US008200629B2 (12) United States Patent Marriott et al. (54) (56) IMAGE SCALING ARRANGEMENT Jun. 12, 2012 References Cited U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS (75) Inventors: Greg Marriott, Honolulu, HI (US); 4,090,216 4,386,345 4,451,849 4,589,022 4,908,523 Jesse Boettcher, San Jose, CA (US); Thomas Dowdy, Sunnyvale, CA (US); David Heller, Los Altos, CA (US); Jeff Miller, Mountain View, CA (US); Jeffrey L. Robbin, Los Altos, CA (US) A A A A A 4,928,307 A 4,951,171 5,406,305 5,559,945 5,583,993 5,608,698 (73) Assignee: Apple Inc., Cupertino, CA (US) Notice: US 8,200,629 B2 (10) Patent N0.: (45) Date of Patent: Subject to any disclaimer, the term of this patent is extended or adjusted under 35 A A A A A 5/1978 5/1983 5/1984 5/1986 3/1990 Constable Narveson et a1. Fuhrer Prince et a1. Snowden et a1. 5/1990 Lynn 8/1990 4/1995 9/1996 12/1996 3/1997 Tran et al. Shimomura et a1. Beaudet et a1. Foster et a1. Yamanoi et al. (Continued) USC 154(b) by 343 days. FOREIGN PATENT DOCUMENTS DE (21) Appl. 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G06F 7/00 G06F 1 7/00 Primary Examiner * Phong Nguyen Assistant Examiner * Anh Ly Field of Classi?cation Search ................ .. 707/770, 707/638, 695, 913, 915, E17.102; 709/217, 709/221, 248; 725/8, 54, 116, 117, 135 a media player for display. In turn, appropriately scaled images may be transferred automatically and/or selectively to another display device for example a TV, camera or printer. The selectivity may occur either at the host level or at the player level. See application ?le for complete search history. 15 Claims, 9 Drawing Sheets 300 N 302 RECEIVE DOWNLOAD REQUEST CREATE DATABASE ENTRY FOR / EACH IMAGE TO BE DOWNLOADED 306 COPY DATABASE ENTRY 308 CREATE IMAGE COLECTION COPY IMAGE COLLECTION J UPDATE DATABASE ENTRY J US 8,200,629 B2 Page2 US. 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Patent Jun. 12, 2012 Sheet 4 of9 US 8,200,629 B2 400 w 402 UPLOAD IMAGES TO PC J I 404 STORE IMAGES ON PC I CONNECT MEDIA DEVICE TO PC 406 \_/ PRESENT IMAGES AND/OR IMAGE IDENTIFIERS ON PC 408 V I 410 GENERATE DOWNLOAD COMMAND \/ I 412 DETERMINE REQUIRED FORMATS \-/ I 414 CREATE NEW VERSIONS OF ORIGINAL IMAGE N/ I COPY AND STORE ORIGINAL IMAGE AND NEW 416 VERSIONS OF IMAGE ON MEDIA DEVICE I ‘’ 418 DISCONNECT MEDIA DEVICE FROM PC NJ I GENERATE DISPLAY COMMAND ON MEDIA DEVICE 420 J RETRIEVE ONE OR MoRE IMAGES FROM STORAGE BASED ON DISPLAY COMMAND 422 V I PRESENT ONE OR MORE RETRIEVED IMAGES FIG. 6 424 \/ US. Patent Jun. 12, 2012 US 8,200,629 B2 Sheet 5 0f 9 500 502 2 HOST COMPUTER 514% T’ COMM. MODULE \ MANAGEMENT MODULE 504 COMM. 2 \I 515 MODULE 506 PLAY MODULE Z PLAY MODULE 512 T I Z524 MEDIA DATABASE M E DIA DATABAS E 2510 522 o MEDIA STORE MEDIA STORE 508 MEDIA PLAYER FIG. 7 520 US. Patent Jun. 12, 2012 Sheet 6 of9 US 8,200,629 B2 600 f 610B 614 TV USERINPUT DEWCE SPEAKER 6_Q_8_ 610A DISPLAY CODEC N 612 t .692. l PROCESSOR 618 6121 NETWORK INTERFACE / BUS l l E CACHE 616 Q FILE SYSTEM (STORAGE DISK) RAM ROM e22 620 FIG. 8 US. Patent Jun. 12, 2012 Sheet 7 of9 US 8,200,629 B2 722 A&B FIG. 9 US. Patent Jun. 12, 2012 Sheet 8 of9 US 8,200,629 B2 NNw .OEor O.rZzFwPma DZwE www * % N5 nZwO_mELOI<Mw US. Patent Jun. 12, 2012 US 8,200,629 B2 Sheet 9 0f 9 Music Photo Extras Photo Library Album 1 Album 2 _Settings Albumn Shuffle Songs K 852 Backlight 856 /Photo Settings FIG. 11A XT ' CURRENT 860 FIG. 11C FIG. 11D 864 FULL SCREEN IMAGE El. TV SCREEN IMAGE FIG. 11E 866 J FIG. 11F O O US 8,200,629 B2 1 2 IMAGE SCALING ARRANGEMENT With a negative user experience, i.e., users may not like a product that is sloW and Whose battery life is short. Personal computers typically include softWare that helps manage the handheld computing devices. The personal com puter may include for example a photo management program that helps transfer photos from the camera to the personal computer. The photo management program may also alloW a CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS This application is a continuation of and claims priority under 35 U.S.C. §120 to US. patent application Ser. No. 11/749,599 entitled “IMAGE SCALING ARRANGE MENT” ?led May 16, 2007, now US. Pat. No. 7,565,036 B2, Which is a continuation of and claimed priority under 35 U.S.C. §120 to US. patent application Ser. No. 10/973,657 user to sort, store and catalog their images as Well as to provide touch-up capabilities such as red eye reduction, black and White conversion, image cropping and rotation. In some cases, the cameras modify the original image by embedding or storing thumbnail images inside the original image. The entitled “IMAGE SCALING ARRANGEMENT” ?led Oct. 25, 2004, now US. Pat. No. 7,433,546 issued Oct. 7, 2008. Ser. No. 10/973,657 is related to: (i) US. application Ser. No. 10/973,925 entitled “MULTIPLE MEDIA TYPE SYN photo management program uses the embedded thumbnail images When importing the original image. For example, as each photo is being imported, the photo management pro gram may shoW the thumbnail image thereby relaying to the user that the image is being imported. In addition to photo management programs, the personal computer may also include music management programs that CHRONIZATION BETWEEN HOST COMPUTER AND MEDIA DEVICE,” ?led Oct. 25, 2004, Which is hereby incorporated herein by reference; (ii) US. Provisional Appli cation No. 60/622,304, Oct. 25, 2004, and entitled “WIRE LESS SYNCHRONIZATION BETWEEN 20 MEDIA PLAYER AND HOST DEVICE,” Which is hereby incorpo rated herein by reference; (iii) US. application Ser. No. 10/277,418, ?led Oct. 21, 2002, and entitled “INTELLI GENT INTERACTION BETWEEN MEDIA PLAYER may also alloW a user to sort, modify, store and catalog their 25 AND HOST COMPUTER,” Which is hereby incorporated herein by reference; and (iv) US. application Ser. No. 10/ 1 18, 069, ?led Apr. 5, 2002, and entitled “INTELLIGENT SYN 30 erence. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 1. Field of the Invention The present invention relates to portable media devices and more particularly to data transfer With portable media devices. 