Yaesu FT - 990
FT-990
OPERATING
MANUAL
YAESU MUSEN CO., LTD.
General Information
The FT-990 is a high performance transceiver
providing up to 100 watts transmitter power out-
put on all HF amateur radio bands in CW, SSB, FM,
RTTY and Packet (F1 and F2) modes, and up to 25
watts carrier in AM mode. The receiver tunes all
frequencies between 100 kHz and 30 MHz in 10-Hz
steps. An automatic antenna tuner and iambic elec-
tronic speed keyer/bug simulator are built in as
standard accessories, along with five IF filters for
the 2nd and 3rd receiver IFs, and a universally
tunable, digital switched capacitance filter (SCF)
for receiver audio. The FT-990 may be ordered with
or without an efficient, heavy-duty switching
regulator AC power supply.
Inside the FT-990, modular construction with
plug-in composite epoxy boards provides excel-
lent RF circuit isolation, high reliability and serv-
iceability. Two 10-bit direct digital synthesizers
(DDS) and a magnetic rotary encoder provide si-
lent, silky-smooth tuning, pure local signals and
very fast t/r changeover important in QSK CW
and digital modes. Frequency accuracy and stabil-
ity are assured by driving all DDSs from a single
master oscillator, and the optional TCXO-2 tem-
perature-compensated oscillator is available for
exceptional 0.5-ppm stability from —10 to +50 °C.
The extremely low-noise, high-performance re-
ceiver front end uses PIN-diode-controlled push-
pull FETs in a constant-gain RF amplifier, feeding
an active double balanced quad FET ring mixer.
Six microprocessors in the FT-990 are program-
med to provide the simplest possible control inter-
face for the operator, even for previously complex
applications like HF packet. Interference rejection
is facilitated by both IF shift and an IF notch filter,
with pushbutton selection of IF bandwidths, and
the astounding dual digital SCF audio filter with
independently adjustable selectivity skirts (unique
to the FT-990). An automatically mode-dependent
AGC selection is provided along with manual
AGC decay selection/disable.
The front panel keypad provides 1-touch band
selection, with two independent (A/B) vfos for
each band holding their own frequencies, modes
and IF bandwidth settings, and even clarifier off-
sets and repeater shifts, if used. Switching bands
instantly recalls all of these settings last used on
each band. Ninety freely tunable and scannable
memories are selectable with single (MEM) knob,
each storing all of the operating data held in a vfo.
Other important features include general coverage
reception from 100 kHz to 30 MHz, a jack and front
panel button for a separate receive-only antenna,
an effective noise blanker, all-mode squelch, inde-
pendent receive and transmit clarifiers, 6-function
multimeter and a unique adjustable passband-
shifting RF speech processor which lets you tailor
transmitter audio to your own voice for SSB.
Special features for CW include a built-in iam-
bic memory keyer, presettable bfo offset and spot-
ting button for precise tuning by zero-beat, and key
jacks on both front and rear panels. In addition to
the facility of the SCF audio filter for CW reception,
a 250-Hz 3rd IF filter is available as an option to
complement the 2nd IF 500-Hz bandwidth IF filter
(also optional in the DC version).
Special digital mode provisions include sepa-
rate interface jacks for an RTTY terminal unit and
packet tnc, and RTTY and PKT mode selection but-
tons which disable the microphone jack automat-
ically while providing either sideband for RTTY or
LSB/FM modes for packet: switch between voice
and digital modes with only the push of a button.
For voice contesting, the DVS-2 digital voice re-
corder option introduced with the FT-1000 works
With the FT-990, providing continuous-loop recei-
ver recording and pushbutton transmission of
multiple voice messages to help keep you at your
peak QSO-rate throughout the contest.
With its efficient internal AC switching supply,
the FT-990 weighs only 13 kg and always runs cool.
An internal heatsink and quiet, thermally switched
blower allow full power output without rear panel
protrusions, giving easy access to connectors. The
FT-990 incorporates the same high-speed antenna
tuner as the FT-1000, with its own microprocessor
and 39 memories which automatically store most
recent antenna matching settings for nearly instant
recall while changing operating frequency.
Accessories include the SP-6 Loudspeaker with
audio filters and optional LL-5 Phone Patch; the
YH-77ST Headset; the FP-25 AC PSU (for DC ver-
sions) or DC Cable (for AC versions) and the MD-
1cs Desktop- and MH-1g5 Hand Microphones.
Before connecting power, please read the Instal-
lation section carefully, heeding the warnings in
that section to avoid damage to the set. After instal-
lation, please take time to work through the Opera-
tion chapter, referring to the Controls & Connectors
chapter as necessary for details. These chapters are
intended to be read while sitting in front of the
FT-990, so you can try out each control and func-
tion as they are described.
page 1
Specifications
General
Receiving frequency range: 100 kHz — 30 MHz
Transmitting frequency ranges:
160-m band, 1.8 to 2.0 MHz (or 1.81/1.83 to 1.85)
80-m band, 3.5to 4.0 MHz
40-m band, 7.0 to 7.5 MHz
30-m band, 10.0 to 10.5 MHz
20-m band, 14.0 to 14,5 MHz
17-m band, 18.0 to 18.5 MHz
15-m band, 21.0 to 21.5 MHz
12-m band, 24.5 to 25.0 MHz
10-m band, 28.0 to 29.7 MHz
Frequency stability: < 10 ppm from =10 to +50 °C
(except FM, < 200 Hz),
< (1.5 ppm from —10 to +50 °C w/TCXO-2 option
(FM < 150 Hz)
Emission modes: LSB/USB (J3E), CW (ATA),
FSK (J1D, J2D), AM (A3E), FM (F3E)
Basic frequency steps:
10 Hz for [3E, AlA and J1D;
100 Hz for A3E, F3E and J2D
Antenna impedance: 16.5 to 1508 (50 nominal)
Supply voltage:
100 ~117 or 200 — 234 VAC + 10%, 50/60 Hz
Power consumption (approx):
60 VA receive, 470 VA for 100 watts transmit
Dimensions (WHD} 368 x 129 x 370 mm
Weight (approx): 13 kg. (28.6 165)
Transmitter
Power output:
adjustable up to 100 watts (25 watts AM carrier)
Duty cycle: 100% € 100 watts,
50% € 100 watts (FM & RTTY, 3-minute tx)
Modulation types
SSH: Balanced, filtered carrier
AM: Low-level (early stage)
FM: Variable reactance
FSK: Audio frequency shift keying
Maximum FM deviation: £2.5 kHz
FSK shift frequencies: 170, 425 and 850 Hz
Packet shift frequencies: 200, 1000 Hz
Harmonic radiation; at least 50 dB below peak out-
put
SSB carrier suppression:
at least 40 dB below peak output
Undesired sideband suppresion:
at least 50 dB below peak output
Audio response (55B): |
not môre than — dB from 400 to 2600 Hz
3rd-order IMD: —36 dB typical € 100 watts PEP on
14.2 MHz
Microphone impedance: 500 to 600 82
Recetver
Circuit type:
triple-conversion superheterodyne
Intermediate frequencies:
47.21 and 10.94 MHz, and 455 kHz
Sensitivity:
(for 10 AB S/N, 0 dB = 1 pV)
100-250 | 250-500 | 05-18 | 18-30
| “Frequency =>
vm | kHz kHz MHz MHz
и AW | et | «дум | «025
di <10:V | <2v | <a | <1W
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(erizgasnao) | — | - | о |4
Selectivity (-6/-60 dB):
Button | Modes | sasew | -6odBBw
—24kHz | allexceptFM ВЕНЫ | ЧЕН
_20KHz | alle AMFM | tokiz | 36KHz
500Hz | CW.ATTY, Packet | 500Hz | 1.8kHz
_250H7 | CW.RTTY 20H | 00H:
= | Ade) Blitz 16 kHz
Squelch sensitivity:
1.8 ~ 30 MHz (CW, SSB, AM): <2.0 wv
28 ~ 30 MHz (FM): < 0.32 WV
IE rejection (1.8 - 30 MHz):
80 dB or better
Image rejection (1.8 — 30 MHz}:
80 dB or betler
[F shift range: £1.2 kHz
Maximum audio power output:
2 watts into 4 £2 with < 10% THD
Audio output impedance: 4 to 8£2
Specifications are subject to change, in the interest
of technical improvement, without notice or obli-
gation.
page 2 ни — =
Accessories & Options
Supplied Accessories
@ AC Cord (19017760)
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de (CONDONES) ap 4A (QUUVOUDE — €
6 "inch, 3-contact Plus
S-H3603 (POOSCODB) |
@ ':-inch, 2-contact Plug
C107 (P0090054
@ FCA Plug
e pin DIN Plug
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Options
TCXO-2 High Stability Master Reference
Oscillator
For special applications and environments
where extra frequency stability is essential, such as
for long-term HF packet monitoring under wide
temperature variations, the TCXO-2 provides 0.0-
ppm stability from —10 to +50°C for the master
reference oscillator.
MD-1cg Desk-Top Microphone
Designed especially to match the electrical and
cosmetic features of the FT-990, the MD-Icg has
600-0 impedance, and includes up/down scan-
ning buttons and a large PTT switch with latch.
page 3
Accessories & Options
SP-6 Loudspeaker with Audio Filters
and LL-5 Phone Patch Option
Selectable audio high- and lowpass filters with
a large loudspeaker complement the superb audio
characteristics of the FT-990 with your choice of 12
different audio filtering combinations. Two input
terminals are provided for mulbple transceivers,
with a front panel switch to select between them. A
phone jack is provided on the front panel to take
advantage of the audio filters with headphones.
With the optional LL-5 Phone Patch Unit instal-
led in the SP-6, the FT-990 can be patched to the
public telephone network. The LL-5 includes a hy-
brid transformer circuit to assure proper imped-
ance matches, andgain controls and level meter to
set proper audio levels on the telephone line.
YH-7751 Lightweight Headphones
Dual samariume-cobalt transducers with sensi-
tivity of 103dB/mW ( 2dB, @1 kHz, 350) provide
the perfect match for the FT-990, taking full advan-
tage of the spectacular audio performance.
page 4
DVS-2 Digital Voice System
Serving as either a continuous receiver recorder
for instant pushbutton playback, or microphone
audio recorder for multiple on air playback, the
DVS-2 applies the advantages of random-access
solid-state digital memory to serious communica-
rons. All data is stored electronically, with no mov-
ing parts except your finger and the pushbutton.
More information 15 on page 36.
FIF-232C CAT System Interface
To control the FT-990 from an RS-232C serial
port of an external personal computer, use the FIF-
232C to convert the TTL levels required by the
transceiver to the RS-232C levels required by the
serial port. A cable is included for connection be-
tween the transceiver and the FIF-232C (the cable
to the computer must be provided separately). The
FIF-232C includes its own AC power supply.
IF Crystal Filter Options
For extra CW receiver selectivity, the XF-455K-
251-01 8-pole 250-Hz crystal filter may be installed
in the 455-kHz 3rd IF ofthe FT-990, to cascade with
the 500-Hz 2nd IF filter (factor y-installed in the AC
version, or optional in the DC version).
Also, for SSB reception under difficult condi-
tions, the XF-10.9M-202-01 8-pole 2-kHz crystal fil-
ter may be installed in the 10.9-kHz 2nd IF, and
switched in from the front panel when needed.
Station Installation
Preliminary Inspection
Inspect the transceiver thoroughly immediately
upon opening the packing carton, Check to see that
all controls and switches work freely, and inspect
the cabinet for any signs of damage. Make sure the
accessory [uses and plugs pictured on page 3 are
included. If any damage is found decument it com-
pletely, and contact the shipping company (or
dealer, if you purchased it over the counter) right
away. Save the packing materials in case you need
to return the set for service,
If you purchased optional internal accessories
separately, install them as described in Installing
Internal Accessories (page 45).
Power Connection
The FT-99( is available in an AC/DC version,
which includes the FP-25 switching power supply,
and a DC-only version. Page 47 describes [XC in-
stallation for both versions, while the following
paragraphs describes only AC power connections
for the AC/DC version.
Before connecting power, check the label on the
rear panel which indicates the AC mains voltage
range for which your transceiver is currently set. If
your AC mains voltage is outside of this range, the
voltage switch on the power supply in the trans-
ceiver must be reset; and three fuses must be
CAUTION!
Permanent damage will result if im-
proper supply voltage is applied to the
transceiver. Your warranty does not
cover damage caused by application of
improper supply voltage, or use of im-
proper fuses.
changed. This requires only a screwdriver and is
not difficult (see below}, but you should make sure
the power supply is set correctly before connecting
power, If you have any doubts about the proce-
dure, ask your dealer for help.
You should also make sure the fuse in the rear
panel fuse holder is correct for your mains voltage:
AC Mains Voltage Fuse Capacity
100 ~ 117 8A
200 - 234 4 A
After making certain the AC voltage for which
the transceiver is set matches your mains voltage,
and that the correct fuse is installed in the fuse
holder, connect the AC power cord to the 3-pin AC
jack on the rear panel. Don't plug the cord into the
wall until all other transceiver interconnections
have been made.
Changing the Power Supply Setting for a Different AC Voltage Range
[1 Make certain that all cables are disconnected
from the transceiver. Remove the top cover as
shown at the top of page 10, and the bottom
cover as shown at the bottom of page 12.
J Move the switch next to the speaker (see be-
low) to the required 115 or 230 Y side.
115ÿ—
=230\ №
71 On the bottom of the chassis (see below), re-
place fuses FH6901 and FH6902 with two of
the supplied fuses: either the 10-A fuses (for
100 ~ 117 VAC) or 5A (for 200 ~ 234 VAC).
[J Replace the fuse in the rear panel holder, and
then replace the cover and the carrying handle.
Important!
Af you change the AC
voltage range setting you
must change the tro in
ternal fuses and the fuse
in the rear panel holder.
Also be sure to change
the voltage marking on
the label on the rear panel
to match the new voltage.
setting. Do not use slow-
page 5
Station Installation
Transceiver Location
To assure long life of the components, a primary
consideration in setting up the FT-990 is providing
for adequate ventilation around the cabinet. The
cooling system of the FT-990 must be free to draw
cool air in at the bottom rear of the transceiver, and
to expel warm air out of the upper rear panel. Do
not place the transceiver on top of another heat-
generating device such as a linear amplifier, and
do not place equipment, books or papers on top of
the transceiver, Place the transceiver on a hard, flat
surface. Also, provide a few centimeters of space
on either side of the transceiver, if possible. Avoid
heating vents and window locations that could
expose the transceiver to excessive direct sunlight,
especially in hot climates.
Grounding
For protection from shock and proper perform-
ance, connect the GND terminal on the rear panel to
a good earth ground, using a heavy braided cable
of the shortest length possible. All other station
equipment should be connected to the same
grounding cable, as close together as practical. If
you use a computer with or near the FT-990, you
may need to experiment with grounding of both
the transceiver and the computer to suppress com-
puter noise in the receiver.
Adjusting the Front Feet
The two front feet of the FT-990 can be set in
eitherof two positions. By turning the knurled ring
around a (retracted) foot clockwise, the middle of
the foot will extend aboutone centimeter, Turn the
ring as far as it will go (about \4-turn) to lock the
extended foot in place. To retract an extended foot,
turn the knurled ring counterclockwise 4-tum
while pressing on the center of the foot.
