Image scaling arrangement

Image scaling arrangement
US008200629B2
(12) United States Patent
Marriott et al.
(54)
(56)
IMAGE SCALING ARRANGEMENT
Jun. 12, 2012
References Cited
U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS
(75) Inventors: Greg Marriott, Honolulu, HI (US);
4,090,216
4,386,345
4,451,849
4,589,022
4,908,523
Jesse Boettcher, San Jose, CA (US);
Thomas Dowdy, Sunnyvale, CA (US);
David Heller, Los Altos, CA (US); Jeff
Miller, Mountain View, CA (US);
Jeffrey L. Robbin, Los Altos, CA (US)
A
A
A
A
A
4,928,307 A
4,951,171
5,406,305
5,559,945
5,583,993
5,608,698
(73) Assignee: Apple Inc., Cupertino, CA (US)
Notice:
US 8,200,629 B2
(10) Patent N0.:
(45) Date of Patent:
Subject to any disclaimer, the term of this
patent is extended or adjusted under 35
A
A
A
A
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Prior Publication Data
US 2009/0216814 A1
Aug. 27, 2009
(Continued)
Related US. Application Data
(63)
(51)
Continuation of application No. 11/749,599, ?led on
May 16, 2007, noW Pat. No. 7,565,036, Which is a
continuation of application No. 10/973,657, ?led on
Oct. 25, 2004, noW Pat. No. 7,433,546.
(52)
(2006.01)
(2006.01)
device may automatically and/ or selectively be transferred to
US. Cl. . 707/638; 707/695; 707/770; 707/E17.102;
709/217; 709/221; 709/248; 725/116; 725/117
(58)
(74) Attorney, Agent, or Firm * Womble Carlyle Sandridge
& Rice LLP
(57)
ABSTRACT
Methods and system for transferring images between devices
is disclosed. For example, differently scaled images by a host
Int. Cl.
G06F 7/00
G06F 1 7/00
Primary Examiner * Phong Nguyen
Assistant Examiner * Anh Ly
Field of Classi?cation Search ................ .. 707/770,
707/638, 695, 913, 915, E17.102; 709/217,
709/221, 248; 725/8, 54, 116, 117, 135
a media player for display. In turn, appropriately scaled
images may be transferred automatically and/or selectively to
another display device for example a TV, camera or printer.
The selectivity may occur either at the host level or at the
player level.
See application ?le for complete search history.
15 Claims, 9 Drawing Sheets
300 N
302
RECEIVE DOWNLOAD REQUEST
CREATE DATABASE ENTRY FOR /
EACH IMAGE TO BE DOWNLOADED
306
COPY DATABASE ENTRY
308
CREATE IMAGE COLECTION
COPY IMAGE COLLECTION
J
UPDATE DATABASE ENTRY
J
US 8,200,629 B2
Page2
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Musicmatch Jukebox,” May 18, 1998, http://www.musicmatch.com/
Aug. 13, 2001, http://db.tidbits.com/getbits.acgi?tbart:06521.
http://db.tidbits.com/getbits.acgi?tbart:06261.
Waterproof Music Player with FM Radio and Pedometer User
Manual, Oregon Scienti?c, 2005.
Written Opinion dated Dec. 5, 2007 in PCT Application No. PCT/
US2007/004810.
Written Opinion in Patent Application No. PCT/US2006/048738
dated Jan. 29, 2008.
Written Opinion in Patent Application No. PCT/US2007/076889
dated Jan. 28, 2008.
Written Opinion in Patent Application No. PCT/US2007/077020
dated Jan. 28, 2008.
Written Opinion of the International Searching Authority dated Nov.
24, 2006 in PCT Application No. PCT/US2005/046797.
Of?ce Action dated Apr. 3, 2009 from Japanese Application No.
2007-538196.
Notice ofAllowance dated Jan. 8, 2009 in US. Appl. No. 11/749,599.
Of?ce Action dated Mar. 27, 2009 from Chinese Application No.
2005-80036581-3.
“Creative liefert erstes Portable Media Center aus”, www.golem.de/
0409/3334.html, Feb. 29, 2004.
Of?ce Action dated Apr. 16, 2009 in US. Appl. No. 12/145,362.
Of?ce Action dated Mar. 9, 2011 in EP Application No. 058242967.
Notice of Allowance dated Oct. 21, 2010 in US. Appl. No.
12/ 577,677.
US. Of?ce Action dated Jul. 9, 2010 in US. Appl. No. 12/577,677.
EP Application No. EP 05 824 296.7 2223, Decision to Refuse a
European Patent Application issued Oct. 26, 2011.
European Search Report dated Dec. 28, 2011 for EP Patent Applica
info/company/press/releases/?year:1998&release:2.
tion No. 101827947.
Nonhoff-Arps, et al., “StraBenmusik Portable MP3-Spieler mit USB
Anschluss,” CT MagaZin Fuer Computer Technik, Verlag HeinZ
tion No. 101826683.
Heise GMBH, Hannover DE, No. 25, Dec. 4, 2000.
NutZel et al., “Sharing Systems for Future HiFi Systems”, The Com
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Of?ce Action Dated Feb. 1, 2008 in US. Appl. No. 11/327,544.
European Search Report dated Dec. 28, 2011 for EP Patent Applica
European Search Report dated Dec. 28, 2011 for EP Patent Applica
tion No. 101825933.