2. Description of the Related Art The hand-held consumer electronics market is exploding, and an increasing number of these products including for music. More particularly, the music program may give the user the ability to organize their music into playlists, edit ?le information, record music, doWnload ?les to a music player, purchase music over the Internet (World Wide Web), run a visualizer to display the music in a visual form, and encode or transcode music into different audio formats such as MP3, CHRONIZATION OF MEDIA PLAYER WITH HOST COMPUTER,” Which are hereby incorporated herein by ref help transfer music from the personal computer to a music player such as an MP3 music player. Like the photo manage ment program their music, the music management program 35 AIFF, WAV, AAC, and ALE. Typically, music players only understand a single music format. Therefore, the music man agement program typically can to transcode the music stored in the personal computer from one music format to the desired music format of a music player. In some cases, both the photo and music programs are linked so that the images and music stored therein can be played together. For example, the photo management pro gram may alloW a user to produce slide shoWs that shoW images to music. By Way of example, the photo management 40 program may correspond to iPhoto® and the music manage ment program may correspond to iTunes®, both of Which are example PDAs, music players, cellular phones, cameras, and manufactured by and available from Apple Computer Inc. of video games have increased their functionality to distance Cupertino, Calif. Synchronization operations have been conventionally per themselves from their competitors. By Way of example, cel lular phones have added PDA and camera functionality, PDAs have added cellular phone and music player function ality, music players have added PDA and video game func tionality, etc. In the future, it is foreseeable that the function ality of all these devices Will continue to merge into a single device. As these products evolve, it is believed that many 45 tronic ?les or other resources. For example, these ?les or other resources can pertain to text ?les, data ?les, calendar appointments, emails, to-do lists, electronic rolodexes, etc. 50 design challenges Will be encountered. Many hand-held computing devices Work hand in hand With a personal computer. The personal computer typically serves as a base to the portable hand-held computer device. For example, because they are hand-held, they are typically a 55 portable extension of the personal computer. Like personal computers, these highly portable devices typically include a player can manually initiates synchronization for individual tedious and time consuming for users. More recently, media players have been able to be synchronized With a host com puter When a bus connection over a cable is made. Here, the 60 complex operating systems as Well as smaller and less expen sive processors that are sloWer than the processors used in synchronization can be automatically initiated When the cable is connected betWeen the ho st computer and the media player. The iPod® offered by Apple Computer, Inc. of Cupertino, personal computers. While this may be appropriate When the devices operate normally, dif?culties arise When these hand held computing devices are called upon to perform process intensive tasks. The di?iculties include sloW responsiveness and high poWer consumption. As a result, the user may be left In the case of media players, such as MP3 players, ?les are typically moved betWeen a host computer and a media player through use of a drag and drop operation, like is convention ally done With respect to copying of a data ?le from a Win doWs desktop to a ?oppy disk. Hence, the user of the media media items. As a consequence, synchronization tends to be processor that operates to execute computer code and produce and use data in conjunction With an operating system. Unlike personal computers, hoWever, these devices typically use less formed betWeen portable devices, such as Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) and host computers, to synchronize elec Calif. has the capability to provide such synchronization over a cable. 65 Thus, there is a continuing need for improved features for connecting and transferring data betWeen media devices and their hosts. US 8,200,629 B2 3 4 SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION FIG. 3 is a method of transferring image data betWeen a host device and a portable media device, in accordance With one embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 4 is an exemplary diagram of a photo database ?le, in accordance With one embodiment of the present invention. FIGS. 5A-5F are diagrams of image set ?les, in accordance With several embodiments of the present invention. FIG. 6 is media method, in accordance With one embodi ment of the present invention. FIG. 7 is a block diagram of a media management system, in accordance With one embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 8 is a block diagram of a media player, in accordance With one embodiment of the present invention. The invention relates, in one embodiment, to a computing device. The computing device includes at least a data storage device for storing at least a plurality of media items, and a media management module con?gured to at least (i) receive a media request for at least one media item from a portable media device; (ii) obtain information regarding characteris tics for the portable media device; (iii) obtain, based on the characteristics, a set of media items for each of the at least one media item being requested by the media request; and (iv) cause the set of media items to be sent to the portable media device. The invention relates, in another embodiment, to a com puting device. The computing device includes at least a data storage device for storing at least a plurality of media items, and a media management module con?gured to at least (i) pre-process a plurality of media items to produce a plurality of additional media items from each of the media items; (ii) store the additional media items in said data storage device; and (iii) deliver at least the additional media items to a por table media device. The invention relates, in another embodiment, to a portable media device. The portable media device includes at least a data storage device con?gured to store media data pertaining FIG. 9 is perspective vieW of a handheld computing device, in accordance With one embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 10 is a media device operational method, in accor dance With one embodiment of the present invention. FIGS. 11A-11E are diagrams of several exemplary screen shots of a media player With photo vieWing capabilities, in 20 accordance With several embodiments of the present inven tion. FIG. 11F is a diagram of a pictorial of a TV screen image provided by a television coupled to the media player, in accor dance With one embodiment of the present invention. 