HL2.5Kfx Users Manual
INSTRUCTION MANUAL
HF LINEAR POWER AMPLIFIER
MODEL : HL-2.5KFX
1. Introduction
Thank you for purchasing the HL-2.5KFX. This compact and lightweight
desktop HF linear power amplifier has a maximum input power of 2.9 kW. Our
solid-state broadband power amp technology makes it the smallest and lightest
in the industry.
Typical output power is 1.5 kW PEP/SSB with the drive power of 85-90 W. The
built-in band decoder will let you forget about the band setting when the amplifier
is connected to your modern radio through such band data cables as ICOM CI-V,
DC voltage (ICOM, Yaesu), and RS-232C (Kenwood). All the data cables are
included in your amplifier for your convenience.
2. Cautions
2-1
Unpack the amplifier, check the fan guard at the rear panel Fan to see if
there is any damage caused by the physical shock during the transportation. Fan
blades must be free to rotate when powered.
The amplifier is cooled by forced airflow. Several inches of clearance on the top
and the rear wall are necessary to allow for smooth air intake into the fan. Do not
block the air vents on the top cover.
2-2
Keep the amplifier out of direct sunlight, in a cool dry environment.
2-3
Internal high voltages, (AC, DC and RF), are present at all times, ON
AIR or OFF. Internal access should be limited to avoid injury.
2-4
Turn off the AC main power immediately upon any unusual sounds,
sights or odors. Check the multimeter readings of Vd and Id, the fuses and all
cable connections around the amplifier. Please notify the dealer or the factory of
any problems.
2-5
For your safety, do not operate the amplifier without adequate grounding.
A proper ground connection will result in peak performance and stability, in
addition to reduced RF strays or noises.
2-6
To eliminate the RF interference to such home appliances as TV, FM
radio, telephone sets, etc., it is recommended that clamp-on ferrite cores be
1
inserted at both ends of the remote control cable, ALC cable, coaxial jumper
cable, and antenna cables, as needed. Also, a common mode AC line filter (near
the AC outlet), and in-line low pass filters on the antenna coaxial cable, (as
necessary), are recommended.
2-7
The amplifier has fast acting sophisticated protection circuits controlled
by the latest microprocessor technology. Please note, however, any such actions
that cause the same fault to occur repeatedly, will lead to failure of the valuable
final power FET transistors. Also note that the full power CW (or carrier) drive
under the erroneous MANUAL BAND SET leads to the failure of the final power
FET’
s (See page 11, Section 7. Connection). In this sense, it is highly
recommended that the amplifier is connected to the radio with supplied Band
Data Cable.
2-8
Before checking inside the amplifier, be sure to wait a few minutes for
the high DC voltage to discharge (monitor Vd meter reading). The internal
potentiometers for RF power detector, protection circuits, FET bias voltage
circuit, etc., are precisely adjusted at the factory, and should not be altered.
Doing so, would require readjustment with precision measuring instruments.
2-9
The primary power transformer is factory pre-wired for AC 240 V
operation. (See page6, Section 5. AC Line Voltage) Be sure to verify your AC
line voltage before you plug the AC power cord into the outlet.
2-10
Before powering on the amplifier, be sure to connect a dummy load (50
ohms, 1.5 kW min.) or a well-adjusted antenna to the output terminal. Operating
without any load will cause extreme stress to the RF power FET’
s, although
protection circuits should work under critical conditions.
2-11
Required drive power is slightly less than 100 W to obtain the full 1.5 kW
output. Do not attempt to operate with excessive drive from a high power
transceiver. Transmitting high drive RF (over 100 W) into the amplifier will void
the warranty.
2-12
Keep the aluminum heat sink and air openings free from dust and
blockages. Periodic cleaning will prevent degraded cooling efficiency.
2
2-13
For long continuous operation in RTTY/FM modes, it is recommended
you reduce the RF drive levels by 20% to 30% lower output than CW/SSB
modes.
2-14
To prevent damage to the precision electronic components, avoid
extreme physical shock to the amplifier. If factory service is required, the
amplifier MUST be shipped using the original box and packaging materials.
3. Features
3-1
Our solid-state broadband design engineers worked to make the
HL-2.5KFX, the lightest and most compact 1.5 kW HF amplifier in the industry.
This world-class compact 1.5 kW HF amplifier is the easiest to handle and
operate.
3-2
The amplifier is equipped with a newly developed band decoder. The
amplifier’
s decoder changes bands automatically as the data signal is received
from the associated HF transceiver’
s frequency bands.
3-3
The amplifier’
s main PA section includes 2 high power MOS FET
ARF1500’
s by Microsemi, resulting in 1.5 kW PEP (SSB max.). The amplifier’
s
broadband characteristics require no further tuning once the operating band is
selected.
3-4
The amplifier allows operation in full break-in CW mode due to the use of
the amplifier’
s high- speed antenna relays (made by Panasonic/Matsushita).
3-5
With the unique duct structure design and the powerful blower fan, the
aluminum heat sink block for RF PA module (and other components), are
effectively cooled. The fan’
s quiet operation allows for even the weakest DX
signals to be heard.
