KHEPERAIII - K-Team FTP area

KHEPERAIII - K-Team FTP area
KHEPERAIII
USER MANUAL
VERSION 3.5
FEBRUARY 2013
Documentation Author
F.Lambercy and J.Tharin for K-Team S.A.
chemin des Plans-Praz
CH-1337 Vallorbe
Switzerland
email: [email protected]
Url: www.k-team.com
Documentation Version
• 3.5: 25.02.2013 J. Tharin: Bluetooth explanation update
• 3.4: 04.04.2012 J. Tharin: USB link not working
• 3.3: 29.03.2012 J. Tharin: added Matlab instructions, kh3 server, corrected errors
• 3.2: 15.12.2011 J. Tharin: added khepera3 C functions documentation
• 1.0: 01.09.2006 F.Lambercy and G.Caprari: first version
Trademark Acknowledgments:
Matlab: MathWorks Corp.
IBM PC: International Business Machine Corp.
Khepera: K-Team and LAMI
Legal Notice:
• The content of this manual is subject to change without notice.
• All effort have been made to ensure the accuracy of the content of
this manual. However, should any error be detected, please inform
K-Team S.A.
• The above notwithstanding K-Team can assume no responsibility for
any error in this manual.
Table Of Contents
1 Introduction
1.1 How to Use this Manual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2 Safety Precaution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.3 Recycling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3
3
3
4
2 Unpacking and Inspection
5
3 The Robot and Its Accessories
3.1 The Khepera III Robot . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1.2 ON-OFF Battery Switch . . . . . . . . . .
3.1.3 Indication LEDs . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1.4 Serial connector . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1.5 Cable unroller connector . . . . . . . . . .
3.1.6 USB connector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1.7 How to plug a KoreBot II . . . . . . . . .
3.2 Motors and motor control . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.1 KheperaIII with a firmware 3.0 or greater
3.2.2 KheperaIII with an older firmware . . . .
3.2.3 Speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3 Infra-red Proximity sensors . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3.1 Ambient light measurements . . . . . . .
3.3.2 Reflected light measurements (proximity)
3.4 Ultrasonic sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.5 Battery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.6 Power Supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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4 Connections
4.1 Configuration for batteries charge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2 Configuration for Communication in standalone . . . . . . . .
4.3 Configuration for Communication in slave mode with KoreBot
4.3.1 Serial link . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3.2 USB link . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.4 Bluetooth Communication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.4.1 Bluetooth communication with KheperaIII . . . . . .
4.4.2 Bluetooth communication with KoreBot II . . . . . .
4.4.3 Log On the KoreBot II with a Bluetooth connection .
4.4.4 Khepera3 server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.4.5 Bluetooth communication on Linux . . . . . . . . . .
Khepera III manual ver 3.5
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1
Table Of Contents
5 Serial Communication Mode
5.1 Testing the primary serial link . .
5.2 Testing the secondary serial link .
5.3 Serial communication protocol . .
5.3.1 Testing a simple interaction
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6 Robot programming
6.1 Matlab programing . . . . . .
6.2 Example of source code . . .
6.3 Functions available . . . . . .
6.3.1 kh3 init . . . . . . . .
6.3.2 kh3 configure os . . .
6.3.3 kh3 proximity ir . . .
6.3.4 kh3 ambiant ir . . . .
6.3.5 kh3 battery voltage .
6.3.6 kh3 reset tstamp . . .
6.3.7 kh3 revision . . . . . .
6.3.8 kh3 measure us . . . .
6.3.9 kh3 getcommand . . .
6.3.10 kh3 sendcommand . .
6.3.11 kmot SetMode . . . .
6.3.12 kmot SetSampleTime
6.3.13 kmot SetMargin . . .
6.3.14 kmot SetOptions . . .
6.3.15 kmot ResetError . . .
6.3.16 kmot SetBlockedTime
6.3.17 kmot ConfigurePID .
6.3.18 kmot SetSpeedProfile
6.3.19 kmot SetPoint . . . .
6.3.20 kmot GetMeasure . .
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A Communication protocol
50
B Warranty
58
Khepera III manual ver 3.5
2
1 Introduction
1.1
How to Use this Manual
This manual is introducing the Khepera III robot. For a quick start and
overview of the robot’s functions, please read chapter 1 to 4.
Refer to the following summary if a particular information is needed. If
the manual does not cover a particular problem, many more technical documentation is available online from K-Team website (http://www.k-team.
com) and especially a Frequently Asked Question document to solve most
common problems and questions.
Unpacking and Inspection: Khepera’s package description.
The robot and its accessories: Khepera Hardware overview and main
functions and accessories description.
Connections: detailed cables connections for various usage.
Serial Communication mode: detailed description for the Serial communication mode between a computer and the robot.
1.2
Safety Precaution
Check the unit’s operating voltage before operation.
It must be identical with that of your local power supply. The operating
voltage is indicated on the nameplate at the rear of the power supply.
All connnections (including extension addition or disconnection) must
be made when the robot and the interface are switched OFF. Otherwise
damages can occur.
Switch OFF the robot if you will not use it for more than a day.
Disconnect the power supply removing it from the wall socket.
Do not manually force any mechanical movement.
Avoid to force, by any mechanical way, the movement of the wheels or
any other part.
If you have any question or problem concerning the robot, please contact
your local Khepera dealer.
Khepera III manual ver 3.5
3
1. Introduction
1.3
Recycling
Think about the end of life of your robot! Parts of the robot can be recycled
and it is important to do so. It is for instance important to keep batteries
out of the solid waste stream. When you throw away a battery, it eventually
ends up in a landfill or municipal incinerator. These batteries, which contain
heavy metals, can contribute to the toxicity levels of landfills or incinerator
ash. By recycling the batteries through recycling programs, you can help to
create a cleaner and safer environment for generations to come. For those
reasons please take care to the recycling of your robot at the end of its life
cycle, for instance sending back the robot to the manufacturer or to your
local dealer.
Thanks for your contribution to a cleaner environment!
Khepera III manual ver 3.5
4
2 Unpacking and Inspection
Open the bag and check each item in the box. You should having the
following material.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Khepera III robot
KoreBot II ( not included in the Khepera III base package )
Power Supply with a primary plug
Battery Pack
Optional KoreConnect
Khepera III manual ver 3.5
5
3 The Robot and Its Accessories
3.1
3.1.1
The Khepera III Robot
Overview
Figure 3.1: Overview of the Khepera III robot.
Make an external inspection of the robot. Note the location of the following parts:
1. Infrared sensors.
2. Ultrasonic sensors.
3. Main serial connector.
4. USB miniAB connector.
5. Power jack connector.
6. Reset.
7. On / Off.
8. Cable unroller connector.
Khepera III manual ver 3.5
6
3. The Robot and Its Accessories
3.1.2
ON-OFF Battery Switch
It allows the user to switch the robot ON or OFF. When ON, the robot is
powered. The robot may even be powered without the battery pack using
the external power supply connector. See figure 3.1 number 7.
3.1.3
Indication LEDs
The Khepera III has six indication LEDs, two for the battery charger, one
for the Power ON, one for the state of the motors controller and two programmables by the end-user (see figure 3.2).
When the Motor controller state LED is on, one of the two motor controller is in error mode. This could append when a motor is blocked or
a current limit is detected. In this case the controller must be reset by
the dsPIC (’M’ command in serial interface mode or call ’initKH3()’ in a
KoreBot II program).
For the battery charger, the red one indicates that charge is in progress
and the green one signals when the charge is complete. If there’s no battery
pack when you plug an external power supply, the green one will turn on.
The led 5 and 6 can be set by the user with ’K’ command. See annexe
A Serial communication protocol.
Figure 3.2: LEDs of the Khepera III.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Motor Controllers state LED (redD).
Power ON LED (green).
Charge completed LED (green).
Charge in progress LED (red).
Programmable LED (green).
Programmable LED (red).
Khepera III manual ver 3.5
7
3. The Robot and Its Accessories
3.1.4
Serial connector
The serial connector contains various serial lines. One serial line which is at
TTL level (0V/+5V) is used to connect a personal computer to the Khepera
III dsPIC (with a KoreConnect). Used only when there is no KoreBot II
connected. Please see section 4.2.
There is another RS232 (-10V/+10V) used to communicate with the
KoreBot II, ie to see the KoreBot II’s boot message. Please see section 4.3.
It is also possible to use the USB link of the KoreConnect to communicate
with the KoreBot II.
The length of the serial cable should be limited to two meters
for proper operation.
1. Korebot RXD
2. Korebot TXD
3. dsPIC RXD
4. dsPIC TXD
6. VCC ( +5V )
2
4
6
8
1
3
5
7
7. USB D−
8. USB D+
11. GND
12. GND
10 12
9
11
Figure 3.3: Details of the Khepera III serial connector. Pin 5, 9 & 10 are
not connected.
Khepera III manual ver 3.5
8
3. The Robot and Its Accessories
3.1.5
Cable unroller connector
The cable unroller connector is a serial and a power connector (see figure 3.4). You can supply your robot and communicate with the robot
through it. This connector is usefull if you want to supply your robot with
an external power supply (+9V) and keep its mobility with an cable unroller. However, if you want to recharge your battery at the same time, it
is mandatory to use the power jack connector.
1. VCC (+9V)
2. dsPIC RXD
3. dsPIC TXD
4. GND
5. GND
6. GND
1 3 5
2 4 6
Figure 3.4: Details of the cable unroller connector.
