System Design and Project Plan
Second Wind
System Design and Project Plan
Josh Dowler
Caleb Meeks
John Snyder
1
Table of Contents
System Design…………………………………………………………………………………..3
Background………………………………………………………………………………4
System Overview…………………………………………………………………..…4
Block Diagram………………………………………………………………………....5
Functional Description of Blocks……………………………………………...6
Project Plan………………………………………………………………………………..…….7
Organization and Management………………………………………………..8
Work Breakdown Structure – Fall 2009…………………………………….9
Work Breakdown Structure – Spring 2010……………………………..10
Budget……………………………………………………………………………………11
Gantt Chart – Fall 2009…………………………………………………………..12
Gantt Chart – Spring 2010………………………………………………………13
Network Diagram – Fall 2009…………………………………………………14
Network Diagram – Spring 2010…………………………………………….15
Appendices…………………………………………………………………………………….16
Requirements Specification..…………………………………………….17-18
3-D Model……………………………………………………………………………..19
2
System Design
3
Background :
Alternative power sources address a need produced by the depletion of
traditional energy sources. Wind is one of the most abundant energy resources
that can be harnessed to generate power and our project aims to harness that
power in an innovative and more effective way than traditional wind turbines.
Kite wind generation is more effective than conventional turbines in gathering
the energy from the wind for two reasons. First, the kite can reach much higher
altitudes than turbines, where the wind is more reliable and strong. Second,
kites can cover more area in the sky and therefore use more of the energy than
a stationary turbine can. Our kite generator aims to produce clean sustainable
energy in a world where green power generation needs a second wind.
System Overview:
Our team will design and prototype a kite wind generator. The
generator will produce electrical power from the drag force applied to the kite
by wind. The kite will be autonomously guided by a microprocessor to perform
the gliding maneuvers necessary to produce power. When being deployed the
kite string reel will dispense kite line, thus allowing the kite to gain altitude. The
kite wind generation unit will produce power based on the drag force produced
by the kite in flight and the amount of line pulled, which will be connected to a
generator. When being retracted the kite orientation will be changed to reduce
its drag coefficient, and the kite will be reeled in using much less power than is
generated from the pull up. The kite will run autonomously in winds of 10 to 45
kilometers per hour. When the wind speeds are too high the kite will be
retracted to prevent damage to the system. If the wind speeds are too low the
kite will be retracted. The system will also have a user interface that displays
the length of line released, and power generation. The user will also have
options for three different modes of operation for the kite; deploy, sustain, and
retract.
4
Block Diagram
String
Movement
Kite
Dynamics
Generator
90V / 10A
Charge
Controller
Power
Reading
User
Interface
Line Length
Tension
+5VDC
Unregulated
Voltage
User Input
MicroProcessor
+9VDC
String
Movement
Tension:
Min: 10 N
Max: 250 N
900W
Line Length/
Tension Reading
Kite
Controls
±12VDC
Power
Control
Circuit
+5VDC &
12VDC
Motor
Controller
Unregulated
Voltage
Power
Supply
5
Tension:
Min: 10 N
Max: 250 N
Functional Description of Blocks:
Power Supply: The power supply will be a single 12 V DC lead acid battery, which will provide unregulated voltage to
the power control circuit. It will also supply an unregulated voltage signal to the charge controller and receive
the power produced by the generator from the charge controller.
Power Control Circuit: The power control circuit will regulate the voltage delivered to the microprocessor, motor
control circuit, and charge controller. It will take unregulated voltage from the power supply and output +9VDC
to the microprocessor and +5VDC to the motor control circuit and charge control circuit. It will also output a
+12VDC signal to the motor control circuit to provide power to the motors.
Microprocessor: The microprocessor will receive power from the power control circuit. The microprocessor will
send data and voltage (+5VDC) to the user interface and receive user inputs from the user interface. The data
sent will be on/off signals, via a three-way switch, for the retract and ascend modes and a digital signal to the
LCD containing the length of string dispersed. The signals recieved by the user interface will be on/off signals
from the retract/sustain/ascend switch triggered by the user. The microprocessor will receive analog data
signals from the tension sensor and line length indicator switch. The kite control signals. The tension sensor
signals will enable the microprocessor to verify if too much or too little force is on the kite strings so it can react
accordingly with an interrupt. The microprocessor will also send control signals to the motor controller. The
motor control signals will be digital logic signals with a direction bit for the left and right motors of the kite.
