the Managing ICT Guide

the Managing ICT Guide
T
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Is your organisation using
Information and Communications
Technology (ICT) for the right
things?
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Are you making the best use
of the ICT you’ve got?
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Are you managing your ICT
effectively?
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Are you planning for the future?
PA R T
1
The
management
context
In order to be effective, decisions
must be made at the right level
within an organisation.
This means that there are some decisions
which must be taken by the managers
who have responsibility for the whole
organisation. Part 1 of this guide is mainly
for these decision makers. It describes
the kind of approach they need to take
if they want to reassure themselves that
their organisation is using ICT as effectively
as possible. This isn’t the same as using
ICT intensively. It may be that the right
decision is not to use much ICT at all.
Part 2 looks in detail at the policies
which organisations should develop
and adopt in order to help them manage
their ICT. In Part 3, the guide then looks
at the different types of decision which
organisations might need to make
about ICT, and gives some suggestions
on how they can best be approached.
If you have specific people with
particular responsibility for ICT, this is
the part of the guide most likely to be
relevant to them. Part 4 lists a number
of key paper and web based resources
which complement this guide.
●
Why be concerned
about managing ICT?
Managers increasingly face important
decisions about ICT. It is too important
to be ignored, even by people who feel
they don’t know much about it. But why
do we single out ICT? There are several
reasons:
●
ICT is essential. ICT is no longer an
option. Most organisations use ICT
extensively, some less so, but all are
going to become more dependent on
computing technologies in future.
ICT is expensive. It isn’t just the
cost of hardware and software,
but also the training and support
needs that are so necessary if the
equipment is to be used successfully.
Nowadays, ICT and the staff who use
it can be among the most important
resources in an agency, and ICT may
well be the area which absorbs the
largest share of available capital.
●
ICT is complex. As we know all too
well, ICT can be a difficult and
awkward technical area, and exploiting
its potential requires specialist skills.
●
ICT is used to manage information.
This is a key issue: few people would
argue with the fact that information
is crucial to our organisations. For
many of us, particularly those in
Finally, there are a set of checklists –
for the senior managers, for the ICT
managers, and for users of ICT. These
are designed to help organisations assess
the areas of their use of ICT which most
need attention. You are welcome to
photocopy as many copies of these as
you need. We would also welcome your
feedback on how useful you find them,
and whether there are any improvements
we could make to this guide.
information and advice agencies,
information is our business; it is the
reason for our existence. Our
success in managing information will
go a long way to determining how
successful we are in delivering high
quality services to the public.
●
ICT is used to communicate.
Computers in agencies have
evolved from merely being used as
replacements for typewriters,
through storing and manipulating
information and data, into being a
major part of the way we interact
with other people. From email to
instant messaging, websites to voice
over IP (VOIP), ICT is shaping the
way organisations communicate both
internally and with clients, funders
and other stakeholders.
●
his guide is for anyone involved in
managing a voluntary organisation –
the people who make decisions about
what and how it happens – and who
bear the responsibility for the role of
ICT in making the organisation a success.
Who these people are in any
particular organisation will vary.
They may be found on the Management
Committee; they may be the senior
management team. In small organisations
the whole burden may fall on the
Director or Coordinator, on a staff
group or on a key staff member.
It doesn’t matter much, provided
someone is doing the job.
This guide is about helping you
answer these questions:
One of the key principles of managing
ICT is that:
lasa
Who is this guide for?
computanews guide
Managing ICT
Focusing on your goals
No matter how important and difficult ICT
can be, we must not lose sight of the fact
that it is only a means to an end; it isn’t an
end in itself. It should be viewed as a tool
for fulfilling or enabling an organisational
purpose, ICT in itself is worthless if it
does not do this. We have to devote time
and energy to managing ICT; we need
technical skills to get the best from it; we
spend a lot of money on it – but the use
we make of it should not be driven by
ICT itself, but by the needs of our agency.
It is too easy to get lost in the
complexities and technicalities of ICT
and forget what we are trying to achieve.
It is too easy for managers to let ICT
staff baffle them with technicalities, and
in effect withdraw from the planning
process. In addition, technical staff can
become too absorbed in the technology
and lose sight of the broader goals.
So, in developing our approach to
managing ICT, we must ensure that our
use of ICT is driven by the goals of the
organisation and doesn’t begin to take
on a false logic of its own. At worst, ICT
strategy can become little more than the
preface to a shopping list for new
equipment. Your goals must come first
and they will determine your decisions
on the right course of action.
A catch-phrase from the
commercial world says that there
are no ICT projects, only business
projects. We can translate that
into the world of the voluntary
sector by saying there are no ICT
projects, only projects to help
deliver on your mission.
Goals don’t have to be broad and
ambitious – the aim could be something
as simple as:
●
producing written documents more
efficiently;
●
managing your accounting and
budgeting so that you have better
information about your financial
situation;
●
recording your contacts with clients
more accurately and in more detail;
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improving communications within the
agency and with others.
You must express your goals in nontechnical terms, and they must be set by
people who can see the bigger picture.
Otherwise you run the risk of missing a
crucial piece of the jigsaw.
(See Example 1.)
Why you need an
ICT Strategy
It is often recommended that organisations
should have an “ICT Strategy”,
sometimes also called a Technology Plan.
The danger when creating a strategy,
however, is of getting bogged down in a
mass of detail. It is far better to set out
broad guidelines and principles, then
ensure that staff and managers have the
skills to apply them effectively.
We suggest that the most important
thing is to tie individual decisions on ICT
directly to clear business goals which
make sense for the organisation as a
whole. The main goal of any voluntary
organisation is to provide a good service.
Whether it is written down or not, most
Example 1
Agency A switched desk top publishing
(DTP) applications from Serif Page
Plus to Quark Express, on the
enthusiastic recommendation of a
staff member who felt Quark had
better facilities for laying out their
newsletter and brochures.
At the same time, the
Management Committee decided to
collaborate formally in certain areas
with neighbouring agencies. This
would involve sharing leaflets and
training materials. It then transpired
that all the other agencies in the
network used Microsoft Publisher as
their DTP application since this was
more affordable for them than
Quark Express. Transferring material
between Quark and Publisher caused
considerable problems and took up
valuable time whenever a document
was to be shared.
The desk top publishing
application should have been chosen
in line with the Management
Committee policy, which would have
pointed up the need for compatibility
within the network. Without that
guidance, an apparently "technical"
decision ended up frustrating the
agency's overall aims. ●
have a pretty good idea what constitutes
a “good service” in their particular
circumstances. Ideally the general goal
will be broken down into a number of
more detailed objectives, which give the
agency its own distinctive culture and
character.
Before you can use ICT
effectively, you must have clear
goals for the organisation.
Obviously, the clearer the agency can be
about what its goals are, and the more
worked out its planning process, the
easier it is to judge how ICT can best fit
in to help achieve those goals. It may be
that ICT turns out not to have much of a
role at all – or that it is important in
some parts of the organisation, but not
in others; what is important is to have a
sound basis for making these decisions.
The next, relatively straightforward,
stage is to develop a set of policies as a
framework for all decisions relating to
ICT. Once these have been adopted,
they should guide decision-makers at any
level in decisions they make, whether it
2
Managing ICT • Lasa Computanews Guide
10 Things You Should Know About Technology Planning
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Your ICT Strategy should meet the aims and objectives set out in your
business plan or organisational plan
An ICT Strategy is unique to its organisation –
avoid using generic model plans
Developing a strategy is a process –
don’t expect instant gratification!
