Implementing a trace component for Carbide development

Implementing a trace component for Carbide development
Implementing a trace component for Carbide development
framework
Esa Karvanen
University of Tampere
Department of Computer Sciences
Computer Science
M.Sc. thesis
Supervisor: Jyrki Nummenmaa
June 2007
i
University of Tampere
Department of Computer Sciences
Computer Science
Esa Karvanen: Implementing a trace component for Carbide development
framework
M.Sc. thesis, 47 pages
June 2007
This thesis introduces a trace component named TraceViewer which is a plug-in
for Carbide development framework. TraceViewer is able to receive,
manipulate and view traces received from a smartphone. The thesis presents
some background information about Carbide.c++ framework. A tracing
concept, Open System Trace, used in TraceViewer is also introduced.
TraceViewer is described by going through the requirements, architecture and
design phases which will give a good overview about the software.
Key words and terms: TraceViewer, Carbide, Trace, Debug, S60, smartphone,
Open System Trace.
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Contents
Preface ............................................................................................................................iii
1. Introduction............................................................................................................. 1
2. Eclipse and Carbide.c++ frameworks................................................................... 2
2.1. About Eclipse................................................................................................. 2
3.
4.
5.
2.2. Carbide.c++..................................................................................................... 3
The concept of tracing............................................................................................ 5
3.1. Basics of tracing ............................................................................................. 5
3.2. Open System Trace ....................................................................................... 6
3.3. Trace Builder.................................................................................................. 9
Requirements for TraceViewer........................................................................... 11
Architecture and design of TraceViewer .......................................................... 15
5.1. Architecture overview................................................................................ 15
5.2. Class design.................................................................................................. 17
5.2.1. TraceViewer Engine ........................................................................ 17
5.2.2. DataProcessors................................................................................. 20
5.3. User interface design .................................................................................. 22
5.3.1. Overview .......................................................................................... 22
5.3.2. Base user interface........................................................................... 23
5.3.3. DataProcessor dialogs..................................................................... 23
5.3.4. Trace activation dialog ................................................................... 27
5.4. A behavioral view ....................................................................................... 28
6.
5.4.1. The big picture ................................................................................. 28
5.4.2. Trace displaying .............................................................................. 29
Evaluation of the software and improvement propositions .......................... 34
6.1. Performance evaluation ............................................................................. 34
6.2. Overall evaluation....................................................................................... 37
6.3. Improvement propositions ........................................................................ 38
7. Summary and conclusions .................................................................................. 40
References ..................................................................................................................... 42
iii
Preface
Tracing is a fast and efficient way of debugging software execution. For
Symbian development, Carbide.c++ was used. There was no working and easy
solution for tracing inside Carbide.c++ which was the motivation to start this
project.
The subject of this thesis, TraceViewer, has been designed and implemented in
Nokia Tampere in Product Platforms organisation. I would like to thank Erkki
Salonen, my team manager, for giving me the opportunity to write this thesis.
I would also like to thank my whole team at work and my parents for trying to
motivate me to finish this thesis. Also, special thanks go to Rami Törmä and
Tuomas Vuori for making my studying times such a joy.
Esa Karvanen
11 June 2007, Tampere
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1. Introduction
This thesis introduces a component called TraceViewer. TraceViewer is used to
receive and manipulate traces from a trace source which in this case is a
smartphone. TraceViewer is a plug-in for a development framework called
Carbide.c++ which is built above a popular open source software framework
called Eclipse.
TraceViewer is part of a bigger tracing concept called Open System Trace which
enables tracing from a smartphone to the view of TraceViewer. Using
TraceViewer the user can receive traces from a smartphone and use many kinds
of trace line manipulations to find relevant information more quickly and
easily. The main features consist of, for example, filtering, coloring, counting
and searching of traces and investigating variables inside traces.
This thesis starts by introducing Eclipse and Carbide.c++ frameworks and
continues by explaining the concept of tracing. In this context also a tracing
model, Open System Trace, used in TraceViewer and other related tools will be
introduced. The next two chapters will describe the requirements, architecture
and design of TraceViewer plug-in. The thesis will not go to source code level
of the design, but will give an overview of the component and its structure and
how the most problematic design issues were solved. The final chapters are
used in evaluation of the TraceViewer, summary and the conclusions about the
success of the project.
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2. Eclipse and Carbide.c++ frameworks
2.1. About Eclipse
Eclipse is a platform independent open-source software framework originally
developed by IBM in 2001. It is now managed by Eclipse Foundation which is a
non-profit corporation. The Eclipse framework was claimed to have 2.25 million
users worldwide in November 2006 [CNET News, 2006].
Eclipse is mainly known as a Java development environment although in
principle the platform itself has no support for it. Eclipse was built to a
universal IDE (Integrated Development Environment) where the user can
handle project workspaces and build, launch and debug applications. It is
designed to be highly extendable with so called plug-ins. The most famous
plug-in for Eclipse is probably the JDT (Java Development Tools) which will
make Eclipse a Java IDE. JDT, as many other plug-ins, comes with Eclipse SDK
as a default which is why many people do not even realize that those are not
fixed parts of Eclipse. [Eclipsepedia, 2007]
Eclipse Java Development Tools (JDT) provides many plug-ins that implement
a Java IDE supporting the development of any Java application, including
Eclipse plug-ins. It adds a Java perspective to Eclipse Workbench as well as a
number of views, editors, wizards, builders, code merging and refactoring
tools. [JDT, 2007] Refactoring tools are one reason why Eclipse is popular.
These convenience tools allow the user for example to rename Java elements,
move classes and packages, create interfaces from concrete classes, turn nested
classes into top-level classes, and extract a method from a section of code. Using
these tools is a good way to improve productivity and keep your code more
maintainable.
While the Eclipse platform is designed to be an open tools platform, it is
architectured so that its components can be used to build any kind of client
application. The minimal set of plug-ins needed to build a rich client application
is collectively known as the Rich Client Platform (RCP). The Rich Client
Platform consists of the following components:
•
Eclipse Runtime providing the support for plug-ins, extension points
and extensions.
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•
•
Standard Widget Toolset (SWT) which provides a native GUI look
and feel to applications by accessing native GUI libraries of the
operating system.
JFace – A UI framework layered on the top of SWT which handles
•
many common UI tasks and provides easy access to SWT features.
