Integration of WirelessHART and STK600 Development Kit for Data

Integration of WirelessHART and STK600 Development Kit for Data

Integration of WirelessHART and STK600 for Data Collection in WSN

Integration of WirelessHART and STK600 Development Kit for Data Collection in Wireless Sensor Networks

BY

Muhammad Maqsood and Awais Masood

Internal Supervisors: Frank Yong Li and Ahmed Noor

Co-Supervisor: Erlend Knutson

Master Thesis in Information and Communication Technology

IKT590 in Spring 2013

Faculty of Engineering and Science

University of Agder

Grimstad, 03 June 2013

Status: Final

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Keywords: Offshore industry, WSN, WirelessHART, STK600, Simple API, Gas leakage sensor.

Abstract:

Offshore industry operates in world’s most challenging environment. Oil and gas facilities aim for continuous production to achieve the desired goals and a robust communication network is required to avoid production loses. The IEEE 802.15.4 specification has enabled low cost, low power Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) capable of providing robust communication and therefore utilises as a promising technology in oil and gas industry. The two most prominent industrial standards using the IEEE 802.15.4 radio technology are WirelessHART and

ISA100.11a.These are currently the competitors in the automation and offshore industry.

In this project, we have worked on Nivis WirelessHART development kit that has some on-board sensors. Our main goal is to integrate WirelessHART with external sensor board so that we can get the readings from external sensors and publish the data over web interface provided by Nivis.

Since, Nivis WirelessHART field router is not an open source and un-programmable, therefore it is considered as a black box. Due to lack of such capabilities, we cannot connect external sensor directly to Nivis radio. We have chosen Atmel STK600-Atmega2560 development kit as an external sensor board. In order to establish communication between STK600 and Nivis

WirelessHART, we have written an application in AVR studio and flash it to STK600 over the

USB connection. We have implemented a serial communication protocol called Nivis simple API and made Nivis board able to get data from sensors interfacing STK600. Nivis radio will then forward this data to WirelessHART through HART gateway. Moreover, we have configured

Monitoring Host to visualize the data from external sensors along with built-in sensors over the

Monitoring Control System (MCS). Finally, we evaluate our implementation by various experiments and prove that the overall flow is working properly.

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Preface

This report is the final result of a 30 credits Master Thesis, IKT590, completed at the Faculty of

Engineering and Science, University of Agder (UiA) in Grimstad, Norway. The work on this project started from 01 January 2013 and ended on 03 June 2013. The main goal of our project is, “Integrate WirelessHART and STK600 development kit for data collection”.

We are very much obliged to thank our university supervisors Dr. Frank Yong Li and Ahmed Noor for their constructive support and supervision throughout our thesis without which it would have been really difficult to achieve our goals. Their timely feedbacks helped us correcting our mistakes and improving our thesis. We are thankful to our co-supervisor Erlend Knutsen for his assistance during meetings at Applica consulting.

We would also like to thanks Stig Petersen from SINTEF, for refining our problem definition and sharing his rich experience in wireless sensor networks with us. We are grateful to Stefan Vos from Nivis, who provided us full support despite of being in Romania. Furthermore, we would like to thank Lill Hege Hals for initializing this project, and who has arranged meetings with the experts in oil and gas industry. Thanks to Pål Berg for his kind suggestions about different oil and gas industry parameters. Thanks to Ståle Enes (Manager integrated control systems in National

Oilwell Varco) for his help, and encouragement during our thesis.

We are grateful to our families back in Pakistan, to support us to study at the University of Agder.

Muhammad Maqsood, Awais Masood

University of Agder,

Grimstad, Norway

03 June 2013

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List of Abbreviations

UART

UKF

VSAT

VOR

LOS

LNG

LPG

MCS

PPDU

SCADA

TSBc

TETRA

ATEX

API

CoW

DLPDU

ATmosphère EXplosible

Application Programming Interface

Cell on Wheel

Data-Link Packet Data Unit

DeHiGate Deployable High Capacity Gateway

ETRI

FHSS

Electronics and Telecommunication Research Institute

Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum

HART Highway Addressable Remote Transducer

6LoWPAN Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) over Low-power Wireless Personal Area

Networks

ISA International Society of Automation

Line of Sight

Liquefied Natural Gas

Liquefied Petroleum Gas

Monitoring Control System

PHY Protocol Data Unit

Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition

Telenor Satellite Broadcasting

Terrestrial Trunked Radio

Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter

Unscented Kalman Filter

Very Small Aperture Terminal

Vestibulo- Ocular Reflex

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Contents

List of Abbreviations ..............................................................................................................4

List of Figures ........................................................................................................................9

List of Tables ....................................................................................................................... 11

1 Introduction ................................................................................................................. 12

1.1

Background and Motivation .................................................................................... 12

1.2

Problem Statement ................................................................................................ 13

1.3

Literature Review ................................................................................................... 14

1.4

Key Objectives ....................................................................................................... 14

1.5

Report Outline ........................................................................................................ 15

2 Overview of Offshore Communication Technologies................................................... 16

2.1

Inter-offshore Communication Technologies .......................................................... 16

2.1.1

Satellite ......................................................................................................... 16

2.1.2

Microwave ..................................................................................................... 17

2.1.3

Optical Fiber ................................................................................................. 18

2.1.4

WiMAX .......................................................................................................... 18

2.2

Intra-offshore Communication Technologies .......................................................... 19

2.2.1

TETRA .......................................................................................................... 19

2.2.2

Wi-Fi ............................................................................................................. 19

2.2.3

Ethernet ........................................................................................................ 20

2.2.4

Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) .................................................................. 20

3 Introduction to WirelessHART and STK600 Development Kit ..................................... 24

3.1

WirelessHART Brief ............................................................................................... 24

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3.1.1

Structure of WirelessHART Network ............................................................. 25

3.1.2

WirelessHART from Layers Prospective ....................................................... 26

3.2

WirelessHART vs ISA100.11a: Summery .............................................................. 29

3.3

Nivis WirelessHART Development Kit .................................................................... 31

3.3.1

Contents of Nivis WirelessHART ................................................................... 31

3.3.2

WirelessHART Provisioning Tool .................................................................. 32

3.3.3

Monitoring Control System (MCS) ................................................................. 33

3.3.4

Firmware Upgrade Procedure (VS220: Rev 4) .............................................. 36

3.4

ATMEL STK600 Development Board ..................................................................... 36

3.4.1

In-System Programming (ISP) ...................................................................... 37

3.4.2

On-chip Debugging ....................................................................................... 37

3.4.3

Atmega2560 ................................................................................................. 37

3.5

Preparation to Build-up the Network ....................................................................... 38

4 System Requirements and Design .............................................................................. 39

4.1

Requirements ......................................................................................................... 39

4.2

System Design ....................................................................................................... 39

4.2.1

Integrate STK600 and VS220 ....................................................................... 40

4.2.2

Interface between PC and STK600 ............................................................... 41

4.2.3

Interface a Gas Leakage Sensor to Send Data to VS220 via STK600 .......... 42

4.2.4

Visualization of Sensor Data over Web Interface .......................................... 42

4.3

Procedure to Integrate Nivis WirelessHART with STK600 ...................................... 43

4.3.1

Hardware Integration ..................................................................................... 43

4.3.2

Software Integration: A Simple API ............................................................... 45

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4.4

Configuration of MCS ............................................................................................. 47

4.5

Atmel AVR Studio 4.18 .......................................................................................... 48

4.6

COM Port Toolkit 3.9 .............................................................................................. 50

4.7

Chapter Summary .................................................................................................. 51

5 Implementation ........................................................................................................... 52

5.1

Activation of UART between VS220 and STK600 .................................................. 52

5.2

Implementation of Simple API to Integrate VS220 and STK600 ............................. 54

5.3

Integration of Sensor with STK600: A Sensor Board .............................................. 57

5.4

Implementation to Integrate Sensor with VS220 via STK600 ................................. 58

5.5

Visualization of Data over the Web Interface (MCS) ............................................... 59

5.6

Chapter Summary .................................................................................................. 62

6 Experimental Results .................................................................................................. 63

6.1

Test Scenario: STK600-Atmega2560 Loopback Test ............................................. 63

6.2

Scenario 1: Integration of VS220 and STK600: Request/Response ....................... 64

6.2.1

Read Data Request (VS220

→STK600-Atmega2560) .................................. 64

6.2.2

Read Data Response (VS220

← STK600-Atmega2560) .............................. 65

6.3

Scenario 2: Visualisation of Device Variable Values over Web Interface ................ 66

6.4

Scenario 3: Interfacing a Sensor Board with VS220 ............................................... 67

6.5

Scenario 4: Visualisation of Sensor Data over Web Interface ................................. 69

6.6

Proof of Concept: Implementation as a Whole ....................................................... 70

6.7

Discussions ............................................................................................................ 70

6.8

Chapter Summary .................................................................................................. 71

7 Position and Motion Sensors: A Survey ...................................................................... 72

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7.1

Position Sensors .................................................................................................... 72

7.1.1

Geomagnetic Field Sensor ............................................................................ 73

7.1.2

Orientation Sensor ........................................................................................ 73

7.1.3

Proximity Sensor ........................................................................................... 73

7.2

Motion Sensors ...................................................................................................... 74

7.2.1

Accelerometer ............................................................................................... 74

7.2.2

Gravity Sensor .............................................................................................. 75

7.2.3

Gyroscope .................................................................................................... 75

7.2.4

Linear Accelerometer .................................................................................... 76

7.3

Vision System for Mobile Robots ............................................................................ 76

8 Discussions ................................................................................................................ 80

8.1

Integrator Solution .................................................................................................. 80

8.2

DeHiGate (Deployable High Capacity Gateway) .................................................... 81

8.3

Electrical Equipment (Ex) ....................................................................................... 82

9 Conclusion and Future Work ...................................................................................... 84

9.1

Conclusions ........................................................................................................... 84

9.2

Future Work ........................................................................................................... 85

References .......................................................................................................................... 86

Appendices .......................................................................................................................... 93

Appendix A: Overview of Sensors ................................................................................... 93

Appendix B: Correspondence with Nivis .......................................................................... 94

Appendix C: Source Code ............................................................................................. 101

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List of Figures

Figure 1-1 Conceptual overview of our system ...........................................................................14

Figure 2-1 Point-to-point communication [7] Figure 2-2 Star network [7] ...............................16

Figure 2-3 Mesh network [7] .......................................................................................................17

Figure 2-4 Ceragon 123km over-water link [10] ..........................................................................17

Figure 2-5 Tampnet optical fiber links [11] ..................................................................................18

Figure 2-6 WiMAX coverage area [13] ........................................................................................19

Figure 2-7 Typical scenario for Norphonic offshore VoIP telephone connected by Wi-Fi.............20

Figure 2-8 A typical ISA100.11a network with a star-mesh topology [29] ....................................23

Figure 3-1 A typical WirelessHART network [26].........................................................................25

Figure 3-2 Internal structure of the WirelessHART gateway [26] .................................................26

Figure 3-3 Communication protocol stack of the WirelessHART [79] ..........................................26

Figure 3-4 Packet format of the WirelessHART [32] ....................................................................27

Figure 3-5 Detection of field router ..............................................................................................33

Figure 3-6 Monitoring control system setup ................................................................................33

Figure 3-7 MCS login screen ......................................................................................................34

Figure 3-8 WirelessHART network ..............................................................................................34

Figure 3-9 Joining of field router to the network ..........................................................................35

Figure 3-10 Built-in sensor readings ...........................................................................................35

Figure 3-11 Atmel STK600 development board ..........................................................................37

Figure 4-1 Desired network system.............................................................................................40

Figure 4-2 UART0 connections with RS-232 to monitor data over PC ........................................41

Figure 4-3 VS220 UART2 pin configuration ................................................................................43

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Figure 4-4 UART integration of VS220 and STK600-Atmega2560 ..............................................44

Figure 4-5 Voltage level convertor ..............................................................................................44

Figure 4-6 Analog/Digital channels .............................................................................................47

Figure 4-7 Monitoring host in MCS .............................................................................................48

Figure 4-8 The AVR studio 4.18 IDE ...........................................................................................49

Figure 5-1 UART frame structure ................................................................................................53

Figure 5-2 Integration of STK600 and Nivis VS220 .....................................................................54

Figure 5-3 Sensor interfaced with STK600..................................................................................57

Figure 5-4 Sensor communicating with VS220 via STK600 ........................................................58

Figure 5-5 Publish of sensor data over the web interface (MCS) ................................................60

Figure 5-6 Configuration of monitoring host ................................................................................62

Figure 6-1 STK600 loopback test ................................................................................................63

Figure 6-2 Requests from VS220 ................................................................................................65

Figure 6-3 Response by STK600-Atmega2560 ...........................................................................66

Figure 6-4 Visualisation of readings over web interface ..............................................................67

Figure 6-5 Data from sensor interfacing STK600 ........................................................................68

Figure 6-6 Sensor readings over MCS (1)...................................................................................69

Figure 6-7 Sensor readings over MCS (2)...................................................................................70

Figure 7-1 Accelerometer orientation [49] ...................................................................................75

Figure 7-2 Vision system for mobile robot [50] ............................................................................77

Figure 7-3 Vision and estimation threads [50] .............................................................................78

Figure 8-1 Integrator solution ......................................................................................................80

Figure 8-2 DeHiGate architecture ...............................................................................................81

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List of Tables

Table 1 Key differences and similarities between WirelessHART and ISA100.11a .....................29

Table 2 Components of Nivis WirelessHART ..............................................................................31

Table 3 API message format ......................................................................................................45

Table 4 Data pass-through commands .......................................................................................46

Table 5 Explanation of ATEX classes [20] ..................................................................................83

Table 6 Overview of sensors.......................................................................................................93

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1 Introduction

In this chapter we provide background and motivation about this thesis

. The problem definition will be explored in detail along with the key objectives to be done during the project. At the end of this chapter, we have discussed literature review followed by report outline and structure.

1.1 Background and Motivation

Oil and gas industry operates in some of the world’s most challenging environments. Any disruption to production can be extremely costly and therefore needs to be handled quickly and efficiently. Disruption factors include natural disasters, earthquakes, seismic changes, and manmade disasters. Natural disasters can be classified as tsunamis, thunder storms, flooding, and hurricanes while maintenance activities, repair, restore, and terrorist activities are subject to man-made disasters.

Communication networks in offshore industry utilise multiple of communication technologies to get rid of any possibilities of failure, when the network is operational. But the industry has some strict and tight requirements for robust communication which is still a challenge for offshore industry. From the industry prospective, a network is said to be “robust”, if it fulfils the requirements to operate for 24*7 without any failure [1]. Offshore requires communication 24*7 in order to have continuous production without interruptions. Therefore, a network is said to be robust if it fulfils the requirements to operate for 24*7 which is only possible if the network is working properly without any failure.

Multiple communication technologies are used in oil industry which are further divided into two broad categories. These are called inter-offshore and intra-offshore communication technologies.

These technologies are categorized on the bases of several reasons in which bandwidth, cost, propagation length, and coverage area are the main parameters. The technologies under the paradigm of both the categories are briefly presented in Chapter 2.

In order to keep oil and gas operations running smoothly, offshore needs robust, and reliable communication solutions. Therefore, a standard and open solution is required that can meet industry requirements. The IEEE 802.15.4 specification has enabled low cost, low power

Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) capable of providing robust and reliable communication. For oil and gas industry, WSN applications offer great opportunities for communication and production where the wired counterparts may prove to be impractical. However, there are some issues related to use of WSN, of which robustness, power consumption and standardization are most important [2]. Technical requirements have been highlighted in [2] for the deployment of

WSN within the confines of oil and gas industry. These technical requirements include long battery life, quantifiable network performance, friendly co-existence with WLAN, security, and open standardize system.

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Although WSNs are used in numerous applications but the adoption of wireless technology in process automation and offshore industry has been slow. None of the industrial solutions based on standards such as 802.11, ZigBee, Bluetooth have yet to serve as a standard solution for industrial applications [29]. This is due to lack of open and international standard fulfilling the industrial requirements.

In 2007, the HART Communication Foundation (HCF) released the Highway Addressable

Remote Transducer (HART) field communication protocol specification which includes the definition of wireless interface to field devices, named as WirelessHART [29]. Soon after

WirelessHART, the International Society of Automation (ISA) has released specifications for wireless systems in industrial automation and control systems and named as ISA100.11a. Both

WirelessHART and ISA100.11a aim to provide secure and reliable wireless communication for noncritical monitoring and control applications. Both standards are used in process automation and control, and are the main competitors to each other in the industry [2].