3.1.6
USB connector
The mini-USB connector is usefull only when a KoreBot II is plugged in the
Khepera III. You can connect directly your PC to the Khepera III with an
ordinary mini-USB cable. To communicate with the KoreBot II through the
USB connector, please refer to the documentation of the KoreBot II (found
on the web site www.k-team.com).
Khepera III manual ver 3.5
9
3. The Robot and Its Accessories
3.1.7
How to plug a KoreBot II
The Khepera III has been designed to work together with a KoreBot II,
but as it isn’t mandatory, in the default pack there is no KoreBot II with
the robot. You can buy it at the same time, in this case, the KoreBot II
will be mounted into the robot. But if you buy it afterward, you must first
unmount the upper body of the Khepera III, then plug the KoreBot II on
the extansion connectors (see figure 3.5). If you have any other extansion
(KoreIO, KoreSound, KoreVision, etc...), you must only remove the black
metal plate, and plug your extension on the KoreBot II.
Figure 3.5: Details of the KoreBot II assembly.
Khepera III manual ver 3.5
10
3. The Robot and Its Accessories
3.2
Motors and motor control
Before reading this section, please look at the firmware version of your KheperaIII. Since the firmware version 3.0, the gear of the motors have changed.
3.2.1
KheperaIII with a firmware 3.0 or greater
Each wheel is moved by a DC motor coupled with the wheel through a 65.6:1
reduction. The motor itself having a 41:1 reduction and the gear box having
a 1.6:1 reduction. The motor has its own embedded incremental encoder,
placed on the motor axis, gives 16 pulses per revolution of the motor. This
allows a resolution of 1049.6 per revolution of the wheel that corresponds
to 82 pulses per ten millimeter of path of the robot (diameter of the wheel
= 41m m, thus each revolution the robot make 128.8mm). By default,
the robot is set in mode encoder resolution x4, in this case for each wheel
revolution the controller motor make 4198 measures. The other encoder
configuration mode is 2x (1382 measures/turn).
Reminder: 1 revolution = 128.8mm = 4198 measures.
3.2.2
KheperaIII with an older firmware
Each wheel is moved by a DC motor coupled with the wheel through a 43.2:1
reduction. The motor itself having a 27:1 reduction and the gear box having
a 1.6:1 reduction. The motor has its own embedded incremental encoder,
placed on the motor axis, gives 16 pulses per revolution of the motor. This
allows a resolution of 691.2 per revolution of the wheel that corresponds to
54 pulses per ten millimeter of path of the robot (diameter of the wheel =
41mm, thus each revolution the robot make 128.8mm). By default, the robot
is set in mode encoder resolution x4, in this case for each wheel revolution
the controller motor make 2764 measures. The other encoder configuration
mode is 2x (1382 measures/turn).
Reminder: 1 revolution = 128.8mm = 2764 measures.
Khepera III manual ver 3.5
11
3. The Robot and Its Accessories
Each motor is driven by its own motor controller implemented in a
PIC18F4431. The PIC has direct control on the motor power through a
double H bridge and can read the pulses of the incremental encoder.
The motor control block acts as slave devices on the I2C bus. When the
KoreBot II is not connected to the Khepera III robot, the main robot CPU
will turns itself into an i2c master. When the KoreBot II is connectedm, it
becomes the i2c master.
Each motor controller switches its motor ON and OFF at a given frequency and during a given time. By this way, the motor react to the time
average of the power supply, which can be modified by changing the period
the motor is switched ON. This means that only the ratio between ON and
OFF periods is modified, as illustrated in figure 3.6. This power control
method is called ”pulse width modulation” (PWM). The PWM value is
defined as the time the motor is switched ON.
basic period
50µs
power
ON period
ON
OFF
time
power
power
basic period
basic period
ON
ON
95%
ON period
5%
ON period
OFF
OFF
time
time
Figure 3.6: The “Pulse Width Modulation”(PWM) motor supply mode is
based on a ratio between the ON time and the total time. The basic switching frequency is constant.
Khepera III manual ver 3.5
12
3. The Robot and Its Accessories
Each motor controller can perform the control of the speed or the position
of the motor, setting the correct PWM value according to the real speed or
position read on the incremental encoders.
Both DC motors can be controlled by a PID controller. Every term of
this controller(Proportional, Integral, Derivative) is associated to a constant,
setting the weight of the corresponding term: Kp for the proportional, Ki
for the integral, Kd for the derivative.
The motor controller can be used in two control modes: the speed or
position mode. The active control mode is set according to the kind of
command received. If the controller receives a speed control command, it
switches to the speed mode. If the controller receives a position control
command, the control mode is automatically switched to the position mode.
Different control parameters (Kp, Ki and Kd) can be set for each of the two
control modes.
Khepera III manual ver 3.5
13
3. The Robot and Its Accessories
3.2.3
Speed
Used in speed mode, the controller has as input a speed value of the wheels,
and controls the motor to keep this wheel speed.
The speed value is a division of a constant value by the time between
encoder pulsations. In default mode (encoder resolution x4 and postscaler
1:4), a measure is made four times every pulse. Then each revolution of the
wheel, 4198 measures are made (firmware 3.0 or greater), or 2764 measures
(Old firmware). The constant value is defined by the maximum time multiplied by 256 (0xFFFF * 256 = 16’776’960). This operation allows a better
PID calculation for the lower speed.
16′ 776′ 960
T imer5value
To convert into a real time, use the following calculation (example for
the old firmware) (this time is the delay between two measures):
M otorSpeed =
T ime =
T imer5value
P ostscaler
fosc /4
T mr5P rescaler
where fosc = 20MHz and Tmr5Prescaler = 8 (default).
To get the real speed in mm/s:
RealSpeed =
W heelCircumf erence
T ime ∗ 2764
where WheelCircumference is 128.8mm and 2764 correspond to the number
of measures per revolution of the wheel.
For the old firmware the one encoder unit corresponds to 128.8/2764 = 0.047
mm and for the new on : 128.8/4198 = 0.031 mm.
Here’s an example with MotorSpeed = 20’000, Tmr5Prescaler = 8, Postscaler
= 4 and encoder resolution = x4
T imer5value =
T ime =
16′ 776′ 960
= 839
20′ 000
839
4
20′ 000′ 000/4
8
= 0.336[ms]
128.8
= 138.9[mm/s]
0.000336 ∗ 2764
M otorSpeed
RealSpeed =
[mm/s]
Kspeed
RealSpeed =
Where Kspeed is 144.01 when default configuration is used with the old
firmware. For firmware 3.0 or greater, the Kspeed is 218.72.
Khepera III manual ver 3.5
14
3. The Robot and Its Accessories
The maximum reachable speed is 48’000 (= 333 mm/s old — 219 mm/s
new) in open loop, and 43’000 (= 298 mm/s for old — 196 mms/s for new)
in regulation mode. And the minimum is 2’000 (= 13.9 mm/s for old — 9
mm/s for new) with regulation control.
The distance between the two wheels b is 88.41 mm. This can be helpful to know this value to make a model or compute the speed of the robot
orientation θ in function of the wheel speeds vr and vl , the time t, and
initial orientation θ0 with:
θ=
(vr − vl ) ∗ t
+ θ0
b
Khepera III manual ver 3.5
15
3. The Robot and Its Accessories
speed
Used in position profile mode (’F’ command), the controller has as input a target position of the wheel, an acceleration and a maximal speed.
Using this values, the controller accelerates the wheel until the maximal
speed is reached, and decelerates in order to reach the target position. This
movement follows a trapezoidal speed profile, as described in figure 3.7.
max_speed
position
acc
-acc
time
target position
start position
time
Figure 3.7: Speed profile to reach a target position with a fixed acceleration
(acc) and maximal speed (max speed).
The input values and the control mode of this controller can be changed
at every moment. The controller will update and execute the new profile
in the position mode, or control the wheel speed following the new value in
the speed mode.
First configure the speed profile (’J’ command) with the needed parameters. Then you can perform a move with the position profile mode (’F’
command). See annexe A for more details about communication protocole.
Khepera III manual ver 3.5
16
3. The Robot and Its Accessories
3.3
Infra-red Proximity sensors
Khepera III hase nine sensors placed around the robot and two placed on
the bottom. The latters allow experiments like line following. They are
positioned and numbered as shown in figure 3.8.
Figure 3.8: Bottom view of the IR sensors
These sensors embed an infra-red light emitter and a receiver. For detailed description, please refer to the manufacturer’s datasheet. The eight
sensors are TCRT5000, reflective optical sensors from Vishay Telefunken.
They give values on 12 bits.
Khepera III manual ver 3.5
17
3. The Robot and Its Accessories
This sensor device allows two measures:
- The normal ambient light. This measure is made using only the receiver part of the device, without emitting light with the emitter. A
new measurement is made every 33 ms. During the 33 ms, the eleven
sensors are read in a sequential way every 3 ms. The value returned
at a given time is the result of the last measurement made.
- The light reflected by obstacles (= proximity). This measure is made
emitting light using the emitter part of the device. The returned
value is the difference between the measurement made emitting light
and the light measured without light emission (ambient light). A new
measurement is made every 33 ms. During the 33 ms, the eleven
sensors are read in a sequential way every 3 ms. The value returned
at a given time is the result of the last measurement made.
3.3.1
Ambient light measurements
Ambient light measurement is strongly influenced by the robot’s environment. Depending on the light source type, color, and distance, ambient
light measurement profile might vary. It is not recommended to use
light source with large emission in the infrared range, as this could
confuse the IR sensors.