Workbench which is built over Runtime, SWT and JFace and
provides a multi-window environment for managing views, editors,
•
perspectives, actions and many more.
Other plug-ins included in the RCP provide support for XML
language, commands and help core content model.
There are also many other Eclipse components that can be used in constructing
a RCP application. Quite a few companies are using the opportunity to make a
multi-platform application easily without having to build everything from
scratch by using Eclipse RCP as a base for the software. One of these
applications is Carbide.c++.
2.2. Carbide.c++
Nokia’s mobile development tools product set is called Carbide. It is designed
to integrate Nokia’s wide range of development tools into a common
framework. There are three families of tools within Carbide: Carbide.c++ tools
for Symbian OS development, Carbide.j for Java development and Carbide.ui
for customization.
Carbide.c++ is built on the top of the Eclipse framework and more specifically,
on the top of C/C++ Development Tools (CDT) Project. CDT project provides an
IDE for C and C++ software development. The function of the Carbide.c++ is to
replace Metrowerks CodeWarrior as the primary development environment for
Symbian OS.
There are four different versions of Carbide.c++. The express version is the most
elementary containing basic tools for non-commercial development. The
developer version of Carbide.c++ is targeted to commercial software
development which also has some additional features such as the UI Designer
for rapid UI creation and application-level on-device debugging. Carbide.c++
Professional includes system-level on-device debugging for complete access to
all system threads and memory and Carbide Performance Investigator for
performance optimization. Because these tools enable application development
on early prototype hardware, Professional is mainly targeted to Symbian OS
phone manufacturers, their partners and application/middleware vendors. The
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latest Carbide.c++ version, OEM, is targeted to device creation users with
features such as Stop-mode debug (JTAG support) and Device creation features
(TBA). Carbide.c++ OEM v1.2 is available as 2007. [Forum Nokia, 2007]
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3. The concept of tracing
3.1. Basics of tracing
Tracing is defined as monitoring program execution and interesting variables in
run-time. The difference between debugging and tracing is that in debugging
the user normally stops the program execution to investigate, for example, the
value of a variable when in tracing, program execution is not stopped but the
value of the variable is, for example, printed to the screen. Tracing is often used
to follow the application run path by instrumenting traces to the start and end
of every function or in every if / else / switch case. This way the user can easily
see where the execution ceased and can then instrument more traces to that
function to check variable values or the exact code line that caused the error.
The most famous trace in software development is “Hello world” which is the
output from the first software for many programmers. The trace indicates that
the software functioned properly. The principle is the same also for bigger
applications. The developer writes traces to the source code, compiles, executes
and analyses the output to ensure that the application functioned properly
[MSDN, 2007]. When tracing, iteration is often needed to find the exact problem
that is causing the malfunction of the application. When starting the debugging
of the software by using traces, traces are often added to start and end of the
functions the developer is interested in. After the first run and bug occurrence,
developer should know the exact function where the execution ceased or went
wrong. Then it is a time to add more traces into this specific function to fully see
what is going on there. Usually this means outputting variable values. In the
next run, the developer should be able to pinpoint the exact place where
something went wrong. If this is not the case, more traces are added to other
methods and places until the bug is found.
Traces used in software tracing are normally quite unique because they need to
tell the developer where the program execution is going and the values of
interesting variables. Also, because the traces are mainly meant for the
developer, traces are very rarely localized. Some traces are used like assertions,
they should be never seen. The developer can, for example, write a trace inside
a null check block and they see from the output if the null check fails. If this
happens, traces outputted before the null check trace are used to pinpoint the
execution path leading to the false situation.
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In most cases traces are printed inside some console on the computer screen
while implementing an application to computers. Often in the case of a
smartphone, the screen is very small and not very good at showing possibly
large amounts of data. Another very commonly used option is to forward
traces directly to a file which can then be read later from another place with a
bigger screen.
Many programs can write some kind of log file, for example, by using some
command line argument when starting the program. These log files can be then
analysed by programmers, system administrators or technical support to
diagnose problems with the software. Writing a log file can then also be called
tracing as long as it is not clearly done as an event logging. Event logging
normally means logging of very high level information when tracing logs low
level information. Writing a log file is often used on debugging server side
applications. Servers are supposed to be running for months without
interruption and therefore normal debugging means can not be used. Often the
defects on server side applications happen in same specific combination of
actions which is very hard to find by debugging. Using tracing into a log file,
the developer can check latest actions from the log file after the server has
crashed or ceased functioning properly.
Tracing has a performance impact on the application execution. An application
outputting multiple string variable traces will suffer from slowed down
performance because processing strings is very CPU intensive. Depending on
the time criticality of the application, the performance impact might be ignored.
To avoid losing a lot of performance, traces can be decoded as integers which
are very fast to process. Each trace will be mapped as an integer value and the
mapping is saved to a decode file. The phone then only outputs integers and
the receiving end of the tracing system uses the generated decode file to map
those integers back to traces.
3.2. Open System Trace
Open System Trace (OST) is a definition for a tracing concept used in
TraceViewer and other components related to it. OST defines what kind of
traces can be used in the source code of an application, what kind of a decode
file is created from the traces and how TraceViewer (or some other application)
uses the decode information when decoding the traces received.
The main ideas behind the Open System Trace are to minimize the performance
impact of tracing by using decode files and to enable run-time activation of
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traces. Each trace belongs to some component and to some group. Every unique
trace inside one group has a unique trace ID. This means that every trace has a
component ID, group ID and a trace ID which will all be sent from the phone to
the receiving end, in this case to the TraceViewer. Using these three ID numbers
and the decode file generated during the instrumentation of the traces into the
source code, TraceViewer can display traces as the user wanted with minimal
performance impact. The reason why we do not only use trace IDs but also
component and group IDs is because it enables the possibility to activate or
deactivate traces from a specific component and/or group. For example, the
user has instrumented traces using two different groups, “debug” and
“normal”. Activating only traces from the group “normal” he gets, for example,
only function entry and exit traces. Because the traces from the group “debug”
are not activated, they will not be sent out of the phone. If there is a problem,
the user can also activate the “debug” group and get traces printing out
variable values and other debug information. The good thing is that the user
does not have to make changes to the source code but only activate traces he is
interested in. Traces in the source code which are not activated will cause
virtually no performance impact because they are dropped immediately in the
phone by the Trace handler.