During this project, we focused on WirelessHART standard as the testbed was available in our laboratory. We used WirelessHART development kit from Nivis. By default, Nivis WirelessHART measures temperature, humidity, and dew point. However, offshore industry uses different kind of sensors such as gas leakage sensor, motion, and position sensors etc. Therefore, we need to measure other type of sensors data through WirelessHART network for which we need to have a microcontroller which supposed to be integrated with WirelessHART field router. By connecting some sensors to microcontroller, we can make WirelessHART able to get the readings from external sensor as well which is the main motivation behind this thesis work.

Atmel AVR

As mentioned earlier that we have a WirelessHART development kit from Nivis but we need to arrange a microcontroller and we will programme it in a way that it can communicate with Nivis field router VS220. After a survey and useful suggestions from Stig Peterson, a research scientist in SINTEF, we preferred to use STK600-Atmega2560 as a starter kit from Atmel. Atmel is a company that manufactures electronic circuits and microcontrollers. To receive STK600, we have enrolled in Atmel AVR University program through their website.

1.2 Problem Statement

In this project, we are using Nivis WirelessHART development kit which allows user to integrate their products for WirelessHART compatibility. Each Nivis field router has three built-in sensors but we are interested to make it capable to gather data from external sensors. So, the overall goal of this project is to integrate a Nivis WirelessHART development kit with the external sensor board to buil d a WirelessHART network ‘out of the box’ and evaluate the performance of Nivis

WirelessHART system. Figure 1-1 illustrates the whole flow of the project.

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Figure 1-1 Conceptual overview of our system

1.3 Literature Review

Technologies used in offshore communication were not so advanced in mid-20 th

century. So the communication networks in offshore industry were based on simple radio communication.

Today, the latest technologies with advanced features such as optical fiber, microwave, satellite, and WiMAX etc. became an essential part of offshore industry [1]. Oil and gas exploration continues to expand at a rapid pace [3]. The advantages of new technologies allow operators to access energy resources further way from shore than ever before.

In the operation of production and distribution, any disruption is extremely costly and needs to rectify quickly and efficiently. Therefore, robust, adaptable, and reliable communication solutions are essential to keep oil and gas operations running smoothly [4]. Robust and cost effective technologies are always the first priority for operators and industry. Communication solutions are based on various factors such as the distance data must travel, the remoteness of the installation, and the amount of data that must be transmitted, as well as the availability of the technology [5].

1.4 Key Objectives

This thesis aims to investigate standards and open solutions for robust communication in offshore industry. After a thorough research on the topic, we came to know that WirelessHART and ISA100.11a standards are most prominent and competitors in the big picture for open standard in offshore industry. But we keep our scope limited to WirelessHART. More specifically, the key objectives in this thesis work are as follows:

Survey existing solutions and open standards used in offshore.

Setup Nivis WirelessHART testbed and perform experiments.

Integration of Nivis WirelessHART with Atmel AVR development kit STK600-Atmega2560 in order to forward readings from external sensors over WirelessHART network to the

HART gateway.

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Configure a user interface to visualize the sensors data over the web interface by Nivis.

Perform tests and validate the conceptual overview given in Figure 1-1.

1.5 Report Outline

The rest of the report is structured as follows:

Chapter 2 provides a brief overview of offshore communication technologies.

Chapter 3 presents WirelessHART, layered architecture of WirelessHART and elaborates the differences between two standards and overview of Atmel STK600 development kit.

System requirements and design is defined in Chapter 4.

Chapter 5 gives detailed information of the steps taken throughout development and how the project has been implemented.

Chapter 6 covers experimental results and tests performed on WirelessHART and

STK600.

Analytical survey about position and motion sensors are described in Chapter 7.

Different approaches, solutions, and parameters investigated during this study are discussed in Chapter 8.

Finally conclusions and future work are presented in Chapter 9 followed by references specifies source material and appendices.

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2 Overview of Offshore Communication Technologies

Oil and gas industry communication are mainly divided into two categories which are briefly explained in later sections. Different communication technologies are explained in detail which can be used as robust technologies for offshore industry.

2.1 Inter-offshore Communication Technologies

Communication between different confines in oil and gas industry is called inter-offshore communication. For inter-offshore communication, technologies such as satellite, microwave, optical fiber, and WiMAX are used to improve the robustness by evaluating the availability, repair, and replacement time in normal and catastrophic situations. Catastrophic situations can be classified as natural disasters [1]. Later section describes brief introduction about inter-offshore communication technologies.

2.1.1 Satellite

In offshore communication, the most widely used technology is satellite communication which requires Very Small Aperture Terminal (VSAT) link; a broadband satellite link in space between offshore site and onshore [4]. Satellite link requires large bandwidth to carry supporting services such as voice, data, and control traffic to and from shore. The distance travelled by traffic from offshore to onshore is approximately 50,000 miles [1] which adds half a second latency. The main drawbacks in satellite communications are delay in transmitted data and limited bandwidth.

Latest satellite techniques allow huge capacities that were not available a few years ago.

Theoretically, it is now possible to use entire band of 500 MHz capacity on one satellite link. In practice, Telenor Satellite Broadcasting (TSBc) offers high powered satellite capacity to facilitate the ever-increasing demand from offshore industry for bandwidth [6]. Satellite communication forms different topologies such as point to point communication shown in Figure 2-1, star network in Figure 2-2, and mesh network which is shown in Figure 2-3.

Figure 2-1 Point-to-point communication [7] Figure 2-2 Star network [7]

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Figure 2-3 Mesh network [7]

2.1.2 Microwave

Microwave Line of Sight (LOS) communication technology carries data through wavelength; a wavelength less than one meter in length. Microwave provides more bandwidth but at shorter distance. Typically, microwave technology is used for location which is within close proximity to each other such as cluster of facilities on field. Microwave is much more cost-effective solution. It overcomes the capacity and latency capabilities of traditional satellite communication [8]. Shorter distance is the limitation for microwave communication technology.

However, Nera networks currently Ceragon [9] which is a key communication equipment supplier to Norwegian offshore industry since the 1970s solved the shorter distance problem. Ceragon used advanced PointLink system and Evolution Long Haul technology and delivered a highcapacity radio link which is unaffected by fading, harsh weather conditions, or rig movements.

Ceragon’s microwave provides the main link while satellite connection provides low-capacity backup. Ceragon built 123km link to Talisman (Canada largest petroleum company) Yme oil field in the Norwegian North Sea and became the world longest microwave radio over-water link to an offshore rig with capacity of 128Mbps [10]. The microwave link is shown in Figure 2-4.

Figure 2-4 Ceragon 123km over-water link [10]

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2.1.3 Optical Fiber

Optical fiber communications revolutionize offshore operations [11]. Fiber optic provides high capacity broadband access, increase efficiency, and major cost savings. The capabilities of bandwidth and reliability of traditional satellite and microwave can no longer provide the necessary bandwidth and reliability pushing the need to go to high-capacity, reliable fiber optic networks [12]. In normal operations case, most of the traffic is routed via fiber optics due to its enormous bandwidth [1]. However, if redundancy link is not included in the form of ring topology then breakdown in fiber cable proves to be a disaster as most of the traffics is routed via this link.

To avoid such situations, operators use either optical redundancy or combination of multiple technologies. Optical redundancy is not cost-efficient solution. Multiple combinations of technologies such as optical fiber and microwave radio links are used by Tampnet. Tampnet is an authorized telecommunication operator in Norway and Australia. Tampnet developed high capacity, resilient and low latency communication network of multiple technologies i.e. fiber backbone and microwave radio links, serves both the Norwegian and UK sectors. Tampnet optical fiber link is shown in Figure 2-5.

Figure 2-5 Tampnet optical fiber links [11]

2.1.4 WiMAX

WiMAX is another inter-offshore communication technology. Unlike traditional point-to-point microwave, WiMAX refers to wireless cells which cover many miles in diameter. The WiMAX antenna provides 18 Mbps coverage within a 25 km radios. Each cell enables anyone or anything within the footprint to be connected. This multipoint method of access is economical, provides extremely reliable links, and excellent redundancy options to ensure connectivity. Netronics [13] is a global wireless broadband and WiMAX leader, provides solution over 120 Mbps of capacity

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Integration of WirelessHART and STK600 for Data Collection in WSN in each cell; a capacity which is enough to support many concurrent applications across the operational region. Figure 2-6 shows the brief coverage area of WiMAX.

Figure 2-6 WiMAX coverage area [13]

2.2 Intra-offshore Communication Technologies

Communication within confine of oil and gas industry is called intra-offshore communication. For intra-offshore communication, technologies such as TETRA, Wi-Fi, Ethernet, and WSN are used.

These technologies are used to cover small geographic area. Later in this section, intra-offshore technologies are explained.

2.2.1 TETRA

Terrestrial Trunked Radio (TETRA) is an established and proven standard which is adopted worldwide for public safety and private organizations. TETRA is a wireless communication technology used to provide security to people. TETRA is used for application with requirements

[14] such as flexibility and scalability, efficient communications, reliability and system availability, and data communications. Effective and robust communication is basic need for offshore industry from both business and safety prospective. Any interruption to drilling, pipeline, or refinery operations due to lack of efficient communications can have major financial consequences. A typical oil pipeline pumps more than $3 million of oil per hour [15] while oil industry operates for

24-hours therefore efficient communication is necessary in order to save large financial loses.

2.2.2 Wi-Fi

Wi-Fi is another technology used for intra-offshore communication. According to [16], advance of wireless technology is one of the great success stories of the 21 st

century.

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Norphonic [17] VoIP offshore telephones use two communication technologies. Usually

Norphonic is connected to Ethernet using optical fiber, but it is also connected to an external Wi-

Fi transceiver / antenna to transmit and receive signals (Figure 2-7). Thus a wireless communication solution is provided to offshore by Norphonic.

Figure 2-7 Typical scenario for Norphonic offshore VoIP telephone connected by Wi-Fi

2.2.3 Ethernet

Offshore industry uses three types of networks [18]. The first type is used for control and safety systems. The second type is used for Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems. The third type of network is used for Intranets i.e. internal communication in offshore.

Ethernet is used in all the three type of networks in order to enable easier and tighter integration between all levels of the corporation. In industrial applications, performance improvements made

Ethernet as reliable and robust technology.

Hirschmann is technology and market leader in industrial networking and Belden is world leader in providing signal transmission solutions [19]. These two jointly set solutions for industrial

Ethernet solutions. Ethernet provides seamless interoperability, system integration. Ethernet is very flexible as it works with co-existence of technologies such as copper, fiber, and wireless etc.

Due to high degree of flexibility and use of common components, Ethernet is a natural fit and most cost effective solution to integrate data in oil and gas industry.

2.2.4 Wireless Sensor Network (WSN)

WSN specifications defined in IEEE 802.15.4 as low-power, and low-cost. In offshore industry, sensors cost-efficiently eliminate the need for cables. Sensor is able to collect data in remote or hostile areas and enables new applications. In offshore industry, sensors are used for underwater and production applications [20] and to monitor the production process, prevent or detect oil and gas leakage. Gullfaks offshore field located in North Sea [21], decline in flow line pressure leads to large financial losses, is resolved by wireless temperature sensor network. A

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Integration of WirelessHART and STK600 for Data Collection in WSN number of WSN applications in oil and gas industry are presented in [22], including industrial mobile robots, real time inventory management, process and equipment monitoring, and environment monitoring [23].

IEEE 802.15.4 standard defines low-rate Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPANs) [24] which enables numerous applications within the field of WSN [25]. The more recent field of WSN is wireless instrumentation. WSN is used in wide variety of applications; however the introduction of wireless technology in process automation industry is slow. Wireless solutions for industrial applications based on standards such as IEEE 802.11, ZigBee, Bluetooth, and Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) over Low-power Wireless Personal Area Networks (6LoWPAN) have not yet achieved a breakthrough. The main reason for wireless industrial solution is the lack of an open, robust, and international standard [26].

Process automation industry was revolutionized with the introduction of new standard based on

IEEE 802.15.4 in 2007, when the HCF released the HART field communication protocol specification. The specification includes the definition of wireless interface to the field devices known as WirelessHART [27

]. Besides, the WirelessHART development by HCF’s, another organization called ISA introduced a standard which defines wireless systems for industrial automation and control applications. ISA100 standard is a family standard which cover several applications. ISA launched their first standard in 2009 as ISA100.11a [28]. ISA100.11a is a specification for process automation. The main focus of ISA100.11a is to provide secure and reliable wireless communication for non-critical monitoring and control applications.

Currently, the process automation industry is faced with two independent and competing standards. Both are particularly designed to control and monitor field instruments through their air interface. Each standard is supported by different industry competitors. It is more important to have one global wireless standard for process and automation industry. International wireless community has taken initiative for a common standard, but it is expected to take time. However in the current situation, this is unlikely to happen in the near future. Below section covers

ISA100.11a while the next chapter covers WirelessHART in detail.

ISA100.11a

The ISA100.11a is a multi-functional standard for industrial applications. It provides reliable and secure operation [29] to many different applications ranging from monitoring to closed loop control. It is built due to the simultaneous transporting data application requirement from different protocols to a new control system. ISA100.11a defines the OSI stack, system management, gateway, and security specifications for low data rate wireless connectivity with fixed, portable, and moving field devices. It requires very limited power consumption. The ISA100.11a wireless communication stack is developed specifically for harsh industrial environments and their unique demands on robustness, interference rejection and security.

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A typical ISA100.11a installation kit consists of a group of components, both physical devices and software modules, each is capable to fulfil one or more defined functions. In ISA100.11a, each device has a set of roles which are defined to describe their functions and capabilities.

ISA100.11a device performs one of the following tasks [29]:

Input/ Output (I/O): Each device in ISA100.11a provides sensor data to other devices or uses the actuators data from other devices.

Router: A router is a device used to route data from other devices in the network.

Provisioning: A tool which is used to detect and connect a device to the network is called provisioning tool.

Backbone Router: A device which is capable to route data to or from a backbone network.

Gateway: A device which provides an interface between a wireless networks to the global

Internet. It is the gateway which allows end user to access the network.

System Manager: It is an application used to control, monitor, and measure the network parameters. It governs the network, network devices, and network communications.

Security Manager: It is an application used in conjunction with the system manager, to provide a secure system operation.

System Time Source: A device that is responsible to maintain the master time source for the system.

In ISA100.11a, the sensors and actuators do not exhibit the routing capabilities. Due to these characteristics ISA100.11a field devices can be defined as either simple end nodes (with no routing capabilities) or router nodes with routing capabilities. Therefore due to the role of the field devices within the network, ISA100.11a forms star, mesh-star, or mesh network. A typical

ISA100.11a network with a star-mesh topology is illustrated in Figure 2-8.

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Figure 2-8 A typical ISA100.11a network with a star-mesh topology [29]

The backbone network represents a wired network which connects different ISA100.11a devices and components together. Backbone router is used for configuration. Gateway, system manager, security manager, and backbone router reside in the same physical device.

Typically in a mesh network, the sensors/nodes which are directly connected to the backbone router face high traffic load. In the figure above, devices such as A, B, F, and G has high traffic load. The main reason for high traffic of these devices as they forward the packets to the gateway on behalf of rest of the nodes within the network. In congested network, this result in a substantial increase in data traffic, and hence the power consumption of the nodes near to the gateway increase accordingly.

ISA100.11a implemented the IEEE 802.15.4 PHY [24], with a few minor modifications. It operates on 2.4GHz band and use channels 11-25 defined by IEEE 802.15.4. The bandwidth of each channel is 2MHz. The channels are spaced 5MHz apart. ISA100.11a uses the combination of Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) and Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS) as modulation technique. DSSS divides the information signal into small fragments that are spread across the available frequency channel. With FHSS the channel that is selected for data transmission will alternate in a pseudo random sequence.

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3 Introduction to WirelessHART and STK600 Development

Kit

This chapter presents a detailed explanation of the wireless industrial standard; WirelessHART. It covers the standard from both technical and systematical point of view which enables

WirelessHART to compete with the challenges e.g. data and network security, interference, realtime delivery in unprotected radio spectrum, and robustness. We have examined how the

WirelessHART standard compares to the layering in the standard OSI model and how it maps to the standard layers of OSI model. The comparison of ISA100.11a and WirelessHART in terms of most prominent features is also presented.

It also presents the overview of Nivis WirelessHART development kit with its components and function for each component. It also provides the key features of the starter kit and microcontroller used during the project which are STK600 and Atmega2560 respectively. At the end of this chapter we provide a brief summary for the starting point of this thesis in terms of practical work and planning of project.

3.1 WirelessHART Brief

The WirelessHART was officially released in September 2007, as the first open wireless communication standard specifically designed for process measurements and control applications. It operates at 2.4GHz ISM radio band. It is Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) based wireless mesh networking technology. It offers self-configuring (little or no training is necessary for the plant workers to start using it), self-healing multi-hop mesh network with robust and secure communication links. WirelessHART provides interoperability to devices and capable to deliver sensor data in most hostile and remote areas to a process plant.