3.3.2
Reflected light measurements (proximity)
Sensors are mainly meant to detect obstacles around the Khepera. Measurements for reflected light depends on objects reflectivity and on ambient
light conditions. Objects color, materials and surfaces do have an influence
on the sensors response. Moreover, as any sensor, IR sensors are subject
to environmental noise. For all these reasons, graphics below are given for
information only and should not be considered as references.
Figure 3.9: Relative collector current vs distance
Khepera III manual ver 3.5
18
3. The Robot and Its Accessories
3.4
Ultrasonic sensors
In its base set, 5 sensors are placed around the robot and are positioned and
numbered as shown in figure 3.10.
5 sensors are in fact 5 pairs of ultrasonic devices where each pair is
composed of one transmitter and one receiver.
The ultrasonic sensor are powered by a 20 Vdc source. The nominal
frequency of these transducers is 40kHz +/- 1kHz.
Parameters such as max number of echo, timeout and active sensors are
parametrizable through a configuration api (See ’C’ command in chapter A).
By default, you have maximum 3 echos, sensor 3 (front) is active, timeout
is set to see from 20cm to 4 meters.
The last parameter is if the upper body is mounted or not (default
mounted). When the upper body is mounted, there’s some noise because
of inside rebound echo, which are deleted in software. In fact, you could
improve the detection of the nearest obstacles (20cm to 40cm) removing the
upper body.
Each measure return the number of founded echos, the distance in cm
of each echo, the amplitude of each, and the time (time stamp) when the
echo was seen.
The value returned by the command, is the white noise measured before
than a Ultrasonic pulse was sent. Then the real amplitude of each echo will
be its amplitude minus the white noise. See command ’G’ in chapter A for
more details about the ultrasonic command.
For more details about the ultrasonic sensor, please check at Midas component, the transceiver is 400ST100 and the receiver is a 400SR100.
Figure 3.10: Position of the 5 UltraSonic sensors.
Khepera III manual ver 3.5
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3. The Robot and Its Accessories
3.5
Battery
The Khepera III is equipped with a battery pack composed of two Li-Ion
Polymer element. This provides a 7.4V volt battery with a 1400 mAH
capacity. Using its embedded power, the robot is able to run completely
autonomously during more than four hours, running with a basic configuration. When additional equipment are used, the autonomy is reduced as
Khepera’s extensions as the KoreBot II rely on Khepera’s batteries as a
power source.
There is no specific power management system on the Khepera. When
the batteries voltage falls under 6V, the battery cut himself the power supply
to avoid a too important discharge of the cell. Users can implement their
own software power management system to handle KoreBot II to shutdown
properly before this case happend. See command ’V’ in chapter A for more
details about battery management.
Do not short circuit the battery pins or put down the battery
on a metallic surface. This will damage the battery pack itself.
3.6
Power Supply
If an external power source is required or during batteries charge, power
can be supplied through the power jack connector or through the microMatch cable unroller connector. See section 4 for detailed description of
connections.
Use only the power supply deliver by K-Team. If you want to
supply the Khepera III with another device, make sure that the
Voltage is +9V and that the power supply can deliver 2A.
SAFETY PRECAUTION: The power supply must be connected to the wall socket after all other connections are already
made.
Khepera III manual ver 3.5
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4 Connections
4.1
Configuration for batteries charge
To charge robot’s batteries, make sure the following are correct:
- The power supply shall be connected to the robot.
- Warning: the robot battery may be charged with the robot ON or
OFF. Be attentive that when the robot is ON, the charging time will
be a bit longer.
- The power supply have to be connected on a wall plug.
There are three leds. A green led tells if the robot is powered or not.
And two other leds are here if the robot is charging ( red led ON ) or if the
charge is complete ( green led ON ).
During the charge, the red led is switched ON and the green led is
switched OFF. The process is reversed at the end of the charging process.
The charging time for an empty battery is about 180 minutes. At this
moment the power supply can be unplugged. When charging, the battery
can be as hot as 40 degrees.
Khepera III manual ver 3.5
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4. Connections
4.2
Configuration for Communication in standalone
This configuration allows communicating between the robot and a host computer through a serial link. The host computer is linked to the interface
module using a standard RS232 line, while the interface module converts
RS232 signal into a TTL level signal to communicate with the robot.
To use the standalone serial communication mode, please make sure the
following are correct:
- No KoreBot II is connected on the Khepera III.
- The robot battery is charged that means the power led is switched on.
- The robot must be connected to a KoreConnect module using the
serial cable
- The KoreConnect should be connected to the host computer using a
standard RS232 cable. in this mode, the cable has to be connected on
the DB9 connector number 2 (see fig 4.1). You can easily purchase
such a cable from your host computer dealer.
- Serial port configured as followed : 115200bps, 8 Data bits, 1 stop bit
, no parity, no hardware control.
RS232 cables
2
1
KoreConnect
Figure 4.1: Connection when the robot is used without a KoreBot II.
Khepera III manual ver 3.5
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4. Connections
4.3
Configuration for Communication in slave mode
with KoreBot II
4.3.1
Serial link
This configuration allows communicating between the KoreBot II plugged
on the robot and a host computer through a serial link. In this configuration
it is not possible to communicate with the robot base itself as explained in
the previous chapter. The host computer is linked to the interface module
using a standard RS232 line. The adaptation RS232/TTL is made on the
KoreBot II.
To use the serial communication mode, please make sure the following
are correct:
- A KoreBot II is connected on the Khepera III.
- The charged Battery or a power supply is plugged, and the robot is
turned ON .
- The robot must be connected to a KoreConnect module using the
serial cable
- The KoreConnect should be connected to the host computer using a
standard RS232 cable. in this mode, the cable has to be connected
on the DB9 connector number 1 (see fig 4.2) You can easily purchase
such a cable from your host computer dealer.
- Serial port configured as followed : 115200bps, 8 Data bits, 1 stop bit,
no parity, no hardware control.
RS232 cables
2
1
KoreConnect
Figure 4.2: Connection when the robot is used with a KoreBot II.
Khepera III manual ver 3.5
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4. Connections
4.3.2
USB link
WARNING: Currently the USB slave mode is disabled (see Korebot2 User’s Manual chapter 3.2.2.2). Therefore the instruction
below is not working!
This configuration allows communicating between the KoreBot II plugged
on the robot and a host computer through a USB link. There are two ways
to connect the USB to the KoreBot II. With a KoreConnect and standard
USB cable or with only a mini-USB cable.
For more information about the USB communication protocol with a
KoreBot II, please refer to the KoreBot II documentation (found on web
site http://www.k-team.com).
To use the USB communication mode, please make sure the following
are correct:
- A KoreBot II is plugged on the Khepera III.
- The charged battery or a power supply is plugged, and the robot is
turned ON .
- The robot must be connected to a KoreConnect module and then a
USB cable or a mini-USB cable is plugged directly on the USB miniAB
connector of the robot (see figure 3.1).
- The USB cable (standard or mini) should be connected to the host
computer. These two type of cable can be easily purchased from any
computer dealer.
Khepera III manual ver 3.5
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4. Connections
4.4
Bluetooth Communication
A Bluetooth device is mount on every KheperaIII with the firmware 2.0 or
bigger. The device is a WT12 from BlueGiga, has the I-Wrap license and
is configured by AT command. The device is completely configured for a
cable replacement for the KheperaIII. But can be used with the KoreBot II
too when plugged on the KheperaIII. Then the bluetooth connection will be
available via the serial port /dev/ttyS1 of the KoreBot II. The configuration
is the following:
- 115200bps data rate
- 8 data bits
- no parity
- one stop bit
- no hardware flow control
- connection securised (security code is: 0000)
4.4.1
Bluetooth communication with KheperaIII
Here a procedure as example to etablish a Bluetooth communication between KheperaIII and a PC, and how to validate the connection with a
terminal (Windows example; for Linux, see chapter Bluetooth communication on Linux after). No KoreBot II must plugged on the KheperaIII
for this case.
- First connect your Bluetooth dongle to your PC (if necessary).
- Check if your system recognize your dongle and then install the driver
If you have Bluetooth integrated in your laptop, just activate it.
- Verify that your connection is securised and that a COM port is
reserved for the Bluetooth serial communication (Menu: BluetoothAdvanced Configuration-Client Application)
- Check if your KheperaIII is correctly powered (Led green ON)
- Start a device research ”View device in range”
- The KheperaIII must appear with a PDA logo and the name KHIII
SerialNumber. The Serial Number is the same as the label on the
bottom.
- Create a connection with the KheperaIII, your program will ask you
for a security code then enter 0000.
- Your program assign a COM port to your device.
- Open a terminal with the assigned COM port and the correct configuration as above
- Reset the robot by pushing the reset button under the robot (see figure
3.1, Reset). You should see a message on the console.
Khepera III manual ver 3.5
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4. Connections
- Try to read the robot OS version with the command B (or another
command see chapter A) to validate the communication. The robot
should return something like: b,3,0. The version number may differ.
- Then you can use any other program which used a COM port (like
Matlab) to remote control your KheperaIII
4.4.2
Bluetooth communication with KoreBot II
The procedure will be the same as above but with a KoreBot II plugged on
the KheperaIII.