Because of the decoding and activation, each component ID must really
represent only one component. This is why OST will use Symbian UIDs as a
component ID. Symbian UIDs are only shared by Symbian and therefore every
component has a different UID. While testing and at early development stages
users use UIDs from the development range which is:
•
0x01000000 to 0x0FFFFFFF [Symbian, 2006].
Care must be taken to avoid clashes with other components. If two components
have the same UID it may stop a program from loading correctly and typically
leading to Not Found errors.
When outputting variable values, component, group and trace IDs are not
enough. Considering a case where the user wants to output an integer variable
value in a loop that has 10000 iterations. The idea is to get 10000 traces each
outputting a trace such as “Integer value: n” where n varies from 1 to 10000. If
this was done so that each trace is unique, it would take 10000 trace IDs and
10000 decode information lines to the decode file. The number of iterations
could also be, say, 10 million. This is why all variables are also outputted as
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binary from the phone to the TraceViewer. The decode file specifies that a trace
with specified component, group and trace IDs will also have more data after
the trace ID. In this case, the decode file could specify that after the trace ID,
there are 32 bits of data consisting of an unsigned integer value. This way,
TraceViewer can read the integer value and attach it to the trace. Only one trace
is then needed to the decode file to output the 10000 (or 10 million) traces.
The Abstract Open System Trace architecture can be seen from Figure 1. The
process starts so that the developer uses the Trace Builder tool (described in
chapter 3.3) to instrument traces into component source code. In the process,
Trace Builder will generate a Trace Definition file. After the application has
been rebuilt and installed to the phone, the tester will have to activate the traces
by using a Trace Activator. The Trace Activator will get the activation
information from the same Trace Definition file that is used to decode traces.
The Trace Activator sends the activation information defined by the tester to
the Trace Handler located in the S60 smartphone through some supported
connection. When the instrumented component is run in the phone, the traces
are sent to the Trace Handler. The Trace Handler will delegate the traces
marked as activated to TraceViewer. TraceViewer sends undecoded traces to
the Trace Decoder which will use the previously generated Trace Definition file
to decode traces. Decoded traces are then sent back to the TraceViewer where
the tester can read them as the developer planned. The tester can then activate
or deactivate more traces using the Trace Activator.
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uses
Trace Builder
Trace Decoder
Developer
reads decoding
rules from
sends decoded
trace
writes
adds traces to
Component source
code
Trace Definition
(decode file)
sends undecoded
trace
TraceViewer
sends traces to
delegates traces to
Trace Handler
Sends activation
information
reads traces
Trace Activator
Activates traces
Tester
Figure 1. Abstract Open System Trace architecture
3.3. Trace Builder
Trace Builder is a tool being developed by Nokia. It is used to easily instrument
traces into the source code of Symbian S60 applications. Instead of having to
write traces by hand, the user can easily use Trace Builder’s graphical user
interface to click traces to his source code.
Trace Builder is an essential piece of the Open System Trace concept. The main
reason for this is that even if the user could write OST traces to his source code
manually, generating and especially maintaining the OST decode file would be
very hard and sensitive for errors. Trace Builder handles generation and
updating of the decode file whenever the user adds new, removes old or
updates previous traces. The user must realize that if changes are made to the
decode file manually, they will be erased when the trace project is opened again
to the Trace Builder.
Trace Builder has a feature called code instrumenter. The user can select a
template to instrument and files affected by it. Code instrumenter will then
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instrument traces based on the template to all user defined files. For example,
Trace Builder has a template for adding function entry traces to all functions.
The user also has an option to add corresponding exit traces to functions. Using
this feature, the user can instrument entry and exit traces to all functions in his
application.
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4. Requirements for TraceViewer
The TraceViewer project is using a slightly modified waterfall model as a
software process model. In the waterfall model the project starts with
gathering system and software requirements and then analysing them. The next
phase is the design of the program. After the design, application is
implemented. The last phases are testing the software and finally delivery and
support/maintain. [Royce, 1970] In the TraceViewer project, testing the
implemented features was done simultaneously with the implementation. That
way we could ensure that the new features functioned properly and they did
not break the old features. After consulting the customer, the following
requirements were settled:
General:
1. UI layout as view
TraceViewer is a view. Viewer commands are buttons in the view’s
client area. The view can be resized. There can be separate views for
special purposes.
2. Carbide v1.x support
TraceViewer must be usable in Carbide v1.x and later.
3. Operating instructions
There must be a user manual or other operating instructions to the
user to consult when needed.
4. Installation package
TraceViewer must have an easy-to-use installation package for
installation.
Functionality:
5. Display received traces in viewer display
Received traces are displayed in the text viewer of TraceViewer. If
some traces are dropped, the user must be informed about it.
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6. Trace activation
The user can activate certain trace groups. Groups are listed in
dialog. The user selects the groups to be activated. An activation
message is sent when user clicks ‘activate’.
7. Trace deactivation
The user can deactivate certain trace groups. The groups are listed in
dialog. The user selects the groups to be deactivated. A deactivation
message is sent when user clicks ‘deactivate’.
8. Clicking of trace opens the corresponding source code & line where
trace is defined
The user double clicks a trace line in the viewer window. The source
code editor is invoked and a source code line is opened where the
corresponding trace is defined.
9. Trace filtering
The user can set filtering rules for traces. The filter can be either
inclusive or exclusive.
10. Pause
The display update can be paused.
11. Trace line searching
There is a search dialog for searching traces from the received traces.
Regular expression searching is possible.
12. Trace line colouring
The user can set colouring rules for traces. Every time when a
matching trace line is received, it is coloured.
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13. Trace line counting
The user can set counting rules for traces. Every time when a
matching trace line is received, its instance counter is updated.
14. Trigger
User can set a specific trigger rule. The trigger can be either a start or
a stop trigger. When a trace containing a start trigger rule is received,
TraceViewer starts showing traces in the view. Traces received before
the start trigger are dropped. When a trace containing stop trigger
rule is received, TraceViewer stops the view.
15. Connecting/disconnecting to/from trace source
The user is able to connect to the trace source. The user is able to
disconnect from the trace source.
16. Storing data to log plain text log
The user can specify a logfile where trace information is stored. The
log contains a decoded trace and a timestamp.
17. Storing data to binary log
The user can specify a logfile where trace information is stored. The
log contains traces as binary format.