Adjusting the Front Feet
Antenna Considerations
Any antennas connected to the FT-990 should
have coaxial feedlines with 50-01 impedance, and
include well-grounded lightning arrestors. For the
antenna at the main ANT jack, the antenna tuner in
the FT-99(0 is capable of matching antennas with an
SWR of up to 3:1 or more on the amateur bands to
the transmitter. Nevertheless, optimum perform-
ance for both reception and transmission will gen-
erally result with an antenna designed to provide
a 50-Q unbalanced resistive load at the operating
frequency. An antenna that is not resonant at the
operating frequency may present too high an SWR
for proper matching with the built-in antenna
tuner, in which case the antenna itself should be
readjusted, or an outboard antenna tuner used. If
the tuner is unable to bring the SWR down to an
acceptable level, attempting to transmit will result
in an automatic reduction in power output and
increased losses in the feedline. Operation under
such conditions is not recommended: it is better to
install another antenna designed for that band.
Also, if your antenna has a balanced feedpoint and
you use a balanced feedline, install a balun be-
tween the feedline and the transceiver's ANT jack.
The same precautions apply to any additional
(receive-only) antenna connected to the RX ANT IN
jack, except that this antenna will not have the
benefit of the built-in antenna tuner. Theretore,
unless such a receive-only antenna has an imped-
ance near 50 Q at the operating frequency, you
may need an external tuner for good performance.
Interconnection of Accessories
The diagrams on the following pages show in-
terconnections of external accessories. If you have
any questions on these accessories or connecting
devices not shown, contact your dealer for advice.
Memory Backup
The lithium memory BACKUP switch inside the
top access panel is turned on at the factory, allow-
ing vio and memory dala to be retained while
power is off. Backup current is miniscule, so it 15
not necessary to turn the BACKUP switch off unless
the transceiver is to be stored for a long time.
After about five years the transceiver may fail to
retain memories (although operation will be other-
wise unaffected), and the lithium battery should be
replaced, Ask your dealer for replacement of the
battery, or for instructions on how to do so your-
self.
page 6 - о
Station Installation Connector Pinouls
Connector Pinouts
\RTTY PACKET [2—2
4
ry
£ 1 DATA IM
q I SHIFT 7 6ND
PRX OUT 3 ese
4 E e i DATA OUT
| 5 BUSY
Us à
BAND DATA LTE REMOTE Ley
4 # д © E
Z ria 2 | EXT ALC i
5 1. TY END 4 Narm CLOSED
1 GND 1 GND
A 2 BAND DATA A 4 Norm. OPEN |
i 5 BAND DATA В 5, Relay Common
1 BAND DATA C 6 PTT
H h BAND DATA O | 138 200mA
6 i LINEAR E enn
CAT A
- PENEDES GE os
: 7- SERIAL OUT re
: 1 SERIAL IN 4
A PTT | : FIV
5 5 5/90 2 TEL]
6 | % NC 8 CNTL 2
1 GND
MIC |
“up SIGNAL (FR!
а 7 END
3 OWN
4 FAST
g 5 GND
0 PIT |
7 END TD |
5 Me SIGNAL (L] as
FLAT KEY
a
5 COMMON
. DASH
KE Y
RCA PLUG
E
YA
SIGNAL or [+]
page 7
Station Installation Connecting External Accessories
Connecting External Accessories
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page 8
Station Installation Connecting External Accessories
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Amp. | 1) ; Л 3
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| REMOTE
— Bi
Linear Amp T/R Switching Options on the REMOTE Jack
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FT-990 y non-QSK Linear Amp.
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Connecting a Linear Amplifier
If using an FL-7000 with the FT-990, use optional cable D400019 to provide automatic band selection |
for the linear, as well as OSK /r switching control.
| For any other linear amplifier, t/r switching is provided by the REMOTE jack (page 23). To determine
| Which pins to use, first determine the open circuit voltage and closed circuit current requirements of
the t/r switching line for the linear. If the voltage is AC or above 50 VDC, or if the current required is
more than 500 mA, switch 56801 must be set to the RY position to enable the internal relay (S6801 is
set to the TR position to disable the relay at the factory, see page 11). Otherwise, if the linear's
requirements are below these, connect the positive t/r control line from the linear to pin 4 of the REMOTE |
jack, and the negative side of this line to pin3 (ground). Also, if your linear's requirements are within
| the above range, and if it is designed for full break-in (OSK) operation, you will need to connect its
exciter-enable output to pin 8 of the BAND DATA jack. With a plug installed in this jack, the transmitter is
normally disabled, and pin 8 floats at about 5 volts. By. grounding pin 8 (to pin 3), the QSK linear
enables the transmitter (this circuit prevents the FT-990 from exciling the linear before it is ready to
send). Note that the FT-990 will not transmit if a plug is installed in the BAND DATA jack and pin 8 is not
grounded.
With the relay enabled, the FT-990 can support non-QSK linear t/r voltage up to 125 VAC @ 200 mA,
or DC voltage up to 220 V @ 300 mA, or closed-circuit current up to 2 À with DC voltage up to 30V.
Use pin 5 of the REMOTE jack (relay common), and pind (closed-on-transmit), after setting S6801 to the
RY position. Do not atlempt QSK operation with a linear if its switching requires the relay enabled.
Station Installation Internal Adjustments
Internal Adjustments
Described below are a few internal settings you
may wish to make as you become familiar with the
FT-990, Access to, and adjustment of, all user-ad-
justable settings are described together here since
it is most convenient to do all that you need at once
while the covers are removed. However, descrip-
tions of the purpose and effect of these adjust-
ments are provided elsewhere in this manual,
where appropriate. We therefore recommend that
you do not make any of these adjustments until the
purpose and effect of each is clear to you.
All adjustments have been aligned or set at the
factory to standard settings, but in some cases you
will want to tailor them for your particular station
requirements. Be careful, however, to avoid tam-
pering with other internal controls not mentioned
in this section, so you don't degrade alignment.
For full alignment details covering all internal set-
tings, refer to the FT-990 Technical Manual.
CAUTION!
Some of these adjustments must be made
with power applied, and with the cover re-
moved. Although the voltages at exposed
places in the transceiver are not dangerous
to you, sensitive circuitry can be damaged
by contact with metallic tools. Therefore we
recommend using a non-metallic adjust-
ment tool, if available, In any case, avoid
touching any components not involved in
the adjustment, and do not allow anything
to fall in the set while the cover is removed.
Button Beeper Volume
This trimmer potentiometer sets the volume of
the beep that sounds when one of the front panel
buttons is pressed (independently from receiver
signal volume as set by the AF control).
[J Remove the ten screws shown at the upper
right, and remove the top cover.
(J Turn the transceiver on, and adjust the AF con-
trol for normal volume on background noise on
a commonly-used band.
0 Referring to the photos at the right, locate
VR3011 and use a small screwdriver to adjust it
for the desired beep volume while repeately
pressing a button.
page 10 -
Top Cover Removal
a
VR3009 <
ça 5 Y =
J E
CW Sidetone Volume
O Follow the same steps and refer to the same
photos as above for Button Beeper Volume, but
adjust VR3009 while pressing (only) the SPOT
button on the front panel.
CW Keyer Weighting, Bug Simulation
[J With the top cover removed as described for
Button Beeper Volume, notice the small rectan-
gular hole near the front edge of the chassis, just
behind the left side of the panel meter. The CW
keyer setting switches are accessible through
this hole (weighting DIP switch black 57204 is a
little to the left, and iambic/bug slide switch
57203 to the right). The photo at the right shows
a view of these switches from the rear.
[J To change the switch settings you will need a
thin, sharp-pointed tool about 15 cm (6 inches)
long, and preferably non-metallic, to reach the
switches through the hole. You can watch what
you're doing through the slot between the top
edge of the front panel and the chassis, to the
left of the meter.
O Slide switch 57203 to the left (when viewed
from the front) to change the keyer to simulate
a bug (dits on one paddle, and steady CW on
the other), or leave it set to the right to provide
iambic keying (factory default).
0 To set the keyer weighting (dot:dash ratio), set
the four sections of DIP switch 57204 according
to the table below (O = ON = front position).
Linear Amp T/R Switch (56801)
[J The location of this switch is indicated in the
photos on the previous page. Move il forward
to enable the T/R relay at pins 2, 4 and 5 of the
REMOTE Jack. The factory default (back) position
Keyer Weight Settings
Dot:Dash | DIP Switch | Dot:Dash | DIP Switch i
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| 135 |=16|- 10 14.5 LIME
198 |o|-|-|0
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Ней 010 - CEF (rear position) = -
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Station Installation Internal Adjustments
CW Keyer Switches
(As viewed from the Rear)
has pin 4 of this jack switched by transistor
(9101, and the relay disabled. See the jack de-
scription in the next chapter.
Rear Panel Audio Output Levels
(KTTY - VR3004, PACKET - VR3006,
AF OUT - VR3010, DVS-2 - VR3015)
Mote: these controls cannot be adjusted while the
set 1s on, so adjustment may have to be made by
trial-and-error. Make sure to turn the transceiver
off each time before pulling or reinserting the cir-
cuit board.
[J Make sure the transceiver is turned off,
OJ Remove the top cover, if necessary, as described
above for Beeper Volume, and lift out the black
plastic label sheet for the Top Panel Controls.
[1 Remove the screw at each end of the AF Unit
(the board in the middle slot), and gently pull
up on the brackets at each end of the board to
remove it (rock them alternately).
0 Refer to the AF Unit photo at the top of the next
page for locations of the PKT OUT, RTTY QUT, AF OUT
and DVS OUT trimmers on the board, Make a
slight adjustment - clockwise to increase the
output level, or counterclockwise to decrease it.
[J Temporarily replace the AF Unit in its slot, us-
ing care to align the front and back edges of the
card with the guide tabs in the chassis.
O Turn power on and do whatever you need to
check whether the output level is satisfactory. If
not, turn the power off and repeat the last few
steps until it is.
[J Replace the two screws affixing the AF Unit,
and replace the plastic label sheet so that the
controls are visible through the holes.
. page 11
Station Installation Internal Adjustments
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AF Unit - Audio Out Trimmer Locations
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Mode-Specific Tuning Rates
A Remove the top cover, if necessary, as described
above for Button Beeper Volume, and liftout the A
black plastic label cover for the Top Access Lali | e
Panel Controls. - = mae (i
9-41 ET a oe
x po HET IAM Tat ES
O Remove the screw at each end of the Control na rt io NES
Unit (the board in the rightmost slot), and gen-
tly pull up on the brackets at each end of the
board to remove it (rock them alternately).
TO Refer to the Control Unit photos at the right for
locations of the split pads to halve tuning rates
for each mode. Carefully bridge the halves of
the pads corresponding to the models) on
which you want to reduce the tuning speed.
7 Replace the Control Unitin its slot, using care to
align the front and back edges of the card with
the guide tabs in the chassis.
[J Replace the two screws affixing the Control
Unit, and replace the plastic label sheet so thal
the controls are visible through the holes in the
sheet,
Slow AM Auto AGC
0 Remove the top cover, if necessary, as described
at the start of this section for Button Beeper
Volume. Then carefully turn the set upside-
down, and remove the ten screws shown at the
right, affixing the bottom cover. Remove the
bottom cover.
A Referring to the photos on the next page, locale
the split pad indicated, and carefully short the
halves of the pad with solder.
O Replace the bottom cover and its ten screws,
and then the top cover and ils ten screws.
page 12 — —
Station Installation Internal Adjustments
AGC Auto Jumper for AM
(Bottom of Chassis)
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== = : _ - page 13
Controls & Connectors
Front Panel Controls
This chapter describes each control and connec-
tor on the FT-990. You can just read through
quickly now, but some of the descriptions will be
more meaningful if you first work through the
Getting Started Tutorial at the beginning of the Op-
eration chapter, and then return to this chapter with
the set powered up, as questions anse during op-
eration. Some controls and switches are disabled
under certain conditions.
(1) POWER
(2)
This button turns the transceiver on and off.
2-Position Pushbutton Switches
RX ANT
When this switch is in the undepressed (JM)
position, the antenna connected to the main
ANTsocket is used for receive (it is always used
for transmit). When this switch is depressed
(mm), thie RX ANT IN & OUT jacks on the rear
panel are activated, with either a receive-only
antenna, external receiver or in-line receiver
accessory. See the schematic on page 27 for an
idea of how this works.
MOX
This button may be used in place of a micro-
phone PTT switch or CW key to manually
activate the transmitter. It must be in the un-
depressed (ML) position for reception.
(3)
(4)
Vox
Enables automatic voice-actuated transmitter
switching in voice modes; and semi break-in
keying in CW mode, The controls affecting
VOX operation are in the top access panel.
ATT
Press this button when receiving on a noisy
band or when strong signals are present. This
inserts a 20-dB attenuator in the front end to
protect the receiver from overload.
PHONES
This Y-inch, 3-contact jack accepts either mon-
aural or stereo headphones with a 2- or 3-con-
tact plug. When a plug is inserted, the
loudspeaker is disabled. Audio is supplied to
both channels of a stereo headphone.
METER Selector
This selector determines the function of the
multimeter during transmission. The mean-
ings of the abbreviations are as follows:
PO RF Power Output (watts)
IC Final amplifier collector current (Amps)
SHR Standing Wave Ratio (forward:reflected)
COMP RF speech compressor level (in dB,
for SSB modes only)
ALC relative Automatic Level Control voltage
vec Final amplifier collector voltage.
page 14 =
Controls & Connectors - Front Panel Controls
(5)
(6)
(7)
(8)
9)
The meter indicates the selected parameter
during transmission, and signal strength in
S-units during reception (on the top scale).
Each S-unit is approximately 6 dB.
AGC Selector
Selects receiver Automatic Gain Control decay
time for most comfortable reception, or dis-
ables receiver AGC (off). Normally this switch
is set to the AUTO position, which automatically
selects the AGC decay according to your oper-
ating mode. When set to OFF, the S-meter is
disabled, and strong signals may be distorted.
PROC O KEYER
Both of these controls function only when acti-
vated by the button with the same name at the
bottom right side of the panel.
The inner PROC control sets the compression
(input) level of the transmitter RF speech proc-
essor in SSB modes, and the outer KEYER control
sets the keyer/bug simulator keying speed.
KEY Jack
This Y4-inch, 3-contact jack accepts a CW key
or keyer paddles (for the built-in electronic
keyer), or output from an external electronic
keyer. You must not use a 2-contact plug in this
jack. Pinoutis shown on page 7. Key up voltage
is 5 V, and key down current is 0.5 mA. There
is another jack with the same name, connected
in parallel with this jack, on the rear panel.
MIC ©" RF PWR
The inner MIC control adjusts the microphone
input level for SSB and AM transmission.
Theouter RF PWR control adjusts the transmitter
output power in all modes. The adjustment
range is from less than 10 to 100 watts (or 5 to
25 watts in AM mode).
SQL "O NB
The inner SQL control sets the signal threshold
at which receiver audio is muted (and the BUSY
LED turns off), in all modes. This control is
normally kept fully CCW, except when scan-
ning, and during FM operation. Scanning stops
when the squelch is open.
The outer NB control adjusts the blanking level
when the noise blanker is activated during
reception. If set very far clockwise, receiver
audio can be distorted.
(10) AF “-RF
The inner AF gain control adjusts the volume
of the receiver in the speaker or headphones.
The outer RF gain control adjusts incoming
signal level in frontof the receiver RF amplifier
(via PIN diodes), in tandem with the gain of the
receiver IF amplifiers. This control is normally
set fully clockwise for maximum sensitivity.
When rotated counterclockwise from maxi-
mum, the S-meter minimum deflection point
will move up the scale. The peak deflection for
a particular signal will remain the same if it is
greater than the level set by this control, but the
main receiver will be insensitive to weaker
signals. This control also affects the SQL setting,
and should be preset fully clockwise when
setting the squelch threshold. |
(11) MIC
This 8-pin jack accepts the MD-1gg8 or MD-1cs
Desktop Microphone or the MH-188 Handie
Scanning Microphone. Pinout is shown on
page 7. Proper microphone inputimpedance is
500 to 600 ohms.