* cited by examiner
US. Patent
Jun. 12, 2012
US 8,200,629 B2
Sheet 1 of9
100“
RECEIVE IMAGE DOWNLOAD
REQUEST AT HOST DEVICE
I
PRODUCE IMAGE COLLECTION FOR
EACH REQUESTED IMAGE AT A
HOST DEVICE
II
SEND IMAGE COLLECTION FOR
EACH REQUESTED IMAGE TO
MEDIA DEVICE
104
106
FIG. 1
202
STORE IMAGE DATA
204
RECEIVE DISPLAY COMMAND
II
206
RETRIEVE DESIGNATED IMAGES
I
OUTPUT ONE OR MORE OF
RETRIEVED IMAGES
FIG. 2
208
US. Patent
Jun. 12, 2012
US 8,200,629 B2
Sheet 2 0f 9
302
RECEIVE DOWNLOAD REQUEST
I
304
CREATE DATABASE ENTRY FOR
EACH IMAGE TO BE DOWNLOADED
1
306
COPY DATABASE ENTRY
I
CREATE IMAGE COLECTION
I
COPY IMAGE COLLECTION
I
UPDATE DATABASE ENTRY
FIG. 3
308
US. Patent
Jun. 12, 2012
Sheet 4 of9
US 8,200,629 B2
400 w
402
UPLOAD IMAGES TO PC
J
I
404
STORE IMAGES ON PC
I
CONNECT MEDIA DEVICE TO PC
406
\_/
PRESENT IMAGES AND/OR IMAGE
IDENTIFIERS ON PC
408
V
I
410
GENERATE DOWNLOAD COMMAND \/
I
412
DETERMINE REQUIRED FORMATS \-/
I
414
CREATE NEW VERSIONS OF ORIGINAL IMAGE
N/
I
COPY AND STORE ORIGINAL IMAGE AND NEW
416
VERSIONS OF IMAGE ON MEDIA DEVICE
I
‘’
418
DISCONNECT MEDIA DEVICE FROM PC NJ
I
GENERATE DISPLAY COMMAND ON MEDIA DEVICE
420
J
RETRIEVE ONE OR MoRE IMAGES FROM STORAGE
BASED ON DISPLAY COMMAND
422
V
I
PRESENT ONE OR MORE RETRIEVED IMAGES
FIG. 6
424
\/
US. Patent
Jun. 12, 2012
US 8,200,629 B2
Sheet 5 0f 9
500
502
2
HOST COMPUTER
514%
T’
COMM.
MODULE
\
MANAGEMENT
MODULE
504
COMM.
2
\I 515
MODULE
506
PLAY
MODULE
Z
PLAY
MODULE
512 T
I Z524
MEDIA
DATABASE
M E DIA
DATABAS E
2510
522 o
MEDIA
STORE
MEDIA
STORE
508
MEDIA PLAYER
FIG. 7
520
US. Patent
Jun. 12, 2012
Sheet 6 of9
US 8,200,629 B2
600
f
610B
614
TV
USERINPUT
DEWCE
SPEAKER
6_Q_8_
610A
DISPLAY
CODEC
N 612
t
.692.
l
PROCESSOR
618
6121
NETWORK
INTERFACE
/ BUS
l
l
E
CACHE
616
Q
FILE
SYSTEM
(STORAGE DISK)
RAM
ROM
e22
620
FIG. 8
US. Patent
Jun. 12, 2012
Sheet 7 of9
US 8,200,629 B2
722 A&B
FIG. 9
US. Patent
Jun. 12, 2012
Sheet 8 of9
US 8,200,629 B2
NNw
.OEor
O.rZzFwPma DZwE
www
*
%
N5
nZwO_mELOI<Mw
US. Patent
Jun. 12, 2012
US 8,200,629 B2
Sheet 9 0f 9
Music
Photo
Extras
Photo Library
Album 1
Album 2
_Settings
Albumn
Shuffle Songs
K
852 Backlight
856
/Photo Settings
FIG. 11A
XT
'
CURRENT
860
FIG. 11C
FIG. 11D
864
FULL SCREEN
IMAGE
El.
TV SCREEN IMAGE
FIG. 11E
866 J
FIG. 11F
O
O
US 8,200,629 B2
1
2
IMAGE SCALING ARRANGEMENT
With a negative user experience, i.e., users may not like a
product that is sloW and Whose battery life is short.
Personal computers typically include softWare that helps
manage the handheld computing devices. The personal com
puter may include for example a photo management program
that helps transfer photos from the camera to the personal
computer. The photo management program may also alloW a
CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED
APPLICATIONS
This application is a continuation of and claims priority
under 35 U.S.C. §120 to US. patent application Ser. No.
11/749,599 entitled “IMAGE SCALING ARRANGE
MENT” ?led May 16, 2007, now US. Pat. No. 7,565,036 B2,
Which is a continuation of and claimed priority under 35
U.S.C. §120 to US. patent application Ser. No. 10/973,657
user to sort, store and catalog their images as Well as to
provide touch-up capabilities such as red eye reduction, black
and White conversion, image cropping and rotation. In some
cases, the cameras modify the original image by embedding
or storing thumbnail images inside the original image. The
entitled “IMAGE SCALING ARRANGEMENT” ?led Oct.
25, 2004, now US. Pat. No. 7,433,546 issued Oct. 7, 2008.
Ser. No. 10/973,657 is related to: (i) US. application Ser.
No. 10/973,925 entitled “MULTIPLE MEDIA TYPE SYN
photo management program uses the embedded thumbnail
images When importing the original image. For example, as
each photo is being imported, the photo management pro
gram may shoW the thumbnail image thereby relaying to the
user that the image is being imported.
In addition to photo management programs, the personal
computer may also include music management programs that
CHRONIZATION BETWEEN HOST COMPUTER AND
MEDIA DEVICE,” ?led Oct. 25, 2004, Which is hereby
incorporated herein by reference; (ii) US. Provisional Appli
cation No. 60/622,304, Oct. 25, 2004, and entitled “WIRE
LESS
SYNCHRONIZATION
BETWEEN
20
MEDIA
PLAYER AND HOST DEVICE,” Which is hereby incorpo
rated herein by reference; (iii) US. application Ser. No.
10/277,418, ?led Oct. 21, 2002, and entitled “INTELLI
GENT INTERACTION BETWEEN MEDIA PLAYER
may also alloW a user to sort, modify, store and catalog their
25
AND HOST COMPUTER,” Which is hereby incorporated
herein by reference; and (iv) US. application Ser. No. 10/ 1 18,
069, ?led Apr. 5, 2002, and entitled “INTELLIGENT SYN
30
erence.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
1. Field of the Invention
The present invention relates to portable media devices and
more particularly to data transfer With portable media
devices.
