids. Bloodborne pathogens include the human
immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV). HIV
compromises the body’s immune functions and can lead to acquired immunodeficiency
syndrome. While the virus does not live out of the body for long, it can enter the bloodstream
through cuts, abrasions and small tears in mucous membranes. Hepatitis affects the health of the
liver. There is a vaccination available to prevent the spread of HBV, but not HCV. Bloodborne
pathogens can be transmitted through any body fluid, and employees must take care whenever
handling possible contaminants to prevent the spread of bloodborne infections.
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8.4.1 Exposure Determination
As part of the comprehensive bloodborne pathogen exposure control plan, it is crucial to
determine which jobs expose an employee to blood and other potentially infectious material, as
well as the means by which that exposure might occur. Accordingly, the Pyro Combustion &
Controls Inc. safety committee will determine which job classifications can reasonably expect
occupational exposure to potentially infectious material. The following will be determined and
documented:

Job classifications in which all employees have occupational exposure

Job classifications in which some employees have occupational exposure

Tasks and procedures in which occupational exposure occurs
Further, input from non-managerial employees exposed to contaminated sharps and infectious
material is vital to the success of this exposure control plan, and every employee is encouraged
to offer suggestions that will help the effectiveness of the exposure control plan.
8.4.2 Methods of Compliance
Employees will take precautions to prevent contact with potentially infectious material. If an
employee cannot easily determine the nature of a body fluid, he or she should treat it as
infectious.
8.4.2.1
Engineering and Work Practice Controls
As part of this exposure control plan, Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. will seek methods by
which to eliminate occupational exposure to the greatest extent possible. This plan encourages
work task changes to reduce exposure as well as isolating or removing materials that might pose
a hazard. The exposure control plan requires Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. to examine
regularly and maintain or replace engineering controls to ensure their effectiveness.
Handwashing
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. will provide readily accessible handwashing facilities to every
employee. If providing handwashing facilities is not feasible, Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. will
provide either an appropriate antiseptic hand cleanser in conjunction with clean cloth/paper
towels or antiseptic towelettes.
In addition to basic workplace hygiene requirements, employees will wash hands as soon as
possible after removing gloves or other PPE.
Should an employee’s skin or mucous membrane be exposed to potentially infectious materials,
the employee will wash skin with soap and water or flush mucous membranes with water.
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Sharps
Employees will handle and dispose of contaminated sharps in a way that prevents unnecessary
exposure to hazards. Employees will not bend, recap, or remove contaminated sharps unless no
alternative is feasible and the employee can accomplish any bending, recapping or needle
removal using a mechanical device or one-handed technique.
As soon as possible after use, contaminated reusable sharps will be placed in a container that is
puncture resistant, labeled or color-coded appropriately, leakproof on sides and bottom and
doesn’t require employees to reach into it to use it.
Other Engineering and Work Practice Controls
 Employees may not eat, drink, smoke, apply cosmetics or handle contact lenses where
occupational exposure may occur.

No food or drink is to be stored where potentially infectious materials are present.

Employees may not use their mouths to pipette or suction potentially infectious materials.

Containers used to store or transport potentially infectious materials should be closable,
prevent leaks and be appropriately labeled or color-coded. They should also be puncture
resistant, if necessary.

Employees will examine any equipment that may be contaminated before servicing or
shipping and will decontaminate it as necessary and feasible. If decontamination is
impossible, the employee will attach a label to the equipment, and inform all appropriate
personnel of the contamination to ensure they take proper precautions.
8.4.2.2
Personal Protective Equipment
Where the possibility of occupational exposure exists, Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. will
provide personal protective equipment appropriate to the hazards and the work being performed.
Appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) is impermeable to blood or other potentially
infectious material under normal conditions and durations of use.
PPE will be provided and maintained free to employees in appropriate sizes, and provisions will
be made should an employee be allergic to gloves normally provided.
An employee may decline using appropriate PPE under “rare and extraordinary circumstances”
when PPE use might prevent the delivery of health care or public safety services. These
exceptions will be investigated and documented to prevent future occurrences.
PPE will be removed as soon as feasible and be removed before leaving the work area. After
removal, the employee will place contaminated PPE in an appropriate area or container to be
stored, washed, decontaminated or disposed of.
Gloves
Employees must wear gloves if they anticipate hand contact with potentially infectious materials.
Do not reuse single use gloves, and replace as quickly as possible if torn, punctured or otherwise
compromised.
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Masks, Eye Protection and Face Shields
Employees will wear masks, together with eye protection devices whenever splashes, spray,
spatter, or droplets of blood or other potentially infectious materials may be generated and eye,
nose, or mouth contamination can be reasonably anticipated.
Gowns, Aprons, etc.
Employees will wear appropriate protective clothing like gowns or clinic jackets when appropriate;
the type of protective clothing is determined by the nature of exposure, and will be sufficient to
protect against occupational exposure.
8.4.2.3
Housekeeping
Employees will keep the workplace clean and sanitary. Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. will
implement a written schedule for cleaning and decontamination based on the demands of the
site.
Employees will use an appropriate disinfectant to clean and decontaminate contaminated or
potentially contaminated work surfaces after any spill of infectious materials and at the end of the
work shift. Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. will replace protective surface coverings as soon as
possible if they are contaminated. Bins, cans, pails or other receptacles that may become
contaminated should be inspected and decontaminated regularly, in addition to being
decontaminated as soon as feasible after visible contamination. Employees must not pick up any
broken glassware that may be contaminated by hand. Use a brush/dustpan or tongs.
Laundry
Employees will handle any contaminated laundry as little as possible. They must put such laundry
into a color-coded or labeled container where it was used. Wet laundry should be placed into a
leakproof container. Employees handling contaminated laundry must use appropriate PPE.
8.4.3 Hepatitis B Vaccination
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. will make available the hepatitis B vaccination series at no cost
to any Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. employee who faces occupational exposure.
An employee occupationally exposed to potentially infectious material may decline the hepatitis B
vaccine, but must sign a declination statement to be kept on file. Anyone who declines
vaccination may request and receive the vaccination at no cost later.
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8.4.4 Post-exposure Evaluation and Follow-up
Should an exposure incident occur the employee should contact Gary Pfizenmayer (or designate)
immediately.
8.4.4.1
In Case of Exposure
A licensed health care professional will conduct a confidential medical evaluation and follow-up
as soon as possible following an exposure incident. Following initial first aid (clean the wound,
flush eyes or other mucous membrane, etc.), follow the following procedure:
1. Document the routes of exposure and how the exposure occurred.
2. Identify and document the source individual (unless the employer can establish that
identification is infeasible or prohibited by state or local law).
3. Obtain consent and arrange to have the source individual tested as soon as possible to
determine HIV, HCV, and HBV infectivity; convey and document conveyance of the source
individual’s test results to the employee’s health care provider. If the source individual is
known to be HIV, HCV and/or HBV positive, new testing need not be performed.
4. Provide the exposed employee with the source individual’s test results and with information
about applicable disclosure laws and regulations concerning the identity and infectious status
of the source individual (e.g., laws protecting confidentiality).
5. After obtaining consent, collect exposed employee’s blood as soon as feasible after exposure
incident, and test blood for HBV and HIV serological status.
6. If the employee does not give consent for HIV serological testing during collection of blood for
baseline testing, preserve the baseline blood sample for at least 90 days; if the exposed
employee elects to have the baseline sample tested during this waiting period, perform testing
as soon as feasible.
8.4.4.2
Administrative Responsibilities Following Exposure
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. will ensure that the health care professional responsible for
post-exposure evaluation and follow-up receives the following:

a copy of OSHA’s bloodborne pathogens standard;

a description of the employee’s job duties relevant to the exposure incident;

route(s) of exposure;

circumstances of exposure;

results of the source individual’s blood test if possible; and

relevant employee medical records, including vaccination status
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. will provide the employee with a copy of the evaluating
healthcare professional’s written opinion within 15 days of the completion of the evaluation.
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8.4.5 Recordkeeping
8.4.5.1
Medical Records
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. will maintain a confidential medical record for every employee
with occupational exposure that will include at least the following:


the name and social security number of
the employee;
a copy of the employee’s HBV status
(with dates of all Hep B vaccinations);


a copy of all post-exposure
documentation and healthcare
professional’s written opinion; and
a copy of the information provided to
the healthcare professional.
Do not share or report this record unless the employee provides written consent.
8.4.5.2
Sharps Injury Log
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. will maintain a sharps injury log to record injuries from
contaminated sharps that break the skin. The log will protect the identity of the injured employee
and will contain the following:



an explanation of how the injury
occurred;
the type and brand of device involved;
and
the department or work area where
injury occurred.
8.4.6 Hazard Communication
Label containers of regulated biological waste, or any container used to
store or transport potentially infectious material, and contaminated
equipment to prevent exposure. Labels for such containers will include the
legend depicted in figure 1.
All such labels will be fluorescent orange or orange-red and be attached as
close as feasible to the container.
Figure 1
8.4.7 Review and Update of ECP
The Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. safety committee will review this ECP and update it at least
annually and whenever necessary to reflect new or changed tasks and procedures that affect
occupational exposure. Reviews and updates will:

Reflect changes in technology that eliminate or reduce exposure to bloodborne
pathogens; and

Document annually consideration and implementation of appropriate commercially
available and effective safer medical devices designed to eliminate or minimize
occupational exposure.
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Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. will seek the input of non-managerial employees to identify,
evaluate and select controls to reduce occupational exposure. This input will be documented as
part of this ECP.
8.5 Forms and Attachments
On the following pages, please find the following documents:

Exposure Control Plan Documentation

Declination Statement

Exposure Incident Report

Evaluating Physician’s Written Opinion

Sharps Injury Log

Bloodborne Pathogens Training Documentation
These forms may be reproduced freely by Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. for the purposes of
implementing and maintaining a safety and health program.
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Exposure Control Plan Documentation
Exposure Determination
Jobs in which all employees have occupational
exposure to potentially infectious materials
Task or procedure where exposure occurs
Jobs in which some employees have occupational
exposure to potentially infectious materials
Task or procedure where exposure occurs
Engineering controls and work practice controls:
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The following types of PPE are available in the following locations:
Personal Protective Equipment
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Declination Statements
DECLINATION STATEMENT
I understand that due to my occupational exposure to blood or other potentially infectious
materials I may be at risk of acquiring Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. I have been given the
opportunity to be vaccinated with Hepatitis B vaccine, at no charge to myself. However, I decline
Hepatitis vaccination at this time. I understand that by declining this vaccine, I continue to be at
risk of acquiring Hepatitis B, a serious disease. If in the future I continue to have occupational
exposure to blood or other potentially infectious materials and I want to be vaccinated with
Hepatitis B vaccine, I can receive the vaccination series at no charge to me.
Employee Signature___________________________________________ Date______________
DECLINATION STATEMENT
I understand that due to my occupational exposure to blood or other potentially infectious
materials I may be at risk of acquiring Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. I have been given the
opportunity to be vaccinated with Hepatitis B vaccine, at no charge to myself. However, I decline
Hepatitis vaccination at this time. I understand that by declining this vaccine, I continue to be at
risk of acquiring Hepatitis B, a serious disease. If in the future I continue to have occupational
exposure to blood or other potentially infectious materials and I want to be vaccinated with
Hepatitis B vaccine, I can receive the vaccination series at no charge to me.
Employee Signature___________________________________________ Date______________
DECLINATION STATEMENT
I understand that due to my occupational exposure to blood or other potentially infectious
materials I may be at risk of acquiring Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. I have been given the
opportunity to be vaccinated with Hepatitis B vaccine, at no charge to myself. However, I decline
Hepatitis vaccination at this time. I understand that by declining this vaccine, I continue to be at
risk of acquiring Hepatitis B, a serious disease. If in the future I continue to have occupational
exposure to blood or other potentially infectious materials and I want to be vaccinated with
Hepatitis B vaccine, I can receive the vaccination series at no charge to me.
Employee Signature___________________________________________ Date______________
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Exposure Incident Report
(Routes and Circumstances of Exposure Incident)
Please Print
Employee’s Name_________________________________Date______________
Date of Birth__________________SS#__________________________________
Telephone (Business) _________________ (Home) _______________________
Job Title __________________________________________________________
Date of Exposure_____________ Time of Exposure _______ AM ___ PM _____
Hepatitis B Vaccination Status _________________________________________
Location of Incident _________________________________________________
Describe job duties you were performing when the exposure incident occurred
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
Describe the circumstances under which the exposure incident occurred
(What happened that resulted in the incident?)
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
What body fluid(s) were you exposed to? _________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
What was the route of exposure? (e.g., mucosal contact, contact with nonintact skin, percutaneous)
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
Describe any personal protective equipment in use at time of exposure incident
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
Did PPE fail? ____________ If yes, how? ______________________________
__________________________________________________________________
Identification of source individual(s) (names) ______________________________
__________________________________________________________________
Other pertinent information ___________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
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Evaluating Physician’s Written Opinion
To the Evaluating Physician:
This employee may have suffered an exposure incident to a Bloodborne Pathogen. In
accordance with OSHA standards covering post-exposure evaluation and follow up, the following
documents are provided for you:

A copy of OSHA regulations covering Occupational Exposure to Bloodborne Pathogens;

A description of the exposed employee’s duties as they relate to the exposure incident;

Documentation of the routes of exposure and circumstances under which exposure
occurred;

Results of the source individual’s blood testing, if available; and

All medical records relevant to this employee’s appropriate treatment, including
vaccination status.
After you have determined whether there are contra-indications to vaccination of this employee
with Hepatitis B vaccine, please state in the space below if:


Vaccine was indicated
Vaccine was received
(All other findings are to remain confidential and are not to be included on this page)
Please return this sheet to this employee:
______________________________________________________
Thank you for your evaluation of this employee.
________________________________________________________
Physician’s name (printed)
date
Physician’s signature________________________________________
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Sharps Injury Log
Facility/Location: ______________________________ Year: ___________________
Address: ______________________________________________________________
City: ________________________________ State: _________ ZIP: ____________
Date
Time
Type, Brand, Model of
Device
Department /
Work Area
Description of How Incident
Occurred
(Retain at least 5 years)
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Bloodborne Pathogens Training
Trainer (include qualifications):
Date:
Content of Training:
Attendees
Print Name
Signature
(Retain at least 3 years)
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9
Workplace Violence Prevention
9.1 Policy Statement
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. encourages a safe and healthy work environment. Verbal or
physical intimidation, harassment, threats of violence or any violent act are expressly forbidden. A
person who makes threats of violence, exhibits threatening behavior or engages in violent acts on
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. property will be removed from the premises as quickly as safety
permits and will be kept off premises pending the outcome of an investigation.
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. is committed to preventing acts of violence and intimidation.
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. has adopted a system of controls to prevent workplace violence,
mitigate the harm caused by it and otherwise address violence and harassment in the workplace.
Gary Pfizenmayer is responsible for implementing and enforcing this policy and will do so with the
assistance of management, the safety committee members and all employees.
9.2 Responsibilities
Preventing workplace violence is a cooperative effort between Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc.
and its employees.
9.2.1 Employer Responsibilities
It is the responsibility of Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. to:

Ensure managers remain committed to preventing aggression and violence;

Document plan to control aggressive or violent behavior in the workplace;

Evaluate reports of workplace violence at least yearly to determine necessary changes to
violence prevention policy;

Ensure job hazard analyses include workplace violence hazards;

Exhibit commitment to the safety and health of workers and customers;

Ensure employees understand and fulfill obligations under the violence prevention
program;

Establish a program to address medical and psychological repercussions of workplace
violence; and

Support and implement appropriate recommendations of the Safety Committee.

Enforce prohibition on sexual harassment.
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9.2.2 Safety Committee Responsibilities
It is the responsibility of the Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. safety committee to:

Help create policy, evaluate risks, and develop procedures to respond to hostile acts;

Assist in or lead training for workplace violence prevention; and

Participate in job hazard analyses that identify potential for workplace violence.
9.2.3 Employee Responsibilities
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. employees are expected to:

Contribute to developing procedures to address concerns over safety and security;

Understand and comply with the workplace violence prevention program, and safety and
security measures;

Report violent incidents promptly and accurately;

Refrain from hostile and violent acts;

Participate in safety and health committees or teams that receive reports of violent
incidents or security problems, make facility inspections and respond with
recommendations for corrective strategies; and

Participate actively in training programs and share on-the-job experiences that cover
techniques to recognize escalating agitation, aggressive behavior or criminal intent.
9.3 Training
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. will provide training to employees regarding their roles in
workplace violence prevention. This training will come at no cost to the employee during working
hours.
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. will use only training material that is appropriate in content and
vocabulary to the educational level, literacy and language of employees.
9.3.1 Training Components
Gary Pfizenmayer will ensure that every employee will be trained in the following elements:

The workplace violence prevention policy;

Risk factors that cause or contribute to assaults;

Early recognition of escalating behavior or recognition of warning signs or situations that
may lead to assaults;

Ways to prevent or diffuse volatile situations, manage anger and appropriately;

A standard response action plan for violent situations, including the availability of
assistance, response to alarm systems and communication procedures;

Ways to deal with hostile people in the workplace;
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
Relaxation, stress management and anger control;

Basic self-protection measures;

The location and operation of safety devices such as alarm systems, along with the
required maintenance schedules and procedures;

Ways to protect oneself and coworkers, including use of the “buddy system;”

Policies and procedures for reporting and recordkeeping;

Information on multicultural diversity to increase staff sensitivity to racial and ethnic issues
and differences;

Policies and procedures for obtaining medical care, counseling, workers’ compensation or
legal assistance after a violent episode or injury; and

The sexual harassment policy.
Managers and Supervisors at Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. will be trained in:

The Company’s Workplace Violence Prevention Program;

Communication skills;

Recognition of aggressive behavior;

Dealing with employee layoffs, job terminations, and discipline; how to assess violence
potential of individuals; and take appropriate measures;

Violence prevention, Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. security and response procedures;
and

Addressing problems and conflict promptly.
Any employee engaged in a task that faces a high risk of workplace violence (e.g. working alone,
especially late at night) will be trained for workplace safety practices specific to the worksite that
reduce the risk of workplace violence.
Where Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. operations require security personnel, such personnel
will receive training specific to the worksite, including the psychological components of handling
aggressive and abusive customers, types of disorders and ways to handle aggression and defuse
hostile situations.
9.3.2 Training Records
Training records will include the following information:

The dates of the training sessions;

The contents or a summary of the training sessions;

The names and qualifications of persons conducting the training; and

The names and job titles of all persons attending the training sessions.
Employee training records will be maintained for 3 years from the date on which the training
occurred.
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9.4 Policy
9.4.1 Background
9.4.1.1
Workplace Violence
Workplace violence includes violence or the threat of violence against workers. It can occur at or
outside the workplace and can range from threats and verbal abuse to physical assaults and
homicide. For this policy, workplace violence also includes aggressive behavior, workplace
harassment, bullying and intimidation.
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. permits no workplace violence. No negative action will ever be
taken against an employee for reporting any hazardous situation, and appropriate confidentiality
considerations will be taken in every instance of such a report.
9.4.1.2
High-Risk Occupations
Workplace violence is a hazard at any worksite for every worker. Some workers, however, are at
significantly increased risk, including workers who:

Exchange money with the public;

Deliver passengers, goods, or services; or

Work alone or in small groups, during late night or early morning hours, in high-crime
areas, or in community settings and homes with extensive contact with the public.
Any Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. employee who faces an increased risk of workplace
violence will be informed of the increased risk and trained in appropriate practices based on a job
hazard analysis of the job. Please see “Workplace Risk Factors” later in this chapter.
9.4.1.3
Types of Workplace Violence
Type
Type I:
Criminal Intent
Type II:
Customer / Client
Type III:
Worker-on-Worker
Type IV:
Personal
Relationship
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Description
The perpetrator has no legitimate relationship to the business or its employees and is
usually committing a crime in conjunction with the violence. These crimes can include
robbery, shoplifting, trespassing, and terrorism.
The perpetrator has a legitimate relationship with the business and becomes violent
while being served by the business. This category includes customers, clients, patients,
students, inmates, and any other group for which the business provides services
The perpetrator is an employee or past employee of the business who attacks or
threatens another employee(s) or past employee(s) in the workplace.
The perpetrator usually does not have a relationship with the business but has a
personal relationship with the intended victim. This category includes victims of domestic
violence assaulted or threatened while at work.
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9.4.1.4
Horseplay
Horseplay includes playing tricks on coworkers; distracting coworkers; wrestling; showing off;
playing punching, kicking or slapping games; and otherwise drawing focus away from the task to
engage in a playful way that disregards safety precautions. Horseplay creates unnecessary
hazards in the workplace and presents needless distractions. While horseplay is not necessarily
violent, it can have a harmful impact on the safety of Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc.
employees, and is therefore forbidden and will be treated as a workplace violence issue for the
sake of this company’s safety and health program.
9.4.2 Program Planning
9.4.2.1
Planning Principles
As with any element of the Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. safety and health program,
workplace violence prevention requires site-specific and job-specific planning.
Gary Pfizenmayer will work with management, the safety committee and appropriate employees
to evaluate the ability of Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. to prevent workplace violence and
handle incidents involving violence to enforce effective protections from workplace violence.
Plans to prevent workplace violence should be evaluated regularly, and will also be evaluated
when changes are made that impact the risk of workplace violence and when a workplace
incident involving violence occurs.
9.4.2.2
Job Hazard Analyses
Workplace violence hazards will be considered in every job hazard analysis performed at Pyro
Combustion & Controls Inc.. If a job or task presents hazards, steps will be taken to control those
hazards as soon as safely possible to prevent injury.
Please see chapter on “Job Hazard Analysis.”
9.4.2.3
Other Planning Considerations
As part of the organization-wide violence prevention program, Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc.
may conduct a screening survey to get employee ideas on the potential for violent incidents and
to identify opportunities for improved security measures. These surveys may be repeated as part
of the periodic review of this policy.
Independent reviewers such as safety and health professionals, security consultants or law
enforcement professionals can provide expert opinions on workplace safety and provide a fresh
perspective on preventing workplace violence.
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9.4.3 Hazards
Violent behavior, like any safety and health risk factor, occurs within a context. Controlling
workplace violence hazards first requires identifying them.
9.4.3.1
Warning Signs of Violence
There is no way to predict all acts of violence; however, the FBI suggests the following indicators
of escalating violence risk in an individual:





9.4.3.2
Increasing belligerence;
Ominous, specific threats;
Hypersensitivity to criticism;
Recent acquisition/fascination
with weapons;
Apparent obsession with another
person;






Preoccupation with violent themes;
Interest in recently publicized violent
events;
Outbursts of anger;
Extreme disorganization;
Noticeable changes in behavior; and
Homicidal/suicidal comments or threats
Workplace Risk Factors
A variety of workplace factors can contribute to violence risk as well, including the following:





Understaffing;
Frustrations arising from poorly
defined job tasks and
responsibilities;
Downsizing or reorganization;
Labor disputes and poor labormanagement relations;
Inadequate security or a poorly
trained, poorly motivated security
force;



A lack of employee counseling;
Poor management styles (for
example, arbitrary or unexplained
orders; over-monitoring; corrections or
reprimands in front of other
employees, inconsistent discipline);
and
A high injury rate or frequent
grievances may be clues to problem
situations in a workplace.
Research indicates that in addition to management oversights, certain job elements increase risk
and may indicate the need for greater care when performing job hazard analysis and violence
prevention planning. These factors include the following:





Contact with the public;
Exchange of money;
Delivery of passengers, goods, or
services;
Having a mobile workplace;
Working with unstable or volatile
people;
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



Working alone or in small numbers;
Working late at night or during early morning
hours;
Working in high-crime areas;
Guarding valuable property; and
Working in community-based settings.
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9.4.4 Controls
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. will identify and implement effective controls to protect workers
against violence hazards. These controls will be determined based on the work, the environment
and the organizational context of the work. Controls may include a variety of engineering and
administrative approaches to control the hazards associated with violence in the workplace.
Please see the section on “Control” in the chapter covering “Job Hazard Analysis”
9.4.4.1
Engineering

Develop emergency signaling, alarms and monitoring systems.

Increase visibility, especially in high-risk areas. Use cameras and curved mirrors in
hallways, and ensure good lighting in the workplace and in parking lots.

Restrict movement of the public and employees with appropriate barriers and card- or
key-controlled access.

Design public areas to minimize assault risk:

Provide staff restrooms and emergency exits.

Install enclosed stations, deep service counters or bullet resistant and shatterproof glass
enclosures in reception areas if appropriate.

Arrange furniture and other objects with safety in mind. Be mindful of objects or furniture
that can easily be turned into weapons
9.4.4.2
Administrative and Work Practice Controls

Demonstrate concern for workers’ emotional and physical health and safety,
communicating that violence is not permitted.

Design staffing patterns to prevent personnel from working alone and to minimize waiting
time for customers.

Provide security escorts to the parking lots at night if appropriate.

Develop a system for alerting security personnel or management to threats of violence
and recording incidents to determine need for additional controls.

Encourage employees to use the “buddy system” when personal safety threatened.

Limit the amount of accessible cash and valuables in the workplace.

Consider an employee assistance program to help employees handle their personal
problems that may affect job performance and workplace safety.

Consider potential for violence in human resources operations. Areas where appropriate
procedures and policies to prevent violence should be in place include the following:

Pre-employment screening;

Employee assistance;

Employment transition or outplacement services during layoffs;

Substance abuse prevention programs; and

Detailed post-termination security protocol.
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9.4.5 Response
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. understands violence can best be prevented through
appropriate workplace security measures and caring for the people who work for our company
through communication, adequate training, and a system for reporting and following up on
incidents. However, regardless of the level of hazard control, Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc.
may experience a safety incident involving violence. Response to violence in the workplace will
depend on the nature of the incident, but will focus on reducing the negative impacts of the
incident and discovering ways to prevent similar incidents in the future.
Workplace violence will be considered during the development of the Emergency Action Plan.
Please see the chapter entitled “Fire Prevention and Emergency Action Plans” for more
information.
9.4.5.1
Notification
Employees will notify a supervisor as soon as safely possible if an incident involving violence
occurs. However, if there is an immediate danger of harm and the situation demands the
presence of emergency responders, an employee should contact the appropriate authorities or
see that a supervisor contacts them. Employees should report any criminal act immediately to
police if safely possible and keep a line of communication with the authorities until police arrive.
Management will handle all reports of violence and threats of violence in a manner that respects
the sensitive nature of such reports and maintains an appropriate level of confidentiality.
It is a good idea for every worksite to have a means to alert others to an emerging incident. Such
means include alarms, codes and signals. These alerts need to be in place and shared before an
incident to ensure effectiveness.
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De-escalation Strategies
DO:




Be calm. Move and speak slowly, quietly, and
confidently.
Encourage the person to talk; listen closely and
patiently.
Maintain a relaxed, attentive posture.
Position yourself at an angle to the person
rather than directly in front of him or her.

Arrange yourself so your access to emergency
exits is not blocked.


Acknowledge the person’s feelings.
Ask for small, specific favors such as asking
the person to move outside.
Use delaying tactics to give the person time to
calm down, such as offering a drink of water.
Point out choices, break big problems into
smaller ones.
Avoid sudden movements and maintain a 3-6
foot distance.
If necessary, call the police, but only when it is
safe to do so.
A fitness-for-duty evaluation may be
appropriate for employees exhibiting
dysfunctional behaviors.
Potential victims will be informed of any threat
made to them and permitted access to legal
assistance and psychological counseling as
warranted.






9.4.5.2
DON’T:
 Make sudden movements that may




seem threatening.
Speak rapidly, raise your volume, or use
an accusatory tone.
Reject all demands.
Make physical contact, jab your finger at
the other person, or use long periods of
eye contact.
Pose in challenging stances — directly
opposite someone, hands on hips or
with arms crossed.

Challenge, threaten, or dare the
individual.



Belittle the other person.
Criticize or act impatient.
Attempt to bargain with a threatening
individual.
Try to make the situation seem less
serious than it is.
Make false statements or promises you
cannot keep.
Try to impart a lot of technical or
complicated information when emotions
are high.
Take sides or agree with distortions.
Invade the individual’s personal space.





Incident Response Team
Gary Pfizenmayer and the safety committee, as part of hazard control planning may determine
the need for an incident response team responsible for violence response. Training for this team
should include identifying hazard escalation, techniques for de-escalating conflict and other
appropriate incident response.
9.4.5.3
Evacuation and Shelter In Place
All employees will be made aware of appropriate evacuation and “Shelter-In-Place” procedures
and follow them as necessary in response to a violent workplace incident. Training and
preparation may include drills and simulations for a violent incident.
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9.4.5.4
Post-Incident Response
In the event of workplace violence, Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. will ensure victims and
witnesses are provided appropriate treatment, regardless of the severity of the incident. In
addition to physical injuries, victims of workplace violence may suffer other consequences such
as the following:




Psychological trauma;
Fear of returning to work;
Changes to relationships;

Feelings of guilt, powerlessness and
incompetence; and
Fear of criticism by supervisors.
Further, to address opportunities to remedy oversights in the violence prevention program, any
incident that demands managerial response under this violence prevention program will be
followed by an incident investigation.
Please see the chapter on “Accident Investigation” for more information.
9.4.6 Recordkeeping and Program Evaluation
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. will record and communicate injuries and illnesses to workers
according to applicable regulations.
This policy will be reviewed, and these reviews documented, at least once a year or under the
following circumstances:

Following a workplace violence incident or report;

Change in management;

Change of contact person;

To make needed changes or improvements to the policy; and

To identify new training or refresher training needs.
9.5 Sexual Harassment
It is this company’s policy that sexual discrimination, unwelcome sexual advances, requests for
sexual favors, and any other conduct of a sexual nature is strictly prohibited.
Requiring coworkers, subordinate employees, or prospective employees to submit to conduct of
this nature, explicitly or implicitly, as a term or condition of employment, or used as a basis for
any employment decisions is forbidden.
Any behavior that has the purpose or effect of unreasonably interfering with an individual’s work
performance, or creating an intimidating, hostile, or offensive work environment is banned.
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Sexual harassment can occur in a variety of circumstances:

The victim as well as the harasser may be a woman or a man. The victim does not have
to be of the opposite sex.

The harasser can be the victim’s supervisor, an agent of the employer, a supervisor in
another area, a co-worker, or a non-employee.

The victim does not have to be the person harassed but could be anyone affected by the
offensive conduct.

Sexual harassment may occur without economic injury to or discharge of the victim.

The harasser’s conduct must be unwelcome.
Prevention is the best tool to eliminate sexual harassment in the workplace. Pyro Combustion &
Controls Inc. has designated appropriate managers (rather than a direct supervisor) and other
alternative routes by which an employee can issue formal complaints of sexual harassment. If
possible, any victimized employee should attempt to resolve a sexual harassment issue
informally by directly informing the harasser that the conduct is unwelcome and must stop. If
informal resolution is unsuccessful, the victim should use the formal complaint form and submit it
to an appropriate supervisor.
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. will take immediate appropriate action when an employee files a
complaint.
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. recognizes that the question of whether a particular course of
conduct constitutes sexual harassment requires a factual determination. Pyro Combustion &
Controls Inc. also recognizes that false accusations of sexual harassment can have serious
effects on innocent persons. If an investigation results in a finding that a person who has accused
another of sexual harassment has maliciously or recklessly made false accusations, the accuser
will be subject to appropriate sanctions, including discharge.
When investigating allegations of sexual harassment, this company will look at the whole record,
the circumstances, and the context in which the alleged incidents occurred. Pyro Combustion &
Controls Inc. will make a determination on the allegations from available facts on a case-by-case
basis. Outside avenues of resolution are available to employees who feel their rights have not
been protected. Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. tolerates no sexual harassment.
9.6 Forms & Attachments
On the following pages, please find the following documents:

Assault/Threat Report

Sexual Harassment Complaint Form

Workplace Violence Training Documentation
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Assault/Threat Report
(Attach additional sheets as necessary)
EMPLOYEE INFORMATION
Name:
Telephone:
Address:
Employee Classification:
Manager’s Name:
Telephone:
INCIDENT INFORMATION
Name of Assailant:
Is he/she and employee?
Date of Incident:
This incident occurred:
Please explain:
 yes
 no
Location of Incident
 over the phone
Were there any witnesses?
 yes
 in person
 over the Internet
 other
 no (Please provide relevant information below and attach statements)
Witness 2
Witness 1
WITNESSES
Name:
Telephone:
Address:
Name:
Witness Roll (e.g. employee, customer):
Telephone:
Address:
Witness Roll (e.g. employee, customer):
THREAT INFORMATION
As closely as possible, what were the exact words used?
Was the assailant in a position to carry out the threat immediately?
How serious do you believe the threat was and why?
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Assault/Threat Report (pg. 2)
ASSAULT INFORMATION
What (if anything) happened to set off the assault?
Did the assailant say anything during the assault? What?
How did the assailant attack? (e.g. punching, kicking, knife, words)
What injuries, if any, did you sustain? Did injuries require medical treatment?
What brought the assault to an end?
How did you leave the site of the assault?
EMPLOYEE ACTIONS
What actions did you take later? (e.g. worker’s comp claim, medical treatment, sick leave)
Do you request Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. action at this time related to the assault? What? (If none,
please specify “None.”)
LAW ENFORCEMENT INFORMATION (attach police report when possible)
Law Enforcement Agency Contacted/Name of Official
Was a written report completed?
Date Contacted:
 yes
 no
Telephone Number:
Indicate any action promised.
MANAGER ACTIONS
Directions given to employee:
Manager Recommendation:  Prosecution
 Restraining Order
 Letter to Threatener
 Other (please specify)
LEGAL COUNSEL ACTIONS
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Sexual Harassment Complaint Form
Please write legibly and fill out form completely. Attach additional sheets if necessary. Submit completed form to appropriate manager.
Complainant:
Alleged Harasser:
Department:
Department:
Job Title:
Job Title:
Mailing Address:
Other relevant information about Alleged
Harasser:
Home Phone:
Work Phone:
Details of Incident
What exactly occurred or was said?
When did it occur and is it ongoing?
Where did it occur?
How often did it occur?
How did it affect you?
What response did you make when the incident(s) occurred or afterwards and how did you react?
Has your job been affected in any way?
Was anyone present when the alleged harassment occurred? List any third party witnesses:
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Sexual Harassment Complaint Form (pg. 2)
Please write legibly and fill out form completely. Attach additional sheets if necessary. Submit completed form to appropriate manager.
Are there any persons who have relevant information?
Did you tell anyone about it?
Did anyone see you immediately after episodes of alleged harassment?
Did the person who harassed you harass anyone else?
Do you know whether anyone complained about harassment by that person?
Are there any notes, physical evidence, or other documentation regarding the incident(s)?
Do you know of any other relevant information?
How would you like to see the situation resolved?
I am aware that false accusations of sexual harassment can have serious effects on innocent
persons.
I further understand that if it is determined, after investigation, that I have maliciously or recklessly
made false accusations, I will be subject to appropriate sanctions, including discharge.
Complainant’s Signature:
Date:
Received by:
Signature:
Date:
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Workplace Violence Training
Trainer (include qualifications):
Date:
Content of Training:
Attendees
Print Name
Signature
(Retain at least 3 years)
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10
Hazard Communication
10.1
Policy Statement
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. is committed to the safety and health of its employees. To
identify and control hazards presented by chemicals in the workplace, Pyro Combustion &
Controls Inc. will have in place a hazard communication program (HCP) to provide information to
employees about any hazardous materials they are exposed to.
If Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. employees are exposed to any hazardous chemical, Pyro
Combustion & Controls Inc. designates Rob Abraham to ensure a written HCP is created,
communicated to all employees, and maintained according to all applicable regulations,
standards and industry best practices
10.2
Responsibilities
Hazard communication is a cooperative effort between Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. and its
employees.
10.2.1
Employer Responsibilities
It is the responsibility of Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. (through Rob Abraham) to:

Establish a hazard communication program if employees work with or around any
potentially hazardous material;

Ensure that proper safeguards are in place to ensure the safety of personnel working with
or around hazardous chemicals;

Ensure all hazardous chemicals in the workplace are labeled and have a complete safety
data sheet on file and available to employees;

Ensure every employee is provided training covering the hazard communication program;

Provide support for the implementation of HCP; and

Review the HCP at least annually to evaluate the effectiveness of the program.
10.2.2
Safety Committee Responsibilities
It is the responsibility of the Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. safety committee to:

Assist in the creation and implementation of the Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. hazard
communication program;

Assist in the development and delivery of HCP training;
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
Identify issues of non-compliance and hazards related to the use of hazardous chemicals.

Recommend steps to promote safety compliance and adherence to all safety and health
policy; and

Provide an avenue for employees to share concerns and recommend changes regarding
chemicals in the workplace to help ensure a safer work environment.
10.2.3
Employee Responsibilities
Every Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. employee is expected to:

Follow safety policy and adhere to all precautions and safety requirements when working
with or around hazardous chemicals;

Understand the hazards of the chemicals in the workplace, reviewing Safety Data Sheets
before using any hazardous chemical;

Understand how to lessen or prevent exposure to hazardous chemicals through safe work
practices and use of personal protective equipment;

Understand emergency procedures to follow in the event of exposure to these chemicals;

Verify the proper labeling of chemicals at the worksite, and the presence of SDSs for
each;

Report any deficiencies in hazard communication as soon as safely possible to his or her
supervisor; and

Attend and participate actively in safety trainings.
10.3
Training
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. will provide training covering all pertinent aspects of the hazard
communication program at no cost to the employee during working hours.
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. will use only training material that is appropriate in content and
vocabulary to educational level, literacy, and language of employees.
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. will provide training on hazardous chemicals in their work area
at the time of assignment and whenever a new hazard is introduced to the work area.
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10.3.1
Training Components
Rob Abraham will ensure that all employees at Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. are informed
and trained in the following minimum elements for hazard communication:

The requirements of regulatory bodies, industry standards and best safety practices
regarding hazardous chemicals;

Operations in the employee’s work area that involve hazardous chemicals;

The availability and location of the written HCP, list of hazardous chemicals, and safety
data sheets (SDSs);

How to detect the presence or release of a hazardous chemical in the work area;

The classified and unclassified hazards of chemicals in the work area;

Measures employees can take to protect themselves from these hazards, including
specific procedures the employer has implemented for employee protection; and

The details of the HCP, including an explanation of all labels and SDSs, and how
employees can obtain and use the appropriate hazard information. Training must include
the order of information on the SDS and how to obtain and use the hazard information.
10.3.2
Training Records
Training records will include the following information:

The dates of the training sessions;

The contents or a summary of the training sessions;

The names and qualifications of persons conducting the training; and
 The names and job titles of all persons attending the training sessions.
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. will maintain employee training records for 3 years from the date
on which training occurred.
10.4
10.4.1
Policy
Background
The hazard communication program (HCP) describes how Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. will
meet all applicable requirements regarding hazardous chemical labeling, material safety data
sheets and employee information and training.
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The HCP also will include the following:

A list of chemicals known to present a hazard to Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc.
employees;

Methods Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. will use to inform employees of hazards
presented by non-routine tasks; and

Methods Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. will use to inform employees of hazards
associated with chemicals contained in unlabeled pipes in their work areas.
10.4.2
Hazard Determination & Communication
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. will rely on the evaluation of the chemical manufacturer or
importer of any hazardous chemicals at the worksite to provide the identifying and safety
information required for the HCP.
10.4.2.1 Labels
All hazardous material containers at Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. will be labeled, tagged or
marked with the following:
 The product signifier;
 Precautionary statement(s); and
 Name, address, and telephone number of the
 Signal word;
chemical manufacturer, importer, or other responsible
 Hazard statement(s);
party.
 Pictogram(s);
For unclassified hazards, the label requires supplementary information, a description of the
unclassified hazards and appropriate precautionary measures to ensure safe handling and use.
Alternatively, hazardous material containers at Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. can be marked
with the product identifier and words, pictures, symbols, or combination thereof, to provide at
least general information regarding the hazards of the chemicals. Labeling is done in conjunction
with other information immediately available to employees under the HCP to provide employees
with the specific information regarding the physical and health hazards of the hazardous
chemical.
In lieu of affixing labels to individual containers, the Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. HCP may
rely on signs, placards, process sheets, batch tickets, operating procedures or similar written
materials, as long as the alternative method provides workers with the same information.
A container for a hazardous substance into which the substance has been transferred for
immediate use does not have to be labeled. No employee will remove or deface labels or other
forms of warnings. Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. will ensure every label is legible in English,
but may present the chemical’s hazard information in another language, as long as it is also
present in English.
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10.4.2.2 Safety Data Sheets
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. will maintain at least English-language copies of SDSs for each
hazardous chemical it uses, which will include the following section numbers and headings, and
the information about the chemical associated with each:








Section 1, Identification;
Section 2, Hazard(s) identification;
Section 3, Composition/information on
ingredients;
Section 4, First-aid measures;
Section 5, Fire-fighting measures;
Section 6, Accidental release measures;
Section 7, Handling and storage;
Section 8, Exposure controls/personal
protection;








Section 9, Physical and chemical
properties;
Section 10, Stability and reactivity;
Section 11, Toxicological information.
Section 12, Ecological information;
Section 13, Disposal considerations;
Section 14, Transport information;
Section 15, Regulatory information
Section 16, Other information,
including date of preparation or last
revision.
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. will maintain copies of safety data sheets for each hazardous
chemical in the workplace and shall ensure they are readily accessible during each work shift to
employees when they are in their work area(s). Safety data sheets can be found at The office
Where employees must travel between workplaces during a work shift, Pyro Combustion &
Controls Inc. may keep SDSs at the primary workplace facility.
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. will make SDSs readily available, upon request, to any
employee (or their designated representatives) and any regulatory official with the authority to
demand them.
10.4.3
Hazard Control
10.4.3.1 Employee Information and Training
The HCP will be made available upon request to any employee (or their designated
representatives) and any regulatory official with the authority to demand it.
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. will provide every employee with effective information and
training on hazardous chemicals in their work area at the time of initial assignment and whenever
a new chemical hazard the employees has not been trained about is introduced into their work
area. Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. may design training or use training designed to cover
categories of hazards or specific chemicals.
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10.4.3.2 Multi-Employer Workplaces
If hazardous chemicals present risk to employees of another employer, Pyro Combustion &
Controls Inc. will ensure the HCP includes the methods to do the following for the other
employers on the site:

Provide onsite access to SDSs for each hazardous chemical to which their employees
may be exposed;

Inform them of any precautionary measures that need to be taken for worker protection
during normal operating conditions and foreseeable emergencies; and

Inform them of the labeling system used in the workplace.
10.4.3.3 Multiple Workplaces
If employees must travel between workplaces during a shift, Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc.
may keep the HCP at only the primary workplace facility.
10.4.3.4 Non-Routine Tasks
Before employees begin work on hazardous non-routine tasks, the appropriate supervisor will
give affected employees information about hazardous chemicals to which the employee may be
exposed during such activity. This information will include the following:

Specific chemical hazards;

Protective/safety measures employees can take; and

Measures Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. has taken to reduce the hazards.
10.4.3.5 Hazardous Chemicals in Unlabeled Pipes
If there are hazards associated with chemicals in pipes in the work area, a supervisor must inform
employees working around the pipes and provide information about the chemical and its hazards.
Labels to relay this information are good practice for workplaces that transport potentially
hazardous chemicals through pipes, and may be required by other regulations.
Standards for labeling pipes in the workplace can be found in ANSI A13.1-2007.
10.4.4
Policy Review
All aspects of this policy and the Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. hazard communication
program are subject to annual review by Rob Abraham and the safety committee to ensure the
effectiveness of the policy, to guarantee a safe working environment for Pyro Combustion &
Controls Inc. employees, and to reflect any regulatory changes to which the policy must respond.
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Hazard Communication
10.5
Forms & Attachments
On the following pages, please find the following documents:

Hazardous Chemical Labels

Chemicals Known to Present a Hazard

Hazard Communication Training Documentation
These forms may be reproduced freely by Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. for the purposes of
implementing and maintaining a safety and health program.
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Hazard Communication
HAZARDOUS
HAZARDOUS
CHEMICAL
CHEMICAL
NAME OF CHEMICAL:
_________________________________________
NAME OF CHEMICAL:
_________________________________________
Physical Hazards:
Physical Hazards:
_________________________________________
_________________________________________
Health Hazards, Target Organs, or Systems:
Health Hazards, Target Organs, or Systems:
_________________________________________
_________________________________________
Optional Information, such as Personal Protective
Equipment or Safe Handling:
Optional Information, such as Personal Protective
Equipment or Safe Handling:
_________________________________________
_________________________________________
HAZARDOUS
HAZARDOUS
CHEMICAL
CHEMICAL
NAME OF CHEMICAL:
_________________________________________
NAME OF CHEMICAL:
_________________________________________
Physical Hazards:
Physical Hazards:
_________________________________________
_________________________________________
Health Hazards, Target Organs, or Systems:
Health Hazards, Target Organs, or Systems:
_________________________________________
_________________________________________
Optional Information, such as Personal Protective
Equipment or Safe Handling:
Optional Information, such as Personal Protective
Equipment or Safe Handling:
_________________________________________
_________________________________________
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Hazard Communication
Chemicals Known to Present a Hazard
SDS on File?
Yes
No
Chemical name
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Labeled?
Yes
No
Training
Program?
Yes
No
©Safety Services Company
Hazard Communication
Hazard Communication Training
Trainer (include qualifications):
Date:
Content of Training:
Attendees
Print Name
Signature
(Retain at least 3 years)
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Personal Protective Equipment
11
Personal Protective Equipment
11.1
Policy Statement
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. requires employees use personal protective equipment (PPE)
appropriate to the hazards of their job. This equipment may include protection for the following:


Eye
Face




Foot
Hand
Head
Body
Employees required to use such equipment will be trained in all aspects of its use, maintenance
and applicability.
The following list of PPE is available to employees and will be used as required:
hard hats, safety glasses, steel toe shoes, dust masks, fall protection, and welding equipment
11.2
Responsibilities
Ensuring the effective use of personal protective equipment is a cooperative effort between Pyro
Combustion & Controls Inc. and its employees.
11.2.1
Employer Responsibilities
It is the responsibility of Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. to:

perform a hazard assessment of the workplace to identify and control physical and health
hazards with PPE, as appropriate;

identify and provide PPE for employees;

train employees in the use and care of PPE;

ensure employees maintain PPE;

replace worn or damaged PPE; and

periodically review, update and evaluate the effectiveness of the PPE program.
11.2.2
Safety Committee Responsibilities
It is the responsibility of the Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. safety committee to:

develop, conduct, and document training for PPE;

assist in hazard assessments; and

make recommendations to management concerning elements of the PPE program.
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Personal Protective Equipment
11.2.3
Employee Responsibilities
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. employees are expected to:

Properly wear PPE;

Attend training sessions on PPE;

Care for, clean and maintain PPE, and

Inform a supervisor of the need to repair or replace PPE.
11.3
Training
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. will ensure every employee is provided training on personal
protective equipment. This training will be provided at no cost to the employee during working
hours.
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. will use only training material that is appropriate in content and
vocabulary to educational level, literacy, and language of employees.
11.3.1
Training Components
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. will ensure training for every employee in the following minimum
elements:

When PPE is necessary;

What PPE is necessary;

How to properly put on, take off, adjust and wear PPE;

The limitations of PPE; and

The proper care, maintenance, useful life and disposal of the PPE.
Affected employees must demonstrate an understanding of all training and the ability to use PPE
properly before they will be permitted to perform work requiring PPE.
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. will retrain any affected employee who has been trained but
lacks the understanding and skills to use PPE properly. Circumstances that require retraining
include, but are not limited to the following:

When there have been changes in the workplace that have rendered previous training
obsolete;

When there have been changes to PPE used that render previous training obsolete; or

When an employee demonstrates or expresses inadequacies in understanding or skill
needed to use assigned PPE properly.
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Personal Protective Equipment
11.3.2
Training Records
Training records will include the following information:

The dates of the training sessions.

The contents or a summary of the training sessions.

The names and qualifications of persons conducting the training.

The names and job titles of all persons attending the training sessions.
Employee training records will be maintained for 3 years from the date on which the training
occurred.
11.4
Policy
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. will manage or eliminate hazards in the workplace to the
greatest extent possible with engineering controls and work practice controls. However, if such
controls fail to provide employees sufficient protection, Gary Pfizenmayer or designate will
provide employees with personal protective equipment (PPE) and ensure proper use thereof.
PPE minimizes exposure to a range of hazards. All protective devices must meet the following
minimum requirements:




Provide adequate protection against
the hazards for which they are
designed;
Be of safe design and construction for
the work to be performed;
Be reasonably comfortable when worn
under the designated conditions;
11.4.1




Fit snugly and not unduly interfere with
the movements of the wearer;
Be durable;
Be capable of being disinfected;
Easily cleaned; and
Be distinctly marked to facilitate
identification of the manufacturer.
Hazard Assessment
As explained in the chapter on Job Hazard Analysis, hazard assessment is the backbone of the
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. safety and health program. Recognizing and documenting
hazards is the first step to protecting employees from them. An initial walk-through to develop a
list of potential hazards should be followed by a review of records and an analysis of the facility
layout to determine what controls would best protect workers. If engineering and administrative
controls are unable to protect employees from hazards they face, Gary Pfizenmayer and the
safety committee will determine what personal protective equipment is necessary.
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. job hazard analysis is an ongoing process. daily inspections and
periodic reassessments will look for changes that may affect occupational hazards for workers
and will determine if PPE remains viable (in terms of condition, age and appropriateness) to
protect a worker from hazards on the job.
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Personal Protective Equipment
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. must certify and document the required workplace hazard
assessment in a way that identifies the following:




The workplace evaluated;
The person certifying the evaluation
has been performed;
11.4.2
The date of the hazard assessment; and
The document as a certification of hazard
assessment.
Selection
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. will select only PPE of safe design and construction and will
work with employees to ensure PPE remains clean and reliable. In selecting PPE used to control
hazards in the workplace, Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. will give consideration to comfortable
fit, providing sizes appropriate to the effected employees, and ensure any PPE used will be
compatible to provide sufficient protection. Comfort and ease of use is an important consideration
because workers are more likely to wear comfortable PPE.
All PPE at Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc., including any employee-owned PPE, will meet at
least the minimum standards and requirements to provide sufficient protection for workers.
Following are the standards referenced by OSHA for select groups of PPE:


Eye and Face: ANSI Z87.1-1989 (or
1989(R-1998), or 2003)

Head: ANSI Z89.1-1986 (or 1997, or
2003)
Foot: ANSI Z41.1-1991
However, alternative protective equipment is acceptable if Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc.
demonstrates it is at least as effective as equipment constructed according to the above
standards.
11.4.3
Payment
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. will provide all PPE and replacement PPE at no cost to
employees except for the following:

Non-specialty safety-toe protective footwear, non-specialty prescription eyewear, provided
they may be worn away from work;

Shoes or boots with metatarsal protection if Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. provides
separate metatarsal guards;

Logging boots;

Everyday clothing;

Clothing worn only for protection from weather;

Replacement PPE the employee has intentionally damaged or lost;

Where the employee provides his or her own adequate PPE.
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Personal Protective Equipment
11.4.4
Eye and Face Protection
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. will ensure adequate protection against the following:







Flying particles;
Molten metal;
Liquid chemicals
Acids or caustic liquids;
Chemical gases or vapors;
Potentially infected material; or
Potentially harmful light radiation.
When there is a hazard from flying particles, eye protection will provide side protection, or Pyro
Combustion & Controls Inc. will provide effected employees with detachable side protectors.
11.4.4.1 Prescription Lenses
Everyday glasses will not provide sufficient protection against the types of hazards that require
eye protection. Employees who wear prescription lenses to correct their vision must wear either
eye protection that incorporates their prescription or that can be worn over glasses without
compromising the glasses’ ability to correct the wearer’s vision.
11.4.4.2 Eye Protection for Exposed Workers
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. will consider eye protection for employees in the following job
categories:







sheet metal workers
 welders,
and tinsmiths,
 laborers,
 assemblers,
 chemical process
operators and handlers,
 sanders,
and
 grinding machine
 timber cutting and
operators,
logging workers.
 sawyers,
If Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. requires more than one worker to wear the same piece of
eyewear, employees must disinfect the protective eyewear after each use.
carpenters,
electricians,
machinists,
mechanics,
millwrights,
plumbers and pipe fitters,
11.4.4.3 Types of Eye Protection
Safety Spectacles: These protective eyeglasses have safety frames constructed of metal or
plastic and impact-resistant lenses. Side shields are available on some models.
Goggles: These are tight-fitting eye protection that completely cover the eyes, eye sockets and
the facial area immediately surrounding the eyes and provide protection from impact, dust and
splashes. Some goggles will fit over corrective lenses.
Welding Shields: Constructed of vulcanized fiber or fiberglass and fitted with a filtered lens,
welding shields protect eyes from burns caused by infrared or intense radiant light; they also
protect both the eyes and face from flying sparks, metal spatter and slag chips produced during
welding, brazing, soldering and cutting operations. OSHA requires filter lenses to have a shade
number appropriate to protect against the specific hazards of the work being performed in order
to protect against harmful light radiation.
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Personal Protective Equipment
Laser Safety Goggles: These
specialty goggles protect against
intense concentrations of light
produced by lasers. The type of
laser safety goggles an employer
chooses will depend upon the
equipment
and
operating
conditions in the workplace.
Face Shields: These transparent
sheets of plastic extend from the
eyebrows to below the chin and
across the entire width of the
employee’s head. Some are
polarized for glare protection.
Face shields protect against
nuisance dusts and potential
splashes or sprays of hazardous
liquids but will not provide
adequate
protection
against
impact hazards. Face shields
used in combination with goggles
or safety spectacles will provide
additional
protection
against
impact hazards.
Filter Lenses for Protection Against Radiant Energy
Operations
Electrode
Size 1/32 in.
Arc Current
Minimum
(*)
Protective
Shade
Shielded metal arc welding
Less than 3
Less than 60
7
3-5
60-160
8
5-8
160-250
10
250-550
11
More than 8
Gas metal arc welding and
flux cored arc welding
Gas tungsten arc welding
Less than 60
7
60-160
10
160-250
10
250-500
10
Less than 50
8
50-150
8
150-500
10
(Light)
Less than 500
10
(Heavy)
500-1000
11
Less than 20
6
20-100
8
100-400
10
400-800
11
(light)(**)
Less than 300
8
(medium)(**)
300-400
9
(heavy)(**)
400-800
10
Air carbon arc cutting
Plasma arc welding
Plasma arc cutting
Torch brazing
3
Torch soldering
2
Carbon arc welding
14
Filter Lenses for Protection Against Radiant Energy
Operations
10
-1
6
10
6
1.0
7
10
10.0
8
108
7
Table 2
6/18/2013
Plate Thickness
– mm
Minimum (*)
Protective
Shade
Under ⅛
Under 3.2
4
⅛ to ½
3.2 to 12.7
5
Heavy
Over ½
Over 12.7
6
Gas
Welding
Light
Medium
Oxygen
Cutting
Laser Safety Glass
Intensity,
Attenuation
CW
maximum Optical
Attenuation
power
density
factor
density
(O.D.)
(watts/cm²)
5
10 ²
5
10
Plate Thickness
– inches
Light
Under 1
Under 25
3
Medium
1 to 6
25-150
4
Heavy
Over 6
Over 150
5
Table 1
Footnote(*) As a rule of thumb, start with a shade that is too dark to see
the weld zone. Then go to a lighter shade which gives sufficient view of the
weld zone without going below the minimum. In oxyfuel gas welding or
cutting where the torch produces a high yellow light, it is desirable to use a
filter lens that absorbs the yellow or sodium line in the visible light of the
(spectrum) operation. Footnote(**) These values apply where the actual
arc is clearly seen. Experience has shown that lighter filters may be used
when the arc is hidden by the workpiece.
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Personal Protective Equipment
11.4.4.4 Welding Operations
The intense light associated with welding operations can cause serious and sometimes permanent
eye damage if operators do not wear proper eye protection. The intensity of light or radiant energy
produced by welding, cutting or brazing operations varies according to a number of factors including
the task producing the light, the electrode size and the arc current. Table 1 shows the minimum
protective shades for a variety of welding, cutting and brazing operations in general industry and in
the shipbuilding industry.
11.4.4.5 Laser Operations
Laser light radiation can be extremely dangerous to the unprotected eye, and direct or reflected
beams can cause permanent eye damage.
Laser retinal burns can be painless, so it is essential that all personnel in or around laser
operations wear appropriate eye protection.
Laser safety goggles should protect for the specific wavelength of the laser and must be of
sufficient optical density for the energy involved. Safety goggles intended for use with laser
beams must be labeled with the laser wavelengths for which they are intended to be used, the
optical density of those wavelengths and the visible light transmission.
11.4.5
Head Protection
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. will protect employees from potential head injuries. Wearing a
safety helmet or hard hat is one of the easiest ways to protect an employee’s head from injury.
Hard hats can protect employees from impact and penetration hazards as well as from electrical
shock and burn hazards.
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. will ensure employees wear head protection if any of the
following apply:

Objects might fall from above and strike them on the head;

They might bump their heads against fixed objects, such as exposed pipes or beams; or
 There is a possibility of accidental head contact with electrical hazards.
Some examples of occupations in which employees should be required to wear head protection
include construction workers, carpenters, electricians, linemen, plumbers and pipefitters, timber
and log cutters, welders, among many others. Whenever there is a danger of objects falling from
above, such as working below others who are using tools or working under a conveyor belt, head
protection must be worn. Hard hats must be worn with the bill forward to protect employees
properly.
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Personal Protective Equipment
In general, protective helmets or hard hats should do the following:

Resist penetration by objects.

Absorb the shock of a blow.

Be water-resistant and slow burning.

Have clear instructions explaining proper adjustment and replacement of the suspension
and headband.
Hard hats must have a hard outer shell and a shock-absorbing lining that incorporates a
headband and straps that suspend the shell from 1 to 1¼ inches (2.54 cm to 3.18 cm) away from
the head. This type of design provides shock absorption during an impact and ventilation during
normal wear.
11.4.5.1 Types of Hard Hats
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. will select protective headgear that meets ANSI standard
requirements and ensure employees wear hard hats to provide appropriate protection against
potential workplace hazards. Hard hat selection must consider all hazards on the worksite,
including electrical hazards. This can be done through a comprehensive hazard analysis and an
awareness of the different types of protective headgear available.
Hard hats are divided into three industrial classes:

Class G (formerly Class A) hard hats (General) provide impact and penetration resistance
along with limited voltage protection (up to 2,200 volts).

