Wireless N/A 5GHz 200mW Outdoor AP Model

Wireless N/A 5GHz 200mW Outdoor AP Model
Wireless N/A 5GHz 200mW Outdoor AP
Model: APO1200/APO1215
User’s Manual
V.1.0
Table of Contents
CHAPTER 1. SYSTEM OVERVIEW .......................................................................................................................................................1
1.1 INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................................................................................................1
1.2 SYSTEM CONCEPT .............................................................................................................................................................................2
1.3 APPLICATIONS IN WIRELESS NETWORK ............................................................................................................................................3
1.4 PRODUCT BENEFIT .............................................................................................................................................................................7
1.5 SPECIFICATION ...................................................................................................................................................................................8
CHAPTER 2. BASIC INSTALLATION..................................................................................................................................................12
2.1 HARDWARE INSTALLATION ...............................................................................................................................................................12
2.1.1 Package Contents.................................................................................................................................................................12
2.1.2 Panel Function Descriptions ...............................................................................................................................................12
2.1.3 Hardware Installation Steps.................................................................................................................................................14
2.2 WEB MANAGEMENT INTERFACE INSTRUCTIONS.............................................................................................................................15
CHAPTER 3. AP MODE CONFIGURATION.......................................................................................................................................17
3.1 EXTERNAL NETWORK CONNECTION ...............................................................................................................................................17
3.1.1 Network Requirement...........................................................................................................................................................17
3.1.2 Configure LAN IP ..................................................................................................................................................................18
3.2 WIRELESS LAN NETWORK CREATION ............................................................................................................................................20
3.2.1 Wireless General Setup .......................................................................................................................................................20
3.2.2 Wireless Advanced Setup....................................................................................................................................................22
3.2.3 Create Virtual AP (VAP) .......................................................................................................................................................28
3.2.3.1 Virtual AP Overview ............................................................................................................................................................................28
3.2.3.2 Virtual AP Setup...................................................................................................................................................................................29
3.2.4 Wireless MAC Filter Setup ..................................................................................................................................................33
3.3 WIRELESS NETWORK EXPANSION ...................................................................................................................................................34
3.4 SYSTEM MANAGEMENT ....................................................................................................................................................................35
3.4.1 Configure Management........................................................................................................................................................35
3.4.2 Configure System Time........................................................................................................................................................38
3.4.3 Configure SNMP Setup ........................................................................................................................................................39
3.4.4 Backup / Restore and Reset to Factory ............................................................................................................................41
3.4.5 Firmware Upgrade ................................................................................................................................................................42
3.4.6 Network Utility ........................................................................................................................................................................43
3.4.7 Reboot .....................................................................................................................................................................................44
3.5 SYSTEM STATUS ...............................................................................................................................................................................45
3.5.1 System Overview ..................................................................................................................................................................45
3.5.2 Associated Clients Status ....................................................................................................................................................47
3.5.3 Show WDS Link Status ........................................................................................................................................................48
3.5.4 Extra Information ...................................................................................................................................................................49
3.5.5 Event Log................................................................................................................................................................................51
CHAPTER 4. WDS MODE CONFIGURATION...................................................................................................................................52
4.1 EXTERNAL NETWORK CONNECTION ...............................................................................................................................................52
4.1.1 Network Requirement...........................................................................................................................................................52
4.1.2 Configure LAN IP ..................................................................................................................................................................53
4.2 WIRELESS NETWORK EXPANSION ...................................................................................................................................................54
4.2.1 General Setup........................................................................................................................................................................54
4.2.2 Wireless Advanced Setup....................................................................................................................................................56
4.2.3 WDS Setup.............................................................................................................................................................................62
4.3 SYSTEM MANAGEMENT ....................................................................................................................................................................63
4.3.1 Configure Management........................................................................................................................................................63
4.3.2 Configure System Time........................................................................................................................................................66
4.3.3 Configure SNMP Setup ........................................................................................................................................................67
4.3.4 Backup / Restore and Reset to Factory ............................................................................................................................69
4.3.5 Firmware Upgrade ................................................................................................................................................................70
4.3.6 Network Utility ........................................................................................................................................................................71
4.3.7 Reboot .....................................................................................................................................................................................72
4.4 SYSTEM STATUS ...............................................................................................................................................................................73
4.4.1 System Overview ..................................................................................................................................................................73
4.4.2 WDS List .................................................................................................................................................................................75
4.4.3 Extra Information ...................................................................................................................................................................76
4.4.4 Event Log................................................................................................................................................................................78
CHAPTER 5. CPE MODE CONFIGURATION....................................................................................................................................79
5.1 EXTERNAL NETWORK CONNECTION ...............................................................................................................................................79
5.1.1 Network Requirement...........................................................................................................................................................79
5.1.2 Configure WAN Setup ..........................................................................................................................................................80
5.1.3 Configure DDNS Setup ........................................................................................................................................................83
5.1.4 Configure LAN Setup............................................................................................................................................................84
5.2 ACCESS POINT ASSOCIATION ..........................................................................................................................................................85
5.2.1 Configure Wireless General Setting ..................................................................................................................................85
5.2.2 Configure Wireless Advanced Setting ...............................................................................................................................87
5.2.3 Site Survey .............................................................................................................................................................................88
5.2.4 Create Wireless Profile.........................................................................................................................................................89
5.3 SYSTEM MANAGEMENT ....................................................................................................................................................................91
5.3.1 Configure Management........................................................................................................................................................91
5.3.2 Configure System Time........................................................................................................................................................94
5.3.3 Configure UPnP.....................................................................................................................................................................95
5.3.4 Configure SNMP Setup ........................................................................................................................................................96
5.3.5 Backup / Restore and Reset to Factory ............................................................................................................................98
5.3.6 Firmware Upgrade ................................................................................................................................................................99
5.3.7 Network Utility ......................................................................................................................................................................100
5.3.8 Reboot ...................................................................................................................................................................................101
5.4 ACCESS CONTROL LIST .................................................................................................................................................................102
5.4.1 IP Filter Setup ......................................................................................................................................................................102
5.4.2 MAC Filter Setup .................................................................................................................................................................104
5.4.3 Parental Control Setup .......................................................................................................................................................105
5.4.4 QoS Setup ............................................................................................................................................................................107
5.5 RESOURCE SHARING .....................................................................................................................................................................110
5.5.1 DMZ ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 110
5.5.2 Virtual Server (Port Forwarding)....................................................................................................................................... 111
5.6 SYSTEM STATUS .............................................................................................................................................................................113
5.6.1 Overview ............................................................................................................................................................................... 113
5.6.2 Station Statistics .................................................................................................................................................................. 116
5.6.3 Extra Info............................................................................................................................................................................... 118
5.6.4 QoS Plot................................................................................................................................................................................120
5.6.5 Event Log..............................................................................................................................................................................121
CHAPTER 6. CPE + AP MODE CONFIGURATION........................................................................................................................122
6.1 EXTERNAL NETWORK CONNECTION .............................................................................................................................................122
6.1.1 Network Requirement.........................................................................................................................................................122
6.1.2 Configure WAN Setup ........................................................................................................................................................123
6.1.3 Configure DDNS Setup ......................................................................................................................................................126
6.1.4 Configure LAN Setup..........................................................................................................................................................127
6.2 ACCESS POINT ASSOCIATION ........................................................................................................................................................128
6.2.1 Configure Wireless General Setting ................................................................................................................................128
6.2.2 Wireless Advanced Setup..................................................................................................................................................130
6.2.3 Site Survey ...........................................................................................................................................................................136
6.2.4 Create Wireless Profile.......................................................................................................................................................137
6.3 WIRELESS LAN NETWORK CREATION ..........................................................................................................................................139
6.3.1 Repeater AP Setup .............................................................................................................................................................139
6.3.2 Wireless MAC Filter Setup ................................................................................................................................................143
6.4 SYSTEM MANAGEMENT ..................................................................................................................................................................144
6.4.1 Configure Management......................................................................................................................................................144
6.4.2 Configure System Time......................................................................................................................................................147
6.4.3 Configure UPnP...................................................................................................................................................................148
6.4.4 Configure SNMP Setup ......................................................................................................................................................149
6.4.5 Backup / Restore and Reset to Factory ..........................................................................................................................151
6.4.6 Firmware Upgrade ..............................................................................................................................................................152
6.4.7 Network Utility ......................................................................................................................................................................153
6.4.8 Reboot ...................................................................................................................................................................................154
6.5 ACCESS CONTROL LIST .................................................................................................................................................................155
6.5.1 IP Filter Setup ......................................................................................................................................................................155
6.5.2 MAC Filter Setup .................................................................................................................................................................157
6.5.3 Parental Control Setup .......................................................................................................................................................158
6.5.4 QoS Setup ............................................................................................................................................................................160
6.6 RESOURCE SHARING .....................................................................................................................................................................163
6.6.1 DMZ .......................................................................................................................................................................................163
6.6.2 Virtual Server (Port Forwarding).......................................................................................................................................164
6.7 SYSTEM STATUS .............................................................................................................................................................................166
6.7.1 Overview ...............................................................................................................................................................................166
6.7.2 Associated Clients Status ..................................................................................................................................................169
6.7.3 Remote AP ...........................................................................................................................................................................170
6.7.4 Extra Info...............................................................................................................................................................................171
6.7.5 QoS Plot................................................................................................................................................................................173
6.7.6 Event Log..............................................................................................................................................................................174
CHAPTER 7. CLIENT BRIDGE + UNIVERSAL REPEATER CONFIGURATION .....................................................................175
7.1 EXTERNAL NETWORK CONNECTION .............................................................................................................................................175
7.1.1 Network Requirement.........................................................................................................................................................175
7.1.2 Configure LAN IP ................................................................................................................................................................176
7.2 ACCESS POINT ASSOCIATION ........................................................................................................................................................178
7.2.1 Configure Wireless General Setting ................................................................................................................................178
7.2.2 Wireless Advanced Setup..................................................................................................................................................180
7.2.3 Site Survey ...........................................................................................................................................................................186
7.2.4 Create Wireless Profile.......................................................................................................................................................187
7.3 WIRELESS LAN NETWORK CREATION ..........................................................................................................................................189
7.3.1 Repeater AP Setup .............................................................................................................................................................189
7.3.2 Wireless MAC Filter Setup ................................................................................................................................................193
7.4 SYSTEM MANAGEMENT ..................................................................................................................................................................194
7.4.1 Configure Management......................................................................................................................................................194
7.4.2 Configure System Time......................................................................................................................................................197
7.4.3 Configure SNMP Setup ......................................................................................................................................................198
7.4.4 Backup / Restore and Reset to Factory ..........................................................................................................................200
7.4.5 Firmware Upgrade ..............................................................................................................................................................201
7.4.6 Network Utility ......................................................................................................................................................................202
7.4.7 Reboot ...................................................................................................................................................................................203
7.5 SYSTEM STATUS .............................................................................................................................................................................204
7.5.1 System Overview ................................................................................................................................................................204
7.5.2 Associated Clients Status ..................................................................................................................................................207
7.5.3 Remote AP ...........................................................................................................................................................................208
7.5.4 Extra Information .................................................................................................................................................................209
7.5.5 Event Log.............................................................................................................................................................................. 211
CHAPTER 8. ROUTER AP MODE CONFIGURATION ..................................................................................................................212
8.1 EXTERNAL NETWORK CONNECTION .............................................................................................................................................212
8.1.1 Network Requirement.........................................................................................................................................................212
8.1.2 Configure WAN Setup ........................................................................................................................................................213
8.1.3 Configure DDNS Setup ......................................................................................................................................................216
8.1.4 Configure LAN Setup..........................................................................................................................................................217
8.2 WIRELESS LAN NETWORK CREATION ..........................................................................................................................................218
8.2.1 Wireless General Setup .....................................................................................................................................................218
8.2.2 Wireless Advanced Setup..................................................................................................................................................220
8.2.3 Create Virtual AP (VAP) .....................................................................................................................................................226
8.2.3.1 Virtual AP Overview ..........................................................................................................................................................................226
8.2.3.2 Virtual AP Setup.................................................................................................................................................................................227
8.2.4 Wireless MAC Filter Setup ................................................................................................................................................231
8.3 WIRELESS NETWORK EXPANSION .................................................................................................................................................232
8.4 SYSTEM MANAGEMENT ..................................................................................................................................................................233
8.4.1 Configure Management......................................................................................................................................................233
8.4.2 Configure System Time......................................................................................................................................................236
8.4.3 Configure UPnP...................................................................................................................................................................237
8.4.4 Configure SNMP Setup ......................................................................................................................................................238
8.4.5 Backup / Restore and Reset to Factory ..........................................................................................................................240
8.4.6 Firmware Upgrade ..............................................................................................................................................................241
8.4.7 Network Utility ......................................................................................................................................................................242
8.4.8 Reboot ...................................................................................................................................................................................243
8.5 ACCESS CONTROL LIST .................................................................................................................................................................244
8.5.1 IP Filter Setup ......................................................................................................................................................................244
8.5.2 MAC Filter Setup .................................................................................................................................................................246
8.5.3 Parental Control Setup .......................................................................................................................................................247
8.5.4 QoS Setup ............................................................................................................................................................................249
8.6 RESOURCE SHARING .....................................................................................................................................................................252
8.6.1 DMZ .......................................................................................................................................................................................252
8.6.2 Virtual Server (Port Forwarding).......................................................................................................................................253
8.7 SYSTEM STATUS .............................................................................................................................................................................255
8.7.1 Overview ...............................................................................................................................................................................255
8.7.2 Associated Clients Status ..................................................................................................................................................258
8.7.3 Show WDS Link Status ......................................................................................................................................................259
8.7.4 Extra Info...............................................................................................................................................................................260
8.7.5 QoS Plot................................................................................................................................................................................262
8.7.6 Event Log..............................................................................................................................................................................263
APPENDIX A. WINDOWS TCP/IP SETTINGS...............................................................................................................................264
APPENDIX B. WEB GUI VALID CHARACTERS ..........................................................................................................................266
APPENDIX C. MCS DATA RATE ......................................................................................................................................................269
APPENDIX D. SYSTEM MANAGER PRIVILEGES ......................................................................................................................270
APPENDIX E. ENABLING UPNP IN WINDOWS XP....................................................................................................................271
TECHNICAL SUPPORT ........................................................................................................................................................................273
Chapter 1. System Overview
1.1 Introduction
Airlink101® Wireless N/A 5GHz 200mW Outdoor Access Point, APO1200 / Wireless N/A 5GHz 200mW Outdoor Access
Point with 15dBi Patch Antenna, APO1215 is the point of connection to Wireless Outdoor Network for service provider
deploying last mile services to business or residential broadband subscribers. Network administrators can create multiple
subscriber service tiers using per-subscriber rate limiting features, and manage centrally. Airlink101® Outdoor AP utilizes
a 200mW output Tx Power connecting to the WiFi mesh or WDS infrastructure and provides the subscriber with an
Ethernet connection for a local access.
Airlink101® Outdoor AP can be used for nine different purposes in six different modes. In the Router AP mode, it can be
deployed as a gateway with wireless Access Point(AP) and provides WDS link for network extension. In the AP mode, it
can be deployed either as traditional fixed wireless Access Point, or combination of AP and WDS(AP+WDS). In the WDS
mode, it’s only used to expand or bridge Ethernet networks and deployed as a main base, relay based or remote base
station. In the CPE mode, it connects to Wireless Internet Service Provider’s (WISP) outdoor network via wireless WAN
gateway to access Internet. In the Client Bridge + Universal Repeater mode, it connects to Wireless Internet Service
Provider’s (WISP) outdoor network via wireless or wired bridge to access to Internet. In the CPE + AP mode, it connects
to Wireless Internet Service Provider’s(WISP) outdoor network via wireless WAN gateway to access Internet, and it also
can provide wireless clients associated via Access Point.
1.
Router AP+WDS : It can be deployed as a gateway with wireless Access Point and provides WDS link for
network extension.
2.
Access Point : It can be deployed as a traditional fixed wireless Access Point
3.
Repeater : To expand wireless service by repeating prior AP
4.
WDS : It can be used to expand Ethernet network via wireless WDS Link
5.
AP+WDS : Not only to extend Ethernet network, but also provide wireless access to the expanded network
6.
CPE (Customer Premises Equipment) : It is a wireless gateway with NAT and DHCP Server functions to
connects to Wireless Internet Service Provider's (WISP)
7.
Client Bridge + Universal Repeater : It is a wireless repeater or bridge to connects to Wireless Internet Service
Provider's (WISP)
8.
CPE+AP: It is a wireless repeater or gateway with NAT and DHCP Server functions to connects to Wireless
Internet Service Provider's (ISP)
1
1.2 System Concept
The APO1200/APO1215 is not only designed and used as traditional outdoor AP, but also with rich features tailored for
WISP applications. The two-level management capability and access control ease WISP and owners to maintain and
manage wireless network in a more controllable fashion. Main applications are listed as follows with illustration:
„
Wireless CPE for Multi Dwelling Unit/Multi Tenant Unit(MDU/MTU) complexes including apartments, dormitories, and
office complexes.
„
Outdoor Access Point for school campuses, enterprise campuses, or manufacture plants.
„
Indoor Access Point for hotels, factories, or warehouses where industrial grade devices are preferred.
„
Public hotspot operation for café, parks, convention centers, shopping malls, or airports.
„
Wireless coverage for indoor and outdoor grounds in private resorts, home yards, or gulf course communities.
APO1200/
APO1215
2
1.3 Applications in Wireless Network
APO1200/APO1215 is a multiple mode system which can be configured either as a wireless gateway or an access point
as desired. It also can be used as a WDS link for Ethernet network expansion. This section depicts different applications
on Router AP Mode, AP Mode, WDS Mode, CPE Mode, Client Bridge + Universal Repeater Mode and CPE + AP
Mode.
„
Configuration on Router AP Mode (Gateway + Access Point + WDS)
Î Example 1 : Router AP without WDS
9
It can be deployed as a gateway with wireless Access Point
APO1200
Î Example 2 : Router AP with WDS
9
It can be deployed as a gateway with wireless Access Point and provides WDS link for network extension.
APO1200
3
„
Configuration in AP Mode (including Access Point + WDS)
An access point can be either a main, relay or remote base station. A main base station is typically connected to a
wired network via the Ethernet port. A relay base station relays data between main base stations and relay stations or
remote base stations with clients. A remote base station is the end point to accept connections from wireless clients
and pass data upwards to a network wirelessly.
Î Example 1 : Access Point without WDS
9
It can be deployed as a tradition fixed wireless Access Point
APO1200
Î Example 2 : Access Point with WDS
9
It can be deployed as a tradition fixed wireless Access Point and provides WDS link to expand network
APO1200
APO1200
„
Configuration in WDS Mode (Pure WDS)
An access point can be either a main, relay or remote base station. A main base station is typically connected to a
wired network via the Ethernet port. A relay base station relays data between main base stations and relay stations or
remote base stations with clients. A remote base station is the end point to accept connections from wireless clients
and pass data upwards to a network wirelessly. In this mode, it can support single or multiple WDS links and no
wireless clients can associate with it.
4
Î Example 1 : Point-to-Point
APO1200
APO1200
Î Example 2 : Point-to-Multi-Point
APO1200
WC
Î Example 3 : Multi-Point Repeating bridge
APO1200
„
Configuration in CPE Mode
It can be used as an Outdoor Customer Premises Equipment (CPE) to receive wireless signal over last mile
application, helping WISPs deliver wireless broadband Internet service to residents and business customers. In the
CPE mode, APO1200/APO1215 is a gateway enabled with NAT and DHCP Server functions. The wired clients
connected to APO1200/APO1215 are in different subnet from those connected to Main Base Station, and, in CPE
mode, it does not accept wireless association from wireless clients.
5
APO1200
„
Configuration in Client Bridge + Universal Repeater Mode
It can be used as an Client Bridge + Universal Repeater to receive wireless signal over last mile applications, helping
WISPs deliver wireless broadband Internet service to new residential and business customers. In this mode,
APO1200/APO1215 is enabled with DHCP Server functions. The wired clients of APO1200/APO1215 are in the
same subnet from Main Base Station and it accepts wireless connections from client devices.
APO1200
„
Configuration on CPE + AP Mode (Router Client + Access Point)
It can be used as an Outdoor Customer Premised Equipment(CPE) to receive wireless signal over the last mile,
helping WISPs deliver wireless broadband Internet service to new residential and business customers. In this mode,
the APO1200/APO1215 is a gateway with NAT and DHCP Server functions. The wireless and wired clients of
APO1200/APO1215 are on the different subnet from Main Base Station and it accepts wireless connections from
client devices.
APO1200
6
1.4 Product Benefit
„
IEEE 802.11n Compliance in 2Tx / 2Rx Design
„
Support IEEE 802.11n and 802.11a
„
Operates in the 5GHz ISM Band
„
Enables Bandwidth of up to 300Mbps(Tx), 300Mbps(Rx) link rate
„
Topology : Point to Point ; Point to Multi Point
Î Router AP Mode
Î Access Point Mode : Pure Access Point Function and Access Point /Bridge(WDS) Function
Î WDS Mode
Î CPE Mode (Router Client )
Î Client Bridge + Universal Repeater
Î CPE + AP Mode
„
Security with 802.1X, WPA, and WPA2
„
Support QoS(Quality of Service) & WMM
„
Integrated Power over Ethernet (PoE)
„
Multiple Virtual AP & Capability of Client Isolation
„
Business-class WLAN Security and Client Authentications
„
Provide Advanced Wireless Setting
„
Support Web Management and SNMP MIB II
„
Over Load Current Protection
„
Client Isolation Through Layer 2 VLAN Technology
„
Two administrator accounts for manager authorities
„
QoS for bandwidth management and traffic prioritization
7
1.5 Specification
„
Wireless Architecture Mode
Î
Router AP Mode
9
Wire connection as WAN , in this mode , the device run as DHCP server to assign IP address to wireless
clients out of a private IP address pool behind a NAT
9
This enables the wireless interconnection of Access Point in an IEEE802.11 network .and accept wireless
clients at the same time
Î
AP Mode
9
9
Pure AP Mode
•
It can be deployed as a tradition fixed wireless Access Point
•
It allow wireless clients or Stations(STA ) to access
AP/WDS Mode
•
This enables the wireless interconnection of Access Point in an IEEE802.11 network .and accept
wireless clients at the same time
Î
WDS Mode
9
This enables the wireless interconnection of Access Point in an IEEE802.11 network.
9
It allows a wireless network to be expanded using multiple access point without the need for a wired
backbone to link them.
Î
9
This also be referred to as repeater mode.
9
It can’t allow wireless clients or Stations (STA) to associate.
CPE Mode
9
WiFi connection as WAN , in CPE mode , the device run as DHCP server to assign IP address to wire clients
out of a private IP address pool behind a NAT
Î
Client Bridge(CB) + Universal Repeater(UR) Mode
9
A wireless repeater and bridge with DHCP server enabled, clients on the same subnet as host AP(Primary
Router).
Î
CPE + AP Mode
9
WiFi connection as WAN , in this mode , the device run as DHCP server to assign IP address to wire and
wireless clients out of a private IP address pool behind a NAT
„
Networking
Î
Support Static IP, Dynamic IP(DHCP Client), PPPoE and PPTP on WAN Connection
Î
Support MPPE-64 and MPPE-128 Encryption on PPTP Connection
Î
Support PPTP/L2TP/IP Sec Pass Through
Î
PPPoE and PPTP Reconnect – Always On , On demand, Manual
Î
MAC Cloning
8
„
Î
DHCP Server in Router AP , CPE/CPE + AP and Client Bridge + Universal Repeater Mode
Î
802.3 Bridging
Î
Masquerading (NAT)
Î
Proxy DNS
Î
Dynamic DNS
Î
NTP Client
Î
Virtual DMZ
Î
Virtual Server (IP/ Port Forwarding)
Î
Support MAC Filter
Î
Support IP Filter
Î
Bandwidth traffic Shaping
Wireless Feature
Î
Transmission power control : 1~100 %
Î
Channel selection : Manual or Auto
Î
No of associated clients per AP : 32
Î
Setting for max no associated clients : Yes
Î
No. of ESSID (Virtual AP ) : 7
Î
No. of Max. WDS setting : 4
Î
Preamble setting : Short/ Long
Î
Setting for 802.11a/n mix or 802.11a only
Î
Setting for transmission speed
Î
Dynamic Wireless re-transmission
Î
IEEE802.11f IAPP (Inter Access Point Protocol), hand over users to another AP
Î
IEEE 802.11i Preauth (PMKSA Cache )
Î
IEEE 802.11h - TPC(Transmission Power Control) and DFS(Dynamic Frequency Select)
Î
IEEE 802.11d -Multi country roaming
Î
Wireless Site Survey
Î
Channel Bandwidth setting : 20MHz or 20/40MHz
Î
HT Tx/Rx Stream selection : 1 or 2
Î
A-MSDU and A-MPDU support
Î
Maximal MPDU density for TX aggregation setting
Î
Short Slot support
Î
Slot time and ACK Timeout support
Î
RTS Threshold and Fragment Threshold support
9
„
„
„
Authentication/ Encryption (Wireless Security)
Î
Layer 2 User Isolation and AP Isolation
Î
Blocks client to client discovery within a specified VLAN
Î
WEP 64/ 128 Bits
Î
EAP-TLS + Dynamic WEP
Î
EAP-TTLS + Dynamic WEP
Î
PEAP/ MS-PEAP+Dynamic WEP
Î
WPA (PSK +TKIP)
Î
WPA (802.1x certification + TKIP)
Î
802.11i WPA2 (PSK + CCMP/ AES)
Î
802.11i WPA2 (802.1x certification + CCMP/ AES)
Î
Setting for TKIP/ CCMP/ AES key’s refreshing period
Î
Hidden ESSID support
Î
Setting for “Deny ANY “ connection request
Î
MAC Address filtering (MAC ACL)
Î
No. of registered RADIUS servers : 1
Î
VLAN assignment on ESSID
Î
Support WEP, AES and TKIP data encryption over WDS link
Quality of Service
Î
Download and Upload traffic control
Î
Packet classifications via DSCP (Differentiated Services Code Point)
Î
Control Policy by IP/IP Range/ MAC Group/ Port/ Layer-7 Protocol
Î
Traffic Analysis and Statistics
Î
No. of Max. Policy setting : 10
Î
DiffServ/ ToS
Î
IEEE802.1p/ CoS
Î
IEEE 802.1Q Tag VLAN priority control
Î
IEEE802.11e WMM
Parental Control
Î
Blocking Control Policy by IP Range/ MAC Group/ Port/ Layer-7 Protocol
Î
URL Blocking
10
„
System Administration
Î
Intuitive Web Management Interface
Î
Password Protected Access
Î
Firmware upgrade via Web
Î
Reset to Factory Defaults
Î
Profiles Configuration Backup and Restore
Î
One-button-click to reset factory default
Î
Two administrator accounts
Î
Remote Link Test – Display connect statistics
Î
Full Statistics and Status Reporting
Î
Real time QoS Flow Plot
Î
NTP Time Synchronization
Î
Even Log
Î
Support SNMP v1, v2c, v3
Î
SNMP Traps to a list of IP Address
Î
Support MIB II
Î
CLI access via Telnet and SSH
Î
Administrative Access : HTTP and HTTPS
Î
UPnP (Universal Plug and Play)
Î
Ping Watchdog
11
Chapter 2. Basic Installation
2.1 Hardware Installation
2.1.1 Package Contents
The standard package contents of APO1200/APO1215 :
„
APO1200/APO1215
x1
„
Quick Installation Guide
x1
„
CD-ROM (with User Manual and QIG)
x1
„
Power Adapter DC24V 0.5A
x1
„
PoE Injector
x1
„
Mounting Kit
x2
It is highly recommended to use all the supplies in the package instead of substituting any components by other
suppliers to guarantee best performance.
2.1.2 Panel Function Descriptions
APO1200
Front Panel
Rear Panel
1. Reboot Button : Unscrew the screw and click Reset button to restart system or reset to default configurations.
► Press and hold the Reset button for 2 seconds and release to restart system. The LED except Power
indicator will be off before restarting.
► Press and hold the Reset button for more than 10 seconds to reset the system to default configurations.
2. Power : Green LED ON indicates power on, and OFF indicates power off.
3. WLAN : Green LED FLASH indicates Wireless Transmit.
4. LAN : Green LED ON indicates connection, OFF indicates no connection, FLASH indicates packets transmit.
5. PoE Connector : For connecting to PSE.
6. N-type Connector : For connecting to N-Type Antenna.
12
APO1200
Front Panel
1.
Rear Panel
Reboot Button : Unscrew the screw and click Reset button to restart system or reset to default configurations.
► Press and hold the Reset button for 2 seconds and release to restart system. The LED except Power
indicator will be off before restarting.
► Press and hold the Reset button for more than 10 seconds to reset the system to default configurations.
2.
Power : Green LED ON indicates power on, and OFF indicates power off.
3.
WLAN : Green LED FLASH indicates Wireless Transmit.
4.
LAN : Green LED ON indicates connection, OFF indicates no connection, FLASH indicates packets transmit.
5.
PoE Connector : For connecting to PSE.
13
2.1.3 Hardware Installation Steps
You can refer to the Quick Installation Guide for more detailed instructions. Follow the steps mentioned below to install the
hardware of APO1200/APO1215 :
APO1200
„
Connect N-type antenna to the N-type connector on the rear panel.
„
Connect PSE to the PoE connector on the front panel.
„
Connect an Ethernet cable to the PSE and the other end to a computer or a subnet 192.168.2.x.
„
Power on the PSE in order to supply power to APO1200.
APO1215
„
Connect PSE to the PoE connector on the front panel.
„
Connect an Ethernet cable to the PSE and the other end to a computer or a subnet 192.168.2.x.
„
Power on the PSE in order to supply power to APO1215.
14
2.2 Web Management Interface Instructions
APO1200/APO1215 supports web-based configuration. Upon the completion of hardware installation,
APO1200/APO1215 can be configured through a PC/Laptop by using its web browser such as Internet Explorer version
6.0.
„
Default IP Address : 192.168.2.254
„
Default IP Netmask : 255.255.255.0
„
Default User Name and Password :
The default user name and password for both root manager account and admin manager account are as follows :
Mode
Router AP
CPE
AP
WDS
UR + CB
CPE + AP
Management Account
Root
Account
Root
Account
Admin
Account
Root
Account
Root
Account
Root
Account
Root
Account
Admin
Account
User Name
root
root
admin
root
root
root
root
admin
Password
default
default
admin
default
default
default
default
admin
Step
„
IP Segment Set-up for Administrator's PC/Laptop
Set the IP segment of the administrator's computer to be in the same range as APO1200/APO1215 for accessing the
system. Do not duplicate the IP Address used here with IP Address of APO1200/APO1215 or any other device within
the network
Example of Segment :
The valid range is 1 ~ 254 and 192.168.2.254 shall be avoided because it is already assigned to APO1200/APO1215
. 192.168.2.10 is used in the example below.
„
„
IP Address : 192.168.2.10
„
IP Netmask : 255.255.255.0
Launch Web Browser
Launch web browser to access the web management interface of system by entering the default IP Address,
http://192.168.2.254, in the URL field, and then press Enter.
15
„
System Login
The system manager Login Page then appears.
Enter “root” for user name and “default” for password, and then click OK to login to the system.
„
Login Success
System Overview page will appear after successful login.
16
Chapter 3. AP Mode Configuration
When AP mode is selected, the system can be configured as an Access Point. This section provides detailed explanation
for users to configure in the AP mode with help of illustrations. In the AP mode, functions listed in the table below are also
available from the Web-based GUI interface.
Option
Functions
System
Wireless
Utilities
Status
Operating Mode
General Setup
Profiles Settings
System Overview
LAN
Advanced Setup
Firmware Upgrade
Clients
Management
Virtual AP
Network Utility
WDS Status
Time Server
WDS Setup
Reboot
Extra Info
SNMP
Event Log
Table 3-1: AP Mode Functions
3.1 External Network Connection
3.1.1 Network Requirement
Normally, APO1200/APO1215 connects to a wired LAN and provides a wireless connection point to associate with
wireless client as shown in Figure 3-1. Then, Wireless clients could access to LAN or Internet by associating themselves
with APO1200/APO1215 set in AP mode.
APO1200
Figure 3-1 Access Point on a Wired LAN Configuration
17
3.1.2 Configure LAN IP
Here are the instructions to setup the local IP Address and Netmask.
Please click on System -> LAN and follow the below setting.
„
Mode : Check either “Static IP” or “Dynamic IP” button as desired to set up the system IP of LAN port .
Î
Î
Static IP : The administrator can manually setup the LAN IP address when static IP is available/ preferred.
9
IP Address : The IP address of the LAN port; default IP address is 192.168.2.254
9
IP Netmask : The Subnet mask of the LAN port; default Netmask is 255.255.255.0
9
IP Gateway : The default gateway of the LAN port; default Gateway is 192.168.2.1
Dynamic IP : This configuration type is applicable when the APO1200/APO1215 is connected to a network with
the presence of a DHCP server; all related IP information will be provided by the DHCP server automatically.
9
„
Hostname : The Hostname of the LAN port
DNS : Check either “No Default DNS Server” or “Specify DNS Server IP” button as desired to set up the system
DNS.
„
Î
Primary : The IP address of the primary DNS server.
Î
Secondary : The IP address of the secondary DNS server.
802.1d Spanning Tree
The spanning tree network protocol provides a loop free topology for a bridged LAN between LAN interface and 4
WDS interfaces from wds0 to wds3. The Spanning Tree Protocol, which is also referred to as STP, is defined in the
IEEE Standard 802.1d. The Spanning tree always enabled on APO1200/APO1215. Below Figures depict a loop for a
bridged LAN between LAN and WDS link
18
APO1200
APO1200
Click Save button to save your changes. Click Reboot button to activate your changes
19
3.2 Wireless LAN Network Creation
The network manager can configure related wireless settings, General Settings, Advanced Settings, Virtual AP(VAP)
Setting, Security Settings and MAC Filter Settings.
3.2.1 Wireless General Setup
The administrator can change the data transmission, channel and output power settings for the system. Please click on
Wireless -> General Setup and follow the below setting.
„
MAC Address : The MAC address of the Wireless interface is displayed here.
„
Band Mode : Select an appropriate wireless band; bands available are 801.11a or 802.11a/n mixed mode.
„
AP Isolation : Select Enable, all clients will be isolated from each VAP, that means different VAP's clients can not
reach to each other.
„
Transmit Rate Control : Select the desired rate from the drop-down list; the options are auto or ranging from 6 to
54Mbps only for 802.11a mode.
„
Country : Select the desired country code from the drop-down list; the options are US, ETSI, JP and NONE.
„
Channel/Frequency : The channel range will be changed by selecting different country code. Below depicts the
channel range for different Country.
Country
Channel
US
36, 40, 44, 48, 52, 56, 60, 64, 149, 153, 157, 161
ETSI
36, 40, 44, 48, 52, 56, 60, 64, 100, 104, 108, 112, 116, 120, 124, 128, 132, 136, 140
JP
36, 40, 44, 48
NONE
36, 40, 44, 48, 52, 56, 60, 64, 100, 104, 108, 112, 116, 120, 124, 128, 132, 136, 140, 149, 153, 157, 161
„
Tx Power : You can adjust the output power of the system to get the appropriate coverage for your wireless network.
Specify digit numbers between 1 to 100 (the unit is %) for your environment. If you are not sure which setting to
choose, then keep the default setting, 100%.
When Band Mode select in 802.11a only mode, the HT(High Throughput) settings should be hidden immediately.
20
„
HT TxStream/RxStream : By default, it's 2.
„
Operating Mode : By default, it's Mixed Mode.
Î
Mixed Mode : In this mode packets are transmitted with a preamble compatible with the legacy 802.11a/g, the
rest of the packet has a new format. In this mode the receiver shall be able to decode both the Mixed Mode
packets and legacy packets.
Î
„
Green Field : In this mode high throughput packets are transmitted without a legacy compatible part.
Channel Bandwidth : The "20/40” MHz option is usually best. The other option is available for special
circumstances.
„
Guard Interval : Using “Auto” option can increase throughput. However, it can also increase error rate in some
installations, due to increased sensitivity to radio-frequency reflections. Select the option that works best for your
installation.
„
MCS : This parameter represents transmission rate. By default (Auto) the fastest possible transmission rate will be
selected. You have the option of selecting the speed if necessary. (Refer to Appendix C. MCS Data Rate)
„
Reverse Direction Grant(RDG) : Disable or enable reserve direction grant. Default is enabled.
„
A-MSDU : Aggregated Mac Service Data Unit. Select Enable to allow aggregation for multiple MSDUs in one MPDU
Default is disabled.
„
Auto Block ACK : Disable or enable auto block ACK. Default is enabled.
„
Decline BA Request : Disable or enable decline BA request. Default is disabled.
Change these settings as described here and click Save button to save your changes. Click Reboot button to activate
your changes. The items in this page are for AP's RF general settings and will be applied to all VAPs and WDS Links.
21
3.2.2 Wireless Advanced Setup
To achieve optimal wireless performance, it is necessary to tweak advance setting per requirements properly, not
necessary higher the better or lower.
The administrator can change the RTS threshold and fragmentation threshold settings for the system. Please click on
Wireless -> Advanced Setup and follow the below setting.
„
Short Slot : By default, it’s “Enable” for educing the slot time from the standard 20 microseconds to the 9
microsecond short slot time
Slot time is the amount of time a device waits after a collision before retransmitting a packet. Reducing the slot time
decreases the overall back-off, which increases throughput. Back-off, which is a multiple of the slot time, is the
random length of time a station waits before sending a packet on the LAN. For a sender and receiver own right of the
channel the shorter slot time help manage shorter wait time to re-transmit from collision because of hidden wireless
clients or other causes. When collision sources can be removed sooner and other senders attempting to send are
listening the channel(CSMA/CA) the owner of the channel should continue ownership and finish their transmission
and release the channel. Then, following ownership of the channel will be sooner for the new pair due to shorter slot
time. However, when long duration of existing collision sources and shorter slot time exist the owners might
experience subsequent collisions. When adjustment to longer slot time can’t improve performance then RTS/CTS
could supplement and help improve performance.
„
Extra Slot Time : Slot time is in the range of 1~255 and set in unit of microsecond. The default value is 9
microsecond.
When you enable Short Slot and set Extra Slot time to “10”, the actual Slot Time=9+10 us.
When you disable Short Slot and set Extra Slot time to “10”, the actual Slot Time=20+10 us.
22
„
ACK Timeout : ACK timeout is in the range of 1~255 and set in unit of microsecond. The default value is 32
microsecond.
All data transmission in 802.11b/g request an “Acknowledgement” (ACK) send by receiving radio. The transmitter will
resend the original packet if correspondent ACK failed to arrive within specific time interval, also refer to as “ACK
Timeout”.
ACK Timeout is adjustable due to the fact that distance between two radio links may vary in different deployment.
ACK Timeout makes significant influence in performance of long distance radio link. If ACK Timeout is set too short,
transmitter will start to “Resend” packet before ACK is received, and throughputs become low due to excessively high
re-transmission.
ACK Timeout is best determined by distance between the radios, data rate of average environment. The Timeout
value is calculated based on round-trip time of packet with a little tolerance, So, if experiencing re-transmissions or
poor performance the ACK Timeout could be made longer to accommodate.