The work involved is a team process –
build a ‘technology team’
Your plan will help you to minimise technology related crises
(get external help if you need it!)
It should stop the wasting of money on equipment or software
that frustrates or makes you miserable
What should an ICT
strategy consist of?
Although every organisation is
different, nearly all organisations will
need to develop an ICT Strategy. This
will help ensure that the purchase
and use of technology is firmly tied to
the organisations aims and business.
A strategy will also help organisations
make the best use of their ICT
resources now and in the future. It
is useful also to record risks – what
might go wrong with the strategy –
so you can keep these under review.
An ICT strategy need not be
more than two sides of A4 paper
but should include:
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A time scale for implementing
the strategy and how often
the strategy will be reviewed
(e.g. 3 years, reviewed annually)
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A date the strategy was
agreed and by whom
(e.g. 15th November 2004 by
Management Committee)
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Organisational / department
/ team aims (e.g. organisation
provides advice and information
to young people through day
centre and outreach work)
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How technology can be
used to meet these aims
(e.g. computer network to
allow easier information sharing
within the organisation,
database to assist staff with case
management)
●
Statement of Managing ICT
standards, detailing the
organisation's policies on
ICT and / or time scale for
developing and implementing
(e.g. staff responsibility, external
support, software standardisation,
hardware purchase, budgeting,
training, data protection – this
statement will generally refer to
separate policy documents)
●
Any special technology
projects (e.g. network
installation, website
development etc.)
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Schedule and costs
(e.g. – year 1 detail, years
2 and 3 approximate,
Capital / revenue; Year 1/2/3)
It will help you to think through your technology priorities that enable
you to deliver your services more efficiently
Your plan will support budgeting
for technology
You should be able to use your completed
ICT Strategy to apply for funding
Finally – technology does not replace relationships – but can be a tool for
establishing, building, maintaining and expanding communication and systems
that assist the organisation in delivering services the best way you can.
is to do with budgeting, purchase,
training or whatever. Similarly, policies
could be adopted on other information
issues, such as the way an advice agency
records its client and case information,
or the way it acquires the information its
workers need.
Often the decisions you need to
make on ICT are pretty much routine:
do we need to replace a worn-out
printer? What sort of equipment should
we get for the new worker? Who needs
word processing training this quarter?
Occasionally, though, you realise that
you have reached the point where more
major decisions are needed. You may
have identified one specific aspect of
your agency that clearly needs attention.
Or someone may have proposed a
radical new development, with obvious
wider repercussions. Should we change
our main client database? Do we need to
update our finance system? There is then
a case for stepping back and taking a
more strategic view – collecting
information, consulting widely on the
options and implications, and writing a
more detailed, long-term plan. In this
case, any ICT developments must
obviously be related to the way
information is collected, stored and used
within the organisation, and you may end
up developing an ICT Strategy for all or
part of your activities.
Another case when a thorough
review might well be worthwhile is
where the agency realises that it has got
into a mess by buying equipment
piecemeal over the years – perhaps
because it never has any money for ICT
except when it includes a computer
among the start-up costs of a new
project – and needs to break out of the
cycle. Even if there is no immediate
prospect of having money to spend,
drawing up a clear plan should mean that
when money does become available, the
equipment that is bought moves the
agency towards a more consistent
approach. A clearly-argued plan may also
help to justify any ICT element included
in funding bids.
Lasa Computanews Guide • Managing ICT
3
Do you want to be
an ICT innovator?
Example 2
Agency B realised that they were about to face a number of ICT issues which they
weren’t currently equipped to deal with. They were about to relocate, existing systems
were failing, they needed to centralise their ICT resources and unify a number of
databases. A budget had been allocated and a dedicated ICT staff member appointed.
The suggested set up for the new premises included two servers, a firewall for Internet
security, organisational Intranet, email system, and the usual PCs, laptops, printers etc.
Options for the server, using either a proprietary or an open source* software
solution, were examined and quotations sought. The costs for the software and licenses
were considerably more for the proprietary solution although support costs for the year
were equal for both. It was decided, mainly on cost grounds but also because of the
experience and enthusiasm of the ICT staff member, to go down the open source route
– the SUSE Linux operating system was installed on the servers, along with various open
source software applications. One of the servers is used for file storage, the other runs
the Intranet, organisational database and email.
System gaps for diary sharing and out-of-office replies have been resolved by
using or developing open source alternatives. Staff are generally happy with the set up,
the servers are stable, secure and up-to-date and the Intranet now also hosts a central
web driven database which was also open source. By using software which has no
client licence restrictions or direct cost implications, an additional fifteen members
of staff have been added to the network without the need to buy extra licenses.
Since its implementation, this solution has lead to increased confidence in ICT among
staff. Additions and amendments are added in house enabling not only cost efficiencies
but also ensuring systems change to match the needs of the organisation with
minimum fuss. ●
You also need to decide on your agency’s
general approach to ICT. Some agencies
are prepared to put a lot of time and
effort into developing innovative ideas:
new ways of using ICT to provide a new
kind of service, or new ways of meeting
clients’ needs. For them, ICT has to be a
top priority:
They need an ICT “champion”,
ideally on both the staff and the
Management Committee.
●
They will almost certainly have
to find partner organisations with
technical skills to share the
development effort – possibly
commercial firms.
●
They may well have to put together a
consortium of organisations in their
field to pilot new systems and check
that they meet a wide set of needs.
●
They will have to raise specific funds
for the work.
The voluntary sector needs agencies that
will take on the challenge of pushing
forward the role of ICT, but equally
there are many whose key strengths lie
elsewhere. For most agencies, in fact, it
will make sense to play safe on ICT, and
only adopt ideas once they have been
developed and tested by someone else.
For the Management Committee this
could mean taking care not to be
overambitious. It is far better to
accomplish a limited task with little risk
than to push the boat out a bit too far
without the necessary resources or
commitment.
It is also worth the Management
Committee thinking from time to time
about how dependent the agency is
prepared to become on ICT. Once ICT
has become absolutely central to your
day-to- day operations, you must take
much more care to ensure that it is
managed properly, that staff get adequate
training, and that you have workable
procedures for dealing with breakdowns
or the theft of key equipment. These all
cost money and staff time.
(See Example 2.)
4
Managing ICT • Lasa Computanews Guide
* Open source software is a method of software development and licensing which doesn't just
mean you have access to the source code (the program) for development purposes or that it's
free. Generally speaking, open source software requires the distribution of the code, in a readable
form, with the application. Access to the code allows people to make changes to the software,
add features, or build other applications that will work with it. They can distribute these changes
as long as the source code stays open.
PA R T
●
2
Common
elements of
an ICT policy
Organisations are required by law to
have certain policies – for example,
health and safety. It is good practice for
organisations to have certain policies,
for example, equal opportunities,
environmental, and ICT.
Although every organisation is
different, there are certain elements and
principles, the basic building blocks,
which should underpin all decisions on
ICT. There may be specific cases where
you decide that your policy should be
different. The important thing is that you
have at least considered the issue.
Staff responsibility
As Joni Podolsky states in her book
Wired For Good "Any organisation needs
to inform its people about the type of
behaviour it expects of those using
technology in the workplace and about
the consequences for abusing technology
privileges". An Acceptable Use Policy
(AUP) is the policy which provides this
information to users of the organisation's
ICT resources be they staff, volunteers,
clients, trainees, management
committee, trustees and so on.