Class E (formerly class B) hard hats (Electrical) provide the highest level of protection
against electrical hazards, with high-voltage shock and burn protection (up to 20,000
volts). They also provide protection from impact and penetration hazards by flying/falling
objects.

Class C hard hats (Conductive) provide lightweight comfort and impact protection but offer
no protection from electrical hazards.
Another class of protective headgear on the market is called a “bump hat,” designed for use in
areas with low head clearance. They are recommended for areas where protection is needed
from head bumps and lacerations. These are not designed to protect against falling or flying
objects and are not ANSI approved. It is essential to check the type of hard hat employees are
using to ensure that the equipment provides appropriate protection. Each hat should bear a label
inside the shell that lists the manufacturer, the ANSI designation and the class of the hat.
11.4.5.2 Size and Care Considerations
Head protection that is too large or too small is inappropriate for use, even if it meets all other
requirements. Protective headgear must fit appropriately on the body and for the head size of
each individual. Most protective headgear comes in a variety of sizes with adjustable headbands
to ensure a proper fit (many adjust in ⅛-inch increments). A proper fit should allow sufficient
clearance between the shell and the suspension system for ventilation and distribution of an
impact. The hat should not bind, slip, fall off or irritate the skin.
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Personal Protective Equipment
Some protective headgear allows for the use of various accessories to help employees deal with
changing environmental conditions, such as slots for earmuffs, safety glasses, face shields and
mounted lights. Optional rims may provide additional protection from the sun and some hats have
channels that guide rainwater away from the face. Protective headgear accessories must not
compromise the safety elements of the equipment.
Periodic cleaning and inspection will extend the useful life of protective headgear. A daily
inspection of the hard hat shell, suspension system and other accessories for holes, cracks, tears
or other damage that might compromise the protective value of the hat is essential. Paints, paint
thinners and some cleaning agents can weaken shells of hard hats and may eliminate electrical
resistance. Consult the helmet manufacturer for information on the effects of paint and cleaning
materials on their hard hats. Never drill holes, paint or apply labels to protective headgear as this
may reduce the integrity of the protection. Do not store protective headgear in direct sunlight,
such as on the rear window shelf of a car, since sunlight and heat can damage them.
Hard hats with any of the following defects should be removed from service and replaced:

Perforation, cracking, or deformity of the brim or shell;

Indication of exposure of the brim or shell to heat, chemicals or ultraviolet light and other
radiation (in addition to a loss of surface gloss, such signs include chalking or flaking).
Always replace a hard hat if it sustains an impact, even if damage is not noticeable. Suspension
systems are offered as replacement parts and should be replaced when damaged or when
excessive wear is noticed. It is not necessary to replace the entire hard hat when deterioration or
tears of the suspension systems are noticed.
11.4.5.3 Accessories
Faceshield Protection: Faceshield devices can be attached to the helmet without changing the
helmet strength and electrical protection. A metal faceshield bracket system can be used on a
Class G helmet; however, if a Class E helmet is to be used in an area where Class E protection is
required, a type of bracket and shield system that will not conduct electricity (has a dielectric
rating) should be used.
Ear Muffs: The required degree of hearing protection should be considered prior to selecting ear
muff attachments. If ear muffs are to be attached to helmets, metal attachments are acceptable
for Class G helmets. Attachments with a dielectric rating must be used for Class E helmets.
Sweat Bands: If sweat bands are necessary, they must not interfere with the effectiveness of the
helmet headband system. Some sweatband devices are made to fit on the headband. For
electrical work, metal components must not be used to attach sweat bands to helmets.
Winter Liners: There are many varieties of winter liners. One type fits over the hard hat
assembly. It is flame retardant and elasticized to give the user a snug, warm fit. Other styles fit
under the helmet. If the liner is to be used with a Class E helmet, it must have a dielectric rating.
Regardless of the warmth characteristics, the liner and helmet combination should be compatible.
The liner and helmet must fit properly to give the employee proper impact and penetration
protection.
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Personal Protective Equipment
Chin Straps: When wind or other conditions present the possibility of the hard hat being
accidentally removed from the head, chin straps can be used. If chin straps are used, they should
be the type that fastens to the shell of the hard hat. If the chin straps fasten to the headband and
suspension system, the shell may blow off and strike another employee.
11.4.6
Foot & Leg Protection
Employees who face possible foot or leg injuries from falling or rolling objects or from crushing or
penetrating materials must wear protective footwear. Also, employees whose work involves
exposure to hot substances or corrosive or poisonous materials must have protective gear to
cover exposed body parts, including legs and feet. If an employee’s feet may be exposed to
electrical hazards, nonconductive footwear must be worn. On the other hand, workplace
exposure to static electricity may necessitate the use of conductive footwear.
Examples of situations in which an employee may be required to wear foot and/or leg protection
include:

When heavy objects such as barrels or tools might roll onto or fall on the employee’s feet.

Working with sharp objects such as nails or spikes that could pierce the soles or uppers of
ordinary shoes.

Exposure to molten metal that might splash on feet or legs.

Working on or around hot, wet or slippery surfaces.

Working when electrical hazards are present.
Foot and leg protection choices include the following:

Leggings protect the lower legs and feet from heat hazards such as molten metal or
welding sparks. Safety snaps allow leggings to be removed quickly.

Metatarsal guards protect the instep area from impact and compression. Made of
aluminum, steel, fiber or plastic, these guards may be strapped to the outside of shoes.
Footwear designed to newer versions of ANSI Z41 and the ASTM standards require
metatarsal protection to be built into the footwear.

Toe guards fit over the toes of regular shoes to protect the toes from impact and
compression hazards. They may be made of steel, aluminum or plastic.
Note: An employer who chooses to provide employees with toe guards must demonstrate that
they are as protective as an incorporated toebox.
 Combination foot and shin guards protect the lower legs and feet, and may be used in
combination with toe guards when greater protection is needed.

Safety shoes have impact-resistant toes and heat-resistant soles that protect the feet
against hot work surfaces common in roofing, paving and hot metal industries. The metal
insoles of some safety shoes protect against puncture wounds. Safety shoes may also be
designed to be electrically conductive to prevent the buildup of static electricity in areas
with the potential for explosive atmospheres or nonconductive to protect workers from
workplace electrical hazards.
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Personal Protective Equipment
11.4.6.1 Special Purpose Shoes
Electrically conductive shoes provide protection against the buildup of static electricity.
Employees working in explosive and hazardous locations such as explosives manufacturing
facilities or grain elevators must wear conductive shoes to reduce the risk of static electricity
buildup on the body that could produce a spark and cause an explosion or fire. Foot powder
should not be used in conjunction with protective conductive footwear because it provides
insulation, reducing the conductive ability of the shoes. Silk, wool and nylon socks can produce
static electricity and should not be worn with conductive footwear. Conductive shoes must be
removed when the task requiring their use is completed. Note: Employees exposed to electrical
hazards must never wear conductive shoes.
Electrical hazard, safety-toe shoes are nonconductive and will prevent the wearers’ feet from
completing an electrical circuit to the ground. These shoes can protect against open circuits of up
to 600 volts in dry conditions and should be used in conjunction with other insulating equipment
and additional precautions to reduce the risk of a worker becoming a path for hazardous electrical
energy. The insulating protection of electrical hazard, safety-toe shoes may be compromised if
the shoes become wet, the soles are worn through, metal particles become embedded in the sole
or heel, or workers touch conductive grounded items. Note: Nonconductive footwear must not be
used in explosive or hazardous locations.
Foundry shoes insulate the feet from the extreme heat of molten metal. They keep hot metal
from lodging in shoe eyelets, tongues or other shoe parts. These snug-fitting leather or leathersubstitute shoes have leather or rubber soles and rubber heels. All foundry shoes must have
built-in safety toes.
11.4.6.2 Care of Protective Footwear
As with all protective equipment, safety footwear should be inspected prior to each use. Shoes
and leggings should be checked for wear and tear at reasonable intervals. This includes looking
for cracks or holes, separation of materials, broken buckles or laces. The soles of shoes should
be checked for pieces of metal or other embedded items that could present electrical or tripping
hazards. Employees should follow the manufacturers’ recommendations for cleaning and
maintenance of protective footwear.
11.4.7
Hand & Arm Protection
If a workplace hazard assessment reveals employees face potential injury to hands and arms that
cannot be eliminated through engineering and work practice controls, Pyro Combustion &
Controls Inc. will ensure employees wear appropriate protection. Potential hazards include skin
absorption of harmful substances, chemical or thermal burns, electrical dangers, bruises,
abrasions, cuts, punctures, fractures and amputations. Protective equipment includes gloves,
finger guards, and arm coverings or elbow-length gloves.
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Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. will explore possible engineering and work practice controls to
eliminate hazards and use PPE to provide additional protection against hazards that cannot be
completely eliminated through other means. For example, machine guards may eliminate a
hazard. Installing a barrier to prevent workers from placing their hands at the point of contact
between a table saw blade and the item being cut is another example of an engineering control.
11.4.7.1 Types of Protective Gloves
There are many types of gloves available today to protect against a wide variety of hazards. The
nature of the hazard and the operation involved will affect the selection of gloves. The variety of
potential occupational hand injuries makes selecting the right pair of gloves challenging. No
gloves can provide protection against all potential hand hazards. It is essential employees use
gloves specifically designed for the hazards and tasks found in their workplace because gloves
designed for one function may not protect against a different function even though they may
appear to be an appropriate protective device.
The following are examples of some factors that may influence the selection of protective gloves
for a workplace:

Type of chemicals handled (toxic properties of the chemical(s)).

Chemical concentration and temperature (the higher the concentration and temperature,
the shorter the breakthrough time).

Nature of contact (total immersion, continual contact, splash, etc.)

Duration of contact.

Area requiring protection (hand only, forearm, arm).

Degree of dexterity (fine motor work).

Grip requirements (dry, wet, oily).

Thermal protection.

Size and comfort.

Abrasion/cut resistance requirements.

Other job hazards (such as biological, electrical, and radiation hazards).

Gloves made from a wide variety of materials are designed for many types of workplace
hazards. In general, gloves fall into four groups:
o Gloves made of leather, synthetic fibers or metal mesh.
o
o
Fabric and coated fabric gloves.
Chemical protective gloves.
o
Insulating rubber gloves (See 29 CFR 1910.137, Electrical Protective Equipment, for
detailed requirements on the selection, use and care of insulating rubber gloves).
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11.4.7.2 Leather, Canvas or Metal Mesh Gloves
Sturdy gloves made from metal mesh, leather or canvas provide protection against cuts and
burns. Leather or canvas gloves also protect against sustained heat.

Leather gloves protect against sparks, moderate heat, blows, chips and rough objects.
These gloves can be used for tasks such as welding.

Aluminized gloves provide radiant heat protection by reflection and insulate/reduce heat
conduction with a liner or insert. Employees working with molten materials would benefit
from this type of glove.

Aramid fiber gloves such as Kevlar, protect against heat, are cut- and abrasion-resistant
and wear well. Employees working in jobs such as firefighting, automotive work, metal
fabrication, glass and ceramic handling would benefit from this type of glove.

Synthetic gloves of various materials offer protection against heat and cold, are cut- and
abrasion-resistant and may withstand some diluted acids. These materials do not stand
up against alkalis and solvents.

Metal mesh hand, wrist, arm and finger protective wear protects against knife cuts;
however, it offers very little, if any, protection against punctures. Plastic dots can be
adhered to the metal mesh to facilitate gripping.
11.4.7.3 Fabric and Coated Fabric Gloves
Fabric and coated fabric gloves are made of cotton or other fabric to provide varying degrees of
protection.

Fabric gloves protect against dirt, slivers, chafing and abrasions. They do not provide
sufficient protection for use with rough, sharp or heavy materials. Adding a plastic coating
will strengthen some fabric gloves.

Coated fabric gloves normally are made from cotton flannel with napping on one side. By
coating the un-napped side with plastic, fabric gloves are transformed into generalpurpose hand protection offering slip-resistant qualities. These gloves are used for tasks
ranging from handling bricks and wire to chemical laboratory containers. When selecting
gloves to protect against chemical exposure hazards, always check with the manufacturer
or review the manufacturer’s product literature to determine the gloves’ effectiveness
against specific workplace chemicals and conditions.
11.4.7.4 Chemical- and Liquid-Resistant Gloves
Chemical-resistant gloves are made with different kinds of rubber: natural, butyl, neoprene, nitrile
and fluorocarbon (viton); or various kinds of plastic: polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyvinyl alcohol
and polyethylene. These materials can be blended or laminated for better performance. As a
general rule, the thicker the glove material, the greater the chemical resistance but thick gloves
may impair grip and dexterity, having a negative impact on safety.
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Personal Protective Equipment
Some examples of chemical-resistant gloves include:

Butyl gloves are made of a synthetic rubber and protect against a wide variety of
chemicals, such as peroxide, rocket fuels, highly corrosive acids (nitric acid, sulfuric acid,
hydrofluoric acid and red-fuming nitric acid), strong bases, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones,
esters and nitrocompounds. Butyl gloves also resist oxidation, ozone corrosion and
abrasion, and remain flexible at low temperatures. Butyl rubber does not perform well with
aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons and halogenated solvents.

Natural (latex) rubber gloves are comfortable to wear, which makes them a popular
general-purpose glove. They feature outstanding tensile strength, elasticity and
temperature resistance. In addition to resisting abrasions caused by grinding and
polishing, these gloves protect workers’ hands from most water solutions of acids, alkalis,
salts and ketones. Latex gloves have caused allergic reactions in some individuals and
may not be appropriate for all employees. Hypoallergenic gloves, glove liners and
powderless gloves are possible alternatives for workers who are allergic to latex gloves.

Neoprene gloves are made of synthetic rubber and offer good pliability, finger dexterity,
high density and tear resistance. They protect against hydraulic fluids, gasoline, alcohols,
organic acids and alkalis. They generally have chemical and wear resistance properties
superior to those made of natural rubber.

Nitrile gloves are made of a copolymer and provide protection from chlorinated solvents
such as trichloroethylene and perchloroethylene. Although intended for jobs requiring
dexterity and sensitivity, nitrile gloves stand up to heavy use even after prolonged
exposure to substances that cause other gloves to deteriorate. They offer protection when
working with oils, greases, acids, caustics and alcohols but are generally not
recommended for use with strong oxidizing agents, aromatic solvents, ketones and
acetates.
11.4.7.5 Care of Protective Gloves
Protective gloves should be inspected before each use to ensure they are not torn, punctured or
made ineffective in any way. A visual inspection will help detect cuts or tears but a more thorough
inspection by filling the gloves with water and tightly rolling the cuff towards the fingers will help
reveal any pinhole leaks. Gloves that are discolored or stiff may also indicate deficiencies caused
by excessive use or degradation from chemical exposure.
Any gloves with impaired protective ability should be discarded and replaced. Reuse of chemicalresistant gloves should be evaluated carefully, taking into consideration the absorptive qualities of
the gloves. A decision to reuse chemically-exposed gloves should take into consideration the
toxicity of the chemicals involved and factors such as duration of exposure, storage and
temperature.
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Personal Protective Equipment
11.4.8
Body Protection
Employees who face possible bodily injury of any kind that cannot be eliminated through
engineering, work practice or administrative controls, must wear appropriate body protection
while performing their jobs. In addition to cuts and radiation, the following are examples of
workplace hazards that could cause bodily injury:

Temperature extremes;

Hot splashes from molten metals and other hot liquids;

Potential impacts from tools, machinery and materials;

Hazardous chemicals.
There are many varieties of protective clothing available for specific hazards. Employers are
required to ensure that their employees wear personal protective equipment only for the parts of
the body exposed to possible injury. Examples of body protection include laboratory coats,
coveralls, vests, jackets, aprons, surgical gowns and full body suits.
If a hazard assessment indicates a need for full body protection against toxic substances or
harmful physical agents, the clothing should be carefully inspected before each use, it must fit
each worker properly and it must function properly and for the purpose for which it is intended.
Protective clothing comes in a variety of materials, each effective against particular hazards, such
as:

Paper-like fiber used for disposable suits provide protection against dust and splashes.

Treated wool and cotton adapts well to changing temperatures, is comfortable and fireresistant, and protects against dust, abrasions and rough, irritating surfaces.

Duck is a closely woven cotton fabric that protects against cuts and bruises when handling
heavy, sharp or rough materials.

Leather is often used to protect against dry heat and flames.

Rubber, rubberized fabrics, neoprene and plastics protect against certain chemicals and
physical hazards. When chemical or physical hazards are present, check with the clothing
manufacturer to ensure that the material selected will provide protection against the
specific hazard.
11.4.9
Hearing Protection
Determining the need to provide hearing protection for employees can be challenging. Employee
exposure to excessive noise depends upon a number of factors, including:

The loudness of the noise as measured in decibels (dB).

The duration of each employee’s exposure to the noise.

Whether employees move between work areas with different noise levels.

Whether noise is generated from one or multiple sources.
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Personal Protective Equipment
Generally, the louder the noise, the shorter the exposure time before hearing protection is
required. For instance, employees may be exposed to a noise level of 90 dB for 8 hours per day
(unless they experience a Standard Threshold Shift) before hearing protection is required. On the
other hand, if the noise level reaches 115 dB hearing protection is required if the anticipated
exposure exceeds 15 minutes. For a more detailed discussion of the requirements for a
comprehensive hearing conservation program, see the chapter on hearing protection.
If engineering and work practice controls do not lower employee exposure to workplace noise to
acceptable levels, employees must wear appropriate hearing protection. It is important to
understand that hearing protectors reduce only the amount of noise that gets through to the ears.
The amount of this reduction is referred to as attenuation, which differs according to the type of
hearing protection used and how well it fits. Hearing protectors worn by employees must reduce
an employee’s noise exposure to within the acceptable limits.
Types of hearing protection include the following:

Single-use earplugs are made of waxed cotton, foam, silicone rubber or fiberglass wool.
They are self-forming and, when properly inserted, they work as well as most molded
earplugs.

Pre-formed or molded earplugs must be individually fitted by a professional and can be
disposable or reusable. Reusable plugs should be cleaned after each use.

Earmuffs require a perfect seal around the ear. Glasses, facial hair, long hair or facial
movements such as chewing may reduce the protective value of earmuffs.
11.4.10 Safety Belts, Lifelines, and Lanyards
Please see “Fall Protection”
The only acceptable use of lifelines, safety belts and lanyards is to safeguard employees. If a
lifeline, safety belt or lanyard is subjected to in-service loading, it must be removed from service
and not used again.
Lifelines shall be secured above the point of operation to an anchorage or structural member
capable of supporting a minimum dead weight of 5,400 pounds.
If a lifeline is subject to cutting or abrasion, as may be the case on rock scaling operations, it must
be at least ⅞-inch wire core manila rope. Otherwise, it may be a ¾-inch manila or equivalent, with
a nominal breaking strength of at least 5,400 pounds.
Safety belt lanyards will be at least ½-inch nylon and provide for a fall that does not exceed 6
feet. They must also have a nominal breaking strength of 5,400 pounds.
Hardware on safety belts and lanyards in use must be drop forged or pressed steel or cadmium
plated according to federal specifications. The surface must be smooth and free of sharp edges.
Safety belt and lanyard hardware, except rivets, must withstand a tensile loading of 4,000 pounds
without cracking, breaking, or taking a permanent deformation.
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Personal Protective Equipment
11.4.11 Other PPE
11.4.11.1
Cooling Vests and Suits
Personal cooling vests and suits are available for wear in operations involving extreme heat
conditions. One design requires the use of a supplied air system. The air enters the vest or
coverall through a tube in which it is cooled by as much as 40 degrees. The cooled air is
channeled out over the upper torso and around the neck area when only the vest is being used.
When the coverall or full body cooling type of PPE is used, the cooling air is also channeled to the
leg and arm areas.
There is also a type of body cooling system that does not require an electrical, air or water supply.
This vest is made of durable flame-resistant cotton shell fabric. Sewn underneath the outer shell
are layers of light metallic insulation that reflect radiant heat outward and cooling inward toward
the body. Pouch-like areas are accessible for quick and easy installation of segmented, semifrozen gel cooling packets. These gel packs, often referred to as plastic ice, provide approximately
twice the cooling effect of the same volume of water ice. The gel packs will not leak, even if
punctured. They can be refrozen overnight in an ordinary freezer.
Other systems use supplied cooling air and a manifold system of tubes to channel the cool air to
the body extremities. Outer surfaces are frequently made of aluminum or other heat-reflective
material, depending on the type and source of the heat conditions.
11.4.11.2
High Visibility Apparel
High visibility apparel must be used by workers involved in traffic control, such as flaggers or law
enforcement officers, or for employees who work on the roadways, such as sanitation, utility or
construction workers, and emergency responders. The apparel should be high visibility orange,
yellow, yellow-green or a fluorescent version. Apparel can be procured with reflective and/or
luminescent trim, or vertical or horizontal stripes, which offers greater day and night visibility.
11.4.11.3
Flotation Vests
Employees working over or near water, where the danger of drowning exists, will be provided with
approved life jackets or buoyant work vests. These vests are available as flotation pads inside
high visibility international orange nylon shells or as vinyl coated flotation pads of international
orange. The flotation vests must be U.S. Coast Guard approved.
Additionally, in any other workplace where employees work over or near water, or use boats,
approved life jackets, buoyant work vests or other flotation devices must be provided.
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Personal Protective Equipment
11.4.11.4
Welding and High Heat
Coveralls, jackets, pants and aprons are available for operations involving high heat or molten
metal splashes. Leather is the traditional protective material for many welding operations. Where
there is exposure to radiant heat as well as molten metal splashes, aluminized garments may be
used. They reflect up to 95 percent of the radiant heat. Flame-resistant cotton coveralls designed
for comfort and protection are sometimes preferred. Whatever the type of clothing used for
welding operations, it should not have external pockets or cuffs. Fabrics of silica, ceramic and
fiberglass eliminate the need for asbestos and are now available for welding operations. These
fabrics are available in many combinations of color and weight. The fabrics are functional over a
temperature range of 700 to 2,000 degrees Fahrenheit.
11.5
Forms & Attachments
On the following pages, please find the following documents:

PPE Hazard Assessment Certification Form

Personal Protective Equipment Training Documentation
These forms may be reproduced freely by Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. for the purposes of
implementing and maintaining a safety and health program.
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Personal Protective Equipment
Workplace:
Date:
Conducted By:
PPE Hazard Assessment Certification Form
Address:
EYES
Side shields
Face shield
Shaded
Prescription
With:
No
sawing
grinding
hammering
Shading/Filter (# ___)
chipping
Welding shield
Other:
Can hazard be eliminated without the use of PPE?
sanding
If no, use:
Face Shield
Shading/Filter (# ____)
Welding shield
other:
Yes
No
Can hazard be eliminated without the use of PPE?
Safety glasses
Safety goggles
Dust-tight goggles
Impact goggles
Welding helmet/shield
Chemical goggles
Chemical splash goggles
Laser goggles
chemical splashes
Yes
molten metal
splashes
If no, use:
glare/ high
intensity lights
laser operations
intense light
hot sparks
other:
FACE
Work-related exposure to:
hazardous liquid chemicals
extreme heat
extreme cold
potential irritants
other:
airborne dust
dirt
UV
flying
particles/
objects
blood
splashes
hazardous
liquid
chemicals &
mists
Work-related exposure to:
Job or Task:
punch press
operations
sanding
sawing
grinding
hammering
chipping
other:
foundry work
welding
mixing
pouring
molten metal
working
outdoors
Area(s):
Work activities, such as:
abrasive blasting
chopping
cutting
drilling
welding
soldering
torch brazing
working outdoors
computer work
Work activities, such as:
cleaning
cooking
siphoning
painting
dip tank
operations
pouring
other:
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Personal Protective Equipment
HEAD
Work-related exposure to:
blood
irritating chemicals
tools or materials that could scrape,
bruise, or cut
extreme heat
extreme cold
animal bites
electric shock
vibration
musculoskeletal disorders
sharps injury
other:
HANDS/ARMS
beams
pipes
exposed electrical wiring or
components
falling objects
fixed object
machine parts
other:
Work-related exposure to:
Gloves
Chemical resistance
Liquid/leak resistance
Temperature resistance
Abrasion/cut resistance
Slip resistance
Latex or nitrile
Anti-vibration
If no, use:
Yes
No
Protective sleeves
Ergonomic equipment
______________
Other:
No
Can hazard be eliminated without the use of PPE?
Protective Helmet
Type G (low voltage)
Type E (high voltage)
Type C
Bump cap (not ANSI-approved)
Hair net or soft cap
other:
If no, use:
Yes
Can hazard be eliminated without the use of PPE?
PPE Hazard Assessment Certification Form (pg. 2)
walking/working
under conveyor
belts
working
with/around
conveyor belts
walking/working
under crane loads
utility work
other:
Work activities, such as:
building
maintenance
confined space
operations
construction
electrical wiring
walking/working
under catwalks
walking/working
on catwalks
garbage disposal
computer work
material handling
sanding
sawing
hammering
using power tools
working outdoors
other:
Work activities, such as:
baking
cooking
grinding
welding
working with
glass
using
computers
using knives
dental and
health care
services
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Personal Protective Equipment
crushing
slippery surfaces
fall
extreme heat/cold
chemical
penetration
Leggings or chaps
No
Foot-Leg guards
Metatarsal protection
Safety shoes or boots
Electrical protection
Heat/Cold protection
Chemical resistance
Welding leathers
No
Vest
Abrasion/cut resistance
other:
Fall Arrest/Restraint
Hoists/Lifts
No
Traffic vest
Static coats/overalls
Flame resistant jacket/pants
Insulated jacket
Cut-resistant
sleeves/wristlets
Full sleeves
Hood
With
ergonomic equipment
______________
Other:
If no, use:
Yes
Can hazard be eliminated without the use of PPE?
Apron
Coveralls, Body suit
Raingear
If no, use:
Yes
Can hazard be eliminated without the use of PPE?
Other:
Puncture resistance
Anti-slip Soles
Toe protection
If no, use:
Yes
Can hazard be eliminated without the use of PPE?
PPE Hazard Assessment Certification Form (pg. 3)
explosive atmospheres
sharps injury
FEET/LEGS
logging
explosives
Work-related exposure to:
plumbing
impact from objects
other:
heavy equipment
blood
chemical splash
welding
other:
trenching
use of highly
flammable
materials
exposed electrical wiring or
components
Work activities, such as:
building
maintenance
construction
demolition
food processing
foundry work
working outdoors
pinch points
other:
irritating chemicals
sharp or rough
edges
BODY/SKIN
slippery/wet surface
chemical splashes
Work-related exposure to:
Baking or frying
extreme heat
extreme cold
Work activities, such as:
battery charging
dip tank operations
fiberglass installation
sawing
Work-related exposure to:
musculoskeletal
disorders
other:
Work activities, such as:
working from heights of 10
feet or more
BODY/WHOLE
building maintenance
chemicals
construction
impact from flying objects
logging
sharps injury
impact from moving
vehicles
computer work
working outdoors
blood
electrical/static discharge
other:
injury from
slip/trip/fall
working near water
extreme heat/cold
elevated
walking/working
surface
utility work
other:
hot metal
sparks
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Personal Protective Equipment
LUNGS/RESPIRATORY
Work-related exposure to:
Ear muffs
Ear plugs
Leather welding hood
If no, use:
Yes
No
No
Can hazard be eliminated without the use of PPE?
With:
Dust mask
Face shield
Disposable particulate
respirator
acid/gas crtg
Replaceable filter
organic crtg
particulate w/cartridge
pesticide crtg
PAPR (air recycle)
spray paint crtg
PPSA (Air supply)
half-faced
full-faced
hooded
organic vapors
Yes
oxygen deficient
environment
If no, use:
paint spray
extreme
heat/cold
other
EARS/HEARING
Work-related exposure to:
loud noises
loud work environment
noisy machines/tools
punch or brake presses
other:
dust or
particulate
toxic gas/vapor
chemical
irritants (acids)
welding fume
asbestos
pesticides
Can hazard be eliminated without the use of PPE?
PPE Hazard Assessment Certification Form (pg. 4)
floor installation
ceiling repair
working outdoors
pouring
sawing
other:
Work activities, such as:
cleaning
mixing
painting
fiberglass
installation
compressed air
or gas
operations
confined space
work
use of conveyers
grinding
machining
routers
sawing
sparks
other:
Work activities, such as:
generator
ventilation fans
motors
sanding
pneumatic
equipment
punch or brake
presses
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Personal Protective Equipment
Personal Protective Equipment Training
Trainer (include qualifications):
Date:
Content of Training:
Attendees
Print Name
6/18/2013
Signature
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Personal Protective Equipment
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Hearing Conservation
12
Hearing Conservation
12.1
Policy Statement
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. is committed to ensuring a safe, healthy work environment.
This commitment includes monitoring the workplace for noise levels that may damage hearing
and includes protecting the hearing of those who work in high-noise environments with a
complete hearing protection program implemented and maintained by this company and its
employees.
12.2
Responsibilities
Hearing protection is a cooperative effort between Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. and its
employees.
12.2.1
Employer Responsibilities
It is the responsibility of Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. to:

Protect employees from work-related hearing loss;

Utilize administrative or engineering noise controls to reduce noise levels and protect
worker hearing;

Ensure employee participation in hearing protection training program;

Ensure proper initial fitting of hearing protection devices;

Make hearing protectors available, and replace them as necessary;

Ensure hearing protectors are worn;

Notify employees exposed to high-noise activities and equipment;

Employ an audiologist, otolaryngologist or physician if audiometric evaluations and
follow-up are provided;

Maintain and retain all records necessary for proper implementation of the HPP; and

Review the hearing protection program according to changes in workplace noise levels,
personnel changes and technological changes to ensure that the hearing protection
program is providing the most possible protection to employees.
12.2.2
Employee Responsibilities
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. employees are expected to:

Participate in training;

Wear hearing protection devices when appropriate;

Report any problems or concerns about the hearing protection program; and

Report any injuries or loss of hearing to appropriate supervisor.
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Hearing Conservation
12.3
Training
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. will ensure every employee is provided training on hearing
protection. This training will be provided at no cost to the employee during working hours.
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. will use only training material that is appropriate in content and
vocabulary to the educational level, literacy, and language of employees.
Training will be repeated annually with an updated training program that reflects changes in
protective equipment and work processes.
12.3.1
Training Components
Gary Pfizenmayer will ensure that every employee will be trained in the following minimum
elements:

Use and care of all hearing protectors provided;

Effects of noise on hearing;

Purpose of hearing protectors, advantages, disadvantages, and attenuation of various
types, and instructions on selection, fitting, use and care;

The purpose of audiometric testing and an explanation of test procedures (if offered);
and

Steps an employee can take in the workplace and outside of the workplace to protect
hearing.
12.3.2
Training Records
Training records will include the following information:

The dates of the training sessions;

The contents or a summary of the training sessions;

The names and qualifications of persons conducting the training; and
 The names and job titles of all persons attending the training sessions.
Employee training records will be maintained for 3 years from the date on which the training
occurred.
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Hearing Conservation
12.4
Policy
Any workplace sound that is not wanted is noise. Workplace
noise may be present in a number of ways, each of which has a
different potential impact on workers’ hearing, and demands
different controls to prevent damage to hearing.
Unacceptable levels of noise that may warrant a hearing
conservation program are often present on construction sites.
OSHA mandates an effective hearing conservation program
when sound levels exceed the values shown in table 1.
If a worker needs to raise his voice for someone within arm’s
reach to hear, the site is probably noisy enough to require
workers to wear hearing protection.
Further, exposure to impulsive or impact noise needs to stay
below 140 dB peak sound pressure level.
The following trades are routinely overexposed to noise and
should practice hearing protection as a matter of course:






Carpenters
Plumber pipefitters
Sprinkler installers
Mobile equipment operators
Welders/fabricators
Sandblasters




Permissible Noise
Exposure
Sound level
Duration per
dBA slow
day, hours
response
8
90
6
92
4
95
3
97
2
100
1½
102
1
105
½
110
≤¼
115
Footnote: When the daily noise
exposure is composed of two or
more periods of noise exposure of
different levels, their combined effect
should be considered, rather than
the individual effect of each.
Table 1
Drillers
Electricians
Steel erectors
Drywallers shooting
tracks or boarding
Engineering and administrative noise controls should be implemented to reduce sound
sufficiently. Where such controls fail to sufficiently reduce sound levels, Pyro Combustion &
Controls Inc. will provide appropriate personal protective equipment for hearing.
If there are two or more periods of noise exposure over the course of the day, they all
need to be considered: Sum up the ratios of actual exposure times to the maximum permissible
exposure time for noises at that sound level. A hearing conservation program must be in place if
the sum of all ratios (actual noise duration/permissible noise duration) is more than one.
𝐹𝑒 =
𝑇1
𝐿1
+
𝑇2
𝐿2
+…+
𝑇𝑛
𝐿𝑛
where:
𝐹𝑒 = 𝐸𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑣𝑎𝑙𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑛𝑜𝑖𝑠𝑒 𝑒𝑥𝑝𝑜𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟 (𝑚𝑢𝑠𝑡 𝑏𝑒 ≤ 1)
𝑇 = 𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑜𝑑 𝑜𝑓 𝑒𝑥𝑝𝑜𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝑑𝑢𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑛𝑜𝑖𝑠𝑒
𝐿 = 𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑚𝑖𝑠𝑠𝑖𝑏𝑙𝑒 𝑛𝑜𝑖𝑠𝑒 𝑒𝑥𝑝𝑜𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝑑𝑢𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝑎 𝑛𝑜𝑖𝑠𝑒 𝑎𝑡 𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑡 𝑠𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑑 𝑙𝑒𝑣𝑒𝑙
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Hearing Conservation
12.4.1
Noise Exposure
Where noise exposure levels are
reasonably expected to be
above an 8-hour time weighted
average of 85 dBA, exposure
measurement can determine the
extent of hearing protection
necessary and identify tools or
processes
where
sound
abatement opportunities exist.
Worker exposure to “background
noise” alone often averages
above 85 dBA over the course of
a work shift. Accordingly,
identifying high-noise activity,
tools and equipment at a
construction site is the first step
to lowering site-wide noise levels
and reducing noise exposure.
Sound level measurement and
dosimetry are valuable tools to
measure possible exposure over
the course of the day and for
specific equipment, but they
have their limitations on a
construction site.
Attaching the sound level
information for a piece of
equipment onto the equipment
itself can help inform workers
about the hazards they face
when working with or around that
equipment.
Ten Loudest Tools
Tools
Chipping Gun
Powder Actuated Tool
Stationary Power Tool
Rattle Gun
Chopsaw
Rotohammer
Screw gun, Drill Motor
Hand Power Saw
Other Hand Power Tool
Welding, Cutting Equipment
Average
Noise Level
(dBA)
103.0
103.0
101.8
98.4
98.4
97.8
97.7
97.2
95.4
94.9
Maximum
Noise Level
(dBA)
119.2
112.8
119.8
131.1
117.7
113.5
123.7
114.0
118.3
122.8
Table 2
Ten Loudest Tasks
Tasks (trade)
Chipping Concrete (laborers)
Operating Bulldozer
(operating engineers)
Grinding (masonry trades)
Laying Metal Deck (ironworkers)
Demolition (laborers)
Operating Scraper (op. eng’s)
Welding, Burning (ironworkers)
Operating Manlift (op. eng’s)
Operating Work Vehicle
(bricklayers)
Installing Trench Conduit
(electricians)
Average
Noise Level
(dBA)
Maximum
Noise Level
(dBA)
102.9
120.3
100.2
112.5
99.7
99.6
99.3
99.1
98.4
98.1
118.6
119.9
112.1
108.6
119.7
117.6
98.0
116.7
95.8
118.6
Table 3
Sound monitoring should be repeated when there has been a change that may increase noise
exposures and:

More employees may be exposed, or

Hearing protectors in use may no longer provide adequate protection to hearing.
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Hearing Conservation
12.4.1.1 Noise Measurement Instruments
Instruments used to perform
exposure monitoring according to
manufacturer’s instructions should
be calibrated to ensure accuracy,
and operators should follow
manufacturer’s
instructions
to
conduct sampling.
Sound-Level Meter
A Sound Level Meter (SLM) is the
basic instrument for investigating
noise levels. Sound level meters
can be used to:




spot-check noise dosimeter
performance;
determine an employee’s
noise dose whenever use
of a noise dosimeter is
unavailable or
inappropriate;
identify and evaluate
individual noise sources for
abatement purposes;
aid in determining the
feasibility of engineering
controls for individual noise
sources; and

evaluate hearing
protectors.
Noise measurements should be
taken from the hearing zone of the
employee being monitored (within
a
two-foot
diameter sphere
surrounding the head of the
worker)
according
to
manufacturer’s instructions.
Noise Levels of Common
Construction Equipment
Equipment
Background
Earth Moving
Front End Loader
Back Hoe
Bulldozer
Roller
Scraper
Grader
Truck
Paver
Material Handling
Concrete Mixer
Concrete Pump
Crane
Derrick
Power Units
Generators
Compressors
Impact
Pile Driver
(diesel & pneumatic)
Pile Driver
(gravity & bored)
Pneumatic Breaker
Hydraulic Breaker
Pneumatic Chipper
Other Equipment
Poker Vibrator
Compressed Air
Blower
Power Saw
Electric Drill
Air Track Drill
Sound Level at Operator
Average
Range
86
88
86.5
96
90
96
<85
96
101
<85
<85
100
<85
85-91
79-89
89-103
79-93
84-102
89-103
100-102
97-102
<85
<85
98
82-105
82.5
62-91
106
95.5
109
94-111
90-100
94.5
87-98
104
88.5
102
113
78-95
Dosimeter
Table 4
A noise dosimeter is worn by the
employee to measure sound levels and determine noise exposure over the course of the
workshift (or sampling period).
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During workshift sampling, a dosimeter with a threshold of
80 dBA and 90 dBA measures noise exposure. The 80dBA threshold dosimeter will measure whether the
workers are exposed to the 85 dBA TWA “action level,”
and should be included in a hearing protection program.
The 90 dBA threshold dosimeter determines whether the
noise level to which workers are exposed falls within the
permissible exposure limits (PEL) indicated in Table 1.
Noise exposure exceeding the PEL, demands appropriate
controls.
12.4.2
Noise Control
When employees are exposed to an 8hour time weighted average of 90 dBA
or more, noise controls must be in
place.
Before relying on hearing protection
devices to protect worker hearing,
other
control
systems
using
engineering
and
administrative
controls need to be in place to reduce
exposure to hazardous noise levels.
12.4.2.1 Engineering Controls
Engineering controls can abate noise
hazards
whenever
practicable.
Examples include, but are not limited
to the following:

Low-noise tools and machinery;

Appropriate maintenance of all
equipment;

Barriers between noise sources
and employees; and

Enclosure or isolation of noise
sources.
Noise Control in 3 Easy Steps
1. Reduce it: Use the
quietest equipment
available.
2. Move it: Locate noisy
equipment away from
workers.
3. Block it: Erect
temporary barriers to
block noise from
reaching workers.
Noise Controls for Construction
(Schneider et al., 1995)
Equipment
Noise Controls
Pile Driver
Enclosure, muffler
Stone saw
cutting
Noise control pad with water
Handheld impact
drills
Reduction of reflected sound
Circular saw
blades
Pneumatic tools
Pavement
breaker/ Rock
drill
Portable air
compressor
Bulldozer
Wheeled loader
Vibratory roller
15º
tooth
angle,
configuration, slotted
viscoelastic damping
new
tooth
saw blades,
Muffler
Muffler, enclosure of cylinder case and
front head, moil damping
Muffler, acoustic enclosures
Cab-liner material, enclosure, sound
absorption in canopy, sealing of all
openings
Absorption of sound cooling air route
Flexible
mounting
compartment
for
pump
Advantages & Disadvantages
When you replace a noisy machine
Joint Cutter Anti-vibration mounting fixtures
with a quiet one, modify it to make it
Table 4
quieter, or change the sound path so
that dangerous noise never reaches the listener, you are using an engineering control.
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Effective, practical, and affordable engineering controls are the best way to control noise. For
example, if you have an old, noisy, electric hand drill, you can replace it with a newer, quieter
one — a practical, affordable engineering control. If you have a large, noisy chipper/shredder,
however, replacing it may not be practical. Instead, you might isolate the noise by enclosing the
shredder or block the noise by constructing a barrier between the shredder and the listener.
When you double the distance between the listener and the sound source, you decrease the
sound pressure level by six decibels. For example, a hazardous 96-decibel noise source at five
feet is a safe 84 decibels at 20 feet.
Strategy Overview
Applying effective, practical, affordable engineering controls to a noise problem is challenging
because there are no ready-to-order solutions — you have to tailor them to your workplace. You
are more likely to find an engineering-control solution when you have accomplished the
following:

understand what is causing the noise;

determine how the noise is reaching the listener;

identify the most appropriate point, or points, at which to control the noise: at the source,
along the sound path, or at the listener;

establish acoustical enclosures and barriers around generators;

use sound absorbing material and vibration isolation systems on hand tools; and

quiet work practices — use rubber mallets to erect and dismantle formwork.
12.4.2.2 Administrative Controls
Administrative controls also can reduce worker exposure to noise. Examples of such controls
include, but are not limited to:

scheduling regular maintenance activities;

operating noisy machines in shifts when fewer workers are present; and

limiting time employees are exposed to a noise.
Advantages & Disadvantages
To administer an activity means to manage it. Unlike engineering controls — which prevent
hazardous noise from reaching a worker — administrative controls manage workers’ activities to
reduce exposure. Closely related to administrative controls are work-practice controls, which
emphasize safe work practices and procedures.
Administrative and work-practice controls are usually less expensive to carry out than
engineering controls; that is because there are no significant capital costs involved in changing
or modifying equipment. In some cases, administrative controls have reduced employee
exposure to noise and increased productivity by rotating employees through a demanding, noisy
task. Work-practice controls also improve employee performance by emphasizing safe work
practices.
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Hearing Conservation
On the other hand, administrative controls and work-practice controls usually are not as
effective as engineering controls because they do not control the noise source. Noisy machines
are still noisy and the hazard is still present.
Applying Administrative Controls
Examples of administrative and work-practice controls include the following:

Reducing the time employees spend working in noisy areas — for example, rotating two
or more employees so that each is exposed to noise levels less than 85 decibels,
averaged over an eight-hour day.

Shutting down noisy equipment when it is not needed for production.

Ensuring that employees maintain their equipment to keep it running smoothly and
quietly.

Ensuring that employees know how to perform tasks and operate equipment at safe
noise levels.

Using warning signs to identify work areas where noise exceeds safe levels.

Teaching employees appropriate methods for eliminating or controlling noise.

Encouraging employees to report noise hazards to supervisors.
12.4.3
Hearing Protection
Hearing protection devices (HPDs) are the least preferred option to control problematic noise
exposure. HPDs will be used in the time it takes to establish engineering or administrative noise
controls, or if these controls fail to provide sufficient protection.
This company will provide and replace HPDs at no cost to all employees who work in the
following situations:

Where other controls fail to reduce noise exposure below an 8-hour TWA of 90 dBA; or

Where employees are exposed to noise at or above an 8-hour TWA of 85 dBA, and
have experienced hearing loss.
In-ear protective devices may not be plain cotton and must be fitted or determined by a
competent person to ensure adequate fit.
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Hearing Conservation
Hearing Protective Devices
Type
Roll Down Foam
Features
Fits many differently shaped ear canals.
Provides good protection for most noisy
environments.
Convenient disposable.
Reusable Earplugs
Many have flanges and handles. They come
in different sizes.
Come with cords, convenient to carry.
Concerns
Must be inserted properly to get
the highest possible protection.
If the plug doesn’t make a good
seal, it won’t protect your
hearing.
Preformed so may not fit as
wide a variety of ear canals as
foam plugs.
May require a different size for
each ear.
Reusable, washable
Must keep clean.
Custom Molded
Molded to user’s ear.
Must be made by a licensed
hearing protection provider.
Always comfortable.
Long-term wear.
Best for difficult-to-fit ears
Canal Caps
Earmuffs
Other
Flat
Attenuated
Communication
On a band, can be worn under chin,
overhead, or behind neck.
Not as comfortable as other
devices.
Can be put on and taken off quickly.
Not as much protection as
other devices.
Easy to use and wear. Fit most people.
Can be hot and heavy.
Easy to keep clean.
May be more difficult to get a
good fit with glasses and/or
may interfere with other
protective gear.
Flat reduction of noise over all frequencies
Can be Expensive.
Have to baffle to reduce impact noise.
Must be custom fitted.
Radio communication while still reducing
noise.
Table 5
When using hearing protectors it is important that workers not overprotect. Devices shouldn’t
lower noise levels below 70 dBA to ensure workers can hear instructions and ambient sounds to
ensure safety.
There are many types of hearing protection. Each type is designed for certain noise conditions.
They include the types listed in table 5. But remember – unless worn properly and all the time in
high noise areas, the devices will not be effective. Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. will consider
the “three c’s” of hearing protection selection — comfort, convenience and compatibility — to
ensure the devices will be worn correctly 100% of the time when needed.
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Hearing Conservation
Hearing protectors available on the market will be labeled
with a noise reduction rating (NRR), which indicates how
much noise the protective device can block according to
laboratory testing. Workers in trades subject to more noise
should where an HPD with a higher NRR. Table 6 offers the
suggestions from the University of Washington for
appropriate levels of protection for each of several trades.
12.4.4
Audiometric Testing
Audiometric testing monitors an employee’s hearing over
time. It also provides an opportunity for employers to educate
employees about their hearing and the need to protect it.
Recommended Noise
Reduction Rating for Hearing
Protective Devices by Trade
Trade
Masonry Restoration
Worker
Operating Engineer
Laborer
Bricklayer
Ironworker
Cement Mason
Carpenter
Tilesetter
Electrician
Insulation Worker
Sheet Metal Worker
Though OSHA does not require it for construction activities,
all employees exposed to an 8-hour TWA of 85 Db or more
should have free audiometric testing as part of the hearing conservation program.
NRR (dB)
26
24
24
22
18
14
14
12
12
12
12
Table 6
The difficulty in establishing a baseline hearing threshold level and tracking hearing over time
for employees in the construction industry, even with the availability of mobile testing facilities, is
a well-known challenge in the construction industry. Still, preventing damage to the hearing of
employees is of paramount importance, and all appropriate steps should be taken to provide
employees the protection they need.
A licensed or certified audiologist, otolaryngologist, or other physician should be responsible for
the audiometric testing program and oversee all aspects of such testing. Trained technicians
may conduct testing without immediate physician oversight if they are appropriately qualified to
conduct such tests and they are accountable to an audiologist, otolaryngologist or physician.
12.4.4.1 Audiogram
A baseline audiogram should be
established for each employee
within 6 months of his or her first
exposure at or above the 85-dBA
8-hour TWA action level.
Baseline audiograms should be
preceded by 14 hours free of
workplace noise exposure (or
hearing protector use) and be
conducted according to NIOSH or
OSHA guidelines by a competent
technician or doctor. Audiometric
testing should be performed in an
appropriate
setting
with
a
calibrated, ANSI-approved audiometer.
6/18/2013
-10
A threshold
shift is a
change in
the minimum
decibel level
at which a
person can
hear a
specific
frequency.
0
10
25
40
55
Exposure
to loud
noise will
lower the
threshold.
70
85
100
500
12-10
1000
2000
3000
4000
6000
© Safety Services Company
Hearing Conservation
12.4.5
Recordkeeping
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. should maintain accurate records of employee exposure
measurements and audiometric test records pursuant to this policy.
This audiometric test record should include the following:

name and job classification of the employee;

date of the audiogram;

the examiner’s name;

date of the last acoustic or exhaustive calibration of the audiometer; and

employee’s most recent noise exposure assessment.
The following records will be maintained for at least the following periods:

noise exposure measurement records for two years; and

audiometric test records for the duration of the affected employee’s employment.
All hearing protection program records should be maintained for the duration of the affected
worker’s employment and be provided upon request to employees, former employees,
representatives designated by the individual employee, and any authorized government official.
If Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. ceases to do business, it will transfer hearing protection
program records to the successor employer.
Record a hearing loss on the OSHA 300 log if the following are true:
 A standard threshold shift is indicated by an audiometric examination;

The employee’s overall hearing level is at 25 dB or more above audiometric zero
averaged at 2000, 3000 and 4000 Hz in the affected ear(s); and

The hearing loss is work related.
12.4.5.1 Evaluation
A physician or appropriate technician should compare each employee’s annual audiogram to
that employee’s baseline audiogram to determine if the audiogram is valid and if a standard
threshold shift has occurred.
A standard threshold shift according to OSHA is a change in hearing threshold relative to the
baseline audiogram of an average of 10 dB or more at 2000, 3000, and 4000 Hz in either ear
(excepting an allowance for age as specified by OSHA in 1910.95 Appendix F: Calculation and
Application of Age Correction to Audiograms). However, more stringent guidelines may also be
followed.
The audiologist, otolaryngologist, or physician will review problem audiograms and shall
determine whether there is a need for further evaluation.
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Hearing Conservation
12.4.5.2 Audiogram Evaluation Follow-Up
This company will inform the employee in writing within 21 days of an annual audiogram
indicating a standard threshold shift to the baseline audiogram.
Unless a physician determines that the standard threshold shift is not work related or
aggravated by occupational noise exposure, Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. shall ensure the
following steps when a standard threshold shift occurs:

employees not using hearing protectors shall be fitted with hearing protectors, trained in
their use and care, and required to use them;

employees already using hearing protectors shall be refitted and retrained in the use of
hearing protectors and provided with hearing protectors offering greater attenuation if
necessary;

we will refer the employee for a clinical audiological evaluation or an otological
examination as appropriate if additional testing is necessary or if the employer suspects
a medical pathology of the ear is caused or aggravated by the wearing of hearing
protectors; and

inform the employee of the need for an otological examination with suspicion of a
medical pathology of the ear unrelated to the use of hearing protectors.
If later audiometric testing of an employee whose exposure to noise is less than an 8-hour TWA
of 90 decibels indicates that a standard threshold shift is not persistent, Pyro Combustion &
Controls Inc.:

shall inform the employee of the new audiometric interpretation; and

may discontinue the required use of hearing protectors for that employee.
An annual audiogram may be substituted for the baseline audiogram when, in the judgment of
the audiologist, otolaryngologist or physician who is evaluating the audiogram:

the standard threshold shift revealed by the audiogram is persistent; or

the hearing threshold shown in the annual audiogram indicates significant improvement
over the baseline audiogram.
12.5
Forms & Attachments
On the following pages, please find the following document(s):

Audiometric & Identification Information

Hearing Conservation Program Employee Enrollment

Hearing Protection Training Record Sheet
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Hearing Conservation
Audiometric & Identification Information
Name: ___________________________________________________________________________
ID#: ___________________________ Birth Date: ___/___/_______ Gender: __________________
Test Date: ___/___/______ Time: ____:____ Test type: _______ Time since last exposure: ___ hrs
Exposure Level: ________ dBA
Hearing Protection Devices Used (choose)
Hearing Protector Activity
□ Issue
□ Reissue
□ Training
□ Retraining
premolded earplugs
formable earplugs
custom
molded
canal
cap
ear
muff
Self-Reported Employee History
□ Medical history
□ Diabetes
□ Ear Surgery
□ Head Injury
□ High Fever
□ Measles
□ Mumps
□ Hypertension
□ Ringing in Ears
□ Ear Infection
□ Other:
□ Hobby/Military
□ Hunt/Shoot
□ Car Racing
□ Motorcycles
□ Other Loud Vehicles
□ Loud Music/Band
□ Power Tools
□ Other Noisy Hobbies
□ Military Service
□ Other:
□ Additional Information
□ Noisy 2nd Job
□ Noisy past job
□ Exposure to Solvents
□ Exposure to Metals
□ Difficulty Hearing
□ Hearing Aid
□ Recent Change in Hearing
□ See Physician About Ears
□ Other:
Audiogram
Test Frequency
500
1000
2000
3000
4000
6000
8000
Right Ear
Left Ear
Audiometer
___________________
Serial Number
___________________
Exhaustive Cal. date
_____/_______/______
Biological Cal. Date
_____/_______/______
Tester ID
___________________
Test reliability
□ Good □ Fair □ Poor
Review ID
___________________
Audiogram
Classification
___________________
Comments: __________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
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Hearing Conservation
Employee
Name
Reason for Enrolling
Enrolled
w/o
exposure
monitoring
Date
Audiometric
Testing First
Offered
Date of Initial
Conservation
Training
Date Employee
Removed from HCP
Date of Employee
Separation
Removal From Hearing
Conservation Program
Hearing Conservation Program Employee Enrollment Record
Date
enrolled
Noise
exposure at
or above
action level
© Safety Services Company
12-14
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Hearing Conservation
Hearing Protection Training Record Sheet
Trainer (include qualifications):
Date:
Content of Training:
Attendees
Print Name
6/18/2013
Signature
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Hearing Conservation
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Hand & Power Tools
13
Hand & Power Tools
13.1
Policy Statement
The use of tools creates a range of hazards for those who use tools. However, appropriate
precautions — including, but not limited to training, tool inspection, tool maintenance, and safe
use procedures — can prevent injuries. This policy is intended to ensure safety for employees
who use power and hand tools and must be followed by all employees of Pyro Combustion &
Controls Inc..
13.2
Responsibilities
Preventing injuries to employees using hand and power tools is a cooperative effort between
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. and its employees.
13.2.1
Employer Responsibilities
It is the responsibility of Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. to:

Maintain all tools and equipment used by employees in safe, working condition;

Ensure employees are trained in the safe operation of all equipment they are expected
to use on the job;

Provide personal protective equipment to prevent injury and adverse health effects;

Select only tools with appropriate safety guards;

Remove unsafe equipment from the worksite; and

Ensure every job hazard analysis and safe job procedure considers the hazards
introduced by power tools and hand tools.
13.2.2
Safety Committee Responsibilities
It is the responsibility of the Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. safety committee to:

Assist in identifying hazards associated with hand tools and power tools;

Assist in providing tool training for personnel;

Assist in training personnel in the safe operation of material handling equipment; and

Review tool safety procedures and inspect safeguards yearly or as necessary to ensure
the safety and health of personnel.
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©Safety Services Company
Hand & Power Tools
13.2.3
Employee Responsibilities
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. employees are expected to:

Be aware of hazards presented by tools where they work;

Follow company safety policy and the instructions of the supervisor;

Comply with safe operating procedures for all equipment;

Attend and participate in appropriate safety training; and

Report safety concerns and provide safety recommendations as appropriate.
13.3
Training
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. will ensure every employee is provided training on hand and
power tools. This training will be provided at no cost to the employee during working hours.
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. will use only training material that is appropriate in content and
vocabulary to the educational level, literacy, and language of employees.
13.3.1
Training Components
Gary Pfizenmayer will ensure that every employee will be trained in the following minimum
elements:

Proper storage, maintenance and use of any tool the employee will use in his job;

A description and identification of the hazards associated with tools;

The safeguards, including PPE, to protect the employee from tools, the hazards for
which they are intended;

How to use tool safeguards and why;

Safety precautions necessary for working with the tool;

How to inspect tools for damage and what to do (e.g., contact the supervisor) if a tool is
damaged, missing safeguards or other pieces, or otherwise unable to provide adequate
protection;

Limitations of tools being used and the how to select the right tool for the job;

How to replace blades, change accessories, lubricate, charge and other similar activities
associated with using power tools; and

Where to find the manufacturer’s instructions for power tools the employee is expected
to use.
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13.3.2
Training Records
Training records will include the following information:

The dates of the training sessions;

The contents or a summary of the training sessions;

The names and qualifications of persons conducting the training; and
 The names and job titles of all persons attending the training sessions.
Employee training records will be maintained for 3 years from the date on which the training
occurred.
13.4
13.4.1
Policy
Overview
All hand and power tools and similar equipment, whether furnished by the employer or the
employee, will be maintained in a safe condition.
When power-operated tools are designed to accommodate guards, they shall be equipped with
such guards when in use.
13.4.1.1 General Power Tool Safety

Never carry a tool by the cord or hose.

Never yank the cord or the hose to disconnect it from the receptacle.

Keep cords and hoses away from heat, oil, and sharp edges.

Disconnect tools when not using them, before servicing and cleaning them, and when
changing accessories such as blades, bits, and cutters.

Keep all people not involved with the work at a safe distance from the work area.

Secure work with clamps or a vise, freeing both hands to operate the tool.

Avoid accidental starting. Do not hold fingers on the switch button while carrying a
plugged-in tool.

Maintain tools with care; keep them sharp and clean for best performance.

Follow instructions in the user’s manual for lubricating and changing accessories.

Be sure to keep good footing and maintain good balance when operating power tools.

Wear proper apparel for the task. Loose clothing, ties, scarves, or jewelry can become
caught in moving parts.
13.4.1.2 Guards
The exposed moving parts of power tools need to be safeguarded.
Belts, gears, shafts, pulleys, sprockets, spindles, drums, flywheels, chains, or other
reciprocating, rotating, or moving parts of equipment must be guarded.
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Guards, as appropriate, must be provided to protect the operator and others from the following:
 Point of operation;
 Rotating parts; and
 In-running nip points;
 Flying chips and sparks.
Safety guards must never be removed when a tool is being used. Portable circular saws having
a blade greater than 2 inches (5.08 centimeters) in diameter must be equipped at all times with
guards. An upper guard must cover the entire blade of the saw. A retractable lower guard must
cover the teeth of the saw, except where it makes contact with the work material. The lower
guard must automatically return to the covering position when the tool is withdrawn from the
work material.
13.4.1.3 Switches and Controls
The following hand-held power tools must be equipped with a constant-pressure switch or
control that shuts off the power when pressure is released:
horizontal, vertical,
 saber saws, scroll
and angle grinders
saws, and jigsaws with
with wheels more than
blade shanks greater
2 inches in diameter;
than ¼-inch wide; and
 belt sanders;
 other similar tools.
 reciprocating saws;
These tools also may be equipped with a “lock-on” control, if it allows the worker to also shut off
the control in a single motion using the same finger or fingers.




drills;
tappers;
fastener drivers;
disc sanders with discs
greater than 2 inches;

The following hand-held power tools must be equipped with either a positive “on-off” control
switch, a constant pressure switch, or a “lock-on” control:

grinders with wheels 2
 platen sanders,
 and jigsaws, saber and
inches or less in
routers, planers
scroll saws with blade
laminate trimmers,
shanks a ¼-inch (+/diameter;
nibblers,
shears,
and
.05 in.) or less in
 disc sanders with discs
scroll
saws;
and
diameter.
2 inches or less in
diameter;
It is recommended that the constant-pressure control switch be regarded as the preferred
device.
Other hand tools such as the following hand-held power tools must be equipped with a
constant-pressure switch:



circular saws having a blade
diameter greater than 2 inches;
Chain saws; and
Percussion tools with no means of
holding accessories securely
13.4.1.4 Personal Protective Equipment
Employees using hand and power tools and exposed to the hazard of falling, flying, abrasive,
and splashing objects, or exposed to harmful dusts, fumes, mists, vapors, or gases shall be
provided with the particular personal protective equipment necessary to protect them from the
hazard. All personal protective equipment shall meet the requirements and be maintained
according to OSHA requirements.
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13.4.2
Hand Tools
Wrenches, including adjustable, pipe, end, and socket wrenches shall not be used when jaws
are sprung to the point that slippage occurs.
Impact tools, such as drift pins, wedges, and chisels, shall be kept free of mushroomed heads.
The wooden handles of tools shall be kept free of splinters or cracks and shall be kept tight in
the tool.
Knives and scissors must be kept sharp.
All cracked saws shall be removed from service.
When using saw blades, knives or other tools, direct tools away from aisle areas and other
employees in close proximity.
Iron or steel hand tools may produce sparks that can be an ignition source around flammable
substances. Where this hazard exists, spark-resistant tools made of non-ferrous materials
should be used where flammable gases, highly volatile liquids, and other explosive substances
are stored or used.
13.4.2.1 General

Try to avoid prying, pulling, wedging, or lifting at sharp angles or overhead.

