FluidSim_P - Mechatronics

FluidSim_P - Mechatronics
FluidSIM® 3.6
Pneumatics
User’s Guide
398029 GB
04/04
FluidSIM was launched at the Knowledge-based Systems Department of
the University of Paderborn.
Concept and development of FluidSIM® 3 Pneumatics is based on
research work carried out by Dr. Daniel Curatolo, Dr. Marcus Hoffmann,
and Dr. habil. Benno Stein.
Order No.:
398029
Description: HANDBUCH
Designation: D:HB-FSP3-GB
Edition:
4/2004
Author:
Art Systems
Layout:
Art Systems
© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG, D-73770 Denkendorf, 1996-2004
Internet: www.festo.com/didactic
e-mail: [email protected]
© Art Systems Software GmbH, D-33102 Paderborn, 1995-2004
Internet: www.art-systems.com, www.fluidsim.com
e-mail: [email protected]
The copying, distribution and utilization of this document as well
as the communication of its contents to others without expressed
authorization is prohibited. Offenders will be held liable for the payment
of damages. All rights reserved, in particular the right to carry out
patent, utility model or ornamental design registration.
Contents
1.
1.1
1.2
1.3
2.
2.1
2.2
2.2.1
2.2.2
2.3
2.4
3.
3.1
3.2
3.3
4.
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8
4.9
4.10
4.11
4.12
4.13
5.
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
Welcome!
About FluidSIM
Layout of the Handbook
Conventions
Getting Started
Technical Requirements
Installation
Installation with Program Activation
Installation with license connector
Supplied Files
De-installation of a Single-Position License
Introduction to Simulating and Creating Circuits
Simulating Existing Circuit Diagrams
The Different Simulation Modes
Creating new Circuit Diagrams
Advanced Concepts in Simulating and Creating Circuits
Additional Editing Functions
Additional Simulation Functions
Linking Components Automatically
Current Path Numbering and Switching Elements Table
Displaying Quantity Values
Displaying State Diagrams
Superficial Circuit Checking
Coupling Pneumatics, Electrics and Mechanics
Operating Switches
Adjustable Components
Settings for Simulation
OPC and DDE communication with Other Applications
Settings for the OPC/DDE communication
Learning, Teaching, and Visualizing Pneumatics
Information about Single Components
Selecting Didactics Material from a List
Presentations: Combining Instructional Material
Playback of Educational Films
Settings for Didactics
© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG and Art Systems • FluidSIM
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63
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107
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Contents
6.
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6
6.7
6.8
6.9
6.10
7.
7.1
7.2
A.
A.1
A.2
A.3
A.4
A.5
A.6
A.7
A.8
A.9
A.10
A.11
B.
B.1
B.2
B.3
B.4
B.5
C.
C.1
C.2
4
Special Functions
Drawing Layers
Graphic Primitives
Text Components and Identifications
Parts Lists
Printing a Window’s Contents
DXF Export
DXF Import
Using and Organizing Component Libraries
Managing Projects
Saving Settings
Help and Advanced Tips
The Most Frequently Occurring Problems
Tips for the Advanced User
FluidSIM Menus
File
Edit
Execute
Library
Insert
Didactics
Project
View
Options
Window
?
The Component Library
Pneumatic Components
Electrical Components
Electrical Components (American Standard)
Digital Components
Miscellaneous
Didactics Material Survey
Basics
Diagram Symbols
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112
113
117
119
123
125
126
129
137
139
142
142
146
151
151
153
155
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© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG and Art Systems • FluidSIM
Contents
C.3
C.4
C.5
C.6
C.7
C.8
C.9
C.10
D.
D.1
D.2
D.3
D.4
D.5
Circuits
Air Service Units
Valves
Actuators
Exercises
Extensions
Educational Films
Standard Presentations
Messages
Electrical Errors
Drawing Errors
Operating Errors
Opening and Saving Files
System Errors
Index
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Contents
6
© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG and Art Systems • FluidSIM
1. Welcome!
Welcome to FluidSIM !
Thank you for purchasing the FluidSIM® 3 Pneumatics training software.
This handbook functions both as an introduction to FluidSIM and as a
reference manual outlining the possibilities, concepts, and operation of
the software package. This handbook, however, is not intended to help
in defining special aspects of pneumatics. Concerns of this nature can
be found in the Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG textbook series.
Users of this software are encouraged to contribute tips, criticism, and
suggestions for improvement of the program via email at
[email protected]
[email protected]
Moreover, the newest updates can be found at our Internet site at
www.fluidsim.com
www.festo.com/didactic
April 2004
The Authors
© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG and Art Systems • FluidSIM
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1. Welcome!
1.1
About FluidSIM
FluidSIM® 3 Pneumatics is a teaching tool for simulating pneumatics
basics and runs using Microsoft Windows® . It can be used in combination with the Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG training hardware, but also
independently. FluidSIM was developed as a joint venture between the
University of Paderborn, Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG, and Art Systems
Software GmbH, Paderborn.
A major feature of FluidSIM is its close connection with CAD functionality and simulation. FluidSIM allows DIN-compliant drawing of electropneumatic circuit diagrams and can perform realistic simulations of the
drawing based on physical models of the components. Simply stated,
this eliminates the gap between the drawing of a circuit diagram and the
simulation of the related pneumatic system.
The CAD functionality of FluidSIM has been specially tailored for fluidics.
For example, while drawing, the program will check whether or not
certain connections between components are permissible.
Another feature of FluidSIM results from its well thought-out didactic
concept: FluidSIM supports learning, educating, and visualizing
pneumatic knowledge. Pneumatic components are explained with
textual descriptions, figures, and animations that illustrate underlying
working principles; exercises and educational films mediate knowledge
about both important circuits and the usage of pneumatic components.
The development of FluidSIM included special emphasis on both an
intuitive and easy-to-learn user interface. The user will quickly learn to
draw and simulate electro-pneumatic circuit diagrams.
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© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG and Art Systems • FluidSIM
1. Welcome!
1.2
Layout of the Handbook
The Handbook from FluidSIM has been divided into two parts. The
first part serves as a user’s guide, and the second part functions as
a reference book. The user’s guide contains chapters that introduce
the user to FluidSIM. By following the chapters in order, the user will
understand how to operate FluidSIM. The reference part contains a
complete listing of the FluidSIM functions, the component library, the
didactics material, and the FluidSIM messages.
User’s Guide
Chapter 2 describes the computer requirements for FluidSIM, the
installation process, and the meaning of the supplied files.
Chapter 3 contains small examples of circuit diagrams, showing how
they can be simulated and how new circuit diagrams can be created.
Chapter 4 introduces advanced concepts of FluidSIM. Examples include
the linking of pneumatic and electric components, the possible settings
for simulation, and the testing of a circuit diagram.
Chapter 5 shows additional educational concepts. In particular, FluidSIM
enables a user to pop-up a component’s technical description, to start
animations, or to play a film with related information.
Chapter 6 describes special functions of FluidSIM including how to
print and export circuit diagrams, along with the rearrangement of the
component library.
Chapter 7 deals specifically with help for questions concerning the use
of FluidSIM. It also includes tips for the advanced user.
Reference
Appendix A contains a complete listing of FluidSIM menus and is
intended to be used as a quick reference for all FluidSIM functions.
Appendix B contains the library of all FluidSIM components.
© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG and Art Systems • FluidSIM
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1. Welcome!
Appendix C contains the component illustrations, the animations, the
exercises, and the educational films.
Appendix D contains a listing of messages that may occur while using
FluidSIM along with a brief explanation for each.
1.3
Conventions
User instructions are indented and marked with the >arrow; important
passages begin with the ☞symbol.
The symbols found on the FluidSIM toolbar are represented in this
manual with the appropriate icon; menu entries are shown framed ;
function keys are represented with their appropriate key symbol. For
is the icon used to start a simulation; File Open... indicates
example
the “Open...” entry under the “File” menu; F9 stands for function key
“9”.
In this manual the term “clicking” with a mouse means using the left
mouse button. It is explicitly stated when the right button is to be used.
Values for quantities calculated and displayed in FluidSIM are expressed
in the following units:
Quantity
Pressure (p)
10
Unit of measure
bar, MPa
Flow (q)
l/min
Velocity (v)
m/s
Opening level (%)
-
Voltage (U)
V
Current (I)
A
© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG and Art Systems • FluidSIM
2. Getting Started
This Chapter describes how FluidSIM is installed on your computer.
2.1
Technical Requirements
You need a computer with a Pentium processor or higher that runs
using Microsoft Windows9x® , Microsoft WindowsME® , Microsoft WindowsNT® , Microsoft Windows2000® or Microsoft WindowsXP® .
If you intend to draw simple circuit diagrams or to simulate the existing
circuit diagrams, 64 MB RAM is adequate. However, minimum 128 MB
RAM is recommended to simulate complex circuit diagrams.
In order to play the educational films, you will need a CD-ROM drive that
runs at double speed along with hardware for sound.
2.2
Installation
When you purchased FluidSIM, you received a CD and possibly a
license connector . Aside from the educational films, the CD contains
both the full version and the student version of FluidSIM.
The installation procedure is described in the following sections.
The full version of FluidSIM is available in two versions: A version that
supports the automatic online activation and the license connector
version.
2.2.1
Installation with Program
Activation
With the first start of FluidSIM you will be asked to activate FluidSIM.
The activation follows one of the following three variants.
• Automatic Online Activation
This variant requires Internet access from the computer where
FluidSIM is to be activated and realizes a completely automated
procedure.
•
Indirect Activation
In this variant an activation dialog box is opened that shows an
Internet address (url) and your individual license ID. With this
information you can generate your individual activation key at an
arbitrary computer with Internet access. Then, the activation key
has to be entered in the activation dialog box of the installation PC.
© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG and Art Systems • FluidSIM
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2. Getting Started
•
2.2.2
Installation with license
connector
Call Festo to receive your individual activation key
If you don’t have Internet access or if the Internet activation fails,
you can call a service employee at weekday office hours who will
provide you with your activation code.
Depending on the license model (single-position systems or network),
the license connector is needed only during the Installation of FluidSIM
or must be attached to the so-called license server.
The blue license connector for single-position systems defines how
many times FluidSIM can be installed. If, for instance, you have bought
a classroom license, exactly the corresponding number of singleposition installations can be performed. Note, however, that by each
de-installation the license connector can be “recharged” by simply
connecting it and starting the de-installation program (see section 2.4).
The green network license connector defines how many instances of
FluidSIM can be running at the same time in the network. If you attempt
to start more instances than the allowed number, an error message is
displayed. If the license server is down or if the license connector has
been removed from the system, all circuits that are already open and
modified can be saved before FluidSIM terminates. If the license server
is up again FluidSIM starts as usual.
FluidSIM Full Version:
Installation from CD
> If you purchased a version with single-position license connector,
make sure that your computer is switched off and attach the license
connector to the parallel interface (LPT 1) of your PC.
Often there is a printer attached to the computer. The printer cables
must be removed while installing FluidSIM.
> Turn the computer on and start Microsoft Windows® .
> Insert the CD.
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© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG and Art Systems • FluidSIM
2. Getting Started
> Click Run... in the Start Menu.
A dialog box opens.
> Enter the following string in the space provided: d:setup.exe.
Then click “OK”.
If your CD-ROM drive is configured differently, then be sure to use
the appropriate letter in place of d:.
After a few seconds the startup screen of the installation program
appears. Here you can choose whether to install the student version
or the full version of FluidSIM. When installing the full version, please
select the appropriate license connector (single-position systems or
network). If you got a FluidSIM version for online activation no license
connector is necessary but only your individual product ID is required,
which is printed on the back of the CD cover. Note that the student
version does neither require a license connector nor a product ID.
> Follow the directions as they appear on the screen. If you are
unsure how to answer or are unsure of a question, simply click
“Next >>”.
Note that with each start of FluidSIM the user name appears. Also note
that the company’s name is stored in the license connector.
Import Online Activation
Notes
During the activation of FluidSIM several features of your PC and the
product ID are used to generate an individual license ID. This string is
valid for your PC only. I.e., if your PC is substantially modified or if you
want to use another PC, your FluidSIM license has to be transfered to
the new hardware. This happens automatically, if you again activate
FluidSIM when starting the program with the new hardware.
Note that reactivation means license transferral: After a reactivation on
a new hardware FluidSIM cannot be activated again on the original PC.
© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG and Art Systems • FluidSIM
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2. Getting Started
Blue License Connector for
Single-Position
Systems—Important
Usage Notes
14
To avoid a mistakenly loss of your licenses, please consider the
following tips:
• Modification of the system configuration
De-install FluidSIM temporarily before you modify the system
configuration (exchange of hardware components, re-installation
of the operating system).
•
Temporary de-installation of FluidSIM
When temporarily de-installing FluidSIM, modified and newly
created files can be preserved. A subsequent re-installation of
FluidSIM will recognize these files.
•
Hard disk failure
In the case of a hard disk failure Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG will
help to reactivate your FluidSIM license if you own a backup of the
hard disk (phone: 0049-711-3467-0).
© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG and Art Systems • FluidSIM
2. Getting Started
2.3
Supplied Files
The directory structure of FluidSIM is demonstrated in the following
figure.
The directory aq contains the knowledge bases for FluidSIM.
The directory bin contains the executable FluidSIM program along with
additional libraries.
This directory also contains the registration information and the
program fduninst.exe, which is necessary for de-installation.
You should not make any changes to this directory bin.
© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG and Art Systems • FluidSIM
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2. Getting Started
The directory bmp4 contains the photos of components in the component library. These pictures have four gray scales for use with Microsoft
Windows® with sixteen colors.
The directory bmp16 also contains the photos of components in the
component library. These pictures have sixteen gray scales for use with
Microsoft Windows® with at least 256 colors.
The directory bmp16c contains the figures of both the component
illustrations and the didactics material.
The directory ct contains the supplied circuits for FluidSIM. This is also
the default directory in which all new circuits diagrams are saved. In its
subdirectories the following circuit diagrams have been included:
asksim: Circuits that were delivered with the “ASKSIM 2.0”
simulation program.
shows: Circuits that can be opened as a bitmap via the Didactics
menu (see section 5).
tp101: Circuits in the workbook “Pneumatics Basic Level TP 101”.
tp101_lb: Circuits in the textbook “Pneumatics Basic Level TP
101”.
tp102: Circuits in the workbook “Pneumatics Advanced Level TP
102”.
tp201: Circuits in the workbook “Electro-pneumatics Basic Level
TP 201”.
tp202: Circuits in the workbook “Electro-pneumatics Advanced
Level TP 202”.
The directory lib contains the component library of FluidSIM as total
view.
The directory lib2 contains the component library of the versions 2.x of
FluidSIM.
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© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG and Art Systems • FluidSIM
2. Getting Started
The directory misc contains auxiliary files and option files for FluidSIM.
The directory snd contains sound files for FluidSIM.
The directory sym shows the component library of FluidSIM as a
hierarchical view. In the same hierarchical fashion the contents of this
directory is also shown in the menu Insert .
The directory shw contains files for use with presentations.
The directory tmp contains the pre-calculated circuit models and
temporary files created by FluidSIM.
The complete FluidSIM software takes up approximately 16 MB of
memory on the hard disk.
2.4
De-installation of a
Single-Position License
The following steps are necessary to de-install FluidSIM from your
computer.
> Connect the blue license connector to the parallel port (LPT 1).
> Click on the program icon Remove FluidSIM-P in the Start
Menu Program Files/Festo Didactic. If the program icon
cannot be found, start the program fduninst.exe in the binsubdirectory of the FluidSIM directory.
The license connector will charge and you will be asked whether or not
you would like to preserve user-modified files.
© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG and Art Systems • FluidSIM
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2. Getting Started
> You should answer “Yes”, if you would like to keep the files that
you created with FluidSIM, for example new circuit diagrams and
presentations, and also information that you changed while using
FluidSIM. When re-installing FluidSIM, you should use the same
directory path.
You should answer “No”, if you want to completely remove FluidSIM
from your computer.
If a problem occurs during de-installation, do not attempt to manually
change or delete FluidSIM. Instead report problems and errors to Festo
Didactic GmbH & Co. KG (phone: 0049-711-3467-0).
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© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG and Art Systems • FluidSIM
3. Introduction to Simulating and Creating Circuits
The following chapter is set up in the form of a tutorial to introduce the
user to important FluidSIM functions. At the end the user should be
comfortable designing and simulating circuit diagrams.
> Start FluidSIM via the Start Menu under Program Files/
Festo Didactic.
After a few seconds the main window from FluidSIM should appear on
your screen:
© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG and Art Systems • FluidSIM
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3. Introduction to Simulating and Creating Circuits
The left-hand side shows the component library of FluidSIM in its total
view; it contains pneumatic and electrical components for the creation
of new circuit diagrams. The menu bar at the top of the window lists all
the functions needed for the simulation and creation of circuit diagrams.
The toolbar beneath this menu displays frequently used menu functions.
The toolbar contains the following nine groups of functions:
1.
creating new circuit diagrams, previewing a circuit diagram, opening
and saving circuit diagrams
2.
printing the contents of the window, for example circuit diagrams
and component photos
3.
editing circuit diagrams
4.
alignment of components
5.
using a grid
6.
zooming in and zooming out of circuit diagrams, component
pictures, and other windows
7.
superficial circuit checking
8.
simulating circuit diagrams, directing animation (basic level)
9.
simulating circuit diagrams, directing animation (additional
functions)
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© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG and Art Systems • FluidSIM
3. Introduction to Simulating and Creating Circuits
Only a certain number of the above listed functions will apply to a
specific circuit diagram. FluidSIM recognizes which functions apply
according to the contents of the window, component functions and
context (circuit diagram design, animation, circuit diagram simulation,
etc.), and disables the operations on the toolbar that do not apply.
In many new Microsoft Windows® programs “context menus” are
available. A context menu appears when the user clicks the right button
on the mouse within the program window. In FluidSIM, context menus
apply to the contents and situations in the window; the context menus
contain a useful subset of functions from the main menu bar.
Located at the bottom of the window is a status bar that displays
information on the current calculations and activities during the
operation of FluidSIM. In Edit Mode, FluidSIM displays the designation
of the component found under the mouse cursor.
Buttons, scrollbars, and the menu bar in FluidSIM operate in the same
way as in most other programs that utilize Microsoft Windows® .
© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG and Art Systems • FluidSIM
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3. Introduction to Simulating and Creating Circuits
3.1
Simulating Existing
Circuit Diagrams
Included with the FluidSIM installation disks are a number of working
circuit diagrams. These circuit diagrams will be utilized in the following
sections as demonstration and learning material. A more detailed
description of the circuits can be found in the following workbooks
“Pneumatics Basic Level TP 101”, “Pneumatics Advanced Level TP
102”, “Electro-pneumatics Basic Level TP 201” and “Electro-pneumatics
Advanced Level TP 202” (see section 2.3).
These circuit diagrams can be opened and simulated with FluidSIM as
follows:
> Click on
22
or choose Circuit Preview in the File menu.
© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG and Art Systems • FluidSIM
3. Introduction to Simulating and Creating Circuits
Preview windows containing overviews of existing circuit diagrams
should appear:
A preview window displays the circuit diagrams of a specific directory
in alphabetical order accompanied by a miniature representation. The
name of the current directory is shown in the title bar of the preview
window; the files of the FluidSIM circuit diagrams contain the extension
ct.
© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG and Art Systems • FluidSIM
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3. Introduction to Simulating and Creating Circuits
By double clicking a directory icon you go down to the respective
subdirectory.
In the ct subdirectory of the fl_sim_p installation additional
subdirectories for diagrams can be created. These subdirectories are
automatically found by FluidSIM, and extra directory icons are created
for them.
> Open the circuit diagram demo1.ct by double clicking on its
miniature representation.
Circuit diagrams can also be opened using the File Selector dialog box.
or choosing Open... under the File menu, the File
By clicking on
Selector dialog box will appear, in which a circuit diagram can be opened
by double clicking on its filename.
In either case the circuit diagram is opened and displayed in a new
window:
> Click on
24
or on Execute Start , or press the key F9 .
© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG and Art Systems • FluidSIM
3. Introduction to Simulating and Creating Circuits
FluidSIM switches to the simulation mode and starts the simulation of
the circuit diagram. When in the simulation mode, the mouse cursor
changes to a hand .
During the simulation FluidSIM first calculates all electrical parameters.
This step is followed by formulating the model of the pneumatic circuit,
and, based on the model, the entire distribution for flow and pressure is
calculated.
Formulating models is demanding. Depending on a circuit’s complexity
and the computer’s power, a circuit’s simulation may take considerable
time.
As soon as the results are available, the connection lines will be shown
in color and the cylinders extend:
© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG and Art Systems • FluidSIM
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3. Introduction to Simulating and Creating Circuits
The colors of the connection lines have the following meaning:
Color
Meaning
Dark blue
Pneumatic line under pressure
Light blue
Pneumatic line without pressure
Light red
Electrical line, current flowing
You can define your own mapping between colors and state values
under Options Simulation... . The varying thicknesses of the dark blue
connection lines correspond to the pressure as related to the maximum
pressure. FluidSIM distinguishes between two thicknesses of line:
Thickness
Meaning
Pressure less then maximum
Maximum pressure
The exact numeric values for pressures, flow rates, voltages, and
currents are displayed on the attached measuring instruments.
Section 4.5 describes how you may go about getting values for all or
only selected variables on the circuit diagram, even when measuring
instruments are not present.
Simulation in FluidSIM is based on physical models whose components
match those components found in the Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG
equipment set. Therefore, calculated values should closely match
measured values. When comparing results, please acknowledge the
fact that in practice, measurements can be subject to large fluctuations.
The reasons for differences range from component tolerances, different
hose lengths to air temperature.
The calculation of variables forms the basis for an exact, real-time
proportional animation of the cylinder.
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© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG and Art Systems • FluidSIM
3. Introduction to Simulating and Creating Circuits
Real-time-proportionality guarantees the following property: If in reality
a cylinder moves twice as fast as another one, the relationship between
these two components is shown in the animation. In other words, the
real-time relationship remains unaltered.
Manually operated valves and switches, found in the circuit diagram,
can be switched by clicking on them with the mouse:
> Move the mouse cursor to the left switch.
The mouse cursor becomes a hand with index finger
that the switch may be flipped.
and indicates
> Click on the switch.
When you click on a manually operated switch, its real behavior is
simulated. In this example the clicked switch becomes closed and
recalculation begins automatically. Following the calculation, the new
pressure and flow values are indicated and the cylinders retract to their
starting position.
The switching of a component is only possible when a simulation is
running ( ) or when a simulation has been set to pause ( ).
In the event that you would like to simulate another circuit diagram,
it is not necessary to close the open one. FluidSIM allows you to have
several circuits open at one time. Furthermore, FluidSIM is able to
simulate multiple circuits simultaneously.
or Execute Stop to switch the current circuit from
> Click on
Simulation Mode to Edit Mode.
© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG and Art Systems • FluidSIM
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3. Introduction to Simulating and Creating Circuits
By switching a circuit from Simulation Mode to Edit Mode, all components will automatically be set back to their “normal status”. In particular, switches are set to their original position, valves switch to their
normal position, cylinder pistons are set to their previous position, and
all values calculated are deleted.
By clicking on
(alternative: Execute Pause or F8 ) you can switch from
Edit Mode to Simulation Mode without starting the simulation. This
feature is useful, if components shall be set before the simulation is
started.
3.2
The Different Simulation
Modes
In addition to the functions of the preceding section (
exist also the following additional functions:
reset and restart of the simulation
,
,
), there
simulation in single step mode
simulation to a certain point where a state change happens
Reset and Restart of the
Simulation
By clicking on
or under Execute Reset , an already running simulation
or paused simulation can be reset. Immediately following this, the
simulation will be restarted.
Single Step Mode
During single step mode, the simulation will stop after a small step.
or Execute Single Step , the simulation will
More exactly, by clicking on
begin for just a short time period (approximately 0.01 - 0.1 seconds in
the real system); the system then pauses ( ).
A running simulation can, at any time, be set into single step mode. It is
then possible to focus on key moments during the simulation.
Simulation to a State
Change
By clicking on
or under Execute Simulate until State Change the
simulation begins and runs up until a certain point where a state change
happens; the simulation then pauses ( ). The following situations
describe the point at which the simulation pauses:
1. a cylinder’s piston moves at a stop
2. a valve switches or is operated
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© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG and Art Systems • FluidSIM
3. Introduction to Simulating and Creating Circuits
3. a relay switches
4. a switch is operated
It is possible to switch from a running simulation into this state change
mode.
3.3
Creating new Circuit
Diagrams
This section contains an introduction to creating and simulating circuit
diagrams using FluidSIM.
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3. Introduction to Simulating and Creating Circuits
> Create an empty drawing area by clicking on
to open a new window:
or under File New
Circuit diagrams can only be created or altered in the Edit Mode. The
Edit Mode is indicated with the following mouse cursor
.
Each and every newly opened drawing area automatically contains a
name, with which it can be saved. This name is found in the title bar of
the new window.
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Using the scrollbars found to the right of and underneath the component
library, you can scroll through the components. Using the mouse, you
can “drag” and “drop” components from the component library onto the
drawing area:
> Move the mouse cursor to a component in the library, more
specifically to the cylinder.
> Press the left mouse button. While continuing to hold down the
button, move the cursor.
The cylinder is then highlighted (selected) and the mouse cursor
changes to a four way directional cross
. The component’s outline
moves with the mouse cursor.
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> Move the cursor to the drawing area and release the button on the
mouse. This action places the cylinder in the drawing area:
In this way it is possible to “drag” each component from the component
library and place it in the desired position in the drawing area. In the
same way it is possible to rearrange components already in the drawing
area.
> Drag the cylinder to the bottom right hand corner.
In order to simplify the creation of circuit diagrams, the components
automatically snap to grid in the drawing area.
> Try to move the cylinder onto a non-permissible area, for example
outside the window.
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Outside a permissible area the mouse cursor changes to the prohibited
sign ; the component cannot be dropped.
> Drag a second cylinder onto the drawing area and notice that the
second cylinder is now highlighted.
> Highlight, say, select the first cylinder by clicking on it.
> Delete the cylinder by clicking on
pressing the Del key.
(cut) or under Edit Delete or by
The commands in the Edit menu correspond only to the selected
components.
> Drag onto the drawing area a configurable 3/n-way valve and a
compressed air supply.
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> Arrange the components in the following manner:
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Double click the valve to assign an operation mode to it. A dialog box
appears:
Description of the dialog box:
•
“Left/Right Actuation”
For both sides the actuation modes of the valve can be defined
individually; it can be one or more of the categories “manual”,
“mechanical”, or “pneumatic/electrical”. An operation mode is set
by clicking on the down-arrow at the right-hand side of the list and
selecting a symbol. If for a category no operation mode is desired,
simply choose the blank symbol from the list. Moreover, for each
side of the valve the attributes “spring-returned” and “piloted” can
be set.
•
“Description”
Enter here a name for the valve. This name is used in the
state diagram and in the parts list.
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•
“Valve Body”
A configurable valve has at most four positions. For each of the
positions a valve body element can be chosen individually. Such
an element is set by clicking on the down-arrow at the right-hand
side of the list and selecting a symbol. If for a position no element is
desired, simply choose the blank symbol from the list.
•
“Initial Position”
This button defines the valve’s initial position (sometimes also
called normal position or neutral position), which is the position
without having any operation applied to the valve. Note that this
setting is only exploited if it physically does not contradict a springreturned setting, possibly defined above.
> Choose from the left-hand side in the topmost list a manual
operation with snap in, and select the “spring-returned” option
in the right field. Close the dialog box via OK.
Since the connection “3” of the valve serves as air discharge, an exhaust
should be assigned to it.
> Double click the connection “3”.
A dialog box opens in which a terminator can be chosen by clicking on
the down-arrow at the right-hand side of the list and selecting a symbol.
> Select the third symbol (the simple exhaust) and close the dialog.
Now the valve should look as follows:
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> Move the mouse cursor over the left cylinder connection .
In Edit Mode, the mouse cursor changes to a cross-wires pointer
when it is above a component connection .
,
> Press the left mouse button while the mouse cursor is above the
cylinder connection. Move the mouse cursor and notice how the
.
cross-wires pointer gains arrows
> Keep pressing the mouse button, and move the cross-wires pointer
to the upper valve connection. Notice how the arrows on the
cross-wires pointer turn inward
.
> Release the mouse button.
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Immediately a line appears between the two chosen connections:
FluidSIM automatically draws a line between the two chosen connecwhen it is
tions. The mouse cursor changes to the prohibited sign
not possible to draw a line between two connections.
> Move the mouse cursor to a line.
In the Edit Mode, the mouse cursor changes to a line-selection symbol
, when it is positioned over a line.
> Press the left mouse button and move the line-selection symbol to
the left. Release the mouse button.
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Immediately, the line is redrawn:
In the Edit Mode the components and lines can be selected, moved, or
deleted by clicking on Edit Delete or by pressing the Del key.
> Connect the remaining components.