18. Opening of plain text or binary form log files to the TraceViewer
The user can open previously saved log files to TraceViewer.
19. Trace ‘variables’
The user can set rules to trace variable values. Every time a trace
containing a variable value is received, the value of the variable is
updated in the view.
20. Open System Trace support
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TraceViewer is able to decode Open System Trace data format.
TraceViewer is able to open Open System Trace decode files.
TraceViewer is able to activate Open System Trace components and
groups.
Based on these requirements, the architecturing work was started.
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5. Architecture and design of TraceViewer
5.1. Architecture overview
The designing of the architecture was started based on the settled requirements.
The main thing affecting the big picture of the architecture was the fact that
TraceViewer is going to be a plug-in for Carbide.c++ framework which is based
on the Eclipse framework.
Figure 2 shows the architecture overview of the TraceViewer. TraceViewer is
divided into Engine and View. Eclipse has a Plug-in API that is implemented by
TraceViewer Engine. Eclipse UI then creates the plug-in and the views specified
in the plugin.xml of TraceViewer. The TraceViewer Engine is used to select the
correct OST decode file to be opened and the Engine then passes the file
reference to the OSTModelCreator which creates the OSTDecodeModel. When
TraceViewer Engine gets trace data from the TraceSource which in this context
basically means the S60 smartphone, it passes the traces through a list of
DataProcessors. Each DataProcessor uses the trace somehow. The
DataProcessors are explained below. When the trace arrives to the OSTDecoder
DataProcessor, it is decoded by using the OSTDecodeModel created when
opening the decode file. After decoding, the trace is forwarded to the next
DataProcessor. In the end it arrives to the TraceViewer View which will then
view the trace in its viewer.
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EclipseUI
creates plug-ins via
EclipsePluginAPI
DataProcessor Interface
creates
implements
passes data to
OstDecoder
forwards decoded
traces to
TraceViewer View
TraceViewer Engine
gets data from
uses
passes decode file to
creates
TraceSource
OSTDecodeModel
OSTModelCreator
Figure 2. Architecture overview of TraceViewer
Based on the requirements, there is a need, for example, to decode traces, write
a log, filter, count and colorize traces, trace variables inside traces and display
them in the view. All these operations need to have an access to the trace so
that they can modify it (decode, color), try to find rules from it (count, trace
variable) or use the trace as it is (log, display). To enable this and easy
extensibility, each trace is pushed through a list of DataProcessors. The
DataProcessor interface defines a processTrace method that has to be
implemented in every class implementing this interface. The list of
DataProcessors is maintained in the Engine of TraceViewer. Every
DataProcessor will get the trace in turn as it is from the previous DataProcessor
and can modify or use it the way it wants. After the processing of a single
DataProcessor has ended, the trace will be given to the next one until the whole
list has been iterated through.
Figure 3 describes an initial data flow between components in TraceViewer.
Engine makes a connection to the smartphone using a connection interface. The
connection here is abstract. The phone will then delegate traces to the
DataWriter. Because of the fact that there can be millions of traces to be viewed,
traces cannot obviously be stored in the memory. This is why all traces are
driven straight to a binary file in the hard disk. The DataWriter will create this
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binary file. The DataReader reads the binary file and pushes traces to the
Engine one by one. The Engine will then iterate the trace through the list of
DataProcessors. Here the order of DataProcessors is Decoder, TriggerProcessor,
FilterProcessor, Logger, LineCountProcessor, VariableTracingProcessor,
ColorProcessor and finally the TraceViewerView. The order can be easily
modified just by inserting the DataProcessors in a different order. Also, the
same DataProcessor can be inserted multiple times. For example Filter might be
used before Decoder to filter traces still in binary format and then again after
Decoder to filter using decoded trace. Note that not all DataProcessors are
visible in Figure 3 and some of the names are abbreviated. All DataProcessors
can be found in subsection 5.2.2 on page 20.
Figure 3. Data flow diagram of TraceViewer
5.2. Class design
5.2.1. TraceViewer Engine
The TraceViewer Engine package contains the central logic of TraceViewer. The
Engine receives the traces from the trace source, writes them to a file, reads the
same file, processes traces and finally shows them in the view. Figure 4
introduces the main classes of the TraceViewer Engine. Figure 4 is divided into
two parts, the Core part and the OST part. The Core part implements common
functionality for the application containing mostly interfaces that have to be
18
implemented in order to actually be able to use the software. The OST part
implements those interfaces and registers itself to the TraceViewer Engine. The
OST part is actually a separate plug-in and can be easily replaced with another
plug-in without making changes to the Core part if the OST format is changed
to something else.
The Core part of TraceViewer Engine (Figure 4) contains the classes (c) and
interfaces (i) described in Table 1.
Name
Description
ConnectionProperties (c)
User defined properties used when connection to
trace source.
TraceViewer (c)
Main class of the application. Holds the list of
DataProcessors and contains references for
DecodeProvider, Connection and DataReader.
DecodeProvider (i)
DecodeProvider interface contains methods for
creating decode model and using it to decode
binary traces.
Connection (i)
Connection
interface
contains
methods
for
handling connection and sending data to trace
source and setting a media filter for the connection.
ConnectionImpl (c)
Implementation of the Connection interface.
Connects the trace source. The connection method
here is unspecified.
ConnectionInit (i)
The ConnectionInit interface contains methods for
initializing the connection and wrapping activation
message to a specific format before sending it to
the trace source.
MediaFilter (i)
MediaFilter interface provides methods for setting
the filter source and target channels and filtering
the source.
DataReader (i)
DataReader
interface
contains
methods
for
starting, pausing and shutting down reading of
traces.
DataProcessor (i)
DataProcessor interface provides a method to
process a trace.
DataProcessorImpl (c)
Implementation of the DataProcessor interface.
Different kinds of data processors using and
modifying the trace.
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TraceProperties (c)
Represents a trace. Contains trace attributes such
as timestamp, trace string and a trace location in
data buffer.
Table 1. Classes and interfaces in Core part of TraceViewer Engine
The OST part of the TraceViewer Engine is described in Table 2.
Name
Description
OstReader (c)
Implementation
of
the
DataReader
interface.
Implements methods for reading traces from the
binary file. Uses OstMessageProcessor to split data
into TraceProperties class representing a trace.