Wherever possible, keep the bar at right angles to the work.

Wear eye protection and, where necessary, face protection.
13.4.2.2 Axes and Hatchets
In construction, axes are mainly used for making stakes or wedges and splitting or shaping
rough timbers.
 Unless it has a striking face, don’t use the hatchet as a hammer. The head or the
wooden handle can crack and break.

Hatchets with striking faces are meant only for driving common nails, not for striking
chisels, punches, drills, or other hardened metal tools.

Never use an axe or hatchet as a wedge or chisel and strike it with a hammer.

Most carpenters prefer a hatchet with a solid or tubular steel handle and a hammer head
with a slot for pulling nails.
13.4.2.3 Claw Hammers
These are available in many shapes, weights, and sizes for various purposes. Handles can be
wood or steel (solid or tubular). Metal handles are usually covered with shock-absorbing
material.

Start with a good quality hammer of medium weight (16 ounces) with a grip suited to the
size of your hand.

Rest your arm occasionally to avoid tendinitis. Avoid overexertion in pulling out nails.
Use a crow bar or nail puller when necessary.
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
When nailing, start with one “soft” hit, that is, with fingers holding the nail. Then let go
and drive the nail in the rest of the way.

Strike with the hammer face at right angles to the nailhead. Glancing blows can lead to
flying nails. Clean the face on sandpaper to remove glue and gum. Don’t use nail
hammers on concrete, steel chisels, hardened steel-cut nails, or masonry nails.

Discard any hammer with a dented, chipped, or mushroomed striking face or with claws
broken, deformed, or nicked inside the nail slot.
13.4.2.4 Crow Bars
Any steel bar 10-60 inches long and sharpened at one end is often called a crow bar.
The tools include pry bars, pinch bars, and wrecking bars. Shorter ones usually have a curved
claw for pulling nails and a sharp, angled end for prying.
Lifting
Loads levered, lifted, or shifted by bars can land on fingers and toes.

Make sure to clear the area and maintain control of the load.

Have enough rollers and blocking ready.

Never put fingers or toes under the load.
13.4.2.5 Cold Chisels
Cold chisels are used to cut or shape soft metals as well as concrete and brick.
In time the struck end will mushroom. This should be ground off. Don’t use chisels with
mushroomed heads. Fragments can fly off and cause injury.
13.4.2.6 Hand Planes
Hazards include the risk of crush and scrape injuries when the hand holding the plane strikes
the work or objects nearby. Cuts and sliver injuries are also common.
The hand plane requires some strength and elbow grease to use properly. The hazards of
overexertion and tendinitis can be aggravated by using a dull iron or too short a plane.

Only use a plane suited to the job and keep the iron sharp.

For long surfaces like door edges, use a fore plane 18" long and 2 ⅜" wide or a jointer
plane 24" long and 2 ⅝" wide.

For shorter surfaces, use a jack plane 15" long and 2 ⅜" wide or a smoothing plane 10"
long and 2 ⅜" wide.

Remember that sharp tools require less effort and reduce the risk of fatigue,
overexertion, and back strain.

Work can also be easier with a door jack and supports on your work bench.
13.4.2.7 Hand Saws
Select the right saw for the job. A 9 point is not meant for crosscutting hardwood. It can jump up
and severely cut the worker’s hand or thumb.
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For this kind of work the right choice is an 11 point (+).When starting a cut, keep your thumb up
high to guide the saw and avoid injury.
For cutting softwood, select a 9 point (-). The teeth will remove sawdust easily and keep the saw
from binding and bucking.
Ripping requires a ripsaw.
13.4.2.8 Nail Pulling
Pulling out nails can be easier with a crow bar than a claw hammer.
In some cases, a nail-puller does the job best. The hand holding the claw must be kept well
away from the striking handle.
13.4.2.9 Plumb Bobs
The weight of a mercury-filled plumb bob will surprise you. Designed for use in windy conditions,
the bob has considerable weight in proportion to its surface area.
The weight and point of the bob can make it dangerous. Ensure that all is clear below when you
lower the bob.
Don’t let it fall out of your pocket, apron, or tool bag. The same goes for the standard solid bob.
13.4.2.10
Screwdrivers
Screwdrivers are not intended for prying, scraping, chiseling, scoring,
or punching holes.
The most common abuse of the screwdriver is using one that doesn’t fit or
match the fastener. The results are cuts and punctures from slipping
screwdrivers, eye injuries from flying fragments of pried or struck screwdrivers,
and damaged work.
Always make a pilot hole before driving a screw. Start with one or two “soft” turns,
that is, with the fingers of your free hand on the screw. Engage one or two threads,
make sure the screw is going in straight, then take your fingers away.
You can put your fingers on the shank to help guide and hold the screwdriver. But the main
action is on the handle, which should be large enough to allow enough grip and torque to drive
the screw. Power drivers present obvious advantages when screws must be frequently or
repeatedly driven.
Phillips screws and drivers are only one type among several cross point systems. They are not
interchangeable.
Note: All cross-point screws are not designed to be driven by a Phillips screwdriver.
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13.4.2.11
Sledgehammers
Sledgehammers are useful for drifting heavy timbers and installing and dismantling formwork.
They can knock heavy panels into place and drive stakes in the ground for bracing.

Sledgehammers can also be used to drive thick tongue-and-groove planking tightly
together. Use a block of scrap wood to prevent damage to the planks.

The main hazard is the weight of the head. Once the hammer is in motion it’s almost
impossible to stop the swing. Serious bruises and broken bones have been caused by
sledgehammers off-target and out of control.

Missing the target with the head and hitting the handle instead can weaken the stem.
Another swing can send the head flying.

Always check handle and head. Make sure head is secure and tight. Replace damaged
handles.

As with any striking or struck tool, always wear eye protection.

Swinging a sledgehammer is hard work. Avoid working to the point of fatigue. Make sure
you have the strength to maintain aim and control.
13.4.2.12
Utility Knives
Utility knives cause more cuts than any other sharp-edged cutting tool in construction.

Use knives with retractable blades only.

Always cut away from your body, especially away from your free hand. When you’re
done with the knife, retract the blade at once. A blade left exposed is dangerous,
particularly in a toolbox.
13.4.2.13
Wood Chisels
Most injuries with this tool can be prevented by keeping the hand that holds the work behind,
not in front of, the chisel.

A dull or incorrectly sharpened chisel is difficult to control and tedious to work with.

Chisels not in use or stored in a toolbox should have protective caps.

Wood chisels are tempered to be very hard. The metal is brittle and will shatter easily
against hard surfaces.

Never use a chisel for prying.

Repeatedly striking the chisel with the palm of your hand may lead to repetitive strain
injury.

With chisels and other struck tools, always wear eye protection. Gloves are
recommended to help prevent cuts and bruises.
13.4.3

Electric Tools
Operate electric tools within their design limitations according to manufacturer’s
instructions.
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
Use gloves and appropriate safety footwear when using electric tools.

Store electric tools in a dry place when not in use.

Do not use electric tools in damp or wet locations unless they are approved for that
purpose.

Keep work areas well lighted when operating electric tools.

Ensure that cords from electric tools do not present a tripping hazard.

Unplug the tool before making adjustments or changing attachments.

The use of electric cords for hoisting or lowering tools shall not be permitted.

Remove all damaged portable electric tools from use and tag them: “Do Not Use.”
13.4.3.1 Electric Safety Features
To protect the user from shock and burns, electric tools must have a three-wire cord with a
ground and be plugged into a grounded receptacle, be double insulated, or be powered by a
low- voltage isolation transformer. Three-wire cords contain two current-carrying conductors
and a grounding conductor. Any time an adapter is used to accommodate a two-hole
receptacle, the adapter wire must be attached to a known ground. The third prong must never
be removed from the plug.
Double-insulated tools are available that provide protection against electrical shock without
third-wire grounding. On double-insulated tools, an internal layer of protective insulation
completely isolates the external housing of the tool.
In the construction industry, employees who use electric tools must be protected by ground-fault
circuit interrupters or an assured equipment-grounding conductor program.
13.4.3.2 Chop Saws
Chop saws offer quick, efficient, and economical cutting.
Unfortunately, like all power equipment, chop saws pose serious hazards for the unwary or
untrained operator.

Select the proper abrasive cutting wheel for the material being cut. For metals, use
aluminum oxide. For masonry, stone, and concrete, use silica carborundum.

Do not exceed the recommended rpm printed on the blade label.

The center hole on the blade must fit the mandril and be snugly fastened in place with
the proper washer and lock nut.
Warning: A loose or off-center blade can shatter in use.

Position material to be cut at 90º degrees to the blade. Support the other end to prevent
the blade from binding.

Do not rush cutting. Let the wheel cut without burning or jamming.

When cutting is complete, let the blade stop before moving material.
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
Maintain the saw in good repair with the blade guard in place and working smoothly.
Tighten any loose parts and replace any broken or damaged ones.

Don’t try to adjust for length on downward cutting motion. Your hand could slide into the
blade while it is spinning.

With some large chop saws, additional precautions are required because of the
tremendous torque the saws can develop.

Beware of sparks landing on combustible material.
13.4.3.3 Circular Saws
Circular saws are either worm-drive or direct-drive.
The worm-drive saw has gears arranged so that the
blade runs parallel to the motor shaft. The direct-drive
saw has the blade at a right angle to the motor shaft.
The worm-drive saw periodically requires special
gear oil to keep the inner gears lubricated. This
requirement is usually eliminated in the direct-drive
saw, which has sealed bearings and gears.
Both saws must be inspected regularly for defects,
and operated and maintained in accordance with manufacturers’ recommendations.
Check for:
 damaged cord
 loose blade
 faulty guards



defective trigger
chipped or missing teeth
cracked or damaged casing
Safety Features
Sawdust Ejection Chute
This feature prevents sawdust from collecting in front of the saw and obscuring the cutting line.
The operator can continue cutting without having to stop the saw and clear away sawdust.
Clutch
Some worm-drive saws are equipped with a clutch to prevent kickback. Kickback occurs when a
saw meets resistance and violently backs out of the work. The clutch action allows the blade
shaft to continue turning when the blade meets resistance. The blade stud and friction washer
can be adjusted to provide kickback protection for cutting different materials. Check friction
washers for wear.
Brake
An electric brake on some circular saws stops the blade from coasting once the switch is
released. This greatly reduces the danger of accidental contact.
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Trigger Safety
On some light-duty saws a latch prevents the operator from accidentally starting the motor. The
trigger on the inside of the handle cannot be pressed without first pressing a latch on the outside
of the handle. On heavy-duty saws a bar under the trigger switch helps to prevent accidental
starting.
Blade Guards
All portable, power-driven circular saws having a blade diameter greater than 2 in. shall be
equipped with guards above and below the base plate or shoe. The upper guard shall cover the
saw to the depth of the teeth, except for the minimum arc required to permit the base to be tilted
for bevel cuts. The lower guard shall cover the saw to the depth of the teeth, except for the
minimum arc required to allow proper retraction and contact with the work. When the tool is
withdrawn from the work, the lower guard shall automatically and instantly return to covering
position.
Never operate an electric saw with the lower guard tied or wedged open. The saw may kick
back and cut you, or another worker who uses the saw.
An exposed blade, still in motion, will force the saw to move, cutting anything in its path. Make
sure that the lower guard returns to its proper position after a cut. Never operate a saw with a
defective guard-retracting lever.
On most saws the lower guard is spring-loaded and correct tension in the spring will
automatically close the guard. However, a spring weakened by use and wear can allow the
guard to remain open after cutting. Maintain complete control of the saw until the blade stops
turning.
Note: The guard may also be slow to return after 45° cuts.
Blades
For safety, understand the different designs and uses of blades. Blades unsuited for the job can
be as hazardous as dull blades. For instance, a saw fitted with the wrong blade for the job can
run hot so quickly that blade tension changes and creates a wobbly motion. The saw may kick
back dangerously before the operator can switch it off.
Blades should be sharpened or changed frequently to prolong saw life, increase production, and
reduce operator fatigue. The teeth on a dull or abused blade will turn blue from overheating.
Cutting will create a burning smell. Such blades should be discarded or reconditioned.

Before changing or adjusting blades, disconnect the saw from the power source.

Take care to choose the right blade for the job. Blades are available in a variety of styles
and tooth sizes.

Combination blades (rip and crosscut) are the most widely used.

Ensure that arbor diameter and blade diameter are right for the saw.
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
Because all lumber is not new, make sure it is clean and free of nails, concrete, and
other foreign objects. This precaution not only prolongs blade life but may also prevent
serious injury.

Take special care to ensure that blades are installed in the proper rotational direction.
Remember that electrical circular handsaws cut with an upward motion. The teeth visible
between the upper and lower guard should be pointing toward the front of the saw. Most
models have a directional arrow on both blade and guard to serve as a guide.
Re-sharpened blades can be substantially reduced in diameter. Make sure that the blade
diameter and arbor diameter are right for the saw.
Carbide-Tipped Blades: Take special care not to strike metal when using a carbide-tipped
blade. The carbide tips can come loose and fly off, ruining the blade and injuring the operator.
Inspect the blade regularly for cracked or missing tips.
Changing, Adjusting, and Setting Blades
When changing blades, take the following precautions:

Disconnect the saw from the power source.

Place the saw blade on a piece of scrap lumber and press down until the teeth dig into
the wood. This prevents the blade from turning when the locking nut is loosened or
tightened. Some machines are provided with a mechanical locking device.
 Make sure that keys and adjusting wrenches are removed before operating the saw.
Proper adjustment of cutting depth keeps blade friction to a minimum, removes sawdust from
the cut, and results in cool cutting.
The blade should project the depth of one full tooth below the material to be cut.
Carbide-tipped blades or miter blades should project only half a tooth below the material. If the
blade is to run freely in the kerf (saw cut), teeth must be set properly, that is, bent alternate.
The setting of teeth differs from one type of blade to another. Finer toothed blades require less
set than rougher-toothed blades. Generally, teeth should be alternately bent ½ times the
thickness of the blade.
Sharp blades with properly set teeth will reduce the chance of wood binding. They will also
prevent the saw from overheating and kicking back.
Cutting
Place the material to be cut on a rigid support such as a bench or two or more sawhorses. Make
sure that the blade will clear the supporting surface and the power cord. The wide part of the
saw shoe should rest on the supported side of the cut if possible.

Plywood is one of the most difficult materials to cut with any type of saw. The overall size
of the sheet and the internal stresses released by cutting are the main causes of
difficulty. Large sheets should be supported in at least three places, with one support
next to the cut.
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
Short pieces of material should not be held by hand. Use some form of clamping to hold
the material down when cutting it.

NEVER use your foot or leg to support the material being cut. You can be seriously
injured by this careless act.

The material to be cut should be placed with its good side down, if possible. Because the
blade cuts upward into the material, any splintering will be on the side which is
uppermost.

Use just enough force to let the blade cut without laboring. Hardness and toughness can
vary in the same piece of material, and a knotty or wet section can put a heavier load on
the saw. When this happens, reduce pressure to keep the speed of the blade constant.
Forcing the saw beyond its capacity will result in rough and inaccurate cuts. It will also
overheat the motor and the saw blade.

Take the saw to the material. Never place the saw in a fixed, upside-down position and
feed material into it. Use a table saw instead.

If the cut gets off line, don’t force the saw back onto line. Withdraw the blade and either
start over on the same line or begin on a new line.

If cutting right-handed, keep the cord on that side of your body. Stand to one side of the
cutting line. Never reach under the material being cut.

Always keep your free hand on the long side of the lumber and clear of the saw.
Maintain a firm, well-balanced stance, particularly when working on uneven footing.

Plywood, wet lumber, and lumber with a twisted grain tend to tighten around a blade and
may cause kickback. Kickback occurs when an electric saw stalls suddenly and jerks
back toward the operator. The momentarily exposed blade may cause severe injury.
Pocket Cutting
 Tilt saw forward.

Rest front of shoe on wood.

Retract lower guard.

Lower saw until front teeth almost touch wood.

Release guard to rest on wood.

Switch on the saw.

Keep the saw tilted forward and push it down and forward with even pressure gradually
lowering it until shoe rests flat on wood.

Follow these steps with extreme care.
13.4.3.4 Drills
Types
Trim carpenters will generally select a ¼ or ⅜ inch trigger-controlled variable speed drill. Simply
by increasing pressure on the trigger, you can change drill speed from 0 to 2,000 rpm.
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Carpenters working in heavy structural construction such as
bridges, trusses, and waterfront piers usually select the slower
but more powerful one- or two-speed reversible ½ or ¼ inch
drill.
Size of the drill is determined by the maximum opening of the chuck.
For instance, a ⅜ inch drill will take only bits or attachments with a shank up to ⅜
inch wide.
For drywall screws, a drywall screw gun should be used. The driving bit should be
replaced when worn.
Attachments
Attachments such as speed-reducing screwdrivers, disk sanders, and buffers can help
prevent fatigue and undue muscle strain. A right-angle drive attachment is very useful in tight
corners and other hard-to-reach places.
Cutting and drilling attachments must be kept sharp to avoid overloading the motor.
Never crowd or push the tool beyond capacity. Such handling can burn out the motor, ruin the
material, and injure the operator in the event of a kickback.
Some attachments, such as hole saws, spade bits, and screwdrivers, require considerable
control by the operator. If you do not feed the attachment slowly and carefully into the material,
the drill can stop and severely twist or break your arm. Stock should be clamped or otherwise
secured to prevent it from moving. This will also enable you to control the tool with both hands
and absorb sudden twists or stops caused by obstructions such as knots or hidden nails.
You must restrain the drill just before the bit or cutting attachment emerges through the material,
especially when oversized spade bits are used. Sides of the bit often become hooked on the
ragged edge of the nearly completed hole and make the drill come to a sudden stop that can
wrench your arm.
At the first sign of the bit breaking through the material, you should withdraw the drill and
complete the work from the other side. This will produce a cleaner job and prevent the material
from cracking or splintering. The same result can be obtained by clamping a back-up piece to
the material and drilling into that.
Select the bit or attachment suitable to the size of the drill and the work to be done. To operate
safely and efficiently, the shanks of bits and attachments must turn true. Make sure that the bit
or attachment is properly seated and tightened in the chuck.
Some operations require the use of an impact or hammer drill. For instance, drilling large holes
in concrete or rock with a carboloy bit should be done with an impact drill
Follow manufacturer’s instructions when selecting and using a bit or attachment, especially with
drills or work you are not unfamiliar with.
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Working with Small Pieces
 Drilling into small pieces of material may look harmless, but if the pieces are not
clamped down and supported, they can spin with the bit before the hole is completed.

If a small piece starts to twist or spin with the drill, you can be injured. Small work pieces
should be properly secured and supported. Never try to drill with one hand and hold a
small piece of material with the other.
Drilling from Ladders
 Standing on a ladder to drill holes in walls and ceilings can be hazardous. The top and
bottom of the ladder must be secured to prevent the ladder from slipping or sliding when
the operator puts pressure on the drill.

When drilling from a ladder, never reach out to either side. Overreaching can cause the
ladder to slide or tip.

Never stand on the top step or paint shelf of a stepladder. Stand at least two steps down
from the top. When working from an extension ladder, stand no higher than the fourth
rung from the top.

Never support yourself by holding onto a pipe or any other grounded object. Electric
current can travel from the hand holding the drill through your heart to the hand holding
the pipe. A minor shock can make you lose your balance. A major shock can badly burn
or even kill you.
Operation
 Always plug in the drill with the switch OFF.

Before starting to drill, turn on the tool for a moment to make sure that the shank of the
bit or attachment is centered and running true.

Punch a layout hole or drill a pilot hole in the material so that the bit won’t slip or slide
when your start drilling. A pilot hole is particularly important for drilling into hard material
such as concrete or metal.

With the drill OFF, put the point of the bit in the pilot hole or punched layout hole.

Hold the drill firmly in one hand or two hands, as necessary, at the correct drilling angle.

Turn on the switch and feed the drill into the material with the pressure and control
required by the size of the drill and the type of material.

Don’t enlarge a hole by reaming it out with the sides of the bit. Switch to a larger bit.

While drilling deep holes, especially with a twist bit, withdraw the drill several times with
the motor running to clear the cuttings.

Never support material on your knee while drilling. Material should be firmly supported
on a bench or other work surface for drilling.

Unplug the drill and remove the bit as soon as the work is finished.

When drilling into floors, ceilings, and walls, beware of wiring and plumbing.

Rotary and hammer drills generate extreme torque and must be handled with caution.
Take occasional breaks to relax your arms and shoulders.
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Drilling Timbers
 When drilling timbers with a self-feeding auger bit, do not underestimate the physical
pressure required to maintain control of the tool. Such work calls for a heavy-duty, lowrpm drill, ½ or ¼ inch in size.

Never attempt to drill heavy timbers by yourself, especially when working on a scaffold
or other work platform. If the self-feeding auger bit digs into a hidden knot or other
obstruction, the sudden torque can twist or wrench your arm and throw you off balance.
Other Materials
 The main hazard in drilling materials other than wood is leaning too heavily on the tool.
This can not only overload and burn out the motor but also cause injury if you are thrown
off balance by the drill suddenly twisting or stopping.

Always use a drill powerful enough for the job and a bit or attachment suited to the size
of the drill and the nature of the work. As at other times, punching a layout hole or drilling
a pilot hole can make the job safer and more efficient.

A drill press stand is ideal for drilling holes in metal accurately and safely. Small pieces
can be clamped in a vise and bolted to the table. This prevents the work piece from
spinning when the drill penetrates the metal.

A drill press can also be used for cutting large holes in wood with a hole saw or speed
bit. The stability of the press and the operator’s control over cutting speed eliminate
sudden torque.
13.4.3.5 Planes
Electric planes are available in various types and sizes, and are operated in similar ways.
Depending on specific features adjustments between models may differ.
Planes may be equipped with:

outfeed tables (back shoes) that are either fixed or movable;

infeed tables (front shoes) that move straight up and down or move up and down on an
angle to keep the gap between cutter head and table as small as possible; or

cutter heads with two or more straight blades (also called knives or cutter blades) or
cutter heads with two curved blades.
Never operate an electric plane while wearing a scarf, open jacket, or other loose clothing. Keep
long hair tied up. Always wear eye protection and practice good housekeeping.
Standard Plane
 Hold with both hands to avoid contact with cutter blades.

Always keep both hands on the plane until motor stops.

Use the edge guide to direct the plane along the desired cut. Never try to guide the
plane with your fingers. If the plane runs into an obstruction or starts to vibrate, your
fingers can slide into the unprotected cutter head.
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Block Plane (Electric)
Designed for use on small surfaces, the block plane is operated with only one hand. It is more
dangerous than the larger, standard plane.
You may tend to support the work with one hand while operating the block plane with the other.
Any unexpected twist or movement can force the plane or the material to kick back and injure
you. Keep your free hand well out of the way, in case the plane slips accidentally.
Maintaining Blades
 To avoid striking staples, nails, sand, or other foreign objects, make sure the work is free
of obstructions.

Keep blades in good condition and sharp. A sharp blade is safer to use than a dull blade
that requires more pressure. A dull blade will float over the work and can bounce off,
causing injury.

Use a fine-grit oilstone when sharpening blades. Blades can be re-sharpened several
times if they are not nicked or cracked.
Changing Blades
Time and patience is required when raising or replacing cutter blades. Blades must be the same
weight and seated at the same height to prevent the cutter head from vibrating. Any deviation
can cause the head to run off balance. Blades can fly out and injure you or fellow workers.
Removing Blades
 Disconnect the plane from the power source.

Turn the plane upside down and secure it in a fixed position.

Hold the cylinder head stationary by tapping a softwood wedge between the cutterhead
and the bearing (some tools are equipped with a locking device).

Loosen all the screws and lift out one blade and throat piece.

Turn the cutter head and repeat this procedure with other blades.

If necessary, clean parts thoroughly with recommended solvent
Installing Blades
 Replace one throat piece and blade.

Tighten the two end screws lightly.

Take a hardwood straight edge and use the outfeed table (back shoe) as a gauge. Raise
or lower the blade until both ends are level with the outfeed table at the blade’s highest
point of revolution.

Tighten up the remaining screws.

Set the rest of the blades in the same way.

Turn the cylinder head and make sure that all blades are the same height.

Tighten up all the screws.

Double-check the height of all blades. Tightening can sometimes shift the set.

Double-check all the screws.
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
Turn the tool right side up and plug it in.

Hold the tool in both hands with the cutter blades facing away from you and switch it on.
Operation
 Always disconnect the plane from the power source before adjusting or changing blades
or the cutter head.

For safe operation make sure that blades (at their highest point of revolution) are exactly
flush with the outfeed table.

Make sure to support work securely for safety and accuracy.

Use a jack (e.g. when planing doors and large pieces of plywood) to secure material and
keep edges clear of dirt and grit.

When using an electric block plane, clamp or fasten the workpiece whenever possible.
Keep your free hand well away from plane and material.

When using the standard power plane, adjust edge guide to desired guidance.

Adjust depth of cut to suit the type and width of wood to be planed.

To start a cut, rest the infeed table (front shoe) firmly on the material with cutter head
slightly behind the edge of the material. After finishing a cut, hold both hands on the
plane until motor stops.
13.4.3.6 Radial Arm Saws
The motor and blade of the radial arm saw are suspended above the table. Because the motor
and blade assembly can be locked in different positions and can travel during the cut, you must
pay special attention to keeping fingers and hands clear.
Injuries involving radial arm saws tend to be serious. By using appropriate guards and
procedures, however, you can safely use the saw for crosscuts, miter cuts, ripping, and dadoes.
Set-Up
 The saw must be adequately powered for the work.

The saw should be installed in a well-lit area out of the way of traffic, with enough space
to store and handle long lengths of wood. Locating the machine with its back to a wall or
partition can help to keep flying pieces from hitting anyone.

Where possible, mark the floor with yellow warning lines to keep other personnel back
from the saw.

Make sure all safety guards and devices are in place.

Choose the right blade for the job. A sharp tungsten carbide combination blade is good
for both crosscutting and ripping without frequent re-sharpening.
General Procedures
 Follow basic saw safety.

If you don’t have someone to help with long stock, use a roller stand or extension table
to support the work.

Always return the motor head to the column stop.
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
When crosscutting or mitering, keep hands at least six inches away from the blade. Do
not adjust length of cut until the motor is back at column.

Slope the table top back slightly to keep the blade at the column, thereby preventing
contact with stock being placed in position.

Do not allow the blade to cut too quickly when crosscutting or mitering.

Avoid drawing the blade completely out of the cut. The cut piece, whether large or small,
often moves. When the saw is rolled back towards the column, the teeth can grab the
piece and shoot it in any direction.

Do not cut by pushing the saw away from you into the stock. The material can lift up and
fly over the fence.
Ripping and Crosscutting
 For regular ripping, turn the motor away from the column to the in-rip position. Feed
stock into the saw from the right side.

To cut wide stock, change the saw to the out-rip position. Feed stock into the saw from
the left side. Remember – the blade must turn up and toward you when feeding the
stock.

Do not force the cut. Allow the blade through the wood at its own pace.

To avoid kickback, take the following precautions:

Maintain proper alignment of blade with fence.

Adjust anti-kickback device to ⅛ inch below the surface of stock being fed.

Use a sharp blade, free of gum deposits and with teeth properly set.

When binding occurs, stop saw and open kerf with a wedge.

After completing cut, remove stock from rotating blade to prevent overheating and
possible kickback.

Always push stock all the way through past the blade.

Do not leave machine with motor running.

Use a push stick when ripping narrow pieces. Have suitably sized and shaped
pushsticks for other jobs as well. See information on pushsticks and feather boards
under Table Saws.
Jigs
The control provided by a well-made jig is essential for making irregular cuts safely and
accurately.
Keep commonly used jigs on hand. Jigs such as those for making stair and doorframe wedges
and tapers are designed to carry stock past the blade with the saw locked in the rip position.
When you are drawing the saw into the stock, clamp or nail jigs to the table to prevent slipping.
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Re-Sawing With Blade Horizontal
The rip fence on the radial arm saw is too low for supporting material to be re-sawn on edge.
Therefore the material must be laid flat on the table and the motor must be turned so the blade
is parallel to the table. The closeness of the arbor requires an auxiliary table top and fence to resaw thin stock.
Because the kickback fence can’t be used and controlling stock is sometimes difficult, re-sawing
on the radial arm saw can be hazardous.
If no other equipment is available, rip the stock halfway through, then turn it around and
complete the cut.
On the second cut, be sure to push the two halves well past the blade once they have been cut
apart. Pushsticks and featherboards clamped to the table can reduce hazards.
Dadoes
A dado head is an essential tool for cutting grooves, rabbets, and dadoes. A groove is cut with
the grain; a dado is cut across the grain; and a rabbet is a shoulder cut along the edge of a
board.
The most common dado head consists of two outside cutters and several inside chippers
between the outside cutters.
Another type is sometimes called a quick-set dado, consisting of four tapered washers and a
blade. By rotating the locking washers, the blade will oscillate and cut a groove to the desired
width.
Because of their small size, dado heads do not run at the peripheral feed speed on a big radial
arm saw. As a result, the blade feeds itself too fast, either stopping the motor or lifting the work
and throwing it back. To prevent this, make several light passes, lowering the dado head ⅛ to ¼
inch each time.
Dado heads require guards for safety. Always make sure guards are in place before starting
work.
Proper rotation of the teeth is up and toward you.
Other Accessories
Rotary accessories of various types are advertized as turning the radial arm saw into a
multifunction machine.
Remember that the saw has its limitations.
Possible problems include the following:
 Shaper heads run too slow for safe and smooth work.

Grinding stones may run too fast or slow and are not recommended.

Sanding drums tend to run too fast and may burn the wood.
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13.4.3.7 Routers
With special guides and bits, the portable electric router can be used to cut dadoes, grooves,
mortises, dovetail joints, moldings, and internal or external curves. Routers are especially useful
for mortising stair stringers and recessing hinges and lockplates on doors. The router motor
operates at very high speed (up to 25,000 rpm) and turns clockwise.

When starting a router with a trigger switch in the handle, keep both hands on the tool to
absorb the starting torque.

When starting a router with a toggle switch on top of the motor, hold the router firmly with
one hand and switch on power with the other, then put both hands on the tool for control
and accuracy.

Always wear eye protection. Hearing protection may also be required. Remember, the
speed and power of a router requires that it be operated with both hands.
Operation
 Always support and secure the work in a fixed position by mechanical means such as a
vise or clamps. Never try to hold the work down with your hand or knee. Never rely on a
second person to hold the material. Human grip is no match for the torque and kickback
that a router can generate.

Make sure that the bit is securely mounted in the chuck and the base is tight.

Set the base on the work, template, or guide and make sure that the bit can rotate freely
before switching on the motor.

For work along edges such as bevels and moldings, make sure that the cutting edge of
the router bit contacts the material to the left of the cutting direction.

Otherwise the router will kick back or fly away from you.

When routing outside edges, guide the router around the work counter-clockwise.
Splinters left at corners by routing across the grain will be removed by the next pass with
the grain.

Feed the router bit into the material at a firm but controllable speed. There is no rule on
how fast to cut. When working with softwood, the router can sometimes be moved as
fast as it can go. Cutting may be very slow, however, with hardwood, knotty or twisted
wood, and larger bits.

Listen to the motor. When the router is fed into the material too slowly, the motor makes
a high-pitched whine. Push too hard and the motor makes a low growling noise. Forcing
the tool can cause burnout or kickback. Cutting through knots may cause slowdown or
kickback.

When the type of wood or size of bit requires going slow, make two or more passes to
prevent the router from burning out or kicking back.

If you are not sure about depth of cut or how many passes to make, test the router on a
piece of scrap similar to the work.

When the cut is complete, switch off power and keep both hands on the router until the
motor stops. In lifting the tool from the work, avoid contact with the bit.
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13.4.3.8 Saber, Scroll and Jigsaws
The saber saw, or portable jigsaw is designed for cutting external or internal contours. The saw
should not be used for continuous or heavy cutting that can be done more safely and efficiently
with a circular saw.
The stroke of the saber saw is about ½ inch for the light duty model and about ¼ inch for the
heavy duty model.
The one-speed saw operates at approximately 2,500 strokes per minute. The variable-speed
saw can operate from one to 2,500 strokes per minute.
The reciprocating saw is a heavier type of saber saw with a larger and more rugged blade. The
tool is often used by drywall and acoustical workers to cut holes in ceilings and walls. Equipped
with a small swivel base, the saw can be used in corners or free-hand in hard-to-reach places.
The reciprocating saw must be held with both hands to absorb vibration and to avoid accidental
contact.
Eye protection is a must. You may also need respiratory protection.
Choosing the Proper Blade
Various blades, ranging from 7 to 32 teeth per inch, are available for cutting different materials.
For the rough cutting of stock such as softwood and composition board, a blade with 7 teeth per
inch will cut the fastest. For all-round work with most types of wood, a blade with 10 teeth per
inch is satisfactory.
Cutting
The saber saw cuts on the upstroke. Splintering will therefore occur on the top side of the
material being cut. Consequently, the good side should be facing down. The degree of
splintering depends on the type of blade, the vibration of the material, and the feed of the saw.
To avoid vibration, the material should be clamped or otherwise secured and supported as close
to the cutting line as possible. If the material vibrates excessively or shifts during cutting, the
saw can run out of control, damaging the blade and injuring the operator.

Before starting a cut make sure that the saw will not contact clamps, the vise,
workbench, or other support.

Never reach under the material being cut.

Never lay down the saw until the motor has stopped.

Do not try to cut curves so tight that the blade will twist and break.
 Always hold the base or shoe of the saw in firm contact with the material being cut.
Note: When sawing into floors, ceilings, or walls, always check for plumbing and wiring.
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External Cut
To start an external cut (from the outside in), place the front of the shoe on the material. Make
sure that the blade is not in contact with the material or the saw will stall when the motor starts.
Hold the saw firmly and switch it on. Feed the blade slowly into the material and maintain an
even pressure. When the cut is complete, do not lay down the saw until the motor has stopped.
Inside Cuts
To start an inside cut (pocket cut), first drill a lead hole slightly larger than the saw blade. With
the saw switched off, insert the blade into the hole until the shoe rests firmly on the material. Do
not let the blade touch the material until the saw has been switched on.
It is possible to start an inside cut without drilling a lead hole first — but only when it’s absolutely
necessary. To do this, rest the front edge of the shoe on the material with the saw tipped
backward. Keep the blade out of contact with the material.
Switch on the saw and slowly feed the blade into the material while lowering the back edge of
the shoe. When the shoe rests flat on the material and the blade is completely through, proceed
with the cut. Any deviation from this procedure can cause the blade to break and injure the
operator or workers nearby.
Never try to insert a blade into, or withdraw a blade from, a cut or a lead hole while the motor is
running. Never reach under the material being cut.
13.4.3.9 Table Saws
Types
The table saw most often used in construction is the 10-inch belt-driven tilting arbor saw. The
dimension refers to the diameter of the saw blade recommended by the manufacturer.
Although some saws are direct-drive, with the blade mounted right on the motor arbor, most are
belt-driven.
Both types are equipped with a fixed table top and an arbor that can be raised, lowered, or tilted
to one side for cutting at different depths and angles.
Basket Guards
Basket guards may be fastened to the splitter or hinged to either side of the saw on an Lshaped or S-shaped arm.
Basket guards can protect the operator from sawdust, splinters, and accidental contact with the
blade. Keep the basket guard in place for normal operations such as straight and bevel ripping
and miter cutting. When the guard is removed to permit cutting of tenons, finger joints, rabbets,
and similar work, use accessories such as feather boards, holding jigs, push sticks, and saw
covers.
Some split basket guards have a see-through cover. One side can be moved sideways for a
blade tilted to 45 degrees.
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One side can be lifted up while the other remains as a protective cover.
Sheet metal baskets fastened to the splitter are less effective because you cannot see the saw
blade.
Kickback
Kickback occurs when stock binds against the saw blade.
The blade can fire the wood back at you with tremendous force, causing major injuries to
abdomen, legs, and hands.

Never stand directly behind the blade when cutting. Stand to one side. See that other
workers stand clear as well.

Make sure the rip fence is aligned for slightly more clearance behind the blade than in
front. This will help prevent binding.

Use a sharp blade with teeth properly set for the wood being cut. A dull or badly
gummed blade will cause friction, overheating, and binding.

Install a splitter to keep the kerf (cut) open behind the blade. Also effective are antikickback fingers attached to the splitter.
Splitters
Splitters prevent the kerf from closing directly behind the blade. Ideally, they should be slightly
thinner than the saw blade and manufactured from high tensile steel. Splitters are not always
needed with carbide-tipped saw blades, whose relatively wide kerf may provide the desirable
clearance. A wide kerf alone, however, is often not enough to keep some boards from closing
behind the cut and binding against the blade.
In general, it is impossible to predict how a board will behave during ripping. It may remain
straight, presenting no problems. On the other hand, the release of internal stresses may make
the two ripped portions behind the blade either close up or spread apart.
Disappearing splitters with anti-kickback fingers can be pushed down when in the way of a
workpiece and pulled up if necessary after the machine has been shut off.
Roller Stand
You risk injury when you try to maintain control over long pieces of stock single-handedly,
especially if the stock begins to bind on the blade and kick back.
A roller stand provides the needed support. Adjust it to a height slightly lower than the saw table
to allow for sagging of the material. Be sure to set up the stand so the roller axis is at 90
degrees to the blade. Otherwise, the roller could pull the stock off to one side and cause
binding.
Whatever the design, a support stand should be standard equipment in every carpentry and
millwork shop. It can be used as an extension to a workbench, jointer, or bandsaw and is
especially important with the table saw.
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Extensions
Made of wood or metal, table top extensions installed behind and to both sides of the machine
can make the cutting of large sheets of plywood and long stock safer and more efficient.
In most cases a space must be provided between extension and saw top for adjusting the
basket guard and allowing scrap to fall clear.
Blades
Table saw blades are basically similar to those for circular saws. The teeth on carbide-tipped,
hollow-ground, and taper blades do not need setting.
Blade Adjustment
Proper adjustment of cutting depth holds blade friction to a minimum, removes sawdust from the
cut, and results in cool cutting.
Sharp blades with properly set teeth will keep the work from binding and the blade from
overheating and kicking back.
The blade should project the depth of one full tooth above the material to be cut. When using
carbide-tipped blades or miter blades only half a tooth should project above the material.
Blade Speed
The right cutting speed is important. The blade should turn at the correct rpm to yield the
recommended cutting speed.
When not in motion, saw blades, especially large blades, are usually not perfectly flat because
of internal tensions. At the right operating speeds, however, the blades straighten out as a result
of centrifugal force and cut smoothly at full capacity.
Blades running too fast or too slow tend to start wobbling either before or during a cut. If cutting
continues, the blade will overheat and may cause kickback, damage the equipment, and injure
the operator.
Rip Fence
The rip fence is used mainly to guide the stock and maintain correct width of cut. The fence on
small saws is usually clamped down at both the front and back of the table by pushing down a
lever or turning a knob. Adjust the fence slightly wider at the back to let the wood spread out
behind the cut and reduce the risk of kickback.
You can add a piece of hardwood to the rip fence in order to rip thin pieces of wood and make
dadoes and rabbets. The auxiliary fence can be set close to the cutters without the risk of
contact between the blade and the steel fence.
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Pushsticks and Feather Boards
Narrow pieces can be cut safely and efficiently with the help of pushsticks, which should be
painted or otherwise marked to prevent loss.
To rip narrow, short pieces, a push block is the right choice. The shoe holds the material down
on the table while the heel moves the stock forward and keeps it from kicking back.
Different designs of pushsticks are required for cutting different kinds of stock.
The heel of the pushstick should be deep enough to prevent it from slipping and strong enough
to feed the stock through the saw.
You can also use one or two feather boards to rip narrow stock safely. A feather board clamped
immediately in front of the saw blade will provide side pressure to the stock without causing
binding and kickback. Use a push block to feed stock all the way through.
Operation
 Follow basic saw safety.

Keep the floor around the saw clear of scrap and sawdust to prevent slipping and
tripping.

Always stop the machine before making adjustments. Before making major adjustments,
always disconnect the main power supply.

Select a sharp blade suitable for the job.

Use the safety devices such as pushsticks and feather boards.

Make sure nobody stands in line with a revolving blade.

Don’t let anyone or anything distract you when you are operating the saw.

Whenever possible, keep your fingers folded in a fist rather than extended as you feed
work into the saw.

Never reach around, over, or behind a running blade to control the stock.

Follow the manufacturer’s recommendations in matching the motor size to the saw.
Underpowered saws can be unsafe.

Table saws should be properly grounded. Check the power supply for ground and
always use a ground fault circuit interrupter. This is mandatory for saws used outdoors
or in wet locations.

Table saws should be equipped with an on-off switch so power can be shut off quickly in
an emergency.

A magnetic starter switch is preferable to a mechanical toggle because it prevents the
saw from starting up again unexpectedly after an interruption in power.

When purchasing a new table saw, try to get one equipped with an electric brake. The
brake stops blade rotation within seconds of the operator turning off the saw. The
reduced risk of injury is worth the extra cost.

Extension cords should be of sufficient wire gauge for the voltage and amperage
required by the saw and for the length of the run.
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13.4.4
Pneumatic Tools

Eye protection is required, and head and face protection is recommended for employees
working with pneumatic tools.

Screens must also be set up to protect nearby workers from being struck by flying
fragments around chippers, riveting guns, staplers, or air drills.

Pneumatic power tools shall be secured to the hose or whip by some positive means to
prevent the tool from becoming accidentally disconnected.

All pneumatically driven nailers, staplers, and other similar equipment provided with
automatic fastener feed, which operate at more than 100 p.s.i. pressure at the tool shall
have a safety device on the muzzle to prevent the tool from ejecting fasteners, unless
the muzzle is in contact with the work surface.

Compressed air shall not be used for cleaning purposes except where reduced to less
than 30 p.s.i. and then only with effective chip guarding and appropriate personal
protective equipment. The 30 p.s.i. requirement does not apply for concrete form, mill
scale and similar cleaning purposes.

Compressed air guns should never be pointed toward anyone. Workers should never
“dead-end” them against themselves or anyone else. A chip guard must be used when
compressed air is used for cleaning.

The manufacturer’s safe operating pressure for hoses, pipes, valves, filters, and other
fittings shall not be exceeded.

Replace worn-out absorption pads and springs. Too much vibration of the tool can
damage nerves in fingers, hands, and other body parts. This is called “white finger
disease” or Raynaud’s Syndrome.

Some tools have a high decibel rating – for instance, jack hammers and impact drills. To
prevent hearing loss, always wear hearing protection.

Never tamper with safety devices.

Keep hands away from discharge area – on nailers in particular.

Match the speed rating of saw blades, grinding wheels, cut-off wheels, etc. to tool speed.
Too fast or too slow a rotation can damage the wheels, release fragments, and injure
workers.

Never use air to blow dust or dirt out of work clothes. Compressed air can enter the skin
and bloodstream with deadly results.

Turn off the pressure to hoses when the system is not in use.

Turn off the air pressure when changing pneumatic tools or attachments.

Most air-powered tools need very little maintenance. At the end of the shift, put a
teaspoon of oil in the air inlet and run the tool for a second or two to protect against rust.

Dust, moist air, and corrosive fumes can damage the equipment. An inline regulator filter
and lubricator will extend tool life.
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
Before start-up, check the couplings and fittings, blow out the hose to remove moisture
and dirt, and clean the nipple before connecting the tool. Set the air pressure according
to the manufacturer’s specifications and open gradually.

Compressed air can be dangerous.

Safety clips or retainers shall be securely installed and maintained on pneumatic impact
(percussion) tools to prevent attachments from being accidentally expelled.
Air-powered tools include:





jack hammers
chipping hammers
drills
grinders
sanders





staplers
framing nailers
wrenches
brad nailers
winches





air nozzles
saws
buffers
impact tools
sprayers
13.4.4.1 Airhose
Hose and hose connections used for conducting compressed air to utilization equipment shall
be designed for the pressure and service to which they are subjected.
The use of hoses for hoisting or lowering tools shall not be permitted.
All hoses exceeding ½-inch inside diameter shall have a safety device at the source of supply or
branch line to reduce pressure in case of hose failure.
Make sure hoses are clear of traffic and pose no tripping hazards.
Never “kink” a hose to stop air flow.
Hazards
Air embolism: This is the most serious hazard, since it can lead to death. If compressed air
from a hose or nozzle enters even a tiny cut on the skin, it can form a bubble in the bloodstream
– with possible fatal results.
Physical damage: Compressed air directed at the body can easily cause injuries – including
damage to eyes and ear drums.
Flying particles: Compressed air at only 40 pounds per square inch can accelerate debris to
well over 70 miles per hour when it is used to blow off dust, metal shavings, or wood chips.
These particles then carry enough force to penetrate the skin.
WARNING: Make sure that air pressure is set at a suitable level for the tool or equipment being
used. Before changing or adjusting pneumatic tools, turn off air pressure.
13.4.4.2 Abrasive Blast Cleaning Nozzles
The blast cleaning nozzles shall be equipped with an operating valve which must be held open
manually. A support shall be provided on which the nozzle may be mounted when it is not in
use.
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13.4.4.3 Airless Spray Guns
Airless spray guns of the type which atomize paints and fluids at high pressures (1,000 pounds
or more per square inch) shall be equipped with automatic or visible manual safety devices
which will prevent pulling of the trigger to prevent release of the paint or fluid until the safety
device is manually released.
In lieu of the above, a diffuser nut which will prevent high pressure, high velocity release, while
the nozzle tip is removed, plus a nozzle tip guard which will prevent the tip from coming into
contact with the operator, or other equivalent protection, shall be provided.
13.4.4.4 Jackhammers
Use of heavy jackhammers can cause fatigue and strains. Heavy rubber grips reduce these
effects by providing a secure handhold. Workers operating a jackhammer must wear safety
glasses and safety shoes that protect them against injury if the jackhammer slips or falls. A face
shield also should be used.
Working with noisy tools such as jackhammers requires proper, effective use of appropriate
hearing protection.
13.4.5
Fuel-Powered Tools
All fuel powered tools shall be stopped while being refueled, serviced, or maintained, and fuel
shall be transported, handled, and stored in accordance with OSHA regulations.
When fuel powered tools are used in enclosed spaces, OSHA requirements for concentrations
of toxic gases and use of personal protective equipment, shall apply.
13.4.5.1 Chainsaws
Each year in The United States, construction workers are injured while using chainsaws.
Generally the injuries result from two types of accidents:
 The operator makes accidental contact with the revolving chain
 The operator is struck by the object being cut, usually a tree or heavy limb.
Many of these injuries are serious. While the chainsaw is relatively easy to operate, it can be
lethal. As with all high-speed cutting tools, it demands the full attention of even the trained and
experienced operator.
Requirements
Chainsaws can be powered by electric motors or gasoline engines. Both saws are designed to
provide fast cutting action with a minimum of binding in the cut, even though wood may be sapfilled or wet. Both afford about the same performance in terms of horsepower and they are
equipped with similar controls and safety devices.
Regulations require that chainsaws used in construction must be equipped with a chain brake.
Make sure that the saw is equipped with a chain brake mechanism, and not simply a hand
guard, which is similar in appearance.
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Regulations also require that chainsaws used in construction must be equipped with “antikickback” chains. These chains incorporate design features intended to minimize kickback while
maintaining cutting performance
Protective Clothing & Equipment
 Eye protection in the form of plastic goggles is recommended. A faceshield attached to
the hard hat will not provide the total eye protection of close-fitting goggles.

Leather gloves offer a good grip on the saw, protect the hands, and absorb some
vibration. Gloves with ballistic nylon reinforcement on the back of the hand are
recommended.

Since most chainsaws develop a high decibel rating (between 95 and 115 dBA
depending on age and condition), adequate hearing protection must be worn, especially
during prolonged exposure.

Trousers or chaps with sewn-in ballistic nylon pads provide excellent protection,
particularly for the worker who regularly uses a chainsaw.
Kickback
Kickback describes the violent motion of the saw that can result when a rotating chain is
unexpectedly interrupted.
The cutting chain’s forward movement is halted and energy is transferred to the saw, throwing it
back from the cut toward the operator.
The most common and probably most violent kickback occurs when contact is made in the
“kickback zone”.
Contact in this zone makes the chain bunch up and try to climb out of the track. This most often
happens when the saw tip makes contact with something beyond the cutting area such as a tree
branch, log, or the ground.
To minimize the risk of kickback:
 use a low-profile safety chain;

run the saw at high rpm when cutting;

sharpen the chain to correct specifications;

set depth gauges to manufacturers’ settings;

maintain correct chain tension;

hold the saw securely with both hands;

don’t operate the saw when you are tired;

know where the bar tip is at all times;

don’t allow the cut to close on the saw; and

make sure the chain brake is functioning.
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Starting
When starting, hold the saw firmly on the ground or other level support with the chain pointing
away from your body and nearby obstructions. Use a quick, sharp motion on the starter pull.
Never “drop start” the saw.
This leaves only one hand to control a running saw and has resulted in leg cuts. Use the proper
grip.
Site Hazards
 Take extra care when making pocket cuts. Start the cut with the underside of the chain
tip, then work the saw down and back to avoid contact with the kickback zone. Consider
an alternative such as a saber saw.

Be particularly careful to avoid contact with nails, piping, and other metallic objects. This
is especially important when making a pocket cut through framing lumber such as a
subfloor or when cutting used lumber such as trench shoring, lagging, or blocking
timbers.
 Use chainsaws to cut wood only. They are not designed to cut other materials.
When using a chainsaw to trim rafter ends, take the following steps to avoid injury:
 Cut down from the top of the rafter. Don’t cut from underneath.

Use a harness, lanyard, and lifeline to prevent falls or work from a secure scaffold at
eaves level.

The extension cord on an electric chainsaw should be secured on the roof above the
operator with enough working slack. This will prevent the weight of a long cord from
pulling the operator off balance.

Keep both hands firmly on the saw.
Maintenance
Well-maintained cutting components are essential for safe operation. A dull or improperly filed
chain will increase the risk of kickback.

Inspect and maintain your saw according to the manufacturer’s recommendations
regarding chain tension, wear, replacement, etc. Check for excessive chain wear and
replace chain when required. Worn chains may break!
 Select the proper size files for sharpening the chain.
Two files are necessary:
 Flat: for adjusting depth gauge
 Round: for sharpening cutters and maintaining drive links.
You must choose the correct round file for your chain to avoid damaging the cutters. Consult the
owner’s manual or the supplier to be sure of file size.
A round file used in combination with a file holder or a precision filing guide will give the best
results.
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Adjusting Chain Tension
 Follow the manufacturer’s instructions on chain tension. In general, the chain should
move easily around the bar by hand without showing noticeable sag at the bottom.

Be generous with chain lubricating oil. It is almost impossible to use too much. Most late
model saws have automatic oilers. But operators must still remember to fill the chain-oil
reservoir.
13.4.5.2 Quick-Cut Saws
Hand-held portable circular cut-off saws are commonly known as “quick-cut saws” in
construction. They are widely used for cutting concrete, masonry products, sheet metal products
(both steel and aluminum), and light steel sections such as angles and channels.
Hazards
Quick-cut saws are high-powered compared to similar tools. Hazards include high-speed blade
rotation, blade exposure during operation, and exhaust from the internal combustion engine (the
usual power source).
The saws also create clouds of dust when dry-cutting masonry and showers of hot sparks when
cutting metal products, especially steel.
These hazards can result in cuts, kickbacks, exposure to carbon monoxide fumes, exposure to
dusts (silica from concrete and masonry products in particular), burns, flying particles hitting the
eye, and other injuries from flying material when work is not secured for cutting or when blades
fly apart.
These hazards can be controlled by:
 Using quick-cut saws properly and wearing the right protective equipment such as eye,
hearing, and respiratory protection as well as face shields and gloves

Keeping saws in good working condition, equipped with proper blades or disks, and
used with all guards in place

Securing work to keep it from shifting during cutting

Being cautious around sharp edges left by cuts
Training
Instruct workers in the care, maintenance, and operation of quick-cut saws. Read and
understand the operating manual, review the major points.
The operating manual should be available on the job, not only for instruction but for ready
reference if something goes wrong with the saw or it must be used for work outside the
operator’s experience.
Time spent on instruction will reduce accidents and injuries as well as prolong the service life of
the saw.
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As a minimum you should know:
 care of the saw;

installing disks and blades;

mixing fuel and fueling the saw;

starting the saw;

supporting and securing work to be cut;

proper cutting stance and grip;

proper cutting techniques for different material;

respiratory protection against dusts; and

how to inspect and store abrasive disks.
Care
Quick-cut saws must be serviced and maintained in accordance with the manufacturers’
instructions.
Replacement parts should be those recommended by the manufacturer.
Cracked, broken, or worn parts should be replaced before the saw is used again. Guards and
air-intakes should be cleaned regularly and often. Abrasive disks should be checked before
installation and frequently during use. Correct any excessive blade vibration before trying to
make a cut.
In confined areas, make sure that ventilation is adequate. Gasoline-driven saws release carbon
monoxide gas — odorless, colorless, and highly toxic.
Starting
Most of the following procedures are for gasoline-powered quick-cut saws:
 Use caution when preparing the oil/gasoline mixture and when fuelling the saw. No
smoking or ignition sources should be allowed in the area where fuel is mixed or tanks
are filled.

Fill the tank outdoors in a well-ventilated space at least 10 feet from the area where the
saw will be used. Spilled fuel should be wiped off the saw.

Avoid fuelling the saw on or near formwork. Gasoline spills are a fire hazard. Use a
funnel to avoid spills.

Do not overfill the saw or run it without securing the fuel tank cap. Gasoline seeping from
the tank can saturate your clothing and be ignited by sparks thrown off from metal
cutting. The only cap to use is one supplied by the manufacturer.

Check the saw for leaks. Sometimes vibration makes gas lines leak.

Start the saw in an area clear of people and obstacles. Under no circumstances should
anyone be standing in front of the saw as it starts or while it’s running.

Put the saw on a smooth hard surface for starting.

The guard should be properly set for the type of cut beforehand.
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
Assume a solid well-balanced stance. Do not wrap the starter cord around your hand —
this can cause injury.

Set one foot on the rear handle, put one hand on the top handle to lift the blade off the
surface, and use the other hand to pull the starter cord. Warning: Always shut off saw
before fuelling. Keep fuel container clear of work area. Once the saw is running, release
the throttle and make sure the engine drops to idle without the disk or blade moving.

Run the engine at full throttle and let the disk or blade run freely to make sure it turns on
the arbor without wobbling or vibrating.
Support
One of the major hazards with quick-cut saws is failure to support and secure the work to be
cut.
The saw is powerful enough to throw material around unless it is securely held and supported.
Standing on material to hold it down is not recommended.
For repeated cuts of masonry or metal pieces, a jig is ideal for efficiency and safety. The jig
should be designed and built to hold material in place after measurement without further manual
contact.
Stance and Grip
The quick-cut saw is a heavy, powerful tool that must be held by hand.
Operators need a secure stance with legs apart for balance and support. The saw should be
held at a comfortable, balanced location in front of you.
Grip the saw firmly with one hand on each handle. Hold your forward arm straight to keep the
saw from kicking back or climbing out of the cut.
Cutting
Although skill in handling the quick-cut saw can only be learned through practice, some safety
considerations and operating techniques must always be kept in mind, even by the most
experienced operators.
Work should be supported so that the disk or blade will not bind in the cut. Support heavy
materials on both sides of the cut so the cut piece will not drop or roll onto the operator’s foot.
Light materials can generally be allowed to fall. In all cases the cut should be as close as
possible to the supporting surface.
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Kickback and Pull-In
Kickback can happen extremely fast and with tremendous power. If a segment of the disk or
blade contacts the work, the disk or blade starts to climb out of the cut and can throw the saw
up and back toward you with great force.

For cutting, keep the throttle wide open. Ease the blade down onto the cut line. Don’t
drop or jam the blade down hard. Move the saw slowly back and forth in the cut.

Hold the saw so that disk or blade is at right angles to the work and use only the cutting
edge of the disk or blade. Never use the side of a disk for cutting. A worn disk will almost
certainly shatter and may cause severe injury.

Beware of blade run-on. The blade may continue to rotate after the cut and run away
with a saw set down too soon.

Don’t force the saw to one side of the cut. This will bend the disk or blade and cause it to
bind, possibly to break.

Water cooling is recommended for cutting masonry materials. It prolongs disk life and
reduces dust exposure.

Keep pressure on the saw reasonably light. Although more pressure may be necessary
for hard materials, it can cause an abrasive disk to chip or go “out of round.”

An “out of round” disk will make the saw vibrate. If lowering the feed pressure does not
stop vibration, replace the disk.

Don’t carry the saw any distance with the engine running. Stop the engine and carry the
saw with the muffler away from you.
To avoid kickback, take the following steps:
 Secure and support the material at a comfortable position for cutting. Make sure that
material will not move, shift, or pinch the blade or disk during cutting.

Keep steady balance and solid footing when making a cut.

Do not support the work on or against your foot or leg.

Use both hands to control the saw. Maintain a firm grip with thumb and fingers encircling
the handles.