In WirelessHART, reliable communication is achieved by modulation techniques through DSSS and FHSS. It uses retransmission mechanisms. It provides spatial path diversity through the mesh network. Data security is achieved by multi-layered approach for authentication, integrity.

WirelessHART is using well-tested encryption algorithms which ensures the security level necessary for the plant [26]. The main motivation point of WirelessHART is

“Simple”, “Reliable” and “Secure”, which makes it a leading wireless communication technology for intelligent process measurement, using HART protocol.

The HART protocol uses Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) which makes it possible for digital communication on top of the 4-20 mA. The HART protocol communicates at data rate of 1200 bps and does not interrupt or interfere with the 4-20 mA signal. HART is a master/slave protocol which means a device can only send/receive when ordered by the master. HART has two main operation modes i.e. peer-to-peer mode and multi-drop mode. In a network maximum two masters are allowed; primary and secondary. Therefore, a handheld terminal can be used without communication interference to the primary master [31].

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3.1.1 Structure of WirelessHART Network

Figure 3-1 shows a typical WirelessHART network, which consists of a group of network devices, i.e. field devices (connected to the gateway). In the network each field router has a communication link to the gateway (forms star network). Each field device has the capabilities to act as source, sink, and router at the same time. Therefore, the field devices form mesh topology with each other.

Figure 3-1 A typical WirelessHART network [26]

Figure 3-2 illustrates the internal structure of the WirelessHART gateway. WirelessHART gateway is implemented with multiple field routers and works as a bridge to connect the

WirelessHART network to the process plant. The host plant can access the network devices through server interface, which can be through either a single or multiple ports. The network access points provide the actual physical connection to the WirelessHART network. The

WirelessHART virtual gateway works both as a source and sink for the network traffic, it also provides buffering for large and burst data. It communicates directly with network manager which is responsible for configuration and maintenance of WirelessHART network. The network manager decides how to setup the communication route. Security manager works in conjunction with network manager in order to prevent the attacks and intrusion to the WirelessHART network.

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Figure 3-2 Internal structure of the WirelessHART gateway [26]

3.1.2 WirelessHART from Layers Prospective

The communication protocol stack of the WirelessHART follows OSI (Figure 3-3). The physical layer is responsible for signaling, modulation and actual data transmission and is same as IEEE

802.15.4 with a few minor modifications. WirelessHART protocol specifications define Link and

Network layers. The Data link layer determines how the common wireless medium is shared between the network devices, it is also responsible for formatting data packets, detection/correction of error bits. The network layer is the core for WirelessHART network, which is responsible for routing, topology control, end-to-end transmission reliability and flow control.

Transport and Application layers are provided by the HART standard.

Figure 3-3 Communication protocol stack of the WirelessHART [79]

Successful transmission relies on proper functioning of each layer. Therefore, when the field devices collect and transmit the temperature and pressure measurement to the gateway. Then the measured data is collected and pass “down” through the OSI layer protocol stack and

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Integration of WirelessHART and STK600 for Data Collection in WSN communicated over the wireless channel. If transmission involves intermediate router then the data goes up to

(and down from) the network layer and at destination packets go “up” to the application layer at the gateway.

The functions of each layer is presented below. WirelessHART areas are highlighted which is either unique or essential for the services for which WirelessHART is designed.

PHY and MAC Layer

The WirelessHART PHY layer is based on IEEE 802.15.4 standard, which employs Offset

Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (O-QPSK). It uses DSSS technique to resist interference from jamming. FHSS follows pseudo random sequence to hop carrier frequency over multiple channels, due to this feature FHSS overcomes the narrow band interference generated by multipath fading. WirelessHART uses 15 channels out of 16 channels from channel number 11 to 25 defined by the IEEE 802.15.4. Channel number 26 is not included in WirelessHART specification because it is not allowed in some countries [32]. Each channel has a bandwidth of 2MHz and uniformly distributed 5MHz apart in the frequency band to avoid overlapping.

At physical layer (PHY), the packet format of the WirelessHART is identical to the PHY Protocol

Data Unit (PPDU) of IEEE 802.15.4. It consists of preamble (4 bytes), PPDU (1 byte) and a variable length payload. Data structures from the higher protocol layers are encapsulated in the

PHY payload. Packet format of the WirelessHART is described in Figure 3-4.

Figure 3-4 Packet format of the WirelessHART [32]

The logical link control layer defines the format of the Data-Link Packet Dara Unit (DLPDU) [32].

It consists of

: 1 byte “0x41”, 1 byte address specifier, 1 byte sequence number, 2 byte Network

ID, 2 or 8 byte destination and source address, 1 byte DLPDU specifier, 1 byte keyed Message

Integrity Code (MIC), a 2 byte Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) and a variable length DLL

Payload.

The MAC layer is the sub-layer of Data link layer. WirelessHART uses TDMA technique to ensure contention free transmission of the data. Each time slot is 10msec. In broadcast message,

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Integration of WirelessHART and STK600 for Data Collection in WSN many receivers can be assigned to the same time slot. Multiple time slots form a super-frame.

These super-frames are then repeated at fix rate throughout the network lifetime. Two field devices (one is source and other is destination) can be assigned a single timeslot to ensure the contention free access to the wireless medium. Neighbor table gives the list of neighbor nodes which are directly connected to the device where graph table is used to keep information of the routing table. For the transmission, device randomly chooses a link from the available link list and uses channel offset to calculate the channel frequency. As the frequency hopping provides channel diversity, therefore the time slot is shared by multiple nodes. The collision is avoided at destination by using the random back-off mechanism. Broadcast messages, however are not allowed on shared time slots.

The source transmits a DLPDU upon the successful reception of ACK DLPDU from the destination. If it does not receive ACK DLPDU from the destination then the data transmission is regarded as a failure and the DLPDU will be retransmitted by the source in the next time slot.

Network Layer

Network layer is responsible to route packets across the network, discovers and maintains routing tables. Network layer functions are handled by network manager in WirelessHART network. The network manager maintains a complete list of devices in the network, keeps full knowledge of the network topology, and responds to hosts regarding the network level information [26].

The network manager configures the route for the entire network. Routing protocol is based on shortest path as an optimization metric taking the transmission energy into consideration [26].

During the start-up phase, network manager uses cost function to construct the routing table.

This results a collection of routing graphs where each edge of the graph represents the possible transmission path between the two devices. Each graph is associated with a unique graph ID, which is passed to the devices in the network to be placed in the packet header, to determine which path is to be used for transmission. To maintain reliability and ensure the path diversity, each device holds at least two neighbors for transmission in each routing graph.

Network manager is also responsible for link scheduling, which schedules the time for the packet to be sent. Proper configuration of link schedules reduce latency (by smart routing), increase network throughput and balance the network load [26]. The network manager creates and maintains a network wide link table. It is also responsible for collecting diagnostic and system performance information, which is used to monitor and assess the overall state of the network.

Transport Layer

A unique feature of the WirelessHART transport layer is the block data transfer mechanism [26], which sets up a connection oriented communication between the host application and the field devices. Network manager updates its routing and scheduling plan to provide the reliable and end-to-end ACK of the block data transfer. For this purpose WirelessHART support both TCP/IP

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Integration of WirelessHART and STK600 for Data Collection in WSN with ACK through Automatic Repeat Request (ARQ) for event notification and UDP which is without ACK when sending real time process data which has usually shorter life span. The default number is set to 5 for re-transmission of data.

Cross Layer Issues

Figure 3-3 shows the typical architecture of the OSI protocol layers and WirelessHART stack where each layer performs its dedicated function (well functioned in wired network). However in wireless network, the medium is shared, resources are limited and loss communication channels promoted the paradigm of the cross-layer design [33]. This design provides better efficiency, throughput, better allocation of resources, less delay and effective energy consumption for the wireless field devices.

For WirelessHART, only cross-layer design of MAC and network layer for energy consumption has been considered. TDMA link scheduling optimizes the routing for each node and also minimizes the total energy consumption of the network. This can be achieved by load balancing between field devices which work as transceiver between Access Point (AP) and the nodes at higher levels. This problem can be formulated as a multi-constraint convex optimization and can be solved using an iterative algorithm at the gateway [34].

3.2 WirelessHART vs ISA100.11a: Summery

As stated earlier, WirelessHART and ISA100.11a are competitors in the long run of becoming the de facto global standards for process and automation industry. Table 1 highlights the key differences and similarities we have found between the two standards during our study.

Properties

Table 1 Key differences and similarities between WirelessHART and ISA100.11a

WirelessHART ISA100.11a Comment

Field devices Each node acts as router

Either simple node or router

In ISA100.11a node depends on its routing capabilities

Network topology Mesh network Star, star-mesh Topology depends on the role of the field device in ISA100.11a

Flexibility Less flexible More flexible WirelessHART has few while ISA100.11a has many optional parameters

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Protocol support HART protocol Tunneling protocol Both use different routing protocols and supported by different market players

Interoperability issue Due to the optional parameters

Interoperability Facilitate interoperability between vendors

Transport layer Supports ACK and

NACK

Supports only NACK ISA100.11a provides connectionless services

Modulation scheme

Physical layer

DSSS and FHSS

IEEE

2.5GHz

802.15.4

DSSS and FHSS

IEEE

2.5GHz

Both use combination of these two modulation schemes

802.15.4 Both operates in same ISM band

Channel bandwidth

Channel spacing

2MHz

5MHz

2MHz

5MHz

Channel access

Coexistence

TDMA and frequency hopping

TDMA and frequency hopping

Friendly coexistence with other wireless systems

Friendly coexistence with other wireless systems

Why WirelessHART?

Despite what has just been stated, WirelessHART still dominates the market because

WirelessHART enabled devices are already available as well as 26 million installed HART devices worldwide. Due to the fact that WirelessHART is more popular in process and automation industry, we were interested to work on WirelessHART and fortunately we had Nivis

WirelessHART development kit in UiA lab. Nivis radio VS220 has limited sensors and we aim to make it capable to get the readings from external sensors to obtain the functionality of

WirelessHART environment. The description to set up Nivis WirelessHART development testbed is presented in next section.

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3.3 Nivis WirelessHART Development Kit

The kit allows users and integrators to quickly integrate their application to the WirelessHART standard. It also provides users with the ability to evaluate the performance of the WirelessHART standard. The entire network is monitored through web-based graphical user interface. This interface gives information about the network, field devices, network states, and topology. It allows user to update remotely the entire system.

3.3.1 Contents of Nivis WirelessHART

This section contains components of Nivis WirelessHART kit. Table 2 depicts the devices and their description.

Table 2 Components of Nivis WirelessHART

Component/Picture

Versa Router (VR910)

Comment

The VR910 is an all-in-one, industrial wireless gateway. The architecture of VR910 supports Nivis WirelessHART software. The

VR910 software components are preinstalled and configured. It has functional features include access point, gateway, network manager and security manager, and MCS (host application).

Versa Sensor (VS220) The Nivis VS220 is a development board designed specifically for

WirelessHART to enable fast product integration and development for industrial wireless solutions. Temperature, dew point, and humidity sensors are integrated in it.

Loop board (VL10) The Nivis VL10 is designed for WirelessHART applications to enable customers to connect a variety of 4-20mA devices in order to transmit sensor data using the WirelessHART standard to the gateway.

Microlink HART protocol The Microlink is a USB to HART device interface. It provides the hardware interface between HART and a computer with a USB

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modem

Integration of WirelessHART and STK600 for Data Collection in WSN interface.

3.3.2 WirelessHART Provisioning Tool

WirelessHART provisioning tool is an application used to detect and configure the VS220 sensor board and the VL10 power loop board. It is used to connect the boards with the WirelessHART network, as well to set the burst configuration for the variables published by the boards. To detect a device, connect any field router to the PC through Microlink HART protocol USB cable. To detect the field router, follow the next steps:

1. Connect jumpers J7 and J8 while J22 is depopulated.

2. Both SW4 and SW5 are set to position number 2 and insert the batteries. Connect two mini-clips of Microlink USB cable with VS220 TR1 and TR2.

3.

Press “Detect Device”, button in the provisioning tool and click start. After successful detection of the device an output window will appear as shown in Figure 3-5. Sometimes

VS220 is not detected then either change the batteries or set the SW4 to position 3 and connect the field router to the PC through USB cable. All the three field routers are detected by the same way.

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Figure 3-5 Detection of field router

3.3.3 Monitoring Control System (MCS)

MCS is the Nivis web-based tool, enables user to access, monitor, and control the

WirelessHART network remotely. The MCS provides a robust network management solution via a web based interface that can be accessed from any required location [40]. It enables administrators to configure most attributes of their network environment, including Backbone

Router/Access Point, Security, Modbus, and Alerting. In order to access WirelessHART network through monitoring control system, following setup should be made as shown in Figure 3-6.

Figure 3-6 Monitoring control system setup

Next, setup the IP connectivity of the PC or laptop to the following configuration:

IP address: 192.168.0.120

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Subnet mask: 255.255.255.0

Gateway: 192.168.0.101

Open the browser and enter the IP address of the VR910, default being http://192.168.0.101/ .

Once the address is accessed, a login screen appears (Figure 3-7).

Figure 3-7 MCS login screen

Enter the valid user name and password, the default user name and password is:

User name: admin

Password: adminadmin

Once the access is granted, the browser will display the MCS web interface home page. It shows the default network i.e. Nivis AP, Nivis Gateway, Nivis WHart Manager. Since, we are working on one field router (Figure 3-8), so the capture shows only one field router along with the core network.

Figure 3-8 WirelessHART network

If the attached field router is not detected, then open the provisioning tool and follow the procedure as discussed in Section 3.3.2. After detecting the field router, click tools option and then start assisted join. The device is fully connected to the network (Figure 3-9).

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Figure 3-9 Joining of field router to the network

Since, the field router devices are preconfigured to publish the Primary, Secondary, Tertiary, and

Quaternary variables which are internally mapped to the readings of Current, Temperature,

Humidity, and Dew Point from the on-board integrated sensors (Figure 3-10).

Figure 3-10 Built-in sensor readings

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3.3.4 Firmware Upgrade Procedure (VS220: Rev 4)

In order to make VS220 up to date, it needs to upload the firmware. The GUI application

“Upload2Serial_.exe” upgrades the new WirelessHART firmware on the VS220 platform. To load the WirelessHART firmware on the VS220 platform, follow these steps:

1. Connect the VS220 to the PC through a USB cable. Mount/connect the jumpersJ10, J12,

J21 and put the SW5 on position 2. During the upload, do not connect more than one

VS220 router to the PC at the same time.

2. Open the Upload2Serial application, and select the COM port on which the VS220 is connected, check the Escape Manufacturing information upload box (do not forget to check this box as it will erase important data ), enter a 10 in the timeout box, select area 4 as flash destination and select the VS220 firmware file. Then click on the start button, press the reset button on the VS220 and the loading procedure will begin. After the loading is done (a message with disconnected will appear in the lower corner of the

Upload2Serial Application).

3. Now to run the updated firmware, disconnect jumpers J10 and J21 while connect jumpers

J12, J16, J17, J18, J19, and J20. Then press the RESET button.

3.4 ATMEL STK600 Development Board

The STK600 [37] is a standard socket card for development on single chip solutions connected on small router board. Single chip solution means that all the logic and controllers are embedded in a single chip unlike those where the radio and microcontroller are separate chips connected on a circuit board.

STK600 is a starter kit from Atmel (Figure 3-11); a development system for both 8-bit and 32-bit

AVR microcontroller. It gives a quick start to designers to develop code on the AVR, combined with advanced features for using the starter kit to prototype and test new designs. The AVR device mounted on the top of STK600 use routing card which is used to route the signals from the AVR device to the appropriate hardware of STK600. In addition, the STK600 comes with another Micro Controller Unit (MCU) Atmega2560 which is 8-bit AVR MCU as a routing card. A brief overview of Atmega2560 is given later in this section.

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Figure 3-11 Atmel STK600 development board

To get started with Atmega2560 and STK600 are described in [38]. STK600 is flexible and offers socket card so it is easy to use different AVR MCU. STK600 development kit offers access to all

AVR device pins. It has several useful hardware functions such as pushbuttons, LEDs, and data flash which is used to create a complete system for prototyping and testing new designs. AVR studio is used to write and compile firmware, and download the codes to any AVR device. AVR studio has different versions available at [39].

3.4.1 In-System Programming (ISP)

The use of STK600 is effective in a way that it supports ISP through its 6 pins ISP header. ISP allows user to program the MCU while they are installed in a complete system rather than requiring the chip to be programmed prior the installation. This implies that both programming and testing can be done in a single step instead of program the MCU separate and then mount it on the chip again to get the functionality of whatever has been coded.