25 DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION to media items and to store device characteristics pertaining to said portable media device, an output device, and a pro cessing device con?gured to (i) send at least a portion of the device characteristics to a host device, (ii) receive media data pertaining to one or more media items to be stored on said 30 The present invention relates to portable media devices With image functionality and also to image transfer betWeen portable media devices and their hosts. Media devices With data storage device, the one or more media items having same image functionality typically require several different image or like media data, the received media data being obtained at the host device based on the device characteristics pertaining formats to support the various display modes of the media device. For example, media devices typically require a full to said portable media device, (iii) storing the received media data to said data storage device, (iv) subsequently determin 35 ing Whether a particular media item of the one or more media 40 One method for creating these various images is to doWn load the original image to the portable media device and then to transcode the original image into the required formats on the portable media device When they need to be displayed. 45 This is sometimes referred to as processing data on-the-?y. While this may Work, it is generally believed that this meth odology has several draWbacks that make it less appealing to the user. For example, because formatting images is a process intensive task (especially on portable media devices that lack items is to be output by said portable media device, (v) select ing an appropriate one of the determined media items to be output, and (vi) output the data for the selected determined media item. The invention relates, in another embodiment, to a com puter readable medium that stores computer program code for managing media items. The computer readable medium includes computer program code for receiving a media request for at least one media item from a portable media screen image that ?lls the entire display screen of the media device as Well as various thumbnail images, Which may help a user broWse through a group of images. the horsepoWer of their larger hosts), portable media devices device, the media request including or referencing informa tion regarding characteristics of the portable media device, tend to operate sloWly and consume more poWer. Hence, computer program code for generating, based on the charac formatting images on portable media devices tend to result in teristics, a set of media items for each of the at least one media an unsatisfactory user experience. For one, the user has to item being requested by the media request, the set of the 50 Wait While the image is being formatted. For another, the media items generated from the at least one media item including a plurality of media items that have the same or like battery of the portable media device tends to run out more media data, and computer program code for sending the set of media items to the portable media device. In order to overcome these draWbacks, the present inven tion provides a method Where images are preformatted on the host before or during the doWnload thereto. When an image is regularly. 55 identi?ed for doWnload various preformatted images derived BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS from the original image (and possibly the original images) are The invention Will be readily understood by the folloWing detailed description in conjunction With the accompanying draWings, Wherein like reference numerals designate like sent to the portable media device. The processing is per formed on the host, Which can handle these tasks more easily 60 structural elements, and in Which: FIG. 1 is a method of transferring image data betWeen a host device and a portable media device, in accordance With one embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 2 is an operational method for a portable media device, in accordance With one embodiment of the present invention. 65 than the portable media player. The tasks may, for example, include scaling, cropping, rotation, color correction and the like. Once received by the portable media device, the prefor matted images and possibly the original image are stored for later use. By storing these images, the media device is relieved from having to perform any of the labor intensive tasks associated With image formatting. That is, the prefor matted images relieve the media device of much of the Work US 8,200,629 B2 5 6 required to display them. As a result, the device operates faster and Without repeated needs for recharging. In one embodiment, at least some of the preformatted images are media player, various thumbnail images, each of Which are typically smaller versions of the original image, as Well as various other images including for example TV images. It thumbnail images. should be noted that the ?le siZes of the neW versions are typically much smaller than the ?le siZe of the original image. They therefore take up less space in storage than Would the During media device use, a user may request that an image be displayed. Instead of processing the original image as in the method described above, the device simply obtains the corresponding original image. appropriate preformatted image from storage and presents it Each neW version has a different image pro?le based on the display needs of the portable media device. The image pro to the user on a display. The preformatted images may include a full screen image and several different thumbnail siZed ?les for particular media devices may be stored in the host device or the image pro?les may be given to the ho st device by the media device. In the ?rst case, the media device may provide the host device With an Identi?er (ID), Which can be used by the host to determine the image pro?les for the images. The full screen image typically depends on the siZe of the display contained in the portable media device, i.e., the full screen image generally ?lls the entire screen. The differ ent siZed thumbnail images, Which come in various siZes, may be used in a variety of Ways including separately or together. For example, a plurality of smaller thumbnails may be grouped together so that a user can quickly broWse through a requesting media device. For example, after obtaining the ID the host may refer to a previously stored table or list that large number of images. The preformatted images may also folloW formats associated With standards or other devices to Which the portable media device can be linked. For example, at least one the preformatted images may be based on televi sion formats so that the portable media device can present images on televisions (TVs). The TV formats may, for 20 example, include NTSC, PAL, HDTV, and the like. The for mats may also be based on formats associated With printers, cameras or similar image using devices. 