(12) Left Side Push Switches
RF FSP
When operating in an SSB mode, you can press
this button to toggle the RF speech processor
on and off (for transmission). Processing level
is set by the PROC control, and the filter pass-
band can be adjusted. While activated, the LED
above this button glows orange. This button is
disabled in other modes.
KEYER & BK-IN
When operating in CW mode, the KEYER button
toggles the internal keyer on and off, and BK-IN
turns full break-in (QSK) CW operation on and
off. The green LEDs above each button light
when active. These buttons are disabled in
other modes.
This button toggles the receiver noise blanker
on and off. The LED above the button glows
green while activated. Blanking level is set by
the control with the same name.
(13) Mode Buttons
These seven momentary buttons select the op-
erating mode, indicated by the LED in each
button. Note that pressing the RTTY and PKT
page 15
Controls & Connectors = Front Panel Controls
(packet) buttons multiple times will switch be-
tween the possible modes of emission that can
be used by these digital modes (LSB and USB
for RTTY, and LSB and FM for packet).
(14) FAST
For fast tuning, press this button while rotating
the tuning knob or pressing the UP or DOWN
button, to increase the tuning rate ten limes.
See the table on page 25 for all available steps.
While the fast tuning rate is active, FAST is
displayed above the MHz digits. You can set
the function of this button to be either “press-
and-hold”, or toggle on/off, by holding the
button while switching the transceiver on.
{15) Main Tuning Knob
This knob adjusts the operating frequency of
the vio or a recalled memory. Tuning incre-
ments are normally 10 Hz (100 Hz in AM and
FM modes). The markings on the knob repre-
sent 50 increments each, and one full turn of
the knob provides 1,000 increments (10 kHz, or
100 kHz in AM/FM). If you prefer slower tun-
ing rates (4-speed) you can install an internal
jumper as described on page 12.
Display Brightness Adjustment
(16) Lock
This button toggles locking of the main tuning
knob to prevent accidental frequency changes.
Lock is displayed above the mode buttons when
locked (the knob can still be turned, butit does
nothing). Press again to re-enable the tuning
knob. You can set the function of this button to
lock most of the controls and buttons, instead
of just the tuning knob, by holding the button
while switching the transceiver on. In this case
the Lock display will blink when enabled,
(17) Horizontal Pushbuttons (lower center)
A/B
When receiving on a vio, this button toggles
operation and display between vfos A and В.
The current selection is displayed to the left of
the operating frequency.
A=B
When receiving on a vfo, this button copies the
contents of the displayed vio (A or B) to the
other vfo. Previous contents of the non-dis-
played vio are overwritten (lost!).
SPLIT
This button activates split transmit/receive
frequency operation. The main display (either
a vio or a recalled memory channel) is used for
reception, and the other vfo for transmission.
The SPLIT indicatorat the leftsideof the display
The brightness of the display (but not the me-
ter pilot or LEDs) is adjustable by holding the
FAST button while turning the CLAR control.
15 lit while this function is active.
page 16 ни — —
M » VFO
Pressing this button momentarily displays the
contents of the currently selected memory
channel for three seconds. Holding this button
for for Y4-second copies the data from the cur-
rently selected memory to the currently se-
lected vfo, as two beeps sound. Previous data
in the vfo is overwritten.
RPT
When operating in the FM mode on the 29-
MHz band, this button activates standard hf
FM repeater operation. Pressing this button
once or twice while receiving causes the trans-
mit frequency to be shifted 100 kHz below or
above the receiving frequency, respectively.
An 88.5-Hz subaudible tone is also transmitted
automatically at a low level when using this
feature, to allow access to repeaters that re-
quire it. Pressing this button a third time can-
cels repeater shift operation.
M CK (Memory Check)
This button allows display of the contents of
the memory channels without disturbing op-
eration. When pressed, M CK is displayed just
above the channel number at the right end of
the display. The contents of each memory
channel can then be checked on the display and
mode/ filter LEDs by rotating the MEM selector.
Empty memory channels display as decimals
only, with no frequency digits. Press this but-
ton again to cancel memory checking.
DOWN & UP
Pressing either of these buttons momentarily
steps the operating frequency down or up 100
Controls & Connectors - Front Panel Controls
kHz, respectively. Pressing the FAST button
with one of these buttons steps down or up 1
MHz. Continue holding either button for re-
peated stepping.
УГО > M
When receiving on a vfo or a retuned memory,
hold this button for %-second to transfer
(write) the current operating data to the cur-
rently selected memory channel. Two beeps
sound, and any previous data in the memory
is overwritten. Also, pressing and holding this
button after recalling a memory (without first
retuning) causes the memory channel to be
“blanked”, and repeating the process restores
the blanked memory.
VFO/M
This button toggles receiver operation between
the memory channel and a vfo. Either vF0-A (or
-B), MEM Or M TUNE is displayed to the left of the
frequency display to indicate the current selec-
tion. If a displayed memory has been retuned,
pressing this button once returns the display to
the original memory contents, and pressing it
again returns operation to the (last used) vfo.
(18) CLAR Tuning Knob
This knob tunes the clarifier offset frequency
up to 9.99 kHz, when activated by the CLAR RX
and/or TX buttons above it (the 3-digit offset
frequency appears in small digits just to the
right of the operating frequency). Operating
details are on page 33.
page 17
Controls & Connectors - Front Panel Controls
(19) NOTCH O SHIFT
The inner NOTCH control adjusts the IF notch
filter frequency when activated by the button
with the same name at the bottom of the panel.
In modes other than AM and FM, the outer
SHIFT control offsets the IF passband center
frequency from the displayed frequency when
turned away from the 12-o'clock position.
(20) MEM
This detented knob selects the memory chan-
nels. When a vfo is active, turning this knob
activates the memory check mode, inwhich the
current contents of memories are displayed
without otherwise affecting operation. The
channel number of the selected memory is dis-
played at all times at the right end of the dis-
play (in front of “cH”).
(21) DIGITAL FIL
These concentric controls adjust the passband
skirts of the digital audio filter, when activated
by the button with the same name below. The
inner LOW control adjusts the low-frequency
cutoff, and the outer HIGH control adjust the
high-frequency cutoff. Maximum bandwidth
is provided with the LOW control fully counter-
clockwise, and the HIGH control fully clockwise.
(22) Lower Right Pushbuttons
SPOT turns the CW receiver spotting hetero-
dyne oscillator on while pressed and held.
NOTCH turns the IF notch filter on and off (except
in FM mode). The green LED above this button
lights while the filter is active, and the control
with the same name sets the notch frequency.
DIGITAL FIL turns the digital audio filter on
and off. The green LED above this button lights
while the filter is active, and the controls with
the same name set the filter skirt frequencies.
(23) CLAR Pushbuttons
Pressing the RX button activates the CLAR knob
(below this button), to allow offsetting the re-
ceiving frequency temporarily (see (18),
above). The TX button provides the same func-
tion for the transmit frequency. If both buttons
are pressed, the receiver and transmitter are
both offset from the original frequency. Press-
ing the CLEAR button zeros any offset tuned by
the CLAR knob. Each memory and vfo retains all
clarifier settings independently.
(24) M SCAN Pushbutton
Activates scanning of the memories. Also used
together with the FAST button to set/reset Scan
Skip status of a recalled memory.
(25) TUNER Pushbutton
Pressing this button so that its LED is lit puts
the antenna tuner in line between the transmit-
ter final amplifier and the main antenna jack.
Reception is not affected. The START button
(below) also activates the antenna tuner.
(26) START Momentary Pushbutton
Pressing this button while receiving in an ama-
teur band activates the transmitter for a few
seconds while the automatic antenna tuner re-
matches the antenna for minimum SWR. The
resulting settings are automatically stored in
one of the antenna tuner's 39 memories, for
instant automatic recall later when the receiver
is tuned near the same frequency.
(27) Right Side LED Indicators
The HI swk LED lights when an impedance mis-
match is detected at the main ANT jack. Avoid
transmitting until the problem has been corrected.
The WAIT LED lights while the antenna tuner is
tuning, and flashes briefly when changing fre-
quency, as the main cpu sends new frequency
data to the antenna tuner coprocessor: this
does not affect operation.
(28) BANDWIDTH
These four momentary buttons select the 2nd
and 3rd IF filters for the receiver (except in the
FM mode). In AM mode, either 2.4-kHz or
6-kHz bandwidths are selected by pressing the
2.4K button (LED off = 6 kHz). The selectivity
provided by these selections can be further
enhanced by installing optional filters (page
44). See the diagram on page 28 for the avail-
able filter combinations.
(29) BAND (Keypad)
The keypad provides one-touch band selec-
tion, or digital frequency entry. Normally,
pressing one of the ten white numbered keys
selects the corresponding (MHz) amateur
band for operation. However, if the ENT key is
pressed first, the yellow labels on the keys are
activated for entering any frequency one digit
at a time. See the Operation chapter for details.
page 18
Controls & Connectors - Front Panel Controls
(30) Digital Display (31) Left Side LED Indicators
The display shows, from left to right, special The TRANSMIT LED glows red when the transmit-
operating status (CAT System, SPLIT, GEN(eral cov- ter is activated, The Busy LED glows green
erage), Or LOCK; and YFO, MEM or M TUNE mode of the when the squelch is open.
receiver; FAST tuning, if activated; and operat-
ing frequency, clarifier offset and memory (32) Meter
number, The 7-function multimeter normally indicates
receiver signal strength on the top scale, and
one of six parameters (selected by the METER
selector) during transmit on the lower scales,
a 30 D 5%
|
19
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page 19
Controls & Connectors - Top Access Panel Controls
J ee eee a ee a EE EE ES
Top Access Panel Controls
PACKET [|
CW PITCHC |
(1) RTTY TONE
This miniature slide switch selects the tone
relationships of the AFSK generator for KTTY
transmissions. In the NORN position, the SPACE
tone is transmitted while the key is open
(MARK on closure). In the Rev position, the
MARK tone is transmitted while the key is
open (SPACE on closure), You would nor-
mally keep this switch in the NORM position and
select tone polarity with your terminal unit, if
possible.
(2) TONE DEY
This trimmer potentiometer adjusts the devia-
tion of the 88.5-Hz subaudible tone transmit-
ted (automatically) when operating FM on the
29-MHz band with repeater split activated
(with the RPT button on the front panel).
Note: This and the following two controls have been
preset af the factory to produce the correct deviation with
standard microphone levels. A deviation meter should be
comnected for proper readjustment, as it is difficult to
determine the proper setting by ear,
(3) FM DEY
This trimmer potentiometer adjusts the maxi-
mum deviation of transmitted FM audio. See
the caution note above.
(4) FM MIC GAIN
For FM transmission, this control adjusts the
microphone gain. More clockwise settings pro-
duce greater deviation, and may cause distor-
tion if set too high. Readjustment should not be
necessary unless you are using an unusual
microphone.
(5) ANTI-TRIP
This control sets the level of negative feedback
of receiver audio to the microphone, to prevent
receiver audio from keying the transmitter (via
the microphone) during VOX operation. Ad-
justment is described in the Operation chapter,
(6) YOX GAIN
This control sets the gain of the VOX (voice-ac-
tuated transmit/receive switching) circuit,
which determines the level of microphone
audio needed to activate the transmitter dur-
ing voice operation while the YOX button on the
front panel is depressed.
(7) YOX DELAY
This control sets the hang time of the VOX
circuit, between the moment you stop speak-
ing (or open the CW key during semi break-in
operation) and the automatic switch from
transmit back to receive (during VOX opera-
tion). Adjust for smooth VOX or semi break-in
operation (so the receiver is activated only
when you want to listen).
(8) PKT, CW PITCH & RTTY DIP Switches
Switches 2 and 3 near the rear of this switch
block select the offset of the display and IF
passband center from the carrier, to match
most common packet nes used for 300-baud
hf packet operation. Determine which AFSK
tones are used by your inc, and then set the
switches to match as shown below.
Packet FSK Tone Pairs _ :
| DIP Swilches |
TNC Tone Pair (Hz) __ |
1070/1270 | 1600/1800 | 20252225 | 2110/2310 |
2 or Cn cf | ©n
3 On of | On | On
Switches 4 and 5 select your desired CW tone
pitch, as shown below. The transmitter
sidetone frequency, and receiver IF passband
and display offset from the carrier frequency
are all affected.
GW Pitch {Hz
GIP Switches GW Pitch (Hz)
| № | EN 500 400
Off |. On Off | On
page 20
Controls & Connectors - Top Access Panel Controls
o de, Esmee te EA
The remaining switches in this switch block
select the function of the internal AFSK gener-
ator for RTTY transmission, Switches 6 and 7
select the RTTY shift, and switch 8 selects either
a 2125- or 1275-Hz low lone. See the table
below.
=
RTTY DIP Settings
| AFSK Shift |
DIP Switches |— |
425 B50
6 | —o | on
| 7 On on
ENTE RATIO REUS ES AED E
O AFSKLow-Tone prequenoy (hz)
NC NE ES SE EE — — E Hand ERE
8 Of=2125 | Omi276 E 0
— O dora ние
(9) CAR POINT Mini Rotary Selectors
These two 16-step rotary selectors adjust the
carrier insertion point for USB and L5B modes
(only). Each selector step is 20 Hz. The normal
carrier point setting is 1500 Hz offset from the
(suppressed) carrier frequency, which centers
transmit and receive audio in the IF passband.
However, the IF passband can be shifted: for
the receiver with the SHIFT control, and for S5B
transmission (with FSP on) as described on
page 31.
Note: before adjusting either of the SSB Carrier
Point selectors, make note of the current setting so
that you can return to it later if you have trouble
with your adjustment.
(10) BACKUP Slide Switch
Keep this switch in the ON position to retain all
memory and vio settings during power-off pe-
riods. There is no need to turn this switch oft
unless you plan to store the transceiver for a
lang period without power,
Power Up Selections
By pressing and holding certain keys or buttons while switching on the FT-990, you can perform
several functions and make some simple settings. Most of these are described in the Operation
chapter, under the function to which they apply. The remaining power-up functions are described
here.
To reset the microprocessors and clear all memories, turn the transceiver off, and then press and hold
the GEN and ENT keys at the lower corners of the keypad while also pressing the POWER switch. Normally
there should be no need to do this, but it is provided for servicing purposes, to return all memories
and other settings to their default states. Note that any power-on settings are also reset to their defaults. It
is not necessary to turn off the memory backup to reset the microprocessors.
To perform the “Las Vegas” diagnostic test of the display and its microprocessor, and to check the
ROM version of your transceiver, press and hold the 1.5 and 7 MHz band keys (yellow-labelled 1 and
3 keys) at the upper comers of the keypad while switching the power on, This procedure will not
erase any memorized data. After testing the display segments, YAESU” will be displayed, tollowed
by a ROM version number. After a few seconds, the display will return to normal operation.
Pressing the 29 MHz band key (yellow-labelled 0 key) while switching on the power causes the 10-Hz
digit on the main and sub vfo displays to be blanked. Repeat the same step to unblank it.
Pressing the 10, 14 and 18 MHz band kevs (yellow-labelled 4, 5 and 6 keys) simultaneously while
switching the power on toggles the manner in which the displayed frequency is affected when
changing modes. In its default state, switching to and from CW, packet or RTTY modes causes the
display to change by the amount of offset selected by the CW PITCH and PKT/RTTY DIF switches in the
top access panel. After holding these keys while switching power on, the display will continue
showing the same frequency when changing to and from these modes. However, the actual BFO
(carrier) offsets, set by the DIP switches, relative lo the display and IF bandpass are unaffected,
regardless of either display state.
— - = page 21
Controls & Connectors - Rear Panel
Rear Panel
15 1413 12
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(1) ovs-2 DIN Jack
This 7-pin input/output jack is for connection of
the DVS-2 Digital Voice Recording option, des-
cribed on page 36.