OstMessageProcessor (c)
Processes (large) data buffers and returns messages
containing only one trace until the buffer is read.
OstMessageFilter (c)
Implementation of the MediaFilter interface. Filters
data coming from the trace source and only writes
interesting data to the binary file. Uses
OstMessageProcessor to split data buffer into
single messages.
OstConnectionInit (c)
Implementation of the ConnectionInit interface.
Initialises connection to the trace source and wraps
activation messages to the correct format.
Table 2. Classes in OST part of TraceViewer Engine
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Figure 4. Engine overview
5.2.2. DataProcessors
The DataProcessors process traces read from the file. The Engine has a list of
the DataProcessors and the order in which they are executed. The
DataProcessors can either change the trace data or use it in some specific
purpose. All views that show data to the user are also DataProcessors. The class
diagram is illustrated in Figure 5.
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Figure 5. The class diagram of DataProcessors
Every DataProcessor implements the DataProcessor interface which enables
inserting them into the same processing list. All of them implement a
processTrace method which is called from the Engine for every DataProcessor
in the list. A more detailed description of the DataProcessors can be found in
Table 3.
Name
Description
Logger
Handles writing traces to a file. The file can be
either a plain text file or a binary file. A binary file
contains all the information available from the
trace when a plain text file only saves text visible in
the view.
FilterProcessor
Used to filter traces received from the trace source
with user specified rules.
LineCountProcessor
Used to count occurrences of user specified words
in the received traces.
VariableTracingProcessor Used to monitor a state of a variable included in
the received traces.
TimestampParser
Parses timestamp from the binary traces to user
readable form.
SearchProcessor
Searches through the view and the file for traces
containing user specified search criteria.
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ColorProcessor
Colours traces with different colours according to
user specified rules.
TriggerProcessor
Checks traces for user specified start and stop
trigger rules. When a start trigger hits, traces are
started to show up in the view. When a stop trigger
hits, the trace flow to the view is stopped.
Decoder
Decoder uses the OST decode model to decode
binary traces. Decode also attaches metadata
information specified in the decode file to the
decoded trace.
TracePropertyView
Updates
information
about
Line
count
and
Variable tracing rules in two separate tables
displayed in this view.
TraceViewerView
Updates newly processed traces to the text viewer
of this view.
Table 3. Description of DataProcessors
5.3. User interface design
5.3.1. Overview
Unlike the rest of the TraceViewer project, all user interface components are
developed with a rapid prototyping method. Rapid prototyping is a process of
quickly putting together a working model to gather user feedback
[UsabilityNet, 2006]. The model is then changed according to the feedback.
Depending on the number of user feedbacks of the previous comment round,
the changed model is given back to a new comment round. After some number
of rounds, the model is ready. Rapid prototyping is often used when
developing user interfaces. Dialogs were created using the Eclipse Visual Editor
which enables easy building of graphical user interfaces without coding a single
source code line [VEP, 2007].
All TraceViewer dialogs are accessed through Actions. Actions are commands
which can be triggered from the user interface. An Action can be attached to a
menu bar, a toolbar or to a button. Figure 6 shows a toolbar containing several
Actions. Actions are defined in the JFace package of Eclipse.
Figure 6. Toolbar containing actions
23
5.3.2. Base user interface
Figure 7 shows the Eclipse user interface with the additions contributed by the
TraceViewer plug-in. Figure 7 contains the TraceViewerView and the
TracePropertyView. The TraceViewerView contains a menu which is available
from the white arrow within the toolbar. Actions can be launched from the
buttons in the views toolbar and in the menu.
Figure 7. TraceViewer Base UI
5.3.3. DataProcessor dialogs
The DataProcessors can be divided here into three groups. First to those where
the user can define rules and then apply them to the application, second to
those where the user can see the information and make changes to the
behaviour of the DataProcessor, and third to those not needing any user
interface. The first group consists of FilterProcessor, TriggerProcessor,
ColorProcessor, LineCountProcessor and VariableTracingProcessor. Logger,
SearchProcessor, TraceViewerView and TracePropertyView belong to the
second group and Decoder, TimestampParser to the third not needing any user
interface.
24
The DataProcessors from the first group need very similar user interfaces.
There has to be a list of the user defined rules and a way to apply some of them.
Also a dialog creating new rules and editing old ones is needed. Figure 8 shows
the Filter Rules dialog having a tree view where the user defined rules are
listed. A tree enables an easy grouping of rules and fast enabling/disabling of a
whole group at a time. The dialog has toolbar buttons for creating new Group,
Add rule, Edit rule, Remove rule and Clear all rules. The same actions can be
found in a context menu of the tree items normally by right clicking them with
the mouse. The user can move the rules to groups or to different places in the
tree by dragging them with the mouse. All the rules the user creates are saved
to a XML file which is then automatically imported when TraceViewer starts.
This way the rules are always there. The configuration file can be also exported
and imported manually.
Figure 8. Filter Rules dialog
The rule adding/editing dialog is shown in Figure 9. This is an example of Color
rule add/edit dialog and it has two fields that other add dialogs do not have:
foreground color and background color fields. Every rule has a name which is
shown in the DataProcessor’s tree dialog. On the left is a list of available rule
types for this DataProcessor which here are Text rule and Component/Group
rule. When a rule is changed from a list, the middle right composite changes to
25
show needed fields for the selected rule and the bottom right composite shows
information about the selected rule.
Figure 9. Color Adding / Editing dialog
From
the
second
group
of
DataProcessors,
TraceViewerView
and
TracePropertyView user interfaces were already shown in Figure 7.
TraceViewerView consists of a SWT TextViewer with a scrollbar and a toolbar
with buttons for the Actions. TracePropertyView has two tables separated with
a sash line which can be used to change the size of the tables. The table on the
left shows the information on Line count rules and the one on the right on
Variable Tracing rules. The Logger DataProcessor user interface is shown in
Figure 10. It enables the use cases for writing plain text or binary log files and
opening a plain text or binary log file to the viewer. The timestamp can be
omitted from the plain text log file for easier comparation between two log files.
26
Figure 10. Logging dialog
SearchProcessor, too, needs its own user interface for enabling the user to
search from traces. The Search dialog shown in Figure 11 contains basic search
functions such as “Match whole word”, “Match case”, “Regular expression
search”, search direction and stopping of the search. In the case of TraceViewer,
the stop button is extremely important because the data set can be millions of
traces. The Search dialog also has a progressbar informing the user visually in
which line the search is running.