25 FormatID refers to an identi?cation number that de?nes the image pro?le. Changing any of the attributes Within the image pro?le Will change the identi?cation number. The desired When an image is doWnloaded to the media device. keys for each image format. By Way of example, the image pro?les may describe siZe, orientation, pixel format, color depth, etc. for each image format. This particular methodol 30 media management program uses this ID to identify thumb nail locations in both the host and media devices. RenderWidth is the Width of the image in pixels at render time. RenderHeight is the height of the image in pixels at render time. RenderWidth and RenderHeight generally refers 35 to actual physical siZe. DisplayWidth is the Width of the image in pixels at display time. DisplayHeight is the height of the image in pixels at display time. It should be noted that DisplayHeight and Dis ogy helps With compatibility issues that typically come up When different media devices having different versions of softWare and hardWare are used, i.e., the version of the soft Ware/hardWare is made irrelevant since the media device expresses What information it Wants from the host device. Embodiments of the invention are discussed beloW With reference to FIGS. 1-11F. HoWever, those skilled in the art matID, RenderWidth, RenderHeight, DisplayWidth, Dis playHeight, PixelFormat, Sizing, BackColor, Rotation, Scan Format, ColorAdjustment, GammaAdjustment, and the like. In some cases, the media device When connected to a host expresses or informs the host as to Which image formats are The media device may, for example, send various image pro?les corresponding to the different formats to the host device. The image pro?le generally contains the attributes or includes all the capabilities of the identi?ed media device. In the later case, the media device may automatically upload this information as part of synchronization or handshaking pro cedure With the host device. The image pro?le generally includes a list of keys or attributes Which de?ne the qualities or characteristics of each image. The keys or attributes may include for example For playWidth can differ from RenderHeight and RenderWidth in 40 those cases like NTSC Where the pixels are not square. Dis playWidth and DisplayHeight generally refer to the true siZe. PixelFormat describes information encoded in each pixel Will readily appreciate that the detailed description given (e.g., color components (RGB), transparency, etc.). Several herein With respect to these ?gures is for explanatory pur formats can be used including, for example, the QuickDraW/ poses as the invention extends beyond these limited embodi 45 smaller than the desired thumbnail. By Way of example, if 0, scale the image to the desired height/Width. If 1, scale the FIG. 1 is a method 100 of transferring image data betWeen a host device and a portable media device, in accordance With one embodiment of the present invention. The method 100 may, for example, be performed by media management soft image to the desired height/Width only if the image is larger 50 55 and in other cases a plurality of images are requested. The request can be made at the host device or the media device through a user interface. For example, the user may select a group of images and then select a doWnload button. Alterna tively, the request can be made by the media device Without user input. in cases Where the images don’t ?ll the entire vieWing area. The background color may be in big-endian ARGB format as a hexadecimal string. Rotation described if and hoW an image should be rotated. The image rotation is typically in degrees. For example, the 60 In block 104, an image collection for each requested image is produced at the host device. Each image collection contains the neW versions or different formats of the original image. In some cases, the image collection may also contain the origi nal image. For example, the neW versions may include a full screen image, Which corresponds to the screen siZe on the than RenderWidth or RenderHeight, i.e., don’t scale small images. If 2, center-crop the image to the desired height/Width rather than scaling it. BackColor describes What color the background should be Ware. The method includes blocks 102, 104 and 106. In block 102, an image doWnload request is received at the host device. The image doWnload request designates at least one image stored on the host device for doWnloading to the portable media device. In some cases, only a single image is requested QuickTime pixel format. SiZing describes What happens if the original image is ments. rotation values may be 0, 90, 180 and 270. ScanFormat designates What scan format the image is stored in. ImageFormat may include progressive format or interlace format. ColorAdjustment describes Whether or not a color adjust 65 ment is needed, and if needed What the color adjustment should be. By Way of example, if 0, no color adjustment is applied. If 1, NTSC color adjustment is applied. If 2, PAL color adjustment is applied. US 8,200,629 B2 8 7 the portable media device. The image collections may for GammaAdjustment describes whether a gamma correction needs to be applied to the image (e.g., brightness). If not example be generated on a ho st device that downloads them to supplied, no correction is done. the portable media device for storage. By way of example, the image collections may be provided by the method described in FIG. 1. Alternatively or additionally, the image collections In block 106, the image collection for each requested image is sent to the portable media device as part of the downloading process. Once received by the portable media device, the image collection is stored in the portable media may be downloaded from another portable media device that has already downloaded them from a host. In block 204, a display command is received. The display device for later use. The image collection may be stored in the memory of the portable media device. In order to ef?ciently store the images in memory, each of the different image sets may be stored in their own ?le. That is, images having the same image pro?le are grouped in the same ?le. For example, the original images may be stored in a ?rst ?le, the full screen command designates one or more images of the image data to be displayed. The display command may be generated via a user making a selection on the user interface of the media player. images may be stored in a second ?le, a ?rst set of thumbnail images may be stored in a third ?le, a second set of thumbnail In block 206, at least the designated images are retrieved. In some cases, only the designated images are retrieved. In other case, more than the designated images are retrieved. For images may be stored in a fourth ?le, the TV images may be example, although the display command may only designate a single image, other images associated or linked to that stored in a ?fth ?le and so on. image may be additionally