Slot Time and ACK Timeout settings are for long distance links. It is important to tweak settings to achieve the
optimal result based on requirement.
„
Beacon Interval : Beacon Interval is in the range of 20~1024 and set in unit of millisecond. The default value is 100
msec.
Access Point (AP) in IEEE 802.11 will send out a special approximated 50-byte frame, called “Beacon”. Beacon is
broadcast to all the stations, provides the basic information of AP such as SSID, channel, encryption keys, signal
strength, time stamp, support data rate.
All the radio stations received beacon recognizes the existence of such AP, and may proceed next actions if the
information from AP matches the requirement. Beacon is sent on a periodic basis, the time interval can be adjusted.
By increasing the beacon interval, you can reduce the number of beacons and associated overhead, but that will
likely delay the association and roaming process because stations scanning for available access points may miss the
beacons. You can decrease the beacon interval, which increases the rate of beacons. This will make the association
and roaming process very responsive; however, the network will incur additional overhead and throughput will go
down.
„
DTIM Interval : The DTIM interval is in the range of 1~255. The default is 1.
DTIM is defined as Delivery Traffic Indication Message. It is used to notify the wireless stations, which support power
saving mode, when to wake up to receive multicast frame. DTIM is necessary and critical in wireless environment as
a mechanism to fulfill power-saving synchronization.
A DTIM interval is a count of the number of beacon frames that must occur before the access point sends the
buffered multicast frames. For instance, if DTIM Interval is set to 3, then the Wi-Fi clients will expect to receive a
multicast frame after receiving three Beacon frame. The higher DTIM interval will help power saving and possibly
decrease wireless throughput in multicast applications.
23
„
Fragment Threshold : The Fragment Threshold is in the range of 256~2346 byte. The default is 2346 byte.
Each Wi-Fi packet can be divided into smaller packets, marked with a sequential fragment number and re-assemble
in the receiving ends. The purpose is to make a short frame, instead of long frame, transmitting by radio in a heavy
noisy environment. Because of sending smaller frames, corruptions are much less likely to occur. The pros is
obvious, the cons is the overhead for transmission. So, in a clean environment, higher fragment threshold can be an
option to increase throughput.
Fragmentation will be triggered by setting the Fragment Threshold, usually in Byte-length. Only when the frame size
is over the Threshold, fragmentation will take place automatically.
„
RTS Threshold : TRTS Threshold is in the range of 1~2347 byte. The default is 2347 byte.
The main purpose of enabling RTS by changing RTS threshold is to reduce possible collisions due to hidden wireless
clients. RTS in AP will be enabled automatically if the packet size is larger than the Threshold value. By default, RTS
is disabled in a normal environment supports non-jumbo frames.
„
Short Preamble : By default, it’s “Enable”. To Disable is to use Long 128-bit Preamble Synchronization field.
The preamble is used to signal "here is a train of data coming" to the receiver. The short preamble provides 72-bit
Synchronization field to improve WLAN transmission efficiency with less overhead.
„
Tx Burst : By default, it’s “Enable”. To Disable is to deactivate Tx Burst.
With TX burst enabled, AP will send many packets in a burst, without collision detection and RTS/CTS for each packet. TX
Burst have better throughput but cause interference with other APs in channel.
„
Pkt_Aggregate : By default, it's “Enable”
Increase efficiency by aggregating multiple packets of application data into a single transmission frame. In this way,
802.11n networks can send multiple data packets with the fixed overhead cost of just a single frame.
„
IEEE802.11H (DFS) : By default, it's “Disable”. To Enable is to use IEEE802.11H(DFS)
With DFS(Dynamic Frequency Selection) enabled, radio is operating on one of the following channels, the wireless
device uses DFS to monitor the operating frequency and switch to another frequency or reduce power as necessary:
DFS Channels
52, 56, 60, 64, 100, 104, 108, 112, 116, 120, 124, 128, 136, 140
The maximum legal transmit power is greater for some 5 GHz channels than for others. When the wireless device
randomly selects a 5 GHz channel on which power is restricted, the wireless device automatically reduces transmit
power to comply with power limits for that channel in that regulatory domain.
The Channel 52-140 is DFS channel. If turns on IEEE802.11H, AP Will have 60 sec to do channel available
check, and will not send beacon and can not be connect. When APO1200/APO1215 detect radar(5GHz) signal,
the AP will switch channel and stop beacon transmit between 15 sec.
24
„
WMM : By default, it's “Disable”. To Enable is to use WMM and the WMM parameters should appears.
When you enable WMM, the “Tx Burst” will be Disabled automatically by system.
Î
WMM Parameters of Access Point : This affects traffic flowing from the access point to the client station
Queue
Data Transmitted
AP to Clients
Priority
AC_BK
Background.
Low
AC_BE
Best Effort
AC_VI
Video
High
Minimum delay. Time-sensitive video data is automatically sent to this queue
AC_VO
Voice
High
Time-sensitive data like VoIP and streaming media are automatically sent to this
queue
Description
High throughput. Bulk data that requires maximum throughput and is not timesensitive is sent to this queue (FTP data, for example).
Medium Medium throughput and delay. Most traditional IP data is sent to this queue
Configuring QoS options consists of setting parameters on existing queues for different types of wireless traffic.
You can configure different minimum and maximum wait times for the transmission of packets in each queue
based on the requirements of the media being sent. Queues automatically provide minimum transmission delay
for Voice, Video, multimedia, and mission critical applications, and rely on best-effort parameters for traditional IP
data.
As an Example, time-sensitive Voice & Video, and multimedia are given effectively higher priority for transmission
(lower wait times for channel access), while other applications and traditional IP data which are less timesensitive but often more data-intensive are expected to tolerate longer wait times.
25
9
Aifsn : The Arbitration Inter-Frame Spacing Number specifies a wait time (in milliseconds) for data frames
9
CWmin : Minimum Contention Window. This parameter is input to the algorithm that determines the initial
random backoff wait time ("window") for retry of a transmission. The value specified here in the Minimum
Contention Window is the upper limit (in milliseconds) of a range from which the initial random backoff wait
time is determined.
9
CWmax : Maximum Contention Window. The value specified here in the Maximum Contention Window is
the upper limit (in milliseconds) for the doubling of the random backoff value. This doubling continues until
either the data frame is sent or the Maximum Contention Window size is reached. Once the Maximum
Contention Window size is reached, retries will continue until a maximum number of retries allowed is
reached. Valid values for the "cwmax" are 1, 3, 7, 15, 31, 63, 127, 255, 511, or 1024. The value for "cwmax"
must be higher than the value for "cwmin".
9
Txop : Transmission Opportunity is an interval of time when a WME AP has the right to initiate
transmissions onto the wireless medium (WM). This value specifies (in milliseconds) the Transmission
Opportunity (TXOP) for AP; that is, the interval of time when the WMM AP has the right to initiate
transmissions on the wireless network.
9
ACM : Admission Control Mandatory, ACM only takes effect on AC_VI and AC_VO. When you do not click
Checkbox, it means that the ACM is controlled by the connecting AP. If you click Checkbox, it means that the
Client is in charge.
9
AckPolicy : Acknowledgment Policy, WMM defines two ACK policies: Normal ACK and No ACK. Click
“Checkbox” indicates “No ACK”
When the no acknowledgment (No ACK) policy is used, the recipient does not acknowledge received
packets during wireless packet exchange. This policy is suitable in the environment where communication
quality is fine and interference is weak. While the No ACK policy helps improve transmission efficiency, it
can cause increased packet loss when communication quality deteriorates. This is because when this policy
is used, a sender does not retransmit packets that have not been received by the recipient.
When the Normal ACK policy is used, the recipient acknowledges each received unicast packet.
Î
WMM Parameters of Station : This affects traffic flowing from the client station to the access point.
Queue
Data Transmitted
Clients to AP
Priority
AC_BK
Background.
Low
AC_BE
Best Effort
AC_VI
Video
High
Minimum delay. Time-sensitive video data is automatically sent to this queue
AC_VO
Voice
High
Time-sensitive data like VoIP and streaming media are automatically sent to this
queue
Description
High throughput. Bulk data that requires maximum throughput and is not timesensitive is sent to this queue (FTP data, for example).
Medium Medium throughput and delay. Most traditional IP data is sent to this queue
9
Aifsn : The Arbitration Inter-Frame Spacing Number specifies a wait time (in milliseconds) for data frames
9
CWmin : Minimum Contention Window. This parameter is input to the algorithm that determines the initial
random backoff wait time ("window") for retry of a transmission. The value specified here in the Minimum
Contention Window is the upper limit (in milliseconds) of a range from which the initial random backoff wait
time is determined.
9
CWmax : Maximum Contention Window. The value specified here in the Maximum Contention Window is
26
the upper limit (in milliseconds) for the doubling of the random backoff value. This doubling continues until
either the data frame is sent or the Maximum Contention Window size is reached. Once the Maximum
Contention Window size is reached, retries will continue until a maximum number of retries allowed is
reached. Valid values for the "cwmax" are 1, 3, 7, 15, 31, 63, 127, 255, 511, or 1024. The value for "cwmax"
must be higher than the value for "cwmin".
9
Txop : Transmission Opportunity is an interval of time when a WME AP has the right to initiate
transmissions onto the wireless medium (WM). This value specifies (in milliseconds) the Transmission
Opportunity (Txop) for AP; that is, the interval of time when the WMM AP has the right to initiate
transmissions on the wireless network.
9
ACM : Admission Control Mandatory, ACM only takes effect on AC_VI and AC_VO. When you do not click
Checkbox, it means that the ACM is controlled by the connecting AP. If you click Checkbox, it means that the
Client is in charge.
Click Save button to save your changes. Click Reboot button to activate your changes. The items in this page are for
AP's RF advanced settings and will be applied to all VAPs and WDS Links.
27
3.2.3 Create Virtual AP (VAP)
The APO1200/APO1215 support broadcasting multiple SSIDs, allowing the creation of Virtual Access Points, partitioning
a single physical access point into 7 logical access points, each of which can have a different set of security, VLAN
Tag(ID) and network settings. Figure 3-2 shows multiple SSIDs with different security type and VLAN settings.
APO1200
Figure 3-2 Multiple SSIDs with different Security Type and VLAN Tag
3.2.3.1 Virtual AP Overview
The administrator can view all of the Virtual AP's settings via this page.
Please click on Wireless -> Virtual AP Setup and the Virtual AP Overview Page appears.
„
VAP : Indicate the system's Virtual AP.
„
ESSID : Indicate the ESSID of the respective Virtual AP
„
MAC Address : The MAC address of the VAP Interface is displayed here. When you enable AP and reboot system,
the MAC address will display here.
„
Status : Indicate the Status of the respective Virtual AP. The Primary AP always on.
„
Security Type : Indicate an used security type of the respective Virtual AP.
„
MAC Filter : Indicate an used MAC filter of the respective Virtual AP.
„
Edit : Click Edit button to configure Virtual AP's settings, including security type and MAC Filter.
28
3.2.3.2 Virtual AP Setup
For each Virtual AP, administrators can configure SSID, VLAN tag(ID), SSID broadcasting, Maximum number of client
associations, security type settings.
Click Edit button on the Edit column, and then a Virtual AP setup page appears.
„
Enable AP : By default, it’s “Disable” for VAP1 ~ VAP6. The Primary AP always enabled.
Select “Enable” to activate VAP or click “Disable” to deactivate this function
„
ESSID : Extended Service Set ID, When clients are browsing for available wireless networks, this is the SSID that
will appear in the list. ESSID will determine the service type available to AP's clients associated with the specified
VAP.
„
Client Isolation : Select Enable, all clients will be isolated from each other, that means all clients can not reach to
other clients. Below Figures depict Client Isolation and AP Isolation
APO1200
„
Hidden SSID : By default, it’s “Disable”.
Enable this option to stop the SSID broadcast in your network. When disabled, people could easily obtain the SSID
information with the site survey software and get access to the network if security is not turned on. When enabled,
network security is enhanced. It’s suggested to enable it after AP security settings are archived and setting of AP
clients could make to associate to it.
„
Maximum Clients : The default value is 32. You can enter the number of wireless clients that can associate to a
particular SSID. When the number of client is set to 5, only 5 clients at most are allowed to connect to this VAP.
29
„
VLAN Tag(ID) : By default, it’s selected “Disable”.
This system supports tagged Virtual LAN(VLAN). A valid number of 1 to 4094 can be entered after it’s enabled. If
your network utilize VLANs you could tie a VLAN Tag to a specific SSID, and packets from/to wireless clients
belonging to that SSID will be tagged with that VLAN Tag. This enables security of wireless applications by applying
VLAN Tag.
„
Security Type : Select the desired security type from the drop-down list; the options are Disable, WEP, WPA-PSK,
WPA2-PSK, WPA-Enterprise, WPA2-Enterprise and WEP 802.1X.
„
Î
Disable : Data are unencrypted during transmission when this option is selected.
Î
WEP : Wired Equivalent Privacy(WEP) is a data encryption mechanism based on a 64-bit or 128-bit shared key.
Authentication Method : Enable the desire option among OPEN, SHARED or WEPAUTO.
Î
Key Index : Key index is used to designate the WEP key during data transmission. 4 different WEP keys can be
entered at the same time, but only one is chosen.
Î
Î
WEP Key # : Enter HEX or ASCII format WEP key value; the system supports up to 4 sets of WEP keys.
Key Length
Hex
ASCII
64-bit
10 characters
5 characters
128-bit
26 characters
13 characters
WPA-PSK (or WPA2-PSK) : WPA (or WPA2) Algorithms, allows the system accessing the network by using the
WPA-PSK protected access.
9
Cipher Suite : By default, it is AES. Select either AES or TKIP cipher suites
9
Pre-shared Key : Enter the pre-shared key; the format shall go with the selected key type.
Pre-shared key can be entered with either a 256-bit secret in 64 HEX digits format, or 8 to 63 ASCII characters.
9
Group Key Update Period : By default, it is 3600 seconds. This time interval for rekeying GTK,
broadcast/multicast encryption keys, in seconds. Entering the time-length is required.
Î
WPA-Enterprise (or WPA2-Enterprise): The RADIUS authentication and encryption will be both enabled if this
is selected.
30
9
WPA General Settings :
•
Cipher Suite : By default, it is AES. Select either AES or TKIP cipher suites
•
Group Key Update Period : By default, it’s 3600 seconds. This time interval for rekeying GTK,
broadcast/multicast encryption keys, in seconds. Entering the time-length is required.
•
PMK Cache Period : By default, it's 10 minutes. Set WPA2 PMKID cache timeout period, after time
out, the cached key will be deleted.
•
Pre-Authentication : By default, it's “Disable”. To Enable is use to speed up roaming before preauthenticating IEEE 802.1X/EAP part of the full RSN authentication and key handshake before actually
associating with a new AP.
PMK Cache Period and Pre-Authentication is used in WPA2-Enterprise
9
Radius Server Settings :
•
IP Address : Enter the IP address of the Authentication RADIUS server.
•
Port : By default, it’s 1812. The port number used to communicate with RADIUS server.
•
Shared secret : A secret key used between system and RADIUS server. Supports 8 to 64 characters.
•
Session Timeout : The Session timeout is in the range of 0~60 seconds. The default is 0 to disable
re-authenticate service.
Amount of time before a client will be required to re-authenticate.
31
Î
WEP 802.1X : When WEP 802.1x Authentication is enabled, please refer to the following Dynamic WEP and
RADIUS settings to complete configuration.
9
Radius Server Settings :
•
IP Address : Enter the IP address of the Authentication RADIUS server.
•
Port : By default, it’s 1812. The port number used to communicate with RADIUS server.
•
Shared secret : A secret key used between system and RADIUS server. Supports 8 to 64 characters.
•
Session Timeout : The Session timeout is in the range of 0~60 seconds. The default is 0 to disable
re-authenticate service.
Amount of time before a client will be required to re-authenticate.
Click Save button to save your changes. Click Reboot button to activate your changes
32
3.2.4 Wireless MAC Filter Setup
Continue 3.2.3.2 Virtual AP Setup section. For each Virtual AP setting, the administrator can allow or reject clients to
access each Virtual AP.
„
MAC Filter Setup : By default, it’s “Disable”. Options are Disable, Only Deny List MAC or Only Allow List MAC.
Two ways to set MAC filter rules :
Î
Only Allow List MAC.
The wireless clients in the “Enable” list will be allowed to access the Access Point; All others or clients in the
“Disable” list will be denied.
Î
Only Deny List MAC.
The wireless clients in the “Enable” list will be denied to access the Access Point; All others or clients
in the
“Disable” list will be allowed.
„
Add a station MAC : Enter MAC address (e.g. aa:bb:cc:00:00:0a) and click “Add” button, then the MAC address
should display in the “Enable” List.
There are a maximum of 20 clients allowed in this “Enable” List. The MAC addresses of the wireless clients can be added
and removed to the list using the Add and Remove buttons.
Click Reboot button to activate your changes
MAC Access Control is the weakest security approach. WPA and WPA2 security method is highly
recommended.
33
3.3 Wireless Network Expansion
The administrator could create WDS Links to expand wireless network. When WDS is enabled, access point functions as
a wireless bridge and is able to communicate with other access points via WDS links. A WDS link is bidirectional and
both side must support WDS. Access points know each other by MAC Address. In other words, each access
point needs to include MAC address of its peer. Ensure all access points are configured with the same channel
and own same security type settings.
APO1200
Please click on Wireless -> WDS Setup and follow the below setting.
„
Security Type : Option is “Disable”, “WEP”, “TKIP”or “AES” from drop-down list. Needs the same type to build WDS
links. Security type takes effect when WDS is enabled.
Î WEP Key : Enter 5 / 13 ASCII or 10 / 26 HEX format WEP key.
Î TKIP Key : Enter 8 to 63 ASCII or 64 HEX format TKIP key.
Î AES Key : Enter 8 to 63 ASCII or 64 HEX format AES key.
„
WDS MAC List
Î
Enable : Click Enable to create WDS link.
Î
WDS Peer's MAC Address : Enter the MAC address of WDS peer.
Î
Description : Description of WDS link.
The WDS link needs to be set at same Channel and with same Security Type.
Click Save button to save your changes. Click Reboot button to activate your changes
34
3.4 System Management
3.4.1 Configure Management
Administrator could specify geographical location of the system via instructions in this page. Administrator could also
enter new Root and Admin passwords and allow multiple login methods.
Please click System -> Management and follow the below settings.
„
System Information
Î
System Name : Enter a desired name or use the default one.
Î
Description : Provide description of the system.
Î
Location : Enter geographical location information of the system. It helps administrator to locate the system
easier.
The system supports two management accounts, root and admin. The network manager is assigned with full
administrative privileges, when logging in as root user, to manage the system in all aspects. While logging in as an
admin user, only subset of privileges is granted such as basic maintenance. For example, root user can change
passwords for both root and admin account, and admin user can only manage its own. For more information about
covered privileges for these two accounts, please refer to Appendix D. Network manager Privileges.
„
„
Root Password : Log in as a root user and is allowed to change its own, plus admin user’s password.
Î
New Password : Enter a new password if desired
Î
Check New Password : Enter the same new password again to check.
Admin Password : Log in as a admin user and is allowed to change its own,
Î
New Password : Enter a new password if desired
Î
Check New Password : Enter the same new password again to check.
35
„
Admin Login Methods : Only root user can enable or disable system login methods and change services port.
Î
Enable HTTP : Check to select HTTP Service.
Î
HTTP Port : The default is 80 and the range is between 1 ~ 65535.
Î
Enable HTTPS : Check to select HTTPS Service
Î
HTTPS Port : The default is 443 and the range is between 1 ~ 65535.
If you already have an SSL Certificate, please click “UploadKey” button to select the file and upload it.
Î
Enable Telnet : Check to select Telnet Service
Î
Telnet Port : The default is 23 and the range is between 1 ~ 65535.
Î
Enable SSH : Check to select SSH Service
Î
SSH Port : Please The default is 22 and the range is between 1 ~ 65535.
Click “GenerateKey” button to generate RSA private key. The “host key footprint” gray blank will display content
of RSA key.
„
Ping Watchdog : The ping watchdog sets the APO1200/APO1215 Device to continuously ping a user defined IP
address (it can be the internet gateway for example). If it is unable to ping under the user defined constraints, the
APO1200/APO1215 device will automatically reboot. This option creates a kind of "fail-proof" mechanism.
Ping Watchdog is dedicated for continuous monitoring of the particular connection to remote host using the Ping tool.
The Ping works by sending ICMP “echo request” packets to the target host and listening for ICMP “echo response”
replies. If the defined number of replies is not received, the tool reboots the device.
Î
Enable Ping Watchdog : control will enable Ping Watchdog Tool.
Î
IP Address To Ping : specify an IP address of the target host which will be monitored by Ping Watchdog Tool.
Î
Ping Interval : specify time interval (in seconds) between the ICMP “echo requests” are sent by the Ping
Watchdog Tool. Default is 300 seconds.
Î
Startup Delay : specify initial time delay (in seconds) until first ICMP “echo requests” are sent by the Ping
Watchdog Tool. The value of Startup Delay should be at least 60 seconds as the network interface and wireless
connection initialization takes considerable amount of time if the device is rebooted. Default is 300 seconds.
Î
Failure Count To Reboot : specify the number of ICMP “echo response” replies. If the specified number of
ICMP “echo response” packets is not received continuously, the Ping Watchdog Tool will reboot the device.
Click Save button to save your changes. Click Reboot button to activate your changes
36
Without a valid certificate, users may encounter the following problem in IE7 when they try to access system's WMI
(https://192.168.2.254). There will be a “Certificate Error”, because the browser treats system as an illegal website.
Click “Continue to this website” to access the system's WMI. The system's Overview page will appear.
37
3.4.2 Configure System Time
System time can be configured via this page, and manual setting or via a NTP server is supported.
Please click on System -> Time Server and follow the below setting.
„
Local Time : Display the current system time.
„
NTP Client : To synchronize the system time with NTP server.
Î
Enable : Check to select NTP client.
Î
Default NTP Server : Select the NTP Server from the drop-down list.
Î
Time Zone : Select a desired time zone from the drop-down list.
Î
Daylight saving time : Enable or disable Daylight saving.
If the system time from NTP server seems incorrect, please verify your network settings, like default Gateway
and DNS settings
Click Save button to save your changes. Click Reboot button to activate your changes.
38
3.4.3 Configure SNMP Setup
SNMP is an application-layer protocol that provides a message format for communication between SNMP manager and
agent. By enabling SNMP function, the administrator can obtain the system information remotely.
Please click on System -> SNMP Setup and follow the below setting.
„
„
SNMP v2c Enable: Check to enable SNMP v2c.
Î
ro community : Set a community string to authorize read-only access.
Î
rw community : Set a community string to authorize read/write access.
SNMP v3 Enable: Check to enable SNMP v3.
SNMPv3 supports the highest level SNMP security.
„
Î
SNMP ro user : Set a community string to authorize read-only access.
Î
SNMP ro password : Set a password to authorize read-only access.
Î
SNMP rw user : Set a community string to authorize read/write access.
Î
SNMP rw password : Set a password to authorize read/write access.
SNMP Trap : Events such as cold start, interface up & down, and association & disassociation will report to an
assigned server.
39
Î
Community : Set a community string required by the remote host computer that will receive trap messages or
notices send by the system.
Î
IP : Enter the IP addresses of the remote hosts to receive trap messages.
Click Save button to save changes and click Reboot button to activate.
40
3.4.4 Backup / Restore and Reset to Factory
Backup current configuration, restore prior configuration or reset back to factory default configuration can be executed via
this page.
Please click on Utilities -> Profile Setting and follow the below setting.
„
Save Settings To PC : Click Save button to save the current configuration to a local disk.
„
Load Settings from PC : Click Browse button to locate a configuration file to restore, and then click Upload button
to upload.
„
Reset To Factory Default : Click Default button to reset back to the factory default settings and expect Successful
loading message. Then, click Reboot button to activate.
41
3.4.5 Firmware Upgrade
Firmware is the main software image that system needs to respond to requests and to manage real time operations.
Firmware upgrades are sometimes required to include new features or bugs fix. It takes around 2 minutes to upgrade
due to complexity of firmware. To upgrade system firmware, click Browse button to locate the new firmware, and then
click Upgrade button to upgrade.
1.
2.
3.
To prevent data loss during firmware upgrade, please back up current settings before proceeding
Do not interrupt during firmware upgrade including power on/off as this may damage system.
Never perform firmware upgrade over wireless connection or via remote access connection.
42
3.4.6 Network Utility
The administrator can diagnose network connectivity via the PING or TRACEROUTE utility.
Please click on Utilities -> Network Utility and follow the below setting.
„
Ping : This utility will help ping other devices on the network to verify connectivity. Ping utility, using ICMP packets,
detects connectivity and latency between two network nodes. As result of that, packet loss and latency time are
available in the Result field while running the PING test.
Î
Destination IP/Domain : Enter desired domain name, i.e. www.google.com, or IP address of the destination,
and click ping button to proceed. The ping result will be shown in the Result field.
Î
„
Count : By default, it’s 5 and the range is from 1 to 50. It indicates number of connectivity test.
Traceroute : Allows tracing the hops from the APO1200/APO1215 device to a selected outgoing IP address. It
should be used for the finding the route taken by ICMP packets across the network to the destination host. The test is
started using the Start button, click Stop button to stopped test
Î
Destination Host : Specifies the Destination Host for the finding the route taken by ICMP packets across the
network.
Î
MAX Hop : Specifies the maximum number of hops( max time-to-live value) traceroute will probe.
43
3.4.7 Reboot
This function allows user to restart system with existing or most current settings when changes are made. Click Reboot
button to proceed and take around three minutes to complete.
A reminder will be available for remaining time to complete. If power cycle is necessary, please wait till completion of the
reboot process.
The System Overview page appears upon the completion of reboot.
44
3.5 System Status
This section breaks down into subsections of System Overview, Associated Clients Status, WDS Link Status, Extra
Information and Event Log.
3.5.1 System Overview
Display detailed information of System, Network, LAN and Wireless in the System Overview page.
„
„
System : Display the information of the system.
Î
System Name : The name of the system.
Î
Operating Mode : The mode currently in service.
Î
Location : Deployed geographical location.
Î
Description : A description of the system.
Î
Firmware Version : The current installed firmware version.
Î
Firmware Date : The build time of installed firmware.
Î
Device Time : The current time of the system.
Î
System Up Time : The time period that system has been in service since last reboot.
Network Information : Supports Static or Dynamic modes on the LAN interface.
Î
IP Address : The management IP of system. By default, it’s 192.168.2.254.
Î
IP Netmask : The network mask. By default, it’s 255.255.255.0.
Î
IP Gateway : The gateway IP address and by default, it’s 192.168.2.1.
Î
Primary DNS : The primary DNS server in service.
Î
Secondary DNS : The secondary DNS server in service.
45
„
„
LAN Information : Display total received and transmitted statistics on the LAN interface.
Î
MAC Address : The MAC address of the LAN port.
Î
Receive bytes : The total received packets in bytes on the LAN port.
Î
Receive packets : The total received packets of the LAN port.
Î
Transmit bytes : The total transmitted packets in bytes of the LAN port.
Î
Transmit packets : The total transmitted packets of the LAN port.
Wireless Information : Display total received and transmitted statistics on available Virtual AP.
Î
MAC Address : The MAC address of the Wireless port.
Î
Channel : The current channel on the Wireless port.
Î
Rate : The current Bit Rate on the Wireless port.
Î
Receive bytes : The total received packets in bytes on the Wireless port.
Î
Receive packets : The total received packets on the Wireless port.
Î
Transmit bytes : The total transmitted packets in bytes on the Wireless port.
Î
Transmit packets : The total transmitted packets on the Wireless port.
46
3.5.2 Associated Clients Status
It displays ESSID, on/off Status, Security Type, total number of wireless clients associated with all Virtual AP.
„
„
VAP Information : Highlights key VAP information.
Î
VAP : Available VAP from Primary AP to VAP6.
Î
ESSID : Display name of ESSID for each VAP.
Î
MAC Address : Display MAC address for each VAP.
Î
Status : On/Off
Î
Security Type : Display chosen security type; WEP, WPA/WPA2-PSK, WPA/WPA2-Enterprise.
Î
Clients : Display total number of wireless connections for each VAP.
VAP Clients : Display all associated clients on each Virtual AP.
Î
MAC Address : MAC address of associated clients
Î
Signal Strength ANT0/ANT1 : Signal Strength of from associated clients.
Î
Bandwidth : Channel bandwidth of from associated clients
Î
Idle Time : Last inactive time period in seconds for a wireless connection.
Î
Connect Time : Total connection time period in seconds for a wireless connection.
Î
Disconnect : Click “Delete” button to manually disconnect a wireless client in a Virtual AP.
47
3.5.3 Show WDS Link Status
Peers MAC Address, antenna 0/1 received signal strength, phy mode and channel bandwidth for each WDS are
available.
„
MAC Address : Display MAC address of WDS peer.
„
Signal Strength ANT0/ANT1 : Indicate the signal strength of the respective WDS links.
„
Phy Mode : Indicate the phy mode of the respective WDS linked.
„
BandWidth : Indicate the channel bandwidth of the respective WDS linked.
„
MCS : Indicate the MCS of the respective WDS linked.
„
SGI : Indicate the SGI (Short Guard Interval) of the respective WDS linked. “1” indicate the Short Guard Interval, “0”
indicate the Long Guard Interval.
If display “no signal” Signal Strength ANT0/ANT1, you need check WDS configuration. Things to verify are
MAC Address, Channel and Security type. Also, adjust antenna angle and Tx Power.
48
3.5.4 Extra Information
Users could pull out information such as Route table, ARP table, MAC table, Bridge table or STP available in the dropdown list from system. The “Refresh” button is used to retrieve latest table information.
„
Route table information : Select “Route table information” on the drop-down list to display route table.
APO1200/APO1215 could be used as a L2 or L3 device. It doesn’t support dynamic routing protocols such as RIP or
OSPF. Static routes to specific hosts, networks or default gateway are set up automatically according to the IP
configuration of system's interfaces. When used as a L2 device, it could switch packets and, as L3 device, it’s
capable of being a gateway to route packets inward and outward.
„
ARP table Information : Select “ARP Table Information” on the drop-down list to display ARP table.
ARP associates each IP address to a unique hardware address (MAC) of a device. It is important to have a unique IP
address as final destination to switch packets to.
„
Bridge table information : Select “Bridge Table information” on the drop-down list to display bridge table.
Bridge table will show Bridge ID and STP's Status on the each Ethernet bridge and its attached interfaces, the Bridge
Port should be attached to some interfaces (e.g. eth2, ra0~ra6 and wds0~wds3).
„
Bridge MAC information : Select “Bridge MACs Information” on the drop-down list to display MAC table.
This table displays local MAC addresses associated with wired or wireless interfaces, but also remember non-local
MAC addresses learned from wired or wireless interfaces.
Ageing timers will be reset when existing MAC addresses in table are learned again or added when new MAC
addresses are seen from wired or wireless interfaces as well. When time runs out for a particular entry, it will be
pruned from the table. In that situation, switching packet to that particular MAC address will be dropped.
49
„
Bridge STP Information : Select “Bridge STP Information” on the drop-down list to display a list of bridge STP
information.
50
3.5.5 Event Log
The Event log displays system events when system is up and running. Also, it becomes very useful as a troubleshooting
tool when issues are experienced in system.
„
Time : The date and time when the event occurred.
„
Facility : It helps users to identify source of events such “System” or “User”
„
Severity : Severity level that a specific event is associated such as “info”, “error”, “warning”, etc.
„
Message : Description of the event.
Click Refresh button to renew the log, or click Clear button to clear all the record.
51
Chapter 4. WDS Mode Configuration
Please refer to illustrations of the section 1.3 for possible applications in the WDS mode. This section provides detailed
explanation for users to configure in the WDS mode with help of illustrations. In the WDS mode, functions listed in the
table below are also available from the Web-based GUI interface.
Option
Functions
System
Wireless
Utilities
Status
Operating Mode
General Setup
Profiles Settings
System Overview
LAN
Advanced Setup
Firmware Upgrade
WDS Status
Management
WDS Setup
Network Utility
Extra Info
Reboot
Event Log
Time Server
SNMP
Table 4-1: WDS Mode Functions
4.1 External Network Connection
4.1.1 Network Requirement
You could expand your Ethernet network via WDS link. In this mode, the APO1200/APO1215 connects directly to a wired
LAN, and wirelessly bridges to a remote access point via a WDS link as shown in Figure 4-1. In the mode, it can’t
associate with any wireless clients.
APO1200
Figure 4-1 Point to Point network Configuration
52
4.1.2 Configure LAN IP
Here are the instructions for how to setup the local IP Address and Netmask.
Please click on System -> LAN and follow the below setting.
„
Mode : Check either “Static IP” or “Dynamic IP” button as desired to set up the system IP of LAN port .
Î
Î
Static IP : The administrator can manually setup the LAN IP address when static IP is available/ preferred.
9
IP Address : The IP address of the LAN port; default IP address is 192.168.2.254
9
IP Netmask : The Subnet mask of the LAN port; default Netmask is 255.255.255.0
9
IP Gateway : The default gateway of the LAN port; default Gateway is 192.168.2.1
Dynamic IP : This configuration type is applicable when the APO1200/APO1215 is connected to a network with
the presence of a DHCP server; all related IP information will be provided by the DHCP server automatically.
9
„
Hostname : The Hostname of the LAN port
DNS : Check either “No Default DNS Server” or “Specify DNS Server IP” button as desired to set up the system
DNS.
Î
Primary : The IP address of the primary DNS server.
Î
Secondary : The IP address of the secondary DNS server.
Click Save button to save your changes. Click Reboot button to activate your changes
53
4.2 Wireless Network Expansion
The network manager can configure related wireless settings, General Settings, Advanced Settings and WDS
Settings.
4.2.1 General Setup
The administrator can change the data transmission, channel and output power settings for the system. Please click on
Wireless -> General Setup and follow the below setting.
„
MAC Address : The MAC address of the Wireless interface is displayed here.
„
Band Mode : Select an appropriate wireless band; bands available are 801.11a or 802.11a/n mixed mode.
„
Transmit Rate Control : Select the desired rate from the drop-down list; the options are auto or ranging from 6 to
54Mbps only for 802.11a mode.
„
Country : Select the desired country code from the drop-down list; the options are US, ETSI, JP and NONE.
„
Channel/Frequency : The channel range will be changed by selecting different country code. Below depicts the
channel range for different Country.
Country
Channel
US
36, 40, 44, 48, 52, 56, 60, 64, 149, 153, 157, 161
ETSI
36, 40, 44, 48, 52, 56, 60, 64, 100, 104, 108, 112, 116, 120, 124, 128, 132, 136, 140
JP
36, 40, 44, 48
NONE
36, 40, 44, 48, 52, 56, 60, 64, 100, 104, 108, 112, 116, 120, 124, 128, 132, 136, 140, 149, 153, 157, 161
„
Tx Power : You can adjust the output power of the system to get the appropriate coverage for your wireless network.
Specify digit number between 1 to 100 (the unit is %) for your environment. If you are not sure which setting to
choose, then keep the default setting, 100%.
When Band Mode select in 802.11a only mode, the HT(High Throughput) settings should be hidden immediately.
54
„
HT TxStream/RxStream : By default, it's 2.
„
Operating Mode : By default, it's Mixed mode
Î
Mixed Mode : In this mode packets are transmitted with a preamble compatible with the legacy 802.11a/g, the
rest of the packet has a new format. In this mode the receiver shall be able to decode both the Mixed Mode
packets and legacy packets.
Î
„
Green Field : In this mode high throughput packets are transmitted without a legacy compatible part.
Channel Bandwidth : The "20/40” MHz option is usually best. The other option is available for special
circumstances.
„
Guard Interval : Using “Auto” option can increase throughput. However, it can also increase error rate in some
installations, due to increased sensitivity to radio-frequency reflections. Select the option that works best for your
installation.
„
MCS : This parameter represents transmission rate. By default (Auto) the fastest possible transmission rate will be
selected. You have the option of selecting the speed if necessary. (Refer to Appendix C. MCS Data Rate)
„
Reverse Direction Grant(RDG) : Disable or enable reserve direction grant. Default is enabled.
„
A-MSDU : Aggregated Mac Service Data Unit . Select Enable to allow aggregation for multiple MSDUs in one MPDU
Default is disabled.
„
Auto Block ACK : Disable or enable auto block ACK. Default is enabled.
„
Decline BA Request : Disable or enable decline BA request. Default is disabled.
Change these settings as described here and click Save button to save your changes. Click Reboot button to activate
your changes. The items in this page are for AP's RF general settings and will be applied to all WDS Links.
55
4.2.2 Wireless Advanced Setup
To achieve optimal wireless performance, it is necessary to tweak advance setting per requirements properly, not
necessary higher the better or lower.
The administrator can change the RTS threshold and fragmentation threshold settings for the system. Please click on
Wireless -> Advanced Setup and follow the below setting.
„
Short Slot : By default, it’s “Enable” for educing the slot time from the standard 20 microseconds to the 9
microsecond short slot time
Slot time is the amount of time a device waits after a collision before retransmitting a packet. Reducing the slot time
decreases the overall back-off, which increases throughput. Back-off, which is a multiple of the slot time, is the
random length of time a station waits before sending a packet on the LAN. For a sender and receiver own right of the
channel the shorter slot time help manage shorter wait time to re-transmit from collision because of hidden wireless
clients or other causes. When collision sources can be removed sooner and other senders attempting to send are
listening the channel(CSMA/CA) the owner of the channel should continue ownership and finish their transmission
and release the channel. Then, following ownership of the channel will be sooner for the new pair due to shorter slot
time. However, when long duration of existing collision sources and shorter slot time exist the owners might
experience subsequent collisions. When adjustment to longer slot time can’t improve performance then RTS/CTS
could supplement and help improve performance.
„
Extra Slot Time : Slot time is in the range of 1~255 and set in unit of microsecond. The default value is 9
microsecond.
When you enable Short Slot and set Extra Slot time to “10”, the actual Slot Time=9+10 us.
When you disable Short Slot and set Extra Slot time to “10”, the actual Slot Time=20+10 us.
56
„
ACK Timeout : ACK timeout is in the range of 1~255 and set in unit of microsecond. The default value is 32
microsecond.
All data transmission in 802.11b/g request an “Acknowledgement” (ACK) send by receiving radio. The transmitter will
resend the original packet if correspondent ACK failed to arrive within specific time interval, also refer to as “ACK
Timeout”.
ACK Timeout is adjustable due to the fact that distance between two radio links may vary in different deployment.
ACK Timeout makes significant influence in performance of long distance radio link. If ACK Timeout is set too short,
transmitter will start to “Resend” packet before ACK is received, and throughputs become low due to excessively high
re-transmission.
ACK Timeout is best determined by distance between the radios, data rate of average environment. The Timeout
value is calculated based on round-trip time of packet with a little tolerance, So, if experiencing re-transmissions or
poor performance the ACK Timeout could be made longer to accommodate.
Slot Time and ACK Timeout settings are for long distance links. It is important to tweak settings to achieve the
optimal result based on requirement.
„
Beacon Interval : Beacon Interval is in the range of 20~1024 and set in unit of millisecond. The default value is 100
msec.
