Advance Line Following Sensor Bar LSA08 User`s Manual V1.0

Advance Line Following Sensor Bar LSA08 User`s Manual V1.0
Advance Line Following Sensor Bar
LSA08
User’s Manual
V1.0
September 2011
Information contained in this publication regarding device applications and the like is intended through suggestion only and
may be superseded by updates. It is your responsibility to ensure that your application meets with your specifications. No
representation or warranty is given and no liability is assumed by Cytron Technologies Incorporated with respect to the
accuracy or use of such information or infringement of patents or other intellectual property rights arising from such use or
otherwise. Use of Cytron Technologies’s products as critical components in life support systems is not authorized except
with express written approval by Cytron Technologies. No licenses are conveyed, implicitly or otherwise, under any
intellectual property rights.
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Product User’s Manual – LSA08
Index
1. Introduction and Overview
3
2. Packing List
4
3. Product Specification and Limitations
5
4. Board or Product Layout
8
5. Installation (hardware)
10
6. Getting Started
18
6.1 Output Port
25
6.1.1 PORT A – Analog and UART port
25
6.1.2 PORT B – Digital Output port
32
6.13 PORT C – External LCD
34
7. Warranty (6 months or 1 year)
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Product User’s Manual – LSA08
1. INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW
LSA08 (Advance Line Following Sensor Bar) consist of 8 IR transmitter and IR
receiver pairs. LSA08 is typically used for embedded system or robots for line following task.
LSA08 can detect any color of line which has brightness different with the background.
The IR transmitters on LSA08 are pulsed to allow the transmitter to off at certain idle
period of sensor. This minimizes the current consumption of LSA08 to at least half of the
current consumption compared to a normal unregulated IR line sensor. Power polarity
protection is available on LSA08 in case the user accidentally applies a reverse voltage.
LSA08 has several different output modes, for the convenience of use for any system.
Namely, the digital output port (8 parallel output line), the serial communication port
(UART) and the analog output port.
Output
Digital Port
UART
Analog
Description
8 bits for 8 sensors
Retrieve digital value, line position or sensor raw value
Position value in the form of analog voltage.
LCD on the LSA08 displays the different menu for setting up the operation setting.
LSA08 have 8 digital outputs to user indicating the existence of the line. The dark and
bright value of the line and background will be saved to non-volatile memory when the user
calibrate the sensor to the surface that it will recognize. The line existence threshold is set by
the Threshold menu of the sensor. Each sensor of the 8 sensors on LSA08 is independent of
each other. The refreshing rate of the sensors is more than 100Hz.
LSA08 has a manual mode and select button. User can choose different mode/settings
using MODE button and SEL button to enter the mode/settings.
Note: Red color is very bright to IR sensor, thus LSA08 has difficulties in red – white pair
color line follow.
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Product User’s Manual – LSA08
2. PACKING LIST
Please check the parts and components according to the packing list. If there is any part
missing, please contact us at [email protected] immediately.
1. LSA08 PCB with every component soldered properly.
2. LSA08 cable connector
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Product User’s Manual – LSA08
3. PRODUCT SPECIFICATION AND LIMITATIONS
Dimensions
135
46.66
54.3
127.38
18
15
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Product User’s Manual – LSA08
Electrical Specifications
Parameter
IR Emission (peak wavelength)
Input signal, VIH
Input signal, VIL
Output Signal
Min
2
0
Absolute Maximum Rating
Parameter
Operating voltage
Maximum Current (I/O signal pins)
Sensing distance (from board)
LSA08 Setting Menu:
Menu
LCD Contrast (LCD CON)
Calibration (CALB)
Line Mode (LINEMODE)
Typical
940
Minimum
7.5
1
Maximum
5
0.8
5
Typical
12
3
Maximum
20
5
Unit
nm
V
V
V
Unit
V
mA
cm
Description
Setting the contrast of LCD
Calibrate LSA08 to the colour brightness of the line and
background
Setting LSA08 to be Dark On (for dark line and bright
background) or Light On (for bright line and dark
background)
Threshold (THRES)
Offset (OFFSET)
Junction Width (J WIDTH)
UART Address (UART ADD)
UART Baudrate
(BAUDRATE)
UART Mode (UARTMODE)
LCD Backlight (LCD B/L)
Exit (EXIT)
Exit Menu shortcut
Maximum and minimum reading of sensor adjustment
to eliminate small fluctuation on the bar chart. (set to
zero if not used)
Junction width, the number of bar chart on LCD for
LSA08 to treat it as a junction crossing.