2. Description of the Related Art
The hand-held consumer electronics market is exploding,
and an increasing number of these products including for
music. More particularly, the music program may give the
user the ability to organize their music into playlists, edit ?le
information, record music, doWnload ?les to a music player,
purchase music over the Internet (World Wide Web), run a
visualizer to display the music in a visual form, and encode or
transcode music into different audio formats such as MP3,
CHRONIZATION OF MEDIA PLAYER WITH HOST
COMPUTER,” Which are hereby incorporated herein by ref
help transfer music from the personal computer to a music
player such as an MP3 music player. Like the photo manage
ment program their music, the music management program
35
AIFF, WAV, AAC, and ALE. Typically, music players only
understand a single music format. Therefore, the music man
agement program typically can to transcode the music stored
in the personal computer from one music format to the desired
music format of a music player.
In some cases, both the photo and music programs are
linked so that the images and music stored therein can be
played together. For example, the photo management pro
gram may alloW a user to produce slide shoWs that shoW
images to music. By Way of example, the photo management
40
program may correspond to iPhoto® and the music manage
ment program may correspond to iTunes®, both of Which are
example PDAs, music players, cellular phones, cameras, and
manufactured by and available from Apple Computer Inc. of
video games have increased their functionality to distance
Cupertino, Calif.
Synchronization operations have been conventionally per
themselves from their competitors. By Way of example, cel
lular phones have added PDA and camera functionality,
PDAs have added cellular phone and music player function
ality, music players have added PDA and video game func
tionality, etc. In the future, it is foreseeable that the function
ality of all these devices Will continue to merge into a single
device. As these products evolve, it is believed that many
45
tronic ?les or other resources. For example, these ?les or
other resources can pertain to text ?les, data ?les, calendar
appointments, emails, to-do lists, electronic rolodexes, etc.
50
design challenges Will be encountered.
Many hand-held computing devices Work hand in hand
With a personal computer. The personal computer typically
serves as a base to the portable hand-held computer device.
For example, because they are hand-held, they are typically a
55
portable extension of the personal computer. Like personal
computers, these highly portable devices typically include a
player can manually initiates synchronization for individual
tedious and time consuming for users. More recently, media
players have been able to be synchronized With a host com
puter When a bus connection over a cable is made. Here, the
60
complex operating systems as Well as smaller and less expen
sive processors that are sloWer than the processors used in
synchronization can be automatically initiated When the cable
is connected betWeen the ho st computer and the media player.
The iPod® offered by Apple Computer, Inc. of Cupertino,
personal computers. While this may be appropriate When the
devices operate normally, dif?culties arise When these hand
held computing devices are called upon to perform process
intensive tasks. The di?iculties include sloW responsiveness
and high poWer consumption. As a result, the user may be left
In the case of media players, such as MP3 players, ?les are
typically moved betWeen a host computer and a media player
through use of a drag and drop operation, like is convention
ally done With respect to copying of a data ?le from a Win
doWs desktop to a ?oppy disk. Hence, the user of the media
media items. As a consequence, synchronization tends to be
processor that operates to execute computer code and produce
and use data in conjunction With an operating system. Unlike
personal computers, hoWever, these devices typically use less
formed betWeen portable devices, such as Personal Digital
Assistants (PDAs) and host computers, to synchronize elec
Calif. has the capability to provide such synchronization over
a cable.
65
Thus, there is a continuing need for improved features for
connecting and transferring data betWeen media devices and
their hosts.
US 8,200,629 B2
3
4
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
FIG. 3 is a method of transferring image data betWeen a
host device and a portable media device, in accordance With
one embodiment of the present invention.
FIG. 4 is an exemplary diagram of a photo database ?le, in
accordance With one embodiment of the present invention.
FIGS. 5A-5F are diagrams of image set ?les, in accordance
With several embodiments of the present invention.
FIG. 6 is media method, in accordance With one embodi
ment of the present invention.
FIG. 7 is a block diagram of a media management system,
in accordance With one embodiment of the present invention.
FIG. 8 is a block diagram of a media player, in accordance
With one embodiment of the present invention.
The invention relates, in one embodiment, to a computing
device. The computing device includes at least a data storage
device for storing at least a plurality of media items, and a
media management module con?gured to at least (i) receive a
media request for at least one media item from a portable
media device; (ii) obtain information regarding characteris
tics for the portable media device; (iii) obtain, based on the
characteristics, a set of media items for each of the at least one
media item being requested by the media request; and (iv)
cause the set of media items to be sent to the portable media
device.
The invention relates, in another embodiment, to a com
puting device. The computing device includes at least a data
storage device for storing at least a plurality of media items,
and a media management module con?gured to at least (i)
pre-process a plurality of media items to produce a plurality
of additional media items from each of the media items; (ii)
store the additional media items in said data storage device;
and (iii) deliver at least the additional media items to a por
table media device.
The invention relates, in another embodiment, to a portable
media device. The portable media device includes at least a
data storage device con?gured to store media data pertaining
FIG. 9 is perspective vieW of a handheld computing device,
in accordance With one embodiment of the present invention.
FIG. 10 is a media device operational method, in accor
dance With one embodiment of the present invention.
FIGS. 11A-11E are diagrams of several exemplary screen
shots of a media player With photo vieWing capabilities, in
20
accordance With several embodiments of the present inven
tion.
FIG. 11F is a diagram of a pictorial of a TV screen image
provided by a television coupled to the media player, in accor
dance With one embodiment of the present invention.
25
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
to media items and to store device characteristics pertaining
to said portable media device, an output device, and a pro
cessing device con?gured to (i) send at least a portion of the
device characteristics to a host device, (ii) receive media data
pertaining to one or more media items to be stored on said 30
The present invention relates to portable media devices
With image functionality and also to image transfer betWeen
portable media devices and their hosts. Media devices With
data storage device, the one or more media items having same
image functionality typically require several different image
or like media data, the received media data being obtained at
the host device based on the device characteristics pertaining
formats to support the various display modes of the media
device. For example, media devices typically require a full
to said portable media device, (iii) storing the received media
data to said data storage device, (iv) subsequently determin
35
ing Whether a particular media item of the one or more media
40
One method for creating these various images is to doWn
load the original image to the portable media device and then
to transcode the original image into the required formats on
the portable media device When they need to be displayed.