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The circuit diagram should look somewhat like the following one:
The circuit diagram has been completely drawn and connected. Attempt
to simulate this circuit.
> Start the simulation by clicking on
with the F9 key).
(or under Execute Start or
> Move the mouse cursor over the valve and click with the index
finger on the valve.
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During simulation all pressures and flow rates are calculated, all lines
are colored, and the cylinder’s piston extends.
After the cylinder has been extended, the pressure in the cylinder supply
line must inevitably increase. This situation is recognized by FluidSIM
and the parameters are recalculated; the pressure at the compressed air
supply increases to the preset operating pressure.
> Click on the valve so that the cylinder may retract.
In complex pneumatic systems, or for the transmission of high switching
powers, valves may be operated indirectly. In the following we will
replace the direct manual operation by an indirect pneumatic operation.
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> Activate the Edit Mode by clicking on
with the F5 key).
(or under Execute Stop or
> Select and delete the line that connects the cylinder and the valve.
> Drag another 3/n-way valve onto the drawing area and open by
a double click (or by Edit Properties... ) the dialog box for the valve
configuration. “Construct” a pneumatic valve, normally closed, and
close the dialog box. Then, connect an exhaust at connection “3”
and arrange the components as follows:
> Connect the output connection of the new valve with the cylinder.
> Draw a line from the output connection of the manually operated
valve to the control connection of the pneumatically operated valve.
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In reality, to connect a component to an existing line requires a Tconnection . FluidSIM automatically creates a T-connection when you
draw a line from a connection to an existing line.
draw a line between the input
> Using the cross-wires cursor
connection of the pneumatically operated valve to the line
connecting the compressed air supply and the manually operated
.
valve. Notice how the arrows in the cross-wires turn inwards
> Release the mouse button.
The T-connection appears on the line at the point where the mouse
button was released.
> When possible, draw the line so that the wiring diagram is arranged
clearly.
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The circuit diagram should now appear somewhat like the following
diagram:
> Save the circuit by clicking on
or File Save . FluidSIM automatically opens the File Selector dialog box, if the title is new; here you
must give the circuit a name.
> Start the simulation by clicking
operated valve.
; then click on the manually
When you click on a valve, its real behavior is simulated. Here, the
clicked valve switches over, immediately followed by a recalculation.
As a result, the piloted operated pneumatic valve switches over and the
cylinder extends.
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FluidSIM not only animates manually operated components during
changeover, but nearly all components with multiple states.
The following figure shows a 3/2-way valve in closed and open position:
Components whose switching status is not locked remain activated as
long as the mouse button is held down.
> Stop the simulation, which also brings you to Edit Mode. Select
from the component library the state diagram component, and
place it onto the drawing area.
The state diagram records the state quantities of important components
and depicts them graphically.
> Move the state diagram to a free place in the drawing. Drag the
cylinder and drop it onto the state diagram.
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> Start the simulation and observe the state diagram.
Note that several state diagrams can be used in the same circuit;
however, several components may also share the same state diagram.
A component is added by simply dropping it onto the state diagram.
If a component is dropped a second time on the diagram, it will be
removed from there. State quantities of the following components can
be recorded and displayed in the state diagram:
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Component
State
Cylinder
Position
Way valve
Position
Manometer
Pressure
Pressure or switching valve
State
Switch
State
The example is now finished. Further editing and simulation concepts
are described in the next chapter.
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Circuits
This chapter contains advanced concepts and functions, which can be
used when simulating and creating circuits with FluidSIM.
4.1
Additional Editing
Functions
In addition to the commands that were introduced in section 3.3, the
Edit Mode in FluidSIM provides you with a higher level of important
editing functions:
Setting the Paper Size
In Edit Mode the size of the paper is indicated by a red rectangle. The
default setting of the paper size is “DIN A4, portrait”. The default setting
can be changed in the menu File Drawing Size... .
The size and the orientation of the paper can be set here. If the drawing
size exceeds the paper size of your printer, the total area of several
smaller papers can be tiled with the drawing.
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For orientation purposes, under File Properties... additional information
can be stored along with each drawing. The text that is entered in
description is shown in the preview window below the respective
diagram.
Undoing Editing Steps
By clicking on
or Edit Undo and with Edit Redo , each step given in
the Edit Mode can be undone in the following manner:
( Edit Undo ), the last editing step that was taken
By clicking on
is undone. FluidSIM recalls the last 128 editing steps, which can be
undone.
The function Edit Redo serves as a way to “withdraw the last undone
step”. When using
to undo an editing step, you may go to far. By
clicking under Edit Redo , the circuit is returned to its original state
was initiated. The function Edit Redo can be invoked
before undo
until there are no more undo steps to be redone.
The function Edit Undo applies to all possible editing steps in the Edit
Mode.
Multiple Selection
A component can be highlighted, that is to say selected, by clicking on it
with the left mouse button. However, by clicking on another component
with the left mouse button, the first component is no longer selected,
but the second component is. Only one component at a time may be
selected when clicking with the left mouse button.
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If, while you are clicking on components, you hold down the Ctrl key,
the components that are already selected will remain so. In addition,
the component underneath the mouse cursor will also be selected, if not
already selected, or de-selected, if already selected. In this sense, the
component’s state of selection is reversed.
Another efficient concept for selecting multiple components is by using
the rubber band. The rubber band is opened by pressing and holding
down the left mouse button, and then moving the mouse cursor. The
mouse cursor cannot be located directly over a component if the rubber
band shall be opened.
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All components enclosed, either partially or fully, by the rubber band,
are selected.
All components and lines of the current circuit diagram can be selected
by clicking under Edit Select All or typing Ctrl A .
Editing functions such as dragging or moving, copying and, deleting
apply to all selected components.
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4. Advanced Concepts in Simulating and Creating Circuits
Right Mouse Button
When you click the mouse button on the right in a FluidSIM window,
the appropriate context menu is opened. If the mouse cursor is located
above a component or component connection, the item will become
selected. If this component was not yet selected, then a possibly
existing selection of other components will be de-selected.
Clicking the right mouse button on a component (connection) is actually
a short cut for the following two actions: Clicking the left mouse button
on the component (connection) and opening a menu.
Double Clicking with the
Mouse
Double clicking the left mouse button on a component (connection)
is a short cut for the following two actions: Selecting the component
(connection) and clicking on Edit Properties... .
Copying
Selected components can be copied to the clipboard by clicking on
or Edit Copy ; the component can then be inserted in the circuit diagram
by clicking on
or Edit Paste . In the same way it is possible to paste
the contents of the clipboard into another graphic or word processing
program.
Within a circuit diagram selected components can also be copied by
holding down the Shift key and moving them. The mouse cursor
changes then to the copy symbol
.
Copying between Windows
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Components can simply be copied between windows by selecting the
desired components and dragging them in the other window.
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Aligning Objects
To align objects, firstly select these objects and then click on the icon
or on the appropriate entry in the Edit Align menu.
Reference object is always the object which lies furthermost in the
desired direction. If, for instance, several components shall become
aligned left, all but one objects are moved to the left so that they
align with the left-most object. Note that pneumatic and electrical
components obey the constraint that their connections must lie on the
grid. As a consequence, an alignment may not always coincide with the
symbol bounding.
Rotation
Selected components can be rotated by 90°, 180° or 270°. There is a
short cut for rotating a single component in steps of 90° : pressing the
Ctrl key and double clicking on the component.
Deleting Lines
If only one component connection is selected, its connected (but deselected) lines can be deleted using Edit Delete or by pressing the Del
key. This concept provides an alternative way to delete lines.
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Configuring Way Valves
The body of a valve or its operation concept can be changed by doubleclicking the valve. The following dialog box is opened.
Description of the dialog box:
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•
“Left/Right Actuation”
For both sides the actuation modes of the valve can be defined
individually; it can be one or more of the categories “manual”,
“mechanical”, or “pneumatic/electrical”. An operation mode is set
by clicking on the down-arrow at the right-hand side of the list and
selecting a symbol. If for a category no operation mode is desired,
simply choose the blank symbol from the list. Moreover, for each
side of the valve the attributes “spring-returned” and “piloted” can
be set.
•
“Description”
Enter here a name for the valve. This name is used in the
state diagram and in the parts list.
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4. Advanced Concepts in Simulating and Creating Circuits
Setting Line Type
•
“Valve Body”
A configurable valve has at most four positions. For each of the
positions a valve body element can be chosen individually. Such
an element is set by clicking on the down-arrow at the right-hand
side of the list and selecting a symbol. If for a position no element is
desired, simply choose the blank symbol from the list.
•
“Initial Position”
This button defines the valve’s initial position (sometimes also
called normal position or neutral position), which is the position
without having any operation applied to the valve. Note that this
setting is only exploited if it physically does not contradict a springreturned setting, possibly defined above.
The type of each fluidic line can be changed from the standard line type,
“Main Line”, to the special line type “Control Line”. Being in Edit Mode,
double clicking on a fluidic line or selecting the line and choosing the
menu entry Edit Properties... brings up a dialog box in which you can set
the line type. A control line is shown dashed. Note that—aside from
a different appearance—changing line type has no impact respecting
simulation.
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Connection Descriptors,
Blind Plugs, and Exhausts
Pneumatic connections can be closed with blind plugs—among others,
to adapt their function. In FluidSIM blind plugs can be set or deleted
by double clicking a connection when being in Edit Mode. Likewise
a connection can be selected and the menu entry Edit Properties... be
clicked. In either case the following dialog box opens.
Description of the dialog box:
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•
“Connection Designation”
If enabled via View Show Connection Descriptors , the contents of this
field is displayed at the connection.
•
“Display Quantity”
Check out the state values to be displayed when the “selected”option in the state values dialog box is chosen. However, if the
“no”-option in the state values dialog box is chosen, even the
checked state values are not displayed.
•
“Terminator”
Defines whether an open connection either is left open, closed by a
blind plug, or closed by an exhaust.
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A blind plug is indicated by a crossbar, an exhaust is indicated by its
respective DIN symbol:
Zoom Features
The content of windows can be enlarged by clicking on
or View
or View Zoom Out . The short cut keys
Zoom In or reduced by using
for this function are > and < respectively. If your mouse device is
equipped with a mouse wheel you can roll the wheel while holding down
the Ctrl key to zoom in.and out, respectively
or View Zoom by Rubber Band and then draw a rectangle
If you click on
with the rubber band, the selected area will be shown enlarged. You
can also switch between the current and previous view of a window by
or View Previous View .
clicking on
or View Fit to Window fits the entire circuit to the window;
or
shows the circuit diagram without enlargement or
reduction.
View Standard Size
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Background Grid
By clicking on
, the background grid is shown. By clicking under
, a dialog box appears that allows you to select between
grid types and line resolution.
Options Grid...
Description of the dialog box:
Grouping Objects
58
•
“Width”
The grid width defines how close together the lines of the grid
should be. You can choose between “Coarse”, “Medium”, or “Fine”.
•
“Style”
There are three types of grid to choose from “Point”, “Cross”, or
“Line”.
•
“Display Grid”
This selection displays or hides the background grid.
If objects shall be subsumed under a single group, select them and
click Edit Group . Groups can be nested. The objects of a group can
be selected, moved, deleted, or copied only all at once. However,
component properties can be edited individually, as usual, by either
double clicking the object or choosing the respective entry in the
component’s context menu.
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4. Advanced Concepts in Simulating and Creating Circuits
Ungrouping Objects
To ungroup a collection of objects, click Edit Ungroup . Note that only the
outermost group is resolved; repeated ungrouping will resolve nested
groups.
4.2
Additional Simulation
Functions
This section describes in detail additional functions that apply to the
simulation of circuit diagrams.
Simultaneous Actuation of
Several Components
During the Simulation Mode, it is sometimes necessary to actuate
more switches or valves simultaneously. It is possible in FluidSIM to
simulate just such an actuation by means of setting a component in a
permanently actuated state. A button (or a manually operated valve) will
become permanently actuated when clicking on it while holding down
the Shift key. This permanent actuation will be released by a simple
click on the component.
Switching to the Edit Mode
If a component is dragged from the component library to the circuit in
the drawing area, and the simulation has been paused , FluidSIM
automatically switches to the Edit Mode.
Editing and Simulating in
Parallel
In FluidSIM it is possible to open more than one circuit diagram at a
time. Each circuit can either be simulated or edited. This fact means
that the Simulation Mode and the Edit Mode are applied uniquely and
independently to each window containing a circuit diagram.
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This concept means that it is possible to edit one circuit diagram, while
other circuits are in the background running in simulation:
The simulation of pneumatic circuits may turn out to be a demanding
problem. Therefore, when using a lower-performance computer, the
editing of new circuit diagrams often appears jerky when simulations
of other circuits are simultaneously running in the background. So that
working in the Edit Mode goes more smoothly, all simulations performed
in the background should be stopped.
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4.3
Linking Components
Automatically
Insertion of T-connections
Connecting Components in
Series
In order to make circuit design efficient, FluidSIM provides more
functions to facilitate component linking.
FluidSIM automatically inserts a T-connection when a line is drawn from
a component connection . to an already existing line. This functionality
applies to pneumatic as well as electrical lines.
To realize larger circuits, stepper modules are often connected in series.
In reality, these modules have specially standardized connections, which
facilitate the realization of such series connections. FluidSIM simulates
this concept as follows. Let several modules be arranged in the drawing
area such that they will both align vertically and have no horizontal
distance. Then FluidSIM automatically links these modules, if their
corresponding input and output connections overlap.
These links will emerge in the form of lines, if the modules are dragged
apart. The subsequent figures give two examples.
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This concept of an automatic component linking is not restricted to
stepper modules only; in fact, automatic component linking applies
whenever connections of the same type overlap.
FluidSIM will establish a link only if either the simulation is started or
the circuit diagram is checked superficially (see section 4.7).
4.4
Current Path Numbering
and Switching Elements
Table
The automatic generation of current paths simplifies the identification of
switches and relays when constructing electrical circuits. Along with
the generated switching element tables FluidSIM makes it easy to
understand which switches are controlled by which relays. To make
the automatic labeling feature a satisfactorily working concept, the
following points should be obeyed.
• The +24V current path should form the top horizontal line.
•
The 0V current path should form the bottom horizontal line.
•
The electric make/break/changeover switches should be placed
above the relays.
•
The relays should be placed closed to the bottom 0V current path.
•
All connections of a vertical current path should align.
•
The horizontal distances between the paths should be equal and of
reasonable distance.
If the automatic numbering or the label positions are not entirely
satisfying, a manual adjustment of a few lines or components will yield
the desired layout quality in most cases. If two separated electrical
circuits cause an unfavorable numbering, try to increase the distance
between these circuits.
The automatic current path numbering can enabled or disabled via View
/ Display current path numbering and switching elements table .
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4.5
Displaying Quantity
Values
The values for all or only selected quantities of a circuit can also be
displayed without measuring instruments.
> Click under the View menu on Quantity Values... to open the dialog
box for the display of quantities:
For each of the listed quantities (“Velocity”, “Pressure”, ...) a display
mode can be chosen.
When displaying pressure values it can be chosen between two different
units, “Bar” and “MPa”. This setting affects the display of pressure
values at connections, at components, and within state diagrams.
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Description of the dialog box:
•
“None”
No values are displayed for this quantity.
•
“Particular”
Values are displayed at those connections that the user has
previously chosen.
•
“All”
Values are displayed at all connections for this quantity.
•
“Display Measurement Units”
Enable this option if both state values and the related units shall be
displayed.
For each quantity there is a key short cut for toggling between the three
display modes. The “Shortcut” column of the dialog box for the quantity
display shows the appropriate keys.
Selecting connections for the display of single parameters is explained
here:
> Open a circuit diagram.
> Change into the Edit Mode and double click on a component
connection, or click under the Edit menu on Properties... .
A dialog box with the connection settings opens. The field “Show
Values” defines the state values to be displayed when the “selected”option in the state values dialog box is chosen. However, if the “no”option in the state values dialog box is chosen, even the checked state
values are not displayed.
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The settings for the display behavior for state values belong to
the current circuit diagram only. Hence, for several open circuit
diagrams, different view options can be defined. By clicking on Options
Save Settings Now , the view option settings of the current circuit are saved
and serve as default for newly opened circuit diagrams.
Special Features of the
Quantity Display
Vector quantities are characterized by an absolute value along with a
direction. To indicate the direction within a circuit diagram the signs “+”
(into or toward a component) and “–” (out of or away from a component)
are used. An arrow may also be used to display direction. FluidSIM uses
both representations:
Quantity
Flow
Direction indicator
Sign, arrow
Velocity
Sign
Current
Sign
The arrow as a direction of flow indicator can be turned on or off by
clicking under View Display Flow Direction . The arrow for the direction of
flow will be shown clear the component connection, that is, as long as
the flow is other than zero.
If the total value of a quantity is extremely near to zero (< 0.0001), no
numerical value will be displayed. Rather, the symbol “> 0” for a small
positive value or “< 0” for a small negative value is shown.
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4.6
Displaying State
Diagrams
The state diagram records the state quantities of important components
and depicts them graphically.
Note that several state diagrams can be used in the same circuit;
however, several components may also share the same state diagram.
A component is added by simply dropping it onto the state diagram. If a
component is dropped a second time on the diagram, it will be removed
from there.
> Being in Edit Mode click on Edit Properties... .
The following dialog box opens:
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Description of the dialog box:
•
“Display Interval”
Defines start and end point in time for state value recording. These
boundaries must not be known prior to a simulation but can be set
afterwards since FluidSIM records always all state values during the
entire simulation period.
If the “Adjust automatically”-option is enabled, boundaries of the
time interval are ignored. The timeline is scaled such that the entire
simulation time is always displayed.
•
“Log File”
The state values be written to a file. To enable this option enter the
complete path of a file and set a reasonable step width.
Note that a large amount of data can be written the step width is
very small. Hence, if necessary, shorten the simulation interval or
increase the step width.
If the option “Record state changes only” is enabled, FluidSIM lists
only values if at least one state variable incurred a state change.
This option simplifies the detection of interesting simulation points-
•
“Color”
Defines the color of the diagram. It is set by clicking on the downarrow at the right-hand side of the list and selecting a color.
•
“Fill Area”
Defines whether the entire diagram or only its frame is filled with
specified the color.
•
“Layer”
Sets the drawing layer of the diagram. It is set by clicking on the
down-arrow at the right-hand side of the list and selecting a layer.
Depending on drawing layer the diagram may be invisible or not
selectable. In such a case the drawing layer must be activated via
View Layers... before the diagram can be modified.
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State quantities of the following components can be recorded and
displayed in the state diagram:
Component
4.7
Superficial Circuit
Checking
State
Cylinder
Position
Way valve
Position
Manometer
Pressure
Pressure or switching valve
State
Switch
State
Before a simulation is started, the circuit diagram can be checked to see
if there are any graphic drawing mistakes present. The mistakes that
lead to errors include the following:
1. objects outside of the drawing area
2. lines that cross through components
3. superimposed lines
4. superimposed components
5. superimposed connections or connections that do not go together
6. open pneumatic connections
7. components that have the same identification assigned
8. mismatched labels (see section 4.8)
9. lines that cross through connections to which they are not
connected
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The following circuit diagram contains mistakes of type 1 to 3:
> Click on
or Execute Check Superficially .
Message boxes should now appear, which inform the user of the graphic
mistakes.
After the instructions, you may decide if the circuit should be simulated
anyway:
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4.8
Coupling Pneumatics,
Electrics and Mechanics
In the same way FluidSIM allows you to create pneumatic circuit
diagrams, the software also allows you to design electrical circuits. The
components for the electrical circuits can be found in the component
library and dragged from there to be inserted on the drawing area.
Electrical components are connected in the same way that fluidic
components are.
The following illustration shows a small example:
> Create this circuit diagram on your computer.
> Start the simulation and observe that the indicator light is
illuminated.
There are also electrical components that link electrical circuits with
pneumatic circuits. These linking components include switches that are
pneumatically operated and solenoids that control directional valves.
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Electrical circuits are drawn independently of pneumatic circuits.
Therefore, there needs to be a way to create definite links between
electrical components (such as a control solenoid) and pneumatic
components (such as a directional valve). So-called labels bridge the
difference and link both circuit diagrams together.
A label has a specific name and can be assigned to a component. If
two components have the same label name they are linked together,
although no apparent line is visible between them.
Entering a label takes place in a dialog box, which can be opened
by either double clicking on the desired component or selecting the
component and then clicking Edit Properties... . Labels can be established
on the left and right sides of an electrically operated valve by double
clicking on the appropriate side, as opposed to clicking in the middle of
the component.
The following example explains how labels can be used in FluidSIM.
> Activate the Edit Mode by clicking on
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> Create the circuit diagram as shown in the following figure:
So that the valve can be controlled by the solenoid, you have to link the
components with a label.
> Double click on the control solenoid or simply select the control
solenoid and click under Edit Properties... .
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The following dialog box appears:
Description of the dialog box:
•
“Label”
This text field gives the label its name. A label can be up to 32
characters in length consisting of letters, numbers, and symbols.
> Enter a name for this label, for example “Y1”.
> Double click on the outside of the valve solenoid to open the dialog
box for the label name.
> Input the same label name as for the solenoid, for example “Y1”.
The solenoid is now linked to the valve.
In practice the valve solenoid would not be directly controlled by the
switch, rather via an intermediate relay. This component has been
neglected here for the sake of simplicity.
> Start the simulation.
The electrical current as well as the pressure and flow distribution are
computed; the pressures are shown in color.
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If you want to see the exact values of the quantities at hand, you
can mark them by clicking under View Quantity Values... . The marked
quantities are displayed next to the components’ connections. Section
4.5 applies here.
> Operate the electrical switch.
As a result the valve switches and the cylinder’s piston extends:
Electrically or pneumatically operated valves can only be switched
manually, when there is no control signal applied.
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Aside from a manual or electrical operation, valves can be controlled
mechanically, either through a cylinder piston or a magnet mounted
at the piston. Such a coupling is realized in the same way an electrical
coupling is established: By means of labels, which are assigned to the
cylinder’s distance rule and the mechanical valve connection.
> Draw a configurable valve on the drawing area and furnish it with a
mechanical actuator.
> Double click the mechanical actuator.
A dialog opens where a string for the related label can be entered. If
the same label is assigned to the cylinder’s distance rule, the valve
will become actuated mechanically if the cylinder piston reaches its
predefined position.
Display Styles for Labels
If a label shall be displayed framed, similar to the display of component
descriptions, click onto View Labels... .
The following dialog box opens:
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In the dialog box for each label of the circuit its style, framed or not
framed, can be defined.
4.9
Operating Switches
This section describes how to operate switches by means of cylinders,
relays, pressure, or other switches.
Switches at Cylinders
Limit switches, proximity switches, and mechanically operated valves
can be activated by the piston of the cylinder. Therefore, it is necessary
to use a distance rule at the cylinder to position the switches correctly:
> Drag a cylinder and a distance rule
to the drawing area.
> Drag the distance rule near to the cylinder.
When the distance rule is dropped near the cylinder, it automatically
snaps in the right position. Move the cylinder just slightly and the
distance rule moves with it. If you move the cylinder more than a
centimeter in distance, the connection between distance rule and
cylinder is broken, and the distance rule does not travel with.
The correct position for a distance rule depends on the type of cylinder.
Distance rules can be set above the cylinder, before the cylinder (on the
moving piston), or at both positions at the same time:
> Double click on the distance rule.
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The following dialog box appears:
Description of the dialog box:
•
“Label”
The text insertion fields on the left are for naming labels from
proximity switches or limit switches in electrical circuits, which
are actuated by the movement of the cylinder’s piston.
•
“Position”
The text insertion fields on the right are for defining the exact
position of the switches on the cylinder.
> Insert “Y1” as the label name in the first row and “35” for its
position. Close the dialog box by clicking on “OK”.
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Immediately following, a mark with the appropriate label appears
beneath the distance rule:
As a consequence, the cylinder will activate the switch or the valve
labeled “Y1” if its piston has traveled by 35 mm. To define a label in the
electrical circuit double click on the respective component; to define
a label at a mechanical actuator of a valve double click the respective
“connection” of the valve.
Relays
By using relays, more than one switch can be actuated simultaneously.
It is therefore necessary to couple the relay with the appropriate
switches. Thus in FluidSIM also relays possess labels, which can be
used to couple relays and switches in the previously described way. By
double clicking on a relay, the dialog box for a label name appears.
The following illustration shows an electrical circuit in which a relay
operates two break switches and two make switches at the same time:
Besides simple relays, relays with switch-on delay, relays with switch-off
delay, and relay counter exist. These relays are used when the linked
switch should be actuated after a preset time interval or a number
of pulses received. By double clicking on these relays, a dialog box
appears where the appropriate values can be entered.
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Coupling Mechanical
Switches
To mechanically couple mechanical (manually operated) switches in FluidSIM, you have to use labels. When more than one mechanical switch
has the same label, all these switches operate with the switching of only
one.
Automatic Switch Altering
FluidSIM recognizes delay switches, limit switches, and pressure
switches by the nature of their usage and by their labels and supplies
the corresponding symbol for the switch in the electrical circuit: for
switch-on delayed, for switch-off delayed, for mechanical operated
switches, and
for pressure operated switches. The representation of
switches that are actuated by cylinders can be determined by selecting
the corresponding switch type in the component’s properties dialog:
This means that there do not exist special symbols for these switches in
the FluidSIM component library. Instead the symbols for simple switches
can be utilized:
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4.10
Adjustable Components
Certain components contain parameters that can be set in the Edit
Mode. A number of these components have been discussed in earlier
sections. The following table gives a complete overview:
Component
Adjustable parameter
Adjustable vacuum actuator
Nominal pressure
Air service unit
Operating pressure
Analog pressure sensor
Switching pressure
Compressed air supply
Operating pressure
Counter (electrical)
Counting pulses
Counter (pneumatic)
Counting pulses
Cylinder
Identifier, max. stroke, piston position,
Delay relay
Delay time
Differential pressure switch
Differential pressure
piston area, piston ring area
Distance rule
Switch positions
One-way flow control valve
Opening level
Pressure control valve
Operating pressure
Time Delay valve
Opening level
The dialog box for setting these parameters can be opened with a
double click or Edit Properties... .
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4.11
Settings for Simulation
By clicking Simulation... or Sound... under the Options menu, parameters
and options can be set for simulation.
Simulation Parameters
By clicking under Options Simulation... a dialog box appears with
parameters for simulation:
Description of the dialog box:
•
“Line Colors”
During simulation the electrical, the pneumatic and the digital lines
get colored, depending on their state. The mapping from a state to
a color is set by clicking on the down-arrow at the right-hand side of
the list and selecting a color.
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•
“Slow-motion Factor”
The slow-motion factor controls whether the simulation should go
more slowly then it would in reality. With a slow-motion factor of
1:1, the simulation should proceed in real-time.
•
“Piston Movement”
With the setting “Keep Real-time” FluidSIM animates the piston
as it would move in reality (real-time). The slow-motion factor is
still considered. The requirement for the observance of real-time
requires a powerful computer.
The setting “Smooth” uses the available power of a computer to
its best advantage. The goal here is to run the simulation without a
sticky piston movement. Hence the movement of the piston can be
faster or slower than the piston movement in reality.
•
“Label designation”
By default, FluidSIM does not distinguish between uppercase
and lowercase characters in label identifiers of mechanical or
electrical connections. I. e., label identifiers are automatically
converted to uppercase. Now, using the option “Display uppercase
and lowercase”, label identifiers are treated case sensitively.
Case sensitivity can be enabled for both display purposes and a
more strict label identity checking. In the former case, upper- and
lowercase characters, say, for instance “a” and “A”, are displayed as
such, but treated as the same character. In the latter case, which
is enabled by the option “Distinguish between uppercase and
lowercase”, “a” and “A” are treated as different labels.
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•
Sound Parameters
“Digital Technique (Compatibility with Siemens LOGO!Soft)”
It is a useful convention in the field of digital technology setting
open input ports of AND, NAND, and NOT components to "Hi".
Otherwise, e. g. an AND gate with three input ports would
not function as expected if only two of its input ports were
connected. Many constant "Hi" connections may clutter up a circuit
unnecessarily, and hence FluidSIM can be configured to set open
input ports of the respective components always to "Hi". This
option can be disabled of course. If open input ports have been
detected at the start of the simulation, FluidSIM issues a warning
message. The display of this message can also be disabled.
By clicking under Options Sound... a dialog box appears with parameters
for sound settings:
Description of the dialog box:
•
“Enable Sound”
An acoustic signal can be activated or deactivated for each of the
following four component types: switch, relay, valve, and buzzer.
If there is no sound hardware, the settings can be set but not applied.
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4.12
OPC and DDE
communication with Other
Applications
FluidSIM can exchange data with other applications; thus it may coupled
with programmable logic controllers, SPS, for instance. Prerequisite
for such a coupling is the ability of the partner application to provide
an “OPC interface” and to act as a so-called “DDE client”, respectively.
