J-KEM Quad User Manual - J

J-KEM Quad User Manual - J
Temperature Control for Research and Industry
J-KEM Quad
User Manual
Warranty
J-KEM Scientific, Inc. warrants this unit to be free of defects in materials and workmanship and to give
satisfactory service for a period of 12 months from date of purchase. If the unit should malfunction, it must be
returned to the factory for evaluation. If the unit is found to be defective upon examination by J-KEM, it will
be repaired or replaced at no charge. However, this WARRANTY is VOID if the unit shows evidence of
having been tampered with or shows evidence of being damaged as a result of excessive current, heat, moisture,
vibration, corrosive materials, or misuse. This WARRANTY is VOID if devices other than those specified in
Section 3.2 are powered by the controller. Components which wear or are damaged by misuse are not
warranted. This includes contact points, fuses and solid state relays.
THERE ARE NO WARRANTIES EXCEPT AS STATED HEREIN. THERE ARE NO OTHER
WARRANTIES, EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE IMPLIED
WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND OF FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. IN NO
EVENT SHALL J-KEM SCIENTIFIC, INC. BE LIABLE FOR CONSEQUENTIAL, INCIDENTAL OR
SPECIAL DAMAGES. THE BUYER'S SOLE REMEDY FOR ANY BREACH OF THIS AGREEMENT BY
J-KEM SCIENTIFIC, INC. OR ANY BREACH OF ANY WARRANTY BY J-KEM SCIENTIFIC, INC.
SHALL NOT EXCEED THE PURCHASE PRICE PAID BY THE PURCHASER TO J-KEM SCIENTIFIC,
INC. FOR THE UNIT OR UNITS OF EQUIPMENT DIRECTLY AFFECTED BY SUCH BREACH.
Service
J-KEM Scientific maintains its own service facility and technical staff to service all parts of the controller, usually
in 24 hours. For service, contact:
J-KEM Scientific, Inc.
6970 Olive Boulevard
St. Louis, MO 63130 USA
(314) 863-5536
FAX (314) 863-6070
Web site: http://www.jkem.com
E-Mail: [email protected]
This manual contains parameters specific to temperature controller Serial #_________________.
When calling with a technical question, please have the controller’s serial number available.
You’ve purchased the most versatile controller available to the research community. We’re confident it can
regulate ANY heating/cooling situation you’ll ever encounter. If the information in this manual isn’t adequate to
make your application work, call our Engineering Department for assistance.
– With J-KEM’s patented Microtune circuitry –
2
INDEX
PAGE
SECTION
1. QUICK OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4
2. ADJUSTING THE CONTROLLER FOR STABLE
CONTROL WITH DIFFERENT HEATERS . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.1
What is Tuning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2
Autotuning Procedure . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3
Tuning for Heating Mantles: A Special Case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4
Sensor Placement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5
5
6
8
8
3. OPERATIONS GUIDE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1
Front Panel Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2
Heater Restrictions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3
Ramp-to-Setpoint & Soak Feature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4
Temperature Sensor Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.5
Power Reduction Circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.6
Effect of Power Setting on Heating Profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.7
Resetting the Controller for Use With Heating Mantles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.8
Changing the Temperature Display Resolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.9
Changing between PID and ON/OFF Operating Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.10 Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.11 Over Temperature Protection Circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.12 Do's and Don'ts When Using Your Controller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9
9
10
10
12
12
13
15
15
16
17
18
18
4. APPLICATION NOTES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1
Theory of How the Controller Works – Simply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2
Controlling the Heating Mantle Temperature Directly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3
Automatic Storage of Min/Max Temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19
19
20
21
TABLE 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
APPENDIX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
I.
Using the Controller With an Oil Bath (Application Note 1) . . . . . . . . . .
II.
Safety Considerations and Accurate Temperature Control . . . . . . . . . . . .
III.
Resetting the Controller to Original Factory Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
WARNING:
23
23
24
25
Adhere to the restrictions of SECTION 3.2. Failure to do so may create a
significant safety hazard and will void the warranty.
3
Section 1:
Quick Operating Instructions
The three steps below are the basics of using your temperature controller. The User’s Manual is a reference that
explains the controller more fully as well as some of its more sophisticated features. It’s recommended that new
users unfamiliar with process controllers read the entire manual carefully. The controller is preprogrammed
for use with heating mantles fitted to round bottom flasks running “typical” organic reactions (i.e., nonpolymeric reactions in solvents such as THF, toluene, DMF, etc.). If the controller is used with this type of
reaction, the 3 steps below will help you get started.
To use heaters other than heating mantles:
See Section 2.
Do not use the controller to heat oil baths:
See Section 3.2 & Appendix I.
For polymer synthesis, atypical, expensive, or safety critical reactions:
See Appendix II.
NOTE
Your J-KEM Quad temperature controller has 4 independent channels. The settings on one channel (i.e.,
temperature setpoint, ramp rates, power level, etc.) have no affect on any other channel. What is explained for a
signal channel below is true of all channels separately and independently.
1
Place the thermocouple in the solution being heated. Place at least the first 1/4” of the
2
Set the power level switch to the
volume of solution being heated
thermocouple directly in the solution being heated. Thermocouples can be bent without harming them. If
you’re heating a corrosive liquid, use Teflon coated thermocouples. If you are heating a sealed reaction,
see Section 4.2.
10-100 ml 50-500ml
1-10 ml
300 ml-2 L
Heat
>2L
Off
TIP: Because the power switch
acts like a variac, if the reaction
is heating too slowly or you need
more power (e.g., heating to high
temperatures), give the heater
more power by turning the
power level up one setting. If
the reaction needs less power
than normal (e.g., heating to low
temperatures (<60o C) or the
temperature overshoots the set
point excessively, turn the power
down one setting. DO NOT set
the power switch on a setting too
high initially to heat the reaction
quickly and then lower it to the
correct setting, this degrades
heating performance.
(not the size of the flask being used). The
power level switch can be thought of as a
solid state variac. Volume ranges are printed
Output
Power Level
above this switch as a guide to select the
correct power level since it’s easier to guess
A power
is equivalent to
the volume being heated than the appropriate setting
of.....
a variac setting of:
“percent power” to apply to a heater. ‘Heat
1-10 ml
3%
Off’ turns off the heater so the controller
10-100
ml
10%
displays temperature only. All new users
50-500 ml
25%
should read Section 3.5. A specific channels
300 ml - 2 L
50%
power level switch is immediately to the
>2L
100%
right of that channels digital meter.
3
Enter the setpoint (i.e., the desired temperature).
Hold in the * button and simultaneously press the
▲ key to increase or the ▼ key to decrease the
setpoint. The setpoint can be seen at anytime by
holding in the * button, the setpoint appears as a
blinking number in the display.
8 0. 0
*
4
Section 2:
Adjusting The Controller For
Stable Control With Different Heaters
2.1
What is Tuning. The controller's most powerful feature is its ability to regulate virtually any heater
with stable temperature control. For stable control the controller requires two things; (1) the controller
must be set to the correct power level (see Section 3.5) and, (2) that it must be tuned to the heater being
used. Tuning is the process that matches the control characteristics of the controller to the heating
characteristics of the heater. The controller is said to be tuned to the heater when its memory is
programmed with values telling it how fast the heater warms up, cools off, and how efficiently it transfers
heat. For example, consider the difference between a heat lamp and a hot plate. When electricity is
applied to a heat lamp it begins to heat instantaneously, and when it's turned off it stops heating
instantaneously. In contrast, a hot plate may take several minutes to begin heating when electricity is
applied and even longer to start cooling when electricity is turned off. Your controller can regulate both a
heat lamp and a hot plate to 0.1o C. But, to do this it must be programmed with the time constants
describing how fast the heater heats when electricity is turned on and how fast it begins to cool when it's
turned off. These time constants are called the tuning parameters.