Unique UART address for the LSA08.
Setting the baudrate of the UART Communication
Setting the UART output mode
Setting the LCD backlight brightness
Exit menu
Press and hold Mode button on any main menu will exit
the menu
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Product User’s Manual – LSA08
LSA08 default setting
Menu
Line Mode
Thres
Offset
J_width
Uart Add
Baudrate
Uart Mode
LCD BL
Default setting
Dark On
2
0
5
1
0
0
6
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Product User’s Manual – LSA08
4. BOARD OR PRODUCT LAYOUT
B
Top
C
A
D
E
J
I
Label
A
B
C
D
E
Function
2x8 LCD display
PIC16F1937
Manufacturing Test Points
SEL button
MODE button
F
G
H
Label
F
G
H
I
J
Function
Port C (External LCD port)
LCD Selector
Port B (Digital port)
Port A (Analog and UART port)
PWR LED
A – 2x8 LCD display to display the different menu for setting up the operation setting.
B – PIC16F1937 PIC microcontroller for data processing.
C – It is reserved for Manufacturing Test Point. Please DO NOT short or connect wire to
any of these pins.
D – SEL button is use to select modes or setting.
E – MODE button is use to enter different modes/setting.
F – Port C is provided for external LCD port.
G – LCD selector to select either internal or external LCD used. A jumper needs to be set to
Ext for the External LCD to operate.
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Product User’s Manual – LSA08
H – Port B provided for digital output port.
I – Port A provided for analog and UART port.
J – Power indicator LED (green) showing the board is supplied with power. Maximum input
power is 5V.
Bottom
Pairs of IR Sensor
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Product User’s Manual – LSA08
5. INSTALLATION (HARDWARE)
LSA8 has it power from Vin and Gnd pin of PORT A and PORT B. Vin voltage is 12V. The
picture below is an example of hardware connection setup for LSA08. User may use either
PORT A or PORT B or both PORTS at the same time. If PORT C is used for the external
LCD, please ensure that mini jumper is set to “Ext” at JP4.
Port A with external LCD
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Product User’s Manual – LSA08
Port B with external LCD
'Int' is set to use internal LCD
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'Ext' is set to use external LCD
Cable connector for PORT C is not included in LSA08 packing list. Users need to create the
cable if needed. Below are the steps to create cable for PORT C using rainbow cable.
The items that user needs to create the cable are:
•
Rainbow cable
•
2x 16 ways IDC Socket
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Product User’s Manual – LSA08
a) Remove the clip from IDC socket
b) Insert rainbow cable into IDC socket shown as figure below.
c) Clamp the rainbow cable to IDC socket using clamper.
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d) Figure above shows the rainbow cable with connector after clamp by the clamper.
e) The rainbow cable is fold to front as show in figure below.
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Product User’s Manual – LSA08
f) The last step is to plug on the clipper to the connector.
g) Figure below show the completed cable with IDC socket.
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Product User’s Manual – LSA08
h) To connect LSA08 to main controller, user may use IDC socket for other end of
rainbow cable. It depends on the connector at the main controller side, modifications
can be done to the cable as needed.
Below are example steps for setting up LSA08 cable to connect to main controller using 2510
connector.
1
2
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Product User’s Manual – LSA08
3
4
5
6
7
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Product User’s Manual – LSA08
6. GETTING STARTED
LSA08 need to be calibrated to retrieve the dark and bright value of the surface that it
will do the line follow. Every of the IR sensor pairs need to be exposed to the dark and
bright surface for it to read the value and save it. LSA08 will save the value in EEPROM, it
will retrieve back the data from the EEPROM every time its switch on. Hence, only one time
calibration is needed for the same background and line unless the background and the line
changed, then recalibration is needed. To calibrate LSA08, go into menu setting using MODE
button. Choose CALB and enter the mode using SEL button. Calibration is started by
exposing the sensor to the bright surface and then to the dark surface of the line and
background in the allocated time. Restart the calibration if missed the timing. LSA08 will
save the brightest and darkest value in from the calibration process. User can calibrate by
simply swinging the sensors across the dark and bright surface of the line in order to expose
every sensor to the dark and bright surface. Calibration of every sensor is independent and
value of each sensor will be saved.
Example motions of calibration by crossing the sensor between the lines.