From within a FluidSIM circuit the DDE coupling is realized by means of
two electrical DDE components, each of which providing eight inputs
and outputs respectively.
Further information and examples regarding the DDE communication
can be found on the FluidSIM-CD in the DDE directory.
> Firstly, enable the option “Use OPC” in the Options
OPC/DDE Connection... .
> Drag an input (or output) component from the component library
and open the property dialog box by double clicking the component
or by clicking on Edit Properties... .
The following dialog box opens:
Description of the dialog box:
•
84
“OPC Server”
Enter the OPC server here or click on Select ... and select a server
from the list.
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•
“Item”
Enter the data item here or click on Select ... and select an item from
the list.
•
“Reverse Function”
Inverts the logical values of the DDE components. Normally, current
flow corresponds to a logical 1.
> Select the option “Use DDE” by clicking Options
OPC/DDE Connection... .
> Select a DDE component from the library, place it onto the drawing
area, and open its property dialog box by either double clicking or
via Edit Properties... .
The following dialog box opens:
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Description of the dialog box:
4.13
Settings for the OPC/DDE
communication
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•
“Label”
Label of the DDE component. This label is used from within the
partner application to request or to set values in FluidSIM via DDE.
•
“FPC Address”
If FluidSIM is coupled with an application that also provides FPC
addressing support, the addresses of assembly, word, and byte can
be entered here. These settings are necessary only if the option
FPC mode is active.
•
“Reverse Function”
Inverts the logical values of the DDE components. Normally, current
flow corresponds to a logical 1.
Clicking on Options OPC/DDE Connection... opens the following dialog box
with settings for the OPC and DDE communication:
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Description of the dialog box: •
“Do not apply remote control”
This option disables OPC and DDE communication in FluidSIM. If
this option is checked FluidSIM will not respond on attempts to
open a connection by other applications.
•
“OPC mode”
Choose this option, if FluidSIM shall be coupled with other
applications via OPC.
•
“Buffer events”
Enable this field, if FluidSIM shall buffer all events and process
them in a first-in-first-out manner. If this option is disabled, events
that occur during high computational load may go lost.
•
“DDE mode”
Choose this option, if FluidSIM shall be coupled with other
applications via DDE.
•
“Server”
Defines the name under which name FluidSIM logs on the partner
application. As the case may be, this name must be told the partner
application as the server name.
•
“Topic”
A topic is necessary to agree upon a common label for the data
exchange. As the case may be, the topic must be told the partner
application.
•
“FPC Addressing Mode”
This option must be checked if FluidSIM is coupled with an
application that also provides FPC addressing support.
The usage of the OPC/DDE interface is introduced in Chapter 4.12.
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Beside the creation and simulation of electro-pneumatic circuit
diagrams, FluidSIM also supports teaching basic pneumatic knowledge.
This knowledge is presented in the form of texts, overview pictures,
sectional views, exercises, and educational films. Functions that realize
the selection of this instruction material are found under the Didactics
menu.
One group of these functions refers to information about single,
selected components. Another group of functions refers to ordered
overviews of the didactics material, allowing the selection of an
interesting topic. Finally, it is also possible to select and link together
arbitrary topics into so-called “presentations”.
Appendix B, “The Component Library”, and C, “Didactics Material
Survey”, offer a complete and concise summary of the instructional
material in FluidSIM.
The following sections contain a description of the functions found
under the Didactics menu.
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5.1
Information about Single
Components
The first three entries under the Didactics menu refer to selected
components and are context sensitive. More precisely:
When a component in the current circuit diagram window is selected,
or all selected components are of the same type, the menu entry
Component Description will be enabled.
In the case that a photo or a further illustration exists relative the
selected components, the following functions can also be utilized:
Component Photo and Component Illustration . In the case that varying types
of components have been selected, the choice of components is not
clear, and none of the above three menu entries will be enabled.
If the current window shows a picture from the didactics material, the
menu entry Topic Description will be enabled.
Component Descriptions
All components possess a page with a technical description. This page
contains the diagram symbol for the component according to the DIN
standard (“Deutsche Industrienorm”), a textual description of the
component’s function, the designations of the connections, and a listing
of the adjustable parameters along with their value ranges.
> Select the one-way flow control valve, and click on the menu item
Component Description under the Didactics menu.
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The following page opens:
Under the heading “Related Topics”, but also when appropriate in
the component description, cross references for related instruction
material and components are defined. By clicking on a cross reference,
the related page will automatically be displayed.
Component Photos
In FluidSIM most components possess an accompanying photo.
> Select for example a cylinder and click on Component Photo in the
Didactics menu.
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The following photo appears on the screen:
In the case that a component cannot exist singularly in a real system,
FluidSIM displays a photo of the assembly group that this component
belongs to. Examples for such components include the indicator light,
relays, switches, and the electrical power supply.
Components, that do not exist in reality, simply have no photo.
Examples include the text component and the distance rule.
Component Illustrations
Component illustrations provide useful information relating a component’s function. This may include a sectional view of the component,
but also illustrations of the component’s usage within a circuit diagram.
For several components, their sectional view can be animated like a
cartoon.
> Select a cylinderand click on Component Illustration under the Didactics
menu.
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The following dialog box appears:
Description of the dialog box:
•
92
“Topics”
This field contains a listing of sectional views, animations, and
circuits which refer to the functional characteristics of a single
component. By double clicking on a line in the list, the dialog box
disappears, and a window with the selected information is opened.
The highlighted bar in the topics list can be moved by mouse click
or by using the arrow keys; however, the highlighted bar will not
respond to any movement of the scrollbars.
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•
“Preview”
When the “Preview” setting is activated, the picture that pertains to
a selected topic appears underneath the topics list.
> Click on the line for topic [78] Double acting cylinder .
The following picture appears:
Often it is easier to understand the functional nature of a component,
when its behavior is visualized through the use of animation. For
this reason, several components possess different sectional views
showing the component at different states. These sectional views can be
animated in much the same way as a flip book.
> Select a quick exhaust valve, and click on Component Illustration in the
Didactics menu.
> Double click on a topic referring a sectional view that can be
animated.
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> Click on
or Execute Start to start the animation.
or by clicking on Pause in the
An animation can be “frozen” with
or Execute Stop stops an animation, whereas
or
Execute menu.
Execute Reset restarts an animation.
In addition, there is a loop mode for animation. When this mode is
is clicked. The
turned on, an animation will run and repeat itself until
loop mode can be activated in the dialog box for the didactics options,
which is opened by clicking on Didactics... Options .
When more than one topic pertains to a component, or there exist
additional topics to similar components, a dialog box containing a listing
of these topics is opened when clicking on Component Illustration .
Topic Descriptions
FluidSIM also provides a textual description for all topics in the didactics
material. If the current window contains a picture from the didactics
material, for example a sectional view of a component or an exercise,
a page with the related topic description can be opened by clicking on
Didactics Topic Description .
> Open the topic 33 by clicking on Working Principle... in the Didactics
menu.
> Click on Topic Description in the Didactics menu.
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The following page opens:
Beneath the textual description, also a miniaturized representation of
the related picture is given.
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5.2
Selecting Didactics
Material from a List
The entries Pneumatics Basics... , Working Principle... , and Exercise... under
the Didactics menu present the didactics material of FluidSIM organized
in the form of three topics lists. From these lists topics can be chosen
and viewed independently of the current window and possibly selected
components.
Pneumatics Basics
Under this menu entry those overview pictures, sectional views,
and animations are comprised that aid in teaching basic pneumatic
knowledge. Here you can find information for such topics as the
representation of diagram symbols and their meaning, animations
relating to element designations, and simple circuit diagrams that
demonstrate the interaction of individual components.
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> Click on Pneumatics Basics... under the Didactics menu to open
a dialog box containing the topics list for basic concepts in
pneumatics.
Description of the dialog box:
•
“Topics”
This field contains a listing of topics pertaining to basic pneumatic
knowledge. By double clicking on a line in the list, the dialog box
disappears, and a window with the selected information is opened.
The highlighted bar in the topics list can be moved by mouse click
or by using the arrow keys; however, the highlighted bar will not
respond to any movement of the scrollbars.
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•
“Preview”
When the “Preview” setting is activated, the picture that pertains to
the selected topic appears underneath the topics list.
Clicking on “OK” has the same function as double clicking on a line
in the topics list; clicking on “Cancel” closes the dialog box without
choosing a topic.
If the chosen topic is an animation, it can be started by clicking on
(see section 5.1).
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Working Principles
Sectional views that refer to the function of single components can
be found under Working Principle... in the Didactics menu. For several
components, their sectional view can be animated. In the same way that
a topics list is opened for the pneumatics basics, a dialog box containing
a list of topics is opened when clicking on Didactics Working Principle... .
Description of the dialog box:
•
“Topics”
This field contains a listing of sectional views that refer to the
function of single components. By double clicking on a line in the
list, the dialog box disappears, and a window with the selected
information is opened. The highlighted bar in the topics list can
be moved by mouse click or by using the arrow keys; however, the
highlighted bar will not respond to any movement of the scrollbars.
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•
Exercises
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“Preview”
When the “Preview” setting is activated, the picture that pertains to
the selected topic appears underneath the topics list.
FluidSIM provides eight practice assignments with standard exercises
in the field of electro-pneumatics. Each assignment consists of three
pictures. The first picture shows the problem, and the second picture
shows one attempt at solving to demonstrate a basic idea. The third
picture shows the complete solution in the form of a circuit diagram.
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> Click on Didactics Exercise... to open a dialog box that contains the
exercises.
Description of the dialog box:
•
“Topics”
This field contains a listing of exercises, which are always based on
three pictures. By double clicking on a line in the list, the dialog box
disappears, and a window with the selected information is opened.
The highlighted bar in the topics list can be moved by mouse click
or by using the arrow keys; however, the highlighted bar will not
respond to any movement of the scrollbars.
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•
“Preview”
When the “Preview” setting is activated, the picture that pertains to
the selected topic appears underneath the topics list.
> By double clicking on its name in the dialog box, choose the
exercise The time delay valve .
The following window is opened:
To go on to the next picture, you must either click on
or set the
exercise to an automatic continuation (see section 5.5).
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5.3
Presentations: Combining
Instructional Material
Sometimes you may want to examine a topic from different angles or
combine individual topics into a lesson. For this purpose FluidSIM offers
the concept entitled “presentation”.
There are a number of already prepared presentations, which can be
found on the FluidSIM installation disks. However, editing presentations
or creating new presentations is also possible with FluidSIM. All
presentations can be found under Presentation... in the Didactics menu.
> Click on Didactics Presentation... .
The following dialog box appears:
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Description of the dialog box:
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•
“Available Presentations”
This field contains a list of already created presentations.
•
“New Presentation...”
Clicking on “New Presentation...” opens a second dialog box for the
creation of a new presentation.
•
“Edit Presentation...”
Clicking on “Edit Presentation...” opens a second dialog box to
begin editing a presentation.
•
“Preview”
When the “Preview” setting is activated, the picture that pertains to
the selected presentation appears underneath the topics list.
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> Click on “New Presentation” to open the following dialog box.
Description of the dialog box:
•
“Description”
In this text field a short description of the presentation can be
entered. This text may consist of up to 128 characters and will
appear with the other presentations, the next time the presentation
dialog box is opened.
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“Available Topics”
This field contains a list of all available topics dealing with
“Pneumatics Basics”, “Working Principles”, and “Exercises”.
Moreover, there exist two pictures that can be used to announce
a refreshment and a lunch break respectively. A double click on a
line in the “Available Topics” list inserts this line in the “Selected
Topics” list above the highlighted bar. In this way a presentation
can be created or altered.
Moreover, a user can integrate his own circuit diagrams, DXF files,
BMP- and WMF-picture files, or even multimedia files such as
sounds or video clips. To do so, click on “User File...”: A dialog
box opens that allows for the selection of the desired data source
on the file system.
•
“Selected Topics”
This field contains a list of topics chosen for the current
presentation.
•
“Insert”
Clicking on “Insert” is the same as double clicking a line in the
“Available Topics” list: The selected line in “Available Topics” will be
inserted in the “Selected Topics” list.
•
“Delete”
Clicking on “Delete” deletes the selected line of the “Selected
Topics” list.
•
“Preview”
When the “Preview” setting is activated, the picture that pertains to
the selected topic appears underneath the respective list.
Within both topics lists the highlighted bar can be moved using the
arrow keys. Maybe it will be necessary to click and select the list you
want to work with.
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After creating a new presentation and closing the dialog box by clicking
on “OK”, FluidSIM asks you to name the presentation file. Presentation
files have the extension .shw and are located in the subdirectory shw
under the fl_sim_p directory.
The structure of a presentation file is described more thoroughly in
section 7.2.
5.4
Playback of Educational
Films
The FluidSIM CD-ROM contains 13 educational films, which last
between 1 to 10 minutes in length and cover a specific area of electropneumatics.
> Click on Didactics Educational Film... to open the dialog box that
contains a list of the educational films.
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Description of the dialog box:
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•
“Available Educational Films”
This field contains a list of available educational films. By double
clicking on a line in the list, the dialog box closes and the media
playback starts playing the selected film.
•
“Preview”
When the “Preview” setting is activated, a typical scene from the
film appears underneath the list of titles.
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> Click on Sensors and relays--Signals to start the
playback of the selected film:
Underneath the window for the media playback, you will the find the
control elements to start, stop, and wind the film. A detailed description
of the media playback is available under the standard Microsoft Windows® help.
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5.5
Settings for Didactics
By clicking on Didactics... Options , a dialog box appears that contains the
settings for didactics:
Description of the dialog box:
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“Animation Speed”
This setting defines the speed at which the animations should run.
•
“Spool Presentation”
A presentation in FluidSIM can be set to automatically run. For this
the setting “Automatically after ...Seconds” must be activated. The
time span that can be entered defines how long FluidSIM waits
before switching to the next topic of the presentation. By clicking
, the presentation will immediately change to the next topic in
on
the presentation. With the setting set to “Manually”, no automatic
switching will take place during the presentation.
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•
“Loop”
Defines whether a running presentation is reset and started over
again after all topics have been displayed. This is known as loop
mode.
If an animation is running unattached to a presentation, for example
when started via Didactics Component Illustration , this setting defines
as to whether or not the animation will automatically repeat itself.
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6. Special Functions
This chapter develops further concepts and functions of FluidSIM.
6.1
Drawing Layers
112
Components in FluidSIM that cannot be simulated, such as texts, DXF
import data, rectangles, circles, state diagrams, and parts lists, can be
assigned to one of eight drawing layers. Each layer can be shown or
hidden as well as set locked or unlocked. These properties are defined
under View Layers... ; here also a layer can be given a name. Components
of FluidSIM that can be simulated are always on layer 1.
•
“Description”
The layer name is displayed in the dialog box of an object’s
properties instead of the layer number.
•
“Display”
If the option “Show” is disabled, the respective drawing layer is
invisible, and, of course, can not be edited.
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“Edit”
If the option “Edit” is disabled, the respective drawing layer is still
visible but cannot be edited. I. e., the objects that belong to such a
locked layer can neither be selected, nor moved or deleted. By this
concept e. g. a drawing frame can be protected. To edit objects on a
locked layer, first unlock the layer.
The identifiers of components and connections in FluidSIM’s standard
circuit library stand on drawing layer two. By disabling the “Show”option for this layer, the identifiers are made invisible.
6.2
Graphic Primitives
By selecting a rectangle and clicking on Edit Properties... , or by simply
double clicking it, its property dialog box is opened.
Rectangles
Description of the dialog box:
•
“x”
Defines the x-coordinate of the rectangle. Instead of providing a
number, the rectangle can also be moved with the mouse.
•
“y”
Defines the y-coordinate of the rectangle. Instead of providing a
number, the rectangle can also be moved with the mouse.
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“Width”
Defines the width of the rectangle. Instead of providing a number,
the rectangle can also be resized by dragging the mouse: If the
mouse pointer is moved onto the rectangle’s border, the mouse
, , or . Now the
pointers becomes a resize indicator,
rectangle can be resized as indicated by holding down the left
mouse button.
•
“Height”
Defines the height of the rectangle. Instead of providing a number,
the rectangle can also be resized by dragging the mouse: If the
mouse pointer is moved onto the rectangle’s border, the mouse
, , or . Now the
pointers becomes a resize indicator,
rectangle can be resized as indicated by holding down the left
mouse button.
•
“Color”
Defines the color of the rectangle’s border. A color is set by clicking
on the down-arrow at the right-hand side of the list and selecting a
color.
•
“Fill Area”
Defines whether the entire area or only the border of the rectangle
is colored.
•
“Line Style”
Defines the line style of the rectangle. A line style is set by clicking
on the down-arrow at the right-hand side of the list and selecting a
style.
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•
Ellipses
“Layer”
Defines the drawing layer of the rectangle. The drawing layer is set
by clicking on the down-arrow at the right-hand side of the list and
selecting a layer.
Depending on the settings of drawing layer, the rectangle may not
be visible or may not be selectable. To display an invisible rectangle
or to change its properties in such a case, the drawing layer must
be activated via the menu View Layers... .
By selecting an ellipse and clicking on Edit Properties... , or by simply
double clicking it, its property dialog box is opened.
Description of the dialog box:
•
“Center x”
Defines the x-coordinate of the ellipse center. Instead of providing a
number, the ellipse can also be moved with the mouse.
•
“Center y”
Defines the y-coordinate of the ellipse center. Instead of providing a
number, the ellipse can also be moved with the mouse.
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•
“Radius rx”
Defines the x-radius of the ellipse. Instead of providing a number,
the ellipse can also be resized by dragging the mouse: If the mouse
pointer is moved onto the ellipse’s border, the mouse pointers
. Now the ellipse can be
becomes a resize indicator, , , or
resized as indicated by holding down the left mouse button.
•
“Radius ry”
Defines the y-radius of the ellipse. Instead of providing a number,
the ellipse can also be resized by dragging the mouse: If the mouse
pointer is moved onto the ellipse’s border, the mouse pointers
. Now the ellipse can be
becomes a resize indicator, , , or
resized as indicated by holding down the left mouse button.
•
“Starting Angle”
Defines the ellipse’s start angle, specified in degree. A value of zero
degree corresponds to the three o’clock watch hands position.
•
“Ending Angle”
Defines the ellipse’s end angle, specified in degree. A value of zero
degree corresponds to the three o’clock watch hands position.
•
“Color”
Defines the color of the ellipse’s border. A color is set by clicking
on the down-arrow at the right-hand side of the list and selecting a
color.
•
“Fill Area”
Defines whether the entire area or only the border of the ellipse is
colored.
•
“Line Style”
Defines the line style of the ellipse. A line style is set by clicking
on the down-arrow at the right-hand side of the list and selecting a
style.
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•
6.3
Text Components and
Identifications
“Layer”
Defines the drawing layer of the ellipse. The drawing layer is set
by clicking on the down-arrow at the right-hand side of the list and
selecting a layer.
Depending on the settings of drawing layer, the ellipse may not be
visible or may not be selectable. To display an invisible ellipse or
to change its properties in such a case, the drawing layer must be
activated via the menu View Layers... .
The concept of text components in FluidSIM gives the user a way in
which to describe components in diagrams, assign identification texts,
or to provide commentary on the diagram. The text and the appearance
of text components can be customized to the user’s liking.
Text components function in much the same as other fluidic or electrical
components in FluidSIM. The dummy text component Text can be found
in the component library, and it can be dragged onto the drawing area.
However, text components contain no connections.
As long as the setting Options Protect Text Components remains switched
off, the text components can be marked, dragged, deleted, and rotated
in the same way that other components are handled. When this setting
is activated, the text components can neither be marked nor moved or
deleted. This concept allows the text components to be anchored in the
background. They are out of the way and cannot interfere with changes
or manipulations made to the circuit diagram while in the Edit Mode.
> Drag the text component from the component library to the drawing
area.
> Make sure that Options Protect Text Components is switched off.
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> Double click on the text component or click under Edit Properties...
to open the dialog box for entering new text.
Description of the dialog box:
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•
“Text”
In this field the text to be displayed is entered. A new line is entered
by holding down the Ctrl-key while hitting the Return key.
•
“Alignment”
Activates horizontal text alignment.
•
“Font...”
By clicking on “Font...”, a Microsoft Windows® common dialog box
opens, which allows you to set the font attributes for the given text.
•
“Frame Text”
Draws a border around the text.
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“Layer”
Defines the drawing layer of the text component. The drawing layer
is set by clicking on the down-arrow at the right-hand side of the list
and selecting a layer.
Depending on the settings of drawing layer, the text component
may not be visible or may not be selectable. To display an invisible
text component or to change its properties in such a case, the
drawing layer must be activated via the menu View Layers... .
The dialog box can be closed by clicking on “OK”. As a result the text
along with its font attributes is inserted into the drawing area.
> Click on Options Protect Text Components to protect the text.
The protected text can no longer be selected. Therefore, components
can be placed over the text.
6.4
Parts Lists
With FluidSIM parts lists can be generated automatically. A parts list
is represented by a “parts list component”, which can be inserted,
moved, or deleted like every other component. The parts list is updated
automatically while a drawing is edited. The automated update may
slow down the drawing process of large circuits and thus, a parts list
component should be inserted in the end of a drawing process.
Inserting a Parts List
> Open the circuit demo1.ct.
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> Select the parts list component from either the Insert menu or the
component library and add it to the drawing. Move the parts list
such that it overlaps no other component.
The parts list component analyzes all components of the diagram and
generates table with columns for the component identifications and
the component designations. In this connection, FluidSIM uses existing
labels and texts as component identifications.
The sorting of the table can be customized to the user’s liking; moreover,
the parts list can be exported as a text file. Also note that more than one
parts list component can be inserted in a diagram.
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Properties of Parts Lists
> Double-click on a parts list component or select a parts list
component and click on Properties... in the Edit menu.
Description of the dialog box:
•
“Parts List”
With the “Accumulated Parts List” option enabled, all components
of the same type become comprised into a single row. As a
consequence, the first column of the parts list component shows
the number of the comprised components.
With the “Single Position Parts List” option enabled, each
component gets its own row within the parts list. The first column
of the parts list component then shows a possible existing
identification.
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Exporting Parts Lists
•
“Sort Lines”
The lines of a parts list can be sorted in “ascending” order, in
“descending” order, by the “component description”, by the
“component number”, or by the “component designation”.
•
“Layer”
Defines the drawing layer of the parts list component. The drawing
layer is set by clicking on the down-arrow at the right-hand side of
the list and selecting a layer.
Depending on the settings of drawing layer, the parts list component may not be visible or may not be selectable. To display an
invisible parts list component or to change its properties in such
a case, the drawing layer must be activated via the menu View
Layers... .
Aside from printing a parts list component, it can also be exported in the
form of a text file.
> Select a parts list component click on File Parts list Export... .
A file selector box opens where an existing file can be selected or a new
file name can be entered. After a file has been specified and the file
selector box been closed, a dialog box opens where a column separator
can be defined.
•
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“Tabulator”
The tab-character is used as column separator.
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6.5
Printing a Window’s
Contents
•
“Semicolon”
The semicolon is used as column separator.
•
“Other”
The entered character is used as column separator.
FluidSIM contains a practical printing function that is always available,
whether you are in the Edit Mode or the Simulation Mode. The contents
of any window in FluidSIM can be printed.
> Click on File Print... to open the print preview dialog box:
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Description of the dialog box:
•
“Printer”
This list contains all available local as well as network printers. A
printer is set by clicking on the down-arrow at the right-hand side of
the list and selecting a printer.
•
“Properties...”
Opens a dialog box with available printer options.
•
“Copies”
In the number field “Number of copies” the desired number of
copies is typed in. If the printout consists of several pages you can
check the “Collate” to have the pages sorted automatically.
•
“Scale factor”
In the number field “Scale factor” enlargement or reduction of
the circuit diagram is typed in as a percentage. The print preview
window then re-scales the circuit diagram according to the size
proportion that was given.
If the paper size in combination with the chosen scaling factor exceeds
the printer’s printing area, the diagram is printed in a tiled fashion. The
expected number of pages is indicated in the printer preview dialog box.
Pressing the “Fit to paper size” button sets the scale factor so that the
circuit diagram fills out the entire paper area.
•
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“Margin adjustment”
In order to take the printable regions of different output devices
into account, or enlarge the margin of a printout, an offset in mm can
be defined for the left as well as the upper margin. Positive values
move the drawing to the right or down, negative values move the
drawing to the left or up.
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“Alignment”
In some cases it could be useful to rotate or to mirror the drawing.
E. g. some printer drivers do not support rotating by themselves.
Printing begins by clicking on “OK”.
6.6
DXF Export
FluidSIM contains a filter module to export circuit diagram in the DXF
format. Hence circuit diagrams from FluidSIM can be imported into a
CAD program, where they can still be edited.
> Click on DXF Export... under the File menu to export the actual circuit
diagram.
If no new name is given for the DXF file, the exported circuit diagram file
is saved with the extension .dxf.
The exported drawings in the DXF format differ from those in FluidSIM in
the following manner:
1. Component connections are shown without circles.
2. The DIN symbol is inserted for the cylinder.
3. The text font is set to STANDARD for the text components.
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6.7
DXF Import
Files that are of the DXF format type can be imported, retaining most
of the DXF element attributes. Clearly, imported circuit diagrams or
symbols cannot be simulated since the DXF standard does provide for
a definition language of physical behavior models. However, the import
functionality is useful if a circuit diagram shall contain elements that
cannot be realized from within FluidSIM. For example, CAD drawing
frames or terminal strip plans, which have been created by means
of another CAD program, can be inserted into a FluidSIM drawing.
Depending on whether a single symbol or a complex drawing is to
be imported, particular conventions relating the grouping should be
obeyed.
Having selected a DXF file via File Open... , the dialog box for the DXF
import opens.
Description of the dialog box:
•
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“Scale Drawing”
The scaling factor defines scaling in percent that is applied to DXF
file.
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•
“Each group represents an object”
Enable this option if the DXF file contains several symbols. Note
that symbol elements that belong together can only be identified
as such, if they have been grouped within the CAD program in
such a way, that the outermost group of the symbol occurs in the
ENTITIES section. This means among others that no two symbols
can belong to the same group. However, different symbols are
allowed to share blocks; the import filter of FluidSIM creates copies
for shared blocks.
•
“Entire drawing represents a single object”
If this option is enabled, the entire drawing is treated as a single
object.
•
“Ignore ungrouped objects”
Enable this option if only for the grouped elements objects shall be
generated. The elements mentioned in section ENTITIES are not
considered.
If this option is disabled, FluidSIM comprises all ungrouped
elements within a single object.
Elements that have been imported can be placed on each of the eight
drawing layers. Moreover, they can be equipped with a designation,
which is displayed in the parts list.
If you have imported a CAD frame, it makes sense to place this frame on
a drawing layer whose “Edit”-option is disabled: This way the frame is
anchored and will not interfere when placing components.
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By double clicking on an imported DXF symbol, the following dialog box
is opened:
Description of the dialog box:
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•
“Description”
In this field a designation can be entered, which is also displayed in
the parts list.
•
“Layer”
Defines the drawing layer of the symbol. The drawing layer is set
by clicking on the down-arrow at the right-hand side of the list and
selecting a layer.
Depending on the settings of drawing layer, the symbol may not be
visible or may not be selectable. To display an invisible symbol or
to change its properties in such a case, the drawing layer must be
activated via the menu View Layers... .
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6.8
Using and Organizing
Component Libraries
Rearranging a Component
Library
The components in the component library can be rearranged according
to their usefulness and the desire of the user.
> Enlarge the window of the component library.
> Using the rubber band, select for example the following twelve
components:
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> Drag the selected components, for example up and to the right:
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> It is also possible to rearrange the components in the library
horizontally, in just a few steps:
It is not possible for the user to add components to or delete components from the standard component libraries. However, own libraries
can be constructed at the user’s will.
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Building New Component
Libraries
In addition to the standard component libraries, which show the FluidSIM-components in total view, hierarchical view, or according to the FluidSIM Version 2 -style, new libraries can be built. A sample component
library has automatically been set up during the FluidSIM installation.
> Choose from the Library menu the library “Frequently Used Way
Valves”.
In contrast to the FluidSIM standard libraries both the arrangement and
the contents of such user-defined libraries can defined, by means of
operations that add and delete components.
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To display available libraries, to create a new one, or to rename an
existing one, choose the respective entry from the Library menu. The
first three entries of this menu belong to the standard libraries. Below,
separated by a line, stand the user-defined libraries.
The bottom entries of the Library menu realize the functions for creating
a new library, New... , for renaming an existing user-defined library,
Rename... , and for deleting a user-defined library, Delete . The latter
two entries relate to active library window.
When clicking on Library New... a dialog box opens, where a description
of the new library can be entered:
The text that has been entered here is shown as a menu entry in the
Library menu. The text can be modified anytime, by opening the library
and clicking on Library Rename... .
Inserting Components Via
Menu
In FluidSIM, several alternative concepts exist to insert a component
into a circuit diagram. One concept is “Drag-and-Drop”, which has been
used in the preceding examples.