3.4.2 On-chip Debugging

The Joint Test Action Group In Circuit Emulator (JTAGICE) mkII enables on-chip debugging of the code on the AVR MCU. It is used together with the AVR Studio’s user interface and makes code debugging much easier. The JTAGICE emulates the MCU without having to remove it from the target system (the node) and allows using break points and stepping the code by using stepin function provided by AVR studio.

3.4.3 Atmega2560

Atmega2560 is used as a routing card with STK600. Atmega2560 is low power and high performance Atmel 8-bit AVR MCU [43]. It consists of 256KB ISP flash memory, 8KB SRAM, and

4KB EEPROM. It has total 100 pins in which 86 are General Purpose Input/ Output (GPIO) pins.

The 100 pins are categorized as: 32 general purpose working registers, 5 SPI, 1 I2C, 4 USARTs,

16-channel 10-bit A/D converter, 1 analog comparator, 6 flexible timer/counters with compare modes, 16 output compare channels, 4 input capture channels, and 15 PWM channels.

Atmega2560 achieves a throughput of 16 MIPS at 16MHz and operates between 4.5-5.5 volts.

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3.5 Preparation to Build-up the Network

We installed and configured Nivis WirelessHART testbed [35] at University of Agder (UiA).

Various experiments were performed to measure temperature, humidity, and dew point. However, we want to monitor data from other most commonly used sensors in offshore industry. Since,

Nivis radio is not programmable so we cannot interface any external sensor to the Nivis testbed.

Therefore, we need to have another sensor board which collects and transmits the data to the

Nivis field router and we have chosen ATMEL AVR [36] STK600 development board as a starter kit. To establish communication between the two aforementioned entities, we have to manage to setup Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter (UART) connections between the two and needs to implement a serial communication protocol as an Application Programming Interface

(API). In order to make all this setup fully functional, we have specified a list of requirements in addition with system design in next chapter.

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4 System Requirements and Design

In this chapter, we have defined the system requirements in addition to design proposals and our decisions on how to implement the various modules. It also provides the description to the hardware and software utilized in our development and testing environment. In addition, we have provided rationale behind our choices of such tools. Moreover, it presents the procedure defined to implement Nivis simple API, which is in fact the critical phase of our project and serves as a metric for successful completion of our project.

4.1 Requirements

From Figure 1-1 we have outlined the following requirements; to get a complete and accurate system.

1. Implement Nivis simple API to integrate field router VS220 with STK600 via UART interface.

2. Manage an interface between PC and STK600 and set up UART on STK600-PC to see real time communication (Request/Response) between VS220 and STK600 via RS-232 interface.

3. Interface sensor with STK600 in order to transmit sensor data to VS220 to be forwarded over WirelessHART through HART gateway.

4. Configure web interface provided by Nivis to visualize the data on MCS send by external sensors over WirelessHART environment.

4.2 System Design

In this section, we provided the description of requirements and how to implement them in order to get a fully functional system. Figure 4-1 depicts the design of our system based on the requirements specified in Section 4.1.

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Figure 4-1 Desired network system

A step by step clue of design phases of our system is as follows:

4.2.1 Integrate STK600 and VS220

Step 1: STK600 and Nivis VS220 integration

The first step to start with the designing of system is to make Nivis field router VS220 able to communicate with STK600 which is the core of our system. To do so, we will use UART interface of both for serial data communication. The basic hardware settings and how to connect them using UART is provided in detail in Section 4.3.1. Once this is done, we will look forward to the software integration of both where it needs to implement a serial communication protocol which is explained in detail in Section 4.3.2. Once simple API is implemented, then VS220 start sending requests to STK600 and we have to respond those requests as defined according to simple API.

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4.2.2 Interface between PC and STK600

Step 2: Interface between PC and STK600

In order to observe the communication between STK600 and VS220, we required an interface between STK600 and PC. For this, we need to set up another UART on STK600 in a way that it can communicate with the PC so that we can able to see the real time communication between

STK600 and VS220 on our PC. To do so, we will use RS-232 spare header and UART0 on

STK600 (Figure 4-2) and connect RS-232 port of STK600 to USB port on PC through RS-232 to

USB serial cable. We use a data analyser COM port toolkit 3.9 for data visualization which is explained later in this chapter.

Figure 4-2 UART0 connections with RS-232 to monitor data over PC

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4.2.3 Interface a Gas Leakage Sensor to Send Data to VS220 via STK600

Step 3: Gas leakage sensor interface with STK600 and VS220

Next step needs to implement is, to interface a sensor with STK600 and make it to be able to forward sensor data to VS220. VS220 will then forward data over WirelessHART environment through HART gateway. To do so, we must have a senor with UART, Analog or SPI interface because STK600 support these three interfaces. Currently, we test it with one sensor i.e. a gas leakage sensor with ADC support but we plan to make our system flexible enough to support eight external sensors and get the functionalities of WirelessHART environment in WSN. To interface a sensor, an ADC pin on STK600 needs to be define so that it can read the value from the sensor and then assign this sensor value as device variable value to one of the device variable codes. The device variable codes and device variable values are given in Section 4.3.2.

4.2.4 Visualization of Sensor Data over Web Interface

Step 4: Visualization of sensor data over web interface (MCS)

The last but not the least step towards the completion of our system is the visualization of sensor data over the web interface so that we can able to monitor sensor data over WirelessHART from

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Integration of WirelessHART and STK600 for Data Collection in WSN anywhere in the world provided that the internet connection is available. At this stage, the whole network connects to the VR910 which acts as a gateway. To do this, we need to configure MCS which is explained in Section 4.4.

4.3 Procedure to Integrate Nivis WirelessHART with STK600

Nivis WirelessHART is flexible in a way that users can interface the external sensor boards via serial UART, or SPI, which will allow them to write their own application code through a Nivis simple API. Each of the sensor board allows user to build a Wire lessHART network “out of the box” and evaluate the performance of the Nivis WirelessHART system. System parameters can be configured and monitored through MCS hosted on the VR910. VR910 delivers all the information, from a full topological view to in-depth network health information about sensor devices, in the MCS console.

4.3.1 Hardware Integration

The external processor can communicate with Nivis radio using either a UART interface (UART2 for VS220) or an SPI interface. The pin configuration of VS220-UART2 is shown in Figure 4-3.

Figure 4-3 VS220 UART2 pin configuration

The following settings are used for the UART interface.

Default Baud rate: 38400 bps

Bits: 8

Parity: None

Stop bits: 1

The AVR STK600-Atmega2560 has four UART interfaces but we use UART1 as the communication interface with VS220 radio. For UART1 on Atmega2560, PD2 and PD3 act as Rx and Tx respectively. Moreover, two GPIO pins are required for RDY and WKU and we have taken PF0 and PF1 as RDY and WKU respectively (Figure 4-4).

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Figure 4-4 UART integration of VS220 and STK600-Atmega2560

Voltage Level Convertor

When VS220 is interfaced with STK600, the VS220 resets continuously and MCS does not detect the field router. The reason for the resetting is the voltage difference between STK600 and

VS220. VS220 operates on 3.3V whereas STK600 operates on 5.5V. It is, therefore, recommended to have voltage level converter that converts 5.5V input voltage to 3.3V output voltage. To do so, two resistors with 1K

Ω and 1.4K

Ω

are used in shunt. We have connected a

Tx-Rx line with this circuit in a way that Tx (PD3) pin of STK600 is connected to the input of 1K

Ω while the Rx is taken at the output of 1.4K

Ω

(Figure 4-5)

Figure 4-5 Voltage level convertor

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4.3.2 Software Integration: A Simple API

Software integration can be done by implementing the simple API protocol which is designed to define a standard communication interface between the RF modem processor (VS-220) and application processor (STK600-Atmega2560). In this case, the RF modem processor is the master of communication and the messages are handled on a FIFO basis by VS-220.

Communication Flow: Communication between VS220 and Atmega2560 is based on two kinds of pack ets (Requests and Response). The Nivis radio sends the “Read data Request” periodically and STK600-

Atmega2560 has to respond that request with the “Read Data

Response Command” in 250ms maximum. Otherwise, the sender processor sent requests repeatedly until a response is received.

API Message Format

Field

Table 3 API message format

Size (Bytes) Comments

STX

1

Message Header 1

Message Type

1

Message ID

Data size

Data

CRC

1

1

0..X

2

0xF1. Start of Character. When this is received, the receiver discards any other message in progress and start receiving this new message.

Consists of Requests/Response bit (0=Request and

1=Response) and Message class e.g. Data Pass Through.

Depends on Message Class in Message Header-e.g. Read

Data Request or Read Data Request

Used for correspondence between Request and

Response...Must be same for Request and Response.

Represents the number of data bytes in the message.

The Req/Res message data. Could be the value from sensor.

CRC is based on a standard CRC algorithm (CCITT-CRC,

0x1021 as the polynomial) and includes everything between, but not including, the STX and CRC. The initial value is

0xFFFF.

Data Pass-Through Commands

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The Data Pass-Through message category consists of three sub-commands:

Table 4 Data pass-through commands

Message Type

Write Data Request

Read Data Request

Read Data Response

Values Comments

1 Writes data to the application processor (sensor board) (

←)

2

3

Requests data from the application processor (sensor board)

(←)

Receives data from the application processor(sensor board)

(

→)

Note 1

For all Data Pass-Through commands, the Atmega2560 specifies the “Device Variable

Code” parameter which uniquely identifies the channel.

The RF modem stack does not perform any assumption about the “Channel Data”, but passes the response from the Atmega2560 as it monitors host application, which will interpret the data. The attribute value is 4 bytes, with the first byte as Most Significant

Byte.

Note 2

STX (0xF1) is a special character that indicates the start of a new packet. If this character needs to be sent in the middle of the packet it will be escaped with the escape character CHX (0xF2). If any of the characters in the packet is:

STX (0xF1): It will be replaced with two characters: 0xF2 (CHX) and 0x0E (1’s complement of 0xF1),

CHX (0xF2): It will be replaced with two characters: CHX (0xF2) and 0x0D (1’s complement of 0xF2).

In other words, whenever the receiver receives a CHX character, it should discard it and the next character is 1’s complemented.

RF Modem (VS220 Radio)

The RF modem (VS-220) act as a User Application Program (UAP) instead of implementing

HART command on the application processor. This option is limited in the sense that only a single UAP is available with 4 pieces of local input analog channels (CH_ANALOG_INPUT,

CH_INPUT_TEMP, CH_INPUT_HUMIDITY, and CH_INPUT_DEWPOINT) and 8 pieces of

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Integration of WirelessHART and STK600 for Data Collection in WSN input/output user defined analog/digital channels. A device variable (with a unique code) is assign to each of the above mentioned channel.

The VS220 is capable to forward 8 variables each 5 bytes long. This indicates that the STK600-

Atmega2560 have to send all the variables regardless of how many user-defined channels are being used.

The device variable codes start from 0x05 and end at 0x0C.Each variable code has the format:

Device Variable Code (1B) Device Variable Value (4B).

Once the device variables and their corresponding values have been assigned, then by using these assigned device variables and appropriate HART commands, the WirelessHART burst mechanism can be configured to publish some or all of the supported channels data to the gateway.

The pre-defined and user defined channels on VS220 and STK600 can be seen from Figure 4-5.

Figure 4-6 Analog/Digital channels

4.4 Configuration of MCS

This section presents how the user interface is configured to publish data from external sensors.

User interface is configured in monitoring host which can be found in monitoring control system.

In user interface, three settings are being configured i.e. burst messages, variables, and trigger values. Burst messages format consists of parameters such as EUI64, command number, burst message, and update period etc. are configured. While in variable section the parameters such as command number, message bursts, device variable code, name, device variable slot, device variable classification, and unit code are configured. Similarly, command number, burst messages, burst trigger mode selection, device variable classification, unit code, and trigger values are configured in trigger format section. Command number and burst message is same for all the three sections. Figure 4-6 shows monitoring host in MCS.

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Figure 4-7 Monitoring host in MCS

4.5 Atmel AVR Studio 4.18

We have utilised AVR studio for development and debugging purposes. Atmel AVR is an

Integrated Development Environment (IDE) for developing and debugging embedded application on AVR chips. The IDE supports on-chip debugging, breakpoints, viewing of registers, I/O ports and instruction level stepping. This makes it a very powerful tool for the development of embedded AVR applications. AVR Studio 4.18 is the mostly used version with the development boards like STK500 and STK600 and is built on Visual Studio which gives it a powerful base in terms of editor features compared to the previous versions. A screen shot of the AVR studio 4.18

IDE can be seen in Figure 4-7.

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Figure 4-8 The AVR studio 4.18 IDE

We select AVR GCC as a project type. In the fuses settings, select SUT_CKSEL and choose the option Ext. Crystal Osc. 8.0- MHz; Start-up time: 16K CK + 65ms and turn the switch to EXT close to ISP header on STK600 circuit board. HW setting is used to set voltage to the target AVR.

Set VTarget to 5.5V and clock generator to 7.3728 KHz. This frequency is more user friendly [41].

After setting voltage, the Vtarget LED turned green. In the hardware settings, depopulate AREF0 and AREF1 and connect the ISP through 6 pin serial cable. The captured screens for Hardware setup is shown in Figure 4-8.

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Figure 4-8 Hardware configuration for STK600-Atmega2560

Once the STK600-Atmega2560 is connected and hardware settings are done. The next step is to build and run the program. Then in the main window, select Atmega2560 as device and signature byte and then read signature. In the programming mode and target settings, select ISP mode and set the frequency to 200 kHz. It is important to note that always select hex file from the default folder of the program. Then click the program to flash the hex file on STK600. In the same way, the elf production file format needs to select and program each time.

4.6 COM Port Toolkit 3.9

COM port toolkit 3.9 (Figure 4-9) has been used during our project to visualize the real time communication between VS220 and STK600 on our PC through RS-232 serial interface. It is a data and timing analyser designed specifically to isolate the problems with serial data communication (RS-232). COM port toolkit is an indispensable test tool for industrial control and

SCADA design and test engineers, system integrators, field service and maintenance engineers.

The product enables shorter and less costly development intervals for serial communications equipment, improved mean-time-to-repair following equipment [42].

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Figure 4-9 COM port toolkit 3.9

4.7 Chapter Summary

In this chapter, we have mentioned the requirements associated with this project in addition to the basic design proposals for various requirements in order to come up with a complete network as specified in Figure 4-1. It can also be clear from this chapter that what is existing and what is missing in our desired system. A WirelessHART gateway with the fully implemented

WirelessHART environment and HART protocol is available along with the field routers VS220 with some built-in sensors and a web interface. However, what is missing can get from the requirements as mentioned in this chapter and we have provided an approach for implementing these missing features for this project. The real implementation of the core behaviour and functionality of this system is described in next chapter.

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5 Implementation

This chapter includes the detail description of how the features described in Chapter 4 have been implemented. First we provide an overview of how to enable UART for transmission and reception of the development boards we are using. Next is the description of implementation efforts we have made to interface VS220 with STK600 through simple API which can also be considered to be the core task of our thesis. Afterwards, we describe the implementation of interfacing an external sensor (Gas Leakage) with STK600-Atmega2560 and forward these sensor readings to VS220. The VS220 will then forward the readings to WirelessHART network through HART gateway. Final step is the configuration of MCS to publish and visualize sensor readings over the web. We used AVR studio 4.18 as the programming and debugging environment and code is written in C++. The implementation phases we have passed through during development of the whole system are listed below:

Activation of UART between VS220 and STK600

Implementation of simple API to integrate VS220 and STK600

Integration of sensor with STK600: A sensor board

Implementation to integrate sensor with VS220 via STK600

Visualization of data over the web interface (MCS)

Next comes detail of each phase with the hardware setup and the main code written for development. We have taken Figure 4-1 as a reference and connected entities are marked with the dashed box after the successful implementation of each phase

5.1 Activation of UART between VS220 and STK600

Atmega2560 consists of four UART interfaces. A UART is a component that transmits 8 bits of data over a serial line. The UART feature of the AVR MCU can communicate with another MCU, multiple MCUs, or a computer using a voltage level shifter or converter. The UART can transmit data using a buffer and a shift register and same is the case with receiving data. It creates a frame of data that can be recognised on both transmitting and receiving end. The UART frame structure (Figure 5-1) consists of 11 bits in total out of which 8 bits are data bits while 2 bits are used as start and stop bits and 1 is parity bit.

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Figure 5-1 UART frame structure

We managed to set up UART1 to communicate STK600 with VS220 (UART2 header). However,

UART0 of Atmega2560 is used for communication with PC through RS-232 interface so that we can see the requests generated by VS220 on COM port toolkit 3.9. Remember that the baud rate for both UARTs is 38400bps and clock frequency has set to 16MHz. Listing 1 shows UART initialization and activation.