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Product User’s Manual – LSA08
Once power is supply to LSA08, LCD will display the line position detection and bar chart.
Line position detection is a value to shown which sensor is detect the line. The position on
LCD display is ranging from 0 to 70. When there is no line detected on LCD, the position
value will be shown as “****”. If sensor U0 detected a line, the line position reading shown
on LCD will be “0000”. Likewise if a line is detected on sensor U7 the position shown will
be “0070”. The position value varies in between linearly.
Line position
with no line
detected
No line detected
Position 00 - U0 detect the dark line
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Product User’s Manual – LSA08
Position 70 - U7 detect the dark line
If a line is at the middle of the LSA08( U3 and U4), the LCD display will show the position
as 35.
Position 35 – U3 and U4 detect the dark line
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Product User’s Manual – LSA08
Threshold is the value of bar chart on LCD for LSA08 to treat as a valid line. The threshold
value is from 0 to 7. If threshold is set to 7 for example, LSA08 will not detect the line if the
bar chart on LCD is less than 7 LCD also will only display “****” means no line detect.
For this example, the threshold is set to 2 and U1 is detect the dark line because the bar line is
more than 2.
Figure below shown LSA08 cannot detect the line because the threshold value is 7 and the
bar line display on LCD is less than 7.
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Product User’s Manual – LSA08
LCD on the LSA08 will displays the different menu for setting up the operation setting.
There are 10 setting for LSA08. Users may refer page 6 for menu setting description. For
example, user want to set LCD Backlight for LSA08. To enter menu setting:
1. Press MODE button once. It will bring user to 1st menu setting which is LCD CON.
2. Change the menu by more presses on Mode button until the desired menu appeared, for
example “LCD B/L”.
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Product User’s Manual – LSA08
3. Press SEL button to enter the desired menu (LCD B/L). LCD will display current value of
LCD backlight.
4. Press SEL button to change the value.
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Product User’s Manual – LSA08
5. Press Mode button to return to menu selection
6. Press and Hold Mode button while in menu selection to exit
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Product User’s Manual – LSA08
6.1 Output Port
LSA08 has 2 output port (Port A and Port B) for 3 types of output mode. The outputs mode
for LSA08 are digital output (8 parallel output line), serial communication (UART) and
analog output. Port A is provided for UART and analog output mode and port B for digital
output mode. User may choose to use either this Port A or Port B or both. Vin and Gnd pin
are for the power of the LSA08. Both Port A and Port B has the pins, either of the port can
provide the power to LSA08.
6.1.1 PORT A - Analog and UART Port
Table below is pin defined for PORT A- Analog and UART port
Analog and UART Port (PORT A)
Pin
Description
Symbol
1
UART TX (Transmit)
Tx
2
UART RX (Receive)
Rx
3
UART Output Enable
UEN
4
Analog Output
AN
5
Junction Pulse
JPULSE
6
Not used
-
7
Not used
-
8
Not used
-
9
Vin
VIN
10 GND
GND
* Junction Pulse is for junction detection, pulse will be generated every time LSA08 crossing
a junction with minimum width determine by Junction Width setting.
Analog Output mode
Analog output pin represents the line position detected in the form of analog voltage. User
read the analog voltage on the pin using Analog to Digital converter to determine the position
of the line. The analog voltage value range from 0 Volt to 4.5 Volt which represents the line
position between sensor 0 to sensor 7. 5 Volt on the analog output pin represents no line
detected.
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Product User’s Manual – LSA08
For example if a line is at the middle of the LSA08 which is in between sensor U3 and U4,
the LCD on board will show the position as 35. And the analog reading will be
The linear equation for conversion of analog value on Analog Output pin to the position is
shown below:
Vin
GND
Analog pin for Analog
PORT A
Output
Example connection from Analog Output (LSA08) to microcontroller
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Product User’s Manual – LSA08
UART Output mode
UART Output port can be connected to microcontroller or computer. Connection to computer
is using UC00A/B. UART TX and RX are the UART transmit and receive pin of LSA08
which Tx and Rx pin from LSA08 must cross connected to Tx and Rx pin of UC00A/UC00B
or microcontroller. In others word, Tx pin of LSA08 must connected to Rx pin of
UC00A/microcontroller and Rx pin of LSA08 must connected to Tx pin of
UC00A/microcontroller.
UART Output Enable (UEN) pin is used to enable the data output streams from the LSA08.