In addition, policies exist for the
protection and guidance of the
organisation and individuals by giving
users ground rules for acceptable use
of the equipment etc. so there are no
misunderstandings. They should also
provide guidelines if, for example,
misuse occurs. An AUP also
demonstrates to potential funders that
the organisation is professional in its
approach to managing users.
A Framework for an Acceptable Use Policy
The Acceptable Use Policy (AUP) Framework contains suggested headings and
topics which will be applicable for a typical AUP for a small voluntary sector
organisation. The framework has attempted to cover most of the areas which will
be required for an AUP but not all need be adopted e.g. if an organisation only has
a small number of non-networked PCs then the specific items on networks etc.
will not be necessary. Of course, should the organisation change its ICT
infrastructure or significantly change its service delivery method e.g. by making
systems available to the public or trainees, then the AUP will need to be revised –
we suggest that the AUP is reviewed every year as new technologies etc. will have
impacted upon it.
The underlying role of ICT is to
enable staff to get on with delivering a
service more effectively. Most users do
not want to be technical experts, or to
worry about how well the computer is
performing. However, somebody has to
do this. ICT is an asset and a resource,
which needs managing and looking after
in just the same way as your building,
your staff and your funding. It often
makes most sense to give one person
the main responsibility for ensuring that
your computer systems work effectively,
and to make them your ICT manager or
ICT support worker.
For convenience, the framework is split into main areas which are then subdivided
– these are:
(See sample job description, overleaf.)
Introduction
Support falls into two broad areas. Users
need support, in order to ensure that they
are using ICT effectively and to help them
recover from the inevitable problems.
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Who does this policy apply to?
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Why have an acceptable use policy?
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How is it published & communicated to users?
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Disciplinary procedure
General computer use
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Personal/business usage
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Software installation
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File management and security
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Fault reporting/support
Email
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Work-related use
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Personal use
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Anti-social or unacceptable usage
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Signature files
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Attachments (sending & receiving)
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Viruses
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Mailbox management
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Mailing lists
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Spamming
Web & other online usage
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Work related use
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Personal use
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Downloading
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Offensive material
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Messaging/chat
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Online purchasing
The full framework document is available online at
www.lasa.org.uk/knowledgebase/pages/acceptable use.rtf
and also covers some other policy areas.
The system itself needs support to
cope with breakdowns and routine
maintenance. As a rule of thumb,
you could expect to need one full-time
ICT support person for 50 staff
members. If you have 10 staff, therefore,
it would be reasonable to expect
someone to allocate one day a week to
this task. This should be written into
the job description and not seen as just
an informal arrangement for the
“accidental techie” in the office.
If possible it is helpful to have a ‘shadow’
or deputy support person to cover for
sickness, holidays and so on – and also
Lasa Computanews Guide • Managing ICT
5
to take over if the main support
worker leaves…
You will also need to consider
your organisation’s preparedness for
disaster. Disaster doesn’t necessarily
mean complete and utter destruction
of your equipment by fire, flood or
plague of locusts – although fires and
floods do happen... It also encompasses
theft, virus attack, security breaches,
server breakdown and suchlike.
Having a back-up policy is essential;
having a policy which addresses what
would happen if a major incident
occurred and testing it is important and
should be worked towards especially
for larger organisations.
External support
The job description for an ICT manager
or ICT support worker could include:
6
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acting as systems administrator for your network and server
(if appropriate) – e.g. managing user accounts and passwords, access to files
and folders, backups etc.
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providing ICT support to computer users within the office
(including inducting new staff)
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carrying out computer "housekeeping" tasks – e.g. keeping hard drives
healthy by clearing old files, running disk utilities etc.
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initial troubleshooting of ICT problems, resolving them wherever possible
and liaising with external support company
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ensuring that data is routinely backed up
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ensuring that all staff are able to organise their computer files in an
effective way and overseeing file management on centralised resource
(e.g. server) or on individual workstations
●
managing the distribution of documents in electronic format and of
standard layouts and templates for documents
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ensuring that software licences are adhered to
●
over-seeing computer security and anti-virus precautions
●
acting as Data Protection Officer (although under the 1998 Act this is
no longer exclusively an ICT issue – see Lasa’s Data Protection guide)
●
keeping an inventory of all computer equipment, keeping maintenance and
troubleshooting records, and ensuring adequate maintenance provision
●
identifying bottlenecks and problems, making recommendations to solve
them, keeping standard software and hardware recommendations under
review, and providing input into ICT policies, strategy and budget
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keeping website updated (or liaise with whoever does this) and maintain
domain registration(s)
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providing input into one-off projects such as database development
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keep abreast of changes in ICT, maintain library of information
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advise on training needs and courses available
Managing ICT • Lasa Computanews Guide
Few organisations have the resources
to cover all their ICT support needs
in-house. Some issues, like server
support or network trouble-shooting,
require a high level of specialist skill and
are only required periodically; it isn’t
cost effective to develop the necessary
expertise in-house. You cannot, however,
contract out everything. Some problems
or routine operations are too simple,
too frequent, or too urgent for that.
You need to find a balance, where
in-house staff deal with basic day-to-day
issues and call on external specialists
for more complex problems.
In striking the balance, much will
depend on the size of your agency and
the complexity of its computer systems.
Larger organisations are more likely to
have enough work to justify employing a
full- or part-time member of staff, but
even these will contract out elements
of their ICT support. Whatever your
detailed decision, your in-house ICT
support worker must have adequate
training to carry out their role and to
enable them to communicate effectively
with external services.
●
Information can more easily be
exchanged between users of different
computers.
●
Standard procedures can be adopted
throughout the organisation.
●
Model documents, etc, can be
developed for use throughout the
organisation.
●
If you standardise on software
which is widely used in the outside
world, it will make sharing
information easier and reduce
training needs of new staff.
Working with an ICT Support Contractor
The research you need to undertake before approaching companies, how to recruit
a contractor and what your responsibilities are once the contract is in place.
Research and requirements
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Find out what you have – inventory your ICT
●
Work out what your requirements are
●
Draft a requirements specification:
—
A brief overview of your organisation and ICT (in plain English)
—
List the equipment and software you want covered
—
What support you expect the contract to cover
—
Specific response and fix times
—
Anything out of the ordinary (if you are on a number of sites, for example)
—
Remote access by contractor to your network
Recruitment
●
Use networks and contacts to ask for recommendations of reliable local
support companies with a track record of voluntary sector experience
●
Come up with a shortlist of contractors
●
Send out your requirements specification
●
Assess their quotes and contract conditions and take up references
●
Consider a confidentiality agreement if you have sensitive data which the
contractor may have access to
●
Appoint your contractor
Responsibilities
●
Appoint a contact person to liaise with the contractor
●
Set up a support process policy for users
●
Log all support issues
●
Carry out preventative maintenance
●
Keep your inventory up to date
The full version of this can be found at
www.lasa.org.uk/knowledgebase/pages/mngworkwithitsupcont.shtml
worthwhile to train in-house “superusers” to a level where they can help
others, without the expense of bringing
in people from outside all the time.
Software
standardisation
It makes good sense to standardise
the software that is used within an
organisation. This means, for example,
that you decide which version of Office
applications you will use, and have this
software set up in an identical – or very
similar way – on all machines.
●
Staff who move from one part of
the organisation to another,
permanently or temporarily, do
not have to be retrained.