Motor Controller: The motor controller will receive power from the power control circuit as well as receive control
signals from the microprocessor. The signals recieved from the microprocessor will tell the motors to turn on or
off and in which direction to spin. The motor controller will then output power (±12VDC) to the kite control
motors.
User Interface: The user interface will consist of an LCD screen, an array of LEDs, and switches. The LCD screen will
display the length of line released, the array of LEDs will display the voltage on the battery, and the switches
will allow the user to enable deploy, sustain, and retract modes. It will receive power and data from the
microprocessor and charge controller and will send the user inputs back to the microprocessor.
Kite Controls: The kite controls will receive power from the motor controller and send analog tension sensor and
line length sensor signals to the microprocessor. The kite controls will control the tension in the lines through
software, sensors, and electromechanical means. Part of the kite controls will also mechanically retract the kite
using a spring system in each cycle of the kite. The kite controls will then use the manipulation of the tension to
control the kite behavior.
Kite Behavior: The kite behavior is controlled by the tension output of the kite controls. The kite behavior will then
fly in a pattern that will increase the tension on the lines and send that tension to the generator.
Generator: The generator will produce power from the tension and pull of the kite lines from the kite behavior. The
power that is generated will then be sent to a charge controller unit.
Charge Controller: The charge controller will receive power from the generator and provide overcharge and surge
protection for the power supply. It will feature a breaker that can switch in case of surges and circuits featuring
diodes to prevent overcharging. It will send the power it receives back to charge the power supply. The charge
controller also reads the voltage over the power supply and sends that information directly to the user
interface.
6
Project Plan
7
Organization and Management
John Snyder – John is a senior computer engineering student, with a 50/50 electrical and engineering
and computer science split. He will be working with programming the microprocessor to get it
to work with the motor controller, kite controls system, and the user interface. He will also be
working on the charge controller to prevent it from overcharging and surge protection for the
power supply. He will also be working with different sensors to provide information for the
system.
Josh Dowler – Josh is a senior mechanical engineering student, and is the project leader. He will be in
charge of converting the tension provided by the kite behavior and turning it into electric
power. He will be working with the generator motor and a freewheel mechanism to allow the
kite to retract without affecting the generator and selecting gear ratios as necessary. As project
leader, he will be in charge of managing the budget, overseeing all project happenings, and
reviewing documentation.
Caleb Meeks – Caleb is a senior mechanical engineering student. He will be in charge of working with
the controls system and kite behavior. He will construct and work closely with John on the
electrical and mechanical aspects of the controls system. The controls system will also link with
the power generation processes, and therefore Caleb and Josh will be working to integrate their
systems.
All team members will contribute equally to any documentation that will be presented,
including reports and oral presentations. Each team member will be in charge of maintaining
their notebooks and doing research on their respective parts outside of group meeting times.
Team members are required to attend team meetings unless they notify the other team
members about their absence.
8
Work Breakdown Structure
Task
Activity
F1.0 Requirements
Specification
F2.0 System Overview
F3.0 Controls Design
F3.1 Mechanically
Governed System
Design
F3.2 Electronically
Assisted Design
F3.3 Kite Retraction
System Design
F3.4 Brake System
Design
F4.0 Generator Design
F4.1 Freewheel and
Return Design
F4.2 Gearing Ratio
Design
F4.3 Generator Motor
Selection
F5.0 Charge Controller
Design
F6.0 Motor Controller
Design
F7.0 Microprocessor
Interface Design
F8.0 User Interface
Configuration
Design
F9.0 System Frame
Design
F10.0 Parts Selection
Description
fall 2009
Deliverables / Checkpoints
Duration People
(weeks)