3-6
The amp utilizes an advanced 16 bit MPU (microprocessor) to run the
various high speed protection circuits such as overdrive, high antenna SWR, DC
overvoltage, band miss-set etc.
3
3-7
This amplifier is compatible with AC 220 V and 240 V (200/230/250 V
included). See the illustration in the AC Power Section for changing primary
wiring of the power transformer.
3-8
For the safety of the operator, an Interlock system is employed. The AC
power is shut down if the top cover is removed, and the automated safety
interlock is activated.
3-9
An analog multimeter allows the operator to monitor Pr (Reflected
power), Vd (Drain voltage of power FET), Id (Drain current) and ALC voltage.
3-10
For future expansion, the amplifier rear panel is equipped with a control
cable connection socket, this is for the upcoming model HC-1.5KAT, auto
antenna tuner by Tokyo Hy-Power Labs. in 2007.
4
4. Specifications
Frequency
:
1.8 ~ 28 MHz all amateur bands including WARC
bands
Mode
:
SSB, CW, RTTY
RF Drive
:
85W typ. (100W max.)
Output Power
:
1.5 kW PEP/CW (typ.)
(1.2 kW on 28 MHz band)
Matching Transceivers for Auto Band Decoder
:
Most ICOM, Yaesu, Kenwood
Drain Voltage
:
120 V (when no RF drive)
Drain Current
:
25 A max.
Input Impedance
:
50Ω (unbalanced)
Output Impedance
:
50Ω (unbalanced)
Final Transistor
:
ARF1500 x 2 (MOS FET by Microsemi)
Circuit
:
Class AB push-pull
Cooling Method
:
Forced Air Cooling
MPU
:
PIC 18F452-I/P
Multi-Meter
:
Output Power
Pf 2.5 kW
Reflected Power Pr 250W
Drain Voltage Vd 150V
Drain Current
Id 40A
Input/Output Connectors :
UHF SO-239 with low loss Teflon insulator
AC Power
:
AC 240 V (200/220/230/250 V) 15A max.
AC Consumption
:
3 kVA max. when TX
Dimension
:
325 x 145 x 405 mm (W x H x D)
12.3 x 5.7 x 15.9 inches
Weight
:
Approx. 25.2 kgs. or 57.3 lbs.
Accessories
:
AC Power Cord
x1
RCA Plug
x2
Band Decoder Cable x 3
Spare Fuse 12 A (for AC 230V line) x 2
Spare Fuse 1A (Miniature Fuse)
x3
User Manual x 1
Optional Items
:
Auto Antenna Tuner (HC-1.5KAT)
High Power Cooling Fan (HXT-2.5KF for high duty
cycle operation)
5
5. AC Line Voltage
5-1
The amplifier is designed to work with AC 240 V (200- 250 V).
5-2
The correct AC plug (not included in the package), must be obtained
locally due to the AC plug variations worldwide.
5-3
The AC voltage has been factory preset for 240 V use (or as requested
by the customer at the time of order). See the other illustration for AC voltages
other than 240 V. For your safety, before making these adjustments, be sure to
pull the AC plug from the AC outlet to avoid injury.
Guide for Tap Selection
AC Line
Tap 1
Tap 2
200V (195V-205V)
0V
200 V
210V (205V-215V)
10 V
220 V
220V (215V-225V)
0V
220 V
230V (225V-235V)
10 V
240 V
240V (235V-245V)
0V
240 V
250V (245V-255V)
0V
250 V
T1 (Main Power Transformer)
AC-L
Tap 2
250V
240V
220V
200V
Secondary
Winding
AC-N Tap 1
10V
10V
0V
Terminal Board Connection
AC200V
AC210V
AC220V
AC230V
AC240V
AC250V
240V
220V
200V
240V
220V
200V
240V
220V
200V
240V
220V
200V
240V
220V
200V
250V
240V
220V
200V
10V
0V
10V
0V
10V
0V
10V
0V
10V
0V
10V
0V
6
6-A
Front Panel Description
⑥
⑦
①
①POWER
②
⑧
⑨
③
④
⑤
Main power switch to turn AC power on and off.
LED (green) lights when turned on.
②OPER.
OPERATE/STAND-BY switch. At OPERATE, the amplifier is
ready to go into ON AIR (TX) mode and at STBY, it is on
STAND-BY mode.
③METER
To change the multimeter scales. Meter reads Pr, Vd, and Id,
and ALC.
④BAND-AUTO/MAN’
L
To select band switching methods AUTO or MANUAL. When
using AUTO, the manufacturer for the transceiver in use
should be selected. When the band data cable is not used,
MANUAL should be selected. (See page 9, ⑤TRXSEL and
③CONT for Band Data cable Connection)
⑤BAND-MAN’
L Rotary switch for band change in manual mode. While the
transceiver is on Receive (RX) mode, turn to select the
desired frequency band to operate. The switches will not work
when the transceiver and the amplifier are in Transmit (TX)
mode.
⑥METER(PF)
Meter to read forward output power, PF. Full scale is 2.5 kW,
and it reads average power.