retrieved. It should be noted that in some cases, the original image may not be sent to or stored on the hand held media device. In block 208, the one or more retrieved images are output This may be done to save valuable storage space on the hand 20 ted. The retrieved images may be outputted to a display. The held media devices that typically have limited storage capac ity. As should be appreciated, the ?le siZe of the original image is typically much larger than the thumbnail images and therefore they can take up more space in memory. The deci sion of whether to include the original image with the rest of the images may be made by the user. For example, the user 25 may be presented with a choice as whether they desire or do not desire to download or store the original image. This deci sion may be based on how the user uses the media device. For some, the media device may be used to transfer images from 30 for example be performed by a media management program operating on the host device. The method begins at block 302 one host to another. In cases such as these, the user typically wants to include the original image. The decision may be set for all downloads or it may be made at each down load request. Similarly, the same decision can be made for all the different formats if so desired (as some of these formats may display may be located on the portable media device or it may be located external to the portable media device. In either case, upon receiving the retrieved images, the retrieved images are displayed. IN some cases, all of the images are displayed, and in other case only a portion of the images are displayed. The later case may be implemented when the siZe and number of images is greater than the screen siZe. FIG. 3 is a method 300 of transferring image data between a host device and a portable media device, in accordance with one embodiment of the present invention. The method may where a down load request is received. The download request designates one or more images to be downloaded from the 35 host device to the portable media device. The download request is typically implemented via a user selection, i.e., a not be needed). Once downloaded and during operation of the media user selects one or more images and initiates a downloading device, a display request may be made on the media device. procedure. Following block 302, the method proceeds to block 304 Thereafter, one or more images are retrieved from memory based on the display request. The display request indicates the images to be shown on the media player and/or images that 40 loaded. The database entry provides information about the images to be downloaded. The information may for example be metadata. Following block 304, the method proceeds to are to be sent to another device connected to the media device. Once retrieved, the images can be displayed. The manner in which the images are displayed are typically determined by the mode of the media device. The modes can include a browse mode, a slide show mode, a full screen mode, etc. In 45 browse mode, a plurality of tiny thumbnail images are dis played in rows and columns. In a slide show mode, a medium thumbnail image may be displayed in the center and smaller thumbnail images may be displayed on either side of the medium thumbnail image. The small image to the left of the medium image may represent a previously shown image, the 50 In block 202, image data is stored. The image data includes at least a plurality of image collections. The image collections contain a plurality of differently formatted images based on an original image and may also include the original image. The image collections are not formed on the portable media device. They are separately generated on a device other than block 306 where the database entry is written or copied on the media device. The database entry is typically copied to an image database on the media device. If an image database does not exist, one will typically be created. If one does exist, the database entry will be copied thereto. Also following block 304, the method proceeds to block 308 where an image collection is created on the host. This may include transcoding new versions of the selected image based on a plurality of image pro?les, and grouping the new versions of the original image and in some cases the original medium image may represent the current image being shown, and the small image to the left of the medium image may represent the next image in the slide show sequence. If a TV is connected to the media device, the media device may output the TV version of the current image being shown to the TV In a full screen mode, the full screen image is displayed. FIG. 2 is an operational method for a portable media device 200, in accordance with one embodiment of the present invention. The method includes blocks 202, 204, 206 and 208. where a database entry is created for each image to be down 55 image into an image collection. The image pro?les de?ne the features of the new images. By way of example, the image pro?les may include keys for making thumbnails and other images such as those which can be used on TV, printers, and other media devices (e.g., camera). The image pro?les may be 60 65 supplied to the ho st device by the media device, and thereafter stored locally on the host device. This may be part of the synchronization procedure that occurs between the ho st device and media device when they are connected together. Following block 308, the method proceeds to block 310 where each image in the image collection is written or copied to the media device. That is, each new version of the original image and in some cases the original image are copied to the media device. In one embodiment, each particular type of US 8,200,629 B2 9 10 image is stored in a separate ?le on the media device. For -continued example, all of the originals are stored in an original image Image List header Image 1 metadata ?le, all of a ?rst thumbnails are stored in a ?rst thumbnail image ?le, and so on. Image 1 Original Image Location Following block 310, the method proceeds to block 312 Where the database entry is updated. That is, the database entry is ?lled With the appropriate image data. The step of Image 1 Thumbnail 1 Image location <additional image locations> Image 2 Metadata updating typically includes grouping together all the images of a particular image collection (original, thumbnails, TV), Image 2 Thumbnail 1 Image location <additional image locations> Image 2 Original Image Location <additional images> and providing pointers to the location Where the actual image Album List Section Header Album 1 Metadata Album 1 Image Record ID 1 Album 1 Image Record ID 2 is stored (e.g., image ?les). It should be noted that in most cases the host device