Every type of heater has its own unique set of tuning parameters. For the controller to heat with
stability, it must have programmed with the tuning parameters for the heater currently being used. Prior
to shipment, tuning parameters were programmed into the controller that maximize heating performance
for laboratory heating mantles since these are the most common heaters used in research. Tuning is
regulated by 5 of the temperature meter’s user programmable functions. The correct value for these 5
functions can be calculated and loaded by the user manually, or the controller can do it automatically with
its autotune feature
When Should the Controller be Tuned? If the controller is tuned to one type of heater, heating
mantles for example, any size-heating mantle can be used without the need to retune. When changing
from heating mantles to a different type of heater, an oven for example, the controller should be tuned
with values describing the oven’s heating characteristics. The effect of tuning is seen below. When
the controller is tuned for heating mantles, using it with any size-heating mantle yields stable
temperature control (Plot 1), but poor control results when the same tuning parameters are used with
an oven (Plot 2, Curve 1). However, after tuning the controller to the oven, stable temperature
control results (Plot 2, Curve 2).
Plot 2
Plot 1
80
80
70
70
60
Temp.
o
C
50
Conditions: 100 ml Toluene
250 ml Round bottomed flask
250 ml Heating mantle
Power Setting = 50 - 500 ml
40
40
30
30
20
0
10
20
30
Time (min)
40
50
Curve 2: Controller loaded with
tuning parameters for
drying oven
60
Temp.
o
C
50
60
Curve 1: Controller loaded with
tuning parameters for
heating mantles
20
0
10
20
30
40
Time (min)
50
60
5
It’s important to understand that this controller isn’t a simple ON/OFF type controller (i.e. ON when
below the set point, OFF when above [though it can be made to work this way, see Section 3.9]). Rather
it’s a predictive controller. Based on the shape (slope) of the heating curve, the controller predicts
(calculates) the percent of power to apply to the heater now to control the shape of the heating curve
minutes in advance. The importance of the tuning parameters is that they are constants in the equation the
temperature meter uses to perform its predictive calculations. If the temperature meter is programmed
with tuning parameters that incorrectly describe the heater being used, poor temperature control will
result. But, when the correct values are loaded, temperature regulation of ± 0.1o is typically achieved.
Manual Tuning. Manual tuning is when the values of the 5 tuning parameters are determined
manually then entered into the temperature meter via the push buttons on the front of the controller.
Experienced users might prefer to manually tune the controller since this allows customization of the
heating process.
Autotune. Autotune is a feature built into the temperature meter that automatically calculates the
tuning parameters (i.e. delay times, heating efficiency, etc.) for any type of heater. After the autotune
procedure is complete and the tuning parameters are determined, the controller loads them into its
memory for current and future use. Heating mantles are a special case and are covered in a separate
paragraph (Section 2.3).
2.2
Autotuning Procedure.
This procedure is not recommended for heating mantles (see Section 2.3).
1.
Set the equipment up in the exact configuration it will be used. For example, to tune to a
vacuum oven, place the thermocouple in the room temperature oven and plug the oven into the
controller. If the oven (or heater) has its own thermostat or power control, turn both as high as
they’ll go.
2.
Set the controller to the appropriate power level (see Section 3.5). Turn the controller and
o
heater on, and enter the desired set point temperature. If the set point isn’t at least 30 C above
ambient, skip this procedure and go to the next procedure, “Autotuning the Controller for Very
Fine Control”
3.
Press and hold in both the ▲ and ▼ buttons (for 3 seconds) on the front of the temperature
meter until the word “tunE” appears in the display then release both buttons.
4.
Press the ▲ button (5 times) until “CyC.t” appears in the display (if you go past this setting,
press the ▼ button until you get back to it).
5.
First, hold in the ‘*’ button, while holding in the ‘*’ button press the ▼ button. Continue to
hold both buttons in until the display reads “A --”, or “A ##” where “##” is some number.
6.
Release the ‘*’ button and press the ▼ button until “tunE” once again appears in the display.
7.
Press and hold the ‘*’ button and “tunE” will change to “off” to indicate that autotune is
currently off.
8.
While holding in the ‘*’ button, press the ▲ button to change the display to “on”, then release
both buttons.
9.
Press and hold both the ▲ and ▼ buttons (for 3 seconds) until the temperature appears in the
display. The controller is now in its autotune mode. While in autotune the display alternates
between “tunE” (for autotune) and the process temperature. When the autotune sequence is
done (this may take in excess of an hour) the controller stops displaying “tunE” and only
displays the process temperature. [To abort autotune manually, repeat steps 3, 8 and 9 except
in step 8 press the ▼ button until “off” is displayed].
6
New tuning
values loaded
into memory
Temp
Set
Point
75% of
set point
Start
AT
The autotune sequence.
Heat to set point
after entering
new parameters
OS1
OS2
US
During T1 - 4 the controller
measures heating delays and
rates of heating and cooling
T1
T2
T3
T4
During autotune the controller heats
to 75% of the set point temperature,
where it oscillates for several cycles
before loading the new tuning
parameters. After the tuning
parameters are loaded it heats to the
set point temperature. Tuning below
the set point prevents any damage
that might occur from overheating.
Quarter cycle times
Time
Autotuning the Controller for Very Fine Control.
This procedure is not recommended for heating mantles (see Section 2.3).
In the majority of cases, the procedure above results in stable temperature control with any heater. A
second version of the autotune routine is available and can be used when the heater is already at or
close to the set point, is being tuned at a temperature close to room temperature, or for very fine
control in demanding situations. If stable temperature control doesn’t result after performing the first
autotune routine, the procedure below should be performed. Before performing the ‘fine tune’
autotune procedure, the ‘regular’ autotune procedure that precedes this should normally be
performed.
1.
Set the equipment up in the exact configuration it will be used. If the heater has its own
thermostat or power controls, turn both as high as they’ll go. With this procedure it’s not
necessary for the equipment to start at room temperature. This procedure can be performed at
any time and any temperature.
2.
Set the controller to the appropriate power level (see Section 3.5). Turn the controller and
heater on, and enter the desired set point temperature.
3.
Press and hold in both the ▲ and ▼ buttons (for 3 seconds) on the front of the temperature
meter until the word “tunE” appears in the display then release both buttons.
4.
Press the ▲ button (5 times) until “CyC.t” appears in the display (if you go past this setting,
press the ▼ button until you get back to it).
5.
First hold in the ‘*’ button, while holding in the ‘*’ button press the ▼ button. Continue to
hold both buttons in until the display reads “A --”, or “A ##” where “##” is some number.
Release the ‘*’ button and press the ▼ button until “tunE” once again appears in the display.
6.
7.
Press and hold the ‘*’ button and “tunE” will change to “off” to indicate that autotune is
currently off.
8.
While holding in the ‘*’ button, press the ▲ button to change the display to “At.SP”, and
release both buttons.
9.
Press and hold both the ▲ and ▼ buttons (≈ 3 seconds) until the temperature appears in the
display. The controller is now in its autotune mode. While in autotune the display alternates
between “tunE” (for autotune) and the process temperature. When the autotune sequence is
done (this may take in excess of an hour) the controller stops displaying “tunE” and only
displays the process temperature. [To abort autotune manually, repeat steps 3, 8 and 9 except
in step 8, press the ▼ button until “off” is displayed].
7
Autotune Errors. The autotune routine can fail for several reasons. If it fails, the controller displays
the error message “tunE” “FAiL”. To remove this message, turn the controller off for 10 seconds.
Try the procedure titled “Autotuning the Controller for Very Fine Control” above. If autotune fails
again, call and discuss your application with one of our engineers. A common problem when tuning
at high temperatures or with large volumes is for the heater to be underpowered. A more powerful
heater may be needed (contact J-KEM for assistance).
2.3
Tuning for Heating Mantles: A Special Case. This section gives special consideration to heating
mantles, since they’re the most commonly used heaters in research. Every heating mantle size has its own
optimum set of tuning parameters and if you wanted, the controller could be tuned (or autotuned) every
time a different size was used. However, this is cumbersome and is also unnecessary. Factory tests show
that there’s one set of tuning parameters that delivers good performance for all heating mantle sizes.