7
⑦MULTIMETER
PR(Reflected power from antenna), VD (FET drain voltage),
and ID(FET drain current) and ALC voltage are shown on the
scale as selected by ③METER select switch.
Full scales are; PR:250 W, VD: 150 V, ID: 40 A, ALC: -10V.
⑧ON AIR, FAN, ID, PROT(LED)
ON AIR
:
Lights when the amplifier is in transmit(TX) mode.
FAN
:
Lights when cooling fan is running at high speed.
When the heat sink temperature reaches 40℃, cooling fan
speed will continuously increase to enhance cooling
capacity.
It runs at full speed when 65℃ is reached.
ID
:
Excessive ID Indicator (25 A). Depending on the band and
antenna situation, high drain current may flow into FET’
s. If
25 A is exceeded, this LED flickers and/or lights to indicate
that high ID is being drawn (This light does not necessarily
mean a failure of the amplifier. However, if it lights too often,
or too long, it is possible the driver power should be reduced
and the antenna should be checked for SWR, to avoid
stress to the FET’
s.).
PROT
:
Lights when protection circuit shuts down the amplifier.
Various protection circuits are built in such as Over-drive,
Band mis-set, high Ant-SWR, Over-temperature etc.
Detailed explanations will follow.
Band
Band Change Mode
CI-V (example)
*YSU is displayed for
Yaesu radio, and KEN
for Kenwood’
s.
Amp. Status
⑨LCD Panel
Heat Sink Temp.
Displays modes of operation and protection circuit.
8
6-B
Rear Panel Description
①
②
③ ④ ⑤
⑥
⑦
⑧
⑨
⑩ ⑪ ⑫
⑬
①ANT A
RF Output Connector. Connect the coax cable to the antenna.
②INPUT
RF Input Connector. Connect the coax jumper cable from the
transceiver.
③CONT
D-Sub (15pin) Socket. Connect the band data cable to the
transceiver.
④TUNER
DIN Socket. Connect the control cable from External Auto
Antenna Tuner, HC-1.5KAT.
⑤TRXSEL
Switch to select the transceiver manufacturer (i.e. ICOM, Yaesu,
Kenwood).
⑥GND
Ground Terminal.
⑦⑧FUSE
A pair of fuses for AC Mains. 250 V/12 A glass fuse.
(Self extinguish type.)
⑨AC POWER 230 V AC Mains Socket. Socket for the AC power cord. (Socket
is EMI filtered.)
⑩ALC ADJ.
Potentiometer to adjust ALC voltage level. Minus 10 V is
available at maximum, when turned full counter-clockwise.
Factory setting is 0 volts, with the pot turned full clockwise.
(See page 16, Section 9. ALC Connection for more details.)
⑪SEND
RCA Jack. Connect the control cable from the ACC terminal (or
9
SEND, TX GND etc.) of the transceiver. Electrical conditions
are 12 V DC of open voltage at receive mode (RX), and short
current of 35 mA at transmit mode (TX).
⑫ALC
RCA Jack for ALC Voltage Output. Negative DC voltage
appears at the center pin, which is fed back to the ALC terminal
of the transceiver. ALC is used to keep the amplifier output
power at certain limits. Also it is useful when the transceiver
output power is higher than 100 W (See page 16, Section 9.
ALC Connection). Also consult your HF transceiver€31
s user
manual.
⑬FAN POWER Socket to connect DC cord plug of the cooling fan.
6-C
Top View
Cooling Fan
Interlock
Switch
for AC Mains
Output Low Pass Filter
Terminal for
Primary Winding Taps
RF Power
Amp
and Heat SInk
Power Transformer
Rectifier
Front Panel Side
10
7. Connection
7-1
Connection to Transceiver and Tuner
HC-1.5KAT Control Cable
HL-2.5KFX
Band Data Cable
Transceiver
SEND/
ALC STBY ANT
◎ ◎ ◎
◎
230 V AC Cord
ALC Cable
PTT Cable
Coax Jumper Cable
Connector and Cable List
HL-2.5KFX side
Display/
connector name
AC200V
IEC3P Inlet
IEC3P
ALC
RCA-J
SEND
RCA-J
RCA-P
TUNER
DIN7J
DIN7P
IN
UHF(SO239)
OUT
UHF(SO-239)
CONT
D-SUB15R
Signal
Cable side
Connector
To:
①AC200L
②GND
③AC200N
AC230V consent
Transceiver
ALC socket
Transceiver
PTT relay
ALC Output
RCA-P
PTT Input
PL259
PL259
D-SUB15P
Auto Tuner
Description
AC Power Cord
200V 20A
RF output (-) recitification
-10V max.