●
Training courses can be uniform
across the organisation – and
Training Needs Analyses are easier
to carry out and analyse.
●
It is easier to support, maintain and
upgrade software if it is limited to a
set number of packages.
The main benefits include:
●
Knowledgeable staff can help each
other more easily if they are working
on the same packages. It becomes
Which software to
standardise on?
No standard will last for ever, given
the pace of change in the ICT world.
New versions of software are frequently
released, which may well offer significant
advantages. So do you continually chase
change, buying a new version every time
it comes out? Or do you dismiss it all as
unnecessary novelty and continue to use
your trusted old programs long after
everyone else has moved on?
The answer obviously lies
somewhere between the two. Apart
from the cost and effort of continual
upgrades, it isn’t often sensible to be on
the cutting edge. Better to let someone
else find the faults in a new release of
software. A good policy is to wait until a
version of software is well-established
and widely used, with many of the bugs
found and dealt with, before you
standardise on it.
On the other hand, there are real
problems in relying on very old software.
It will be difficult to get support, training
may be impossible to find, new PCs will
often be supplied with the latest versions
and the new software may offer genuine
improvements which will be of benefit
to you.
You should review your decision on
standards about every two years. At this
point do be open minded and find out
what improvements are available, but
only implement them if they bring real
advantages. Bear in mind all the costs –
particularly staff training– involved in
the upgrade.
If you have a mixture of older
and newer machines, complete
standardisation is likely to be impossible.
You may have very good reasons for
wanting to use a new piece of software,
but can’t run it on all your machines.
You won’t want to forgo the advantages
Lasa Computanews Guide • Managing ICT
7
of the new software, just because you
can’t run it on your slower, older
equipment. So you may want to consider
adopting the new software as your new
standard, running alongside your existing
standard for a while. This can be viable if
you think it through carefully, and plan to
phase out the older equipment before it
starts to hold you back too much.
(See Example 3.)
Example 3
Agency C is quite happily using
Microsoft Word 97 as its word
processor on machines which are over
five years old and which run Windows
98. When they get a new worker, with
funding for an additional computer,
they have little choice but to buy one
that comes with Windows XP. This
means that they can have Word 2003
instead of Word 97.
They decide that this will work,
because Word 2003 can read files
created in earlier versions of Word.
Converting documents the other way
can also be done, but is less
convenient. It is not worth upgrading
the older machines to run Windows
XP. However, it now becomes an
urgent priority to replace the one
ancient computer which is still running
Word 6.0, as the agency cannot
manage to support three different
word processing packages all in use at
the same time. It is a good rule of
thumb not to get more than two
releases behind. ●
The pressure to keep software fairly
up-to-date has been driven to a large
extent by Microsoft: the company
generally supports its products for five
years and releases a new version of
Office about every two years – so there
are calls for Microsoft to slow down its
“upgrade treadmill”. Some people are
beginning to use open source
alternatives to Windows and Office,
such as Linux and OpenOffice.org,
where the pressure to upgrade is less –
and upgrades are free anyway. But, for
the moment, the treadmill carries on.
8
Managing ICT • Lasa Computanews Guide
Hardware
purchase and
replacement
Your decisions on software will
determine your hardware
strategy: you must have machines
which can run the software you
have selected. But few
organisations are in a position to
standardise their computers.
They usually buy them one or
two at a time; models change
constantly; and the specification
of the standard office PC
continues to escalate. This leaves
most agencies with a range of
different models.
This should not be a
problem. Most PCs are very
standard and will work in the
same way, even when they are
from different suppliers although
it may be sensible to standardise on
the supplier or manufacturer of your
PCs – and apply the same principle to
printers, networking equipment and
so on. However, it is very important
to keep a detailed record of each
machine, including the manuals, and
of components e.g. hard disks, network
cards, and CD drives that came with it.
This information could be vital if the
machine breaks down or needs
upgrading. You will usually find the most
detailed description of your equipment
on the invoice or specification you got
from the supplier at the time of
purchase. Some suppliers keep this
information on their websites if you
log in with the serial or ‘tag’ number
– alternatively using
software such as Belarc
(www.belarc.com) or an
online service such as
TechSurveyor (see
Resources). You should
also make sure to
record in a safe place
the serial numbers of
both hardware and
software.
Although your older
PCs will go on working
for many years, they will
be overtaken by
software upgrades and
your rising expectations.
In order to support your
software policy and to
avoid being dependent
on obsolete equipment, you should
budget to replace older equipment
regularly. On the whole, computer
equipment has a useful life of four years
(though some items, like network
cabling, lasts longer). A machine much
older than that will probably be using
outdated software, and may well be
incapable of running anything more
modern. So a good rule of thumb is to
replace a quarter of your computers
every year – if you have eight machines,
buy two new ones from each year’s
budget. If you only have one of an item –
such as a server – you need to plan how
you’ll finance its replacement, perhaps by
putting funds aside each year to “save
up” for a new one.
You also need to be careful when
deciding whether to accept a gift of old
equipment. The key question is whether
it fits with your software policy. If you
have decided to standardise on software
which needs Windows XP then, however
reluctantly, you would have to turn down
an old Pentium 2 computer. But if someone
offers a fast Pentium 3 then it may well
be worth looking at – once you’ve
budgeted for making sure it can run
Windows XP, possibly for adding extra
memory or a new hard drive and for
buying an extra copy of your software.
Budgeting
Most decisions on ICT involve spending
money. In the past, many organisations
have not had an ICT budget. They may
have relied on fundraising for new
computer equipment, or used year-end
under-spend when it has become
available, or simply replaced equipment
when it has broken down.
But as agencies become more
dependent on ICT this approach won’t
do. It needs to be replaced with a more
planned system of allocating an
appropriate amount for ICT each year –
and making sure that it really does get
spent on ICT. It is just as important a
part of the agency’s financing as rent,
salaries and the photocopier.
The first step in planning a
technology budget is to work out how
much you’re spending now. Don’t just
include the costs of hardware and
software, but add in everything that you
spend on ICT – the “Total Cost of
Ownership”. That includes money to
support the computers, including
repairs, and for training the people who
use the machines. It includes the cost of
installing or maintaining a network, the
cost of connecting to the Internet and
“consumables” such as printer toner and
ink cartridges.
Can you afford such a level of
technology spending? Many agencies find
this difficult, yet others do succeed in
raising the funds required. For most
organisations, technology costs will be
between £500 and £1000 per staff
member per year. Is it affordable? In one
sense, it’s plainly a lot of money. But
compare it with the cost of wages at
£20,000 to £30,000 a year, and a thousand
per year for technology is a relatively
small sum, as long as organisations plan
ahead. The problem arises when the
organisation has a good ICT setup and
then spends as little as possible for some
years: you can end up needing to spend
tens of thousands of pounds all at once,
and not having the money.
A real problem in paying for ICT is
that organisations need to spend money
regularly, and that expenditure needs to
be covered by funders. Short-term,
project-based funding can contribute to
technology spending: some agencies are
careful to include ICT costs in every
funding bid – with a budget for
hardware, software, training, support
and so forth. Even if funders do provide
the cash, however, it can be hard to
square the short-term nature of such
funding, perhaps where spending is
limited to a particular project, with the
need for ongoing ICT spending across
the whole organisation.
Training
While computer hardware and software
is still becoming relatively cheaper, the
same is not true of staff time. It therefore
makes enormous sense to ensure that
staff not only have the most appropriate
systems to help them achieve their tasks,
but also the skills to use those systems
effectively.