(2) PACKET DIN Jack
This 5-pin input/output jack provides receiver
audio and squelchsignals, and accepts transmit
(AFSK) audio and PTT control, from an external
packet tne. Pinout is shown on page 7. The re-
ceiver audio level at this jack is at a constant
100-mV level (@600£2), preset by VR3005 on the
AF Unit (see Internal Adjustments page 11 for
how to gain access to this trimmer, if necessary).
(3) ATTY DIN Jack
This 4-pin input/output jack provides connec-
tions for an RTTY terminal unit. Pinout is shown
on page 7. The receiver audio level at this jack is
at a constant 100-mV (@600 Q) level, preset by
VR3006 on the AF Unit (see Internal Adjustments
page 11 for how to gain access to this trimmer).
(4) KEY 3-Contact Phone Jack
This A-inch phone jack accepts a CW key or
paddle manipulator. It is connected in parallel
with the jack with the same name on the front
panel (either or both may be used). À 2-contact
plug cannot be used in this jack. Keyup voltage is
page 22 —
a
+5 V, and keydown current is 0.5 mA. Pinoutis
shown on page 7.
(5) AF out Phono Jack
This output jack provides low level receiver out-
put, for recording or external amplification.
Peak signal level is 100 mVrms at 600 Q. The
front panel AF control does not affect the signal
at this jack, but the DIGITAL FIL controls do:
Pinout is shown on page 7, and level adjustment
is described on page 11.
(6) PATCH IN Phono Jack
This input jack accepts transmitter audio — either
AFSK or voice, for transmission. This line is
mixed with the microphone audio input line, so
the microphone should be disconnected if using
this jack and mixing is not desired. Impedance
is 500 — 600 £1, and optimum peak input level is
2 mVrms.
(7) 13.8 voc Supply Jack
This 6-pin molex socket accepts DC to power the
transceiver. If the FP-25 AC supply is installed,
it can be used when AC is notavailable. See page
46 for details.
(В) ND Terminal Post
Connect this terminal to a good earth ground,
for safety and optimum performance. Use a
large diameter, short braided cable.
Controls & Connectors - Rear Panel
EL.
(9) AC Line Cord Socket
Connect the supplied AC line cord to this
socket after ensuring that your AC mains volt-
age is within the range on the label. See the
Installation section for instructions on how to
change the AC power supply voltage range, if
necessary.
(10) Fuse Holder
This holder requires a 8-A fuse for operation
from AC voltages below 125 V, and a 4-A fuse
for AC voltages of 200 V and above. Only
normal fast-blow type fuses should be used
here.
(11) ANT Coaxial Jack
Connect your main antenna here, using a type-
M (UHF, PL-259) plug and coaxial feedline.
This antenna is always used for transmission,
and is also used for reception unless a separate
receive antenna is connected and selected from
the front panel. The internal antenna tuner af-
fects only the antenna connected here, during
transmission.
(12) RX ANT IN/OUT Phono Jacks
Both of these jacks have no connection unless
the RX ANT switch on the front panel is pressed.
The OUT jack connects through the RX ANT
switch to the receive side of the main antenna
T/R relay, which is closed while receiving. The
IN jack connects through the RX ANT switch to
the receiver front end. See the box on page 27.
These jacks provide you with several receiver
front end options. You can connect a receive-
only antenna to the IN jack and use the main
antenna jack for a transmit-only antenna, or
you can connect an external receiver to the OUT
jack to function in place of the FT-990's re-
ceiver, or you can connect a receiver preampli-
fier or bandpass filter between these two jacks
to affect reception on the main antenna (when
the RX ANT switch is closed).
(13) ExT ALC Phono Jack
This input jack accepts external ALC (Auto-
matic Level Control) voltage from a linear am-
plifier, to prevent over-excitation by the
transceiver. Usable input voltage range is 0 to
—4 VDC.
(14) EXT SPKR Mini Phone Jack
This 2-contact output jack provides receiver
audio for an external loudspeaker, such as the
SP-6. Inserting a plug into this jack disables the
internal loudspeaker. Impedance is 4 to 16 Q.
(15) REMOTE DIN Jack
This 8-pin input/output jack provides connec-
tions to internal relay contacts and control in-
puts for transmit/receive switching of an
external device such as a linear amplifier (other
than the FL-7000). Pin 1 is connected together
with the EXT ALC jack, and pins 3 and 8 connect
to chassis ground.
Pin 6 may be used to control manual transmit-
ter activation using a footswitch or other
switching device. Its function is identical to the
MOX button on the front panel (short pin 6 to pin
3 or pin 8 to transmit). The same line is avail-
able at the PACKET and RTTY jacks for tnc/tu
control. Open-circuit voltage is +13.5 VDC,
and closed-circuit current is 1.5 mA.
Pin 7 provides +13.5 VDC at up to 200mA for
powering an external device. However, this
line is not fused, so shorting this pin to ground or
drawing more than 200mA can seriously damage
the transceiver.
Pins 2 and 5 are connected together through
the contacts of a disabled relay inside the FT-
990. Pin 4 is connected to the collector of a
transistor, which is off (high impedance to
ground) on receive, and on (low impedance to
ground) on transmit. The relay connected to
pins 2 and 5 is normally disabled to provide
maximum t/r switching speed and minimum
noise. However, by setting internal switch
S6801 to its RY position, the functions of these
three pins change so that the transistor that was
switching pin 4 now controls the relay at pins
2 and 5, and pin 4 now connects to the closed-
on-transmit contact of the relay (pin 5 is com-
mon, and pin 2 is closed-on-receive: see the
diagram on page 9).
With switch S6801 in its factory default (TR)
position, the maximum current that pin 4 can sink
is 500 mA, at up to 50 V (positive DC only!).
If you are connecting an amplifier that requires
higher current or voltage to switch, or uses AC
voltage for t/r switching, you can move switch
S6801 to the RY position, in which case the internal
relay contacts (via pins 2, 4 and 5) will be able to
handle up to 500 mA @ 125 VAC, 300 mA @ 220
VDC or 2 A @ 30 VDC. Before connecting an external
device, make sure its switching requirements will not
exceed these limits.
page 23
Controls & Connectors - Rear Panel
TE Re ve TC TR EP et Se TS TAN RE SORT
(16) BAND DATA DIN Jack unless the plug includes connections to pull pin 8 low.
This 8-pin output jack provides control signals
This allows the FL-7000 to operate QSK safely. We do
for the FL-7000 Solid-State Linear Amplifier or "of recommend using this jack for any purpose other
FC-1000 Remote Controlled Tower Mounting than connecting the FL-7000 or FC-1000.
Antenna Tuner, including band selection data to
automatically setthe Linearor Tunerto thesame — (17) CAT DIN Jack
band as the main display of the transceiver.
Pinoutis shown on page 7.
Note; this jack includes a stitch toltich 15 operied by
inserting a plug. When no plug is inserted, pin 8 is
pulled low to enable the transuntier. Inserting a plug
caused pin 8 to be biased high, disabling the transmitter
ol LH
LAVAL
же
This 6-pin input/output jack allows external
computer control of the FT-990. Signal levels are
TTL (0 and 5-V DC). Pinout is shown on page 7,
and the signalling protocol and data formats are
described in the CAT chapter, starting on page
40.
AM
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page 24 —
Operation
Getting Started Tutorial
Before plugging in the transceiver the first time,
double check your installation to make sure your
AC voltage is correct, and that your ground and
antenna are connected as described in the Installa-
tion chapter. Then preset the following controls as
indicated:
POWER, RX ANT, MOX, VOX & ATT switches: off (lL)
AGC Selector to AUTO
MIC, RF PWR, PROC, KEYER, SQL and NB all counter-
clockwise
AF 10 o'clock
RF fully clockwise
SHIFT 12 o'clock
RF FSP,KEYER, BK-IN & SPOT switches all off (Jl
Connect your microphone and/or CW key or
paddles, and then plug in the AC cord.
Press the POWER switch on. The meter and dis-
play should light up. If the display is too bright or
dim for your environment, press and hold the FAST
button below the tuning knob while turning the
CLAR control to adjust display brightness.
Take amoment to study the display. You should
see VFO-A or VF0-B at the left, with the operating
frequency just above the tuning knob. To the right
of that is the clarifier offset (“0.00”), followed by a
memory channel number (“01cw” by default) at the
far right.
VFO-A Eee Ee > _
l
my
=
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с
с
IZ
с
I
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“=
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tm
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= =
—
Press a keypad key (to the right of the tuning
knob) to select a band for which your antenna is
designed. Refer to the
white labels (representing
MHz), and press the ap-
propriate one.
[15 1] [35 2] |? 3]
10 AIR 5| [18 6
[21 7 | 24-5 a} [28 9]
[GEN ce [2° o| [ENT |
Next press the mode
button (to the left of the
tuning knob) correspond-
ing to the mode you wish
to operate — for now, we
suggest an SSB mode: USB if you have selected a
band above 10 MHz, or LSB otherwise. The LED in
the band button indicates the selected band, and an
LED above one of the four BANDWIDTH buttons
(above the keypad) indicates which IF bandwidth
is currently selected for that mode (except in AM-
wide and FM modes). Right now, if you have se-
lected an SSB mode, the 2.4K LED should be lit. If
not, press that button. This bandwidth provides
the best fidelity for SSB reception, so should be
used unless interference from stations on adjacent
frequencies becomes a problem (described later).
Adjust the AF control for comfortable volume on
signals or noise in the loudspeaker or headphones.
Press the UP and DOWN buttons below the keypad to
step around the band in 100-Hz steps, and then
tune around the band a bit with the tuning knob.
For faster (x10) tuning steps with either the tuning
knob or UP and DOWN buttons, press the FAST button
at the lower left side of the knob, to enable the
“FAST” indicator above the MHz digits on the dis-
play.
Fast tuning normally requires that you hold this
button down while tuning, but if you hold the
button while switching the transceiver on, the but-
ton will become a toggle (press on, and press off).
All available standard tuning steps in each mode
Tuning Steps
LSB, USB, CW, AM, FM,
Control Y | Mode = | p77y PKT-LSB| РКТ-РМ
Tuning knob, Normal 10 Hz 100 Hz
Mic Up/Dwn
Keys w/FAST button 100 Hz 1 kHz
DOWN/UP Normal 100 kHz 100 kHz
h
Pushbuttons w/FAST button 1 MHz 1 MHz
One rev of Normal 10 kHz 100 kHz
Tuning kn
uning knob | FAST button | 100 kHz { MHz
Tuning rate can be doubled for any mode by installing an
internal jumper (page 12) for that mode.
are shown in the table below. If your microphone
has UP and DWN buttons, you can press them to tune
in 10-Hz steps, and if it has a FAST button, you can
use it to duplicate the function of the key with the
same name on the front panel.
Keypad Frequency Entry
One other important tuning feature to try before
going on is numeric keypad frequency entry. To do
this, pick a new operating frequency, say, 14.25000
MHz, and enter it on the keypad as follows:
page 25
Operation Getting Started Tutorial
Press the ENT key at the
lower right corner of the | FE Y
keypad (the leftmost oper- | — —
ating frequency digit will PF JE |
blink). Then referring to
the yellow numbers on the | =
keypad, enter the digits of E |
the new frequency, from
left to right (1 - 4 - 2 - 5
- 0 - 0 - 0), followed by the ENT key again. As
you enter the numbers, the next digit to be entered
will blink on the display. You can use the DOWN and
UP buttons below the keypad to reposition the
blinking digit location as desired (but in this case,
ignore the direction labels on these buttons),
The operating frequency actually changes only
when you press the ENT key the second time, so if
you decide to remain on the original frequency
after starting to key in a new one, you can cancel
any entered digits by pressing the CE key ("Clear
Entry”, the yellow label at the lower left corner of
the keypad) instead of the ENT key. Note that, to
enter frequencies below 10 MHz, you must key in
the leading zero(s).
That's all there is to tuning. You can use the
same procedures on either vio (A or B), and on any
memory, as described later. First, however, let's
look at some other important receiver features.
General Coverage Reception
You may have already noticed that when you
tune outside one of the amateur bands (actually,
outside of the 500-kHz segment that includes each
band), “GEN” appears in a box at the left side of the
display. On such frequencies, the transmitter (and
antenna tuner) are disabled. If you try to transmit,
the TRANSMIT LED blinks.
Also, such frequencies are ignored by the nor-
mal ham band selection keys. If you select a ham
band and then tune to a frequency outside of that
band, the non-ham frequency will be lost when
you switch to another band. When you return to
the original band you will find that it has reverted
to the (ham-band) frequency it was on when the
band was last changed.
The GEN key at the lower left corner of the key-
pad complements the other band keys by serving
as a band selection key for general coverage fre-
quencies. This “general coverage band” key can
retain only a non-ham band frequency. If you press
this key and then tune to a ham band frequency,
that ham frequency will be lost when you switch to
Blanking the 10's-of-Hz Digit
If you prefer to have the 10's-of-Hz digit
‘hidden on the frequency displays, you can
toggle display of this digit off and on by
switching offthe transceiver, and holding the
| 0 key (at the bottom center of the keypad)
while switching the transceiver back on. Re-
peat this process to redisplay the digit, Tun-
ing steps are not affected.
another band. When you later press the GEN key
again, you will find that it has reverted to the
(non-ham band) frequency it was on when the
band was last changed.
Don't let the above comments about loosing
frequencies worry you: any displayed frequency
can always be stored in a memory (as described on
page 35) so you can recall it quickly later, Once you
become familiar with the memories, you will find
this is convenient, as each memory can be tuned
just like a vio, and stored again without having to
go through a vio.
Aside from the above, general coverage recep-
tion provides all of the features available on ham
frequencies, including interference suppression
and digital modes, described on the following
Button Beeper Settings
As shipped from the factory, pressing a button
or key on the front panel causes a beep to
sound. The volume of the beep is independent
of the receiver volume, and can be set as de-
scribed on page 11 (you need to remove the
top cover).
You can also toggle the beeper (to be enabled
or disabled) by holding the CLEAR button near
the top right corner of the front panel while
switching the transceiver on.
If you wish to change the pitch of the beeper,
hold the FAST button (below left of the tuning
knob) while pressing the CLEAR button. This
causes the display to show the beeper fre-
quency in Hz, while double beeps sound.
Turning the CLAR knob adjusts the beep pitch.
When done, press the CLEAR button again to
return to normal operation.
page 26 -
Operation Dealing unth Interference
Dealing with Interference
The FT-990 includes special features to suppress
the many types of interference that may be encoun-
tered on the hf bands. However, real world condi-
tions are constantly changing, so optimum setting
of the controls is somewhat of an art, requiring
familiarity with the types of interference and the
subtle effects of some of the controls. Therefore the
following information should be considered only
as general guidelines tor typical situations, and a
starting point for your own experimentation.
The descriptions of the thé controls are ar-
ranged in the order that you would usually make
them after changing bands. The possible exception
to this is if strong pulse noise 15 present, such as
from the “Woodpecker,” in which case you may
need to activate the noise blanker (described on the
next page) before you can make other adjustments.
Front End Attennation
The FT-990 receiver front end uses a constant-
gain, quad push-pull FET amplifier for optimum
dynamic performance. However, if very strong
signals cause distortion, press the ATT button to
protect the front end from overload. This reduces
the strength of all signals by 20-dB (about 3 5
units), and can make reception more comfortable,
important especially in long QSOs.
RF Gain Setting
When tuned to a moderate strength signal, if
low level background noise is present, try reducing
the RF gain control from the fully clockwise posi-
tion. This reduces the signal input to the first mixer
via a PIN diode altenuator and causes the mini-
mum S-meter reading to move up the scale, often
clearing up the background noise and putting the
desired signal more “in the clear.” But don’t forget
to return this control fully clockwise when you
want to receive weak signals, or read low levels on
the S-meter. See also the box on AGC off.