- Create a Bluetooth connection with the KheperaIII as explained above
- To validate the communication, connect a KoreConnect to the KoreBot II (see section 4.3)
- Log on the KoreBot II (login: root , password: (none, push RETURN
key) )
- open a minicom on the KoreBot II: minicom -s /dev/ttyS1
- Configure your terminal as described above and select the /dev/ttyS1
device.
- Reset the robot by pushing the reset button under the robot (see figure
3.1, Reset). You should see the login message on the console.
- Now the KoreBot II can send/received information to/from the PC
via Bluetooth.
4.4.3
Log On the KoreBot II with a Bluetooth connection
There’s a way to use the /dev/ttyS1 (Bluetooth serial Port) to log on the
KoreBot II. To do this, you need check if the inittab file in the directory
/etc of the KoreBot II is already modified as following (modified by default
if the KorebotII is shipped with a robot).
Check with that command if the file is already configured: cat /etc/inittab
If it is the case, the last two lines should be:
S0:2345:respawn:/sbin/getty 115200 ttyS0
S1:2345:respawn:/sbin/getty 115200 ttyS1
Otherwise, modify it with these instructions:
- Log on the KoreBot II with a KoreConnect (login: root , password:
(none, push RETURN key))
- Open the /etc/inittab files with command: vi /etc/inittab
See also the Korebot II User’s Manual at chapter 5.2.7, how to
edit the file with the vi editor.
- In the end of the files, you will see this line:
S:2345:respawn:/sbin/getty 115200 ttyS0
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4. Connections
- Modify it to: S0:2345:respawn:/sbin/getty 115200 ttyS0
- And add this line below: S1:2345:respawn:/sbin/getty 115200
ttyS1
- Save and close the file. Then in the next restart, you will be able to
log on your KoreBot II with Bluetooth.
Warning: making an error in the file /etc/inittab may prevent
the board booting; please modify carefully!
4.4.4
Khepera3 server
For running Khepera3 Interface:
http://ftp.k-team.com/KheperaIII/applications/Interface_Khepera3_
Setup_V1-1_port_com.zip
or any other program responding to A-Z commands defined in chapter A,
if the Korebot 2 installed, you must run the application kh3server on the
Korebot2.
Follow the instructions below to install, configure and run the server:
- Get the server from here:
http://ftp.k-team.com/KheperaIII/applications/kh3_server.tar.
bz2
- connect to the korebot2 mounted on your Khepera3
- edit the file /etc/inittab and comment line:
S1:2345:respawn:/sbin/getty 115200 ttyS1
by adding a comment char # in the beginning of the line. This will
disable the access to the robot console via Bluetooth.
See also the Korebot II User’s Manual at chapter 5.2.7, how to
edit the file with the vi editor.
WARNING: The line may not be present if the Korebot was
shipped alone! Don’t comment any other line! Pay attention
to comment the right line! Making any error in this file may
prevent the board booting!
- reboot your Khepera3 (command: reboot )
- configure your Bluetooth to connect to the Khepera3 as mentioned in
chapter 4.4.1.
- copy kh3server to the Korebot 2
- make it executable with: chmod +x kh3server
- run it with: ./kh3server
Khepera III manual ver 3.5
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4. Connections
- connect Khepera3 interface (or any other program) and run A-Z commands as usual.
- to stop it, push CTRL and c keys.
4.4.5
Bluetooth communication on Linux
For using Bluetooth communication with the Khepera3 Linux (Ubuntu),
follow the instructions below:
- Install the Linux package lrzsz containing communications programs:
sudo apt-get install lrzsz
- If Minicom is not installed you have to install this package, install it
with:
sudo apt-get install minicom
- Install blueman, a Bluetooth manager for Linux:
sudo apt-get install blueman
- A bluetooth icon is on the Ubuntu panel if your Bluetooth is on.
Double-click on that icon to open the Blueman and search for a new
device. The robot will appear as KHIII ABCD, where ABCD is its
serial number .
- Select the KHIII ABCD and push the key button (or right click and
pair) with the access key: 0000 (four zeros). A key should be added
at the left of KHIII ABCD icon.
- Right click on the paired KHIII ABCD, choose Setup, then ”Serial
Port”.
- Run minicom with the command: sudo minicom -o
- Set its parameters with the sub-menu Serial port setup of the menu
[configuration] (keys Ctrl-a + o to access it) as described in below.
Push RETURN key to validate each time.
+------------------------------------------------------+
| A - Serial Device : /dev/rfcomm0
|
| B - Lockfile Location : /var/lock
|
| C - Callin Program :
|
| D - Callout Program :
|
| E - Bps/Par/Bits : 115200 8N1
|
| F - Hardware Flow Control : No
|
| G - Software Flow Control : No
|
|
|
| Change which setting?
|
+------------------------------------------------------+
- Save the settings with the command Save setup as of the menu [configuration] (cf below) and choose bluetooth as configuration name.
Khepera III manual ver 3.5
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4. Connections
You will be able to run again the program and load this configuration
with: sudo minicom −o bluetooth
Then exit the config.
+-----[configuration]------+
| Filenames and paths
|
| File transfer protocols |
| Serial port setup
|
| Modem and dialing
|
| Screen and keyboard
|
| Save setup as dfl
|
| Save setup as..
|
| Exit
|
+--------------------------+
- In the file /etc/inittab of the robot, check if the console on the Bluetooth port is configured correctly (the following line is present; see
chapter 4.4.3),
S1:2345:respawn:/sbin/getty 115200 ttyS1
PAY ATTENTION to not make mistakes while modifying this file
as it may prevent booting and you will have to reflash the Korebot!!
- Reboot the robot, if you modified this line.
- Reboot the robot again but by pushing the reset button under the
robot. You should see these lines if it works:
OpenEmbedded Linux korebot2 ttyS1
Angstrom 2007.9-test-20090708 korebot2 ttyS1
korebot2 login:
⇒ You can connect to it.
Khepera III manual ver 3.5
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5 Serial Communication Mode
5.1
Testing the primary serial link
Before any further operations, the serial link between the host computer and
the robot should be tested. Please read the following instructions to test
the serial communication mode:
- Make sure all connections are correct (see chapter 4 for details).
- The robot should be placed on a flat and safe surface. The battery
switch must be OFF.
- A terminal emulator should be running on the host computer. Make
sure the terminal is connected to the correct serial port. The terminal configuration must be set to 115200 Baud, 8 bit, 1 start
bit, 1 stop bit, no parity and no hardware control.
When powered on, the robot should send a message (see fig 5.1) to the
terminal emulator.
To test that the KheperaIII is able to receive command, try to send
the B command to ask the Khepera for the operating system version and
revision.
Figure 5.1: Boot message of the Khepera III.
Khepera III manual ver 3.5
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5. Serial Communication Mode
5.2
Testing the secondary serial link
As the robot is suited to be used with a KoreBot II it is important to test
the serial link between the host computer and the KoreBot II itself.
- Make sure all connections are correct (see chapter 4 for details).
- The robot should be placed on a flat and safe surface. The battery
switch must be OFF.
- A KoreBot II needs to be plugged on the appropriate socket.
- A terminal emulator should be running on the host computer. Make
sure the terminal is connected to the correct serial port. The terminal configuration must be set to 115200 Baud, 8 bit, 1 start
bit, 1 stop bit, no parity and no hardware control.
When powered on, the KoreBot II will send the normal Linux boot
message to the terminal emulator (see fig 5.2).
If any of the serial link is not working properly it is then important to
ensure that the serial communication settings has been configured correctly.
Figure 5.2: Boot message of the KoreBot II.
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5. Serial Communication Mode
5.3
Serial communication protocol
When the robot is used as standalone ( without a KoreBot II ), the serial
communication protocol is designed to control all Khepera’s functions using
a RS232 serial line. The serial line configuration (baudrate as well as data,
start, stop and parity bits) for the host computer must match the robot’s
configuration.
The host computer and the Khepera robot are communicating with
ASCII messages. Each single interaction is composed by:
- A command, beginning with one ASCII capital letters and followed,
if necessary, by numerical or literal parameters separated by a comma
and terminated by a carriage return or a line feed, sent by the host
computer to the Khepera robot.
- A response, beginning with the same one ASCII letters of the command but in lower-case and followed, if necessary, by numerical or literal parameters separated by a comma and terminated by a carriage
return and a line feed, sent by the Khepera to the host computer.
During the entire communication, the host computer is acting as a
master and the Khepera as slave. All communications are initiated by the
master.
Two different types of interactions are possible. The first set of interactions is used to set up the robot configuration from the host computer
(set up serial line, changing controllers configuration,...), the second set of
interactions is used to control the robot (controlling motors, reading sensors
value,...).
A set of commands is available as detailed in appendix.
5.3.1
Testing a simple interaction
Testing some basic commands is the best method to understand the serial
protocol and tools available on the Khepera. Using a properly configured
serial link between the robot and a computer, please follow the instructions
bellow:
- Type the capital letter B followed by a carriage return or a line feed.
- The robot must respond with b followed by an indication of the version
of software running on the robot and terminated by a line feed.
- Type the capital letter N followed by a carriage return or a line feed.
- The robot must respond with n followed by 11 numbers separated by
a comma and terminated by a line feed. These numbers are the values
of the robot proximity sensors presented in section 3.1.6.
- Retry the same command (N) putting some obstacles in front of the
robot. The response must change.
Khepera III manual ver 3.5
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5. Serial Communication Mode
- Type the protocol command D,l10000,l-10000 followed by a carriage
return or a line feed.
- The robot must start turning on place and respond with d and a line
feed.