Alternatively, components can be selected through the Insert menu,
either by navigating along the hierarchical menu structure or by entering
one or more search strings. While mousing a component description
in the menu, the related symbol is shown either in the preview window
of the search dialog or in the upper left corner of the FluidSIM main
window.
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> Open a new circuit window, select the menu item Insert /
Find Component... and enter one or more search strings; e. g.,
valve, reset.
Description of the dialog box:
•
134
“Words”
In this field one or more search items can be entered in order to
find a particular component. The order of the search items does not
play a role, they are combined by a logical “AND”. Also note that
partial matches are allowed. I. e., if you are unsure respecting the
correct spelling of a component name, simply partion this name
into several comma-separated search strings.
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•
“Similarity”
Determines the accuracy of the match between “Exact” and
“Fuzzy”. This setting can be used to allow a tolerance respecting
different spelling variants or typing errors.
•
“Results”
Contains a list of component descriptions, which contain the
provided search strings. This list is ordered with respect to the
accuracy of the match. By double-clicking onto a line in the list the
dialog box is closed and the related component is inserted in the
circuit diagram. The selection marker in the list can be moved by
simply clicking the mouse, but also by using the arrow keys. Note
that the selection marker does not follow the scroll bars.
•
“Preview”
If the “preview” option is enabled, the component symbol of the
selected entry is shown below the list.
Recall that a component can also be searched by navigating along the
hierarchical menu structure.
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> Open a new diagram window and navigate through the menu
hierarchy until you have reached the component “pressure control
valve with manometer”. Observe the preview window in the left
corner while navigating.
After a symbol has been chosen, it is inserted in the current diagram and
gets selected. It then can be moved and connected as usual.
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6.9
Managing Projects
FluidSIM allows of including various settings and files in a project file
with a unique name, thereby facilitating project management. When
opening a project, the previously saved project settings are used as
default. The project menu realizes a quick access of all files that belong
to a particular project.
Creating a New Project
Before a new project is created some preparatory actions to facilitate
project management and to save several process steps at a later stage
must be undertaken.
> Open all files to be added to the new project. This may include, for
example, preview windows for often used symbols, libraries as well
as circuit files.
All files that are open when creating a new project will be automatically
added to the project.
> Select Project New... and enter a file name for the new project.
Project files have the extension prj and should, for best results, reside
in the same ct subdirectory as the circuit files of the project.
After having entered the file name in the dialog box, the system creates
the project file with all open files.
> Close all windows which you don’t need right now, and arrange the
remaining windows according to your preferences.
Any closed windows that belong to the project can be opened at any
time by clicking Files or Overviews in the project menu.
> Save the settings and the window arrangement as default for this
project by clicking Options Save Settings Now .
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Entering Project Properties
To enter project data, select Properties... from the Project menu. The text
entered in the description field will be displayed in the status line of
the main window while the project is open.
Adding Files to a Project
To add a new symbol, a library, or a circuit file to a project, open or
activate the appropriate window, then click Add Current Window in the
Project menu. Depending on whether the window is a circuit file or
a preview window, it is automatically added to Files , Overviews , and
Presentations respectively.
Removing Files from a
Project
To remove a symbol, a library, or a circuit file from a project, open or
activate the appropriate window. Then click Delete Current Window in the
Project menu.
Opening Project Files
To open the files and previews (overviews) of a project, go to the
Project menu and click Files , Overviews , or Presentations , whatever is
appropriate. Alternatively, you may open the files by selecting Open...
from the file menu or by selecting them from the list of files that were
last opened, by selecting them from preview windows, or by using
“Drag-and-Drop” in the File Manager or Windows Explorer.
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6.10
Saving Settings
FluidSIM distinguishes between three types of settings: global settings,
circuit diagram specific settings, and window specific settings. Although
most of these settings have already been in discussed in preceding
sections, this section comprises the possible settings from FluidSIM and
their relationship to one another.
Global Settings
The global settings are found under the Options and the View menu and
belong to the following groups.
Global settings for various display features:
1. View Large Mouse Cursor
Activates or deactivates the large mouse cursor.
2.
View Toolbar
Displays or hides the toolbar.
3.
View Status Bar
Displays or hides the status bar.
Global settings in the dialog boxes:
1. Options Simulation...
2.
Options Sound...
3.
Options Didactics...
4.
Options Grid...
Other global settings:
1. Options Protect Text Components
Switches the protection for the text components on or off.
2.
Options Create Backup Files
Enables or disables the automatic creation of a backup file for
circuit diagrams. Backup files have the file name extension bak.
The backup files are created when the circuit diagram is saved and
are updated each time the circuit diagram is saved.
3.
Options Default Directory on Network
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Defines the default directory for circuit diagrams and presentation
files. If this option is enabled the default directory for the mentioned files is on the network file server. Otherwise, the default
directory is on the local PC. This menu entry is available only in the
network version.
4.
Options Save Settings on Exit
Determines whether the global settings and the circuit diagram
specific settings of each open circuit diagram should be saved
before exiting FluidSIM.
All global settings can be saved with Options Save Settings Now .
By clicking on Save Settings Now under the Options menu, the circuit
diagram specific settings of the current circuit will also be saved. These
settings then become the default for all new circuit diagrams that are
created. The following settings belong in the circuit diagram specific
category: display of quantity values, the flow direction indicator, and the
background grid (see next section).
Circuit Diagram-Specific
Settings
The following belong to the circuit diagram specific settings:
1. View Quantity Values...
2.
View Display Flow Direction
3.
View Display Grid
These settings can be adjusted for each open circuit diagram individually, although they cannot be saved as such. Instead, the user has a way
to define a default setting for the creation of new circuit diagrams: By
clicking on Save Settings Now under Options , the display settings of the
current circuit diagram are saved as the default. These default settings
apply to the display of quantities, the flow direction indicator, and the
background grid of each newly opened circuit diagram.
The term “current circuit” refers to the selected circuit diagram window.
A selected window will always be fully visible and its title bar will be
highlighted.
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Window-Specific Settings
The following settings are window specific:
1. zoom factor
2. window size
3. window position
Window-specific settings can be saved by clicking on Save Settings Now
under the Options menu.
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7. Help and Advanced Tips
This chapter serves as the first place to find help, when dealing with
questions that come from working with FluidSIM. The second section of
this chapter provides background information for advanced users.
7.1
The Most Frequently
Occurring Problems
When attempting to perform certain actions, you are prompted to
insert the FluidSIM CD.
FluidSIM cannot find certain installation directories on the hard disk.
Probably not all of the software components were loaded at the time
of installation. Either insert the CD or reinstall the missing software
components.
Component cannot be moved or deleted.
Make sure that you are in the Edit Mode (
moved or deleted in the Edit Mode.
); components can only be
Components cannot be dragged onto the drawing area.
Make sure that you are in the Edit Mode.
Components cannot be moved or deleted in the Edit Mode.
Make sure that you have selected a component and not a component
connection.
A line cannot be drawn between two connections.
Make sure to check the following points:
1. FluidSIM is in the Edit Mode.
2. No other connections are selected.
3. Both connections do not have a blind plug.
4. Both connections are of the same type.
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The parameters of a component cannot be changed.
Make sure that FluidSIM is in the Edit Mode or that the simulation has
been paused ( ).
The hard disk is running non-stop and the simulation is going
slowly.
There is not enough memory available. A workaround is to quit other
running applications or to quit Microsoft Windows® and restart the
computer.
Already drawn lines, which are reported to be superimposed,
cannot be found.
Press the Del key immediately after accepting the message; then draw
a new line.
FluidSIM does not behave normally.
Exit both FluidSIM and Microsoft Windows® , and then restart Microsoft
Windows® and FluidSIM.
Text components cannot be selected.
Make sure that the option Protect Text Components has not been activated.
Valves cannot be switched.
Electrically or pneumatically operated valves can be switched by hand
only if no sort of control signal is applied.
Certain editing functions are not available in the context menu.
The context menu contains a practical subset of possible editing
functions. Probably the operation that you would like to utilize applies
only to one component at a time; if this is the case check to see that
only one component is selected.
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There is no pressure drop in the circuit, although a T-connection is
apparently open.
T-connections are considered to be different from other connections: As
an aid in drawing, they must not be provided with blind plugs because
they are automatically closed if no line is connected.
The simulation time runs irregularly, although the slow-motion
factor has been set to 1:1, and “Keep real-time” has been activated.
Both a complex circuit diagram and a slow computer could be reasons
for the inability of FluidSIM to guarantee adherence to real-time.
At certain connections arrows for the flow direction are not
displayed. The option Display Flow Direction has been activated.
The arrows only appear when a connection actual has a flow passing
through it. This situation is not to be confused with a high pressure at a
connection.
The animation is not repeated, although the “Loop” option has
been activated.
The “Loop” option only applies to an animation that is not contained in
part of a presentation.
FluidSIM is not behaving as expected, and you have already exited
Microsoft Windows® and started FluidSIM new again many times.
Highly likely is that temporary files are corrupt. Attempt to completely
delete the contents of the fl_sim_p\tmp directory.
Paste is not available from the menu, although a Copy operation
has already taken place.
Only selected objects can be copied to the clipboard. If no objects are
selected, only the picture will be copied to the clipboard.
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The playback of the educational films appears jerky.
The playback of video sequences on any computer requires quite a
bit of power. Besides that, enlargement of the video window requires
even more complex computations. The following points should be
considered:
1. In the Device menu of the Media Player, under the Configure... menu,
set the size to normal.
2. Exit all other programs; stop all running simulations and animations
in FluidSIM.
3. Set the number of colors to 256.
No educational film will start playing.
Video playback requires suitable hardware and software. Moreover,
FluidSIM needs access to the movie files on the CD-ROM.
The student version of FluidSIM is being loaded each time you start,
although you have purchased the full version.
The FluidSIM CD contains both the student version and the full version
of FluidSIM. During the installation procedure you are asked whether
the full version or the student version shall be installed.
The mouse cursor is not switching as described, especially on top of
connections.
Make sure that the option Large Mouse Cursor has not been activated. The
large mouse cursor is designed to be used with a projector; here the
switching of the mouse cursor is undesirable.
DXF Export...
is not available from the menu.
Make sure that you are in the Edit Mode and that the window is not
empty.
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The text that was exported using the DXF filter does not appear as it
did in FluidSIM.
The DXF format does not sufficiently support textual objects. I.e.,
CAD programs may not possess the ability to translate all fonts, font
attributes, font colors, and special symbols.
At certain connections no quantity values are displayed, although
the display option has been activated.
Quantity values are only displayed when FluidSIM can compute the
values. For physical reasons, the values for pressure and flow are not
deterministic in some cases. Given such a situation FluidSIM simply
displays no values.
7.2
Tips for the Advanced
User
This section contains some technical information about different
concepts in FluidSIM.
Data Formats of the
Clipboard
When information from a FluidSIM window is copied to the clipboard,
both a meta file and a bitmap are generated. When pasting into another
application (a word processing program or a drawing program), the
program automatically finds the format that will contain the most
information. However, it could be intended to insert a circuit diagram,
for example into Microsoft Word® , as a bitmap as opposed to the meta
file representation. In this case you simply paste the contents of the
clipboard into bitmap editor such as Paintbrush, and then recopy it back
to the clipboard. Following this action, Microsoft Word® then will find
the bitmap when pasting from the clipboard.
Media Playback
When playing the educational films of FluidSIM, the Windows Media
Player is loaded. Further hints are described in the Microsoft Windows®
Help under the media playback topic.
Opening FluidSIM files via
the Explorer
Normally, to open a file from within FluidSIM, you would click on Open...
under the File menu. It is also possible to open files via the Explorer.
There are two possible ways to go about doing this:
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1. You can connect files with FluidSIM that have the same extension,
for example ct. By double clicking on a file with this extension, it
will be opened by FluidSIM. If FluidSIM is not running at this time, it
will be started by the File Manager.
2. Select the files that are to be opened in the usual way in the
Explorer. Here the window of the Explorer with the selected files
should either appear next to an open FluidSIM window or next to
the FluidSIM program icon on the desktop. You can open the files
by dragging them over FluidSIM.
Opening FluidSIM Files by
Command Line Entry
Besides the possibilities listed above for opening FluidSIM files, you can
also open files by entering an appropriate command line. Once in the
Start menu, click on Run... and enter the file name after the program
name.
Reorganization of the
Internal Memory
While working with FluidSIM, particular information is cached in the
memory for performance purposes. In some cases it is desirable to
free up memory or to force a window refresh. By pressing the ESC
key, FluidSIM reorganizes its memory, removes the cached data,
rebuilds the internal data structures, and refreshes all windows. If the
topmost window is a circuit diagram preview window, the contents of
the corresponding directory will also be read as new.
Changing the Sound Files
If your computer is equipped with an audio playback facility, sounds
can be played during the changeover of relays, switches, and valves
or during the activation of a buzzer. You can add your own sounds
to replace the preselected ones by replacing the sound files in the
snd directory. The sound file for the switches and relays is named
switch.wav, the sound file for a valve is named valve.wav, and
the sound file for the activation of the buzzer is named horn.wav.
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File Operations via Preview
Windows
Aside from opening circuit diagrams by double clicking on a circuit’s
miniature representation, a preview window does also provide some
File Manager functionality. Analogous to the Edit Mode for objects in
a circuit diagram, the miniaturized circuit diagrams can be selected,
deleted, copied between overview windows (or moved by holding down
the Shift key), copied to the clipboard, or dragged into the a circuit
diagram window.
Please remember, that delete operations and move operations take
place on the file system. Therefore, if a miniaturized circuit diagram is
deleted, its related file will also be deleted in the file system.
Creating Presentation Files
This section describes how presentations can be created using a
common text editor: more specifically, not using FluidSIM.
The file names of presentation files have the extension .shw. A shw file
has the following structure:
The first line contains the description of the presentation, which also
appears in the selection box. The following lines contain the numbers of
the topics for the presentation in corresponding order. When a shw file
is created by FluidSIM, the topic numbers are written within brackets,
followed by the appropriate name for the topic.
The shw file for the presentation named Exercises does appear as
follows:
Exercises
[90.1] Direct control of a double acting cylinder
[91.1] Indirect control of a double acting cylinder
[92.1] The logic AND function, the two pressure valve
[93.1] The logic OR function, the shuttle valve
[94.1] Memory circuit and speed control of a cylinder
[95.1] The quick exhaust valve
[96.1] Pressure dependent control, embossing of plastic
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[97.1] The time delay valve
The brackets and the topic names can be left out, when the file is
manually created. I.e., the contents of the presentation Exercises
could look like the following:
Exercises
90.1
91.1
92.1
93.1
94.1
95.1
96.1
97.1
FluidSIM automatically inserts the brackets and topic names, if you
select this file in the presentation dialog box for editing purposes and
then exit the dialog box by clicking on “OK”.
Network Installation of
FluidSIM
If several PCs are running in a network, a complete installation of
FluidSIM must only be performed once, on the network file system.
Then on the local PCs merely the license information and a few
configuration files are required. This concept serves several purposes:
the saving of disk space on the local hard disks, the simplification of
software maintenance, the quick distribution of circuit diagrams, or the
installation of new releases of FluidSIM.
The installation of the network version happens within the following
steps:
> Perform a standard installation of FluidSIM on the network file
system. Note that the local PCs must be authorized to read the
FluidSIM files on the network file system.
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> Use the network option when installing FluidSIM on the other local
PCs by calling the installation program as follows: setup.exe -N
During a local installation, the installation program asks for the network
path of the FluidSIM bin-directory. Thus FluidSIM must have been
installed on the network file system before any local installation can be
performed.
An aside: The PC used during the FluidSIM standard installation on the
network file system also reads and writes the FluidSIM configuration
files on the network. Moreover, a FluidSIM de-installation from this PC
will delete the FluidSIM program files, and, consequently, FluidSIM is no
longer available on the network. If these side effects are to be avoided,
the network installation of FluidSIM can be performed manually:
> Install FluidSIM without the network option on a local PC, using its
local hard drive.
> Copy the entire FluidSIM directory on the network file system.
> De-install FluidSIM from the local PC. The license connector will
be credited with the license, and the FluidSIM files reside on the
network without having wasted a license.
> Now perform the local installation procedure as described above.
If local PCs are not equipped with a CD-ROM drive, and if these PCs have
no access to a CD-ROM drive of some other PC, the educational films
may also be played from the network file system: If sufficient disk space
is left on the network file system, the movie files can be copied to the
installation folder during the setup procedure
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A. FluidSIM Menus
This chapter contains a complete listing of the menus in FluidSIM and
can be utilized as a quick-reference guide. The term “current circuit”
refers to the selected circuit diagram window. A selected window will
always be fully visible and its title bar will be highlighted.
A.1
File
New
Ctrl +N
Opens a new window to create a circuit diagram. The default name
for the new circuit diagram is noname.ct. If a circuit with this name
already exists, a number is appended to the title noname to create a
unique file name.
Open...
Ctrl +O
Opens the File Selector dialog box, which allows you to select and open
a circuit diagram.
Save
Ctrl +S
Saves the current circuit diagram. The circuit diagram window remains
open.
Save As...
Opens the File Selector dialog box, and you can save the current circuit
under a different name. This name appears in the title bar of the circuit
diagram window and becomes the new name for the circuit.
Circuit Preview
Ctrl +U
Opens the circuit diagram preview windows. Double clicking on a
miniature circuit diagram will load the circuit. Circuit diagrams can
be selected and deleted in the preview window. When saving circuit
diagrams, the preview window is automatically updated.
In the fluidsim directory, subdirectories can be created for the saving
of circuit diagrams. FluidSIM recognizes all circuit diagram directories
and generates appropriate circuit diagram preview windows.
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DXF Export...
Opens the File Selector dialog box, and you can then export the current
circuit diagram in the DXF format. If no new name is given for the
DXF file, then it is saved under the circuit diagram name with the file
extension .dxf.
The DXF export filter allows the graphic information from the circuit
diagram to be exported to other CAD systems.
Parts list Export...
The file selector box is opened; the contents of the selected parts list is
saved as a text file.
When file name has been specified, another dialog box opens where a
character can be declared as column separator.
Properties...
Opens a dialog box where the circuit properties can be defined.
Drawing Size...
Opens a dialog box where the paper size can be defined.
Print...
Ctrl +P
Opens the Print Preview dialog box, which allows you to print the current
circuit diagram with an optional scaling factor.
Previously Opened Files
Displays a list with the eight previously opened files. When selecting
one entry of this list the associated file is opened. The list is sorted: The
most recently opened file forms the topmost entry.
Exit
Alt+F4
Quits FluidSIM.
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A.2
Edit
Undo
Alt+Backspace
Undoes the last edit step. Up to 128 previous editing steps, which have
been stored, can be made undone.
Redo
Alt+Shift +Backspace
Withdraws the last action performed by Edit Undo . The function can be
used up until there are no more undo steps to be redone.
Cut
Shift +Del
Cuts the selected components and saves them to the clipboard.
Copy
Ctrl +Ins
Copies the selected components to the clipboard. In this way circuit
diagrams and parts of diagrams can be inserted easily as vector
graphics, for example into word-processing applications.
Paste
Shift +Ins
Inserts components from the clipboard onto the drawing area of the
current circuit diagram.
Delete
Del
Deletes the selected components from the circuit diagram.
If a connection is selected and deleted, a possibly connected line or
fitted blind plug is deleted. However, the component is not deleted.
Select All
Ctrl +A
Selects all components and lines of the current circuit diagram.
Group
Ctrl +G
Groups the selected objects. Groups can be nested by applying the
grouping operation recursively on already existing groups.
Ungroup
Ungroups the selected groups. Each ungroup operation removes only
the outermost group when applied to a selection that contains nested
groups.
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Align
Aligns the selected objects.
Rotate
Rotates the selected components in 90° angles.
If only one component is to be rotated (counterclockwise), this action is
accomplished by holding down the Ctrl key and double clicking on the
component. If additionally the Shift key is held down, rotation happens
in a clockwise fashion.
Properties...
Opens a dialog box that contains the parameters for a single, selected
component. This dialog box will also contain an input field for a label
name, as long as a label can be assigned to the component.
If a fluidic line is selected, a dialog box will appear in which you can
change the line type from the standard line type, “Main Line”, to the
special line type “Control Line”. Note that—aside from a different
appearance—changing line type has no impact respecting simulation.
If a fluidic connection is selected, a dialog box will appear containing
input fields for the selected connection. The input fields define which
of the quantities are to be displayed and, in the case of a pneumatic
connection, if the connection is fitted with a blind plug or a muffler.
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A.3
Execute
Check Superficially
F6
Checks the current circuit diagram for mistakes in drawing.
Stop
F5
Switches the current circuit diagram in the Edit Mode.
Start
F9
Starts the simulation or, as the case may be, animation in the current
circuit diagram.
Pause
F8
Pauses the current circuit diagram during simulation without leaving
the Simulation Mode. The simulation can then be re-animated from this
point and continue as if it had not been halted.
If Pause is clicked while being in the Edit Mode, the circuit diagram
switches to the Simulation Mode without starting the simulation. In
this manner, the components’ states can be set before the simulation is
started.
Reset
Sets an already running or paused simulation back to the initial state.
The simulation is immediately restarted.
Single Step
Stops the simulation after it has run only a little bit. The simulation will
run for a short time period and is then paused ( ). The single step
mode can be applied at any time to an already running simulation.
Simulate until State Change
Starts the simulation until a state change happens; the simulation
is then paused ( ). A state change occurs when a cylinder piston
travels a stop, a valve switches, a relay or a switch is actuated. The
state change mode can be applied at any time to an already running
simulation.
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Next Topic
Switches to the next topic in a presentation.
A.4
Library
Hierarchical View
Opens a library window where the FluidSIM components are organized
hierarchically, i. e. within a tree.
Total View
Opens a library window that shows a total view of all FluidSIM
components.
FluidSIM Version 2
Opens a library window that shows the original component library of the
FluidSIM Version 2.
If only these components are used, the constructed circuit diagrams can
be opened and simulated by all previous versions of FluidSIM.
New...
Opens a dialog box for the creation of a user-defined component library.
User-defined component libraries can be rearranged according to
the user’s will—and, in contrast to the FluidSIM standard libraries,
components can be added or deleted from them.
Rename...
Opens a dialog box to rename a user-defined component library.
Delete
Deletes that user-defined component library whose overview window is
currently active.
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A.5
Insert
A hierarchically organized menu from which an object can be selected
and inserted in the current circuit diagram.
Find Component...
F3
Opens the dialog for the string-based search of components.
A.6
Didactics
Component Description
Opens the page with the technical description for the selected
component. This page contains the DIN symbol of the component,
a textual description of the component’s function, the connection
designations, and a listing of the adjustable parameters including their
value ranges.
Component Photo
Opens a window containing a photo of the selected component. In the
case that a component cannot exist singularly in a real system, FluidSIM
displays a photo of the assembly group that this component belongs
to. There is no photo for components that do not have a counterpart in
reality.
Component Illustration
Opens for the selected component either a window containing a sectional view or a dialog box with a list of topics relating the component’s
function. In the latter case the selection may include sectional views of
the component, but also illustrations of the component’s usage within
a circuit diagram. For several components, their sectional view can be
animated like a cartoon.
Topic Description
Opens for a window with a didactics material picture, for example a
sectional view of a component or an exercise, the page with the textual
description of the topic.
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Pneumatics Basics...
Opens a dialog box that contains a topics list of pneumatics basics.
Here, those overviews, functional illustrations, and animation are
comprised that are useful when teaching basic concepts of pneumatics.
By clicking on a topic in the list, the dialog box closes, and a window
with a picture of the chosen topic appears.
Working Principle...
Opens a dialog box with sectional views that focus on the function of
single components. For several components, their sectional view can
be animated like a cartoon. By double clicking on a topic in the list,
the dialog box closes, and a window with the chosen sectional view
appears.
Exercise...
Opens a dialog box with exercises related to electro-pneumatics. By
double clicking on a topic in the list, the dialog box closes, and a window
with the chosen exercise appears. Each exercise consists of three
pictures, which can be spooled manually or automatically.
Presentation...
Opens a dialog box that can be utilized to recall available presentations
along with creating new presentations. Presentations allow for the
combination of individual topics into a lesson, ideal for teaching
pneumatics.
Educational Film...
Opens a dialog box with educational films related to electro-pneumatics.
By double clicking on a topic in the list, the dialog box closes, and the
media playback starts playing the selected film.
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A.7
Project
New...
The file selector box is opened, and a new project can be created.
Project files get the file extension prj.
Open...
The file selector box is opened, and a project can selected and opened.
Close
The current project is closed and the standard settings are loaded.
Add Current Window
Adds the current window to the list of project files.
Delete Current Window
Removes the current window from the list of project files.
Properties...
Opens a dialog box where the project properties can be defined.
Files
Shows the list of files that belong to the current project.
Overviews
Shows the list of preview windows that belong to the current project.
Presentations
Shows the list of presentations that belong to the current project.
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A.8
View
The functions of the View menu are circuit diagram specific, that is, they
only apply to the current circuit diagram. Thus it is possible to apply
individually different display options to each circuit diagram, which is
loaded.
Sort Symbols Alphabetically
Sorts the symbols of the current preview window with respect to their
description and extension respectively.
Standard Size
Displays the circuit diagram without enlargement or reduction.
Previous View
Switches between the last view and the current enlargement of the
current circuit diagram.
Fit to Window
Sets the scale factor so that the entire circuit diagram can be displayed
in the window. The proportion between height and width remains
unaltered.
Zoom by Rubber Band
Changes the mouse cursor to a rubber band, allowing a section of a
window to be selected and then enlarged.
Zoom In
>
√
Enlarges the diagram at a factor of 1.4 ( 2). To repeat this action twice
means a doubling in the diagram’s size.
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Zoom Out
<
√
Reduces the diagram at a factor of 1.4 ( 2). To repeat this action twice
means a cutting in half of the diagram’s size.
Quantity Values...
A
Opens a dialog box for the display of quantities. For each of the
quantities “Velocity”, “Pressure”, ..., different types of display options
can be defined (“None”, “Particular”, “All”).
Display Flow Direction
D
Turns on or off the arrow as a direction of flow indicator. The arrow for
the direction of flow will be shown near the component connection, that
is, as long as the flow is other than zero.
Display counter values and delay times T
Displays or hides the current values of components with counting and
delay behavior.
Display current path numbering and
switching elements table
N
Displays or hides the current path numbering and the switching
elements table in electrical circuits.
Show Connection Descriptors
C
Enables or disables the display of the component´s connection
descriptors.
Labels...
Opens a dialog box for the label display style. It can be defined whether
or not the labels are drawn framed.
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A. FluidSIM Menus
Display Grid
G
Activates the background grid, according to the set style. The style of
the grid can be chosen under Options Grid... .
Layers...
Opens a dialog box for renaming and activating the FluidSIM drawing
layers. For drawing object that cannot be simulated, such as texts, DXF
imports, rectangles, circles, state diagrams, or parts lists, up to eight
drawing layers are provided. The FluidSIM components that can be
simulated live always on the drawing layer number one.
Large Mouse Cursor
M
Activates or deactivates the large mouse cursor.
Toolbar
Displays or hides the toolbar.
Status Bar
Displays or hides the status bar.
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A. FluidSIM Menus
A.9
Options
Simulation...
Opens a dialog box with settings for the simulation. Here, parameters
such as the maximum recording time, the slow-motion factor, and the
priority are defined.
OPC/DDE Connection...
Brings up a dialog box with OPC and DDE options, respectively. These
settings relate the communication behavior when coupling FluidSIM
with other applications.
Sound...
Opens a dialog box in which the acoustic signal is switched on for the
following component types: switch, relay, valve, and buzzer.
Didactics...
Opens a dialog box with settings for the didactics. These settings
include factors that apply to animation speed and repeat mode.
Grid...
Opens a dialog box allowing you to activate the background grid and
select its style (“Point”, “Cross”, “Line”) and its resolution (“Coarse”,
“Medium”, “Fine”).
Protect Text Components
Enables or disables the protection of text components. Protected text
components can neither be marked nor moved or deleted.
Create Backup Files
Enables or disables the automatic creation of a backup file for circuit
diagrams. Backup file names have the extension bak. The backup files
are created when the circuit diagram is saved and are updated each time
the circuit diagram is saved.
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A. FluidSIM Menus
Default Directory on Network
Defines the default directory for circuit diagrams and presentation files.
If this option is enabled the default directory for the mentioned files
is on the network file server. Otherwise, the default directory is on the
local PC. This menu entry is available only in the network version.
Save Settings Now
Saves the current global and window specific settings. Defines the
circuit diagram specific settings of the current circuit diagram as the
default settings.
Global settings pertain to the toolbar and the status bar, to the
simulation, sound, didactic, and grid options, to the creation of backup
files, as well as quitting FluidSIM. Window specific settings pertain to
zoom levels, window size, and window position. The quantity display,
as well as the flow direction indicator and the background grid are
considered circuit diagram specific.