Locking the Dial or Buttons
Normally, pressing the LOCK button disables
only the tuning knob (it still turns, but does
nothing). If you wish to have the LOCK button
also disable the keypad and mode buttons,
| turn the set off and then press and hold it the
| LOCK button while switching back on.
| AGC Off
The AGC OFF position disables the overload-
protection normally provided by the AGC
circuit. If the RF gain control is left fully clock-
wise in this condition, the RF and IF amplifi-
ers can be easily overloaded (causing
distortion) when a strong signal is received.
Correct the overload either by setting the AGC
selector to another position, or by turning the
RF control counterclockwise to manually set
receiver gain to a comfortable level.
AGC (Automatic Gain Control) Selection
When tuning around the band looking for sig-
nals, the AGC selector is usually best kept in the FAST
position, to allow the receiver gain to recover
quickly after tuning past strong signals. However,
once you have a station tuned in, you can switch to
AUTO position, which selects a decay rate corre-
sponding to your operating mode: slow for 558,
and fast for other modes. You can change the auto
rate for AM lo slow, if you prefer, by installing a
jumper as shown on page 12.
For weak signal CW reception on a crowded
frequency, the OFF position can avoid AGC “pump-
ing” (gain fluctuations) caused by strong unde-
sired signals. The OFF position also allows the
quickest receiver recovery for AMTOR and 300-
baud packet, which will usually give the fewest
errors, retries.
Receive-Only Antennas
& Separate Receivers
The RX ANT IN and OUT jacks on the rear panel
allow use of a receive-only antenna, external
receiver, or external preamp or filter for the
FT-990 receiver. The diagram below illustrates
some of the possible configurations.
AUS [—e 4 = ах Ант serre “on
| Lex ANT — EX ANT SWITCH "DEF"
TX a EXT FX
- ВХ АМТ
WE o
> жет
#0) | A. WING FIL ar
Г, 4 ; ы | PREAMP
RX E
т a 4 EE |
RE АНТ SWITCH
page 27
Operation Dealing with Interference
Noise Blanker Setting
The noise blanker circuit in the FT-990 is de-
signed to blank both wide and narrow pulse noise,
and can sometimes also reduce the level of static
crashes from electrical storms. The NB button acti-
vates the blanker. If you hear pulse noise, just press
the NB button so that the green LED above it lights,
and turn the NB control clockwise just until the
noise is blanked. If the blanker seems to distort a
signal you're listening to, reduce the setting for
optimum readability.
Bandwidth and IF Shift Adjustment
(not used in FM mode)
Once you have tuned in a signal you are going
to listen to for a while, if you hear interference from
stations on nearby frequencies, use the BANDWIDTH
buttons, SHIFT control and Digital Filter to sup-
press the interference. Their use varies somewhat
from mode to mode. In general, however, you will
want to press the LOCK button beneath the tuning
knob before adjusting the SHIFT and Digital Filter
controls, as accidentally retuning would invalidate
your settings (particularly in narrow-bandwidth
modes). When ready to retune to a new frequency,
press LOCK again to release it, and return the SHIFT
and Digital Filter controls to their normal positions
(centered, and fully CW and CCW, respectively).
In the SSB modes, the optional 2.0K bandwidth
filter can sharply cut interference from unwanted
signals on either side of the desired signal (al-
though with some necessary loss of fidelity). The
* *
IF Shift Adjustment
Interfering Interfering
Signal Signal
if - Desired
Range Desired / signal
Shifted
Bandpass
hH—
IF Bandpass
—
IF Bandpass IF Bandpass
SHIFT control can be turned left or right from center
to shift the center frequency lower or higher, as
depicted above.
In AM mode, if the BANDWIDTH LEDs are all off,
the 6-kHz AM wide bandwidth is selected. This
gives the highest fidelity, and is best on strong AM
signals (and particularly music). The SHIFT control
is disabled in the AM mode, but the Digital Filter
controls can be helpful in honing audio charac-
teristics. For weaker AM signals, or where adjacent
channel interference is present, the 2.4K band-
width offers a compromise between interference
rejection and fidelity. Again, you may be able to
improve fidelity with the Digital Filter. However,
Digital Filter Adjustment
tow cut highcut
1h
AF Bandpass AF Bandpass
109M2.6D
cb
SSB-W //AM-N—KG—
XF-10.9M-202-01*
From 2 nd MIX
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XF-109C *
‘ CW-W/ N )
10.9MI0
3rd
3rd
CFJ455-K13
> SSB-W/N
CW-W AM-N
XF-455K-25-01*
MIX ‘
CW-N To 3rd
IF AMP
LF-H6 SC
AM-W
LOCAL * : May be optional
AM-W
> FM
IF Bandwidth Filter Selections
page 28
Operation Dealing with Interference
even better reception of AM signals under these
conditions can usually be had by switching Lo an
SSB mode (whichever gives the clearest reception).
Along with the choice of the best sideband, this
gives the potential benefits of the SHIFT control,
For RTTY and AMTOR, the wider bandwidth
selections are fine for tuning around, but the 250 or
500 (Hz) bandwidths will generally give the best
copy with narrow shifts. If you have the top panel
RTTY DIP switches set to match your tnc/ terminal
unit (see page 21) you should not need to adjust the
SHIFT control at all, and the Digital Filler controls
should only be adjusted with great care (to avoid
loosing the contact). See the section on digital
modes at the end of this chapter for more details.
For 300-baud packet, use the 500 (Hz) band-
width, and make sure the PKT DIP switches in the
top panel are set to match your tnc/ terminal unit
(or see the section on HF Packet on page 38). The
Digital Filter should be off, and the SHIFT control
may need to be fine tuned very slightly either side
of center for optimum copy of weak signals. Ex-
periment with the SHIFT setting while receiving on
a busy packet channel, and then note the optimum
setting for all future hf packet operation (it will be
the same unless you replace your inc or recalibrate
the input tones).
For CW, the 2.0K or 2.4K bandwidth is often
convenient to give “a wide view” of the band when
tuning around, but once a signal of interest has
IF Notch Filter Adjustment
Ertecoadrnae
Dam pes!
Sign
a
Fry
been found and centered in the passband, the 500
or 250 (Hz) selections are much better. Then the
Digital Filter can be activated, if needed, for even
narrower (audio) bandwidth, More details of CW
operation are provided in the box below, and in the
next section on transmission.
IF Notch Filter (not used in FM mode)
After tuning in a desired signal and adjusting
the bandwidth and IF shift, if heterodyne interfer-
ence is heard, activate the IF notch filter by press-
ing the NOTCH button and adjusting the control with
the same name to null the heterodyne. Note that if
the interfering heterodyne is more than about 1.2
kHz away from the center of the passband, the
notch filter may be unable to null it. In this case,
switch the notch filter off, and readjust the IF shift
and Digital Filter skirts so that the heterodyne is
outside of the passband.
Special Tips for Cw Reception: Pitch Setting and Spotting ue
The FT-990 can be set for 400-, 500-, 600- or 700-Hz CW pitch, by setting the CW PITCH DIP switches in
| the top access panel. With the CW SPOT button pressed, set these to the tone your prefer, according to
the table on page 20. This selection sets the audio frequency of the spotting heterodyne, which sounds
a tone in the receiver when you press the SPOT button near the lower right corner of the front panel.
The volume of the CW sidetone (which is what you hear when holding the SPOT button and also when
your key is closed while sending) is constant, regardless of receiver volume. You can adjust the volume
by removing the top cover, as described on page 11. After changing the pitch, the displayed offset
will be different after you retune and change modes.
The frequency of this tone is also (exactly) the frequency that the IF center frequency and display will
be offset from the true carrier frequency during CW reception, which means that you can use this
switch when tuning in another station to zero beat with him, so that when you transmit, your signal
will be on exactly the same frequency as his. When you have a station tuned so that his signal produces
the same audio note as the spotting oscillator, you will know that his signal is centered in your IF
passband, which ensures that you will not loose track of his signal when switching to a narrower
filter or activating the Digital Filter. Of course you should release the SPOT button to copy his signal,
If you prefer lo have the display show your carrier frequency without regard for the pitch offset, you
can change the display mode of the FT-990 by holding the 10, 14 and 18 (MHz) band keys while
switching | the transceiver on. Repeat the same procedure to cancel the change.
page 29
Operation Transmitting
Transmitting
The transmitter can be activated within the 500-
kHz segment of the hf amateur bands above 1.8
MHz, and from 28 to 30 MHz. When tuned be-
tween 1.5 and 1.8 MHz, the tuner will not function,
and when tuned to any other {general coverage)
frequency, “GEN” is displayed at the left side of he
display, and the transmitter is disabled. However,
you should restrict your transmissions to those
frequencies on which you are authorized to do so,
and to those frequencies for which your antenna is
designed.
Attempting to transmit when “GEN” is displayed
causes the red TRANSMIT LED to the right of the
meter to blink, indicating the transmitter is inhib-
ited. The transmitter is also temporarily inhibited
when stopping memory scanning (described
later), as pressing the PTT switch while scanning
just causes the scanner to stop.
When the transmitter is activated on an ama-
teur band, the FI-990 automatically detects any
reflected power that might appear at the main an-
tenna jack (as a result of an impedance mismatch),
and disables the transmitter if too much reflected
power is found (in which case the red HI SWR LED
at the right side of the display will be lit). Although
this protection system should prevent any damage
to the transceiver, we still recommend that you
never activate the transmitter without having a
proper antenna connected to the ANT jack,
Automatic Antenna Matching
The automatic antenna tuner in the FT-990
makes even first-time transmitter setup very sim-
ple. After you have used it once on your favorite
bands, it will be able to recall previous settings
from memory (the tuner has 39 of its own) during
reception, whenever you tune to the same part of
the band again. When you use the tuner the first
time on an antenna, we recommend you set the RF
PWR control to around the 9-o'clock position (or
12-o'clock above 24.5 MHz), to minimize interfer-
ence you might cause others, and also to minimize
stress on the tuner, feedline and antenna (in case
there is a high SWR). All you have to do before-
hand is to make sure the frequency you will trans-
mit on is clear of other signals. If you want to
visually monitor the tuner’s action, set the METER
selector to the SHR position.
1f “SPLIT” is displayed to the left of the fre-
quency, press the SPLIT button below the mode
buttons to disable split frequency operation for
page 30 SY appa
CAUTION
If the red HI SWR LED lights at any time, the
tuner is unable to match your antenna to the
transmitter at the displayed frequency. You will
have to tune to another frequency, or repair or
replace rar antenna or per ine.
now (you can press the A/B button to switch vfos,
if desired).
After making sure your are on a valid transmit-
ting frequency, and that the channel is clear of
other signals, press the START button near the up-
per right corner of the front panel, The green TUNER
LED will come on, indicating the automatic tuner
is activated, and the orange WAIT LED at the right
end of the display and red TX LED at the left end of
the display will light for one to about thirty sec-
onds while the tuner seeks the proper matching
settings.
Nate: if you attempt to activate the tuner between 1.5
and 1.8 MHz, the LEDs will come on as above, bul no
power will be transmitted, and the LEDs will not turn
off (but transmission does not occur), Press the TUNER
button to reset the tuner.
If monitoring SWE on the meter, you should see
the tuner select the lowest possible reading. When
the WAIT LED turns off, you are ready lo transmit
(assuming the HI SWR LED didn’t light).
Once you have used the antenna tuner, the
green TUNER LED will remain on (unless you press
the TUNER button to switch the tuner off); and the
orange WAIT LED will occasionally flash when you
change frequency (while receiving), indicating that
the main microprocessor is reporting the fre-
quency change to the turner coprocessor (reception
is unaffected). The tuner coprocessor compares the
current frequency with the frequencies in its own
memories, and resets itself to the new range if it
has any previously stored settings for that range.
However, when you first connect a new antenna,
the tuner will not have the correct settings stored
in these memories, 50 you will need lo “train” the
tuner, by pressing the START button whenever you
change to a new frequency range (for this antenna).
SSB Transmission
To transmit in LSB or USB mode:
[J Make sure the appropriate mode indicator to
the left of the tuning knob is lit, and set the METER
selector to the ALC position. This lets you moni-
Operation Transmitting
tor the automatic control voltage, which is nega-
tive feedback in the later transmitter stages that
prevents overdriving the final amplifier (higher
ALC indicates greater reduction of drive level).
OJ If this is the first time you are transmitting SSB
with the FT-990, preset the MIC control to about
the 12- o'clock position, the RF PWR control fully
clockwise, and make sure the VOX is off (ML).
(J Confirm that the display shows the frequency
you want to transmit on, and make sure the
“GEN” box is not displayed to the left of the
frequency.
(J Listen carefully on the frequency to make sure
you will not interfere with any other stations,
then press START to match the antenna.
О Now press the PTT (push-to-talk) switch on
your microphone, and give your callsign (to
identify your transmission) or make your call.
You should see the meter fluctuate as you
speak.
To determine the optimum setting of the MIC
control for your microphone, adjust it while the RF
PWR control is fully clockwise. Speak into the micro-
phone (at a normal level) so that the meter deflects
no further than midrange on voice peaks (the up-
per end of the blue ALC range). Once found, this
setting can be left as it is for all modes unless you
change microphones.
You can switch the METER selector to the PO posi-
tion and adjust the RF PWR control for more or less
output, from about 10 to 100 watts (on the second
meter scale from the top), as desired. However,
you should always use the lowest possible power
output to maintain reliable communications — not
only as a courtesy to other stations, but to mini-
mize the possibility of causing RFI and TVI, and to
maximize the life of the equipment.
Note: reducing power with the RF PWR control
causes the ALC voltage to increase, as can be seen
when the meter selector is set to the ALC position.
The meter will then deflect beyond the blue ALC
zone. This is normal, and is not and indication that
you should readjust the MIC or other controls.
RF Speech Processor (FSP)
Once the proper MIC control setting has been
determined (with full power), you can activate the
RF speech processor to increase the average power
of your signal. The RF PWR setting does not affect
speech processor adjustment or the compression
meter indication.
[J Set the METER selector to the COMP (speech proces-
sor compression) position, and press the RF FSP
Adjusting Processor Frequency Shift
The unique FSP (Frequency-Shifted Proces-
sor) in the FT-990 lets you shift the IF pass-
band (and hence the RF passband as well) of
your transmitted signal in SSB modes, to cus-
tomize your signal for your own voice char-
acteristics. LSB and USB IF offsets are set
independently.
To display the current transmitter offset for
the selected SSB mode, press and hold both
the FAST and RF FSP buttons. The FSP offset
can be set between —0.3 (-300 HZ) and 0.5
(+500 Hz) by turning the tuning knob slightly
while holding the two buttons. À minus sign
indicates the offset is closer to the carrier
(low-frequency speech audio emphasized).
Of course you can adjust the offset by trial-
and-error on the air, but it is better if you have
a separate receiver in which you can hear the
effect yourself. Otherwise, we recommend
starting with +100 Hz offset initially, to add
some “crispness” to your processed speech.
To obtain the same result on both USB and
LSB, just set them for the same offset display.
OFFSET OFFSET
+ ——— — — «= +
LSB| “uss
CARRIER PASSBAND CARRIER
POINT POINT
button (at the left end of the row of buttons
along the bottom) so that its orange LED lights.
О Now while speaking into the microphone, ad-
just the PROC control for a compression level of 5
to 10 dB on the COMP scale of the meter (the
second scale from the bottom). We do not rec-
ommend higher compression settings, as your
signal will become less readable.