These tuning parameters were loaded into the controller at the factory prior to your receiving it. If you’re
using a heating mantle and none of the parameters have been changed or the controller hasn’t been
autotuned since you’ve received it, you’re ready to go. If the tuning parameters have been changed or the
controller has been autotuned and you want to go back to using heating mantles, J-KEM recommends that
the tuning parameters for heating mantles be loaded manually (i.e., don’t autotune to the heating mantle)
by following the step-by-step instructions given in Procedure 1 of Section 3.7.
2.4
Sensor Placement. Placement of the sensor is basically common sense. The sensor should be
positioned to sense the average temperature of the medium being heated. That means the thermocouple
should be shielded from direct exposure to the heater but not so distant that, a rise in temperature isn’t
sensed by the controller within a reasonable period of time. Several examples follow that show the type
of consideration that should be given to sensor placement.
Use With:
Solutions
HPLC column heated
with a heating tape
Oven
Place the sensor in the solution. Stir vigorously so that heat is homogeneously mixed
throughout the solution.
Tape a thin wire thermocouple directly to the HPLC column. Place several layers of
paper over the thermocouple to insulate it from the heating tape (the thermocouple
should sense the column temperature, not the heater temperature). Wrap the HPLC
column completely with heating tape.
The thermocouple needs to be shielded from transient hot and cold air currents. Don’t
place the thermocouple near the heating coil or an air vent. A small thermocouple
(1/16” or 1/8” thermocouple) that responds rapidly to changes in air temperature is
better than a larger one.
8
Section 3:
3.1
Operations Guide
Front Panel Description.
Figure 1
NOTE: What is depicted for Channel 1 of the Quad controller above is true of all 4 independent
temperature controller channels, individually and separately. The settings of one channel
have no affect on any other temperature control channel.
1.
Temperature Display. Shows temperature of the process as the default display. Shows set point
temperature (i.e. desired temperature) when ‘*’ button is pressed.
2.
Control Key. When pressed, the display shows the set point temperature. To decrease or increase
the set point, press the ‘▼’ key (3) or ‘▲’ key (4), while simultaneously depressing the control key.
The set point appears as a blinking number in the display.
3.
Lowers set point when ‘*’ button (2) is simultaneously pressed.
4.
Raises set point when ‘*’ button (2) is simultaneously pressed.
5.
Temperature Sensor Input. Use the same type of sensor probe as the sensor plug installed on the
controller (see Section 3.4). The correct sensor type will have the same color plug as the
thermocouple input (5) on the front of the controller.
6.
Power Outlet. Plug only 120 VAC devices into this outlet (see Section 3.2).
7.
Controller On/Off switch. For maximum display accuracy, turn on the controller 30 minutes prior
to use. WARNING: Due to the nature of solid state relays, a small amount of output power
(7.5 mA @ 120 VAC; 0.9 watts) is present at outlet 6 even when the controller is turned off. Take
appropriate precautions to avoid electrical shock.
8.
Power Reduction Circuit. Controls the computer that limits the maximum power delivered to the
heater. See Sections 3.5 and 4.1.
9.
Optional Serial Port. For controllers equipped with serial communications, this port connects to a
PC for remote control and data acquisition. Controllers equipped for RS232 communications have
a 9-pin connector, RS485 multi-drop controllers have a RJ-11 phone connector. See supplemental
Serial Communications Manual.
9
Heater Restrictions. The controller delivers 10 amps, maximum, of current at 120 VAC per channel,
and 15 amps of total current for all 4 independent channels combined. The controllers are designed to
deliver current into resistive loads (heating mantles, hot plates, ovens, etc.). Use only resistive loads that
are safely operated at 120 VAC and require less than 10 amps or damage to the controller and a
safety hazard may result.
•
Do not plug oil baths into your controller. Oil baths are not 120 VAC devices and
become a fire hazard unless properly connected to the controller. (See Appendix for
an application note describing the use of oil baths with this controller)
•
Devices other than resistive loads can be used with your controller but certain restrictions
apply.
Device Type
Comments
Incandescent lamps
Infrared heaters
≤ 700 watts
Set the power reduction circuit
to the > 2 L setting.
Inductive loads:
* solenoids
* transformers
* motors
≤ 4 amps; 480 watts
The controller must be
programmed for this use.
Request application note AN5.
Ramp-to-Setpoint & Soak Feature. A new feature of J-KEM’s controllers called ‘Ramp-To-Setpoint’
allows you to enter a specific heating rate (e.g., heat to 120o C at a rate of 5o C/Hour), a second feature
called ‘Soak’ then lets you specify how long to stay at that temperature before turning off.
Examples of Program Ramps
Soak
Setpoint
Temperature
3.3
Restrictions
Ramp
Time
Power Off
Temperature
3.2
Ramp
Soak
Setpoint
Power Off
Time
The controller is shipped with the Ramp-to-Setpoint feature OFF, the user must specifically turn Rampto-Setpoint ON. When Ramp-to-Setpoint is OFF, the controller heats to the entered setpoint at the fastest
rate possible. When Ramp-to-Setpoint is ON, the controller heats at the user entered ramp rate.
The Ramp-to-Setpoint feature and its associated parameters are turned on and set in the controller’s
programming mode. The parameters of importance are:
SPrr
SetPoint Ramp Rate. Allowable Values: 0 to 9990 deg/Hr.
This specifies the desired rate of heating (cooling). Note, this parameter specifies the desired rate of
heating (cooling), but in cases of extremely high ramp rates the reaction will not actually heat faster than
the power of the heater will allow.
10
SPrn
SetPoint Ramp Run. Allowable Values: ON, OFF, Hold
This parameter turns the Ramp-to-Setpoint feature ON or OFF. During an active run, if this parameter is
set to ‘Hold’, the setpoint ramp stops and holds at its’ current value. This continues until the parameter is
set to ON or OFF. When set to OFF, the values in SetPoint Ramp Rate and Soak Time are ignored.
SoAK
Soak Time. Allowable Values: “- -”, 0 to 1440 min.
This specifies the amount of time to soak at the setpoint after the setpoint temperature ramp is complete.
A setting of “- -” causes the controller to remain at the final setpoint indefinitely. A numeric value causes
the controller to stay at the setpoint for the entered time and then turn power to the heater off after the
time expires.
Important Points to Know
1.
While the Ramp-to-Setpoint feature in activated, the display alternates between the current reaction
temperature and the word “SPr” to indicate that a “SetPoint Ramp” is active.
2.
Setting a ramp rate will not guarantee that the reaction temperature is at the specified ramp
temperature since heating is dependent on the power of the heater. For example, if a ramp rate of
1200 deg/Hr (i.e., 20 deg/min) is set, unless the heater is powerful enough to impart heat at such a
high rate, the reaction temperature will not track the ramp temperature. Likewise, a reaction can’t
cool faster than natural cooling by ambient air.
3.
Once the Ramp-to-Setpoint feature is activated in programming mode, it remains on until it’s
deactivated in programming mode. The Ramp-to-Setpoint feature remains activated even if power is
turned off to the controller.
Activating & Programming the Ramp-to-Setpoint Feature
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Press and hold in both the ▼ and ▲ keys on the front of the temperature meter until the word “tunE” appears in the
display, then release both keys.
Press the ▲ key (8 times) until the word “SPrr” appears in the display.
This is where you set the ramp rate in units of degrees/hour. First hold in the ‘*’ key, then while holding in the *’ key
press the ▼ or ▲ key until the desired ramp rate appears in the display, then let go of all the keys. Units are in
degrees/hour.
Press the ▲ key once and the word “SPrn” will appear in the display.
This function turns the ramping feature ON, OFF, or to Hold. First hold in the ‘*’ key, then while holding in the *’ key
press the ▼ or ▲ key until the desired setting appears in the display, then let go of all the keys.
Press the ▲ key once and the word “SoaK” will appear in the display.
This is where the soak time is set in units of Minutes. A soak time of ‘ -- ‘ means to ‘soak forever’ (this setting is one
below ‘0’). First hold in the ‘*’ key, then while holding in the *’ key press the ▼ or ▲ key until the desired time appears
in the display, then let go of all the keys. If a soak time is set, the controller display will alternate between showing the
current reaction temperature and the word “StoP” when the soak time has expired to indicate that power has been turned
off.