45
This is sometimes referred to as processing data on-the-?y.
While this may Work, it is generally believed that this meth
odology has several draWbacks that make it less appealing to
the user. For example, because formatting images is a process
intensive task (especially on portable media devices that lack
items is to be output by said portable media device, (v) select
ing an appropriate one of the determined media items to be
output, and (vi) output the data for the selected determined
media item.
The invention relates, in another embodiment, to a com
puter readable medium that stores computer program code for
managing media items. The computer readable medium
includes computer program code for receiving a media
request for at least one media item from a portable media
screen image that ?lls the entire display screen of the media
device as Well as various thumbnail images, Which may help
a user broWse through a group of images.
the horsepoWer of their larger hosts), portable media devices
device, the media request including or referencing informa
tion regarding characteristics of the portable media device,
tend to operate sloWly and consume more poWer. Hence,
computer program code for generating, based on the charac
formatting images on portable media devices tend to result in
teristics, a set of media items for each of the at least one media
an unsatisfactory user experience. For one, the user has to
item being requested by the media request, the set of the
50
Wait While the image is being formatted. For another, the
media items generated from the at least one media item
including a plurality of media items that have the same or like
battery of the portable media device tends to run out more
media data, and computer program code for sending the set of
media items to the portable media device.
In order to overcome these draWbacks, the present inven
tion provides a method Where images are preformatted on the
host before or during the doWnload thereto. When an image is
regularly.
55
identi?ed for doWnload various preformatted images derived
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
from the original image (and possibly the original images) are
The invention Will be readily understood by the folloWing
detailed description in conjunction With the accompanying
draWings, Wherein like reference numerals designate like
sent to the portable media device. The processing is per
formed on the host, Which can handle these tasks more easily
60
structural elements, and in Which:
FIG. 1 is a method of transferring image data betWeen a
host device and a portable media device, in accordance With
one embodiment of the present invention.
FIG. 2 is an operational method for a portable media
device, in accordance With one embodiment of the present
invention.
65
than the portable media player. The tasks may, for example,
include scaling, cropping, rotation, color correction and the
like. Once received by the portable media device, the prefor
matted images and possibly the original image are stored for
later use. By storing these images, the media device is
relieved from having to perform any of the labor intensive
tasks associated With image formatting. That is, the prefor
matted images relieve the media device of much of the Work
US 8,200,629 B2
5
6
required to display them. As a result, the device operates
faster and Without repeated needs for recharging. In one
embodiment, at least some of the preformatted images are
media player, various thumbnail images, each of Which are
typically smaller versions of the original image, as Well as
various other images including for example TV images. It
thumbnail images.
should be noted that the ?le siZes of the neW versions are
typically much smaller than the ?le siZe of the original image.
They therefore take up less space in storage than Would the
During media device use, a user may request that an image
be displayed. Instead of processing the original image as in
the method described above, the device simply obtains the
corresponding original image.
appropriate preformatted image from storage and presents it
Each neW version has a different image pro?le based on the
display needs of the portable media device. The image pro
to the user on a display. The preformatted images may include
a full screen image and several different thumbnail siZed
?les for particular media devices may be stored in the host
device or the image pro?les may be given to the ho st device by
the media device. In the ?rst case, the media device may
provide the host device With an Identi?er (ID), Which can be
used by the host to determine the image pro?les for the
images. The full screen image typically depends on the siZe of
the display contained in the portable media device, i.e., the
full screen image generally ?lls the entire screen. The differ
ent siZed thumbnail images, Which come in various siZes, may
be used in a variety of Ways including separately or together.
For example, a plurality of smaller thumbnails may be
grouped together so that a user can quickly broWse through a
requesting media device. For example, after obtaining the ID
the host may refer to a previously stored table or list that
large number of images. The preformatted images may also
folloW formats associated With standards or other devices to
Which the portable media device can be linked. For example,
at least one the preformatted images may be based on televi
sion formats so that the portable media device can present
images on televisions (TVs). The TV formats may, for
20
example, include NTSC, PAL, HDTV, and the like. The for
mats may also be based on formats associated With printers,
cameras or similar image using devices.
25
FormatID refers to an identi?cation number that de?nes
the image pro?le. Changing any of the attributes Within the
image pro?le Will change the identi?cation number. The
desired When an image is doWnloaded to the media device.
keys for each image format. By Way of example, the image
pro?les may describe siZe, orientation, pixel format, color
depth, etc. for each image format. This particular methodol
30
media management program uses this ID to identify thumb
nail locations in both the host and media devices.
RenderWidth is the Width of the image in pixels at render
time. RenderHeight is the height of the image in pixels at
render time. RenderWidth and RenderHeight generally refers
35
to actual physical siZe.
DisplayWidth is the Width of the image in pixels at display
time. DisplayHeight is the height of the image in pixels at
display time. It should be noted that DisplayHeight and Dis
ogy helps With compatibility issues that typically come up
When different media devices having different versions of
softWare and hardWare are used, i.e., the version of the soft
Ware/hardWare is made irrelevant since the media device
expresses What information it Wants from the host device.
Embodiments of the invention are discussed beloW With
reference to FIGS. 1-11F. HoWever, those skilled in the art
matID, RenderWidth, RenderHeight, DisplayWidth, Dis
playHeight, PixelFormat, Sizing, BackColor, Rotation, Scan
Format, ColorAdjustment, GammaAdjustment, and the like.
In some cases, the media device When connected to a host
expresses or informs the host as to Which image formats are
The media device may, for example, send various image
pro?les corresponding to the different formats to the host
device. The image pro?le generally contains the attributes or
includes all the capabilities of the identi?ed media device. In
the later case, the media device may automatically upload this
information as part of synchronization or handshaking pro
cedure With the host device.
The image pro?le generally includes a list of keys or
attributes Which de?ne the qualities or characteristics of each
image. The keys or attributes may include for example For
playWidth can differ from RenderHeight and RenderWidth in
40
those cases like NTSC Where the pixels are not square. Dis
playWidth and DisplayHeight generally refer to the true siZe.