Never let the upper quarter segment of blade or disk contact the material.

Run the saw at full throttle.

Do not cut above chest height.

When re-entering a cut, do so without causing blade or disk to pinch. Pull-in occurs
when the lower part of the disk or blade is stopped suddenly – for instance, by a cut
closing up and binding. The saw pitches forward and can pull you off balance.
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Protective Equipment
In addition to the standard equipment mandatory on construction sites, operators of quick-cut
saws should wear snug-fitting clothing, hearing protection, eye and face protection, and heavyduty leather gloves.
The dry cutting of masonry or concrete products calls for respiratory protection as well. See the
chapter on Personal Protective Equipment.
For general dust hazards, a half-mask cartridge respirator with NIOSH-approval for dust, mist,
and fumes should provide adequate protection when properly fitted and worn by a clean-shaven
person.
Disks and Blades
Disks and blades are available in three basic types:
 abrasive disks

diamond-tipped blades

carbide-tipped blades
Use only the disks and blades compatible with the saw and rated for its maximum rpm. Blades
or disks may fly apart if their rpm is not matched to saw rpm. If you have any doubts, consult the
operating manual or a reputable supplier.
Abrasive Disks —Types and Uses
Type
Concrete
Metal
Uses
Materials
All-around use, most economical for cutting
concrete and masonry. Water-cooling
recommended to increase disk life and to
reduce dust.
Concrete, stone, masonry products,
Primarily for steel, not suited for masonry
products. Water-cooling is not
recommended with metal abrasive disks
Steel, steel alloys, other hard metals
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cables, hard rubber, plastics
such as cast iron
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Diamond Disks and Blades — Types and Uses
Diamond disks are normally used with water cooling. They are now available for dry cutting,
which may be necessary to avoid staining some masonry products.
When dry-cutting with a diamond blade, let the blade cool for 10-15 seconds every 40-60
seconds. This can be done simply by pulling the saw out of the cut.
Type
Uses
Materials
Diamond
Abrasive
Disk
Cuts faster than other abrasive disks and
creates less dust. Water-cooling is absolutely
necessary to prevent heat build-up that can
make disk disintegrate.
Stone, all masonry and concrete products.
Not recommended for metal
Dry-Cut
Diamond
Blade
Fast cuts, lots of dust, very expensive. Let
blade cool for 10-15 seconds every 40-60
seconds. Continuous cutting will damage the
blade.
Stone, all masonry and concrete products.
Not recommended for metal.
Carbide-Tipped Blades
These blades must be used with care. If a carbide-tipped blade encounters material harder than
what it is designed to cut, the tips may fly off.
A carbide-tipped blade used with a quick-cut saw must be designed for that purpose. It must
also be used only to cut the materials specified by the manufacturer.
Inspection / Installation
 Inspect disks and blades before installing them.

Make sure that contact surfaces are flat, run true on the arbor, and are free of foreign
material.

Check that flanges are the correct size and not warped or sprung. Check the label to
make sure that the disk or blade is approved for use on high-speed quick-cut saws and
has a rated rpm suitable to the saw being used. A periodic service check may be
necessary to ensure that the rpm still meets the manufacturer’s requirement.

Inspect the disk or blade for damage. Abrasive disks tapped lightly with a piece of wood
should ring true. If the sound is dull or flat, the disk is damaged and should be discarded.

Make sure that diamond or carbide tips are all in place. Do not use diamond or carbidetipped blades or disks if any tips are missing.

Do not drop abrasive disks. Discard any disk that has been dropped.

Use the proper bushing on the arbor so that the disk runs true on the shaft without
wobbling or vibrating.

Discard badly worn disks that are uneven or “out of round.”
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13.4.5.3 Power Lawnmowers
Power lawnmowers of the walk-behind, riding-rotary, and reel power lawnmowers shall be
guarded in accordance with the machine guarding requirements in 29 CFR 1910.212, General
requirements for all machines.
All power-driven chains, belts, and gears shall be so positioned or otherwise guarded to prevent
the operator’s accidental contact therewith, during normal starting, mounting, and operation of
the machine.
A shutoff device shall be provided to stop operation of the motor or engine. This device shall
require manual and intentional reactivation to restart the motor or engine.
All positions of the operating controls shall be clearly identified.
The words, "Caution. Be sure the operating control(s) is in neutral before starting the engine," or
similar wording shall be clearly visible at an engine starting control point on self-propelled
mowers.
Walk-Behind & Riding Rotary Mowers
The mower blade shall be enclosed except on the bottom and the enclosure shall extend to or
below the lowest cutting point of the blade in the lowest blade position.
Guards which must be removed to install a catcher assembly shall comply with the following:
Warning instructions shall be affixed to the mower near the opening stating that the mower shall
not be used without either the catcher assembly or the guard in place.
The catcher assembly or the guard shall be shipped and sold as part of the mower.
The instruction manual shall state that the mower shall not be used without either the catcher
assembly or the guard in place.
The catcher assembly, when properly and completely installed, shall not create a condition
which violates the limits given for the guarded opening.
Openings in the blade enclosure, intended for the discharge of grass, shall be limited to a
maximum vertical angle of the opening of 30 deg. Measurements shall be taken from the lowest
blade position.
The total effective opening area of the grass discharge opening(s) shall not exceed 1,000
square degrees on units having a width of cut less than 27½ inches, or 2,000 square degrees
on units having a width of cut 27½ inches or over.
The word "Caution." or stronger wording, shall be placed on the mower at or near each
discharge opening.
Blade(s) shall stop rotating from the manufacturer’s specified maximum speed within 15
seconds after declutching, or shutting off power.
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In a multi-piece blade, the means of fastening the cutting members to the body of the blade or
disc shall be so designed that they will not become worn to a hazardous condition before the
cutting members themselves are worn beyond use.
The maximum tip speed of any blade shall be 19,000 feet per minute.
Walk-Behind Rotary Mowers
The horizontal angle of the opening(s) in the blade enclosure, intended for the discharge of
grass, shall not contact the operator area.
There shall be one of the following at all openings in the blade enclosure intended for the
discharge of grass:
 A minimum unobstructed horizontal distance of 3 inches from the end of the discharge
chute to the blade tip circle.

A rigid bar fastened across the discharge opening, secured to prevent removal without
the use of tools. The bottom of the bar shall be no higher than the bottom edge of the
blade enclosure.
The highest point(s) of the front of the blade enclosure, except discharge openings, shall be
such that any line extending a maximum of 15 deg. downward from the horizontal toward the
blade shaft axis (axes) shall not intersect the horizontal plane within the blade tip circle. The
highest point(s) on the blade enclosure front, except discharge-openings, shall not exceed 1 ¼
inches above the lowest cutting point of the blade in the lowest blade position. Mowers with a
swingover handle are to be considered as having no front in the blade enclosure and therefore
shall comply with paragraph (e)(2)(i) of this section.
The mower handle shall be fastened to the mower so as to prevent loss of control by
unintentional uncoupling while in operation.
A positive upstop or latch shall be provided for the mower handle in the normal operating
position(s). The upstop shall not be subject to unintentional disengagement during normal
operation of the mower. The upstop or latch shall not allow the center or the handle grips to
come closer than 17 inches horizontally behind the closest path of the mower blade(s) unless
manually disengaged.
A swing-over handle, which complies with the above requirements, will be permitted.
Wheel drive disengaging controls, except deadman controls, shall move opposite to the
direction of the vehicle motion in order to disengage the drive. Deadman controls shall
automatically interrupt power to a drive when the operator’s actuating force is removed, and
may operate in any direction to disengage the drive.
Riding Rotary Mowers
The highest point(s) of all openings in the blade enclosure, front shall be limited by a vertical
angle of opening of 15 deg. and a maximum distance of 1¼inches above the lowest cutting
point of the blade in the lowest blade position.
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Opening(s) shall be placed so that grass or debris will not discharge directly toward any part of
an operator seated in a normal operator position.
There shall be one of the following at all openings in the blade enclosure intended for the
discharge of grass:
A minimum unobstructed horizontal distance of 6 inches from the end of the discharge chute to
the blade tip circle.
A rigid bar fastened across the discharge opening, secured to prevent removal without the use
of tools. The bottom of the bar shall be no higher than the bottom edge of the blade enclosure.
Mowers shall be provided with stops to prevent jackknifing or locking of the steering
mechanism.
Vehicle stopping means shall be provided.
Hand-operated wheel drive disengaging controls shall move opposite to the direction of vehicle
motion in order to disengage the drive. Foot-operated wheel drive disengaging controls shall be
depressed to disengage the drive. Deadman controls, both hand and foot operated, shall
automatically interrupt power to a drive when the operator’s actuating force is removed, and
may operate in any direction to disengage the drive.
13.4.6
Hydraulic Tools
The fluid used in hydraulic powered tools shall be fire-resistant fluids approved under Schedule
30 of the U.S. Bureau of Mines, Department of the Interior, and shall retain its operating
characteristics at the most extreme temperatures to which it will be exposed.
The manufacturer’s safe operating pressures for hoses, valves, pipes, filters, and other fittings
shall not be exceeded.
13.4.6.1 Jacks
Loading & Marking
The operator shall make sure that the jack used has a rating sufficient to lift and sustain the
load.
The rated load shall be legibly and permanently marked in a prominent location on the jack by
casting, stamping, or other suitable means.
All jacks shall have a positive stop to prevent overtravel.
Hydraulic jacks exposed to freezing temperatures shall be supplied with an adequate antifreeze
liquid.
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Operation & Maintenance
In the absence of a firm foundation, the base of the jack shall be blocked. If there is a possibility
of slippage of the cap, a block shall be placed in between the cap and the load.
The operator shall watch the stop indicator, which shall be kept clean, in order to determine the
limit of travel. The indicated limit shall not be overrun.
After the load has been raised, it shall be cribbed, blocked, or otherwise secured at once.
Hydraulic jacks exposed to freezing temperatures shall be supplied with an adequate antifreeze
liquid.
All jacks shall be properly lubricated at regular intervals.
Each jack shall be thoroughly inspected at times which depend upon the service conditions.
Inspections shall be not less frequent than the following:
 For constant or intermittent use at one locality, once every 6 months,

For jacks sent out of shop for special work, when sent out and when returned,

For a jack subjected to abnormal load or shock, immediately before and immediately
thereafter.
Repair or replacement parts shall be examined for possible defects.
Jacks which are out of order shall be tagged accordingly, and shall not be used until repairs are
made.
13.4.7
Powder-Actuated/Explosive-Actuated Tools
Explosive-actuated fastening tools that are actuated by explosives or any similar means, and
propel a stud, pin, fastener, or other object for the purpose of affixing it by penetration to any
other object shall meet OSHA design requirements. This requirement does not apply to devices
designed for attaching objects to soft construction materials, such as wood, plaster, tar, dry
wallboard, and the like, or to stud-welding equipment.
Only employees who have been trained in the operation of the particular tool in use shall be
allowed to operate a powder-actuated tool.
Operators and assistants using tools shall be safeguarded by means of eye protection. Head
and face protection shall be used, as required by working conditions.
The tool shall be tested each day before loading to see that safety devices are in proper working
condition. The method of testing shall be in accordance with the manufacturer’s recommended
procedure.
Any tool found not in proper working order, or that develops a defect during use, shall be
immediately removed from service and not used until properly repaired.
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Tools shall not be loaded until just prior to the intended firing time. Neither loaded nor empty
tools are to be pointed at any employees. Hands shall be kept clear of the open barrel end.
Loaded tools shall not be left unattended.
Fasteners shall not be driven into very hard or brittle materials including, but not limited to, cast
iron, glazed tile, surface-hardened steel, glass block, live rock, face brick, or hollow tile.
Driving into materials easily penetrated shall be avoided unless such materials are backed by a
substance that will prevent the pin or fastener from passing completely through and creating a
flying missile hazard on the other side.
No fastener shall be driven into a spalled area caused by an unsatisfactory fastening.
Fasteners should not be fired through pre-drilled holes for two reasons:
 Unless the fastener hits the hole accurately, it will probably shatter the edge.

The fastener derives its holding power from compressing the material around it. A predrilled hole reduces this pressure and therefore the fastener’s holding power. (This is
why studs and pins driven into steel should penetrate completely through the metal.
Otherwise the compressed steel trying to regain its original position can loosen the
fastener by pushing against the point. With the tip completely through the metal the
same pressure only works to squeeze the pin tighter.)
Firing explosive-actuated tools from ladders is not recommended. From a ladder it can be
difficult to press the tool muzzle against the base material with enough pressure to fire. For
tasks overhead or at heights, work from a scaffold or another approved work platform to ensure
solid, balanced footing. As an alternative use a manufacturer’s pole accessory if the reach is
normal ceiling height (8-10 feet). The pole secures the tool and permits firing by the operator
standing below.
Tools shall not be used in an explosive or flammable atmosphere.
All tools shall be used with the correct shield, guard, or attachment recommended by the
manufacturer.
Powder-actuated tools used by employees shall meet all other applicable requirements of
American National Standards Institute, A10.3-1970, Safety Requirements for ExplosiveActuated Fastening Tools.
13.4.7.1 Hazards
Flying Particles – This is the major hazard. On impact, materials may break up, blow apart, or
spall off. This often happens when fasteners are fired too close to a corner of masonry or
concrete or when they strike materials such as glazed tile, hollow tile, or thin marble tile.
Ricochets – These usually result when the tool is not held at right angles to the base material,
or the fastener hits a particularly hard material such as stone or hardened steel. Always check
the base material to ensure that it can safely accept the fastening device.
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Noise – Powder-actuated tools create an extreme pulse of sound when fired. Operators and
others in the area should wear hearing protection – especially when the tool is operated in a
confined space.
Sprains and Strains – These injuries usually result from using the tool repeatedly in awkward,
cramped, or unbalanced positions. You should try to work from a balanced position on a solid
surface.
Explosions – There is always the risk of explosion or fire when the tools are used in
atmospheres contaminated by flammable vapor, mist, or dust. The work area must be ventilated
– mechanically if necessary.
Blow-Through – When the base material does not offer enough resistance, the fastener may
pass completely through and fly out the other side. This is particularly dangerous when
fasteners penetrate walls, floors, or ceilings where others may be working. If necessary, areas
behind, around, and under material should be kept clear of people.
13.4.7.2 Types of Tools
High-Velocity Tools
High-velocity powder-actuated tools use the expanding gases from the exploding cartridge to
propel the fastener. The gases push directly against the fastener. These tools are rarely used in
construction, except in special cases to penetrate thick steel or very hard material — they are
usually used in military, salvage, or underwater applications. No one should operate high
velocity tools without special training.
The muzzle end of the tool shall have a protective shield or guard at least 3 ½ inches in
diameter, mounted perpendicular to and concentric with the barrel, and designed to confine any
flying fragments or particles that might otherwise create a hazard at the time of firing.
Where a standard shield or guard cannot be used, or where it does not cover all apparent
avenues through which flying particles might escape, a special shield, guard, fixture, or jig
designed and built by the manufacturer of the tool being used, which provides this degree of
protection, shall be used as a substitute.
The tool shall be so designed that it cannot be fired unless it is equipped with a standard
protective shield or guard, or a special shield, guard, fixture, or jig.
The firing mechanism shall be so designed that the tool cannot fire during loading or preparation
to fire, or if the tool should be dropped while loaded.
Firing of the tool shall be dependent upon at least two separate and distinct operations of the
operator, with the final firing movement being separate from the operation of bringing the tool
into the firing position.
The tool shall be so designed as not to be operable other than against a work surface, and
unless the operator is holding the tool against the work surface with a force at least 5 pounds
greater than the total weight of the tool.
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The tool shall be so designed that positive means of varying the power are available or can be
made available to the operator as part of the tool, or as an auxiliary, in order to make it possible
for the operator to select a power level adequate to perform the desired work without excessive
force.
The tool shall be so designed that all breeching parts will be reasonably visible to allow a check
for any foreign matter that may be present.
Low-Velocity-Piston Type
Most powder-actuated tools used in construction are low-velocity. The expanding gases from
the exploding cartridge push against a piston which in turn drives the fastener into the base
material.
Many different low-velocity tools are available, from single-shot models to semi-automatic
models using multiple cartridges in strip or disk holders. Some tools are specific to one size of
fastener or type of cartridge. Most can be fitted with various pistons, base plates, spall stops,
and protective shields for different jobs.
The muzzle end of the tool shall be designed so that suitable protective shields, guards, jigs, or
fixtures, designed and built by the manufacturer of the tool being used, can be mounted
perpendicular to the barrel. A standard spall shield shall be supplied with each tool.
The tool shall be designed so that it shall not in ordinary usage propel or discharge a stud, pin,
or fastener while loading or during preparation to fire, or if the tool should be dropped while
loaded.
Firing of the tool shall be dependent upon at least two separate and distinct operations of the
operator, with the final firing movement being separate from the operation of bringing the tool
into the firing position.
The tool shall be so designed as not to be operable other than against a work surface, and
unless the operator is holding the tool against the work surface with a force at least 5 pounds
greater than the total weight of the tool.
The tool shall be so designed that positive means of varying the power are available or can be
made available to the operator as part of the tool, or as an auxiliary, in order to make it possible
for the operator to select a power level adequate to perform the desired work without excessive
force.
The tool shall be so designed that all breeching parts will be reasonably visible to allow a check
for any foreign matter that may be present.
Hammer-Operated Piston Tools
The muzzle end of the tool shall be so designed that suitable protective shields, guards, jigs, or
fixtures, designed and built by the manufacturer of the tool being used, can be mounted
perpendicular to the barrel. A standard spall shield shall be supplied with each tool.
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The tool shall be so designed that it shall not in ordinary usage propel or discharge a stud, pin,
or fastener while loading, or during preparation to fire, or if the tool should be dropped while
loaded.
Firing of the tool shall be dependent upon at least two separate and distinct operations of the
operator, with the final firing movement being separate from the operation of bringing the tool
into the firing position.
The tool shall be so designed that positive means of varying the power are available or can be
made available to the operator as part of the tool, or as an auxiliary, in order to make it possible
for the operator to select a power level adequate to perform the desired work without excessive
force.
The tool shall be so designed that all breeching parts will be reasonably visible to allow a check
for any foreign matter that may be present.
13.4.7.3 Pistons
Specialized pistons are available for different fasteners. Such pistons are designed for the
fastener and should not be used with other types. Misusing a tool with a specialized piston can
result in under- or over-driven fasteners or fasteners leaving the barrel misaligned, leading to
ricochets. Some general-purpose tools can take various types of pistons.
13.4.7.4 Fasteners
Fasteners used with powder-actuated tools are made of special steel to penetrate materials
without breaking or bending. Never use any kind of substitute for a properly manufactured
fastener.
Generally pins and studs should not be used on hard, brittle, or glazed materials such as cast
iron, marble, tiles, and most stone. The fastener will either fail to penetrate and ricochet or the
base material will shatter.
Materials whose hardness or ductility is unknown should be tested first. Try to drive a pin into
the material with a normal hammer. If the pin point is blunted or fails to penetrate at least 1/16", a
powder-actuated tool should not be used.
Fasteners are invariably fitted with a plastic guide device. Its purpose is twofold. When the
fastener is inserted into the barrel the guide keeps the fastener from dropping out. It also aligns
the fastener inside the barrel so it will penetrate the base material at right angles.
Fasteners used in tools shall be only those specifically manufactured for use in such tools.
Pins
Pins are fasteners designed to attach one material to another, such as wood to concrete. They
resemble nails, but there the similarity stops. Ordinary nails cannot be used as fasteners in
powder-actuated tools.
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Head diameters for pins are available between ¼" and ⅜". Lengths vary from ½" to 3".Washers
of various types and diameters are available for different applications.
Pins should be selected for appropriate length, head size, and application. As a general rule,
pins need not be driven into concrete more than 1". Using a longer pin is generally unnecessary
and also requires a stronger cartridge.
Follow the manufacturer’s directions on length, penetration, and appropriate material. For
example, one cut-nail fastener is available for fastening drywall to relatively soft base materials,
but is recommended for virtually no other application. Testing may be necessary on some
masonry materials that vary widely in hardness and durability.
Studs
Studs are fasteners consisting of a shank which is driven into the base material and an exposed
portion to which a fitting or other object can be attached. The exposed portion may be threaded
for attachments made with a nut.
Studs are also available in an eye-pin configuration for running wire through the eye.
Clip Assemblies
Fastening to the base material is done by a pin, but the pin is attached to a clip assembly
configured to secure a uniquely shaped item. Clip assemblies are available, for instance, to hold
conduit. One ceiling configuration comes with pre-tied 12 gauge wire.
13.4.7.5 Cartridges
There shall be a standard means of identifying the power levels of loads used in tools.
No load (cased or caseless) shall be used if it will accurately chamber in any existing approved
commercially available low-velocity piston tool or hammer operated piston tool - low-velocity
type and will cause a fastener to have a mean velocity in excess of 300 feet per second when
measured 6.5 feet from the muzzle end of the barrel. No individual test firing of a series shall
exceed 300 feet per second by more than 8 percent.
Manufacturers recommend certain cartridges for certain applications. Because
recommendations cannot cover every possibility, testing may be required with unfamiliar base
materials.
Cartridges come in .22, .25, and .27 caliber sizes. Larger calibers hold more powder which
drives the fastener further – or into harder base materials. In addition, all three calibers are
available with different levels of powder charge. For some tools there may be as many as six
different powder charges available. Some manufacturers produce tools that use a long-case
version of the .22- caliber cartridge. It is critical that you understand cartridge selection and
cartridge identification systems.
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COLOR
NUMBER
Grey
1
Brown
2
Green
3
Yellow
4
Red
5
Purple
6
CARTRIDGE POWER
Lowest
Highest
Shots may be packaged/loaded as single cartridges, strips of ten in a plastic holder, or a round
disk holding ten cartridges. The tool model will determine the caliber and how the tool is to be
loaded.
Number identifications are printed on the outside of cartridge packages. Cartridge tips are colordipped for identification. Some strip cartridges are held in a plastic strip the same color as the
cartridge tips.
The general rule is to start with the weakest cartridge and increase one cartridge color/load
number at a time to reach the penetration required. Too strong a charge may cause shattering,
ricochets, or blow-through. Too weak a cartridge will keep the fastener from seating itself
properly.
Tool Power Controls
Many tools feature a “power control” device. This allows an operator to make a tool adjustment
so that either all or only part of the available cartridge power is used. Power controls may
ultimately let manufacturers market only one cartridge in each caliber.
The goal would be to handle every application which the caliber is capable of performing with
one cartridge, power-controlled to the appropriate driving force needed.
13.4.7.6 Operating Requirements.
Before using a tool, the operator shall inspect it to determine to his satisfaction that it is clean,
that all moving parts operate freely, and that the barrel is free from obstructions.
When a tool develops a defect during use, the operator shall immediately cease to use it, until it
is properly repaired.
Tools shall not be loaded until just prior to the intended firing time. Neither loaded nor empty
tools are to be pointed at any workmen.
No tools shall be loaded unless being prepared for immediate use, nor shall an unattended tool
be left loaded.
In case of a misfire, the operator shall hold the tool in the operating position for at least 30
seconds. He shall then try to operate the tool a second time. He shall wait another 30 seconds,
holding the tool in the operating position; then he shall proceed to remove the explosive load in
strict accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.
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A tool shall never be left unattended in a place where it would be available to unauthorized
persons.
Tools shall not be used in an explosive or flammable atmosphere.
All tools shall be used with the correct shield, guard, or attachment recommended by the
manufacturer.
Any tool found not in proper working order shall be immediately removed from service. The tool
shall be inspected at regular intervals and shall be repaired in accordance with the
manufacturer’s specifications.
Driving Fasteners
Fasteners shall not be driven into very hard or brittle materials including, but not limited to, cast
iron, glazed tile, surface-hardened steel, glass block, live rock, face brick, or hollow tile.
Driving into materials easily penetrated shall be avoided unless such materials are backed by a
substance that will prevent the pin or fastener from passing completely through and creating a
flying-missile hazard on the other side.
Fasteners shall not be driven directly into materials such as brick or concrete closer than 3
inches from the unsupported edge or corner, or into steel surfaces closer than one-half inch
from the unsupported edge or corner, unless a special guard, fixture, or jig is used. (Exception:
Low-velocity tools may drive no closer than 2 inches from an edge in concrete or one-fourth inch
in steel.)
When fastening other materials, such as a 2- by 4-inch wood section to a concrete surface, it is
permissible to drive a fastener of no greater than 7/32-inch shank diameter not closer than 2
inches from the unsupported edge or corner of the work surface.
Fasteners shall not be driven through existing holes unless a positive guide is used to secure
accurate alignment.
No fastener shall be driven into a spalled area caused by an unsatisfactory fastening.
Fastening Steel
Low-velocity powder-actuated tools should not be used on hardened steels, tool steels, or
spring steels. Where the grade of steel is unknown, test by trying to hammer the fastener in. If
the pin is blunted, bent, or fails to enter at least 1/16", do not use a low-velocity powder actuated
tool – it’s not up to the job.
Don’t try to fire a fastener any closer than ½" to the free edge of steel. Keep in mind that this
applies only to steel. When fastening steel to concrete, you must consider the allowable margin
for concrete as well: 2½".
When fastening two pieces of thin sheet steel to a base material, hold the sheets together. Gaps
caused by bending may lead to ricochets.
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Special spall stops or protective shields are required for applications such as fastening sheet
metal to masonry or sheet metal to structural steel. Consult the operating manual or the
manufacturer to ensure that the right components are being used for the job.
Fastening Concrete and Masonry
Concrete and masonry materials are not always uniform in consistency or hardness. As a result,
they may spall, chip, or cause a ricochet when the fastener strikes a spot or layer harder than
the rest. Use the spall guard recommended by the manufacturer.
Once material is spalled or left with a ricochet hole, do not fire a second pin any closer than 2"
to the damaged area. The area may be weakened and spall further or cause a ricochet off its
sloped edge.
Pins tend to cause breaks near the edges of concrete and masonry. Don’t drive pins closer than
2½" to a free edge.
Misfires
With misfired cartridges, follow the procedures stated in the operating manual for the tool you
are using. Because of the wide variety of tools available, procedures for misfires may differ.
When such information is not available, take the following steps:

Continue to hold the tool against the base material for at least 30 seconds. This protects
against a delayed discharge of the cartridge.

Remove the cartridge from the tool. During removal keep the tool pointed safely toward
soft material such as wood. Never use any kind of prying device to extract the cartridge
from the chamber. If the cartridge is wedged or stuck, tag the tool “DEFECTIVE and
LOADED” and lock it in its storage container. Never try to dismantle a tool with a
cartridge stuck or wedged in it. Again, tag it “DEFECTIVE and LOADED,” lock it away,
and call the manufacturer’s representative for help.

Place misfired cartridges in a container of water.

Keep the misfired cartridge separate from unused cartridges and return it to the
manufacturer for disposal. Never throw misfired cartridges in the garbage.

Be cautious. The problem may be a misfired cartridge, but the tool may also be
defective. Check the tool for obvious damage, perform function tests, and use the tool
only if it operates properly.
Maintenance
 Tools in regular use should be cleaned daily. Tools used intermittently should be
cleaned after firing.

All parts of the tool exposed to detonation gases from the cartridge should be cleaned
and lightly oiled according to the manufacturer’s instructions. The cartridge magazine
port, cartridge chamber, and piston sleeve should be wiped clean but never be oiled.

The tool brush supplied is adequate for most fouling.
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
Stubborn carbon should be loosened with a manufacturer’s spray detergent oil. Tools
being checked for immediate use should be wiped dry of oil.

Failure to clean the tool as recommended can lead to corrosion, pitting, fouling, and
failure to work properly. Ideally, the tool should be cleaned before being returned to
storage.

Tools with a power control adjustment will accumulate additional powder residue from
firing–especially when the control is set to restrict the amount of cartridge strength being
used. Semi-automatic tools may also accumulate powder residue. These tools need to
be cleaned more often.

Sluggish performance may indicate that a tool needs cleaning. Tool action will slow to
the point where a competent operator can detect the difference. Most manufacturers
recommend major maintenance, inspection, and cleaning every six months. This
involves stripping, inspecting, and cleaning parts not covered in daily maintenance.
Storage
Regulations require that both the tool and the cartridges be stored in a locked container with
explosive loads of different strengths in separate containers. Cartridges should only be removed
from the locked container when they are going to be used immediately.
The tool must require two separate actions before it will fire:

pressure against the surface of the material

action of the trigger.

Explosive-actuated tools must be stored in a locked container when not in use or when
left unattended.

The tool must not be loaded until ready for immediate use.

Whether loaded or unloaded, the tool must never be pointed at anyone.

Cartridges must be marked or labeled for easy identification. Cartridges of different
strengths must be stored in separate containers.

Misfired cartridges must be placed in a container of water and be removed from the
project.
13.4.8
Abrasive Wheel Tools
13.4.8.1 Portable Abrasive Wheel Safety Guards
Abrasive wheels shall be used only on machine provided with appropriate safety guards.
Exceptions are made for the following:

Wheels used for internal work while within the work being ground

Mounted wheels used in portable operations 2 inches and smaller in diameter

Types 16, 17, 18, 18R, and 19 cones, and plugs, and threaded hole pot balls where the
work offers protection.
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A safety guard shall cover the spindle end, nut and flange projections. The safety guard shall be
mounted so as to maintain proper alignment with the wheel, and the strength of the fastenings
shall exceed the strength of the guard. The spindle end, nut, and outer flange may be exposed
on portable machines designed for, and used with, type 6, 11, 27, and 28 abrasive wheels,
cutting off wheels, and tuck pointing wheels.
Cup Wheels (Types 6 and 11)
Cup wheels (Types 6 and 11) shall be protected by:

Safety guards as specified above; or,

Special "revolving cup guards" which mount behind the wheel and turn with it. They shall
be made of steel or other material with adequate strength and shall enclose the wheel
sides upward from the back for one-third of the wheel thickness. The mounting features
shall conform with all regulations. It is necessary to maintain clearance between the
wheel side and the guard. The clearance shall not exceed one-sixteenth inch; or,

Some other form of guard that will ensure as good protection as that which would be
provided by the guards above.
Vertical Portable Grinders
Safety guards used on machines known as right angle head or vertical portable grinders shall
have a maximum exposure angle of 180 deg., and the guard shall be so located so as to be
between the operator and the wheel during use. Adjustment of guard shall be such that pieces
of an accidentally broken wheel will be deflected away from the operator.
Other Portable Grinders
The maximum angular exposure of the grinding wheel periphery and sides for safety guards
used on other portable grinding machines shall not exceed 180 deg. and the top half of the
wheel shall be enclosed at all times.
13.4.8.2 Abrasive Wheel Tool Mounting and Inspection
Immediately before mounting, all wheels shall be closely inspected and sounded by the user.
The wheel must be tapped gently with a light nonmetallic implement, such as the handle of a
screwdriver for light wheels, or a wooden mallet for heavier wheels. If they sound cracked
(dead), they shall not be used. This is known as the "Ring Test".
The spindle speed of the machine shall be checked before mounting of the wheel to be certain
that it does not exceed the maximum operating speed marked on the wheel.
Grinding wheels shall fit freely on the spindle and remain free under all grinding conditions. A
controlled clearance between the wheel hole and the machine spindle (or wheel sleeves or
adaptors) is essential to avoid excessive pressure from mounting and spindle expansion. To
accomplish this, the machine spindle shall be made to nominal (standard) size plus zero minus
.002 inch, and the wheel hole shall be made suitably oversize to assure safety clearance under
the conditions of operating heat and pressure.
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All contact surfaces of wheels, blotters, and flangers shall be flat and free of foreign matter.
When a bushing is used in the wheel hole it shall not exceed the width of the wheel and shall
not contact the flanges.
Flanges and Blotters must be used in accordance with OSHA machine guarding regulations.
13.5
Forms & Attachments
On the following pages, please find the following document(s):

Hand & Power Tools Safety Training Documentation
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Hand & Power Tools Safety Training
Trainer (include qualifications):
Date:
Content of Training:
Attendees
Print Name
Signature
(Retain at least 3 years)
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Hazardous Energy Control
14
Hazardous Energy Control (Lockout/Tagout)
14.1
Policy Statement
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. is committed to taking every precaution to ensure the safety
and health of all employees and to comply with all applicable regulatory requirements, laws and
industry best practices in the effort to provide an accident-free, injury-free and illness-free
workplace.
Accordingly, Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. has adopted this Hazardous Energy Control
program to establish engineering controls and work practices to prevent the unintentional
release of hazardous energy during maintenance and servicing of machinery and equipment.
14.2
Responsibilities
Preventing the unintentional release of potentially harmful energy in the workplace, especially
during maintenance and servicing operations, is a cooperative effort.
14.2.1
Employer Responsibilities
It is the responsibility of Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. to:

Establish a program for affixing lockout or tagout devices to energy isolating devices and
otherwise disable equipment to prevent unexpected release of energy;

Ensure the use of safe lockout/tagout procedures by authorized employees.

Provide all hardware for isolating, securing or blocking equipment from energy sources;

Conduct and certify inspections of the energy control procedures at least annually;

Provide training to ensure the purpose and function of the energy control program are
understood by employees and the knowledge and skills required for the safe application,
use, and removal of the energy controls are acquired by authorized employees;

Ensure training includes limitations of tags in the energy control program (if applicable);

Inform outside employers who may have employees engaged in activities covered by the
hazard control program about the lockout or tagout procedures; and

Certify that employees complete and repeat training as needed.
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14.2.2
Safety Committee Responsibilities
It is the responsibility of the Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. safety committee to:

Assist in inspections of the hazardous energy control procedures;

Assist in lockout/tagout training;

Monitor workplace for hazards relating to energy control program;

Encourage employees to voice concerns over hazardous energy control program; and

Offer recommendations from employees about the hazardous energy control program.
14.2.3
Employee Responsibilities
Authorized employees (employees who perform maintenance or servicing on equipment that
must be locked out or tagged out) are expected to:
 Participate in training related to lockout/tagout procedures and hazardous energy
control;

Comply with all hazardous energy control procedures when maintaining or servicing
equipment that requires such controls; and
 Review lockout/tagout procedure with inspector during periodic evaluation.
Affected employees (employees who operate or use equipment for which maintenance and
servicing requires lockout or tagout) must participate and comply with the following:
 training over the purpose and use of the energy control procedure;

training about the procedure and the prohibition to attempt to restart or reenergize
equipment that has been locked out or tagged out; and

the hazardous energy control program.
14.3
Training
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. will ensure every employee is provided training on hazardous
energy control. This training will be provided at no cost to the employee during working hours.
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. will use only training material that is appropriate in content and
vocabulary to the educational level, literacy, and language of employees.
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14.3.1
Training Components
Gary Pfizenmayer will ensure that every employee will be trained in the following minimum
elements:

The purpose and function of the energy control program;

The prohibition of attempts to restart or reenergize locked out or tagged out equipment;

When tagout systems are used, at least the following limitations of tags for hazardous
energy control:
o Tags are essentially warning devices affixed to energy isolating devices, and do not
provide the physical restraint on those devices that is provided by a lock;
o
o
o
When a tag is attached to an energy isolating means, it is not to be removed without
authorization of the authorized person responsible for it, and it is never to be
bypassed, ignored, or otherwise defeated;
Tags must be legible and understandable by all authorized employees, affected
employees, and all other employees whose work operations are, or may be, in the
area in order to be effective;
Tags and their means of attachment must be made of materials which will withstand
the environmental conditions encountered in the workplace;
o
Tags may evoke a false sense of security, and their meaning needs to be
understood as part of the overall energy control program;
o
Tags must be attached securely to energy isolating devices so that they will not be
inadvertently or accidentally detached during use;

The recognition of hazardous energy sources;

The type and magnitude of energy available in the workplace; and

The methods and means necessary for energy isolation and control.
14.3.2
Training Records
Training records will include the following information:

The dates of the training sessions;

The contents or a summary of the training sessions;

The names and qualifications of persons conducting the training; and
 The names and job titles of all persons attending the training sessions.
Employee training records will be maintained for 3 years from the date on which the training
occurred.
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Hazardous Energy Control
14.3.3
Retraining
Retraining will reestablish proficiency and introduce new or different control measures whenever
the following occur:
 A change in job assignment, equipment or process presents a new hazard;

A change in the energy control procedures;

A periodic inspection reveals deviations from, or inadequacies in, employee knowledge
or use of the energy control procedures.
14.4
14.4.1
Policy
Hazardous Energy
At the worksite, a number of hazardous energy sources may be present to which workers could
be exposed if not properly controlled:

Potential: Stored energy that can be drawn upon to do work. Suspended loads,
compressed springs, and pressurized hydraulic systems are examples. Potential energy
can be converted to kinetic energy and many of the other energy forms below.

Kinetic: Energy resulting from moving objects such as released loads and uncoiling
springs. When these objects are released, their potential energy is converted to kinetic
energy.

Flammable: Energy converted from the combustion of gasses, liquids, solid chemicals,
and vapors.

Chemical: The capacity of a substance to do work or produce heat through a change in
its composition. Chemical energy can be converted from gasses, liquids, solid
chemicals, and vapors.

Electrical: Energy generated through the conversion of other forms such as mechanical,
thermal, or chemical energy. Energy stored between plates of a charged capacitor is an
example of potential electrical energy. Typical electrical energy sources include open
buss bars, motors, and generators.

Thermal: Energy transferred from one body to another as the result of a difference in
temperature. Heat flows from the hotter to the cooler body. Sources include mechanical
work, radiation, chemical reactions, and electrical resistance.
14.4.2
Energy Control Procedures
14.4.2.1 Intended Use of Procedure
This procedure establishes the minimum requirements for the lockout of energy isolating
devices during maintenance or servicing on machines or equipment. The process stops the
process, isolates it from potentially hazardous energy sources, and locks out equipment before
employees perform any servicing or maintenance and prevents unexpected energization or
start-up of the machine or equipment (or any unexpected release of stored energy or chemicals)
from causing injury.
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Hazardous Energy Control
All employees are required to comply with the restrictions and limitations imposed upon them
during the use of lockout. Authorized employees must perform the lockout in accordance with
this procedure. No employee will attempt to start, energize, or use a piece of locked out
equipment.
These procedures do not apply when servicing or maintaining equipment during normal
production operations unless:
 The activity involves removing guards or other safety devices;

An employee places him/herself in an area where work is actually being performed; and

An employee places him/herself in a dangerous area during the normal operating cycle.
14.4.2.2 Authorized Employees
Any employee whose job requires him or her to perform lockout/tagout to service or maintain a
piece of equipment is an “authorized employee” and must comply with all expectations of
authorized employees in regards to safe lockout/tagout procedures.
Other employees who use equipment that require lockout/tagout for maintenance and service,
work in areas where such work is being performed, or will be affected by lockout/tagout
procedures will require some training regarding lockout/tagout procedures, but are forbidden to
perform the work of an authorized employee. They may not implement lockout/tagout
procedures without appropriate training authorized by management.
14.4.2.3 Steps for Controlling Hazardous Energy
See Figure 1 for an outline of the hazardous energy control procedure.
Notify Employees
Before an authorized employee applies lockout or tagout
devices, he or she must notify affected employees to prevent
unexpected changes to work conditions that could introduce
needless risk and to allow affected employees to clear areas
that may be hazardous.
Prepare for Shutdown
Before any employee turns off any equipment, the authorized
employee will be aware of the type and magnitude of the
energy, the hazards of the energy and the means to control it.
Authorized personnel will review lockout/tagout procedures for
the piece of equipment and all the possible hazardous energy
sources to help ensure an understanding of the controls that
are necessary to prevent an injury.
The authorized employee will be especially mindful of energy
that can be stored or accumulated after a shutdown.
Figure 1
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Equipment Shutdown
Shutdown of machinery and equipment must occur in an orderly manner using the shutdown
procedures on the lockout/tagout procedures associated with each machine or piece of
equipment.
Equipment Isolation
All energy isolation devices necessary to control energy to the equipment will be located and
operated to completely de-energize the equipment and isolate it from energy sources. The
authorized employee, or team leader will verify operation of each energy isolation device.
 Disconnect or shut down engines or motors.

De-energize electrical circuits.

Block fluid flow in hydraulic or pneumatic systems.

Block machine and equipment parts against motion.
Lockout/Tagout
The authorized employee will affix a lockout or tagout device to each energy-isolating device.
Lockout devices will hold the energy isolating device in a “safe” position, and the authorized
employee must affix tagout devices to indicate the prohibition on moving energy isolating
devices from a safe position. If it would be possible to lock the device, but only tags are used,
attach the tag where the lock would have been; otherwise, locate the tag as close as possible
so that it is clear to anyone who might want to operate the equipment.
Release Stored Energy
Immediately after applying lockout or tagout devices, the authorized employee will ensure all
potentially hazardous stored or residual energy is relieved, disconnected, restrained, and
otherwise rendered safe.
 Lower suspended parts

Discharge capacitors.

Release or block springs that are under compression or tension.

Vent fluids from lines, pressure vessels, tanks, or accumulators
— but never vent toxic, flammable, or explosive substances
directly into the atmosphere.
If stored energy can be re-accumulated, the authorized employee will
verify that the energy is isolated until maintenance is complete or the
energy no longer exists.
Verify Isolation
The authorized employee will verify the machinery or equipment is
actually isolated and de-energized before starting work on locked out or
tagged out equipment.
14.4.2.4 Steps for Release From Lockout/Tagout
See Figure 2 for an outline of the steps to release equipment from
lockout/tagout.
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Figure 2
© Safety Services Company
Hazardous Energy Control
Check Equipment
Make sure machinery or equipment is properly re-assembled. Inspect machinery or equipment
to ensure removal of nonessential items.
Check Employees
Make sure all employees are safely outside danger zones. Notify affected employees about the
removal of lockout/tagout devices and that energy is going to be re-applied.
Remove Devices
Only the authorized employee who applied the lockout/tagout device may remove the device.
Notify Employees
The authorized employee will notify all affected employees that the lockout or tagout devices
have been removed from the equipment.
14.4.2.5 Special Cases
Employee Leaves Before Releasing Lockout/Tagout Device
If the authorized employee is not available to remove the lockout/tagout device he or she
attached another authorized employee may begin the following procedure:

Verify that the authorized employee who applied the device is off premises;

Make all reasonable efforts to inform him/her that his/her lockout or tagout device has
been removed; and

Ensure that the authorized employee is aware of the removal of the device before he or
she resumes work.
Temporary Lockout/Tagout Removal
Whenever authorized employees remove lockout/tagout devices to test or position machines
and equipment, or their components, the authorized employee will complete the following
procedures in the sequence presented:

Clear the machine or equipment of tools and materials.

Remove employees from danger zones.

Remove lockout/tagout devices.

Energize and proceed with testing or positioning.

De-energize all systems and re-apply lockout/tagout devices.
Outside Personnel
Employees of another company engaged in servicing or maintenance of equipment that
requires lockout or tagout will follow lockout/tagout procedures that provide at least as much
protection as established lockout/tagout procedures for that equipment. To ensure safety,
management from our company and representatives from the outside employer will inform one
another of their respective lockout or tagout procedures.
The owner also will ensure employees understand and comply with contracted personnel
lockout/tagout procedures as appropriate.
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Hazardous Energy Control
Group Lockout/Tagout
When a group performs servicing, the group will use a procedure that provides protection
equivalent to the protection provided by the personal lockout or tagout.
Shift Changes
Procedures during shift changes or changes to personnel will provide for an orderly transfer of
lockout or tagout device protection and minimize exposure to hazards from the unexpected
energization or start-up of the machine or equipment, or the release of stored energy for both
the oncoming and off-going personnel.
14.4.3
Protective Materials
14.4.3.1 Provided by Employer
Employees will be provided with any device or hardware for isolating, securing or blocking
equipment from energy sources. If a device is altered, damaged or destroyed in a way that
compromises its ability to protect the authorized employee, the authorized employee will inform
a supervisor immediately and not attempt to use the device.
14.4.3.2 Singularly Identified
Devices used in lockout and tagout procedures will not be used for any purpose other than for
isolating, securing or blocking equipment from energy sources, and no devices other than those
specified in the lockout/tagout procedure will be used to that end.
14.4.3.3 Durable
The devices used for lockout/tagout will be able to withstand the environmental and weather
conditions present during use. Tagout devices need to remain legible and not deteriorate
regardless of weather conditions or corrosive environments.
14.4.3.4 Standardized
At the worksite, devices used to isolate, secure or block equipment from energy sources will be
consistent in color, shape or size. Tagout devices will have a standardized design.
14.4.3.5 Substantial
Lockout devices must have structural integrity to require excessive force or specialized tools to
remove them. Tagout devices and their means of attachment need to prevent inadvertent
removal. The means of attachment will not be reusable, and need to have an unlocking strength
of at least 50 lbs. The general design and basic characteristics of tagout attachment means will
be at least equivalent to a one-piece, all environment-tolerant nylon cable tie.
14.4.3.6 Identifiable
Any device used to isolate, secure or block equipment from energy sources will indicate the
identity of the employee applying the device.
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Hazardous Energy Control
14.4.4
Periodic Inspections & Program Review
The safety coordinator and the safety committee will conduct regular inspections of the energy
control procedure to ensure the employees are following procedure and meeting all applicable
standards. If the safety coordinator uses the inspected energy control procedure, another
authorized employee who does not use the energy control procedure will perform the
inspection.
The inspector will review with each authorized employee their responsibility under the energy
control procedure and correct any identified deviation or inadequacy in the energy control
procedure.
Where tagout systems are used, the review will include a detail of the limitations of tags relative
to locks in hazardous energy control.
14.4.4.1 Certification
Each periodic inspection must be certified. The certification shall identify the following:
 The machine or equipment on which the energy control procedure was used;

The date of the inspection;

The employees included in the inspection; and

The person performing the inspection.
14.5
Forms & Attachments
On the following pages, please find the following documents:

Lockout/Tagout Procedure

Lockout/Tagout Inspection Certification Form

Hazardous Energy Control Training Record Sheet
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Lockout/Tagout
Company:
This procedure establishes the minimum requirements for the lockout of
energy isolating devices whenever maintenance or servicing is done on
machines or equipment. It shall be used to ensure that the machine or
equipment is stopped, isolated from all potentially hazardous energy
sources and locked out before employees perform any servicing or
maintenance where the unexpected energization or start-up of the
machine or equipment or release of stored energy could cause injury.
Equipment:
1.
Notify Employees: Notify all affected employees that servicing or maintenance is required on a machine
or equipment and that the machine or equipment must be shut down and locked out to perform the
servicing or maintenance. (Document name or job title of authorized and affected employees)
Authorized Employees
2.
Prepare for Shutdown: The authorized
employee shall refer to the company
procedure to identify the type and magnitude
of the energy that the machine or equipment
utilizes, shall understand the hazards of the
energy, and shall know the methods to control
the energy.
Type(s) of Energy
□ Mechanical
□ Potential
□ Electrical
□ Thermal
□ Chemical
Magnitude/Nature
Affected Employees
3.
Equipment Shutdown: If the machine or equipment is
operating, shut it down by the normal stopping
procedure.
Type of Operating Controls:
Location of Operating Controls:
Shutdown Procedure:
4.
Equipment Isolation: Set the energy isolating
device(s) so that the machine or equipment is
isolated from the energy source(s).
Type(s) of energy
isolating device(s)
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isolating device(s)
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5.
Lock out the energy isolating device(s) with
assigned individual lock(s).
© Safety Services Company
Hazardous Energy Control
Lockout/Tagout (pg. 2)
Company:
Equipment:
6.
Release Stored Energy: Stored or residual energy (such as that in capacitors, springs, elevated machine
members, hydraulic systems, etc.) must be dissipated or restrained by methods such as grounding,
repositioning, blocking, bleeding down, etc.
Type(s) of Energy
Method(s) to dissipate or restrain
□ Mechanical
□ Potential
□ Electrical
□ Thermal
□ Chemical
7.
Verify Isolation: Ensure that the equipment is disconnected from the energy source(s) by first checking that
no personnel are exposed, then verify the isolation of the equipment by operating the push button or other
normal operating control(s) or by testing to make certain the equipment will not operate.
Method to verify isolation:
Caution: Return operating control(s) to neutral or "off" position after verifying the isolation of the equipment.
8.
The machine or equipment is now locked out.
Restoring Equipment to Service
When the servicing or maintenance is completed and the machine or equipment is ready to
return to normal operating condition, the following steps shall be taken:
1. Check the machine or equipment and the immediate area around the machine to
ensure that nonessential items have been removed and that the machine or
equipment components are operationally intact.
2. Check the work area to ensure that all employees have been safely positioned or
removed from the area.
3. Verify that the controls are in neutral.
4. Remove the lockout devices and reenergize the machine or equipment.
Note: The removal of some forms of blocking may require reenergization of the
machine before safe removal.
Notify affected employees that the servicing or maintenance is completed and the machine or
equipment is ready for use.
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Hazardous Energy Control
Lockout/Tagout Inspection Certification
I certify that ____________________________ was inspected on this date using
lockout/tagout procedures. The inspection was performed while working on
___________________________.
Authorized Employee (Print)
Signature
Date
Inspector (Print)
Signature
Date
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Hazardous Energy Control
Hazardous Energy Control Training Record Sheet
Trainer (include qualifications):
Date:
Content of Training:
Attendees
Print Name
Signature
(Retain at least 3 years)
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Ladders & Stairs
15
Ladders & Stairs
15.1
Policy Statement
Ladders are valuable tools, but they present a range of hazards that need to be taken into
account to be used safely. Safe ladder use demands awareness not only of how to use ladders
safely, but also how to select the right ladder for a job, how to store and maintain ladders and
how to recognize ladders that may be hazardous.
15.2
Responsibilities
Preventing injuries from ladder use is a cooperative effort between Pyro Combustion & Controls
Inc. and its employees.
15.2.1
Employer Responsibilities
It is the responsibility of Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. to:

ensure all ladders meet safety requirements and are maintained in safe, working
condition;

select ladders to purchase according to needs of operations;

ensure employees are trained in safe ladder selection and use;

remove ladders from service when they are no longer safe to be used; and

ensure employees use ladders as safely as possible.
15.2.2
Safety Committee Responsibilities
It is the responsibility of the safety committee to:

develop and provide training on ladder safety and fall hazards;

suggest recommendations to management to increase ladder safety;

assist in hazard analyses and periodic walkthroughs and safety reviews to ensure
continued safe ladder use.
15.2.3
Employee Responsibilities
Employees are expected to:

participate actively in ladder safety training;

recommend safety improvements and report safety hazards to supervisor, safety team
or other appropriate personnel;

report damaged or otherwise unsafe ladders;

follow safe practices when using ladders; and

transport and store ladders according to best safe practices.
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Ladders & Stairs
15.3
Training
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. will ensure every employee is provided training on ladder and
stair safety. This training will be provided at no cost to the employee during working hours.
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. will use only training material that is appropriate in content and
vocabulary to the educational level, literacy, and language of employees.
15.3.1
Training Components
Gary Pfizenmayer will ensure that every employee is trained by a competent person in the
following minimum elements:

the nature of fall hazards in the work area;

the correct procedures for erecting, maintaining, and disassembling the fall protection
systems to be used;

the proper construction, use, placement, and handling of stairways and ladders; and

the maximum intended load-carrying capacities of ladders used. In addition, retraining
must be provided for each employee, as necessary, so that the employee maintains the
understanding and knowledge acquired through compliance with the standard.
15.3.2
Training Records
Training records will include the following information:

the dates of the training sessions;

the contents or a summary of the training sessions;

the names and qualifications of persons conducting the training; and

the names and job titles of all persons attending the training sessions.
Employee training records will be maintained for 3 years from the date on which the training
occurred.
15.4
15.4.1
Policy
General Requirements
Anytime there is a break in elevation of 19 inches or more, and no ramp, runway, embankment
or hoist is provided, Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. will provide either a stairway or a ladder.
The point of access between levels must always allow free passage. If work being performed
limits free access, another point of access must be provided.
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Ladders & Stairs
Ensure that all necessary fall protection is in place before employees are permitted to work from
elevation. Consult the chapter on Fall Protection for more information.
Consult the chapter on Scaffold Safety for requirements on ladders used to access scaffolds.
15.4.2
Ladders
Most ladder falls involve portable ladders that move, tilt, or shift while a worker is climbing or
descending. Unstable or slippery base surfaces are the primary reasons ladders fail.
Other reasons include a misstep or a slip of the foot, loss of balance, an overreach, and being
struck by a vehicle or other object.
15.4.2.1 General

If a work area for 25 or more employees can be accessed only by a ladder (or anytime
two-way traffic relies on a ladder), Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. will provide either a
double-cleated ladder or two or more separate ladders to serve two-way traffic.

Ladder rungs, cleats, and steps must be parallel, level, and uniformly spaced when the
ladder is in position for use.

Rungs, cleats, and steps of portable and fixed ladders (except as provided below) must
not be spaced less than 10 inches apart, nor more than 14 inches apart, along the
ladder’s side rails.

Rungs, cleats, and steps of step stools must not be less than 8 inches apart, nor more
than 12 inches apart, between center lines of the rungs, cleats, and steps.

Rungs, cleats, and steps at the base section of extension trestle ladders must not be
less than 8 inches nor more than 18 inches apart, between center lines of the rungs,
cleats, and steps. The rung spacing on the extension section must not be less than 6
inches nor more than 12 inches.

Ladders must not be tied or fastened together to create longer sections unless they are
specifically designed for such use.

A metal spreader or locking device must be provided on each stepladder to hold the
front and back sections in an open position when the ladder is being used.

When splicing side rails, the resulting side rail must be equivalent in strength to a onepiece side rail made of the same material.

Two or more separate ladders used to reach an elevated work area must be offset with a
platform or landing between the ladders, except when portable ladders are used to gain
access to fixed ladders.

Ladder components must be surfaced to prevent injury from punctures or lacerations,
and prevent snagging of clothing.

Wood ladders must not be coated with any opaque covering, except for identification or
warning labels which may be placed only on one face of a side rail.
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Ladders & Stairs

Ladders with conductive metal sides will be marked with the words “WARNING — Do
not use around energized electrical equipment” and may not be used around energized
electrical equipment.
Portable Ladders
Workers can reduce ladder fall risks by doing the following:




Frequently inspecting & maintaining
ladders.
Matching tasks to appropriate ladders.
Setting up ladders correctly.
Climbing & descending ladders
properly.
These specifications must be met for any portable ladder in use during construction activities:

Non-self-supporting and self-supporting portable ladders must support at least four times
the maximum intended load; extra heavy-duty type 1A metal or plastic ladders must
sustain 3.3 times the maximum intended load. The ability of a self-supporting ladder to
sustain loads must be determined by applying the load to the ladder in a downward
vertical direction. The ability of a non-self-supporting ladder to sustain loads must be
determined by applying the load in a downward vertical direction when the ladder is
placed at a horizontal angle of 75.5 degrees.

The minimum clear distance between side rails for portable ladders must be 11.5 inches.

The rungs and steps of portable metal ladders must be corrugated,
knurled, dimpled, coated with skid-resistant material, or
treated to minimize slipping.
Non-Self-Supporting Ladders
Single Portable or Straight Ladders
The single portable or straight ladder is indispensable for general
use. It is the most common type of portable ladder and has the
widest range of applications. When used on slippery surfaces, this
ladder must have slip-resistant feet or be secured to prevent it from
sliding.
Rubber or neoprene ladder shoes are recommended for smooth,
dry surfaces, and spikes are recommended for snow or ice. Single
portable ladders must not be longer than 30 feet and are intended
for use by only one worker at a time. Such ladders are available in
wood, metal, and reinforced fiberglass.
Extension or Section Ladder
Extension ladders offer the greatest length in a general purpose
ladder. The ladder consists of two or more sections that travel in
guides or brackets, allowing adjustable lengths. The sections must
be assembled so that the sliding upper section is on top of the lower
section. Each section must overlap its adjacent section a minimum
distance, based on the ladder’s overall length. See Table 2.
Straight
Ladder
Extension
Ladder
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The
overall length
is
determined by the lengths of
the
individual
sections,
measured along the side
rails.
Note: Install positive stops
on individual ladder sections
to ensure the required
overlap.
Number of
Sections
for metal ladders
Maximum
Length
(in feet)
Normal Length
of Ladder
(in feet)
one section
(or any section of a
multiple-section
ladder)
30
Up to and
including 36
3
two-section ladder
48
Over 36, up to
and including 48
4
more than two
sections
60
Over 48, up to 60
5
Overlap
(in feet)
Extension ladders are made
Table 1
Table 2
of
wood,
metal,
or
reinforced fiberglass. Wood ladders cannot have more than two sections and must not exceed
60 feet. Metal and fiberglass ladders can have as many as three sections; however, the overall
length must not exceed 72 feet. See Table 1. Individual sections of any extension ladder must
not be longer than 30 feet. Extension ladders are for use by only one person at a time.
Make sure extension ladders have non-slip bases if there is a chance the ladder can slip. Cordface ladder shoes are recommended for wet surfaces, rubber or neoprene ladder shoes for
smooth dry floor surfaces, and steel spikes for ice or snow. Be careful if you use an extension
ladder on oily, metal, or concrete surfaces. Place the ladder securely and tie it off to prevent it
from slipping.
Self-supporting Ladders
Standard Stepladder
The standard stepladder, a general purpose ladder, has
flat steps and a hinged back. It is self-supporting and
nonadjustable. An industrial model, designed for heavy
service demands, has oversize back legs, heavy-duty flat
steps, and knee braces that increase rigidity and
durability.
Standard stepladders should be used only on surfaces
that offer firm, level footing such as floors, platforms, and
slabs. They are available in metal, wood, or reinforced
fiberglass versions, and are intended to support only one
worker at a time. Remember not to stand on, or work
from, the top step. The ladders must have a metal
spreader or locking arms. They cannot be longer than 20
feet, measured along the front edge of the side rails.
Standard Stepladder
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Two-Way Stepladder
The two-way stepladder is similar to the industrial standard
stepladder; however, each side of this ladder has a set of steps. The
extra set of steps offers convenience and versatility: One person
can work from either side or two people can work from the ladder at
the same time — one on each side.
Platform Ladder
The platform ladder is a special-purpose ladder that has a large
stable platform from which you can work at the highest standing
level. The ladder’s length is determined by the length of the front
edge of the side rail from the bottom of the ladder to the base of the
platform. The length of a platform ladder cannot exceed 20 feet.
Trestle Ladder
A trestle ladder is a self-supporting portable ladder that has two
sections hinged at the top, forming equal angles with the base. A
variation of the trestle ladder, the extension trestle ladder, includes a
vertically adjustable single ladder that can be locked in place. (The
single extension section must lap at least three feet into the base
section.) Trestle ladders are used in pairs to support planks or
staging. The rungs are not intended to be used as steps.
The angle of spread between open front and back legs must be 5 ½
inches per foot of length. The length cannot be more than 20 feet,
measured along the front edge of the side rails. Rails must be
beveled at the top and have metal hinges to prevent spreading.
Metal spreaders or locking devices are also required to keep the rails
in place.
Two-Way
Stepladder
Platform
Ladder
Ladder Storage
 The storage area should be well ventilated.