Detailed overview of the project Written report including project
3
ALL
and its application
ideas
Detailed overall design of the
Written documentation and
4
ALL
project
oral presentation
Overall kite control mechanism Overall schematics
7
Caleb
Resources
PC
PC
PC, Video
Camera
PC
Aspect of kite control controlled Schematics
solely by mechanics
3
Caleb
Aspect of kite control featuring
electronic aid
Mechanical system releasing
and retracting the kite
Mechanical system used to
brake/retract the kite
Overall mechanical power
generation system
Mechanical system allowing one
way mechanical power
transmission
Mechanical system to increase
the torque applied to the
generation motor
Discovery of an appropriate
motor for kite powered
generation
Circuit regulating the generated
power
Circuit used to control all the
motors
Microprocessor used to control
electrically driven parts of the
system
Configuration of user display
and user input modes
Schematics
3
PC
Schematics and calculations
3
John/
Caleb
Caleb
1.5
Caleb
PC
Overall schematics
6
Josh
PC
Schematics and calculations
4
Josh
PC
Schematics and calculations
2
Josh
PC
Selected motor and spec. sheet
2
Josh
PC
Circuit design and MulitSim
analysis
Circuit design and MulitSim
analysis
Circuit design
2
John
PC
3
John
PC
3
John
PC
Circuit design
2
John
PC
1
PC
6.5
Josh/
Caleb
ALL
Schematics
Frame holding the entire system Schematics and calculations
together
Decisions reguarding selection Part selection, order, and
of all parts in the system
documentation
PC
PC
F11.0 System Analysis
Design analysis to test for
cohesivness
Test documentation
1.8
ALL
F12.0 System Design /
Project Plan
Decomposition of system design
and work schedule breakdown
for the year
Final design of all aspects of the
system
System documentation,
models, report, presentation
1.4
ALL
PC,
MultiSim,
Solidworks
PC
System documentation,
models, report, presentation
2
ALL
PC
Demonstration of continuous
work and research done for the
project
Supervise the completion of
project goals on time and within
budget
Engineering Notebooks, A3
Reports
15
ALL
Project is on schedule and
within budget
15
Josh
PC,
Engineering
Notebook
PC
F13.0 Final Design
A1.0 Documentation
A2.0 Project
Management
9
Work Breakdown Structure
Task
Activity
Description
Deliverables /
Checkpoints
S1.0 Parts Assembly / Assembly of parts and verification of Functional sub-systems,
Testing
proper functionality
test data
S1.1 Mechanical
Build/ Test the kite controls controlled Functional kite flying
Control System solely by mechanics
controls, test data
spring 2010
Duration People Resources
(weeks)
9
ALL
PC, Work
Shop
4
Caleb Work Shop
S1.2 Electrical Control Build/ Test the kite controls featuring
System
electronic aid
S1.3 Kite Reel System Build/ Test the mechanical system that
releases and retracts the kite
Functional kite flying
controls, test data
Functional kite reel
mechanism, test data
3
Caleb
Work Shop
3
Caleb
Work Shop
S1.4 Brake System
Functional kite braking
mechanism, test data
Functional freewheeel
and return mechanism,
test data
Functional torque
increasing system, test
data
Power generation, test
data
Finished circuit boards
and at least one
professional board
Power regulating circuit
board, test data
Motor controlling circuit
board, test data
2
Caleb
Work Shop
2
Josh
Work Shop
2
Josh
Work Shop
3
Josh
4
John
PC, Power
Supply
PC, Work
Shop
3
John
UI
3
John
PC, EVB
S1.5
S1.6
S1.7
S1.8
Build/ Test the mechanical system
used to brake/retract the kite
Freewheel and Build/ Test the mechanical system that
Return
allows one way mechanical power
Mechanism
transmission
Gearing Ratio
Build/ Test the mechanical system that
increases the torque applied to the
generation motor
Generator Motor Test the motor to verify correct
operation
Boarding Etching Design and order and/or etch circuit
boards
S1.9 Charge Controller Build/ Test the circuit regulating the
generated power
S1.10 Motor Controller Build/ Test the circuit used to control
all the motors
S1.11 Microprocessor
Interface Setup
Verify operation and connect/test
Functional
inputs and outputs of microprocessor. inputs/outputs, test data
3
John
PC, EVB
S1.12 User Interface
Configuration
Build and configure user display and
user input modes
Functional user controls,
screen output, test data
2
John
PC
S2.0 System Frame
Assembly
Build/ Test the frame that holds the
entire system together
Constructed system
frame, test data
2
ALL
Work Shop
S3.0 Programming
Write code for microprocessor which
controls the system
Written/Oral presentation on our
project's status
Bring all sub systems together to form