To exit programming mode, press and hold in both the ▼ and ▲ keys until the temperature appears in the display, then
release both keys.
Deactivating the Ramp-to-Setpoint Feature
1.
2.
3.
Press and hold in both the ▼ and ▲ keys on the front of the temperature meter until the word “tunE” appears in the
display, then release both keys.
Press the ▲ key (9 times) until the word “SPrn” appears in the display.
This function turns the ramping feature ON and OFF. First hold in the ‘*’ key, then while holding in the *’ key press the
▼ or ▲ key until OFF appears in the display, then let go of all the keys.
To exit programming mode, press and hold in both the ▼ and ▲ keys until the temperature appears in the display, then
release both keys.
11
3.4
Temperature Sensor Input. Every controller is fitted with a specific type of thermocouple input and
can only be used with a thermocouple of the same type. For the correct temperature to be displayed, the
thermocouple type must match the receptacle type on the front of the controller (Figure 1; # 5). All
thermocouples are color coded to show their type (Blue = type T; Yellow = type K; Black = type J). The
color of the thermocouple plug must match the color of the receptacle on the front of the controller. If the
thermocouple is broken or becomes unplugged, the error message "inPt" "FAiL" blinks in the
temperature meter display and the controller stops heating.
3.5
Power Reduction Circuit.
This circuit (8) is the interface to J-KEM’s patented power control
computer, which limits the maximum output power delivered by the controller. It determines whether the
controller heats at a very low (1-10 mL), low (10 - 100 mL), intermediate (50 - 500 mL),
medium (300 mL - 2 L), or high (>2 L) power level. The power reduction circuit acts as a solid state
variac. This circuit has an additional setting: “Heat Off” which, when selected, turns heating off and
allows the controller to act as a digital thermometer. The table to the right shows the maximum output
power from the controller to the heater depending on the position of the power switch. The correct setting
for this switch is the setting that supplies adequate power for the heater to heat to the set point in a
reasonable period of time while at the same time not overpowering it.
Heating Liquids. Each power level is associated with a
Front Panel
Approx. % of
volume range, which acts as a guide when heating solutions
Volume Range
Full Power
with heating mantles. When solutions are heated with heating
1 - 10 mL
3
mantles set the power switch to the range that includes the
10 - 100 mL
10
volume of solution being heated [Note: this switch is set to the
50 - 500 mL
25
volume of solution, not the size of the flask]. For example to
heat 250 ml of toluene to 80o C in a 1L round bottom flask
300 ml - 2 L
50
choose the third power setting
≥2L
100
(50 - 500 ml) since, the solution volume falls within this range. There are situations when a power level
other than that indicated on the front panel should be used:
Example
80 ml toluene
100 ml flask
100 ml heating mantle
SP = 80o C
80 ml collidine
100 ml flask
100 ml heating mantle
SP = 170o C
80 ml water
100 ml flask
100 ml heating mantle
SP = 80o C
125 ml toluene
1 L flask
1 L heating mantle
SP = 80o C
150 ml toluene
250 ml flask
250 ml heating mantle
SP = 35o C
Power Setting
50 - 500 ml
(25% power)
300 ml - 2 L
(50% power)
300 ml - 2 L
(50% power)
10 - 100 ml
(10% power)
10 - 100 ml
(10% power)
Explanation
Organic solvents heated to ≈ 50 - 110o C are set to the volume
range on the front panel. When choosing between 2 power
settings (i.e. 80 ml also falls within both the 10 - 100 ml range
and the 50 - 500 ml range) choose the higher setting.
Even though the solvent volume is less than the range of this
power setting, it should be used because high temperatures
require additional power.
While the setting 50 - 500 ml would work, since the heat
capacity of water is twice that of a typical organic solvent
(1 cal/g/o K), a higher power setting can be used to
compensate for the higher heat capacity.
When the heating mantle size is substantially larger (≥ 5X)
than the volume being heated (i.e. the heating mantle has
excess heating capacity for the volume being heated), a lower
power setting gives better control.
Even though the solvent volume isn’t included in this power
setting, it should be used because low temperatures are better
regulated with less power.
12
Avoid switching between power levels while the controller is heating. Specifically, do not initially set the
controller on a high power level to rapidly heat the solution, and decrease the power level to the correct
setting as the solution approaches the set point. Changing power levels doesn’t damage the controller, but
it will reduce its heating performance.
Heating Equipment. Two factors need to be considered when heating equipment (ovens, hot plates,
furnaces, HPLC columns, etc.); (1) placement of the temperature sensor (Section 2.4) and, (2) the
appropriate power setting. The best guide to the correct power setting for various pieces of equipment is
the researcher's experience. If your best guess is that the equipment needs 1/3 full power to heat to the set
point, set the power switch on the 300 ml - 2 L setting (i.e., 50% power, it’s usually better to have too
much power rather than too little). If the heater heats too slowly, increase the power (to the >2 L setting),
if it heats too fast or has excessive overshoot, decrease the power (to the 50 - 500 ml setting). If the
amount of power seems to be adequate, but the heater doesn’t heat with stability, the controller probably
needs to be tuned (see Section 2). Section 3.6 shows the type of performance you should expect from the
controller with different pieces of equipment.
3.6
Effect of Power Setting on Heating Profile.
The following graphs show the effect of
selected power levels on heating performance in a variety of situations. Each example contains 1 optimal
and 1 or 2 less optimal settings demonstrating use of the power reduction circuit.
80
Graph 1
70
60
Temp
oC
This graph shows typical
heating profiles for a laboratory
oven and an HPLC column. In
the example of the oven the
heating curves for 2 different
power levels are shown. The
50 - 500 ml setting is the
appropriate amount of power to
heat to 75o C and thus results in
a smooth heating curve. The
> 2L power setting is too much
power and results in oscillation
around the set point.
o
Conditions: Set point = 75 C
Laboratory oven
Power Setting = 50 - 500 ml
Power Setting = > 2L
50
40
o
Conditions: Set point = 45 C
HPLC Column wrapped with heating tape
Power Setting = 50 - 500 ml
30
20
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
Time (min)
13
80
Graph 2
70
Temp.
o
C
This graph shows the affect of
different power settings when
heating liquids with heating
mantles. The 10 - 100 ml setting
(10% power) is underpowered
and results in slow heating. The
300 ml - 2 L setting (50% power)
is too much power and results in
sporadic control. The controller
adapts to a wide range of power
settings. In this example the
power is varied by a factor of 5X,
nevertheless, reasonable control
is maintained in each case.
60
Conditions: Set point = 70 o C
50 ml Toluene
100 ml Round bottomed flask
50
40
Power Setting = 10-100 ml (i.e., 10% power)
Power Setting = 50-500 ml (i.e., 25% power)
Power Setting = 300 ml - 2 L (i.e., 50% power)
30
20
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
Time (min)
Set point = 155o C
Power = > 2 L
(100% power)
170
Graph 3
Another factor affecting the
choice of power setting is the set
point temperature. For set points
near room temperature a low
power level is adequate. For
average temperatures (50 - 100o)
the volume printed on the front
of the controller are a good
guide. For high temperatures, the
next higher power setting might
be needed to supply the heater
with additional power.
145
o
Set point = 100 C
Power = 300 ml - 2 L
(50% power)
120
Temp
oC
95
Conditions: 300 ml collidine
500 ml flask
500 ml heating mantle
70
45
o
Set point = 45 C
Power = 50 - 500 ml
(25% power)
20
0
10
20
30
40
Time (min)
50
60
70
The power reduction circuit limits the total amount of power delivered to the heater. In this sense it
works like a variac and can be used like one. If the heater isn’t getting enough power, and turn the power
level up one notch, if it’s getting too much power, turn it down.
14
3.7
Resetting the Controller for Use With Heating Mantles.
If you want to use a particular controller channel with heating mantles after it’s been tuned for a different
style heater, rather than autotuning that channel with the heating mantle, J-KEM recommends that the
controller be manually tuned by following the procedure below.