Access Point (AP) in IEEE 802.11 will send out a special approximated 50-byte frame, called “Beacon”. Beacon is
broadcast to all the stations, provides the basic information of AP such as SSID, channel, encryption keys, signal
strength, time stamp, support data rate.
All the radio stations received beacon recognizes the existence of such AP, and may proceed next actions if the
information from AP matches the requirement. Beacon is sent on a periodic basis, the time interval can be adjusted.
By increasing the beacon interval, you can reduce the number of beacons and associated overhead, but that will
likely delay the association and roaming process because stations scanning for available access points may miss the
beacons. You can decrease the beacon interval, which increases the rate of beacons. This will make the association
and roaming process very responsive; however, the network will incur additional overhead and throughput will go
down.
„
DTIM Interval : The DTIM interval is in the range of 1~255. The default is 1.
DTIM is defined as Delivery Traffic Indication Message. It is used to notify the wireless stations, which support power
saving mode, when to wake up to receive multicast frame. DTIM is necessary and critical in wireless environment as
a mechanism to fulfill power-saving synchronization.
A DTIM interval is a count of the number of beacon frames that must occur before the access point sends the
buffered multicast frames. For instance, if DTIM Interval is set to 3, then the Wi-Fi clients will expect to receive a
multicast frame after receiving three Beacon frame. The higher DTIM interval will help power saving and possibly
decrease wireless throughput in multicast applications.
57
„
Fragment Threshold : The Fragment Threshold is in the range of 256~2346 byte. The default is 2346 byte.
Each Wi-Fi packet can be divided into smaller packets, marked with a sequential fragment number and re-assemble
in the receiving ends. The purpose is to make a short frame, instead of long frame, transmitting by radio in a heavy
noisy environment. Because of sending smaller frames, corruptions are much less likely to occur. The pros is
obvious, the cons is the overhead for transmission. So, in a clean environment, higher fragment threshold can be an
option to increase throughput.
Fragmentation will be triggered by setting the Fragment Threshold, usually in Byte-length. Only when the frame size
is over the Threshold, fragmentation will take place automatically.
„
RTS Threshold : TRTS Threshold is in the range of 1~2347 byte. The default is 2347 byte.
The main purpose of enabling RTS by changing RTS threshold is to reduce possible collisions due to hidden wireless
clients. RTS in AP will be enabled automatically if the packet size is larger than the Threshold value. By default, RTS
is disabled in a normal environment supports non-jumbo frames.
„
Short Preamble : By default, it’s “Enable”. To Disable is to use Long 128-bit Preamble Synchronization field.
The preamble is used to signal "here is a train of data coming" to the receiver. The short preamble provides 72-bit
Synchronization field to improve WLAN transmission efficiency with less overhead.
„
Tx Burst : By default, it’s “Enable”. To Disable is to deactivate Tx Burst.
With TX burst enabled, AP will send many packets in a burst, without collision detection and RTS/CTS for each packet. TX
Burst have better throughput but cause interference with other APs in channel.
„
Pkt_Aggregate : By default, it's “Enable”
Increase efficiency by aggregating multiple packets of application data into a single transmission frame. In this way,
802.11n networks can send multiple data packets with the fixed overhead cost of just a single frame.
„
IEEE802.11H (DFS) : By default, it's “Disable”. To Enable is to use IEEE802.11H(DFS)
With DFS(Dynamic Frequency Selection) enabled, radio is operating on one of the following channels, the wireless
device uses DFS to monitor the operating frequency and switch to another frequency or reduce power as necessary:
DFS Channels
52, 56, 60, 64, 100, 104, 108, 112, 116, 120, 124, 128, 136, 140
The maximum legal transmit power is greater for some 5 GHz channels than for others. When the wireless device
randomly selects a 5 GHz channel on which power is restricted, the wireless device automatically reduces transmit
power to comply with power limits for that channel in that regulatory domain.
The Channel 52-140 is DFS channel. If tuen on IEEE802.11H, AP Will have 60 sec to do channel available
check, and will not send beacon and can not be connect. When APO1200/APO1215 detect radar(5GHz) signal,
the AP will switch channel and stop beacon trasmit between 15 sec.
„
WMM : By default, it's “Disable”. To Enable is to use WMM and the WMM parameters should appears.
58
When you enable WMM, the “Tx Burst” will be Disabled automatically by system.
Î
WMM Parameters of Access Point : This affects traffic flowing from the access point to the client station
Queue
Data Transmitted
AP to Clients
AC_BK
Background.
AC_BE
AC_VI
Best Effort
Video
AC_VO
Voice
Priority
Description
High throughput. Bulk data that requires maximum throughput and is not timesensitive is sent to this queue (FTP data, for example).
Medium Medium throughput and delay. Most traditional IP data is sent to this queue
High
Minimum delay. Time-sensitive video data is automatically sent to this queue
Time-sensitive data like VoIP and streaming media are automatically sent to this
High
queue
Low
Configuring QoS options consists of setting parameters on existing queues for different types of wireless traffic.
You can configure different minimum and maximum wait times for the transmission of packets in each queue
based on the requirements of the media being sent. Queues automatically provide minimum transmission delay
for Voice, Video, multimedia, and mission critical applications, and rely on best-effort parameters for traditional IP
data.
As an Example, time-sensitive Voice & Video, and multimedia are given effectively higher priority for transmission
(lower wait times for channel access), while other applications and traditional IP data which are less timesensitive but often more data-intensive are expected to tolerate longer wait times.
59
9
Aifsn : The Arbitration Inter-Frame Spacing Number specifies a wait time (in milliseconds) for data frames
9
CWmin : Minimum Contention Window. This parameter is input to the algorithm that determines the initial
random backoff wait time ("window") for retry of a transmission. The value specified here in the Minimum
Contention Window is the upper limit (in milliseconds) of a range from which the initial random backoff wait
time is determined.
9
CWmax : Maximum Contention Window. The value specified here in the Maximum Contention Window is
the upper limit (in milliseconds) for the doubling of the random backoff value. This doubling continues until
either the data frame is sent or the Maximum Contention Window size is reached. Once the Maximum
Contention Window size is reached, retries will continue until a maximum number of retries allowed is
reached. Valid values for the "cwmax" are 1, 3, 7, 15, 31, 63, 127, 255, 511, or 1024. The value for "cwmax"
must be higher than the value for "cwmin".
9
Txop : Transmission Opportunity is an interval of time when a WME AP has the right to initiate
transmissions onto the wireless medium (WM). This value specifies (in milliseconds) the Transmission
Opportunity (TXOP) for AP; that is, the interval of time when the WMM AP has the right to initiate
transmissions on the wireless network.
9
ACM : Admission Control Mandatory, ACM only takes effect on AC_VI and AC_VO. When you do not click
Checkbox, it means that the ACM is controlled by the connecting AP. If you click Checkbox, it means that the
Client is in charge.
9
AckPolicy : Acknowledgment Policy, WMM defines two ACK policies: Normal ACK and No ACK. Click
“Checkbox” indicates “No ACK”
When the no acknowledgment (No ACK) policy is used, the recipient does not acknowledge received
packets during wireless packet exchange. This policy is suitable in the environment where communication
quality is fine and interference is weak. While the No ACK policy helps improve transmission efficiency, it
can cause increased packet loss when communication quality deteriorates. This is because when this policy
is used, a sender does not retransmit packets that have not been received by the recipient.
When the Normal ACK policy is used, the recipient acknowledges each received unicast packet.
Î
WMM Parameters of Station : This affects traffic flowing from the client station to the access point.
Queue
Data Transmitted
Clients to AP
Priority
AC_BK
Background.
Low
AC_BE
Best Effort
AC_VI
Video
High
Minimum delay. Time-sensitive video data is automatically sent to this queue
AC_VO
Voice
High
Time-sensitive data like VoIP and streaming media are automatically sent to this
queue
Description
High throughput. Bulk data that requires maximum throughput and is not timesensitive is sent to this queue (FTP data, for example).
Medium Medium throughput and delay. Most traditional IP data is sent to this queue
9
Aifsn : The Arbitration Inter-Frame Spacing Number specifies a wait time (in milliseconds) for data frames
9
CWmin : Minimum Contention Window. This parameter is input to the algorithm that determines the initial
random backoff wait time ("window") for retry of a transmission. The value specified here in the Minimum
Contention Window is the upper limit (in milliseconds) of a range from which the initial random backoff wait
time is determined.
9
CWmax : Maximum Contention Window. The value specified here in the Maximum Contention Window is
the upper limit (in milliseconds) for the doubling of the random backoff value. This doubling continues until
60
either the data frame is sent or the Maximum Contention Window size is reached. Once the Maximum
Contention Window size is reached, retries will continue until a maximum number of retries allowed is
reached. Valid values for the "cwmax" are 1, 3, 7, 15, 31, 63, 127, 255, 511, or 1024. The value for "cwmax"
must be higher than the value for "cwmin".
9
Txop : Transmission Opportunity is an interval of time when a WME AP has the right to initiate
transmissions onto the wireless medium (WM). This value specifies (in milliseconds) the Transmission
Opportunity (Txop) for AP; that is, the interval of time when the WMM AP has the right to initiate
transmissions on the wireless network.
9
ACM : Admission Control Mandatory, ACM only takes effect on AC_VI and AC_VO. When you do not click
Checkbox, it means that the ACM is controlled by the connecting AP. If you click Checkbox, it means that the
Client is in charge.
Change these settings as described here and click Save button to save your changes. Click Reboot button to activate
your changes. The items in this page are for AP's RF advanced settings and will be applied to all WDS Links.
61
4.2.3 WDS Setup
The administrator could create WDS Links to expand wireless network. When WDS is enabled, access point functions as
a wireless bridge and is able to communicate with other access points via WDS links. A WDS link is bidirectional and
both side must support WDS. Access points know each other by MAC Address. In other words, each access
point needs to include MAC address of its peer. Ensure all access points are configured with the same channel
and own same security type settings.
„
Security Type : Option is “Disable”, “WEP”, “TKIP” or “AES” from drop-down list. Needs the same type to build
WDS links. Security type takes effect when WDS is enabled.
„
Î
WEP Key : Enter 5 / 13 ASCII or 10 / 26 HEX format WEP key.
Î
TKIP Key : Enter 8 to 63 ASCII or 64 HEX format TKIP key.
Î
AES Key : Enter 8 to 63 ASCII or 64 HEX format AES key.
WDS MAC List
Î
Enable : Click Enable to create WDS link.
Î
WDS Peer's MAC Address : Enter the MAC address of WDS peer.
Î
Description : Description of WDS link.
The WDS link needs to be set at same Channel and Security Type between WDS link.
Click Save button to save your changes. Click Reboot button to activate your changes
62
4.3 System Management
4.3.1 Configure Management
Administrator could specify geographical location of the system via instructions in this page. Administrator could also
enter new Root and Admin passwords and allow multiple login methods.
Please click System -> Management and follow the below settings.
„
System Information
Î
System Name : Enter a desired name or use the default one.
Î
Description : Provide description of the system.
Î
Location : Enter geographical location information of the system. It helps administrator to locate the system
easier.
The system supports two management accounts, root and admin. The network manager is assigned with full
administrative privileges, when logging in as root user, to manage the system in all aspects. While logging in as an
admin user, only subset of privileges is granted such as basic maintenance. For example, root user can change
passwords for both root and admin account, and admin user can only manage its own. For more information about
covered privileges for these two accounts, please refer to Appendix D. Network manager Privileges.
„
„
Root Password : Log in as a root user and is allowed to change its own, plus admin user’s password.
Î
New Password : Enter a new password if desired
Î
Check New Password : Enter the same new password again to check.
Admin Password : Log in as a admin user and is allowed to change its own,
Î
New Password : Enter a new password if desired
Î
Check New Password : Enter the same new password again to check.
63
„
Admin Login Methods : Only root user can enable or disable system login methods and change services port.
Î
Enable HTTP : Check to select HTTP Service.
Î
HTTP Port : The default is 80 and the range is between 1 ~ 65535.
Î
Enable HTTPS : Check to select HTTPS Service
Î
HTTPS Port : The default is 443 and the range is between 1 ~ 65535.
If you already have an SSL Certificate, please click “UploadKey” button to select the file and upload it.
Î
Enable Telnet : Check to select Telnet Service
Î
Telnet Port : The default is 23 and the range is between 1 ~ 65535.
Î
Enable SSH : Check to select SSH Service
Î
SSH Port : Please The default is 22 and the range is between 1 ~ 65535.
Click “GenerateKey” button to generate RSA private key. The “host key footprint” gray blank will display content
of RSA key.
„
Ping Watchdog : The ping watchdog sets the APO1200/APO1215 Device to continuously ping a user defined IP
address (it can be the internet gateway for example). If it is unable to ping under the user defined constraints, the
APO1200/APO1215 device will automatically reboot. This option creates a kind of "fail-proof" mechanism.
Ping Watchdog is dedicated for continuous monitoring of the particular connection to remote host using the Ping tool.
The Ping works by sending ICMP “echo request” packets to the target host and listening for ICMP “echo response”
replies. If the defined number of replies is not received, the tool reboots the device.
Î
Enable Ping Watchdog : control will enable Ping Watchdog Tool.
Î
IP Address To Ping : specify an IP address of the target host which will be monitored by Ping Watchdog Tool.
Î
Ping Interval : specify time interval (in seconds) between the ICMP “echo requests” are sent by the Ping
Watchdog Tool. Default is 300 seconds.
Î
Startup Delay : specify initial time delay (in seconds) until first ICMP “echo requests” are sent by the Ping
Watchdog Tool. The value of Startup Delay should be at least 60 seconds as the network interface and wireless
connection initialization takes considerable amount of time if the device is rebooted. Default is 300 seconds.
Î
Failure Count To Reboot : specify the number of ICMP “echo response” replies. If the specified number of
ICMP “echo response” packets is not received continuously, the Ping Watchdog Tool will reboot the device.
64
Click Save button to save your changes. Click Reboot button to activate your changes
Without a valid certificate, users may encounter the following problem in IE7 when they try to access system's WMI
(https://192.168.2.254). There will be a “Certificate Error”, because the browser treats system as an illegal website.
Click “Continue to this website” to access the system's WMI. The system's Overview page will appear.
65
4.3.2 Configure System Time
System time can be configured via this page, and manual setting or via a NTP server is supported.
Please click on System -> Time Server and follow the below setting.
„
Local Time : Display the current system time.
„
NTP Client : To synchronize the system time with NTP server.
Î
Enable : Check to select NTP client.
Î
Default NTP Server : Select the NTP Server from the drop-down list.
Î
Time Zone : Select a desired time zone from the drop-down list.
Î
Daylight saving time : Enable or disable Daylight saving.
If the system time from NTP server seems incorrect, please verify your network settings, like default Gateway
and DNS settings
Click Save button to save your changes. Click Reboot button to activate your changes
66
4.3.3 Configure SNMP Setup
SNMP is an application-layer protocol that provides a message format for communication between SNMP managers and
agents. By enabling SNMP function, the administrator can obtain the system information remotely.
Please click on System -> SNMP Setup and follow the below setting.
„
„
SNMP v2c Enable : Check to enable SNMP v2c.
Î
ro community : Set a community string to authorize read-only access.
Î
rw community : Set a community string to authorize read/write access.
SNMP v3 Enable: Check to enable SNMP v3.
SNMPv3 supports the highest level SNMP security.
„
Î
SNMP ro user : Set a community string to authorize read-only access.
Î
SNMP ro password : Set a password to authorize read-only access.
Î
SNMP rw user : Set a community string to authorize read/write access.
Î
SNMP rw password : Set a password to authorize read/write access.
SNMP Trap : Events such as cold start, interface up & down, and association & disassociation will report to an
assigned server.
67
Î
Community : Set a community string required by the remote host computer that will receive trap messages or
notices send by the system.
Î
IP : Enter the IP addresses of the remote hosts to receive trap messages.
Click Save button to save changes and click Reboot button to activate.
68
4.3.4 Backup / Restore and Reset to Factory
Backup current configuration, restore prior configuration or reset back to factory default configuration can be executed via
this page.
Please click on Utilities -> Profile Setting and follow the below setting.
„
Save Settings to PC : Click Save button to save the current configuration to a local disk.
„
Load Settings from PC : Click Browse button to locate a configuration file to restore, and then click Upload button
to upload.
„
Reset To Factory Default : Click Default button to reset back to the factory default settings and expect Successful
loading message. Then, click Reboot button to activate.
69
4.3.5 Firmware Upgrade
Firmware is the main software image that system needs to respond to requests and to manage real time operations.
Firmware upgrades are sometimes required to include new features or bugs fix. It takes around 2 minutes to upgrade
due to complexity of firmware. To upgrade system firmware, click Browse button to locate the new firmware, and then
click Upgrade button to upgrade.
1.
2.
3.
To prevent data loss during firmware upgrade, please back up current settings before proceeding.
Do not interrupt during firmware upgrade including power on/off as this may damage system.
Never perform firmware upgrade over wireless connection or via remote access connection.
70
4.3.6 Network Utility
The administrator can diagnose network connectivity via the PING and TRACEROUTE utility.
Please click on Utilities -> Network Utility and follow the below setting.
„
Ping : This utility will help ping other devices on the network to verify connectivity. Ping utility, using ICMP packets,
detects connectivity and latency between two network nodes. As result of that, packet loss and latency time are
available in the Result field while running the PING test.
Î
Destination IP/Domain : Enter desired domain name, i.e. www.google.com, or IP address of the destination,
and click ping button to proceed. The ping result will be shown in the Result field.
Î
„
Count : By default, it’s 5 and the range is from 1 to 50. It indicates number of connectivity test.
Traceroute : Allows tracing the hops from the APO1200/APO1215 device to a selected outgoing IP address. It
should be used for the finding the route taken by ICMP packets across the network to the destination host. The test is
started using the Start button, click Stop button to stopped test
Î
Destination Host : Specifies the Destination Host for the finding the route taken by ICMP packets across the
network.
Î
MAX Hop : Specifies the maximum number of hops( max time-to-live value) traceroute will probe.
71
4.3.7 Reboot
This function allows user to restart system with existing or most current settings when changes are made. Click Reboot
button to proceed and take around three minutes to complete.
A reminder will be available for remaining time to complete. If power cycle is necessary, please wait till completion of the
reboot process.
The System Overview page appears upon the completion of reboot.
72
4.4 System Status
This section breaks down into subsections of System Overview, WDS Link Status, Extra Information and Event Log.
4.4.1 System Overview
Detailed information on System, Network, LAN Information and Wireless Information can be reviewed via this page.
„
„
System : Display the information of the system.
Î
System Name : The name of the system.
Î
Operating Mode : The mode currently in service.
Î
Location : The reminding note on the geographical location of the system.
Î
Description : The reminding note of the system.
Î
Firmware Version : The current firmware version installed.
Î
Firmware Date : The build time of the firmware installed.
Î
Device Time : The current time of the system.
Î
System Up Time : The time period that system has been in service since last reboot.
Network Information : Display the information of the Network.
Î
Mode : Supports Static or Dynamic modes on the LAN interface.
Î
IP Address : The management IP of system. By default, it’s 192.168.2.254.
Î
IP Netmask : The network mask. By default, it’s 255.255.255.0.
Î
IP Gateway : The gateway IP address and by default, it’s 192.168.2.1.
Î
Primary DNS : The primary DNS server in service.
Î
Secondary DNS : The secondary DNS server in service.
73
„
„
LAN Information : Display total received and transmitted statistics on the LAN interface.
Î
MAC Address : The MAC address of the LAN port.
Î
Receive bytes : The total received packets in bytes on the LAN port.
Î
Receive packets : The total received packets of the LAN port.
Î
Transmit bytes : The total transmitted packets in bytes of the LAN port.
Î
Transmit packets : The total transmitted packets of the LAN port.
Wireless Information : Display the detailed receive and transmit statistics of Wireless interface.
Î
MAC Address : The MAC address of the Wireless port.
Î
Channel : The current channel on the Wireless port.
Î
Rate : The current Bit Rate on the Wireless port.
Î
Receive bytes : The total received packets in bytes on the Wireless port.
Î
Receive packets : The total received packets of the Wireless port.
Î
Transmit bytes : The total transmitted packets in bytes of the Wireless port.
Î
Transmit packets : The total transmitted packets of the Wireless port.
74
4.4.2 WDS List
Peers MAC Address, antenna 0/1 received signal strength, phy mode and channel bandwidth for each WDS are
available.
„
MAC Address : Display MAC address of WDS peer.
„
Signal Strength ANT0/ANT1 : Indicate the signal strength of the respective WDS links.
„
Phy Mode : Indicate the phy mode of the respective WDS linked.
„
BandWidth : Indicate the channel bandwidth of the respective WDS linked.
„
MCS : Indicate the MCS of the respective WDS linked.
„
SGI : Indicate the SGI (Short Guard Interval) of the respective WDS linked. “1” indicate the Short Guard Interval, “0”
indicate the Long Guard Interval.
If display “no signal” Signal Strength ANT0/ANT1, you need check WDS configuration. Things to verify are
MAC Address, Channel and Security type. Also, adjust antenna angle and Tx Power.
75
4.4.3 Extra Information
Users could pull out information such as Route table, ARP table, MAC table, Bridge table or STP available in the dropdown list from system. The “Refresh” button is used to retrieve latest table information.
„
Route table information : Select “Route table information” on the drop-down list to display route table.
APO1200/APO1215 could be used as a L2 or L3 device. It doesn’t support dynamic routing protocols such as RIP or
OSPF. Static routes to specific hosts, networks or default gateway are set up automatically according to the IP
configuration of system's interfaces. When used as a L2 device, it could switch packets and, as L3 device, it’s
capable of being a gateway to route packets inward and outward.
„
ARP table Information : Select “ARP Table Information” on the drop-down list to display ARP table.
ARP associates each IP address to a unique hardware address (MAC) of a device. It is important to have a unique IP
address as final
destination to
switch packets to.
„
Bridge table information : Select “Bridge Table information” on the drop-down list to display bridge table.
Bridge table will show Bridge ID and STP's Status on the each Ethernet bridge and its attached interfaces, the Bridge
Port should be attached to some interfaces (e.g. eth2, ra0 and wds0~wds3).
76
„
Bridge MAC information : Select “Bridge MACs Information” on the drop-down list to display MAC table.
This table displays local MAC addresses associated with wired or wireless interfaces, but also remember non-local
MAC addresses learned from wired or wireless interfaces.
Ageing timers will be reset when existing MAC addresses in table are learned again or added when new MAC
addresses are seen from wired or wireless interfaces as well. When time runs out for a particular entry, it will be
pruned from the table. In that situation, switching packet to that particular MAC address will be discontinued.
„
Bridge STP Information : Select “Bridge STP Information” on the drop-down list to display a list of bridge STP
information.
77
4.4.4 Event Log
The Event log displays system events when system is up and running. Also, it becomes very useful as a troubleshooting
tool when issues are experienced in system.
„
Time : The date and time when the event occurred.
„
Facility : It helps users to identify source of events such “System” or “User”
„
Severity : Severity level that a specific event is associated such as “info”, “error”, “warning”, etc.
„
Message : Description of the event.
Click Refresh button to renew the log, or click Clear button to clear all the record.
78
Chapter 5. CPE Mode Configuration
When CPE mode is chosen, the system can be configured as a Customer Premises Equipment(CPE). This section
provides detailed explanation for users to configure in the CPE mode with help of illustrations. In the CPE mode, functions
listed in the table below are also available from the Web-based GUI interface.
OPTION
Functions
System
Wireless
Advance
Utilities
Status
Operating Mode
General Setup
DMZ
Profiles Settings
System Overview
WAN
Wireless Profile
IP Filter
Firmware Upgrade
Station Statistics
LAN
Site Survey
MAC Filter
Network Utility
Extra Info
DDNS
Virtual Server
Reboot
QoS Plot
Management
Parental Control
Time Server
QoS
Event Log
UPNP
SNMP
Table 5-1: CPE Mode Functions
5.1 External Network Connection
5.1.1 Network Requirement
It can be used as an Outdoor Customer Premises Equipment (CPE) to receive wireless signal over last mile application,
helping WISPs deliver wireless broadband Internet service to residents and business customers. In the CPE mode,
APO1200/APO1215 is a gateway enabled with NAT and DHCP Server functions. The wired clients connected to
APO1200/APO1215 are in different subnet from those connected to Main Base Station, and, in CPE mode, it does not
accept wireless association from wireless clients.
APO1200
Figure 5-1 CPE mode network configuration
79
5.1.2 Configure WAN Setup
There are three connection types for the WAN port : Static IP, Dynamic IP, PPPoE and PPTP.
Please click on System -> WAN and follow the below setting.
In CPE mode, the WAN Port is the Wireless interface.
„
Mode : By default, it’s “Static IP”. Check “Static IP”, “Dynamic IP”, “PPPoE” or “PPTP”to set up system WAN IP.
Î
Î
Static IP : Users can manually setup the WAN IP address with a static IP provided by WISP.
9
IP Address : The IP address of the WAN port; default IP address is 192.168.1.254
9
IP Netmask : The Subnet mask of the WAN port; default Netmask is 255.255.255.0
9
IP Gateway : The default gateway of the WAN port; default Gateway is 192.168.1.1
Dynamic IP : Please consult with WISP for correct wireless settings to associate with WISP AP before a
dynamic IP, along with related IP settings including DNS can be available from DHCP server. If IP Address is not
assigned, please double check with your wireless settings and ensure successful association. Also, you may go
to “WAN Information” in the Overview page to click Release button to release IP address and click Renew
button to renew IP address again.
9
Î
Hostname : The Hostname of the WAN port
PPPoE : To create wireless PPPoE WAN connection to a PPPoE server in network.
80
9
User Name : Enter User Name for PPPoE connection
9
Password : Enter Password for PPPoE connection
9
Reconnect Mode :
•
Always on – A connection to Internet is always maintained.
•
On Demand – A connection to Internet is made as needed.
When Time Server is enabled at the “On Demand” mode, the “Reconnect Mode” will turn out “Always on”.
•
Manual – Click the “Connect” button on “WAN Information” in the Overview page to connect to the
Internet.
9
Idle Time : Time to last before disconnecting PPPoE session when it is idle. Enter preferred Idle Time in
minutes. Default is “0”, indicates disabled. When Idle time is disabled, the “Reconnect Mode” will turn out
“Always on”
9
MTU : By default, it’s 1492 bytes. MTU stands for Maximum Transmission Unit. Consult with WISP for a
correct MTU setting.
Î
PPTP : The Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) mode enables the implementation of secure multi-protocol Virtual
Private Networks (VPNs) through public networks.
9
IP Address : The IP address of the WAN port
9
IP Netmask : The Subnet mask of the WAN port
9
PPTP Server IP Address : The IP address of the PPTP server
9
User Name : Enter User Name for PPTP connection
9
Password : Enter Password for PPTP connection
9
Reconnect Mode :
•
Always on – A connection to Internet is always maintained.
•
On Demand – A connection to Internet is made as needed.
81
When Time Server is enabled at the “On Demand” mode, the “Reconnect Mode” will turn out “Always on”.
•
Manual – Click the “Connect” button on “WAN Information” in the Overview page to connect to the
Internet.
9
Idle Time : Time to last before disconnecting PPPoE session when it is idle. Enter preferred Idle Time in
minutes. Default is “0”, indicates disabled. When Idle time is disabled, the “Reconnect Mode” will turn out
“Always on”
9
MTU : By default, it’s 1460 bytes. MTU stands for Maximum Transmission Unit. Consult with WISP for a
correct MTU setting.
9
MPPE Encryption : Microsoft Point-to-Point Encryption (MPPE) encrypts data in Point-to-Point
Protocol(PPP)-based dial-up connections or Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) virtual private
network (VPN) connections. 128-bit key (strong) and 40-bit key (standard) MPPE encryption schemes are
supported. MPPE provides data security for the PPTP connection that is between the VPN client and the
VPN server.
„
„
DNS : Check “No Default DNS Server” or “Specify DNS Server IP” radial button as desired to set up system DNS.
Î
Primary : The IP address of the primary DNS server.
Î
Secondary : The IP address of the secondary DNS server.
MAC Clone : The MAC address is a 12-digit HEX code uniquely assigned to hardware as identification. Some ISPs
require you to register a MAC address in order to access to Internet. If not, you could use default MAC or clone MAC
from a PC. (CPE+AP Mode does not support MAC Clone function)
Î
Keep Default MAC Address : Keep the default MAC address of WAN port on the system.
Î
Clone MAC Address : If you want to clone the MAC address of the PC, then click the Clone MAC Address
button. The system will automatically detect your PC's MAC address.
The Clone MAC Address field will display MAC address of the PC connected to system. Click “Save” button can
make clone MAC effective.
Î
Manual MAC Address : Enter the MAC address registered with your ISP.
Click Save button to save your changes. Click Reboot button to activate your changes
82
5.1.3 Configure DDNS Setup
Dynamic DNS allows you to map domain name to dynamic IP address.
Please click on System -> DDNS Setup and follow the below setting.
„
Enabled: By default, it’s “Disable”. The mapping domain name won’t change when dynamic IP changes. The beauty
of it is no need to remember the dynamic WAP IP while accessing to it.
„
Service Provider: Select the preferred Service Provider from the drop-down list including dyndns, dhs, ods and tzo
„
Hostname: Host Name that you register to Dynamic-DNS service and export.
„
User Name & Password: User Name and Password are used to login DDNS service.
Click Save button to save your changes. Click Reboot button to activate your changes
83
5.1.4 Configure LAN Setup
Here are the instructions for how to setup the local IP Address and Netmask.
Please click on System -> LAN and follow the below setting.
„
„
LAN IP : The administrator can manually setup the LAN IP address.
Î
IP Address : The IP address of the LAN port; default IP address is 192.168.2.254
Î
IP Netmask : The Subnet mask of the LAN port; default Netmask is 255.255.255.0
DHCP Setup : Devices connected to the system can obtain an IP address automatically when this service is
enabled.
Î
DHCP : Check Enable button to activate this function or Disable to deactivate this service.
Î
Start IP / End IP: Specify the range of IP addresses to be used by the DHCP server when assigning IP address
to clients. The default range IP address is 192.168.2.10 to 192.168.2.70, the netmask is 255.255.255.0
Î
DNS1 IP : Enter IP address of the first DNS server; this field is required.
Î
DNS2 IP : Enter IP address of the second DNS server; this is optional.
Î
WINS IP : Enter IP address of the Windows Internet Name Service (WINS) server; this is optional.
Î
Domain : Enter the domain name for this network.
Î
Lease Time : The IP addresses given out by the DHCP server will only be valid for the duration specified by the
lease time. Increasing the time ensure client operation without interruptions, but could introduce potential
conflicts. Lowering the lease time will avoid potential address conflicts, but might cause more interruptions to the
client while it will acquire new IP addresses from the DHCP server. Default is 86400 seconds
Click Save button to save your changes. Click Reboot button to activate your changes
84
5.2 Access Point Association
5.2.1 Configure Wireless General Setting
The administrator can change the data transmission, channel and output power settings for the system. Please click on
Wireless -> General Setup and follow the below setting.
„
Band Mode : Select an appropriate wireless band; bands available are 801.11a or 802.11a/n mixed mode.
„
Country : Select the desired country code from the drop-down list; the options are US, ETSI, JP and NONE.
„
Tx Power : You can adjust the output power of the system to get the appropriate coverage for your wireless network.
Specify digit number between 1 to 100 (the unit is %) for your environment. If you are not sure of which setting to
choose, then keep the default setting, 100%.
When Band Mode select in 802.11a only mode, the HT(High Throughput) Physical Mode and 11n Configuration
settings should be hidden immediately.
„
Operating Mode : By default, it's Mixed Mode.
Î
Mixed Mode : In this mode packets are transmitted with a preamble compatible with the legacy 802.11a/g, the
rest of the packet has a new format. In this mode the receiver shall be able to decode both the Mixed Mode
packets and legacy packets.
Î
Green Field : In this mode high throughput packets are transmitted without a legacy compatible part.
„
Channel Bandwidth : The "Auto” MHz option is usually best. The other option is available for special circumstances.
„
Guard Interval : Using “Auto” option can increase throughput. However, it can also increase error rate in some
installations, due to increased sensitivity to radio-frequency reflections. Select the option that works best for your
installation.
85
„
MCS : This parameter represents transmission rate. By default (Auto) the fastest possible transmission rate will be
selected. You have the option of selecting the speed if necessary. (Refer to Appendix C. MCS Data Rate)
„
MPDU Enable : Check Enable button to activate this function, and Disable to deactivate.
„
A-MPDU : A-MPDU (Aggregated Mac Protocol Data Unit) allows the transmissions of multiple Ethernet frames to a
single location as burst of up to 64kbytes This is performed on the hardware itself. Select “Manual” to set “MPDU
Density”
„
MPDU Density : Minimum separation of MPDUs in an A-MPDU.
0
No Restriction
„
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
¼ µs ½ µs 1 µs 2 µs 4 µs 8 µs 16 µs
A-MSDU : Aggregated Mac Service Data Unit, A-MSDU. Select Enable to allows aggregation for multiple MSDUs in
one MPDU. Default is disabled.
Click Save button to save your changes. Click Reboot button to activate your changes.
86
5.2.2 Configure Wireless Advanced Setting
To achieve optimal wireless performance, it is necessary to tweak advance setting per requirements properly, not
necessary higher the better or lower.
The administrator can change the RTS threshold and fragmentation threshold settings for the system. Please click on
Wireless -> Advanced Setup and follow the below setting.
„
Fragment Threshold : The Fragment Threshold is in the range of 256~2346 byte. The default is 2346 byte.
Each Wi-Fi packet can be divided into smaller packets, marked with a sequential fragment number and re-assemble
in the receiving ends. The purpose is to make a short frame, instead of long frame, transmitting by radio in a heavy
noisy environment. Because of sending smaller frames, corruptions are much less likely to occur. The pros is
obvious, the cons is the overhead for transmission. So, in a clean environment, higher fragment threshold can be an
option to increase throughput.
Fragmentation will be triggered by setting the Fragment Threshold, usually in Byte-length. Only when the frame size
is over the Threshold, fragmentation will take place automatically.
„
RTS Threshold : RTS Threshold is in the range of 1~2347 byte. The default is 2347 byte.
The main purpose of enabling RTS by changing RTS threshold is to reduce possible collisions due to hidden wireless
clients. RTS in AP will be enabled automatically if the packet size is larger than the Threshold value. By default, RTS
is disabled in a normal environment supports non-jumbo frames.
„
Short Preamble : By default, it’s “Auto”. To Disable is to use Long 128-bit Preamble Synchronization field.
The preamble is used to signal "here is a train of data coming" to the receiver. The short preamble provides 72-bit
Synchronization field to improve WLAN transmission efficiency with less overhead.
„
Tx Burst : By default, it’s “Enable”. To Disable is to deactivate Tx Burst.
With TX burst enabled, AP will send many packets in a burst, without collision detection and RTS/CTS for each packet. TX
Burst have better throughput but cause interference with other APs in channel.
„
WMM : By default, it's “Disable”. Select Enable, the packets with QoS WMM will have higher priority.
Click Save button to save your changes. Click Reboot button to activate your changes.
87
5.2.3 Site Survey
Use this tool to scan and locate WISP Access Points and select one to associate with.
Please click on Wireless -> Site Survey. Below depicts an example for site survey.
„
ESSID : Available Extend Service Set ID of surrounding Access Points.
„
MAC Address : MAC addresses of surrounding Access Points.
„
Signal : Received signal strength of all found Access Points.
„
Channel : Channel numbers used by all found Access Points.
„
Security : Security type by all found Access Points.
„
Band : Wireless band used by all found Access Points.
„
Network Type : Network type used by all found Access Points.
„
Select : Click “Select” to configure settings and associate with chosen AP.
While clicking “Select” button in the Site Survey Table, the “ESSID” and “Security Type” will apply in the
Wireless Profile Setup. However, more settings are needed including Security Key.
88
5.2.4 Create Wireless Profile
The administrator can configure station profiles via this page.
Please click on Wireless -> Wireless Profile and follow the below setting.
„
MAC Address : The MAC address of the Wireless Station is displayed here.
„
Profile Name : Set different profiles for quick connection uses.
„
ESSID : Assign Service Set ID for the wireless system.
„
Security Type : Select an appropriate security type for association, the Security Type can be selected in “NONE”,
“OPEN”, “SHARED”, “WPA-PSK”, or “WPA2-PSK” from drop-down list; the type needs to be the same as that
associated access point.
Î
OPEN / SHARED : OPEN and SHARED require the user to set a WEP key to exchange data.
9
Key Index : key index is used to designate the WEP key during data transmission. 4 different WEP keys
can be entered at the same time, but only one is chosen.
9
Î
WEP Key # : Enter HEX or ASCII format WEP key value; the system supports up to 4 sets of WEP keys.
Key Length
Hex
ASCII
64-bit
10 characters
5 characters
128-bit
26 characters
13 characters
WPA-PSK (or WPA2-PSK) : WPA (or WPA2) Algorithms, allows the system accessing the network by using the
WPA-PSK protected access.
89
9
Cipher Suite : Select the desired cipher suite from the drop-down list; the options are AES and TKIP
9
Pre-shared Key : Enter the information for pre-shared key; the key can be either entered as a 256-bit
secret in 64 HEX digits format, or 8 to 63 ASCII characters.
„
Profile List : The user can manage the created profiles for home, work or public areas. Below depict an example for
Profile List
Î Click ”Edit” an exist profile on the Profile List. The field of System Configuration and Security Policy will display
profile's content. Edit profile's content and then click “Save” button to save the profile.
Î Click “Delete” to remove profile.
Î Click and Select a profile from list, then click the “Connect” button to connecting to the wireless network with the
profile setting. After clicking “Connect” button, you can verify connecting status on Station Statistic Page
Click Save button to save your changes. Click Reboot button to activate your changes
90
5.3 System Management
5.3.1 Configure Management
Administrator could specify geographical location of the system via instructions in this page. Administrator could also
enter new Root and Admin passwords and allow multiple login methods.
Please click System -> Management and follow the below settings.
„
System Information
Î
System Name : Enter a desired name or use the default one.
Î
Description : Provide description of the system.
Î
Location : Enter geographical location information of the system. It helps administrator to locate the system
easier.
The system supports two management accounts, root and admin. The network manager is assigned with full
administrative privileges, when logging in as root user, to manage the system in all aspects. While logging in as an
admin user, only subset of privileges is granted such as basic maintenance. For example, root user can change
passwords for both root and admin account, and admin user can only manage its own. For more information about
covered privileges for these two accounts, please refer to Appendix D. Network manager Privileges.
„
„
Root Password : Log in as a root user and is allowed to change its own, plus admin user’s password.
Î
New Password : Enter a new password if desired
Î
Check New Password : Enter the same new password again to check.
Admin Password : Log in as a admin user and is allowed to change its own,
Î
New Password : Enter a new password if desired
Î
Check New Password : Enter the same new password again to check.
91
„
Admin Login Methods : Only root user can enable or disable system login methods and change services port.
Î
Enable HTTP : Check to select HTTP Service.
Î
HTTP Port : The default is 80 and the range is between 1 ~ 65535.
Î
Enable HTTPS : Check to select HTTPS Service
Î
HTTPS Port : The default is 443 and the range is between 1 ~ 65535.