Save Settings on Exit
Defines as to whether or not the current global and window specific
settings should be saved upon quitting FluidSIM.
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A. FluidSIM Menus
A.10
Window
Cascade
Shift +F5
Arranges the circuit diagram windows in an overlapping format.
Tile Horizontally
Arranges the circuit diagram windows next to each other.
Tile Vertically
Shift +F4
Arranges the circuit diagram windows below to each other.
Arrange Icons
Arranges the iconified windows on the desktop.
Window list
Opens a dialog box with all currently opened windows. The windows can
be activated, minimized or closed by clicking the appropriate buttons.
A.11
?
Contents...
F1
Opens a help window pertaining to a list of contents from the FluidSIM
online help.
How to Use Help
Describes how help can be used.
Addendum to the User Manual
Opens a help window pertaining to the additions to the handbook for
FluidSIM. Note that this menu entry must not be available.
About FluidSIM...
Opens the Program Information box about FluidSIM. Among others,
the FluidSIM version number and the number off the license connector
looked up.
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B. The Component Library
In FluidSIM each component found in the component library is assigned
a physical model. Based on a circuit diagram, FluidSIM takes all relevant
separate component models and creates a total model of the system,
which is then processed and simulated.
This chapter provides a short description of each of the components
in FluidSIM’s component library. If a component has adjustable
parameters, a value range is been given. A number enclosed in brackets
following a value range indicates the default setting for that parameter.
B.1
Pneumatic Components
Supply Elements
Compressed air supply
The compressed air supply provides the needed
compressed air. It contains a pressure control valve
that can be adjusted to output the desired operating
pressure.
Adjustable parameters:
Operating pressure: 0 ... 20 bar (6 bar)
Air service unit, simplified representation
The service unit is made up of a compressed air filter
with water separator and a pressure control valve.
Adjustable parameters:
Operating pressure: 0 ... 20 bar (5 bar)
Air service unit
The service unit is made up of a compressed air filter
with water separator and a pressure control valve.
Adjustable parameters:
Operating pressure: 0 ... 20 bar (5 bar)
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B. The Component Library
Connection (pneumatic)
A pneumatic connection is a place where a pneumatic
line can be attached to. To simplify the line drawing
process, a connection appears as a small circle in Edit
Mode.
Pneumatic connections can be shut by means of a
blind plug. An open pneumatic connection may result
in leaking air; FluidSIM® 3 Pneumatics thus pops up a
warning message, if some pneumatic connection was
left open.
Note that at each pneumatic connection values for
the flow and pressure can be displayed.
Line (pneumatic)
A pneumatic line links two pneumatic connections.
Note that a pneumatic connection may be a simple
pneumatic connection or a T-junction. A pneumatic
line causes no pressure drop, i. e., it has no fluidic
resistance.
From a drawing point of view, FluidSIM distinguishes
between control lines and main lines. The former
is represented by a dashed line, the latter is
represented by a solid line and establishes the
default case.
Adjustable parameters:
Line Type: One of {Main Line or Control Line} (Main
Line )
T-junction (pneumatic)
A T-junction joins up to three pneumatic lines, thus
having a single pressure potential. Note that Tjunctions are introduced automatically by FluidSIM
when dropping the line drawing cursor onto another
line in Edit Mode.
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B. The Component Library
Configurable Way Valves
Configurable 2/n way valve
The configurable 2/n way valve is a way valve with
two connections, where both its body elements and
its operation modes are user-definable.
Additionally, the pneumatic connections can be
closed with either blind plugs or exhausts.
Configurable 3/n way valve
The configurable 3/n way valve is a way valve with
three connections, where both its body elements and
its operation modes are user-definable.
Additionally, the pneumatic connections can be
closed with either blind plugs or exhausts.
Configurable 4/n way valve
The configurable 4/n way valve is a way valve with
four connections, where both its body elements and
its operation modes are user-definable.
Additionally, the pneumatic connections can be
closed with either blind plugs or exhausts.
Configurable 5/n way valve
The configurable 5/n way valve is a way valve with
five connections, where both its body elements and
its operation modes are user-definable.
Additionally, the pneumatic connections can be
closed with either blind plugs or exhausts.
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B. The Component Library
Mechanically Operated
Directional Valves
3/2-way roller lever valve, normally closed
The roller lever valve is operated by pressing on the
lever, for example through the use of a switching cam
of a cylinder. The flow passes through from 1 to 2.
After releasing the lever, the valve returns to its
initial position through the use of a return spring.
Connection 1 is shut.
In the Simulation Mode, the valve can be switched
manually by clicking on the component, thus not
requiring a cylinder to operate the valve.
This valve is derived from a configurable
3/n way valve. You find this valve in the component library “Frequently used Way Valves”, under the Library
menu.
3/2-way roller lever valve, normally open
The roller lever valve is operated by pressing on the
lever, for example through the use of a switching cam
of a cylinder. Connection 1 is shut. After releasing the
lever, the valve returns to its initial position through
the use of a return spring. The flow may pass through
freely from 1 to 2.
In the Simulation Mode, the valve can be switched
manually by clicking on the component, thus not
requiring a cylinder to operate the valve.
This valve is derived from a configurable
3/n way valve. You find this valve in the component library “Frequently used Way Valves”, under the Library
menu.
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B. The Component Library
3/2-way idle return roller valve, normally closed
The idle return roller valve is operated when the roller
is driven in a specific direction by the switching cam
of a cylinder. After releasing the roller, the valve
returns to its initial position through the use of a
return spring. Connection 1 is shut. When the roller
is driven in the opposite direction, the valve is not
operated.
In the Simulation Mode, the valve can be switched
manually by clicking on the component, thus not
requiring a cylinder to operate the valve.
This valve is derived from a configurable
3/n way valve. You find this valve in the component library “Frequently used Way Valves”, under the Library
menu.
Adjustable parameters:
Operation: One of {Extension, Retraction} (Retraction )
Pressurizing valve
The pressurizing valve with plunger control is
operated by the surface of the cylinder cam. When
the plunger is operated, compressed air flows freely
until the nozzle is closed. A signal up to the level of
the boost pressure is assembled at exit connection 2.
In the Simulation Mode, the valve can be switched
manually by clicking on the component, thus not
requiring a cylinder to operate the valve.
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B. The Component Library
Pneumatic proximity switch, solenoid operated
A permanent solenoid found on the piston of a
cylinder drives this 3/2 pneumatic directional valve
and triggers the control signal. The flow passes freely
from 1 to 2.
In the Simulation Mode, the valve can be switched
manually by clicking on the component, thus not
requiring a cylinder to operate the valve.
This valve is derived from a configurable
3/n way valve. You find this valve in the component library “Frequently used Way Valves”, under the Library
menu.
3/2-way valve with pushbutton, normally closed
Pressing the pushbutton operates the valve. The flow
passes freely from 1 to 2. Releasing the pushbutton
allows the valve to return to its starting position
through the use of a return spring. Connection 1 is
shut.
By holding down the Shift key and simultaneously
clicking on the component with the mouse cursor,
FluidSIM keeps the valve in permanent operating
position. Simply clicking on the component cancels
the operated state and returns the valve to its
starting position.
This valve is derived from a configurable
3/n way valve. You find this valve in the component library “Frequently used Way Valves”, under the Library
menu.
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B. The Component Library
3/2-way valve with pushbutton, normally open
Pressing the pushbutton operates the valve.
Connection 1 is shut. Releasing the pushbutton
allows the valve to returns to its starting position
through the use of a return spring. The passes freely
from 1 to 2.
By holding down the Shift key and simultaneously
clicking on the component with the mouse cursor,
FluidSIM keeps the valve in permanent operating
position. Simply clicking on the component cancels
the operated state and returns the valve to its
starting position.
This valve is derived from a configurable
3/n way valve. You find this valve in the component library “Frequently used Way Valves”, under the Library
menu.
3/2-way valve with selection switch or striking
button
Pressing the red striking button operates the valve.
The flow passes freely from 1 to 2. Releasing
the button has no effect; the valve remains in its
operating position. Turning the button to the right
sets the striking button back to its original position
and the valve returns to its starting position through
the use of a return spring. Connection 1 is shut.
This valve is derived from a configurable
3/n way valve. You find this valve in the component library “Frequently used Way Valves”, under the Library
menu.
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B. The Component Library
5/2-way valve, with selection switch
Turning the selection switch operates the valve. The
flow passes freely from 1 to 4. Releasing the switch
has no effect; the valve remains in its operating
position. Turning the switch back to its original
position allows the flow to pass freely from 1 to 2.
This valve is derived from a configurable
5/n way valve. You find this valve in the component library “Frequently used Way Valves”, under the Library
menu.
Solenoid Operated
Directional Valves
3/2-way solenoid valve, normally closed
The solenoid valve is controlled by applying a voltage
signal at the solenoid coil. The flow passes freely
from 1 to 2. By stopping the signal the valve is set
back to its starting position through the use of a
return spring. Connection 1 is shut. If no signal is
applied to the valve, it can be manually operated.
This valve is derived from a configurable
3/n way valve. You find this valve in the component library “Frequently used Way Valves”, under the Library
menu.
3/2-way solenoid valve, normally open
The solenoid valve is controlled by applying a voltage
signal at the solenoid coil. Connection 1 is shut. By
stopping the signal the valve is set back to its starting
position through the use of a return spring. The flow
passes freely from 1 to 2. If no signal is applied to the
valve, it can be manually operated.
This valve is derived from a configurable
3/n way valve. You find this valve in the component library “Frequently used Way Valves”, under the Library
menu.
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B. The Component Library
5/2-way solenoid valve
The solenoid valve is controlled by applying a voltage
signal at the solenoid coil. The flow passes freely
from 1 to 4. By stopping the signal the valve is set
back to its starting position through the use of a
return spring. The flow passes freely from 1 to 2. If
no signal is applied to the valve, it can be manually
operated.
This valve is derived from a configurable
5/n way valve. You find this valve in the component library “Frequently used Way Valves”, under the Library
menu.
5/2-way solenoid impulse valve
The solenoid valve is controlled by applying a voltage
signal at the solenoid coil (flow passes from 1 to 4)
and remains in this operating position even when
the signal is cut off. Only by applying an opposite
signal will the valve return to its starting position
(flow passes freely from 1 to 2). If no signal is applied
to the valve, it can be manually operated.
This valve is derived from a configurable
5/n way valve. You find this valve in the component library “Frequently used Way Valves”, under the Library
menu.
5/3-way solenoid valve, mid-Position closed
The solenoid valve is controlled by applying a voltage
signal at the solenoid coil (flow passes from 1 to 4
or from 1 to 2). By stopping the signal the valve is
set back to its starting position through the use of
a return spring. Connections 1, 2, and 4 are shut. If
no signal is applied to the valve, it can be manually
operated.
This valve is derived from a configurable
5/n way valve. You find this valve in the component library “Frequently used Way Valves”, under the Library
menu.
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B. The Component Library
Pneumatically Operated
Directional Valves
3/2-way valve, pneumatically operated, normally
closed
The pneumatic valve is controlled by applying a pilot
pressure at connection 12. The flow passes freely
from 1 to 2. By stopping the signal the valve is set
back to its starting position through the use of a
return spring. Connection 1 is shut.
This valve is derived from a configurable
3/n way valve. You find this valve in the component library “Frequently used Way Valves”, under the Library
menu.
3/2-way valve, pneumatically operated, normally
open
The pneumatic valve is controlled by applying a pilot
pressure at connection 10. Connection 1 is shut. By
stopping the signal the valve is set back to its starting
position through the use of a return spring. The flow
passes freely from 1 to 2.
This valve is derived from a configurable
3/n way valve. You find this valve in the component library “Frequently used Way Valves”, under the Library
menu.
5/2-way valve, pneumatically operated
The pneumatic valve is controlled by applying a pilot
pressure at connection 14. The flow passes freely
from 1 to 4. By stopping the signal the valve is set
back to its starting position through the use of a
return spring. The flow passes freely from 1 to 2.
This valve is derived from a configurable
5/n way valve. You find this valve in the component library “Frequently used Way Valves”, under the Library
menu.
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B. The Component Library
5/2-way impulse valve, pneumatically operated
The pneumatic valve is controlled by applying
reciprocal pilot pressures at connection 14 (flow
passes from 1 to 4) and connection 12 (flow passes
from 1 to 2). The valve’s operating position remains
until an opposite signal is received by the valve.
This valve is derived from a configurable
5/n way valve. You find this valve in the component library “Frequently used Way Valves”, under the Library
menu.
Adjustable parameters:
Initial position: One of {Left, Right} (Left )
5/3-way pneumatic valve, mid-Position closed
The pneumatic valve is controlled by applying
reciprocal pilot pressures at connection 14 (flow
passes from 1 to 4) and connection 12 (flow passes
from 1 to 2). By stopping the signals the valve is set
back to its starting position through the use of a
return spring. Connections 1, 2, and 4 are shut.
This valve is derived from a configurable
5/n way valve. You find this valve in the component library “Frequently used Way Valves”, under the Library
menu.
Low pressure amplifier unit, 2 compartments
Each of the two double-level low pressure amplifier units has the function of a
3/2 directional valve that is normally closed. The
signal at connection 12 is raised to a higher boost
pressure level through the use of a double-level amplifier and is put out by connection 2.
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B. The Component Library
Shutoff Valves and Flow
Control Valves
Shuttle valve
The shuttle valve is switched based on the compressed air entering into either input connection 1
and leaving via an output connection 2. Should both
input connections begin receiving compressed air,
the connection with the higher pressure takes precedence and is put out (OR function).
Quick exhaust valve
The compressed air passes from connection 1 to
connection 2. If the pressure should decrease
at connection 1, then the compressed air from
connection 1 will escape to the outside via the
installed silencer.
Two pressure valve
The two pressure valve is switched based on the
compressed air entering into both input connections
1 and leaving via an output connection 2. Should
both input connections begin receiving compressed
air, the connection with the lower pressure takes
precedence and is put out (AND function).
Piloted operated check valve
If the entering pressure at connection 1 is higher that
the outgoing pressure at 2, the check valve allows
the flow to pass freely. Otherwise, the valve stops the
flow. Additionally, the check valve can be opened via
the control line 12. This action allows the flow to pass
freely in both directions.
Throttle valve
The setting of the throttle valve is set by means of
a rotary knob. Please note that by the rotary knob
no absolute resistance value can be set. This means
that, in reality, different throttle valves can generate
different resistance values despite identical settings.
Adjustable parameters:
Opening level: 0 ... 100 % (100 %)
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B. The Component Library
One-way flow control valve
The one-way flow control valve is made up of a
throttle valve and a check valve. The check valve
stops the flow from passing in a certain direction.
The flow then passes though the throttle valve. The
cross-section of the throttle is adjustable via a regular
screw. In the opposite direction the flow can pass
through the check valve.
Adjustable parameters:
Opening level: 0 ... 100 % (100 %)
Pressure control valve with manometer
The pressure control valve regulates the supplied
pressure based on the adjustable operating pressure
and the variations in the pressure. The manometer
displays the pressure at connection 2.
Adjustable parameters:
Operating pressure: 0 ... 20 bar (4 bar)
Pneumatic counter
The counter registers pneumatic signals starting at a
predetermined number and counting backwards. If
zero is reached, then the counter releases an output
signal. This output signal continues until the counter
is reset either by hand or from at signal at connection
10.
Adjustable parameters:
Counter: 0 ... 9999 (3 )
Ring sensor
The ring sensor is a non-contact pneumatic signal
output module. It is supplied with low pressure at
connection 1. If, due to an object, the entering air
flow is disturbed, a low pressure signal will be put out
by connection 2.
To simulate an object in the air flow, as presented
above, simply click on the component during FluidSIM Simulation Mode.
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B. The Component Library
Pressure Operated
Switches
Analog pressure sensor
The pressure sensor measures the pressure and
operates the pressure switch when the adjustable
switching pressure has been exceeded.
Adjustable parameters:
Switching pressure: 0.001 ... 20 bar (1 bar)
Differential pressure switch
The differential pressure switch can be employed as a pressure switch (connection P1), a
vacuum switch (connection P2) or as a differential pressure switch (P1-P2). The respective
pneumatic to electric converter is operated when
the difference in pressure between P1-P2 exceeds the
adjustable switching pressure.
Adjustable parameters:
Differential pressure: 0.001 ... 20 bar (1 bar)
Valve Groups
Pressure sequence valve
The sequence valve is operated when the control
pressure at connection 12 has been reached. The flow
passes freely from 1 to 2. Removing the signal allows
the valve to return to its starting position through
the use of a return spring. Connection 1 is shut. The
pressure of the control signal is infinitely adjustable
via a pressure setting screw.
Adjustable parameters:
Nominal pressure: 0 ... 20 bar (1 bar)
Adjustable vacuum actuator valve
The vacuum actuator valve is employed through
the conversion of a vacuum signal. As soon as the
vacuum reaches the adjustable value at connection
1v, the attached valve body is switched.
Adjustable parameters:
Nominal pressure: -0.6 ... -0.25 bar (-0.25 bar)
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B. The Component Library
Time delay valve, normally closed
The time delay valve is made up of a pneumatically
operated 3/2-way valve, a one-way flow control valve,
and small air accumulator. When the necessary
pressure is reached at the control connection 12 of
the unit, the 3/2-way valve switches and the flow
passes freely from 1 to 2.
Adjustable parameters:
Opening level: 0 ... 100 % (100 %)
Time delay valve, normally open
The time delay valve is made up of a pneumatically
operated 3/2-way valve, a one-way flow control valve,
and small air accumulator. When the necessary
pressure is reached at the control connection 10 of
the unit, the 3/2-way valve switches and stops the
flow from passing between 1 and 2.
Adjustable parameters:
Opening level: 0 ... 100 % (100 %)
Stepper module, type TAA
The stepper module is made up of a memory
unit (3/2-way impulse valve), an AND and an OR
component, a viewable announcement, and an
auxiliary manual operation.
Adjustable parameters:
Initial position: One of {Left, Right} (Left )
Stepper module, type TAB
The stepper module is made up of a memory
unit (3/2-way impulse valve), an AND and an OR
component, a viewable announcement, and an
auxiliary manual operation.
Adjustable parameters:
Initial position: One of {Left, Right} (Right )
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B. The Component Library
Actuators
Single acting cylinder
The piston rod of a single acting cylinder is operated
by the input of compressed air at the front end
position. When the compressed air is shut off,
the piston returns to its starting position via a
return spring. The piston of the cylinder contains a
permanent solenoid which can be used to operate a
proximity switch.
Adjustable parameters:
Max. stroke: 1 ... 100 mm (50 mm)
Piston position: 0 ... Max. stroke mm (0 mm)
Piston Area: 0,07 ... 80 qcm (3,14 qcm)
Piston Ring Area: 0,03 ... 65 qcm (2,72 qcm)
Single acting cylinder with return spring
The piston of the single acting cylinder is extended
to its back position by the input of compressed air.
When the compressed air is switched off, a return
spring moves the piston back to its front position.
Adjustable parameters:
Max. stroke: 1 ... 100 mm (50 mm)
Piston position: 0 ... Max. stroke mm (50 mm)
Piston Area: 0,07 ... 80 qcm (3,14 qcm)
Piston Ring Area: 0,03 ... 65 qcm (2,72 qcm)
Double acting cylinder
The piston rod of a double acting cylinder is operated
by the reciprocal input of compressed air at the front
and back of the cylinder. The end position damping is
adjustable via two regular screws. The piston of the
cylinder contains a permanent solenoid which can be
used to operate a proximity switch.
Adjustable parameters:
Max. stroke: 1 ... 5000 mm (100 mm)
Piston position: 0 ... Max. stroke mm (0 mm)
Piston Area: 0,25 ... 810 qcm (3,14 qcm)
Piston Ring Area: 0,1 ... 750 qcm (2,72 qcm)
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B. The Component Library
Double acting cylinder with in and out piston rod
The in and out piston rod of the double acting
cylinder is controlled by alternating the compressed
air input. The cushioning can be adapted with two
adjustment screws.
Adjustable parameters:
Max. stroke: 1 ... 5000 mm (100 mm)
Piston position: 0 ... Max. stroke mm (0 mm)
Piston Area: 0,25 ... 810 qcm (3,14 qcm)
Piston Ring Area: 0,1 ... 750 qcm (2,72 qcm)
Double acting cylinder with two in and out piston
rods and single trestle.
This twin cylinder has two in and out piston rods that
move in parallel and that are coupled by a trestle.
The construction guarantees minimum torsion
when positioning and moving tools or assemblies.
Moreover, coming along with the same construction
height, the double piston rod conveys the double
force as compared to standard cylinders.
Adjustable parameters:
Max. stroke: 1 ... 5000 mm (100 mm)
Piston position: 0 ... Max. stroke mm (0 mm)
Piston Area: 0,5 ... 1620 qcm (6,28 qcm)
Piston Ring Area: 0,2 ... 1500 qcm (5,44 qcm)
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B. The Component Library
Double acting cylinder with two in and out piston
rods and double trestle.
This twin cylinder has two in and out piston rods that
move in parallel and that are coupled by a double
trestle. The construction guarantees minimum torsion
when positioning and moving tools or assemblies.
Moreover, coming along with the same construction
height, the double piston rod conveys the double
force as compared to standard cylinders.
Adjustable parameters:
Max. stroke: 1 ... 5000 mm (100 mm)
Piston position: 0 ... Max. stroke mm (0 mm)
Piston Area: 0,5 ... 1620 qcm (6,28 qcm)
Piston Ring Area: 0,2 ... 1500 qcm (5,44 qcm)
Multiple position cylinder
By connecting two cylinders of same piston diameter
but different maximum stroke three piston stop
positions can be realized. From the first stop position
the third stop can be reached either directly or via the
intermediate stop. Note that the maximum stroke of
the second piston must be larger than the preceding
one. When moving back, an intermediate stop
requires a particular control. The shorter maximum
stroke is half of the other maximum stroke.
Adjustable parameters:
Max. stroke: 1 ... 2000 mm (100 mm)
Piston position: 0 ... Max. stroke mm (0 mm)
Intermediate Stop: 0 ... Piston position mm (0 mm)
Piston Area: 0,25 ... 810 qcm (3,14 qcm)
Piston Ring Area: 0,1 ... 750 qcm (2,72 qcm)
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B. The Component Library
Linear drive with solenoid coupling
The sliding of the piston in the double rod cylinder is
controlled by a reciprocal input of compressed air.
Adjustable parameters:
Max. stroke: 10 ... 5000 mm (200 mm)
Piston position: 0 ... Max. stroke mm (0 mm)
Piston Area: 0,5 ... 80 qcm (2,01 qcm)
Pneumatic linear drive with shape-fitting adaptor
The sledge of the double acting cylinder without
a piston rod is controlled by alternating the
compressed air input. This type of linear drive
conveys forces by means of a shape-fitting pistonsledge construction. The slitted cylinder prohibits the
torsion of the slider.
Adjustable parameters:
Max. stroke: 10 ... 5000 mm (200 mm)
Piston position: 0 ... Max. stroke mm (0 mm)
Piston Area: 0,5 ... 80 qcm (2,01 qcm)
Pneumatic linear drive with shape-fitting adaptor
The sledge of the double acting cylinder without
a piston rod is controlled by alternating the
compressed air input. This type of linear drive
conveys forces by means of a shape-fitting pistonsledge construction. The slitted cylinder prohibits the
torsion of the slider.
Adjustable parameters:
Max. stroke: 10 ... 5000 mm (200 mm)
Piston position: 0 ... Max. stroke mm (0 mm)
Piston Area: 0,5 ... 80 qcm (2,01 qcm)
Semi-Rotary actuator
The semi-rotary actuator is controlled by a reciprocal
input of compressed air.
Adjustable parameters:
Initial position: One of {Left, Right} (Left )
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Vacuum suction nozzle
The vacuum suction nozzle creates its vacuum based
on the ejector principle. In this case, compressed air
flows from connection 1 to 3, creating a vacuum
at connection 1v. A sucker can be connected to
the vacuum connection 1v. Stopping the input of
compressed air at connection 1 stops any suction
also.
Sucker
The sucker can be used in connection with the
vacuum suction nozzle to suck in objects.
The sucking in of objects can be simulated in FluidSIM® 3 Pneumatics by clicking on the component
when in the Simulation Mode.
Air motor
The air motor transforms pneumatic energy into
mechanical energy.
Measuring Instruments
Manometer
The manometer displays the pressure at its
connection.
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B. The Component Library
B.2
Electrical Components
Electrical connection 0V
0V connection of the power supply.
Power Supply
Electrical connection 24V
24V connection of the power supply.
Connection (electrical)
An electric connection is a place where an electric
line can be attached to. To simplify the line drawing
process, a connection appears as a small circle in Edit
Mode.
Note that at each electric connection values for the
voltage and current can be displayed.
Line (electrical)
A electrical line links two electrical connections.
Note that a electrical connection may be a simple
electrical connection or a T-junction. A electrical
line causes no voltage drop, i. e., it has no electrical
resistance.
T-junction (electrical)
A T-junction joins up to three electrical lines, thus
having a single voltage potential. Note that Tjunctions are introduced automatically by FluidSIM
when dropping the line drawing cursor onto another
line in Edit Mode.
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B. The Component Library
Signal Devices
Indicator light
If current flows, the indicator light is displayed in the
user-defined color.
Adjustable parameters:
Color: One of {16 standard colors} (Yellow )
Buzzer
If current flows, a flashing ring around the buzzer is
shown. Moreover, if “buzzer” is activated in the menu
under Options Sound... , the buzzer is activated if a
sound hardware is installed.
General Switches
Break switch
General break switch that is tailored depending on
the type of component that actuates it.
For example, if the break switch is linked via a label to
a switch-off delay relay, the break switch changes to a
switch-off delay break switch in the circuit diagram.
Make switch
General make switch that is tailored according to the
component that actuates it.
For example, if the make switch is linked via a label to
a switch-on delayed relay, the make switch changes
to a switch-on delayed make switch in the circuit
diagram.
Changeover switch
General changeover switch that is tailored according
to the component that actuates it.
For example, if the changeover switch is linked
via a label to a switch-on delayed relay, the
changeover switch changes to a switch-on delayed
changeover switch in the circuit diagram.
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B. The Component Library
Delay Switches
Break switch (switch-on delayed)
Switch with delayed opening after pickup. Switchon delayed break switches are created by using a
general break switch and setting a label.
Make switch (switch-on delayed)
Switch with delayed closing after pickup. Switchon delayed make switches are created by using a
general make switch and setting a label.
Changeover switch (switch-on delayed)
Changeover switch with delayed changeover after
pickup. Switch-on delayed changeover switches are
created by using a general changeover switch and
setting a label.
Break switch (switch-off delayed)
Switch with delayed closing after dropout. Switchoff delayed break switches are created by using a
general break switch and setting a label.
Make switch (switch-off delayed)
Switch with delayed opening after dropout. Switchoff delayed make switches are created by using a
general make switch and setting a label.
Changeover switch (switch-off delayed)
Changeover switch with delayed changeover after
dropout. Switch-off delayed changeover switches are
created by using a general changeover switch and
setting a label.
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B. The Component Library
Limit Switches
Limit switch (break)
Switch that is opened by a cam attached to the
cylinder rod. The switch closes immediately when
the cam has passed the switch. Limit switches are
created by using a general break switch and setting a
label.
Switch with roll (break)
Switch that is opened by a cam attached to the
cylinder rod. The switch closes immediately when
the cam has passed the switch. Switches with
roll are created by using a general break switch,
setting a label and selecting the switch type in the
component’s properties dialog.
Reed contact (break)
Switch that is opened by a cam attached to the
cylinder rod. The switch closes immediately when
the cam has passed the switch. Reed contacts
are created by using a general break switch,
setting a label and selecting the switch type in the
component’s properties dialog.
Limit switch (make)
Switch that is closed by a cam attached to the
cylinder rod. The switch opens immediately when
the cam has passed the switch. Limit switches are
created by using a general make switch and setting a
label.
Switch with roll (make)
Switch that is closed by a cam attached to the
cylinder rod. The switch opens immediately when
the cam has passed the switch. Switches with
roll are created by using a general make switch,
setting a label and selecting the switch type in the
component’s properties dialog.
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B. The Component Library
Reed contact (break)
Switch that is closed by a cam attached to the
cylinder rod. The switch opens immediately when
the cam has passed the switch. Reed contacts
are created by using a general make switch,
setting a label and selecting the switch type in the
component’s properties dialog.
Limit switch (changeover)
Switch that is changed over by a cam attached to the
cylinder rod. The switch changes back immediately
when the cam has passed the switch. Limit switches
are created by using a general changeover switch and
setting a label.
Switch with roll (changeover)
Switch that is changed over by a cam attached to the
cylinder rod. The switch changes back immediately
when the cam has passed the switch. Switches with
roll are created by using a general changeover switch,
setting a label and selecting the switch type in the
component’s properties dialog.
Reed contact (changeover)
Switch that is changed over by a cam attached to the
cylinder rod. The switch changes back immediately
when the cam has passed the switch. Reed contacts
are created by using a general changeover switch,
setting a label and selecting the switch type in the
component’s properties dialog.