O If you want to confirm that your MIC control
setting is correct, set the RF PWR control to maxi-
mum, move the METER selector back to the ALC
position, and if necessary, adjust the MIC control
again so that the meter stays in the blue ALC
scale on voice peaks.
page 31
Operation Transmitting
VOX (Voice-Actuated T/R Switching)
VOX operation allows you to activate the trans-
mitter in any voice mode merely by speaking into
the microphone, without having to press the PTT.
For the VOX circuit to operate properly, three
~ trimmers in the top access panel must be set to
match your microphone and the acoustic environ-
ment of your station. Once set, these trimmers
should not require readjustment unless you
change your microphone or station location.
3 First make sure the receiver is set for normal
volume on a clear channel, and preset the VOX
GAIN control in the top access panel fully coun-
terclockwise. Also preset the ANTI-TRIP and DE-
LAY controls in the top access panel to midrange.
(J Set the RF PWR control fully CCW (to avoid cre-
ating interference while you set up the VOX
controls).
(J Now press the VOX switch near the upper left
corner of the front panel to activate VOX.
O Without pressing the PTT switch, speak con-
tinuously into the microphone while slowly ad-
vancing the VOX GAIN control (in the top access
panel) clockwise, just until your voice activates
the transmitter.
O Now speak intermittently into the microphone,
and note the “hang time” between the moment
you stop speaking and when the receiver is
reactivated. This period should be just long
enough so that the transmitter remains keyed
between words, but drops back to receive dur-
ing pauses. Adjust the DELAY trimmer, if neces-
sary, for comfortable hang time.
The ANTI-TRIP trimmer probably needs no ad-
justment, but if you find that, with the microphone
in its normal operating position, receiver audio
from the loudspeaker trips the transmitter, ad-
vance the ANTI-TRIP control more clockwise. On
the other hand, if transmitter keying with the VOX
keying seems sluggish or unstable when you
speak into the microphone, try a more counter-
clockwise setting.
Note: if VOX operation is unstable regardless of
these adjustments, you may have RF feedback from
the antenna or feedline getting back into the trans-
mitter. Make sure your antenna is properly
matched, and that your antenna or feedline is not
radiating near the transceiver.
CW Transmission
There are several types of CW transmission
available with the FT-990. All require, of course,
that you have a CW key or keyer paddles con-
nected to either of the KEY jacks on the front or rear
panel (with a 3-contact plug). There are no critical
adjustments for the transmitter: you just use the RF
PWR control to set your output power.
(J Begin by setting the METER selector to the PO
position. Of course you must select the CW
mode, if you haven't already, and for now, make
sure the KEYER and BK-IN switches near the
lower right corner of the front panel are both off
(J).
(J Press the YOX button to turn on the VOX circuit,
which in CW mode provides automatic trans-
mitter activation when you close your key.
(J Now close your key, and listen to the CW
sidetone volume. This is adjustable inde-
pendently of receiver volume, by an internal
trimmer as described on page 11.
О Now you can adjust the RF PWR control for the
desired power output. Note that if you select a
low level and set the METER selector to ALC, the
meter reading will deflect beyond the the ALC
zone. This is perfectly normal, and will not de-
grade your signal.
(J Release the key to return to receive.
Courtesy of the VOX circuitry, you are now
using semi break-in CW, in which the transmitter
remains activated except during pauses in your
sending. You can set the “hang time” during which
the transmitter remains on after you stop sending,
by adjusting the DELAY trimmer in the top panel.
However, if you prefer full break-in (OSK) op-
eration, in which the receiver is activated between
each dot and dash, simply press the BK-IN switch
near the lower left.
Using the Internal Electronic Keyer
You will need to connect keyer paddles to one
of the KEY jacks to use the keyer.
(J Once the transceiver has been set up for CW
transmission as just described, you can activate
the keyer with the KEYER pushbutton near the
lower left corner of the front panel (its green
LED should light).
(J Now squeeze the paddles, and adjust the KEYER
control for the desired speed (if you are using
the bug simulator mode, described in the box
on the next page, don’t squeeze both paddles:
just press the dit paddle).
If the dot:dash weighting is not to your prefer-
ence, see page 11 to set the internal WEIGHT DIP
switches. If you prefer a higher or lower sidetone
pitch, see page 29 and the Pitch table on page 20.
page 32
Operation Transmitting
Bug Simulation with the Internal Keyer
The internal CW speed keyer is set at the fac-
tory to the iambic keying mode, in which one
keyer paddle produces dits, and the other dahs.
Squeezing both gives alternating dits and dahs.
| If you prefer bug operation, in which one pad-
| dle produces dits and the other is used to
manually produce dahs (like a straight key),
you can change the position of an internal
switch, as described on page 11.
The keyer works for both semi and full break-in
keying, as described in the previous section.
AM Transmission
Transmitter power output in the AM mode is
limited to 25 watts (carrier). All you need to do is
to adjust the MIC control to avoid overmodulating,
and select the desired power level.
(3 With the AM mode selected, set the meter selector
to the PO position, and preset the RF PWR control
fully clockwise.
[J Even if you have already set the MIC control as
described for SSB transmission, you will need to
readjust it to avoid overmodulation,
J VOX operation can be used in the AM mode,
but for now, make sure the VOX switch is off, so
as not to confuse adjustments.
(J Close the PTT switch and speak into the micro-
phone while adjusting the MIC control to the
point where very slight movement of the (PO)
meter can be seen. Don't set it too far beyond
this point or your signal will become distorted.
0 Adjust the RF PWR control for the desired output.
The speech processor is disabled in AM mode.
FM Transmission
For FM transmission, the only control on the
front panel you need be concerned aboul is RF PWR.
Microphone gain for FM is set the separate FM MIC
GAIN control in the top panel, and normally needs
no adjustment after leaving the factory. If you re-
ceive signals reports of low audio with a strong
carrier, you may want to increase the gain, or if you
receive reports of distortion, you may want to de-
crease it. Otherwise, we suggest leaving it alone.
All you need to do is set the METER selector to the
PO position, and adjust the RF PWR control for the
desired output while transmitting. If you need full
power, keep your transmissions to three minutes
or less, with the same time for reception.
You can use the VOX circuit for t/r switching, if
desired. See also the FM Repeater Operation box.
Clarifier (Rx/Tx Offset Tuning)
The three CLAR buttons near the upper right
corner of the panel and the CLAR knob are used to
offset either the receive, transmit or both frequen-
cies from their settings on the frequency display.
The three small numbers on the display just to the
right of the frequency show the current clarifier
offset. The clarifier controls on the FT-990 are de-
signed to allow you to preset an offset (up to 9.99
kHz) without actually retuning, and then to acti-
vate it with the clarifier’s RX and TX buttons.
Perform the following steps, if you like, to familiar-
ize yourself with the clarifier controls:
OJ Turn the CLAR knob back and forth while watch-
ing the center of the display. Notice that a minus
sign appears when the offset is negative.
FM Repeater Operation
The FT-990 includes several features specifi-
cally intended for operation on FM repeaters
above 29 MHz which use 100-kHz splits.
To locate these repeaters, you can ask around
the calling channel (29.6 MHz), or you may
want to load a block of memory channels
(page 35) with 20-kHz frequency multiples
from 29.62 to 29.68 MHz (and FM mode, of
course). Then set the squelch so that the re-
ceiver is silent on a clear channel, and press M
SCAN to scan the memories.
When you find a repeater, press the RPT but-
ton, once for “—' shift (to transmit 100 kHz
below your receiving frequency), Pressing it
again will select “+” shift, but thisis not used
above 29.6 MHz, Press itonce more to return
tó simplex.
Try a quick ID transmission to make sure you
have the shift right (the FT-990 also automat-
ically transmits a low-level 88.5-Hz subaudi-
ble tone during FM Repeater transmissions,
to access those repeater that require it).
Once you have made contact through the
repeater, vou can store the frequency, mode
and repeater shift settings in memory (page
35) for later recall. |
page 35
Operation Transmitting
J Now, with a non-zero offset displayed, press the
RX button several times while watching the dis-
play. When the clarifier is activated, “RX CLAR”
appears near the top center of the display, and
the main frequency display shifts by the
amount displayed for the clarifier offset.
(J Press the PTT switch and notice that the trans-
mit frequency remains the same as the original
(that is, non-offset) frequency display when the
receive clarifier is on.
J With the receive clarifier active, turn the CLAR
knob again, and notice that both the main fre-
quency and the clarifier offset displays change
together.
J Now press the clarifier CLEAR key and observe
that the offset is cleared to zero, and the vfo
frequency returns to what it was originally.
The transmit clarifier works almost the same
way as the receive clarifier, by pressing the clarifier
TX button. “TX CLAR” appears near the top center of
the display when active. The offset is added to the
displayed operating frequency, however, only
when you transmit.
A typical application for the clarifier is when
you are in contact with a station whose transmitter
drifts (or perhaps you didn't have him quite tuned
in when you called him). You don't want to change
your transmitting frequency, as that would force
him to retune — you just want to adjust your
receiver. You could proceed as follows while listen-
ing to his signal:
(J Press the clarifier CLEAR button if the displayed
clarifier offset is not zero.
(J Then press the clarifier RX button to activate the
receiver clarifier, and carefully retune his signal
with the CLAR knob.
After you finish your conversation with him,
you must remember to press the clarifier RX button
again to turn off the clarifier. However, if you hear
another station you want to call right on the fre-
quency he was on, instead of turning off the clari-
fier, you can just press the TX clarifier button to
bring your transmitter onto the same frequency,
and make your call (now both the receive and
transmit frequencies are offset by the displayed
amount). Keep in mind, however, that you will
need to press both the RX and TX clarifier buttons
again to turn off the clarifier when you finish. You
might also want to clear the offset when done.
The FT-990 actually has an independent clari-
fier for each vfo, on every band, plus one on each
of the 90 memories. This means that clarifier
TX/RX and offset settings are not carried over
page 34
when you change bands or memory channels, but
rather are stored until you return to that vfo, band,
or memory again.
Vfo B & Split Frequency Operation
As already mentioned, vfo B works exactly like
vfo A, although each is totally independent of the
other. You can use vfo B as a general-purpose “in-
stant recall” memory, although its primary pur-
pose is to facilitate split-frequency operation:
receiving on one vfo (or a memory channel), and
transmitting on the other vfo. The special case of
EM repeater operation uses some features of its
own, and is described in the box on page 33. Also,
if the difference in transmit and receive frequencies
is less than 10 kHz, and transmit and receive
modes are the same, using the clarifier functions,
just described, is likely to be the easiest approach.
The four buttons along the bottom of the panel
below the mode buttons are provided to facilitate
setting up the two vfos:
(J A/B (below the volume control) lets you switch
between vfo A and B, without affecting the con-
tents of either.
(J A=B copies the contents of the currently dis-
played vfo (A or B) to the other (B or A, respec-
tively), overwriting the contents of the
non-displayed vfo.
(О) SPLIT (below the mode buttons) activates the
“hidden” vfo for transmission. Note that acti-
vating split operation with a memory recalled
uses the last-used vfo for transmission.
(J M=VFO copies the contents of a memory into the
displayed (or last selected) vfo (by pressing it
for Y5-second). This also overwrites the vfo.
Before activating split operation, you need to
load the vfos with the desired transmit and receive
frequencies and modes. You can set up either vfo
manually (with the mode buttons, band keys and
tuning controls), or you can copy the contents of
previously-stored memories. If you plan to use the
two vfos for split operation, you can check your
transmit frequency by pressing A/B. Similarly, if
you plan to use a memory as the receive frequency
in split operation, you can press VF0/M to check
your transmit frequency. In either case, press the
same button again to return to the split setup.
To activate split receive/transmit operation,
just press the SPLIT button. “SPLIT” appears in a
box at the left edge of the display.
If you are using a separate receive-only an-
tenna, also press the RX ANT button.
Operation Memory Features
Memory Features
Memory Channel Storage
The 90 memories in the FT-990 each store fre-
quency, mode, filter selection and clarifier settings
copied from the frequency display into the current
memory channel (displayed at the right). Just press
and hold the VFO=-M button for '/4-second. The data
to be copied from the display may be eitherina vío
or in a memory that has been retuned.
Example: to store 14,25 MHz in memory 10.
C1 First tune the display to the desired frequency.
To do this with the keypad (as just one of several
ways), press ENT and then the keys with the
(yellow) numbers 1 4 2 50 0 0, followed by
ENT once more. Also select the desired mode and
BANDWIDTH filter.
[J Next press the VF0=M bution momentarily, and
turn the MEM knob until “I0CW” is displayed (to
select the channel number to store). The display
will be blank on memories not already stored.
O Now press and hold the VF0=M button for 'A-
second. Two beeps sound from the key beeper
(confirming that the memory has been stored).
If you have the clarifier set for some offset, and
either receive or transmit clarifier functions acti-
vated, these settings are also stored in the memory.
Checking Stored Memories
One memory channel number is displayed at all
times (in front of the “CH” at the right end of the
display). You can change the selected channel
number by turning the MEM knob.
If you rotate this knob while receiving on a vio
or a retuned memory, “M cK" will appear blinking
above the channel number, and the mode and fre-
quency previously stored in the selected channel,
if any, will be displayed in place of the operating
data, until a few seconds after you stop turning the
knob. Try that now.
You can also view memory frequencies and
modes by pressing the M CK button beneath the
tuning knob, in which case memory channel data
(and “M ck”, non-blinking) will be displayed until
you press M CK again to return the display to the
operating frequency. Uf course, if nothing has been
stored in a memory, you will not see any frequency
or mode displayed — just the decimal points in
place of the frequency and clarifier offset display.
Also, after recalling a memory to the display
(described next), as long as you haven't retuned it,
you can view the other memories by turning the
MEM knob. In this case reception shifts to each mem-
ory as it is displayed.
Memory Channel Operation/Recall
To recall data stored in a memory channel for
operation, you can either copy it into à vfo, or you
can switch operation from the vfo to the memories.
The M=V¥F0 button below and to the left of the
tuning knob can be used to copy the current mem-
ory channel data into the current (or last-used) vio,
by pressing and holding this button for %-second.
Pressing it only momentarily shows you the con-
tents of the memory, without actually overwriting
the vfo data. Otherwise, when you press and hold
this button, the previous contents of the vio are
lost, and if you were receiving on the vfo, opera-
tion will shift to the memory frequency / mode.
In most situations you may find it more conven-
ient to simply switch operation from the vio to the
memory, by pressing the VF0/M button below the
MEM knob. This method allows you to leave any
settings in the vfos undisturbed, so you can in-
stantly recall them just by pressing VF0/M again.
When actually operating on a memory, “MEN” is
displayed al the left (instead of “VFo-A” or “VFo-B"),
and you can rotate the MEM knob to select any pre-
viously-stored memory for operation.
If you change frequency, mode, filter or clarifier
settings while operating on a memory, “MEM” on the
display is replaced with “M TUNE” (but see the box
below). This makes each memory just as flexible as
a vfo. If you want to save any changes you have
made to a memory channel, just rotate the MEM knob
(if you want to store the new settings into another
channel), and press VFO=-M for 14-second until the
double beep sounds. The labelling of the VFO=M
button is somewhat deceptive: the settings of the
vfos, which are hidden at this point, are not actu-
|
Clarifying Memories, and M TUNE |
As shipped from the factory, the FT-990 will
automatically activate the “M TUNE” indicator if
the clarifier is activated while receiving on a |
memory, If you prefer to have the memory
stay in the normal memory mode in this situ-
ation, press and hold the 24.5 (MHz) band key
while switching the set on. Repeat the same
procedure to cancel the change.
page 35
Operation Memory Features
ally involved in this operation at all, since those of
the recalled memory have taken their place.