Figure 11. Search dialog
27
5.3.4. Trace activation dialog
Trace activation information is read from the decode model stored in the
OSTDecoder Plug-in. Trace activation dialog in Figure 12 contains a component
table and a group table. The user can choose one or more components from the
component table and then the groups from the selected components are
updated to the groups table. The groups can be activated by selecting one or
more and clicking the Activate button. Double-clicking changes the state of the
group as well. The components and groups can be also selected using the filter
field under the tables. Writing on the filter field will select all components or
groups containing the written string. Wildcard * can be used to select all. The
Apply or OK button will send the changes to the smartphone. Activation
configurations can be saved to a XML configuration file and then loaded when
needed again.
Figure 12. Trace activation UI
28
5.4. A behavioral view
5.4.1. The big picture
Figure 13 demonstrates a normal behaviour when TraceViewer is receiving
traces and processing them through DataProcessors. All classes are not visible
in the figure to keep it easier to read. TraceViewerView (the first object in the
picture) is also an implementation of the DataProcessor interface (the last object
in the picture) but it’s separated here to represent the user interface which is
used and viewed by the user. The normal behaviour consists of the following
phases:
1. A user interface is used to launch a connect command. The connect
call goes to the Engine which uses connection preferences to create a
specific type of Connection which will forward the call to the Media.
2. The Media returns an indication of the connection state back to
Engine. Engine notifies the connection and informs TraceViewerView
to indicate it.
3. Media starts sending data (traces) to the Connection.
4. Connection uses MessageFilter (not visible in picture) to filter
received data and then writes the result to the File.
5. DataReader reads the data from the File and generates traces out of
it. Traces are then sent one at a time to the Engine.
6. Engine passes the trace to all DataProcessors in turn. DataProcessors
can modify the trace or use it otherwise.
7. At some point, TraceViewerView will get the trace and show it in the
user interface.
8. A user interface is used to launch a disconnect command. The
disconnect call goes to the Engine which forwards the call to the
currently open Connection. The Connection again forwards the call
to the Media.
9. The Media returns an indication of the connection state back to
Engine. Engine notifies the disconnection and informs
TraceViewerView to indicate it.
Phases from 3 to 7 are repeated as long as data is received from the Media or
user invokes a disconnect command.
29
Figure 13. Normal TraceViewer behaviour
5.4.2. Trace displaying
A natural choice for user interface components for TraceViewer was Standard
Widget Toolset (SWT) and JFace Viewer on top of it. In JFace viewers, there was
a couple of options about the structure to be used to display the traces to the
user. Because the number of traces received from the trace source is unknown
and can thus be unlimited, the structure must be able to handle for example 100
million traces.
After reading the help pages on JFace Viewers from Eclipse SDK [2007], the
following candidates were found:
•
TreeViewer
•
•
ListViewer
TableViewer
•
TextViewer.
TreeViewer was abandoned immediately because I could not think a clever way
30
to show traces in some kind of a tree view. Traces contain a timestamp field and
an actual trace field so two columns are needed. ListViewer can only display
one string at a line and can not display tabulator character (‘\t’) as tabulator so
it was also dropped from the candidate list. TableViewer was a good candidate
because the number of columns can be easily set and every column can contain
its own string. Also, reordering of columns could be done just by dragging
them. The biggest advantage of the TableViewer was that the underlying
structure, SWT Table, supports VIRTUAL attribute. Normally every row in
SWT Table represents a TableItem object. When VIRTUAL flag is on, only the
items visible in the screen will be created and therefore no extra effort or
memory footprint is spent creating items that are never viewed. This sounds
very nice considering that we might have 100 millions traces and all of them are
most probably not ever viewed. TableViewer was briefly tested but a problem
occurred. Even though most of the actual TableItem objects are never created,
the SWT Table still holds a data structure containing those TableItems even if
they are null. When the table gets really big, the structure itself takes up so
much memory that Eclipse throws Out of memory error. This happened when
the size of the Table exceeded 6 million traces and as said, there can be no limit
for the number of traces. TableViewer was dropped and the last choice was
TextViewer.
TextViewer can handle displaying a tabulator character so it is not an issue. The
problem with TextViewer is of course that when there are a lot of traces, the
memory consumption will get higher and higher if every trace is added to the
underlying text widget in TextViewer. This issue was solved by including only
a few hundred traces in the widget at a time. The following paragraphs explain
how the displaying of traces is done and how the user is still able to scroll all
the traces received.
In TraceViewer, there is a global variable called the blockSize. It defines how
many traces make up one data block. When reading traces from the trace
source, TraceViewerView will take care that the amount of traces in the
TextViewer when the view is updated does not exceed two data blocks. If
TextViewer contains more traces than two data blocks, TraceViewerView will
cut the data from the beginning so that after cutting there is at least one block
and at most two blocks of traces in the view. While cutting, TraceViewerView
keeps note about the number of traces cut away in a variable called
showingTracesFrom.
31
As an example, suppose that there are 2500 traces coming from the trace source
and saved to the File. The blockSize variable is 200. Let us assume that the view
will update after 1000 traces are processed (normally there is a time interval
how often the view is updated). After 1000 traces are processed and the update
for the user is invoked, the TextViewer widget contains 1000 traces. The view
will cut 600 traces from the beginning so that there will be 400 traces (2 blocks)
left in the view. The view updates the showingTracesFrom variable to 600
because that is the amount of traces cut from the view. The view containing 400
traces will be shown to the user. Figure 14 illustrates this situation.
Figure 14. View containing only part of all traces
The next update occurs when 2000 traces are processed. TextViewer will now
contain 1400 traces. Now 1000 traces are cut and 400 are left to be shown to the
user. The showingTracesFrom variable is updated to be 600 + 1000 = 1600. The
last 500 traces are processed and the view will update because the DataReader
informs the view when it reaches the end of the file. TextViewer now has 900
traces which are cut again. After the cut, 300 traces are left in the view. The
showingTracesFrom variable is updated to 2200.