the complete system
Verification of proper funtionality of
the system as a whole
Final troubleshooting and proof of
functionality
Written/Oral presentation of finalized
prototype
Demonstration of continuous work
and research done for the project
Operational code, test
data
Written report, models
6
John
PC
2
ALL
PC
Assembled system, test
data
Test data
3
ALL
2
ALL
Finished prototype
2
ALL
PC, Work
Shop
PC,
Multimeter
Work Shop
Reports, models,
prototype
Engineering Notebooks,
A3 Reports
2
ALL
14.2
ALL
Supervise the completion of project
goals on time and within budget
Project is on schedule and
within budget
14.2
Josh
S4.0 Project Status
S5.0 System
Integation
S6.0 System Testing
S7.0 Finalize
Prototype
S8.0 Final Project
A1.0 Documentation
A2.0 Project
Management
10
PC, Work
Shop
PC,
Engineering
Notebook
PC
Budget
Product
Kite
Tension Sensor
Microprocessor
Batteries
Wood (2"x4")
Nuts/Bolts
Axles
Bike Parts
Kite String
Circuit Boards
Motors
Electical Components
Miscellaneous
TOTAL
Quantity Quantity Needed Cost per Unit Estimated Cost
1
1
$132.00
$132.00
2
2
$24.40
$61.00
3
1
$5.00
$25.00
1
1
$45.00
$50.00
15
10
$1.50
$25.00
$50.00
4m
3m
$25.00
2
n/a
$0.00
$0.00
50m
50m
$30.00
$40.00
5
4
$50.00
$190.00
$25.00
$177.00
$850.00
11
Gantt Chart - Fall 2009
Second Wind
Josh Dowler, Caleb Meeks, John Snyder
Task Name
Finish Date
9/8/2009
9/8/2009
9/29/2009
9/29/2009
10/27/2009
10/13/2009
10/20/2009
9/29/2009
10/20/2009
10/13/2009
9/29/2009
9/29/2009
10/6/2009
10/13/2009
11/3/2009
11/3/2009
9/26/2009
11/17/2009
10/1/2009
11/17/2009
9/8/2009
9/8/2009
9/29/2009
10/13/2009
11/17/2009
10/20/2009
11/17/2009
10/27/2009
10/31/2009
11/10/2009
11/10/2009
10/27/2009
10/20/2009
10/13/2009
10/27/2009
11/3/2009
11/14/2009
11/10/2009
11/10/2009
12/7/2009
10/13/2009
12/8/2009
12/10/2009
12/10/2009
Duration
(Weeks) 8
3
4
7
3
3
2
1.5
5
3
2
3
2
3
3
1.7
1
6.5
1.7
1.4
1.8
12.5
12.5
Sep. 2009
15 22 29
6
Oct. 2009
13 20 27
3
Nov. 2009
10 17 24
Dec. 2009
1
8
Thanksgiving Break
F1.0 Requirements Specifications
F2.0 System Overview
F3.0 Controls Design
F3.1 Mechanically Governed System Design
F3.2 Electronically Assissted Design
F3.3 Kite Retraction System Design
F3.4 Brake System Design
F4.0 Generator Design
F4.1 Freewheel and Return Design
F4.2 Gearing Ratio Design
F4.3 Generator Motor Selection
F5.0 Charge Controller Design
F6.0 Motor Controller Design
F7.0 Microprocessor Interface Design
F8.0 User Interface Configuration Design
F9.0 System Frame Design
F10.0 Parts Selection
F11.0 System Analysis
F12.0 System Design / Project Plan
F13.0 Final Design
A1.0 Documentation
A2.0 Project Management
Start Date
◊
12
ID
◊
Gantt Chart - Spring 2010
Second Wind
Josh Dowler, Caleb Meeks, John Snyder
Task Name
1/11/2010
1/11/2010
1/26/2010
2/9/2010
2/23/2010
2/16/2010
2/2/2010
1/11/2010
1/11/2010
1/26/2010
1/19/2010
2/2/2010
2/23/2010
3/15/2010
1/19/2010
2/16/2010
3/15/2010
4/6/2010
4/13/2010
4/13/2010
1/11/2010
1/11/2010
3/4/2010
2/9/2010
2/16/2010
3/2/2010
3/4/2010
3/4/2010
2/16/2010
2/2/2010
1/21/2010
2/16/2010
2/9/2010
2/23/2010
3/4/2010
4/6/2010
3/4/2010
3/2/2010
4/6/2010
4/26/2010
4/26/2010
4/27/2010
4/29/2010
4/29/2010
Jan. 2010
Duration
(Weeks) 11 19 26
7.7
4.1
3
3
1.6
2.6
2
3.1
1.3
3
3
3
1.6
2
6.6
2
3
2.9
1.9
2
15.3
15.3
2
Feb. 2010
9
16 23
2
9
Mar. 2010
16 23
30
6
Apr. 2010
13 20 27
Spring Break
S1.0 Parts Assembly / Testing
S1.1 Mechanical Control System
S1.2 Electrical Control System
S1.3 Kite Reel System
S1.4 Brake System
S1.5 Freewheel and Return Mechanism
S1.6 Gearing Ratio
S1.7 Generator Motor
S1.8 Boarding Etching
S1.9 Charge Controller
S1.10 Motor Controller
S1.11 Microprocessor Interface Setup
S1.12 User Interface Configuration
S2.0 System Frame Assembly
S3.0 Programming
S4.0 Project Status
S5.0 System Integration
S6.0 System Testing
S7.0 Finalize Prototype
S8.0 Final Project
A1.0 Documentation
A2.0 Project Management
Start Date Finish Date
13
ID
◊
◊
Network Diagram: Fall 2009
Second Wind
14
Josh Dowler, Caleb Meeks, John Snyder
Network Diagram: Spring 2010
Second Wind
15
Josh Dowler, John Snyder, Caleb Meeks
Appendices
16
Kite Wind Generator
Requirements Specification
Overview:
Our team will design and prototype a kite wind generator. The generator will produce electrical power
from the drag force applied to the kite by wind. The kite will be autonomously guided by a microprocessor to
perform the gliding maneuvers necessary to produce power. A kite wind generator would be useful for
generating power on large scale agricultural farms, in remote locations for disaster relief or military, or as a part
of a larger wind farm.