stores a copy of the database entry and image collections in parallel With the media device. <additional album images> Album 1 Metadata Album 1 Image Record ID 1 Album 1 Image Record ID 2 It should be noted that the all or some of the steps men tioned above can occur separately as distinct events or they can occur simultaneously. In the later case, at least some of <additional album images> the steps can be interleaved. In interleaving, While some images are being copied, other images are being created. Interleaving is generally preferred in order to reduce the amount of time needed for doWnloading. The image data stored in the media device Will noW be described. As mentioned above the image data is spread among multiple ?les. The main image database ?le holds image metadata, photo album lists, and “pointers” to the 20 <additional albums> Record ID List Section Header Record ID List Header Record ID 1 Description Record ID 2 Description <additional record Ids> The folloWing is an exemplary layout for an image set ?le 25 stored on the media device: original image as Well as all available thumbnails. The images themselves are stored either as individual ?les (originals) or in image set ?les, Which contain one or more thumbnails of the same type. This is typically done to save storage space. It should be noted, hoWever, that this is not a limitation and that the images may be stored as an image collection rather than in File Header 30 separate ?les. In one embodiment, the photo database ?le contains a header folloWed by several “sections.” The number of sec tions can be Widely varied although it is expected that the photo database Will contain three sections: image list section, album list section and the image record ID table. The image list section contains a list of all images stored on the media device. Each image entry contains all of the metadata for an image as Well as a list of locations for all available images Image 1 Header Image 1 Data Image 2 Header Image 2 Data <additional images> 35 40 FIG. 4 is an exemplary diagram of a photo database ?le 350, in accordance With one embodiment of the present invention. The photo database 350 includes a ?le header 352, an image list section header 354, an album list section header 356 and a record ID list section header 358. Inside the images list section header 354 are image entries 360, and pointers associated thereWith including the original, thumbnails and TV. Each image has a unique persistent record ID Which is 362, Which provide image locations for the various images in the image entry including for example the original image 0 used in both the album and record ID table sections. The album list section contains a list of the albums, each of Which and a plurality of thumbnails T thereof. Inside the album list section header 356 are album entries 364 and record IDs 366 for each of the images in the album. Inside the record ID list section header 358 are Record ID list header 368 and record is simply an ordered list of image record IDs. The image record ID table is a table containing record IDs and ?le offsets for all images, sorted in ascending record ID order. This table alloWs the media device to quickly load only those image records for a given album, rather than requiring loading the Whole image record list. ID descriptions 370. FIGS. 5A-5E are diagrams of exemplary image set ?les 50 The images themselves are stored in image set ?les. Each image set ?le contains a ?le header, folloWed by one or more images, each With a header. This alloWs scavenging of the data should the need arise. The image records in the photo database are by ?le speci?cation (path) and ?le offset, so it is 55 not necessary to parse an image set ?le to get to a particular image. The number of images per ?le and/or the maximum image ?les siZe may be Widely varied. By Way of example, the maximum siZe may be 500 Megabytes. The folloWing is an exemplary layout for the photo data 372, in accordance With one embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 5A is a diagram of an original image set ?le 372A, FIG. 5B is a diagram of a tiny thumbnail set ?le 372B, FIG. 5C is a diagram ofa small thumbnail set ?le 372C, FIG. 5D is a diagram of a medium thumbnail set ?le 372D, FIG. SE is a diagram of a full screen image set ?le 372E, and FIG. SE is a diagram of a TV screen image set ?le 372E. In each of these ?gures, the image set ?les 372 include a ?le header 374, image headers 376 and the actual image data 378. 60 FIG. 6 is media method 400, in accordance With one embodiment of the present invention. The method may be performed on a media system including a host device such as base stored on the media device: a personal computer and a media device. The method begins at block 402 Where one or more images are uploaded into a personal computer. The images may be uploaded from a File header Image List Section Header 65 camera, memory device, Internet or the like. After block 402, the method proceeds to block 404 Where the images are stored in the personal computer. Blocks 402 and 404 may be accom US 8,200,629 B2 11 12 plished With a media management program. In Block 406, a module 506 provides for centraliZed management of media media player is connected to the personal computer. This may items not only on the host computer 502 but also on the media be accomplished through a Wired or Wireless connection. The connection may include a handshaking and/or synching pro cedure. player 504. More particularly, the management module 506 manages those media items stored in a media store 508 asso ciated With the ho st computer 502. The management module 506 also interacts With a media database 510 to store media In some cases, the media management program is auto matically opened When the tWo devices are connected. The information associated With the media items stored in the particular media management program opened may depend media store 508. on the type of media device. If the media device is a music player, the media management program may be a music pro gram. If the media device is a photo player, the media man agement program may be an image program. If the media device is a combination music/photo player, the media man agement program may be music program or a photo program The media items may correspond to audio, images or video items. The media information, on the other hand, pertains to characteristics or attributes of the media items. For example, in the case of audio or audiovisual media, the media informa tion can include one or more of: title, album, track, artist, composer and genre. These types of media information are or a combination of the tWo. If the different programs are speci?c to particular media items. In addition, the media operated independently, the music program