Let us now assume that the user wants to scroll up the view to trace number
1250. There are a few options as to how this is done.
1. The user will scroll “gently” from 2500 to 1250 so that every time he
hits the end of the previous block, the view will get one block more
and attach it to the block the user is seeing right now. One block is
then removed from the other end of the data in the TextViewer so
that the total amount of traces stays between 201 and 400. The first
time that the view will get more data is when the user crosses point
2200 which is the value from the showingTracesFrom variable. The
view gets one block of traces (traces from 2000 to 2200) and inserts
32
them to the beginning of the current data. Then traces 2400 - 2500 are
cut from the end of the data, and we have 400 traces again in the
view. Now the view is showing traces from 2000 to 2400 and
showingTracesFrom variable is naturally set to 2000. Finally, when
the user gets to line 1250, showingTracesFrom is 1200 and the view
contains traces from 1200 to 1600.
2. The user will take the scrollbar and quickly drag it to the desired
point (in this case 1250) before the view notices that more traces are
needed. If the traces that the user wants are not attached to the
current data in the view, two blocks of traces are asked instead of one
and the view is generated from them. So if the scrollbar is dragged to
point 1250, the view will get traces from 1200 to 1600 and update
showingTracesFrom to 1200.
3. Any combination of options 1 and 2.
The data fetching is done as follows:
The view will fetch 1 or 2 blocks of data depending on the way of scrolling.
Firstly the view determinates if we need data to the beginning or to the end of
the current view. If the user is scrolling up, data is needed before the current
view. If the user is scrolling down, data is needed after the current view. In both
cases, the view will first tell the TraceViewer engine the first trace it needs and
the number of blocks (1 or 2). Engine has a map where it stores file positions to
the first traces in every block. In other words, Engine knows where to find
every trace block. Engine will first set up the current file position to the start of
the trace block and then either create or wake up a ScrollReader which is used to
get blocks of data from the file. ScrollReader is notified how many traces it
should get. ScrollReader will mark all read traces as “scrolledTrace” so that
DataProcessors and mainly TraceViewerView will know not to append these
traces normally to the end of the current view but use them to generate block to
be attached to either the beginning or to the end of current view. After the
desired amount of traces is read, ScrollReader will go to sleep. The views will
then insert the traces to the correct place, update the view to the user and
update the showingTracesFrom variable. Figure 15 demonstrates the sequence
of the scrolling procedure.
33
Figure 15. Scrolling sequence diagram
Because TextViewer contains a few hundred traces only, the user can not use
the scrollbar that is built inside TextViewer. The original scrollbar was disabled
and a separate scrollbar was developed to replace it. The ScrollBar is attached
to the TextViewer just like the original would be so the user does not know that
there is something strange happening while he is using it. The maximum value
of the ScrollBar is set to be the number of traces in the file. A listener is
implemented to react to changes in the ScrollBar value. When the value goes
out of the interval the view currently contains (for example 2200-2600), the view
is notified to get more traces. The value of the ScrollBar tells the view what
trace blocks should be read from the file. Other listeners have also been
implemented to keep the value of the ScrollBar correct if the user scrolls by
some other means such as using the page up/page down or up/down keys or
the mouse wheel.
34
6.
Evaluation of the software and improvement propositions
6.1. Performance evaluation
To get a rough estimation about the maximum trace output ratio in
TraceViewer, a binary file containing 5 million OST traces was opened and the
time spent was calculated. The traces contained 0 to 6 parameters to be
decoded. The test computer was Pentium 4 3,60Ghz with 2 GB of RAM. Table 4
shows the results. The first test was done without any extra DataProcessors
active by just decoding the timestamp and the trace itself and then showing
them to the view. Outputting 5 million traces took 3 minutes and 19 seconds
and the output was slightly over 25000 traces per second. In the second test,
ColorProcessor, LineCountProcessor and VariableTracingProcessor were added
with two text rules for each so that both rules hit at least half of the traces. The
time taken increased by 1 minute and 14 seconds and the output decreased to
18000 traces per second. Next, plain text logging was added to the previous test
which means that every trace is written to a file in the hard disk in human
readable form. Adding the logging increased the time to 5 minutes and 21
seconds while the output dropped to 15500 traces per second. The last test was
almost the worst case scenario including also FilterProcessor with two text rules
and also a binary logging. Because FilterProcessor writes filtered results to
another file, in this use case there are 4 files being written and 2 read at the
same time. This really gives the hard disk some tough times and it can be seen
from the results. Outputting 5 million traces took 11 minutes and 20 seconds.
The output dropped to 7300 traces per second which is 29% of the output got
without any extra DataProcessors. Anyway, even the output of 7300 traces per
second is more than enough for normal debugging purposes.
DataProcessors
Time taken
Output
TimestampParser, Decoder, TraceViewerView
3 min 19 sec
25126 traces / s
ColorProcessor, 4 min 33 sec
18315 traces / s
All
above,
LineCountProcessor,
VariableTracingProcessor
All above, Logger with plain text logging
5 min 21 sec
15576 traces / s
All above, FilterProcessor, Logger with plain 11 min 20 7353 traces / s
text and binary logging
sec
Table 4. Time taken to read and display 5 million traces
35
To find the bottlenecks of the system, TraceViewer was tested with a Java
Profiler called JProbe Suite. JProbe provides performance, memory and code
coverage analysis for Java software [JProbe Suite, 2007]. The performance test
was done with all possible DataProcessors active with a same amount of rules
(2) to test which ones take the most CPU time. The data was again the 5 million
OST traces with 0 to 6 parameters to be decoded. Figure 16 shows the CPU
times spent by different DataProcessors. From the Figure 16 we see that the
DataProcessors together take 1375 CPU time units. The time unit here is not
important but the comparison of different DataProcessors. TraceViewerView
and TracePropertyView do not update the user interface in the processData
method, otherwise the times would be much higher. From Figure 16 we see that
FilterProcessor, TimestampParser and Decoder take most of the time.
FilterProcessors time is explained by the fact that it also has to write traces
passing the filter rules to the file. TimestampParser must decode a big Long
number to a human readable form and must deal with StringBuffer and String.
Decoder took 641 time units which is almost half of the whole time spent in all
DataProcessors. What takes time is that Decoder must find the right decode
parameter information by first finding the right component and the right group
from the lists. Then a StringBuffer, DataBuffer and an offset number are passed
to every decode parameter class as a parameter and each parameter class
decodes its own data reading from the DataBuffer using the given offset.