Short at TX
Open at RX
12V 40mA
Band tracking signal
Tuning Control
②GND
④EVENT
⑦FREQ
HC-1.5KAT
CONT socket
TRX
ANT of Transceiver Coax Cable
Antenna or Tuner
Coax Antenna Cable
Input
Band data terminal See Section 10. for details
of transceiver
Antenna
Band Data
11
7-2
Technical Information
Equivalent Circuit of SEND Terminal
Equivalent Circuit of ALC Output
12
8. Operation
***CAUTION: Under the Manual Band Set operation, always be sure to check if
BAND Switch position matches that of your radio before keying PTT or the CW
paddle. Also when you have changed the BAND, do not make the full power CW
(carrier) drive but reduced level power to see if the BAND is set correctly and the
amplified RF power comes out properly. Full power CW drive under the BAND
Mis-set leads to the failure of the valuable final power FET devices. ***
8-1
Various Status
There are four modes to be displayed on LCD.
① STBY (Standby Mode)
This mode is for AC Power ON, and
OPER. Switch at STBY position.
Amplifier is in a through state.
② OPER (Operate) Mode
This mode is for AC Power ON, and
OPER switch at OPER. Position.
Amplifier will work, if the transceiver is
keyed.
③ ONAIR (On Air) Mode
This is for amplifier being keyed
under OPER. Mode.
Amplifier is amplifying or ready to
amplify the drive signal.
④ PROT (Protection) Mode
Amplifier has been shut down by the
protection circuit and is in a though
state.
See page 19, Section11. Protection
Circuits on how to reset.
13
8-2
8-2-1
How to Operate
Connect AC cord and coax cables as illustrated in Section 7 Connection.
Connect the cable from “
SEND”to ACC or the remote terminals of transceiver,
where it is marked “
SEND”or “
TX GND”
. These terminal pins are shorted to
ground when the transceiver is in TX/ON AIR mode. If these connections are not
made, the amplifier will not go into TX (amplification) mode. For a temporary
check to the amp, ground the SEND center pin by inserting an RCA plug whose
center pin has been soldered to the outer case of the plug with a small piece of
wire. As a side note, this SEND terminal shows 12 VDC when open, and draws
35 mA when shorted.
8-2-2
At first, turn the ALC knob full clockwise to avoid ALC voltage to the
transceiver. Application of ALC will be covered in the following Section 9.
8-2-3
Keeping the POWER (AC mains) switch off, check the SWR of your
antenna by keying the transceiver to TX mode (CW or RTTY mode). Monitor the
SWR with an external SWR/Power meter. If SWR is 1.8 or higher at band center,
the antenna has to be adjusted for lower SWR.. As an alternative, an antenna
tuner may be inserted.
8-2-4
While keeping OPER/STBY switch at STBY position, turn the POWER
switch on. Turn ④BAND AUTO-MAN’
L switch to AUTO, or MAN’
L(manual)
position. If MAN’
L is selected, turn BAND-MAN’
L switch to desired band. See
page 17, Section10. Band Data Cable Connection, for more details of various
band data cables. Turn the STAND-BY switch to OPER (operate) position and
the amplifier is ready to go. If the POWER switch is turned on, while
OPER/STBY switch is at OPER(operate) position, the orange OPER lamp will
blink, and you will need to reset the OPER switch to enter into operation mode.
“
PSE STBY OPERSW is displayed at this time. If you key the transceiver with
the carrier level set relatively low (such as 20-30W), you will achieve an
amplified output signal of a few hundreds watts. Monitor this output with the PF
meter or with an external power meter. Increase drive level to roughly 50W and
see if the antenna SWR stays constant. (As higher RF currents flow some
antennas may show a changed SWR value due to heated connector junctions
and trap coils.)
14
8-2-5
You can now increase the drive level to nearly 80-90W to achieve
maximum carrier output power of 1.4 kW (CW, RTTY) from the amplifier. If you
change to SSB mode, peak voice power will reach approximately 1.5 kW. For
high duty cycle transmissions like RTTY, SSTV, or FM modes, it is
recommended you reduce the drive power by 20-30 % compared with SSB/CW.
8-2-6
With a high power transceiver in SSB mode, you can overdrive the
amplifier resulting in a distorted output signal. This can also occur if you speak
too loud or if you set the microphone gain too high. Speak into the microphone
properly to reduce the possibilities of splattering into the neighborhood. The ALC
is effective in preventing the output signal from being distorted or to limit the
carrier level to within rated output levels. As long as you do not overdrive, you
can disregard the ALC connection. See page 15, Section 9. ALC Connection for
details.
8-7-7
Protection circuits may work during operation depending on the
conditions. If the protection circuit has shut down the amplifier, check the
antenna SWR, Vd, AC line voltage, or try to reduce the drive level. To reset, turn
off the ② OPER/STBY switch once, then back on again. Note that some
protection modes need to reset the ①POWER switch(See page19, Section 11.
Protection & Safety Circuits for more details). The power transformer has an
overheat protection(130℃) in the coil layer. If this temperature switch activates,
the amplifier will put you in receive mode with the cooling fan operating until the
transformer has cooled off. It may take ten to fifteen minutes to cool, depending
upon room temperature. In the same way, there is a built-in thermal switch
(100℃) in the heat sink block of power FET’
s.