This pin needs to be pulled low to enable the data output streams. This pin is functioning as
the flow control of the UART output data. The main controller request the data by pulling
low the UART Output Enable pin. The data output streams can be in 4 different formats
which are set in menu of UART Mode.
Mode 0: No Data
Mode 1: Parallel output, digital output of each sensor.
Mode 2: Line Position.
Mode 3: A/D reading of each sensor
Mode
Description
0
No data from UART
1
One byte of data at the refreshing rate of LSA08. 8 bits represent digital value of the
8 sensors. '1' represents the existence of line and '0' means no line. Threshold of the
line existence is set in the Threshold Menu.
2
One byte of data which represent the current position of the line. The value is from
hexadecimal value of 0x00 to 0x70. 0XFF represents no line detected. 0X00 means
the line is detected on the most left of the LSA08 and 0x70 means that the line is
detected on the most right of the sensor. This value is also shown on the second row
LCD of LSA08.
3
Every raw A/D value readings from the sensor are sent out in packets. Each packet
is start with 0x00 as the delimiter, followed by 8 bytes of sensor A/D reading. This
mode is for those who want to process the sensor raw data themselves.
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Product User’s Manual – LSA08
UART Serial communication setting need to initialize in user programming (microcontroller)
or hyperterminal(computer). UART Serial Communication specification of LSA08 are:
Baudrate : Variable, Set by user
Start bit : 1
Stop bit : 1
Data bit : 8
Parity bit : 0
For LSA08 Serial Communication (UART), a command needs to send to enter menu mode
Table below shown command reference table for UART and UART Command Packet
Format. Table shows the selectable baudrate for LSA08.
Setting Baudrate(bps)
0
9600
1
19200
2
38400
3
57600
4
115200
5
230400
Command and data reference table for the UART:
Command
(ASCII)
C
L
T
O
J
A
B
S
R
D
Hexadecimal
Value
0x43
0x4C
0x54
0x4F
0x4A
0x41
0x42
0x53
0x52
0x44
Description
Calibration
Mode (Dark On/Light On)
Line Threshold
Offset
Junction Width
UART Address
LCD Backlight
LCD Contrast
UART Baudrate
UART Data Output Mode
Data (Hexadecimal value)
0x00
0x01(Dark on), 0x00 (light on)
0x00 - 0x07
0x00 - 0x32
0x01 - 0x08
0x00 - 0xFF
0x00 - 0x0A
0x00 - 0xFF
0x00 - 0x05
0x00 - 0x03
UART Command Packet Format (4 bytes):
ADDRESS COMMAND DATA
CHECKSUM
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ADDRESS is the Address of the LSA08. It can be from 0 to 255 set by user from the UART
Address Menu. This Address together with UART Output Enable features allows the user to
control more than one LSA08 from a main board. The Checksum byte of the packet is
calculated by adding up the Address byte, Command byte and Data byte together and taking
only lower byte if more than one byte after addition.
CHECKSUM (1 Byte, Lower Byte) = ADDRESS + COMMAND + DATA
Example packet:
Address
Command
0x02
0x43
Data
0x00*
Checksum
0x45
This packet will cause the LSA08 to start calibration. Thus, the user may need to start rotate
the robot to start exposing the LSA08 to the line and background in the predefined time
constraint.
*The data byte is set to zero for those commands that do not need of any data value.
Address
0xF0
Command
0x44
Data
0x03
Checksum
0x37
Please take note that the 4 modes of the UART mode are represented by data value from 0 to
3. The above command will sent the UART data mode to mode 3 which is raw data from A/D
converter of the sensors on LSA08.
If there is confusion of UART address of the LSA08, anytime the user can manually go into
the LCD menu of the “UART ADD” to check for it. The correct address for the LSA08 board
is important to be known if the user wants to use the UART serial communication with the
board.
Every successful UART command received by the board with correct address, command and
checksum value will be responded by LSA08 with a pair of ASCII characters “OK”
immediately upon successful command. If in case there is no response from the board, the
packet is being ignored by the board because of the wrong address, command, checksum or
communication error which might be caused by the incorrect baudrate of poor signal line.
Resend of the command packet is needed if the user still need to change the setting by UART
communication.
Figure below is example a packet command send to setting LSA08. 1 st packet data send is to
set the address to 02 from the current address. Because this is the 1st time to set the address,
the current address is the default address (01) of LSA08. The 2 nd packet data is to set the LCD
backlight with maximum backlight.
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Product User’s Manual – LSA08
Characters “OK”
received when
command is
successful.