If you already have an SSL Certificate, please click “UploadKey” button to select the file and upload it.
Î
Enable Telnet : Check to select Telnet Service
Î
Telnet Port : The default is 23 and the range is between 1 ~ 65535.
Î
Enable SSH : Check to select SSH Service
Î
SSH Port : Please The default is 22 and the range is between 1 ~ 65535.
Click “GenerateKey” button to generate RSA private key. The “host key footprint” gray blank will display content
of RSA key.
„
Ping Watchdog : The ping watchdog sets the APO1200/APO1215 Device to continuously ping a user defined IP
address (it can be the internet gateway for example). If it is unable to ping under the user defined constraints, the
APO1200/APO1215 device will automatically reboot. This option creates a kind of "fail-proof" mechanism.
Ping Watchdog is dedicated for continuous monitoring of the particular connection to remote host using the Ping tool.
The Ping works by sending ICMP “echo request” packets to the target host and listening for ICMP “echo response”
replies. If the defined number of replies is not received, the tool reboots the device.
Î
Enable Ping Watchdog : control will enable Ping Watchdog Tool.
Î
IP Address To Ping : specify an IP address of the target host which will be monitored by Ping Watchdog Tool.
Î
Ping Interval : specify time interval (in seconds) between the ICMP “echo requests” are sent by the Ping
Watchdog Tool. Default is 300 seconds.
Î
Startup Delay : specify initial time delay (in seconds) until first ICMP “echo requests” are sent by the Ping
Watchdog Tool. The value of Startup Delay should be at least 60 seconds as the network interface and wireless
connection initialization takes considerable amount of time if the device is rebooted. Default is 300 seconds.
Î
Failure Count To Reboot : specify the number of ICMP “echo response” replies. If the specified number of
ICMP “echo response” packets is not received continuously, the Ping Watchdog Tool will reboot the device.
92
Click Save button to save your changes. Click Reboot button to activate your changes
Without a valid certificate, users may encounter the following problem in IE7 when they try to access system's WMI
(https://192.168.2.254). There will be a “Certificate Error”, because the browser treats system as an illegal website.
Click “Continue to this website” to access the system's WMI. The system's Overview page will appear.
93
5.3.2 Configure System Time
System time can be configured via this page, and manual setting or via a NTP server is supported.
Please click on System -> Time Server and follow the below setting.
„
Local Time : Display the current system time.
„
NTP Client : To synchronize the system time with NTP server.
Î
Enable : Check to select NTP client.
Î
Default NTP Server : Select the NTP Server from the drop-down list.
Î
Time Zone : Select a desired time zone from the drop-down list.
Î
Daylight saving time : Enable or disable Daylight saving.
If the system time from NTP server seems incorrect, please verify your network settings, like default Gateway
and DNS settings
Click Save button to save your changes. Click Reboot button to activate your changes
94
5.3.3 Configure UPnP
Universal Plug and Play(UPnP) is an architecture to enable pervasive peer-to-peer network connectivity between PCs,
intelligent devices and appliances when UPnP is supported. UPnP works on TCP/IP network to enable UPnP devices to
connect and access to each other, very well adopted in home networking environment.
„
UPnP : By default, it’s “Disable”. Select “Enable” or “Disable” of UPnP Service.
Click Save button to save changes and click Reboot button to activate changes
For UPnP to work in Windows XP, the “APO1200/APO1215” must be available in “My Network Places”.
If these devices are not available, you should verify that the correct components and services are loaded in Windows XP.
Please refer to Appendix E. Using UPnP on Windows XP
95
5.3.4 Configure SNMP Setup
SNMP is an application-layer protocol that provides a message format for communication between SNMP managers and
agents. By enabling SNMP function, the administrator can obtain the system information remotely.
Please click on System -> SNMP Setup and follow the below setting.
„
„
SNMP v2c Enable: Check to enable SNMP v2c.
Î
ro community : Set a community string to authorize read-only access.
Î
rw community : Set a community string to authorize read/write access.
SNMP v3 Enable: Check to enable SNMP v3.
SNMPv3 supports the highest level SNMP security.
„
Î
SNMP ro user : Set a community string to authorize read-only access.
Î
SNMP ro password : Set a password to authorize read-only access.
Î
SNMP rw user : Set a community string to authorize read/write access.
Î
SNMP rw password : Set a password to authorize read/write access.
SNMP Trap : Events such as cold start, interface up & down, and association & disassociation will report to an
assigned server.
96
Î
Community : Set a community string required by the remote host computer that will receive trap messages or
notices send by the system.
Î
IP : Enter the IP addresses of the remote hosts to receive trap messages.
Click Save button to save changes and click Reboot button to activate.
97
5.3.5 Backup / Restore and Reset to Factory
Backup current configuration, restore prior configuration or reset back to factory default configuration can be executed via
this page.
Please click on Utilities -> Profile Setting and follow the below setting.
„
Save Settings to PC : Click Save button to save the current configuration to a local disk.
„
Load Settings from PC : Click Browse button to locate a configuration file to restore, and then click Upload button
to upload.
„
Reset To Factory Default : Click Default button to reset back to the factory default settings and expect Successful
loading message. Then, click Reboot button to activate.
98
5.3.6 Firmware Upgrade
Firmware is the main software image that system needs to respond to requests and to manage real time operations.
Firmware upgrades are sometimes required to include new features or bugs fix. It takes around 2 minutes to upgrade
due to complexity of firmware. To upgrade system firmware, click Browse button to locate the new firmware, and then
click Upgrade button to upgrade.
1.
2.
3.
To prevent data loss during firmware upgrade, please back up current settings before proceeding.
Do not interrupt during firmware upgrade including power on/off as this may damage system.
Never perform firmware upgrade over wireless connection or via remote access connection.
99
5.3.7 Network Utility
The administrator can diagnose network connectivity via the PING and TRACEROUTE utility.
Please click on Utilities -> Network Utility and follow the below setting
„
Ping : This utility will help ping other devices on the network to verify connectivity. Ping utility, using ICMP packets,
detects connectivity and latency between two network nodes. As result of that, packet loss and latency time are
available in the Result field while running the PING test.
Î
Destination IP/Domain : Enter desired domain name, i.e. www.google.com, or IP address of the destination,
and click ping button to proceed. The ping result will be shown in the Result field.
Î
„
Count : By default, it’s 5 and the range is from 1 to 50. It indicates number of connectivity test.
Traceroute : Allows tracing the hops from the APO1200/APO1215 device to a selected outgoing IP
address. It should be used for the finding the route taken by ICMP packets across the network to the destination host.
The test is started using the Start button, click Stop button to stopped test
Î
Destination Host : Specifies the Destination Host for the finding the route taken by ICMP packets across the
network.
Î
MAX Hop : Specifies the maximum number of hops( max time-to-live value) traceroute will probe.
100
5.3.8 Reboot
This function allows user to restart system with existing or most current settings when changes are made. Click Reboot
button to proceed and take around three minutes to complete.
A reminder will be available for remaining time to complete. If power cycle is necessary, please wait till completion of the
reboot process.
The System Overview page appears upon the completion of reboot.
101
5.4 Access Control List
5.4.1 IP Filter Setup
Allows to create deny or allow rules to filter ingress or egress packets from specific source and/or to destination IP
address on wired (LAN) or Wireless (WAN) ports. Filter rules could be used to filter unicast or multicast packets on
different protocols as shown in the IP Filter Setup. Important to note that IP filter rules has precedence over Virtual server
rules.
Please click on Advance -> IP Filter Setup and follow the below setting.
„
Source Address/Mask : Enter desired source IP address and netmask; i.e. 192.168.2.10/32.
„
Source Port : Enter a port or a range of ports as start:end; i.e. port 20:80
„
Destination Address/Mask : Enter desired destination IP address and netmask; i.e. 192.168.1.10/32
„
Destination Port : Enter a port or a range of ports as start:end; i.e. port 20:80
„
In/Out : Applies to Ingress or egress packets
„
Protocol : Supports TCP, UDP or ICMP.
„
Listen : Click Yes radial button to match TCP packets only with the SYN flag.
„
Active : Deny to drop and Pass to allow per filter rules
„
Interface : The interface that a filter rule applies
All packets are allowed by default. Deny rules could be added to the filter list to filter out unwanted packets and
leave remaining allowed.
Click “Save” button to add IP filter rule. Total of 20 rules maximum allowed in the IP Filter List. All rules can be edited or
removed from the List. Click Reboot button to activate your changes.
When you create rules in the IP Filter List, the prior rules maintain higher priority. To allow limited access from a subnet to
a destination network manager needs to create allow rules first and followed by deny rules. So, if you just want one IP
address to access the system via telnet from your subnet, not others, the Example 1 demonstrates it, not rules in the
Example 2.
102
Î
Example 1 : Create a higher priority rule to allow IP address 192.168.2.2 Telnet access from LAN port first, and
deny Telnet access from remaining IP addresses in the same subnet.
Rule
Source
IP/Mask
Î
Destination
Port
IP/Mask
Port
In/Out
Protocol
Listen
Action
Side
1
192.168.2.2/32
192.168.2.254/32
22
In
TCP
n
Pass
LAN
2
192.168.2.0/24
192.168.2.254/32
22
In
TCP
n
Deny
LAN
Example 2 : All Telnet access to the system from the IP addresses of subnet 192.168.2.x works with the rule 1
of Example 2. The rule 2 won’t make any difference.
Rule
Source
IP/Mask
Destination
Port
IP/Mask
Port
In/Out
Protocol
Listen
Action
Side
1
192.168.2.0/24
192.168.2.254/32
22
In
TCP
n
Deny
LAN
2
192.168.2.2/32
192.168.2.254/32
22
In
TCP
n
Pass
LAN
103
5.4.2 MAC Filter Setup
Allows to create MAC filter rules to allow or deny unicast or multicast packets from limited number of MAC addresses.
Important to note that MAC filter rules have precedence over IP Filter rules.
Please click on Advance -> MAC Filter Setup and follow the below setting.
„
MAC Filter Rule : By default, it’s “Disable”. Options are Disabled, Only Deny List MAC or Only Allow List MAC.
Click Save button to save your change.
Two ways to set the MAC Filter List:
Î
Only Allow List MAC.
The wireless clients in the MAC Filter List will be allowed to access to Access Point; All others will be denied.
Î
Only Deny List MAC.
The wireless clients in the MAC Filter List will be denied to access to Access Point; All others will be allowed.
If there does not have any MAC address in MAC Filter List, the MAC filter function deactivated
„
MAC Address : Enter MAC address (e.g. aa:bb:cc:00:00:0a) and click “Add” button, then the MAC address should
display in the MAC Filter List.
There are a maximum of 20 clients allowed in this MAC Filter List. The MAC addresses of the wireless clients can be
added and removed to the list using the Add and Delete buttons.
Click Reboot button to activate your changes
104
5.4.3 Parental Control Setup
Parental Control allows you to block or allow specific kinds of Internet usage and traffic, such as Internet access,
designated services, and websites.
APO1200
Please click on Advance -> Parental Control and follow the below setting.
„
Rules : control can be managed by a rule. Use the settings on this screen to establish an access policy.
Î
Comment : Enter a descriptive name for this rule for identifying purposes.
Î
MAC Address : Enter MAC address in valid MAC address format(xx:xx:xx:xx:xx:xx) and click “Add” button to
add in the MAC group of each rule. Click “Remove” button can remove MAC address in the group of each rule.
There are 10 MAC address maximum allowed in each rule.
Î
Local / Destination IP : Specify local(LAN)/ destination IP addresses range required for this rule. If you specify
local IP addresses range from 192.168.1.1 to 192.168.2.254. The matches a range of local IP addresses include
every single IP address from the first to the last, so the example above includes everything from 192.168.1.1 to
192.168.2.254.
Î
Protocol : Select Any or specify protocol(TCP, UDP, ICMP, URL Blocking and Application) from drop-down
list. When you select ICMP or Layer 7 Application , the Local(LAN)/ Destination Port can not used.
105
If you want to block websites with specific URL address or using specific keywords, enter each URL or keywords
in the “URL Blocking” field and click “Add” button to add in the URL Blocking list of each rule. Click “Remove”
button can remove URL or keywords.
Î
Local Port : Specify local port(LAN port) range required for this rule
Î
Destination Port : Specify destination port range required for this rule
Î
Active : Check Enable button to activate this rule, and Disable to deactivate.
Click “Add” button to add control rule to List. There are 10 rules maximum allowed in this Control List. All rules can be
removed or edited on the List. Click Reboot button to activate your changes.
106
5.4.4 QoS Setup
Quality of Service (QoS) refers to both a network's ability to deliver data with minimum delay, and the networking methods
used to control the use of bandwidth. Without QoS, all traffic data is equally likely to be dropped when the network is
congested. This can cause a reduction in network performance and make the network inadequate for time-critical
application such as video-on-demand.
A classifier groups traffic into data flows according to specific criteria such as the source address, destination address,
source port number, destination port number or incoming port number. For example, you can configure a classifier to
select traffic from the same protocol port (such as FTP) to form a flow.
APO1200
APO1200
Please click on Advance -> QoS and follow the below setting.
107
„
Rules : Use the rules to define the classifiers. After you define the rules, you can specify action to act upon the traffic
that matches the rules
Î
Comment : Enter a descriptive name for this rule for identifying purposes.
Î
MAC Address : Enter MAC address in valid MAC address format(xx:xx:xx:xx:xx:xx) and click “Add” button to
add in the MAC group of each rule. Click “Remove” button can remove MAC address in the group of each rule.
There are 10 MAC address maximum allowed in each rule.
Î
Local / Destination IP : Specify local(LAN)/ destination IP addresses range required for this rule. If you specify
local IP addresses range from 192.168.1.1 to 192.168.2.254. The matches a range of local IP addresses include
every single IP address from the first to the last, so the example above includes everything from 192.168.1.1 to
192.168.2.254.
Î
DSCP Class : Differentiated services code point, DSCP. Select Any or specify classify traffic from drop-down list.
The Per-Hop Behavior (PHB) is indicated by encoding a 6-bit value—called the Differentiated Services Code
Point (DSCP)—into the 8-bit Differentiated Services (DS) field of the IP packet header. Below depicts class for
DSCP.
9
BE : Default PHB, which is typically best-effort traffic
9
EF : Expedited Forwarding PHB, dedicated to low-loss, low-latency traffic
9
AF : Assured Forwarding PHB, which gives assurance of delivery under conditions. The AF behavior group
defines four separate AF classes. Within each class, packets are given a drop precedence (high, medium or
low). The combination of classes and drop precedence yields twelve separate DSCP encodings from AF11
through AF43 (see table)
108
DROP Precedence
Î
Class 1
Class 2
Class 3
Class 4
Low Drop
AF11
AF21
AF31
AF41
Medium Drop
AF12
AF22
AF32
AF42
High Drop
AF13
AF23
AF33
AF43
Protocol : Select Any or specify protocol(TCP, UDP, ICMP, Application) from drop-down list. When you select
ICMP or Layer 7 Application, the Local/ Destination Port can not used.
„
Î
Local Port : Specify local port(LAN port) range required for this rule
Î
Destination Port : Specify destination port range required for this rule
Action : After configuring rule, a policy rule ensures that a traffic flow gets the requested treatment in the network.
Î
Remark DSCP : Specify a new DSCP class, if you want to replace or remark the DSCP
Î
Bandwidth : Click “Enable” to activate function, and click “Disable” to deactivate function
Î
Upload / Download : Specify the bandwidth in kilobit per second (Kbps). Enter a number between 8 to 8192,
default upload is 128 Kbps, download is 1024 Kbps.
Click “Add” button to add QoS rule to List. There are 10 rules maximum allowed in this QoS List. All rules can be removed
or edited on the List. Click Reboot button to activate your changes.
When you create rules on the QoS List, the previous rules have higher priority. Below depict the examples for explaining
priority of QoS setup.
¾
Example 1 : On this setting, the FTP has 1024 Kbps upload and 8196 Kbps download on 192.168.2.10. The
remaining IP address and other remaining protocol of IP address 192.168.2.10 only can use total bandwidth 512
Kbps bandwidth. Because rule 1's priority is higher than rule 2
Rule
Source IP
1
192.168.2.10
Destination IP
2
¾
DSCP
Protocol
Remark DSCP
Bandwidth (Up/Down)
ANY
FTP
NO
1024/8196
ANY
ANY
NO
512/512
Example 2 : On this setting, the FTP has 512 Kbps upload and 512 Kbps download on 192.168.2.10 Because
rule 1's priority is higher than rule 2
Rule
Source IP
1
2
192.168.2.10
Destination IP
DSCP
Protocol
Remark DSCP
Bandwidth (Up/Down)
ANY
ANY
NO
512/512
ANY
FTP
NO
1024/8196
109
5.5 Resource Sharing
5.5.1 DMZ
DMZ is commonly work with the NAT functionality as an alternative of Virtual Server(Port Forwarding) while wanting all
ports of DMZ host visible to Internet users. Virtual Server rules have precedence over the DMZ rule. In order to use a
range of ports available to access to different internal hosts Virtual Server rules are needed.
APO1200
Please click on Advance -> DMZ and follow the below setting.
„
DMZ : By default, it’s “Disable”. Check Enable radial button to enable DMZ.
„
IP Address : Enter IP address of DMZ host and only one DMZ host is supported.
Click Save button to save your changes. Click Reboot button to activate your changes.
110
5.5.2 Virtual Server (Port Forwarding)
“Virtual Server” can also referred to as “Port Forward” as well and used interchangeably. Resources in the network can be
exposed to the Internet users in a controlled manner including on-line gaming, video conferencing or others via Virtual
Server setup. Don’t repeat ports’ usage to avoid confusion.
Suppose you want to assign ports 21-25 to one FTP, Telnet and SMTP server (A in the example), and port 80 to another
(B in the example). You assign the LAN IP addresses and the ISP assigns the WAN IP address. The NAT network
appears as a single host on the Internet.
APO1200
Please click on Advance -> Virtual Server and follow the below setting.
„
Virtual Server : By Default, It’s “Disable”. Check Enable radial button to enable Virtual Server.
„
Description : Enter appropriate message for resource sharing via Virtual Server.
„
Private IP : Enter corresponding IP address of internal resource to share.
„
Protocol Type : Select appropriate sessions, TCP or UDP, from shared host via multiple private ports.
„
Private Port : A port or a range of ports may be specified as start:end; i.e. port 20:80
„
Public Port : A port or a range of ports may be specified as start:end; i.e. port 20:80
.
The Private Port and Public Port can be different. However, total number of ports need to be the same.
Example : Public Port is 11 to 20 and the Private Port can be a 10 ports range.
Click “Add” button to add Virtual Server rule to List. Total of maximum 20 rules are allowed in this List. All rules can be
edited or removed from the List. Click Reboot button to activate your changes.
111
While creating multiple Virtual Server rules, the prior rules have higher priority. The Virtual server rules have precedence
over the DMZ one while both rules exist. Example 1 and 2 demonstrate proper usage of DMZ and Virtual Server rules.
„
Example 1 : All connections should be redirected to 192.168.2.12 while DMZ is enabled. Since Virtual Server rules
have precedence over the DMZ rule all connections to TCP port 22 will be directed to TCP port 22 of 192.168.2.10
and remaining connections to port TCP 20~80 will be redirected to port TCP 20~80 of 192.168.2.11
DMZ Enabled : 192.168.2.12
„
Rule
Protocol
Private IP
Private Port
Public Port
1
TCP
192.168.2.10
22
22
2
TCP
192.168.2.11
20:80
20:80
Example 2 : All connections should be redirected to 192.168.2.12 while DMZ is enabled. Since Virtual Server rules
have precedence over the DMZ rule all other connections to TCP port 20~80 will be redirected to port 20~80 of
192.168.2.11. The rule 2 won’t take effect.
DMZ Enabled : 192.168.2.12
Rule
Protocol
Private IP
Private Port
Public Port
1
TCP
192.168.2.11
20:80
20:80
2
TCP
192.168.2.10
22
22
112
5.6 System Status
This section breaks down into subsections of System Overview, Station Statistics, Extra Information and Event Log.
5.6.1 Overview
Detailed information on System, WAN Information, LAN Information and DHCP Server Status can be reviewed via this
page.
„
„
System : Display the information of the system.
Î
System Name : The name of the system.
Î
Operating Mode : The mode currently in service.
Î
Location : The reminding note on the geographical location of the system.
Î
Description : The reminding note of the system.
Î
Firmware Version : The current firmware version installed.
Î
Firmware Date : The build time of the firmware installed.
Î
Device Time : The current time of the system.
Î
System Up Time : The time period that system has been in service since last reboot.
WAN Information : Display the information of the WAN interface.
The WAN port specified Dynamic IP, the Release and Renew button will be show-up, click Release button to
release IP address of WAN port, Renew button to renew IP address through DHCP server.
113
The WAN port specified PPPoE or PPTP, and the Connect and DisConnect button will be show up. Click “Connect”
button to assigned IP address from PPPoE or PPTP server, “DisConnect” button to release IP address of WAN port.
„
„
Î
Mode : Supports Static, Dynamic, PPPoE and PPTP modes.
Î
Reconnect Mode : The current reconnect mode of the PPPoE or PPTP.
Î
MAC Address : The MAC address of the WAN port.
Î
IP Address : The IP address of the WAN port.
Î
IP Netmask : The IP netmask of the WAN port.
Î
IP Gateway : The gateway IP address of the WAN port.
Î
Primary DNS : The primary DNS server in service.
Î
Secondary DNS : The secondary DNS server in service.
Î
Receive bytes : The total received packets in bytes on the WAN port.
Î
Receive packets : The total received packets of the WAN port.
Î
Transmit bytes : The total transmitted packets in bytes of the WAN port.
Î
Transmit packets : The total transmitted packets of the WAN port.
LAN Information : Display total received and transmitted statistics on the LAN interface.
Î
MAC Address : The MAC address of the LAN port.
Î
IP Address : The IP address of the LAN port.
Î
IP Netmask : The IP netmask of the LAN port.
Î
Receive bytes : The total received packets in bytes on the LAN port.
Î
Receive packets : The total received packets of the LAN port.
Î
Transmit bytes : The total transmitted packets in bytes of the LAN port.
Î
Transmit packets : The total transmitted packets of the LAN port.
DHCP Server Status : Users could retrieve DHCP server and DHCP clients’ IP/MAC address via this field.
114
Î
IP Address : IP addresses to LAN devices by DHCP server.
Î
MAC Address : MAC addresses of LAN devices.
Î
Expired In : Shows how long the leased IP address will expire.
115
5.6.2 Station Statistics
Link information, Transmit and Receive Statistics for the connection with AP, Below depicts an example for Station
Statistics.
„
Link Status :
Î
Status : Shows the current link status. It should be “Connected” or “Disconnected”.
Î
ESSID : Shows the current SSID, which must be the same on the wireless client and AP in order for
communication to be established.
Î
BSSID : Shows the associated BSSID, which can be used to identify the wireless access point.
Î
Extra Info : Shows the current link status of extra information. It should be “Link is Up” or “Link is Down”,
Î
Channel : Shows current channel and central channel, its corresponding frequency.
Î
Link Speed(Mbps) : The data transfer speed adopted by this network. (measured in Mbits per second)
Î
Link Quality : Shows the link quality of the system with an access point.
Î
Signal Strength ANT0/ANT1 : Shows the wireless signal strength of the connection between system and an
access point.
„
„
HT Status :
Î
Channel BandWidth : Shows the current channel bandwidth used for communication. It should be “20” or “40”
Î
Guard Interval : Shows the current GI used for communication. It should be “short” or “long”.
Î
MCS : Shows the current GI used for communication. It should be between 0 to 15 or 32.
Transmit Statistics
Î
Frames Transmitted Successfully: The number of successfully transmitted frames.
Î
Frames Transmitted Successfully Without Retry: The number of successfully transmitted frames without any
retry.
Î
Frames Transmitted Successfully After Retry(s): The number of successfully transmitted frames with one or
more retries.
116
Î
Frames Fail To Receive ACK After All Retries: The number of unsuccessfully transmitted frame with many
retries.
Î
RTS Frames Successfully Receive CTS: The number of successful received CTS (Clear To Send) response
after this APO1200/APO1215 sends out the RTS (Request To Send) message.
Î
RTS Frames Fail To Receive CTS: The number of unsuccessful received CTS response after this
APO1200/APO1215 sends out the RTS message.
„
Receive Statistics
Î
Frames Received Successfully: The number of successful received frames.
Î
Frames Received With CRC Error: The number of received frames with CRC (Cyclical Redundancy Checking)
error.
Î
Frames Dropped Due To Out-of-Resource: The number of dropped frames.
Î
Duplicate Frames Received: The number of duplicate frames.
117
5.6.3 Extra Info
Users could pull out information such as Route table, ARP table, MAC table, Bridge table or STP available in the dropdown list from system. The “Refresh” button is used to retrieve latest table information.
„
Netstat Information : Select “NetStatus Information” on the drop-down list, the connection track list should showup, the list can be updated using the Refresh button.
NetStatus will show all connection track on the system, the information include Protocol, Live Time, Status,
Source/Destination IP address and Port.
„
Route table information : Select “Route table information” on the drop-down list to display route table.
APO1200/APO1215 could be used as a L2 or L3 device. It doesn’t support dynamic routing protocols such as RIP or
OSPF. Static routes to specific hosts, networks or default gateway are set up automatically according to the IP
configuration of system's interfaces. When used as a L2 device, it could switch packets and, as L3 device, it’s
capable of being a gateway to route packets inward and outward.
„
ARP table Information : Select “ARP Table Information” on the drop-down list to display ARP table.
ARP associates each IP address to a unique hardware address (MAC) of a device. It is important to have a unique IP
address as final destination to switch packets to.
118
„
Bridge table information : Select “Bridge Table information” on the drop-down list to display bridge table.
Bridge table will show Bridge ID and STP's Status on the each Ethernet bridge and its attached interfaces, the Bridge
Port should be attached to some interfaces.
„
Bridge MAC information : Select “Bridge MACs Information” on the drop-down list to display MAC table.
This table displays local MAC addresses associated with wired or wireless interfaces, but also remember non-local
MAC addresses learned from wired or wireless interfaces.
Ageing timers will be reset when existing MAC addresses in table are learned again or added when new MAC
addresses are seen from wired or wireless interfaces as well. When time runs out for a particular entry, it will be
pruned from the table. In that situation, switching packet to that particular MAC address will be discontinued.
„
Bridge STP Information : Select “Bridge STP Information” on the drop-down list to display a list of bridge STP
information.
119
5.6.4 QoS Plot
The QoS Plot show graphs, which continuously represents the current data traffic on each QoS rule. The chart scale and
throughput dimension (bps, Kbps, Mbps) changes dynamically according to the mean throughput value. The statistics is
updated automatically every 5 seconds. The throughput statistics of QoS can be updated manually using the Refresh
button.
120
5.6.5 Event Log
The Event log displays system events when system is up and running. Also, it becomes very useful as a troubleshooting
tool when issues are experienced in system.
„
Time : The date and time when the event occurred.
„
Facility : It helps users to identify source of events such “System” or “User”
„
Severity : Severity level that a specific event is associated such as “info”, “error”, “warning”, etc.
„
Message : Description of the event.
Click Refresh button to renew the log, or click Clear button to clear all the record.
121
Chapter 6. CPE + AP Mode Configuration
When CPE+AP mode is chosen, the system can be configured as a Customer Premises Equipment (CPE). This section
provides detailed explanation for users to configure in the CPE+AP mode with help of illustrations. In the CPE+AP mode,
functions listed in the table below are also available from the Web-based GUI interface.
OPTION
Functions
System
Wireless
Advance
Utilities
Status
Operating Mode
General Setup
DMZ
Profiles Settings
System Overview
WAN
Advanced Setup
IP Filter
Firmware Upgrade
Station Statistics
LAN
Repeater AP Setup
MAC Filter
Network Utility
Extra Info
DDNS
Wireless Profile
Virtual Server
Reboot
QoS Plot
Management
Site Survey
Parental Control
Time Server
Event Log
QoS
UPNP
SNMP
Table 6-1: CPE+AP Mode Functions
6.1 External Network Connection
6.1.1 Network Requirement
It can be used as an Outdoor Customer Premises Equipment (CPE) to receive and repeat wireless signal over last mile
application, helping WISPs deliver wireless broadband Internet service to residents and business customers. In the
CPE+AP mode, APO1200/APO1215 is a gateway enabled with NAT and DHCP Server functions. The wired and wireless
clients connected to APO1200/APO1215 are in different subnet from those connected to Main Base Station, and, in
CPE+AP mode, it accepts wireless connections from wireless client devices.
APO1200
Figure 6-1 CPE+AP mode network configuration
When the APO1200/APO1215 configured as an Access Point and Client Station simultaneously, the Wireless
General and Advanced Setup also used simultaneously. But the Security Type can be different. In the other
word, the channel or other settings will be the same between APO1200/APO1215 to Main Base Station and
wireless client to APO1200/APO1215, but security type can be different.
122
6.1.2 Configure WAN Setup
There are three connection types for the WAN port : Static IP, Dynamic IP, PPPoE and PPTP,
Please click on System -> WAN and follow the below setting.
In CPE mode, the WAN Port is the Wireless interface.
„
Mode : By default, it’s “Static IP”. Check “Static IP”, “Dynamic IP”, “PPPoE” or “PPTP”to set up system WAN IP.
Î
Î
Static IP : Users can manually setup the WAN IP address with a static IP provided by WISP.
9
IP Address : The IP address of the WAN port; default IP address is 192.168.1.254
9
IP Netmask : The Subnet mask of the WAN port; default Netmask is 255.255.255.0
9
IP Gateway : The default gateway of the WAN port; default Gateway is 192.168.1.1
Dynamic IP : Please consult with WISP for correct wireless settings to associate with WISP AP before a
dynamic IP, along with related IP settings including DNS can be available from DHCP server. If IP Address is not
assigned, please double check with your wireless settings and ensure successful association. Also, you may go
to “WAN Information” in the Overview page to click Release button to release IP address and click Renew
button to renew IP address again.
9
Î
Hostname : The Hostname of the WAN port
PPPoE : To create wireless PPPoE WAN connection to a PPPoE server in network.
123
9
User Name : Enter User Name for PPPoE connection
9
Password : Enter Password for PPPoE connection
9
Reconnect Mode :
•
Always on – A connection to Internet is always maintained.
•
On Demand – A connection to Internet is made as needed.
When Time Server is enabled at the “On Demand” mode, the “Reconnect Mode” will turn out “Always on”.
•
Manual – Click the “Connect” button on “WAN Information” in the Overview page to connect to the
Internet.
9
Idle Time : Time to last before disconnecting PPPoE session when it is idle. Enter preferred Idle Time in
minutes. Default is “0”, indicates disabled. When Idle time is disabled, the “Reconnect Mode” will turn out
“Always on”
9
MTU : By default, it’s 1492 bytes. MTU stands for Maximum Transmission Unit. Consult with WISP for a
correct MTU setting.
Î
PPTP : The Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) mode enables the implementation of secure multi-protocol Virtual
Private Networks (VPNs) through public networks.
9
IP Address : The IP address of the WAN port
9
IP Netmask : The Subnet mask of the WAN port
9
PPTP Server IP Address : The IP address of the PPTP server
9
User Name : Enter User Name for PPTP connection
9
Password : Enter Password for PPTP connection
9
Reconnect Mode :
•
Always on – A connection to Internet is always maintained.
•
On Demand – A connection to Internet is made as needed.
124
When Time Server is enabled at the “On Demand” mode, the “Reconnect Mode” will turn out “Always on”.
•
Manual – Click the “Connect” button on “WAN Information” in the Overview page to connect to the
Internet.
9
Idle Time : Time to last before disconnecting PPPoE session when it is idle. Enter preferred Idle Time in
minutes. Default is “0”, indicates disabled. When Idle time is disabled, the “Reconnect Mode” will turn out
“Always on”
9
MTU : By default, it’s 1460 bytes. MTU stands for Maximum Transmission Unit. Consult with WISP for a
correct MTU setting.
9
MPPE Encryption : Microsoft Point-to-Point Encryption (MPPE) encrypts data in Point-to-Point
Protocol(PPP)-based dial-up connections or Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) virtual private
network (VPN) connections. 128-bit key (strong) and 40-bit key (standard) MPPE encryption schemes are
supported. MPPE provides data security for the PPTP connection that is between the VPN client and the
VPN server.
„
DNS : Check “No Default DNS Server” or “Specify DNS Server IP” radial button as desired to set up system DNS.
Î
Primary : The IP address of the primary DNS server.
Î
Secondary : The IP address of the secondary DNS server.
In this mode, the system does not support MAC Clone function.
Click Save button to save your changes. Click Reboot button to activate your changes
125
6.1.3 Configure DDNS Setup
Dynamic DNS allows you to map domain name to dynamic IP address.
Please click on System -> DDNS Setup and follow the below setting.
„
Enabled: By default, it’s “Disable”. The mapping domain name won’t change when dynamic IP changes. The beauty
of it is no need to remember the dynamic WAP IP while accessing to it.
„
Service Provider: Select the preferred Service Provider from the drop-down list including dyndns, dhs, ods and tzo
„
Hostname: Host Name that you register to Dynamic-DNS service and export.
„
User Name & Password: User Name and Password are used to login DDNS service.
Click Save button to save your changes. Click Reboot button to activate your changes
126
6.1.4 Configure LAN Setup
Here are the instructions for how to setup the local IP Address and Netmask.
Please click on System -> LAN and follow the below setting.
„
„
LAN IP : The administrator can manually setup the LAN IP address.
Î
IP Address : The IP address of the LAN port; default IP address is 192.168.2.254
Î
IP Netmask : The Subnet mask of the LAN port; default Netmask is 255.255.255.0
DHCP Setup : Devices connected to the system can obtain an IP address automatically when this service is
enabled.
Î
DHCP : Check Enable button to activate this function or Disable to deactivate this service.
Î
Start IP / End IP: Specify the range of IP addresses to be used by the DHCP server when assigning IP address
to clients. The default range IP address is 192.168.2.10 to 192.168.2.70, the netmask is 255.255.255.0
Î
DNS1 IP : Enter IP address of the first DNS server; this field is required.
Î
DNS2 IP : Enter IP address of the second DNS server; this is optional.
Î
WINS IP : Enter IP address of the Windows Internet Name Service (WINS) server; this is optional.
Î
Domain : Enter the domain name for this network.
Î
Lease Time : The IP addresses given out by the DHCP server will only be valid for the duration specified by the
lease time. Increasing the time ensure client operation without interruptions, but could introduce potential
conflicts. Lowering the lease time will avoid potential address conflicts, but might cause more interruptions to the
client while it will acquire new IP addresses from the DHCP server. Default is 86400 seconds
Click Save button to save your changes. Click Reboot button to activate your changes
127
6.2 Access Point Association
6.2.1 Configure Wireless General Setting
The administrator can change the data transmission, channel and output power settings for the system. Please click on
Wireless -> General Setup and follow the below setting.
„
Band Mode : Select an appropriate wireless band; bands available are 801.11aor 802.11a/n mixed mode.
„
Transmit Rate Control : Select the desired rate from the drop-down list; the options are auto or ranging from 6 to 54
Mbps for 802.11a
„
Country : Select the desired country code from the drop-down list; the options are US, ETSI, JP and NONE.
„
Tx Power : You can adjust the output power of the system to get the appropriate coverage for your wireless network.
Specify digit number between 1 to 100 (the unit is %) for your environment. If you are not sure of which setting to
choose, then keep the default setting, 100%.
When Band Mode select in 802.11a only mode, the HT(High Throughput) Physical Mode and 11n Configuration
settings should be hidden immediately.
„
Operating Mode : By default, it's Mixed Mode.
Î
Mixed Mode : In this mode packets are transmitted with a preamble compatible with the legacy 802.11a/g, the
rest of the packet has a new format. In this mode the receiver shall be able to decode both the Mixed Mode
packets and legacy packets.
Î
Green Field : In this mode high throughput packets are transmitted without a legacy compatible part.
„
Channel Bandwidth : The "Auto” MHz option is usually best. The other option is available for special circumstances.
„
Guard Interval : Using “Auto” option can increase throughput. However, it can also increase error rate in some
installations, due to increased sensitivity to radio-frequency reflections. Select the option that works best for your
installation.
128
„
MCS : This parameter represents transmission rate. By default (Auto) the fastest possible transmission rate will be
selected. You have the option of selecting the speed if necessary. (Refer to Appendix C. MCS Data Rate)
„
MPDU Enable : Check Enable button to activate this function, and Disable to deactivate.
„
A-MPDU : A-MPDU (Aggregated Mac Protocol Data Unit) allows the transmissions of multiple Ethernet frames to a
single location as burst of up to 64kbytes This is performed on the hardware itself. Select “Manual” to set “MPDU
Density”
„
MPDU Density : Minimum separation of MPDUs in an A-MPDU.
0
No Restriction
„
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
¼ µs ½ µs 1 µs 2 µs 4 µs 8 µs 16 µs
A-MSDU : Aggregated Mac Service Data Unit, A-MSDU. Select Enable to allows aggregation for multiple MSDUs in
one MPDU. Default is disabled.
Click Save button to save your changes. Click Reboot button to activate your changes.
129
6.2.2 Wireless Advanced Setup
To achieve optimal wireless performance, it is necessary to tweak advance setting per requirements properly, not
necessary higher the better or lower.
The administrator can change the RTS threshold and fragmentation threshold settings for the system. Please click on
Wireless -> Advanced Setup and follow the below setting.
„
Short Slot : By default, it’s “Enable” for educing the slot time from the standard 20 microseconds to the 9
microsecond short slot time
Slot time is the amount of time a device waits after a collision before retransmitting a packet. Reducing the slot time
decreases the overall back-off, which increases throughput. Back-off, which is a multiple of the slot time, is the
random length of time a station waits before sending a packet on the LAN. For a sender and receiver own right of the
channel the shorter slot time help manage shorter wait time to re-transmit from collision because of hidden wireless
clients or other causes. When collision sources can be removed sooner and other senders attempting to send are
listening the channel(CSMA/CA) the owner of the channel should continue ownership and finish their transmission
and release the channel. Then, following ownership of the channel will be sooner for the new pair due to shorter slot
time. However, when long duration of existing collision sources and shorter slot time exist the owners might
experience subsequent collisions. When adjustment to longer slot time can’t improve performance then RTS/CTS
could supplement and help improve performance.
„
Extra Slot Time : Slot time is in the range of 1~255 and set in unit of microsecond. The default value is 9
microsecond.
When you enable Short Slot and set Extra Slot time to “10”, the actual Slot Time=9+10 us.
When you disable Short Slot and set Extra Slot time to “10”, the actual Slot Time=20+10 us.
130
„
ACK Timeout : ACK timeout is in the range of 1~255 and set in unit of microsecond. The default value is 32
microsecond.
All data transmission in 802.11b/g request an “Acknowledgement” (ACK) send by receiving radio. The transmitter will
resend the original packet if correspondent ACK failed to arrive within specific time interval, also refer to as “ACK
Timeout”.
ACK Timeout is adjustable due to the fact that distance between two radio links may vary in different deployment.
ACK Timeout makes significant influence in performance of long distance radio link. If ACK Timeout is set too short,
transmitter will start to “Resend” packet before ACK is received, and throughputs become low due to excessively high
re-transmission.