PixelFormat describes information encoded in each pixel
Will readily appreciate that the detailed description given
(e.g., color components (RGB), transparency, etc.). Several
herein With respect to these ?gures is for explanatory pur
formats can be used including, for example, the QuickDraW/
poses as the invention extends beyond these limited embodi
45
smaller than the desired thumbnail. By Way of example, if 0,
scale the image to the desired height/Width. If 1, scale the
FIG. 1 is a method 100 of transferring image data betWeen
a host device and a portable media device, in accordance With
one embodiment of the present invention. The method 100
may, for example, be performed by media management soft
image to the desired height/Width only if the image is larger
50
55
and in other cases a plurality of images are requested. The
request can be made at the host device or the media device
through a user interface. For example, the user may select a
group of images and then select a doWnload button. Alterna
tively, the request can be made by the media device Without
user input.
in cases Where the images don’t ?ll the entire vieWing area.
The background color may be in big-endian ARGB format as
a hexadecimal string.
Rotation described if and hoW an image should be rotated.
The image rotation is typically in degrees. For example, the
60
In block 104, an image collection for each requested image
is produced at the host device. Each image collection contains
the neW versions or different formats of the original image. In
some cases, the image collection may also contain the origi
nal image. For example, the neW versions may include a full
screen image, Which corresponds to the screen siZe on the
than RenderWidth or RenderHeight, i.e., don’t scale small
images. If 2, center-crop the image to the desired height/Width
rather than scaling it.
BackColor describes What color the background should be
Ware. The method includes blocks 102, 104 and 106. In block
102, an image doWnload request is received at the host device.
The image doWnload request designates at least one image
stored on the host device for doWnloading to the portable
media device. In some cases, only a single image is requested
QuickTime pixel format.
SiZing describes What happens if the original image is
ments.
rotation values may be 0, 90, 180 and 270.
ScanFormat designates What scan format the image is
stored in. ImageFormat may include progressive format or
interlace format.
ColorAdjustment describes Whether or not a color adjust
65
ment is needed, and if needed What the color adjustment
should be. By Way of example, if 0, no color adjustment is
applied. If 1, NTSC color adjustment is applied. If 2, PAL
color adjustment is applied.
US 8,200,629 B2
8
7
the portable media device. The image collections may for
GammaAdjustment describes whether a gamma correction
needs to be applied to the image (e.g., brightness). If not
example be generated on a ho st device that downloads them to
supplied, no correction is done.
the portable media device for storage. By way of example, the
image collections may be provided by the method described
in FIG. 1. Alternatively or additionally, the image collections
In block 106, the image collection for each requested
image is sent to the portable media device as part of the
downloading process. Once received by the portable media
device, the image collection is stored in the portable media
may be downloaded from another portable media device that
has already downloaded them from a host.
In block 204, a display command is received. The display
device for later use. The image collection may be stored in the
memory of the portable media device. In order to ef?ciently
store the images in memory, each of the different image sets
may be stored in their own ?le. That is, images having the
same image pro?le are grouped in the same ?le. For example,
the original images may be stored in a ?rst ?le, the full screen
command designates one or more images of the image data to
be displayed. The display command may be generated via a
user making a selection on the user interface of the media
player.
images may be stored in a second ?le, a ?rst set of thumbnail
images may be stored in a third ?le, a second set of thumbnail
In block 206, at least the designated images are retrieved.
In some cases, only the designated images are retrieved. In
other case, more than the designated images are retrieved. For
images may be stored in a fourth ?le, the TV images may be
example, although the display command may only designate
a single image, other images associated or linked to that
stored in a ?fth ?le and so on.
image may be additionally retrieved.
It should be noted that in some cases, the original image
may not be sent to or stored on the hand held media device.
In block 208, the one or more retrieved images are output
This may be done to save valuable storage space on the hand 20 ted. The retrieved images may be outputted to a display. The
held media devices that typically have limited storage capac
ity. As should be appreciated, the ?le siZe of the original
image is typically much larger than the thumbnail images and
therefore they can take up more space in memory. The deci
sion of whether to include the original image with the rest of
the images may be made by the user. For example, the user
25
may be presented with a choice as whether they desire or do
not desire to download or store the original image. This deci
sion may be based on how the user uses the media device. For
some, the media device may be used to transfer images from
30
for example be performed by a media management program
operating on the host device. The method begins at block 302
one host to another. In cases such as these, the user typically
wants to include the original image. The decision may be set
for all downloads or it may be made at each down load
request. Similarly, the same decision can be made for all the
different formats if so desired (as some of these formats may
display may be located on the portable media device or it may
be located external to the portable media device. In either
case, upon receiving the retrieved images, the retrieved
images are displayed. IN some cases, all of the images are
displayed, and in other case only a portion of the images are
displayed. The later case may be implemented when the siZe
and number of images is greater than the screen siZe.
FIG. 3 is a method 300 of transferring image data between
a host device and a portable media device, in accordance with
one embodiment of the present invention. The method may
where a down load request is received. The download request
designates one or more images to be downloaded from the
35
host device to the portable media device. The download
request is typically implemented via a user selection, i.e., a
not be needed).
Once downloaded and during operation of the media
user selects one or more images and initiates a downloading
device, a display request may be made on the media device.
procedure.
Following block 302, the method proceeds to block 304
Thereafter, one or more images are retrieved from memory
based on the display request. The display request indicates the
images to be shown on the media player and/or images that
40
loaded. The database entry provides information about the
images to be downloaded. The information may for example
be metadata. Following block 304, the method proceeds to
are to be sent to another device connected to the media device.
Once retrieved, the images can be displayed. The manner in
which the images are displayed are typically determined by
the mode of the media device. The modes can include a
browse mode, a slide show mode, a full screen mode, etc. In
45
browse mode, a plurality of tiny thumbnail images are dis
played in rows and columns. In a slide show mode, a medium
thumbnail image may be displayed in the center and smaller
thumbnail images may be displayed on either side of the
medium thumbnail image. The small image to the left of the
medium image may represent a previously shown image, the
50
In block 202, image data is stored. The image data includes at
least a plurality of image collections. The image collections
contain a plurality of differently formatted images based on
an original image and may also include the original image.