- To stop the robot type the protocol command D,l0,l0 followed by a
carriage return or a line feed.
- Try other commands following the description given in Appendix A.
Khepera III manual ver 3.5
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6 Robot programming
The robot cannot be directly programmed but you have to use an optional
Korebot 2 board that can be plugged into the robot. See sections 6.2 and 6.3
below.
You can also use any software that can access the serial port like Matlab. See following section 6.1 for Matlab programming. The serial protocol
is in Appendix A.
6.1
Matlab programing
The serial commands and protocol are explained in Appendix A. You can
see below a small Matlab script example connecting to serial port COM5,
getting robot version and US sensors data:
% configure serial port and open it
s = serial(’COM5’,’BaudRate’, 115200);
fopen(s);
% empty serial input buffer (Khepera3 boot message)
if s.BytesAvailable
fread(s,s.BytesAvailable);
end
% get Khepera3 BIOS version and revision
fprintf(s,’B’);
out = fscanf(s)
% should return: "b,VERSION,REVISION" where VERSION and REVISION are 2 numbers
% configure all US
fprintf(s,’C,0,d31’);
out = fscanf(s)
% for 1 echo only:
fprintf(s,’C,1,d1’);
out = fscanf(s)
% get data of US sensors
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6. Robot programming
for i=1:5
fprintf(s,sprintf(’G,%d’,i))
fscanf(s)
end
% close port and delete variable
fclose(s)
delete(s)
clear s
6.2
Example of source code
This section explain how to write a simple program for the KoreBot II to
control the Khepera III base. The Khepera III will act as peripheral of the
KoreBot II.
Please refer to the KoreBot II user manual (found on
http://ftp.k-team.com/KorebotII/UserManual/) for further details on
KoreBot II programming. This document only provides a basic example of
program compilation and execution.
The functions specific to the Khepera III are described in the next section 6.3.
The first simple executable for KoreBot II/Khepera III will be built
assuming:
- A working arm-linux toolchain is installed on your host computer.
- The NFS link is active and a shared directory (mySharedDirectory) is
mounted on /mnt/nfs.
A source file should be first created and edited with a very simple C
program such as the following. People familiar with the KoreMotor will
notice that the code is quite similar. The controllers have been embedded
in the robot but act as two I2C slaves.
/* \file kh3test.c
*
* \brief
*
*
*
This is an application example for the Khepera3
Khepera III manual ver 3.5
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6. Robot programming
*
*
*
*
*
\author
Julien Tharin (K-Team SA)
\note
\bug
\todo
Copyright (C) 2012 K-TEAM SA
none discovered.
nothing.
* compile with command:
arm-angstrom-linux-gnueabi-gcc kh3test.c -o kh3test \
-I $INCPATH -L $LIBPATH -lkorebot
*/
#include <korebot/korebot.h>
static knet_dev_t * dsPic;
static knet_dev_t * mot1;
static knet_dev_t * mot2;
// motor position factor
#define PULSE_TO_MM_FIRMWARE_S_3 0.04629 // for version <3.0
#define PULSE_TO_MM_FIRMWARE_BE_3 0.03068
// motor speed factor
#define MM_S_TO_SPEED_FIRMWARE_S_3 144.01 // for version <3.0
#define MM_S_TO_SPEED_FIRMWARE_BE_3 218.72
// display bar length for sensor
#define IR_BAR_LEN 15
int main()
{
float fpos;
long lpos,rpos;
char Buffer[100],bar[11][IR_BAR_LEN+5];
int sensors[11],i,n,revision,version;
short index, value;
char usvalues[5];
long motspeed;
float pulsestomm=PULSE_TO_MM_FIRMWARE_S_3 ; // if version of the mot < 3.0
float mmstospeed=MM_S_TO_SPEED_FIRMWARE_S_3 ; // if version of the mot < 3.0
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6. Robot programming
kh3_init();
/* open various socket and store the
dsPic = knet_open( "Khepera3:dsPic"
mot1 = knet_open( "Khepera3:mot1" ,
mot2 = knet_open( "Khepera3:mot2" ,
handle in their respective pointers */
, KNET_BUS_I2C , 0 , NULL );
KNET_BUS_I2C , 0 , NULL );
KNET_BUS_I2C , 0 , NULL );
/* initialize the motor controler 1 */
kmot_SetMode( mot1 , kMotModeIdle );
kmot_SetSampleTime( mot1 , 1550 );
kmot_SetMargin( mot1 , 6 );
kmot_SetOptions( mot1 , 0x0 , kMotSWOptWindup | kMotSWOptStopMotorBlk
| kMotSWOptDirectionInv );
kmot_ResetError( mot1 );
kmot_SetBlockedTime( mot1 , 10);
kmot_ConfigurePID( mot1 , kMotRegSpeed , 620 , 3 , 10 );
kmot_ConfigurePID( mot1 ,kMotRegPos,600,20,30);
kmot_SetSpeedProfile(mot1 ,15000,30);
/* initialize the motor controler 2 */
kmot_SetMode( mot2 , kMotModeIdle );
kmot_SetSampleTime( mot2 , 1550 );
kmot_SetMargin( mot2 , 6 );
kmot_SetOptions( mot2 , 0x0 , kMotSWOptWindup | kMotSWOptStopMotorBlk );
kmot_ResetError( mot2 );
kmot_SetBlockedTime( mot2 , 10);
kmot_ConfigurePID( mot2 , kMotRegSpeed , 620 , 3 , 10 );
kmot_ConfigurePID( mot2 ,kMotRegPos,600,20,30);
kmot_SetSpeedProfile(mot2 ,15000,30);
// get revision
if(kh3_revision((char *)Buffer, dsPic)){
version=(Buffer[1] | Buffer[2]<<8);
revision=(Buffer[3] | Buffer[4]<<8);
printf("\r\n%c,%4.4u,%4.4u => Version = %u, Revision = %u\r\n",
Buffer[0],version ,revision,version ,revision);
// change motor speed and position factor
if (version <3)
{
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6. Robot programming
pulsestomm=PULSE_TO_MM_FIRMWARE_S_3;
mmstospeed=MM_S_TO_SPEED_FIRMWARE_S_3;
}
else
{
pulsestomm=PULSE_TO_MM_FIRMWARE_BE_3;
mmstospeed=MM_S_TO_SPEED_FIRMWARE_BE_3;
}
}
// get battery voltage
if(kh3_battery_voltage((char *)Buffer, 0, dsPic)){
printf("\r\n%c,%3.3u,%3.3u => battery voltage = %u.%uV\r\n",
Buffer[0], (Buffer[1] | Buffer[2]<<8), (Buffer[3] | Buffer[4]<<8),
(Buffer[1] | Buffer[2]<<8), (Buffer[3] | Buffer[4]<<8));
}
/* For ever loop */
while(1)
{
/* Wait 2 seconds */
sleep(2);
// move forward
// read old encoder position
lpos = kmot_GetMeasure(mot1, kMotRegPos);
rpos = kmot_GetMeasure(mot2, kMotRegPos);
fpos = 20.0*10.0/pulsestomm;
printf("\nMoving forward %.1f cm in %.1f pulses with position control\
(encoders: left %ld | right%ld)\n",20.0,fpos,lpos+(long)fpos,rpos+(long)fpos);
/* tell motor controllers to move K3 forward, using speed and accel profile */
kmot_SetPoint(mot1, kMotRegPosProfile, lpos+(long)fpos);
kmot_SetPoint(mot2, kMotRegPosProfile, rpos+(long)fpos);
/* Wait 5 seconds */
printf("\n wait 10s \n");
sleep(10);
/* Tell to the motor controller to move the Khepera III backward */
Khepera III manual ver 3.5
38
6. Robot programming
motspeed= (long)(-40.0*mmstospeed);
kmot_SetPoint( mot1 , kMotRegSpeed , motspeed );
kmot_SetPoint( mot2 , kMotRegSpeed , motspeed );
printf("\nMoving backward %.1f cm at %.1f mm/s (internal speed %d) with\
speed control\n",20.0,40.0,motspeed);
/* Wait 5 seconds */
sleep(5);
/* Tell to the motor controller to stop the Khepera III
kmot_SetPoint( mot1 , kMotRegSpeed , 0 );
kmot_SetPoint( mot2 , kMotRegSpeed , 0 );
*/
/* Wait 5 seconds */
sleep(5);
// get ir sensor
if(kh3_proximity_ir((char *)Buffer, dsPic))
{
for (i=0;i<11;i++)
{
sensors[i]=(Buffer[i*2+1] | Buffer[i*2+2]<<8);
n=(int)(sensors[i]/4096.0*IR_BAR_LEN);
if (n==0)
sprintf(bar[i],"|\33[%dC>|",IR_BAR_LEN-1);
else
if (n>=IR_BAR_LEN-1)
sprintf(bar[i],"|>\33[%dC|",IR_BAR_LEN-1);
else
sprintf(bar[i],"|\33[%dC>\33[%dC|",IR_BAR_LEN-1-n,n);
}
printf("\n
%s\nleft 90
: %4.4u
%s\nfront right : %4.4u
%s\nback right : %4.4u
%s\nbottom left : %4.4u
sensors[0],bar[0],
sensors[2],bar[2],
near
far\nback left
:
%s\nleft 45
: %4.4u %s\nfront left :
%s\nright 45
: %4.4u %s\nright 90
:
%s\nback
: %4.4u %s\nbottom right:
%s\ntime stamp : %lu\r\n",
sensors[1],bar[1],
sensors[3],bar[3],
Khepera III manual ver 3.5
39
%4.4u\
%4.4u\
%4.4u\
%4.4u\
6. Robot programming
sensors[4],bar[4], sensors[5],bar[5],
sensors[6],bar[6], sensors[7],bar[7],
sensors[8], bar[8], sensors[9], bar[9],sensors[10], bar[10],
((Buffer[19] | Buffer[20]<<8) | (Buffer[21] | Buffer[22]<<8)<<16));
}
// configure us sensors
index=0;
value=31; // all us sensors active
if(kh3_configure_os((char *)Buffer, index, value, dsPic))
printf("\r\n US sensors configured.\r\n");
else
printf("\r\nconfigure OS error!\r\n");
// get and print us sensors
for (i=0;i<5;i++)
{
if(kh3_measure_us((char *)Buffer, i+1, dsPic))
{
usvalues[i] = (Buffer[0*8+3] | Buffer[0*8+4]<<8);
}
else
printf("\r\ng, error...");
}
printf("US sensors : distance [cm]\nleft 90
: %3d\nleft 45
: %3d \
\nfront
: %3d\nright 45 : %3d\nright 90 : %3d\n",
usvalues[0],usvalues[1],usvalues[2],usvalues[3],usvalues[4]);
} // while
}
This source code can be cross-compiled using arm-angstrom-linux-gnueabigcc which supports most standard gcc options. Open a terminal in your development folder as installed with the toolchain (see Korebot 2 User manual,
chapter 4.2.2). Then run the following commands:
source env.sh
Khepera III manual ver 3.5
40
6. Robot programming
arm-angstrom-linux-gnueabi-gcc kh3test.c -o k3test
-I $INCPATH -L $LIBPATH -lkorebot
-L $LIBKOREBOT\_ROOT/build-korebot-2.6/lib -lkorebot
The last command with arm-angstrom-linux-gnueabi-gcc is in one
line, ending with -lkorebot.