Listing 1 UART initialization

Once UART is initialized then

UART’s Tx and Rx lines are enabled, we have written the functions for UART data transmission and reception. UART _transmit () is coded for VS220 and STK600 while UART0_transmit () is used to send the data received from VS220 to PC via STK600

(Listing 2).

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Listing 2 UART transmit and receive function

5.2 Implementation of Simple API to Integrate VS220 and STK600

Once the UART setup is implemented, we look forward to integrate VS220 and STK600 through

Simple API (Figure 5-2).

Figure 5-2 Integration of STK600 and Nivis VS220

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We are now able to see the messages from VS220 on COM port. We respond to the messages accordingly, based on the API integration manual as discussed in Chapter 4. Compose

Response () method (Listing 3) is explained below.

From the requests, we have to store the message ID since we need to use the same message ID in the response. Therefore, the received message is stored in the buffer. Two buffers are defined, one for the incoming data and second for the outgoing data, an index for keeping count of the characters and a byte count. The format for the response message is:

0xF1 0x18 0x03 Msg ID 0x28 Data CRC

Where:

0xF1 - STX

0x18 - Data pass through response

0x03 - Message type read data response

0x28 - Data size

These bytes are hardcoded, while the rest variables depend on data. The Msg ID is the same as the request ID.

Listing 3 Compose response

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The Data field is actually the data read by the sensor and it is 40 bytes long. The VS220 is capable to forward 8 variables each of 5 bytes long. The pattern of the response is as follows.

0xF1,0x18,0x03,0x80,0x28,0x05,0x3D,0x7A,0x00,0x00,0x06,0x3D,0x7A,0x00,0x00,0x07,0x3D,

0x7A,0x00,0x00,0x08,0x3D,0x7A,0x00,0x00,0x09,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x01,0x0A,0x00,0x00,0x00,0 x01,0x0B,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x01,0x0C,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x01, CRC

The bold bytes are variable codes, and need to set accordingly. The first four groups of four bytes (i.e. 0x3D, 0x7A, 0x00, 0x00) are the analog values and the next four groups (0x00, 0x00,

0x00, 0x01) are the digital values. The CRC is two bytes long and it is calculated on all of the bytes except the STX (0xF1).

Please note that these values 0x3D, 0x7A, 0x00, 0x00 and 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x01 are purely used as an example and need to change according to the sensor values. Listing 4 shows the buffer to store response.

Listing 4 Buffer to store response

After generating the valid response for the request, we used Interrupt Service Routine (ISR) to respond for every request over UART through Compose Response () function. CRC is calculated based on a standard 16 bit CRC-CCIT algorithm which used 0x 1021 as a polynomial [80] which can be seen by the function crc_calc () (Appendices 3).

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Note

The data used at this stage is not collected but manually generated.

As a consequence, after the implementation of Nivis simple API, the two boards STK600 and

VS220 are able to transmit and receive messages through UART interface.

5.3 Integration of Sensor with STK600: A Sensor Board

Next step is to interface a gas leakage sensor to STK600 (now it acts as a sensor board). MQ-2 gas sensor is connected to STK600 (Figure 5-3), which is sensitive to LPG, i-butane, propane, methane, alcohol, hydrogen and smoke. We used MQ-2 sensor due to analog output.

Figure 5-3 Sensor interfaced with STK600

Since the sensor produce continuous analog output, so we used ADC pin on STK600 to convert the analog value to digital. For Atmega2560, port F and port K can be used as ADC ports and we have chosen PF0 as ADC pin.

Due to the ADC input voltage range VCC voltage is kept 5V. However, we may also use selectable 2.56V or 1.1V- ADC reference voltages. The clock is operating on 16MHz but by default the successive circuitry requires an input clock frequency between 50 kHz and 200 kHz as per datasheet [43]. So, dividing 16MHz by 50 KHz and 200 KHz, 320 and 80 is obtained respectively. As 128 is the division factor between 80 and 320 according to the data sheet of

Atmega2560 [43], so set all the bits of Analog Digital Pre Scalar (ADPS) as high (Listing 5).

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Listing 5 Sensor data over UART

The function UART0_transmit () transmits to PC whatever received from ADC pin.

5.4 Implementation to Integrate Sensor with VS220 via STK600

The sensor board (i.e. sensor and SKT600) is integrated with VS220 as shown in Figure 5-4.

Figure 5-4 Sensor communicating with VS220 via STK600

VS220 radio is now able to display external sensor data along with built-in sensors. During the implementation of simple API, static values are assigned to the device variables (i.e. var1, var2, …, and var8) as can be seen from Listing 6.

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Listing 6 Init data

To get the sensor data, these variables require dynamic value from ADC pin where the sensor is connected. In ISR, we assigned ADC high bit value to the var1 so whenever ADC pin has some data to send, an interrupt will occur which takes the data and send over UART (Listing 7).

Listing 7 ADC ISR

We can interface up to eight sensors with STK600 to get readings from external sensors and forward them to WirelessHART gateway via VS220 radio as we have eight user defined channels.

5.5 Visualization of Data over the Web Interface (MCS)

Until now we are only able to see the readings of built-in sensors of VS220. However, we can configure Monitoring Host Management in the user interface to get the new readings from the sensors interfacing STK600. In the monitoring host, we have modified burst messages which are used to publish data to the gateway. Figure 5-5 illustrates the flow of sensor data.

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Figure 5-5 Publish of sensor data over the web interface (MCS)

Burst messages (Figure 5-6) are used to publish sensor readings to the gateway. In monitoring host three parameters need to configure for the new variable i.e. burst messages, variables and triggers. Following fields need to modify when a new variable is required to publish over the web interface.

Burst message format

Burst message format fields are:

{<EUI64>, <COMMAND NUMBER>, <BURST MESSAGE>, <UPDATE PERIOD>, <MAXIMUM

UPDATE PERIOD>}

EUI64: This is 8 bytes grouped in 2, shows the address of the field router. In our case the EUI64 address of the field router is 00-1B-1E-F8-76-FF-FF-FF.

Command no: This is an integer from the set {1,2,3,9,33,178}. We used command no 9 for our experiments.

Burst message: This represents the index of the burst message, integer [0-255]. We used 0 is burst message index.

Update period: This is an integer from [0- 3600] seconds. Integer 16 is used as update period.

Maximum update period: The maximum update period is 3600.

Variables

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Variable section contains following parameters:

<Command no>, <Burst messages>, <Device variable code>, <Name>, <Device variable slot>,

<Device variable classification>, < Units code>.

Command no and burst messages are same as burst messages section.

Device variable code: Device variable code is an integer either between [0-7] or [243-249]. We used 5, 6, and 7 as the first four is already used.

Name: A user friendly name assigned to the published variable. We assigned the name as var1, var2, and var3.

Device variable slot: The value indicates the position of the variable in the burst packet. The value can be assign from the set of {0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7}. We used 4, 5, and 6 as device variable slots.

Device variable classification: The integer in range [64-95]. We used integer 84, 64, and 81 to var1, var2, and var3 respectively.

Units code: Integer in range [1-169] or [220-239, 250] are used as units code. We used 39, 32, and 57 for var1, var2, and var3 respectively.

Trigger

This section contains following fields:

{<COMMAND NUMBER>, <BURST MESSAGE>, <BURST TRIGGERT MODE SELECTION>,

<DEVICE VARIABLE CLASIFICATION>, <UNITS CODE>, <TRIGGER LEVEL>}

Command no and burst message are same as other two sections.

Burst trigger mode selection: This specify the mode of the burst message. Integer: 0- Continuous,

1- Window, 2- Rising, 3- Falling, 4- On-change. We select 0 for continuous bursts.

Device variable classification: Integer in range [64-95], we used 64 for our experiment.

Units code: We set the unit code as 120.

Trigger level: This shows the floating trigger value e.g. 0.000000.

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Figure 5-6 Configuration of monitoring host

Load the new burst message settings in monitoring host, and press Activate to update the readings. Next, in the readings section we can see the new variables along with the built-in sensors. Sensor data associated with each variable is also updated which can be seen in

Chapter 6.

5.6 Chapter Summary

In this chapter, we provided an overview of various approaches and steps taken on our way to implementation. We have given step by step details on how the system is implemented, starting out from the core phase simple API and end up with complete functional system referred to as

Figure 4-1 (A complete picture of working system). A source code written for different phases has also explained in addition to functions used for implementation of this application. The modification and configuration of MCS and monitoring host to publish sensor data over web interface is also described in detail. To evaluate our implementation, we have provided some experimental results in the next chapter.

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6 Experimental Results

In this chapter, we provide an overview of various tests performed on Nivis WirelessHART and

STK600 on the basis of settings performed in previous chapters. We then evaluate our results in order to prove the completeness and accuracy of our concept mentioned in Section 1.2. Different scenarios, we have performed experiments, are enlisted below:

Test Scenario

Scenario 1- Integration of VS220 and STK600-Atmega2560: Request/Response

Scenario 2- Visualisation of device variable values over web interface

Scenario 3- Interfacing a sensor board with VS220

Scenario 4- Visualisation of sensor data over web interface

Next is the results for each of the test scenario and observations and discussions associated with each experiment.

6.1 Test Scenario: STK600-Atmega2560 Loopback Test

We have started with a very simple test on STK600 just to make sure that the UART for STK600-

Atmega2560 sends/receives data properly. To do so, a simple code sends character from PC to

STK600 and it is supposed to send the same character through UART interface to our PC via

RS-232. In order to perform this experiment, we have managed to set-up UART0 of Atmega2560 in a way that TXD and RXD of RS-232 spare are connected to PORTE1 and PORTE0 respectively while RTS-CTS are connected together with a jumper.

Figure 6-1 STK600 loopback test

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Observations

We can see from Figure 6-1 that double characters are displaying in the screen. It means the character we send from the PC to STK600 echoed back to PC which proves that the loopback test is just works fine.

Next, we have presented the outputs of step by step clue as described in Chapter 5.

6.2 Scenario 1: Integration of VS220 and STK600: Request/Response

In this section, we have presented the results from Data Pass-Through commands.

6.2.1 Read Data Request (VS220

STK600-Atmega2560)

Once the UART connections between the two devices is established and software integration is implemented, we can see that the VS220 starts send ing ‘Read Data Request’ (Figure 6-2) commands which has the following format.

F1 10 02 80 05 06 07 08 09 0A 0B 0C D4 E6

Where:

F1 is the start of character.

10 is the message header-High nibble (1) denotes that message is a Data Pass Through command and low nibble (0) denotes that it is a request.

02 is the message type-Read data Request.

80 is the message ID which will change with every successful transaction and the first message will have the message ID 80.

08 is the Data size- (8 Bytes in this case)

05-0C represents Device variable codes.

D4 E6 are the CRC of all the above data excluding STX character. These bytes will change with every successful transaction.

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Figure 6-2 Requests from VS220

Observations

Since, we have not yet generated response for the requests. So, the message ID and CRC remains the same as stated in the simple API method that if the sender processor does not receive any response within the response time window (250ms), the message will be sent repeatedly until a response is received.

6.2.2 Read Data Response (VS220

STK600-Atmega2560)

STK600 respond for each request from VS220 with Read Data Response command which can be seen in Figure 6-3.

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Figure 6-3 Response by STK600-Atmega2560

Observations

From above captured screen, it can be seen that there is a response for each successful request.

Message ID at the 4 th

place in frame is increasing with every successful transaction with the same ID in the response. Moreover, CRC (2 Bytes) at the end of frame is also changed for successful transaction.

Furthermore, 4 Bytes after each device variable code represents ‘device variable value’. For now, we have assigned them static values and we can change them with the values read from sensors.

Overall, simple API has been implemented until now and is evidence that the communication between the two boards has been established and working properly.

6.3 Scenario 2: Visualisation of Device Variable Values over Web Interface

In this section, we have shown that how the device variable codes and their corresponding device variable values can be seen over the web interface. At this stage, the network is connected through WirelessHART gateway VR910 in order to get the functionality of

WirelessHART environment.

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Figure 6-4 Visualisation of readings over web interface

Observations

From Figure 6-4, we can see that three more variables i.e. var1, var2 and var3 are added in the

Readings along with the pre-defined sensors. It is also clear that the same MAC address is displayed in the first column which indicates that all parameters belong to the same VS220. It can also be noticed that we got device variable values as 28, 20 and 0 for codes 5, 6 and 7 respectively. These are the same values we got in response and can be seen in Figure 6-3.

Note

At this stage, the data is not coming from sensor, but some predefined static values.

6.4 Scenario 3: Interfacing a Sensor Board with VS220

This section includes the results (Figure 6-5) that shows the data from gas leakage sensor in the response that STK600 send to VS220 to be forwarded over WirelessHART.

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Figure 6-5 Data from sensor interfacing STK600

Observations

From above output screen, it is clear that the readings we are getting from sensor interfacing

STK600 is sent to VS220 through device variable code 05 and is then forwarded over

WirelessHART by VS220. Since, we have only one sensor to integrate with STK600 and therefore use only one device variable code. Similarly, more sensors can be attached to STK600 as we have eight user defined channels. The representation of analog value is four bytes float with the first byte as most significant byte.

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Gas Leakage Sensor Readings

Hex Value Floating point value Type Unit

43 11 00 00 145 Smoke ppm

43 13 00 00 147 Smoke ppm

43 18 00 00 152 Smoke ppm

43 21 00 00 161 Smoke ppm

Note

We have tested this sensor with normal air and smoke but we have only captured values with smoke just to make sure that the sensor is sending correct readings to field router VS220. At this point, we look forward to see if the sensor data is published over web interface through VR910.

6.5 Scenario 4: Visualisation of Sensor Data over Web Interface

In order for the sensor data to be publish over the web interface, we have configured monitoring host in a way that whatever is the value assigned to device variables can be updated in MCS.

The network is now connected to VR910 gateway. Given below are the screen shots of the sensor data.

Figure 6-6 Sensor readings over MCS (1)

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Figure 6-7 Sensor readings over MCS (2)

Observations

It can be noticed from above screen shots that we got the sensor values associated with var1 as floating points (147 and 145). The HEX representation of the same values are encircled in Figure

6-5 which proves that sensor data is now printing on MCS.

6.6 Proof of Concept: Implementation as a Whole

Through the outputs of the experiments and tests performed in this section, we have confirmed that the whole flow function correctly in terms of sending and receiving data and it is an evident to ensure that the implementation actually performs according to what we claim in Figure 4.1. In general, we can say that we made this system able to get data from external sensors and end user can monitor sensor data over the web located anywhere in the world provided that it has

Internet access.

6.7 Discussions

In this section, we have outlined some problems encountered during experiments. First of all is the voltage difference between STK600 and VS220 which had been overcome by using a temporary level convertor. However, it still needs to be perfect for the accurate results and to avoid VS220 for resetting.

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We also want to mention that in order to get the latest readings over web interface we need to refresh or reset the web page each time. The reason behind this could be that the web interface is a product for development and not for the end user.

We can observe from the aforementioned screen shots that in some experiments packet loss rate is higher than packet received which simply lower down the throughput of overall

WirelessHART environment. It losing some packets until it has a chance to obtain a service with the Network Manager. The sending of the data mechanism requires a periodic service with the

Network Manager, and until the Network Manager allocates the bandwidth for this service the data cannot be sent to the gateway thus resulting in a packet lose.

Nevertheless, we could not publish all the eight variables over the web as we are using the older version of VR910 which is VR910 MCS v1.5.5. We need to have a latest version VR910 MCS v

2.0 in order to get the data from all eight channels.

6.8 Chapter Summary

In this chapter we have shown the results of the experiments performed on the implemented system in order to verify its function and evaluate our progress. We provide an overview of various tests performed on the final system and the tests on individual components in the network as well. At the end of the chapter, we have outlined some key issues encountered during the experiments.

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7 Position and Motion Sensors: A Survey

This chapter covers position and motion sensors and their types. These sensors play very important role to locate the exact location of the moving object and adjust the tilt of the mobile robot accordingly. Later section in this chapter presents practical scenarios where both the sensors are used and excellent results has been achieved due to the accuracy of both the sensors. The sensors briefed in this part of the thesis can also be connected to our

WirelessHART testbed.

Recently, with the introduction of intelligent wireless sensor based controls revolutionize the industry on account of reduced costs, better power consumption management, easy maintenance and deployment in remote areas. Industrial applications such as maintenance, monitoring, control, and security etc. are the successful stories of such kind of sensors.

Instrumentation systems [45] are either open or closed loop control systems. The loops are formed through sensors and actuators in order to control certain parameters or state of the system. The system elements always communicate among each other, usually requires a real time performance and built-in fault tolerance for communication failure. Predictive maintenance involves to track the physical state of equipment and to take action if an acceptable or allowed state is violated [46].