However, this is not just a matter
of sending people on training courses
when you – or they – feel like it. There
is no alternative to carrying out a
Training Needs Analysis of what skills
they already have and then providing
appropriate training, whether it be
in-house, on an external course, or
through individual coaching. There is
information on carrying out a TNA and
template forms you can use on the
Lasa Knowledgebase at www.lasa.org.uk/
knowledgebase/pages/Mngtna.shtml. Don’t
forget, also, that having time for training,
and having the opportunity to practise
immediately after a training course
are vital if training is to be a success.
A commitment to these elements should
also be included in your strategy.
Data Protection
With the 1998 legislation on Data
Protection and subsequent amendments
now in force, there is even more cause
than before to make data protection a
cornerstone of the agency’s relationship
with its clients. This is not just a
computer issue, but has to form part of
the ICT policy if systems and procedures
are to be designed with data protection
in mind.
The Data Protection Act need
not be a major problem. Its aims –
preventing harm and respecting the
individual – fit very closely with the
concerns and culture of most voluntary
organisations. In fact, seeking to apply
good Data Protection practice means
asking questions which can actually help
to improve services or procedures.
Understanding the Act can also help you
to put up a challenge when your work,
or your clients’ lives, are frustrated by
other organisations — perhaps refusing
to supply information on the erroneous
grounds that Data Protection prevents it,
or insisting that things be done in a
particular, awkward way.
For more information see Lasa’s
Computanews Guide to Data Protection.
Lasa Computanews Guide • Managing ICT
9
PA R T
3
Making
decisions
on ICT
Roles and
responsibilities
Decisions on your ICT policy, together
with decisions on any aspect of ICT
which will have a major effect on the way
the agency works must be taken or
ratified at Board or Management
Committee level. Whether the members
like it or not, it is just as much part of
their responsibility to take sound
decisions about ICT as it is about finance
or the appointment of key staff.
Example 4
Example 5
In agency D the office manger is
responsible for ICT maintenance.
The agency has a policy of replacing
its computers every four years.
When an elderly computer breaks
down, the office manager therefore
has clear guidance on how cost
effective it is to get it fixed. It may be
more cost-effective to bring forward
the purchase of a new computer by
a few months. ●
Agency E set up an ‘ICT Working
Party’ to develop its ICT strategy.
Meetings were dominated by technical
discussion, and managers were
reluctant to attend. The group was
then recast as an ‘Information Systems
Working Party’, chaired by a non-ICT
manager. Discussion was still centred
on issues related to ICT, and the
technical experts were still able to
contribute ideas of what might be
possible, but the new framework
helped to focus on the information
needs of the organisation and the use
of ICT to achieve those ends. ●
Which decisions are appropriate to
be delegated may vary from organisation
to organisation. The size of the
organisation might be a factor; so might
the experience of the managers or the
time they have available. What is
important is to be clear about which
decisions can be taken at which level.
Knowing what
is possible
Once policies have been put in place,
or a broad strategy has been established,
many routine decisions can be taken by
staff, without reference back to the
Management Committee. It is important,
however, that decisions are taken within
the framework of the agency’s policies
and overall goals. This means that the
decision or recommendation often
needs to be checked by the manager or
someone who is aware of the wider
strategic issues – again whether they feel
technically competent or not.
Finally, there is a level of day to day
management of ICT which is appropriate
to be delegated, as in the sample job
areas shown in the box on page 6. Even
here, it is essential that the person doing
the ICT management not be given carte
blanche; they should be given clear targets
and guidelines, drawn from the policies.
(See Example 4.)
10
Managing ICT • Lasa Computanews Guide
One complicating factor is that many
important developments have come
about because of new possibilities
offered by ICT, rather than as a result of
planning within agencies. For example,
the growing use of email has happened
more because the technology is available,
than because agencies were crying out
for a new means of communication.
Managers with no detailed
knowledge of ICT have to find out
from somewhere what the options are,
but without being pushed by the
technical people into spending money
the organisation can’t afford on
inappropriate developments. The
Resources section of this guide will
assist in filling those knowledge gaps.
Good decision-making therefore
depends on an effective partnership
between managers and technical people.
This may require some changing of
attitudes on both sides. Managers have
to take on responsibility for ICT issues
and be prepared to take advice from
technical specialists. ICT specialists must
be prepared to work with managers, to
accommodate organisational issues and
to talk to managers in their own terms
without taking refuge in technical jargon.
(See Example 5.)
Seeking outside
advice
Many of the decisions on ICT have to be
taken by people who are not necessarily
confident or up to date in their technical
knowledge. Yet they cannot avoid
responsibility for the decision. Managers
should not be afraid to take things step
by step, and to make sure that they
understand the issues before making
crucial decisions. In many circumstances
the only option is to take advice. The
question is: from where? There are many
sources of advice, but good impartial
advice is always hard to find. The best
advice will come from people who are:
●
technically aware,
●
independent,
●
knowledgeable about your agency’s
activities,
●
concerned for the long-term
well-being of the agency,
●
concerned about their own
reputation as a giver of ICT advice,
and
●
appointed through a clear procedure.
Sources of help to consider are:
●
voluntary sector ICT support
agencies
●
independent consultants specialising
in work with the voluntary sector
●
circuit riders (independent mobile
ICT development workers with a
caseload of agencies)
Example 6
●
commercial agencies specialising in
work with the voluntary sector
●
how could this contribute to the
agency’s overall aims
●
similar agencies which have
addressed similar issues
●
what kind of money are we talking
about
●
your national or local federation
or network
●
what timescale and input of staff time
would be realistically required
●
suitably qualified acquaintances
●
both the pros and the cons, the risks
as well as the benefits, of any
proposal – and, to cap it all, the
potential risks of not doing something
(See Example 6.)
Different sources of advice may be
appropriate at different times. The less
formal your relationship with the person
giving the advice, the more important
it is for them to be responsible too, and
to be clear about the extent of their
expertise and any potential lack of
independence. In some cases the paid
manager may need something written by
an independent external expert as a
counterweight to Management
Committee members who know a bit,
but don’t have the breadth of experience
to be sufficiently objective. What your
“expert” ought to be able to tell you is:
●
●
what are the leading products in
this area of technology currently
capable of
what are the foreseeable trends for
the next few years
The manager has to ask key questions,
and know which questions to ask –
those above are a good starting point –
in order to get advice which will
contribute sensibly to the strategic
policy decisions which have to be made.
If you feel at all unsure, ask people to
explain any jargon they use, and don’t be
afraid to get a second opinion.
London advice agencies
can make use of Lasa’s free
ICT telephone help-line:
020 7377 1226
Other agencies can use
NCVO’s free HelpDesk:
0800 2798 798
Agency F were finding that existing
ICT systems for producing information
for their clients were starting to fail.
Having identified this issue internally
they decided to fundraise for four
Windows PCs and an Apple Mac,
three new inkjet printers, upgrading
the network and a digital camera. On
this basis they applied to a local
Council funding stream and were
successful in being granted £10,000.
At the same time they joined an
ICT capacity building project which
provided them with the services of a
circuit rider who would help them with
their ICT development over an
eighteen month period. As part of this
project, the circuit rider carried out an
in-depth audit of their ICT equipment,
systems and management and a
technology action plan was agreed.