Wood ladders should not be exposed to moisture or excessive heat. Avoid storing
ladders near stoves, steam pipes, or radiators.

Store straight or extension ladders in flat racks or on wall brackets. Make sure there are
enough brackets to support the ladder so that it does not sag. If the ladder rails have a
lateral curve, the wall brackets should match the curve.

Store stepladders vertically, in a closed position, to reduce the risk of sagging or twisting.
Secure stored ladders so that they will not tip over if they are struck.

Store ladders, especially wood ladders, promptly after using them. Exposure to moisture
and sun will shorten the life of a wood ladder.
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Transporting Ladders
 When you hand-carry a ladder, keep the front end elevated, especially around blind
corners, in aisles, and through doorways. You will reduce the chance of striking another
person with the front of the ladder.

When you transport a ladder in a truck or trailer, place it parallel to the bed. Avoid
tossing, throwing, or dropping it in the bed.

If you transport a long ladder on a short truck bed over long distances, support the
ladder so it will not sag or bend.

Drive slowly over rough terrain. Tie the ladder securely to eliminate nicking, gouging,
chafing, and road shock.
Fixed Ladders
 A fixed ladder must be capable of supporting at least two loads of 250 pounds each,
concentrated between any two consecutive attachments. Fixed ladders also must
support added anticipated loads caused by ice buildup, winds, rigging, and impact loads
resulting from the use of ladder safety devices.

Individual rung/step ladders must extend at least 42 inches above an access level or
landing platform either by the continuation of the rung spacings as horizontal grab bars
or by providing vertical grab bars that must have the same lateral spacing as the vertical
legs of the ladder rails.

Each step or rung of a fixed ladder must be capable of supporting a load of at least 250
pounds applied in the middle of the step or rung.

The minimum clear distance between the sides of individual rung/step ladders and
between the side rails of other fixed ladders must be 16 inches.

The rungs of individual rung/step ladders must be shaped to prevent slipping off the end
of the rungs.

The rungs and steps of fixed metal ladders must be corrugated, knurled, dimpled, coated
with skid-resistant material, or treated to minimize slipping.

The minimum perpendicular clearance between fixed ladder rungs, cleats, and steps,
and any obstruction behind the ladder must be 7 inches, except that the clearance for an
elevator pit ladder must be 4.5 inches.

The minimum perpendicular clearance between the centerline of fixed ladder rungs,
cleats, and steps, and any obstruction on the climbing side of the ladder must be 30
inches. If obstructions are unavoidable, clearance may be reduced to 24 inches,
provided a deflection device is installed to guide workers around the obstruction.

The step-across distance between the center of the steps or rungs of fixed ladders and
the nearest edge of a landing area must be no less than 7 inches and no more than 12
inches. A landing platform must be provided if the step-across distance exceeds 12
inches.

Fixed ladders without cages or wells must have at least a 15-inch clear width to the
nearest permanent object on each side of the centerline of the ladder.
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
Fixed ladders must be provided with cages, wells, ladder safety devices, or selfretracting lifelines where the length of climb is less than 24 feet but the top of the ladder
is at a distance greater than 24 feet above lower levels.

If the total length of a climb on a fixed ladder equals or exceeds 24 feet, the following
requirements must be met: fixed ladders must be equipped with either:
o
o
ladder safety devices;
self-retracting lifelines, and rest platforms at intervals not to exceed 150 feet;
o
a cage or well, and multiple ladder sections, each ladder section not to exceed 50
feet in length. These ladder sections must be offset from adjacent sections, and
landing platforms must be provided at maximum intervals of 50 feet.

The side rails of through or side-step fixed ladders must extend 42 inches above the top
level or landing platform served by the ladder. For a parapet ladder, the access level
must be at the roof if the parapet is cut to permit passage through it; if the parapet is
continuous, the access level is the top of the parapet.

Steps or rungs for through-fixed-ladder extensions must be omitted from the extension;
and the extension of side rails must be flared to provide between 24 inches (61 cm) and
30 inches clearance between side rails.

When safety devices are provided, the maximum clearance between side rail extensions
must not exceed 36 inches.
Cages for Fixed Ladders
 Horizontal bands must be fastened to the side rails of rail ladders, or directly to the
structure, building, or equipment for individual-rung ladders.

Vertical bars must be on the inside of the horizontal bands and must be fastened to
them.

Cages must not extend less than 27 inches, or more than 30 inches from the centerline
of the step or rung, and must not be less than 27 inches wide.

The inside of the cage must be clear of projections.

Horizontal bands must be spaced at intervals not more than 4 feet apart measured from
centerline to centerline.

Vertical bars must be spaced at intervals not more than 9.5 inches apart measured from
centerline to centerline.

The bottom of the cage must be between 7 feet and 8 feet above the point of access to
the bottom of the ladder. The bottom of the cage must be flared not less than 4 inches
between the bottom horizontal band and the next higher band.

The top of the cage must be a minimum of 42 inches above the top of the platform, or
the point of access at the top of the ladder. Provisions must be made for access to the
platform or other point of access.
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Wells for Fixed Ladders
 Wells must completely encircle the ladder.

Wells must be free of projections.

The inside face of the well on the climbing side of the ladder must extend between 27
inches and 30 inches from the centerline of the step or rung.

The inside width of the well must be at least 30 inches.

The bottom of the well above the point of access to the bottom of the ladder must be
between 7 feet and 8 feet.
Ladder Safety Devices and Related Support Systems for Fixed Ladders
 All safety devices must be capable of withstanding, without failure, a drop test consisting
of a 500-pound weight dropping 18 inches.

All safety devices must permit the worker to ascend or descend without continually
having to hold, push, or pull any part of the device, leaving both hands free for climbing.

All safety devices must be activated within 2 feet after a fall occurs, and limit the
descending velocity of an employee to 7 feet/second or less.

The connection between the carrier or lifeline and the point of attachment to the body
belt or harness must not exceed 9 inches in length.
Mounting Ladder Safety Devices for Fixed Ladders
 Mountings for rigid carriers (rails) must be attached at each end of the carrier, with
intermediate mountings, spaced along the entire length of the carrier, to provide the
necessary strength to stop workers’ falls.

Mountings for flexible carriers (cables) must be attached at each end of the carrier.
Cable guides for flexible carriers must be installed with a spacing between 25 feet and
40 feet along the entire length of the carrier, to prevent wind damage to the system.

The design and installation of mountings and cable guides must not reduce the strength
of the ladder.

Side rails, and steps or rungs for side-step fixed ladders must be continuous in
extension.
15.4.2.2 Use

Inspect ladders for damage or wear before use.

When portable ladders are used for access to an upper landing surface, the side rails
must extend at least 3 feet above the upper landing surface. When such an extension is
not possible, the ladder must be secured, and a grasping device such as a grab rail must
be provided to assist workers in mounting and dismounting the ladder. A ladder
extension must not deflect under a load that would cause the ladder to slip off its
support.

Ladders must be maintained free of oil, grease, and other slipping hazards.

Ladders must not be loaded beyond the maximum intended load for which they were
built nor beyond their manufacturer’s rated capacity.
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
Ladders must be used only for the purpose for which they were designed.

Non-self-supporting ladders must be used at an angle where the horizontal distance
from the top support to the foot of the ladder is approximately one-quarter of the working
length of the ladder. Wood job-made ladders with spliced side rails must be used at an
angle where the horizontal distance is one-eighth the working length of the ladder.

Fixed ladders must be used at a pitch no greater than 90 degrees from the horizontal,
measured from the back side of the ladder.

Ladders must be used only on stable and level surfaces unless secured to prevent
accidental movement.

Ladders must not be used on slippery surfaces unless secured or provided with slipresistant feet to prevent accidental movement. Slip-resistant feet must not be used as a
substitute for the care in placing, lashing, or holding a ladder upon slippery surfaces.

Ladders placed in areas such as passageways, doorways, or driveways, or where they
can be displaced by workplace activities or traffic, must be secured to prevent accidental
movement, or a barricade must be used to keep traffic or activities away from the ladder.

The area around the top and bottom of the ladders must be kept clear.

The top of a non-self-supporting ladder must be placed with two rails supported equally
unless it is equipped with a single support attachment.

Ladders must not be moved, shifted, or
extended while in use.

Ladders must have nonconductive
siderails if they are used where the
worker or the ladder could contact
exposed energized electrical
equipment.

The top or top step of a stepladder must
not be used as a step.

Cross-bracing on the rear section of
stepladders must not be used for
climbing unless the ladders are
designed and provided with steps for
climbing on both front and rear sections.

Ladders must be inspected by a
competent person for visible defects on
a periodic basis and after any incident
that could affect their safe use.

Single-rail ladders must not be used.

When ascending or descending a
ladder, the worker must face the ladder.

Each worker must use at least one
hand to grasp the ladder.
Portable Ladder Use
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
A worker on a ladder must not carry any object
or load that could cause the worker to lose
balance and fall.
15.4.2.3 Structural Defects of Ladders
Angle to
Horizontal
30 deg. 35’
32 deg. 08’
33 deg. 41’
35 deg. 16’
36 deg. 52’
38 deg. 29’
40 deg. 08’
41 deg. 44’
43 deg. 22’
45 deg. 00’
46 deg. 38’
48 deg. 16’
49 deg. 54’
Rise
(inches)
6½
6¾
7
7¼
7½
7¾
8
8¼
8½
8¾
9
9¼
9 1/2
Tread Run
(inches)
11
10 ¾
10 ½
10 ¼
10
9¾
9½
9¼
9
8¾
8½
8¼
8

Portable ladders with structural defects-such as
broken or missing rungs, cleats, or steps, broken
or split rails, corroded components, or other
faulty or defective components-must
immediately be marked defective, or tagged with
"Do Not Use" or similar language and withdrawn
from service until repaired.

Fixed ladders with structural defects-such as
broken or missing rungs, cleats, or steps, broken
or split rails, or corroded components-must be
withdrawn from service until repaired.

Defective fixed ladders are considered
withdrawn from use when they are:

immediately tagged with "Do Not Use" or similar language;

marked in a manner that identifies them as defective; or

blocked (such as with a plywood attachment that spans several rungs).

Ladder repairs must restore the ladder to a condition meeting its original design criteria,
before the ladder is returned to use.
15.4.3
Table 1
Stairways
15.4.3.1 General

Landings for stairways that will not be a permanent part of the structure on which
construction work is being performed must be at least 30 inches in the direction of travel
and extend at least 22 inches in width at every 12 feet or less of vertical rise.

Stairs shall be installed between 30 deg. and 50 deg. from horizontal. See Table 1.

Riser height and tread depth shall be uniform within each flight of stairs, including any
foundation structure used as one or more treads of the stairs. Variations in riser height or
tread depth shall not be over ¼-inch in any stairway system.

Where doors or gates open directly on a stairway, a platform shall be provided, and the
swing of the door shall not reduce the width of the platform to less than 20 inches.

Metal pan landings and metal pan treads, when used, shall be secured in place before
filling with concrete or other material.

All parts of stairways shall be free of hazardous projections, such as protruding nails.

Slippery conditions on stairways shall be eliminated before the stairways are used to
reach other levels.
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15.4.3.2 Temporary Service
Except during construction of the actual stairway, stairways with metal pan landings and treads
must not be used where the treads and/or landings have not been filled in with concrete or other
material, unless the pans of the stairs and/or landings are temporarily filled in with wood or other
material. All treads and landings must be replaced when worn below the top edge of the pan.
Except during construction of the actual stairway, skeleton metal frame structures and steps
must not be used (where treads and/or landings are to be installed at a later date) unless the
stairs are fitted with secured temporary treads and landings.
Temporary treads must be made of wood or other solid material and installed the full width and
depth of the stair.
15.4.3.3 Stairrails
The following general requirements apply to all stairrails and handrails:

Stairways having four or more risers, or rising more than 30 inches in height, whichever
is less, must have at least one handrail. A stairrail also must be installed along each
unprotected side or edge. When the top edge of a stairrail system also serves as a
handrail, the height of the top edge must not be more than 37 inches nor less than 36
inches from the upper surface of the stairrail to the surface of the tread.

Winding or spiral stairways must be equipped with a handrail to prevent using areas
where the tread width is less than 6 inches.

Stairrails must not be less than 36 inches in height.

Screens or mesh, when used, must extend from the top rail to the stairway step, and
along the opening between top rail supports.

Intermediate vertical members, such as balusters, when used, must not be more than 19
inches apart.

Other intermediate structural members, when used, must be installed so that there are
no openings of more than 19 inches wide.
15.4.3.4 Handrails

Handrails and the top rails of the stairrail systems must be capable of withstanding,
without failure, at least 200 pounds of weight applied within 2 inches of the top edge in
any downward or outward direction, at any point along the top edge.

The height of handrails must not be more than 37 inches nor less than 30 inches from
the upper surface of the handrail to the surface of the tread.

The height of the top edge of a stairrail system used as a handrail must not be more
than 37 inches nor less than 36 inches from the upper surface of the stairrail system to
the surface of the tread.

Stairrail systems and handrails must be surfaced to prevent injuries such as punctures
or lacerations and to keep clothing from snagging.

Handrails must provide an adequate handhold for employees to grasp to prevent falls.
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
The ends of stairrail systems and handrails must be constructed to prevent dangerous
projections such as rails protruding beyond the end posts of the system.

Temporary handrails must have a minimum clearance of 3 inches between the handrail
and walls, stairrails systems, and other objects.

Unprotected sides and edges of stairway landings must be provided with standard 42inch guardrail systems.
15.4.3.5 Midrails

Midrails, screens, mesh, intermediate vertical members, or equivalent intermediate
structural members must be provided between the top rail and stairway steps of the
stairrail system.

Midrails, when used, must be located midway between the top of the stairrail system and
the stairway steps.
15.5
Forms & Attachments
On the following pages, please find the following document(s):

General Ladder Setup Procedure

Setting Up an Extension Ladder

Ladders & Stairs Safety Training Documentation
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General Ladder Setup Procedure
1. Move the ladder near your work. Get help if it is too difficult to handle alone.
2. Make sure there are no electrical wires overhead.
3. Set up the ladder on a secure, level surface or secure it so that it cannot be displaced.
4. Lock the spreaders on a stepladder. Secure the lock assembly on extension ladders.
5. Use traffic cones or other barriers to protect the base of the ladder if vehicles or
pedestrians could strike it.
6. Make sure that a non-self-supporting ladder extends at least three feet above the top
support point for access to a roof or other work level.
7. Angle non-self-supporting ladders properly. The length of the side rails from the ladder’s
base to the top support points (the working length) should be four times the distance
from ladder’s base to the structure (the set-back distance).
Quick tip — 4:1 Ladder Setup
A non-self-supporting ladder
should have a set-up angle of
about 75 degrees — a 4:1 ratio
of the ladder’s working length
to set-back distance.
Here’s how to achieve it: Stand
at the base of the ladder with
your toes touching the rails.
Extend your arms straight out
in front of you. If the tips of
your fingers just touch the rung
nearest your shoulder level, the
angle of your ladder has a 4:1
ratio.
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1.
2.
3.
5.
4.
Setting Up an Extension Ladder
1. The ladder should be closed. Position the ladder with
the base section on top of the fly section. Block the
bottom of the ladder against the base of the structure.
2. Make sure there is clearance and no electrical lines are overhead. Carefully “walk” the
ladder up until it is vertical. Keep your knees bent slightly and your back straight.
3. Firmly grip the ladder, keep it vertical, and carefully move back from the structure about
one quarter the distance of the ladder’s working length. This allows you to place it at the
correct angle against the structure.
4. Raise the fly section. After the bottom rung of the fly section clears the bottom rung of
the base section, place one foot on the base rung for secure footing.
5. Lean the ladder against the structure. The distance from the base of the ladder to the
structure should be one quarter the distance of the ladder’s working length. Make sure
the ladder extends three feet above the top support points for access to a roof or other
work level. Both rails should rest firmly and securely against the structure.
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Ladders and Stairs Safety Training
Trainer (include qualifications):
Date:
Content of Training:
Attendees
Print Name
Signature
(Retain at least 3 years)
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Fall Protection
16
Fall Protection
16.1
Policy Statement
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. has implemented this policy to ensure that proper safe work
practices and procedures are followed to protect employees from the fall hazards. Gary
Pfizenmayer is designated as the Program Administrator responsible for managing and
supervising the Fall Protection Program.
16.2
Responsibilities
Providing sufficient protection to prevent falling from height is a cooperative effort between Pyro
Combustion & Controls Inc. and its employees.
16.2.1
Employer Responsibilities
It is the responsibility of Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. to:

Provide adequate and timely resources to support the fall protection program;

Identify fall hazards and implement procedures to eliminate or control them;

Develop and maintain written fall protection procedures wherever an active fall
protection system is being used;

Inform authorized employees about a foreseeable fall hazard before exposure;

Provide continuous fall protection or ensure that such protection is available to
employees and within regulations;

Provide training to operate any active fall protection systems;

Ensure supervision of employees exposed to fall hazards; and

Verify all fall protection procedures are understood and followed.
16.2.2
Fall Protection Program Administrator
It is the responsibility of Gary Pfizenmayer to:

Develop and implement the managed fall protection program;

Be knowledgeable of current fall protection regulations, standards, equipment and
systems;

Advise and provide guidance to managers, employees, and other departments on all
managed fall protection program matters;

Establish and assign all duties and responsibilities outlined in this standard to trained
and qualified individuals;
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Fall Protection

Provide or verify that the personnel have the necessary resources to accomplish their
duties and responsibilities;

Establish and implement a system to identify, and eliminate or control, new and existing
fall hazards;

Ensure that written procedures for fall protection, rescue and evacuation are developed
for every foreseeable fall hazard to which persons are exposed;

Develop training programs for all Authorized Persons;

Verify that all Authorized Persons are provided with training;

Provide participation (personally or other Qualified person) in the investigation of all
incidents related to falls from heights, including:

o
o
o
Reviewing incident reports,
Taking corrective action to eliminate causes,
Making necessary reports to management, and
o
Maintaining an incident report system;
Measure and evaluate the effectiveness of the managed fall protection program by:
o Conducting periodic program evaluations, and
o
16.2.3
Making improvements.
Qualified Person Responsibilities
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. employees who are identified as “a qualified person” are
expected to:

Analyze and design all anchor points for structural engineering strength requirements as
set by this standard and also be in compliance with local and state building code
requirements;

Analyze and design all horizontal lifeline systems for structural engineering strength
requirements and also be in compliance with local and state building code requirements;

Establish the clearance requirements for each fall protection system selected;

Verify the fall protection equipment system is adequate for the specific fall hazard
abatement option;

Maintain a safety factor of 2.0 against failure of the structural system for both anchor
points and horizontal lifeline systems; and

Establish adequate vertical and horizontal clearance requirements for each fall
protection system. Swing fall consideration shall be analyzed and limitation
requirements shall be established for each fall protection system.
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16.2.4
Competent Person Responsibilities
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. employees who are identified as “a competent person” are
expected to:

Stop work if unsafe;

Conduct a fall hazard survey to identify fall hazards;

Establish the clearance requirements for each fall protection system;

Verify that available clearance is adequate before allowing persons to work at heights;

Supervise, for work restraint, travel restraint, work positioning, and non-certified fall
arrest anchorages:
o
Installation,
o
o
Use, and
Inspection;

Verify that fall protection systems have been installed and inspected in compliance with
this standard and all applicable federal, state, and local regulations;

Identify, evaluate, and impose limits on the workplace activities to control fall hazard
exposures and swing falls;

Communicate limits to all Authorized Persons who utilize the fall protection systems.

Prepare, update, and approve written fall protection, rescue, and evacuation procedures.

Specify that written fall protection, rescue, and evacuation procedures include:
o Anchorage locations,
o Connecting means,
o Body supports, and
o Other required fall protection equipment.
o

Review the written procedures as workplace activities change for needed additional
practices, procedures, or training;
Verify that Authorized Persons:
o Are trained and authorized;
o Have had the fall protection, rescue, and evacuation procedures reviewed with them
before work begins.
o Provide or ensure that a prompt rescue can be accomplished with the rescue and
evacuation procedures;
o Participate in the investigation of all incidents related to falls from heights;
o Immediately remove from service all damaged equipment or components (and
equipment or components that have experienced a fall arrest);
o Inspect for damage and follow the manufacturer’s instructions for damaged
equipment and equipment that has experienced a free-fall arrest; and
o Periodically inspect all fall protection equipment as per the manufacturer’s
requirements and applicable regulations.
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Fall Protection
16.2.5
Authorized Person Responsibilities
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. employees who are identified as “an authorized person” are
expected to:

Follow the instructions of the program administrator and the Competent Person
regarding the use of fall protection systems;

Understand and adhere to the fall protection procedures;

Notify the Competent Person of unsafe or hazardous conditions or acts that may cause
injury before proceeding with workplace activities;

Correctly use, inspect, maintain, store, and care for fall protection equipment and
systems;

Inspect any fall protection equipment, prior to use, for defects or damage;

Notify the Competent Person of defects and damage found from inspections; and

Use only equipment free of defects or damage.
16.3
Training
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. will ensure every employee is provided training on Fall
Protection. This training will be provided at no cost to the employee during working hours.
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. will use only training material that is appropriate in content and
vocabulary to the educational level, literacy, and language of employees.
16.3.1
Training Components
Gary Pfizenmayer will ensure that every employee will be trained in the following minimum
elements:

The nature of fall hazards in the work area;

The correct procedures for erecting, maintaining, disassembling, and inspecting the fall
protection systems to be used;

The use and operation of guardrail systems, personal fall arrest systems, safety net
systems, warning line systems, safety monitoring systems, controlled access zones, and
other protection to be used;

The role of each employee in the safety monitoring system when this system is used;

The limitations on the use of mechanical equipment during the performance of roofing
work on low-sloped roofs;

The correct procedures for the handling and storage of equipment and materials and the
erection of overhead protection;

The role of employees in fall protection plans; and

The standards contained in subpart M of 29 CFR 1926.
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Fall Protection
16.3.2
Training Records
Training records will include the following information as a written certification:

The dates of the training sessions;

The contents or a summary of the training sessions;

The names and qualifications of persons conducting the training; and
 The names and job titles of the person trained.
Employee training records will be maintained for the duration of the employee’s employment.
16.3.3
Retraining
If Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. has reason to believe that any affected employee who has
already been trained does not have the understanding and skill required the employee must be
retrained. Examples where such retraining may be required include, but are not limited to the
following:

Changes in the workplace render previous training obsolete; or

Changes in the types of fall protection systems or equipment to be used render previous
training obsolete; or

Inadequacies in an affected employee’s knowledge or use of fall protection systems or
equipment indicate that the employee has not retained the requisite understanding or
skill.
16.4
16.4.1
Policy
Fall Protection Requirements
Fall protection may be required in areas and activities including, but not limited to the following:

ramps, runways, and
 precast concrete
 leading edge work,
other walkways,
erection,
 unprotected sides and
 excavations,
 wall openings,
 edges,
 residential
 hoist areas,
 overhand bricklaying
construction, and
 holes,
and related work,
 other walking/working
 formwork and
 roofing work,
surfaces.
reinforcing steel,
Employees will be protected from fall hazards and falling objects whenever an affected
employee is above the uniform threshold height of 6 feet above a lower level. Fall protection
must also be guaranteed for workers exposed to falling into dangerous equipment. Appropriate
fall-protection systems are guardrail systems, safety-net systems, or personal fall-arrest
systems.
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Fall Protection Systems
Type of fall-protection system What it does
Personal fall-arrest system Controls a fall
Personal fall-restraint system Prevents a fall
Positioning-device system Positions and limits fall to 2 feet
Guardrail system Prevents a fall
Safety-net system Controls (arrests) a fall
Warning line Warns of fall hazard
Slide-guard system Prevents sliding down a slopped roof
16.4.1.1 Alternative Fall Protection Methods
If work undertaken at height is leading-edge work, precast concrete erection work, or
residential-type construction work, fall protection other than appropriate guardrail systems,
safety-net systems, or personal fall-arrest systems may be used — provided there is a fallprotection plan that demonstrates that such systems are not feasible or would create a fall
hazard.
16.4.1.2 Other Fall-Protection Requirements
If activities at height include any of the following, consult the appropriate regulation and/or policy
for more information on appropriate fall protection:


Scaffolds
Cranes and
derricks
16.4.2


Steel erection work
Tunneling operations


Electric transmission
lines/equipment
Stairways and ladders
Fall Protection Systems and Methods
16.4.2.1 Planning Fall Protection
Methods, systems, and procedures to control exposure to fall hazards must be established
before work commences. Careful preparation lays the groundwork for an accident-free
workplace. Fall protection measures in project plans must reflect all anticipated fall hazards at
the worksite. The nature and scope of the planning effort depend on the complexity and size of
the project.
Planning must at least identify fall hazards and the systems and procedures to control the
hazards. Effective planning reduces exposure risks for workers during a project and for others
after the project is finished. For example, anchor points used by construction workers on a
project might also be used to protect window cleaners or other maintenance personnel.
Use the following tips to plan:

Identify all fall hazards that workers are likely to encounter during the project.

Describe how workers will gain access to the worksite (by ladders or stairs, for example).

Describe how workers will prevent tools and materials from dropping to lower levels.

Establish procedures for inspecting, maintaining, and storing fall protection equipment.

Identify the tasks that expose workers to fall hazards.

Make sure workers use fall protection systems appropriate for their tasks.
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
Identify anchor point locations.

Describe the methods for setting anchors and securing lifelines.

Identify areas in which workers may be exposed to falling objects and decide how to
control the hazards.

Describe emergency-response procedures for rescuing workers who fall.

Post emergency responders’ phone numbers and make sure workers know them.

Describe all equipment that will be available for rescuing workers who fall.
Competent and Qualified Personnel
Effective fall protection relies on the efforts of all personnel. However, each worksite that
demands fall protection measures, must have personnel onsite with the knowledge and
authority to prevent injury as hazards arise.
Competent Person
A competent person can identify existing hazards as well as potential hazards and has the
authority to take prompt corrective actions to eliminate such hazards and ensure employees are
out of harm’s way until the hazards can be eliminated.
The competent person:

Serves as the monitor in a safety-monitoring system, is responsible for recognizing
hazards that cause falls, and warns workers about hazards;

Determines whether safety nets meet requirements;

Inspects a personal fall-arrest system after it arrests a fall and determines whether the
system is damaged;

Evaluates alteration to a personal fall-arrest system and determines if it is safe to use;

Supervises installation of slide-guard systems; and

Trains employees how to recognize fall hazards and follow safety procedures
Qualified Person
A qualified person has successfully demonstrated his or her ability to solve problems relating to
the project by possession of a recognized degree, certificate, or professional standing; or by
extensive knowledge, training and experience.
The qualified person:

Supervises design, installation, and use of horizontal lifeline systems to ensure that they
can maintain a safety factor of at least two — twice the impact of a worker free-falling six
feet;

Supervises design, installation, and use of personal fall-restraint anchorages; and

Supervises design, installation, and use of personal fall-arrest anchorages.
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Covers for Roof Openings or Holes
Roof Openings are fall hazards and must either be covered or surrounded by a guardrail.
Skylights will usually break unless guarded or screened.
A cover is necessary regardless of the fall distance and includes any rigid object used to overlay
openings in floors, roofs, and other walking and working surfaces. Covers must be able to
support at least twice the maximum anticipated load of workers, equipment, and materials.
Covers should have full edge bearing on all four sides. All covers must be color-coded or
marked with the word “Hole” or “Cover” and must be secured to prevent accidental
displacement.
16.4.2.2 Conventional Fall Protection
Personal Fall Arrest System
These consist of an anchorage, connectors, and a body harness and may include a
deceleration device, lifeline, or suitable combinations. If a personal fall arrest system is used for
fall protection, it must do the following:

Limit maximum arresting force on an employee to 900 pounds used with a body belt;

Limit maximum arresting force on an employee to 1,800 pounds used with a body
harness;

Be rigged so that an employee can neither free fall more than 6 feet nor contact any
lower level;

Bring an employee to a complete stop and limit maximum deceleration distance an
employee travels to 3.5 feet; and

Have sufficient strength to withstand twice the potential impact energy of an employee
free falling a distance of 6 feet or the free fall distance permitted by the system,
whichever is less.
The use of body belts for fall arrest is prohibited; however, the use of a body belt in a positioning
device system is acceptable.
Personal fall arrest systems must be inspected before each use for wear damage, and other
deterioration. Defective components must be removed from service.
A personal fall arrest system includes 4 elements referred to as ABCDs of Fall Arrest:

A: Anchorage - a fixed structure or structural adaptation, often including an
anchorage connector, to which the other components of the PFAS are rigged.

B: Body Wear - a full body harness worn by the worker.

C: Connector - a subsystem component connecting the harness to the anchorage,
such as a lanyard.

D: Deceleration Device - a subsystem component designed to dissipate the forces
associated with a fall arrest event.
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Anchor
An anchor provides a secure point of attachment for a lifeline, lanyard, or deceleration device
and is perhaps the most important personal fall arrest system component. It must support a
minimum load of 5,000 pounds – a challenging requirement, particularly on wood framed and
residential-type structures. If you don’t know how much weight an anchor will hold, you should
have a qualified person design a complete fall protection system. The system must be installed
under the supervision of the qualified person and it must maintain a safety factor of at least two
– twice the impact force of a worker free-falling six feet.
Never use hoists or guardrails as anchors. They are not built to withstand the forces
generated by a fall.
In addition to anchor strength consider the following:

Anchorage connector: Unless an existing anchorage has been designed to accept a
lanyard or lifeline, you’ll need to attach an anchorage connector — a device that
provides a secure attachment point. Examples include tie-off adapters, hook anchors,
beam connectors, and beam trolleys. Be sure the connector is compatible with the
lanyard or lifeline and appropriate for the task.

Attachment point: The anchorage can be used only as the attachment point for a
personal fall-arrest system; it can’t be used to support or suspend platforms.

Location: The anchorage should be located directly above the worker, if possible, to
reduce the chance of a swing fall.

Fall distance: Because a personal fall-arrest system doesn’t prevent a fall, the
anchorage must be high enough above a worker so that the arrest system, rather than a
lower level, stops the fall. Consider free-fall distance, lanyard length, shock-absorber
elongation, and body-harness stretch in determining the height of an anchorage.
Body Harness
The full-body harness has straps that distribute the impact of a fall over the thighs, waist, chest,
shoulders, and pelvis. Full-body harnesses come in different styles, many of which are light and
comfortable. Before you purchase harnesses, make sure that they fit those who will use them,
they’re comfortable, and they’re easy to adjust.
A full-body harness should include a back D-ring for attaching lifelines or lanyards and a back
pad for support. Never use a body belt as part of a personal fall-arrest system.
Keep the following in mind when you buy a full-body harness:

The harness must be made from synthetic fibers;

The harness must fit the user. It should be comfortable and easy to adjust;

The harness must have an attachment point, usually a D-ring, in the center of the back
at about shoulder level. The D-ring should be large enough to easily accept a lanyard
snap hook;

Chest straps should be easy to adjust and strong enough to withstand a fall without
breaking;
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
Use only industrial full-body harnesses (not recreational climbing harnesses); and

The harness must be safe and reliable. It should meet ANSI and CSA standards and the
manufacturer should have ISO 9001 certification, which shows the manufacturer meets
international standards for product design, development, production, installation, and
service.
Connectors
An anchorage, a lanyard, and a body harness are not useful until they’re linked together.
Connectors do the linking; they make the anchorage, the lanyard, and the harness a complete
system. Connectors include carabiners, snap hooks, and D-rings. Connectors must be
dropforged, pressed or made from formed steel or equally strong material. They must be
corrosion-resistant, with smooth surfaces and edges that will not damage other parts of the
personal fall arrest system.
Carabiner
This high-tensile alloy steel connector has a locking gate and is
used mostly in specialized work such as window cleaning and highangle rescue. Carabiners must have a minimum tensile strength of
5,000 pounds.
Snap hook
A hook-shaped member with a keeper that opens to receive
a connecting component and automatically closes when
released. Snap hooks are typically spliced or sewn into
lanyards and self-retracting lifelines. Snap hooks must be
high-tensile alloy steel and have a minimum tensile strength
of 5,000 pounds. Use only locking snap hooks with personal fallarrest systems; locking snap hooks have self-locking keepers that won’t
open until they’re unlocked.
D-ring
D-rings are the attachment points sewn into a full-body harness. D-rings must have a minimum
tensile strength of 5,000 pounds.
Deceleration Devices
Any mechanism with a maximum length of 3.5 feet, such as a rope grab, rip stitch lanyard,
tearing or deforming lanyards, self-retracting lifelines, etc. which serves to dissipate a
substantial amount of energy during a fall arrest, or otherwise limit the energy imposed on an
employee during fall arrest.
Because a shock-absorbing lanyard extends up to 3.5 feet, it’s critical that the lanyard stops the
worker before the next lower level. Allow about 20 vertical feet between the worker’s anchorage
point and the level below the working surface. Always estimate the total distance of a possible
fall before using a shock-absorbing lanyard.
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Remember: Never use a shock-absorbing lanyard
if the shock absorber is even partially extended or
if the lanyard has arrested a fall.
Shock Absorbing Lanyard
Deceleration devices protect workers from the impact
of a fall and include shock-absorbing lanyards, selfretracting lifelines or lanyards, and rope grabs.
Beware of swing falls!
If you use a self-retracting lanyard or
lifeline, work below the anchorage to
avoid a swing fall. The farther you
move away from the anchorage, the
farther you will fall and the greater
your risk of swinging back into a
hard object. Swing falls are
hazardous because you can hit an
object or a lower level during the
pendulum motion.
Because a shock-absorbing lanyard extends up to 3.5
feet, it’s critical that the lanyard stops the worker
before the next lower level. Allow about 20 vertical
feet between the worker’s anchorage point and the
level below the working surface. Always estimate the
total distance of a possible fall before using a shock-absorbing lanyard.
Self-Retracting Lanyards or Lifelines
Self-retracting lanyards and lifelines offer more freedom to move than shock-absorbing
lanyards. Each has a drum-wound line that unwinds and retracts as the worker moves. If the
worker falls, the drum immediately locks, which reduces free-fall distance to about two feet — if
the anchorage point is directly above the worker. Some self-retracting lanyards will reduce freefall distance to less than one foot. Self-retracting lanyards are available in lengths up to 20 feet.
Self-retracting lifelines, which offer more freedom, are available in lengths up to 250 feet.
Rope Grab
A rope grab allows a worker to move up a vertical lifeline but automatically engages and locks
on the lifeline if the worker falls.
When using a rope grab, keep the following in mind:

The rope grab must be compatible with the lifeline.

The rope grab must be correctly attached to the lifeline (not upside down).

Keep the lanyard (between the rope grab and the body harness) as short as possible.

Keep the rope grab as high as possible on the lifeline.
Lifelines
A lifeline is a cable or rope that connects to a body harness, lanyard, or deceleration device,
and at least one anchorage. There are two types of lifelines, vertical and horizontal.
Vertical Lifeline: A vertical lifeline is attached to an overhead anchorage and must be
connected directly to a worker’s full-body harness, lanyard, retractable device, or rope grab; it
must have a minimum breaking strength of 5,000 pounds. When a worker needs to move
horizontally, however, a vertical lifeline can be hazardous due to the potential for a swing fall —
the pendulum motion that results when the worker swings back under the anchor point. A swing
fall increases a worker’s risk of striking an object or a lower level during the pendulum motion.
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Horizontal Lifeline: Unlike a vertical lifeline, the horizontal lifeline stretches between two
anchorages. When you connect a lanyard or rope grab to a horizontal lifeline, you can move
about freely, thus reducing the risk of a swing fall. However, horizontal lifelines are subject to
much greater loads than vertical lifelines. Horizontal lifelines can fail at the anchorage points if
they’re not installed correctly. For this reason, horizontal lifelines must be designed, installed,
and used under the supervision of a qualified person.
Sag Angles: Any load on a horizontal lifeline will cause it to deflect or sag. The sag angle is a
horizontal lifeline’s angle of deflection when it’s subjected to a load, such as a falling worker.
Reducing the sag angle (making a horizontal lifeline too tight) actually increases the force on the
line during a fall. As you tighten a horizontal lifeline, you increase the impact load dramatically!
For example, when the sag angle is 15 degrees, the force on the lifeline and anchorages
subjected to a load is about 2:1. However, if you decrease the sag angle to five degrees, the
force increases to about 6:1.
Fall Arrest Rules
When using personal fall arrest systems:

If you fall, the impact force to the body has to be less than 1800 pounds, achieved by
using shock absorbing lanyards and a harness.

Minimize fall distance; the maximum free fall distance can only be 6 feet.

There cannot be any structures below in your fall distance.

Maximum weight of an individual w/tools is 310 pounds.
Guardrails
A guardrail system consists of a top rail, midrail, and intermediate vertical member. Guardrail
systems can also be combined with toeboards that prevent materials from rolling off the
walking/working surface.
Guardrail systems must be free of anything that might cut a worker or snag a worker’s clothing.
Top rails and midrails must be at least ¼-inch thick to reduce the risk of hand lacerations; steel
and plastic banding cannot be used for top rails and midrails.
Other requirements for guardrails include:

Wire rope used for a top rail must be marked at least every six feet with high-visibility
material.

The top rail of a guardrail must be 42 inches (plus or minus three inches) above the
walking/working surface. The top-edge height can exceed 45 inches if the system meets
all other performance criteria.

Midrails must be installed midway between the top rail and the walking/working surface
unless there is an existing wall or parapet at least 21 inches high.

Screens and mesh are required when material could fall between the top rail and midrail
or between the midrail and the walking/working surface.

Intermediate vertical members, when used instead of midrails between posts, must be
no more than 19 inches apart.
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
A guardrail system must be capable of withstanding a 200-pound force applied within
two inches of its top edge in any outward or downward direction.

Midrails, screens, and intermediate structural members must withstand at least 150
pounds of force applied in any downward or outward direction.
Safety Nets
Safety-net systems consist of mesh nets and connecting components.

Safety-net openings can’t be more than
six inches on a side, center to center.

Safety nets must not be installed more
than 30 feet below the working surface.

An installed net must be able to withstand
a drop test consisting of a 400-pound
sandbag, 30 inches in diameter, dropped
from the working surface.

Inspect safety nets regularly and remove debris from them no later than the start of the
next work shift
Minimum horizontal distance from the edge
of working surface to the net’s outer edge
Net distance below
Minimum horizontal
working surface
distance
Up to 5 feet
8 feet
5 feet to 10 feet
10 feet
More than 10 feet
13 feet
16.4.2.3 Other Fall Protection Systems and Methods
Fall Restraint System
A personal fall-restraint system prevents a worker from reaching an unprotected edge and thus
prevents a fall from occurring. The system consists of an anchorage, connectors, and a body
harness or a body belt. The attachment point to the body belt or full-body harness can be at the
back, front, or side D-rings.
The anchorage for a fall-restraint system must support at least 3,000 pounds or be designed
and installed by a qualified person and have a safety factor of at least two — twice the impact
force of a worker free-falling six feet.
Positioning Device System
Positioning-device systems make it easier to work with both hands free on a vertical surface
such as a wall or concrete form. Positioning-device systems are also called “class II Workpositioning systems” and “work-positioning systems”.
The components of a positioning-device system — anchorage, connectors, and body support —
are similar to those of a personal fall arrest system. However, the systems serve different
purposes. A positioning-device system provides support and must stop a free fall within two
feet; a personal fall arrest system provides no support and must limit free-fall distance to six
feet.
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
Anchorage. Positioning-device systems must be secured to an anchorage that can
support at least twice the potential impact of a worker’s fall or 3,000 pounds, whichever
is greater.

Connectors. Connectors must have a minimum strength of 5,000 pounds. Snap hooks
and D-rings must be proof-tested to a minimum load of 3,600 pounds without deforming
or breaking.

Body support. A body belt is acceptable as part of a positioning-device system.
However, it must limit the arresting force on a worker to 900 pounds and it can only be
used for body support. A full-body harness is also acceptable but must limit the arrest
force to 1,800 pounds. Belts or harnesses must have side D-rings or a single front D-ring
for positioning.
Warning Line System
Warning line systems consist of ropes, wires, or chains, and supporting stanchions that form a
barrier to warn those who approach an unprotected roof side or edge. The lines mark off an
area within which one can do roofing work without using guardrails or safety nets; warning line
systems can be combined with guardrail systems, personal fall arrest systems, or safety
monitoring systems to protect those doing roofing work on low slope roofs (4:12 or less, 2:12 in
some jurisdictions).
When mechanical equipment is not being used, the warning line shall be erected not less than 6
feet from the roof edge. When mechanical equipment is being used, the warning line shall be
erected not less than 6 feet from the roof edge which is parallel to the direction of mechanical
equipment operation, and not less than 10 feet (3.1 m) from the roof edge which is
perpendicular to the direction of mechanical equipment operation.
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Safety Monitoring System
A safety monitoring system is a set of procedures assigned to a competent person for
monitoring and warning workers who may be unaware of fall hazards. A safety monitoring
system used in conjunction with a controlled access zone and a fall protection plan is also
appropriate in situations where conventional fall protection is not feasible.
Controlled Access Zones
The controlled access zone is best thought of as a combination of a warning line system and a
safety monitoring system.
It defines an area where workers can do leading edge, overhand bricklaying and related work,
or work under a fall protection plan without using conventional fall protection. All others are
prohibited from entering a controlled access zone. The zone is created by erecting a control
line, or lines, to restrict access to the area. The control line warns workers that access to the
zone is limited to authorized persons.
Control lines must meet the following criteria:

Consist of ropes, wires, tapes, or equivalent materials and supporting stanchions;

Be flagged at least every 6 feet with high visibility material;

Be no less than 39 inches from the working surface at its lowest point and no more than
45 inches from the working surface at its highest point (50 inches in overhand bricklaying
operations);

Have a minimum breaking strength of 200 lbs; and

For work such as overhand bricklaying, the control lines should be 10-15 ft from the
unprotected edge.
16.4.2.4 Protecting Workers From Falling Objects
Those who work on elevated surfaces must be familiar with systems and methods that control
their exposure to fall hazards; they must also ensure that their equipment and tools don’t
endanger workers below them.
Common methods for protecting workers from falling objects include the following:

Canopies suspended above the work area;

Barricades and fences to keep people from entering unsafe areas; and

Screens, guardrail systems, and toeboards to prevent materials from falling to lower
levels.
The following guidelines will help you keep your tools and equipment where they belong:

If you use toeboards, they must be strong enough to withstand a force of at least 50 lbs
applied in any downward or outward direction and be at least 3½ inches high.

If you need to pile material higher than the top edge of a toeboard, install panels or
screens to keep the material from dropping over the edge.

If you use canopies as falling object protection, make sure they won’t collapse or tear
from an object’s impact.
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
You can use guardrails with toeboards as falling object protection if the guardrail
openings are small enough to keep the objects from falling through.

When you do overhand bricklaying work, keep material and equipment – except
masonry and mortar – at least four feet from the working edge. Remove excess mortar
and other debris regularly.

When you do roofing work, keep materials and equipment at least six feet from the roof
edge unless there are guardrails along the edge. All piled, grouped, or stacked material
near the roof edge must be stable and self-supporting.
16.4.3
The Fall Protection Plan
Employees doing leading edge work, precast concrete erection work, or residential construction
work for whom conventional fall protection equipment is infeasible or creates a greater hazard
may be protected by a fall protection plan instead. A fall protection plan used by Pyro
Combustion & Controls Inc. will conform to the following standards:

The fall protection plan shall be prepared by a qualified person and developed for the
site where the leading edge work, precast concrete work, or residential construction
work is being performed, and the plan must be maintained up to date.

A qualified person must approve any changes to the fall protection plan.

A copy of the fall protection plan and changes will be maintained at the job site.

A competent person will implement the fall protection plan.

The fall protection plan shall document the reasons why the use of conventional fall
protection systems (guardrail systems, personal fall arrest systems, or safety nets
systems) are infeasible or why their use would create a greater hazard.

The fall protection plan shall include a written discussion of other measures that will be
taken to reduce or eliminate the fall hazard for workers who cannot be provided with
protection from the conventional fall protection systems. For example, the employer shall
discuss the extent to which scaffolds, ladders, or vehicle mounted work platforms can be
used to provide a safer working surface and thereby reduce the hazard of falling.

The fall protection plan shall identify each location where conventional fall protection
methods cannot be used. These locations shall then be classified as controlled access
zones and adhere to all appropriate policies and regulations.

Where no other alternative measure has been implemented, the employer shall
implement a safety monitoring system.

The fall protection plan must include a statement which provides the name or other
method of identification for each employee who is designated to work in controlled
access zones. No other employees may enter controlled access zones.

In the event an employee falls, or some other related, serious incident occurs, the
employer shall investigate the circumstances of the fall or other incident to determine if
the fall protection plan needs to be changed (e.g. new practices, procedures, or training)
and shall implement those changes to prevent similar types of falls or incidents.
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16.4.4
Inspecting & Maintaining Fall-Protection Equipment
Employees will inspect fall protection systems and equipment regularly for wear or damage.

Inspect manila, plastic or synthetic rope used for top rails or midrails or a guardrail
system frequently.

Inspect safety nets at least once a week, removing defective nets from service.

Inspect PFASs or positioning device systems everytime they are used.

A PFAS that has been subjected to a fall must not be used again until a competent
person determines it is safe.
16.4.4.1 Lanyard Inspections
Hardware
Snaps
Inspect closely for hook and eye distortions, cracks, corrosion, or pitted surfaces. The keeper
(latch) should seat into the nose without binding and should not be distorted or obstructed. The
keeper spring should exert sufficient force to firmly close the keeper. Keeper locks must prevent
the keeper from opening when the keeper closes.
Thimbles
The thimble must be firmly seated in the eye of the splice, and the splice should have no loose
or cut strands. The edges of the thimble must be free of sharp edges, distortion, or cracks.
Lanyards
Wire Rope (Steel) Lanyard
Always wear gloves when inspecting a wire rope lanyard because broken strands can cause
injury. To inspect, rotate the wire rope lanyard while watching for cuts, frayed areas or unusual
wearing patterns on the wire. Broken strands will separate from the body of the lanyard.
Web Lanyard
While bending webbing over a pipe, observe each side of the webbed lanyard. This will reveal
any cuts, snags or breaks. Swelling, discoloration, cracks and charring are obvious signs of
chemical or heat damage. Observe closely for any breaks in stitching.
Rope Lanyard
Rotate the rope lanyard while inspecting from end-to-end for any fuzzy, worn, broken or cut
fibers. Weakened areas from extreme loads will appear as a noticeable change in original
diameter. The rope diameter should be uniform throughout, following a short break-in period.
Shock Absorber Pack
The outer portion of the pack should be examined for burn holes and tears. Stitching on areas
where the pack is sewn to D-rings, belts or lanyards should be examined for loose strands, rips,
deterioration or other signs of activation.
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Shock-Absorbing Lanyard
Shock-absorbing lanyards should be examined as a web lanyard. However, also look for the
warning flag or signs of deployment. If the flag has been activated, remove this shock-absorbing
lanyard from service.
Common Types of Damage to Webbing and Lanyards
Heat
In excessive heat, nylon becomes brittle and has a shriveled brownish appearance. Fibers will
break when flexed and should not be used above 180 degrees Fahrenheit.
Chemical
Change in color usually appears as a brownish smear or smudge. Transverse cracks appear
when belt is bent over tight. This causes a loss of elasticity in the belt.
Ultraviolet Rays
Do not store webbing and rope lanyards in direct sunlight, because ultraviolet rays can reduce
the strength of some material.
Molten Metal or Flame
Webbing and rope strands may be fused together by molten metal or flame. Watch for hard,
shiny spots or a hard and brittle feel. Webbing will not support combustion, nylon will.
Paint and Solvents
Paint will penetrate and dry, restricting movements of fibers. Drying agents and solvents in
some paints will appear as chemical damage.
16.4.4.2 Self-Retracting Lines
Check Housing
Before every use, inspect the unit’s housing for loose fasteners and bent, cracked, distorted,
worn, malfunctioning or damaged parts.
Lifeline
Test the lifeline retraction and tension by pulling out several feet of the lifeline and allow it to
retract back into the unit. Maintain a light tension on the lifeline as it retracts. The lifeline should
pull out freely and retract all the way back into the unit. Do not use the unit if the lifeline does not
retract. Also check for signs of damage. Inspect for cuts, burns, corrosion, kinks, frays or worn
areas. Inspect any sewing (web lifelines) for loose, broken or damaged stitching.
Braking Mechanism
Test the braking mechanism by grasping the lifeline above the load indicator and applying a
sharp steady pull downward to engage the brake. There should be no slippage of the lifeline
while the brake is engaged. Once tension is released, the brake should disengage and the unit
should return to the retractable mode. Do not use the unit if the brake does not engage.
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Fall Protection
Snap Hook
Check the snap hook to be sure it operates freely, locks, and the swivel operates smoothly.
Inspect the snap hook for any signs of damage to the keepers and any bent, cracked, or
distorted components.
Anchorage Connection
Make sure the carabiner is properly seated and in the locked position between the attachment
swivel/point on the device and the anchor point
16.4.4.3 Harness Inspection
Webbing
Grasp the webbing with your hands 6 inches (152 mm) to 8 inches (203mm) apart. Bend the
webbing in an inverted “U”. The surface tension resulting makes damaged fibers or cuts easier
to detect. Follow this procedure the entire length of the webbing, inspecting both sides of each
strap. Look for frayed edges, broken fibers, pulled stitches, cuts, burns and chemical damage.
D-Rings/Back Pads
Check D-rings for distortion, cracks, breaks, and rough or sharp edges. The D-ring should pivot
freely. Inspect for any unusual wear, frayed or cut fibers, or broken stitching of the D-ring
attachments. Pads should also be inspected for cracks, excessive wear, or other signs of
damage.
Buckles
Inspect for any unusual wear, frayed or cut fibers, or broken stitching of buckle attachments.
Tongue Buckles/Grommets
Buckle tongues should be free of distortion in shape and motion. They should overlap the
buckle frame and move freely back and forth in their socket. Roller should turn freely on frame.
Check for distortion or sharp edges. Inspect for loose, distorted or broken grommets. Webbing
should not have additional punched holes.
Friction and Mating Buckles
Inspect the buckle for distortion. The outer bars and center bars must be straight. Pay special
attention to corners and attachment points at the center bar.
Quick-Connect Buckles
Inspect the buckle for distortion. The outer bars and center bars must be straight. Make sure
buckles engage properly.
Harness Fall Arrest Indicators
Inspect fall arrest indicators (located on the back D-ring pad) for signs of activation. Remove
from service if broken or stretched between any of the four pairs of arrows.
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Fall Protection
16.4.4.4 Cleaning of Equipment
Basic care for fall protection safety equipment will prolong the life of the equipment and
contribute to its safety performance. Proper storage and maintenance after use is as important
as cleaning dirt, corrosives or contaminants off the equipment. The storage area should be
clean, dry, and free of exposure to fumes or corrosive elements.
Nylon and Polyester
Wipe off all surface dirt with a sponge dampened in plain water. Squeeze the sponge dry. Dip
the sponge in a mild solution of water and commercial soap or detergent. Work up a thick lather
with a vigorous back and forth motion. Then wipe the belt dry with a clean cloth. Hang freely to
dry but away from excessive heat.
Housing
Periodically clean the unit using a damp cloth and mild detergent. Towel dry.
Drying
Harness, belts, and other equipment should be dried thoroughly without exposure to heat,
steam, or long periods of sunlight.
16.4.5
Emergency Planning
The best strategy for protecting workers from falls is to eliminate the hazards that cause falls. If
you can’t eliminate the hazards, you must protect workers with an appropriate fall-protection
system or method. If a worker is suspended in a personal fall-arrest system, you must provide
for a prompt rescue.
The emergency response plan outlines key rescue and medical personnel, equipment available
for rescue, emergency communications procedures, retrieval methods, and primary first-aid
requirements. Please see the chapter on Emergency Action Plans for more information.
16.4.5.1 Before Work Begins

Identify emergencies that could affect your work site.

Establish a chain of command.

Document procedures for responding to emergencies and make sure they’re available at
the site.

Post emergency-responder phone numbers and addresses at the work site.

Identify critical resources and rescue equipment.

Train on-site responders.

Identify off-site responders and inform them about any conditions at the site that may
hinder a rescue effort.

Identify emergency entry and exit routes.

Make sure responders have quick access to rescue and retrieval equipment, such as
lifts and ladders.
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16.4.5.2 During Work

Identify on-site equipment that can be used for rescue and retrieval, such as extension
ladders and mobile lifts.

Maintain a current rescue-equipment inventory at the site. Equipment may change
frequently as the job progresses.

Re-evaluate and update the emergency-response plan when on-site work tasks change.
16.4.5.3 When an Emergency Occurs

First responders should clear a path to the victim. Others should direct emergency
personnel to the scene. You can use 911 for ambulance service; however, most 911
responders are not trained to rescue a worker suspended in a personal fall-arrest
system.

Make sure only trained responders attempt a technical rescue.

Prohibit all nonessential personnel from the rescue site.
16.4.5.4 After an Emergency

Report fatalities and catastrophes to OSHA within eight hours.

Report injuries requiring overnight hospitalization with medical treatment (other than first
aid) to OSHA within 24 hours.

Identify equipment that may have contributed to the emergency and put it out of service.

Have a competent person examine equipment. If the equipment is damaged, repair or
replace it. If the equipment caused the accident, determine how and why.

Document in detail the cause of the incident and describe how it can be prevented from
happening again.

Review emergency procedures. Determine how the procedures could be changed to
prevent similar events. Revise the procedures accordingly.
16.5
Forms & Attachments
On the following pages, please find the following document(s):

Fall Hazard Assessment

Employee Training for Fall Protection Certification
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Fall Protection
Fall Hazard Assessment
Job Name:
Date Assessed:
Location:
Related Operating Procedures Reviewed:
 YES  NO
Location Marked and Entry Controlled:
 YES  NO
FALL HAZARD ASSESSMENT CHECKLIST
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Can an employee enter the area without restriction and perform work?
Are fall prevention systems such as cages, guardrails, toeboards, and manlifts in place?
Have slipping and tripping hazards been removed or controlled?
Have visual warnings of fall hazards been installed?
Can the distance a worker could fall be reduced by installing platforms, nets etc.?
Are any permanently installed floor coverings, gratings, hatches, or doors missing?
Does the location contain any other recognized safety and or health hazards?
Is the space designated as a Permit Required Confined Space?
Have anchor points been designated and load tested?
 YES
 YES
 YES
 YES
 YES
 YES
 YES
 YES
 YES
 NO
 NO
 NO
 NO
 NO
 NO
 NO
 NO
 NO
ASSESSMENT INFORMATION
Initials
Hazard
Remarks/Recommendations
Total potential fall distance:
Number of workers involved:
Frequency of task:
Obtainable anchor point strength:
Required anchor point strength: (not less than 5000 lbs)
ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS
Potential environmental conditions that could impact safety:
Initials Condition
Remarks/Recommendations
Possible required structural alterations:
Initials Alteration
Remarks/Recommendations
Possible task modification that may be required:
Initials Task
Remarks/Recommendations
Training requirements:
Initials Requirement
Remarks/Recommendations
Personal protective equipment required:
Initials Requirement
Remarks/Recommendations
Comments:
 Approved
AUTHORIZATION
I certify that I have conducted a Fall Hazard Assessment of the above designated location and have detailed the
findings of the assessment on this form.
* Further detailed on attachment:  YES  NO
Title:
Date:
Name:
Signature:
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Fall Protection
Employee Training For Fall Protection
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. certifies that the following employee has been trained in the
understanding, knowledge, and skills necessary for the safe performance of duties assigned in
areas of fall protection hazards.
_______________________________________________ has demonstrated proficiency in the
following areas of fall protection:
The nature of fall hazards in the work area.
The correct procedures for erecting, maintaining, disassembling, and inspecting
the fall protection systems to be used.
The use and operation of guardrail systems, personal fall arrest systems, safety
net systems, warning line systems, safety monitoring systems, personal fall
restraint systems, slide guard systems, positioning devices, and other protection
to be used.
The role of each employee in the safety monitoring system when this system is
used.
The limitations on the use of mechanical equipment during the performance of
roofing work.
The correct procedures for the handling and storage of equipment and materials
and the erection of overhead protection.
The role of employees in the fall protection work plan.
_______________________________________________ ________________
Employee Trained By
Date of Training
______________________________________________ ________________
Signature of Trainer
Date
______________________________________________ ________________
Employee Signature
Date
cc: Employee Personnel File
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Heavy Equipment
17
Heavy Equipment
17.1
Policy Statement
The use of heavy equipment/mobile equipment is part of many jobs conducted by Pyro
Combustion & Controls Inc. employees. Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. recognizes the
hazards associated with the operation of heavy equipment/mobile equipment, and has
developed this policy to establish guidelines in an attempt to eliminate injuries or fatalities
related to this type of equipment.
This policy applies to all free moving mobile equipment that may be propelled by gasoline,
propane, diesel or electricity, however the policy is not intended for operators of licensed and
registered (by the Department of Motor Vehicles) automobiles and similar motor vehicles
intended for use by licensed motor vehicle operators on public roads and highways.
Only competent personnel may operate heavy equipment/mobile equipment. An
individual’s competency must be demonstrated by successful completion of the training
and evaluation process specified in this policy. This policy establishes requirements to
work in or around all types of mobile equipment.
17.2
Responsibilities
Preventing injuries from heavy equipment is a cooperative effort between Pyro Combustion &
Controls Inc. and its employees.
17.2.1
Employer Responsibilities
It is the responsibility of Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. to:

Only allow trained and experienced operators to operate heavy equipment;

Ensure training occurs under people qualified and experienced with the type of
equipment used;

Ensure heavy equipment at the worksite has rollover protective structures (ROPSs) and
seatbelts as required;

Identify and inform workers of the hazards of power lines and utilities during a storm;

Ensure efficacy of all safety features on any piece of machinery or equipment onsite;

Establish limited access zones to keep workers away from heavy machinery; and

Ensure each employee is trained in appropriate skills needed to do his or her job safely.
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Heavy Equipment
17.2.2
Employee Responsibilities
Heavy equipment operators at Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. are expected to:

Review all safe operating procedures in the operator’s manual before working with a
new piece of equipment;

Inspect equipment daily;

Maintain all walking and working surfaces free of grease and fluids;

Keep equipment away from unstable soil, steep grades or embankments to prevent
rollovers;

Avoid heavy equipment without rollover protective structures (ROPSs);

Always put the transmission in park, shut off the motor, set the brakes, and perform any
other needed shutdown procedures/lockout of controls and/or attachments before
working on or around the equipment;

Ensure no one is behind the vehicle before backing up;

Keep unauthorized personnel and vehicles safe with barriers;

Ensure only essential workers are anywhere near the equipment;

Keep coworkers off equipment and out from under suspended loads; and

Drive equipment safely.
17.3
Training
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. will ensure every heavy equipment operator is competent to
operate the equipment safely, as demonstrated by the successful completion of the training and
evaluation specified in this section.
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. will use only training material that is appropriate in content and
vocabulary to educational level, literacy, and language of employees.
17.3.1
Implementation
Trainees may operate heavy equipment only:

Under the direct supervision of persons who have the knowledge, training, and
experience to train operators and evaluate their competence; and
 Where such operation does not endanger the trainee or other employees.
Training will consist of a combination of formal instruction (e.g., lecture, discussion, interactive
computer learning, video tape, written material), practical training (demonstrations performed by
the trainer and practical exercises performed by the trainee), and evaluation of the operator’s
performance on the job-site.
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All operator training and evaluation will be conducted by persons who have the knowledge,
training, and experience to train heavy equipment operators and evaluate their competence.
17.3.2
Training Components
Gary Pfizenmayer will ensure that every employee will be trained in the following minimum
elements:
Equipment-Related Topics

Operating instructions, warnings, and precautions for the types of equipment the
operator will be authorized to operate.