In case of any violation, sensors raise an alarm. They are very useful to keep the machine down time slow and help locate the problem before the machine breaks down. Typical systems employ different types of sensors (e.g. position, motion, accelerometers, and gyroscope) often deployed within the same network/application, each with different capabilities, interfaces, and support different protocols for data and communications. Position and motion sensors are discussed in next section in more details.

7.1 Position Sensors

The Android platform uses two type of sensors i.e. geomagnetic field sensor and orientation sensor in order to determine the position of a device. Android platform uses another type of sensor called proximity sensor to determine how close the face of a device is to an object [47].

Among these three sensors, the geomagnetic field sensor and proximity sensor are hardwarebased. While the orientation sensor is software-based. Geomagnetic field sensor is used by most handset and tablet manufacturers. Proximity sensor is usually used by handset manufacturers to determine when a handset is being close to the user’s face for example during a phone call. The orientation sensor drives its data from geomagnetic field sensor and accelerometer sensor.

Position sensors are used to d etermine a device’s physical position with respect to the world’s frame of reference. As an example, geomagnetic field sensor can be used in conjunction with accelerometer to find a device

’s position with respect to magnetic North Pole. One can use orientation sensor in their application to determine the device position. Positions sensor does not

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Integration of WirelessHART and STK600 for Data Collection in WSN use in applications such as device movement e.g. shake, or tilt etc. Motion sensors are used for such kind of applications, discussed in more detail in Section 7.2.

7.1.1 Geomagnetic Field Sensor

Geomagnetic field sensor monitors changes in the earth magnetic field. It provides field strength data for all the three coordinate axes. It can be used with rotation vector sensor to measure rotational movement. It can be used to determine rotation and inclination of the device with the cooperation of accelerometer sensor.

7.1.2 Orientation Sensor

Orientation sensor monitors the device position relative to earth frame of reference particularly magnetic north. It is the orientation sensor which gives geomagnetic field strength values to each of the three coordinate axes. During a single sensor event, orientation sensor provides azimuth, pitch and roll values. As stated earlier that, orientation sensor receives its data through hardwarebased sensors i.e. device geomagnetic field sensor and accelerometer sensor. Orientation sensor provides data to the following three axes by using these two hardware sensors.

Azimuth (rotation degree around the z-axis). The angle between magnetic north and the device y-axis is called azimuth. For example, if the magnetic north and device y-axis are aligned then azimuth value is 0. While, if the device y-axis direction is towards south then this value is 180. Similarly, y-axis direction towards east gives 90 azimuth and towards west results in 270 azimuth value.

Pitch (degrees of rotation around the x-axis). Pitch has two extreme values either +180 degree or -180 degree, the values of pitch can be between these two maxima and minima.

Pitch value is positive when the positive z-axis rotates toward the positive y-axis. Similarly, when the positive z-axis rotates toward the negative y-axis it gives negative pitch.

Roll (degrees of rotation around the y-axis). When the positive z-axis rotates toward the positive x-axis then it is called positive and the value of roll is 90 degree. While, positive zaxis rotates towards negative x-axis gives negative roll value of -90 degree. Hence, the range of roll values are from +90 degree to -90 degree.

7.1.3 Proximity Sensor

This sensor determines the distance between an object and a device e.g. how far away an object is from a device. Proximity sensor detects objects when they get within a certain distance from the sensor [48]. When the proximity sensor detects an event, then it automatically sends a signal to the electronic circuit to perform the specific action. In a single event, this type of sensor provides a single value each time. Generally, proximity sensor is used to determine the distance between a person’s face and a handset. For example, when a user makes or receives a phone call. Many proximity sensors detect anything that comes too close.

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7.2 Motion Sensors

In the past two and a half years, motion sensing technologies begin to appear everywhere [49] such as video consoles, smart phones etc. For example geo-tag cell phone photos, play video games, and channel surf across our TVs and cable boxes.

The Android platform uses several sensors to monitor the motion of a device. Among several sensors, accelerometer and gyroscope are used in Android platform and both are always hardware based. Gravity, linear acceleration, and rotation vector sensors can be either hardware or software based. Some devices based on software use accelerometer and magnetometer to derive their data while some other devices use gyroscope for the same purpose. Accelerometer sensor is used by most Android platform devices while currently they use gyroscope as well.

Motion sensor is used to monitor device movement such as shake, rotation, or swing. It measures the movement through the reflection of direct user input. For example a user steering a car or controlling a ball in a video game. A movement can also be defined as a reflection of the physical environment in which the device exists, such as device movement while driving a car. In the first case, user monitors the motion with respect to the device frame of reference while in the second case, user is monitoring motion relative to the world’s frame of reference. Motion sensor is unable to monitor device position by itself. It can be used with geomagnetic field sensor to determine a device position relative to the world’s frame of reference.

The most frequently used sensor for motion detection and monitoring are rotation vector and gravity sensor. Particularly, rotational vector is more flexible and versatile. It can be used for a wide range of motion related tasks e.g. gestures detection, angular change monitoring, and relative orientation changes monitoring. Ideally, rotational vector sensor is better choice during an augmented reality application, developing a game, or a camera stabilization application.

7.2.1 Accelerometer

Acceleration applied to the device is measured by an acceleration sensor, including force of gravity. Accelerometer determines the acceleration which is applied to a device by measuring force applied to the sensor. Accelerometer uses the standard sensor coordinate system. This means when a device is laying on a table in its natural orientation (Figure 7-1), the following conditions apply:

If the device is pushed to left side (so it moves to the right), it gives positive value to the x acceleration.

If the device is pushed to the bottom (so it moves away with respect to the user reference point), the y acceleration value is positive.

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If the device is pushed in upward direction i.e. towards sky with an acceleration of A m/s

2

, then z acceleration value is equal to A + 9.81, which corresponds to the acceleration of the device (+A m/s

2

) minus the force of gravity (-9.81 m/s

2

).

A device in static position has +9.81 acceleration value, which corresponds to the acceleration of the device (0 m/s

2

minus the force of gravity, which is -9.81 m/s

2

).

Figure 7-1 Accelerometer orientation [49]

In general, the accelerometer is a better option to monitor device motion. Nearly every Androidpowered handset and tablet has an accelerometer, and it consumes 10 times less power than the other motion sensors. In order to reduce gravitational forces and reduce noise, accelerometer needs to implement low-pass and high-pass filters which is a draw-back in these sensors.

7.2.2 Gravity Sensor

The gravity sensor provides a three dimensional vector which is used to indicate the direction and magnitude of gravity. It has the same unit as used by the acceleration sensor (i.e. m/s

2

).

Similarly, it uses the same coordinate system as used by the acceleration sensor. The output of the gravity sensor and accelerometer is identical when a device is at rest.

7.2.3 Gyroscope

The gyroscope measures the rate or rotation in rad/s around a device's x, y, and z axis. It uses the same coordinate system as used by acceleration sensor. In the counter clockwise direction, the value of the rotation is positive. It means if the device is positioned on the origin and at the same time the observer observes from any positive location in x, y, or z axis then the rotation of the device is counter clockwise.

Rotation is positive in the counter-clockwise direction; that is, an observer looking from some positive location on the x, y or z axis at a device positioned on the origin would report positive rotation if the device appeared to be rotating counter clockwise. This is the standard

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Integration of WirelessHART and STK600 for Data Collection in WSN mathematical definition of positive rotation and this is not the same definition for roll used by the orientation sensor. The output of the gyroscope is integrated with respect to time in order to calculate a rotation which describes the change of angle over the timestamp. Standard gyroscopes provide rotational data without filter or correction of noise. Practically, gyroscope noise introduces error which needs to be overcome. Usually, the drift and noise are monitored by other sensors such as accelerometer or gravity sensor.

7.2.4 Linear Accelerometer

The linear acceleration sensor provides three-dimensional vector which represent acceleration along each device axis, excluding gravity. This sensor can be used to obtain acceleration data without the influence of gravity. For example, this sensor can be used to check the speed of the car such as how fast the car is running. Linear accelerometer has an offset which needs to remove to obtain the actual reading. It is easy to remove offset in the application during the calibration step. During calibration step, the user set the device on a table, and reads the offset for all the three axes. Then user can subtract that offset from the acceleration sensor’s direct reading to obtain the actual linear acceleration.

In the next section, vision system for mobile robots to track moving objects/targets are presented.

The experiment is based on robot motion and stereo vision information. The tracking system is based mainly on position and motion of the ta rget and mobile robot, that’s why position and motion sensors are briefly explained in previous sections.

7.3 Vision System for Mobile Robots

The vision information system is one of the most effective way to achieve high performance in critical application scenarios [50]. Control method is used to obtain stable vision input and keep an eye on a target while the robot is moving. Therefore, highly effective control system is the basic parameter required to track moving object in a vision system. The vision tracking system based on multiple sensors proposed by [51]-[53]. Multiple sensors has advantages since it reduces the computational cost of the vision information processing and improves the tracking performance in various scenarios [54].

Multiple sensors such as gyroscope, robot wheel encoders, pan and tilt actuator and the stereo camera are used by [50] to track moving targets through vision-tracking mobile robots. The pan and tilt actuators are attached to the stereo camera which makes the camera able to face the moving target. The proposed structure consists of pan and tilt motor, encoder, controller, stereo camera and main processor as shown in Figure 7-2.

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Figure 7-2 Vision system for mobile robot [50]

The feedforward controller, the target position calculator, the frame transformation calculator, the command generator, and the image processor are implemented on the main processor. The feedforward controller is used to measure the motion of the mobile robot and outputs the information of the robot frame transformation. The feedforward control uses gyroscope and robot wheel encoders. The target position calculator adjusts the error caused by target position error motion by using the motion information of the robot. The command generator calculates the angles of pan and tilt motion controller and transmits this data to the pan/tilt motor. The image processor processes the stereo image to obtain the target position on the image plane. The proposed system employs the stereo vision information in feedback path. The target position is calculated using pinhole camera model. The system calculates the depth of the target by constructing a disparity map with the stereo image. The disparity map contains the depth information of each pixel. The system searches for the target on both the sides of the image (i.e. left and right of the image) to calculate the average depth value of the target area from the disparity map.

By using the information of target position with respect to the robot, the system adjusts the accumulated error which is caused by the gyroscope and the robot wheel encoders. For example, when the robot is slipped then estimated error of robot motion is generated by the data of robot wheel encoders. However, the system updates the target position data relative to the robot, which removes the accumulated error of estimated robot motion. Relative position updates make the system enable to track the moving target because the change in the relative position includes the displacement of the target.

Figure 7-3 shows the system which is multi-thread structure. It is composed of the vision thread and the estimation thread. Both the threads repeat, until the user enters the exit command.

In the vision thread, several processes related to vision are executed. Processes include reception of stereo image from the camera, target search, building up the disparity map, vision error calculations, feedback angle and target position, display the image output, and marking of

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Integration of WirelessHART and STK600 for Data Collection in WSN the target. The face detection algorithm is developed by Postech and Electronics and

Telecommunication Research Institute (ETRI) [55]. It is used to search the target. The system calculates the centre point of the searched target to compute the error to the set point (0, 0).

While in the estimation thread, the system computes robot motion information. For example Euler angles and the position of the robot. The system combines the robot motion information and stereo vision information to calculate the angles of pan and tilt actuation.

The system controls pan and tilt actuators which are attached to a stereo camera. It enable the camera to always face the moving target. Feedforward is used to adjust the change caused by the robot motion. The gyroscope and robot wheel encoders are used in the feedforward control.

Through the feedback control, the system adjusts the error caused by the target motion. The system also constructs the disparity map to calculate the depth of the target in the stereo image.

The stereo image information and the data of pan and tilt actuator encoders are combined in the feedback control. In the experiments, the vision error and the recognition rate are measured, while the mobile robot, on which the proposed system is installed, and the target are moving. The system achieves excellent tracking performance in the various scenarios.

Figure 7-3 Vision and estimation threads [50]

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Another system for vision tracking is proposed by [56]. In which stereo camera is used for vision tracking based on motion information. Gyroscope and encoders are used to obtain robot motion information. While, stereo camera calculates the relative position of the target from robot. The system resets the global coordinate system through the relative position information of a target, which prevents error in robot motion information. The system works properly while the mobile robot moves on the predetermined trajectory. The experiment results show, the maximum pixel error of the target image is 23 pixels while in the experiments the robot runs for 10 times on the trajectory.

Kalman filter and multi sensor data fusion is used for vision tracking [54]. In this approach, robot motion information is computed by accelerometer, gyroscope and wheel encoders. The concept is derived from the human eye reflex mechanism which is called Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex (VOR) used for the head motion adjustment. Extended Kalman filer and indirect Kalman filter are used to estimate location and angle of the robot. A slip detector is also used to detect slip occurrence.

By using one of the two filters, the output of slip detector decides the final motion of the robot and expected rotation angle of the camera. The vision tracking system is mounted on the mobile robot. The system demonstrates excellent tracking and recognition performance.

Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF) accurately estimates the position and orientation of the mobile robot [57]. UKF integrates information from encoders, position and orientation sensors, and active beacons. These position and orientation sensors are used to rotate the camera towards the target during robot motion. The UKF is an efficient sensor fusion algorithm, which has an advanced filtering technique to reduce the position and orientation errors of the sensors. The system compensates the slip error by switching between two different UKF models, which are designed for slip and no-slip cases, respectively. The slip detector is used to detect the slip condition by comparing the data from the accelerometer and encoder to select the either UKF model as the output of the system. The results show significant reduced errors and successful target tracking for various motion scenarios.

This chapter is summarized as the accelerometer is the best option as a motion sensor technology in terms of power consumption. It consumes ten times less power as compare to gyroscope and magnetometer. In terms of accuracy, a novel motion sensor with nine degrees of freedom is developed by [58]. In [58], the new motion sensor is designed with triaxial gyroscope, triaxial accelerometer, and triaxial magnetometer and showed more precise and accurate results as compare to the commercially available measurement systems.

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8 Discussions

This chapter provides information on different solutions initially investigated and proposed for robust and reliable communication in offshore industry. Although, we spent some time to study and investigate these solutions but during the meetings with industry experts, we came to know that they have already been deployed in offshore industry.

8.1 Integrator Solution

In the beginning of our project, we worked on integrator solution. Figure 8-1 shows the idea of integrator solution.

Figure 8-1 Integrator solution

It is obvious from the figure that different communication technologies are integrated together.

We have suggested to use both WSN and Wi-Fi within the confines of oil rig. WSN is used to monitor, control, and measure the states of the instruments while Wi-Fi is used for the communication purposes to the end user. Both the technologies will terminate at one receiver.

For example the data sent by hundreds of sensors is received by one main receiver (sink).

Similarly, the data traffic generated by Wi-Fi is also terminated to one main receiver. These two receivers are connected together through an integrator; integrator can be a router.

While at the other end, let say multiple inter-offshore communication technologies are connected and terminated to the integrator. Suppose any failure occurs in the communication technologies, which can be any factor as explained in Chapter 1. During the failure of one technology, for example satellite link is down. Then the integrator is responsible to route all the traffic from satellite link to the other communication technology. As explained earlier, some offshore companies use two technologies at the same time, one as backbone while second as a backup technology. So, in case of any failure of the main technology the integrator will route the traffic to

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Integration of WirelessHART and STK600 for Data Collection in WSN the secondary technology. The integrator is also able to adjust load balancing between two technologies. However later on, we came to know that such kind of solutions are already deployed in the oil and gas industry. Therefore, we moved ahead for another solution.

8.2 DeHiGate (Deployable High Capacity Gateway)

During our thesis we studied DeHiGate as another solution, however the project is already finished. This is a kind of an ad hoc network where multiple ad hoc networks are interconnected to each other through gateways. The main concept of DeHiGate is taken from Cell on Wheel

(CoW) [59]. DeHiGate is mobile wireless ad hoc network which is used for emergency services to provide source of communication. The network is fully automatic, self-configurable and selfhealing. Figure 8-2 shows DeHiGate architecture.

Figure 8-2 DeHiGate architecture

We were looking for such a solution where all the current technologies such as satellite, cellular,

TETRA, and Wi-Fi converged and controlled by one router/entity. The integrator solution has very close resemblance with this solution. All of our requirements are met by DeHiGate solution. It is obvious from the figure above that satellite, GPRS, ADSL, WLAN, and TETRA are connected to the gateway (DeHiGate). While the other nodes i.e. multimode/multitechnology nodes are connected to each other and at the same time with the gateway as well on ad hoc bases.

DeHiGate uses network management system which collects status information from the terminals, radios and gateways, and presents the collected information to the network manager and operational leaders. In this way, network manager and operational leaders always keep detailed overview of the network. A network manager can easily zoom in and zoom out to see or hide the details. The network management system poses the topology overview and detailed network information which shows the geographical position of the terminals and gateways.