9. ALC Connection
ALC voltage is available at the terminal marked ALC (RCA phono jack) on the
right upper corner of the rear panel. Negative maximum DC voltage of ten volts
(-10 V) is produced at this terminal when the amplifier is fully driven. This voltage
is adjustable with the ALC ADJ. knob located above the ALC jack. If the ALC
voltage is properly fed back to the transceiver, you can keep the maximum
output power constant or hold the power at a certain level. Also ALC is useful in
avoiding your SSB signal from being distorted when overdriven. You may not
15
always need to connect ALC to the transceiver, if you set the mic gain properly
and do not overdrive the amplifier. Depending upon the manufacturer of the
transceiver, the suitable ALC voltage differs. ICOM may need 0~-4 V, and Yaesu
may need 0~-5 V range.. Kenwood may need -6~-8 V maximum. Check your
transceiver manual.
9-1
Prepare an ALC control cable using the RCA plug supplied in the
package. Solder a single wire or (more preferably) a shielded single wire to the
center pin of RCA plug and solder the shield braid to the outer side of the plug.
Connect the control cable to the “
ALC (or EXTERNAL ALC)”jack of the
transceiver. External ALC input is sometimes available at one of the pins of the
“
ACC”socket of the transceiver as well.
9-2
At first, turn ALC ADJ. full clockwise. Drive the amplifier in CW/RTTY
mode to full output power. Then turn the ALC ADJ counter-clockwise. Observe
the SWR/Power meter at the output, (or Pf of the multimeter). Stop turning the
ALC ADJ at the point the power starts to decrease. Or if you wish to further
reduce the power, keep turning ALC ADJ until the desired level is achieved. If
you further try to increase the drive power you will now see the output power
become rather saturated, from these adjustments,
(Maximum ALC voltage produced is -10 V when the amplifier output is over 200
W.)
<REAR PANEL>
Max Min
to Transceiver
16
10. Band Data Cable Connection
This section explains about the methods of the auto band setting Collaboration
with the modern transceivers of ICOM, Yaesu and Kenwood.
To make this setting, it is needed that the band data cable is connected to
“
CONT” connector as well as selecting “
TRXSEL” for the proper radio
manufacturer.
Turn off AC powers of both the amplifier and the transceiver when you connect
this data cable. Be sure to confirm the auto band set on each band, after you
finish above settings.
Manual Band set
Auto Band set/ CI-V
10-1
①
②
ICOM DC Voltage Band Data
HL-2.5KFX Setting
TRXSEL:
“
I”
LCD:
“
ICOM”
Wiring:
Fig. A
TRX ACC
Transceiver Setting
None
②
Caution:
This method fails to discriminate
24 and 28 MHZ of WARC bands.
17
1
9
2
10
3
11
4
12
5
13
6
14
7
15
8
3.5mm PHONE PLUG
ICM
ICM G
ICOM-REGACY BAND DATA
<Fig. A>
10-2
①
②
ICOM CI-V
HL-2.5KFX Setting
TRXSEL:
“
C”
LCD:
“
CIV”
Wiring:
Fig. B
TRX ACC
Transceiver Setting
CI-V BAUD RATE:
9600 [bps]
CI-V ADDRESS:
5 Ch
CI-V Transceiver:
ON
CI-V with IC-731:
OFF
1
9
2
10
3
11
4
12
5
13
6
14
7
15
8
ICOM CI-V DATA WIRING
3.5mm PHONE PLUG
<Fig. B>
(See ICOM radio manual for the details.)
10-3
①
②
Yaesu Band Data
HL-2.5KFX Setting
TRXSEL:
“
Y”
LCD:
“
YSU”
Wiring:
Fig. C
TRX ACC
1
9
2
10
3
11
4
12
5
13
6
14
7
15
8
Transceiver Setting
None
BAND-A
BAND-B
BAND-C
BAND-D
GND
YAESU BAND-DATA
<Fig. C>
10-4
Kenwood RS-232C
①
HL-2.5KFX Setting
②
TRXSEL:
“
K”
LCD:
“
KEN”
Wiring:
Fig. D
Transceiver Setting
Speed:
9600 [bps]
Stop bit:
1 bit
(See Kenwood radio manual for
the details.)
18
<Fig. D>
11. Protection & Safety Circuits
11-1
Protection Circuits
HL-2.5KFX is equipped with ten protection circuits as shown in the table below.
Protections are commanded by the 16bit microprocessor chip, and DC drain
voltage (120 V) is cut off, when the protection circuit works. Also PROT lamp is lit
and the amplifier becomes “
through”state.
If PROT lamp is blinking, you may reset the shut down with OPER/STBY
switch. Reason for the shut down is displayed on LCD panel except for some
cases.
←Example of LCD display
(In this case, over drive)
For OVER VDD and OVER TEMP shut downs, turn the AC Power switch off
and on to reset the amplifier.