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Manually Operated
Switches
Pushbutton (break)
Switch that opens when actuated and closes
immediately when released.
In FluidSIM switches can be actuated permanently
(locked) when continuing to hold down the mouse
button and pushing the Shift key. This permanent
actuation is released by a simple click on the
component.
Pushbutton (make)
Switch that closes when actuated and opens
immediately when released.
In FluidSIM switches can be actuated permanently
(locked) when continuing to hold down the mouse
button and pushing the Shift key. This permanent
actuation is released by a simple click on the
component.
Pushbutton (changeover)
Switch that changes over when actuated and changes
back immediately when released.
In FluidSIM switches can be actuated permanently
(locked) when continuing to hold down the mouse
button and pushing the Shift key. This permanent
actuation is released by a simple click on the
component.
Detent switch (break)
Switch that opens and locks when actuated.
Detent switch (make)
Switch that closes and locks when actuated.
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B. The Component Library
Detent switch (changeover)
Switch that changes over and locks when actuated.
Pressure Switches
Pneumatic to electric converter
The converter produces an electrical signal, if the preset differential pressure of the
differential pressure switch is exceeded.
Pressure switch (break)
Switch that opens when the preset switching
pressure of the analog pressure sensor is exceeded. Pressure switches are created by using a
general break switch and setting a label.
Pressure switch (make)
The switch closes when the preset switching pressure
of the analog pressure sensor is exceeded. Pressure
switches are created by using a general make switch
and setting a label.
Pressure switch (changeover)
The switch changes over when the preset switching pressure of the analog pressure sensor is exceeded. Pressure switches are created by using a
general changeover switch and setting a label.
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Proximity Switches
Magnetic proximity switch
Switch that closes when a solenoid is brought near
by.
In the Simulation Mode the proximity switch can also
be actuated by clicking on it.
Inductive proximity switch
Switch that closes when the induced electro-magnetic
field is changed.
In the Simulation Mode the proximity switch can also
be actuated by clicking on it.
Capacitive proximity switch
Switch that closes when its electrostatic field is
changed.
In the Simulation Mode the proximity switch can also
be actuated by clicking on it.
Optical proximity switch
Switch that closes when the light barrier is interrupted.
In the Simulation Mode the proximity switch can also
be actuated by clicking on it.
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Relays
Relay
The relay picks up immediately when current is
supplied and drops out immediately when current
is removed.
Relay with switch-on delay
The relay picks up after a preset time when current is
supplied and drops out immediately when current is
removed.
Adjustable parameters:
Delay time: 0 ... 100 s (5 s)
Relay with switch-off delay
The relay picks up immediately when current is
supplied and drops out after a preset time when
current is removed.
Adjustable parameters:
Delay time: 0 ... 100 s (5 s)
Relay counter
The relay picks up after a predefined number of
current pulses has been counted between the
connections A1 and A2. If a potential is supplied
between the connections R1 and R2, the counter is
reset to its predefined value.
In the Simulation Mode the relay counter can also be
reset by clicking on it.
Adjustable parameters:
Counter: 0 ... 9999 (5 )
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B. The Component Library
OPC/DDE Components
FluidSIM Output Port
The FluidSIM output realizes the communication with
other applications.
FluidSIM Input Port
The FluidSIM input realizes the communication with
other applications.
B.3
Electrical Components
(American Standard)
Electrical connection 0V (ladder)
0V connection of the power supply.
Power Supply
Electrical connection 24V (ladder)
24V connection of the power supply.
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General Switches
Break switch (ladder)
General break switch that is tailored depending on
the type of component that actuates it.
For example, if the break switch is linked via a label to
a switch-off delay relay, the break switch changes to a
switch-off delay break switch in the circuit diagram.
Make switch (ladder)
General make switch that is tailored according to the
component that actuates it.
For example, if the make switch is linked via a label to
a switch-on delayed relay, the make switch changes
to a switch-on delayed make switch in the circuit
diagram.
Delay Switches
Break switch (switch-on delayed, ladder)
Switch with delayed opening after pickup. Switchon delayed break switches are created by using a
general break switch and setting a label.
Make switch (switch-on delayed, ladder)
Switch with delayed closing after pickup. Switchon delayed make switches are created by using a
general make switch and setting a label.
Break switch (switch-off delayed, ladder)
Switch with delayed closing after dropout. Switchoff delayed break switches are created by using a
general break switch and setting a label.
Make switch (switch-off delayed, ladder)
Switch with delayed opening after dropout. Switchoff delayed make switches are created by using a
general make switch and setting a label.
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B. The Component Library
Limit Switches
Limit switch (break, ladder)
Switch that is opened by a cam attached to the
cylinder rod. The switch closes immediately when
the cam has passed the switch. Limit switches are
created by using a general break switch and setting a
label.
Limit switch (make, ladder)
Switch that is closed by a cam attached to the
cylinder rod. The switch opens immediately when
the cam has passed the switch. Limit switches are
created by using a general make switch and setting a
label.
Manually Operated
Switches
Pushbutton (break, ladder)
Switch that opens when actuated and closes
immediately when released.
In FluidSIM switches can be actuated permanently
(locked) when continuing to hold down the mouse
button and pushing the Shift key. This permanent
actuation is released by a simple click on the
component.
Pushbutton (make, ladder)
Switch that closes when actuated and opens
immediately when released.
In FluidSIM switches can be actuated permanently
(locked) when continuing to hold down the mouse
button and pushing the Shift key. This permanent
actuation is released by a simple click on the
component.
Pushbutton (changeover, ladder)
Switch that changes over when actuated and changes
back immediately when released.
In FluidSIM switches can be actuated permanently
(locked) when continuing to hold down the mouse
button and pushing the Shift key. This permanent
actuation is released by a simple click on the
component.
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B. The Component Library
Pressure Switches
Pressure switch (break, ladder)
Switch that opens when the preset switching
pressure of the analog pressure sensor is exceeded. Pressure switches are created by using a
general break switch and setting a label.
Pressure switch (make, ladder)
The switch closes when the preset switching pressure
of the analog pressure sensor is exceeded. Pressure
switches are created by using a general make switch
and setting a label.
Relays
Relay (ladder)
The relay picks up immediately when current is
supplied and drops out immediately when current
is removed.
Relay with switch-on delay (ladder)
The relay picks up after a preset time when current is
supplied and drops out immediately when current is
removed.
Adjustable parameters:
Delay time: 0 ... 100 s (5 s)
Relay with switch-off delay (ladder)
The relay picks up immediately when current is
supplied and drops out after a preset time when
current is removed.
Adjustable parameters:
Delay time: 0 ... 100 s (5 s)
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B. The Component Library
B.4
Digital Components
Constants and Connectors
Digital input
Digital inputs are designated with an “I”. In FluidSIM
digital components can be used inside and outside a
digital module.
If a digital input is used inside a digital module, you
can determine the input connector of the digital
module in question with which the digital input shall
be linked by allocating a number “I0” to “I7”. If there
is an analog signal of more than 10V at the chosen
input of the digital module, the digital input is set to
“Hi”.
If a digital input is used outside a digital module,
there is an additional analog electrical connection at
the digital input. If there is an analog signal of more
than 10V at this connection, the digital input is set to
“Hi”.
As an alternative you can click on the digital input
with the left mouse button in order to set it to “Hi”.
Another click resets the value to “Lo”.
Digital output
Digital outputs are designated with an “Q”. The
output connects a digital signal through from its
input to its output. In FluidSIM digital components
can be used inside and outside a digital module.
If a digital output is used inside a digital module, you
can determine the output connector of the digital
module in question with which the digital output shall
be linked by allocating a number “Q0” to “Q7”. If the
status of the digital output is “Hi”, a potential of 24V
is set at the corresponding output connector of the
digital module.
If a digital output is used outside a digital module,
there is an additional analog electrical connection at
the digital output. If the status of the digital output is
“Hi”, a potential of 24 V is set a this connection.
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B. The Component Library
Memory bits
Memory bits are designated with a “M”. Memory
bits are virtual outputs, with a value at their output
analog to that at their input.
When the simulation start is activated, you can define
by using the property dialog box if the output Q shall
be set to “Lo” or to “Hi”, independent on the input
value. After the simulation start the value at the
output is set to the value of the input.
Logic level HI
At the output Q you have the logic level “Hi”.
Logic level LO
At the output Q you have the logic level “Lo”.
Connection (digital)
An digital connection is a place where a digital line
can be attached to. To simplify the line drawing
process, a connection appears as a small circle in
Edit Mode.
Note that at each digital connection its level “Lo” /
“Hi” can be displayed.
Line (digital)
A digital line links two digital connections. Note that a
digital connection may be a simple digital connection
or a T-junction.
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B. The Component Library
T-junction (digital)
A T-junction joins up to three digital lines, thus
having a single digital level. Note that T-junctions
are introduced automatically by FluidSIM when
dropping the line drawing cursor onto another line
in Edit Mode.
Basic Functions
AND
The output Q of the AND is only “Hi” when all inputs
are “Hi”, that is, if they are closed. If an input
pin of this module is not connected, its status is
automatically “Hi”.
Edge-triggered AND
The output Q of the edge-triggered AND is only “Hi”
when all inputs are “Hi” and if at least one input was
“Lo” in the previous cycle. If an input pin of this block
is not connected, its status is automatically “Hi”.
NAND (AND not)
The output Q of the NAND is only “Lo”, when all
inputs are “Hi”, that is, if they are closed. If an
input pin of this block is not connected, its status
is automatically “Hi”.
NAND With Edge Evaluation
The output Q of the NAND with edge evaluation is
only “Hi”, if at least one input is “Lo” and if all inputs
were “Hi” in the previous cycle. If an input pin of this
block is not connected, its status is automatically
“Hi”.
OR
The output Q of the OR is only “Hi”, if at least one
input is “Hi”, that is, if it is closed. If an input pin of
this block is not connected, its status is automatically
“Lo”.
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NOR (OR not)
The output Q of the NOR is only “Hi” when all inputs
are “Lo”, that is, if they are switched off. As soon as
any input is switched on (status “Hi”), the output of
the NOR is set to “Lo”. If an input pin of this block is
not connected, its status is automatically “Lo”.
XOR (exclusive OR)
The output Q of the XOR is “Hi”, if the inputs are
nonequivalent. If an input pin of this block is not
connected, its status is automatically “Lo”.
NOT (Negation, Inverter)
The output Q is “Hi” if the input is “Lo”. The NOT
block is an input status inverter.
Special Functions
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Digital module
The digital module is used for a compact embedding
of a digital switching circuit into a electropneumatic
circuit. The digital module offers 8 electrical inputs
and outputs, which transfer their states to its digital
switching circuit in the inner part. Therefore the
digital switching circuit does not need much space
in the electropneumatic circuit for the display of the
digital module as a rectangle with a total number
of 18 connections. By making a double-click with
the left mouse button on the digital module you
come to the digital circuit in the inner part of the
module. A new window opens. It shows the digital
circuit and can be handled in the usual way. The
standard configuration in the inner part of a new
inserted digital module is a row with 8 inputs and
8 outputs each. They correspond to the inputs and
outputs of the module in the electropneumatic
circuit. In order to be able to test the digital circuit
during the set-up, it can be simulated separated
from the electropneumatic circuit. As soon as
the processing window of the digital module is
closed or the original circuit window is put into the
foreground, the previously effected changes in the
digital circuit are automatically adopted into the
digital module of the electropneumatic circuit. Inside
the digital module only digital components can be
inserted. Furthermore, an encapsulating of additional
digital modules inside a module is not possible.
However, you can use several digital modules in one
electropneumatic circuit. Please note that the digital
circuit inside a digital module only works correctly
if corresponding potentials are set at the electrical
power supply units of the module (+24 V) and (0 V).
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On delay
An output with on delay is not switched on until a
specified time has expired.
When the status of input Trg changes from “Lo” to
“Hi”, the on delay time starts.
If the status of input Trg is “Hi” at least for the
duration of the configured time, the output Q is set
to “Hi” on expiration of this time. The output follows
the input with on delay. The time is reset, when the
status of the input changes again to “Lo” before the
time has expired. The output is reset to “Lo”, when
the status at the input is “Lo”.
Adjustable parameters:
On delay time: 0 ... 100 s (3 s)
Off delay
The output is not reset until a configured time has
expired.
When the input status turns to “Hi”, the output Q
is switched instantaneously to “Hi”. If the status at
input Trg changes from “Hi” to “Lo”, the off delay
starts. After expiration of the configured time, the
output is reset to “Lo” (off delay). When the input Trg
is switched on and off again, the off delay restarts.
The input R (Reset) is used to reset the delay time
and the output before the configured time has
expired.
Adjustable parameters:
Off delay time: 0 ... 100 s (3 s)
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B. The Component Library
On/Off delay
An output with on/off delay is switched on after a
specified time and is reset on expiration of a second
specified time.
As soon as the status at input Trg changes from
“Lo” to “Hi”, the configured on delay time starts. If
the status at input Trg remains “Hi” at least for the
duration of the configured time, the output Q is set
to “Hi” on expiration of the on delay time (the output
follows the input on delayed). If the status at input
Trg changes again to “Lo”, before the configured on
delay time has expired, the time is reset. When the
status at input returns to “Lo”, the configured off
delay time starts.
If the status at the input remains “Lo” at least for the
duration of the configured off delay time, the output
is set to “Lo” on expiration of that time (the output
follows the input off delayed). If the status at the
input returns to “Hi” before this time has expired, the
time is reset.
Adjustable parameters:
On delay time: 0 ... 100 s (3 s)
Off delay time: 0 ... 100 s (3 s)
Retentive On delay
A specified time starts after an input pulse. The
output is set on expiration of this time.
As soon as the status at the input Trg changes
from “Lo” to “Hi”, the specified time starts. After
expiration on the configured time, the output Q is set
to “Hi”. Further switching actions at input Trg have
no influence on the running time. The output and the
time are only reset to “Lo” when the status at input R
is “Hi”.
Adjustable parameters:
On delay time: 0 ... 100 s (3 s)
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Latching Relay
Input S sets output Q. Another input R resets the
output Q.
A latching relay is a simple logic memory. The
output value depends on the input states and on
the previous output status.
Pulse Relay
A short one-shot at the input is used to set and reset
the output.
Output Q status is toggled at every “Lo” to “Hi”
transition of the status at input Trg, that is, the output
is switched on or off. Use input R to reset the pulse
relay to initial state, that is, the output is set to “Lo”.
Wiping Relay - Pulse Output
An input signal generates a signal of specified length
at the output.
The output status is switched to “Hi” after the input
Trg is set to “Hi”. The configured time is started at
the same time and the output remains set. After
expiration of the configured time, the output is reset
to the status “Lo” (pulse output). If the input status
changes from “Hi” to “Lo” before the specified time
has expired, also the output follows immediately with
a with a “Hi” to “Lo” transition.
Adjustable parameters:
Delay time: 0 ... 100 s (3 s)
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Edge-triggered Wiping Relay
An input signal generates a signal of specified length
at the output (retriggering).
The output status is switched to “Hi” after the input
Trg is set to “Hi”. The configured time is started at the
same time. After expiration of the configured time,
the output Q status is reset to “Lo” (pulse output).
If the input status changes again from “Lo” to “Hi”
(retriggering), before the specified time has expired,
the time is reset and the output remains switched on.
Adjustable parameters:
Delay time: 0 ... 100 s (3 s)
Timer Switch
With the timer switch you can create timer switches
referring to days, weeks and years. Upon reach
of the specified on-transition time, the output Q
of the timer switch is set to “Hi” and upon reach
of the specified off-transition time to “Lo”. If you
have chosen the option “repeat all”, the on and off
transition is repeated each time according to the
specified repetition time.
Adjustable parameters:
On time: 0 ... 1000 s (10 s)
Off time: 0,1 ... 1000 s (30 s)
Repeat every: 0,1 ... 1000 s (60 s)
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Up/Down Counter
Depending on the configuration of the input Dir, an
internal value is counted up or down through an input
pulse. The output is set when the configured count
value is reached.
With every status change at the input Cnt from “Lo”
to “Hi”, the internal counter is increased (Dir = “Lo”)
or decreased (Dir = “Hi”) by one unit. If the internal
counter is equal or larger compared to the specified
value, the output Q is set to “Hi”.
You can use the reset input R to reset the internal
count value and the output to “Lo”. As long as
R=“Hi”, also the output is “Lo” and the pulses at
input Cnt are not counted.
Adjustable parameters:
Counter: 0 ... 9999 (5 )
Symmetric Clock Generator
A timing signal with a configurable period is given
at the output. Via the duration of the pulses you can
determine the length of the on and off times. Via
the input En (for Enable) you can switch on the clock
generator, that is, the clock generator sets the output
to “Hi” for the duration of the pulse, subsequent the
output to “Lo” for the duration of the pulse and so on,
until the input status is “Lo” again.
Adjustable parameters:
Impulse time: 0,1 ... 100 s (0,5 s)
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Asynchronous Pulse Generator
The pulse profile of the output can be changed via
the configurable pulse duration and pulse pause
duration.
It is possible to invert the output with input INV. The
input INV only negates the output, if the block is
enabled via EN.
Adjustable parameters:
Impulse time: 0,1 ... 100 s (3 s)
Impulse pause time: 0,1 ... 100 s (1 s)
Frequency Threshold Trigger
The output is switched on and off depending on two
frequencies which can be specified.
The threshold trigger measures the signals at input
Fre. The pulses are captured across a measuring
interval which can be specified. If the frequency
measured within the measuring interval higher than
the input frequency, the output Q is switched to “Hi”.
Q is switched again to “Lo” when the measured
frequency has reached the value of the output
frequency or if it is lower.
Adjustable parameters:
On frequency: 0,1 ... 10 pulses/sec (6 pulses/sec)
Off frequency: 0,1 ... 10 pulses/sec (2 pulses/sec)
Time interval: 0,1 ... 100 s (5 s)
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B.5
Miscellaneous
Miscellaneous
Connection (mechanical)
A mechanical connection constitutes a place holder
for the label of a valve solenoid. To simplify clicking,
a mechanical connection appears as a small circle in
Edit Mode.
Valve solenoid
The valve solenoid switches the valve.
By means of a label the valve solenoid can be linked
to a valve that is solenoid operated.
Valve solenoid (ladder)
The valve solenoid switches the valve.
By means of a label the valve solenoid can be linked
to a valve that is solenoid operated.
Distance rule
The distance rule is a device for attaching switches
at the cylinder. The labels at the distance rule define
links to the actual proximity switches or limit switches
in the electrical circuit.
Status indicator
In Edit Mode, the status indicator is automatically
displayed at those components that are actuated in
the circuit’s initial position.
Cam switch
In Edit Mode, the cam switch is automatically
displayed at those mechanically operated way valves
that are actuated in the circuit’s initial position.
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B. The Component Library
Text
The concept of text components in FluidSIM gives
the user a way in which to describe components in
diagrams, assign identification texts, or to provide
commentary on the diagram. The text and the
appearance of text components can be customized to
the user’s liking.
State diagram
The state diagram records the state quantities of
important components and depicts them graphically.
Parts list
The parts list component creates from the components of a circuit diagram a table, which contains for
each component its designation and its description.
Rectangle
Rectangles are graphic primitives, which can also be
used within circuit diagrams.
Ellipse
Ellipses are graphic primitives, which can also be
used within circuit diagrams.
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C. Didactics Material Survey
This chapter provides a comprehensive listing of those parts of the
didactics material in FluidSIM that are not covered by chapter B
“The Component Library”. Basically, this material consists of the
components’ behavior illustrations, the animations, the exercises, and
the educational films, which all can be activated under the Didactics
menu.
icon
The subsequent sections are arranged thematically. The
indicates that an animation exists for the related topic. The last section
gives an overview of the educational films.
C.1
Basics
1 Pneumatic system structure and signal flow
A pneumatic system can be broken down into a
number of levels representing the hardware and
signal flow from the energy source to the actuating
devices.
☞ The topic highlights the relationship between
signals, levels and elements in a pneumatic
system.
2 Circuit diagram and pneumatic elements
Circuit diagrams are drawn in such a way that
signals, for instance energy or potential values,
are oriented downwards. The numbering of the
components is derived from their respective
function in the diagram.
☞ The topic highlights the various levels in a
circuit.
3 Control of a single acting cylinder
The position rod of a single acting cylinder is to
move forward when air is applied. A valve is to
create a signal when a push-button is released.
☞ The topic can be used as an intermediate stage
for explanation of the related symbols.
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3.. Control of a single acting cylinder
The animation shows the operation of the pushbutton and the extension of the cylinder. Pressure
is maintained on the piston until the push-button
is released. The next stage shows retraction of the
cylinder and the release of air via the exhaust port
of the 3/2-way valve.
☞ Animations 3.1a and 3.2a show a step-wise
operation. Animation 3a shows a complete cycle
repeated 3 times.
4 Control of a double acting cylinder
The 4/2-way directional control valve is suitable
for the control of a double acting cylinder. Normal
practice is to use the 5/2-way valve. The cylinder
motion is controlled by air in both directions of
motion.
☞ The topic can be used as an intermediate stage
for explanation of the related symbols.
4.. Control of a double acting cylinder
The animation shows the advance and retraction
sequences as separate phases. The fully advanced
position is related as long as the push-button is
actuated.
☞ Animations 4.1a and 4.2a show a step-wise
operation. Animation 4a shows a complete cycle
repeated 3 times.
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C.2
Diagram Symbols
5
Symbols of energy and supply components, supply and service
equipment
The Symbols are from the DIN ISO 1219 “Circuit
symbols for fluidic power components and
systems”. The symbols for the energy supply
system can be represented as individual
components or as combined elements.
☞ Compare the symbols with the combined
symbols.
6 Symbols of energy and supply components, combined symbols
In general where specific technical details are to
be given, such as requirements for non-lubricated
air or micro-filtering, the complete detailed symbol
should be used. If a standard and common air
supply is used for all components, the simplified
symbols can be used.
☞ Compare the symbols with the previous topic.
7 Symbols for directional control valves (1)
The directional control valve is represented by
the number of ports and the number of switching
positions. Additional information is required to
fully describe the symbol function, including
the methods of actuation and special flow path
characteristics.
☞ Compare the full range of symbols for
directional control valves.
8 Symbols for directional valves (2)
Each valve position is shown as a separate square.
The designation of the ports is important when
interpreting the circuit symbols and the valve as
fitted to the physical system.
☞ Compare the full range of symbols for
directional control valves.
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9 Designation of connections
The designations for directional control valves are
in accordance with ISO 5599-3, edition 1990. Prior
to this a lettering system was utilized.
☞ Discuss the examples and emphasize the
numbering systems.
10 Methods of actuation (1)
The methods of actuation of pneumatic directional
control valves is dependent upon the application.
The methods of actuation include manual,
mechanical, pneumatic, electrical and combined.
☞ Discuss the actuation and return actuation
methods.
11 Methods of actuation (2)
When applied to a directional control valve,
consideration must be given to the method of
initial actuation of the valve and also the method
of return actuation. They are both shown on the
symbol either side of the position boxes. There
may also be additional methods such as manual
overrides separately indicated.
☞ Discuss the actuation and return actuation
methods.
12 Non-return valves
The non-return or check valve will open due to the
supply pressure exceeding the resistance of the
spring (if fitted) and the inertia of the valve. The
non-return valve is the basis for development
of many combined components. The shuttle
valve, two pressure valve and quick exhaust valve
incorporate features of the non-return valve.
☞ Indicate the valves that include the non-return
function.
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13 Flow control valves
Most flow control valves are adjustable. If the
non-return valve is fitted, then the element is a
one-way flow control valve.
☞ Discuss the flow in both directions in both
cases.
14 Pressure control valves
The pressure control valves are generally
adjustable against a compression spring. The
sensing line for regulators is at the valve outlet
and for sequence valves the sensing is before the
valve, i.e. that pressure which is to be measured.
☞ Compare the sensing line positions and flow
arrows.
15 Symbols for actuators, linear actuators
The single acting cylinder and the double acting
cylinder form the basis for design variations. The
use of cushioning to reduce loads on the end caps
and mountings during deceleration of the piston is
important for long-life and smooth operation.
☞ Refer to topics 76 - 84 for construction details.
16 Symbols for actuators, rotary motion
Rotary actuators are divided into continuous
motion and limited angle of rotation. The air motor
is normally a high speed device with either fixed
or adjustable speed control. Units with limited
angle of rotation are fixed or adjustable in angular
distance. The rotary actuator may be cushioned
depending on the load and speed of operation.
☞ Refer to topics 86 and 87 for construction
details.
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17 Designating the elements, circuit diagram
All elements should be shown in the circuit
diagram in the initial position. If valves have been
drawn with an actuated initial position, this fact
is indicated for example by an arrow, or for a limit
switch, by drawing the cam.
☞ Explain the differences between the following
terms: initial position and starting position.
17.. Designating the elements, circuit diagram
The animation shows the relationship between
levels in a circuit, the physical positioning of roller
valves and the circuit positioning of roller valves.
The numbering system and the connection of ports
are indicated.
☞ Animations 17.1a to 17.6a show step-wise
circuit development. Animation 17.a is a complete
cycle.
C.3
Circuits
18.1 Direct control, unactuated
A single acting cylinder of 25 mm diameter is
to clamp a component when a push-button is
pressed. As long as the push-button is operated,
the cylinder is to remain in the clamped position.
☞ Discuss the circuit layout standard, numbering
and operation. Note the circuit is shown in the
initial state.
18.2 Direct control (actuated)
Since the cylinder is the only working element or
actuator in the circuit, it is designated 1A1. The
final control element that advances the cylinder is
designated 1S1.
☞ Discuss the circuit layout standard, numbering
and operation. Note the circuit is shown in the
actuated state.
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19.1 Indirect control (unactuated)
A large diameter single acting cylinder is to extend
upon operation of a push-button valve. The valve
is situated at a remote and distant position. The
cylinder is to retract once the remote push-button
is released.
☞ Discuss the circuit layout standard, numbering
and operation. Note the circuit is shown in the
initial state.
19.2 Indirect control (actuated)
The signal at the pilot port 12 remains as long as
the push-button is held down. This is an indirect
push-button control of the cylinder. If the pushbutton is released, the spring return closes the
3/2-way valve and removes the pilot signal at the
control valve.
☞ Discuss the circuit layout standard, numbering
and operation. Note the circuit is shown in the
actuated state.
20.1 Two pressure valve
The piston rod of a double acting cylinder is to
advance when a 3/2-way push-button valve and
a roller lever valve are actuated. If either of the
actuations is released, then the cylinder is to
return to the initial position.
☞ Discuss the circuit layout standard, numbering
and operation.
20.2 Two pressure valve
The inputs of the two pressure valve is connected
to the outputs of the two 3/2-way valves. Upon
operation of the push-button 1S1, a signal is
generated at the left side of input 1 of the two
pressure valve. The signal is blocked by the two
pressure valve. No output is given at 2.
☞ Discuss the logic function “AND”. Refer to the
following topic for additional conditions.
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20.3 Two pressure valve
If the roller lever valve 1S2 is also operated, then
the two pressure valve will produce a 1-signal
at port 2 which operates the control valve, via
pilot port 1V1, against the return spring and the
cylinder advances.
☞ Compare this result to the following circuit.
21.1 Circuit diagram development, shuttle valve
If the condition states that either of two pushbuttons are to advance a cylinder, the inexperienced designer may attempt to use a junction for
the output signals of 1S1 and 1S2. The circuit is
not functional due to the escape of air through the
exhaust ports of the valves.
☞ Discuss the sequence of circuits for the shuttle
valve.
21.2 Circuit diagram development, shuttle valve
If push-button 1S1 is operated, the air escapes to
atmosphere through the exhaust port of 1S2. The
air takes the easiest path and the pressure will be
very low and inadequate to operate the valve 1V1.
This is an inadequate solution to the problem. A
shuttle valve is required.
☞ Compare the topic with the previous one.
21.3 Circuit diagram, shuttle valve
The piston rod of a double acting cylinder is to
advance when either of two 3/2-way push-buttons
are actuated. If both push-buttons are then
released, the cylinder is to retract. The shuttle
valve is incorporated at the junction and the circuit
now functions correctly.
☞ Note the function of the ball in the shuttle
valve acting as a non-return valve.
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21.4 Circuit diagram, shuttle valve
The shuttle valve is connected to the junction
between the two 3/2-way push-button valves.
Upon operation of one of the push-buttons, a
signal is generated at the X or Y port of the shuttle
valve and an output signal is emitted at port 2.
The cylinder advances.
☞ Compare the result with topic 12, two pressure
valve.
22.1 Memory circuit, 5/2-way bistable valve
The piston rod of a double acting cylinder is to
advance when a 3/2-way push-button valve is
actuated. The cylinder is to remain extended until
a second push-button is actuated. The cylinder is
to then return to the initial position. The speed of
the cylinder is to be adjustable in both directions.