ACK Timeout is best determined by distance between the radios, data rate of average environment. The Timeout
value is calculated based on round-trip time of packet with a little tolerance, So, if experiencing re-transmissions or
poor performance the ACK Timeout could be made longer to accommodate.
Slot Time and ACK Timeout settings are for long distance links. It is important to tweak settings to achieve the
optimal result based on requirement.
„
Beacon Interval : Beacon Interval is in the range of 20~1024 and set in unit of millisecond. The default value is 100
msec.
Access Point (AP) in IEEE 802.11 will send out a special approximated 50-byte frame, called “Beacon”. Beacon is
broadcast to all the stations, provides the basic information of AP such as SSID, channel, encryption keys, signal
strength, time stamp, support data rate.
All the radio stations received beacon recognizes the existence of such AP, and may proceed next actions if the
information from AP matches the requirement. Beacon is sent on a periodic basis, the time interval can be adjusted.
By increasing the beacon interval, you can reduce the number of beacons and associated overhead, but that will
likely delay the association and roaming process because stations scanning for available access points may miss the
beacons. You can decrease the beacon interval, which increases the rate of beacons. This will make the association
and roaming process very responsive; however, the network will incur additional overhead and throughput will go
down.
„
DTIM Interval : The DTIM interval is in the range of 1~255. The default is 1.
DTIM is defined as Delivery Traffic Indication Message. It is used to notify the wireless stations, which support power
saving mode, when to wake up to receive multicast frame. DTIM is necessary and critical in wireless environment as
a mechanism to fulfill power-saving synchronization.
A DTIM interval is a count of the number of beacon frames that must occur before the access point sends the
buffered multicast frames. For instance, if DTIM Interval is set to 3, then the Wi-Fi clients will expect to receive a
multicast frame after receiving three Beacon frame. The higher DTIM interval will help power saving and possibly
decrease wireless throughput in multicast applications.
131
„
Fragment Threshold : The Fragment Threshold is in the range of 256~2346 byte. The default is 2346 byte.
Each Wi-Fi packet can be divided into smaller packets, marked with a sequential fragment number and re-assemble
in the receiving ends. The purpose is to make a short frame, instead of long frame, transmitting by radio in a heavy
noisy environment. Because of sending smaller frames, corruptions are much less likely to occur. The pros is
obvious, the cons is the overhead for transmission. So, in a clean environment, higher fragment threshold can be an
option to increase throughput.
Fragmentation will be triggered by setting the Fragment Threshold, usually in Byte-length. Only when the frame size
is over the Threshold, fragmentation will take place automatically.
„
RTS Threshold : TRTS Threshold is in the range of 1~2347 byte. The default is 2347 byte.
The main purpose of enabling RTS by changing RTS threshold is to reduce possible collisions due to hidden wireless
clients. RTS in AP will be enabled automatically if the packet size is larger than the Threshold value. By default, RTS
is disabled in a normal environment supports non-jumbo frames.
„
Short Preamble : By default, it’s “Enable”. To Disable is to use Long 128-bit Preamble Synchronization field.
The preamble is used to signal "here is a train of data coming" to the receiver. The short preamble provides 72-bit
Synchronization field to improve WLAN transmission efficiency with less overhead.
„
Tx Burst : By default, it’s “Enable”. To Disable is to deactivate Tx Burst.
With TX burst enabled, AP will send many packets in a burst, without collision detection and RTS/CTS for each packet. TX
Burst have better throughput but cause interference with other APs in channel.
„
Pkt_Aggregate : By default, it's “Enable”
Increase efficiency by aggregating multiple packets of application data into a single transmission frame. In this way,
802.11n networks can send multiple data packets with the fixed overhead cost of just a single frame.
„
IEEE802.11H (DFS) : By default, it's “Disable”. To Enable is to use IEEE802.11H(DFS)
With DFS(Dynamic Frequency Selection) enabled, radio is operating on one of the following channels, the wireless
device uses DFS to monitor the operating frequency and switch to another frequency or reduce power as necessary:
DFS Channels
52, 56, 60, 64, 100, 104, 108, 112, 116, 120, 124, 128, 136, 140
The maximum legal transmit power is greater for some 5 GHz channels than for others. When the wireless device
randomly selects a 5 GHz channel on which power is restricted, the wireless device automatically reduces transmit
power to comply with power limits for that channel in that regulatory domain.
The Channel 52-140 is DFS channel. If turns on IEEE802.11H, AP Will have 60 sec to do channel available
check, and will not send beacon and can not be connect. When APO1200/APO1215 detect radar(5GHz) signal,
the AP will switch channel and stop beacon transmit between 15 sec.
„
WMM : By default, it's “Disable”. To Enable is to use WMM and the WMM parameters should appears.
132
When you enable WMM, the “Tx Burst” will be Disabled automatically by system.
WMM Parameters of Access Point : This affects traffic flowing from the access point to the client station
Queue
Data Transmitted
AP to Clients
Priority
AC_BK
Background.
Low
AC_BE
Best Effort
AC_VI
Video
High
Minimum delay. Time-sensitive video data is automatically sent to this queue
AC_VO
Voice
High
Time-sensitive data like VoIP and streaming media are automatically sent to this
queue
Description
High throughput. Bulk data that requires maximum throughput and is not timesensitive is sent to this queue (FTP data, for example).
Medium Medium throughput and delay. Most traditional IP data is sent to this queue
Configuring QoS options consists of setting parameters on existing queues for different types of wireless traffic.
You can configure different minimum and maximum wait times for the transmission of packets in each queue
based on the requirements of the media being sent. Queues automatically provide minimum transmission delay
for Voice, Video, multimedia, and mission critical applications, and rely on best-effort parameters for traditional IP
data.
As an Example, time-sensitive Voice & Video, and multimedia are given effectively higher priority for transmission
(lower wait times for channel access), while other applications and traditional IP data which are less timesensitive but often more data-intensive are expected to tolerate longer wait times.
133
9
Aifsn : The Arbitration Inter-Frame Spacing Number specifies a wait time (in milliseconds) for data frames
9
CWmin : Minimum Contention Window. This parameter is input to the algorithm that determines the initial
random backoff wait time ("window") for retry of a transmission. The value specified here in the Minimum
Contention Window is the upper limit (in milliseconds) of a range from which the initial random backoff wait
time is determined.
9
CWmax : Maximum Contention Window. The value specified here in the Maximum Contention Window is
the upper limit (in milliseconds) for the doubling of the random backoff value. This doubling continues until
either the data frame is sent or the Maximum Contention Window size is reached. Once the Maximum
Contention Window size is reached, retries will continue until a maximum number of retries allowed is
reached. Valid values for the "cwmax" are 1, 3, 7, 15, 31, 63, 127, 255, 511, or 1024. The value for "cwmax"
must be higher than the value for "cwmin".
9
Txop : Transmission Opportunity is an interval of time when a WME AP has the right to initiate
transmissions onto the wireless medium (WM). This value specifies (in milliseconds) the Transmission
Opportunity (TXOP) for AP; that is, the interval of time when the WMM AP has the right to initiate
transmissions on the wireless network.
9
ACM : Admission Control Mandatory, ACM only takes effect on AC_VI and AC_VO. When you do not click
Checkbox, it means that the ACM is controlled by the connecting AP. If you click Checkbox, it means that the
Client is in charge.
9
AckPolicy : Acknowledgment Policy, WMM defines two ACK policies: Normal ACK and No ACK. Click
“Checkbox” indicates “No ACK”
When the no acknowledgment (No ACK) policy is used, the recipient does not acknowledge received
packets during wireless packet exchange. This policy is suitable in the environment where communication
quality is fine and interference is weak. While the No ACK policy helps improve transmission efficiency, it
can cause increased packet loss when communication quality deteriorates. This is because when this policy
is used, a sender does not retransmit packets that have not been received by the recipient.
When the Normal ACK policy is used, the recipient acknowledges each received unicast packet.
Î
WMM Parameters of Station : This affects traffic flowing from the client station to the access point.
Queue
Data Transmitted
Clients to AP
Priority
AC_BK
Background.
Low
AC_BE
Best Effort
AC_VI
Video
High
Minimum delay. Time-sensitive video data is automatically sent to this queue
AC_VO
Voice
High
Time-sensitive data like VoIP and streaming media are automatically sent to this
queue
Description
High throughput. Bulk data that requires maximum throughput and is not timesensitive is sent to this queue (FTP data, for example).
Medium Medium throughput and delay. Most traditional IP data is sent to this queue
9
Aifsn : The Arbitration Inter-Frame Spacing Number specifies a wait time (in milliseconds) for data frames
9
CWmin : Minimum Contention Window. This parameter is input to the algorithm that determines the initial
random backoff wait time ("window") for retry of a transmission. The value specified here in the Minimum
Contention Window is the upper limit (in milliseconds) of a range from which the initial random backoff wait
time is determined.
9
CWmax : Maximum Contention Window. The value specified here in the Maximum Contention Window is
134
the upper limit (in milliseconds) for the doubling of the random backoff value. This doubling continues until
either the data frame is sent or the Maximum Contention Window size is reached. Once the Maximum
Contention Window size is reached, retries will continue until a maximum number of retries allowed is
reached. Valid values for the "cwmax" are 1, 3, 7, 15, 31, 63, 127, 255, 511, or 1024. The value for "cwmax"
must be higher than the value for "cwmin".
9
Txop : Transmission Opportunity is an interval of time when a WME AP has the right to initiate
transmissions onto the wireless medium (WM). This value specifies (in milliseconds) the Transmission
Opportunity (Txop) for AP; that is, the interval of time when the WMM AP has the right to initiate
transmissions on the wireless network.
9
ACM : Admission Control Mandatory, ACM only takes effect on AC_VI and AC_VO. When you do not click
Checkbox, it means that the ACM is controlled by the connecting AP. If you click Checkbox, it means that the
Client is in charge.
Change these settings as described here and click Save button to save your changes. Click Reboot button to activate
your changes. The items in this page are for AP's RF advanced settings and will be applied to Repeater AP.
135
6.2.3 Site Survey
Use this tool to scan and locate WISP Access Points and select one to associate with.
Please click on Wireless -> Site Survey. Below depicts an example for site survey.
„
ESSID : Available Extend Service Set ID of surrounding Access Points.
„
MAC Address : MAC addresses of surrounding Access Points.
„
Signal : Received signal strength of all found Access Points.
„
Channel : Channel numbers used by all found Access Points.
„
Security : Security type by all found Access Points.
„
Band : Wireless band used by all found Access Points.
„
Network Type : Network type used by all found Access Points.
„
Select : Click “Select” to configure settings and associate with chosen AP.
While clicking “Select” button in the Site Survey Table, the “ESSID” and “Security Type” will apply in the
Wireless Profile Setup. However, more settings are needed including Security Key.
136
6.2.4 Create Wireless Profile
The administrator can configure station profiles via this page.
Please click on Wireless -> Wireless Profile and follow the below setting.
„
MAC Address : The MAC address of the Wireless Station is displayed here.
„
Profile Name : Set different profiles for quick connection uses.
„
ESSID : Assign Service Set ID for the wireless system.
„
Lock to AP MAC : This allows the station to always maintain connection to a particular AP with a specific MAC
address. This is useful as sometimes there can be few identically named SSID's (AP's) with different MAC
addresses. With AP lock on, the station will lock to MAC address and not roam between several Access Points with
the same ESSID.
„
Channel/Frequency : Select the desired channel range.
„
Security Type : Select the desired security type from the drop-down list; the options are “NONE” “OPEN”,
“SHARED”, “WPA-PSK” and “WPA2-PSK”.
Î
OPEN / SHARED : OPEN and SHARED require the user to set a WEP key to exchange data.
9
Key Index : key index is used to designate the WEP key during data transmission. 4 different WEP keys
can be entered at the same time, but only one is chosen.
9
WEP Key # : Enter HEX or ASCII format WEP key value; the system supports up to 4 sets of WEP keys.
Key Length
Hex
ASCII
64-bit
10 characters
5 characters
128-bit
26 characters
13 characters
137
Î
WPA-PSK (or WPA2-PSK) : WPA (or WPA2) Algorithms, allows the system accessing the network by using the
WPA-PSK protected access.
9
Cipher Suite : Select the desired cipher suite from the drop-down list; the options are AES and TKIP
9
Pre-shared Key : Enter the information for pre-shared key; the key can be either entered as a 256-bit
secret in 64 HEX digits format, or 8 to 63 ASCII characters.
„
Profile List : The user can manage the created profiles for home, work or public areas. Below depict an example for
Profile List
Î
Click “”Edit” an exist profile on the Profile List. The field of System Configuration and Security Policy will display
profile's content. Edit profile's content and then click “Save” button to save the profile.
Î
Click “Delete” to remove profile.
Î
Click and Select a profile from list, then click the “Connect” button to connecting to the wireless network with the
profile setting. After clicking “Connect” button, you can verify connecting status on Remote AP Page
If turns on IEEE802.11H and APO1200/APO1215 connect AP with DFS channel 52-150, APO1200/APO1215
Will have 60 sec to do channel available check, and will not send beacon and can not be connect.
Change these settings as described here and click Save button to save your changes. Click Reboot button to activate
your changes
138
6.3 Wireless LAN Network Creation
The network manager can configure related wireless settings, Repeater AP Setup, Security Settings, and MAC Filter
Settings.
6.3.1 Repeater AP Setup
Administrators can configure ESSID, SSID broadcasting, Maximum number of client associations, security type settings
and MAC Filter settings.
„
Enable Repeater AP : By default, it’s “Enable” for repeater AP. Select “Enable” to activate Repeater AP or click
“Disable” to deactivate this function
„
ESSID : Extended Service Set ID, When clients are browsing for available wireless networks, this is the SSID that
will appear in the list. ESSID will determine the service type available to AP's clients associated with the specified AP.
„
Client Isolation : By default, it’s “Disable”.
Select “Enable”, all clients will be isolated from each other, which means they can’t reach each other.
„
Hidden SSID : By default, it’s “Disable”.
Enable this option to stop the SSID broadcast in your network. When disabled, people could easily obtain the SSID
information with the site survey software and get access to the network if security is not turned on. When enabled,
network security is enhanced. It’s suggested to enable it after AP security settings are archived and setting of AP's
clients could make to associate to it.
„
Maximum Clients : The default value is 32. You can enter the number of wireless clients that can associate to a
particular SSID. When the number of client is set to 5, only 5 clients at most are allowed to connect to this Repeater
AP.
„
Security Type : Select the desired security type from the drop-down list; the options are Disable, WEP, WPA-PSK,
WPA2-PSK, WPA-Enterprise, WPA2-Enterprise and WEP 802.1X.
Î
Disable : Data are unencrypted during transmission when this option is selected.
Î
WEP : Wired Equivalent Privacy(WEP) is a data encryption mechanism based on a 64-bit or 128-bit shared key.
139
9
Authentication Method : Enable the desire option among OPEN, SHARED or WEPAUTO.
9
Key Index : key index is used to designate the WEP key during data transmission. 4 different WEP keys
can be entered at the same time, but only one is chosen.
9
Î
WEP Key # : Enter HEX or ASCII format WEP key value; the system supports up to 4 sets of WEP keys.
Key Length
Hex
ASCII
64-bit
10 characters
5 characters
128-bit
26 characters
13 characters
WPA-PSK (or WPA2-PSK) : WPA (or WPA2) Algorithms, allows the system accessing the network by using the
WPA-PSK protected access.
9
Cipher Suite : By default, it is AES. Select either AES or TKIP cipher suites
9
Pre-shared Key : Enter the pre-shared key; the format shall go with the selected key type.
Pre-shared key can be entered with either a 256-bit secret in 64 HEX digits format, or 8 to 63 ASCII characters.
9
Group Key Update Period : By default, it is 3600 seconds. This time interval for rekeying GTK,
broadcast/multicast encryption keys, in seconds. Entering the time-length is required.
Î
WPA-Enterprise (or WPA2-Enterprise): The RADIUS authentication and encryption will be both enabled if this
is selected.
140
9
WPA General Settings :
•
Cipher Suite : By default, it is AES. Select either AES or TKIP cipher suites
•
Group Key Update Period : By default, it’s 3600 seconds. This time interval for rekeying GTK,
broadcast/multicast encryption keys, in seconds. Entering the time-length is required.
•
PMK Cache Period : By default, it's 10 minutes. Set WPA2 PMKID cache timeout period, after time
out, the cached key will be deleted.
•
Pre-Authentication : By default, it's “Disable”. To Enable is use to speed up roaming before preauthenticating IEEE 802.1X/EAP part of the full RSN authentication and key handshake before actually
associating with a new AP.
PMK Cache Period and Pre-Authentication is used in WPA2-Enterprise
9
Radius Server Settings :
•
IP Address : Enter the IP address of the Authentication RADIUS server.
•
Port : By default, it’s 1812. The port number used to communicate with RADIUS server.
•
Shared secret : A secret key used between system and RADIUS server. Supports 8 to 64 characters.
•
Session Timeout : The Session timeout is in the range of 0~60 seconds. The default is 0 to disable
re-authenticate service.
Amount of time before a client will be required to re-authenticate.
141
Î
WEP 802.1X : When WEP 802.1x Authentication is enabled, please refer to the following Dynamic WEP and
RADIUS settings to complete configuration.
9
Radius Server Settings :
•
IP Address : Enter the IP address of the Authentication RADIUS server.
•
Port : By default, it’s 1812. The port number used to communicate with RADIUS server.
•
Shared secret : A secret key used between system and RADIUS server. Supports 8 to 64 characters.
•
Session Timeout : The Session timeout is in the range of 0~60 seconds. The default is 0 to disable
re-authenticate service.
Amount of time before a client will be required to re-authenticate.
Change these settings as described here and click Save button to save your changes. Click Reboot button to activate
your changes
142
6.3.2 Wireless MAC Filter Setup
Continue 6.3.1 Repeater AP Setup section, the administrator can allow or reject clients to access Repeater AP.
„
MAC Filter Setup : By default, it’s “Disable”. Options are Disable, Only Deny List MAC or Only Allow List MAC.
Two ways to set MAC filter rules :
Î
Only Allow List MAC.
The wireless clients in the “Enable” list will be allowed to access the Access Point; All others or clients in the
“Disable” list will be denied.
Î
Only Deny List MAC.
The wireless clients in the “Enable” list will be denied to access the Access Point; All others or clients
in the
“Disable” list will be allowed.
„
Add a station MAC : Enter MAC address (e.g. aa:bb:cc:00:00:0a) and click “Add” button, then the MAC address
should display in the “Enable” List.
There are a maximum of 20 clients allowed in this “Enable” List. The MAC addresses of the wireless clients can be added
and removed to the list using the Add and Remove buttons.
Click Reboot button to activate your changes
MAC Access Control is the weakest security approach. WPA or WPA2 security method is highly recommended.
143
6.4 System Management
6.4.1 Configure Management
Administrator could specify geographical location of the system via instructions in this page. Administrator could also
enter new Root and Admin passwords and allow multiple login methods.
Please click System -> Management and follow the below settings.
„
System Information
Î
System Name : Enter a desired name or use the default one.
Î
Description : Provide description of the system.
Î
Location : Enter geographical location information of the system. It helps administrator to locate the system
easier.
The system supports two management accounts, root and admin. The network manager is assigned with full
administrative privileges, when logging in as root user, to manage the system in all aspects. While logging in as an
admin user, only subset of privileges is granted such as basic maintenance. For example, root user can change
passwords for both root and admin account, and admin user can only manage its own. For more information about
covered privileges for these two accounts, please refer to Appendix D. Network manager Privileges.
„
„
Root Password : Log in as a root user and is allowed to change its own, plus admin user’s password.
Î
New Password : Enter a new password if desired
Î
Check New Password : Enter the same new password again to check.
Admin Password : Log in as a admin user and is allowed to change its own,
Î
New Password : Enter a new password if desired
Î
Check New Password : Enter the same new password again to check.
144
„
Admin Login Methods : Only root user can enable or disable system login methods and change services port.
Î
Enable HTTP : Check to select HTTP Service.
Î
HTTP Port : The default is 80 and the range is between 1 ~ 65535.
Î
Enable HTTPS : Check to select HTTPS Service
Î
HTTPS Port : The default is 443 and the range is between 1 ~ 65535.
If you already have an SSL Certificate, please click “UploadKey” button to select the file and upload it.
Î
Enable Telnet : Check to select Telnet Service
Î
Telnet Port : The default is 23 and the range is between 1 ~ 65535.
Î
Enable SSH : Check to select SSH Service
Î
SSH Port : Please The default is 22 and the range is between 1 ~ 65535.
Click “GenerateKey” button to generate RSA private key. The “host key footprint” gray blank will display content
of RSA key.
„
Ping Watchdog : The ping watchdog sets the APO1200/APO1215 Device to continuously ping a user defined IP
address (it can be the internet gateway for example). If it is unable to ping under the user defined constraints, the
APO1200/APO1215 device will automatically reboot. This option creates a kind of "fail-proof" mechanism.
Ping Watchdog is dedicated for continuous monitoring of the particular connection to remote host using the Ping tool.
The Ping works by sending ICMP “echo request” packets to the target host and listening for ICMP “echo response”
replies. If the defined number of replies is not received, the tool reboots the device.
Î
Enable Ping Watchdog : control will enable Ping Watchdog Tool.
Î
IP Address To Ping : specify an IP address of the target host which will be monitored by Ping Watchdog Tool.
Î
Ping Interval : specify time interval (in seconds) between the ICMP “echo requests” are sent by the Ping
Watchdog Tool. Default is 300 seconds.
Î
Startup Delay : specify initial time delay (in seconds) until first ICMP “echo requests” are sent by the Ping
Watchdog Tool. The value of Startup Delay should be at least 60 seconds as the network interface and wireless
connection initialization takes considerable amount of time if the device is rebooted. Default is 300 seconds.
Î
Failure Count To Reboot : specify the number of ICMP “echo response” replies. If the specified number of
ICMP “echo response” packets is not received continuously, the Ping Watchdog Tool will reboot the device.
145
Click Save button to save your changes. Click Reboot button to activate your changes
Without a valid certificate, users may encounter the following problem in IE7 when they try to access system's WMI
(https://192.168.2.254). There will be a “Certificate Error”, because the browser treats system as an illegal website.
Click “Continue to this website” to access the system's WMI. The system's Overview page will appear.
146
6.4.2 Configure System Time
System time can be configured via this page, and manual setting or via a NTP server is supported.
Please click on System -> Time Server and follow the below setting.
„
Local Time : Display the current system time.
„
NTP Client : To synchronize the system time with NTP server.
Î
Enable : Check to select NTP client.
Î
Default NTP Server : Select the NTP Server from the drop-down list.
Î
Time Zone : Select a desired time zone from the drop-down list.
Î
Daylight saving time : Enable or disable Daylight saving.
If the system time from NTP server seems incorrect, please verify your network settings, like default Gateway
and DNS settings
Click Save button to save your changes. Click Reboot button to activate your changes
147
6.4.3 Configure UPnP
Universal Plug and Play(UPnP) is an architecture to enable pervasive peer-to-peer network connectivity between PCs,
intelligent devices and appliances when UPnP is supported. UPnP works on TCP/IP network to enable UPnP devices to
connect and access to each other, very well adopted in home networking environment.
„
UPnP : By default, it’s “Disable”. Select “Enable” or “Disable” of UPnP Service.
Click Save button to save changes and click Reboot button to activate changes
For UPnP to work in Windows XP, the “APO1200/APO1215” must be available in “My Network Places”.
If these devices are not available, you should verify that the correct components and services are loaded in Windows XP.
Please refer to Appendix E. Using UPnP on Windows XP
148
6.4.4 Configure SNMP Setup
SNMP is an application-layer protocol that provides a message format for communication between SNMP managers and
agents. By enabling SNMP function, the administrator can obtain the system information remotely.
Please click on System -> SNMP Setup and follow the below setting.
„
„
SNMP v2c Enable: Check to enable SNMP v2c.
Î
ro community : Set a community string to authorize read-only access.
Î
rw community : Set a community string to authorize read/write access.
SNMP v3 Enable: Check to enable SNMP v3.
SNMPv3 supports the highest level SNMP security.
„
Î
SNMP ro user : Set a community string to authorize read-only access.
Î
SNMP ro password : Set a password to authorize read-only access.
Î
SNMP rw user : Set a community string to authorize read/write access.
Î
SNMP rw password : Set a password to authorize read/write access.
SNMP Trap : Events such as cold start, interface up & down, and association & disassociation will report to an
assigned server.
149
Î
Community : Set a community string required by the remote host computer that will receive trap messages or
notices send by the system.
Î
IP : Enter the IP addresses of the remote hosts to receive trap messages.
Click Save button to save changes and click Reboot button to activate.
150
6.4.5 Backup / Restore and Reset to Factory
Backup current configuration, restore prior configuration or reset back to factory default configuration can be executed via
this page.
Please click on Utilities -> Profile Setting and follow the below setting.
„
Save Settings to PC : Click Save button to save the current configuration to a local disk.
„
Load Settings from PC : Click Browse button to locate a configuration file to restore, and then click Upload button
to upload.
„
Reset To Factory Default : Click Default button to reset back to the factory default settings and expect Successful
loading message. Then, click Reboot button to activate.
151
6.4.6 Firmware Upgrade
Firmware is the main software image that system needs to respond to requests and to manage real time operations.
Firmware upgrades are sometimes required to include new features or bugs fix. It takes around 2 minutes to upgrade
due to complexity of firmware. To upgrade system firmware, click Browse button to locate the new firmware, and then
click Upgrade button to upgrade.
1. To prevent data loss during firmware upgrade, please back up current settings before proceeding.
2. Do not interrupt during firmware upgrade including power on/off as this may damage system.
3. Never perform firmware upgrade over wireless connection or via remote access connection.
152
6.4.7 Network Utility
The administrator can diagnose network connectivity via the PING and TRACEROUTE utility.
Please click on Utilities -> Network Utility and follow the below setting
„
Ping : This utility will help ping other devices on the network to verify connectivity. Ping utility, using ICMP packets,
detects connectivity and latency between two network nodes. As result of that, packet loss and latency time are
available in the Result field while running the PING test.
Î
Destination IP/Domain : Enter desired domain name, i.e. www.google.com, or IP address of the destination,
and click ping button to proceed. The ping result will be shown in the Result field.
Î
„
Count : By default, it’s 5 and the range is from 1 to 50. It indicates number of connectivity test.
Traceroute : Allows tracing the hops from the APO1200/APO1215 device to a selected outgoing IP
address. It should be used for the finding the route taken by ICMP packets across the network to the destination host.
The test is started using the Start button, click Stop button to stopped test
Î
Destination Host : Specifies the Destination Host for the finding the route taken by ICMP packets across the
network.
Î
MAX Hop : Specifies the maximum number of hops( max time-to-live value) traceroute will probe.
153
6.4.8 Reboot
This function allows user to restart system with existing or most current settings when changes are made. Click Reboot
button to proceed and take around three minutes to complete.
A reminder will be available for remaining time to complete. If power cycle is necessary, please wait till completion of the
reboot process.
The System Overview page appears upon the completion of reboot.
154
6.5 Access Control List
6.5.1 IP Filter Setup
Allows to create deny or allow rules to filter ingress or egress packets from specific source and/or to destination IP
address on wired (LAN) or Wireless (WAN) ports. Filter rules could be used to filter unicast or multicast packets on
different protocols as shown in the IP Filter Setup. Important to note that IP filter rules has precedence over Virtual server
rules.
Please click on Advance -> IP Filter Setup and follow the below setting.
„
Source Address/Mask : Enter desired source IP address and netmask; i.e. 192.168.2.10/32.
„
Source Port : Enter a port or a range of ports as start:end; i.e. port 20:80
„
Destination Address/Mask : Enter desired destination IP address and netmask; i.e. 192.168.1.10/32
„
Destination Port : Enter a port or a range of ports as start:end; i.e. port 20:80
„
In/Out : Applies to Ingress or egress packets
„
Protocol : Supports TCP, UDP or ICMP.
„
Listen : Click Yes radial button to match TCP packets only with the SYN flag.
„
Active : Deny to drop and Pass to allow per filter rules
„
Interface : The interface that a filter rule applies
All packets are allowed by default. Deny rules could be added to the filter list to filter out unwanted packets and
leave remaining allowed.
Click “Save” button to add IP filter rule. Total of 20 rules maximum allowed in the IP Filter List. All rules can be edited or
removed from the List. Click Reboot button to activate your changes.
When you create rules in the IP Filter List, the prior rules maintain higher priority. To allow limited access from a subnet to
a destination network manager needs to create allow rules first and followed by deny rules. So, if you just want one IP
address to access the system via telnet from your subnet, not others, the Example 1 demonstrates it, not rules in the
Example 2.
155
Î
Example 1 : Create a higher priority rule to allow IP address 192.168.2.2 Telnet access from LAN port first, and
deny Telnet access from remaining IP addresses in the same subnet.
Rule
Source
IP/Mask
Î
Destination
Port
IP/Mask
Port
In/Out
Protocol
Listen
Action
Side
1
192.168.2.2/32
192.168.2.254/32
22
In
TCP
n
Pass
LAN
2
192.168.2.0/24
192.168.2.254/32
22
In
TCP
n
Deny
LAN
Example 2 : All Telnet access to the system from the IP addresses of subnet 192.168.2.x works with the rule 1
of Example 2. The rule 2 won’t make any difference.
Rule
Source
IP/Mask
Destination
Port
IP/Mask
Port
In/Out
Protocol
Listen
Action
Side
1
192.168.2.0/24
192.168.2.254/32
22
In
TCP
n
Deny
LAN
2
192.168.2.2/32
192.168.2.254/32
22
In
TCP
n
Pass
LAN
156
6.5.2 MAC Filter Setup
Create MAC filter rules to allow or deny unicast or multicast packets from limited number of MAC addresses. It is
important to note that MAC filter rules have precedence over IP Filter rules.
Please click on Advance -> MAC Filter Setup and follow the below setting.
„
MAC Filter Rule : By default, it’s “Disable”. Options are Disabled, Only Deny List MAC or Only Allow List MAC.
Click Save button to save your change.
Two ways to set the MAC Filter List:
Î
Only Allow List MAC.
The wireless clients in the MAC Filter List will be allowed to access to Access Point; All others will be denied.
Î
Only Deny List MAC.
The wireless clients in the MAC Filter List will be denied to access to Access Point; All others will be allowed.
„
MAC Address : Enter MAC address (e.g. aa:bb:cc:00:00:0a) and click “Add” button, then the MAC address should
display in the MAC Filter List.
There are a maximum of 20 clients allowed in this MAC Filter List. The MAC addresses of the wireless clients can be
added and removed to the list using the Add and Delete buttons.
Click Reboot button to activate your changes
157
6.5.3 Parental Control Setup
Parental Control allows you to block or allow specific kinds of Internet usage and traffic, such as Internet access,
designated services, and websites.
APO1200
Please click on Advance -> Parental Control and follow the below setting.
„
Rules : control can be managed by a rule. Use the settings on this screen to establish an access policy.
Î
Comment : Enter a descriptive name for this rule for identifying purposes.
Î
MAC Address : Enter MAC address in valid MAC address format(xx:xx:xx:xx:xx:xx) and click “Add” button to
add in the MAC group of each rule. Click “Remove” button can remove MAC address in the group of each rule.
There are 10 MAC address maximum allowed in each rule.
Î
Local / Destination IP : Specify local(LAN)/ destination IP addresses range required for this rule. If you specify
local IP addresses range from 192.168.1.1 to 192.168.2.254. The matches a range of local IP addresses include
every single IP address from the first to the last, so the example above includes everything from 192.168.1.1 to
192.168.2.254.
158
Î
Protocol : Select Any or specify protocol(TCP, UDP, ICMP, URL Blocking and Application) from drop-down
list. When you select ICMP or Layer 7 Application , the Local(LAN)/ Destination Port can not used.
If you want to block websites with specific URL address or using specific keywords, enter each URL or keyworks
in the “URL Blocking” field and click “Add” button to add in the URL Blocking list of each rule. Click “Remove”
button can remove URL or keywords.
Î
Local Port : Specify local port(LAN port) range required for this rule
Î
Destination Port : Specify destination port range required for this rule
Î
Active : Check Enable button to activate this rule, and Disable to deactivate.
Click “Add” button to add control rule to List. There are 10 rules maximum allowed in this Control List. All rules can be
removed or edited on the List. Click Reboot button to activate your changes.
159
6.5.4 QoS Setup
Quality of Service (QoS) refers to both a network's ability to deliver data with minimum delay, and the networking
methods used to control the use of bandwidth. Without QoS, all traffic data is equally likely to be dropped when the
network is congested. This can cause a reduction in network performance and make the network inadequate for timecritical application such as video-on-demand.
A classifier groups traffic into data flows according to specific criteria such as the source address, destination address,
source port number, destination port number or incoming port number. For example, you can configure a classifier to
select traffic from the same protocol port (such as FTP) to form a flow.
APO1200
APO1200
Please click on Advance -> QoS and follow the below setting.
160
„
Rules : Use the rules to define the classifiers. After you define the rules, you can specify action to act upon the traffic
that matches the rules
Î
Comment : Enter a descriptive name for this rule for identifying purposes.
Î
MAC Address : Enter MAC address in valid MAC address format(xx:xx:xx:xx:xx:xx) and click “Add” button to
add in the MAC group of each rule. Click “Remove” button can remove MAC address in the group of each rule.
There are 10 MAC address maximum allowed in each rule.
Î
Local / Destination IP : Specify local(LAN)/ destination IP addresses range required for this rule. If you specify
local IP addresses range from 192.168.1.1 to 192.168.2.254. The matches a range of local IP addresses include
every single IP address from the first to the last, so the example above includes everything from 192.168.1.1 to
192.168.2.254.
Î
DSCP Class : Differentiated services code point, DSCP. Select Any or specify classify traffic from drop-down list.
The Per-Hop Behavior (PHB) is indicated by encoding a 6-bit value—called the Differentiated Services Code
Point (DSCP)—into the 8-bit Differentiated Services (DS) field of the IP packet header. Below depicts class for
DSCP.
9
BE : Default PHB, which is typically best-effort traffic
9
EF : Expedited Forwarding PHB, dedicated to low-loss, low-latency traffic
9
AF : Assured Forwarding PHB, which gives assurance of delivery under conditions. The AF behavior group
defines four separate AF classes. Within each class, packets are given a drop precedence (high, medium or
low). The combination of classes and drop precedence yields twelve separate DSCP encodings from AF11
through AF43 (see table)
161
DROP Precedence
Î
Class 1
Class 2
Class 3
Class 4
Low Drop
AF11
AF21
AF31
AF41
Medium Drop
AF12
AF22
AF32
AF42
High Drop
AF13
AF23
AF33
AF43
Protocol : Select Any or specify protocol from drop-down list. When you select ICMP or Layer 7 Application ,
the Source/ Destination Port can not used.
„
Î
Local Port : Specify local port(LAN port) range required for this rule
Î
Destination Port : Specify destination port range required for this rule
Action : After configuring rule, a policy rule ensures that a traffic flow gets the requested treatment in the network.
Î
Remark DSCP : Specify a new DSCP class, if you want to replace or remark the DSCP
Î
Bandwidth : Click “Enable” to activate function, and click “Disable” to deactivate function
Î
Upload / Download : Specify the bandwidth in kilobit per second (Kbps). Enter a number between 8 to 8192,
default upload is 128 Kbps, download is 1024 Kbps.
Click “Add” button to add QoS rule to List. There are 10 rules maximum allowed in this QoS List. All rules can be removed
or edited on the List. Click Reboot button to activate your changes.
When you create rules on the QoS List, the previous rules have higher priority. . Below depict the examples for explaining
priority of QoS setup.
¾
Example 1 : On this setting, the FTP has 1024 Kbps upload and 8196 Kbps download on 192.168.2.10. The
remaining IP address and other remaining protocol of IP address 192.168.2.10 only can use total bandwidth 512
Kbps bandwidth. Because rule 1's priority is higher than rule 2
Rule
Source IP
1
192.168.2.10
Destination IP
2
¾
DSCP
Protocol
Remark DSCP
Bandwidth (Up/Down)
ANY
FTP
NO
1024/8196
ANY
ANY
NO
512/512
Example 2 : On this setting, the FTP has 512 Kbps upload and 512 Kbps download on 192.168.2.10 Because
rule 1's priority is higher than rule 2
Rule
Source IP
1
2
192.168.2.10
Destination IP
DSCP
Protocol
Remark DSCP
Bandwidth (Up/Down)
ANY
ANY
NO
512/512
ANY
FTP
NO
1024/8196
162
6.6 Resource Sharing
6.6.1 DMZ
DMZ is commonly work with the NAT functionality as an alternative of Virtual Server(Port Forwarding) while wanting all
ports of DMZ host visible to Internet users. Virtual Server rules have precedence over the DMZ rule. In order to use a
range of ports available to access to different internal hosts Virtual Server rules are needed.
APO1200
Please click on Advance -> DMZ and follow the below setting.
„
DMZ : By default, it’s “Disable”. Check Enable radial button to enable DMZ.
„
IP Address : Enter IP address of DMZ host and only one DMZ host is supported.
Click Save button to save your changes. Click Reboot button to activate your changes.
163
6.6.2 Virtual Server (Port Forwarding)
“Virtual Server” can also referred to as “Port Forward” as well and used interchangeably. Resources in the network can be
exposed to the Internet users in a controlled manner including on-line gaming, video conferencing or others via Virtual
Server setup. Don’t repeat ports’ usage to avoid confusion.
Suppose you want to assign ports 21-25 to one FTP, Telnet and SMTP server (A in the example), and port 80 to another
(B in the example). You assign the LAN IP addresses and the ISP assigns the WAN IP address. The NAT network
appears as a single host on the Internet.
APO1200
Please click on Advance -> Virtual Server and follow the below setting.
„
Virtual Server : By Default, It’s “Disable”. Check Enable radial button to enable Virtual Server.
„
Description : Enter appropriate message for resource sharing via Virtual Server.
„
Private IP : Enter corresponding IP address of internal resource to share.
„
Protocol Type : Select appropriate sessions, TCP or UDP, from shared host via multiple private ports.
„
Private Port : A port or a range of ports may be specified as start:end; i.e. port 20:80
„
Public Port : A port or a range of ports may be specified as start:end; i.e. port 20:80
.
The Private Port and Public Port can be different. However, total number of ports need to be the same.
Example : Public Port is 11 to 20 and the Private Port can be a 10 ports range.
164
Click “Add” button to add Virtual Server rule to List. Total of maximum 20 rules are allowed in this List. All rules can be
edited or removed from the List. Click Reboot button to activate your changes.
While creating multiple Virtual Server rules, the prior rules have higher priority. The Virtual server rules have precedence
over the DMZ one while both rules exist. Example 1 and 2 demonstrate proper usage of DMZ and Virtual Server rules.