An kh3test executable file should be created, that can be executed on
the KoreBot II, or eventually another arm-linux machine.
To execute the program, simply copy kh3test to the nfs shared directory, then execute it from a KoreBot II terminal. If the shared directory is
mounted on the default /mnt/nfs, first change working directory:
cd /mnt/nfs
Then check that kh3test is present:
ls -l
And execute it:
./k3test
6.3
Functions available
The functions available for the Khepera III are listed below. They are a
subset of the libkorebot library. The whole API description can be found
there:
http://ftp.k-team.com/KorebotII/software/common/libkorebot/api/
html/index.html.
For the include files, you just to use this one: #include <korebot/korebot.h>.
Below the functions are described. The function names starting with
kh3 are coming from kb khepera3.h and the other starting with kmot
are coming from kmot.h of the korebot library.
6.3.1
kh3 init
Call:
Function:
Parameter:
Return:
int kh3 init (void)
initializes some things like the GPIO40 pin. This function
needs to be called BEFORE any other functions.
none
<0 on error ; 0 on success
Khepera III manual ver 3.5
41
6. Robot programming
6.3.2
kh3 configure os
Call:
int kh3 configure os (char *outbuf, unsigned char index, unsigned char value, knet dev t *hDev)
configures the current firmware operation mode. a configuration array is used by the khepera3 to decide its mode of
operation.
Function:
Parameters:
Return:
6.3.3
- outbuf is a buffer where the data will be stored on.
- index is the index pointing one of the configuration
word in the config array. See paragraph ” C Configure
the current firmware operation” in Annexes for details.
- value is the value to store in the configuration array.
See paragraph ” C Configure the current firmware operation” in Annexes for details.
- hDev is a handle to an opened knet socket (Khepera3:dsPic).
<0 on error, ≥ 0 on success (returns should be the size of
frame).
kh3 proximity ir
Call:
Function:
Parameters:
Return:
int kh3 proximity ir (char *outbuf, knet dev t *hDev)
retrieves an instant IR measure.
- outbuf is a buffer where the data will be stored on.
Where the sensor[i] = (outbuf [i ∗ 2 + 1]|outbuf [i ∗ 2 +
2] << 8) ; i is [0..10], in the sensor order: back left, left
90,left 45, front left, front right, right 45,right 90, back
right, back, ground right, ground left. A time stamp
can be obtained with: ((outbuf[19] — outbuf[20]¡¡8)
— (outbuf[21] — outbuf[22]¡¡8)¡¡16).
- hDev is a handle to an opened knet socket (Khepera3:dsPic).
<0 on error, ≥ 0 on success (returns should be the size of
frame).
Khepera III manual ver 3.5
42
6. Robot programming
6.3.4
kh3 ambiant ir
Call:
Function:
Parameters:
Return:
int kh3 ambiant ir (char *outbuf, knet dev t *hDev)
retrieves an instant IR measure.
- outbuf is a buffer where the data will be stored on.
Where the sensor[i] = (outbuf [i ∗ 2 + 1]|outbuf [i ∗ 2 +
2] << 8) ; i is [0..10], in the sensor order: back left, left
90,left 45, front left, front right, right 45,right 90, back
right, back, ground right, ground left. A time stamp
can be obtained with: ((outbuf [19]|outbuf [20] <<
8)|(outbuf [21]|outbuf [22] << 8) << 16).
- hDev is a handle to an opened knet socket (Khepera3:dsPic).
<0 on error, ≥ 0 on success (returns should be the size of
frame).
Khepera III manual ver 3.5
43
6. Robot programming
6.3.5
kh3 battery voltage
Call:
Function:
Parameters:
int kh3 battery voltage (char *outbuf, unsigned char argument , knet dev t *hDev )
retrieves the actual battery voltage.
- outbuf is a buffer where the data will be stored on.
- argument parameter of the command:
- 0: Read the voltage of the battery (Units: 1V ,
0.1mV).
- 1: Read the current of the battery (Units: 1A,
0.1mA).
- 2: Read the battery Average Current (Units: 1A,
0.1mA).
- 3: Read the battery Absolute Remaining Capacity (Units: 1mAh).
- 4: Read the Temperature of the battery (Units:
1 C, 0.1 C).
- 5: Read the battery Relative Remaining Capacity
(Units: %).
- hDev is a handle to an opened knet socket (Khepera3:dsPic).
Return:
6.3.6
<0 on error, ≥ 0 on success (returns should be the size of
frame).
kh3 reset tstamp
Call:
Function:
Parameters:
Return:
int kh3 reset tstamp (char *outbuf, knet dev t *hDev)
resets the absolute timestamp.
- outbuf is a buffer where the data will be stored on. in
this case the only answer to expect is z, which is a ack.
- hDev is a handle to an opened knet socket (Khepera3:dsPic).
<0 on error, ≥ 0 on success (returns should be the size of
frame).
Khepera III manual ver 3.5
44
6. Robot programming
6.3.7
kh3 revision
Call:
Function:
Parameters:
Return:
6.3.8
int kh3 revision (char *outbuf, knet dev t *hDev)
retrieves the current OS version/revision.
- outbuf is a buffer where the data will be stored on.
- hDev is a handle to an opened knet socket (Khepera3:dsPic).
<0 on error, ≥ 0 on success (returns should be the size of
frame).
kh3 measure us
Call:
Function:
Parameters:
Return:
int kh3 measure us(char *outbuf, unsigned char usnbr,
knet dev t *hDev)
retrieves measure from a given US transmitter.
- outbuf is a buffer where the data will be stored on.
- usnbr is a number of the us to read ( 1 to 5 ).
- hDev is a handle to an opened knet socket (Khepera3:dsPic).
<0 on error, ≥ 0 on success (returns should be the size of
frame).
Normally an end user don’t want to use these two functions below as
they are assumed as ”low level functions”:
Khepera III manual ver 3.5
45
6. Robot programming
6.3.9
kh3 getcommand
Call:
Function:
Parameter:
int kh3 getcommand (knet dev t *hDev, unsigned char
*out)
gets a command frame from a given khepera3 device.
- hDev is a handle to an opened knet socket (Khepera3:dsPic).
- out is a pointer to a buffer where the command frame
will be stored on.
Return:
6.3.10
<0 on error, ≥ 0 on success (returns should be the size of
frame).
kh3 sendcommand
Call:
Function:
Parameter:
int kh3 sendcommand (knet dev t *hDev, unsigned char
*in)
sets a command frame to a given khepera3 device.
- hDev is a handle to an opened knet socket (Khepera3:dsPic).
- in is a pointer to a buffer where the command frame
to be sent is stored on..
Return:
6.3.11
<0 on error, ≥ 0 on success (returns should be the size of
frame).
kmot SetMode
Call:
Function:
Parameter:
void kmot SetMode (knet dev t *hDev, int mode)
sets a command frame to a given khepera3 device.
- hDev is a handle to an opened knet socket (Khepera3:dsPic).
- mode mode type; should be kMotModeIdle for normal
usage.
Return:
nothing.
Khepera III manual ver 3.5
46
6. Robot programming
6.3.12
kmot SetSampleTime
Call:
Function:
Parameter:
void kmot SetSampleTime (knet dev t *hDev, int sample)
sets the sample time for the motor control.
- hDev is a handle to an opened knet socket (Khepera3:dsPic).
- sample time for the motor control (should be 1550 by
default).
Return:
6.3.13
nothing.
kmot SetMargin
Call:
Function:
Parameter:
void kmot SetMargin (knet dev t *hDev, int margin)
sets the margin for position control.