If you just want to cancel any changes you have
made to a recalled memory, press YFO/M once (“MEM”
will be displayed again), and press it again if you
want to return to the vio.
Splitoperation can be activated while operating
on a memory, in which case the last-used vio will
be used for transmission. Similarly, pressing the
A/B button while receiving on a memory switches
operation between that memory and the vio that
was used last.
Note that pressing A/B while receiving on a
memory allows you to retune the resulting vio
frequency, mode and clarifier settings only tempo-
rarily, When you later exit the memories and re-
turn to regular vio operation, the changes are lost.
Memory Scanning
You can scan stored memories by pressing the M
SCAN key at the upper right corner. However, for
this to work, you must first adjust the SQL control
so that the receiver is silenced (BUSY LED right of
the meter off). During memory scanning, the scan-
ner pauses on any channel having a signal strong
enough to open the squelch, during which the two
decimal points in the frequency display will blink.
Scanning resumes a few seconds after the signal
disappears on the channel, so you may need to
readjust the SQL control to keep the scanner from
stopping on only background noise.
To stop scanning press the PTT switch (no trans-
mission will occur), or the M SCAN button again.
Mote that the ATT switch and RF gain settings also
affect the squelch threshold.
Memory Scan Skip
Once you have stored a lot of memories, you
probably won't want to scan every one of them.
You can mark some of them to be skipped during
scanning. To do this, recall the channel to be
skipped, and press and hold the FAST button below
the left side of the tuning knob while also pressing
M SCAN momentarily.
By default, when a memory is first stored, it is
set to be included in scanning (“SCAN” is displayed
above the channel number). When you set the
memory to be skipped, this indicator disappears
from the display, If you have set a memory to be
skipped, and later want to include it, just repeat the
same FAST + M SCAN procedure.
Memory Blanking
After storing many memories, you may want to
completely hide some from normal operation, to
simplify selection of the others. To blank a dis-
played memory, while “MEM” is displayed at the lett
of the frequency, press and hold the YFO=M button
for Yo-second until the double beep sounds (this
won't work if “M TUNE” is displayed — if vou have
retuned the memory, either store it again, or cancel
changes by pressing YFO/M once). Note: memory
number 1 cannot be blanked.
As long as you don't overwrite a blanked mem-
ory, you can unblank it simply by repeating the
same procedure you used to blank it.
Optional DVS-2 Digital Voice Recorder
| The DVS-2is a digital recorder designed especially for voice contesting and DXing. The FI-990 has a special jack
for connection of the DV5-2 on the rear panel. It offers two independent functions: recording received signals
for playback later in the loudspeaker/ headphone, and recording signals by the microphone for playback later
over the air (during transmission). Operating details are provided with the DV5-2, but here is an overview,
Receiver Recording
When used in this made, the DVS-2 maintains a continuous recording of the last 16 seconds of audio from the
main receiver. This can be particularly helpful in picking out callsigns during a pileup, as you can replay the
same recording several times with the push of a button.
Transmission Recording
This mode allows the DV5-2 to record either two §-second segments or four 4-second segments. ol audio from
the microphone, such as contest exchan ges or station IDs. Each can then be played back, either | in à monitor
mode (without transmission), or directly over the air. The 8- and 4-second segments share the same memory, so
two 4-second segments can be combined into one B-second segment. Note that the digital memory used in this
mode is independent from that used for receiver recording, If for some reason transmission by the DVS-2 must
be SE it can be by holding the RF FSP button Mm switching the FT-990 an.
page 36 — -
Digital Modes: AMTOR, RTTY &
Packet
The FT-990 offers some special features to meet
the requirements of digital modes, such as a buill-
in digitally-synthesized AFSK generator lor RTTY
and AMTOR transmission, IF bandwidth optimi-
zation and automatic display offsets, and a very
fast transmit-to-receive turnaround time.
RTTY and AMTOR with a Terminal Unit
Connect your TU to the RTTY jack on the rear
panel, as shown below. Also, set the three RTTY PIP
swilches and the RTTY TONE slide switch in the top
access panel for the Mark frequency, shift amount
and usual direction you wish to use (see page 21 for
the switch settings).
To operate, just press the RTTY mode button,
once or twice to select the desired sideband for
operation (which is normal will depend on your
RTTY TONE slide switch setting — if you selected
NORM, LSB will give normal shift). The display
shows your actual Mark frequency, but if you pre-
fer to display the (suppressed) carrier frequency,
hold the FAST button while pressing the RTTY mode
button to toggle the RTTY display mode.
For optimum signal-to-noise ratio, use the 250-
Hz BANDWIDTH selection for 170-Hz shift, the 500-Hz
selection for AMTOR or 450-Hz shift, or the 2.0-
kHz selection for 850-Hz shift.
F 1-990
Operation Digital Modes: AMTOR, RTTY Er Packet
signed to ¿e continuous oferty transmis-
sion at 100 watts output, full key-down
| - ouputíor long periods: is notrecommended. я
8 ly durin
recommend reducing power [0 preserve the
life of the corr s. In any case, during
Tong transmissions, place your hand on the
| left rear quarter of the top panel occasionally |
to ensure that its not getting too hot, The
safest approach is to keep power output at 50
| watts or less during long transmissions,
Before transmitting the first time, preset the RF
PUR control to about 12 o'clock, and sel the METER
selector to ALC. Key the transmitter (you can use the
MOX button) and, if necessary adjust RTTY mic gain
trimmer potentiometer VR3007 (shown on page
10) for mid-scale indication.
Now you can switch the METER selector to PO and
set the RF PWR for the desired power output.
Note that for AMTOR operation, you must have
the VOX button off (UR), and may need to use
either AGC FAST or OFF (and reduced RF gain)
for mode A (ARQ).
mer
Ur Us Ur, © ©)
УГ АС
Terminal Unit
Mes io FSK AFIN
— [ PTT OUT
т 0 Fr,
E Je Sn TT —
y |
A
RITY/AMTOR Terminal Unit Interconnections
= page 37
Operation Digifal Modes: AMTOR, RTTY & Packet
300-Baud Packet
Connect your tnc to the PACKET jack on the rear
panel, as shown on the next page. Do not connect
the squelch line (pin 5) for 300-baud packet opera-
tion,
Tuning is very critical for F1 packet: you should
tune the transmitter and receiver within 10 Hz of a
signal to minimize repeats. The FT-990 includes a
packet frequency display offset feature that allows
it to display the center frequency of the two trans-
mitted carriers, without any offset, in accordance
with the latest convention. However, for this to
work properly, you must set the PACKET DIP
switches in the top access panel to match the tones
generated by your tne. See the Packet DIP Settings
Table on page 20.
Select the 500-Hz BANDWIDTH filter for 300-baud
packet, and press the PKT mode button on the front
panel once or twice, so that the green LSB LED
indicator lights along with the orange PKT LED.
Custom Packet Display Offset
If you prefer to have the display show the
suppressed carrier frequency, or some other
offset (such as to match a different typeof tne),
you can adjust the packet display offset by
holding the FAST button while pressing the PKT
mode button. The display will show the cur-
rent offset (in kHz), and you can change it
with the tuning knob. When set as desired,
press PKT again to return to normal display,
Transmitter adjustment is similar to SSB:
[J Preset the RF PMR control fully clockwise, and
set the METER selector to ALC.
J Now set your ne to its “calibrate” mode, pref-
erably with both tones alternating, and adjust
the MIC control so that the meter deflects to
mid-scale.
O Switch the METER selector to PO and reduce the RF
PWR control for the desired power output.
When tuning, bear in mind that some common
hf packet channels, such as “14.103” MHz, were
originally determined to correspond with an ac-
tual IF center frequency 1700 Hz lower sideband
(in accordance with an old TAPR convention).
Therefore, if you have the DIP switches set to
match your tne's actual tones, the display will
show 14.101,30 when you are tuned to the above
frequency — which is the actual center of your
receiver passband, and the frequency mid-way be-
tween the two FSK carriers vou will transmit. See
the box at the left if you want to change this.
Initially, you may need to adjust the receiver IF
shift slightly to the right or left to get the 500-Hz IF
perfectly centered over incoming signals. Start
with the SHIFT control centered, and try to establish
a connection with a moderately strong signal on a
clear channel. If the connection is poor (many re-
peats), move the SHIFT control very slightly to the
right, and see if the repeats decline, Continue in
this manner until you find a “sweet spot” (with
minimal repeats) for the SHIFT control, and make
note of it. You will use this same setting for all
future 300-baud hf packet operation.
of BUSY )
DATA DATA
QUT В № SATA
pa,
page 36
Packet TNC In terconn ections
Operation Digital Modes: AMTOR, RTTY E Packet
1200-Baud FM Packet
The equipment setup for 1200-baud FM packet
(above 29 MHZ) is the same as for 300-baud packet,
except that you may want to connect the squelch
line of the tnc to pin 5 of the PACKET jack if you plan
to use the squelch (performance will be better,
however, if your tnc has PLL-type DCD, in which
case you can leave the squelch open and not con-
nect pin 5).
Press the PKT mode switch until both it and the
green LED on the FM mode button are lit. Tuning is
much less critical in this mode, requiring no special
adjustments. Also, the FM MIC GAIN control in the
top access panel has been preset at the factory for
proper deviation with typical signal levels, so you
should not need to readjust it (you should adjust
the tx audio output level of your inc, though, if you
receive reports of distortion).
To transmit FM packet, just set the METER selector to
PO and set the RF PWR control for the desired
power output.
page 39
CAT System Computer Control
The CAT (Computer Aided Transceiver) System
in the FT-990 provides control of frequency, mode,
VFO, memory and other settings by the operator's
external personal computer. This allows multiple
control operations to be fully automated as single
keystroke operations on the computer keyboard.
Serial data is passed at TTL levels (0 and +5V)
via SO (serial output) and SI (serial input) pins 2
and 3 of the CAT jack on the rear panel of the
transceiver at 4800 bits/s. CAT jack pinout is
shown on page 7. Each byte sent consists of one
start bit, 8 data bits, no parity bit and two stop bits:
Bit Bro: Bi 11812,813;61141815;6t6 B17 Bits |
One byte, sent left-to-right
All commands sent from the computer to the
transceiver consist of blocks of five bytes each,
with up to 200 ms between each byte. The last byte
sent in each block is the instruction opcode, while
the first four bytes of each block are arguments:
either parameters for that instruction, or dummy
values (required to pad the block out to five bytes):
[ 4th Arg Byte | 3rd Arg Byte | 2nd Arg Byte | 1st Arg Byte | — Opcode |
5-Byte Command Block, sent left-to-right
There are twenty-five instruction opcodes for
the FT-990, listed in the table on the next page.
Notice that several instructions require no specific
parameters. However, every Command Block sent
to the transceiver must always consist of five bytes.
The CAT control program on the computer
must construct the 5-byte block by selecting the
appropriate instruction opcode, organizing the
parameters, if any, and providing unused
(dummy) argument bytes for padding (the
dummy bytes can contain any value). The resulting
five bytes are then sent, opcode last, to the SI serial
input pin of the CAT jack on the transceiver.
Example: Set operation to 14.25000 MHz;
O First determine the opcode for the desired in-
struction (see the CAT Commands Table, next
page). These opcodes should be stored in the
program so they can be looked up when the
user requests the corresponding command. In
this case the instruction is “Set Op Freq.”, so the
opcode is 0Ah. The small “h” following each
value indicate hexadecimal (base 16) values.
O Build the four argument byte values from the
desired frequency by breaking it into 2-digit
blocks (BCD “packed decimal” format). Note
that a leading zero is always required in the
hundreds-of-MHz place (and another in the
ten’s-of-MHz if below 10 MHz).
[J The resulting 5-byte block should now look like
this (again, in hexadecimal format):
Byte Value| Dan | oh | 42h | 50h | O0h
et
Content | Main vro | 1008& |1800MPZ 10531 | 10084
of this F 10'sof | & 100’s of EkH 10's of H
byte ea MHz kHz | 97 | SO
opcode
[J Send these five bytes to the transceiver, in re-
verse order from that shown above — from
right-to-left (see the Basic example on page 43).
Reading Transceiver Status
The Update, Read Flags, Read Meter and Pacing
commands report various conditions to the com-
puter via the SO (Serial Output) line. Update causes
the FT-990 to return 1, 16 or 1,508 bytes of Status
Update data, while Read Flags obtains only the first
3 bytes (the Status Flags), plus 2 Model ID bytes
(09h and 90h), and Read Meter returns the meter
deflection (0 — OFFh) repeated in four bytes, fol-
lowed by one “filler” byte (0F7h). Each returned
byte may be delayed by an interval determined by
the Pacing command (0 to 255 ms in 1-ms steps).
This delay is initially zero until the Pacing com-
mand is sent.
The Pacing command allows returned data to be
read and processed by even very slow computers.
However, you should set it as short as your com-
puter will allow, to minimize the inconvenience of
the delay. Sending 1,508 bytes requires just over 3
seconds with zero-length delay selected, but over 6
minutes if the maximum delay is selected!
Status Update Data Organization
The 1,492 bytes of available update data are
organized as shown schematically after the com-
mand table. Aside from the Read Flags command,
different portions of this data can be returned in
blocks of 1, 16 or 1,508 bytes, depending on the
parameters of the Update command sent by the
computer. The details of these commands follow
the descriptions of the data.
page 40
CAT System Computer Control
VE ET
CAT Commands
Legend:
Send all commands in REVERSE order from thai shown! Commands that duplicate a front pancl bullon are named With all caps.
Parameter varinbles are named to reflect their format: ég., “CH” indicates a memory channel number, from 1 to 5Ah (1 1090 decimal),
“—" indicates à padding byte. Value is unimportant, but it must be present to pad the block out to five bytes.
Opcodes are listed in both hex and decimal format for convenience - only one byte can be actually sent,
Command — [e [7 |? | | > ne
| SPLIT 0 {1} | T | — | — | — | Switch Spit VFO aperaton ON (T=1) and OFF {T-0)
Recall Memory œ a CH == = | — Recalls memory number СВ 110 SAN comence manel 1550
VFO>M 05 (a) | CH =p Copy display to channel CH (P2=0), Hide CH (P2=1) or Unhide CH (P22) |
LOCK 04 we — | — | — | Tuning knab lackiuniock (patio)
Select VFOAB | 06 (5 | v | — | — | — | xtctoperation on VFO A (V-01ar VFOB(V=t) |
© MVFO | в | ен | — — | — |] copy memory channel CH (1 to SAN) 1otastusodvFO
UP 07 ra ooh 5 | — | — ‘Step current display up 100 KHz (5-05 {MHZ {S=1) |
DOWN r (18) | CO 3 | - — | sameas UP
canter |®_® | | | ® | = a EOS he
Set Op Freq oan (10) | Ft | 2 | | | Mew operating frequency in 1 ~ F4, in BCD format see text or example
Select Op Mode [00h (12 | M | — | — | — | for? RTM, RTTYSej,PXTLSE00,PRIEM=dÓn
Pacing | DEN (14 № |=) ке Ее Add N-milisec (0 — OFF delay between bytes ol Status Update (rom radio)
en Пон! т | =| = | — | enim PLR
— Update [ion mu | — | — ok ee de a abe
TUNER B1h es] T => — | = Switch antenna tuner on (T«=1) or of (T=0). qu я
Te START | azn {136)| — — a — | Start antenna tuner, zu cas
RPT | 13| 8 | — [= о Select simplex (0), shill (7-1) or «si (Ra?)
A=B lem oum| — | — | — | = | copy dpiaved VFO (A or B) deta to other VFO (B or A, respectively)
BANDWIDTH ach (140) в | — | =| ~ [os filter setection for display: 2,4-KHz=0, 2.0-kHe=1, 600-Hz-2 250-Hze3
Memory Scan Skip | 90h (141) CH т | - | - For channel CH (1 — AN) skip (T=1} or include in scanning m0 vo.