The image collections are not formed on the portable media
device. They are separately generated on a device other than
block 306 where the database entry is written or copied on the
media device. The database entry is typically copied to an
image database on the media device. If an image database
does not exist, one will typically be created. If one does exist,
the database entry will be copied thereto.
Also following block 304, the method proceeds to block
308 where an image collection is created on the host. This
may include transcoding new versions of the selected image
based on a plurality of image pro?les, and grouping the new
versions of the original image and in some cases the original
medium image may represent the current image being shown,
and the small image to the left of the medium image may
represent the next image in the slide show sequence. If a TV
is connected to the media device, the media device may
output the TV version of the current image being shown to the
TV In a full screen mode, the full screen image is displayed.
FIG. 2 is an operational method for a portable media device
200, in accordance with one embodiment of the present
invention. The method includes blocks 202, 204, 206 and 208.
where a database entry is created for each image to be down
55
image into an image collection. The image pro?les de?ne the
features of the new images. By way of example, the image
pro?les may include keys for making thumbnails and other
images such as those which can be used on TV, printers, and
other media devices (e.g., camera). The image pro?les may be
60
65
supplied to the ho st device by the media device, and thereafter
stored locally on the host device. This may be part of the
synchronization procedure that occurs between the ho st
device and media device when they are connected together.
Following block 308, the method proceeds to block 310
where each image in the image collection is written or copied
to the media device. That is, each new version of the original
image and in some cases the original image are copied to the
media device. In one embodiment, each particular type of
US 8,200,629 B2
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10
image is stored in a separate ?le on the media device. For
-continued
example, all of the originals are stored in an original image
Image List header
Image 1 metadata
?le, all of a ?rst thumbnails are stored in a ?rst thumbnail
image ?le, and so on.
Image 1 Original Image Location
Following block 310, the method proceeds to block 312
Where the database entry is updated. That is, the database
entry is ?lled With the appropriate image data. The step of
Image 1 Thumbnail 1 Image location
<additional image locations>
Image 2 Metadata
updating typically includes grouping together all the images
of a particular image collection (original, thumbnails, TV),
Image 2 Thumbnail 1 Image location
<additional image locations>
Image 2 Original Image Location
<additional images>
and providing pointers to the location Where the actual image
Album List Section Header
Album 1 Metadata
Album 1 Image Record ID 1
Album 1 Image Record ID 2
is stored (e.g., image ?les).
It should be noted that in most cases the host device stores
a copy of the database entry and image collections in parallel
With the media device.
<additional album images>
Album 1 Metadata
Album 1 Image Record ID 1
Album 1 Image Record ID 2
It should be noted that the all or some of the steps men
tioned above can occur separately as distinct events or they
can occur simultaneously. In the later case, at least some of
<additional album images>
the steps can be interleaved. In interleaving, While some
images are being copied, other images are being created.
Interleaving is generally preferred in order to reduce the
amount of time needed for doWnloading.
The image data stored in the media device Will noW be
described. As mentioned above the image data is spread
among multiple ?les. The main image database ?le holds
image metadata, photo album lists, and “pointers” to the
20
<additional albums>
Record ID List Section Header
Record ID List Header
Record ID 1 Description
Record ID 2 Description
<additional record Ids>
The folloWing is an exemplary layout for an image set ?le
25
stored on the media device:
original image as Well as all available thumbnails. The images
themselves are stored either as individual ?les (originals) or
in image set ?les, Which contain one or more thumbnails of
the same type. This is typically done to save storage space. It
should be noted, hoWever, that this is not a limitation and that
the images may be stored as an image collection rather than in
File Header
30
separate ?les.
In one embodiment, the photo database ?le contains a
header folloWed by several “sections.” The number of sec
tions can be Widely varied although it is expected that the
photo database Will contain three sections: image list section,
album list section and the image record ID table. The image
list section contains a list of all images stored on the media
device. Each image entry contains all of the metadata for an
image as Well as a list of locations for all available images
Image 1 Header
Image 1 Data
Image 2 Header
Image 2 Data
<additional images>
35
40
FIG. 4 is an exemplary diagram of a photo database ?le
350, in accordance With one embodiment of the present
invention. The photo database 350 includes a ?le header 352,
an image list section header 354, an album list section header
356 and a record ID list section header 358. Inside the images
list section header 354 are image entries 360, and pointers
associated thereWith including the original, thumbnails and
TV. Each image has a unique persistent record ID Which is
362, Which provide image locations for the various images in
the image entry including for example the original image 0
used in both the album and record ID table sections. The
album list section contains a list of the albums, each of Which
and a plurality of thumbnails T thereof. Inside the album list
section header 356 are album entries 364 and record IDs 366
for each of the images in the album. Inside the record ID list
section header 358 are Record ID list header 368 and record
is simply an ordered list of image record IDs. The image
record ID table is a table containing record IDs and ?le offsets
for all images, sorted in ascending record ID order. This table
alloWs the media device to quickly load only those image
records for a given album, rather than requiring loading the
Whole image record list.
ID descriptions 370.
FIGS. 5A-5E are diagrams of exemplary image set ?les
50
The images themselves are stored in image set ?les. Each
image set ?le contains a ?le header, folloWed by one or more
images, each With a header. This alloWs scavenging of the
data should the need arise. The image records in the photo
database are by ?le speci?cation (path) and ?le offset, so it is
55
not necessary to parse an image set ?le to get to a particular
image. The number of images per ?le and/or the maximum
image ?les siZe may be Widely varied. By Way of example, the
maximum siZe may be 500 Megabytes.
The folloWing is an exemplary layout for the photo data
372, in accordance With one embodiment of the present
invention. FIG. 5A is a diagram of an original image set ?le
372A, FIG. 5B is a diagram of a tiny thumbnail set ?le 372B,
FIG. 5C is a diagram ofa small thumbnail set ?le 372C, FIG.
5D is a diagram of a medium thumbnail set ?le 372D, FIG. SE
is a diagram of a full screen image set ?le 372E, and FIG. SE
is a diagram of a TV screen image set ?le 372E. In each of
these ?gures, the image set ?les 372 include a ?le header 374,
image headers 376 and the actual image data 378.