Procedure 1.
Perform when using heating mantles with round bottom flasks.
[This procedure takes about 2 minutes to perform]
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
3.8
1.
2.
3.
4.
Press and hold in both the ▼ and ▲ keys on the front of the temperature meter until the word “tunE” appears in the display, then release
both keys.
Press the ▲ key once and the word “bAnd” will appear in the display.
First hold in the ‘*’ key, then while holding in the ‘*’ key press the ▼ or ▲ key until the value “10” appears in the display, then let go of
all the keys.
Press the ▲ key once and the word “int.t” will appear in the display.
First hold in the ‘*’ key, then while holding in the ‘*’ key press the ▼ or ▲ key until the value “10” appears in the display, then let go of
all the keys.
Press the ▲ key once and the word “dEr.t” will appear in the display.
First hold in the ‘*’ key, then while holding in the ‘*’ key press the ▼ or ▲ key until the value “50” appears in the display, then let go of
all the keys.
Press the ▲ key once and the word “dAC” will appear in the display.
First hold in the ‘*’ key, then while holding in the ‘*’ key press the ▼ or ▲ key until the value “3.0” appears in the display, then let go of
all the keys.
Press the ▲ key once and the word “CyC.t” will appear in the display.
First hold in the ‘*’ key, then while holding in the ‘*’ key press the ▼ or ▲ key until the value “30” appears in the display, then let go of
all the keys.
Press and hold in both the ▼ and ▲ keys until the temperature appears in the display, then release both keys.
Changing the Temperature Display Resolution The controller is programmed to display temperature
with 0.1o C resolution. The controller can be changed to 1o C resolution if by following the procedure
below (the display can also be changed to read in o F, call for information). There are two reasons to
change the display resolution:
1) To enter a setpoint faster (the display scrolls 10X faster in 1o mode than in 0.1o mode).
2) To display temperatures above 999.9o.
Press and hold in both the ▼ and ▲ keys on the front of the temperature meter until the word “tunE” appears in the display, then release
both keys.
Press the ▼ key once and “LEVL” appears in the display.
First hold in the ‘*’ key, then while holding in the ‘*’ key press the ▲ key until “2” appears in the display then let go of all the keys.
Press the ▲ key repeatedly until the word “diSP” appears in the display.
First hold in the ‘*’ key, then while holding in the ‘*’ key press the ▼ or ▲ key until the value “1” [not “0.1”] appears in the display, then
let go of all the keys.
Press and hold in both the ▼ and ▲ keys until the temperature appears in the display, then release both keys.
15
3.9
Changing Between PID and ON/OFF Operating Modes. The controller can heat in either of 2
operating modes, PID (Proportional, Integral, Derivative) or ON/OFF mode. The difference between
them is the way power is supplied to the heater.
In ON/OFF mode (the simplest heating mode),
the controller is ON when it’s below the set point
and OFF when above. The disadvantage of this
mode is a large over shoot of the set point (5 30o) on initial warm up and oscillation of
temperature around the set point thereafter. The
reason for the overshoot is because the heater
turns off only after crossing the set point and
until the heater cools down the temperature
continues to rise. This method works well for
heaters that transfer heat rapidly (such as heat
lamps), it’s acceptable for heaters such as heating mantles (≈ 5o overshoot), but it’s terrible for heaters
that transfer heat slowly (vacuum ovens, heating blocks, etc.).
In PID mode the controller monitors the shape of
the heating curve during initial warm up and
decreases power to the heater before the set
point is reached so that the solution reaches the
set point with minimal over shoot. [Notice that
the heater turns off for varying periods of time
before the set point temperature is reached]. The
second feature of PID mode is that it adjusts the
percent of time the heater is on so that the set
point is maintained precisely. The advantage of
PID mode is that it delivers stable temperature
control with any heater from heat lamps to
vacuum ovens. The disadvantage is that the controller must be properly tuned to the heater being used,
whereas ON/OFF mode requires no tuning. Since both heating modes have their advantages (simplicity
vs. accuracy), instructions to change the controller to ON/OFF mode are given below (though PID mode
will probably give better results 95% of the time). The controller can be set back to PID mode by
following Procedure 1 in Section 3.7.
1. Press and hold in both the ▲ and ▼ keys on the front of the temperature
meter until the word “tunE” appears in the display, then let go of the
buttons.
2. Press ▲ until the word “CyC.t” appears in the display.
3. While holding in the ‘*’ key, press the ▼ key until the word “on.of” appears
in the display. NOTE: if the display shows the letter “A” when the ‘*’ keys
is held in, press the ▲ key until “on.of” is in the display, then let go of all
the keys.
4. Press the ▼ key until the word “bAnd” appears in the display. While
holding in the ‘*’ key, press the ▼ key until the value “0.1” appears in the
display, then let go of all the keys.
5. Press and hold in both the ▲ and ▼ keys on the front of the controller until
the temperature is displayed, then release both keys.
Procedure to change
controller to ON/OFF
mode
The controller can be set
back to PID control by
following Procedure 1 in
Section 3.7. To completely
reset the controller to
original factory settings,
follow the procedure in the
Appendix, Section II.
16
3.10
Troubleshooting.
Problem
Large over shoot of the set point
(> 3o) during initial warm-up or
unstable temperature control.
The process heats too slowly.
The controller does not come
on.
Cause
Output power level is set too high.
Set the output power level to a lower setting (see Section 3.5).
Controller is not tuned for process
being heated.
Tune the controller as outlined in Section 2.
Output power level is set too low.
The heater doesn’t have enough
power.
Internal 2 amp fuse has blown.
Circuit breaker on back has tripped.
The controller comes on, but
does not heat.
Controller blinks:
“inPt” “FAiL”
“-AL-”
“-SPr-”
“PArk”
“tunE” “FAiL”
Displayed temperature is
incorrect.
[Note: Types ‘K’ & ‘J’
Thermocouples display negative
temperatures, but are not
calibrated for them]
Corrective Action
The heater is broken.
The temperature sensor is
unplugged, excessively corroded or
broken.
The process temperature is hotter
than the alarm temperature.
This indicates that a setpoint ramp
rate program in effect.
Controller has been placed in
“Park” mode.
Autotune routine failed.
The controller has not warmed-up.
Increase the output power level to the next higher setting (Section
3.5).
Replace with a more powerful heater. For assistance contact JKEM.
Not user serviceable. Have qualified electrician replace.
Allow to cool, then reset circuit breaker.
To verify that the controller is functioning properly, place the
power level switch on the >2L setting and enter a set point of 100o
C. Plug a light into the outlet of the controller, and wait 1 minute.
If the light comes on the controller is working properly.
Clean or replace broken sensor.
Correct the over temperature condition.
See Section 3.11.
See Section 3.3
1. Hold in both the ▲ and ▼ keys on the front of the J-KEM
temperature meter until ”tunE” appears in the display.
2. First hold in the “*” key, then while holding in the “*” key press
the ▼ key until “oFF” appears.
3. Hold in the ▲ and ▼ keys until the temperature appears in the
display.
Turn off controller for 10 seconds. See Section 2.2.
The display temperature reads low when the controller is first
turned on, but will self-correct as it warms up. The controller can
be used immediately since it will warm up during the initial stages
of heating.
Wrong type of thermocouple is
plugged into controller.
Thermocouples are color-coded. Thermocouple plug and
thermocouple receptacle must be the same color (see Section 3.4).
Corroded thermocouple
connections.
Corroded thermocouple.
Clean plug on thermocouple and receptacle on controller with
sandpaper or steel wool.
If the temperature-measuring end of the thermocouple is corroded,
discard thermocouple.
To enter a controller display offset:
1.
Turn on controller. Allow unit to warm up for 30 minutes.
2.
Record displayed temperature.
3.
Press both the ▲ and ▼ keys on the front of the temperature
meter until “tunE” appears, then let go of the keys.
4.
Press the ▼ key until “LEVL” appears.
5.
First hold in the “*” key, then while holding in the “*” key
press the ▲ key until “3” is showing in the display, then let
go of all keys.