☞ Discuss the memory characteristic of the
bistable valve.
22.2 Memory circuit, 5/2-way bistable valve
Signals initiated by the push-button signaling
devices can be of short or pulse duration due to
the memory characteristics of the bistable valve.
Upon operation of push-button 1S1, a 1-signal is
generated at port 14 of the control valve 1V3. The
5/2-way memory valve switches and the cylinder
1A1 advances.
☞ The circuit is shown at the first operation of the
button.
22.3 Memory circuit, 5/2-way bistable valve
When the push-button 1S1 is released, the signal
at port 14 is exhausted. The valve 1V3 remains in
the current position. The last position is retained
until a new input signal is given.
☞ Compare the sequence of operation.
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22.4 Memory circuit, 5/2-way bistable valve
The valve 1V3 remains in the current position until
the push-button 1S2 is operated. The cylinder
then retracts. The cylinder remains retracted until
a new signal is generated at port 14 by the valve
1S1.
☞ Compare the sequence of operation.
22.5 Memory circuit, 5/2-way bistable valve
The flow control valves throttle the exhausting air
in both directions of piston motion. The cylinder
remains retracted until a start signal is generated
at port 14 by the valve 1S1. The 5/2-way valve
remains in the current position with air supplied
continuously to the return side of the cylinder.
☞ Discuss the situation when both 1S1 and 1S2
are operated together.
23 Quick exhaust valve circuit
A cylinder piston rod is to travel at an increased
speed, utilizing the quick exhaust valve. The
forward motion of the piston rod is assisted by
the release of exhausting air at the quick exhaust
valve. The return stroke is unchanged due to the
bypass non-return valve.
☞ Refer to topic 65 for construction of the valve.
24 Pressure sequence valve circuit
A plastic component is embossed using a die
powered by a double acting cylinder. The die is
to advance and emboss the plastic when a pushbutton is operated. The return of the die is to be
effected when a preset pressure is reached. The
pressure is to be adjustable.
☞ Refer to topic 72 for construction of the valve.
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25 Time delay valve circuit
A double acting cylinder is to glue components.
The push-button operates the clamping cylinder
and trips a roller lever valve. The cylinder is to
remain fully extended for a time of 6 seconds and
then immediately retracts to the initial position. A
new start cycle is only possible after the cylinder
has fully retracted. The cylinder advance is to be
slow and the retraction adjustable but fast.
☞ Refer to topic 75 for construction of the valve.
26 Sequential circuit
A sequential circuit has the following characteristics; when a 3/2-way push-button valve is
operated, cylinder 1A1 extends. Confirmation is
required at each step of the sequence. The sequence is A+ B+ A− B−.
☞ There is no signal overlap with the circuit.
27 Sequential circuit, distance-step diagram
Confirmation is required that cylinder 2A1 is
retracted before start of the cycle. The sequence
is, A+ B+ A- B-. The valves 2S2 and 1S3 are initially
operated. There is no signal overlap at the final
control elements 1V2 and 2V2.
☞ Discuss the relationship between the circuit
and the distance-step diagram.
28.1 Signal overlap circuit
It is necessary to identify the points in the circuit
where signal overlap occurs on the 5/2-way valves
1V2 and 2V2. With this distance step diagram the
circuit design using roller valves cannot operate
due to signal overlap.
☞ Refer to the next topics for the overlap
conditions.
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28.2 Signal overlap circuit
The first overlap condition occurs at the start. The
pilot signals at the valve 1V2 from the valves 1S3
and 1S2 are opposed. The bistable valve cannot
move due to overlap.
☞ Discuss the options for removal of overlap.
28.3 Signal overlap circuit
The second overlap condition occurs in the third
step. The valve 2V2 has signals generated by 2S1
and 2S2 opposing each other and causing a signal
overlap condition.
☞ Review the control diagram topic 29.
29 Control diagram, signal overlap
The first control valve 1V2 has an overlap problem
in the first step. The first of these signals must
be out short and therefore valve 1S2 could be an
idle return roller lever valve. The second overlap
problem is with valve 2V2 in step 3, when the
cylinder 2A1 is fully advanced. Valve 2S1 could be
an idle return roller valve only active in step 2 for a
short duration.
☞ Idle return roller valves are not a recommended
solution.
30 Idle return roller valve solution
The idle return roller limit switch can be used
to remove the signal overlap points, i.e. replace
the roller lever limit switches identified, with an
idle return roller lever valve. Valves 1S2 and 2S1
generated the signal overlap and therefore these
valves should be idle return roller valves.
☞ Idle return roller valves are not a recommended
solution.
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31 Reversing valve solution
An alternative method of shortening the duration
of signals is to remove the air supply to the two
signal valves, except at the steps required. Using
the reversing valve 1V2, lines S1 and S2 can
be activated consecutively and the signals are
prevented from overlapping at the memory valves
1V1 and 2V1.
☞ Emphasize the increased reliability of the
circuit.
C.4
Air Service Units
32 Air service unit
The filter is normally combined with the pressure
regulator and lubricator to form a compressed
air service unit. The selection of the correct filter
plays an important role in determining the quality
and performance of the control system which is to
be supplied with compressed air.
☞ Refer to topic 33 for construction of the filter.
33 Compressed air filter
The compressed air passes through a baffle
plate in the filter bowl. The air is rotated, and the
heavier dust particles and water droplets are spun
by centrifugal force against the inner wall of the
filter bowl and run down the wall of the housing.
The air which has been precleaned then passes
through the filter element.
☞ The bowl must be emptied daily to prevent
overflow.
34 Air drying, low temperature
The lower the dew point the more the water will
condense and reduce the amount entrapped in the
air. Using refrigeration methods, it is possible to
achieve dew points of between 2°C and 5°C.
☞ Compare with adsorption and absorption
drying.
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35 Air drying, absorption
Absorption drying is a purely chemical process.
The moisture in the compressed air forms a
compound with the drying agent in the tank. This
causes the drying agent to break down; it is then
discharged as a fluid at the base of the tank. The
drying agent must be replenished at a rate which
is dependent on the compressed air temperature,
water content and flow rate.
☞ Compare with adsorption drying.
36 Air drying, adsorption
The lowest equivalent dew points (down to -90°C)
can be achieved by means of adsorption drying. In
this process, the compressed air is passed through
gel and the water is deposited on the surface, i.e.
it is adsorbed.
☞ Compare with absorption drying.
37 Air lubricator
As a rule, the compressed air which is generated
should be dry and free of oil. For some components, lubricated air is damaging, for others, it is
undesirable, and for power components, it may in
certain cases be necessary. Lubrication of the air
should therefore be limited to the sections of the
plant which require it.
☞ Refer to picture of topic 32 for general
arrangement.
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38 Air lubricator
Air passing through the lubricator causes a
pressure drop between the oil reservoir and
the upper part of the lubricator. This pressure
difference forces the oil upwards through a tube
and it then drips into a nozzle which can be seen
through an inspection glass. The oil is atomized
and carried along by the air stream.
☞ It is necessary to carefully adjust the oil
discharge rate.
39 Air supply, pressure regulator with vent hole
The purpose of the regulator is to maintain
the operating pressure (secondary pressure)
virtually constant regardless of fluctuations in
the line pressure (primary pressure). When air
consumption increases, the operating pressure
drops and the spring opens the valve.
☞ Show the animations of the following topic.
39.. Air supply, pressure regulator with vent hole
If the pressure on the secondary side increases
considerably, the center-piece of the diaphragm
then opens and the compressed air can flow to
atmosphere through the vent holes in the housing.
☞ Animations 39.1a to 39.3a show a step-wise
operation. Animation 39a shows a complete cycle.
40 Compressed air supply, delivery
Due to the pressure losses in the system, the
compressor should deliver between 6.5 and 7 bar.
The operating components of the system should
be regulated to between 5 and 6 bar for economic
use. The receiver is used to even out fluctuations
in pressure due to demand. The drainage points
are at the lowest points.
☞ The gradient should be away from the
compressor.
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41 Compressed air supply, piston compressor
The piston compressor is widely used. Multi-stage
compressors are required for compressing to high
pressure. The drawn in air is compressed by the
first piston, cooled and then compressed further
by the next stage.
☞ Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of
piston compressors.
42 Compressed air supply, axial flow compressor
Flow compressors produce large volumes of air
at small increases in stage pressure. The air is
accelerated by the blades of the compressor but
there is only a small increase in pressure.
☞ The kinetic energy is converted to pressure
energy.
43 Compressed air supply, distribution
For ease of maintenance, repair or extension of
the air network, it is advisable to sub-divide the
network into individual sections by means of shutoff valves. Branches with T-pieces and manifolds
with plug-in couplings make it possible to supply
additional consuming devices as the need arises.
☞ To discharge condensate, the pipes should be
inclined 1-2 % and include water separators at low
points.
44 Absolute pressure and atmospheric pressure
Absolute pressure is calculated from the absolute
zero mark. Below atmospheric pressure the
pressure is in the vacuum range. The atmospheric
pressure fluctuates but is approximately 100 kPa
(1 bar).
☞ Gauge pressure is normally that component
above atmospheric pressure and is not an
absolute value.
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C.5
Valves
45.1 3/2-way valve, ball seat
A spring forces a hemisphere against the valve
seat preventing the compressed air from flowing
from the air connection 1 to the working line 2.
Initially port 1 is blocked and the output port 2 is
exhausted through the stem of the plunger.
☞ Compare the symbol and the valve construction.
45.2 3/2-way valve, ball seat (actuated)
Actuation of the valve plunger causes the sealing
element to be forced away from the seat. In doing
this, the opposing force of the reset spring and
that generated from the compressed air must
be overcome. The air supply is then open to the
output side of the valve and a signal is generated.
☞ The load on the stem is dependent on the size
of valve.
46 3/2-way valve, ball seat
The ball seat valve is compact with the possibility
of fitting various types of actuating heads. The
limitation for directly actuated valves is the force
required to operate the stem. If the flow rate
required is very high, the valve ball will have a
large working area. This requires a large operating
force. This limits the size of valve for this design.
☞ Compare the construction of the disc seat
valve.
47.1 3/2-way valve, disc seat, normally closed
The valve is constructed on the disc seat principle.
The response time is short and a small movement
results in a large area being available for air
flow. Valves of the single disc seat type are nonoverlapping.
☞ Using this topic, discuss the term “blocked
normal position”.
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47.2 3/2-way valve, disc seat, normally closed (actuated)
When operated slowly, there is no loss of air. A
3/2-way valve with flow blocked between ports 1
and 2 in the normal condition, is referred to as a
normally closed valve. The valves are insensitive
to dirt and thus have a long service life.
☞ Explain the term “non-overlapping” with this
figure and the following animation.
47.. 3/2-way valve, disc seat, normally closed
The animation sequence shows the operation of
the 3/2 way valve. The first sequence describes
the actuation and the supply of a signal from 1 to
2. The second sequence shows the closing of the
disc seat and the release of air from 2 to 3 which
exhausts to atmosphere.
☞ Animations 47.1a and 47.2a show a step-wise
operation. Animation 47a shows a complete cycle
repeated 3 times.
48 3/2-way valve
The 3/2-way valve with disc seat is capable of
producing large flow rates. The actuating force can
be large due to the surface area of the disc seat.
☞ Present the physical attributes of the disc seat
valve and the robust construction.
49.1 3/2-way valve, disc seat, normally open
A 3/2-way valve with free flow between ports 1
and 2 in the normal condition, is referred to as
normally open. Valves can be operated manually,
mechanically, electrically or pneumatically. The
configuration of the valve head is changed to meet
the actuation method.
☞ Note the change of construction compared to
the normally closed valve (see topic 47).
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49.2 3/2-way valve, disc seat, normally open (actuated)
Upon operation of the actuating stem, the disc
seat is sealed and air supply port 1 is blocked. The
air at port 2 is exhausted to atmosphere via port 3.
☞ Compare the flow paths with that of the
normally closed valve (see topic 47).
50.1 3/2-way valve, single pilot, normally closed
The pneumatically operated 3/2-way valve is
operated by a directly acting signal at port 12. This
is referred to as a single pilot valve since there is
only one control signal and the valve has a spring
return.
☞ Note the pneumatic symbol shows direct
application of the signal at port 12.
50.2 3/2-way valve, single pilot, normally closed (actuated)
A signal is applied at port 12 and the valve plunger
is moved against the reset spring. The connections
1 and 2 are then inter-connected creating a signal
2. The pressure at port 12 must be sufficient to
move the disc against the supply pressure.
☞ Compare the construction of the valve to the
3/2-way disc seat valve (see topic 47).
51 3/2-way valve, single pilot
The valve ports are labeled to ensure the correct
connections are made. The pilot valve is available
in a range of sizes depending upon the flow rate.
☞ Note the need to designate and label the ports.
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52 3/2-way valve, internal pilot, normally closed
To avoid high actuating force, mechanically
controlled directional valves can be equipped
with an internal pilot valve to assist opening. A
small hole connects the pressure connection 1 and
the pilot valve. If the roller is operated, the pilot
valve opens. Compressed air flows to the main
piston and actuates the main valve disc.
☞ The symbol shows the roller operating a pilot
signal.
53 3/2-way valve, internal pilot, normally open
This type of valve can be used as either a normally
closed valve or as a normally open valve by
exchanging connection 1 and 3 and rotating the
actuating head 180°. The valve actuating force is
often the determining factor in applications and
the servo assistance allows for larger flow rates.
☞ Compare the construction of the valve
configurations.
54 3/2-way valve, internal pilot
This type of valve can be used as either a normally
closed valve or as a normally open valve by
exchanging connections 1 and 3 and rotating the
actuating head 180 degrees. The force required on
the roller lever is small due to the pilot operation.
☞ Show the requirements to alter the valve
configuration.
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55.1 4/2-way valve, disc seat
The 4/2-way valve has four ports and two
positions. A disc seat 4/2-way valve is similar in
characteristic to the combination of two 3/2-way
valves, one valve normally closed and the other
normally open. The plungers can be operated by
an auxiliary mounted device such as a roller lever
or push-button.
☞ Show the similarities to the 3/2-way valve
construction.
55.2 4/2-way valve, disc seat (actuated)
When the two plungers are actuated simultaneously, 1 to 2 and 4 to 3 are closed by the first
movement. By pressing the valve plungers further
against the discs, opposing the reset spring force,
the passages between 1 to 4 and from 2 to 3 are
opened.
☞ Discuss the valve overlap.
56 4/2-way valve, disc seat
The valve is robust. Two stems directly operate the
disc seats. The load required to move the stems
may be large for high flow rate valves.
☞ Compare the construction with the 3/2-way
valve.
57 4/3-way valve, mid-position closed
The 4/3-way valve has four ports and three
positions. An example of the 4/3-way valve is
the plate slide valve with hand or foot actuation.
By turning two discs, channels are interconnected
with one another.
☞ Compare the symbol with the valve construction.
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58.1 5/3-way valve
The 5/3-way valve has five ports and three
positions. Signals applied at ports 14 or 12
operate the valve. It is shown closed in the midposition. The valve is spring centered.
☞ Show the three valve positions.
58.2 5/3-way valve
The 5/3-way valve is shown here after actuation
via a pilot signal at port 12. The air flows from 1 to
2. Port 4 exhausts via 5.
☞ Show the three valve positions.
58.3 5/3-way valve
The 5/3-way valve is shown here after actuation
via a pilot signal at port 14. The air flows from 1 to
4. Port 2 exhausts via 3.
☞ Show the three valve positions.
59.1 5/2-way valve, longitudinal slide valve
The 5/2-way valve has five ports and two
positions. The 5/2-way valve is used for the
control of cylinders primarily as a final control
element. In pneumatic valves, the gap between
spool and housing bore should not exceed 0.002–
0.004 mm. The valve is shown here with pilot
pressure applied at port 12.
☞ Compare the construction with the disc seat
valve.
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59.2 5/2-way valve, longitudinal slide valve
To avoid damage to seals, the ports can be
distributed around the circumference of the
housing. The actuation travel is considerably
larger than with seat valves. The valve is shown
here with pilot pressure at 14.
☞ Discuss the load conditions on the O-rings.
60 5/2-way valve, longitudinal slide valve
The valve can be mounted onto a common subbase for supply and exhaust air. This compact
arrangement also ensures adequate flow is
available to the valve.
☞ Discuss the DIN ISO 5599/1 standard for 5 port
valves.
61.1 5/2-way valve, suspended disc seat
A method of sealing the 5/2-way valve is to
use a suspended disc seat with a relatively
small switching movement. The disc seat seal
connects the 1 port to either the 2 port or the 4
port. The 5/2-way double air pilot valve has the
characteristic of memory control.
☞ Compare the suspended disc seat construction
to the longitudinal slide principle (see topic 59).
61.2 5/2-way valve, suspended disc seat
The last switched position is retained until a new
switching position is initiated by a unique pilot
signal from the opposite side. There are two
manual override buttons to manually operate
valve spool.
☞ Explain the working principle of the manual
override button and its related diagram symbol.
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61.. 5/2-way valve, suspended disc seat
The animation shows the two switched positions.
The air pilot signals are applied from both
directions. The manual override operations are
also shown. The manual overrides are used to
manually actuate the valve or initialize the valve
position.
☞ Animations 61.1a to 61.4a show a step-wise
operation. Animation 61a shows a cycle repeated
3 times.
62 5/2-way valve, suspended disc seat
Note the position of the manual override stems.
The ports are all designated and labeled.
☞ If no real valve is at hand, use this slide
instead.
63.1 Two pressure valve
The two pressure valve has two inputs 1 and one
output 2. The two pressure valve is used mainly
for interlocking controls, safety controls, check
functions or logic operations. The application of
a signal at a single input produces no pressure at
output 2.
☞ Refer to topic 20 for the circuit example.
63.2 Two pressure valve
If pressure is applied at both inputs 1, the signal
which is last applied passes to the output 2. The
two pressure circuit is equivalent to two input
signaling devices in series, i.e. one after the other.
☞ Discuss the advantages of the shown solution
against series connection.
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64.1 Shuttle valve
This non-return element has two inputs 1 and one
output 2. If compressed air is applied to one input,
the valve seat seals off the opposing input and
the air flows to the output 2. Note the similarity in
construction to the two pressure valve.
☞ Compare the two pressure valve construction
(see topic 63).
64.2 Shuttle valve
If compressed air applied to one input 1, the valve
seat seals off the opposing input and the air flows
to the output 2. This valve incorporates the logic
function “OR”. A signal at either input 1 generates
a signal at output 2.
☞ Refer to topic 21 for the circuit example.
65 Non return valve
Non return valves can stop the flow completely in
one direction. In the opposite direction the flow
is free with a minimal pressure drop due to the
resistance of the valve. The one-way blocking
action can be effected by cones, balls, plates or
diaphragms.
☞ Discuss the relationship between pressure to
open and the spring size.
66 Quick exhaust valve
Quick exhaust valves are used to increase the
piston speed of cylinders. Lengthy return times
can be avoided, particularly with single acting
cylinders. To reduce resistance to flow, the air is
expelled to atmosphere close to the cylinder and
through a large orifice.
☞ Refer to topic 23 for the circuit example.
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66.. Quick exhaust valve
In the direction 1 to 2 the air is passed freely
via the opening of the non-return seal. Port 3 is
blocked by the disc. If air is supplied to port 2, the
disc seals port 1. Air is expelled to atmosphere
through the large orifice 3. Mount the quick
exhaust valve directly on the cylinder, or as near as
possible.
☞ Animations 66.1a and 66.2a show a step-wise
operation. Animation 66a shows a complete cycle
repeated 3 times.
67 Quick exhaust valve
To reduce resistance to flow, the air is expelled to
atmosphere through a large orifice thus increasing
cylinder piston speed. The valve is normally
silenced so as to reduce exhaust air noise.
☞ If no real valve is at hand, use this slide
instead.
68 One-way flow control valve
One-way flow control valves influence the
volumetric flow of the compressed air. One-way
flow control valves are normally adjustable and the
setting can be locked in position. The influence of
speed control is in one direction only.
☞ Refer to topic 71 for the circuit example.
68.. One-way flow control valve
The first slide of the animation shows the total
cross section of the one-way flow control valve.
The animation will be shown in detail by zooming
into the air passage area.
☞ Animations 68.1a and 68.2a show a step-wise
operation. Animation 68a shows a complete cycle
repeated 3 times.
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69 One-way flow control valve
The valve is generally mounted as close to the
cylinder as possible. The valve is usually provided
with a locking nut to allow finite adjustments to be
regulated and then set.
☞ If no real valve is at hand, use this slide
instead.
70 Throttle valve
Throttle valves are normally adjustable and the
setting can be locked in position. These valves are
used to regulate the speed regulation of actuators
and if possible, should be mounted directly on the
cylinder.
☞ Compare the flow control with throttle valves
and one-way flow control valve (see topic 68).
71 Supply and exhaust air throttling
Exhaust air throttling should be used with double
acting cylinder circuits. For supply air throttling,
the flow valves are installed so that the air
entering the cylinder is throttled. With exhaust
air throttling, the supply air flows freely to the
cylinder and the exhaust air is throttled.
☞ Discuss the numbering system. Even numbers
relate to advancing signals and odd numbers to
the retracting signals.
72.1 Adjustable pressure sequence valve (unactuated)
Sequence valves are installed in pneumatic
controls where a specific pressure is required
for a switching operation. The output signal is
transmitted only after the required operation
pressure has been reached.
☞ Discuss the two elements in the control
symbol.
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72.2 Adjustable pressure sequence valve (actuated)
If the signal pressure at port 12 exceeds that set
on the spring, the valve opens. Outlet port 2 is
opened only if a preset pressure has built up in
pilot line 12. A pilot spool opens the passage
between ports 1 to 2.
☞ Discuss the adjustment required to set the
desired operation pressure. A pressure gauge is
required.
73 Adjustable pressure sequence valve
The adjusting screw normally incorporates a look
nut to set the desired position. The valve body is
fitted to a sub-base which can frame mounted with
other compact valves.
☞ Some applications for the valve are clamping,
pressing, gluing and safety interlocks.
74.1 Time delay valve, normally closed
The time delay valve is a combinational valve
consisting of a 3/2-way valve, throttle relief valve
and an air reservoir. The 3/2-way valve can be a
valve with normal position open or closed. The
delay time is generally 0-30 seconds for both types
of valves. By using additional reservoirs, the time
can be extended.
☞ Discuss the need for clean and stable air for
accuracy.
74.2 Time delay valve, normally closed (actuated)
When the necessary control pressure from 12 has
built up in the air reservoir, the pilot spool of the
3/2-way valve is actuated. An accurate switch-over
time is assured if the air is clean and the pressure
constant.
☞ Discuss the relationship between time delay
and the reservoir size.
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75 Time delay valve, normally closed
The valve has a lock-able adjusting screw for
setting time. The valve is sized to meet the flow
requirements.
☞ Discuss the accuracy of the time delay valve.
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C.6
Actuators
76.1 Single acting cylinder
With single acting cylinders, compressed air is
applied on only one side of the piston face. The
other side is open to atmosphere. The cylinders
can perform work in only one direction. The return
movement of the piston is effected by a built-in
spring or by the application of an external force.
☞ Compare the construction with the double
acting type.
76.2 Single acting cylinder
The spring force returns the piston to its start
position with a reasonably high speed under
no load conditions. The stroke is limited by
the natural length of the spring. Single acting
cylinders are therefor only available in stroke
lengths of up to 100 mm.
☞ Discuss the spring size and return speed.
77 Single acting cylinder
The cylinder requires one pneumatic connection
and an exhaust port. The exhaust port must be
clear of obstructions to ensure that the piston
is not restricted by the air passage. A filter is
normally fitted to the exhaust port.
☞ Discuss the importance of selecting the size of
the cylinder to match the load conditions.
78 Double acting cylinder
In front of the bearing bush is a scraper ring. This
ring prevents dirt particles from entering the
cylinder chamber. A sealing ring is fitted in the
bearing cap to seal the piston rod. The bearing
bush guides the piston rod and is made of sintered
bronze or plastic-coated metal.
☞ Point at the positions of cylinder body, piston
cover, cylinder cover, piston seal, piston rod,
bearing bush, and scraper ring.
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78.. Double acting cylinder
The first animation shows the piston rod
advancing. The second stage the retraction. The
speed of advance and retraction are fairly constant
under no load conditions.
☞ Animations 78.1a and 78.2a show a step-wise
operation. Animation 78a shows a complete cycle
repeated 5 times.
79 Double acting cylinder
Double acting cylinders are used particularly when
the piston is required to perform a work function
in both directions of motion. The construction is in
general similar to the single acting cylinder.
☞ Refer to the large number of variants, which
result from the different designs, materials, etc.
80 Cushioned double acting cylinder
If large masses are moved by a cylinder, cushioning is used in the end positions. Before reaching
the end position, a cushioning piston interrupts
the direct flow of air to the outside. For the last
part of the stroke the speed is slowed to reduce
impact on the cylinder.
☞ Discuss the different concept of throttleling the
exhausting air by means of one-way flow control
valve.
81 Cylinder seals (1)
The various piston seal arrangements are shown.
The double-cup seal materials used are, Perbunan
for -20°C to +80°C Viton for -20°C to +190°C Teflon
for -80°C to +200°C.
☞ Emphasize correct temperature range selection
for reliability.
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82 Cylinder seals (2)
The various piston seal arrangements are shown.
The double-cup seal materials used are, Perbunan
for -20°C to +80°C Viton for -20°C to +190°C Teflon
for -80°C to +200°C.
☞ Emphasize correct temperature range selection
for reliability.
83 Mounting arrangements for cylinders
The type of mounting is determined by the manner
in which the cylinder is to be fitted to a machine
or fixture. The cylinder can be designed with a
permanent type of mounting if it does not have to
be altered at any time. Alternatively, the cylinder
can utilize adjustable types of mounting which can
be altered by using suitable accessories on the
modular construction principle.
☞ Discuss application examples for each type of
mounting.
84 Tandem double acting cylinder
This design features the characteristics of two
double acting cylinders forming a single unit.
This increases the effective piston area of the
unit for high force applications. It is suitable for
applications where a large force is required but the
cylinder diameter is restricted.
☞ Compare the double acting cylinder in topic 78.
85 Semi-rotary actuator
The rotary actuator is compact with high torque
ratings. The force is transmitted to the drive shaft
by a rotary vane. The range of angular movement
is adjustable with end stops. The angle can be
adjusted between 0° and 180°.
☞ Discuss the mounting arrangements for the
actuator.
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86 Semi-rotary actuator
The adjustable stop system is separate to the
rotary vanes. This allows force to be absorbed by
the stop blocks. At the end positions, impacts are
cushioned by elastic cushioning rings.
☞ Discuss applications for the rotary actuator.
87 Air motor
Devices which transform pneumatic energy into
mechanical rotary motion, with the possibility of
continuous motion. They are categorized into the
groups of piston motors, sliding vane motors, gear
motors and turbines.
☞ Discuss applications for the air motor.
C.7
Exercises
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90.. Exercise: Direct control of a double acting cylinder
Problem: A double acting cylinder is to advance
when a push-button is operated. Upon release
of the push-button, the cylinder is to retract.
The cylinder is of small bore (25 mm diameter)
requiring a small flow rate to operate at the correct
speed.
Solution: The control valve for a double acting
cylinder can be selected as a 4/2 way or a 5/2 way
valve. In this case, since the cylinder has a small
capacity, the operation can be directly controlled
by a push-button control valve with spring return.
On operating the push-button, the air passes
through the valve from port 1 to the port 4 and
advances the piston rod. On release of the pushbutton, the valve spring returns the control valve
to its initial position and the cylinder retracts. Air
escapes from the cylinder via the exhaust port.
Since the cylinder is the only working element or
actuator in the circuit, it is designated 1A1. The
final control element that advances the cylinder is
designated 1S1.
☞ If the push-button is pressed for a very short
period, the cylinder only partially advances and
then retracts, since the spring resets the control
valve as soon as the push-button is released. In
order to achieve full extension in this case, the
push-button must be held down until the cylinder
moves fully forward.
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91.. Exercise: Indirect control of a double acting cylinder
Problem: A double acting cylinder is to advance
when a push-button is operated. Upon release
of the push-button the cylinder is to retract. The
cylinder is 250 mm diameter and consumes a large
volume of air. For controlling cylinders at high
speed or of large diameter large size control valves
should be used. The operating force to actuate
the valve may be relatively large and in this case
indirect control is preferable.
Solution: Operating valve 1S1 supplies a pilot
signal to port 14 of control valve 1V1. This
generates a 1-signal at the outlet 4 and the
cylinder advances. If the push-button is released
the return signal is supplied via port 2 of valve 1V1
and the return air is vented via exhaust port 5. If
the push-button is released before the cylinder
fully advances, the cylinder immediately returns
to the initial position. The control valve requires a
sustained signal for it to remain operated.
☞ The supply line can be short since the control
valve can be mounted close to the cylinder. The
other advantage is that the signal element (i.e.
push-button 3/2 way valve) can be small, as it only
provides a signal to operate the control valve and
is not required to operate the cylinder directly.