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DeHiGate has clear advantages over traditional ad hoc network. For example, easy to optimise, possible to use different frequencies in different access network, more stable network, less interference and less hidden node problem. The network management system architecture assumes a relative stable network. However, the nodes bought from the company (sexnet) few years ago does not exist anymore. The operating system and the project name of the nodes are

Linux distro and voyage Linux project respectively and currently both are dead.

8.3 Electrical Equipment (Ex)

Electrical equipment in hazardous areas is defined as a place where flammable gases occur/exist [60]. Electrical equipment explodes in the presence of flammable gases, flames, and ignition etc. Therefore such equipment are kept in location which does not initiate any explosion.

This is very important parameter for any industry such as oil and gas industry, oil refinery, and chemical industry etc. Many strategies exist for the safety in electrical installations. The simplest strategy is to minimize the amount of electrical equipment installed in a hazardous area, either to keep the equipment out of the area altogether or to make the area less hazardous by ventilation with clean air.

Since oil and gas industry and its process areas fall within the category of hazardous locations therefore strict requirements apply for any equipment installed in these potentially explosive areas [21]. The requirements are related to different levels of explosion-proof properties of the equipment. The regulations for equipment and safety systems intended for use in hazardous locations within the European Union (EU) are found in the 94/9/EC ATEX directive (French:

ATmosphère EXplosible) [61]. The ATEX directive states two fundamental requirements:

The certification of equipment to use in hazardous locations.

Requirements for equipment and manufacturers.

Countries outside the EU use different directives which are not directly comparable. The ATEX serial marking system includes a main class, which is further divided into sub-classes. The main class shows the equipment group which is divided into two either Mining or Non- Mining.

Equipment group is together with equipment category and type of explosive atmosphere. The equipment category shows the level of protection offered by the equipment. While, explosive atmosphere can be either Gas or Dust. Usually, equipment used in oil and gas is always classified as Group II (i.e. Non- Mining).

The sub-category or sub-class of ATEX includes specifications on protection type, gas group and temperature class. The wireless instrumentations require ATEX certification according to

“standard instrumentation specification” for equipment in oil and gas industry. Therefore, the suitable ATEX specifications for wireless sensors are group II category 2G, protection type ia, gas group IIC, and temperature class T5. While for the gateway in wireless sensor networks, the minimum requirements are ATEX group II category 3G, gas group IIC, protection type nA, gas

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Integration of WirelessHART and STK600 for Data Collection in WSN group IIC, and temperature class T4. Table 5 shows the information about ATEX required specification classes according to oil and gas industry.

Table 5 Explanation of ATEX classes [20]

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9 Conclusion and Future Work

The main goal of our thesis is:

“Integrate Nivis WirelessHART development kit with STK600-Atmega2560 in order to collect data in WSN and visualize the sensor data on the PC over the web interface

”.

In this chapter, we will provide evaluation of our project as whole, conclusions drawn from this project and future work.

9.1 Conclusions

During this project, we have presented a theoretical study about several communication technologies used in offshore industry to provide reliable and robust communication. After a careful survey of existing technologies used in offshore, we have identified two industrial standards based on IEEE 802.15.4 i.e. WirelessHART and ISA100.11a.

We used WirelessHART development kit from Nivis. The WirelessHART kit has few integrated sensors. WirelessHART itself is a black box and thus unable to program. In order to measure and control other sensors besides the integrated sensors, it needs an external sensor board. The external sensor board senses the data from sensors and transmit to the field router which ultimately forward the readings to the user over the web interface through the gateway. Hence, the field router requires to integrate with any other external sensor board.

Our main contribution for this thesis work are as follows:

We have established communication between VS220 and STK600 for which a serial communication protocol according to simple API has been implemented.

Connect a gas leakage sensor to STK600 and programmed it in a way that it sends data to VS220 which is then forwarded to WirelessHART via HART gateway. Now the

WirelessHART development kit is able to gather data from external sensors through

STK600 along with the built-in sensors.

To visualize the data over the web, we configured the MCS. MCS publishes the sensors data coming from external sensor board to the WirelessHART environment.

Comparative study of different kind of position and motion sensors has also presented in this report which will be tested with our testbed in the future.

In conclusion, the overall goal of our thesis has been achieved. Since, we can now connect any sensor to STK600 for getting the functionalities of WirelessHART, so the whole system exhibits as “plug and play”.

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9.2 Future Work

We have identified a few issues enlisted below which we believe future efforts are required:

The network performance parameters were not focused throughout the experiments such as network throughput, packet loss ratio, end to end delay, jitter etc. which can be the starting point for our future work.

To make the WirelessHART development kit more stable in order to provide full functionality to end users.

To test other types of sensors with the network we provided will be the next future task.

Finally, to configure ISA100.11a with the same setup and compare the results with

WirelessHART to analyse which standard is the best one since both are the competitors as industrial standards in automation processes.

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Integration of WirelessHART and STK600 for Data Collection in WSN

Appendices

Appendix A: Overview of Sensors

It was another task during our work, to find the sensors which are compatible with STK600 but at the same time the sensors need to be ATEX certified. Particularly, the sensors used in oil and gas industry. Table 6 shows details for gas leakage, position and motion sensors. Different type of sensors used for multiple purposes can be cited in [62-78].

Table 6 Overview of sensors

Sensor Type Sensor Title Company Output Remarks Price

Gas Leakage

Gas Leakage

Gas

Concentration

Angular sensors

MQ-2

MQ-6

CO

2

KMA210

Acceleration AFG11311

Acceleration SEN-10537

Sandboxelectronics

Sandboxelectronics

Futurlec

NXP

Analog

Analog

Analog/PWM/

UART

Analog

Farnell

Sparkfun

Analog

Digital

Smoke/LPG/CO

LPG/LNG

CO

2

$ 5.95

$ 8.95

$ 109.9

Magnetic Angle

Sensor

$ 5.18

1-axis accelerometer 1386 NOK

$ 29.95 3D Gaming/Tilt/

Motion sensing/

Event recorder

Position

Motion

Magnetic

Field

1GT101DC

MMA9550LR

1

ZMZ20

Honeywell

FreeScale

Diodes Inc.

Digital Hall Effect Gear

Tooth Sensor

PWM/Digital Tilt

Detection/Orientatio n detection

Analog/Digital Linear Position,

Proximity Detector etc.

439.33 NOK

£1.56

$ 50

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Appendix B: Correspondence with Nivis

We have contacted Nivis customer support, and they gave us feedback to our queries. The following feedback help the students who will work in this direction.

VS220 Power Issue

Answer: Please try to power the VS220 through the USB port (SW4 in position 3) and check if the JP1 on the HART Modem Board is populated. Run the WirelessHART provisioning tool as

Administrator.

VS220 Field Router Detection

Description: I have attached the mini-clips of WirelessHART modem with VS220. I made the connection just you mentioned in your email about J7, J8 and J22 as can be seen from the attached figure.

The LED is on, both SW4 and SW5 are position 2. While the USB port is COM8 in my system.

When i start WirelessHART provisioning tool, it does not detect VS220.

I have one reason in my mind that if we replace the old batteries with new batteries.

What do you think what can be the problem that provisioning tool does not detect the VS220?

Answer: Could you please try connecting to the devices with the Microlink, and in the provisioning tool after you detect the device, in the Tools menu click on the Start Assisted Join

Button.

Also, after doing this for all devices please download and send us a set of logs from http://<VR_IP>/admin. The username is admin and password is adminadmin.

VS220 Detection Issue

Description: I connect HART modem USB with my laptop and the two mini-clips with VS220

TR1 and TR2 while populating J7 and J8 and depopulating J22. At the same time I turned on

WirelessHART provisioning tool in order to detect device, both the red and green LEDs are on, sometime it shows the device connected but after some time it prompt an error with disconnection. I tried all the three VS220, each has the same problem, once connected and then disconnect. Can you please explain where we make the mistake and what is the proper configuration to detect the device?

Answer: When the WirelessHART provisioning tool detects VS220, meanwhile the Monitoring

Control System detects the same device. However, Monitoring control system does not show as the VS220 disconnected with provisioning tool.

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You can connect the two USB Microlink mini-clips to the TR1 and TR2 pins both on the VL10 and the VS220. Please note that for connecting the Microlink to the VS220 you'll have to populate J7 and J8 and depopulate J22. There is no need for a 250 ohm resistor.

Hyper-Terminal

Description: I am now able to get some responses on the hyper terminal.

Answer: The Device Variable Code parameter is an identifier that is used to keep track of all the channels over which the data is sent. The table in section 3.4.1 shows the Assigned Device

Variable Codes 1-4 are the Variable Codes assigned to the sensor on the VS220 ( Analog Input,

Temperature, Humidity and Dew Point). The next variable codes 5-12 are the user defined variable codes. These are the channels that you'll use to transmit your values to the VS220. For example, if you have one sensor connected to your STK600 and you want to transmit the value that it reads to the VS220, you can use let's say Ch_Analog_1 which has the Device Variable

Code 5. So when you'll transmit the data to the VS220 (with the data pass-through message) you'll have to send the device variable code (5 in this example) followed by 4 bytes which represent the value read from the sensor in float format.

Loop Test

Answer: Load the code on STK600 and the flow should be the following: Upon start, the STK will send the string ' Init ' to the PC, then it enables the interrupts and whatever comes from the

VS220 it will send to the PC. Please note that the baud rate for the STK600 - PC communication is 9600.

Read Data Request

Description: How can I make VS-220 able to send Read Data Request command periodically to

STK600? Do, we need to program (in the form of frame format)?

Answer: The VS-220 sends the Read Data Request periodically on its own, you don't have to program it or anything. If you can't see any communication on the UART, this can be caused by two reasons: the UART lines are not connected properly or the firmware is not the correct one.

The RTS and CTS lines are connected with a jumper.

ISR

Description: I am transmitting on UART1 (UART-transmit). Do u think that the interrupt routine

(ISR) is executing after transmission. Because if that is not executing, i t won’t show anything on the hyper terminal.

Answer: The ISR will execute independently from the main loop, every time it receives a character over the UART. In your last code I couldn

’t see the ISR or the transmission to the

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VS220. It should display the buffer on your PC terminal once, and then start sending the buffer to the VS220. The VS220 should respond to the query.

API Messages

Answer: Regarding the API Messages, since all of the API Messages that are defined here

(except from API_HEARTBEAT which applies to the SPI interface only) are sent from the

Application CPU to the Radio Modem you can implement only the ones you need, or even none.

Because these messages are request from the AP to the Radio Modem regarding only the properties of the protocol used (in your case UART) they will not affect the publishing of data.

RF Modem Implementation

Answer: The RF Modem Implementation simply states that the Radio Modem handles all of the necessary HART commands used for the wireless communication and configuration, and that the

Application processor only needs to send the data to the Radio, and the Radio will forward it over the Wireless Network.

Tool Used to Implement Simple API

Description: Which tool is used in order to implement simple or full API as we have connected

Nivis router with Atmel STK600. UART2 pins are used from nivis end while Rs232 spare are used at STK600 end, now how we can implement these settings in software?

Answer: In order to implement Simple or Full API you

’ll need an IDE such as (in your case, for the STK600) AVR Studio.

First of all, you will have to implement the UART interface on your STK600 in order to be able to receive messages from the VN220. The settings needed for the UART interface are:

Baud Rate

– 38400

Bits

– 8

Parity

– None

Stop Bits

– 1

Next step will be to program the Simple or Full API in your STK600. The Nivis API is a message request / response type API. The VN220 will send message requests over the UART and the

STK600 needs to be able to respond to them, and vice versa. The format of the API messages, and the necessary messages that need to be implemented are described in the WirelessHART

Full / Simple API Integration Manual.

Implementation of Simple API

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Answer: Regarding the implementation of the Simple API you will have to implement all the commands featured in the Simple API Integration Manual. Also you'll have to implement some sort of mechanism that can parse any request received from the VS220 and respond to it automatically. The VS220 will send a read request to the STK6000 every 4 seconds, and these requests must be responded with the response or Acknowledge (ACK) or Not Acknowledge

(NACK). The response must be sent in 250ms maximum.

You'll have to interface your STK600 with whatever sensors you'll use in order to read data from them, convert it in the appropriate format so you can send it to the VS220.

Grounding

Description: Have you connected the ground between STK600 and VS220? Also, have you managed to hook up an oscilloscope on the UART1 (from STK600 - VS220)? Do you see any activity on the lines?

Answer: I suggest that you also connect the ground between the STK600 and VS220 (you can connect the STK 600 GND to pin 9 on the VS220).

Baud Rate

Description: Should I define the Baud Rate for UART0 same as for UART1 (VS220), as far as I know Baud Rate has to be same for both the devices to communicate. I can see data in UDR1 register while debugging, but I am not getting anything On My PC hyper terminal.

Answer: You don't have to define the same baud rate for UART1 and UART0, as long as

UART1 - is set at 38400 (the same as the VS) and UART0 is set the same as the PC Hyper terminal (in your case 9600).

The step by step information is not very relevant as the transmissions are at high speed, I suggest sending the Buffer over the UART over and over until you can see some data on your

HyperTerminal and work from there. Also the buffer should be: unsigned char ucBuffer

[7]={0xF1,0x40,0x01,0x80,0x00,0xC6,0xF4}; - (they are in hex format, no need for the ' ' characters ).

Also, if you have an oscilloscope monitor the Rx and Tx lines between the VS220 and the STK to make sure that the UARTS are working.

Simple or Full API

Description: Do we need to implement Nivis simple or full API on these development kits?

Answer: To use the Nivis Versa Node radios you need a microcontroller which you can program and run an Application Processor capable of Nivis API (Simple or Full). This

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Integration of WirelessHART and STK600 for Data Collection in WSN microcontroller also needs to be capable of UART or SPI communication (the minimum specifications for these serial communication lines can be found in the first sections - Hardware

Integration - in each Nivis Full/Simple API Manuals).

Nivis Simple API SW Integration

Description: We integrated Nivis router with STK600, and now we can adjust the no of bits, baud rate, parity, and stop bits. I want to ask how we can implement API message format.

Because we searched on net but we did not find any data/help/material about API message format implementations. If we get any example code/method in order to get an idea that we can proceed further.

We are now working on SW Integration part of Nivis Simple API. We wonder if you can provide us some sort of methods or functions so that we can get idea for implementation, or if we can get some relevant example codes (for the procedure mentioned in Nivis Simple API doc).

Answer:

The API message format is as follows:

STX | Message Header | Message Type | Message ID | Data Size | Data | CRC.

The STX is the start character for every message and it has a value of 0xF1.

The Message Header indicates the Message class (bits 7-4) and if the message is a request or response (bit 3, 0 -Request, 1- Response).

The Message Classes are: 1 - Data Pass-Through

2 - Reserved

3 - Reserved

4 - API Messages

5 - ACK

6 - NACK

7 - User Board

The Message Type depends on the Message Class.

The Message ID is used for synchronization between message requests and responses. It must be incremented every new request and kept the same for the respective request's response.

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The Data size represents the number of data bytes in the message (without the CRC).

The Data represents the request/response message data.

The CRC is a CCITT-CRC algorithm with the polynomial 0x1021, and includes every byte of the message except the STX and CRC. It is 2 bytes long.

An example of API Message - API_MAX_UART_SPEED that reads the maximum UART Speed of your board is:

| 0xF1 | 0x40 | 0x05 | 0x80 | 0x00 | 0x1A | 0x34 |

Meaning: 0xF1 - Start Character

0x40 - API Message Request

0x50 - API_MAX_UART_SPEED

0x80 - Message ID

0x00 - Data Size

0x8F61 - CRC

And the response (sent from your board):

| 0xF1 | 0x48 | 0x05 | 0x80 | 0x01 | 0x03 | 0x86 | 0x04 |

Meaning: 0xF1 - Start Character

0x48 - API Message Response

0x50 - API_MAX_UART_SPEED

0x80 - Message ID

0x01 - Data Size

0x03 - Data (Baud rate: 38400)

0x8604 - CRC

Regarding the software implementation I suggest that you keep all your data in structures, so it will be easier to form the messages. You can use an UART interrupt for receiving the messages and after the complete reception of a message ( After the reception of the start character count 3 bytes, then read the data size and count the number of bytes in the data size plus 2 bytes for the

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Integration of WirelessHART and STK600 for Data Collection in WSN

CRC) place it in a queue. You can then parse and respond to the messages in the queue until the queue is empty.

External Sensor Readings over MCS

Description: If I connect Nivis VN220 field router with external sensor board (in our case Atmel

STK600) via UART2, how we can check it in software (MCS) that VN220 has detected a new device, or any other indication?

Answer: If you connect your external sensor board with the VN220 there will be no indication of this in MCS as the two boards (VN220 and Atmel STK600) act as a single field device and is perceived as one by the MCS. One indication of the correct operation of the two boards could be the publishing of data to the MCS once you've implemented Simple or Full API.