A packet of
command to set
the address
A packet of
command to set the
backlight
This is different from retrieving data from LSA08. By enabling the UART data sending to the
desired setting of data format (refer to table in 6.1.1), the data is always sent out by LSA08
when the flow control signal line (UART Output Enable, UEN) pin is pulled low by the user.
This flow control signal line enables the user to have enough time to process the data from
LSA08 before any new data coming in by setting a high signal to UEN pin. This will prevent
the UART buffer overflow of the user's main board side condition caused by fast flowing of
data sent by LSA08.
Below is pin defined for UART pin. UART and Analog pin shared same port which is PORT
A.
Vin
UART
Junction Output
Pulse
Enable UART Tx
GND
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UART Rx
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Product User’s Manual – LSA08
UART output enable signal pin (UEN) is for controlling the flow of data from the LSA08
board. This line will not affect the commands sent into the LSA08 board and responses of
LSA08 to the commands on UART serial communication line. Commands can be sent to the
LSA07 regardless the UEN line signal state either low or high and LSA08 will still response
accordingly. Commands and responses of command have higher priority than the data output
streams. Thus, LSA08 will process the command and response accordingly as soon as it
receives the full correct packet command.
Example connection from UART Output (LSA08) to microcontroller
6.1.2 PORT B – Digital Output port
The digital port consists of 8 signal pins. Every signal pin represents a sensor on LSA08
board. A 5V or high digital value “1” shows line detected whilst a 0V or digital value of “0”
shows no line detected. The User will need to process the data to determine where the line
exists. For example if U0 and U1 sensor give high digital value, this means that the line is in
between the two sensors. A simple setup, user can connect the digital port which consists 8
signals from LSA08 directly to the user’s main controller digital port. The user main program
can directly read the digital port value to determine the line position. This port actually
consumes a lot of port pins (8 pin). If the user main controller is lack of the digital input port
pins, the user can choose to use the UART output (3 pins maximum) or Analog output (1 pin)
from the LSA08 which minimize the usage of the controller port pins and reserve for other
control purposes.
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Table below shows the pins defined for digital output port.
Pin
Description
Symbol
1
Digital Output 1 (Sensor 1)
O0
2
Digital Output 2 (Sensor 2)
O1
3
Digital Output 3 (Sensor 3)
O2
4
Digital Output 4 (Sensor 4)
O3
5
Digital Output 5 (Sensor 5)
O4
6
Digital Output 6 (Sensor 6)
O5
7
Digital Output 7 (Sensor 7)
O6
8
Digital Output 8 (Sensor 8)
O7
9
Vin (12V)
VIN
10
GND
GND
Vin
GND
Digital
Digital
Digital
Output 7 Output 5 Output 3
Digital
Output 1
Digital Digital
Digital
Output 8 Output 6 Output 4
Digital
Output 2
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Example connection from Digital Output (LSA08) to microcontroller
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Product User’s Manual – LSA08
6.1.3 PORT C – External LCD
Another port provided is PORT C which is for the use of external LCD. Jumper on LSA08
needs to be set to Ext for the External LCD to operate. The contrast value for the LCD need
to be readjusted because every LCD has different voltage range for the liquid crystal in order
to display properly. The contrast is the second menu of the LSA08.
Table below shows the pins defined for external LCD. User may use only one LCD at a time.
Either external or internal LCD which is set by JP4.
External LCD Port (PORT C)
Pin
Description
1
GND
2
LCD VDD(5V)
3
LCD VEE (Controlled by the contrast menu)
4
RS
5
R/W
6
E
11
D4
12
D5
13
D6
14
D7
15
LED+ (Backlight)
16
LED- (Backlight)
In the case of the characters on the LCD is invisible due to the wrong contrast, press the
Mode button once, then press Select button to enter the LCD Contrast Menu and press
and hold the Select button to adjust the contrast.
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Product User’s Manual – LSA08
7. WARRANTY
Product warranty is valid for 6 months.
Warranty only applies to manufacturing defect.
Damage caused by misuse is not covered under warranty.
Warranty does not cover freight cost for both ways.
Prepared by
Cytron Technologies Sdn. Bhd.
19, Jalan Kebudayaan 1A,
Taman Universiti,
81300 Skudai,
Johor, Malaysia.
Tel:
Fax:
+607-521 3178
+607-521 1861
URL: www.cytron.com.my
Email: [email protected]
[email protected]
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