No. PROTECTION
LCD DISPLAY
1
Over drive
PROT OVER DRIV
2
Band mis-set
PROT BAND-MISS
3
Over current
PROT OVER ID
4
Freq. Inhibit
PROT INHBT FREQ
5
Over PF
PROT OVER Pf
6
Over PR
PROT OVER Pr
7
Over Dissipation
8
Over Tj
9
Over voltage
PROT OVER Plos
PROT OVER Tj
PROT OVER VDD
10 Over heat
PROT OVER TEMP
11 Fuse blown
PROT FUSE-BLOW
CONDITION
RESET
Drive exceeded 120 W
*1
Amp gain is less than five times
*1
ID (drain) exceeded 35 A
*1
Driven freq-ranged 26 to28 MHz
*1
Output power exceeded 1550 W
*1
Reflected power exceeded W
*1
OPER
OPER
Or when amp out of
order
OPER
OPER
FCC rule
OPER
OPER
Drain power dissipation exceeded
2000 W
*1
Theoretical
*1
Theoretical calculation
OPER
Functon temp. reached 190℃
OPER
Drain voltage exceeded 140 V
*2
Heat sink temp reached 90℃
*2
Fuse was blown
(F1, F2 of Unit 10)
REMARKS
AC POWER
AC POWER
Not resettable
Check Fan Control
Unit, Unit 10
*1: Reset OPER/STBY switch.
*2: Reset AC main POWER switch.
19
11-2
Safety Circuits
In addition to the protection circuits above, there are other safety circuits
(inter-locked circuits) built in the amplifier.
They directly shut down AC power line for the primary of the power transformer,
and if shut down, AC power lamp (green), LCD display and cooling fan will all go
off.
In case this shut down has suddenly occurred during the transmission, stop
transmitting first and wait for several minutes. Pull off AC power plug and check
whether or not AC main fuses are blown.

Thermal Switches Threshold
Heat Sink:
100 ℃
Power Transformer: 130 ℃
These shut-downs will automatically be relieved, when the internal heat cools
off. Be sure to turn off AC power switch, before you leave the operation desk.
Otherwise AC power will be turned on for itself right after the cooling.
Cover Switch
AC200V
AC Power Relay
Main Fuse
12V Sub
DC
Power
Heat Sink X-former
Supply
AC200V
100℃
Main Fuse
20
130℃
Relay
Power
X-former
Model HL-2.5KFX
Theory of Operation
① How It Works/ RF Signal Flow
①
When the amplifier is in a stand-by (STBY) mode, gate bias(voltage) to
the final FET’
s are cut off. Also input(TX) relay and output(ANT) relay
are free(open) from the amplifier. Therefore the signals from the
transceiver and/or from the antenna will all by-pass the amplifier.
(By-Pass/ Stand-By Mode)
②
When the amplifier is in an OPER.(operate) mode and keyed by the
transceiver, forward gate bias is applied to the final power FET’
s and at
the same time input and output relays are closed to the IN and OUT of
the amplifier. Consequently the amplifier is ready to work with the
designed amplification gain.
③
RF Drive signal from the transceiver reaches RF IN of DET(Detector) &
T/R Relay Unit, PC1398B (Unit 5), where input power level is measured.
If the in drive power is over 100W, the protection circuit commanded by
micro computer (CPU) installed in PCS1677 (Unit 1) will issue a
command of “
Over-Drive”
, to shut down the amplifier. DET UNIT also
measures the amplified output level of the amplifier. When the ratio of
output and input(drive) powers is much lower than the designed value,
CONT UNIT(PC1698) will judge that final amplifier is out of order
and/or that output LPF (low pass filter) is band miss-set.
④
Drive signal having passed INPUT DET part is sampled by Unit 12,
Freq. DET UNIT, where the frequency of the drive signal is counted by
IC. If the frequency is between 26.0 and 28.0 MHz, CONT(ROL) UNIT
issues the command to shut down the amplifier, according to FCC rule.
⑤
Then drive signal reaches the input of POWER AMP UNIT 6, PC1661.
Signal is attenuated by 2 dB attenuator before entering the gates of
Model HL-2.5KFX-Theory of Operation(How It Works/ RF Signal Flow)-
1/2
FET’
s. Two FET’
s (ARF1500’
s) form a broad-band push-pull linear amp
with a gain of approximately sixteen times.
Next, the amplified signal will pass through LPF(low pass filter) UNIT
(Unit 9), PC1681, where the harmonics are filtered and removed.
⑥
Filtered output signal will then go through the OUT DET(output power
detector) of DET UNIT, PC1398B to reach RF OUT, J3(ANT) terminal.
OUT DET measures the output power level of the signal. This power
level is shown on the analog multi-meter, PF scale(forward power).
Model HL-2.5KFX-Theory of Operation(How It Works/ RF Signal Flow)-
2/2
Model HL-2.5KFX
Theory of Operation
②Product Explanation and About Its Major Circuitry
This is a linear power amplifier for the HF band amateur radio station.
It is designed for the use of the senior classes amateur operators, and is
capable of delivering 1,500W, when combined with most of modern HF
transceivers.
1. Features

Broad-band power amplification adopting the high power RF MOS
FET (ARF1500) originally developed for industrial applications.

Lightest and most compact design in the industry in its class.

Quiet operation due to large, high efficiency cooling system together
with the continuously speed variable fan.