„
Example 1 : All connections should be redirected to 192.168.2.12 while DMZ is enabled. Since Virtual Server rules
have precedence over the DMZ rule all connections to TCP port 22 will be directed to TCP port 22 of 192.168.2.10
and remaining connections to port TCP 20~80 will be redirected to port TCP 20~80 of 192.168.2.11
DMZ Enabled : 192.168.2.12
„
Rule
Protocol
Private IP
Private Port
Public Port
1
TCP
192.168.2.10
22
22
2
TCP
192.168.2.11
20:80
20:80
Example 2 : All connections should be redirected to 192.168.2.12 while DMZ is enabled. Since Virtual Server rules
have precedence over the DMZ rule all other connections to TCP port 20~80 will be redirected to port 20~80 of
192.168.2.11. The rule 2 won’t take effect.
DMZ Enabled : 192.168.2.12
Rule
Protocol
Private IP
Private Port
Public Port
1
TCP
192.168.2.11
20:80
20:80
2
TCP
192.168.2.10
22
22
165
6.7 System Status
This section breaks down into subsections of System Overview, Associated Clients Status, Remote AP, Extra
Information and Event Log.
6.7.1 Overview
Detailed information on System, WAN Information, LAN Information, Wireless Information and DHCP Server Status
can be reviewed via this page.
„
„
System : Display the information of the system.
Î
System Name : The name of the system.
Î
Operating Mode : The mode currently in service.
Î
Location : The reminding note on the geographical location of the system.
Î
Description : The reminding note of the system.
Î
Firmware Version : The current firmware version installed.
Î
Firmware Date : The build time of the firmware installed.
Î
Device Time : The current time of the system.
Î
System Up Time : The time period that system has been in service since last reboot.
WAN Information : Display the information of the WAN interface.
The WAN port specified Dynamic IP, the Release and Renew button will be show-up, click Release button to
release IP address of WAN port, Renew button to renew IP address through DHCP server.
166
The WAN port specified PPPoE or PPTP, and the Connect and DisConnect button will be show up. Click “Connect”
button to assigned IP address from PPPoE or PPTP server, “DisConnect” button to release IP address of WAN port.
„
Î
Mode : Supports Static, Dynamic, PPPoE and PPTP modes.
Î
Reconnect Mode : The current reconnect mode of the PPPoE or PPTP.
Î
MAC Address : The MAC address of the WAN port.
Î
IP Address : The IP address of the WAN port.
Î
IP Netmask : The IP netmask of the WAN port.
Î
IP Gateway : The gateway IP address of the WAN port.
Î
Primary DNS : The primary DNS server in service.
Î
Secondary DNS : The secondary DNS server in service.
LAN Information : Display total received and transmitted statistics on the LAN interface.
Î
MAC Address : The MAC address of the LAN port.
Î
IP Address : The IP address of the LAN port.
Î
IP Netmask : The IP netmask of the LAN port.
Î
Receive bytes : The total received packets in bytes on the LAN port.
Î
Receive packets : The total received packets of the LAN port.
Î
Transmit bytes : The total transmitted packets in bytes of the LAN port.
Î
Transmit packets : The total transmitted packets of the LAN port.
167
„
„
Wireless Information : Display the detailed receive and transmit statistics of Wireless interface.
Î
AP MAC Address : The MAC address of the Repeater AP.
Î
Station MAC Address : The MAC address of the Wireless Client Station.
Î
Channel : The current channel on the Wireless port.
Î
AP Rate : The current Bit Rate on the Repeater AP.
Î
Station Rate : The current Bit Rate on the Wireless Client Station.
Î
Receive bytes :The total received packets in bytes on the Wireless port.
Î
Receive packets : The total received packets on the Wireless port.
Î
Transmit bytes : The total transmitted packets in bytes on the Wireless port.
Î
Transmit packets : The total transmitted packets on the Wireless port.
DHCP Server Status : Users could retrieve DHCP server and DHCP clients’ IP/MAC address via this field.
Î
IP Address : IP addresses to LAN devices by DHCP server.
Î
MAC Address : MAC addresses of LAN devices.
Î
Expired In : Shows how long the leased IP address will expire.
168
6.7.2 Associated Clients Status
It displays ESSID, on/off Status, Security Type, total number of wireless clients associated with Repeater AP.
„
„
AP Information : Highlights key Repeater AP information.
Î
AP : Available Repeater AP.
Î
ESSID : Display name of ESSID for Repeater AP.
Î
MAC Address : Display MAC address for Repeater AP.
Î
Status : On/Off
Î
Security Type : Display chosen security type; WEP, WPA/WPA2-PSK, WPA/WPA2-Enterprise.
Î
Clients : Display total number of wireless connections on Repeater AP.
Repeater AP Clients : Display all associated clients.
Î
MAC Address : MAC address of associated clients
Î
Signal Strength ANT0/ANT1 : Signal Strength of from associated clients.
Î
Bandwidth : Channel bandwidth of from associated clients
Î
Idle Time : Last inactive time period in seconds for a wireless connection.
Î
Connect Time : Total connection time period in seconds for a wireless connection.
Î
Disconnect : Click “Delete” button to manually disconnect a wireless client in a Repeater AP.
169
6.7.3 Remote AP
SSID, MAC address, antenna 0/1 received signal strength and channel bandwidth for associated AP are available.
„
ESSID : Shows the current ESSID, which must be the same on the wireless client and AP in order for communication
to be established.
„
MAC Address : Display MAC address of associated AP.
„
Signal Strength ANT0/ANT1 : Shows the wireless signal strength of the connection between system and an access
point.
„
BandWidth : Shows the current channel bandwidth used for communication. It should be “20” or “40”
If displays “No Connection AP!”, you need check Wireless configuration. Things to verify are Channel and
Security type. Also, adjust antenna angle and Tx Power.
170
6.7.4 Extra Info
Users could pull out information such as Route table, ARP table, MAC table, Bridge table or STP available in the dropdown list from system. The “Refresh” button is used to retrieve latest table information.
„
Netstat Information : Select “NetStatus Information” on the drop-down list, the connection track list should showup, the list can be updated using the Refresh button.
NetStatus will show all connection track on the system, the information include Protocol, Live Time, Status ,
Source/Destination IP address and Port.
„
Route table information : Select “Route table information” on the drop-down list to display route table.
APO1200/APO1215 could be used as a L2 or L3 device. It doesn’t support dynamic routing protocols such as RIP or
OSPF. Static routes to specific hosts, networks or default gateway are set up automatically according to the IP
configuration of system's interfaces. When used as a L2 device, it could switch packets and, as L3 device, it’s
capable of being a gateway to route packets inward and outward.
„
ARP table Information : Select “ARP Table Information” on the drop-down list to display ARP table.
ARP associates each IP address to a unique hardware address (MAC) of a device. It is important to have a unique IP
address as final destination to switch packets to.
„
Bridge table information : Select “Bridge Table information” on the drop-down list to display bridge table.
Bridge table will show Bridge ID and STP's Status on the each Ethernet bridge and its attached interfaces, the Bridge
Port should be attached to some interfaces.
171
„
Bridge MAC information : Select “Bridge MACs Information” on the drop-down list to display MAC table.
This table displays local MAC addresses associated with wired or wireless interfaces, but also remember non-local
MAC addresses learned from wired or wireless interfaces.
Ageing timers will be reset when existing MAC addresses in table are learned again or added when new MAC
addresses are seen from wired or wireless interfaces as well. When time runs out for a particular entry, it will be
pruned from the table. In that situation, switching packet to that particular MAC address will be discontinued.
„
Bridge STP Information : Select “Bridge STP Information” on the drop-down list to display a list of bridge STP
information.
172
6.7.5 QoS Plot
The QoS Plot show graphs which continuously represents the current data traffic on each QoS rule. The chart scale and
throughput dimension (bps, Kbps, Mbps) changes dynamically according to the mean throughput value. The statistics is
updated automatically every 5 seconds. The throughput statistics of QoS can be updated manually using the Refresh
button.
173
6.7.6 Event Log
The Event log displays system events when system is up and running. Also, it becomes very useful as a troubleshooting
tool when issues are experienced in system.
„
Time : The date and time when the event occurred.
„
Facility : It helps users to identify source of events such “System” or “User”
„
Severity : Severity level that a specific event is associated such as “info”, “error”, “warning”, etc.
„
Message : Description of the event.
Click Refresh button to renew the log, or click Clear button to clear all the record.
174
Chapter 7. Client Bridge + Universal Repeater
Configuration
When Client Bridge+Universal Repeater mode is activated, the system can be configured as an Access Point and Client
Station simultaneously. This section provides information in configuring the Client Bridge+Universal Repeater mode with
graphical illustrations. APO1200/APO1215 provides functions as stated below where they can be configured via a userfriendly web based interface.
Option
Functions
System
Wireless
Utilities
Status
Operating Mode
General Setup
Profiles Settings
System Overview
LAN
Advanced Setup
Firmware Upgrade
Clients
Management
Repeater AP Setup
Network Utility
Remote AP
Time Server
Wireless Profile
Reboot
Extra Info
SNMP
Site Survey
Event Log
Table 7-1: Client Bridge+Universal Repeater Mode Functions
7.1 External Network Connection
7.1.1 Network Requirement
It can be used as an Client Bridge or Universal Repeater to receive and repeat wireless signal over last mile applications,
helping WISPs deliver wireless broadband Internet service to new residential and business customers. In this mode,
APO1200/APO1215 is enabled with DHCP Server functions. The wired clients of APO1200/APO1215 are in the same
subnet from Main Base Station and it accepts wireless connections from wireless client devices.
APO1200
Figure 7-1 Client Bridge + Universal Repeater mode network Configuration
When the APO1200/APO1215 configured as an Access Point and Client Station simultaneously, the Wireless
General and Advanced Setup also used simultaneously. But the Security Type can be different. In the other
word, the channel or other settings will be the same between APO1200/APO1215 to Main Base Station and
wireless client to APO1200/APO1215, but security type can be different.
175
7.1.2 Configure LAN IP
Here are the instructions for how to setup the local IP Address and Netmask.
Please click on System -> LAN and follow the below setting.
„
Mode : Check either “Static IP” or “Dynamic IP” button as desired to set up the system IP of LAN port .
Î
Î
Static IP : The administrator can manually setup the LAN IP address when static IP is available/ preferred.
9
IP Address : The IP address of the LAN port; default IP address is 192.168.2.254
9
IP Netmask : The Subnet mask of the LAN port; default Netmask is 255.255.255.0
9
IP Gateway : The default gateway of the LAN port; default Gateway is 192.168.2.1
Dynamic IP : This configuration type is applicable when the APO1200/APO1215 is connected to a network with
the presence of a DHCP server; all related IP information will be provided by the DHCP server automatically.
„
Hostname : The Hostname of the LAN port
„
DNS : Check either “No Default DNS Server” or “Specify DNS Server IP” button as desired to set up the system
DNS.
„
Î
Primary : The IP address of the primary DNS server.
Î
Secondary : The IP address of the secondary DNS server.
DHCP Setup : Devices connected to the system can obtain an IP address automatically when this service is
enabled.
176
Î
DHCP : Check Enable button to activate this function or Disable to deactivate this service.
Î
Start IP / End IP: Specify the range of IP addresses to be used by the DHCP server when assigning IP address
to clients. The default range IP address is 192.168.2.10 to 192.168.2.70, the netmask is 255.255.255.0
Î
DNS1 IP : Enter IP address of the first DNS server; this field is required.
Î
DNS2 IP : Enter IP address of the second DNS server; this is optional.
Î
WINS IP : Enter IP address of the Windows Internet Name Service (WINS) server; this is optional.
Î
Domain : Enter the domain name for this network.
Î
Lease Time : The IP addresses given out by the DHCP server will only be valid for the duration specified by the
lease time. Increasing the time ensure client operation without interruptions, but could introduce potential
conflicts. Lowering the lease time will avoid potential address conflicts, but might cause more interruptions to the
client while it will acquire new IP addresses from the DHCP server. Default is 86400 seconds
Click Save button to save your changes. Click Reboot button to activate your changes
177
7.2 Access Point Association
7.2.1 Configure Wireless General Setting
The administrator can change the data transmission, channel and output power settings for the system. Please click on
Wireless -> General Setup and follow the below setting.
„
Band Mode : Select an appropriate wireless band; bands available are 801.11aor 802.11a/n mixed mode.
„
Transmit Rate Control : Select the desired rate from the drop-down list; the options are auto or ranging from 6 to 54
Mbps for 802.11a
„
Country : Select the desired country code from the drop-down list; the options are US, ETSI, JP and NONE.
„
Tx Power : You can adjust the output power of the system to get the appropriate coverage for your wireless network.
Specify digit number between 1 to 100 (the unit is %) for your environment. If you are not sure of which setting to
choose, then keep the default setting, 100%.
When Band Mode select in 802.11a only mode, the HT(High Throughput) Physical Mode and 11n Configuration
settings should be hidden immediately.
„
Operating Mode : By default, it's Mixed Mode
Î
Mixed Mode : In this mode packets are transmitted with a preamble compatible with the legacy 802.11a/g, the
rest of the packet has a new format. In this mode the receiver shall be able to decode both the Mixed Mode
packets and legacy packets.
Î
Green Field : In this mode high throughput packets are transmitted without a legacy compatible part.
„
Channel Bandwidth : The "Auto” MHz option is usually best. The other option is available for special circumstances.
„
Guard Interval : Using “Auto” option can increase throughput. However, it can also increase error rate in some
installations, due to increased sensitivity to radio-frequency reflections. Select the option that works best for your
installation.
178
„
MCS : This parameter represents transmission rate. By default (Auto) the fastest possible transmission rate will be
selected. You have the option of selecting the speed if necessary. (Refer to Appendix C. MCS Data Rate)
„
MPDU Enable : Check Enable button to activate this function, and Disable to deactivate.
„
A-MPDU : A-MPDU (Aggregated Mac Protocol Data Unit) allows the transmissions of multiple Ethernet frames to a
single location as burst of up to 64kbytes This is performed on the hardware itself. Select “Manual” to set “MPDU
Density”
„
MPDU Density : Minimum separation of MPDUs in an A-MPDU.
0
No Restriction
„
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
¼ µs ½ µs 1 µs 2 µs 4 µs 8 µs 16 µs
A-MSDU : Aggregated Mac Service Data Unit, A-MSDU. Select Enable to allow aggregation for multiple MSDUs in
one MPDU. Default is disabled.
Click Save button to save your changes. Click Reboot button to activate your changes. The items in this page are for
AP's RF general settings and will be applied to Repeater AP
179
7.2.2 Wireless Advanced Setup
To achieve optimal wireless performance, it is necessary to tweak advance setting per requirements properly, not
necessary higher the better or lower.
The administrator can change the RTS threshold and fragmentation threshold settings for the system. Please click on
Wireless -> Advanced Setup and follow the below setting.
„
Short Slot : By default, it’s “Enable” for educing the slot time from the standard 20 microseconds to the 9
microsecond short slot time
Slot time is the amount of time a device waits after a collision before retransmitting a packet. Reducing the slot time
decreases the overall back-off, which increases throughput. Back-off, which is a multiple of the slot time, is the
random length of time a station waits before sending a packet on the LAN. For a sender and receiver own right of the
channel the shorter slot time help manage shorter wait time to re-transmit from collision because of hidden wireless
clients or other causes. When collision sources can be removed sooner and other senders attempting to send are
listening the channel(CSMA/CA) the owner of the channel should continue ownership and finish their transmission
and release the channel. Then, following ownership of the channel will be sooner for the new pair due to shorter slot
time. However, when long duration of existing collision sources and shorter slot time exist the owners might
experience subsequent collisions. When adjustment to longer slot time can’t improve performance then RTS/CTS
could supplement and help improve performance.
„
Extra Slot Time : Slot time is in the range of 1~255 and set in unit of microsecond. The default value is 9
microsecond.
When you enable Short Slot and set Extra Slot time to “10”, the actual Slot Time=9+10 us.
When you disable Short Slot and set Extra Slot time to “10”, the actual Slot Time=20+10 us.
180
„
ACK Timeout : ACK timeout is in the range of 1~255 and set in unit of microsecond. The default value is 32
microsecond.
All data transmission in 802.11b/g request an “Acknowledgement” (ACK) send by receiving radio. The transmitter will
resend the original packet if correspondent ACK failed to arrive within specific time interval, also refer to as “ACK
Timeout”.
ACK Timeout is adjustable due to the fact that distance between two radio links may vary in different deployment.
ACK Timeout makes significant influence in performance of long distance radio link. If ACK Timeout is set too short,
transmitter will start to “Resend” packet before ACK is received, and throughputs become low due to excessively high
re-transmission.
ACK Timeout is best determined by distance between the radios, data rate of average environment. The Timeout
value is calculated based on round-trip time of packet with a little tolerance, So, if experiencing re-transmissions or
poor performance the ACK Timeout could be made longer to accommodate.
Slot Time and ACK Timeout settings are for long distance links. It is important to tweak settings to achieve the
optimal result based on requirement.
„
Beacon Interval : Beacon Interval is in the range of 20~1024 and set in unit of millisecond. The default value is 100
msec.
Access Point (AP) in IEEE 802.11 will send out a special approximated 50-byte frame, called “Beacon”. Beacon is
broadcast to all the stations, provides the basic information of AP such as SSID, channel, encryption keys, signal
strength, time stamp, support data rate.
All the radio stations received beacon recognizes the existence of such AP, and may proceed next actions if the
information from AP matches the requirement. Beacon is sent on a periodic basis, the time interval can be adjusted.
By increasing the beacon interval, you can reduce the number of beacons and associated overhead, but that will
likely delay the association and roaming process because stations scanning for available access points may miss the
beacons. You can decrease the beacon interval, which increases the rate of beacons. This will make the association
and roaming process very responsive; however, the network will incur additional overhead and throughput will go
down.
„
DTIM Interval : The DTIM interval is in the range of 1~255. The default is 1.
DTIM is defined as Delivery Traffic Indication Message. It is used to notify the wireless stations, which support power
saving mode, when to wake up to receive multicast frame. DTIM is necessary and critical in wireless environment as
a mechanism to fulfill power-saving synchronization.
A DTIM interval is a count of the number of beacon frames that must occur before the access point sends the
buffered multicast frames. For instance, if DTIM Interval is set to 3, then the Wi-Fi clients will expect to receive a
multicast frame after receiving three Beacon frame. The higher DTIM interval will help power saving and possibly
decrease wireless throughput in multicast applications.
181
„
Fragment Threshold : The Fragment Threshold is in the range of 256~2346 byte. The default is 2346 byte.
Each Wi-Fi packet can be divided into smaller packets, marked with a sequential fragment number and re-assemble
in the receiving ends. The purpose is to make a short frame, instead of long frame, transmitting by radio in a heavy
noisy environment. Because of sending smaller frames, corruptions are much less likely to occur. The pros is
obvious, the cons is the overhead for transmission. So, in a clean environment, higher fragment threshold can be an
option to increase throughput.
Fragmentation will be triggered by setting the Fragment Threshold, usually in Byte-length. Only when the frame size
is over the Threshold, fragmentation will take place automatically.
„
RTS Threshold : TRTS Threshold is in the range of 1~2347 byte. The default is 2347 byte.
The main purpose of enabling RTS by changing RTS threshold is to reduce possible collisions due to hidden wireless
clients. RTS in AP will be enabled automatically if the packet size is larger than the Threshold value. By default, RTS
is disabled in a normal environment supports non-jumbo frames.
„
Short Preamble : By default, it’s “Enable”. To Disable is to use Long 128-bit Preamble Synchronization field.
The preamble is used to signal "here is a train of data coming" to the receiver. The short preamble provides 72-bit
Synchronization field to improve WLAN transmission efficiency with less overhead.
„
Tx Burst : By default, it’s “Enable”. To Disable is to deactivate Tx Burst.
With TX burst enabled, AP will send many packets in a burst, without collision detection and RTS/CTS for each packet. TX
Burst have better throughput but cause interference with other APs in channel.
„
Pkt_Aggregate : By default, it's “Enable”
Increase efficiency by aggregating multiple packets of application data into a single transmission frame. In this way,
802.11n networks can send multiple data packets with the fixed overhead cost of just a single frame.
„
IEEE802.11H (DFS) : By default, it's “Disable”. To Enable is to use IEEE802.11H(DFS)
With DFS(Dynamic Frequency Selection) enabled, radio is operating on one of the following channels, the wireless
device uses DFS to monitor the operating frequency and switch to another frequency or reduce power as necessary:
DFS Channels
52, 56, 60, 64, 100, 104, 108, 112, 116, 120, 124, 128, 136, 140
The maximum legal transmit power is greater for some 5 GHz channels than for others. When the wireless device
randomly selects a 5 GHz channel on which power is restricted, the wireless device automatically reduces transmit
power to comply with power limits for that channel in that regulatory domain.
The Channel 52-140 is DFS channel. If turns on IEEE802.11H, AP Will have 60 sec to do channel available
check, and will not send beacon and can not be connect. When APO1200/APO1215 detect radar(5GHz) signal,
the AP will switch channel and stop beacon transmit between 15 sec.
„
WMM : By default, it's “Disable”. To Enable is to use WMM and the WMM parameters should appears.
182
When you enable WMM, the “Tx Burst” will be Disabled automatically by system.
WMM Parameters of Access Point : This affects traffic flowing from the access point to the client station
Queue
Data Transmitted
AP to Clients
AC_BK
Background.
AC_BE
Best Effort
AC_VI
Video
High
Minimum delay. Time-sensitive video data is automatically sent to this queue
AC_VO
Voice
High
Time-sensitive data like VoIP and streaming media are automatically sent to this
queue
Priority
Description
High throughput. Bulk data that requires maximum throughput and is not timesensitive is sent to this queue (FTP data, for example).
Medium Medium throughput and delay. Most traditional IP data is sent to this queue
Low
Configuring QoS options consists of setting parameters on existing queues for different types of wireless traffic.
You can configure different minimum and maximum wait times for the transmission of packets in each queue
based on the requirements of the media being sent. Queues automatically provide minimum transmission delay
for Voice, Video, multimedia, and mission critical applications, and rely on best-effort parameters for traditional IP
data.
As an Example, time-sensitive Voice & Video, and multimedia are given effectively higher priority for transmission
(lower wait times for channel access), while other applications and traditional IP data which are less timesensitive but often more data-intensive are expected to tolerate longer wait times.
183
9
Aifsn : The Arbitration Inter-Frame Spacing Number specifies a wait time (in milliseconds) for data frames
9
CWmin : Minimum Contention Window. This parameter is input to the algorithm that determines the initial
random backoff wait time ("window") for retry of a transmission. The value specified here in the Minimum
Contention Window is the upper limit (in milliseconds) of a range from which the initial random backoff wait
time is determined.
9
CWmax : Maximum Contention Window. The value specified here in the Maximum Contention Window is
the upper limit (in milliseconds) for the doubling of the random backoff value. This doubling continues until
either the data frame is sent or the Maximum Contention Window size is reached. Once the Maximum
Contention Window size is reached, retries will continue until a maximum number of retries allowed is
reached. Valid values for the "cwmax" are 1, 3, 7, 15, 31, 63, 127, 255, 511, or 1024. The value for "cwmax"
must be higher than the value for "cwmin".
9
Txop : Transmission Opportunity is an interval of time when a WME AP has the right to initiate
transmissions onto the wireless medium (WM). This value specifies (in milliseconds) the Transmission
Opportunity (TXOP) for AP; that is, the interval of time when the WMM AP has the right to initiate
transmissions on the wireless network.
9
ACM : Admission Control Mandatory, ACM only takes effect on AC_VI and AC_VO. When you do not click
Checkbox, it means that the ACM is controlled by the connecting AP. If you click Checkbox, it means that the
Client is in charge.
9
AckPolicy : Acknowledgment Policy, WMM defines two ACK policies: Normal ACK and No ACK. Click
“Checkbox” indicates “No ACK”
When the no acknowledgment (No ACK) policy is used, the recipient does not acknowledge received
packets during wireless packet exchange. This policy is suitable in the environment where communication
quality is fine and interference is weak. While the No ACK policy helps improve transmission efficiency, it
can cause increased packet loss when communication quality deteriorates. This is because when this policy
is used, a sender does not retransmit packets that have not been received by the recipient.
When the Normal ACK policy is used, the recipient acknowledges each received unicast packet.
Î
WMM Parameters of Station : This affects traffic flowing from the client station to the access point.
Queue
Data Transmitted
Clients to AP
AC_BK
Background.
AC_BE
Best Effort
AC_VI
Video
High
Minimum delay. Time-sensitive video data is automatically sent to this queue
AC_VO
Voice
High
Time-sensitive data like VoIP and streaming media are automatically sent to this
queue
Priority
Description
High throughput. Bulk data that requires maximum throughput and is not timesensitive is sent to this queue (FTP data, for example).
Medium Medium throughput and delay. Most traditional IP data is sent to this queue
Low
9
Aifsn : The Arbitration Inter-Frame Spacing Number specifies a wait time (in milliseconds) for data frames
9
CWmin : Minimum Contention Window. This parameter is input to the algorithm that determines the initial
random backoff wait time ("window") for retry of a transmission. The value specified here in the Minimum
Contention Window is the upper limit (in milliseconds) of a range from which the initial random backoff wait
time is determined.
9
CWmax : Maximum Contention Window. The value specified here in the Maximum Contention Window is
184
the upper limit (in milliseconds) for the doubling of the random backoff value. This doubling continues until
either the data frame is sent or the Maximum Contention Window size is reached. Once the Maximum
Contention Window size is reached, retries will continue until a maximum number of retries allowed is
reached. Valid values for the "cwmax" are 1, 3, 7, 15, 31, 63, 127, 255, 511, or 1024. The value for "cwmax"
must be higher than the value for "cwmin".
9
Txop : Transmission Opportunity is an interval of time when a WME AP has the right to initiate
transmissions onto the wireless medium (WM). This value specifies (in milliseconds) the Transmission
Opportunity (Txop) for AP; that is, the interval of time when the WMM AP has the right to initiate
transmissions on the wireless network.
9
ACM : Admission Control Mandatory, ACM only takes effect on AC_VI and AC_VO. When you do not click
Checkbox, it means that the ACM is controlled by the connecting AP. If you click Checkbox, it means that the
Client is in charge.
Change these settings as described here and click Save button to save your changes. Click Reboot button to activate
your changes. The items in this page are for AP's RF advanced settings and will be applied to Repeater AP.
185
7.2.3 Site Survey
Use this tool to scan and locate WISP Access Points and select one to associate with.
Please click on Wireless -> Site Survey. Below depicts an example for site survey.
„
ESSID : Available Extend Service Set ID of surrounding Access Points.
„
MAC Address : MAC addresses of surrounding Access Points.
„
Signal : Received signal strength of all found Access Points.
„
Channel : Channel numbers used by all found Access Points.
„
Security : Security type by all found Access Points.
„
Band : Wireless band used by all found Access Points.
„
Network Type : Network type used by all found Access Points.
„
Select : Click “Select” to configure settings and associate with chosen AP.
While clicking “Select” button in the Site Survey Table, the “ESSID” and “Security Type” will apply in the
Wireless General Setup. However, more settings are needed including Security Key.
186
7.2.4 Create Wireless Profile
The administrator can configure station profiles via this page.
Please click on Wireless -> Wireless Profile and follow the below setting.
„
MAC Address : The MAC address of the Wireless Station is displayed here.
„
Profile Name : Set different profiles for quick connection uses.
„
ESSID : Assign Service Set ID for the wireless system.
„
Lock to AP MAC : This allows the station to always maintain connection to a particular AP with a specific MAC
address. This is useful as sometimes there can be few identically named SSID's (AP's) with different MAC
addresses. With AP lock on, the station will lock to MAC address and not roam between several Access Points with
the same ESSID.
„
Channel/Frequency : Select the desired channel range.
„
Security Type : Select the desired security type from the drop-down list; the options are “NONE” “OPEN”,
“SHARED”, “WPA-PSK” and “WPA2-PSK”.
Î
OPEN / SHARED : OPEN and SHARED require the user to set a WEP key to exchange data.
9
Key Index : key index is used to designate the WEP key during data transmission. 4 different WEP keys
can be entered at the same time, but only one is chosen.
9
WEP Key # : Enter HEX or ASCII format WEP key value; the system supports up to 4 sets of WEP keys.
Key Length
Hex
ASCII
64-bit
10 characters
5 characters
128-bit
26 characters
13 characters
187
Î
WPA-PSK (or WPA2-PSK) : WPA (or WPA2) Algorithms, allows the system accessing the network by using the
WPA-PSK protected access.
9
Cipher Suite : Select the desired cipher suite from the drop-down list; the options are AES and TKIP
9
Pre-shared Key : Enter the information for pre-shared key; the key can be either entered as a 256-bit
secret in 64 HEX digits format, or 8 to 63 ASCII characters.
„
Profile List : The user can manage the created profiles for home, work or public areas. Below depict an example for
Profile List
Î
Click “”Edit” an exist profile on the Profile List. The field of System Configuration and Security Policy will display
profile's content. Edit profile's content and then click “Save” button to save the profile.
Î
Click “Delete” to remove profile.
Î
Click and Select a profile from list, then click the “Connect” button to connecting to the wireless network with the
profile setting. After clicking “Connect” button, you can verify connecting status on Remote AP Page
If turns on IEEE802.11H and APO1200/APO1215 connect AP with DFS channel 52-150, APO1200/APO1215
Will have 60 sec to do channel available check, and will not send beacon and can not be connect.
Change these settings as described here and click Save button to save your changes. Click Reboot button to activate
your changes
188
7.3 Wireless LAN Network Creation
The network manager can configure related wireless settings, Repeater AP Setup, Security Settings, and MAC Filter
Settings.
7.3.1 Repeater AP Setup
Administrators can configure ESSID, SSID broadcasting, Maximum number of client associations, security type settings
and MAC Filter settings.
„
Enable Repeater AP : By default, it’s “Enable” for repeater AP. Select “Enable” to activate Repeater AP or click
“Disable” to deactivate this function
„
ESSID : Extended Service Set ID, When clients are browsing for available wireless networks, this is the SSID that
will appear in the list. ESSID will determine the service type available to AP's clients associated with the specified AP.
„
Client Isolation : By default, it’s “Disable”.
Select “Enable”, all clients will be isolated from each other, which means they can’t reach each other.
„
Hidden SSID : By default, it’s “Disable”.
Enable this option to stop the SSID broadcast in your network. When disabled, people could easily obtain the SSID
information with the site survey software and get access to the network if security is not turned on. When enabled,
network security is enhanced. It’s suggested to enable it after AP security settings are archived and setting of AP's
clients could make to associate to it.
„
Maximum Clients : The default value is 32. You can enter the number of wireless clients that can associate to a
particular SSID. When the number of client is set to 5, only 5 clients at most are allowed to connect to this Repeater
AP.
„
Security Type : Select the desired security type from the drop-down list; the options are Disable, WEP, WPA-PSK,
WPA2-PSK, WPA-Enterprise, WPA2-Enterprise and WEP 802.1X.
Î
Disable : Data are unencrypted during transmission when this option is selected.
Î
WEP : Wired Equivalent Privacy(WEP) is a data encryption mechanism based on a 64-bit or 128-bit shared key.
189
9
Authentication Method : Enable the desire option among OPEN, SHARED or WEPAUTO.
9
Key Index : key index is used to designate the WEP key during data transmission. 4 different WEP keys
can be entered at the same time, but only one is chosen.
9
Î
WEP Key # : Enter HEX or ASCII format WEP key value; the system supports up to 4 sets of WEP keys.
Key Length
Hex
ASCII
64-bit
10 characters
5 characters
128-bit
26 characters
13 characters
WPA-PSK (or WPA2-PSK) : WPA (or WPA2) Algorithms, allows the system accessing the network by using the
WPA-PSK protected access.
9
Cipher Suite : By default, it is AES. Select either AES or TKIP cipher suites
9
Pre-shared Key : Enter the pre-shared key; the format shall go with the selected key type.
Pre-shared key can be entered with either a 256-bit secret in 64 HEX digits format, or 8 to 63 ASCII characters.
9
Group Key Update Period : By default, it is 3600 seconds. This time interval for rekeying GTK,
broadcast/multicast encryption keys, in seconds. Entering the time-length is required.
Î
WPA-Enterprise (or WPA2-Enterprise): The RADIUS authentication and encryption will be both enabled if this
is selected.
190
9
WPA General Settings :
•
Cipher Suite : By default, it is AES. Select either AES or TKIP cipher suites
•
Group Key Update Period : By default, it’s 3600 seconds. This time interval for rekeying GTK,
broadcast/multicast encryption keys, in seconds. Entering the time-length is required.
•
PMK Cache Period : By default, it's 10 minutes. Set WPA2 PMKID cache timeout period, after time
out, the cached key will be deleted.
•
Pre-Authentication : By default, it's “Disable”. To Enable is use to speed up roaming before preauthenticating IEEE 802.1X/EAP part of the full RSN authentication and key handshake before actually
associating with a new AP.
PMK Cache Period and Pre-Authentication is used in WPA2-Enterprise
9
Radius Server Settings :
•
IP Address : Enter the IP address of the Authentication RADIUS server.
•
Port : By default, it’s 1812. The port number used to communicate with RADIUS server.
•
Shared secret : A secret key used between system and RADIUS server. Supports 8 to 64 characters.
•
Session Timeout : The Session timeout is in the range of 0~60 seconds. The default is 0 to disable
re-authenticate service.
Amount of time before a client will be required to re-authenticate.
191
Î
WEP 802.1X : When WEP 802.1x Authentication is enabled, please refer to the following Dynamic WEP and
RADIUS settings to complete configuration.
9
Radius Server Settings :
•
IP Address : Enter the IP address of the Authentication RADIUS server.
•
Port : By default, it’s 1812. The port number used to communicate with RADIUS server.
•
Shared secret : A secret key used between system and RADIUS server. Supports 8 to 64 characters.
•
Session Timeout : The Session timeout is in the range of 0~60 seconds. The default is 0 to disable
re-authenticate service.
Amount of time before a client will be required to re-authenticate.
192
7.3.2 Wireless MAC Filter Setup
Continue 7.3.1 Repeater AP Setup section, the administrator can allow or reject clients to access Repeater AP.
„
MAC Filter Setup : By default, it’s “Disable”. Options are Disable, Only Deny List MAC or Only Allow List MAC.
Two ways to set MAC filter rules :
Î
Only Allow List MAC.
The wireless clients in the “Enable” list will be allowed to access the Access Point; All others or clients in the
“Disable” list will be denied.
Î
Only Deny List MAC.
The wireless clients in the “Enable” list will be denied to access the Access Point; All others or clients
in the
“Disable” list will be allowed.
„
Add a station MAC : Enter MAC address (e.g. aa:bb:cc:00:00:0a) and click “Add” button, then the MAC address
should display in the “Enable” List.
There are a maximum of 20 clients allowed in this “Enable” List. The MAC addresses of the wireless clients can be added
and removed to the list using the Add and Remove buttons.
Click Reboot button to activate your changes
MAC Access Control is the weakest security approach. WPA or WPA2 security method is highly recommended.
193
7.4 System Management
7.4.1 Configure Management
Administrator could specify geographical location of the system via instructions in this page. Administrator could also
enter new Root and Admin passwords and allow multiple login methods.
Please click System -> Management and follow the below settings.
„
System Information
Î
System Name : Enter a desired name or use the default one.
Î
Description : Provide description of the system.
Î
Location : Enter geographical location information of the system. It helps administrator to locate the system
easier.
The system supports two management accounts, root and admin. The network manager is assigned with full
administrative privileges, when logging in as root user, to manage the system in all aspects. While logging in as an
admin user, only subset of privileges is granted such as basic maintenance. For example, root user can change
passwords for both root and admin account, and admin user can only manage its own. For more information about
covered privileges for these two accounts, please refer to Appendix D. Network manager Privileges.
„
„
Root Password : Log in as a root user and is allowed to change its own, plus admin user’s password.
Î
New Password : Enter a new password if desired
Î
Check New Password : Enter the same new password again to check.
Admin Password : Log in as a admin user and is allowed to change its own,
Î
New Password : Enter a new password if desired
Î
Check New Password : Enter the same new password again to check.
194
„
Admin Login Methods : Only root user can enable or disable system login methods and change services port.
Î
Enable HTTP : Check to select HTTP Service.
Î
HTTP Port : The default is 80 and the range is between 1 ~ 65535.
Î
Enable HTTPS : Check to select HTTPS Service
Î
HTTPS Port : The default is 443 and the range is between 1 ~ 65535.
If you already have an SSL Certificate, please click “UploadKey” button to select the file and upload it.
Î
Enable Telnet : Check to select Telnet Service
Î
Telnet Port : The default is 23 and the range is between 1 ~ 65535.
Î
Enable SSH : Check to select SSH Service
Î
SSH Port : Please The default is 22 and the range is between 1 ~ 65535.
Click “GenerateKey” button to generate RSA private key. The “host key footprint” gray blank will display content
of RSA key.
„
Ping Watchdog : The ping watchdog sets the APO1200/APO1215 Device to continuously ping a user defined IP
address (it can be the internet gateway for example). If it is unable to ping under the user defined constraints, the
APO1200/APO1215 device will automatically reboot. This option creates a kind of "fail-proof" mechanism.
Ping Watchdog is dedicated for continuous monitoring of the particular connection to remote host using the Ping tool.
The Ping works by sending ICMP “echo request” packets to the target host and listening for ICMP “echo response”
replies. If the defined number of replies is not received, the tool reboots the device.
Î
Enable Ping Watchdog : control will enable Ping Watchdog Tool.
Î
IP Address To Ping : specify an IP address of the target host which will be monitored by Ping Watchdog Tool.
Î
Ping Interval : specify time interval (in seconds) between the ICMP “echo requests” are sent by the Ping
Watchdog Tool. Default is 300 seconds.
Î
Startup Delay : specify initial time delay (in seconds) until first ICMP “echo requests” are sent by the Ping
Watchdog Tool. The value of Startup Delay should be at least 60 seconds as the network interface and wireless
connection initialization takes considerable amount of time if the device is rebooted. Default is 300 seconds.
Î
Failure Count To Reboot : specify the number of ICMP “echo response” replies. If the specified number of
ICMP “echo response” packets is not received continuously, the Ping Watchdog Tool will reboot the device.
195
Click Save button to save your changes. Click Reboot button to activate your changes
Without a valid certificate, users may encounter the following problem in IE7 when they try to access system's WMI
(https://192.168.2.254). There will be a “Certificate Error”, because the browser treats system as an illegal website.
Click “Continue to this website” to access the system's WMI. The system's Overview page will appear.
196
7.4.2 Configure System Time
System time can be configured via this page, and manual setting or via a NTP server is supported.
Please click on System -> Time Server and follow the below setting.
„
Local Time : Display the current system time.
„
NTP Client : To synchronize the system time with NTP server.
Î
Enable : Check to select NTP client.
Î
Default NTP Server : Select the NTP Server from the drop-down list.
Î
Time Zone : Select a desired time zone from the drop-down list.
Î
Daylight saving time : Enable or disable Daylight saving.
If the system time from NTP server seems incorrect, please verify your network settings, like default Gateway
and DNS settings
Click Save button to save your changes. Click Reboot button to activate your changes
197
7.4.3 Configure SNMP Setup
SNMP is an application-layer protocol that provides a message format for communication between SNMP manager and
agent. By enabling SNMP function, the administrator can obtain the system information remotely.
Please click on System -> SNMP Setup and follow the below setting.
„
„
SNMP v2c Enable: Check to enable SNMP v2c.
Î
ro community : Set a community string to authorize read-only access.