Problem Statement:
Due to pollution and depletion of traditional energy sources there is a need to generate power from
renewable energy sources. Wind is the second most abundant energy resource, next to solar energy, that can be
harnessed to generate power. Kite wind generation is more effective than conventional turbines in gathering the
energy from the wind for two reasons. First, the kite can reach much higher altitudes than turbines, where the
wind is more reliable and strong. Second, kites can cover more area in the sky and therefore use more of the
energy than a stationary turbine can. This technology could allow individuals to become energy self-sufficient
and it could also be used in large scale projects as wind farms that produce high power.
Operational Description:
The kite wind generation unit will produce power based on the drag force produced by the kite in flight
and the amount of line pulled, which will be connected to a generator, over time. When the kite has reached its
maximum height the kite orientation will be changed to reduce its drag coefficient, and the kite will be retracted
using much less power than is generated from the pull up. The kite will run autonomously in winds of 10 to 45
kilometers per hour. When the wind speeds are too high the kite will be retracted to prevent damage to the
system. If the wind speeds are too low the kite will be retracted. The system will also have a user interface that
displays the length of line released, and power generation. The user will also have options for three different
modes of operation for the kite; deploy, sustain, and retract.
Technical Requirements:
• System will initially supply its own power to initiate energy generation and then store excess generated power
• If power generation is not sufficient to generate excess power the kite will be retracted and the user interface will run off
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
of stored power
System will generate at least 500 Watts DC within one day and be able to store that much energy
Kite system will be able to generate power in winds from 10 - 45 kilometers per hour
Setup, including kite deployment, should take no more than 30 minutes
Power generation should occur within five minutes of kite deployment
System must have deploy, sustain, and retract modes of operation
Autonomous control of each mode (deploy, sustain, retract)
User interface to enable user to specify modes of operation (deploy, sustain, retract) and show user length of line
released within one meter and power generated within 20 watts
Must be able to sense length of line released within one meter and power generation within 20 watts
System will be able to fit through a standard door frame, with width of one meter and height of two meters
17
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Design Deliverables:
User manual
Drawings and schematics with analyses
Kite generator unit
User interface
Parts list with associated costs
Test report
Final technical report
System Test Plan
Kite stays aloft in winds of 10 - 45 kilometers per hour
10 minutes of autonomous flight and power generation in winds of 10 - 45 kilometers per hour
Generation of 500 watts DC within one day
The electrical system will have a fail safe mechanism that will enable in case of a power surge
Kite retraction of less than 10 minutes in winds of 10 - 45 kilometers per hour
Shows accurate value for length of line released by comparing it with a tape measure within one meter
Shows accurate value for power generation within 20 watts by using current and voltage measurements using a
multimeter
Implementation Consideration:
Follow FAA regulations part 101, subparts A and B: no flight between sunset and sunrise, a letter of
intent to fly the kite above 150 feet sent to the nearest FAA ATC facility, a 100m radius of land without
obstruction around base, set in an area five miles away from an airport, land must have ground visibility greater
than 3 miles, and the kite line must have streamers at 50 foot intervals above 150 feet that are visible for one
mile. The leads for the generator and battery will be covered to prevent shock. Gears and chains may be part of
the design and could propose some safety issues.
18
19
3‐D Model
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