Differences between the equipment and an automobile.

Equipment controls and instrumentation: where they are located, what they do, and how
they work.

Engine or motor operation.

Steering and maneuvering.

Visibility (including restrictions due to loading).

Implement and attachment adaptation, operation, and use limitations.

Equipment capacity.

Vehicle stability.

Any equipment inspection and maintenance that the operator will be required to perform.

Refueling and/or charging and recharging of batteries.

Operating limitations.

Any other operating instructions, warnings, or precautions listed in the operator’s manual
for the types of equipment that the employee is being trained to operate.
Workplace-Related Topics

Surface conditions where the equipment will be operated.

Composition of loads to be carried and load stability.

Load maneuvering, loading, and unloading. (Includes trucks, hoppers, etc.)

Pedestrian traffic in areas where the equipment will be operated.

Confined areas and other restricted places where equipment will be operated.

Hazardous (classified) locations where the equipment will be operated.

Ramps and other sloped surfaces that could affect the vehicle’s stability.

Closed environments and other areas where insufficient ventilation or poor vehicle
maintenance could cause buildup of carbon monoxide or diesel exhaust.

Other unique or potentially hazardous environmental conditions in the workplace that
could affect safe operation.
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Heavy Equipment
17.3.3
Duplicative Training
If an operator has previously received training in a topic specified in this section, and such
training is appropriate to the equipment and working conditions encountered, additional training
in that topic is not required if the operator has been evaluated and found competent to operate
the equipment safely.
17.3.4
Training Records
Training records will serve to certify each operator has been trained and evaluated and will
include the following information:

The dates of the training sessions and evaluation;

The contents or a summary of the training sessions;

The names and qualifications of persons conducting the training or evaluation; and

The names and job titles of all persons attending the training sessions.
Employee training records will be maintained for 3 years from the date on which the training
occurred.
17.4
17.4.1
Policy
General Requirements
All equipment left unattended at night, adjacent to a highway in normal use, or adjacent to
construction areas where work is in progress, shall have appropriate lights or reflectors, or
barricades equipped with appropriate lights or reflectors, to identify the location of the
equipment.
A safety tire rack, cage, or equivalent protection shall be provided and used when inflating,
mounting, or dismounting tires installed on split rims, or rims equipped with locking rings or
similar devices.
Heavy machinery, equipment, or parts thereof, which are suspended or held aloft by use of
slings, hoists, or jacks shall be substantially blocked or cribbed to prevent falling or shifting
before employees are permitted to work under or between them. Bulldozer and scraper blades,
end-loader buckets, dump bodies, and similar equipment, shall be either fully lowered or
blocked when being repaired or when not in use. All controls shall be in a neutral position, with
the motors stopped and brakes set, unless work being performed requires otherwise.
Whenever the equipment is parked, the parking brake shall be set. Equipment parked on
inclines shall have the wheels chocked and the parking brake set.
The use, care and charging of all batteries shall conform to OSHA requirements.
All cab glass shall be safety glass, or equivalent, that introduces no visible distortion affecting
the safe operation of any machine covered by this subpart.
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Heavy Equipment
17.4.1.1 Working Near Power Lines
All equipment covered under this policy shall comply with the following requirements when
being moved in the vicinity of power lines or energized transmitters, except where electrical
distribution and transmission lines have been deenergized and visibly grounded at point of work
or where insulating barriers — not a part of (or an attachment to) the equipment or machinery —
have been erected to prevent physical contact with the lines:

For lines rated 50 kV or below, minimum clearance between the lines and any part of the
crane or load shall be 10 feet;

For lines rated over 50 kV, minimum clearance between the lines and any part of the
crane or load shall be 10 feet plus 0.4 inch for each 1 kV over 50 kV, or twice the length
of the line insulator, but never less than 10 feet;

In transit with no load and boom lowered, the equipment clearance shall be a minimum
of 4 feet for voltages less than 50 kV, and 10 feet for voltages over 50 kV, up to and
including 345 kV, and 16 feet for voltages up to and including 750 kV;

A person shall be designated to observe clearance of the equipment and give timely
warning for all operations where it is difficult for the operator to maintain the desired
clearance by visual means;

Cage-type boom guards, insulating links, or proximity warning devices may be used on
cranes, but the use of such devices shall not alter the requirements of any other
regulation of this part even if such device is required by law or regulation;

Any overhead wire shall be considered to be an energized line unless and until the
person owning such line or the electrical utility authorities indicate that it is not an
energized line and it has been visibly grounded;

Prior to work near transmitter towers where an electrical charge can be induced in the
equipment or materials being handled, the transmitter shall be de-energized or tests
shall be made to determine if electrical charge is induced on the crane. The following
precautions shall be taken when necessary to dissipate induced voltages:
o The equipment shall be provided with an electrical ground directly to the upper
rotating structure supporting the boom, and
o

Ground jumper cables shall be attached to materials being handled by boom
equipment when electrical charge is induced while working near energized
transmitters. Crews shall be provided with nonconductive poles having large alligator
clips or other similar protection to attach the ground cable to the load; and
Combustible and flammable materials shall be removed from the immediate area prior to
operations.
17.4.1.2 Rolling Railroad Cars
Derail and/or bumper blocks shall be provided on spur railroad tracks where a rolling car could
contact other cars being worked, enter a building, work or traffic area.
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17.4.2
Motor Vehicles
Motor vehicles as covered by this part are those vehicles that operate within an off-highway
jobsite, not open to public traffic. The requirements of this section do not apply to equipment for
which rules are prescribed in later.
17.4.2.1 General Requirements
All vehicles shall have a service brake system, an emergency brake system, and a parking
brake system. These systems may use common components, and shall be maintained in
operable condition.
Whenever visibility conditions warrant additional light, all vehicles, or combinations of vehicles,
in use shall be equipped with at least two headlights and two taillights in operable condition.
All vehicles, or combination of vehicles, shall have brake lights in operable condition regardless
of light conditions.
All vehicles shall be equipped with an adequate audible warning device at the operator’s station
and in an operable condition.
No employer shall use any motor vehicle equipment having an obstructed view to the rear
unless:

The vehicle has a reverse signal alarm audible above the surrounding noise level; or

The vehicle is backed up only when an observer signals that it is safe to do so.
All vehicles with cabs shall be equipped with windshields and powered wipers. Cracked and
broken glass shall be replaced. Vehicles operating in areas or under conditions that cause
fogging or frosting of the windshields shall be equipped with operable defogging or defrosting
devices.
All haulage vehicles, whose pay load is loaded by means of cranes, power shovels, loaders, or
similar equipment, shall have a cab shield and/or canopy adequate to protect the operator from
shifting or falling materials.
Tools and material shall be secured to prevent movement when transported in the same
compartment with employees.
Vehicles used to transport employees shall have seats firmly secured and adequate for the
number of employees to be carried.
Seat belts and anchorages meeting the DOT requirements shall be installed in all motor
vehicles.
Trucks with dump bodies shall be equipped with positive means of support, permanently
attached, and capable of being locked in position to prevent accidental lowering of the body
while maintenance or inspection work is being done.
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Operating levers controlling hoisting or dumping devices on haulage bodies shall be equipped
with a latch or other device which will prevent accidental starting or tripping of the mechanism.
Trip handles for tailgates of dump trucks shall be so arranged that, in dumping, the operator will
be in the clear.
Mud flaps may be used in lieu of fenders whenever motor vehicle equipment is not designed for
fenders.
All vehicles in use shall be checked at the beginning of each shift to assure that the following
parts, equipment, and accessories are in safe operating condition and free of apparent damage
that could cause failure while in use:


service brakes,
including trailer brake
connections;
parking system (hand
brake);




steering mechanism;
emergency stopping
system (brakes);
tires;
horn;




coupling devices;
seat belts;
operating controls; and
safety devices.
Correct all defects corrected before placing the vehicle in service. These requirements also
apply to equipment such as lights, reflectors, windshield wipers, defrosters, fire extinguishers,
etc., where such equipment is necessary.
17.4.3
Material Handling Equipment
17.4.3.1 Earthmoving Equipment
The rules under this heading apply to these types of earthmoving equipment:


scrapers,
loaders,
crawler or wheel
tractors,


graders,
agricultural and
industrial tractors,



bulldozers,
off-highway trucks,
and
similar equipment.
Seat Belts
Earthmoving equipment, unless designed only for standup operation or it has no roll-over
protection structure, must have seatbelts that meet Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE)
specifications
Access Roadways and Grades
Any access road or grade must be constructed and maintained to accommodate construction
equipment or vehicles permitted upon them.
Emergency access ramps and berms must restrain and control runaway vehicles.
Brakes
Earthmoving equipment must have a breaking system capable of stopping and holding the
equipment, as specified by the appropriate SAE standard.
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Fenders
Pneumatic-tired earth-moving haulage equipment whose maximum speed exceeds 15 miles per
hour, shall be equipped with fenders on all wheels to meet the requirements of SAE J321a1970, Fenders for Pneumatic-Tired Earthmoving Haulage Equipment.
Audible Alarms
Bidirectional machines, such as rollers, compacters, front-end loaders, bulldozers, and similar
equipment, shall be equipped with a horn, distinguishable from the surrounding noise level,
which shall be operated as needed when the machine is moving in either direction. The horn
shall be maintained in an operative condition.
Earthmoving or compacting equipment with an obstructed view to the rear may not be used in
reverse gear unless the equipment has in operation a reverse signal alarm distinguishable from
the surrounding noise level or an employee signals that it is safe to do so.
Scissor Points
Scissor points on all front-end loaders are a hazard to the operator during normal operation and
must be guarded.
17.4.3.2 Excavating and Other Equipment
Tractors must have seatbelts for operators when seated in the normal seating arrangement for
tractor operation, regardless of whether they are being used with attachments for excavating.
17.4.3.3 Lifting and Hauling Equipment
Industrial Trucks will meet all applicable requirements set forth elsewhere in OSHA regulations
and the following:

Post the rated capacity on lift trucks, stackers, etc., to be clearly visible to the operator.
When auxiliary removable counterweights are provided by the manufacturer,
corresponding alternate rated capacities also shall be clearly shown on the vehicle.
These ratings shall not be exceeded.

Modifications or additions that affect the capacity or safe operation of the equipment
require manufacturer’s written approval. If such modifications or changes are made,
change the capacity, operation, and maintenance instruction plates, tags, or decals
accordingly. In no case shall the original safety factor of the equipment be reduced.

If a load is lifted by two or more trucks working in unison, the proportion of the total load
carried by any one truck shall not exceed its capacity.

Steering or spinner knobs shall not be attached to the steering wheel unless the steering
mechanism is of a type that prevents road reactions from causing the steering
handwheel to spin. The steering knob shall be mounted within the periphery of the
wheel.

All high lift rider industrial trucks must have overhead guards meeting configuration and
structural requirements as defined in paragraph 421 of American National Standards
Institute B56.1-1969, Safety Standards for Powered Industrial Trucks.
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
All industrial trucks in use shall meet the applicable requirements of design, construction,
stability, inspection, testing, maintenance, and operation, as defined in American
National Standards Institute B56.1-1969, Safety Standards for Powered Industrial
Trucks.

Unauthorized personnel shall not be permitted to ride on powered industrial trucks. A
safe place to ride shall be provided where riding of trucks is authorized.

Whenever a truck is equipped with vertical only, or vertical and horizontal controls
elevatable with the lifting carriage or forks for lifting personnel, the following additional
precautions shall be taken for the protection of personnel being elevated.

A safety platform firmly secured to the lifting carriage and/or forks.

Means whereby personnel on the platform can shut off power to the truck.

Protection from falling objects as indicated necessary by the operating conditions.
17.4.4
Pile Driving Equipment
17.4.4.1 General Requirements

Boilers and piping systems which are a part of, or used with, pile driving equipment shall
meet the applicable requirements of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers,
Power Boilers.

Pressure vessels part of, or used with, pile driving equipment must meet applicable
requirements of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

Overhead protection, which will not obscure the vision of the operator and which meets
OSHA requirements, must be provided. Protection shall be the equivalent of 2-inch
planking or other solid material of equivalent strength.

Stop blocks shall be provided for the leads to prevent the hammer from being raised
against the head block.

A blocking device, capable of safely supporting the weight of the hammer, shall be
provided for placement in the leads under the hammer at all times while employees are
working under the hammer.

Provide guards across the top of the head block to prevent the cable from jumping out of
the sheaves.

When the leads must be inclined in the driving of batter piles, provisions shall be made
to stabilize the leads.

Fixed leads shall be provided with ladder, and adequate rings, or similar attachment
points, so the loft worker may engage his safety belt lanyard to the leads. If the leads are
provided with loft platforms(s), protect such platform(s) by standard guardrails.

Steam hose leading to a steam hammer or jet pipe shall be securely attached to the
hammer with an adequate length of at least ¼-inch diameter chain or cable to prevent
whipping in the event the joint at the hammer is broken. Air hammer hoses shall be
provided with the same protection as required for steam lines.

Safety chains, or equivalent means, shall be provided for each hose connection to
prevent the line from thrashing around in case the coupling becomes disconnected.
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
Steam line controls shall consist of two shutoff valves, one of which shall be a quickacting lever type within easy reach of the hammer operator.

Guys, outriggers, thrustouts, or counterbalances shall be provided as necessary to
maintain stability of pile driver rigs.
17.4.4.2 Equipment

Engineers and winchmen shall accept signals only from the designated signalmen.

All employees shall be kept clear when piling is being hoisted into the leads.

When piles are being driven in an excavated pit, the walls of the pit shall be sloped to
the angle of repose or sheet-piled and braced.

When steel tube piles are being “blown out”, employees shall be kept well beyond the
range of falling materials.

When it is necessary to cut off the tops of driven piles, pile driving operations shall be
suspended except where the cutting operations are located at least twice the length of
the longest pile from the driver.

When driving jacked piles, all access pits shall be provided with ladders and bulkheaded
curbs to prevent material from falling into the pit.
17.4.5
Site Clearing
17.4.5.1 General Requirements

Protect employees engaged in site clearing from hazards of irritant and toxic plants and
ensure each is suitably instructed in the first aid treatment available.

All equipment used in site clearing operations shall be equipped with rollover guards
meeting OSHA requirements.

Rider-operated equipment shall be equipped with an overhead and rear canopy guard
meeting the following requirements:

The overhead covering on this canopy structure shall be ⅛-inch or greater steel plate or
¼-inch woven wire mesh with openings no greater than 1 inch, or equivalent.

The opening in the rear of the canopy structure shall be covered with not less than ¼inch woven wire mesh with openings no greater than 1 inch.
17.5
Forms and Attachments
On the following pages, please find the following document:
 Heavy Equipment Checklist
This form may be reproduced freely by Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. for the purposes of
implementing and maintaining a safety and health program.
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Heavy Equipment Safety Checklist
Inspect daily and before use onsite
Date: ___/___/___
Time: ___:___ am/pm
Equipment Type: ____________________
Location: ____________________________
Item
Good
Need
Repair
Inspector: __________________________
N/A
Item
Good
Tires/Tracks
Blade/ Boom/
Ripper condition
Hydraulic Oil
Exhaust system
Hose Condition
Transmission
fluid
Oil leak/lube
Brake fluid
Cab, mirrors, seat belt
and glass
Cooling system
fluid
Horn
Windshield
wipers and fluid
Gauges
Coupling devices
and connectors
Lights
Fan belts/ hoses
Turn signals
Cables / lines /
etc.
Backup lights and
alarm
Need
Repair
N/A
Notes:
Brakes
Fire extinguisher
Engine oil
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18
Confined Spaces
18.1
Policy Statement
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. is committed to a safe, healthful workplace for its employees.
Confined work spaces that present hazards to workers demand controls to reduce exposure to
those hazards. The purpose of this written program is to identify all permit spaces at this
workplace and ensure authorized employees will enter, work in, and exit the spaces safely.
18.2
Responsibilities
Safety in hazardous confined spaces is a cooperative effort between Pyro Combustion &
Controls Inc. and its employees.
18.2.1
Employer Responsibilities
It is the responsibility of Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. to:

Evaluate the workplace to determine whether any spaces are permit-required confined
spaces;

Inform exposed employees of presence of permit-required confined spaces with signs or
equally effective means;

Take measures to prevent employees from entering permit spaces without permit.

Develop and implement a written permit space program — available for inspection by
employees or their representatives — if employees are permitted to enter permit spaces;

Reevaluate, and reclassify as necessary, a non-permit confined space when there are
changes in use or configuration of that space that may increase hazards to entrants;

Abide by all applicable standards and regulations when work with a contractor involves
permit space entry;

Provide and keep in good repair all equipment necessary for the written permit space
program;

Evaluate permit space conditions when entry operations are concluded;

Provide at least one attendant outside permit space during entry operations able to
respond to an emergency;

Designate individuals with active roles in entry operations, identify their duties and
provide appropriate training;

Develop and implement all other elements of a permit space program including, but not
limited to, the following:

Procedures for summoning rescue and emergency services;

System for preparing, issuing, using and cancelling entry permits;
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
Procedures to coordinate entry operations with another employer so employees of one
employer don’t endanger employees of another;

Procedures for concluding entry;

Review entry operations and the permit space program to ensure employees are
protected from permit space hazards; and

Consult with affected employees or their representatives in the development and
implementation of all elements of the permit space program, and make available to them
all information required for the permit space program.
18.2.2
Safety Committee Responsibilities
It is the responsibility of the Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. safety committee to:

Assist in identifying confined spaces and permit spaces;

Assist in training employees regarding permit space procedures;

Participate in regular review of permit space program as necessary;

Offer to management recommendations from employees about the permit space
program; and

Assist in confined space entry procedures and rescue operations as required.
18.2.3
Employee Responsibilities
Employees are expected to abide by the confined space entry program These responsibilities
vary according to the role the employee serves with each entry:
18.2.3.1 Authorized Entrant
Authorized entrants must:

Know the hazards that may be faced during entry, including information on the mode,
signs or symptoms, and consequences of the exposure;

Properly use all equipment necessary for safe entry into any permit space, as well as
any equipment necessary to ensure safe conditions within the permit space and
equipment to provide safe rescue from the space;

Communicate with the attendant as necessary to enable the attendant to monitor entrant
status and to enable the attendant to alert entrants of the need to evacuate the space;

Alert the attendant whenever the entrant recognizes any warning sign or symptom of
exposure to a dangerous situation, or the entrant detects a prohibited condition; and

Exit from the permit space as quickly as possible whenever:
o An order to evacuate is given by the attendant or the entry supervisor,
o
o
The entrant recognizes any warning sign or symptom of exposure to a dangerous
situation,
The entrant detects a prohibited condition, or
o
An evacuation alarm is activated.
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18.2.3.2 Attendant
Attendants must:

Know the hazards that may be faced during entry, including information on the mode,
signs or symptoms, and consequences of the exposure; and possible behavioral effects
of hazard exposure in authorized entrants;

Continuously maintain an accurate count of authorized entrants in the permit space and
ensure the means used to identify authorized entrants accurately identify entrants;

Remain outside the permit space during entry operations until relieved by another
attendant (If the permit entry program allows attendant entry for rescue, attendants may
enter a permit space to attempt a rescue if they have been trained and equipped for
rescue operations and if they have been relieved.);

Communicate with authorized entrants as necessary to monitor entrant status and alert
entrants of the need to evacuate the space;

Monitor activities inside and outside the space to determine if it is safe for entrants to
remain in the space and orders the authorized entrants to evacuate the permit space
immediately under any of the following conditions:
o If the attendant detects a prohibited condition;
o
If the attendant detects the behavioral effects of hazard exposure in an authorized
entrant;
o
If the attendant detects a situation outside the space that could endanger the
authorized entrants; or
If the attendant cannot effectively and safely perform all the duties required;
o

Summon rescue and emergency services as soon as the attendant determines that
authorized entrants may need assistance to escape from hazards;

Takes the following actions when unauthorized persons approach or enter a permit
space while entry is underway:
o Warn the unauthorized persons that they must stay away from the permit space;
o Advise the unauthorized persons that they must exit immediately if they have entered
the permit space; and
o Inform the authorized entrants and the entry supervisor if unauthorized persons have
entered the permit space;

Perform non-entry rescues as specified by the rescue procedure; and

Perform no duties that might interfere with the primary duty to monitor and protect the
authorized entrants.
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18.2.3.3 Entry Supervisor
Entry supervisors must:

Know the hazards that may be faced during entry, including information on the mode of
possible exposure, signs or symptoms, and consequences of the exposure;

Verify, by checking that the appropriate entries have been made on the permit, that all
tests specified by the permit have been conducted and all procedures and equipment
specified by the permit are in place before allowing entry to begin;

Terminate the entry and cancel the permit when required;

Verify that rescue services are available and that the means for summoning them are
operable;

Remove unauthorized individuals who enter or who attempt to enter the permit space
during entry operations; and

Determine — upon transfer of responsibility for a permit space entry operation and when
dictated by the hazards and operations performed within the space — that entry
operations remain consistent with terms of the entry permit and that acceptable entry
conditions are maintained.
18.3
Training
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. will ensure every employee is provided training on confined
spaces. This training will be provided at no cost to the employee during working hours.
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. will use only training material that is appropriate in content and
vocabulary to the educational level, literacy, and language of employees.
18.3.1
Training Components
Gary Pfizenmayer will ensure that every employee will be trained in the following minimum
elements:

How to identify a confined workspaces;

The need for safe confined space entry procedures;

Hazards present in confined spaces and inherent hazards presented by any confined
space in the workplace; and
 The roles of individuals involved in safe confined-space entry.
Employees expected to perform duties as an entry supervisor, hazardous confined space entry
attendant or authorized entrant will receive training and demonstrate the understanding,
knowledge and skills necessary to participate safely in the confined space entry program,
including, but not limited to the following:

The specific hazards of all confined spaces in the workplace;

Conditions under which a confined space may or must be reclassified under the confined
space entry program;
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
Conditions required to participate in alternate confined-space entry procedures and the
alternate procedures for permit space entry;

Pre-entry procedures for confined space entry;

Any equipment provided or used as part of the confined space entry program;

Plans and procedures for response or rescue in case of an emergency in a permit space
and permit-space evacuation;

The contents and requirements of a confined-space entry permit;

The roles and responsibilities of each employee involved in confined space entry;

The importance of atmospheric monitoring and how to perform such monitoring;

Steps required following permit space entry; and
 The permit space program review process.
Training will be provided at the following times:

Before an employee is first assigned duties that involve confined-spaces work;

Before there is a change in the employee’s assigned duties;

When there is a change in permit-space operations that presents a hazard for which the
employee has not been trained; and

When the employee does not follow entry procedures.
18.3.2
Training Records
Training records will include the following information:

The dates of the training sessions;

The contents or a summary of the training sessions;

The names and qualifications of persons conducting the training; and
 The names and job titles of all persons attending the training sessions.
Employee training records will be maintained for 3 years from the date on which the training
occurred.
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18.4
18.4.1
Policy
Confined Spaces
Confined spaces are enclosed spaces that are large enough to work in but are difficult to enter
and exit and are not designed to be occupied continuously.
A confined space can present life-threatening hazards that employees must control before
workers may enter that space.
18.4.1.1 Permit-Required Confined Spaces
Confined spaces that may contain life-threatening hazards require workers to complete, sign
and display an entry permit in accordance with confinedspace entry permit regulations and the workplace permit
space program.
The workplace must be assessed to determine whether any
spaces present a hazard to workers and are permit-required
confined spaces according to OSHA standards and industry
best practices for safety. See Figure 2.
The company will implement measures necessary to prevent
unauthorized entry into permit spaces and will inform
Figure 1
exposed employees of the existence and location of permit
spaces by posting signs or communicating otherwise by equally effective means. See Figure 1.
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Is space large
enough, configured
that employee may
enter to do work?
Not a
confined
space.
No
Does space have
internal configuration
that could trap or
asphyxiate entrant?
Yes
Yes
No
Does space have
restricted means for
entry/exit?
No
Does space have any
other recognized
safety or health
hazard?
Yes
Yes
No
Is space designed for
continuous
occupancy?
Yes
Does space contain
or have potential to
contain hazardous
atmosphere?
Yes
No
No
Does space contain
material that has
engulfing potential?
Yes
No
This is a non-permit confined space. Entry
not regulated, but employees will use
caution when entering space.
Space will be reclassified if hazards arise.
Use alternate permitspace entry procedure.
OR
Entry permit required for this space.
Figure 2
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Hazardous Atmospheres
An atmosphere that exposes employees to the risk of death, incapacitation, impairment of ability
to self-rescue, injury, or acute illness is a hazardous atmosphere and requires a permit (unless
an approved alternate procedure renders the space safe for entry).
Oxygen-Deficient Atmospheres
An atmosphere with an oxygen concentration below 19.5% has insufficient oxygen for an
employee and is a hazardous atmosphere. Such spaces require an approved breathing
apparatus and a permit.
Flammable Atmospheres
An atmosphere is flammable, and hazardous, if any of the following conditions are true:

Flammable gas, vapor or mist is present in excess of 10% of its lower flammable limit
(LFL)

Airborne combustible dust is present at a concentration at or above its LFL

Atmospheric oxygen concentration exceeds 23.5%
Toxic Atmospheres
An atmospheric concentration of any substance in excess of its safe dose or permissible
exposure limit (PEL) creates a hazardous atmosphere, as does any other atmospheric condition
that is immediately dangerous to life or health.
Engulfing Potential
Any liquid or flowable solid that can kill by suffocation, strangulation, constriction or crushing has
engulfing potential. A confined space that contains a material that can engulf an entrant is
hazardous and requires a confined-space entry permit.
Trapping or Asphyxiation Risk
If the walls of a confined space converge inwardly or the floor of a confined space slopes
downward to taper to a smaller cross-section an entrant runs the risk of becoming trapped and
can face an asphyxiation risk. Confined spaces with such hazards are permit spaces.
Temperature Extremes
Extremely hot or cold temperatures can present problems for workers. Confined spaces can
trap heat to create a condition dangerous to the life or health of a worker entering the space.
Noise
The design and acoustic properties in a confined space can amplify noise. Excessive noise can
not only damage hearing and reduce reaction time to hazards but can also affect
communication. This can cause a shouted warning to go unheard.
Slippery Surfaces
Slips and falls can occur on a slick, wet or icy surface, causing injury or death to workers.
Further, wet environments can increase the likelihood of electric shock.
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Falling Objects
Many confined spaces have openings above the worker that introduce hazards from the objects
falling from above onto a worker below. Before any worker may enter a confined space,
appropriate barriers must protect entrants from falling objects.
18.4.1.2 Examples of Possible Permit-Required Confined Spaces
Vaults
A variety of vaults are found on the construction jobsite. On various occasions, workers must
enter these vaults to perform a number of functions. The restricted nature of vaults and their
frequently below-grade location can create an assortment of safety and health problems.
Condenser Pits
A common confined space found in the construction of nuclear power plants is the condenser
pit. Because of their large size, they are often overlooked as potentially hazardous confined
spaces. These below-grade areas create large containment areas for the accumulation of toxic
fumes, gases, and so forth, or for the creation of oxygen-deficient atmospheres when purging
with argon, freon, and other inert gases. Other hazards will be created by workers above
dropping equipment, tools, and materials into the pit.
Manholes
Throughout the construction site, manholes are commonplace. As means of entry into and exit
from vaults, tanks, pits, and so forth, manholes perform a necessary function. However, these
confined spaces may present serious hazards which could cause injuries and fatalities. A
variety of hazards are associated with manholes. To begin with, the manhole could be a
dangerous trap into which the worker could fall. Often covers are removed and not replaced, or
else they are not provided in the first place.
Pipe Assemblies
One of the most frequently unrecognized types of confined spaces encountered throughout the
construction site is the pipe assembly. Piping of sixteen to thirty-six inches in diameter is
commonly used for a variety of purposes. For any number of reasons, workers will enter the
pipe. Once inside, they are faced with potential oxygen-deficient atmospheres, often caused by
purging with argon or another inert gas. Welding fumes generated by the worker in the pipe, or
by other workers operating outside the pipe at either end, subject the worker to toxic
atmospheres. The generally restricted dimensions of the pipe provide little room for the workers
to move about and gain any degree of comfort while performing their tasks. Once inside the
pipe, communication is extremely difficult. In situations where the pipe bends, communication
and extrication become even more difficult. Electrical shock is another problem to which the
worker is exposed. Ungrounded tools and equipment or inadequate line cords are some of the
causes. As well, heat within the pipe run may cause the worker to suffer heat prostration.
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Ventilation Ducts
Ventilation ducts, like pipe runs, are very common at the construction site. These sheet metal
enclosures create a complex network which moves heated and cooled air and exhaust fumes to
desired locations in the plant. Ventilation ducts may require that workers enter them to cut out
access holes, install essential parts of the duct, etc. Depending on where these ducts are
located, oxygen deficiency could exist. They usually possess many bends, which create difficult
entry and exit and which also make it difficult for workers inside the duct to communicate with
those outside it. Electrical shock hazards and heat stress are other problems associated with
work inside ventilation ducts.
Tanks
Tanks require entry for cleaning and repairs. Ventilation is always a problem. Oxygen-deficient
atmospheres, along with toxic and explosive atmospheres created by the substances stored in
the tanks, present hazards to workers. Heat, another problem in tanks, may cause heat
prostration, particularly on a hot day. Since electrical line cords are often taken into the tank, the
hazard of electrical shock is always present. The nature of the tank’s structure often dictates
that workers must climb ladders to reach high places on the walls of the tank.
Sumps
Sumps are commonplace. They are used as collection places for water and other liquids.
Workers entering sumps may encounter an oxygen-deficient atmosphere. Also, because of the
wet nature of the sump, electrical shock hazards are present when power tools are used inside.
Sumps are often poorly illuminated. Inadequate lighting may create an accident situation.
Containment Cavities
These large below-grade areas are characterized by little or no air movement. Ventilation is
always a problem. In addition, the possibility of oxygen deficiency exists. As well, welding and
other gases may easily collect in these areas, creating toxic atmospheres. As these structures
near completion, more confined spaces will exist as rooms are built off the existing structure.
Electrical Transformers
Electrical transformers are located on the jobsite. They often contain a nitrogen purge or dry air.
Before they are opened, they must be well vented by having air pumped in. Workers,
particularly electricians and power plant operators, will enter these transformers through
hatches on top for various work-related reasons. Testing for oxygen deficiency and for toxic
atmospheres is mandatory.
Heat Sinks
These larger pit areas hold cooling water in the event that there is a problem with the pumps
located at the water supply to the plant--normally a river or lake--which would prevent cooling
water from reaching the reactor core. When in the pits, workers are exposed to welding fumes
and electrical hazards, particularly because water accumulates in the bottom of the sink.
Generally, it is difficult to communicate with workers in the heat sink, because the rebar in the
walls of the structure deaden radio signals.
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18.4.1.3 Reclassifying Permit Spaces
Once a confined space is classified as a permit-entry space, an authority can only reclassify the
space as a non-permit confined space upon elimination of all hazards within the space.
The elimination of hazards must be certified with documentation that includes the date, the
location of the space, and the signature of the person who determined the reclassification.
If hazards arise within a non-permit space, each employee in the space shall exit the space.
The employer shall then reevaluate the space and determine whether to reclassify it as a permit
space.
1.1.1.1 Unusual Conditions
Confined Space Within a Confined Space
By the very nature of construction, situations are created which illustrate one of the most
hazardous confined spaces of all — a confined space within a confined space. This situation
appears as tanks within pits, pipe assemblies or vessels within pits, etc. In this situation, not
only do the potential hazards associated with the outer confined space require testing,
monitoring, and control, but those of the inner space also require similar procedures. Often, only
the outer space is evaluated. When workers enter the inner space, they are faced with
potentially hazardous conditions. A good example of a confined space within a confined space
is a vessel with a nitrogen purge inside a filtering water access pit. Workers entering the pit
and/or the vessel should do so only after both spaces have been evaluated and proper control
measures established.
Hazards In One Space Entering Another Space
During an examination of confined spaces in construction, one often encounters situations
which are not always easy to evaluate or control. For instance, a room or area which classifies
as a confined space may be relatively safe for work. However, access passages from other
areas outside or adjacent to the room could, at some point, allow the transfer of hazardous
agents into the "safe" one. One such instance would be a pipe coming through a wall into a
containment room. Welding fumes and other toxic materials generated in one room may easily
travel through the pipe into another area, causing it to change from a safe to an unsafe
workplace. A serious problem with a situation such as this is that workers working in the "safe"
area are not aware of the hazards leaking into their area. Thus, they are not prepared to take
action to avoid or control it.
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18.4.2
Alternate Permit Space Entry Procedures
If the only hazard present in a permit space is an actual or potential hazardous atmosphere,
alternate permit space entry procedures may be used, provided continuous forced air ventilation
can render the atmosphere safe (as supported by monitoring and inspection data). The steps of
the alternate procedure are as follows:
1. Eliminate conditions that would make removing an entrance cover unsafe before
removing a cover.
2. Guard the opening to prevent foreign objects from entering the space.
3. With a calibrated direct-reading instrument, test the internal atmosphere for the following
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
(in this order): oxygen content, flammable gases and vapors, and potential toxic air
contaminants.
NOTE: Employees who enter the space or their authorized representative may observe
pre-entry atmospheric testing.
Continuous air ventilation from a clean source will ventilate the area where an employee
is working to eliminate any hazardous atmosphere. Continuous air ventilation must not
increase hazards in the space and shall continue until all employees have left the space.
Test the atmosphere in the space periodically to ensure that a hazardous atmosphere
has not accumulated. The space must remain free of hazardous atmosphere when an
employee is in the space.
NOTE: Employees who enter the space or their authorized representative may observe
periodic atmospheric testing.
If hazardous atmosphere is detected during entry, all employees must evacuate the
space, which must then be evaluated to determine how the hazardous atmosphere
developed. Take necessary measures to protect employees from the hazardous
atmosphere before re-entry.
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. will verify the space is safe for entry and with a written
certification including the date, location of the space, and the signature of the person
providing the certification.
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Obtain permit
Perform
pre-permit
activities
Sign permit
Post permit
Complete
permit
Figure 3
18.4.3
Permit Space Procedures
18.4.3.1 Pre-Entry
Before employees may enter a permit space, the employer will identify and eliminate all hazards
in the space or control the hazards so employees may complete their job and exit safely. A
confined-space entry permit will document the process, and must be complete and posted at the
entry of the permit space before entry. See Figure 3.
Guard the space
Measures such as posting warning signs or erecting barriers will be implemented to prevent
unauthorized entry into permit spaces and to protect entrants from falling objects and other
hazards from outside of the space.
Test for Atmospheric Hazards
Testing the atmosphere in a confined space ensures the presence of sufficient oxygen and an
absence of hazardous atmosphere. Authorized entrants or their representative may observe any
monitoring or testing of the space. Monitoring of a potentially hazardous atmosphere must
continue through the entry to ensure the permit remains valid.
Isolate (Lockout/Tagout)
Before any employee enters the permit space, the space must be isolated from hazards. The
authorized entrant will disconnect any hazardous equipment, and prevent the flow of any
hazardous chemical into the confined space according to the appropriate hazard control
procedure.
Eliminate/Control Atmospheric Hazards
When possible, continuous ventilation will be provided in a confined space to eliminate
atmospheric hazards and the space will be purged, inerted, flushed or ventilated as necessary
to eliminate or control atmospheric hazards.
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Equipment
All equipment necessary for safe entry into any permit space will be provided by the employer,
as well as any equipment necessary to ensure safe conditions within permit spaces and provide
safe rescue from a permit space. This may include, but is not limited to the following:






Atmospheric testing and monitoring
equipment;
Ventilating equipment;
Communications equipment;
Personal protective equipment;


Lighting equipment;
Barriers to protect entrants from
outside hazards;
Equipment to allow authorized entrants
safe ingress and egress; and
Rescue and emergency equipment.
Plan for Emergencies
The permit space must remain safe for entrants through the entire entry and a means must be
established by which the permit space entry attendant can communicate with entrants to
monitor the entry and evacuate the space if hazardous conditions arise.
Before any employee enters a permit space, there must be established specific procedures for
summoning rescue and emergency services to respond to emergencies that may occur during
entry.
Entry Permit
Before any employee may enter a permit space, the entry supervisor must complete and sign
documentation of measures to render the space safe for entry and maintain control over
potential hazards to workers (an entry permit). The permit will be readily available to all
authorized entrants or their representatives, posted at the entry. If the nature of the space
prevents permit posting at the entry, the permit must remain available by an equally effective
means.
18.4.3.2 During Entry
While employees work in permit spaces the company will ensure every effort is taken to remove
hazards and provide a safe working environment.
Attendant
While employees remain in a permit space, an attendant will remain immediately outside the
space to monitor conditions in the space and respond to emergencies. The attendant must
remain in communication with entrants and know how to shut down hot work equipment, and
any other equipment that may present a hazard to entrants.
There must also be in place an established means by which attendant responsibilities may be
handed over to a relief attendant should an entry span more than one shift or the attendant
otherwise requires relief from those responsibilities. This should be documented on the entry
permit.
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Confined Spaces
If an attendant is expected to monitor more than one confined space, there must be in place a
written procedure to ensure that the attendant is able to monitor all of the spaces with the same
diligence, and to ensure appropriate emergency and rescue response while continuing to attend
all confined entry spaces.
Atmospheric Monitoring
If work in the permit space could cause changes in the atmospheric conditions of the space, air
monitoring must continue throughout the entire entry to ensure the permit remains valid
throughout the entry.
If entrants leave the permit space for an extended period, re-entry requires retesting the
atmosphere.
Means of Ingress and Egress
Ladders and any other means of ingress and egress must remain secure and available to
entrants during the entire entry.
Permit Space Evacuation
Workers shall immediately evacuate the permit space under any of the following conditions:

When the attendant orders evacuation;

When the entrant recognizes exposure to any hazard or detects a prohibited condition;
or

Upon an evacuation alarm.
18.4.3.3 After Entry
Cancel Permit
The entry supervisor will terminate entry and cancel the permit as soon as an emergency occurs
in or near the confined space or when upon completion of operations requiring permit-space
entry.
Retain Permit
Entry permits will be retained for at least a year to help in the required regular evaluation of the
confined space program. If entry presented any problems, the entrant, attendant or supervisor
will note them on the permit to facilitate necessary revisions to the permit space program.
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18.4.3.4 Contractor Entrant
If employees of another employer perform work that involves permit space entry, adhere to the
following procedure:
1. Inform the contractor that the workplace contains permit-required confined spaces.
2. Ensure that the contractor has reviewed the permit-required confined space program
and has its own permit-required confined space program in place prior to entry.
3. Apprise the contractor of any precautions or procedures that have been implemented for
the protection of employees in or near permit spaces.
4. Coordinate entry operations with the contractor when company employees and
contractor(s) will be working in or near the permit space. (There should be no doubt by
any permit space entrant, attendant or entry supervisor regarding whose policy and
permit space practices are to be followed.)
5. Debrief the contractor at the conclusion of the entry operation regarding the permit
space program and regarding hazards confronted or created in permit space entry
operations.
18.4.3.5 No Entrant
If no employee or contractor will enter a permit-required confined space, Effective measures
must prevent anyone from entering the permit space. When a change in the use or configuration
of a non-permit confined space might increase hazards to entrants, the space may be
reevaluated and reclassified it as necessary.
18.4.4
Entry Permits
18.4.4.1 Information on Entry Permits
The entry permit that documents compliance with this section and authorizes entry to a permit
space will identify:

The permit space to be entered;

The purpose of the entry;

The date and authorized duration of the permit;

The authorized entrants within the permit space;

The personnel, by name, currently serving as attendants;

The name of the entry supervisor, and signature or initials;

The hazards of the permit space to be entered;

The measures used to isolate the permit space and eliminate or control permit space
hazards before entry;

The acceptable entry conditions;

The results of initial and periodic tests performed to ensure safe entry conditions,
accompanied by the names or initials of the testers and by an indication of when the
tests were performed;

The rescue and emergency services that can be summoned and the means of
summoning those services;
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
The communication procedures used by authorized entrants and attendants to maintain
contact during the entry;

Equipment to be provided for compliance with this section;

Any other information whose inclusion is necessary, given the circumstances of the
particular confined space, in order to ensure employee safety; and

Any additional permits, such as for hot work, that have been issued to authorize work in
the permit space.
18.4.5
Rescue and Emergency Services
18.4.5.1 Rescue Personnel
Emergency responders must be able to respond to emergencies in a timely manner and provide
rescue service personnel with equipment necessary for a safe rescue from the permit space
and training in how to use it. Rescue service personnel also must receive the authorized
entrants training in addition to training on assigned rescue duties. At a minimum, one rescue
team member must be certified in first aid and CPR.
The site supervisor or other appropriate personnel will inform rescuers of hazards in the permit
space as well as the means to control those hazards. Rescuers must practice rescue duties at
least yearly, and rescue services will have access to permit spaces to practice rescue
operations.
18.4.5.2 Non-entry Rescue and Retrieval Equipment
Authorized entrants who enter a permit space must wear a chest or full body harness with a
retrieval line attached to the center of their backs near shoulder level or above their heads.
Wristlets may be used if the employer can demonstrate that the use of a chest or full body
harness is not feasible or creates a greater hazard.
The other end of the retrieval line must be attached to a mechanical device or a fixed point
outside the permit space. A mechanical device must be available to retrieve someone from
vertical type permit spaces deeper than five feet deep.
18.4.5.3 Safety Data Sheets
If an injured entrant is exposed to a substance for which a Safety Data Sheet (SDS) or similar
written information is required to be kept at the worksite, that SDS or other written information
must be made available to the medical facility personnel treating the exposed entrant.
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18.4.6
Program Review
If the permit space program may fail to provide sufficient protection for employees, supervisors
will authorize no entries until program revision corrects the deficiencies.
Additionally, the confined space entry program must be reviewed within a year of each entry
and revised as necessary to ensure protection from confined-space hazards for all entrants.
The permit space entry program review requires an investigation of cancelled permits to identify
program deficiencies that may exist.
18.5
Forms & Attachments
On the following pages, please find the following document(s):

Confined-Space Entry Permit

Rescue & Emergency Services

Confined Space Entry Training Record Sheet
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Confined Spaces
No
Consult other applicable OSHA standards.
(STOP)
Does the workplace contain Confined Spaces?
Yes
Does the workplace contain Permit-Required
Confined Spaces (PRCS)?
No
Yes
Inform employees of PRCS
No
Will PRCS be entered?
Prevent entry; Do task from outside space.
Yes
Task will be done by contractors’ employees.
Inform contractor as required. Contractor obtains
information required from host.
Yes
Will contractors enter?
No
Will host employees enter to perform entry
tasks?
No
Prevent unauthorized
entry. (STOP)
Yes
Both contractors and host employees will enter
space?
No
Yes
No
Coordinate entry operations; prevent
unauthorized entry.
Does space have known or potential hazards?
Yes
Can the hazards be eliminated?
No
Can the space be maintained in a safe condition
by continuous forced-air ventilation only?
Not a PRCS; consult other standards.
Yes
Employer may choose to reclassify space to
non-permit required confined space after
1
hazards are eliminated. (STOP )
Yes
No
1
Space may be entered. (STOP )
Prepare for entry via permit procedures.
Verify acceptable entry conditions.
No
Permit not valid until
conditions meet permit
specifications.
Yes
Permit issued by authorizing signature. Maintain
entry conditions throughout entry.
No
Yes
Entry tasks completed.
Permit returned and cancelled.
Emergency exists; entrants evacuated. Entry
aborts; call rescuers if needed; permit is void.
Reevaluate program to correct prohibited
condition. No re-entry until program and permit
amended. (May require new program)
Audit permit program and permit based on entry
evaluation by participants.
CONTINUE
1) Spaces may have to be evacuated and re-evaluated if hazards arise.
during entry
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Confined Spaces Entry Permit
GENERAL INFORMATION
CONTROLS & EQUIPMENT
Permit Space Location: _______________________________
ISOLATION
Lockout/Tagout
Purpose of Entry: ___________________________________
Date: ______
Date: _____
Entry Permit Valid For
to
Time: ______
Time: _____
Blanking/Blinding
Double Block & Bleed
Line Breaking/Misalignment
PERMIT SPACE HAZARDS
Other: ____________________
Y
ATMOSPHERIC
`
N
INERTING
Oxygen Deficient
PURGE/CLEAN
Oxygen Enriched
SAFE COVER REMOVAL & SECURING AREA
Explosive (Gas/Vapor)
ATMOSPHERIC TESTING
Explosive Dust
Periodic (give interval) _____________
Carbon Monoxide
Continuous
Hydrogen Sulfide
VENTILATION
Other Toxic Vapors
Natural
ENGULFMENT
Continuous Forced Air
CONFIGURATION (ENTRAPMENT)
Local Exhaust
MECHANICAL
ENTRY EQUIPMENT
ELECTRICAL
Ladders
SUBSTANCE HAZARDOUS TO SKIN/ EYES
Other: ___________________
HEAT STRESS
PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT
OTHER POTENTIAL HAZARDS
Respiratory (SCBA, SAR, air purifying)
(radiation, noise, etc.; list)
Clothing
Eye & Face Protection
Hearing Protection
PERSONNEL
Entrant(s):
Time In:
RESCUE & RETRIEVAL EQUIPMENT
Full Body Harness
Time Out:
Lifeline
Tripod w/Mechanical Wench
Explosion-Proof Lighting
Attendant(s):
NON-SPARKING TOOLS
SAFE ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT & GFCI
Entry Supervisor(s):
COMMUNICATION EQUIPMENT
Radio
COMMUNICATION PROCEDURES
Visual
Voice
Rope
Phone
Radio
Other: _______________________
Other:______________________________________________
HOT WORK PERMIT
_________________________________________________
FIRE EXTINGUIISHERS
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Confined Spaces Entry Permit
(pg. 2)
RESCUE AND EMERGENCY SERVICES
Name:
Phone:
Name:
Phone:
RESCUE PROCEDURES
Summoning Procedure:
ATMOSPHERIC TESTING RECORD
Condition
Acceptable Level
OXYGEN
Pre-Entry Readings
Entry Readings
19.5% - 23.5%
EXPLOSIVE (GAS/VAPOR)
<10% LFL
EXPLOSIVE DUST
<LFL (5ft. Visability)
CARBON MONOXIDE
50 ppm
HYDROGEN SULFIDE
10 ppm
OTHER HAZARDS (specify)
NAME(S) OF TESTER(S)
TESTING EQUIPMENT:
Type: ______________
Serial #: __________
Type: ______________
Serial #: __________
ENTRY AUTHORIZATION
ENTRY AUTHORIZED BY:
Name: ________________________________________________
Time: _____________________
Signature: ____________________________________________
Date: _____________________
POST ENTRY PERMIT AT ENTRANCE TO PERMIT SPACE
ENTRY CANCELLATION
ENTRY CANCELLED BY:
Name: ________________________________________________
Time: _____________________
Signature: ____________________________________________
Date: _____________________
REASON FOR CANCELLATION:
Entry Operations Completed
Prohibited Condition Arose (specify)
_________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
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Training
18-22
Date of
Training
Name of
Trainer
Rescue
Practice
Session
Description
Rescue
Practice Date
Certified (Y/N)
CPR
First Aid
Rescue
Equipment &
PPE
Authorized For
Use
Rescue Duties
Name
Confined Spaces
Rescue & Emergency Services
© Safety Services Company
Confined Spaces
Confined Space Entry Training Record Sheet
Trainer (include qualifications):
Date:
Content of Training:
Attendees
Print Name
Signature
(Retain at least 3 years)
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19
Driver Safety
19.1
Policy Statement
Driving any vehicle presents significant risks to workers. Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. is
committed to reducing traffic-related deaths and injuries. As part of this commitment, Pyro
Combustion & Controls Inc. maintains a driver safety policy designed to support a culture of
safety and reduce accidents.
19.2
Responsibilities
Driver safety is a cooperative effort between Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. and its
employees.
19.2.1
Employer Responsibilities
It is the responsibility of Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. to:

Establish and maintain policies and rules in accordance with applicable regulations and
best industry practices to promote safety and prevent injuries and illnesses;

Ensure that every employee asked to drive a company car or personal car on company
business has been trained in Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. driver safety policy and
safe driving practices;

Record and maintain documents pertaining to the eligibility and qualification of an
employee to drive a company car or a personal vehicle on company business;

Ensure vehicles driven on company business are in good repair and adhere to all legal
regulations and requirements;

Encourage and respect the involvement of employees in the planning and
implementation of safe driving policy;

Ensure drivers participate in regular safety meetings to promote a continued culture of
safety and address safety concerns;

Devise and implement a system of disciplinary action and rewards to encourage safe
driving habits, as appropriate; and

Prevent unnecessary travel by employees.
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19.2.2
Safety Committee Responsibilities
It is the responsibility of the Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. safety committee to:

Work with Gary Pfizenmayer to establish and review guidelines for company vehicle
selection, if appropriate;

Work with Gary Pfizenmayer to establish and review qualification standards for drivers, if
appropriate;

Work with Gary Pfizenmayer to ensure regular safety meetings geared specifically to
drivers;

Work with employees to identify and make recommendations to increase driver safety;

Assist in training pertaining to driver safety policy; and

Participate in accident investigations and driver safety policy review.
19.2.3
Employee Responsibilities
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. employees who, as part of their job, drive a company car or
their own on company business are expected to:

Complete a driver safety course that addresses general driver safety as well as hazards
specific to the job being done;

Ensure the roadworthiness of his or her vehicle before operation;

Operate the vehicle according to best safety practices;

Respond to accidents and near misses according to established Pyro Combustion &
Controls Inc. policies and procedures;

Inform a supervisor of any changes to their Motor Vehicle Record that may impact their
eligibility to drive; and

Maintain a driver’s license that permits them to perform their job in compliance with the
law.
Every Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. employee is expected to:

Demonstrate awareness and understanding of Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. driver
safety policy;

Make recommendations to improve Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. driver safety policy;
and

Encourage and practice safe driving habits.
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19.3
Training
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. will train every employee who will drive for work related
reasons on driver safety at no cost to the employee during working hours.
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. will use only training material that is appropriate in content and
vocabulary to educational level, literacy, and language of employees.
19.3.1
Training Components
Gary Pfizenmayer will ensure any employee at Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. who drives on
work business is qualified and capable to drive. Drivers will complete training in the following
minimum elements for driver safety:








Defensive driving;
Safe distances;
Intersection driving;
Poor driving conditions;
19.3.2
Split-second decision making;
Distracted driving;
Driving in Work Zones; and
Safety restraints.
Training Records
Training records will include the following information:

The dates of the training sessions;

The contents or a summary of the training sessions;

The names and qualifications of persons conducting the training; and
 The names and job titles of all persons attending the training sessions.
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. will maintain employee training records for at least 3 years
from the date on which the training occurred.
19.4
Policy
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. recognizes that its greatest assets are its employees, a fact
demonstrated by a commitment to their safety.
A driver safety program saves lives and reduces injuries. It also prevents material losses and
helps Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. guard against the range of liabilities that may emerge
from a vehicular accident.
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Accordingly, management will provide resources needed to support a culture of safety and will
actively encourage employees to participate in planning and implementation of the driver safety
program.
If Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. operates any of the following types of commercial motor
vehicles in interstate commerce Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. will comply with applicable
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) safety regulations, many of which may not be detailed
in this chapter.