Various intelligent protection circuits commanded by 16 bit advanced
micro processor.

Band data collaboration with the modern HF radios of major brands.

Our own THP-TUNE, interface for the easy cooperation with our
auto antenna tuner.

Intuitive operation touch due to the user-friendly layouts of rotary
and see-saw switches as well as LCD panel.

Proven balanced design with the feed backs from the experienced DX
enthusiasts.
Model HL-2.5KFX-Product Explanation and About Its Major Circuitry-
1/8
2. PA
IDQ=250mA
BIAS 3V -4. 2V
VDD
1
+ 10 0V
2
250V16A
2
Q1
T3
4
1
3
T1
RF IN
T5
3
1
ARF1500
RF OUT
4
2
3
4
1
2
ARF1500
T2
1
T4
2
Q2
BIAS 3V -4. 2V
IDQ=250mA
SIMPLIFIED RF POWER AMP
3
VDD
1
4
2
+100V
250V16A
PA consists of a pair of Microsemi ARF1500, in class AB push-pull
configuration.
Drain conditions are,
VDD = 100V
IDQ (when with no drive) = 250 mA/each FET
To achieve the gain flatness over the designed frequency range, multiple
loops of NFB are applied,
①
NFB from a coupling coil to T2, DC power feeding transformer.
②
NFB from Drain to Gate of FET.
Impedance transformation ratio of input transformer, T1 is frequency
switched for either 4 to 1, or 5 to 1 of winding ratio.
16A fuse is equipped in each drain current pass so that the whole system is
shut down when the sensor detects a blown fuse.
Model HL-2.5KFX-Product Explanation and About Its Major Circuitry-
2/8
3. Input Limiter Circuit/ Bias Circuit
To set the input (drive) power level of the amplifier to be 100W, 3dB power
attenuator is built in the input side.
Also, there are RF diode switch (D1, D2) connected in parallel with PA
circuit. These diodes make a fast shut down of the RF drive signal, working
in combination with the protection system. When this protection circuit
works, forward current flows in the diodes making a short circuit across the
input terminal of PA and the ground. The attenuator resistor, at this time,
becomes a protection resistor towards the driving source (transceiver) and
shows input SWR of 2. Fuse F1 has been put in series with the attenuator as
an additional protective means for the PA.
Shunt regulator IC, TL431 is used in the bias circuit, that is temperature
compensated with a thermistor. Bias output is shut down through a
photo-MOS FET for the purpose of fast send-receive switching.
Model HL-2.5KFX-Product Explanation and About Its Major Circuitry-
3/8
4. Input Equalizer
Just in front of the PA, there is an input equalizer.
It contributes to the gain flatness over the designed frequency band width
as well as to IMD improvement and prevention of parasitic oscillation.
The equalizer is basically a bridged L/C network.
Model HL-2.5KFX-Product Explanation and About Its Major Circuitry-
4/8
5.
Main DC Power Supply and Safety Circuit
T1
240V
AC L INE FILTER
2 50V12A
F1
10V
0V
F2
1
1
3
2
4
+C1
2
200V
400V1u
1
2
C
4
C?
2200p
AC200N
2200p
GND
1
3
VDD TO PA
80 V
MAIN RELAY
2
250V12A
VD TO FAN
160V18000uF
AC200L
220V
COVER SW
VDD CUT-OUT
100V
60mO HM
0V
SR1
TRANS_HL25K
400V1u
IDID+
HEAT-SINK 100deg
TRANS 1 30 deg
POWER SW
1
3
2
4
SIMPLIFIED AC-DC LINE AND INTER LOCK
AC mains are indirectly turned on by the Main Relay. In series to this relay,
there are connected thermal switches for PA heat sink (100℃) and power
transformer (130 ℃ ) that work independently from other electronic
protection circuits. Threshold values are set much higher than other
protections, and they do not turn on in the normal operating conditions.
AC line filter has 15 amps of current capacity.
Capacitance against ground is 2,200pF per phase. AC rectification for drain
DC voltage is made through diode bridge, and is filtered with 18,000μF of
electrolytic capacitor. This power supply system works from AC line voltages
of 210V through 250V only.
Model HL-2.5KFX-Product Explanation and About Its Major Circuitry-
5/8
RETURN
6. Transmitting RF Signal Pass
+ 5V
+12V
TX INHIBIT
M PU
1
4
2
3
THRU LINE (BI-DIRECTIONAL)
SE ND
T RX
ANT ENNA
ATT/LIMIT
EQUALIZER
POWER AMP
FI LTER
Pr
Pf
FREQ
Pdrv
AMPLIFIED LINE(OUTPUT)
SIMPLIF IED RF LINE DIRECTRY
When the amp is keyed, IN/OUT antenna relays are closed and amplified
signal will reach ANT terminal. When RX and/or when amp is at STBY, the
relays become open to make a thru-line pass between TRX and ANT.
Both at input side and output side of PA, there are RF directional couplers
that monitor incoming drive power, outgoing forward power, and reflected
power from the load.