Î
rw community : Set a community string to authorize read/write access.
SNMP v3 Enable: Check to enable SNMP v3.
SNMPv3 supports the highest level SNMP security.
„
Î
SNMP ro user : Set a community string to authorize read-only access.
Î
SNMP ro password : Set a password to authorize read-only access.
Î
SNMP rw user : Set a community string to authorize read/write access.
Î
SNMP rw password : Set a password to authorize read/write access.
SNMP Trap : Events such as cold start, interface up & down, and association & disassociation will report to an
assigned server.
198
Î
Community : Set a community string required by the remote host computer that will receive trap messages or
notices send by the system.
Î
IP : Enter the IP addresses of the remote hosts to receive trap messages.
Click Save button to save changes and click Reboot button to activate.
199
7.4.4 Backup / Restore and Reset to Factory
Backup current configuration, restore prior configuration or reset back to factory default configuration can be executed via
this page.
Please click on Utilities -> Profile Setting and follow the below setting.
„
Save Settings To PC : Click Save button to save the current configuration to a local disk.
„
Load Settings from PC : Click Browse button to locate a configuration file to restore, and then click Upload button
to upload.
„
Reset To Factory Default : Click Default button to reset back to the factory default settings and expect Successful
loading message. Then, click Reboot button to activate.
200
7.4.5 Firmware Upgrade
Firmware is the main software image that system needs to respond to requests and to manage real time operations.
Firmware upgrades are sometimes required to include new features or bugs fix. It takes around 2 minutes to upgrade
due to complexity of firmware. To upgrade system firmware, click Browse button to locate the new firmware, and then
click Upgrade button to upgrade.
1.
2.
3.
To prevent data loss during firmware upgrade, please back up current settings before proceeding
Do not interrupt during firmware upgrade including power on/off as this may damage system.
Never perform firmware upgrade over wireless connection or via remote access connection.
201
7.4.6 Network Utility
The administrator can diagnose network connectivity via the PING utility.
Please click on Utilities -> Network Utility and follow the below setting.
„
Ping : This utility will help ping other devices on the network to verify connectivity. Ping utility, using ICMP packets,
detects connectivity and latency between two network nodes. As result of that, packet loss and latency time are
available in the Result field while running the PING test.
Î
Destination IP/Domain : Enter desired domain name, i.e. www.google.com, or IP address of the destination,
and click ping button to proceed. The ping result will be shown in the Result field.
Î
„
Count : By default, it’s 5 and the range is from 1 to 50. It indicates number of connectivity test.
Traceroute : Allows tracing the hops from the APO1200/APO1215 device to a selected outgoing IP address. It
should be used for the finding the route taken by ICMP packets across the network to the destination host. The test is
started using the Start button, click Stop button to stopped test
Î
Destination Host : Specifies the Destination Host for the finding the route taken by ICMP packets across the
network.
Î
MAX Hop : Specifies the maximum number of hops( max time-to-live value) traceroute will probe.
202
7.4.7 Reboot
This function allows user to restart system with existing or most current settings when changes are made. Click Reboot
button to proceed and take around three minutes to complete.
A reminder will be available for remaining time to complete. If power cycle is necessary, please wait till completion of the
reboot process.
The System Overview page appears upon the completion of reboot.
203
7.5 System Status
This section breaks down into subsections of System Overview, Associated Clients Status, Remote AP, Extra
Information and Event Log.
7.5.1 System Overview
Display detailed information of System, Network, LAN and Wireless in the System Overview page.
„
„
System : Display the information of the system.
Î
System Name : The name of the system.
Î
Operating Mode : The mode currently in service.
Î
Location : The reminding note on the geographical location of the system.
Î
Description : The reminding note of the system.
Î
Firmware Version : The current firmware version installed.
Î
Firmware Date : The build time of the firmware installed.
Î
Device Time : The current time of the system.
Î
System Up Time : The time period that system has been in service since last reboot.
Network Information : Display the information of the Network.
Î
Mode : Supports Static or Dynamic modes on the LAN interface.
Î
IP Address : The management IP of system. By default, it’s 192.168.2.254.
Î
IP Netmask : The network mask. By default, it’s 255.255.255.0.
Î
IP Gateway : The gateway IP address and by default, it’s 192.168.2.1.
Î
Primary DNS : The primary DNS server in service.
Î
Secondary DNS : The secondary DNS server in service.
204
„
„
LAN Information : Display the detailed receive and transmit statistics of LAN interface.
Î
MAC Address : The MAC address of the LAN port.
Î
Receive bytes : The total received packets in bytes on the LAN port.
Î
Receive packets : The total received packets of the LAN port.
Î
Transmit bytes : The total transmitted packets in bytes of the LAN port.
Î
Transmit packets : The total transmitted packets of the LAN port.
Wireless Information : Display the detailed receive and transmit statistics of Wireless interface.
Î
AP MAC Address : The MAC address of the repeater AP.
Î
Station MAC Address : The MAC address of the Wireless Client Station.
Î
Channel : The current channel on the Wireless port.
Î
AP Rate : The current Bit Rate on the Repeater AP.
Î
Station Rate : The current Bit Rate on the Wireless Client Station.
Î
Receive bytes :The total received packets in bytes on the Wireless port.
Î
Receive packets : The total received packets on the Wireless port.
Î
Transmit bytes : The total transmitted packets in bytes on the Wireless port.
Î
Transmit packets : The total transmitted packets on the Wireless port.
205
„
DHCP Server Status : Users could retrieve DHCP server and DHCP clients’ IP/MAC address via this field.
Î
IP Address : IP addresses to LAN devices by DHCP server.
Î
MAC Address : MAC addresses of LAN devices.
Î
Expired In : Shows how long the leased IP address will expire.
206
7.5.2 Associated Clients Status
It displays ESSID, on/off Status, Security Type, total number of wireless clients associated with Repeater AP.
„
„
AP Information : Highlights key Repeater AP information.
Î
AP : Available Repeater AP.
Î
ESSID : Display name of ESSID for Repeater AP.
Î
MAC Address : Display MAC address for Repeater AP.
Î
Status : On/Off
Î
Security Type : Display chosen security type; WEP, WPA/WPA2-PSK, WPA/WPA2-Enterprise.
Î
Clients : Display total number of wireless connections on Repeater AP.
Repeater AP Clients : Display all associated clients.
Î
MAC Address : MAC address of associated clients
Î
Signal Strength ANT0/ANT1 : Signal Strength of from associated clients.
Î
Bandwidth : Channel bandwidth of from associated clients
Î
Idle Time : Last inactive time period in seconds for a wireless connection.
Î
Connect Time : Total connection time period in seconds for a wireless connection.
Î
Disconnect : Click “Delete” button to manually disconnect a wireless client in a Repeater AP.
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7.5.3 Remote AP
SSID, MAC address, antenna 0/1 received signal strength and channel bandwidth for associated AP are available.
„
ESSID : Shows the current ESSID, which must be the same on the wireless client and AP in order for communication
to be established.
„
MAC Address : Display MAC address of associated AP.
„
Signal Strength ANT0/ANT1 : Shows the wireless signal strength of the connection between system and an access
point.
„
BandWidth : Shows the current channel bandwidth used for communication. It should be “20” or “40”
If displays “No Connection AP!”, you need check Wireless configuration. Things to verify are Channel and
Security type. Also, adjust antenna angle and Tx Power.
208
7.5.4 Extra Information
Users could pull out information such as Route table, ARP table, MAC table, Bridge table or STP available in the dropdown list from system. The “Refresh” button is used to retrieve latest table information.
„
Route table information : Select “Route table information” on the drop-down list to display route table.
APO1200/APO1215 could be used as a L2 or L3 device. It doesn’t support dynamic routing protocols such as RIP or
OSPF. Static routes to specific hosts, networks or default gateway are set up automatically according to the IP
configuration of system's interfaces. When used as a L2 device, it could switch packets and, as L3 device, it’s
capable of being a gateway to route packets inward and outward.
„
ARP table Information : Select “ARP Table Information” on the drop-down list to display ARP table.
ARP associates each IP address to a unique hardware address (MAC) of a device. It is important to have a unique IP
address as final destination to switch packets to.
„
Bridge table information : Select “Bridge Table information” on the drop-down list to display bridge table.
Bridge table will show Bridge ID and STP's Status on the each Ethernet bridge and its attached interfaces, the Bridge
Port should be attached to some interfaces. (e.g. eth2, ra0 and apcli0).
„
Bridge MAC information : Select “Bridge MACs Information” on the drop-down list to display MAC table.
This table displays local MAC addresses associated with wired or wireless interfaces, but also remember non-local
MAC addresses learned from wired or wireless interfaces.
Ageing timers will be reset when existing MAC addresses in table are learned again or added when new MAC
addresses are seen from wired or wireless interfaces as well. When time runs out for a particular entry, it will be
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pruned from the table. In that situation, switching packet to that particular MAC address will be discontinued.
„
Bridge STP Information : Select “Bridge STP Information” on the drop-down list to display a list of bridge STP
information.
210
7.5.5 Event Log
The Event log displays system events when system is up and running. Also, it becomes very useful as a troubleshooting
tool when issues are experienced in system.
„
Time : The date and time when the event occurred.
„
Facility : It helps users to identify source of events such “System” or “User”
„
Severity : Severity level that a specific event is associated such as “info”, “error”, “warning”, etc.
„
Message : Description of the event.
Click Refresh button to renew the log, or click Clear button to clear all the record.
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Chapter 8. Router AP Mode Configuration
When Router AP mode is chosen, the system can be configured as a Router with Access Point and WDS function. This
section provides detailed explanation for users to configure in the Router AP mode with help of illustrations. In the Router
AP mode, functions listed in the table below are also available from the Web-based GUI interface.
OPTION
Functions
System
Wireless
Advance
Utilities
Status
Operating Mode
General Setup
DMZ
Profiles Settings
System Overview
WAN
Advanced Setup
IP Filter
Firmware Upgrade
Station Statistics
LAN
Virtual AP Setup
MAC Filter
Network Utility
Extra Info
DDNS
WDS Setup
Virtual Server
Reboot
QoS Plot
Management
Parental Control
Time Server
QoS
Event Log
UPNP
SNMP
Table 8-1: Router AP Mode Functions
8.1 External Network Connection
8.1.1 Network Requirement
It can be used as an Router AP with WDS function. In this mode, APO1200/APO1215 is a gateway enabled with NAT and
DHCP Server functions. The wireless clients connected to APO1200/APO1215 are in different subnet from those
connected to Internet.
APO1200
Figure 8-1 Router AP mode network configuration
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8.1.2 Configure WAN Setup
There are three connection types for the WAN port : Static IP, Dynamic IP, PPPoE and PPTP.
Please click on System -> WAN and follow the below setting.
In Router AP mode, the WAN Port is the wired interface.
„
Mode : By default, it’s “Static IP”. Check “Static IP”, “Dynamic IP”, “PPPoE” or “PPTP”to set up system WAN IP.
Î
Î
Static IP : Users can manually setup the WAN IP address with a static IP provided by WISP.
9
IP Address : The IP address of the WAN port; default IP address is 192.168.1.254
9
IP Netmask : The Subnet mask of the WAN port; default Netmask is 255.255.255.0
9
IP Gateway : The default gateway of the WAN port; default Gateway is 192.168.1.1
Dynamic IP : Please consult with WISP for correct wireless settings to associate with WISP AP before a
dynamic IP, along with related IP settings including DNS can be available from DHCP server. If IP Address is not
assigned, please double check with your wireless settings and ensure successful association. Also, you may go
to “WAN Information” in the Overview page to click Release button to release IP address and click Renew
button to renew
IP address
again.
9
Î
Hostname : The Hostname of the WAN port
PPPoE : To create wireless PPPoE WAN connection to a PPPoE server in network.
213
9
User Name : Enter User Name for PPPoE connection
9
Password : Enter Password for PPPoE connection
9
Reconnect Mode :
•
Always on – A connection to Internet is always maintained.
•
On Demand – A connection to Internet is made as needed.
When Time Server is enabled at the “On Demand” mode, the “Reconnect Mode” will turn out “Always on”.
•
Manual – Click the “Connect” button on “WAN Information” in the Overview page to connect to the
Internet.
9
Idle Time : Time to last before disconnecting PPPoE session when it is idle. Enter preferred Idle Time in
minutes. Default is “0”, indicates disabled. When Idle time is disabled, the “Reconnect Mode” will turn out
“Always on”
9
MTU : By default, it’s 1492 bytes. MTU stands for Maximum Transmission Unit. Consult with WISP for a
correct MTU setting.
Î
PPTP : The Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) mode enables the implementation of secure multi-protocol Virtual
Private Networks (VPNs) through public networks.
9
IP Address : The IP address of the WAN port
9
IP Netmask : The Subnet mask of the WAN port
9
PPTP Server IP Address : The IP address of the PPTP server
9
User Name : Enter User Name for PPTP connection
9
Password : Enter Password for PPTP connection
9
Reconnect Mode :
•
Always on – A connection to Internet is always maintained.
•
On Demand – A connection to Internet is made as needed.
214
When Time Server is enabled at the “On Demand” mode, the “Reconnect Mode” will turn out “Always on”.
•
Manual – Click the “Connect” button on “WAN Information” in the Overview page to connect to the
Internet.
9
Idle Time : Time to last before disconnecting PPPoE session when it is idle. Enter preferred Idle Time in
minutes. Default is “0”, indicates disabled. When Idle time is disabled, the “Reconnect Mode” will turn out
“Always on”
9
MTU : By default, it’s 1460 bytes. MTU stands for Maximum Transmission Unit. Consult with WISP for a
correct MTU setting.
9
MPPE Encryption : Microsoft Point-to-Point Encryption (MPPE) encrypts data in Point-to-Point
Protocol(PPP)-based dial-up connections or Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) virtual private
network (VPN) connections. 128-bit key (strong) and 40-bit key (standard) MPPE encryption schemes are
supported. MPPE provides data security for the PPTP connection that is between the VPN client and the
VPN server.
„
„
DNS : Check “No Default DNS Server” or “Specify DNS Server IP” radial button as desired to set up system DNS.
Î
Primary : The IP address of the primary DNS server.
Î
Secondary : The IP address of the secondary DNS server.
MAC Clone : The MAC address is a 12-digit HEX code uniquely assigned to hardware as identification. Some ISPs
require you to register a MAC address in order to access to Internet. If not, you could use default MAC or clone MAC
from a PC.
Î
Keep Default MAC Address : Keep the default MAC address of WAN port on the system.
Î
Clone MAC Address : If you want to clone the MAC address of the PC, then click the Clone MAC Address
button. The system will automatically detect your PC's MAC address.
The Clone MAC Address field will display MAC address of the PC connected to system. Click “Save” button can
make clone MAC effective.
Î
Manual MAC Address : Enter the MAC address registered with your ISP.
Click Save button to save your changes. Click Reboot button to activate your changes
215
8.1.3 Configure DDNS Setup
Dynamic DNS allows you to map domain name to dynamic IP address.
Please click on System -> DDNS Setup and follow the below setting.
„
Enabled: By default, it’s “Disable”. The mapping domain name won’t change when dynamic IP changes. The beauty
of it is no need to remember the dynamic WAP IP while accessing to it.
„
Service Provider: Select the preferred Service Provider from the drop-down list including dyndns, dhs, ods and tzo
„
Hostname: Host Name that you register to Dynamic-DNS service and export.
„
User Name & Password: User Name and Password are used to login DDNS service.
Click Save button to save your changes. Click Reboot button to activate your changes
216
8.1.4 Configure LAN Setup
Here are the instructions for how to setup the local IP Address and Netmask.
Please click on System -> LAN and follow the below setting.
„
„
LAN IP : The administrator can manually setup the LAN IP address.
Î
IP Address : The IP address of the LAN port; default IP address is 192.168.2.254
Î
IP Netmask : The Subnet mask of the LAN port; default Netmask is 255.255.255.0
DHCP Setup : Devices connected to the system can obtain an IP address automatically when this service is
enabled.
Î
DHCP : Check Enable button to activate this function or Disable to deactivate this service.
Î
Start IP / End IP: Specify the range of IP addresses to be used by the DHCP server when assigning IP address
to clients. The default range IP address is 192.168.2.10 to 192.168.2.70, the netmask is 255.255.255.0
Î
DNS1 IP : Enter IP address of the first DNS server; this field is required.
Î
DNS2 IP : Enter IP address of the second DNS server; this is optional.
Î
WINS IP : Enter IP address of the Windows Internet Name Service (WINS) server; this is optional.
Î
Domain : Enter the domain name for this network.
Î
Lease Time : The IP addresses given out by the DHCP server will only be valid for the duration specified by the
lease time. Increasing the time ensure client operation without interruptions, but could introduce potential
conflicts. Lowering the lease time will avoid potential address conflicts, but might cause more interruptions to the
client while it will acquire new IP addresses from the DHCP server. Default is 86400 seconds
Click Save button to save your changes. Click Reboot button to activate your changes
217
8.2 Wireless LAN Network Creation
The network manager can configure related wireless settings, General Settings, Advanced Settings, Virtual AP(VAP)
Setting, Security Settings, and MAC Filter Settings.
8.2.1 Wireless General Setup
The administrator can change the data transmission, channel and output power settings for the system. Please click on
Wireless -> General Setup and follow the below setting.
„
MAC Address : The MAC address of the Wireless interface is displayed here.
„
Band Mode : Select an appropriate wireless band; bands available are 801.11a or 802.11a/n mixed mode.
„
AP Isolation : Select Enable, all clients will be isolated from each VAP, that means different VAP's clients can not
reach to each other.
„
Transmit Rate Control : Select the desired rate from the drop-down list; the options are auto or ranging from 6 to
54Mbps only for 802.11a mode.
„
Country : Select the desired country code from the drop-down list; the options are US, ETSI, JP and NONE.
„
Channel/Frequency : The channel range will be changed by selecting different country code. Below depicts the
channel range for different Country.
Country
Channel
US
36, 40, 44, 48, 52, 56, 60, 64, 149, 153, 157, 161
ETSI
36, 40, 44, 48, 52, 56, 60, 64, 100, 104, 108, 112, 116, 120, 124, 128, 132, 136, 140
JP
36, 40, 44, 48
NONE
36, 40, 44, 48, 52, 56, 60, 64, 100, 104, 108, 112, 116, 120, 124, 128, 132, 136, 140, 149, 153, 157, 161
„
Tx Power : You can adjust the output power of the system to get the appropriate coverage for your wireless network.
Specify digit numbers between 1 to 100 (the unit is %) for your environment. If you are not sure which setting to
choose, then keep the default setting, 100%.
When Band Mode select in 802.11a only mode, the HT(High Throughput) settings should be hidden immediately.
218
„
HT TxStream/RxStream : By default, it's 2.
„
Operating Mode : By default, it's Mixed Mode.
Î
Mixed Mode : In this mode packets are transmitted with a preamble compatible with the legacy 802.11a/g, the
rest of the packet has a new format. In this mode the receiver shall be able to decode both the Mixed Mode
packets and legacy packets.
Î
„
Green Field : In this mode high throughput packets are transmitted without a legacy compatible part.
Channel Bandwidth : The "20/40” MHz option is usually best. The other option is available for special
circumstances.
„
Guard Interval : Using “Auto” option can increase throughput. However, it can also increase error rate in some
installations, due to increased sensitivity to radio-frequency reflections. Select the option that works best for your
installation.
„
MCS : This parameter represents transmission rate. By default (Auto) the fastest possible transmission rate will be
selected. You have the option of selecting the speed if necessary. (Refer to Appendix C. MCS Data Rate)
„
Reverse Direction Grant(RDG) : Disable or enable reserve direction grant. Default is enabled.
„
A-MSDU : Aggregated Mac Service Data Unit. Select Enable to allow aggregation for multiple MSDUs in one MPDU
Default is disabled.
„
Auto Block ACK : Disable or enable auto block ACK. Default is enabled.
„
Decline BA Request : Disable or enable decline BA request. Default is disabled.
Change these settings as described here and click Save button to save your changes. Click Reboot button to activate
your changes. The items in this page are for AP's RF general settings and will be applied to all VAPs and WDS Links.
219
8.2.2 Wireless Advanced Setup
To achieve optimal wireless performance, it is necessary to tweak advance setting per requirements properly, not
necessary higher the better or lower.
The administrator can change the RTS threshold and fragmentation threshold settings for the system. Please click on
Wireless -> Advanced Setup and follow the below setting.
„
Short Slot : By default, it’s “Enable” for educing the slot time from the standard 20 microseconds to the 9
microsecond short slot time
Slot time is the amount of time a device waits after a collision before retransmitting a packet. Reducing the slot time
decreases the overall back-off, which increases throughput. Back-off, which is a multiple of the slot time, is the
random length of time a station waits before sending a packet on the LAN. For a sender and receiver own right of the
channel the shorter slot time help manage shorter wait time to re-transmit from collision because of hidden wireless
clients or other causes. When collision sources can be removed sooner and other senders attempting to send are
listening the channel(CSMA/CA) the owner of the channel should continue ownership and finish their transmission
and release the channel. Then, following ownership of the channel will be sooner for the new pair due to shorter slot
time. However, when long duration of existing collision sources and shorter slot time exist the owners might
experience subsequent collisions. When adjustment to longer slot time can’t improve performance then RTS/CTS
could supplement and help improve performance.
„
Extra Slot Time : Slot time is in the range of 1~255 and set in unit of microsecond. The default value is 9
microsecond.
When you enable Short Slot and set Extra Slot time to “10”, the actual Slot Time=9+10 us.
When you disable Short Slot and set Extra Slot time to “10”, the actual Slot Time=20+10 us.
220
„
ACK Timeout : ACK timeout is in the range of 1~255 and set in unit of microsecond. The default value is 32
microsecond.
All data transmission in 802.11b/g request an “Acknowledgement” (ACK) send by receiving radio. The transmitter will
resend the original packet if correspondent ACK failed to arrive within specific time interval, also refer to as “ACK
Timeout”.
ACK Timeout is adjustable due to the fact that distance between two radio links may vary in different deployment.
ACK Timeout makes significant influence in performance of long distance radio link. If ACK Timeout is set too short,
transmitter will start to “Resend” packet before ACK is received, and throughputs become low due to excessively high
re-transmission.
ACK Timeout is best determined by distance between the radios, data rate of average environment. The Timeout
value is calculated based on round-trip time of packet with a little tolerance, So, if experiencing re-transmissions or
poor performance the ACK Timeout could be made longer to accommodate.
Slot Time and ACK Timeout settings are for long distance links. It is important to tweak settings to achieve the
optimal result based on requirement.
„
Beacon Interval : Beacon Interval is in the range of 20~1024 and set in unit of millisecond. The default value is 100
msec.
Access Point (AP) in IEEE 802.11 will send out a special approximated 50-byte frame, called “Beacon”. Beacon is
broadcast to all the stations, provides the basic information of AP such as SSID, channel, encryption keys, signal
strength, time stamp, support data rate.
All the radio stations received beacon recognizes the existence of such AP, and may proceed next actions if the
information from AP matches the requirement. Beacon is sent on a periodic basis, the time interval can be adjusted.
By increasing the beacon interval, you can reduce the number of beacons and associated overhead, but that will
likely delay the association and roaming process because stations scanning for available access points may miss the
beacons. You can decrease the beacon interval, which increases the rate of beacons. This will make the association
and roaming process very responsive; however, the network will incur additional overhead and throughput will go
down.
„
DTIM Interval : The DTIM interval is in the range of 1~255. The default is 1.
DTIM is defined as Delivery Traffic Indication Message. It is used to notify the wireless stations, which support power
saving mode, when to wake up to receive multicast frame. DTIM is necessary and critical in wireless environment as
a mechanism to fulfill power-saving synchronization.
A DTIM interval is a count of the number of beacon frames that must occur before the access point sends the
buffered multicast frames. For instance, if DTIM Interval is set to 3, then the Wi-Fi clients will expect to receive a
multicast frame after receiving three Beacon frame. The higher DTIM interval will help power saving and possibly
decrease wireless throughput in multicast applications.
221
„
Fragment Threshold : The Fragment Threshold is in the range of 256~2346 byte. The default is 2346 byte.
Each Wi-Fi packet can be divided into smaller packets, marked with a sequential fragment number and re-assemble
in the receiving ends. The purpose is to make a short frame, instead of long frame, transmitting by radio in a heavy
noisy environment. Because of sending smaller frames, corruptions are much less likely to occur. The pros is
obvious, the cons is the overhead for transmission. So, in a clean environment, higher fragment threshold can be an
option to increase throughput.
Fragmentation will be triggered by setting the Fragment Threshold, usually in Byte-length. Only when the frame size
is over the Threshold, fragmentation will take place automatically.
„
RTS Threshold : TRTS Threshold is in the range of 1~2347 byte. The default is 2347 byte.
The main purpose of enabling RTS by changing RTS threshold is to reduce possible collisions due to hidden wireless
clients. RTS in AP will be enabled automatically if the packet size is larger than the Threshold value. By default, RTS
is disabled in a normal environment supports non-jumbo frames.
„
Short Preamble : By default, it’s “Enable”. To Disable is to use Long 128-bit Preamble Synchronization field.
The preamble is used to signal "here is a train of data coming" to the receiver. The short preamble provides 72-bit
Synchronization field to improve WLAN transmission efficiency with less overhead.
„
Tx Burst : By default, it’s “Enable”. To Disable is to deactivate Tx Burst.
With TX burst enabled, AP will send many packets in a burst, without collision detection and RTS/CTS for each packet. TX
Burst have better throughput but cause interference with other APs in channel.
„
Pkt_Aggregate : By default, it's “Enable”
Increase efficiency by aggregating multiple packets of application data into a single transmission frame. In this way,
802.11n networks can send multiple data packets with the fixed overhead cost of just a single frame.
„
IEEE802.11H (DFS) : By default, it's “Disable”. To Enable is to use IEEE802.11H(DFS)
With DFS(Dynamic Frequency Selection) enabled, radio is operating on one of the following channels, the wireless
device uses DFS to monitor the operating frequency and switch to another frequency or reduce power as necessary:
DFS Channels
52, 56, 60, 64, 100, 104, 108, 112, 116, 120, 124, 128, 136, 140
The maximum legal transmit power is greater for some 5 GHz channels than for others. When the wireless device
randomly selects a 5 GHz channel on which power is restricted, the wireless device automatically reduces transmit
power to comply with power limits for that channel in that regulatory domain.
The Channel 52-140 is DFS channel. If turn on IEEE802.11H, AP Will have 60 sec to do channel available
check, and will not send beacon and can not be connect. When APO1200/APO1215 detect radar(5GHz) signal,
the AP will switch channel and stop beacon transmit between 15 sec.
„
WMM : By default, it's “Disable”. To Enable is to use WMM and the WMM parameters should appears.
222
When you enable WMM, the “Tx Burst” will be Disabled automatically by system.
Î
WMM Parameters of Access Point : This affects traffic flowing from the access point to the client station
Queue
Data Transmitted
AP to Clients
Priority
AC_BK
Background.
Low
AC_BE
Best Effort
AC_VI
Video
High
Minimum delay. Time-sensitive video data is automatically sent to this queue
AC_VO
Voice
High
Time-sensitive data like VoIP and streaming media are automatically sent to this
queue
Description
High throughput. Bulk data that requires maximum throughput and is not timesensitive is sent to this queue (FTP data, for example).
Medium Medium throughput and delay. Most traditional IP data is sent to this queue
Configuring QoS options consists of setting parameters on existing queues for different types of wireless traffic.
You can configure different minimum and maximum wait times for the transmission of packets in each queue
based on the requirements of the media being sent. Queues automatically provide minimum transmission delay
for Voice, Video, multimedia, and mission critical applications, and rely on best-effort parameters for traditional IP
data.
As an Example, time-sensitive Voice & Video, and multimedia are given effectively higher priority for transmission
(lower wait times for channel access), while other applications and traditional IP data which are less timesensitive but often more data-intensive are expected to tolerate longer wait times.
223
9
Aifsn : The Arbitration Inter-Frame Spacing Number specifies a wait time (in milliseconds) for data frames
9
CWmin : Minimum Contention Window. This parameter is input to the algorithm that determines the initial
random backoff wait time ("window") for retry of a transmission. The value specified here in the Minimum
Contention Window is the upper limit (in milliseconds) of a range from which the initial random backoff wait
time is determined.
9
CWmax : Maximum Contention Window. The value specified here in the Maximum Contention Window is
the upper limit (in milliseconds) for the doubling of the random backoff value. This doubling continues until
either the data frame is sent or the Maximum Contention Window size is reached. Once the Maximum
Contention Window size is reached, retries will continue until a maximum number of retries allowed is
reached. Valid values for the "cwmax" are 1, 3, 7, 15, 31, 63, 127, 255, 511, or 1024. The value for "cwmax"
must be higher than the value for "cwmin".
9
Txop : Transmission Opportunity is an interval of time when a WME AP has the right to initiate
transmissions onto the wireless medium (WM). This value specifies (in milliseconds) the Transmission
Opportunity (TXOP) for AP; that is, the interval of time when the WMM AP has the right to initiate
transmissions on the wireless network.
9
ACM : Admission Control Mandatory, ACM only takes effect on AC_VI and AC_VO. When you do not click
Checkbox, it means that the ACM is controlled by the connecting AP. If you click Checkbox, it means that the
Client is in charge.
9
AckPolicy : Acknowledgment Policy, WMM defines two ACK policies: Normal ACK and No ACK. Click
“Checkbox” indicates “No ACK”
When the no acknowledgment (No ACK) policy is used, the recipient does not acknowledge received
packets during wireless packet exchange. This policy is suitable in the environment where communication
quality is fine and interference is weak. While the No ACK policy helps improve transmission efficiency, it
can cause increased packet loss when communication quality deteriorates. This is because when this policy
is used, a sender does not retransmit packets that have not been received by the recipient.
When the Normal ACK policy is used, the recipient acknowledges each received unicast packet.
Î
WMM Parameters of Station : This affects traffic flowing from the client station to the access point.
Queue
Data Transmitted
Clients to AP
Priority
AC_BK
Background.
Low
AC_BE
Best Effort
AC_VI
Video
High
Minimum delay. Time-sensitive video data is automatically sent to this queue
AC_VO
Voice
High
Time-sensitive data like VoIP and streaming media are automatically sent to this
queue
Description
High throughput. Bulk data that requires maximum throughput and is not timesensitive is sent to this queue (FTP data, for example).
Medium Medium throughput and delay. Most traditional IP data is sent to this queue
9
Aifsn : The Arbitration Inter-Frame Spacing Number specifies a wait time (in milliseconds) for data frames
9
CWmin : Minimum Contention Window. This parameter is input to the algorithm that determines the initial
random backoff wait time ("window") for retry of a transmission. The value specified here in the Minimum
Contention Window is the upper limit (in milliseconds) of a range from which the initial random backoff wait
time is determined.
9
CWmax : Maximum Contention Window. The value specified here in the Maximum Contention Window is
224
the upper limit (in milliseconds) for the doubling of the random backoff value. This doubling continues until
either the data frame is sent or the Maximum Contention Window size is reached. Once the Maximum
Contention Window size is reached, retries will continue until a maximum number of retries allowed is
reached. Valid values for the "cwmax" are 1, 3, 7, 15, 31, 63, 127, 255, 511, or 1024. The value for "cwmax"
must be higher than the value for "cwmin".
9
Txop : Transmission Opportunity is an interval of time when a WME AP has the right to initiate
transmissions onto the wireless medium (WM). This value specifies (in milliseconds) the Transmission
Opportunity (Txop) for AP; that is, the interval of time when the WMM AP has the right to initiate
transmissions on the wireless network.
9
ACM : Admission Control Mandatory, ACM only takes effect on AC_VI and AC_VO. When you do not click
Checkbox, it means that the ACM is controlled by the connecting AP. If you click Checkbox, it means that the
Client is in charge.
Click Save button to save your changes. Click Reboot button to activate your changes. The items in this page are for
AP's RF advanced settings and will be applied to all VAPs and WDS Links.
225
8.2.3 Create Virtual AP (VAP)
The APO1200/APO1215 support broadcasting multiple SSIDs, allowing the creation of Virtual Access Points, partitioning
a single physical access point into 7 logical access points, each of which can have a different set of security and network
settings. Figure 8-2 shows multiple SSIDs with security type settings.
APO1200
Figure 8-2 Multiple SSIDs with different Security Type
8.2.3.1 Virtual AP Overview
The administrator can view all of the Virtual AP's settings via this page.
Please click on Wireless -> Virtual AP Setup and the Virtual AP Overview Page appears.
„
VAP : Indicate the system's Virtual AP.
„
ESSID : Indicate the ESSID of the respective Virtual AP
„
MAC Address : The MAC address of the VAP Interface is displayed here. When you enable AP and reboot system,
the MAC address will display here.
„
Status : Indicate the Status of the respective Virtual AP. The Primary AP always on.
„
Security Type : Indicate an used security type of the respective Virtual AP.
„
MAC Filter : Indicate an used MAC filter of the respective Virtual AP.
„
Edit : Click Edit button to configure Virtual AP's settings, including security type and MAC Filter.
226
8.2.3.2 Virtual AP Setup
For each Virtual AP, administrators can configure SSID, SSID broadcasting, Maximum number of client associations,
security type settings.
Click Edit button on the Edit column, and then a Virtual AP setup page appears.
„
Enable AP : By default, it’s “Disable” for VAP1 ~ VAP6. The Primary AP always enabled.
Select “Enable” to activate VAP or click “Disable” to deactivate this function
„
ESSID : Extended Service Set ID, When clients are browsing for available wireless networks, this is the SSID that
will appear in the list. ESSID will determine the service type available to AP's clients associated with the specified
VAP.
„
Client Isolation : Select Enable, all clients will be isolated from each other, that means all clients can not reach to
other clients. Below Figures depict Client Isolation and AP Isolation
APO1200
„
Hidden SSID : By default, it’s “Disable”.
Enable this option to stop the SSID broadcast in your network. When disabled, people could easily obtain the SSID
information with the site survey software and get access to the network if security is not turned on. When enabled,
network security is enhanced. It’s suggested to enable it after AP security settings are archived and setting of AP
clients could make to associate to it.
„
Maximum Clients : The default value is 32. You can enter the number of wireless clients that can associate to a
particular SSID. When the number of client is set to 5, only 5 clients at most are allowed to connect to this VAP.
227
In this mode, the system does not support VLAN Tag(ID) function.
„
Security Type : Select the desired security type from the drop-down list; the options are Disable, WEP, WPA-PSK,
WPA2-PSK, WPA-Enterprise, WPA2-Enterprise and WEP 802.1X.
„
Î
Disable : Data are unencrypted during transmission when this option is selected.
Î
WEP : Wired Equivalent Privacy(WEP) is a data encryption mechanism based on a 64-bit or 128-bit shared key.
Authentication Method : Enable the desire option among OPEN, SHARED or WEPAUTO.
Î
Key Index : Key index is used to designate the WEP key during data transmission. 4 different WEP keys can be
entered at the same time, but only one is chosen.
Î
Î
WEP Key # : Enter HEX or ASCII format WEP key value; the system supports up to 4 sets of WEP keys.
Key Length
Hex
ASCII
64-bit
10 characters
5 characters
128-bit
26 characters
13 characters
WPA-PSK (or WPA2-PSK) : WPA (or WPA2) Algorithms, allows the system accessing the network by using the
WPA-PSK protected access.
9
Cipher Suite : By default, it is AES. Select either AES or TKIP cipher suites
9
Pre-shared Key : Enter the pre-shared key; the format shall go with the selected key type.
Pre-shared key can be entered with either a 256-bit secret in 64 HEX digits format, or 8 to 63 ASCII characters.
9
Group Key Update Period : By default, it is 3600 seconds. This time interval for rekeying GTK,
broadcast/multicast encryption keys, in seconds. Entering the time-length is required.
228
Î
WPA-Enterprise (or WPA2-Enterprise): The RADIUS authentication and encryption will be both enabled if this
is selected.
9
WPA General Settings :
•
Cipher Suite : By default, it is AES. Select either AES or TKIP cipher suites
•
Group Key Update Period : By default, it’s 3600 seconds. This time interval for rekeying GTK,
broadcast/multicast encryption keys, in seconds. Entering the time-length is required.
•
PMK Cache Period : By default, it's 10 minutes. Set WPA2 PMKID cache timeout period, after time
out, the cached key will be deleted.
•
Pre-Authentication : By default, it's “Disable”. To Enable is use to speed up roaming before preauthenticating IEEE 802.1X/EAP part of the full RSN authentication and key handshake before actually
associating with a new AP.
PMK Cache Period and Pre-Authentication is used in WPA2-Enterprise
9
Radius Server Settings :
•
IP Address : Enter the IP address of the Authentication RADIUS server.
•
Port : By default, it’s 1812. The port number used to communicate with RADIUS server.
•
Shared secret : A secret key used between system and RADIUS server. Supports 8 to 64 characters.
•
Session Timeout : The Session timeout is in the range of 0~60 seconds. The default is 0 to disable
re-authenticate service.
Amount of time before a client will be required to re-authenticate.
229
Î
WEP 802.1X : When WEP 802.1x Authentication is enabled, please refer to the following Dynamic WEP and
RADIUS settings to complete configuration.
9
Radius Server Settings :
•
IP Address : Enter the IP address of the Authentication RADIUS server.
•
Port : By default, it’s 1812. The port number used to communicate with RADIUS server.
•
Shared secret : A secret key used between system and RADIUS server. Supports 8 to 64 characters.
•
Session Timeout : The Session timeout is in the range of 0~60 seconds. The default is 0 to disable
re-authenticate service.
Amount of time before a client will be required to re-authenticate.
Click Save button to save your changes. Click Reboot button to activate your changes
230
8.2.4 Wireless MAC Filter Setup
Continue 8.2.3.2 Virtual AP Setup section. For each Virtual AP setting, the administrator can allow or reject clients to
access each Virtual AP.
„
MAC Filter Setup : By default, it’s “Disable”. Options are Disable, Only Deny List MAC or Only Allow List MAC.
Two ways to set MAC filter rules :
Î
Only Allow List MAC.
The wireless clients in the “Enable” list will be allowed to access the Access Point; All others or clients in the
“Disable” list will be denied.
Î
Only Deny List MAC.
The wireless clients in the “Enable” list will be denied to access the Access Point; All others or clients
in the
“Disable” list will be allowed.
„
Add a station MAC : Enter MAC address (e.g. aa:bb:cc:00:00:0a) and click “Add” button, then the MAC address
should display in the “Enable” List.
There are a maximum of 20 clients allowed in this “Enable” List. The MAC addresses of the wireless clients can be added
and removed to the list using the Add and Remove buttons.
Click Reboot button to activate your changes
MAC Access Control is the weakest security approach. WPA and WPA2 security method is highly
recommended.
231
8.3 Wireless Network Expansion
The administrator could create WDS Links to expand wireless network. When WDS is enabled, access point functions as
a wireless bridge and is able to communicate with other access points via WDS links. A WDS link is bidirectional and
both side must support WDS. Access points know each other by MAC Address. In other words, each access
point needs to include MAC address of its peer. Ensure all access points are configured with the same channel
and own same security type settings.
APO1200
Please click on Wireless -> WDS Setup and follow the below setting.