An urgent need for the agency to
commit the grant before a financial
year deadline resulted in the agency’s
ICT liaison person and the circuit
rider examining possible options.
After carrying out a prioritisation
exercise linked to the audit and the
organisation’s business plan and
examining budgets, it was decided
that the money would best be
spent on:
●
enhancing the current network so
that all the computers could
access central resources and the
Internet
●
moving to broadband Internet
access and installing a firewall
●
3 new PCs
●
a networked colour laser printer
●
anti-virus software for all PCs
●
software for desktop publishing
and image manipulation
●
a digital camera
●
an annual support contract
Through having independent advice
the agency were able to make a
decision which went some way to
addressing their current problems, but
which also looked at the longer-term
implications and how this fitted with
their technology action plan. ●
Lasa Computanews Guide • Managing ICT
11
Making decisions
Seven Steps to Decision Making on ICT
The more complex the decision, the
more elaborate the decision-making
process may have to be, but the
principles are always the same. Even an
apparently “technical” decision may have
significant non-technical ramifications –
see Example 1 of Agency A on page 2 –
and therefore needs to be taken in its
full context.
This means that it is always worth
framing any decision around an
assessment of how it relates to the
goals of the organisation as well as any
policy issues specifically to do with ICT
(such as on standardisation). Managers
and users may be best placed to judge
what the agency is trying to achieve in
the area concerned. This can lead to a
useful set of non-technical criteria
against which the proposed development
or item of expenditure can be judged.
People who carry out this exercise are
frequently surprised at how different
the criteria can be, depending on the
starting objective.
There is no fool-proof way to avoid
the effects of “creeping change” –
where a series of small, apparently
unconnected decisions end up having a
major unforeseen effect. However, by
ensuring that every decision is made
carefully, and in its proper context, the
risk of facing a nasty surprise in the
future is minimised.
1
Clarify Your Objectives
You need to know where your organisation is going, and what it is trying to
achieve. You must be able to spell this out in plain language, not technical terms.
2
Work Out Key Criteria
These might be hard facts: financial limits or increased numbers of clients, for
example. They may be questions: who will do the work? How will it affect our
relationship with our clients? with our funders? with other agencies?
3
Draw Up a Shortlist of Possibilities
It is a mistake to focus on a specific product. Be prepared to think laterally and
look at all the alternatives. You may need to seek advice on what's possible.
4
Analyse Costs, Benefits and Risks for Each Option
At this point you don't necessarily need detailed costings. Realistic estimates
should be enough to allow a sensible decision to be made. The benefits and risks
should be spelled out, even if they are hard to measure.
5
Consider Knock-on Effects
This is a good time to consult with those who might be affected: firstly to make
sure you have taken into account their experience and insights into the wider
impact of the proposed changes; secondly to help you take action to allay any
fears or deal with problems before the plans get set too firmly.
6
Carry Out Technical Evaluation
You may need to take specialist advice at this point, both to make sure that you
have asked the right technical questions, and to help you understand the answers.
Implementing
changes
Even after you have decided what to do,
you still have to make sure that you
implement the changes or new systems
properly. Change is always stressful, in
any organisation and in any setting; when
you add in ICT, with all its potential for
techno-phobia and technical jargon, the
problems are much greater. This means
that you must plan any change properly:
12
●
Work out what you would like
to do.
●
Inform or consult the users as
appropriate.
●
Take account of their response.
(Even if it is antagonistic, you need to
work out how you are going to
overcome the resistance.)
Managing ICT • Lasa Computanews Guide
7
Make a Decision at the Appropriate Level
The Management Committee should generally take the final decision
on major developments, because they have responsibility for the well-being of the
whole organisation. The implication, however, is that they must be given the
full facts on which to base their decision, presented so that they can truly
understand the implications.
●
Ensure that you allow enough time
to introduce the change and deal
with the inevitable problems and
delays – wrong cables, lack of hard
disk space, missing printer drivers or
whatever – that inevitably will occur.
●
Ensure that after you have got the
computer system working again the
users are given enough time to learn
about the changes, and that their
managers accept the fact that to
start with they will inevitably be less
productive.
●
Build in training almost immediately
after the change (so that people can
practise on the new system but not
get frustrated).
PA R T
4
Resources
For supporting documents and additional resources for managing your ICT and
developing your policies and strategy / technology planning, try these websites:
www.lasa.org.uk/knowledgebase – Sample documents and other resources to
help you manage your ICT effectively.
www.scip.org.uk/ictplans – Sussex Community Internet Project’s guidance on
writing a technology plan.
www.summitcollaborative.com/cwpm.html – Toolkit for strategic technology
planning from Summit Collaborative a US based network of people and
organisations working to build the power of non-profit organisations.
www.techsoup.org – TechSoup.org offers nonprofits a one-stop resource
for technology needs by providing free information, resources. The technology
planning “how to” section contains articles to help with the technology
planning process.
www.npower.org/ – Tools and resources section contains information on
technology planning, including technology literacy benchmarks, Technology Strategies
for Nonprofit Leaders Guide and links to other technology planning resources.
http://techsurveyor.npower.org/techsurveyor/ – TechSurveyor helps
inventory and manage technology assets.
http://techatlas.org/tools/ – TechAtlas is an online tool for helping create a
technology plan.
Books
The Complete Guide to Business and
Strategic Planning for Voluntary
Organisations by Alan Lawrie,
published by Directory of Social
Change, 2001, £12.50,
ISBN 1 900360 87 X
Wired For Good – Strategic Technology
Planning for Non-profits by Joni
Podolsky, Centre for Excellence in
Nonprofits, published by Jossey-Bass,
2003, £25.95, ISBN 0-7879-6279-1
Data Protection for Voluntary
Organisations by Paul Ticher,
published by Directory of Social
Change, 2002, £14.95,
ISBN 1 903991 19 6
Governance in the Information Age by
Peter Dyer published by NCVO,
2003, £7.50, ISBN 07199 1613 5
PA R T
www.wiredforgood.org – Resources section contains a useful technology plan
outline, tips and case studies and links to other useful technology sites.
5
The checklists
Preparing an ICT strategy, facing up
to a key decision, or even just reviewing
the way you manage ICT day by day,
is unlikely to be easy. One of the
hardest things may be knowing where to
start. The checklists which follow are
aimed at getting you over that first
hurdle – whether you’re a Management
Committee member, a senior manager,
or just someone who works with ICT
every day and feels they could be in
better control.
There are three sets of checklists:
●
for Management Committees and
senior management teams;
●
for the staff member who
has ICT management in their job
description; and
●
for computer users.
Although the checklists look at
different areas of responsibility they do
hang together as a whole. It would be
hard, for example, to meet all the
criteria for effective users if the ICT
management and overall management
were seriously deficient.
There are three levels in each
section. Level 1 contains the elements
that every organisation really ought
to try to reach, in order to ensure its
basic health. Level 2 is a realistic
target for those who want to make the
most effective use of ICT. Level 3
introduces advanced elements which
are more likely to be relevant in larger
organisations or where an agency
depends heavily on ICT and needs
to be ahead of the field. Even then,
most agencies will find that they
do not need to reach Level 3 on
every item.
It would not be surprising for an
agency to meet a few of the criteria at
Level 2 even before it has met all the
criteria at Level 1. This is just in the
nature of things: organisations devote
effort to different things at different
times, and are bound to be ahead in
some areas and behind in others. Finding
out which Level 1 criteria are not met,
however, may be a useful first step in
setting priorities for the next stage of
your ICT development.