60
FIG. 6 is media method 400, in accordance With one
embodiment of the present invention. The method may be
performed on a media system including a host device such as
base stored on the media device:
a personal computer and a media device. The method begins
at block 402 Where one or more images are uploaded into a
personal computer. The images may be uploaded from a
File header
Image List Section Header
65
camera, memory device, Internet or the like. After block 402,
the method proceeds to block 404 Where the images are stored
in the personal computer. Blocks 402 and 404 may be accom
US 8,200,629 B2
11
12
plished With a media management program. In Block 406, a
module 506 provides for centraliZed management of media
media player is connected to the personal computer. This may
items not only on the host computer 502 but also on the media
be accomplished through a Wired or Wireless connection. The
connection may include a handshaking and/or synching pro
cedure.
player 504. More particularly, the management module 506
manages those media items stored in a media store 508 asso
ciated With the ho st computer 502. The management module
506 also interacts With a media database 510 to store media
In some cases, the media management program is auto
matically opened When the tWo devices are connected. The
information associated With the media items stored in the
particular media management program opened may depend
media store 508.
on the type of media device. If the media device is a music
player, the media management program may be a music pro
gram. If the media device is a photo player, the media man
agement program may be an image program. If the media
device is a combination music/photo player, the media man
agement program may be music program or a photo program
The media items may correspond to audio, images or video
items. The media information, on the other hand, pertains to
characteristics or attributes of the media items. For example,
in the case of audio or audiovisual media, the media informa
tion can include one or more of: title, album, track, artist,
composer and genre. These types of media information are
or a combination of the tWo. If the different programs are
speci?c to particular media items. In addition, the media
operated independently, the music program and the photo
information can pertain to quality characteristics of the media
items. Examples of quality characteristics of media items can
include one or more of: bit rate, sample rate, equalizer setting,
program may be linked so that information can be shared
there betWeen. For example, the music program may be able
to access data from the photo program and vice versa.
In block 408, images and/or image identi?ers (e.g., text)
20
512. The play module 512 is a softWare module that can be
utiliZed to play certain media items stored in the media store
508. The play module 412 can also utiliZe media information
from the media database 510. Typically, the media informa
are presented on the personal computer. This too may be
accomplished With the media management program. In fact,
the images and image identi?ers may be included in a photo
WindoW associated With a graphical user interface. In block
410, a doWnload command is generated. The doWnload com
mand designates one or more images to be doWnloaded from
25
the personal computer to the portable media device. The
30
518 removeably couples the communication modules 514
and 416. In one embodiment, the connection or link 518 is a
cable that provides a data bus, such as a FIREWIRETM bus or
media device are determined. The determination may be
made before the doWnload or it may be made as part of the
doWnloading process. In some cases, the host device stores a
list of required formats for a variety of media devices. In other
cases, the portable media device supplies the personal com
tion of interest corresponds to the media items to be played by
the play module 512.
The host computer 502 also includes a communication
module 514 that couples to a corresponding communication
module 41 6 Within the media player 504. A connection or link
doWnload command may be generated When a user selects
one or more images and hits a doWnload feature located in the
photo WindoW.
In block 412, the image formats required by the portable
volume adjustment, start/ stop and total time, etc.
Still further, the host computer 502 includes a play module
USB bus, Which is Well knoWn in the art. In another embodi
ment, the connection or link 518 is a Wireless channel or
35
connection through a Wireless netWork. Hence, depending on
implementation, the communication modules 514 and 516
puter With required formats and image pro?les, Which
may communicate in a Wired or Wireless manner.
describe hoW to format each image. In block 414, neW ver
The media player 504 also includes a media store 520 that
stores media items Within the media player 504. The media
items being stored to the media store 520 are typically
sions of the original image are created. That is, using the
image pro?les, the personal computer transcodes the original
40
image into differently formatted images based on the image
pro?le. By Way of example, the transcoding may be per
received over the connection or link 518 from the host com
puter 502. More particularly, the management module 506
formed by a multimedia technology such as QuickTime of
Apple Computers Inc. of Cupertino, Calif. QuickTime is a
poWerful, cross platform, multimedia technology for manipu
sends all or certain of tho se media items residing on the media
store 508 over the connection or link 518 to the media store
45
lating, enhancing, and storing video, sound, animation,
graphics, text, music, and the like. In Block 416, the neW
versions of the original image and in some cases the original
image are copied and stored onto the media device.
In block 418, the media device is disconnected from the
50
personal computer thereby alloWing the images to be trans
ported via the portable media device. In block 420, a display
command is generated on the media device during transport.
55
images is presented. The retrieved image can be any of the
stored images including the original and/or the neW images.
The retrieved image can be presented on the portable media
60
FIG. 7 is a block diagram of a media management system
500, in accordance With one embodiment of the present
invention. The media management system 500 includes a host
computer 502 and a media player 504. The host computer 502
is typically a personal computer. The host computer, among
other conventional components, includes a management
module 506, Which is a softWare module. The management
522 Within the media player 504.
Furthermore, the media player 504 includes a play module
524 that couples to the media store 520 and the media data
base 522. The play module 524 is a softWare module that can
device as for example though an LCD and/or it can be pre
sented on an external display such as a television.
can be stored in a media database 522. In this regard, certain
media information from the media database 510 Within the
host computer 502 can be sent to the media database 522
Within the media player 504 over the connection or link 518.
Still further, lists identifying certain of the media items can
also be sent by the management module 506 over the connec
tion or link 518 to the media store 520 or the media database
In block 422, one or more images are retrieved based on the
display command. In block 424, at least one of the retrieved
520 Within the media player 504. Additionally, the corre
sponding media information for the media items that is also
delivered to the media player 504 from the host computer 502
be utiliZed to play certain media items stored in the media
store 520. The play module 524 can also utiliZe media infor
mation from the media database 422. Typically, the media
information of interest corresponds to the media items to be
played by the play module 524.