„
Security Type : Option is “Disable”, “WEP”, “TKIP”or “AES” from drop-down list. Needs the same type to build WDS
links. Security type takes effect when WDS is enabled.
Î WEP Key : Enter 5 / 13 ASCII or 10 / 26 HEX format WEP key.
Î TKIP Key : Enter 8 to 63 ASCII or 64 HEX format TKIP key.
Î AES Key : Enter 8 to 63 ASCII or 64 HEX format AES key.
„
WDS MAC List
Î
Enable : Click Enable to create WDS link.
Î
WDS Peer's MAC Address : Enter the MAC address of WDS peer.
Î
Description : Description of WDS link.
The WDS link needs to be set at same Channel and with same Security Type.
Click Save button to save your changes. Click Reboot button to activate your changes
232
8.4 System Management
8.4.1 Configure Management
Administrator could specify geographical location of the system via instructions in this page. Administrator could also
enter new Root and Admin passwords and allow multiple login methods.
Please click System -> Management and follow the below settings.
„
System Information
Î
System Name : Enter a desired name or use the default one.
Î
Description : Provide description of the system.
Î
Location : Enter geographical location information of the system. It helps administrator to locate the system
easier.
The system supports two management accounts, root and admin. The network manager is assigned with full
administrative privileges, when logging in as root user, to manage the system in all aspects. While logging in as an
admin user, only subset of privileges is granted such as basic maintenance. For example, root user can change
passwords for both root and admin account, and admin user can only manage its own. For more information about
covered privileges for these two accounts, please refer to Appendix D. Network manager Privileges.
„
„
Root Password : Log in as a root user and is allowed to change its own, plus admin user’s password.
Î
New Password : Enter a new password if desired
Î
Check New Password : Enter the same new password again to check.
Admin Password : Log in as a admin user and is allowed to change its own,
Î
New Password : Enter a new password if desired
Î
Check New Password : Enter the same new password again to check.
233
„
Admin Login Methods : Only root user can enable or disable system login methods and change services port.
Î
Enable HTTP : Check to select HTTP Service.
Î
HTTP Port : The default is 80 and the range is between 1 ~ 65535.
Î
Enable HTTPS : Check to select HTTPS Service
Î
HTTPS Port : The default is 443 and the range is between 1 ~ 65535.
If you already have an SSL Certificate, please click “UploadKey” button to select the file and upload it.
Î
Enable Telnet : Check to select Telnet Service
Î
Telnet Port : The default is 23 and the range is between 1 ~ 65535.
Î
Enable SSH : Check to select SSH Service
Î
SSH Port : Please The default is 22 and the range is between 1 ~ 65535.
Click “GenerateKey” button to generate RSA private key. The “host key footprint” gray blank will display content
of RSA key.
„
Ping Watchdog : The ping watchdog sets the APO1200/APO1215 Device to continuously ping a user defined IP
address (it can be the internet gateway for example). If it is unable to ping under the user defined constraints, the
APO1200/APO1215 device will automatically reboot. This option creates a kind of "fail-proof" mechanism.
Ping Watchdog is dedicated for continuous monitoring of the particular connection to remote host using the Ping tool.
The Ping works by sending ICMP “echo request” packets to the target host and listening for ICMP “echo response”
replies. If the defined number of replies is not received, the tool reboots the device.
Î
Enable Ping Watchdog : control will enable Ping Watchdog Tool.
Î
IP Address To Ping : specify an IP address of the target host which will be monitored by Ping Watchdog Tool.
Î
Ping Interval : specify time interval (in seconds) between the ICMP “echo requests” are sent by the Ping
Watchdog Tool. Default is 300 seconds.
Î
Startup Delay : specify initial time delay (in seconds) until first ICMP “echo requests” are sent by the Ping
Watchdog Tool. The value of Startup Delay should be at least 60 seconds as the network interface and wireless
connection initialization takes considerable amount of time if the device is rebooted. Default is 300 seconds.
Î
Failure Count To Reboot : specify the number of ICMP “echo response” replies. If the specified number of
ICMP “echo response” packets is not received continuously, the Ping Watchdog Tool will reboot the device.
234
Click Save button to save your changes. Click Reboot button to activate your changes
Without a valid certificate, users may encounter the following problem in IE7 when they try to access system's WMI
(https://192.168.2.254). There will be a “Certificate Error”, because the browser treats system as an illegal website.
Click “Continue to this website” to access the system's WMI. The system's Overview page will appear.
235
8.4.2 Configure System Time
System time can be configured via this page, and manual setting or via a NTP server is supported.
Please click on System -> Time Server and follow the below setting.
„
Local Time : Display the current system time.
„
NTP Client : To synchronize the system time with NTP server.
Î
Enable : Check to select NTP client.
Î
Default NTP Server : Select the NTP Server from the drop-down list.
Î
Time Zone : Select a desired time zone from the drop-down list.
Î
Daylight saving time : Enable or disable Daylight saving.
If the system time from NTP server seems incorrect, please verify your network settings, like default Gateway
and DNS settings
Click Save button to save your changes. Click Reboot button to activate your changes
236
8.4.3 Configure UPnP
Universal Plug and Play(UPnP) is an architecture to enable pervasive peer-to-peer network connectivity between PCs,
intelligent devices and appliances when UPnP is supported. UPnP works on TCP/IP network to enable UPnP devices to
connect and access to each other, very well adopted in home networking environment.
„
UPnP : By default, it’s “Disable”. Select “Enable” or “Disable” of UPnP Service.
Click Save button to save changes and click Reboot button to activate changes
For UPnP to work in Windows XP, the “APO1200/APO1215” must be available in “My Network Places”.
If these devices are not available, you should verify that the correct components and services are loaded in Windows XP.
Please refer to Appendix E. Using UPnP on Windows XP
237
8.4.4 Configure SNMP Setup
SNMP is an application-layer protocol that provides a message format for communication between SNMP managers and
agents. By enabling SNMP function, the administrator can obtain the system information remotely.
Please click on System -> SNMP Setup and follow the below setting.
„
„
SNMP v2c Enable: Check to enable SNMP v2c.
Î
ro community : Set a community string to authorize read-only access.
Î
rw community : Set a community string to authorize read/write access.
SNMP v3 Enable: Check to enable SNMP v3.
SNMPv3 supports the highest level SNMP security.
„
Î
SNMP ro user : Set a community string to authorize read-only access.
Î
SNMP ro password : Set a password to authorize read-only access.
Î
SNMP rw user : Set a community string to authorize read/write access.
Î
SNMP rw password : Set a password to authorize read/write access.
SNMP Trap : Events such as cold start, interface up & down, and association & disassociation will report to an
assigned server.
238
Î
Community : Set a community string required by the remote host computer that will receive trap messages or
notices send by the system.
Î
IP : Enter the IP addresses of the remote hosts to receive trap messages.
Click Save button to save changes and click Reboot button to activate.
239
8.4.5 Backup / Restore and Reset to Factory
Backup current configuration, restore prior configuration or reset back to factory default configuration can be executed via
this page.
Please click on Utilities -> Profile Setting and follow the below setting.
„
Save Settings to PC : Click Save button to save the current configuration to a local disk.
„
Load Settings from PC : Click Browse button to locate a configuration file to restore, and then click Upload button
to upload.
„
Reset To Factory Default : Click Default button to reset back to the factory default settings and expect Successful
loading message. Then, click Reboot button to activate.
240
8.4.6 Firmware Upgrade
Firmware is the main software image that system needs to respond to requests and to manage real time operations.
Firmware upgrades are sometimes required to include new features or bugs fix. It takes around 2 minutes to upgrade
due to complexity of firmware. To upgrade system firmware, click Browse button to locate the new firmware, and then
click Upgrade button to upgrade.
1. To prevent data loss during firmware upgrade, please back up current settings before proceeding.
2. Do not interrupt during firmware upgrade including power on/off as this may damage system.
3. Never perform firmware upgrade over wireless connection or via remote access connection.
241
8.4.7 Network Utility
The administrator can diagnose network connectivity via the PING and TRACEROUTE utility.
Please click on Utilities -> Network Utility and follow the below setting
„
Ping : This utility will help ping other devices on the network to verify connectivity. Ping utility, using ICMP packets,
detects connectivity and latency between two network nodes. As result of that, packet loss and latency time are
available in the Result field while running the PING test.
Î
Destination IP/Domain : Enter desired domain name, i.e. www.google.com, or IP address of the destination,
and click ping button to proceed. The ping result will be shown in the Result field.
Î
„
Count : By default, it’s 5 and the range is from 1 to 50. It indicates number of connectivity test.
Traceroute : Allows tracing the hops from the APO1200/APO1215 device to a selected outgoing IP
address. It should be used for the finding the route taken by ICMP packets across the network to the destination host.
The test is started using the Start button, click Stop button to stopped test
Î
Destination Host : Specifies the Destination Host for the finding the route taken by ICMP packets across the
network.
Î
MAX Hop : Specifies the maximum number of hops( max time-to-live value) traceroute will probe.
242
8.4.8 Reboot
This function allows user to restart system with existing or most current settings when changes are made. Click Reboot
button to proceed and take around three minutes to complete.
A reminder will be available for remaining time to complete. If power cycle is necessary, please wait till completion of the
reboot process.
The System Overview page appears upon the completion of reboot.
243
8.5 Access Control List
8.5.1 IP Filter Setup
Allows to create deny or allow rules to filter ingress or egress packets from specific source and/or to destination IP
address on wired (LAN) or Wireless (WAN) ports. Filter rules could be used to filter unicast or multicast packets on
different protocols as shown in the IP Filter Setup. Important to note that IP filter rules has precedence over Virtual server
rules.
Please click on Advance -> IP Filter Setup and follow the below setting.
„
Source Address/Mask : Enter desired source IP address and netmask; i.e. 192.168.2.10/32.
„
Source Port : Enter a port or a range of ports as start:end; i.e. port 20:80
„
Destination Address/Mask : Enter desired destination IP address and netmask; i.e. 192.168.1.10/32
„
Destination Port : Enter a port or a range of ports as start:end; i.e. port 20:80
„
In/Out : Applies to Ingress or egress packets
„
Protocol : Supports TCP, UDP or ICMP.
„
Listen : Click Yes radial button to match TCP packets only with the SYN flag.
„
Active : Deny to drop and Pass to allow per filter rules
„
Interface : The interface that a filter rule applies
All packets are allowed by default. Deny rules could be added to the filter list to filter out unwanted packets and
leave remaining allowed.
Click “Save” button to add IP filter rule. Total of 20 rules maximum allowed in the IP Filter List. All rules can be edited or
removed from the List. Click Reboot button to activate your changes.
When you create rules in the IP Filter List, the prior rules maintain higher priority. To allow limited access from a subnet to
a destination network manager needs to create allow rules first and followed by deny rules. So, if you just want one IP
address to access the system via telnet from your subnet, not others, the Example 1 demonstrates it, not rules in the
Example 2.
244
Î
Example 1 : Create a higher priority rule to allow IP address 192.168.2.2 Telnet access from LAN port first, and
deny Telnet access from remaining IP addresses in the same subnet.
Rule
Source
IP/Mask
Î
Destination
Port
IP/Mask
Port
In/Out
Protocol
Listen
Action
Side
1
192.168.2.2/32
192.168.2.254/32
22
In
TCP
n
Pass
LAN
2
192.168.2.0/24
192.168.2.254/32
22
In
TCP
n
Deny
LAN
Example 2 : All Telnet access to the system from the IP addresses of subnet 192.168.2.x works with the rule 1
of Example 2. The rule 2 won’t make any difference.
Rule
Source
IP/Mask
Destination
Port
IP/Mask
Port
In/Out
Protocol
Listen
Action
Side
1
192.168.2.0/24
192.168.2.254/32
22
In
TCP
n
Deny
LAN
2
192.168.2.2/32
192.168.2.254/32
22
In
TCP
n
Pass
LAN
245
8.5.2 MAC Filter Setup
Create MAC filter rules to allow or deny unicast or multicast packets from limited number of MAC addresses. It is
important to note that MAC filter rules have precedence over IP Filter rules.
Please click on Advance -> MAC Filter Setup and follow the below setting.
„
MAC Filter Rule : By default, it’s “Disable”. Options are Disabled, Only Deny List MAC or Only Allow List MAC.
Click Save button to save your change.
Two ways to set the MAC Filter List:
Î
Only Allow List MAC.
The wireless clients in the MAC Filter List will be allowed to access to Access Point; All others will be denied.
Î
Only Deny List MAC.
The wireless clients in the MAC Filter List will be denied to access to Access Point; All others will be allowed.
„
MAC Address : Enter MAC address (e.g. aa:bb:cc:00:00:0a) and click “Add” button, then the MAC address should
display in the MAC Filter List.
There are a maximum of 20 clients allowed in this MAC Filter List. The MAC addresses of the wireless clients can be
added and removed to the list using the Add and Delete buttons.
Click Reboot button to activate your changes
246
8.5.3 Parental Control Setup
Parental Control allows you to block or allow specific kinds of Internet usage and traffic, such as Internet access,
designated services, and websites.
APO1200
Please click on Advance -> Parental Control and follow the below setting.
„
Rules : control can be managed by a rule. Use the settings on this screen to establish an access policy.
Î
Comment : Enter a descriptive name for this rule for identifying purposes.
Î
MAC Address : Enter MAC address in valid MAC address format(xx:xx:xx:xx:xx:xx) and click “Add” button to
add in the MAC group of each rule. Click “Remove” button can remove MAC address in the group of each rule.
There are 10 MAC address maximum allowed in each rule.
Î
Local / Destination IP : Specify local(LAN)/ destination IP addresses range required for this rule. If you specify
local IP addresses range from 192.168.1.1 to 192.168.2.254. The matches a range of local IP addresses include
every single IP address from the first to the last, so the example above includes everything from 192.168.1.1 to
192.168.2.254.
247
Î
Protocol : Select Any or specify protocol(TCP, UDP, ICMP, URL Blocking and Application) from drop-down
list. When you select ICMP or Layer 7 Application , the Local(LAN)/ Destination Port can not used.
If you want to block websites with specific URL address or using specific keywords, enter each URL or keywords
in the “URL Blocking” field and click “Add” button to add in the URL Blocking list of each rule. Click “Remove”
button can remove URL or keywords.
Î
Local Port : Specify local port(LAN port) range required for this rule
Î
Destination Port : Specify destination port range required for this rule
Î
Active : Check Enable button to activate this rule, and Disable to deactivate.
Click “Add” button to add control rule to List. There are 10 rules maximum allowed in this Control List. All rules can be
removed or edited on the List. Click Reboot button to activate your changes.
248
8.5.4 QoS Setup
Quality of Service (QoS) refers to both a network's ability to deliver data with minimum delay, and the networking
methods used to control the use of bandwidth. Without QoS, all traffic data is equally likely to be dropped when the
network is congested. This can cause a reduction in network performance and make the network inadequate for timecritical application such as video-on-demand.
A classifier groups traffic into data flows according to specific criteria such as the source address, destination address,
source port number, destination port number or incoming port number. For example, you can configure a classifier to
select traffic from the same protocol port (such as FTP) to form a flow.
APO1200
APO1200
Please click on Advance -> QoS and follow the below setting.
249
„
Rules : Use the rules to define the classifiers. After you define the rules, you can specify action to act upon the traffic
that matches the rules
Î
Comment : Enter a descriptive name for this rule for identifying purposes.
Î
MAC Address : Enter MAC address in valid MAC address format(xx:xx:xx:xx:xx:xx) and click “Add” button to
add in the MAC group of each rule. Click “Remove” button can remove MAC address in the group of each rule.
There are 10 MAC address maximum allowed in each rule.
Î
Local / Destination IP : Specify local(LAN)/ destination IP addresses range required for this rule. If you specify
local IP addresses range from 192.168.1.1 to 192.168.2.254. The matches a range of local IP addresses include
every single IP address from the first to the last, so the example above includes everything from 192.168.1.1 to
192.168.2.254.
Î
DSCP Class : Differentiated services code point, DSCP. Select Any or specify classify traffic from drop-down list.
The Per-Hop Behavior (PHB) is indicated by encoding a 6-bit value—called the Differentiated Services Code
Point (DSCP)—into the 8-bit Differentiated Services (DS) field of the IP packet header. Below depicts class for
DSCP.
9
BE : Default PHB, which is typically best-effort traffic
9
EF : Expedited Forwarding PHB, dedicated to low-loss, low-latency traffic
9
AF : Assured Forwarding PHB, which gives assurance of delivery under conditions. The AF behavior group
defines four separate AF classes. Within each class, packets are given a drop precedence (high, medium or
low). The combination of classes and drop precedence yields twelve separate DSCP encodings from AF11
through AF43 (see table)
250
DROP Precedence
Î
Class 1
Class 2
Class 3
Class 4
Low Drop
AF11
AF21
AF31
AF41
Medium Drop
AF12
AF22
AF32
AF42
High Drop
AF13
AF23
AF33
AF43
Protocol : Select Any or specify protocol from drop-down list. When you select ICMP or Layer 7 Application ,
the Source/ Destination Port can not used.
„
Î
Local Port : Specify local port(LAN port) range required for this rule
Î
Destination Port : Specify destination port range required for this rule
Action : After configuring rule, a policy rule ensures that a traffic flow gets the requested treatment in the network.
Î
Remark DSCP : Specify a new DSCP class, if you want to replace or remark the DSCP
Î
Bandwidth : Click “Enable” to activate function, and click “Disable” to deactivate function
Î
Upload / Download : Specify the bandwidth in kilobit per second (Kbps). Enter a number between 8 to 8192,
default upload is 128 Kbps, download is 1024 Kbps.
Click “Add” button to add QoS rule to List. There are 10 rules maximum allowed in this QoS List. All rules can be removed
or edited on the List. Click Reboot button to activate your changes.
When you create rules on the QoS List, the previous rules have higher priority. . Below depict the examples for explaining
priority of QoS setup.
¾
Example 1 : On this setting, the FTP has 1024 Kbps upload and 8196 Kbps download on 192.168.2.10. The
remaining IP address and other remaining protocol of IP address 192.168.2.10 only can use total bandwidth 512
Kbps bandwidth. Because rule 1's priority is higher than rule 2
Rule
Source IP
1
192.168.2.10
Destination IP
2
¾
DSCP
Protocol
Remark DSCP
Bandwidth (Up/Down)
ANY
FTP
NO
1024/8196
ANY
ANY
NO
512/512
Example 2 : On this setting, the FTP has 512 Kbps upload and 512 Kbps download on 192.168.2.10 Because
rule 1's priority is higher than rule 2
Rule
Source IP
1
2
192.168.2.10
Destination IP
DSCP
Protocol
Remark DSCP
Bandwidth (Up/Down)
ANY
ANY
NO
512/512
ANY
FTP
NO
1024/8196
251
8.6 Resource Sharing
8.6.1 DMZ
DMZ is commonly work with the NAT functionality as an alternative of Virtual Server(Port Forwarding) while wanting all
ports of DMZ host visible to Internet users. Virtual Server rules have precedence over the DMZ rule. In order to use a
range of ports available to access to different internal hosts Virtual Server rules are needed.
APO1200
Please click on Advance -> DMZ and follow the below setting.
„
DMZ : By default, it’s “Disable”. Check Enable radial button to enable DMZ.
„
IP Address : Enter IP address of DMZ host and only one DMZ host is supported.
Click Save button to save your changes. Click Reboot button to activate your changes.
252
8.6.2 Virtual Server (Port Forwarding)
“Virtual Server” can also referred to as “Port Forward” as well and used interchangeably. Resources in the network can be
exposed to the Internet users in a controlled manner including on-line gaming, video conferencing or others via Virtual
Server setup. Don’t repeat ports’ usage to avoid confusion.
Suppose you want to assign ports 21-25 to one FTP, Telnet and SMTP server (A in the example), and port 80 to another
(B in the example). You assign the LAN IP addresses and the ISP assigns the WAN IP address. The NAT network
appears as a single host on the Internet.
APO1200
Please click on Advance -> Virtual Server and follow the below setting.
„
Virtual Server : By Default, It’s “Disable”. Check Enable radial button to enable Virtual Server.
„
Description : Enter appropriate message for resource sharing via Virtual Server.
„
Private IP : Enter corresponding IP address of internal resource to share.
„
Protocol Type : Select appropriate sessions, TCP or UDP, from shared host via multiple private ports.
„
Private Port : A port or a range of ports may be specified as start:end; i.e. port 20:80
„
Public Port : A port or a range of ports may be specified as start:end; i.e. port 20:80
.
The Private Port and Public Port can be different. However, total number of ports need to be the same.
Example : Public Port is 11 to 20 and the Private Port can be a 10 ports range.
253
Click “Add” button to add Virtual Server rule to List. Total of maximum 20 rules are allowed in this List. All rules can be
edited or removed from the List. Click Reboot button to activate your changes.
While creating multiple Virtual Server rules, the prior rules have higher priority. The Virtual server rules have precedence
over the DMZ one while both rules exist. Example 1 and 2 demonstrate proper usage of DMZ and Virtual Server rules.
„
Example 1 : All connections should be redirected to 192.168.2.12 while DMZ is enabled. Since Virtual Server rules
have precedence over the DMZ rule all connections to TCP port 22 will be directed to TCP port 22 of 192.168.2.10
and remaining connections to port TCP 20~80 will be redirected to port TCP 20~80 of 192.168.2.11
DMZ Enabled : 192.168.2.12
„
Rule
Protocol
Private IP
Private Port
Public Port
1
TCP
192.168.2.10
22
22
2
TCP
192.168.2.11
20:80
20:80
Example 2 : All connections should be redirected to 192.168.2.12 while DMZ is enabled. Since Virtual Server rules
have precedence over the DMZ rule all other connections to TCP port 20~80 will be redirected to port 20~80 of
192.168.2.11. The rule 2 won’t take effect.
DMZ Enabled : 192.168.2.12
Rule
Protocol
Private IP
Private Port
Public Port
1
TCP
192.168.2.11
20:80
20:80
2
TCP
192.168.2.10
22
22
254
8.7 System Status
This section breaks down into subsections of System Overview, Associated Clients Status, WDS Link Status, Extra
Information and Event Log.
8.7.1 Overview
Detailed information on System, WAN Information, LAN Information, Wireless Information and DHCP Server Status
can be reviewed via this page.
„
„
System : Display the information of the system.
Î
System Name : The name of the system.
Î
Operating Mode : The mode currently in service.
Î
Location : The reminding note on the geographical location of the system.
Î
Description : The reminding note of the system.
Î
Firmware Version : The current firmware version installed.
Î
Firmware Date : The build time of the firmware installed.
Î
Device Time : The current time of the system.
Î
System Up Time : The time period that system has been in service since last reboot.
WAN Information : Display the information of the WAN interface.
The WAN port specified Dynamic IP, the Release and Renew button will be show-up, click Release button to
release IP address of WAN port, Renew button to renew IP address through DHCP server.
255
The WAN port specified PPPoE or PPTP, and the Connect and DisConnect button will be show up. Click “Connect”
button to assigned IP address from PPPoE or PPTP server, “DisConnect” button to release IP address of WAN port.
„
Î
Mode : Supports Static, Dynamic, PPPoE and PPTP modes.
Î
Reconnect Mode : The current reconnect mode of the PPPoE or PPTP.
Î
MAC Address : The MAC address of the WAN port.
Î
IP Address : The IP address of the WAN port.
Î
IP Netmask : The IP netmask of the WAN port.
Î
IP Gateway : The gateway IP address of the WAN port.
Î
Primary DNS : The primary DNS server in service.
Î
Secondary DNS : The secondary DNS server in service.
Î
Receive bytes : The total received packets in bytes on the WAN port.
Î
Receive packets : The total received packets of the WAN port.
Î
Transmit bytes : The total transmitted packets in bytes of the WAN port.
Î
Transmit packets : The total transmitted packets of the WAN port.
LAN Information : Display total received and transmitted statistics on the LAN interface.
Î
MAC Address : The MAC address of the LAN port.
Î
IP Address : The IP address of the LAN port.
Î
IP Netmask : The IP netmask of the LAN port.
Î
Receive bytes : The total received packets in bytes on the LAN port.
Î
Receive packets : The total received packets of the LAN port.
Î
Transmit bytes : The total transmitted packets in bytes of the LAN port.
Î
Transmit packets : The total transmitted packets of the LAN port.
256
„
„
Wireless Information : Display the detailed receive and transmit statistics of Wireless interface.
Î
MAC Address : The MAC address of the Wireless Port.
Î
Channel : The current channel on the Wireless port.
Î
Rate : The current Bit Rate on the Wireless port.
Î
Receive bytes :The total received packets in bytes on the Wireless port.
Î
Receive packets : The total received packets on the Wireless port.
Î
Transmit bytes : The total transmitted packets in bytes on the Wireless port.
Î
Transmit packets : The total transmitted packets on the Wireless port.
DHCP Server Status : Users could retrieve DHCP server and DHCP clients’ IP/MAC address via this field.
Î
IP Address : IP addresses to LAN devices by DHCP server.
Î
MAC Address : MAC addresses of LAN devices.
Î
Expired In : Shows how long the leased IP address will expire.
257
8.7.2 Associated Clients Status
It displays ESSID, on/off Status, Security Type, total number of wireless clients associated with all Virtual AP.
„
„
VAP Information : Highlights key VAP information.
Î
VAP : Available VAP from Primary AP to VAP6.
Î
ESSID : Display name of ESSID for each VAP.
Î
MAC Address : Display MAC address for each VAP.
Î
Status : On/Off
Î
Security Type : Display chosen security type; WEP, WPA/WPA2-PSK, WPA/WPA2-Enterprise.
Î
Clients : Display total number of wireless connections for each VAP.
VAP Clients : Display all associated clients on each Virtual AP.
Î
MAC Address : MAC address of associated clients
Î
Signal Strength ANT0/ANT1 : Signal Strength of from associated clients.
Î
Bandwidth : Channel bandwidth of from associated clients
Î
Idle Time : Last inactive time period in seconds for a wireless connection.
Î
Connect Time : Total connection time period in seconds for a wireless connection.
Î
Disconnect : Click “Delete” button to manually disconnect a wireless client in a Virtual AP.
258
8.7.3 Show WDS Link Status
Peers MAC Address, antenna 0/1 received signal strength, phy mode and channel bandwidth for each WDS are
available.
„
MAC Address : Display MAC address of WDS peer.
„
Signal Strength ANT0/ANT1 : Indicate the signal strength of the respective WDS links.
„
Phy Mode : Indicate the phy mode of the respective WDS linked.
„
BandWidth : Indicate the channel bandwidth of the respective WDS linked.
„
MCS : Indicate the MCS of the respective WDS linked.
„
SGI : Indicate the SGI (Short Guard Interval) of the respective WDS linked. “1” indicate the Short Guard Interval, “0”
indicate the Long Guard Interval.
If display “no signal” Signal Strength ANT0/ANT1, you need check WDS configuration. Things to verify are
MAC Address, Channel and Security type. Also, adjust antenna angle and Tx Power.
259
8.7.4 Extra Info
Users could pull out information such as Route table, ARP table, MAC table, Bridge table or STP available in the dropdown list from system. The “Refresh” button is used to retrieve latest table information.
„
Netstat Information : Select “NetStatus Information” on the drop-down list, the connection track list should showup, the list can be updated using the Refresh button.
NetStatus will show all connection track on the system, the information include Protocol, Live Time, Status ,
Source/Destination IP address and Port.
„
Route table information : Select “Route table information” on the drop-down list to display route table.
APO1200/APO1215 could be used as a L2 or L3 device. It doesn’t support dynamic routing protocols such as RIP or
OSPF. Static routes to specific hosts, networks or default gateway are set up automatically according to the IP
configuration of system's interfaces. When used as a L2 device, it could switch packets and, as L3 device, it’s
capable of being a gateway to route packets inward and outward.
„
ARP table Information : Select “ARP Table Information” on the drop-down list to display ARP table.
ARP associates each IP address to a unique hardware address (MAC) of a device. It is important to have a unique IP
address as final destination to switch packets to.
„
Bridge table information : Select “Bridge Table information” on the drop-down list to display bridge table.
Bridge table will show Bridge ID and STP's Status on the each Ethernet bridge and its attached interfaces, the Bridge
Port should be attached to some interfaces e.g. ra0 ~ra6 and wds0~wds3).
260
„
Bridge MAC information : Select “Bridge MACs Information” on the drop-down list to display MAC table.
This table displays local MAC addresses associated with wired or wireless interfaces, but also remember non-local
MAC addresses learned from wired or wireless interfaces.
Ageing timers will be reset when existing MAC addresses in table are learned again or added when new MAC
addresses are seen from wired or wireless interfaces as well. When time runs out for a particular entry, it will be
pruned from the table. In that situation, switching packet to that particular MAC address will be discontinued.
„
Bridge STP Information : Select “Bridge STP Information” on the drop-down list to display a list of bridge STP
information.
261
8.7.5 QoS Plot
The QoS Plot show graphs which continuously represents the current data traffic on each QoS rule. The chart scale and
throughput dimension (bps, Kbps, Mbps) changes dynamically according to the mean throughput value. The statistics is
updated automatically every 5 seconds. The throughput statistics of QoS can be updated manually using the Refresh
button.
262
8.7.6 Event Log
The Event log displays system events when system is up and running. Also, it becomes very useful as a troubleshooting
tool when issues are experienced in system.
„
Time : The date and time when the event occurred.
„
Facility : It helps users to identify source of events such “System” or “User”
„
Severity : Severity level that a specific event is associated such as “info”, “error”, “warning”, etc.
„
Message : Description of the event.
Click Refresh button to renew the log, or click Clear button to clear all the record.
263
Appendix A. Windows TCP/IP Settings
„
Windows XP
1. Click Start -> Settings -> Control Panel, and then “Control Panel” window appears. Click on “Network
Connections”, and then “Network Connections” window appears.
2. Click right on “Local Area Connection”, and select Properties.
264
3. In “Local Area Connection Properties” window, select “Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)” and click on Properties
button.
4. Select “Use the following IP address”, and type in
IP address : 192.168.2.100
Subnet mask : 255.255.255.0
265
Appendix B. WEB GUI Valid Characters
Table B
WEB GUI Valid Characters
Block
Field
Valid Characters
LAN
IP Address
IP Format; 1-254
IP Netmask
128.0.0.0 ~ 255.255.255.252
IP Gateway
IP Format; 1-254
Primary DNS
IP Format; 1-254
Secondary DNS
IP Format; 1-254
Hostname
Length : 32
0-9, A-Z, a-z
[email protected]#$%^*()_+-{}|:<>?[]/;`, .=
Manual MAC Address
12 HEX chars
IP Address
IP Format; 1-254
IP Netmask
128.0.0.0 ~ 255.255.255.252
IP Gateway
IP Format; 1-254
Hostname
Length : 32
0-9, A-Z, a-z
[email protected]#$%^*()_+-{}|:<>?[]/;`, .=
User name
Password
Length : 32
0-9, A-Z, a-z
[email protected]#$%^*()_+-{}|:<>?[]/;`, .=
MTU
576 ~ 1492 for PPPoE; 1400 ~ 1460 for PPTP
Idle Time
0 ~ 60 minutes
Primary DNS
IP Format; 1-254
Secondary DNS
IP Format; 1-254
Hostname
Length : 32
0-9, A-Z, a-z
@-_.
User Name
Password
Length : 32
0-9, A-Z, a-z
[email protected]#$%^*()_+-{}|:<>?[]/;`, .=
Start IP
IP Format; 1-254
End IP
IP Format; 1-254
DNS1 IP
IP Format; 1-254
DNS2 IP
IP Format; 1-254
WINS IP
IP Format; 1-254
Domain
Length : 32
0-9, A-Z, a-z
[email protected]#$%^*()_+-{}|:<>?[]/;`, .=
Lease Time
600 ~ 99999999
WAN
DDNS
DHCP Server
266
Table B
WEB GUI Valid Characters (continued)
Block
Field
Valid Characters
Management
System Name/ Location
Length : 32
0-9, A-Z, a-z
Space
[email protected]#$%^*()_+-{}|:<>?[]/;`, .=
Description
32 chars
Password
Length : 4 ~ 30
0-9, A-Z, a-z
[email protected]#$%^*()_+-{}|:<>?[]/;`, .=
HTTP/ HTTPS Port
1 ~ 65535
Telnet/ SSH Port
1 ~ 65535
RO/RW community
Length : 32
0-9, A-Z, a-z
[email protected]#$%^*()_+-{}|:<>?[];`, .=
RO/RW user
Length : 31
0-9, A-Z, a-z
[email protected]#$%^*()_+-{}|:<>?[];`, .=
RO/RW password
Length : 8 ~ 32
0-9, A-Z, a-z
[email protected]#$%^*()_+-{}|:<>?[];`, .=
Community
Length : 32
0-9, A-Z, a-z
[email protected]#$%^*()_+-{}|:<>?[];`, .=
IP
IP Format; 1-254
General Setup
Tx Power
1-100 %
Wireless Profile
Profile Name
32 chars
ESSID
Length : 31
Space
0-9, A-Z, a-z
[email protected]#$%^*()_+-{}|:<>?[]/;`, .=
WEP Key
10, 26 HEX chars or 5, 13 ASCII chars
Pre-shared Key
8 ~ 63 ASCII chars; 64 HEX chars
Beacon Interval
20 ~ 1024
Date Beacon Rate
1 ~ 255
Fragment Threshold
256 ~ 2346
RTS Threshold
1 ~ 2347
SNMP
Advanced Setup
267
Table B
WEB GUI Valid Characters (continued)
Block
Field
Valid Characters
Virtual AP Setup
ESSID
Length : 31
Space
0-9, A-Z, a-z
[email protected]#$%^*()_+-{}|:<>?[]/;`, .=
Maximum Clients
1 ~ 32
VLAN ID
1 ~ 4094
WEP Key
10, 26 HEX chars or 5, 13 ASCII chars
Group Key Update Period
>=60 seconds
PMK Cache Period
> 0 minute
Pre-Shared Key
8 ~ 63 ASCII chars; 64 HEX chars
Radius Server IP
IP Format; 1-254
Radius Port
1 ~ 65535
Shared Secret
8 ~ 64 characters
Session Timeout
>= 60 seconds; 0 is disable
WEP Key
10, 26 HEX chars or 5, 13 ASCII chars
TKIP Key
8 ~ 63 ASCII chars; 64 HEX chars
AES Key
8 ~ 63 ASCII chars; 64 HEX chars
Peer's MAC Address
12 HEX chars
Description
32 chars
Source Address
IP Format; 1-254
Source Mask
0 ~ 32
Source Port
1 ~ 65535
Destination Address
IP Format; 1-254
Destination Mask
0 ~ 32
Destination Port
1 ~ 65535
MAC Filter
MAC address
MAC Format; 12 HEX chars
Virtual Server
Description
32 chars
Private IP
IP Formate; 1-254
Private/ Public Port
1 ~ 65535
DMZ
IP Address
IP Format; 1-254
QoS/
Parental Control
Comment
32 chars
MAC Address
MAC Format; 12 HEX chars
Local/ Destination IP
IP Formate; 1-254
Local/ Destination Port
1 ~ 65535
Upload & Download
8 ~ 8192 digital number
WDS Setup
IP Filter
268
Appendix C. MCS Data Rate
The table below shows the relationships between the variables that allow for the maximum data rate
Table C
MCS Data Rate
Data Rate (Mb/s)
MCS Index
Modulation
Channel Bandwidth = 20
Channel Bandwidth = 40
Long Guard Interval
Short Guard
Interval
Long Guard
Interval
Short Guard
Interval
0
BPSK
6.5
7.2
13.5
15.0
1
QPSK
13.0
14.4
27.0
30.0
2
QPSK
19.5
21.7
40.5
45.0
3
16-QAM
26.0
28.9
54.0
60.0
4
16-QAM
39.0
43.3
81.0
90.0
5
64-QAM
52.0
57.8
108.0
120.0
6
64-QAM
58.5
65.0
121.5
135.0
7
64-QAM
65.0
72.2
135.0
157.5
8
BPSK
13.0
14.4
27.0
30.0
9
QPSK
26.0
28.9
54.0
60.0
10
QPSK
39.0
43.3
81.0
90.0
11
16-QAM
52.0
57.8
108.0
120.0
12
16-QAM
78.0
86.7
162.0
180.0
13
64-QAM
104.0
115.6
216.0
240.0
14
64-QAM
117.0
130.0
243.0
270.0
15
64-QAM
130.0
114.4
270.0
300.0
Note :
9
When MCS=32, only Short Guard Interval option is supported, Channel Bandwidth=20 is not supported. If
Channel Bandwidth=40, the HT duplicate 6Mbps.
9
When MCS=0~7(One Tx Stream), Guard Interval and Channel Bandwidth are supported
9
When MCS=8~15(Two Tx Stream), Guard Interval and Channel Bandwidth are supported
269
Appendix D. System Manager Privileges
There are two system management accounts for maintaining the system; namely, the root and admin accounts are with
different levels of privileges. The root manager account is empowered with full privilege to Read & Write while the admin
manager account is Read only.
The following table display CPE admin account’s privileges.
Main Menu
System
Wireless
Advance
Sub Menu
Group
Admin Privilege
Operating Mode
Read
WAN
Read
LAN
Read & Write
DDNS
Read & Write
Time Server
Read & Write
UPNP
Read & Write
SNMP
Read
General
Read
Advanced
Read
Site Survey
Read
DMZ
Read
IP Filter
Read
MAC Filter
Read
Virtual Server
Read
Parental Control
Read
QoS
Read
Management
Administrator
Profile Settings
System Information
Read
Root Password
Read
Admin Password
Read & Write
Login Methods
Read
Ping Watchdog
Read
Backup Settings
Read & Write
Restore Settings
Read
Reset to Default
Read
System Upgrade
Read
Network Utility
Read & Write
Reboot
Read & Write
270
Appendix E. Enabling UPnP in Windows XP
1.
Open the “Add/Remove Programs” control panel, and then click on “Add/Remove Windows Components” in the
sidebar. Scroll down and find “Networking Services”, highlight it, and then click Details.
2.
In the “Networking Services” window, ensure that the “Internet Gateway Device” and “UPnP User Interface”
options are checked. If they are not, check it to enable them, as shown below, and click OK to continue.
3.
Next, in the “Control panel”, open the “Administrative Tools” and then open “Services”. Scroll down until you find
the “SSDP Discovery Interface”. If the Status is not Started, double-click on SSDP Discovery Interface to open the
service properties. Change the startup type to Automatic, then close the properties. Now, right-click on SSDP
271
Discovery Services, and choose Start from the pop-up menu. The SSDP Discovery Service will then be running and
start each time you boot.
4.
After enabling UPnP and starting the SSDP Discovery Service, it may take few minutes for the “Air Force One 5” to
be discovered and appear in your “My Network Places”.
272
Technical Support
E-mail: [email protected]
Toll Free: 1-888-746-3238
Web Site: www.airlink101.com
*Theoretical maximum wireless signal rate derived from IEEE standard 802.11 specifications. Actual data throughput will vary. Network
conditions and environmental factors, including volume of network traffic, building materials and construction, mix of wireless products
used, radio frequency interference (e.g., cordless telephones and microwaves) as well as network overhead lower actual data
throughput rate. Photo of product may not reflect actual content. All products and trademarks are the property of their respective
owners. Copyright© 2010 Airlink101®
273
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