6.
Press the ▲ key until “ZEro” is showing in the display.
7.
Note the current display offset (this is the number blinking in
the display).
8.
Calculate the new offset temperature using the equation:
Temperature display offset needed.
New
Display
Offset
Current
= display offset - Displayed + Correct
blinking in display temperature temperature
First hold in the “*” key, then while holding in the “*” key
press the ▲ or ▼ keys until the new offset temperature is
showing, then let go of all the keys.
10. Press the ▲ and ▼ keys until the temperature is displayed.
9.
17
3.11
Over-Temperature Protection Circuit
The temperature controller is equipped with an overtemperature protection circuit that turns off heating any time the temperature of the reaction goes 5o C
above the entered setpoint. When the temperature of the reaction cools below 5o C above the setpoint the
circuit is reset and the controller begins to operate normally. An over temperature condition is indicated
by the display blinking the message ’-AL-’. The over temperature feature acts to prevent accidents from
reactions where something has seriously gone wrong since no application with J-KEM’s controllers
should over shoot the setpoint by more than 2o C. For applications requiring more versatile and accurate
over-temperature protection circuits, the user is refereed to J-KEM’s Model 260 and Model 270
controllers.
There may be situations where it’s desirable to disable the over temperature protection circuit (for
example, if the controller is often used as a digital thermometer). The two procedures below give
directions on disabling and re-enabling the over temperature circuit. In reality, the over-temperature
alarm can’t be turned off because it’s hard-wired in the controller, but what you can do is program an
over-temperature condition so high (i.e., 999.9o C) that it has the effect of disabling the alarm.
Procedure to DEACTIVATE Over Temp Alarm
Procedure to RE-ACTIVATE Over Temp Alarm
1
Press and hold in both the ▼ and ▲ keys on the front of the
temperature meter until the word “tunE” appears in the display, then
release both keys. This places the controller in programming mode.
1
2
Press the ▲ key until “SEt.2“ appears in the display, and release all
keys.
2
3
Press and hold in the * key. When the * key is held in, the display
shows the number of degrees that the set point must be exceeded by
to cause the over-temperature alarm to activate. To effectively
disable the over-temperature alarm, press the ▲ key (while holding
in the * key) until the display shows 999.9. When you’re done, let
go of all the keys.
To return to normal temperature display, press and hold in both the
▼ and ▲ keys (about 3 seconds) until the temperature appears in the
display.
3
Press and hold in the * key. While holding in the * key, press the
▼ key until the display shows 5.0, then release both keys.
4
To return to normal temperature display, press and hold in both the
▼ and ▲ keys (about 3 seconds) until the temperature appears in
the display.
4
3.12
Do's and Don'ts When Using Your Controller.
The controller, heater and thermocouple form a
closed loop feedback system (see Fig. 2 in Section 4.1). When the controller is connected to a heater, the
feedback loop should not be broken at any point.
Don't
Don't
Do
Do
Do
Press and hold in both the ▼ and ▲ keys on the front of the
temperature meter until the word “tunE” appears in the display,
then release both keys. This places the controller in programming
mode.
Press the ▲ key until “SEt.2“ appears in the display, and release
all keys.
remove either the thermocouple or heater from the solution without setting the power level to the "Heat
Off" position. As the thermocouple cools the controller turns the heater on. Since this heat is never fed
back to the thermocouple it heats continuously.
use the controller to regulate an exothermic process. The controller has no capacity for cooling. If an
exotherm is expected, it must be controlled in another way.
use an appropriate size flask and heater for the volume being heated. Use the smallest flask and heating
mantle that accommodates the reaction. This ensures that the heating power of the heating mantle closely
matches the volume being heated. This also allows the solution to radiate excess heat to minimize
temperature overshoots.
place the thermocouple directly in the solution. Place at least the first 1/4” of the thermocouple directly
into the solution. If a corrosive mixture is heated, use a Teflon-coated thermocouple (or use the external
thermocouple method; Section 4.2).
avoid exposure of the controller to corrosive gases and liquids. The atmosphere of a research hood is
corrosive to all electronics. Place the controller outside the hood away from corrosive gases.
18
Section 4: Application Notes
Supplemental application notes on the following topics are available by contacting J-KEM.
Application
Note
AN1
AN2
AN3
AN4
AN5
4.1
Subject
How to heat oil baths with your controller. (Included in Appendix)
Changing the controller’s thermocouple type.
Changing the heating outlet into a cooling outlet.
Using the controller for unattended fractional distillations.
Using the controller with inductive (motors, valves) loads.
Theory of How the Controller Works – Simply.
For the purpose of explaining how the controller
works, the example of a solution heated with a heating mantle is used. The principles are the same for all
heater types.
Thermocouple
J -K EM
S c ie n tific
Instruments for Science
ON
8 0. 0
oC
Power
10-100ml
1-10ml
Heat
Off
50-500ml
300ml-2L
> 2L
Output
Power Level
120 vac
Power to heater
*
Model 210
120 Vac, 840 watts
Temperature of process
from the thermocouple
Heating mantle
Figure 2
The controller, the heating mantle and the thermocouple form a closed loop feedback system. If
the process temperature is below the set point, the controller turns the heating mantle on and then
monitors the temperature rise of the solution. If a small rise results (indicating a large volume is being
heated) the controller sets internal parameters appropriate for heating large volumes. If a large rise in
temperature results, the controller responds by loading a set of parameters appropriate for heating small
volumes. For the controller to work ideally, information needs to travel instantaneously around the
feedback loop. That means that any power the controller applies to the heating mantle must reflect itself
in an instantaneous temperature rise of the solution and the thermocouple. Unfortunately, this type of
instantaneous heat transfer from the heating mantle to the solution to the thermocouple just doesn't occur.
The delay time between when power is applied to the heating mantle and when the solution rises in
temperature; and also the converse, when power is removed from the heating mantle and the solution
temperature stops rising is the source of most controller errors. The reason for this can be seen in a
simple example.
19
Imagine heating a gallon of water to 80o C in a 5-quart pan on an electric range. Placing the pan
on the range and turning the heat to ‘high’ you’d observe a delay in heating while the range coil warmedup. This delay might be a little annoying, but it's really no problem. The real problem comes as the water
temperature approaches 80o C. If you turned the range off just as the water reached 80o C the temperature
would continue to rise – even though all power had been disconnected – until the range coil cooled down.
This problem of overshooting the set point during initial warm-up is the major difficulty with process
controllers. Overshooting the set point is minimized in two ways by your J-KEM controller – but first
let's finish the range analogy. If you had turned the range off just as the water temperature reached 80o C,
the final temperature probably would not exceed 82o C by the time the range coil cooled down, because
the volume of water is so large. In most situations a 2o C overshoot is acceptable. But what if you were
heating 3 tablespoons (45 mL) of water and turned the stove off just as the temperature reached 80o C. In
this case, the final temperature would probably approach 100o C before the range cooled down. A 20o C
overshoot is no longer acceptable. Unfortunately, this is the situation in most research heating
applications. That is, small volumes (< 2 L) heated by very high efficiency heating mantles that contain
large amounts of heat even after the power is turned off.
Your controller handles the problem of ‘latent heat’ in the heating mantle in two ways:
4.2
1)
The controller measures the rate of temperature rise during the initial stages of heating. It then
uses this information to determine the temperature at which heating should be stopped to avoid
exceeding the set point. Using the range analogy, this might mean turning the power off when
the water temperature reached 60o C and allowing the latent heat of the burner to raise the water
temperature from 60 to 80o C. This calculation is done by the controller and is independent of the
operator. The next feature of the controller is directly under operator control and has a major
impact on the amount of overshoot on initial warm-up.
2)
Again referring to the range analogy, you'd obtain better control when heating small volumes if
the range had more than two power settings; Off and High. J-KEM’s patented power reduction
circuit (8) serves just this function. It allows the researcher to reduce the power of the controller
depending on the amount of heat needed. This circuit can be thought of as determining whether
the heating power is Very low (1-10 mL), Low (10-100 mL), Intermediate (50-500 mL),
Medium (300 mL-2 L), or High (> 2 L). The proper power setting becomes instinctive after
you've used your controller for awhile. For additional information see Section 3.5.