Hence, in one embodiment, the media player 504 has lim
65
ited or no capability to manage media items on the media
player 504. HoWever, the management module 506 Within the
host computer 502 can indirectly manage the media items
US 8,200,629 B2
13
14
residing on the media player 504. For example, to “add” a
cern When the media player 600 is a portable media player
media item to the media player 504, the management module
that is poWered by a battery (not shoWn). The media player
506 serves to identify the media item to be added to the media
player 504 from the media store 508 and then causes the
identi?ed media item to be delivered to the media player 504.
As another example, to “delete” a media item from the media
600 also includes a RAM 620 and a Read-Only Memory
(ROM) 622. The ROM 622 can store programs, utilities or
processes to be executed in a non-volatile manner. The RAM
620 provides volatile data storage, such as for the cache 606.
The media player 600 also includes a user input device 608
that alloWs a user of the media player 600 to interact With the
media player 600. For example, the user input device 608 can
take a variety of forms, such as a button, keypad, dial, etc. Still
player 504, the management module 506 serves to identify
the media item to be deleted from the media store 508 and
then causes the identi?ed media item to be deleted from the
media player 504. As still another example, if changes (i.e.,
alterations) to characteristics of a media item Were made at
further, the media player 600 includes a display 610 (screen
display) that can be controlled by the processor 602 to display
the host computer 502 using the management module 506,
then such characteristics can also be carried over to the cor
information to the user. A data bus 611 can facilitate data
responding media item on the media player 504. In one imple
mentation, the additions, deletions and/or changes occur in a
transfer betWeen at least the ?le system 604, the cache 606,
the processor 602, and the CODECs 612.
batch-like process during synchronization of the media items
on the media player 504 With the media items on the host
In one embodiment, the media player 600 serves to store a
computer 502.
In another embodiment, the media player 504 has limited
plurality of media items in the ?le system 604. The media
items may for example correspond to audio (e.g., songs,
or no capability to manage playlists on the media player 504.
HoWever, the management module 506 Within the host com
20
a user desires to have the media player play a particular media
item, a list of available media items is typically displayed on
the display 610. Then, using the user input device 608, a user
puter 502 through management of the playlists residing on the
host computer can indirectly manage the playlists residing on
the media player 504. In this regard, additions, deletions or
changes to playlists can be performed on the host computer
502 and then by carried over to the media player 404 When
delivered thereto.
As previously noted, synchronization is a form of media
can select one of the available media items. The processor
25
602, upon receiving a selection of a particular media item,
supplies the media data (e.g., audio ?le, image ?le or video
?le) for the particular media item to the appropriate device.
For audio items, the processor supplies the media item to a
coder/decoder (CODEC) 612. The CODEC 612 then pro
management. The ability to automatically initiate synchroni
zation Was also previously discussed. Still further, hoWever,
books), images (e.g., photos) or videos (e.g., movies). When
30
duces analog output signals for a speaker 614. The speaker
the synchronization betWeen devices can be restricted so as to
614 can be a speaker internal to the media player 600 or
prevent automatic synchronization When the host computer
external to the media player 600. For example, headphones or
earphones that connect to the media player 600 Would be
and media player do not recognize one another.
According to one embodiment, When a media player is ?rst
connected to a host computer (or even more generally When
matching identi?ers are not present), the user of the media
player is queried as to Whether the user desires to af?liate,
assign or lock the media player to the host computer. When
the user of the media player elects to af?liate, assign or lock
the media player With the host computer, then a pseudo
random identi?er is obtained and stored in either the media
database or a ?le Within both the host computer and the media
player. In one implementation, the identi?er is an identi?er
associated With (e. g., knoWn or generated by) the host com
puter or its management module and such identi?er is sent to
35
the display 610. The display may for example be a liquid
crystal display (LCD) that is integral With the media player.
Alternatively, the display may be an external display such as
a CRT or LCD, or a television of any particular type. In some
40
this, the media data displayed on both displays may be the
same of it may be different. In the later case, for example, the
internal display may include a slide shoW interface shoWing
45
the previous image, the next image and the image currently
being displayed on the external display.
The media player 600 also includes a netWork/bus interface
616 that couples to a data link 618. The data link 618 alloWs
the media player 600 to couple to a host computer. The data
media player and is sent to and stored in a ?le or media
database of the host computer.
50
link 618 can be provided over a Wired connection or a Wireless
connection. In the case of a Wireless connection, the netWork/
bus interface 616 can include a Wireless transceiver.
In another embodiment, a media player can be used With a
microprocessor or controller for controlling the overall
operation of the media player 600. The media player 600
stores media data pertaining to media items in a ?le system
604 and a cache 606. The ?le system 604 is, typically, a
storage disk or a plurality of disks. The ?le system 604 typi
cases, the processor is con?gured to supply media data to both
an integrated display and an external display. In cases such as
and stored in the media player. In another implementation, the
identi?er is associated With (e. g., knoWn or generated by) the
FIG. 8 is a block diagram of a media player 600, in accor
dance With one embodiment of the present invention. The
media player 600 includes a processor 602 that pertains to a
considered an external speaker.
For visual items, the processor supplies the media item to
docking station. The docking station can provide Wireless
55
communication capability (e.g., Wireless transceiver) for the
media player, such that the media player can communicate
With a host device using the Wireless communication capa
cally provides high capacity storage capability for the media
bility When docked at the docking station. The docking sta
player 600. HoWever, since the access time to the ?le system
604 is relatively sloW, the media player 600 can also include
a cache 606. The cache 606 is, for example, Random-Access
tion may or may not be itself portable.
The Wireless netWork, connection or channel can be radio
frequency based, so as to not require line-of-sight arrange
60
Memory (RAM) provided by semiconductor memory. The
ment betWeen sending and receiving devices. Hence, syn
relative access time to the cache 606 is substantially shorter
than for the ?le system 604. HoWever, the cache 506 does not
chronization can be achieved While a media player remains in
a bag, vehicle or other container.
The ho st device can also be a media player. In such case, the
have the large storage capacity of the ?le system 604. Further,
the ?le system 504, When active, consumes more poWer than
does the cache 606. The poWer consumption is often a con
65
synchronization of media items can betWeen tWo media play
ers.
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