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92.. Exercise: The logic AND function, the two pressure valve
Problem: A transfer station removes a product
from a conveyor belt. If the product is detected
as present and if the operator presses the pushbutton, the pick-up cylinder 1A1 advances. The
product is sensed by a 3/2 way roller lever valve.
Upon release of the push-button, cylinder 1A1
is to retract to the initial position. The operating
condition for the pick-up cylinder to advance is a
logic AND function between the product sensor
and the operator push-button. Therefore if a two
pressure valve is used to combine the signals from
the sensor and push-button the logic conditions
can be met.
Solution: The two pressure valve is connected
between the outlet lines of the two 3/2 way
valves. Operating the push-button, a 1-signal is
generated at left input 1 of the two pressure valve.
Once the part is sensed as present, the 3/2 way
roller valve generates a second 1-signal, this time
at the right input 1 of the two pressure valve. A
signal is passed through to port 2. This signal
operates the control valve pilot signal 14 against
the spring return and the cylinder advances. If
either of the two signals created by the 3/2 way
valves is set to zero, the two pressure valve will
release the 14 signal back through the exhaust
port of one of the 3/2 way valves. The return
spring in the control valve then switches the
control valve to the initial position. The control
valve outlet port 2 is active and with outlet port
4 exhausted to atmosphere the cylinder retracts.
The control valve can be a 4/2 or 5/2 way valve
and can be sized to suit the flow rate required for
the cylinder speed.
☞ Discuss also the advantages of the shown
solution against series connection.
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93.. Exercise: The logic OR function, the shuttle valve
Problem: A cylinder is used to transfer parts from
a magazine. If either a push-button or a foot pedal
is operated, then the cylinder is to advance. Once
the cylinder has fully advanced, it is to retract to
the initial position. A 3/2 way roller lever valve is
to be used to detect forward end position of the
cylinder.
Solution: The shuttle valve is connected to the
junction between the two manual 3/2 way valves.
Upon operation of one of the manual 3/2 way
valves, a 1-signal is generated at either input 1
of the shuttle valve. This signal passes through
the shuttle valve and is emitted at port 2. This
operates the control valve via pilot port 14, and
the cylinder advances. A limit valve 1S2 senses
that the cylinder has fully extended. Pilot signal 2
from valve 1S2 actuates the 5/2 way valve via port
12 and the cylinder retracts. The signal at port
12 is only effective, if the opposing signal at port
14 is released. If both of the signals produced via
the push-button valves are set to zero, then the
shuttle valve will release the pilot signal 14 back
through the exhaust port of one of the 3/2 way
valves. In other words, both the push-button and
the foot pedal must be inactive for retraction to
occur. The control valve can be a 4/2 way or 5/2
way valve and can be sized to suit the flow rate
required for the cylinder speed.
☞ The necessity of the shuttle valve can be
explained with the slides of topic 21.
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94.. Exercise: Memory circuit and speed control of a cylinder
Problem: A double acting cylinder is to fully
advance when a push-button is actuated and to
retract after full extensions is reached (confirmed
by a roller lever valve). The cylinder is to continue
forward even if the push-button is released. Speed
of the cylinder is to be adjustable.
Solution: Operating the push-button 1S1 then
advances the cylinder 1A1. Operation of valve
1V3 produces pressure at port 14 which switches
the air to port 4. Once the cylinder travels to the
limit valve 1S2, a pilot signal is sent to port 12
of the control valve switching the control valve
if the push-button valve is released. If the pushbutton is held operated after the cylinder has
fully advanced, it will remain advanced until valve
1S1 is released. The final control element 1V3 is
a memory valve and the last position is retained
until a unique opposing signal is received. The
speed of advance and retraction is controlled by
the throttle valves 1V1 and 1V2 and in both cases
the speed control is by exhaust air throttling. If
the roller lever valve is fitted at the mid-stroke
position of the cylinder, it will advance up to the
limit valve and then retract.
☞ The memory control valve 1V3 when first
fitted could be in either of two positions 14 or
12. It is not easy to predict the position of the
valve when fitted. If a manual override button is
available the valve should be manually set to the
12 position before turning on the air to ensure that
the cylinder remains retracted initially.
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95.. Exercise: The quick exhaust valve
Problem: A cylinder advances a forming tool on
an edge-folding device. If a sheet is detected as
present and if a push-button is pressed, then the
cylinder is to advance. For rapid forward travel,
the circuit utilizes a quick exhaust valve. The
forward movement folds the edge of a flat sheet.
If the push-button is released, the double acting
cylinder is to return slowly to the initial position.
Solution: Initial position: In the initial state, the
cylinder assumes the retracted position. If both
of the 3/2 way valves are actuated, pressure is
present at the output port 2 of the two pressure
valve 1V4. This reverses the 5/2 way control valve.
The cylinder advances with air being supplied via
an unrestricted passage through the one-way flow
control valve 1V1. The actuator travels rapidly
to its forward end position since the pressure
space on the piston rod side is rapidly exhausted
through the quick exhaust valve. If both 3/2 way
valves remain actuated, the cylinder remains in
the forward end position. If the push-button is
released, the actuator is no longer pressurized,
since the control valve reverses via the return
spring. The actuator travels to its initial position
under conditions of restricted flow (valve 1V1) and
therefore at a reduced speed.
☞ The quick exhaust valve should be fitted as
near as possible to the connection of the cylinder
to reduce resistance to flow.
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96.. Exercise: Pressure dependent control, embossing of plastic
Problem: A plastic component is embossed using
a die and a double acting cylinder. The die is to
advance and emboss the plastic when a pushbutton is operated. The return of the die is to
occur when the cylinder rod has fully advanced
to the embossing position and a preset pressure
is reached. A roller limit valve is to be used to
confirm full extension. The embossing pressure is
adjustable and is indicated on a pressure gauge.
Solution: The cylinder advances if valve 1V1 is
switched by push-button valve 1S1. The pressure
on the advancing side of the cylinder is fed from
a junction to the limit valve 1S2 and then in
series to the sequence valve. The signal port 12
at the sequence valve acts against the preset
compression of the adjustable spring. If the limit
valve 1S2 is operated due to full extension of the
cylinder and the preset value is reached, then the
sequence valve opens from 1 to 2 and sends a
pilot signal to port 12 of the control valve 1V1.
The memory valve switches and the cylinder
retracts. At the same time the air from port 4 is
exhausted and the pilot signal at the sequence
valve is relieved through the limit valve.
☞ If the pressure does not reach the preset limit,
then the cylinder will remain advanced. If the
cylinder is obstructed during extension to the
forward position, the cylinder will not retract due
to the dependency upon operation of the limit
vale 1S2. The power circuit must be initialized by
operating the 5/2 way memory valve manually (via
the manual overrides) with the air off. The air can
then be turned on.
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97.. Exercise: The time delay valve
Problem: A double acting cylinder is used to press
together glued components. Upon operation of
a push-button, the clamping cylinder advances
and trips a roller lever valve. Once the forward end
position is reached, the cylinder is to remain for 6
seconds and then immediately retract to the initial
position. A new start cycle is only possible after
the cylinder has fully retracted and after a delay
of 5 seconds. The cylinder extension is to be slow
and the retraction adjustable, but relatively fast.
Solution: The start conditions are the actuation
of roller limit valve 1S3, a delay of 5 seconds after
the end of cycle and the operation of 1S1. The
two pressure valve 1V4 actuates the 5/2 way
memory valve at port 14. The cylinder advances
at a preset speed via the flow control valve 1V2.
The limit switch 1S3 is deactivated and therefore
even if the start button is still held, the signal at
port 14 is exhausted by the removal of the limit
switch signal, which resets the timer 1V6 until the
cylinder has retracted again. The cylinder reaches
the limit valve 1S2 and produces a pilot signal for
the time delay valve 1V5. The time delay valve
opens port 2 if the preset time is reached. A pilot
signal is produced 6 seconds after the limit valve
1S2 is operated. The 5/2 way valve switches to the
initial position and the cylinder retracts and with
speed controlled by the valve 1V1. The roller limit
valve 1S2 is deactivated and the pilot signal to the
timer 1V5 is cut-off, removing the signal at port 12
of the 5/2 way valve.
☞ The memory valve must be positioned
manually before air is supplied to the circuit to
ensure that the cylinder will be retracted initially.
252
© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG and Art Systems • FluidSIM
C. Didactics Material Survey
C.8
Extensions
98 Refreshment break
Announcement of a short break.
☞ Describe the objectives of the next session
indicating what activities will take place. Also,
review the achievements of the current session.
99 Lunch break
Announcement of a longer break
☞ Describe the objectives of the next session
indicating what activities will take place. Also,
review the achievements of the current session.
C.9
Educational Films
No.
Title
Length
1
Introduction
2:42
2
Fundamentals: Structure of hybrid systems
4:32
10:26
3
Fundamentals: Fundamentals of electricity
4
Sensors and relays—Pressure switches
0:48
5
Sensors and relays—Sensors
3:24
6
Sensors and relays—Pressure switches
2:41
7
Sensors and relays—Relays
3:34
8
Solenoid valves
2:48
9
Solenoid valves: Double-solenoid valves
1:47
10
Solenoid valves: Pilot control
3:58
11
Pilot control: Circuit-diagram conventions
4:14
12
Pilot control: Hard-wired controllers
4:58
13
Pilot control: Programmable Logic Controllers
2:25
© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG and Art Systems • FluidSIM
253
C. Didactics Material Survey
C.10
Standard Presentations
For several topics useful presentations have been provided within FluidSIM. The following table lists the titles of the predefined presentations.
Presentation Title
All topics sorted by number
Exercises
Break and lunch
Basics
Diagram Symbols
Circuits
Air service units
Valves
Actuators
254
© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG and Art Systems • FluidSIM
D. Messages
This section contains information about the messages that may appear
from FluidSIM while working in the Edit Mode, the Simulation Mode, or
while saving circuit diagrams.
D.1
Electrical Errors
Simulation aborted. A short-circuit was detected in an electrical
circuit.
The positive and negative poles of a voltage source are directly
connected without a load (indicator light, buzzer, relay, or control
solenoid). The short circuit must be eliminated before simulation can
take place.
D.2
Drawing Errors
Objects are placed outside the drawing area.
At least one object has been placed outside the drawing area. After
acknowledging the dialog box the respective objects are shown
selected. Either change the papersize or place the selected objects
inside the marked drawing area.
Open connections.
At least one component has an open pneumatic connection. After
acknowledging the dialog box, all components with an open pneumatic
connection are selected.
Incompatible connections are superimposed.
When two connections are superimposed, FluidSIM automatically
connects them. When these two connections do not go together, a
warning message is given.
Superimposed lines.
At least two lines are superimposed. After acknowledging the dialog
box, these line segments are selected.
© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG and Art Systems • FluidSIM
255
D. Messages
Lines through components.
At least one line is passing through a component. After acknowledging
the dialog box, the appropriate components are selected.
Lines through connections.
At least one line is crossing through a connection to which the line is not
connected. After acknowledging the dialog box, these lines are selected.
Superimposed components.
At least two components are superimposed. After acknowledging the
dialog box, these components are selected.
Duplicate or incompatible labels.
A label has been used incorrectly. After acknowledging the dialog box,
the appropriate components are selected. To set the circuit diagram into
simulation, other labels will have to be chosen.
There are components with the same description.
The same description has been assigned to more than one component.
After acknowledging the dialog box the respective components appear
selected. Modify the component description(s), or, as the case may be,
rearrange them such that their assignment becomes definite.
There have been warnings. Start simulation anyway?
This prompt appears when any of the above drawing errors can be found
in the circuit diagram. If the simulation is started while connections are
open, air will escape at these places. However, open connections can be
fit with a blind plug, if this behavior is not desired.
256
© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG and Art Systems • FluidSIM
D. Messages
There is no cylinder close to the distance rule.
A distance rule can only be given a label when it is assigned to a
cylinder. Move the distance rule near a cylinder, so that it snaps into
place. Now a label can be entered by double clicking the measuring
scale.
No superficial errors detected.
The circuit diagram does not contain any of the above described drawing
errors.
D.3
Operating Errors
No objects found.
You tried to check a circuit diagram for drawing errors or to start the
simulation; but there are no components located in the current window.
Objects cannot be deleted from the FluidSIM standard libraries.
Create a new library if you want to set up a custom library.
Objects can neither be added nor deleted from the FluidSIM standard
libraries. However, new custom libraries can be created instead, which
contain merely your preferred selection of components (see Section
6.8).
The value range of ’ abc ’ is x ... x .
The value range for the field has been exceeded. Make sure to observe
the indicated limits.
© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG and Art Systems • FluidSIM
257
D. Messages
D.4
Opening and Saving Files
The circuit diagram has been changed. Save current changes?
You want to close a circuit diagram window or quit FluidSIM. Since the
last save, changes have been made to the current circuit diagram.
The file ’ abc ’ already exists. Replace?
A circuit diagram with the name name.ct already exists on the hard
disk. To save the current circuit diagram, you must either change the file
name, or the already existing file will be replaced with the new circuit
diagram.
Cannot save DXF file.
The file (either the current circuit diagram or the component library)
cannot be saved due to insufficient disk space or a write-protected disk.
Unknown file format.
The file cannot be opened since its format is not supported by FluidSIM.
Cannot open file ’ abc ’.
FluidSIM cannot open the file because Microsoft Windows® refuses
access to the file. Either the file does not exist or is locked by another
application.
’ abc ’ does not exist. Create?
You have tried to open a file that does not exist. However, the file can be
opened as a new file.
The file ’ abc ’ can not be deleted.
You have tried to delete a file that does not exist or is write-protected.
258
© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG and Art Systems • FluidSIM
D. Messages
Circuit ’ abc ’ is already opened. Close this window before?
You want to save a circuit diagram under another name. There is,
however, already another open window with this name. If you close
this window, the file will be replaced.
D.5
System Errors
Simulation aborted. The circuit is too large.
The size of circuit diagrams that can be simulated is bound. You must
reduce the number of components.
Internal capacity of FluidSIM exceeded.
The previous action exceeded the capacity of the internal memory. The
action cannot be completed.
No more windows available.
Microsoft Windows® cannot provide any more windows most likely
because the system resources have been exhausted.
Memory capacity exceeded. Quit other running applications.
There is not enough memory readily available to complete the
parameter calculations. To make more memory available, other circuit
diagrams should be closed, along with any other Microsoft Windows®
programs that are running. Then attempt to run the simulation again.
When there is no other possibility to free up memory, the virtual memory
can be increased. Microsoft Windows® then utilizes a section of the hard
drive to increase the memory. However, as a result the execution speed
of the program decreases greatly. It would be wiser to extend the main
memory by increasing the computer’s RAM.
© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG and Art Systems • FluidSIM
259
D. Messages
This version is not registered. Please repeat the installation
procedure.
You have tried to start an unlicensed version of FluidSIM. Most likely
you have changed your system configuration, or important system
files have become corrupt. Attempt to reinstall FluidSIM into the same
directory. If there is a problem with the re-installation, you will receive a
message on the screen pertaining to the problem. Notify Festo Didactic
GmbH & Co. KG of the error or the problem.
Out of memory. Please save changed circuits and quit FluidSIM.
While completing an operation (for example loading a circuit diagram,
displaying a component photo, rebuilding the desktop) an error in the
memory occurred. FluidSIM could not cancel the operation in a proper
manner. You are recommended to quit FluidSIM because the program’s
stability cannot be assured. However, it is still possible to save changes
to circuit diagrams before quitting FluidSIM.
Fatal error. Please save changed circuits and quit FluidSIM.
A program error has occurred. Please save changes to any open circuit
diagrams, quit FluidSIM and Microsoft Windows® , and restart.
The circuit filename.ct has not been saved when the last
FluidSIM session was terminated improperly. Shall this file be
recovered?
FluidSIM has been terminated in an unexpected manner. However, a
backup file was written from which an actual version of the unsaved
circuit can be constructed. If the question is answered with “Yes” a
window with the recovered circuit is opened; however, the original
circuit remains unchanged. You then can decide if to whether the
recovered circuit shall be saved under the original name.
260
© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG and Art Systems • FluidSIM
Index
Symbols
© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG and Art Systems • FluidSIM
30
31
52
33
37
37
37
38
25
27
30, 151
22, 151
151
44, 151
123, 152
49, 153
33, 153
52, 153
52, 153
58
160
160
160
160
160
161
69, 155
27, 155
24, 155, 212
28, 155
155
155
155
156
53, 154
261
Index
57
57
57
57
57
57
2/n way valve
configurable
3/2-way valve
ball seat
disc seat
lever operated
pneumatically operated
roller operated
solenoid operated
with pushbutton
with selection switch
3/n way valve
configurable
4/2-way valve
disc seat
roller operated
4/3-way valve
turning disc principle
4/n way valve
configurable
5/2-way valve
longitudinal slide principle
pneumatically operated
solenoid operated
suspended disc seat
with selection switch
5/3-way valve
pneumatically operated
solenoid operated
262
168
228
228–230
169, 170
175, 230
231
171, 173
171, 172
172
168
232
232
232
168
233, 234
175, 176
174
234, 235
173
176, 233
174
© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG and Art Systems • FluidSIM
Index
5/n way valve
configurable
A
B
activation
actuation
of switches
of valves
without detent
without lock
air drying
absorption
adsorption
low temperature
air lubricator
air motor
air service unit
alignment
AND
digital
animation
component
loop mode
of diagram symbols
Asynchronous Pulse Generator
digital
axial flow compressor
background grid
default setting
display/hide
set type
blind plug
delete
fit automatically
set manually
© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG and Art Systems • FluidSIM
168
11
27
74
59
45
225
225
224
225, 226
185, 244
166, 224
53
201
93
94
45
209
227
140
58
58
56
256
56
263
Index
C
264
cam switch
CD-ROM drive
check valve
piloted operated
circle
circuit diagram
backup
bistable valve
creation
current
default directory
direct control
drawing mistake
indirect control
load
pressure sequence valve
print
quick exhaust valve
save
sequential control
shuttle valve
signal overlap
simulate
superficial checking
time delay valve
too large
two pressure valve
click, see mouse click
clipboard
data format
general
command line
Compatibility
LOGO
component
210
11
177
211
139
220, 221
29
140, 151
139
217
68
218
22
221
123
221
258
222
219, 220
222–224
24
68
222
259
218, 219
1
146
52
147
83
© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG and Art Systems • FluidSIM
Index
actuation
animation
animation within circuit
connect
copy
delete
description
in clipboard
in selection
insert
move
numbering scheme
permanent actuation
photo
properties
rotate
rotate selection
sectional view
select
superimposed
usage in circuit
with label
component library
build
create
new
rearrange
using
component parameter
adjustable
general
components
group
pneumatic
same description
© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG and Art Systems • FluidSIM
59
93
45
37
52
33, 257
89
52
49
52
32
212
59
90
71, 80, 118
53
53
91, 99, 110
33
68, 256
91
72
132
132
132
129
129
80
80
58
166
256
265
Index
ungroup
compressed air filter
compressed air supply
axial flow compressor
delivery
distribution
general
piston compressor
within circuit
computer power
connection
close
digital
electrical
general
incompatible
mechanical
open
pneumatic
properties
quantities
superimposed
Connection
Digital
context menu
context sensitive
counter
electrical
pneumatic
current path
numbering
cycle
cylinder
control
distance rule problem
266
59
224
227
226
227
166
227
41
25, 60
56, 64
200
186
37
255
210
68, 255, 256
167
56, 64
64
68, 255
83
21, 52
89
194
178
62
115
212, 213
257
© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG and Art Systems • FluidSIM
Index
double acting
mounting arrangements
multi position
seals
single acting
smooth movement
tandem double acting
D
181–183, 213, 241, 242
243
183
242, 243
181, 212, 213, 241
82
243
DDE
communication
in
options
out
de-installation
default directory
delay switches
delay valve
detent switch
break
changeover
make
diagram
new
print tiled
diagram symbol
check valve
designation of connections
directional valve
flow control valve
linear actuator
method of actuation
non-return valve
numbering system
pressure control valve
rotary actuator
© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG and Art Systems • FluidSIM
84, 86
195
86
195
17
139
188, 196
239, 240
191
192
191
48
48
215
215
214
216
216
215
215
217
216
216
267
Index
supply component
dialog
project
dialog box
diagram
drawing layers
drawing size
DXF symbol
ellipse
exporting parts lists
import DXF file
label
paper size
parts list
rectangle
valve editor
didactics
actuators
animation speed
basic pneumatics
circuits
component description
component photo
diagram symbols
educational film
exercise
exercises
extensions
pneumatics basics
presentation
presentations
sectional view
settings
topic description
valves
268
214
138
49
112
48
128
115
122
126
75
48
121
113
35, 54
241
110
212
217
89
90
214
107, 253
100
244
253
96
103
254
91, 99, 110
110
94
228
© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG and Art Systems • FluidSIM
Index
differential pressure switch
Digital Basic Functions
Digital Components
Digital Constants and Connectors
Digital module
Digital Special Functions
DIN standard
directional valves
lever operated
3/2-way
pneumatically operated
3/2-way
5/2-way
5/3-way
solenoid operated
3/2-way
5/2-way
5/3-way
with pushbutton
3/2-way
with selection switch
3/2-way
5/2-way
directories of FluidSIM
distance rule
general
problem
usage
distance-step diagram
dongle
drag-and-drop
drawing
new
print tiled
size
© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG and Art Systems • FluidSIM
179
201
199
199
203
202
89
169, 170
175
175, 176
176
171, 173
174
174
171, 172
172
173
15
210
257
76
222
11
31, 146
48
48
48
269
Index
drawing area
objects outside
drawing layers
drawing mistake
DXF
export
import
E
270
Edge-triggered AND
digital
Edge-triggered Wiping Relay
digital
edit
redo
several circuits
undo
Edit Mode
activate
exit
educational film
CD-ROM drive
general
overview
Einfügen
Suchen
electrical components
american standard
ladder diagram style
electro-pneumatics
ellipse
error
fatal
message
exercise
AND function
255
112
68
125
126
201
207
49
59
49
59
25
11
107
253
134
186
195
195
70
115, 211
260
255
247
© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG and Art Systems • FluidSIM
Index
direct control
indirect control
memory circuit
OR function
overview
pressure control
quick exhaust valve
time delay valve
exhaust air throttling
Explorer
F
file
create
delete
open
replace
save
save as...
unknown format
film, see educational film
filter
flow direction indicator
default setting
general
Frequency Threshold Trigger
digital
G
245
246
249
248
100
251
250
252
238
146
graphic primitives
cycle
ellipse
rectangle
square
grid, see background grid
group
components
© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG and Art Systems • FluidSIM
258
258
146, 147, 258
258
258
259
258
1
224
140
65
209
113
115
115
113
113
1
58
271
Index
H
I
L
272
objects
58
help on problems
HI
digital
142
Input
digital
insert
parts list
installation
FluidSIM
FluidSIM in network
label
at component
at distance rule
display style
duplicate
frame
incompatible
ladder diagram
large mouse cursor
activate/deactivate
Latching Relay
digital
license
license connector
limit switches
line
automatic creation
color
crosses connection
delete
200
199
119
11
149
71
77
75
256
75
256
195
139
206
260
11
189, 197
61
26, 81
256
53
© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG and Art Systems • FluidSIM
Index
digital
draw
electrical
move
pneumatic
set type
superimposed
thickness
through component
linear drive
linear drive, solenoid coupling
LO
digital
LOGO
Compatibility
loop mode
animation
presentation
low pressure amplifier unit
M
main memory
minimum
reorganization
small
manometer
measuring instruments
media playback
Media Player
memory
exceeded
out of
Memory bits
digital
menu
context sensitive
© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG and Art Systems • FluidSIM
200
37
186
38
167
55
68, 255
26
256
184
184
200
83
94
111
176
11
147
60
185
185
109, 146
146
259
260
200
89
273
Index
messages
255
210
miscellaneous
25
model formulation
mouse click
24, 52, 55, 56, 64, 71, 72, 76, 78, 80, 118
double
53
double with Ctrl key
left
10
21, 52
right
49
with Ctrl key
with Shift key
59
N
O
274
NAND
digital
NAND With Edge Evaluation
digital
network
default directory
installation
option
non return valve
NOR
digital
NOT
digital
numbering
current path
objects
alignment
group
ungroup
Off delay
digital
On delay
digital
201
201
139
149
139, 150
236
202
202
62
53
58
59
204
204
© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG and Art Systems • FluidSIM
Index
On/Off delay
digital
one-way flow control valve
online help
OPC
communication
in
options
out
options
OR
digital
Output
digital
P
paper
size
parts list
export
piston compressor
pneumatics basics
power supply
connection (0V)
connection (24V)
presentation
creation
edit
file format
loop mode
overview
play
topic switching
pressure
absolute
atmospheric
© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG and Art Systems • FluidSIM
205
178, 237, 238
165
84, 86
195
86
195
163
201
199
48
119–121, 211
122
227
96
186, 195
186, 195
104
104
148
111
254
103
110
227
227
275
Index
pressure control valve
pressure sensor
pressure sequence valve
pressure switches
pressurizing valve
print
circuit diagram
preview
setup
window contents
Printer
select
project
adding files
opening files
properties
removing files
property, see component or connection
proximity switches
Pulse Relay
digital
pushbutton
break
changeover
make
Q
276
quantity
close to zero
default settings
display
units of measure
quick exhaust valve
quit
unexpected
178, 226
179
179
192, 198
170
123
123
124
123
124
137
138
138
138
138
1
193
206
191, 197
191, 197
191, 197
65
140
63, 140
10
177, 236, 237
260
© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG and Art Systems • FluidSIM
Index
R
S
RAM, see main memory
real-time proportional
recover
circuit
rectangle
registration
relay
counter
delay time
general
number of pulses
simple
switch-off delayed
switch-on delayed
Retentive On delay
digital
ring sensor
rubber band
scrollbar
semi-rotary actuator
sequence valve
service units
settings
circuit diagram specific
didactics
global
save
save on exit
simulation
window specific
short circuit
shuttle valve
signal devices
buzzer
© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG and Art Systems • FluidSIM
1
26
260
113, 211
260
194
78
78
78
194, 198
194, 198
194, 198
205
178
49, 57
21
184, 243, 244
238, 239
224
139
110
139
65, 139
140
81
139
255
177, 236
187
277
Index
indicator light
signal flow
simulation
DDE
different modes
existing circuits
Label designation
line color
OPC
parallel
piston movement
precision
real-time
settings
slow-motion factor
start
Simulation
Digital Technique
Simulation Mode
activate
exit
pause
reseting parameters
slow-motion factor
sound
activate
change file
square
state diagram
state values
diagram
recording
status bar
display/hide
of FluidSIM
278
187
212
84
28
22
82
81
84
59
82
26
82
81
82
256
83
25
27, 59
28
28
82
81
147
113, 211
211
66
66
139
21
© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG and Art Systems • FluidSIM
Index
status indicator
stepper module
series connection
TAA
TAB
sucker
superficial checking
supply air throttling
supply elements
switch
at cylinder
automatic altering
capacitive
coupling
general
break
changeover
make
inductive
limit
break
changeover
make
manually actuated
break
changeover
make
optical
pressure
break
changeover
make
pneu./el. converter
pressure operated
reed contact
© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG and Art Systems • FluidSIM
210
61
180
180
185
68
238
166
76
79
193
78, 79
187, 196
187
187, 196
193
189, 197
190
189, 197
191, 197
191, 192, 197
191, 197
193
192, 198
192
192, 198
192
179
190
279
Index
Reed contact
solenoid
switch-off delayed
break
changeover
make
switch-on delayed
break
changeover
make
with roll
switching element
table
symbol
DXF
Symmetric Clock Generator
digital
T
280
T-connection
T-junction
digital
electrical
pneumatic
table
switching element
text component
general
protect
throttle valve
time delay valve
Timer Switch
digital
toolbar
display/hide
of FluidSIM
189
193
188, 196
188
188, 196
188, 196
188
188, 196
189, 190
62
128
208
43, 61
201
186
167
62
117, 211
117
177, 238
180, 239, 240
207
139
20
© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG and Art Systems • FluidSIM
Index
U
V
W
topic description
two pressure valve
94
177, 235
undo
ungroup
components
objects
units, see quantity
Up/Down Counter
digital
49
vacuum actuator valve
vacuum suction nozzle
value range
exceeded
valve
configurable
editor
valve solenoid
American standard
valves
combinations
configurable
directional valves
flow control valves
groups
shutoff valves
way valves
video, see educational film
warning message
way valve
configurable
window
© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG and Art Systems • FluidSIM
59
59
1
208
179
185
257
168
35, 54
210
210
238
168
169
177
179
177
168
1
255
168
281
Index
arrange
not available
print contents
Wiping Relay
digital
X
282
206
XOR
digital
Z
165
259
123
zoom
circuit diagram
component library
time-distance diagram
with rubber band
202
57
57
57
57
© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG and Art Systems • FluidSIM
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