A vehicle with a gross vehicle weight rating or gross combination weight rating
(whichever is greater) of 10,001 lb. or more;

A vehicle designed or used to transport between 9 and 15 passengers (including the
driver) for compensation;

A vehicle designed or used to transport 16 or more passengers; or

Any size vehicle used in the transportation of materials found to be hazardous for the
purposes of the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (49 U.S.C. 5101 et seq.) and
which require the motor vehicle to be placarded under the Hazardous Materials
Regulations (49 CFR chapter I, subchapter C).
Please see fmcsa.dot.gov or safetyservicescompany.com for more information.
19.4.1
Fleet
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. will maintain a fleet of vehicles if necessary for business in
accordance with relevant regulatory standards and vehicle manufacturer’s advice.
19.4.1.1 Fleet Selection
Gary Pfizenmayer will work with members of the safety committee and, if appropriate, Pyro
Combustion & Controls Inc.’s insurance company to establish guidelines for the selection of
company vehicles, which should include the following:

the appropriate vehicle type for expected use;

required safety equipment;

maintenance procedures;

inspection procedures;

protections against unauthorized use;

record-keeping procedures; and
 insurance.
The National Highway Transportation Administration provides information on vehicle safety
according to make and model.
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19.4.1.2 Preventative Maintenance
All Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. vehicles will be maintained according to a regular schedule
to ensure their safety and roadworthiness. All maintenance will be performed by a qualified
individual or automotive shop according to the manufacturer’s recommended service schedule.
In addition to regularly scheduled maintainance, fleet upkeep should include, but is not limited
to:

Basic inspections of the vehicle by the driver before every trip;

Immediate removal from service of any vehicle with mechanical problems; and

Managerial certification of requested repairs before return to service.
If Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. requires employees to drive their own cars for company
business, expectations for maintenance, inspection and upkeep will match those for vehicles
owned by Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc..
Recordkeeping
All vehicle maintenance, repair certification, and driver review will be recorded and kept through
the life of the vehicle.
19.4.1.3 Vehicle Inspection
The operator will inspect each vehicle or piece of equipment on a daily basis before and after
operation. Each operator is responsible for the safe condition of the equipment. No employee
may drive a vehicle having steering, brake, or other safety problems until a mechanic has made
repairs. Drivers will report any other unsafe conditions to their supervisor as soon as safely
possible.
19.4.2
Driver Selection, Qualification and Evaluation
Gary Pfizenmayer will work with members of the safety committee and, if appropriate, Pyro
Combustion & Controls Inc.’s insurance company to determine the qualification standards for
motor vehicle operators.
19.4.2.1 Employment History
The evaluation for any new employee anticipated to drive a company vehicle (or their own
vehicle on company business) will include a reference check and review of driving history
through past employers.
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19.4.2.2 Licenses
Any driver of a Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. vehicle or a personal vehicle on Pyro
Combustion & Controls Inc. business will possess a valid driver’s license appropriate for the
vehicle that will be driven and the circumstances in which the vehicle will be driven. All
government regulations and insurance company requirements will be followed in regard to
driver qualification.
A driver will only operate a vehicle that requires a commercial driver’s license (and any
endorsement) if he or she is in possession of the appropriate license.
19.4.2.3 Motor Vehicle Records
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. will check the driving records of any employee expected to
drive for work. Further, periodic review of a motor vehicle record (MVR) for employees expected
to drive for work reasons will indicate if they remain eligible to drive a company vehicle or their
own on company business.
Initial Assignment
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. will request and review an MVR for new applicants or current
employees expected to add driving to existing responsibilities, whether operating their own
vehicle or a company vehicle. The MVR review will consider the most recent three years of
driving and should include motor vehicle records from all states in which the applicant has lived
in that time.
MVRs and the information contained therein will remain as confidential as possible. Discussions
of motor vehicle records will be restricted to individuals with a legitimate “need to know."
Any qualification standard may entail a multi-tiered or point-system approach to driver eligibility
based on the frequency of the employee’s anticipated work driving and the severity of traffic
convictions recorded in the MVR.
Following are some examples of violations that, having occurred in the past 3 years, may
warrant ineligibility to drive on company business:

DWI/DUI;

Negligent motor vehicle homicide;

Operating with a suspended license;

Using a motor vehicle for commission of a felony;

Aggravated assault with a motor vehicle;

Operating a motor vehicle without the owner’s consent;

Reckless, careless or negligent driving, including speeding more than 15 MPH over limit;
or

Hit and run or leaving the scene of an accident with injury or death resulting, or property
damage in excess of $1,000.
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Following are examples of violations that, having occurred more than three times in two years,
may warrant ineligibility to drive:

Minor moving violations; and

Accidents.
Annual Review
Employees cited for a violation that may affect their eligibility to drive on company business will
inform their supervisor.
In addition to the initial MVR review, a review of an employee’s MVR will occur annually to
confirm the driver’s continued eligibility to drive for work.
19.4.2.4 Defensive Driver Training
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. may consider or require the completion of a driver safety
course or defensive driving course in determining eligibility to drive a Pyro Combustion &
Controls Inc. vehicle or a personal vehicle while on company business.
19.4.2.5 Driver Agreements
Employees who will operate a motor vehicle as part of their job are required to confirm
awareness and understanding of Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. driver safety policy.
Gary Pfizenmayer, with the safety committee, will create a “driver agreement” that allows a
driver to confirm his or her awareness and understanding of this policy, driver expectations,
vehicle maintenance and care requirements, and the procedures for reporting moving violations
and accidents.
19.4.2.6 Driver Qualification File
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. will maintain a driver qualification file for every driver including
all documents required to verify his or her qualifications.
19.4.3
Driver Training
19.4.3.1 Orientation
The driver safety program focuses on training and prevention. All new drivers must complete an
orientation to cover:

Policies and procedures for drivers;

Governmental regulations;

Maintenance guidelines and inspection procedures; and

Driver training that encourages safe, defensive road behavior.
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19.4.3.2 Meetings
Gary Pfizenmayer, with the safety committee, will plan and facilitate regular meetings of drivers
to promote safe driving habits and encourage communication about the driver safety policy.
19.4.3.3 Performance Reviews
Drivers will be subject to periodic evaluation and review of safe driving habits by their
supervisor. This review will be as confidential as appropriate and should detail both deficiencies
and excellence in the driver’s behavior as appropriate. A copy of this review will be kept in the
driver qualification file.
19.4.4
Vehicle Operation
19.4.4.1 Unauthorized Use of Vehicles
Gary Pfizenmayer, with the safety committee, will determine whether or under what conditions
an employee may permit another individual to drive a company vehicle.
A driver or other employee who permits an unauthorized individual to operate a company
vehicle faces disciplinary action and financial accountability for any cost incurred by allowing
unauthorized personnel to operate a company vehicle.
19.4.4.2 Securing Materials
The driver will prevent the unsafe movement of any materials such as tools or equipment by
securing it appropriately. Drivers should secure anything that may present a hazard outside the
passenger compartment.
19.4.4.3 Vehicle Occupancy
No vehicle on Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. will transport more passengers than safely
possible. Every adult in the vehicle must have a seatbelt. If children must be transported, each
must have the appropriate child safety restraint. Vehicles may be operated only if each
passenger is safely restrained in their seat.
19.4.4.4 Seat Belts
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. recognizes that seat belts effectively prevent injuries and loss
of life in an automotive accident.
All Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. employees will wear seatbelts when operating a companyowned vehicle or any vehicle on company premises or on company business. Any occupant of a
vehicle owned by Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc., on Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc.
premises or in a vehicle on company business will wear a seatbelt or, if required, an appropriate
child restraint system.
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Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. encourages its employees to always wear a seatbelt when
driving or riding in an automobile, to ensure child restraints are used properly, and to encourage
other passengers or drivers do the same.
19.4.4.5 Alcohol and Drug Use
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. forbids employees from consuming or being under the
influence of alcohol or illegal drugs during “duty hours.” Duty hours include working hours,
break periods and on-call periods. The consumption of alcohol or illegal drugs while performing
company business or while in a company facility may result in disciplinary action up to and
including termination.
If an employee takes prescribed medication or over-the-counter medication known to affect the
ability to operate a motor vehicle or other heavy machinery, the employee will inform his or her
immediate supervisor and refrain from such duties until able to do so safely.
Drivers will remain aware of driving behaviors that indicate impairment such as weaving,
inappropriate speed, and erratic or abrupt driving. Staying a safe distance from drivers who may
be impaired and bringing dangerous drivers to the attention of the authorities helps keep roads
safe.
Drivers who operate a commercial motor vehicle as defined by the federal highway
administration must possess a CDL and are subject to FHA’s regulations on alcohol and drug
use and testing.
A drug free workplace policy and supporting procedures must be in place and communicated to
all employees before drug testing. The rule requires pre-employment, reasonable suspicion,
random, post-accident, return-to-duty and follow-up testing. For details on the program, refer to
the FMCSR, Title 49, Part 382.
19.4.4.6 Distracted Driving
Driving skills rely on the focus of the vehicle operator. Every driver will devote his or her full
attention to the task of driving while behind the wheel. Distractions come in many forms and
contribute to 25 to 30 percent of all traffic accidents. Distractions include, but are not limited to
the following:







Text messaging and other cell phone
use (even with hands-free headset);
Reaching for an object inside the
vehicle;
Looking at an object, person or event
outside the vehicle;
Eating and drinking;



Reading;
Grooming and hygiene;
Electronics use (computer, tablet,
GPS);
Adjusting non-critical controls;
Horseplay; and
Emotional distractions.
Text messaging while driving is strictly prohibited.
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19.4.4.7 Fatigued Driving
Drowsy driving greatly increases the risk of an accident. All drivers will be trained in the dangers
of driving drowsy and the importance of sufficient rest before operating a motor vehicle.
19.4.4.8 Aggressive Driving
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. prohibits aggressive driving while operating a company vehicle
or a personal vehicle on company business. Aggressive driving behaviors include, but are not
limited to the following:






Excessive Speed;
Tailgating;
Failure to signal lane change;
Running a red light;
Passing on the right; and
Any offensive, rude or hostile act or
gesture directed at another driver.
19.4.4.9 Young Drivers
Teenage drivers are the most likely to engage in risky driving behaviors, and vehicle crashes
are the leading cause of death for 15-20 year olds. Federal law prohibits drivers under 17 to
operate a vehicle as part of their job, and it is at the discretion of Gary Pfizenmayer to prohibit
driving for any employee based on a lack of driving experience.
19.4.4.10
Driving in Work Zones
Special care must be taken by all drivers in work zones. Patience and care goes a long way to
contribute to driving safely around construction. Heavy machinery and workers can slow
everything down, but driving rushed makes it difficult to observe other workers and leads to poor
decision making. Workers must be vigilant and minimize distractions to respond quickly to the
unexpected when behind the wheel, especially when driving where others are working.
19.4.5
Monitoring
As part of the Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. driver safety policy, every work-related accident
and near miss involving motor vehicles will be handled in a way to reduce risk and encourage
future safe behaviors in the future.
Additionally, the Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. driver safety policy requires periodic review of
the policy itself and its impact on the safety and health of employees.
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19.4.5.1 Incident, Accident Analysis, and Reporting
If an employee experiences a vehicular accident while driving a company car or a personal car
on company business, he or she will do the following:

Stop the vehicle. If it can be done safely, move the vehicle off the road;

Call appropriate law enforcement authority if damage is done to another vehicle or
property that does not belong to Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. For an emergency,
call 911 to summon both police and emergency medical services;

Mark the scene as necessary for safety;

Gather the names of other drivers and witnesses;

Diagram the accident, noting vehicles involved, where vehicle occupants were seated at
the time of the accident, the date, time and weather conditions;

Exchange the following information with other drivers involved: License plate number,
registration information and insurance information;

Document the name and badge number of the responding law enforcement professional.

Notify the supervisor as soon as safely possible; and

Cooperate with law enforcement professionals and participate in Pyro Combustion &
Controls Inc. accident investigation.
Do not assume blame or apologize. Only give statements about what happened to police or an
appropriate member of Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. management.
Any accident will be investigated according to Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. accident
investigation policy. (See chapter on “Accident Investigation” for more details.) Use the Motor
Vehicle Accident Report at the end of this chapter to accompany the Pyro Combustion &
Controls Inc. Accident/Incident Report.
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. will comply with all recordkeeping requirements of Pyro
Combustion & Controls Inc. safety policy and any applicable regulatory authority.
19.4.5.2 Disciplinary Actions
Safety incidents involving an employee and a violation of Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc.
safety policy in a company vehicle (or personal vehicle used on company business) may result
in disciplinary actions up to termination, including the revocation of driving privileges as
determined by management.
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19.4.5.3 Reward Program
It is at the discretion of Gary Pfizenmayer and, if appropriate, the safety committee to devise
and implement a safe driver reward program to encourage safe driving habits and reward safe
driving behaviors.
19.4.5.4 Policy Review
All aspects of this policy and the Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. driver safety program are
subject to annual review by Gary Pfizenmayer and the safety committee to ensure the
effectiveness of the policy to guarantee a safe working environment for Pyro Combustion &
Controls Inc. employees.
19.5
Forms & Attachments
On the following pages, please find the following documents:

Motor Vehicle Accident Report

Driver Safety Training Documentation
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Motor Vehicle Accident Report
AFTER AN ACCIDENT:
1 Stay Calm 2 If the vehicles are drivable and it is safe to do so, move them safely out of traffic
3 Apply first aid (if properly trained) 4 Call police, and if necessary, ambulance 5 Take brief notes
Vehicle Driver Name
Other Vehicle Driver Name
Address
Address
Phone
Driver License #
Phone
Driver License #
Vehicle Type
Other Vehicle Type
Vehicle license Plate #
Vehicle license Plate #
Owner’s Name
Owner’s Name
Address
Address
Vehicle Insurance Co. Name
Other Vehicle Insurance Co. Name
Name Policy is Under
Policy #
Passenger Info
Name Policy is Under
Passenger Info
Policy #
Passenger Info
Passenger Info
ACCIDENT DETAILS
Date of Accident
Explain how the accident happened

Time of Accident
pm
am

Street
City
State
Approx Speed:
Your MPH:
Other MPH:
Describe your vehicle’s damage
Describe any Injuries
Describe other vehicle’s damage
Investigating Officer Name
Phone
Badge No.
Police Department
Investigating Officer Name
Phone
Badge No.
SKETCH OF THE
Police Department
ACCIDENT SCENE
Witness Info
Witness Info
Report Completed By
Signature
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Driver Safety
Driver Safety Training
Trainer (include qualifications):
Date:
Content of Training:
Attendees
Print Name
Signature
(Retain at least 3 years)
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20
Powered Industrial Trucks (Forklifts)
20.1
Policy Statement
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. is committed to creating a safe and healthy work environment.
Powered industrial trucks can help employees move material safely, but create hazards that
must be controlled. This powered industrial truck safety program will ensure the safe use and
service of such equipment.
Each forklift operator must be competent to operate the equipment safely, as demonstrated by
the successful completion of the training and evaluation specified in OSHA regulations.
20.2
Responsibilities
Ensuring safety in the operation of powered industrial trucks (PITs) is a cooperative effort
between Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. and its employees.
20.2.1
Employer Responsibilities
It is the responsibility of Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. to:

Select and purchase equipment compliant with relevant regulations and safety
standards;

Ensure safe operation of powered industrial trucks in the workplace;

Designate areas to store fuel and batteries, change and charge batteries, and maintain
PITs safely, including equipment to prevent and respond to hazard exposure;

Ensure operators and those maintaining PITs are 18 or older, trained and competent in
safety practices regarding PITs. Exceptions for trainees over 18 are permitted; and

Provide a safe work environment, free from hazards to employees.
20.2.2
Safety Committee Responsibilities
It is the responsibility of the Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. safety committee to:

Assist in identifying hazards associated with PITs;

Assist in providing PIT training for personnel;

Assist in training personnel in the safe operation of PITs;

Review safe PIT procedures yearly or as necessary to ensure safety and health; and

Identify hazardous environments that may require special safeguards for PITs.
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20.2.3
Employee Responsibilities
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. employees are expected to:

Be aware of hazards associated with PITs;

Store and handle fuel and batteries in a safe manner, according to established safe
procedures;

Actively participate in all training relevant to their position;

Operate PITs safely, according to all relevant standards and regulations;

Report potentially hazardous situations or maintenance concerns as soon as safely
possible; and

Load and unload PITs in a safe manner
20.3
Training
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. will ensure every employee is provided training on powered
industrial trucks. This training will be provided at no cost to the employee during working hours.
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. will use only training material that is appropriate in content and
vocabulary to the educational level, literacy, and language of employees.
Trainees may operate a powered industrial truck only:

Under the direct supervision of persons who have the knowledge, training, and
experience to train operators and evaluate their competence; and

Where such operation does not endanger the trainee or other employees.
20.3.1
Training Components
Training for PIT operation will include formal instruction, practical training, and evaluation.
Trainers will demonstrate knowledge, training and experience necessary to deliver said training
and evaluate operator performance.
Gary Pfizenmayer will ensure that every employee who works with powered industrial trucks will
be trained in the following minimum elements:

Truck-related topics

Operating instructions, warnings, and precautions for the types of truck the operator will
be authorized to operate;

Differences between the truck and the automobile;

Controls and instrumentation: where they are located, what they do, and how they work;

Engine or motor operation;

Steering and maneuvering;
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
Visibility (including restrictions due to loading);

Fork and attachment adaptation, operation, and use limitations;

Vehicle capacity;

Vehicle stability;

Any vehicle inspection and maintenance that the operator will be required to perform;

Refueling and/or charging and recharging of batteries;

Operating limitations;

Any other operating instructions, warnings, or precautions listed in the operator’s manual
for the types of vehicle operated.

Workplace-related topics

Surface conditions where the vehicle will be operated;

Composition of loads to be carried and load stability;

Load manipulation, stacking, and unstacking;

Pedestrian traffic in areas where the vehicle will be operated;

Narrow aisles and other restricted places where the vehicle will be operated;

Hazardous (classified) locations where the vehicle will be operated;

Ramps and other sloped surfaces that could affect the vehicle’s stability;

Closed environments and other areas where insufficient ventilation or poor vehicle
maintenance could cause a buildup of carbon monoxide or diesel exhaust; and

Other unique or potentially hazardous environmental conditions in the workplace that
could affect safe operation.
20.3.2
Training Records
Training records will include the following information:

The dates of the training sessions;

The contents or a summary of the training sessions;

The names and qualifications of persons conducting the training; and
 The names and job titles of all persons attending the training sessions.
Employee training records will be maintained for 3 years from the date on which the training
occurred.
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20.4
20.4.1
Policy
Design and Construction Requirements
PITs and attachments will be selected based on the work performed, with utmost concern for
the safety and wellbeing of employees. All PITs will meet OSHA-approved design and
construction requirements for trucks of their type.
20.4.1.1 Labels, Nameplates, Markings
Any PIT in use will bear a label that indicates approval by a nationally recognized testing lab.
This durable, corrosion-resistant nameplate must be inscribed with the following information:

Truck model and serial number;

Truck weight;

Designation of compliance with the mandatory requirements of ASME B56.1, "Safety
Standard for Low and High Lift Trucks," applicable to the manufacturer;

Type designation to show conformance with the requirements, such as those prescribed
by Underwriters Laboratories, Inc., and Factory Mutual Research Corporation; and
 Capacity.
Before employees operate a PIT, they must demonstrate the ability to read and interpret truck
nameplates to prevent overloading or other improper use.
20.4.1.2 Modifications and Attachments
Any modification or addition to industrial trucks used that will affect their capacity or safe
operation requires the written approval of the original manufacturer of that truck. If equipped
with an after-market attachment, the truck will be marked to indicate the approximate weight of
the truck with the attachment.
20.4.1.3 Safety Guards
Overhead Guard
An overhead guard provides
protection against falling objects,
but is likely not to protect the
user from the impact of a falling
capacity load. All high-lift rider
trucks, order-picker trucks and
rough-terrain forklift trucks must
be equipped with an overhead
guard in accordance with OSHA
regulations and ANSI B56.11969, "Safety Standard for Low
and High Lift Trucks."
Proper Design for Forklifts
Warning Light
Mast
Overhead
Guard
(Canopy)
Seat
Belt
Backrest Extension
Backup
Alarm
Driving Lights
Horn
Counter
Balance
Forks (Tines)
Load Rating Label
Rear Wheels
(Steering Axle)
A forklift with some of the more common features
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Vertical Load Backrest
A load backrest extension prevents
the load from shifting back when the
carriage is lifted to full height and will
be used when necessary to prevent
any part of a load from falling
rearward.
Seat Belts
If the PIT is equipped with a seat
belt or any operator restraint system
designed to contribute to the safety
of truck operation, the operator is
required to use the restraint.
Other Safety Guards
PITs may be equipped with a range
of other devices designed to
contribute
to
safe
operation.
Employees will maintain all safety
equipment in good repair, and all
operators must understand the use
of such safety equipment and
devices. These include, but are not
limited to the following:

Horns

Flashing warning lights

Backup alarms

Directional signals

Fire extinguisher

Mirrors
Forklift classes and lift codes
Classes
Class I:
electric motor rider trucks
Class II:
electric motor narrow aisle
trucks
Class III:
electric motor hand trucks
Lift
codes
Description
1
Counterbalanced rider type, stand up
4
Three wheel electric truck, sit down
5
Counterbalanced rider type, cushion
tires, sit down
6
Counterbalanced rider, pneumatic or
either tire type, sit down
1
High lift straddle
2
Order picker
3
Reach type outrigger
4
Side loaders, turret trucks, swing mast
and convertible turret/stock pickers
6
Low lift pallet and platform (rider)
1
Low lift platform
2
Low lift walkie pallet
3
Tractors
4
Low lift walkie/center control
5
Reach type outrigger
6
High lift straddle
7
High lift counterbalanced
8
Low lift walkie/rider pallet
Class IV:
internal combustion engine
trucks (cushion tires only)
3
Fork, counterbalanced (cushion tire)
Class V:
internal combustion engine
trucks (pneumatic tires
only)
4
Class VI:
electric and internal
combustion engine tow
tractors
1
Class VII:
rough terrain fork lift trucks
1
Class VIII:
personnel and burden
carriers
1
Fork, counterbalanced (pneumatic
tire)
Sit-down rider
All rough-terrain lift trucks
All personnel and burden carriers
Table 1
20.4.1.4 Forklift Classes
PITs come in a range of sizes and configurations; the industrial truck association classifies
industrial trucks into eight categories that suggest the utility of the truck. Each class is
subdivided by lift codes. Table 1 outlines the classifications and lift codes of PITs.
20.4.2
Industrial Truck Designations & Operating Locations
Workplace hazards may limit the types of PITs permitted in the workplace. Internal combustion
engines and electric motors may ignite flammable atmospheres. This company will follow
restrictions on trucks in potentially hazardous environments. OSHA provides guidelines based
on NFPA standards to establish the types of safeguards that must be present in trucks used in
such environments.
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20.4.2.1 Designations
In addition to classification based on the
configuration, use and features of the truck, PITs
are categorized based on safety features and
power sources to indicate in which potentially
hazardous locations the truck may be used.
Table 2 indicates the designations of industrial
trucks based on their power sources and
safeguards.
Internal Combustion Engines
Forklifts powered by internal combustion engines
run on a variety of fuels, including gasoline,
diesel fuel, liquid petroleum gas (LPG), and
compressed natural gas. Forklifts with internal
combustion engines can be quickly refueled but
require regular maintenance checks for leaks of
fuel or oil and worn parts to keep systems
working properly. Forklifts powered by internal
combustion engines used indoors may increase
worker exposure to exhaust and noise.
Safeguards to exhaust, fuel and electrical
systems, as well as electrical equipment
limitations and temperature limitation features
allow internal combustion engine trucks in certain
designated locations.
Designations of Powered Industrial Trucks
Power
Source
Designation
D
minimum
DS
exhaust, fuel and electrical
systems
DY
exhaust, fuel and electrical
systems; no electrical
equipment including the
ignition; temperature
limitation features
Diesel
E
minimum
ES
electrical system (prevent
emission of hazardous
sparks, limit surface
temperatures)
EE
electrical system; electric
motors and all other
electrical equipment
completely enclosed
EX
electrical system; electric
motors and all other
electrical equipment
completely enclosed;
electrical fittings and
equipment designed,
constructed and assembled
to be used in certain
atmospheres containing
flammable vapors or dusts
G
minimum
Electric
Gasoline
Liquefied
Safeguards
GS
exhaust, fuel and electrical
systems
LP
minimum
Petroleum
Electric
exhaust, fuel and electrical
LPS
Gas
systems
Electric-powered forklifts are most commonly
Table 2
used indoors in warehouses. Unlike internal
combustion forklifts, electric forklifts are quiet and
generally non-polluting but present other hazards to address, specifically related to batteries
and their charging.
Safeguards to the electrical system, motors, fittings and equipment, and special construction
must still be in place for operation of such trucks in certain locations.
20.4.2.2 Locations
OSHA and NFPA classify environments to define which designations of industrial trucks are
appropriate to use with the hazards present. Table 3 indicates hazardous location classifications
and indicates which types of industrial trucks have sufficient safeguards for such locations.
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Summary Table on Use of Industrial Trucks in Various Locations
Powered Industrial Trucks (Forklifts)
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20.4.2.3 Other Operating Environment Concerns
Any environment in which employees operate forklifts or PITs must allow safe use.Lighting
If lighting is less than two lumens/ft 2 the truck will be equipped with directional lighting
Noxious Gases and Fumes
Trucks with internal combustion engines produce exhaust and fumes that may be hazardous to
forklift operators and other employees. The concentration of carbon monoxide gas must not
exceed 50ppm or the levels specified by OSHA, whichever is less. Trucks powered by an
internal combustion engine require well-ventilated areas.
Trucks and Railroad Cars
Operators must take the following precautions when loading or unloading from trucks or railroad
cars to ensure safety:

The brakes of highway trucks shall be set and wheel chocks placed under the rear
wheels to prevent the trucks from rolling when boarded with PITs;

Wheel stops or other recognized positive protection must prevent railroad cars from
moving during loading or unloading operations;

Fixed jacks may be necessary to support a semitrailer and prevent upending during the
loading or unloading when the trailer is not coupled to a tractor; and

Positive protection must prevent railroad cars from moving while dockboards or bridge
plates are in position.
Dockboards and Bridgeplates: Dockboards or bridgeplates in use must be strong enough to
carry the load driven over them.
20.4.3
Maintenance and Related Concerns
Policy requires all equipment to remain in good repair and for operators to use equipment in an
always-safe manner. Any power-operated industrial truck not in safe operating condition must
be removed from service so authorized personnel may repair it. All maintenance, refueling and
battery charging will be performed in a way to ensure the safety of employees.
20.4.3.1 Pre-operation Inspection
Industrial trucks shall be examined daily or after each shift and before being placed in service.
Operators must report any defects when found so an authorized person can service the truck
appropriately. An example pre-operation daily checklist is included at the end of this chapter, but
one specific to the truck in service should be available from its manufacturer.
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Visual Check
Before starting the vehicle, an operator must conduct a pre-operation (or pre-start) inspection to
check a variety of items, including but not limited to:

Fluid levels — oil, water, and hydraulic fluid;

Leaks, cracks or any other visible defect including hydraulic hoses and mast chains.
Operators should not place their hands inside the mast. Use a stick or other device to
check chain tension;

Tire condition and pressure including cuts and gouges;

Condition of the forks, including the top clip retaining pin and heel;

Load backrest extension;

Finger guards;

Safety decals and nameplates. Ensure all warning decals and plates are in place and
legible. Check that information on the nameplate matches the model and serial numbers
and attachments;

Operator manual and legible nameplate;

Operator compartment. Check for grease and debris; and
 All safety devices are working properly including the seat belt.
In addition to this general inspection, operators must check forklift-specific (electric or internal
combustion, including liquid propane) features.
Operational Check
After completing the pre-operation inspection, operators should conduct an operational
inspection with the engine running. This inspection includes:












Accelerator linkage;
Inch control (if equipped);
Brakes;
Steering;
Drive control: forward and reverse;
Tilt control: forward and back;
Hoist and lowering control;
Attachment control;
Horn;
Lights;
Back-up alarm (if equipped); and
Hour meter.
Operators must report unusual noises or vibrations, leaks and unusual operating behavior
immediately for repair.
20.4.3.2 Gasoline, Diesel and Liquid Petroleum Gas
Handling and Storage
Gasoline, diesel fuel and liquefied petroleum gases on premises will be stored and handled
according to the appropriate OSHA regulations, and NFPA codes and standards.
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Refueling
Gas and Diesel: Refueling with gasoline or diesel presents the potential hazard of exposure to
explosive fumes. Refueling will be restricted to designated safe locations, preferably outdoors,
and the operator will adhere to the following requirements and recommended practices:

Stop the engine during refueling;

Do not smoke while refueling;

Do not allow the forklift to become low on fuel or run out of fuel. Sediment or other
impurities in the tank drawn into the fuel system can cause difficulties in starting and
damage internal components;

Fill the fuel tank at the end of each day;

Do not fill the tank to the top; it may overflow because fuel expands as it is heated;

Follow correct refueling procedures:
1. Park the forklift in the designated refueling area.
2. Place the transmission in Neutral.
3. Lower the forks to the ground.
4. Engage the parking brake.
5. Shut off the engine.
6. Open the filler cap.
7. Fill the tank slowly (if spillage occurs, wipe off and wash area with water).
8. Close the filler cap.
Liquid petroleum gas: Liquid petroleum gas (LPG) is a commonly used fuel for forklifts. It is a
safe fuel when handled properly. However, LPG is extremely flammable and extremely cold
when exposed to atmosphere. When handled improperly, it can cause serious injury or death.
Areas to refuel LPG-powered trucks must permit vapors to dissipate and must be away from
heat sources. Only authorized personnel should replace LPG containers.
20.4.3.3 Changing and Charging Batteries
The lead-acid batteries that power electric trucks require routine charging. If battery-powered
forklifts are used, the Safety Committee or the safety coordinator will work with the appropriate
personnel to develop facility-specific safety procedures based on manufacturer’s
recommendations and the following guidelines:

The operator will position the truck and apply breaks before the battery may be changed
or charged;

Appropriate lifting equipment must be used to lift the battery;

Authorized personnel should only pour acid into water when charging batteries, never
the other way around;

Care shall be taken to assure that vent caps are functioning. The battery (or
compartment) cover(s) shall be open to dissipate heat;

Individuals should remove metal jewelry before charging or servicing batteries, and keep
all other metallic objects from the top of uncovered batteries;
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
Appropriate PPE should be worn;

Check the water level. Do not add water before recharging. Record in service log;

Check the voltage. If the battery has sealed vents, do not recharge with a current greater
than 25 amperes;

Unplug and turn off the charger before connecting or disconnecting the clamp
connections;

Attach the positive clamp (+, usually colored red) to the positive terminal first and then
the negative clamp (–, usually colored black) to the negative terminal, keeping the
proper polarity;

Turn off the charger if the battery becomes hot or the electrolyte fluid comes out of the
vents. Restart charging at a lower charging rate;

Check water level after charging. Add distilled water or de-ionized water if water level is
below level indicator. Record in service log;

Return battery to forklift with lifting beam and secure in place after charging; and
 Check the indicator on the hour meter to see that battery is fully charged.
Under normal operating conditions, forklift batteries remain in service for 2,000
charge/discharge cycles. The battery maintenance program is designed to increase the life of
the batteries and help protect employees.
Battery failure could lead to mechanical breakdowns and possible accidents involving forklift
operators and/or other personnel.

Do not continue a battery in service merely because it continues to deliver power.

Do not exceed the service hours in the manufacturer’s recommendations.

Do not overcharge or undercharge batteries.

Avoid discharging batteries beyond the manufacturer’s discharge level. This can result in
permanent battery damage and shorten battery life considerably.

Warning signs of a low battery include slow starting, dim headlights, and the ammeter
indicating discharge at high RPM.

Recycle or properly dispose of batteries. Spent batteries are a hazardous waste unless
properly reclaimed at a lead smelter or battery recycler.
Appropriate precautions to control the hazards from battery acid include personal protective
equipment and a detailed safety procedure formulated by the safety committee to respond to an
acid splash or spill.
Facilities
Only charge batteries in areas designated for that purpose, which will be equipped with any
material handling equipment necessary for safe handling and servicing of batteries. Smoking
and any other ignition source are forbidden in battery charging areas, including but not limited to
open flames, sparks, or electric arcs.
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Facilities will be provided as needed for flushing and neutralizing spilled electrolyte, for fire
protection, for protecting charging apparatus from damage by trucks, and for adequate
ventilation for dispersal of fumes from gassing batteries.
A properly equipped battery charging area will have:

No smoking;

Warning signs posted;

Adequate fire protection;

Ample and readily available water supply for flushing and neutralizing spilled electrolyte;

An eyewash able to provide a 15 minute flow;

(For large installations, there should be a plumbed drench shower and an eyewash.);

A phone or other means of communication in the event of an emergency;

Adequate ventilation to avoid the buildup of hydrogen gas during battery charging;

Soda ash or other neutralization materials in the immediate area;

A dry chemical, CO2 or foam fire extinguisher; and

Means to protect charging apparatus from damage from trucks.
20.4.3.4 Other Maintenance Concerns
Following are requirements of OSHA regarding the maintenance of PITs:

Make repairs to PITs only in designated locations, away from fire hazards, never in class
I, II or III locations;

Replacement parts for trucks must be equivalent to the original parts in terms of safety
and the truck’s configuration will not be altered;

Keep open flames away from batteries and fuel tanks and disconnect the battery before
making any electrical system repair;

Any alteration, removal or addition of parts, or change in their configuration must be in
accordance with manufacturer recommendations, and should generally not be
undertaken;

The truck manufacturer must approve additional counterweighting of fork trucks;

Water mufflers shall be filled daily or as frequently as is necessary to prevent depletion
of the supply of water below 75 percent of the filled capacity;

Vehicles with mufflers having screens or other parts that may become clogged shall not
be operated while such screens or parts are clogged;

Personnel will immediately remove from service any vehicle that emits hazardous sparks
or flames from the exhaust system until appropriate service and repair eliminates the
cause for the emission of sparks or flames;

Personnel will remove a truck from service when the temperature of any part exceeds
normal operating temperature until appropriate service and repair eliminates the cause
for overheating;

Employees must keep trucks in a clean condition, free of lint, excess oil, and grease.
Employees will use only noncombustible agents to clean trucks; and
6/18/2013
20-12
© Safety Services Company
Powered Industrial Trucks (Forklifts)

Industrial trucks approved for gasoline may be converted to use liquefied petroleum gas
fuel provided the complete conversion results in a truck that embodies the features
specified for LP or LPS designated trucks.
20.4.4
Truck Operations
OSHA requires operators of PITs to adhere to the
following rules to ensure safe operation.
SLOW YOUR ROLL!
Powered industrial truck operators must
slow down in the following situations:
20.4.4.1 General Safe Operations

Do not drive trucks up to anyone standing
in front of a bench or other fixed object;

When approaching within three
truck lengths of another truck.

Do not stand or pass under the elevated
portion of any truck, whether loaded or
empty;

At cross aisles and anywhere
vision is obstructed.

On grades.

Do not permit unauthorized personnel to
ride on PITs. Regulations only permit
passengers when they have a safe place
to ride;

When going too fast to come to
a safe stop.

On wet or slippery floors.
Keep arms and legs away from between
the uprights of the mast or outside the
running lines of the truck;

On dockboards or bridgeplates.

Approaching elevators.

Negotiating turns.


Maintain a safe distance from the edge of
ramps or platforms while on any elevated
dock, or platform or freight car. Do not use trucks to open or close freight doors;

There shall be sufficient headroom under overhead installations, lights, pipes, sprinkler
system, etc; and

Keep fire aisles, access to stairways, and fire equipment clear.
20.4.4.2 Maneuvering and Traveling

Operators will observe all traffic regulations, including speed limits, and will maintain a
safe distance (approximately three truck lengths) from the truck ahead. Keep the truck
under control at all times.

Operators must yield right of way to ambulances, fire trucks, or other vehicles in
emergencies.

Do not pass other vehicles traveling in the same direction at intersections, blind spots, or
other dangerous locations.

The driver will slow down and sound the horn at cross aisles and other locations where
vision is obstructed. If the load obstructs forward view, the driver must travel with the
load trailing.

Cross railroad tracks diagonally wherever possible. Park no closer than 8 feet from the
center of railroad tracks.

Look in the direction of, and keep a clear view of the path of travel.
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Powered Industrial Trucks (Forklifts)

Ascend or descend grades slowly.

When ascending or descending grades in excess of 10 percent, drive loaded trucks with
the load upgrade.

On grades, tilt back load engaging means and raise the load to clear the road surface.

Under all travel conditions, operate the truck at a speed that will permit it to be brought to
a stop in a safe manner.

No stunt driving or horseplay.

The driver must slow down for wet and slippery floors.

Drive over dockboard or bridgeplates carefully and slowly, never exceed rated capacity.

Approach elevators slowly, entering them squarely only after the elevator car is properly
leveled. Once on the elevator, neutralize controls, shut off power, and set brakes.

Motorized hand trucks must enter confined areas with load end forward.

Avoid running over loose objects on the roadway surface.

While negotiating turns, reduce speed to a safe level by means of turning the hand
steering wheel in a smooth, sweeping motion. Except when maneuvering at a very low
speed, turn the hand steering wheel only at a moderate, even rate.
20.4.4.3 Load Handling

Handle only stable or safely arranged loads. Exercise caution when handling off-center
loads which cannot be centered.

All loads will be within the rated capacity of the truck.

The long or high loads which may affect capacity shall be adjusted.

Operate trucks with attachments as partially loaded trucks when not handling a load.

Place the load engaging means under the load as far as possible; carefully tilt the mast
backward to stabilize the load.

Use extreme care when tilting the load forward or backward, particularly when high
tiering. Do not tilt load engaging means forward while elevated except to pick up a load.
Do not tip an elevated load forward unless the load is in a deposit position over a rack or
stack. When stacking or tiering, use only enough backward tilt to stabilize the load.
Parking
A PIT operator will adhere to the following procedures (see Figure 1) to dismount the truck:

When a PIT is left unattended, fully lower load engaging means, neutralize controls, shut
off power, and set brakes. Block wheels if the truck is parked on an incline;

A PIT is unattended when the operator is 25 ft. or more away from the vehicle in his
view, or whenever the operator leaves the vehicle and it is not in his view; and
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Powered Industrial Trucks (Forklifts)

When the operator of an industrial truck is dismounted and within 25 ft. of the truck still in
his view, the load engaging means shall be fully lowered, controls neutralized, and the
brakes set to prevent movement.
Will operator
dismount
truck?
Will operator
be 25 ft. or
more away?
Yes
No
Fully lower load
engaging means.
Neutralize controls
Yes
Set brakes to
prevent movement.
Will truck be
in view of
operator?
No
Dismount truck.
Is truck parked
on an incline?
Truck will be unattended.
Operator must shut
off power before
leaving unattended.
No
Yes
Truck is still attended.
It is not required
to shut off power.
Block wheels.
Figure 1 — Parking your PIT
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Powered Industrial Trucks (Forklifts)
20.5
Forms & Attachments
On the following pages, please find the following document(s):

Performance Evaluation for Forklift Operators

Powered Industrial Trucks Training Record Sheet
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© Safety Services Company
Powered Industrial Trucks (Forklifts)
Performance Evaluation for Forklift Operators
Employee:______________________________________ Date:__________ Time: _________
Evaluator: _____________________________________ Equipment Type: _______________
Shows familiarity with truck controls.
Gave proper signals when turning.
Slowed down at intersections.
Sounded horn at intersections.
Obeyed signs.
Kept a clear view of direction of travel.
Turned comers correctly - was aware of rear end swing.
Yielded to pedestrians.
Drove under control and within proper traffic aisles.
Approached load properly.
Lifted load properly.
Maneuvered properly.
Traveled with load at proper height.
Lowered load smoothly/slowly.
Stops smoothly/completely.
Load balanced properly.
Forks under load all the way.
Carried parts/stock in approved containers.
Checked bridge-plates/ramps.
Did place loads within marked area.
Did stack loads evenly and neatly.
Did drive backward when required.
Did check load weights.
Did place forks on the floor when parked, controls neutralized, brake on set, power off.
Followed proper instructions for maintenance — checked both at beginning and end.
Comments:
____________________________________________________________________________
Total Rating:
□ Excellent
□ Good
□ Fair
□ Poor
□ Fail
Evaluator’s Signature
Date
Operator’s Signature
Date
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© Safety Services Company
Powered Industrial Trucks (Forklifts)
Daily Inspection Checklist for Powered Industrial Trucks
KEY OFF Procedures
Overhead guard
General - Duty Forklift
Overhead Guard
Hydraulic cylinders
Mast assembly
Lift chains and rollers
Mast
Lift Chains
and Rollers
Forks
Tires
Gas gauge
Check the engine oil level
Hydraulic
Cylinders
Examine the battery
Inspect the hydraulic fluid level
Check the engine coolant level
KEY ON Procedures
Front, tail, and brake lights
Fuel gauge (if diesel)
Windshield wiper
Forks
Tires
Yard Forklift
Heater
Forks
ENGINE RUNNING Procedures
Gauges
Oil pressure indicator lamp
Overhead
Guard
Ammeter indicator lamp
Ammeter
Hour Meter
Water Temperature Gauge
Mast
Hydraulic
Cylinders
Lift Chains
and Rollers
Standard Equipment
Steering
Brakes
Horn
Safety seat (if equipped)
Check the operation of load-handling attachments
Tires
Check the transmission fluid level
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© Safety Services Company
Powered Industrial Trucks (Forklifts)
Powered Industrial Trucks Training Record Sheet
Trainer (include qualifications):
Date:
Content of Training:
Attendees
Print Name
Signature
(Retain at least 3 years)
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Powered Industrial Trucks (Forklifts)
6/18/2013
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© Safety Services Company
Welding, Cutting & Brazing (Hotwork)
21
Welding, Cutting & Brazing (Hotwork)
21.1
Policy Statement
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. is committed to preserving the safety of employees and
maintaining a place of employment free from recognized hazards.
Accordingly, only properly trained employees, authorized to perform such operations with a
written hot work permit may perform welding, cutting, brazing, grinding and other hotwork. If it is
impossible to eliminate fire hazards from such work, appropriate control steps will be taken to
ensure the safety of workers, including engineering and administrative controls and personal
protective equipment.
This welding, cutting, and brazing program — designed to protect life and property from fire,
atmospheric contaminants, and other associated hazards during these operations — will be
enforced rigorously.
21.2
Responsibilities
Protecting workers and the work environment from fire and atmospheric contaminants during
hot work is a cooperative effort between Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. and its employees.
21.2.1
Employer Responsibilities
It is the responsibility of Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. to:

Ensure the safe use of cutting and welding equipment on site;

Establish areas for cutting and welding and establish procedures based on the fire
potentials of facilities;

Designate a person to authorize cutting and welding operations if they are done outside
of designated areas;

Ensure that cutters, welders and their supervisors are trained to operate their equipment
according to safe processes; and

Inform contractors of fire hazards.
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Welding, Cutting & Brazing (Hotwork)
21.2.2
Safety Committee Responsibilities
It is the responsibility of the Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. safety committee to:

Assist in identifying hazards associated with hotwork;

Assist in training employees regarding hotwork procedures;

Participate in regular review of hotwork safety program as necessary;

Offer to management recommendations from employees about the program; and

Assist in hotwork operations safety activities as required.
21.2.3
Employee Responsibilities
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. employees who, as part of their work responsibilities engage
in welding, brazing, cutting, grinding or any other activity that can produce spark, heat or
atmospheric toxicants are expected to:

Refrain from welding or other hot work without appropriate authorization;

Only perform such activities in designated, appropriately ventilated areas unless
authorized otherwise; and

Follow all other safe work practices as outlined in this policy.
Supervisors of employees who must perform welding are expected to:
 Be responsible for the safe handling and use of equipment to cut or weld;

Determine fire hazards and combustibles that are or may arise at the work location;

Prevent ignition of combustibles by the following:
o Ensuring work gets moved away from combustibles;
o Moving combustibles from the work or emplacing guards to prevent;
o Ensuring cutting or welding work is done at a time when nearby operations will not
expose combustibles to ignition from such work;
o Secure authorization from management before any cutting or welding is begun;
o Ensure the cutter or welder does not go ahead without approval of safe conditions;
o Determine that fire protection and extinguishing equipment are located at the site;
and
o
Ensure the availability of a fire watch as required.
21.3
Training
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. will ensure every employee is provided training on hotwork.
This training will be provided at no cost to the employee during working hours.
Pyro Combustion & Controls Inc. will use only training material that is appropriate in content and
vocabulary to the educational level, literacy, and language of employees.
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Welding, Cutting & Brazing (Hotwork)
21.3.1
Training Components
Gary Pfizenmayer will ensure that every employee will be trained in the following minimum
elements:

Compressed gas hazards and cylinder safety and storage;

Fire hazards in the workplace;

The roles and responsibilities for a fire watch while welding;

Location and use of fire extinguishers;

Housekeeping efforts around welding;

Personal protective equipment selection, fitting and use;

Welding in confined spaces;

Basic rules for any welding technique used at work;

Protective devices like valves, backflow preventers, etc;

Hazards associated with chemicals used in welding; and

Hazards associated with light and non-visible spectrum radiation in welding.
21.3.2
Training Records
Training records will include the following information:

The dates of the training sessions;

The contents or a summary of the training sessions;

The names and qualifications of persons conducting the training; and
 The names and job titles of all persons attending the training sessions.
Employee training records will be maintained for 3 years from the date on which the training
occurred.
21.4
21.4.1
Policy
General Requirements
21.4.1.1 Fire Prevention and Protection
Cutting or welding may only occur in fire-safe areas.
If the object to be welded or cut cannot be moved, movable fire hazards need to be moved at
least 35 feet away. If it is impossible to move them, safeguards to confine heat, sparks, and slag
must protect the immovable fire hazards.
No welding, cutting or heating shall be done where the application of flammable paints, or the
presence of other flammable compounds, or heavy dust concentrations creates a hazard.
Where combustible materials are on the floor, employees must sweep the floor clean for a
radius of 35 feet. Combustible floors shall be kept wet (protect welder form shock if arc welding),
covered with damp sand, or protected by fire-resistant shields.
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Welding, Cutting & Brazing (Hotwork)
Floor openings or cracks in the floor that cannot be closed, as well as holes in walls, open
doorways and open or broken windows must be guarded to prevent sparks from reaching
readily combustible material. Employees must shutdown ducts that could carry sparks to
combustibles, or emplace appropriate safeguards before hotwork.
When welding, cutting, or heating is performed on walls, floors, and ceilings, since direct
penetration of sparks or heat transfer may introduce a fire hazard to an adjacent area, the same
precautions shall be taken on the opposite side as are taken on the side on which the welding is
being performed.
Fire extinguishing equipment appropriate to the present hazard will be ready for instant use
during hot work.
An inspector will inspect the worksite and designate precautions before granting authorization to
proceed with cutting or welding in the form of a written permit.
Fire Watch
Fire watchers must be present for welding or cutting in locations where an unplanned flame
might develop or when any of the following is true:

Appreciable combustible material is within 35 feet to the point of operation.

Sparks may easily ignite appreciable combustibles more than 35 feet away.

Wall or floor openings within a 35-foot radius expose combustible material in adjacent
areas (including concealed spaces in walls or floors).

Combustible materials are adjacent to the opposite side of metal partitions, walls,
ceilings, or roofs and are likely to be ignited by conduction or radiation.
Fire watchers must have fire extinguishing equipment readily available and training in its use.
They shall be familiar with facilities for sounding an alarm in the event of a fire and will watch for
fires in all exposed areas. Fire watchers must try to extinguish flames only when within the
capacity of the equipment available. Otherwise, they must sound the alarm.
The fire watch will continue for at least a half hour after completion of welding or cutting
operations to detect and extinguish possible smoldering fires.
Prohibited Areas
Cutting or welding is prohibited in the following situations:

in areas not authorized by management;

in sprinklered buildings where the sprinkler’s ability to stop fire have been impaired;

in explosive atmospheres, including those that may develop inside uncleaned or
improperly prepared spaces that contained explosive materials, or where there is an
accumulation of combustible dusts;

in areas near the storage of large quantities of exposed, readily ignitable materials such
as bulk sulfur, baled paper, or cotton;

on a metal partition, wall, ceiling or roof that has a combustible covering or walls of
sandwich-type construction; and
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© Safety Services Company
Welding, Cutting & Brazing (Hotwork)

on pipes or other metal in close enough contact with combustible walls, partitions,
ceilings or roofs to ignite them by conduction.
Containers
Welding, cutting, or other hot work is forbidden on used drums, barrels, tanks or other
containers until they are clean of flammable materials or substances that produce flammable or
toxic vapors.
Except when the contents are being removed or transferred, drums, pails, and other containers
which contain or have contained flammable liquids shall be kept closed. Empty containers shall
be removed to a safe area apart from hot work operations or open flames.
Disconnect or blank any pipelines or connections to the drum or vessel, and vent all hollow
spaces or containers (purge with inert gas if appropriate).
Confined Spaces
Ventilation is required to work in any confined space.
Leave gas cylinders and welding machines outside of confined spaces. Before starting
operations, block the wheels of heavy portable equipment to prevent movement.
A welder will only enter a confined space with company-provided means to be removed in case
of emergency. When using safety belts and lifelines for this purpose, they need to be attached
to the welder’s body so that his body cannot be jammed in a small exit opening.
As with any work done in a hazardous confined space, the worker will have an attendant
stationed outside with a preplanned rescue procedure who can observe the welder at all times
and put rescue plans promptly into effect.
In confined spaces, when suspending arc welding for any substantial period, such as during
lunch or overnight, the worker will:

remove electrodes from the holders;

locate the holders carefully to prevent accidental contact;

disconnect the machine from the power source; and

close torch valves and gas supply outside the confined space.
The worker also must remove the torch and hose from the confined space.
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Welding, Cutting & Brazing (Hotwork)
21.4.1.2 Protection of Personnel
Guide for the selection of the proper shade numbers
Employees will have every appropriate
protection against identified hazards.
Welding Operation
Shielded metal-arc welding 1
3
5
/16-, /32-, ⅛-, /32-inch electrodes
Gas-shielded arc welding (nonferrous) 1
3
5
/16-, /32-, ⅛-, /32-inch electrodes
Gas-shielded arc welding (ferrous) 1
3
5
/16-, /32-, ⅛-, /32-inch electrodes
Shielded metal-arc welding:
3
7
/16-, /32-, ¼-inch electrodes
5
/16-, 3/8-inch electrodes
Atomic hydrogen welding
Carbon arc welding
Soldering
Torch brazing
Light cutting, up to 1 inch
Medium cutting, 1 inch to 6 inches
Heavy cutting, 6 inches and over
Gas welding (light) up to ⅛ inch
Gas welding (medium) ⅛ inch to ½ inch
Gas welding (heavy) ½ inch and over
Effective safeguards will protect workers
on platforms, scaffolds or other spaces
that present a falling hazard. Welding
cable and equipment will remain clear of
passageways, ladders and stairways to
ensure safe travel.
After welding operations are completed,
the welder will mark the hot metal or
provide some other means of warning
other workers.
Eye Protection
Welders must use helmets and hand
shields during arc welding or arc cutting
operations, excluding submerged arc
welding. The company also will provide
helpers or attendants with proper eye
protection.
Shade No.
10
11
12
12
14
10-14
14
2
3 or 4
3 or 4
4 or 5
5 or 6
4 or 5
5 or 6
6 or 8
NOTE: In gas welding or oxygen cutting where the torch produces a
high yellow light, it is desirable to use a filter or lens that absorbs the
yellow or sodium line in the visible light of the operation.
Table 1
Goggles or other suitable eye protection
must be worn during all gas welding or
oxygen cutting operations. Employees may use spectacles without side shields, with suitable
filter lenses during gas welding operations on light work, for torch brazing or for inspection.
All operators and attendants of resistance welding or resistance brazing equipment shall use
transparent face shields or goggles, depending on the particular job, to protect their faces or
eyes, as required.
The company will provide eye protection in the form of suitable goggles where needed for
brazing operations other than arc welding and brazing, or resistance welding or brazing.
The specifications for such protectors are as follows:

Helmets and hand shields shall be made of material that insulates for heat and
electricity;

Helmets, shields and goggles shall be not readily flammable and shall be capable of
withstanding sterilization;

Helmets and hand shields shall be arranged to protect the face, neck and ears from
direct radiant energy from the arc;

Helmets shall be provided with filter plates and cover plates designed for easy removal;
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Welding, Cutting & Brazing (Hotwork)

All parts shall be constructed of a material that will not readily corrode or discolor the
skin;

Goggles shall be ventilated to prevent fogging of the lenses as much as practicable;

All glass for lenses shall be tempered, substantially free from striae, air bubbles, waves
and other flaws. Except when a lens is ground to provide proper optical correction for
defective vision, the front and rear surfaces of lenses and windows shall be smooth and
parallel;

Lenses shall bear some permanent distinctive marking by which to identify the source
and shade;

Filter lenses must meet the test for transmission of radiant energy prescribed by any of
the following consensus standards:
o ANSI Z87.1-2003, "American National Standard Practice for Occupational and
Educational Eye and Face Protection;"
o
o
ANSI Z87.1-1989 (R-1998), "American National Standard Practice for Occupational
and Educational Eye and Face Protection;" or
ANSI Z87.1-1989, "American National Standard Practice for Occupational and
Educational Eye and Face Protection."

Where work permits, enclose the welder in an individual booth painted with a finish of
low reflectivity such as zinc oxide and lamp black, or enclose with noncombustible
screens similarly painted. Booths and screens shall permit circulation of air at floor level;
and

Protect workers or other persons adjacent to the welding areas from the rays by
noncombustible or flameproof screens or shields or shall be required to wear appropriate
goggles.
Protective Clothing
Protect employees exposed to the hazards created by welding, cutting, or brazing operations
with personal protective equipment as required to ensure safety and meet regulatory
requirements. Appropriate protective clothing required for any welding operation will vary with
the size, nature and location of the work.
21.4.1.3 Health Protection and Ventilation
The factors that govern the amount of contamination to which welders may be exposed are the
dimensions of the workspace, the number of welders working, and the evolution of hazardous
fumes, gases or dust.
When the welding area is screened on all sides, the screens need to be arranged to allow
sufficient ventilation — mounted about 2 feet from the floor, unless the work being done is near
enough to the ground to require them to be lower to prevent harm to nearby workers.
Ventilating systems must ensure toxic fumes, gases, or dust remain under permissible levels for
all workers.
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Welding, Cutting & Brazing (Hotwork)
First-aid equipment remains available according to the emergency action plan. Report all
injuries immediately. Trained personnel will provide first aid until professional medical attention
is available.
Precautionary Labels
Fluxes, coatings, coverings, and filler metals used in welding and cutting may employ potentially
hazardous materials, including, but not limited to the following:








Flourine Compounds;
Zinc;
Lead;
Cleaning compounds;
Berylium;
Cadmium;
Mercury; and
Chlorinated hydrocarbons.
Appropriate ventilation or respirator equipment must control hazards presented by these
chemicals and oxygen cutting stainless steel. Find more detail on controlling hazards these
chemicals present in CFR 1910.252 (c) (5-12).
Welding material suppliers are responsible for determining hazards associated with a given
material used for welding or cutting. Materials used in hot work must be labeled with safety
warnings according to the hazards the materials present and all workers must understand what
the warnings mean.
Ventilation for General Welding and Cutting
Mechanical ventilation shall consist of either
general mechanical ventilation systems or local
exhaust systems and must be in place for
welding or cutting on metals other than those
listed above when any of the following is true:

The space is less than 10,000 cubic feet
per welder;

The room has a ceiling height less than
16 feet;

The space is confined; or
Welding Zone
4 to 6 inches from
arc or torch
6 to 8 inches from
arc or torch
8 to 10 inches from
arc or torch
10 to 12 inches from
arc or torch
Minimum
air flow
cubic feet /
minutes
Duct
Diameter,
inches
150
3
275
3½
425
4½
600
5½
Table 2
 The welding space has structural barriers that significantly obstruct cross ventilation.
Natural ventilation is sufficient for welding or cutting operations where these restrictions are not
present.
Ventilation will be at least 2,000 cubic feet per minute per welder, except where workers have
local exhaust hoods and booths or have airline respirators approved for such purposes.
Mechanical local exhaust ventilation may be by means of either of the following:

Freely movable hoods near the work provided with a rate of air flow in the direction of
the hood of 100 linear feet per minute in the zone of welding when the hood is at its most
remote distance from the point of welding. The rates of ventilation required to
accomplish this velocity using a 3-inch wide flanged suction opening are shown in table
2; or
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Welding, Cutting & Brazing (Hotwork)

A fixed enclosure with a top and at least two sides that surround the welding or cutting
operations with a rate of airflow sufficient to maintain a velocity away from the welder of
not less than 100 linear feet per minute.
Contaminated air exhausted from a working space shall be discharged clear of the source of
intake air.
All air replacing that withdrawn shall be clean and respirable.
Oxygen shall not be used for ventilation purposes, comfort cooling, blowing dust from clothing,
or for cleaning the work area.
Confined Spaces Ventilation
Adequate ventilation for all welding and cutting operations in confined spaces must prevent the
accumulation of toxic materials or oxygen deficiency. This applies not only to the welder but also
to helpers and other personnel in the immediate vicinity. All air replacing that withdrawn for
ventilation must be clean and respirable.
If this company cannot provide such ventilation, it will provide approved (by the National Institute
for Occupational Safety and Health — NIOSH) airline respirators or hose masks for this
purpose.
An employee on the outside of the confined space shall be assigned to maintain communication
with those working within it and to aid them in an emergency.
Where a welder must enter a confined space through a small opening, means shall be provided
for quickly removing him in case of emergency. When safety belts and lifelines are used for this
purpose they shall be so attached to the welder’s body that his body cannot be jammed in a
small exit opening. An attendant with a pre-planned rescue procedure shall be stationed outside
to observe the welder at all times and be capable of putting rescue operations into effect.
Please see the chapter on confined spaces for more information.
Areas immediately hazardous to life require a full-facepiece, pressure-demand, self-contained
breathing apparatus or a combination full-facepiece, pressure-demand supplied-air respirator
with an auxiliary, self-contained air supply approved by NIOSH.
Where welding operations occur in confined spaces require hose masks, hose masks with
blowers or self-contained breathing equipment, a worker stationed on the outside of such
confined spaces will ensure the safety of those working within.
Never use oxygen for ventilation.
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Welding, Cutting & Brazing (Hotwork)
21.4.1.4 Surfaces Covered by a Preservative Coating
Before welding, cutting, or heating is commenced on any surface covered by a preservative
coating whose flammability is not known, a test shall be made by a competent person to
determine its flammability. Preservative coatings shall be considered to be highly flammable
when scrapings burn with extreme rapidity.
When coatings are determined to be highly flammable, they shall be stripped from the area to
be heated to prevent ignition.
Protection against toxic preservative coatings:

In enclosed spaces, all surfaces covered with toxic preservatives shall be stripped of all
toxic coatings for a distance of at least 4 inches from the area of heat application, or the
employees shall be protected by approved airline respirators.

In the open air, employees shall be protected by a respirator, in accordance with safety
requirements.
The preservative coatings shall be removed a sufficient distance from the area to be heated to
ensure that the temperature of the unstripped metal will not be appreciably raised. Artificial
cooling of the metal surrounding the heating area may be used to limit the size of the area
required to be cleaned.
21.4.1.5 Industrial Applications
Observe OSHA requirements where field shop operations are involved for fabrication of fittings,
river crossings, road crossings, and pumping and compressor stations.
Special protection against electric shock for arc welding will be provided in wet conditions, or
under conditions of high humidity.
In pressure testing of pipelines, protect workers and the public against injury by blowing out
closures or other pressure restraining devices. Ensure protection against expulsion of loose dirt
trapped in the pipe.
Employees will follow the appropriate standard for the following welding applications:

Conduct the welded construction of transmission pipelines in accordance with the
Standard for Welding Pipe Lines and Related Facilities, API Std. 1104-1968.

The connection, by welding, of branches to pipelines carrying flammable substances
shall be performed in accordance with Welding or Hot Tapping on Equipment Containing
Flammables, API Std. PSD No. 2201-1963.

The use of X-rays and radioactive isotopes for the inspection of welded pipeline joints
shall be carried out in conformance with the American National Standard Safety
Standard for Non-Medical X-ray and Sealed Gamma-Ray Sources, ANSI Z54.1-1963.
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Welding, Cutting & Brazing (Hotwork)
21.4.2
Oxygen-fuel Gas Welding and Cutting
Mixtures of fuel gases and air or oxygen may be explosive and require appropriate guards.
21.4.2.1 General Requirements

Mixing air or oxygen with flammable gases will occur only at the burner or in a standard
torch. Unapproved attachments or devices to mix air and fuel gasses are forbidden.

Acetylene may not be generated, piped (except in approved cylinder manifolds) or
utilized at a pressure in excess of 15 psig or 30 psia.

Liquid acetylene is also forbidden.

Only approved apparatus such as torches, regulators or pressure-reducing valves,
acetylene generators, and manifolds shall be used.

Anyone in charge of the oxygen or fuel-gas supply equipment, and oxygen or fuel-gas
distribution piping systems shall be instructed and judged competent by their employers
before being left in charge.

Rules and instructions covering the operation and maintenance of oxygen or fuel-gas
supply equipment including generators, and oxygen or fuel-gas distribution piping
systems shall be readily available.

Clogged torch tip openings shall be cleaned with suitable cleaning wires, drills, or other
devices designed for such purpose.

Torches in use shall be inspected at the beginning of each working shift for leaking
shutoff valves, hose couplings, and tip connections. Defective torches shall not be used.

Torches shall be lighted by friction lighters or other approved devices, and not by
matches or from hot work.
21.4.2.2 Cylinders and Containers
Marking
All portable cylinders used for the storage and shipment of compressed gases shall be
constructed and maintained in accordance with the regulations of the U.S. Department of
Transportation, 49 CFR Parts 171-179. No damaged or defective cylinder may be used.
Compressed gas cylinders shall be legibly marked, with either the chemical or the trade name of
contents. Such marking (by means of stenciling, stamping, or labeling) shall not be readily
removable. Whenever practical, the marking shall be located on the shoulder of the cylinder.
Compressed gas cylinders must be equipped with connections complying with the American
National Standard Compressed Gas Cylinder Valve Outlet and Inlet Connections, ANSI B57.11965.
All cylinders with a water weight capacity of over 30 pounds shall be equipped with means of
connecting a valve protection cap or with a collar or recess to protect the valve.
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Welding, Cutting & Brazing (Hotwork)
Storage
Keep cylinders away from radiators and other sources of heat.
Inside of buildings, cylinders shall be stored in a well-protected, well-ventilated, dry location, at
least 20 feet from highly combustible materials. Cylinders should be stored in definitely assigned
places away from elevators, stairs, or gangways. Assigned storage spaces shall be located
where cylinders will not be knocked over or damaged by passing or falling objects, or subject to
tampering by unauthorized persons. Keep cylinders out of unventilated enclosures such as
lockers and cupboards.
Empty cylinders shall have their valves closed.
Valve protection caps, where cylinder accepts a cap, shall always be in place, hand-tight,
except when cylinders are in use or connected for use.
Handling Procedures
 Cylinders, cylinder valves, couplings, regulators, hose, and apparatus shall be kept free
from oily or greasy substances. Oxygen cylinders or apparatus shall not be handled with
oily hands or gloves. A jet of oxygen must never be permitted to strike an oily surface,
greasy clothes, or enter a fuel oil or other storage tank.