Controlling the Heating Mantle Temperature Directly. In a normal heating setup, the thermocouple
is placed in the solution being heated. The controller then regulates the temperature of the solution
directly. The thermocouple could alternately be placed between the heating mantle and the flask so that
the controller regulates the temperature of the heating mantle directly, which indirectly regulates the
temperature of the solution.
Advantages to this method include:
1. The temperature of any volume (microliters to liters) can be controlled.
2. Temperature control is independent of the properties of the material being heated (e.g.,
viscosity, solid, liquid, etc.).
3. Air and water sensitive reactions can be more effectively sealed from the atmosphere.
The temperature controller must be programmed for use with an external thermocouple before this
procedure is used (see following procedure). The following step-by-step procedure programs the
controller to regulate heating mantle temperature. If you switch back and use the controller with the
thermocouple in solution, Procedure 1 in Section 3.7 will program the controller for heating mantles. For
all other heaters, see tuning instructions in Section 2.
20
After the controller is reprogrammed, place a fine gage wire thermocouple
(≈ 1/3 the size of kite string; available from J-KEM) in the bottom third of
the heating mantle and fit the flask snugly on top so that the thermocouple
is in intimate contact with the heating mantle. Set the power reduction
circuit to the power level shown in the table at the right. Turn the
controller on and enter the set point.
Heating
Mantle Size
5 & 10 ml
25 ml
50 ml - 22 L
Power
Level
1-10 ml
10-100 ml
50 - 500 ml
For temperatures over ≈ 120 oC,
the next higher power level may
be necessary
Procedure to Load Tuning Parameters for External Thermocouples.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Press and hold in both the ▼ and ▲ keys on the front of the temperature meter until the word “tunE” appears in the display, then release
both keys.
Press the ▲ key once and the word “bAnd” will appear in the display. While holding in the ‘*’ key press the ▼ or ▲ key until the value
“5” appears in the display, then release all keys.
Press the ▲ key once and the word “int.t” will appear in the display. While holding in the ‘*’ key press the ▼ or ▲ key until the value
“2” appears in the display, then release all keys.
Press the ▲ key once and the word “dEr.t” will appear in the display. While holding in the ‘*’ key press the ▼ or ▲ key until the value
“5” appears in the display, then release all keys.
Press the ▲ key once and the word “dAC” will appear in the display. While holding in the ‘*’ key press the ▼ or ▲ key until the value
“5.0” appears in the display, then release all keys.
Press the ▲ key once and the word “CyC.t” will appear in the display. While holding in the ‘*’ key press the ▼ or ▲ key until the value
“5.0” appears in the display, then release all keys.
Press and hold in both the ▼ and ▲ keys until the temperature appears in the display, then release both keys.
To return to using thermocouples in solution, perform Procedure 1 in Section 3.7.
4.3
Automatic Storage of Min/Max Temperatures
The controller will automatically record the
minimum and maximum temperatures of a process by following the procedure below. These
temperatures are updated continuously after the routine is started and cleared by turning the controller off.
This procedure must be started every time you want to record temperatures.
Procedure to Start Temperature Logging
1.
2.
3.
4.
Press and hold in both the ▼ and ▲ keys on the front of the temperature meter until the word “tunE” appears in the display, then release
both keys.
Press the ▼ key once and the word “LEUL” appears in the display. While holding in the ‘*’ key press the ▲ key until the value “3”
appears in the display, then release all keys.
Press the ▲ key until the word “ChEy” appears in the display. While holding in the ‘*’ key press the ▲ key until “on” appears in the
display, then release all keys.
Hold in both the ▼ and ▲ keys until the temperature appears in the display, and release both keys. Automatic temperature logging is now
on and will remain on until the controller is turned off or logging is turned off manually by repeating this procedure except in Step 3
pressing the ▲ key until the word “off” appears.
Procedure to Read Minimum and Maximum Temperatures
1.
2.
3.
4.
Press and hold in both the ▼ and ▲ keys on the front of the temperature meter until the word “tunE” appears in the display, then release
both keys.
Press the ▼ key once and the word “LEUL” appears in the display. While holding in the ‘*’ key press the ▲ key until the value “3”
appears in the display, then release all keys.
Press the ▲ key until the word “rEAd” appears in the display. The “rEAd” screen displays 3 parameters.
1.
Variance (the difference between the highest and lowest logged temperatures) Hold in the ‘*’ key and the display will alternate
between “UAro” and number of degrees of variance.
2.
High Temperature (the highest temperature since the logging option was turned on). While holding in the ‘*’ key press the ▲ key
once and the display will alternate between “hi o” and the highest recorded temperature.
3.
Low Temperature. While holding in the ‘*’ key press the ▲ key once and the display will alternate between “Lo o” and the lowest
recorded temperature.
The High and Lo temperatures can be examined as often as you like since updating and monitoring continues until, the monitor is stopped
by turning the controller off.
Press and hold in both the ▼ and ▲ keys until the temperature appears in the display, then release both keys.
21
Table 1
Tuning Parameters for Various Heaters
Fill in values determined for your equipment for quick reference.
Proportional
Integral Time Derivative Time
Band
(Reset)
(Rate)
“bAnd”
“int.t”
“dEr.t”
Instrument
Heating Mantles
10
10
50
(Factory Default)
Derivative
Approach Cont.
“dAC”
Cycle Time
“CyC.t”
3
30
Heat Lamp
Oven
Vacuum Oven
Oven
Hot Plate
22
Appendix
I.
Using the Controller With an Oil Bath
Application Note #1
Using your 200-Series controller with an oil bath is usually not recommended. J-KEM manufactures a 400-Series
controller designed for use with oil bath and is recommended for this application. The 200-Series controller can
be used safely with oil baths if the instructions in this application note are followed. An alternative to oil baths is
outlined in Point 2 below.
1.
The following procedure allows your controller to regulate the temperature of an oil bath.
A. Set the output power level on the controller to the >2 L setting (REQUIRED).
B.
Place the thermocouple in the oil bath (not too close to the heating coil).
C.
Plug a variac into the heating receptacle of the controller and connect the oil bath to the variac.
D. Adjust the variac to deliver a voltage slightly above the voltage you normally would use to heat
the oil bath.
E.
Enter the desired temperature into the controller. The controller will now regulate the
temperature of the oil bath.
In some unusual cases, the controller may need to be autotuned for the oil bath (see User’s Manual) but
this is discouraged unless you’ll be using the oil bath frequently.
2.
If the reason for using an oil bath is that a small volume is being heated, you have a second option. JKEM sells heating mantles for small volumes (5, 10, 25, 50 ml), which can be plugged directly into the
temperature controller. Your controller regulates volumes as small as 1 ml in a 5 ml flask using a 5 ml
heating mantle. If you need to heat even smaller volumes, your User’s Manual describes a technique for
heating microliters (“Controlling the Heating Mantle Temperature Directly”; in Section 4). The
advantage of this option is that it eliminates the mess and safety hazards associated with oil baths.
Accessories for regulating the temperature of small volumes are available from J-KEM including small
volume heating mantles and micro thermocouples.
Call if you have any concerns or would like to discuss your application with a technical representative.
Accessories for Heating Small Volumes Available From J-KEM
Heating Mantles
Teflon Coated Microscale Thermocouples
Thermocouples hermetically sealed in various
size hypodermic needles
All sizes from 5 ml to 50 L.
See Catalog.
See Catalog
23
II.
Safety Considerations and Accurate Temperature Control
For safety critical and non-typical organic reactions (especially polymeric reactions) or for use
with heaters other than heating mantles the user must either 1) monitor the reaction closely to
verify the tuning parameters are appropriate for the current application, or 2) autotune the
controller for the application. For any safety critical or high value reaction, call J-KEM to
discuss your application with an engineer prior to beginning.