and the photo information can pertain to quality characteristics of the media items. Examples of quality characteristics of media items can include one or more of: bit rate, sample rate, equalizer setting, program may be linked so that information can be shared there betWeen. For example, the music program may be able to access data from the photo program and vice versa. In block 408, images and/or image identi?ers (e.g., text) 20 512. The play module 512 is a softWare module that can be utiliZed to play certain media items stored in the media store 508. The play module 412 can also utiliZe media information from the media database 510. Typically, the media informa are presented on the personal computer. This too may be accomplished With the media management program. In fact, the images and image identi?ers may be included in a photo WindoW associated With a graphical user interface. In block 410, a doWnload command is generated. The doWnload com mand designates one or more images to be doWnloaded from 25 the personal computer to the portable media device. The 30 518 removeably couples the communication modules 514 and 416. In one embodiment, the connection or link 518 is a cable that provides a data bus, such as a FIREWIRETM bus or media device are determined. The determination may be made before the doWnload or it may be made as part of the doWnloading process. In some cases, the host device stores a list of required formats for a variety of media devices. In other cases, the portable media device supplies the personal com tion of interest corresponds to the media items to be played by the play module 512. The host computer 502 also includes a communication module 514 that couples to a corresponding communication module 41 6 Within the media player 504. A connection or link doWnload command may be generated When a user selects one or more images and hits a doWnload feature located in the photo WindoW. In block 412, the image formats required by the portable volume adjustment, start/ stop and total time, etc. Still further, the host computer 502 includes a play module USB bus, Which is Well knoWn in the art. In another embodi ment, the connection or link 518 is a Wireless channel or 35 connection through a Wireless netWork. Hence, depending on implementation, the communication modules 514 and 516 puter With required formats and image pro?les, Which may communicate in a Wired or Wireless manner. describe hoW to format each image. In block 414, neW ver The media player 504 also includes a media store 520 that stores media items Within the media player 504. The media items being stored to the media store 520 are typically sions of the original image are created. That is, using the image pro?les, the personal computer transcodes the original 40 image into differently formatted images based on the image pro?le. By Way of example, the transcoding may be per received over the connection or link 518 from the host com puter 502. More particularly, the management module 506 formed by a multimedia technology such as QuickTime of Apple Computers Inc. of Cupertino, Calif. QuickTime is a poWerful, cross platform, multimedia technology for manipu sends all or certain of tho se media items residing on the media store 508 over the connection or link 518 to the media store 45 lating, enhancing, and storing video, sound, animation, graphics, text, music, and the like. In Block 416, the neW versions of the original image and in some cases the original image are copied and stored onto the media device. In block 418, the media device is disconnected from the 50 personal computer thereby alloWing the images to be trans ported via the portable media device. In block 420, a display command is generated on the media device during transport. 55 images is presented. The retrieved image can be any of the stored images including the original and/or the neW images. The retrieved image can be presented on the portable media 60 FIG. 7 is a block diagram of a media management system 500, in accordance With one embodiment of the present invention. The media management system 500 includes a host computer 502 and a media player 504. The host computer 502 is typically a personal computer. The host computer, among other conventional components, includes a management module 506, Which is a softWare module. The management 522 Within the media player 504. Furthermore, the media player 504 includes a play module 524 that couples to the media store 520 and the media data base 522. The play module 524 is a softWare module that can device as for example though an LCD and/or it can be pre sented on an external display such as a television. can be stored in a media database 522. In this regard, certain media information from the media database 510 Within the host computer 502 can be sent to the media database 522 Within the media player 504 over the connection or link 518. Still further, lists identifying certain of the media items can also be sent by the management module 506 over the connec tion or link 518 to the media store 520 or the media database In block 422, one or more images are retrieved based on the display command. In block 424, at least one of the retrieved 520 Within the media player 504. Additionally, the corre sponding media information for the media items that is also delivered to the media player 504 from the host computer 502 be utiliZed to play certain media items stored in the media store 520. The play module 524 can also utiliZe media infor mation from the media database 422. Typically, the media information of interest corresponds to the media items to be played by the play module 524. Hence, in one embodiment, the media player 504 has lim 65 ited or no capability to manage media items on the media player 504. HoWever, the management module 506 Within the host computer 502 can indirectly manage the media items US 8,200,629 B2 13 14 residing on the media player 504. For example, to “add” a cern When the media player 600 is a portable media player media item to the media player 504, the management module that is poWered by a battery (not shoWn). The media player 506 serves to identify the media item to be added to the media player 504 from the media store 508 and then causes the identi?ed media item to be delivered to the media player 504. As another example, to “delete” a media item from the media 600 also includes a RAM 620 and a Read-Only Memory (ROM) 622. The ROM 622 can store programs, utilities or processes to be executed in a non-volatile manner. The RAM 620 provides volatile data storage, such as for the cache 606. The media player 600 also includes a user input device 608 that alloWs a user of the media player 600 to interact With the media player 600. For example, the user input device 608 can take a variety