- hDev is a handle to an opened knet socket (Khepera3:dsPic).
- margin +/- margin for position (should be 6 by default).
Return:
6.3.14
nothing.
kmot SetOptions
Call:
Function:
Parameter:
void kmot SetOptions (knet dev t *hDev, int hwOptions ,
int swOptions )
sets the options for the motor control.
- hDev is a handle to an opened knet socket (Khepera3:dsPic).
- hwOptions hardware flag; should be by 0 by default.
- swOptions software; should be (kMotSWOptWindup
|kMotSWOptStopMotorBlk) by default.
Return:
nothing.
Khepera III manual ver 3.5
47
6. Robot programming
6.3.15
kmot ResetError
Call:
Function:
Parameter:
void kmot ResetError (knet dev t *hDev)
reset the motor.
- hDev is a handle to an opened knet socket (Khepera3:dsPic).
Return:
6.3.16
nothing.
kmot SetBlockedTime
Call:
Function:
Parameter:
void kmot SetBlockedTime (knet dev t *hDev, int time)
set the motor blicked time.
- hDev is a handle to an opened knet socket (Khepera3:dsPic).
- time time before detecting that the motor is blocked;
by default: 10.
Return:
6.3.17
nothing.
kmot ConfigurePID
Call:
Function:
Parameter:
void kmot ConfigurePID( knet dev t *hDev,int regtype ,
int16 t Kp , int16 t Kd , int16 t Ki )
configure the motor PID.
- hDev is a handle to an opened knet socket (Khepera3:dsPic).
- regtype kMotRegSpeed for speed control, kMotRegPos
for position control.
- Kp proportional factor (default speed / position : 620
/ 600).
- Kd derivative factor (default speed / position : 3 /
20).
- Ki integral factor (default speed / position : 10 / 30).
Return:
nothing.
Khepera III manual ver 3.5
48
6. Robot programming
6.3.18
kmot SetSpeedProfile
Call:
Function:
Parameter:
void kmot SetSpeedProfile(knet dev t *hDev,int maxspeed
,int acceleration )
configure the motor speed profile.
- hDev is a handle to an opened knet socket (Khepera3:dsPic).
- maxspeed maximum speed to reach.
- acceleration to use.
Return:
6.3.19
nothing.
kmot SetPoint
Call:
Function:
Parameter:
void kmot SetPoint(knet dev t *hDev, int regtype , long setPoint )
set motor speed or position.
- hDev is a handle to an opened knet socket (Khepera3:dsPic).
- regtype type of regulation: kMotRegPosProfile for position using profile, kMotRegSpeed for speed.
- setPoint speed or position command to reach.
Return:
6.3.20
nothing.
kmot GetMeasure
Call:
Function:
Parameter:
long kmot GetMeasure(knet dev t *hDev, int regtype)
get motor speed or position.
- hDev is a handle to an opened knet socket (Khepera3:dsPic).
- regtype type of position to get: kMotRegPos for position, kMotRegSpeed for speed.
Return:
position or speed.
Khepera III manual ver 3.5
49
A Communication protocol
This communication protocol allows complete control of the robot functions
through a RS232 serial line. The required configuration is presented in
section 4.3. The serial line set-up on your host computer must match the
one set on the robot according to the chosen running mode.
The protocol is made of commands and responses, all in standard
ASCII codes. A command is sent from the host computer to the robot:
it is starting with an upper case character and followed, if necessary, with
numerical or literal parameters separated with comma and terminated by
a line feed. The response is sent by the robot to the host computer: it is
starting with the same character that was initiating the command but using
lower case, and followed, if necessary, with numerical or literal parameters
separated with comma and terminated by a line feed (\n) and a carriage
return (\r).
When a command ask for a value bigger than 8 bits (bigger than 255)
the following prefixes must be added:
- d : for a 16 bits value (smaller than 32768 and bigger or equal than
-32768)
- l : for a 32 bits value
- f : for a floating value
Example to set the Speed: D,l20000,l20000
To better understand this protocol, please refer to the following simple
test:
- Set the connection configuration presented in section 4.3.
- Start a terminal emulator on your host computer with the serial line
set to 115200 Baud, 8 bit data, 1 start bit, 1 stop bits, no parity.
- Type the capital letter B followed by a carriage return or a line feed.
- The robot must respond with b followed by an indication of the version
of software running on the robot and terminated by a line feed.
- Type the capital letter N followed by a carriage return or a line feed.
- The robot must respond with n followed by 11 numbers separated by
a comma and terminated by a line feed. These numbers are the values
of the proximity sensors presents on the robots.
- Retry the same command (N) putting some obstacles on the front of
the robot. The response must change.
- Try other commands...
Khepera III manual ver 3.5
50
A. Communication protocol
A
Start Braitenberg mode
Command:
Answer:
Effect:
Syntax:
B
A, mode (8 bits)
a
Start the Braitenberg mode with the Infrared sensor (mode
= 0) or with the ultrasonic sensor (mode = 1). To stop the
Baintenberg mode, send the A,2 command.
A,0
Read software version
Command:
Answer:
Effect:
C
B
b, version of BIOS, revision of BIOS
Give the software version stored in the robot’s EEPROM.
Configure the current firmware operation
Command:
Answer:
Effect:
Syntax:
Index
0
C, array index(8bits), array value(16bits)
c
Configure the actual firmware state. The configuration array
is to be seen as a table. Each line in the table means a
parameter and a value may be associated with.
C,0,d3
Default Value
0b00000100
1
2
3
4
3
0
0
0xFFFF
5
6
12
1
Description:
Decide how many US sensor will be active. See
the table bellow for supported configurations.
Decide the maximum echo numbers.
Not Used.
Not used.
IR sensor mask, manage the active IR sensor
(bit0 = IR0, bit1 = IR1, etc...).
IR gain for Braintenberg.
Upper body mounted. If the upper body isn’t
mounted, change this value to 0 to get better
US measure.
Khepera III manual ver 3.5
51
A. Communication protocol
The supported US sensors configuration are listed in the following table.
Mask
NONE
US1ONLY
US2ONLY
US3ONLY
US4ONLY
US5ONLY
US1TO2
US2TO3
US3TO4
US4TO5
US1TO3
US2TO4
US3TO5
US1TO4
US2TO5
USALL
D
Decimal
0
1
2
4
8
16
3
6
12
24
7
14
28
15
30
31
Description:
None of the US sensor.
Only the US sensor 1.
Only the US sensor 2.
Only the US sensor 3.
Only the US sensor 4.
Only the US sensor 5.
US sensor 1 to 2.
US sensor 2 to 3.
US sensor 3 to 4.
US sensor 4 to 5.
US sensor 1 to 3.
US sensor 2 to 4.
US sensor 3 to 5.
US sensor 1 to 4.
US sensor 2 to 5.
All US sensors.
Set speed
Command:
Answer:
Effect:
Syntax:
E
Binary
0b00000000
0b00000001
0b00000010
0b00000100
0b00001000
0b00010000
0b00000011
0b00000110
0b00001100
0b00011000
0b00000111
0b00001110
0b00011100
0b00001111
0b00011110
0b00011111
D, speed motor left (32bits), speed motor right (32bits)
d
Set the speed of the two motors. See in section 3.2.3 to
calculate the equivalent Speed.
D,l20000,l20000
Read speed
Command:
Answer:
Effect:
Example:
E
e, speed motor left, speed motor right
Read the instantaneous speed of the two motors. See in
section 3.2.3 to calculate the equivalent Speed.
e,20000,20000
Khepera III manual ver 3.5
52
A. Communication protocol
F
Set Target Profile
Command:
Answer:
Effect:
Syntax:
G
Get a measure from the US peripheral
Command:
Answer:
Effect:
Syntax:
Example:
H
G, US number (8bits)
g, EchoNbr, Dist1, Ampl1,Time1,Dist2,Ampl2, Time2,
Dist3, Ampl3, Time3, Dist4, Ampl4, Time4, Dist5, Ampl5,
Time5, Noise
Retrieve US measures (distance in [cm] and time in [ms])
from a given sensor number. The sensor number is supposed
to be 1 to 5.
G,3
g,1,27,2900,100000,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,1800
Configure the PID controler
Command:
Answer:
Effect:
Syntax:
I
F,
target position motor left
(32bits),
target position motor right (32bits)
f
Set a position to be reached. The move will be performed
with three phase, a acceleration to reach the maximum
speed, a constant speed and a deceleration phase before the
finish position. The unit is the pulse, each one corresponds
to 0,047 mm with old firmware, 0.031 mm with new firmware
(with encoder resolution x4 (default); see section 3.2.3).
F,l1000,l1000
H, T (16bits), Kp (16bits), Ki (16bits), Kd (16bits)
h
Set the proportional (Kp), the integral (Ki) and the derivative (Kd) parameters of the T regulator where T can be 0
(speed controler) or 1 (position controler).
H,d1,d200,d5,d10
Set position
Command:
Answer:
Effect:
Syntax:
I, position motor left (32bits), position motor right (32bits)
i
Set the 32 bit position counter of the two motors. The unit
is the pulse, each one corresponds to 0,047 mm with old
firmware, 0.031 mm with new firmware (with encoder resolution x4 (default); see section 3.2.3).