There are similarities here to the
approaches taken both by PQASSO and
by the Community Legal Service’s Quality
Mark. Agencies already using one of those
frameworks may be able to integrate
these checklists into their review
procedures. The content, however, has
been written entirely independently, and
no attempt has been made to relate
items or levels to any other scheme.
Lasa Computanews Guide • Managing ICT
13
14
Managing ICT • Lasa Computanews Guide
Data Protection1
Data Protection Act, if necessary
□ You have registered (notified) under the
Protection, privacy and confidentiality and
this is implemented
□ You have a written policy covering Data
Safety aspect at the planning stage
□ All ICT developments consider the Health &
□ You have carried out a Health & Safety
Health & Safety
assessment in relation to ICT
□ A disaster recovery plan has been written
contribution to ICT expenditure
□ All relevant funding applications make a
each year
□ Money for ICT is set aside in your budget
which has been implemented and computer
users are fully aware of it
□ You have a written Acceptable Use Policy,
responsibility for ICT in their job description,
adequate resources and training, and realistic
time for their ICT work
□ There is a staff member with clear
□ You have carried out an ICT risk assessment
much you spend on ICT each year
□ You can identify from your accounts how
for an Acceptable Use Policy but has not
yet written one
□ Your organisation understands the need
management and policy
□ Somebody has responsibility for ICT
Risk Assessment
Budget
Acceptable Use
Responsibility
or two are written down, with the ICT
implications spelled out
□ Your organisation’s goals for the next year
□ Your organisation has clear aims, which can
Aims
be related to the way you use ICT
Level 2 – Intermediate
Level 1 – Basic
Topic
is regularly monitored and reviewed
(continued)
□ Your policy is based on best practice and
& Safety in mind – e.g. job diversity allows
breaks from the computer
□ Job descriptions are written with Health
□ The disaster recovery plan has been tested
and provision in your budget for a rolling
programme of ICT replacement, upgrading
and development
□ You have a fully-costed annual ICT plan,
your ICT expert, in case they leave or fall ill
□ You have arrangements to “shadow”
of future ICT developments, and their
implications for your organisation
□ You periodically consider the likely impact
the next few years which identifies the ICT
element in each area of activity
□ Your organisation has a written plan for
Level 3 – Advanced
Checklist A: for Management Committees and senior management teams
Lasa Computanews Guide • Managing ICT
15
for ICT training
□ You set aside money in your annual budget
hardware purchases
□ Compatibility is taken into account in all
1 See the Lasa Guide on Data Protection
Training
Hardware purchase
□ All software is licensed appropriately
volunteers) have had relevant training
□ All your computer users (including staff and
hardware
□ You have a replacement policy for computer
software purchases
□ Standardisation is taken into account in all
□ All machine are running the same version of
Software purchase
the software
Level 2 – Intermediate
Level 1 – Basic
Topic
Checklist A: for Management Committees and senior management teams
training needs analysis for users
□ Your ICT planning is based on regular
standardisation
□ You have a policy on software
Level 3 – Advanced
(continued)
16
Managing ICT • Lasa Computanews Guide
House-keeping
Fault finding skill
Maintenance and
support
Technical
knowledge
□ You can remove old files and directories
computer problems, and you take action
to resolve them
□ You have a system for recording
for maintenance and technical support
□ You know someone reliable you can call on
software or a software upgrade
□ You know how to install a new piece of
computer or printer
□ You know how to unpack and set up a new
□ You can use inventory software
of your computers
□ You know what software is installed on each
□ You can install patches and service packs
defragment disks
□ You can uninstall software, clean up and
records to identify training needs, inadequate
software and potentially faulty hardware
□ You routinely analyse your computer problem
maintenance call-outs
□ You keep full records of hardware faults and
with a person or company who you trust and
are knowledgeable and supportive
□ You have a maintenance and support contract
hardware upgrade would be worthwhile
□ You know how to work out whether a small
in use in your agency
□ You check regularly for unlicensed software
specification of all your equipment and its
warranty status
□ You have a written record of the full
□ You know broadly the specification of each of
Inventory
your computers
Level 2 – Intermediate
Level 1 – Basic
Topic
housekeeping
(continued)
□ You have a process in place for regular
idea whether the problem is with the
hardware or software, and can often resolve
the problem yourself
□ If a system stops working, you have a good
call-out times on essential items
(e.g. the file server)
□ Your support contract has guaranteed
for rapid disaster recovery
□ Your support contract includes provision
such as resolution, number of colours and
refresh rate
□ can adjust display and monitor settings
hardware upgrade yourself e.g. adding memory
□ You can, if necessary, carry out a small
Level 3 – Advanced
The ICT Manager checklist is more dependent on the size and nature of the organisation than the other two. In some agencies the ICT Manager may need only to meet Level 1 and a selection of
criteria from Level 2. In others, the organisation may be large enough to employ technical experts so that, again, the ICT Manager doesn’t need all the Level 2 and Level 3 skills themselves.
ICT manager: The ICT Manager need not necessarily be a technical expert. Their role is often to know what should happen and how to make it happen (or whom to call in).
Checklist B: for the staff responsible for ICT management
Lasa Computanews Guide • Managing ICT
17
User training
User induction
Internet
Accessibility
Network
administration
Topic
training
□ Your key computer users have had basic
computer(s)
□ All new staff are shown how to use the
□ Your website is kept up-to-date
accessing the Internet
□ You know what to do if there is a problem
know how to renew your domain name
registration and have records of your account
details, user name, password, account
reference etc.