To comply with FCC rule (26.0-28.0 MHz inhibited), incoming RF signal is
sampled by RF power detector, and is transferred to the frequency detector
system comprised of MPU.
Model HL-2.5KFX-Product Explanation and About Its Major Circuitry-
6/8
7. Output L.P.F.
INPUT
OUTPUT/ANTENNA
L302
RL1c
18/21
+12V
24
RL1c
RL308A
CM68p
C347
AR8t
RL308B
12p
C346
CM51p
ATC47p
C350
C349
ATC100p
12p
C351
12p
C353
C352
ATC47p
AR8t
L315
+12V
24M
RL1c
RL316A
RL1c
RL1c
L31 6
14
RL306A
RL1c
CM51P
C333
47p
C334
33p
C336
33p
C337
ATC100p
RL1c
C348
RL316B
+12V
18/21M
RL306B
AR10t
10
RL305A
12p
+12V
14M
RL1c
C335
CM51p
C325
8p
C324
CM51p
CM51p
AR10t
7
K307A
RL1c
RL305B
C327
+12V
10M
RL1c
C341
8p
CM150p
C326
3.5
RL302A
RL1c
C305
CM200p
12p
+12V
RL304A
RL1c
CM100p
0.7u
RL303A
RL1c
CM200p
C316
CM180p
RL1c
K307B
C343
1.8
7M
12p
L311
C338
CM51p
C339
10p
C340
AR19t
RL1c
C301
C311
C310
CM200p
C318
CM150p
C328
CM51p
C329
CM51p
C330
CM 51 p
C331
C332
RL1c
RL314A
L312
24M
16p
L309
AR9t
RL314B
RL1c
C344
CM150p
C345
L310
CM51p
RL1c
K313A
RL313B
C317
CM150 p
CM100p
CM200p
0.8u
C30 7
RL1c
RL302B
L313
0.5u
18/21M
28M
C308
CM200p
C309
RL315A
RL1c
L314
14M
+ 12V
16 p
C342
K315B
RL1c
+ 12V
C320
CM150p
RL310A
RL1c
0.7u
RL1c
RL1c
RL304B
L303
L304
+12V
3.5M
1.15u
C306
RL310B
10M
18/21M
C321
CM150p
C322
CM150p
C323
0.85u
RL1c
CM51p
L307
7M
+ 12V
CM390p
C314
CM390p
C315
RL1c
RL312A
C319
L308
RL1c
+ 12V
22p
J301
1.8M
RL303B
2.3u
C31 3
RL1c
CM75p
L305
1.7u
RL312B
CM1000p
RL311A
RL1c
L306
3.5M
+ 12V
4.7u
C312
RL1c
+ 12V
C303
CM820p
C304
3.1u
RL311B
RL301B
L301
1.8M
+ 12V
CM150p
RL301A
RL309B
RL1c
+ 12V
1.8M
C302
CM1000p
RL1c
RL309A
J302
+12V
28
28M
The filter section consists of eight(8) band-division low pass filters to be
selected by IN/OUT relays of the respective bands.
Basic circuit is a two stage πtype low pass filter.
Model HL-2.5KFX-Product Explanation and About Its Major Circuitry-
7/8
8. Metering, Analog Management and Protection
SIMPLIFIED METERING AND PROTECTION CIRCUTRY
SIMPLIFIED MESURING SENSOR CURCUITRY
REF5V
AD REF
INPUT COUPL ER
IN(TRX)
OUTPUT COUPLER
OUT(ANT)
1
FREQ
2
3
4
HS INPUT
AMP AND OTHER P ERIPHERAL
RF SUMPLE
Pdrv
AN0
Pr
Pf
AN1
Pf
Pr
AN2
VDD
AN3
ID-
AN4
TEMP.SENSOR
TEMP
FREQ
LM35
Pdrv
RT N
VDD2
VDD1
MEASURE
MESURE
4
2
3
Pf METER
MTR SW
MEASURE
MESURE
MULTI METER
ADJ
VDD
5
REF5V
1
2
3
4
AL C
VOLTEGE
DER
VOLTAGEDEVI
DEVIDER
REF5V
ADJ
CURRENT
SHUNT
CURRENTSENS
SENSE
SHUNT
RTN
ID
2
1
2
FUSE
FUSEBROW
BLOW
VD
3
2
18000uF
+
1
1
4
Pr
DC+120V
1
ID-
ALC OUT
TEMP
AN5
DI
FUSE BLOW
NON-IVERTIG AMP
+
+
-
INVERTING AMP
MPU INPUT PORTS
+
LEGEND SYMBOLS
All the analog sensors of HL-2.5KFX are scaled to be 0 to 5V range and are
numerically controlled by ten bit AD converter of MPU (PIC16F472).
Panel meter scales are calibrated to the same reference voltage (5V) of AD
converter so that the meter match the numerical status of MPU.
Also the protection functions are executed through the numerical data
comparisons inside of MPU,.
Sampling intervals are approximately 20mS.
Detailed explanation of the protections are covered in the instruction
manual.
Model HL-2.5KFX-Product Explanation and About Its Major Circuitry-
8/8
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