When transporting cylinders by a crane or derrick, a cradle, boat, or suitable platform
shall be used. Slings or electric magnets shall not be used for this purpose.

Valve-protection caps, where cylinder is designed to accept a cap, shall always be in
place.

When cylinders are transported by powered vehicles, they shall be secured in a vertical
position.

Cylinders shall not be dropped or struck or permitted to strike each other violently.

Valve-protection caps shall not be used for lifting cylinders from one vertical position to
another. Bars shall not be used under valves or valve-protection caps to pry cylinders
loose when frozen to the ground or otherwise fixed; the use of warm (not boiling) water
is recommended. Valve-protection caps are designed to protect cylinder valves from
damage.

Unless cylinders are secured on a special truck, regulators shall be removed and valveprotection caps, when provided for, shall be put in place before cylinders are moved.

A suitable cylinder truck, chain, or other steadying device shall be used to keep cylinders
from being knocked over while in use.

Cylinders not having fixed hand wheels shall have keys, handles, or nonadjustable
wrenches on valve stems while these cylinders are in service. In multiple cylinder
installations only one key or handle is required for each manifold.

Cylinder valves shall be closed before moving cylinders.

Cylinder valves shall be closed when work is finished.

Valves of empty cylinders shall be closed.
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
Cylinders shall be kept far enough away from the actual welding or cutting operation so
that sparks, hot slag, or flame will not reach them, or fire-resistant shields shall be
provided.

Cylinders shall not be placed where they might become part of an electric circuit.
Contacts with third rails, trolley wires, etc., shall be avoided. Cylinders shall be kept
away from radiators, piping systems, layout tables, etc., that may be used for grounding
electric circuits such as for arc welding machines. Any practice such as the tapping of an
electrode against a cylinder to strike an arc shall be prohibited.

Cylinders shall never be used as rollers or supports, whether full or empty.

The numbers and markings stamped into cylinders shall not be tampered with.

No person, other than the gas supplier, shall attempt to mix gases in a cylinder. No one,
except the owner of the cylinder or person authorized by him, shall refill a cylinder.

No one shall tamper with safety devices in cylinders or valves.

Cylinders shall not be dropped or otherwise roughly handled.

Unless connected to a manifold, oxygen from a cylinder shall not be used without first
attaching an oxygen regulator to the cylinder valve. Before connecting the regulator to
the cylinder valve, the valve shall be opened slightly for an instant and then closed.
Always stand to one side of the outlet when opening the cylinder valve.

A hammer or wrench shall not be used to open cylinder valves. If valves cannot be
opened by hand, notify the supplier.

Do not tamper with cylinder valves and do not attempt to repair them. If trouble is
experienced, the supplier should be sent a report promptly indicating the character of the
trouble and the cylinder’s serial number. Follow the supplier’s instructions.

Complete removal of the stem from a diaphragm-type cylinder valve shall be avoided.

Fuel-gas cylinders shall be placed with valve end up whenever they are in use. Liquefied
gases shall be stored and shipped with the valve end up.

Cylinders shall be handled carefully. Rough handling, knocks, or falls are liable to
damage the cylinder, valve or safety devices and cause leakage.

Before connecting a regulator to a cylinder valve, the valve shall be opened slightly and
closed immediately. The valve shall be opened while standing to one side of the outlet;
never in front of it. Never crack a fuel-gas cylinder valve near other welding work or near
sparks, flame, or other possible sources of ignition.

Before a regulator is removed from a cylinder valve, the cylinder valve shall be closed
and the gas released from the regulator.

Nothing shall be placed on top of an acetylene cylinder when in use which may damage
the safety device or interfere with the quick closing of the valve.

If cylinders are found to have leaky valves or fittings which cannot be stopped by closing
of the valve, the cylinders shall be taken outdoors away from sources of ignition and
slowly emptied.
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
A warning should be placed near cylinders having leaking fuse plugs or other leaking
safety devices not to approach them with a lighted cigarette or other source of ignition.
Such cylinders should be plainly tagged; the supplier should be promptly notified and his
instructions followed as to their return.

Safety devices shall not be tampered with.

Fuel-gas shall never be used from cylinders through torches or other devices equipped
with shutoff valves without reducing the pressure through a suitable regulator attached to
the cylinder valve or manifold.

The cylinder valve shall always be opened slowly.

An acetylene cylinder valve shall not be opened more than one and one-half turns of the
spindle, and preferably no more than three-fourths of a turn.

Where a special wrench is required it shall be left in position on the stem of the valve
while the cylinder is in use so that the fuel-gas flow can be quickly turned off in case of
emergency. In the case of manifolded or coupled cylinders at least one such wrench
shall always be available for immediate use.
Fuel-Gas Cylinder Storage
Inside a building, cylinders, except those in actual use or attached ready for use, shall be limited
to a total gas capacity of 2,000 cubic feet or 300 pounds of liquefied petroleum gas.
For storage in excess of 2,000 cubic feet total gas capacity of cylinders or 300 pounds of
liquefied petroleum gas, a separate room or compartment must be used with the following
specifications:

Noncombustible construction having a fire resistance rating of at least one hour;

Walls or partitions continuous from floor to ceiling and securely anchored; and
 At least one wall an exterior wall.
Alternatively, cylinders will be stored outside in a special building. Special buildings, rooms or
compartments shall have no open flame for heating or lighting and shall be well ventilated. They
may also be used for storage of calcium carbide in quantities not to exceed 600 pounds, when
contained in metal containers with the following specifications:

Of sufficient strength to prevent rupture;

With a screw top or equivalent;

Water- and air-tight; and
 No solder used in a manner that the package would fail in a fire.
Acetylene cylinders shall be stored valve end up.
Oxygen Storage
Oxygen cylinders shall not be stored near highly combustible material, especially oil and grease;
or near reserve stocks of carbide and acetylene or other fuel-gas cylinders, or near any other
substance likely to cause or accelerate fire; or in an acetylene generator compartment.
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Oxygen cylinders stored in outside generator houses shall be separated from the generator or
carbide storage rooms by a noncombustible partition having a fire-resistance rating of at least 1
hour. This partition shall be without openings and shall be gastight.
Oxygen cylinders in storage shall be separated from fuel-gas cylinders or combustible materials
(especially oil or grease), a minimum distance of 20 feet or by a noncombustible barrier at least
5 feet high having a fire-resistance rating of at least one-half hour.
Where a liquid oxygen system is to be used to supply gaseous oxygen for welding or cutting
and the system has a storage capacity of more than 13,000 cubic feet of oxygen (measured at
14.7 psia and 70°F), connected in service or ready for service, or more than 25,000 cubic feet of
oxygen (measured at 14.7 psia and 70°F), including unconnected reserves on hand at the site,
it shall comply with the provisions of the Standard for Bulk Oxygen Systems at Consumer Sites,
NFPA No. 566-1965.
21.4.2.3 Manifolding of Cylinders
Fuel gas and oxygen manifolds shall bear the name of the substance they contain in letters at
least 1-inch high which shall be either painted on the manifold or on a sign permanently
attached to it. These manifolds shall be placed in safe, well ventilated, and accessible locations
and not be located within enclosed spaces.
Manifold hose connections, including both ends of the supply hose that lead to the manifold,
shall be such that the hose cannot be interchanged between fuel gas and oxygen manifolds and
supply header connections. Adapters shall not be used to permit the interchange of hose. Hose
connections shall be kept free of grease and oil.
When not in use, manifold and header hose connections shall be capped.
Nothing shall be placed on top of a manifold, when in use, which will damage the manifold or
interfere with the quick closing of the valves.
Fuel-Gas Manifold
Manifolds shall be approved either separately for each component part or as an assembled unit.
Except as provided below, fuel-gas cylinders connected to one manifold inside a building shall
be limited to a total capacity not exceeding 300 pounds of liquefied petroleum gas or 3,000
cubic feet of other fuel-gas. More than one such manifold with connected cylinders may be
located in the same room provided the manifolds are at least 50 feet apart or separated by a
noncombustible barrier at least 5 feet high having a fire-resistance rating of at least one-half
hour.
Fuel-gas cylinders connected to one manifold having an aggregate capacity exceeding 300
pounds of liquefied petroleum gas or 3,000 cubic feet of other fuel-gas shall be located
outdoors, or in a separate building or room constructed in accordance with the following:

The walls, partitions, floors, and ceilings of inside generator rooms shall be of
noncombustible construction having a fire-resistance rating of at least 1 hour;
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
The walls or partitions shall be continuous from floor to ceiling and shall be securely
anchored;

At least one wall of the room shall be an exterior wall;

Openings from an inside generator room to other parts of the building shall be protected
by a swinging type, self-closing fire door for a Class B opening and having a rating of at
least 1 hour;

Windows in partitions shall be wired glass and approved metal frames with fixed sash;
and

Installation shall be in accordance with the Standard for the Installation of Fire Doors and
Windows, NFPA 80-1970, which is incorporated by reference as specified in Sec.
1910.6.
Separate manifold buildings or rooms may also be used for the storage of drums of calcium
carbide and cylinders containing fuel gases as permitted. Such buildings or rooms shall have no
open flames for heating or lighting and shall be well-ventilated.
High-pressure fuel-gas manifolds shall be provided with approved pressure regulating devices.
High-Pressure Fuel-Gas Manifolds
Manifolds shall be approved either separately for each component part or as an assembled unit.
Oxygen manifolds shall not be located in an acetylene generator room. Oxygen manifolds shall
be separated from fuel-gas cylinders or combustible materials (especially oil or grease), a
minimum distance of 20 feet or by a noncombustible barrier at least 5 feet high having a fireresistance rating of at least one-half hour.
Except as provided below, oxygen cylinders connected to one manifold shall be limited to a total
gas capacity of 6,000 cubic feet. More than one such manifold with connected cylinders may be
located in the same room provided the manifolds are at least 50 feet apart or separated by a
noncombustible barrier at least 5 feet high having a fire-resistance rating of at least one-half
hour.
An oxygen manifold, to which cylinders having an aggregate capacity of more than 6,000 cubic
feet of oxygen are connected, should be located outdoors or in a separate noncombustible
building. Such a manifold, if located inside a building having other occupancy, shall be located
in a separate room of noncombustible construction having a fire-resistance rating of at least
one-half hour or in an area with no combustible material within 20 feet of the manifold.
An oxygen manifold or oxygen bulk supply system which has storage capacity of more than
13,000 cubic feet of oxygen (measured at 14.7 psia and 70°F), connected in service or ready for
service, or more than 25,000 cubic feet of oxygen (measured at 14.7 psia and 70°F), including
unconnected reserves on hand at the site, shall comply with the provisions of the Standard for
Bulk Oxygen Systems at Consumer Sites, NFPA No. 566-1965.
High-pressure oxygen manifolds shall be provided with approved pressure-regulating devices.
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Low-Pressure Oxygen Manifolds
Manifolds shall be of substantial construction suitable for use with oxygen at a pressure of 250
psig. They shall have a minimum bursting pressure of 1,000 psig and shall be protected by a
safety relief device which will relieve at a maximum pressure of 500 psig. DOT-4L200 cylinders
have safety devices which relieve at a maximum pressure of 250 psig (or 235 psig if vacuum
insulation is used).
Hose and hose connections subject to cylinder pressure shall comply with manifold operating
procedures. Hose shall have a minimum bursting pressure of 1,000 psig.
The assembled manifold including leads shall be tested and proven gas-tight at a pressure of
300 psig. The fluid used for testing oxygen manifolds shall be oil-free and not combustible.
The location of manifolds shall comply with the requirements for high-pressure oxygen
manifolds.
The following sign shall be conspicuously posted at each manifold:
Low-Pressure Manifold
Do Not Connect High-Pressure Cylinders
Maximum Pressure - 250 psig (1.7 MPa)
Portable Outlet Headers
Portable outlet headers shall not be used indoors except for temporary service where the
conditions preclude a direct supply from outlets located on the service piping system.
Each outlet on the service piping from which oxygen or fuel-gas is withdrawn to supply a
portable outlet header shall be equipped with a readily accessible shutoff valve.
Hose and hose connections used for connecting the portable outlet header to the service piping
shall comply with the requirements of the section headed “Hose and Hose Connections”.
Master shutoff valves for both oxygen and fuel-gas shall be provided at the entry end of the
portable outlet header.
Portable outlet headers for fuel-gas service shall be provided with an approved hydraulic backpressure valve installed at the inlet and preceding the service outlets, unless an approved
pressure-reducing regulator, an approved back-flow check valve, or an approved hydraulic
back-pressure valve is installed at each outlet. Outlets provided on headers for oxygen service
may be fitted for use with pressure-reducing regulators or for direct hose connection.
Each service outlet on portable outlet headers shall be provided with a valve assembly that
includes a detachable outlet seal cap, chained or otherwise attached to the body of the valve.
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Materials and fabrication procedures for portable outlet headers shall comply with the
requirements for service piping systems section later in this chapter.
Portable outlet headers shall be provided with frames which will support the equipment securely
in the correct operating position and protect them from damage during handling and operation.
Manifold Operating Procedures
 Cylinder manifolds shall be installed under the supervision of someone familiar with the
proper practices with reference to their construction and use.

All manifolds and parts used in methods of manifolding shall be used only for the gas or
gases for which they are approved.

When acetylene cylinders are coupled, approved flash arresters shall be installed
between each cylinder and the coupler block. For outdoor use only, and when the
number of cylinders coupled does not exceed three, one flash arrester installed between
the coupler block and regulator is acceptable.

The aggregate capacity of fuel-gas cylinders connected to a portable manifold inside a
building shall not exceed 3,000 cubic feet of gas.

Acetylene and liquefied fuel-gas cylinders shall be manifolded in a vertical position.

The pressure in the gas cylinders connected to and discharged simultaneously through a
common manifold shall be approximately equal.
21.4.2.4 Service Piping Systems
Materials and Design
Piping and fittings shall comply with section 2, Industrial Gas and Air Piping Systems, of the
American National Standard Code for Pressure Piping ANSI B31.1-1967, insofar as it does not
conflict with the following:

Pipe shall be at least Schedule 40 and fittings shall be at least standard weight in sizes
up to and including 6-inch nominal; and

Copper tubing shall be Types K or L in accordance with the Standard Specification for
Seamless Copper Water Tube, ASTM B88-66a.
Piping shall be steel, wrought iron, brass or copper pipe, or seamless copper, brass or stainless
steel tubing, except as provided below.
Oxygen piping and fittings at pressures in excess of 700 psi, shall be stainless steel or copper
alloys.
Approved hose connections and hose may be used to connect the outlet of a manifold pressure
regulator to piping providing the working pressure of the piping is 250 psi or less and the length
of the hose does not exceed 5 feet. Hose shall have a minimum bursting pressure of 1,000 psig.
When oxygen is supplied to a service piping system from a low-pressure oxygen manifold
without an intervening pressure regulating device, the piping system shall have a minimum
design pressure of 250 psig. A pressure regulating device shall be used at each station outlet
when the connected equipment is for use at pressures less than 250 psig.
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Welding, Cutting & Brazing (Hotwork)
Piping for acetylene or acetylenic compounds shall be steel or wrought iron.
Unalloyed copper shall not be used for acetylene or acetylenic compounds except in listed
equipment.
Piping Joints
Joints in steel or wrought iron piping shall be welded, threaded or flanged. Fittings, such as ells,
tees, couplings, and unions, may be rolled, forged or cast steel, malleable iron or nodular iron.
Gray or white cast iron fittings are prohibited.
Joints in brass or copper pipe shall be welded, brazed, threaded, or flanged. If of the socket
type, they shall be brazed with silver-brazing alloy or similar high melting point (not less than
800°F) filler metal.
Joints in seamless copper, brass, or stainless steel tubing shall be approved gas tubing fittings
or the joints shall be brazed. If of the socket type, they shall be brazed with silver-brazing alloy
or similar high melting point (not less than 800°F) filler metal.
Installation
Distribution lines shall be installed and maintained in a safe operating condition.
All piping shall be run as directly as practicable, protected against physical damage, proper
allowance being made for expansion and contraction, jarring and vibration. Pipe laid
underground in earth shall be located below the frost line and protected against corrosion. After
assembly, piping shall be thoroughly blown out with air, nitrogen, or carbon dioxide to remove
foreign materials. For oxygen piping, only oil-free air, oil-free nitrogen, or oil-free carbon dioxide
shall be used.
Only piping which has been welded or brazed shall be installed in tunnels, trenches or ducts.
Shutoff valves shall be located outside such conduits. Oxygen piping may be placed in the
same tunnel, trench or duct with fuel-gas pipelines, provided there is good natural or forced
ventilation.
Low points in piping carrying moist gas shall be drained into drip pots constructed so as to
permit pumping or draining out the condensate at necessary intervals. Drain valves shall be
installed for this purpose having outlets normally closed with screw caps or plugs. No open end
valves or petcocks shall be used, except that in drips located out of doors, underground, and not
readily accessible, valves may be used at such points if they are equipped with means to secure
them in the closed position. Pipes leading to the surface of the ground shall be cased or
jacketed where necessary to prevent loosening or breaking.
Gas cocks or valves shall be provided for all buildings at points where they will be readily
accessible for shutting off the gas supply to these buildings in any emergency. There shall also
be provided a shutoff valve in the discharge line from the generator, gas holder, manifold or
other source of supply.
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Shutoff valves shall not be installed in safety relief lines in such a manner that the safety relief
device can be rendered ineffective.
Fittings and lengths of pipe shall be examined internally before assembly and, if necessary
freed from scale or dirt. Oxygen piping and fittings shall be washed out with a suitable solution
which will effectively remove grease and dirt but will not react with oxygen. Hot water solutions
of caustic soda or trisodium phosphate are effective cleaning agents for this purpose.
Piping shall be thoroughly blown out after assembly to remove foreign materials. For oxygen
piping, oil-free air, oil-free nitrogen, or oil-free carbon dioxide shall be used. For other piping, air
or inert gas may be used.
When flammable gas lines or other parts of equipment are being purged of air or gas, open
lights or other sources of ignition shall not be permitted near uncapped openings.
No welding or cutting shall be performed on an acetylene or oxygen pipeline, including the
attachment of hangers or supports, until the line has been purged. Only oil-free air, oil-free
nitrogen, or oil-free carbon dioxide shall be used to purge oxygen lines.
Painting and Signs
Underground pipe and tubing and outdoor ferrous pipe and tubing shall be covered or painted
with a suitable material for protection against corrosion.
Aboveground piping systems shall be marked in accordance with the American National
Standard Scheme for the Identification of Piping Systems, ANSI A13.1-1956.
Station outlets shall be marked to indicate the name of the gas.
Testing
Piping systems shall be tested and proved gastight at 1½ times the maximum operating
pressure, and shall be thoroughly purged of air before being placed in service. The material
used for testing oxygen lines shall be oil free and noncombustible. Flames shall not be used to
detect leaks.
When flammable gas lines or other parts of equipment are being purged of air or gas, sources
of ignition shall not be permitted near uncapped openings.
21.4.2.5 Protective equipment, Hose and Regulators
Equipment shall be installed and used only in the service for which it is approved and as
recommended by the manufacturer.
Service piping systems shall be protected by pressure relief devices set to function at not more
than the design pressure of the systems and discharging upwards to a safe location.
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Piping Protective Equipment
The fuel-gas and oxygen piping systems, including portable outlet headers shall incorporate the
protective equipment shown here:
When only a portion of a fuel-gas system is to be used with oxygen only that portion need
comply.
Approved protective equipment (designated P(F) in Figs. Q-1, Q-2, and Q-3) shall be installed in
fuel-gas piping to prevent:

Backflow of oxygen into the fuel-gas supply system;

Passage of a flash back into the fuel-gas supply system; and

Excessive back pressure of oxygen in the fuel-gas supply system. The three functions of
the protective equipment may be combined in one device or may be provided by
separate devices.
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The protective equipment shall be located in the main supply line, as in Figure Q-1 or at the
head of each branch line, as in Figure Q-2 or at each location where fuel-gas is withdrawn, as in
Figure Q-3. Where branch lines are of 2-inch pipe size or larger or of substantial length,
protective equipment shall be located as shown in either Q-2 or Q-3.
Backflow protection shall be provided by an approved device that will prevent oxygen from
flowing into the fuel-gas system or fuel from flowing into the oxygen system.
Flash-back protection shall be provided by an approved device that will prevent flame from
passing into the fuel-gas system.
Back-pressure protection shall be provided by an approved pressure-relief device set at a
pressure not greater than the pressure rating of the backflow or the flashback protection device,
whichever is lower. The pressure-relief device shall be located on the downstream side of the
backflow and flashback protection devices. The vent from the pressure-relief device shall be at
least as large as the relief device inlet and shall be installed without low points that may collect
moisture. If low points are unavoidable, drip pots with drains closed with screw plugs or caps
shall be installed at the low points. The vent terminus shall not endanger personnel or property
through gas discharge; shall be located away from ignition sources; and shall terminate in a
hood or bend.
If pipeline protective equipment incorporates a liquid, the liquid level shall be maintained, and
suitable antifreeze may be used to prevent freezing.
Fuel gas for use with equipment not requiring oxygen shall be withdrawn upstream of the piping
protective devices.
Station Outlet Protective Equipment
A check valve, pressure regulator, hydraulic seal, or combination of these devices shall be
provided at each station outlet, including those on portable headers, to prevent backflow, as
shown in Figures Q-1, Q-2, and Q-3 and designated as S(F) and S(O).
When approved pipeline protective equipment (designated P(F)) is located at the station outlet
as in Figure Q-3, no additional check valve, pressure regulator, or hydraulic seal is required.
A shutoff valve (designated V(F) and V(O)) shall be installed at each station outlet and shall be
located on the upstream side of other station outlet equipment.
If the station outlet is equipped with a detachable regulator, the outlet le regulator, the outlet
shall terminate in a union connection that complies with the Regulator Connection Standards,
1958, Compressed Gas Association, which is incorporated by reference as specified in Sec.
1910.6.
If the station outlet is connected directly to a hose, the outlet shall terminate in a union
connection complying with the Standard Hose Connection Specifications, 1957, Compressed
Gas Association, which is incorporated by reference as specified in Sec. 1910.6.
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Station outlets may terminate in pipe threads to which permanent connections are to be made,
such as to a machine.
Station outlets shall be equipped with a detachable outlet seal cap secured in place. This cap
shall be used to seal the outlet except when a hose, a regulator, or piping is attached.
Where station outlets are equipped with approved backflow and flashback protective devices, as
many as four torches may be supplied from one station outlet through rigid piping, provided
each outlet from such piping is equipped with a shutoff valve and provided the fuel-gas capacity
of any one torch does not exceed 15 cubic feet (0.42 m3) per hour. This paragraph (e)(4)(viii)
does not apply to machines.
Hose and Hose Connections
Hose for oxy-fuel gas service shall comply with the Specification for Rubber Welding Hose,
1958, Compressed Gas Association and Rubber Manufacturers Association, which is
incorporated by reference as specified in Sec. 1910.6.
When parallel lengths of oxygen and acetylene hose are taped together for convenience and to
prevent tangling, not more than 4 inches out of 12 inches shall be covered by tape.
Hose connections shall comply with the Standard Hose Connection Specifications, 1957,
Compressed Gas Association.
Hose connections shall be clamped or otherwise securely fastened in a manner that will
withstand, without leakage, twice the pressure to which they are normally subjected in service,
but in no case less than a pressure of 300 psi. Oil-free air or an oil-free inert gas shall be used
for the test.
Hose showing leaks, burns, worn places, or other defects rendering it unfit for service shall be
repaired or replaced.
Hose which has been subject to flashback, or which shows evidence of severe wear or damage,
shall be tested to twice the normal pressure to which it is subject, but in no case less than 300
p.s.i. Defective hose, or hose in doubtful condition, shall not be used.
Fuel gas and oxygen hose shall be easily distinguishable from each other. The contrast may be
made by different colors or by surface characteristics readily distinguishable by the sense of
touch. Oxygen and fuel gas hoses shall not be interchangeable. A single hose having more than
one gas passage shall not be used.
Hose couplings shall be of the type that cannot be unlocked or disconnected by means of a
straight pull without rotary motion.
Boxes used for the storage of gas hose shall be ventilated.
Hoses, cables, and other equipment shall be kept clear of passageways, ladders, and stairs.
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Pressure Reducing Regulators
Pressure-reducing regulators shall be used only for the gas and pressures for which they are
intended. The regulator inlet connections shall comply with Regulator Connection Standards,
1958, Compressed Gas Association.
Oxygen and fuel gas pressure regulators, including their related gauges, shall be in proper
working order while in use.
When regulators or parts of regulators, including gauges, need repair, the work shall be
performed by skilled mechanics who have been properly instructed.
Gauges on oxygen regulators shall be marked "USE NO OIL."
Union nuts and connections on regulators shall be inspected before use to detect faulty seats
which may cause leakage of gas when the regulators are attached to the cylinder valves.
21.4.3
Arc Welding and Cutting
21.4.3.1 General
Choose welding equipment for safe application of the work to be done.
Install welding equipment safely.
Workers designated to operate arc welding equipment shall have been properly instructed and
qualified to operate such equipment.
Only manual electrode holders which are specifically designed for arc welding and cutting and
are of a capacity capable of safely handling the maximum rated current required by the
electrodes, shall be used.
Any current-carrying parts passing through the portion of the holder which the arc welder or
cutter grips in his hand, and the outer surfaces of the jaws of the holder, shall be fully insulated
against the maximum voltage encountered to ground.
Whenever practicable, all arc welding and cutting operations shall be shielded by
noncombustible or flameproof screen which will protect employees and other persons working in
the vicinity from the direct rays of the arc.
21.4.3.2 Application of Arc Welding Equipment
Assurance of consideration of safety in design is obtainable by choosing apparatus complying
with the Requirements for Electric Arc-Welding Apparatus, NEMA EW-1-1962, National
Electrical Manufacturers Association or the Safety Standard for Transformer-Type Arc-Welding
Machines, ANSI C33.2-1956, Underwriters’ Laboratories.
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Environmental conditions
Standard machines for arc welding service must carry their rated load with rated temperature
rises where the temperature of the cooling air does not exceed 104°F and where the altitude
does not exceed 3,300 feet. Arc welding machines shall be suitable for operation in
atmospheres containing gases, dust, and light rays produced by the welding arc.
Unusual service conditions may exist, and in such circumstances machines shall be especially
designed to safely meet the requirements of the service. Chief among these conditions are:

Exposure to unusually corrosive fumes;

Exposure to steam or excessive humidity;

Exposure to excessive oil vapor;

Exposure to flammable gases;

Exposure to abnormal vibration or shock;

Exposure to excessive dust;

Exposure to weather; and

Exposure to unusual seacoast or shipboard conditions.
Voltage
The following voltage limits shall not be exceeded:

Alternating-current machines;
o
o

Manual arc welding and cutting - 80 volts.
Automatic (machine or mechanized) arc welding and cutting - 100 volts.
Direct-current machines
o Manual arc welding and cutting - 100 volts.
o Automatic (machine or mechanized) arc welding and cutting - 100 volts.
When special welding and cutting processes require values of open circuit voltages higher than
the above, means shall be provided to prevent the operator from making accidental contact with
the high voltage by adequate insulation or other means.
For a.c. welding under wet conditions or warm surroundings where perspiration is a factor, the
use of reliable automatic controls for reducing no load voltage is recommended to reduce the
shock hazard.
Design
A controller integrally mounted in an electric motor driven welder shall have capacity for carrying
rated motor current and be capable of making and interrupting stalled rotor current of the motor.
It may serve as the running overcurrent device if provided with the number of overcurrent units
as approved.
On all types of arc welding machines, control apparatus shall be enclosed except for the
operating wheels, levers, or handles.
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Input power terminals, tap change devices and live metal parts connected to input circuits shall
be completely enclosed and accessible only by means of tools.
Terminals for welding leads should be protected from accidental electrical contact by personnel
or by metal objects i.e., vehicles, crane hooks, etc. Protection may be obtained by use of: Deadfront receptacles for plug connections; recessed openings with non-removable hinged covers;
heavy insulating sleeving or taping or other equivalent electrical and mechanical protection. If a
welding lead terminal which is intended to be used exclusively for connection to the work is
connected to the grounded enclosure, it must be done by a conductor at least two AWG sizes
smaller than the grounding conductor and the terminal shall be marked to indicate that it is
grounded.
No connections for portable control devices such as push buttons to be carried by the operator
shall be connected to an a.c. circuit of higher than 120 volts. Exposed metal parts of portable
control devices operating on circuits above 50 volts shall be grounded by a grounding conductor
in the control cable.
Auto transformers or a.c. reactors shall not be used to draw welding current directly from any
a.c. power source having a voltage exceeding 80 volts.
21.4.3.3 Installation of Arc Welding Equipment
Installation including power supply shall be in accordance with the requirements of OSHA
electrical regulations.
Grounding
The frame or case of the welding machine (except engine-driven machines) shall be grounded
under the conditions and according to the methods prescribed in OSHA electrical regulations.
A ground return cable shall have a safe current-carrying capacity equal to or exceeding the
specified maximum output capacity of the arc welding or cutting unit which it services. When a
single ground return cable services more than one unit, its safe current-carrying shall exceed
the total specified maximum output capacities of the all the units which it services.
Conduits containing electrical conductors shall not be used for completing a work-lead circuit.
Pipelines shall not be used as a permanent part of a work-lead circuit, but may be used during
construction, extension or repair providing current is not carried through threaded joints, flanged
bolted joints, or caulked joints, and that special precautions are used to avoid sparking at
connection of the work-lead cable.
When a structure or pipeline is employed as a ground return circuit, it shall be determined that
the required electrical contact exists at all joints. The generation of an arc, sparks, or heat at any
point shall cause rejection of the structures as a ground circuit.
When a structure or pipeline is continuously employed as a ground return circuit, all joints shall
be bonded, and periodic inspections shall be conducted to ensure that no condition of
electrolysis or fire hazard exists by virtue of such use.
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Pipelines containing gases or flammable liquids, or conduits containing electrical circuits, shall
not be used as a ground return.
Chains, wire ropes, cranes, hoists, and elevators shall not be used to carry welding current.
Where a structure, conveyor, or fixture is regularly employed as a welding current return circuit,
joints shall be bonded or provided with adequate current collecting devices.
All ground connections shall be checked to determine that they are mechanically strong and
electrically adequate for the required current.
Supply Connections and Conductors
A disconnecting switch or controller shall be provided at or near each welding machine that is
not equipped with such a switch or controller mounted as an integral part of the machine. The
switch shall be in accordance with OSHA electrical regulations. Overcurrent protection shall be
provided as specified in OSHA electrical regulations. A disconnect switch with overload
protection or equivalent disconnect and protection means, permitted by OSHA electrical
regulations, shall be provided for each outlet intended for connection to a portable welding
machine.
For individual welding machines, the rated current-carrying capacity of the supply conductors
shall be not less than the rated primary current of the welding machines.
For groups of welding machines, the rated current-carrying capacity of conductors may be less
than the sum of the rated primary currents of the welding machines supplied. The conductor
rating shall be determined in each case according to the machine loading based on the use to
be made of each welding machine and the allowance permissible in the event that all the
welding machines supplied by the conductors will not be in use at the same time.
In operations involving several welders on one structure, d.c. welding process requirements
may require the use of both polarities; or supply circuit limitations for a.c. welding may require
distribution of machines among the phases of the supply circuit. In such cases no load voltages
between electrode holders will be 2 times normal in d.c. or 1, 1.41, 1.73, or 2 times normal on
a.c. machines. Similar voltage differences will exist if both a.c. and d.c. welding are done on the
same structure.

All d.c. machines shall be connected with the same polarity.

All a.c. machines shall be connected to the same phase of the supply circuit and with the
same instantaneous polarity.
21.4.3.4 Operation and Maintenance
Workers assigned to operate or maintain arc welding equipment shall be acquainted with the
requirements for safe arc welding and cutting.
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Before starting operations, all connections to the machine shall be checked to make certain they
are properly made. The work lead shall be firmly attached to the work; magnetic work clamps
shall be freed from adherent metal particles of spatter on contact surfaces. Coiled welding cable
shall be spread out before use to avoid serious overheating and damage to insulation.
Grounding of the welding machine frame shall be checked. Special attention shall be given to
safety ground connections of portable machines.
There shall be no leaks of cooling water, shielding gas or engine fuel.
It shall be determined that proper switching equipment for shutting down the machine is
provided.
When the arc welder or cutter has occasion to leave his work or to stop work for any
appreciable length of time, or when the arc welding or cutting machine is to be moved, the
power supply switch to the equipment shall be opened.
Printed rules and instructions covering operation of equipment supplied by the manufacturers
shall be strictly followed.
Electrode holders when not in use shall be so placed that they cannot make electrical contact
with persons, conducting objects, fuel or compressed gas tanks.
Hot electrode holders shall not be dipped in water; to do so may expose the arc welder or cutter
to electric shock.
Cables with splices within 10 feet of the holder shall not be used. The welder should not coil or
loop welding electrode cable around parts of his body.
Any faulty or defective equipment shall be reported to the supervisor.
Maintenance
The operator should report any equipment defect or safety hazard to his supervisor and the use
of the equipment shall be discontinued until its safety has been assured. Repairs shall be made
only by qualified personnel.
Machines that have become wet shall be thoroughly dried and tested before being used.
All arc welding and cutting cables shall be of the completely, insulated, flexible type, capable of
handling the maximum current requirements of the work in progress, taking into account the
duty cycle under which the arc welder or cutter is working.
Cables with damaged insulation or exposed bare conductors shall be replaced. Joining lengths
of work and electrode cables shall be done by the use of connecting means specifically
intended for the purpose. The connecting means shall have insulation adequate for the service
conditions.
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Inert-Gas Metal-Arc Welding
The inert-gas metal-arc welding process involves the production of ultra-violet radiation of
intensities 5 to 30 times that produced during shielded metal-arc welding, the decomposition of
chlorinated solvents by ultraviolet rays, and the liberation of toxic fumes and gases, employees
shall not be permitted to engage in, or be exposed to the process until the following special
precautions have been taken:

The use of chlorinated solvents shall be kept at least 200 feet, unless shielded, from the
exposed arc, and surfaces prepared with chlorinated solvents shall be thoroughly dry
before welding is permitted on such surfaces.

Employees in the area not protected from the arc by screening shall be protected by
appropriately protective filter lenses. When two or more welders are exposed to each
other’s arc, filter lens goggles of a suitable type shall be worn under welding helmets.
Hand shields to protect the welder against flashes and radiant energy shall be used
when either the helmet is lifted or the shield is removed.

Welders and other employees exposed to radiation shall be suitably protected so the
skin is covered completely to prevent burns and other damage by ultraviolet rays.
Welding helmets and hand shields shall be free of leaks and openings, and highly
reflective surfaces.

When inert-gas metal-arc welding is being performed on stainless steel, adequate local
exhaust ventilation as described above or airline respirators shall be used to protect
against dangerous concentrations of nitrogen dioxide.
21.4.4
Resistance Welding
21.4.4.1 General
All equipment shall be installed by a qualified electrician in conformance with regulatory
requirements. There shall be a safety-type disconnecting switch or a circuit breaker or circuit
interrupter to open each power circuit to the machine, conveniently located at or near the
machine, so that the power can be shut off when the machine or its controls are to be serviced.
Ignition tubes used in resistance welding equipment shall be equipped with a thermal protection
switch.
Workers designated to operate resistance welding equipment shall have been properly
instructed and judged competent to operate such equipment.
Controls of all automatic or air and hydraulic clamps shall be arranged or guarded to prevent the
operator from accidentally activating them.
21.4.4.2 Spot and Seam Welding Machines
All external weld initiating control circuits shall operate on low voltage, not over 120 volts, for the
safety of the operators.
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Stored energy or capacitor discharge type of resistance welding equipment and control panels
involving high voltage (over 550 volts) shall be suitably insulated and protected by complete
enclosures, all doors of which shall be provided with suitable interlocks and contacts wired into
the control circuit (similar to elevator interlocks). Such interlocks or contacts shall be so
designed as to effectively interrupt power and short circuit all capacitors when the door or panel
is open. A manually operated switch or suitable positive device shall be installed, in addition to
the mechanical interlocks or contacts, as an added safety measure assuring absolute discharge
of all capacitors.
All doors and access panels of all resistance welding machines and control panels shall be kept
locked and interlocked to prevent access by unauthorized persons to live portions of the
equipment.
All press welding machine operations, where there is a possibility of the operator’s fingers being
under the point of operation, shall be effectively guarded by the use of a device such as an
electronic eye safety circuit, two hand controls. All chains, gears, operating bus linkage, and
belts shall be protected by adequate guards.
The hazard of flying sparks shall be, wherever practical, eliminated by installing a shield guard
of safety glass or suitable fire-resistant plastic at the point of operation. Additional shields or
curtains shall be installed as necessary to protect passing persons from flying sparks.
All foot switches shall be guarded to prevent accidental operation of the machine.
Two or more safety emergency stop buttons shall be provided on all special multispot welding
machines, including 2-post and 4-post weld presses.
On large machines, four safety pins with plugs and receptacles (one in each corner) shall be
provided so that when safety pins are removed and inserted in the ram or platen, the press
becomes inoperative.
Where technically practical, the secondary of all welding transformers used in multispot,
projection and seam welding machines shall be grounded. This may be done by permanently
grounding one side of the welding secondary current circuit. Where not technically practical, a
center tapped grounding reactor connected across the secondary or the use of a safety
disconnect switch in conjunction with the welding control are acceptable alternates. Safety
disconnect shall be arranged to open both sides of the line when welding current is not present.
21.4.4.3 Portable Welding Machines
All portable welding guns shall have suitable counterbalanced devices for supporting the guns,
including cables, unless the design of the gun or fixture makes counterbalancing impractical or
unnecessary.
All portable welding guns, transformers and related equipment that is suspended from overhead
structures, eye beams, trolleys, etc. shall be equipped with safety chains or cables. Safety
chains or cables shall be capable of supporting the total shock load in the event of failure of any
component of the supporting system.
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Each clevis shall be capable of supporting the total shock load of the suspended equipment in
the event of trolley failure.
All initiating switches, including retraction and dual schedule switches, located on the portable
welding gun shall be equipped with suitable guards capable of preventing accidental initiation
through contact with fixtures, operator’s clothing, etc. Initiating switch voltage shall not exceed
24 volts.
The movable holder, where it enters the gun frame, shall have sufficient clearance to prevent
the shearing of fingers carelessly placed on the operating movable holder.
The secondary and case of all portable welding transformers shall be grounded. Secondary
grounding may be by center tapped secondary or by a center tapped grounding reactor
connected across the secondary.
21.4.4.4 Flash Welding Equipment
Flash welding machines shall be equipped with a hood to control flying flash. In cases of high
production, where materials may contain a film of oil and where toxic elements and metal fumes
are given off, ventilation shall be provided.
For the protection of the operators of nearby equipment, fire-resistant curtains or suitable
shields shall be set up around the machine and in such a manner that the operators movements
are not hampered.
21.4.4.5 Maintenance
Periodic inspection shall be made by qualified maintenance personnel, and a certification record
maintained. The certification record shall include the date of inspection, the signature of the
person who performed the inspection and the serial number, or other identifier, for the
equipment inspected. The operator shall be instructed to report any equipment defects to his
supervisor and the use of the equipment shall be discontinued until safety repairs have been
completed.
21.5
Forms & Attachments
On the following pages, please find the following document(s):

Welding, Cutting and Brazing Checklist;

Ventilation Requirements for Welding and Cutting; and
 Welding, Cutting and Brazing Training Record Sheet.
These forms may be reproduced freely for the purposes of implementing and maintaining a
safety and health program.
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Welding, Cutting And Brazing Checklist For General Industry
(A negative answer to any question indicates an area of safety or health concern.)
Company name: _____________________________________________
Physical address of worksite: _____________________________________________
Supervisor: _____________________________________________
Date/Time: _____________________________________________
Inspector: _____________________________________________
Installation and Operation of Oxygen-Fuel Gas Systems for Welding and Cutting
Y
N
N/A
Date
Corrected
Question
Is acetylene generated, piped, or utilized at a pressure of 30 p.s.i. absolute pressure or less?
Have personnel in charge of the oxygen or fuel gas supply equipment been instructed and judged
competent before being left in charge?
Is the gas content of compressed gas cylinders marked with either the chemical or the trade name
of the gas?
Are cylinders stored away from radiators and other sources of heat?
Are cylinders that are stored inside kept in a well-ventilated, dry location at least 20 feet from highly
combustible material?
Are cylinders stored in assigned places away from elevators, stairs, or gangways and where they
will not be knocked over or damaged?
Are the valves of empty cylinders kept closed?
Are valve protection caps in place and hand-tight except when in use or connected for use?
Are fuel gas cylinders except those in use or attached for use, which are stored inside a building,
limited to a total gas capacity of 2,000 cubic feet or 300 pounds of liquefied petroleum gas?
Are acetylene cylinders stored valve end up?
If oxygen cylinders are stored in outside generator houses, are they separated from the generator or
carbide storage rooms by a gastight, noncombustible partition having a fire-resistance rating of at
least one hour?
Are stored oxygen cylinders separated from fuel gas cylinders or combustible material by a
minimum of 20 feet, or by a noncombustible barrier at least five feet high with a fire-resistance rating
of at least one-half hour?
Are cylinders, cylinder valves, couplings, regulators, hose and apparatus kept free from oily or
greasy substances?
Do you ensure that cylinders are not dropped, struck, or permitted to strike each other violently?
Do you ensure that valve-protection caps are not used for lifting cylinders from one vertical position
to another?
Do you ensure that cylinders which do not have fixed hand wheels, have keys, handles, or
nonadjustable wrenches on the valve stems while the cylinders are in service?
Are cylinder valves closed before moving cylinder and when work is finished?
Are cylinders kept away from sparks, hot slag, or flame produced by welding or cutting operations,
or are fire-resistance shields provided?
Are cylinders placed where they will not become part of an electric circuit?
Do you insure that cylinders are not used as rollers or supports, and that only proper tools are used
to open cylinder valves?
Are fuel gas cylinders placed valve end up while in use?
Are cylinders with leaky valves or fittings taken outdoors and slowly emptied?
Are warning signs posted which prohibit open flame or other sources of ignition near cylinders with
leaking fuse plugs or other leaking safety devices, and are the cylinders tagged?
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Manifold Systems
Y
N
N/A
Date
Corrected
Question
Do you ensure that oxygen manifolds are not located in an acetylene generator room?
Do you ensure that portable outlet headers are used indoors only for temporary service where
conditions preclude a direct supply from outlets located on the service piping system?
Is each outlet on the service piping which supplies a portable outlet header equipped with a readily
accessible shutoff valve?
Are master shutoff valves for both oxygen and fuel gas provided at the entry end of the portable outlet
header?
Are portable outlet headers provided with frames to support the equipment securely in the correct
operating position?
When acetylene cylinders are coupled in a manifold, are flash arresters installed between each
cylinder and the coupler block?
In service piping systems, are distribution lines installed and maintained in a safe operating
condition?
Are emergency gas cocks or valves provided for all buildings?
Is underground pipe and tubing and outdoor ferrous pipe and tubing protected against corrosion?
General Requirements
Y
N
N/A
Date
Corrected
Question
Is flashback protection provided by an approved device that will prevent flame from passing into the
fuel gas systems?
Are hoses showing defects repaired or replaced?
Are pressure-reducing regulators used only for the gas and pressures for which they are intended?
Is the repair of regulators performed by properly instructed, skilled mechanics?
Are gauges on oxygen regulators marked “USE NO OIL”?
Are union nuts and connections on regulators inspected before use to detect faulty seats?
Acetylene Generators (if applicable)
Y
N
N/A
Date
Corrected
Question
Is ample space provided around the generator for operation and maintenance?
Are generators placed where water will not freeze, and is the use of sodium chloride to prevent
freezing prohibited?
Are portable generators located at a safe distance from the welding position?
Are the walls, floors, and roofs of outside generator houses constructed of noncombustible materials?
Are exit doors readily accessible in case of emergency?
Are generators installed inside buildings enclosed in a separate room?
Are the walls, partitions, floors, and ceilings of inside generator rooms of noncombustible construction
with a fire-resistance rating of at least one hour?
Are generator rooms or buildings well ventilated with vents located at floor and ceiling levels?
Do generator rooms or buildings have natural light during daylight hours or artificial light restricted to
electric lamps installed in a fixed position?
Are operating instructions posted in a conspicuous place near the generator or available for ready
reference?
Is the generator room electrically wired in accordance with 1910.307 (hazardous locations)?
Do you ensure that the water-carbide residue mixture drained from the generator is not discharged
into sewer pipes or stored in areas near open flames?
Do you ensure that calcium carbide is kept in metal packages strong enough to prevent rupture?
Are the packages marked “Calcium Carbide - Dangerous If Not Kept Dry”?
Do you ensure that the calcium carbide stored indoors does not exceed 600 pounds and that the
storage area is dry, waterproof, and well-ventilated?
Are carbide containers that are stored outside periodically examined for conditions that could affect
water or air tightness?
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Application, Installation and Operation of Arc welding and Cutting Equipment
Y
N
N/A
Date
Corrected
Question
Have employees who are designated to operate arc welding equipment been properly
instructed and qualified?
Are open circuit (no load) voltages of arc welding and cutting machines as low as possible,
consistent with satisfactory welding?
When open circuit voltages must be higher, are means provided to prevent the operator from
making accidental contact with the higher voltages?
Is control apparatus enclosed on all types of arc welding machines?
Are terminals for welding leads protected from accidental electrical contact by personnel or
metal objects?
Do you ensure that no connections for portable control devices, such as push buttons carried
by the operator, are connected to an a.c. circuit of higher than 120 volts?
Is the frame or case of the welding machine effectively grounded and the grounding checked?
Is a separate disconnecting switch or controller provided at or near each welding machine?
Are electrode holders placed so that they cannot make electrical contact with persons,
conducting objects, fuel, or compressed gas tanks?
Has the operator been instructed to report any equipment defect or safety hazard to his
supervisor, and is use of the equipment discontinued until repaired by qualified personnel?
Are work and electrode lead cables frequently inspected for wear and damage, and are cables
with damaged insulation or exposed bare conductors replaced?
Installation and Operation of Resistance Welding Equipment
Y
N
N/A
Date
Corrected
Question
Have personnel who are designated to operate resistance welding equipment been properly
instructed and judged competent to operate such equipment?
Are all doors and access panels of all resistance welding machines and control panels kept
locked and interlocked?
Has a shield guard of safety glass or suitable fire-resistant plastic been installed at the point of
operation?
Are foot switches guarded to prevent accidental operation of the machine?
Are two or more safety emergency stop buttons provided on all special, multisport welding
machines, including 2-post and 4-post weld presses?
Are flash welding machines equipped with hoods to control flying flash?
Are periodic inspections of the machines made by qualified maintenance personnel, and are
records of the inspections maintained?
Fire Prevention and Protection
Y
N
N/A
Date
Corrected
Question
Is suitable fire extinguishing equipment maintained in a state of readiness for instant use?
Are fire watches on duty whenever welding or cutting is performed in locations where a major
fire might develop?
Before cutting or welding is permitted, is the area inspected by the individual responsible for
authorized cutting and welding operations?
Where practicable, are all combustibles relocated at least 35 feet from the work site?
Does management recognize its responsibility for the safe usage of cutting and welding
equipment on its property?
Do supervisors recognize their responsibilities in the safe management of welding and cutting
operations as defined in .252(a)(2)(xiv)(A)?
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© Safety Services Company
Welding, Cutting & Brazing (Hotwork)
Fire Prevention and Protection
Y
N
N/A
Date
Corrected
Question
Are welders or helpers who are working on platforms, scaffolds, or runways protected against
falling by railings, safety belts or lifelines?
Is welding cable and other equipment kept clear of passageways, ladders, and stairways?
Are helmets, hand shields and goggles worn during all arc welding or cutting operations?
Has a hazard assessment been performed to determine if hazards are present or likely to be
present?
Are employees who are exposed to the hazards created by welding, cutting, or brazing
operations protected by personal protective equipment as?
When welding or cutting is being performed in any confined space, are gas cylinders and welding
machines left outside?
Before operations are started, is heavy, portable, wheel-mounted equipment securely blocked to
prevent accidental movement?
Health Protection and Ventilation
Y
N
N/A
Date
Corrected
Question
Where a welder must enter a confined space through a manhole or other small opening, have
means been provided for his quick removal in case of emergency?
Are ventilation or respiratory protective devices provided where necessary and do they meet
OSHA requirements?
Are employees trained to render first aid, and is first aid equipment available at all times?
6/18/2013
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© Safety Services Company
Welding, Cutting & Brazing (Hotwork)
Ventilation Requirements for Welding and Cutting
Metal Compound
Requirements
Confined Space
Air replacement or airline
respirator
or self-contained
Flourine
breathing apparatus
Compound
needed
Lead
Air replacement or airline
Zinc
respirator or self-contained
(Galvanized
breathing apparatus
Metals)
Requirements
Indoors
Requirements
Outdoors
Air sample tests to determine if
exhaust hood, booth, and
airline respirator are required
Same as indoors
Exhaust hood or booth
Combination particulate and
vapor and gas removing type
respirator if tests indicate
need
Exhaust hood or booth and
Beryllium airline respirator if air sample
tests indicate need
Exhaust hood or booth
and airline respirator if air
sample tests indicate need
Exhaust hood or booth
and airline respirator if air
sample tests indicate
need
Cadmium Exhaust hood or booth and
Mercury airline respirator if air sample
tests indicate need
Exhaust hood or booth
and airline respirator if air
sample tests indicate need
Combination particulate and
vapor and gas removing
type respirator if tests
indicate need
1. Airline or self-contained breathing apparatus are required in confined areas that are immediately hazardous to life.
2. Local exhaust hoods or booths must provide airflow of 100 linear feet per minute.
3. Mechanical ventilation at 2,000 cubic feet of air per minute per welder is required when welding or cutting on
metals other than described above; when there is less than 10,000 cubic feet of space per welder; or where the
ceiling height is less than 16 feet; or in confined spaces or where structural barriers (such as partitions or
balconies) significantly obstruct cross ventilation. 1910.252(c)(2)(i)(A) through (C).
NOTE: Mechanical ventilation is necessary when an exhaust hood or fixed booth provide for a rate of airflow
sufficient to maintain a velocity away from the welder or not less than 100 linear feet per minute.
6/18/2013
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© Safety Services Company
Welding, Cutting & Brazing (Hotwork)
Hot Work Permit
This permit is required for operations that involve open flames or that produce sparks or heat
outside of designated areas, including, but not limited to brazing, cutting, welding and grinding.
OK
PRECAUTION
Date:
N/A
Area is fire safe
Moveable fire hazards moved
Location:
Unmoveable fire hazards guarded
Task:
Openings, cracks, doorways,
windows guarded or closed
Person Doing Hot Work:
Fire extinguisher available
Precautions have been taken to prevent fire and
to control hazards present in the above location
for the job described, and hot work may
commence.
Fire watch
Floors clean for 35’ raduius
Combustible floors wetted or
otherwise shielded
In authorized area
Ducts and conveyer systems to
flammables guarded
Authorizing Individual (sign please)
Worker trained appropriately
Person Doing Hotwork (sign please)
Contractors informed of hazards
Containers cleaned and ventilated
Fire Watch (sign please)
Pipelines to containers
disconnected or blocked
Start:
Date
PPE available and used
Time
Hot metal warning sign
Finish:
Date
Time
Ventilation provided
FIRE WATCH SIGNOFF
Work was fire safe through the entire
Confined spaces permit
Other:
watch period. The area was monitored for
____ minutes (at least 30) to ensure fire safety.
Fire Watch (sign please)
6/18/2013
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© Safety Services Company
Welding, Cutting & Brazing (Hotwork)
6/18/2013
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© Safety Services Company
New Hire Orientation
22
6/18/2013
New Hire Orientation
22-1
©Safety Services Company
New Hire Orientation
New Hire Orientation Checklist
I have read or have had explained the Safety & Health Program Summary. I have no further
questions regarding:
o
The Company’s Safety Philosophy.
o
My safety responsibilities as an employee.
o
The disciplinary procedures.
______Initial
I have read or have had explained the General Safety Rules as pertain to the Safety
Program:
o
I am aware of all safety rules and general codes of safe practice.
______Initial
I have read or have had explained the Safety Committee portion of the Safety Program:
o
I am aware of who is in charge of safety if I have questions.
o
I am aware of my ability to report my safety concerns to the Safety Coordinator.
o
I am aware that this Company is striving to provide a safe working environment and
is committed to my safety and ability to inform the Company of unsafe working
environments without fear of reprisal.
______Initial
I have read or have had explained Job Hazard Analysis portion of the Safety Program:
o I understand that I am to be familiar with the hazards that surround my workstation.
o
o
I understand that I am to report any hazard that may be present in my workstation.
I understand that it is my responsibility to assist in providing a safe working
environment for myself and my co-workers.
______Initial
I have read or have had explained the process for Accident Investigation:
o I understand that I am to immediately report an accident to my supervisor.
o I understand that I am to immediately stop working.
o
I understand that if I need medical attention I am to see the clinic or hospital that is
affiliated with this Company.
o
I understand that if I go to a different doctor or medical facility the Company may
have a right to deny or not pay my medical bill.
o
I understand that I will be cooperative in any accident investigation.
o
I understand that upon any accident I may be tested for drugs and alcohol.
o
I understand that if I am present at my place of employment under the influence of
drugs and or alcohol that I automatically self-terminate my employment with or
without notice of termination by the Company.
______Initial
6/18/2013
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©Safety Services Company
New Hire Orientation
New Hire Orientation Checklist
(page 2)
I have read or have had explained the Emergency Action Plan:
o
I understand where my emergency evacuation routes are located.
o
I understand that we are to gather at a specific determined place in order to conduct
a head count.
______Initial
I have read and or have had explained the Fire Prevention Plan:
o I understand that I am to report any potential fire hazards.
o I am to keep all exits clear and free of obstacles.
o
I know where the nearest fire extinguisher is to my workstation.
______Initial
I am aware of the First Aid portion of the Safety Program:
o
o
o
o
I am aware of where the first aid kits are located.
I am aware that I am to report to management if the first aid kit needs restocked.
I am aware of who is trained in First Aid and CPR
I am aware of where the nearest Eye Wash Station is located (if appropriate).
o
I am aware that I am to report all injuries immediately to my supervisor.
o
I am aware of where our clinic is located and will have someone drive me there in the
event of an emergency (or by ambulance if appropriate).
______Initial
I have read or have had explained the Bloodborne Pathogens portion of the Safety Program:
o I understand that I am to wear personal protective equipment when dealing with
blood or body fluids.
o I understand that I am to properly dispose of any blood, body fluids, or material that
has been touched by the blood or fluid.
o I understand that in the event of dealing with a Bloodborne Pathogen situation it is
my responsibility to receive post exposure care by the Company’s clinic.
o
I am aware of where my hand-washing facilities and/or disinfectant are located.
______Initial
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©Safety Services Company
New Hire Orientation
New Hire Orientation Checklist
(page 3)
I have read or have had explained and understand the Workplace Violence & Harassment
policy of the Safety Program:
o
I understand The Company has ZERO TOLERANCE for workplace Violence &
Harassment.
o
Workplace Violence & Harassment includes but is not limited to: intimidation, threats,
physical attack, property damage, and includes acts of violence committed by
employees, customers, relatives, acquaintances, or strangers against Company
employees in the workplace.
o
o
Dangerous weapons are prohibited on Company property or in Company vehicles.
All employees are encouraged to report to a supervisor any possibility of workplace
Violence & Harassment.
______Initial
I have read or have had explained the Electrical Safety portion and the Lockout/Tagout
portion of the Company Safety Program:
o I understand that only authorized persons are allowed to deal with electrical repairs
and or issues.
o
I understand that I am to not touch or in any way use any equipment that is locked
out or tagged out.
o
I understand that it is my responsibility to report any electrical hazards to a
supervisor immediately.
______Initial
I have read or have had explained the Hazard Communication portion of the Safety
Program:
o I understand what a Safety Data Sheet is.
o I have been given an orientation on how to read a SDS.
o I understand that I am to report any Chemical or Hazardous Substance that does not
have a label.
o
I understand that I can request further training on SDSs.
______Initial
6/18/2013
22-4
©Safety Services Company
New Hire Orientation
New Hire Orientation Checklist
(page 4)
I have read or have had explained the Personal Protective Equipment portion of the Safety
Program:
o
I understand that I am to wear my personal protective equipment as required by this
Company.
o
I am aware of what I am required to wear for personal protective equipment at this
Company.
______Initial
I am aware of where my Company displays all of the required Employee Rights Postings.
______Initial
I am aware of where my Company "Designated Medical Provider" is located.
______Initial
I am aware that the Safety Program may contain additional written safety Programs in place
which require additional training (i.e. Confined Spaces, Fall-Protection, Excavation, Ladders,
Scaffolding, Lock-Out/Tag-Out, etc.):
o I understand that I may receive or request further training on any safety issues that
may be appropriate for my particular job.
o If I have not received adequate training or feel that I cannot conduct my job safely it
is my responsibility to notify my supervisor.
______Initial
My signature certifies and verifies that I have received an orientation and have received or have read the material
mentioned in the Company Safety Program. I understand completely the program and have no questions in
regards to Company safety policy. I fully understand and am aware that if I have questions regarding the Company
Safety Program or my personal safety, I may inquire of my supervisor for additional information and explanation.
New Hire Name
Signature
Date
New Hire Name
Signature
Date
6/18/2013
22-5
©Safety Services Company
New Hire Orientation
DISCLAIMER
OSHA’s Safety and Health Regulations are continuously being reinterpreted. Therefore, Safety
Services Company is unable to completely guarantee the exactness of the information conveyed in
this publication. Safety Services Company assumes no responsibility and shall be held harmless
for any inaccuracies or omissions contained within this manual and shall not be held liable to any
extent or form for any injury or loss resulting from the manner in which this information is
interpreted and / or applied. Careful effort has been dedicated in order to provide a simplified,
understandable explanation of OSHA regulations based on currently available information. This
“Safety and Health Manual is distributed with the agreement that Safety Services Company is not
employed in providing legal or other specialized business services. Should expert assistance be
required, retain the services of a competent professional.
SAFETY SERVICES COMPANY
Toll Free (866) 204-4766 - Toll Free Fax (866) 556-0004
Toll Free Customer Service (866) 644-9630
e-mail: [email protected]
www.safetyservicescompany.com
6/18/2013
22-6
©Safety Services Company
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