Packet Lose

Description: The packet loss and packet delivered are nearly the same, what are the reasons for too much packet loss/ missed packets? Is it due to the voltage level converter?

Answer: Yes these are the received values from the STK600 not the overall packets that are sent over the WirelessHART environment. It is losing some packets until it has a chance to obtain a service with the Network Manager. The sending of the data mechanism requires a periodic service with the Network Manager, and until the Network Manager allocates the bandwidth for this service the data cannot be sent to the Gateway thus resulting in a few values lost.

Updated Readings

Description: The WirelessHART development kit: is this just a testbed or a real product which can be used in industry? Because we always restart/reset each time for the latest value.

Answer: The Web Interface is a product for development and not for the end user. You have to refresh or click on the search button to update the value.

Sequence Number

Description: Sometimes the sequence no of the packet is not changed, it shows the same sequence no all the time for different sensor values, what can be the reason?

Answer: The sequence number is incremented every successful received packet. If something is wrong with the packet (message ID, data size, CRC) it will resend the packet with the same sequence number until it gets the correct response.

Page 100 of 115

Integration of WirelessHART and STK600 for Data Collection in WSN

Appendix C: Source Code

//new.c

#define FOSC 16000000 // Clock Speed

#define BAUD 38400

//#define BAUD 38400 // Baud Rate

#define MYUBRR FOSC/16/BAUD-1

#define BAUD1 38400 // baud rate for VS220

#define MYUBRR1 FOSC/16/BAUD1-1 // UBRR for baud 38400 at 16Mhz clock

#include <avr/io.h>

#include <avr/interrupt.h>

#include <util/delay.h>

#include <string.h>

#define FOSC 16000000 // Clock Speed

#define BAUD 38400

//#define BAUD 38400 // Baud Rate

#define MYUBRR FOSC/16/BAUD-1

#define BAUD1 38400 // baud rate for VS220

#define MYUBRR1 FOSC/16/BAUD1-1 // UBRR for baud 38400 at 16Mhz clock

#include <avr/io.h>

#include <avr/interrupt.h>

#include <util/delay.h>

Page 101 of 115

Integration of WirelessHART and STK600 for Data Collection in WSN

#include <string.h>

#include <util/crc16.h>

#include "crc.h"

#define poly 0x1021

typedef

struct

{

unsigned char m_ucVariableCode

[

1

];

union

{

float m_fValue

;

unsigned char m_ucValue

[

4

];

}

um_Value

;

}

VARIABLE

;

VARIABLE var1

,

var2

,

var3

,

var4

,

var5

,

var6

,

var7

,

var8

;

volatile unsigned char ucBuffIn

[

50

];

unsigned char ucBuffOut

[

50

];

volatile unsigned char ucIndex

=

0

;

unsigned int Index

;

unsigned char ucByteCount

=

0

;

int isFirst

=

0

;

// flag to see if the character received is the first of the message void UART_transmit

(

unsigned char data

);

void UART0_transmit

(

unsigned char data

);

void UART_init

();

void InitADC

();

Page 102 of 115

Integration of WirelessHART and STK600 for Data Collection in WSN void ComposeResponse

();

void InitData

();

void TransmitData

(

unsigned char

*

data

,

unsigned int length

);

void TransmitData

(

unsigned char

*

data

,

unsigned int length

)

{

unsigned int AuxLength

;

unsigned char ucChar

;

AuxLength

=

length

-

1

; while (

length

--)

{

ucChar

=*

data

++; if ((

ucChar

==

0xF1

)&&(

length

<

AuxLength

))

{

UART_transmit

(

0xF2

);

UART_transmit

(

0x0E

);

UART0_transmit

(

0xF2

);

UART0_transmit

(

0x0E

);

} else if (

ucChar

==

0xF2

)

{

UART_transmit

(

0xF2

);

UART_transmit

(

0x0D

);

UART0_transmit

(

0xF2

);

UART0_transmit

(

0x0D

);

} else

Page 103 of 115

Integration of WirelessHART and STK600 for Data Collection in WSN

{

UART_transmit

(

ucChar

);

UART0_transmit

(

ucChar

);

}

}

}

void swapByteOrder

(

unsigned char

*

string

)

{

unsigned char aux

;

aux

=

string

[

0

];

string

[

0

]=

string

[

3

];

string

[

3

]=

aux

;

aux

=

string

[

1

];

string

[

1

]=

string

[

2

];

string

[

2

]=

aux

;

}

void InitData

()

{

var1

.

m_ucVariableCode

[

0

]=

0x05

;

var1

.

um_Value

.

m_fValue

=

28

;

swapByteOrder

(

var1

.

um_Value

.

m_ucValue

);

var2

.

m_ucVariableCode

[

0

]=

0x06

;

var2

.

um_Value

.

m_fValue

=

20

;

swapByteOrder

(

var2

.

um_Value

.

m_ucValue

);

Page 104 of 115

Integration of WirelessHART and STK600 for Data Collection in WSN

var3

.

m_ucVariableCode

[

0

]=

0x07

;

var3

.

um_Value

.

m_fValue

=

0

;

swapByteOrder

(

var3

.

um_Value

.

m_ucValue

);

var4

.

m_ucVariableCode

[

0

]=

0x08

;

var4

.

um_Value

.

m_fValue

=

20

;

swapByteOrder

(

var4

.

um_Value

.

m_ucValue

);

var5

.

m_ucVariableCode

[

0

]=

0x09

;

var5

.

um_Value

.

m_fValue

=

0

;

swapByteOrder

(

var5

.

um_Value

.

m_ucValue

);

var6

.

m_ucVariableCode

[

0

]=

0x0A

;

var6

.

um_Value

.

m_fValue

=

0

;

swapByteOrder

(

var6

.

um_Value

.

m_ucValue

);

var7

.

m_ucVariableCode

[

0

]=

0x0B

;

var7

.

um_Value

.

m_fValue

=

0

;

swapByteOrder

(

var7

.

um_Value

.

m_ucValue

);

var8

.

m_ucVariableCode

[

0

]=

0x0C

;

var8

.

um_Value

.

m_fValue

=

0

;

swapByteOrder

(

var8

.

um_Value

.

m_ucValue

);

}

Page 105 of 115

Integration of WirelessHART and STK600 for Data Collection in WSN void UART_init

()

{

UBRR0H

= (

MYUBRR

>>

8

);

// Baud rate for communication with PC

UBRR0L

=

MYUBRR

;

UCSR0B

= (

1

<<

RXEN0

)|(

1

<<

TXEN0

);

// enable Rx and Tx for communication with PC

UCSR0C

= (

1

<<

UCSZ01

)|(

1

<<

UCSZ00

);

// 8 bit, parity none , 1 stop bit

UBRR1H

= (

MYUBRR1

>>

8

);

// Baud rate for communication with VS220

UBRR1L

=

MYUBRR1

;

UCSR1B

= (

1

<<

RXEN1

)|(

1

<<

TXEN1

)|(

1

<<

RXCIE1

);

// enable Rx,Tx and Rx

Interrupt

// for communication with VS220.

UCSR1C

= (

1

<<

UCSZ11

)|(

1

<<

UCSZ10

);

// 8 bit, parity none , 1 stop bit

}

void UART_transmit

(

unsigned char data

)

{

//PORTF |= (1<<PF0); //set the WKU

//while(PINF&0x02) ; //wait for RDY to be low

while ( !(

UCSR1A

& (

1

<<

UDRE1

)) );

//wait for UDRE flag -

UDR1

=

data

;

//load data to UDR for transmission

//PORTF &= ~(1<<PF0); //clear the WKU

Page 106 of 115

Integration of WirelessHART and STK600 for Data Collection in WSN

}

void UART0_transmit

(

unsigned char data

)

{ while ( !(

UCSR0A

& (

1

<<

UDRE0

))) ;

//wait for UDRE flag

UDR0

=

data

;

//load data to UDR for transmission

}

void ComposeResponse

()

{

unsigned short crc

;

uint16_t value

;

uint16_t crc_value

=

0xFFFF

;

//uint16_t crc_poly=0x1021; unsigned int length

;

int i

,

j

;

Index

=

0

;

ucBuffOut

[

Index

]=

0xF1

;

Index

++;

ucBuffOut

[

Index

]=

0x18

;

Page 107 of 115

Integration of WirelessHART and STK600 for Data Collection in WSN

Index

++;

ucBuffOut

[

Index

]=

0x03

;

Index

++; if (

ucBuffIn

[

3

]==

0xF2

)

{ if (

ucBuffIn

[

4

]==

0x0E

)

ucBuffOut

[

Index

]=

0xF1

;

// If it gets escape character in the middle,then assign F1 to start

else

ucBuffOut

[

Index

]=

0xF2

;

//0x0E is 1's complement of F1

} else

ucBuffOut

[

Index

]=

ucBuffIn

[

3

];

Index

++;

ucBuffOut

[

Index

]=

0x28

;

// data size 40 bytes

Index

++;

memcpy

(

ucBuffOut

+

Index

,

var1

.

m_ucVariableCode

, sizeof (

var1

.

m_ucVariableCode

));

Index

++;

memcpy

(

ucBuffOut

+

Index

,

var1

.

um_Value

.

m_ucValue

, sizeof (

var1

.

um_Value

.

m_ucValue

)

);

Index

=

Index

+

4

;

memcpy

(

ucBuffOut

+

Index

,

var2

.

m_ucVariableCode

, sizeof (

var2

.

m_ucVariableCode

));

Index

++;

memcpy

(

ucBuffOut

+

Index

,

var2

.

um_Value

.

m_ucValue

, sizeof (

var2

.

um_Value

.

m_ucValue

)

);

Index

=

Index

+

4

;

Page 108 of 115

Integration of WirelessHART and STK600 for Data Collection in WSN memcpy

(

ucBuffOut

+

Index

,

var3

.

m_ucVariableCode

, sizeof (

var3

.

m_ucVariableCode

));

Index

++;

memcpy

(

ucBuffOut

+

Index

,

var3

.

um_Value

.

m_ucValue

, sizeof (

var3

.

um_Value

.

m_ucValue

)

);

Index

=

Index

+

4

;

memcpy

(

ucBuffOut

+

Index

,

var4

.

m_ucVariableCode

, sizeof (

var4

.

m_ucVariableCode

));

Index

++;

memcpy

(

ucBuffOut

+

Index

,

var4

.

um_Value

.

m_ucValue

, sizeof (

var4

.

um_Value

.

m_ucValue

)

);

Index

=

Index

+

4

;

memcpy

(

ucBuffOut

+

Index

,

var5

.

m_ucVariableCode

, sizeof (

var5

.

m_ucVariableCode

));

Index

++;

memcpy

(

ucBuffOut

+

Index

,

var5

.

um_Value

.

m_ucValue

, sizeof (

var5

.

um_Value

.

m_ucValue

)

);

Index

=

Index

+

4

;

memcpy

(

ucBuffOut

+

Index

,

var6

.

m_ucVariableCode

, sizeof (

var6

.

m_ucVariableCode

));

Index

++;

memcpy

(

ucBuffOut

+

Index

,

var6

.

um_Value

.

m_ucValue

, sizeof (

var6

.

um_Value

.

m_ucValue

)

);

Index

=

Index

+

4

;

memcpy

(

ucBuffOut

+

Index

,

var7

.

m_ucVariableCode

, sizeof (

var7

.

m_ucVariableCode

));

Index

++;

memcpy

(

ucBuffOut

+

Index

,

var7

.

um_Value

.

m_ucValue

, sizeof (

var7

.

um_Value

.

m_ucValue

)

);

Page 109 of 115

Integration of WirelessHART and STK600 for Data Collection in WSN

Index

=

Index

+

4

;

memcpy

(

ucBuffOut

+

Index

,

var8

.

m_ucVariableCode

, sizeof (

var8

.

m_ucVariableCode

));

Index

++;

memcpy

(

ucBuffOut

+

Index

,

var8

.

um_Value

.

m_ucValue

, sizeof (

var8

.

um_Value

.

m_ucValue

)

);

Index

=

Index

+

4

;

//crc=crc_calc((ucBuffOut+1),Index-1);

ucBuffOut

[

Index

]=

crc_calc

((

ucBuffOut

+

1

),

Index

-

1

)>>

8

;

Index

++;

ucBuffOut

[

Index

]=

crc_calc

((

ucBuffOut

+

1

),

Index

-

2

) &

0x00FF

;

Index

++;

TransmitData

(

ucBuffOut

,

Index

);

}

void InitADC

()

{

//ADMUX = (1<<ADLAR)|(1<<REFS0)|(1<<REFS1); ; // For Aref=AVcc;

ADMUX

= (

1

<<

ADLAR

)|(

1

<<

REFS0

);

ADCSRA

=(

1

<<

ADPS2

)|(

1

<<

ADPS1

)|(

1

<<

ADPS0

);

//Rrescalar div factor =128

ADCSRA

|= (

1

<<

ADEN

) | (

1

<<

ADIE

);

//Turn on ADC

ADCSRA

|= (

1

<<

ADSC

);

//Do an initial conversion because this one is the slowest and to ensure that everything is up and running

Page 110 of 115

Integration of WirelessHART and STK600 for Data Collection in WSN

}

ISR

(

USART1_RX_vect

)

{

//UART0_transmit(UDR1); // What you receive from VS220 - send to the PC

//_delay_ms(200); unsigned char ucReceivedChar

;

ucReceivedChar

=

UDR1

; if (

ucReceivedChar

==

0xF1

)

// check to see if it's the start of a new message

{

isFirst

=

1

;

// set the flag

} if (

isFirst

)

// we received the STX char

{ if (

ucIndex

==

4

)

// check to see if it's the 5th byte - this byte is the data size

{

ucByteCount

=

ucReceivedChar

;

//store the data size

} if (

ucIndex

==

ucByteCount

+

7

)

// we received all of the bytes of the message

{

Page 111 of 115

Integration of WirelessHART and STK600 for Data Collection in WSN

isFirst

=

0

;

// reset the flag

ucIndex

=

0

;

// reset the Index counter

ComposeResponse

();

// this will be the function where you'll have to parse the message and compose the response

return ;

// there is nothing else to do

} else

// we still have to receive characters

{

ucBuffIn

[

ucIndex

]=

ucReceivedChar

;

// store the character in the buffer

UART0_transmit

(

ucReceivedChar

);

// if you want print out the received character

}

ucIndex

++;

// increment the index

}

}

ISR

(

ADC_vect

)

{

int Value

;

//UART0_transmit(ADCH);

//Value=(int)ADCH;

var1

.

um_Value

.

m_fValue

=

ADCH

;

swapByteOrder

(

var1

.

um_Value

.

m_ucValue

);

//ADCSRA |=(1<<ADIF);

}

Page 112 of 115

Integration of WirelessHART and STK600 for Data Collection in WSN int main

(

void

)

{

//DDRF = 0x01; //Port F PIN 0 as output

//DDRB=0x01;

//PORTB=0x01;

//DDRF&= ~(1<<PINF1);

//PORTF |= 1 << PF0;

//sei();

DDRF

=

0x00

;

PORTF

|= (

1

<<

PF0

);

cli

();

UART_init

();

InitData

();

InitADC

();

UART0_transmit

(

'I'

);

// Send smth to the PC to see if it works

UART0_transmit

(

'n'

);

UART0_transmit

(

'i'

);

UART0_transmit

(

't'

);

UART0_transmit

(

'\0'

);

sei

();

// enable interrupts

Page 113 of 115

Integration of WirelessHART and STK600 for Data Collection in WSN

//unsigned char ucBuffer[7]={0xF1,0x40,0x01,0x80,0x00,0xC6,0xF4};

for (;;)

// Loop forever

{

// Do nothing - echoing is handled by the ISR instead of in the main loop

ADCSRA

|= (

1

<<

ADSC

);

_delay_ms

(

200

);

}

}

Page 114 of 115

Integration of WirelessHART and STK600 for Data Collection in WSN

//crc.c

#include "crc.h" unsigned int crc_calc

(

unsigned char

*

data

,

unsigned int length

)

{

unsigned int h_value

,

crc_value

=

0xFFFFu

,

crc_poly

=

0x1021u

;

int i

; while (

length

->

0

)

{

crc_value

^= ((

unsigned int

)(*(

data

++))<<

8

); for (

i

=

0

;

i

<

8

;

i

++)

{ if ((

crc_value

& (

unsigned int

)

0x8000u

) >

0

)

{

crc_value

= (

crc_value

<<

1

) ^

crc_poly

;

} else

{

crc_value

<<=

1

;

}

} }

h_value

=

crc_value

;

crc_value

=

0xFFFFu

; return

h_value

;

}

unsigned int crc_calc

(

unsigned char

*

data

,

unsigned int length

); //crc.h

Page 115 of 115

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