Step On Free: BER (МЕНЮ |= | == | | Step operating freg up {0-0} or down (D) minimal step (10- o 100-42)
Read Meter GEN (247) | — eses Instructs radio to retum digiizad meter indicadon (4 repeated bytes, and OF Th)
=, DIM Level 0F8h (248) = — | — | — | Set dim display brighiness between L={ and L=00h (brightest) UT
— mptroftset [00 20] оон | © | & | + Sat at lr RT tits, vai vas a Ds 1508 Ha (BCD forma п52-
a e =| = arcs do ore 2¢ i Sit Flags (3 bytes), plus 2 Model ID
- nage 41
CAT System Computer Control
Data Returned From FT-990
Update Data
An overview of thé data returned to the PC in
response to the full Update command (with 1st
parameter 0) is shown at the right. The sequence of
the data stream is from top left to bottom.
The first three bytes are subdivided into 1-bit
flag fields: if a bit is set (1), the function is enabled
(on); and if reset (0), the function is disabled (off).
These flags (also returned by the Read Flags com-
mand) reflect current states of various functions,
most of which are indicated on the radio display.
Flags Byte 1
Bit (Split frequency operation
Bit1; VFO Bin use for transmit or receive
Bit2: FAST tuning rate is activated
Bit3: CAT System activated (after any ста)
Bit4: Antenna tuner now tuning
Bit5: Key Entry in progress (digit blinking)
Bit6: Current memory is empty
Bit7: Transmission in progress (PTT closed)
Flags Byte 2
Bit: Memory scanning is paused
Bit 1: Memory checking (M CK) in progress
Bit2: Scanning in progress
Bit3: Main tuning knob locked
Bit4: Memory tuning (M TUNE) activated
Bit5: VFO operation (= left side of display)
Bite: MEM operation (= left side of display)
Bit7: GEN operation (= left side of display)
Flags Byte 3
Bit(: PTT line closed by CAT command
Bit1: Tx inhibit (e.g, out-of-band)
Bit 2: 0.5-sec transfer key release timer active
Bit3: 5-зес тет check (M CK) timer active
Bit4: PTT Tx inhibited during memory scan
Bit 5: Transmit monitor
Bité: Antenna TUNER on (panel LED)
Bit7: Sidetone is active (SPOT or CW Tx)
Memory Channel Byte 4
The fourth byte of Update data contains a bi-
nary value between (0 and 59h (89 decimal), indical-
ing the current memory channel number on the
display, minus 1 (0 for channel 1, and 89 for channel
90). Only this byte is returned by sending the Up-
date command with the first parameter set to 1.
page 4! ee —
Fags Byw 1 | Flags Byio 2 | Flags Bye 3 | —>- EE
BE Current Operation (16-byte status) | (Front)
Y
uma on
|
= Vio A (16-byte status) _ |
| Vio B (16-byte status) |
|
Y
status) | (Rear)
A он
88 x 16 Memory Channel Status Bytos
for channels 2 - 89
|
Y Y
| Memory Channel 90 (16-byte status) |
16-Byte Structures
The rest of the Update data consists of 16-byte
record structures indicating the VFO- and mem-
ory-specific selections. The first of these records is
for the current display, followed by the two VFOs,
and then the 90 memory channels, from lowest to
highest. Each byte in this record is identified below
by its offset from the start (base address) of the
record. Note that the first record, for the current
Format of 16-byte Update Structures
Content & Format of Byte Field
+ BPF selection: 0 10 30h binary (bit 7-1 on a blanked memory)
я 1 — à: Base in 10's of Hz (who dari! aff
53 a ae - 3000000. Byte 18 MSE.
4 Е ey |
Bit 3 Bi: Ro hit enabled. Bits 4 — —7:not
| | Clarifier offsot. Zs ( ae) vela been
5-6 | 9090 (FC18h) and Zs mga
0=LSB, 1-USB, 2=CW, 3-AM, 4-FM.
| S<ATTY, GPT e
| {bit 7=1 for F
5
je в | К, 2-50, 9.250, 4
8 | IF filter: YN Paciaror наи „20 Revers ATTY) <HKLAM)
9
| Last selected SSB fer (see Byte 8 formal
ia Last selected CW filter (see Byte 8 formal)
11 | Last selected ATTY filter {see Byte 8 format)
| 42 | Lestselected PKT filter (see Byte 8 format)
| 18 | Last "state of Clarifier/Rptin FM mode (se Byte format
Bit 0 is set If this is a memory lo be skipped
В 3 75 sot AM hoc ot ct oc sig ie У
15 This byte is either 0, or OFFn if the cument AM ar FM frequency |
ne ls not an integer multipie af 100 Hz
CAT System Computer Control
display, is duplicated by either VFO data, or by one
of the memories, unless currently operating on a
retuned memory (M TUNE displayed).
Selecting Update Data to Return
The 1st and 4th parameters of the Status Update
command allow selection of different portions of
the Status data to be returned, as follows (”U”is the
Ist parameter, "CH"is the 4th):
| Parameter | Data Returned Comment |
or de — |see ROM note
Fark aa as DU belo
SN | Current, or |
Ut | perry | Last Selected
te = __ Memory
16-Byte structure for
U=2 | Current Operation
either a VEO or Mem) mo Tae
Two 16-Byte | onprevious
U=3 | structures (32 bytes) page
| for VFOs A&B |
U=4 and | 16-Byle structure for
CH=0 - 59h | memory number CH E
Note that early FT-990 firmware revisions (prior
to rev. 1.3) were only capable of returning all 1,508
bytes. Early sets can be upgraded by contacting
your dealer. Software written for early versions is
compatible with current versions if the 1st parame-
ter of the Update command is always 0).
The 4th Update parameter (CH) is significant
only when the 1st parameter is 4.
Read Flags Data
The Read Flags command retrieves only the
three Flag Bytes (and two Model 1D bytes). The
Flag Bytes are described on the preceding page.
The ID bytes can be used in a program to distin-
guish the FT-990 from other models, which have
different, unique values returned in this situation.
The constant values of 09h and 90h are returned by
the FT-990, as shown here:
Read Meter Data
Sending the Read Meter command causes the
computer to return a digitized meter deflection
indication, between 0 and UFFh (in practice,
around OFÜh maximum). Four copies of this value
are returned, along with one padding byte (0F7h),
as follows:
During receplion, the signal strength deflection
is returned. During transmission, the parameter
represented by the reading returned depends on
the setting of the METER switch.
Coding Examples
Although Yaesu Musen Company cannot offer
to provide complete CAT control programs (owing
to the large variety of incompatible computers
used by our customers), following are a few exam-
ples of critical CAT i/o functions, in Basic. Note
that all variations of Basic may not support some
of the commands, in which case alternate algo-
rithms may have to be developed to duplicate the
functions of those shown.
Sending a Command
After “opening” the computer's serial port for
4800-baud, 8 data bits and 2 stop bits with no
parity, asi/0 device #2, any CAT command may be
sent. However, if you determine that your com-
puter may need extra time to process data returned
from the transceiver, you should send the Pacing
command first. Here is an example of the Pacing
command setting a 2-ms delay:
PRINT #2, СНА (0); СНАЗ (0) ; СНА$ (0) ; СНА$ (2); СНЕ$ (АНЕ) ;
Notice that the instruction opcode is sent last,
with the first (MSB) parameter sent just before il,
and the LSB parameter (or dummies} sent first.
This means that the parameters are sent in the
reverse order from that in which they appear in the
CAT Commands table. Also note that in this and
the following examples, we are sending zeros as
dummy bytes: this is not necessary, however. If
you decide to send commands through a 5-byte
array, the values of the dummy parameters need
not be cleared.
Using the same example as on page 31, the fol-
lowing command could be used to sel the fre-
quency of the display to 14.25000 MHz:
PRINT #2, CHR$(&HOO); CHRS${&H50);
CHR$ (&H42); CHRS(&HO1); CHRS (BHA);
Notice here that the BCD values can be sent just
by preceding the decimal digits with “&H" in this
example, However, in an actual program you may
prefer to convert the decimal frequency variable in
page 43
CAT System Computer Control
the program to an ASCII string, and then to convert
the string to characters through a lookup table.
If you send a parameter that is out of range for
the intended function, or not among the specified
legal values for that function, the FT-990 should do
nothing. Therefore, you may wish to alternate your
sending regular commands or command groups
with Read Flags and short-form Update commands,
allowing the transceiver to let the computer know
if everything sent so far has been accepted and
acted upon as expected.
Bear in mind that some commands specify “bi-
nary”, as opposed to BCD-formatted parameters.
You can send binary parameters without going
through the character/hex string conversion proc-
ess. For example, the CH parameter in the Com-
mand table is binary. You could have the FT-990
recall memory 50 (decimal) by the following:
PRINT 42, CHR$(0);CHR$(0);CHR$ (0) ; CHR$ (49) ; CHR$ (2) ;
Reading Returned Data
The reading process is easily done through a
loop, storing incoming data into an array, which
can then be processed after the entire array has
been read. To read the meter:
FOR 1=1 TO 5
MDATA(I) = ASC(INPUT$(1,%2))
NEXT I
Recall from above that the meter data consists of
four identical bytes, followed by a filler byte, so we
really only need to see one byte to get all of the
information this command offers. Nevertheless,
we must read all five bytes (or 1, 16 or 1,508, in the
case of the Update data). After reading all of the
data, we can select the bytes of interest to us from
the array (MDATA, in the above example).
page 44
Installing Internal Accessories
This chapter describes installation of the inter-
nal options available for the FT-990.
TCXO-2 High-Stability Master Oscillator
The H1.5-ppm TXCO-2 option can be installed
as a replacement for the standard £10-ppm crystal
oscillator. However, doing so requires removing
existing components from a double-sided circuit
board, which is difficult unless you have the
proper tools and experience. We therefore recom-
mend that this job be done by your Yaesu dealer, as
damage that might result from improper installa-
tion may not be covered by your warranty (if in
doubt, check with your dealer before starting).
JJ Remove the power cord from the rear panel.
J Remove the ten screws affixing the top cover, as
shown at the upper right. Then lift off the top
cover, and the small black plastic label cover for
the top access panel controls,
(J Locate the PLL Unit, which is the second plug-
in card from the right side of the chassis (see
photo at right), and carefully pull off the TMP
coaxial plug near the front of the board.
[J Remove the two screws in the bracket ears al the
front and rear edges of the board, and lift the
board slightly out of the chassis so that you can
remove the second TMP coaxial plug near the
rear. Remove the board from the chassis.
C1 Referring to the photos at the lower right, care-
fully unsolder crystal X4001, capacitors C4047
and C4048, and trimmer TC4001.
71 Position the new TCXO-2 board so that the trim-
mer hole is nearext the bottom edge of the board
(see below), Then push the module leads
through the board and solder in place on the
other side. The label should be upside-down.
[J Replace the board in the chassis, using care to
align the board edges with the tracks at the front
and back of the slot Reconnect the rear TMP
plug before replacing the screws in the brackets.
J Replace the top cover and screws removed
above (unless also installing crystal filters now).
TCXO-2 Orientation
A ;
Em a | Rd til FES я
ui fase A oY ЕС Baila (2
à e
E AA я re venir
E ts x
U
Top Cover Removal
PLL Unit Location
Oscillator Parts Removal
page 45
Installing Internal Accessories
Narrow CW & SSB IF Filters
The XF-10,9M-202-1 IF filter can be installed in
the 2nd IF to provide a 2.0-kHz bandwidth in SSB
and CW modes, and the XF-109C and XF-455K-
251-01 IF filters can be installed in the 3rd IF to
provide 500- and 250-Hz bandwidth in CW mode,
respectively (the XF-109C is factory-installed in
AC-operated versions). Proper performance with
these filters depends on proper installation. If you
are unsure of the procedure after reading the fol-
lowing, feel free to ask your Yaesu dealer for help.
OJ Remove the power cord from the rear panel.
J Remove the ten screws affixing the lop cover, as
shown at the top of the previous page. Then lift
off the top cover.
(J Locate the IF Unit, which is the second plug-in
card from the loudspeaker (see right photo).
Remove the two screws in the brackel ears at the
front and rear edges of the board, and lift the
board slightly out of the chassis so that you can
remove the TMP coaxial plug near the front.
Remove the board from the chassis,
O Referring to the photo at the lower right, deter-
mine the location(s) of the filter(s) you are in-
stalling. Straighten the filter leads, if necessary
Then position each filter as indicated in the pho-
tos, and push the filter leads through the board.
1 Solder each wire on the solder side of the board,
and then clip off any excess leads. Check your
solder joints carefully.
Filter Switch (on Control Unit)
§
¿Pig Ya. io
da 00
Da
as BZ
hy |
page 46 —
CJ Replace the board in the chassis, using care to
align the board edges with the tracks at the front
and back of the slot. Reconnect the TMP plug
before replacing the screws in the brackets.
J Referring lo the Filter Switch photo below left,
locate the DIP switch block near the top center
of the Control Unit (in the rightmost slot). Set
switch “ON” for each filter you have just in-
stalled: Switch 2 for the 2.0-kHz SSB filter,
Switch 3 for the 500-Hz filter, and Switch 4 for
the 250-Hz CW filter.
[1 Replace the top cover and ten screws removed
above.
IF Unit Location
Optional Filter Locations
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Installation for DC Operation
The DC version of the FT-990 is supplied with-
out the FP-25 internal AC power supply. A dual-
fused 3-meter-long DC cable, part number
19018320, is supplied instead, for operating the
transceiver from an external source of 13.1- to 15.2-
V DC (13.8 V nominal) at up to 20 amperes. The
FP-25 internal AC supply is available as an option
for the DC version fo the FT-990, and the DC cable
is available as an option for the AC/DC version,
Installation
Use the fused DC cable to connect the trans-
ceiver to the DC power source. If the cable is not
long enough, it may be extended with #12 AWG or
larger stranded, insulated copper wire. However,
this is not recommended, as the resulting voltage
Caution!
Our warranty does not cover damage that
may result from improper supply voltage or
use of an improper fuse.
To avoid damage to the FT-990 from switching
spikes, always make sure it is switched off
before turning your DC power source on or
off, or before starting or stopping the engine
| (in mobile installations).
drop may restrict transmitter power output, In any
installation, the DC cable should be cut as short as
possible to aveid voltage drop while still keeping
the fuses in line. The supplied fuses are 20-A, fast-
blow type, and should only be replaced with the
same Lype.
Mobile Installation
7) Before connecting the cable, measure the DC
voltage at the battery terminals while revving
the engine. If the voltage exceeds 15 volts, have
the vehicle's voltage regulator adjusted before
proceeding,
O) Determine just where the transceiver will be
located, then route the DC cable to the battery
and cul off any excess.
O With the transceiver end of the cable uncon-
nected, connect the DC cable directly to the bat-
tery terminals: RED lead lo positive, and
BLACK to negative.
CJ) Make sure the transceiver POWER switch is
OFF, and then connect the other end of the cable
to the transceiver.
When transmitting using an external DC
source, voltage drop in the DC cable or connec-
tions, or poor regulation of the external supply,
may cause the pilot lamps to dim. This can cause
distortion of your signal, so you should reduce the
RF PWR setting until the lamps no longer dim.
Keep lead length as short as possible!
= page 47
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YAESU MUSEN CO., LTD.
C.P.O. BOX 1500, TOKYO, JAPAN
YAESU U.S.A.
17210 Edwards Rd., Cerritos, California 90701, U.S.A.
ue YAESU EUROPE B.V.
Yaesu Musen Co., Ltd. Snipweg 3. 1118AA Schiphol, The Netherlands
All rights reserved,
E27 20100403041
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