Your J-KEM controller is capable of regulating virtually any application to ± 0.1o C if the controller is
tuned to the application being heated. Since it’s possible that the tuning parameters are not set correctly for your
application, the user must monitor a new reaction to verify the controllers operation. A short primmer on tuning
is presented below a more detailed explanation is presented in Sections 2.1 and 4.1.
Tuning is the process that matches the control characteristics of the controller to the heating
characteristics of the process being controlled. The controller uses a PID (Proportional, Integral, Derivative)
algorithm to regulate heating. Each of the terms in the PID equation has a constant that scales the equation to the
process being heating. These constants (plus two other related terms) are collectively known as the ‘tuning
constants’ and for the most part they are expressed in units of time, since they represent delay times, rate of heat
transfer times, and rate of error accumulation. The relative value of each constant depends on the physical
characteristics of the process being heated. For example, for the same amount of input power, the rate of heat
transfer is twice as high for hexane as compared to water, since the coefficient of heat for hexane is 0.54
calories/g/o C and water is 1.0 calorie/gram/o C. That means that 1000 watt-seconds of input power will raise the
temperature of 10 g of hexane 44o C while the same amount of power causes a 24o C rise in water. In theory, the
tuning constants needed to heat hexane are different from those to heat water. Fortunately, your J-KEM controller
is self-adaptive and is able to adapt its heating characteristics for different solvents such as hexane and water.
Even with the controller’s self-adaptive algorithms, the tuning constants have to be reasonably close to a proper
set or the controller will not produce stable temperature control (see Section 2.1).
When a controller is shipped, the default set of tuning constants loaded into the controller are those
appropriate for heating typical organic reactions (i.e., small molecule chemistry in low boiling (< 160o C) organic
solvents) using heating mantles, since this is the most common application for J-KEM controllers. Since it’s
impossible for J-KEM to predict the application the controller will be used for, the researcher must be
aware of the possibility that the tuning constants loaded into the controller may not be a set that results in
stable temperature control. It’s the researcher’s responsibility to monitor the temperature regulation of a
reaction. If you encounter a process that your J-KEM controller does not heat with stability, you have two
resources.
Autotune Feature. Your controller has and autotune feature that when turned on (see Sections 2.1 & 2.2)
automatically determines the proper tuning constants for your application and then loads them into memory
for future use.
J-KEM Technical Assistance. If you have an application you wish to discuss, call us, we’re always
anxious to help our users.
For an additional description of the PID algorithm and the concept of tuning, see Sections 2 and 4.1.
24
III.
Resetting the Controller to Original Factory Settings
J-KEM manufactures the most technically advanced temperature controller available and should give you consistently
flawless control. If you have difficulty with your controller, a good place to start to correct the problem is by loading the
original factory settings. If you still have difficulty with your controller, our Engineering department will help you resolve
the problem. The factory settings of a J-KEM controller are: 0.1o C resolution, PID control with tuning parameters for a
heating mantle, thermocouple type to match the thermocouple originally installed on the controller, high temperature alarm
turned on, and a thermocouple offset entered at the time of original calibration.
Note: The Quad temperature controller has 4 independent temperature control channels. Resetting the parameters for one
channel has no affect on any other channel. This procedure affects on the channel that the parameters are entered into.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
Press and hold in both the ▼ and ▲ keys on the front of the temperature meter until the word “tunE” appears in the display, then release
both keys.
Press the ▼ key until “LEVL” appears in the display. Next, hold in the ‘*’ key, then while holding in the ‘*’ key press the ▲ key until “3”
appears in the display. Let go of all the keys.
Press the ▲ key until “rSEt” appears in the display. Next, hold in the ‘*’ key, then while holding in the ‘*’ key press the ▲ key until the
word “All” appears in the display. Let go of all the keys.
Press and hold in both the ▼ and ▲ keys until the word “inPt” appears in the display, then release both keys.
The value that needs to be entered depends of the type of thermocouple receptacle your controller was shipped with.
Determine the thermocouple type below.
Color of thermocouple receptacle (Fig 1; # 7)
Value to enter:
Blue (type T)
“tc ”
Yellow (type K)
“tc ”
Black (type J)
“tc ”
First hold in the ‘*’ key, then while holding in the ‘*’ key press the ▲ key until the value from the table above appears in the display. Let
go of all the keys.
NOTE: Many of the patterns for this parameter look similar, be careful to select the exact pattern shown above.
Press the ▲ key once and “unit” will appear in the display. Next, hold in the ‘*’ key, then while holding in the ‘*’ key press the ▲ key
until the value “o C” appears in the display,. Let go of all the keys.
Press the ▲ key once and the word “SP1.d” appears in the display. Next, hold in the ‘*’ key, then while holding in the ‘*’ key press the
▲ key until the value “SSd” appears in the display. Let go of all the keys.
Press in both the ▼ and ▲ keys until the temperature appears in the display (the word “PArk” also appears), then release both keys.
Press and hold in both the ▼ and ▲ keys on the front of the temperature meter until the word “tunE” appears in the display, then release
both keys.
Press the ▲ key once and the word “bAnd” will appear in the display. Next, hold in the ‘*’ key, then while holding in the ‘*’ key press
the ▲ key until the value “10” appears in the display. Let go of all the keys.
Press the ▲ key once and the word “int.t” will appear in the display. Next, hold in the ‘*’ key, then while holding in the ‘*’ key press the
▲ key until the value “10” appears in the display. Let go of all the keys.
Press the ▲ key once and the word “dEr.t” will appear in the display. Next, hold in the ‘*’ key, then while holding in the ‘*’ key press the
▲ key until the value “50” appears in the display. Let go of all the keys.
Press the ▲ key once and the word “dAC” will appear in the display. Next, hold in the ‘*’ key, then while holding in the ‘*’ key press the
▲ key until the value “3.0” appears in the display. Let go of all the keys.
Press the ▲ key once and the word “CyC.t” will appear in the display. Next, hold in the ‘*’ key, then while holding in the ‘*’ key press
the ▲ key until the value “30” appears in the display. Let go of all the keys.
Press the ▲ key until the word “SPrn” appears in the display. Next, hold in the ‘*’ key, then while holding in the ‘*’ key press the ▼ or
▲ key until the word “OFF” is displayed. Let go of all the keys.
Press the ▼ key until the word “LEVL” appears in the display.
First hold in the ‘*’ key, then while holding in the ‘*’ key press the ▲ key until “2” appears in the display. Let go of all the keys.
Press the ▲ key until “SP2.A” appears in the display. Next, hold in the ‘*’ key, then while holding in the ‘*’ key press the ▲ key until the
word “Dvhi” appears in the display. Let go of all the keys.
Press the ▲ key until “diSP” appears in the display. Next, hold in the ‘*’ key, then while holding in the ‘*’ key press the ▼ or ▲ key until
the value “0.1o” appears in the display. Let go of all the keys.
Press the ▲ key until “Lo.SC” appears in the display. Next, hold in the ‘*’ key, then while holding in the ‘*’ key hold in the ▼ key until
the number in the display stops changing (this will be “0” or “-50” or “-199.9” depending on thermocouple type). Let go of all the keys.
Press the ▼ key until the word “LEVL” appears in the display.
First hold in the ‘*’ key, then while holding in the ‘*’ key press the ▲ key until “3” appears in the display. Let go of all the keys.
Press the ▲ key until “ZEro” appears in the display. Next, hold in the ‘*’ key, then while holding in the ‘*’ key press the ▼ or ▲ key
until the value associated with the channel being adjusted is shown in the display. Let go of all the keys.
Channel 1: _______________
Channel 2: _______________
Channel 3: _______________ Channel 4: _______________
Press the ▼ key until the word “LEVL” appears in the display.
First hold in the ‘*’ key, then while holding in the ‘*’ key press the ▼ key until “1” appears in the display. Let go of all the keys.
Press the ▲ key until “SEt.2” appears in the display. Next, hold in the ‘*’ key, then while holding in the ‘*’ key press the ▼ or ▲ keys
until the value 5.0 is entered.
Press and hold in both the ▼ and ▲ keys until the temperature appears in the display, then release both keys. The word “PArk” in the
display will go away when a set point is entered.
25
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