Finally the trace is fully decoded and can be returned to be given to the next
DataProcessor.
36
Figure 16. CPU times taken by different DataProcessors
Memory consumption was also analysed using JProbe Suite by opening 5
million traces. In Figure 17 we see the overall memory consumption of Eclipse
IDE containing TraceViewer plug-In. The blue color in the figure signifies
memory in use and yellow the amount of allocated memory from the system.
The green line represents the start of the use case and the red line the end. The
red dots in the bottom of Figure 17 depict CPU usage.
When the use case starts, Eclipse is loaded and approximately 12 megabytes of
memory is allocated and about 8 megabytes are in use. About in the time of
01:00 in Figure 17 there is about a one megabyte drop in the memory usage
graph which is caused by the Java garbage collection. About 10 seconds later,
the reception of traces is started. Immediately, approximately 3.5 megabytes of
memory are allocated and the memory usage peaked. Peaks in the figure depict
the traces being attached to the TextViewer widget and the drops are the cuts
from it before updating the view to the user. About in 3 million traces, some
37
more memory is allocated. At 5 million traces, a total of 16 megabytes of
memory is allocated. The trace flow stopped but memory usage does not drop.
This is caused simply by the fact that Java did not launch a garbage collection at
that time. From the figure we will see that the memory consumption will not
get very high even if there are a lot of traces. The overall consumption rose very
little and that can be explained by the fact that TraceViewer keeps record of the
indices in the file where every trace block can be found.
Figure 17. Memory consumption while opening 5 million traces
6.2. Overall evaluation
With a powerful computer, TraceViewer is able to receive and process 25000
traces per second. That is much more than any human can process.
TraceViewer can be used to easily find the interesting information among the
traces and use other means to follow what the application is doing.
TraceViewer does what it should do and does not consume too much memory.
If the developer uses Carbide.c++ as an editor for his/her application, using
Trace Builder to instrument and TraceViewer to display traces are worth a try.
The user being able to jump from a trace to a code line defining is a timesaving
feature and helps the user to easily follow the program execution without the
slowness of ordinary debug methods.
38
6.3. Improvement propositions
TraceViewer was implemented using the original requirements. During the
design and implementation phases, ideas for improvements and new features
were introduced. Here is a list containing a few of them:
1. Variable tracing history – Now the TracePropertyView only shows
the last value of the desired variable. History about the value
changes is needed. The history contains a trace number and a
timestamp where the change happened and, of course, the value. The
user can jump to the trace lines by clicking the lines in the history
view and to the source code lines also if wanted.
2. External filter application – The user can define his own script or
application to be used as an ASCII filter for manipulating traces.
TraceViewer will forward traces to a standard input (stdin) of a
specified application. The application can then do whatever it wants
to the traces and print the results back to a standard output (stdout)
where TraceViewer will read them and continue processing.
3. Logical operations to filtering – In the requirements there was only
inclusive and exclusive filtering. Logical operations should be added
to make more advanced filtering rules. For example, a rule saying
“Hide traces containing rule1 or rule2 but not rule3” would then be
possible.
4. Multiple file support – TraceViewer uses one file to store the traces
received from the trace source. In Windows FAT32 file system, the
maximum file size can only be 4 gigabytes [Microsoft, 2007] which
will cause TraceViewer to stop receiving traces when the file exceeds
that size. Data could, for example, be divided into multiple 100
megabyte files.
5. Plug-in architecture – To not make TraceViewer too big and hard to
maintain, a plug-in architecture for it should be implemented. There
is already a list of DataProcessors so it would be easy to provide an
API for other plug-ins to use to add their own DataProcessor to the
processing list.
6. Cooperation between Trace Builder and TraceViewer – TraceViewer
and Trace Builder should work together more. For example, when
the user adds more traces to the source code and compiles the
software, Trace Builder should inform TraceViewer to re-load the
XML decode file because it has changed. Also, traces in TraceViewer
could be accessed from Trace Builder a similar way that the source
39
code line can now be accessed from traces in TraceViewer. The user
clicks a trace in source code and the first occurrence of that trace is
shown in TraceViewer.
40
7. Summary and conclusions
The reader should now have a general understanding of the design of
TraceViewer and how it can be used to receive and manipulate traces as a part
of the Open System Trace concept. This chapter shortly summarizes the key
points covered in the thesis.
Tracing is defined as monitoring application execution in run-time. Tracing
differs from debugging in the way that tracing will not stop the application
execution and therefore is more real-time than debugging. Anyway, traces are
normally used as a debugging tool to follow the application run path. Tracing
has a performance impact on the device which might prevent the use of traces
in time critical applications.
Open System Trace (OST) is a tracing concept involving several components
used to apply a fully working tracing environment. OST consist of Trace
Builder which is used to instrument traces into the source code of the software,
OST Encoder / Decoder which is used from Trace Builder and TraceViewer to
encode trace decode information on to the XML file and then generate the
decode model from the XML file and decode binary traces into human readable
traces.
TraceViewer is a plug-in for Carbide.c++ framework which is based on the
popular open source development environment called Eclipse. Eclipse is
originally developed by IBM in 2001 and is now managed by Eclipse
Foundation. It is mainly known as a Java development environment and it
contains excellent tools for Java development. Carbide.c++ is built on top of
Eclipse and is a development tool meant for Symbian C++ development. There
are four different versions of Carbide.c++ ranging from the Express version
meant for beginners all the way to the OEM version meant practically for the
device creation users.
TraceViewer can be used to receive traces from a smartphone. Traces can be
filtered, colored, count, searched from, written to a log file and so on.
TraceViewer uses Standard Widget Toolset (SWT) in its user interface
components. SWT gives a native look and feel for the components in different
platforms and operating systems.
41
The biggest challenge in the design of TraceViewer was that there can be
millions of traces. The view which displays traces only contains a couple of
hundred traces at a time and the scrolling of traces is done from the file
generated from the trace source. This way the memory will not be a problem.
Without trace manipulations, TraceViewer is able to receive and process 25000
traces per second with a powerful computer.
TraceViewer is bound to the OST Decoder which decodes binary traces
received from the trace source. Because the OST Encoder saved metadata about
the trace locations in source code files to the decode files it generates, the user
can jump from trace to a corresponding source code line where the trace is
defined. This is really useful and timesaving when the developer wants to
follow program execution.
42
References
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43
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