I,l1000,l1000
Khepera III manual ver 3.5
53
A. Communication protocol
J
Configure the speed profile controller
Command:
Answer:
Effect:
Syntax:
K
Set Programmable Led
Command:
Answer:
Effect:
Syntax:
L
K, LED (8bits), State (8bits)
k
Set the state of the two Programmable Leds ( see section
3.1.3, Led 5 & 6). LED select which one must be set (0 =
led 5, 1 = Led 6).
State select the operation (0 = OFF, 1 = ON, 2 = Change
state).
K,0,1
Set speed open loop
Command:
Answer:
Effect:
Syntax:
M
J, max speed (16bits), acceleration (8bits)
j
Set the speed and the acceleration for the trapezoidal speed
shape of the position controller. The max speed parameter
indicates the maximal speed reached during the displacement. See section 3.2.3 for more details. At the reset, these
parameters are set to standard values: max speed to 20000,
acc to 64.
J,d15000,10
L, speed motor left (32bits), speed motor right (32bits)
l
Set the speed of the two motors without a PID controller.
Where a value of 1023 correspond to PWM of 100%.
L,l500,l500
Init Motors
Command:
Answer:
Effect:
M
m
Initialise or reset the motor controllers. Must be used if an
error like motor blocked or current limit occured
Khepera III manual ver 3.5
54
A. Communication protocol
N
Read proximity sensors
Command:
Answer:
Effect:
O
Read ambient light sensors
Command:
Answer:
Effect:
P
O
n,val sens back left,
val sens left 90,
val sens left 45,
val sens front left, val sens front right, val sens right 45,
val sens right 90,
val sens back right,
val sens back,
val sens ground right, val sens ground left, time stamp
Read the 12 bit values of the 11 light sensors (section 3.3.1),
from the front left sensor turning clockwise to the back-left
sensor. The last argument is the relative time stamp of the
measure in [ms].
Set Target Position
Command:
Answer:
Effect:
Syntax:
Q
N
n,val sens back left,
val sens left 90,
val sens left 45,
val sens front left, val sens front right, val sens right 45,
val sens right 90,
val sens back right,
val sens back,
val sens ground right, val sens ground left, time stamp
Read the 12 bit values of the 11 proximity sensors. The last
argument is the relative time stamp of the measure in [ms].
(section 3.3), from the front sensor situated at the left of the
robot, turning clockwise to the back-left sensor.
P,
target position motor left
(32bits),
target position motor right (32bits)
p
Set a position to be reached. The move will be performed
without acceleration and deceleration. The unit is the pulse,
each one corresponds to 0,047 mm with old firmware, 0.031
mm with new firmware (with encoder resolution x4 (default); see section 3.2.3).
P,l1000,l1000
Reserved
Khepera III manual ver 3.5
55
A. Communication protocol
R
Read position
Command:
Answer:
Effect:
R
r, position motor left, position motor right
Read the 32 bit position counter of the two motors. The
unit is the pulse, each one corresponds to 0,047 mm with
old firmware, 0.031 mm with new firmware (with encoder
resolution x4 (default); see section 3.2.3).
S
Reserved
T
Reserved
U
Enter the serial boot loader mode
Command:
Answer:
Effect:
V
Get Battery State
Command:
Answer:
Effect:
W
U
u
Switch to the firmware upgrade mode. Be careful, not to
upload a bad hex file into the dsPic memory space. If the
dsPic memory is corrupted, an external programmer will be
required to reflash the memory.
Do not turn off or reset the KheperaIII when the uploader
mode running. This will corrupt the dsPic memory. If you
have run the mode by mistake, wait until the timeout occurs
(5-7 seconds).
V
v, battery measure unit, battery measure decimal
0: Read the voltage of the battery (Units: 1V , 0.1mV) .
1: Read the current of the battery (Units: 1A, 0.1mA).
2: Read the battery Average Current (Units: 1A, 0.1mA).
3: Read the battery Absolute Remaining Capacity (Units:
1mAh).
4: Read the Temperature of the battery (Units: 1 C, 0.1 C).
5: Read the battery Relative Remaining Capacity (Units:
%).
Reserved
Khepera III manual ver 3.5
56
A. Communication protocol
X
Binary read
Command:
Answer:
Effect:
X
65 bytes: 1 byte ’x’ char, 22 bytes proximity sensor, 22 bytes
proximity ambient light sensor, 8 bytes motor speed, 8 bytes
motor position, 4 bytes time stamp, 1 byte line feed (\n), 1
byte carriage return (\r)
read sensors in binary mode
Y
Unused
Z
Zero the relative time stamp
Command:
Answer:
Effect:
Z
z
Reset the relative time counter.
Khepera III manual ver 3.5
57
B Warranty
K-TEAM warrants that the Khepera III is free from defects in materials
and workmanship and in conformity with the respective specifications of
the product for the minimal legal duration, respectively one year from the
date of delivery.
Upon discovery of a defect in materials, workmanship or failure to
meet the specifications in the Product during the afore mentioned period,
Customer must request help on K-Team Internet forum on
(http://www.k-team.com/forum/) by detailing:
- the version of the Khepera III
- the programming environment of the Korebot II if mounted (standard,
version, OS)
- the standard use of Product before the appearance of the problem
- the description of the problem.
If no answers have been received within two working days, Customer
can contact K-TEAM support by phone or by electronic mail with the full
reference of its order and Korebot II serial number.
K-TEAM shall then, at K-TEAM’s sole discretion, either repair such
Product or replace it with the equivalent product without charging any
technical labor fee and repair parts cost to Customer, on the condition that
Customer brings such Product to K-TEAM within the period mentioned
before. In case of repair or replacement, K-TEAM may own all the parts
removed from the defective Product. K-TEAM may use new and/or reconditioned parts made by various manufacturers in performing warranty repairs
and replacement of the Product. Even if K-TEAM repairs or replaces the
Product, its original warranty term is not extended.
This limited warranty is invalid if the factory-applied serial number has
been altered or removed from the Product.
This limited warranty covers only the hardware and software components contained in the Product. It does not cover technical assistance for
hardware or software usage and it does not cover any software products
contained in the Product. K-TEAM excludes all warranties expressed or
implied in respect of any additional software provided with Product and
Khepera III manual ver 3.5
58
B. Warranty
any such software is provided ”AS IS” unless expressly provided for in any
enclosed software limited warranty. Please refer to the End User License
Agreements included with the Product for your rights with regard to the
licensor or supplier of the software parts of the Product and the parties’
respective obligations with respect to the software.
This limited warranty is non-transferable.
It is likely that the contents of Customer’s flash memory will be lost or
reformatted in the course of the service and K-TEAM will not be responsible
for any damage to or loss of any programs, data or other information stored
on any media or any part of the Product serviced hereunder or damage or
loss arising from the Product not being available for use before, during or
after the period of service provided or any indirect or consequential damages
resulting therefore.
IF DURING THE REPAIR OF THE PRODUCT THE CONTENTS
OF THE FLASH MEMORY ARE ALTERED, DELETED, OR IN ANY
WAY MODIFIED, K-TEAM IS NOT RESPONSIBLE WHATEVER. CUSTOMER’S PRODUCT WILL BE RETURNED TO CUSTOMER CONFIGURED AS ORIGINALLY PURCHASED (SUBJECT TO AVAILABILITY OF SOFTWARE).
Be sure to remove all third parties’ hardware, software, features, parts,
options, alterations, and attachments not warranted by K-TEAM prior to
Product service. K-TEAM is not responsible for any loss or damage to these
items.
This warranty is limited as set out herein and does not cover, any consumable items (such as batteries) supplied with the Product; any accessory
products which is not contained in the Product; cosmetic damages; damage
or loss to any software programs, data, or removable storage media; or damage due to (1) acts of God, accident, misuse, abuse, negligence, commercial
use or modifications of the Product; (2) improper operation or maintenance
of the Product; (3) connection to improper voltage supply; or (4) attempted
repair by any party other than a K-TEAM authorized module service facility.
This limited warranty does not apply when the malfunction results
from the use of the Product in conjunction with any accessories, products
or ancillary or peripheral equipment, or where it is determined by K-Team
that there is no fault with the Product itself.
K-TEAM EXPRESSLY DISCLAIMS ALL OTHER WARRANTIES
THAN STATED HEREINBEFORE, EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDKhepera III manual ver 3.5
59
B. Warranty
ING WITHOUT LIMITATION IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE TO THE FULLEST
EXTENT PERMITTED BY LAW.
Limitation of Liability: IN NO EVENT SHALL EITHER PARTY
BE LIABLE TO THE OTHER FOR ANY INDIRECT, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES RESULTING FROM PERFORMANCE OR FAILURE TO PERFORM UNDER THE CONTRACT,
OR FROM THE FURNISHING, PERFORMANCE OR USE OF ANY
GOODS OR SERVICE SOLD OR PROVIDED PURSUANT HERETO,
WHETHER DUE TO A BREACH OF CONTRACT, BREACH OF WARRANTY, NEGLIGENCE, OR OTHERWISE. SAVE THAT NOTHING HEREIN
SHALL LIMIT EITHER PARTY’S LIABILITY FOR DEATH OR PERSONAL INJURY ARISING FROM ITS NEGLIGENCE, NEITHER PARTY
SHALL HAVE ANY LIABILITY TO THE OTHER FOR INDIRECT OR
PUNITIVE DAMAGES OR FOR ANY CLAIM BY ANY THIRD PARTY
EXCEPT AS EXPRESSLY PROVIDED HEREIN.
Khepera III manual ver 3.5
60
K-Team SA
chemin des Plans-Praz
CH-1337 Vallorbe
Switzerland
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