□ You know who your service provider is,
know where to obtain advice
□ You are aware of accessible computing and
needs analysis
□ You carry out a regular ICT training
a training element built in
□ All changes to your computer system have
appropriate training
□ All your computer users have had
procedure for new staff
□ There is a written computer induction
and spyware
□ You have anti-spam software in place
□ You know how to deal with adware
audited/tested for accessibility and meets
minimum requirements
□ Your organisation’s website has been
Disability Discrimination Act
□ You are aware of the requirements of the
shared folders
□ You can add a new computer to the network
□ You can set up access permissions on
□ You know how to put a new user onto
your network
Level 2 – Intermediate
(continued)
Level 1 – Basic
Checklist B: for the staff responsible for ICT management
(continued)
your main software packages, to help other
users, develop macros, run in-house training
sessions etc
□ You have at least one “super-user” for each of
upgrade users’ skills
□ You have a training programme to routinely
□ New staff are provided with a user manual
accessibility problems
□ You regularly check your website for
W3C (World Wide Web Consortium
www.w3c.org ) accessibility level 2/3 guidelines
□ Your organisation’s website complies with
and equipment for users to try out
e.g. trackball mouse, ergonomic keyboard,
information on Windows accessibility options
□ You have a resource library of information
its performance and identify house-keeping
needs or bottlenecks requiring attention
□ Your network is regularly monitored to assess
Level 3 – Advanced
18
Managing ICT • Lasa Computanews Guide
Insurance
Data Protection
Security
Backing up
are covered for use out of the office
□ Laptop computers and other mobile devices
contents insurance, on a new for old basis
□ Your computers are covered on your
under the Data Protection Act
□ All users have been told their obligations
□ Your Internet connection has a basic firewall
reinstating data from computers that are
stolen or damaged
□ Your insurance policy includes cover for
with Data Protection in respect of computer
based data
□ You monitor your organisation’s compliance
your server-based network
□ You enforce regular password changes on
passwords
□ Key files and systems are protected by
□ All equipment is security marked
□ All incoming e-mails are virus-checked
you check all disks or files originating outside
your organisation
you can restore files if necessary
□ You regularly test your back-ups to ensure
□ You have up-to-date anti-virus software, and
sufficiently frequent intervals and copies are
kept securely off-site
□ You ensure that all key files are backed up at
they are followed
□ You have back-up procedures and check that
your users are using their computer systems
effectively and what their training needs
might be
□ You have a good sense of whether most of
□ You occasionally check whether your
Audit of effective
use
computer users are facing any particular
problems
Level 2 – Intermediate
Level 1 – Basic
(continued)
Topic
Checklist B: for the staff responsible for ICT management
are able to administrate
□ Your network is run by a server which you
some time ago, this can be arranged
□ If users need to recover files they deleted
their potential benefit for your organisation
□ You are aware of software developments and
software to be able to check whether your
users are using it effectively
□ You are familiar enough with all your key
Level 3 – Advanced
Lasa Computanews Guide • Managing ICT
19
protected systems you use
□ You know how to log into any password-
and what you must do to comply with your
organisation’s policy
□ You know how Data Protection affects you
and had time to practise using it
□ You were shown how to use the computer
computer problem
□ You know whom to ask if you have a
check files or disks for viruses
□ You know how to change your password and
(e.g. disclosing a mailing list) comply with
Data Protection or not
□ You know whether specific operations
your training needs
□ You have a regular opportunity to consider
in all the software you use
□ You have had formal training up to basic level
generally learn how to avoid it in future
□ When you have a computer problem, you
if you suspect a virus has been sent to you
by email
□ You can recognise and know what to do
labels or other non-standard paper
□ You can change printer toner or ink, and use
documents if the colleague isn’t there
□ You know how to find a colleague’s
copy files
to your files
□ You know how to share and restrict access
Data Protection works in practice in your
organisation
□ You are able to comment on how
staff on one or more packages, and to set up
macros, etc
□ You are a “super-user”, able to help other
packages you use most often
□ You have had advanced training in the
problems, and talk knowledgeably to a
support person
□ You can identify possible causes of many
telephone support
□ You can fix many problems yourself, with
to another
□ You can convert files from one format
of using the computer to improve your job
performance
□ You are able to suggest, or develop, new ways
Level 3 – Advanced
User: This list is not only for the users themselves. The computer manager should go through the answers with each user, to identify areas where either the individual needs training or support,
or where the organisation needs to take action.
Security
Data Protection
Training
Support
by mistake
□ You know what to do if you delete something
such as paper jams
□ You can save your work and always find it again
□ You can deal with basic printer problems,
you need to use, and print your documents
□ You can get into and out of each application
and printer
□ You know how to switch on the computer
Acceptable Use Policy
□ You know how to create folders, move and
computer relates to the tasks in your job
description
computer for your normal tasks
Basic skills
□ Your manager has explained to you how the
□ You have been shown how to use the
Understanding
of the role of ICT
in your job
□ You have been given and understand the
Level 2 – Intermediate
Level 1 – Basic
Topic
Checklist C: for computer users
Lasa Information Systems Team Services
www.lasa.org.uk/it
●
IT HEALTHCHECK – www.lasa.org.uk/it/healthcheck.shtml
The Healthcheck is an independent assessment of how IT is helping you achieve your
organisation’s goals, or getting in the way. Each Healthcheck includes a consultation on
your agency’s work, your plans for future development and how IT can help you realise
them. We provide a full report to help you develop your strategy including technical options,
how much you should spend, and where you can get good value technical support.
For more details call us on 020 7377 1226, or email us at ist@lasa.org.uk.
●
CONSULTANCY AND PROJECT MANAGEMENT SERVICES –
www.lasa.org.uk/it/consultancy.shtml
Lasa IST (Information Systems Team) provides bespoke consultancy services around ICT
strategy, e-services development, procurement, organisational infrastructure and ICT
management issues. For example, if you need advice and support to make your ICT strategy a
reality or to commission bespoke work such as database or website development, Lasa IST can
allocate you a team member who will provide you with help including:
● drawing up a strategy
● advising on funding bids
● requesting and scrutinising quotations
● liaising with suppliers and developers on your behalf
● project definition and costings for funding applications
● technical specification
For more details call us on 020 7377 1226, or email us at ist@lasa.org.uk.
●
ICT HELPLINE
If you need access to high quality, one-to-one ICT advice call NCVO’s helpdesk free on
0800 2798 798. This service is provided in partnership with Lasa and supported by Poptel.
For further information about NCVO please contact their helpdesk or website at
www.ncvo-vol.org.uk. London voluntary agencies can phone our ALG funded helpline on
020 7377 1226 to speak to a member of the Lasa Information Systems Team.
●
Lasa
Computanews
Guides
Lasa’s Information Systems Team
publishes a series of Computanews
Guides. These clearly written booklets
cover many aspects of computer use
and answer common queries.
Guides currently
available
(The following guides are available
by post at £5 each)
Buying IT
●
The Internet
●
Managing ICT
●
Networks
●
Data Protection
(The following guides are available
as free PDF downloads – see
www.lasa.org.uk/computanews/guides.shtml )
Project Management
●
Security
●
Circuit Riding
KNOWLEDGEBASE – www.lasa.org.uk/knowledgebase
Our award-winning comprehensive database of ICT information and advice online.
The Lasa ICT knowledgebase provides expert advice on ICT queries and ICT management
issues. Written in clear, plain English by the voluntary sector for the voluntary sector, the Lasa
knowledgebase provides information on Buying ICT, Databases, Equality issues, the Internet,
Managing ICT, Project Management, Software, and Troubleshooting resources.
●
COMPUTANEWS – www.lasa.org.uk/computanews
Our magazine Computanews provides clear information on the use of information technology
for advice and information providers. Computanews is full of informative and entertaining
articles including:
● The latest ICT developments in the advice world
● Choosing and setting-up a database
● Managing ICT
● The internet, world wide web and email, ICT training, new software and much more.
●
For further details contact:
Lasa Publications
Universal House
88–94 Wentworth Street
London E1 7SA
TELEPHONE:
CIRCUIT RIDERS – www.lasa.org.uk/circuitriders
Lasa supports the development of a movement of Circuit Riders – mobile ICT support
workers. A Circuit Rider supports a caseload of organisations, each too small to have their own
ICT staff. Circuit Riders are part of a movement through which they can support each other,
and work with funders, networks and policy makers to ensure the voluntary sector is making
the best use of ICT. We have set up a Circuit Rider discussion forum, are involved in organising
meetings of Circuit Riders around the UK and the first national Circuit Rider conference.
For more details see our website at www.lasa.org.uk/circuitriders or phone 020 7377 1226.
Managing ICT
Originally written by Paul Ticher with Martin Jones (May 1998).
Update by Ian Runeckles and Lasa’s Information Systems Team (October 2004).
Cartoons by Phil Evans. Thanks to Off Centre (www.offcentre.org.uk) and Ryan Cartwright at Contact A Family
for case study input (see www.cafamily.org.uk/oss/MoreThanWebServers.pdf for the full text).
Layout by Third Column. Printed by Russell Press.
FAX:
EMAIL:
020 7377 2748
020 7247 4725
publications@lasa.org.uk
WEBSITE:
www.lasa.org.uk
Funded by London’s local councils
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