of forms, such as a button, keypad, dial, etc. Still player 504, the management module 506 serves to identify the media item to be deleted from the media store 508 and then causes the identi?ed media item to be deleted from the media player 504. As still another example, if changes (i.e., alterations) to characteristics of a media item Were made at further, the media player 600 includes a display 610 (screen display) that can be controlled by the processor 602 to display the host computer 502 using the management module 506, then such characteristics can also be carried over to the cor information to the user. A data bus 611 can facilitate data responding media item on the media player 504. In one imple mentation, the additions, deletions and/or changes occur in a transfer betWeen at least the ?le system 604, the cache 606, the processor 602, and the CODECs 612. batch-like process during synchronization of the media items on the media player 504 With the media items on the host In one embodiment, the media player 600 serves to store a computer 502. In another embodiment, the media player 504 has limited plurality of media items in the ?le system 604. The media items may for example correspond to audio (e.g., songs, or no capability to manage playlists on the media player 504. HoWever, the management module 506 Within the host com 20 a user desires to have the media player play a particular media item, a list of available media items is typically displayed on the display 610. Then, using the user input device 608, a user puter 502 through management of the playlists residing on the host computer can indirectly manage the playlists residing on the media player 504. In this regard, additions, deletions or changes to playlists can be performed on the host computer 502 and then by carried over to the media player 404 When delivered thereto. As previously noted, synchronization is a form of media can select one of the available media items. The processor 25 602, upon receiving a selection of a particular media item, supplies the media data (e.g., audio ?le, image ?le or video ?le) for the particular media item to the appropriate device. For audio items, the processor supplies the media item to a coder/decoder (CODEC) 612. The CODEC 612 then pro management. The ability to automatically initiate synchroni zation Was also previously discussed. Still further, hoWever, books), images (e.g., photos) or videos (e.g., movies). When 30 duces analog output signals for a speaker 614. The speaker the synchronization betWeen devices can be restricted so as to 614 can be a speaker internal to the media player 600 or prevent automatic synchronization When the host computer external to the media player 600. For example, headphones or earphones that connect to the media player 600 Would be and media player do not recognize one another. According to one embodiment, When a media player is ?rst connected to a host computer (or even more generally When matching identi?ers are not present), the user of the media player is queried as to Whether the user desires to af?liate, assign or lock the media player to the host computer. When the user of the media player elects to af?liate, assign or lock the media player With the host computer, then a pseudo random identi?er is obtained and stored in either the media database or a ?le Within both the host computer and the media player. In one implementation, the identi?er is an identi?er associated With (e. g., knoWn or generated by) the host com puter or its management module and such identi?er is sent to 35 the display 610. The display may for example be a liquid crystal display (LCD) that is integral With the media player. Alternatively, the display may be an external display such as a CRT or LCD, or a television of any particular type. In some 40 this, the media data displayed on both displays may be the same of it may be different. In the later case, for example, the internal display may include a slide shoW interface shoWing 45 the previous image, the next image and the image currently being displayed on the external display. The media player 600 also includes a netWork/bus interface 616 that couples to a data link 618. The data link 618 alloWs the media player 600 to couple to a host computer. The data media player and is sent to and stored in a ?le or media database of the host computer. 50 link 618 can be provided over a Wired connection or a Wireless connection. In the case of a Wireless connection, the netWork/ bus interface 616 can include a Wireless transceiver. In another embodiment, a media player can be used With a microprocessor or controller for controlling the overall operation of the media player 600. The media player 600 stores media data pertaining to media items in a ?le system 604 and a cache 606. The ?le system 604 is, typically, a storage disk or a plurality of disks. The ?le system 604 typi cases, the processor is con?gured to supply media data to both an integrated display and an external display. In cases such as and stored in the media player. In another implementation, the identi?er is associated With (e. g., knoWn or generated by) the FIG. 8 is a block diagram of a media player 600, in accor dance With one embodiment of the present invention. The media player 600 includes a processor 602 that pertains to a considered an external speaker. For visual items, the processor supplies the media item to docking station. The docking station can provide Wireless 55 communication capability (e.g., Wireless transceiver) for the media player, such that the media player can communicate With a host device using the Wireless communication capa cally provides high capacity storage capability for the media bility When docked at the docking station. The docking sta player 600. HoWever, since the access time to the ?le system 604 is relatively sloW, the media player 600 can also include a cache 606. The cache 606 is, for example, Random-Access tion may or may not be itself portable. The Wireless netWork, connection or channel can be radio frequency based, so as to not require line-of-sight arrange 60 Memory (RAM) provided by semiconductor memory. The ment betWeen sending and receiving devices. Hence, syn relative access time to the cache 606 is substantially shorter than for the ?le system 604. HoWever, the cache 506 does not chronization can be achieved While a media player remains in a bag, vehicle or other container. The ho st device can also be a media player. In such case, the have the large storage capacity of the ?le system 604. Further, the ?le system 504, When active, consumes more poWer than does the cache 606. The poWer consumption is often a con 65 synchronization of media items can betWeen tWo media play ers.
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