Legatia Manual
Legatia-Series Component Speakers
Specifications Library & Car Audio Reference Guide
Contents
Welcome and Introduction .................................................................................................................................................. 5
Legatia Speaker Design Considerations .......................................................................................................................... 6
Motor .................................................................................................................................................................................. 6
Voice Coil........................................................................................................................................................................... 6
Phase Plug and Shorting Rings ..................................................................................................................................... 6
Cone ................................................................................................................................................................................... 7
Suspension ........................................................................................................................................................................ 7
Basket ................................................................................................................................................................................ 8
Thiele/Small Parameters Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 8
Application to Thiele/Small Parameters to Legatia Designs...................................................................................... 8
Enclosure Recommendations .................................................................................................................................... 8
Dipole Applications ....................................................................................................................................................... 9
Legatia L1V2 Tweeter ....................................................................................................................................................... 10
History .............................................................................................................................................................................. 10
Attributes.......................................................................................................................................................................... 10
Summary ......................................................................................................................................................................... 11
Mechanical Drawing ....................................................................................................................................................... 12
Thiele/Small Parameters ............................................................................................................................................... 13
Frequency Response Graph ........................................................................................................................................ 14
Legatia L3V2 Wide-Bandwidth Midrange/Full-Range................................................................................................... 15
History .............................................................................................................................................................................. 15
Attributes.......................................................................................................................................................................... 15
Summary ......................................................................................................................................................................... 17
Mechanical Drawing ....................................................................................................................................................... 18
Thiele/Small Parameters ............................................................................................................................................... 19
Frequency Response Graph ........................................................................................................................................ 20
Legatia L4 Wide-Bandwidth Midrange/Full-Range ....................................................................................................... 21
History .............................................................................................................................................................................. 21
Attributes.......................................................................................................................................................................... 21
Summary ......................................................................................................................................................................... 23
Mechanical Drawing ....................................................................................................................................................... 24
Thiele/Small Parameters ............................................................................................................................................... 25
Frequency Response Graph ........................................................................................................................................ 26
Legatia L6V2 Wide-Bandwidth Midrange/Midbass ....................................................................................................... 27
History .............................................................................................................................................................................. 27
Attributes.......................................................................................................................................................................... 27
Summary ......................................................................................................................................................................... 29
Mechanical Drawing ....................................................................................................................................................... 30
Thiele/Small Parameters ............................................................................................................................................... 31
Frequency Response Graph ........................................................................................................................................ 32
Legatia L8V2 Wide-Bandwidth Midrange/Midbass ....................................................................................................... 33
History .............................................................................................................................................................................. 33
Attributes.......................................................................................................................................................................... 33
Summary ......................................................................................................................................................................... 35
Mechanical Drawing ....................................................................................................................................................... 36
Thiele/Small Parameters ............................................................................................................................................... 37
Frequency Response Graph ........................................................................................................................................ 38
Legatia L2x Two-Way Vertically-Biamplified Passive Crossover................................................................................ 39
History .............................................................................................................................................................................. 39
Key Issues in Passive Crossover Design ................................................................................................................... 39
Attributes.......................................................................................................................................................................... 39
Summary ......................................................................................................................................................................... 41
Mechanical Drawing ....................................................................................................................................................... 42
Frequency Filter Plot ...................................................................................................................................................... 43
Legatia L3x Three-Way Vertically Biamplified Passive Crossover ............................................................................. 44
History .............................................................................................................................................................................. 44
Key Issues in Passive Crossover Design ................................................................................................................... 44
Attributes.......................................................................................................................................................................... 44
Summary ......................................................................................................................................................................... 47
Mechanical Drawing ....................................................................................................................................................... 48
Frequency Filter Plot ...................................................................................................................................................... 49
Legatia L3G Grille Assembly ............................................................................................................................................ 50
Legatia L4G Grille Assembly ............................................................................................................................................ 51
Legatia L6G Grille Assembly ............................................................................................................................................ 52
Legatia L8G Grille Assembly ............................................................................................................................................ 53
Advanced System Installation .......................................................................................................................................... 54
Lessons Learned ............................................................................................................................................................ 54
Lesson One: Off-Axis Response.................................................................................................................................. 54
Lesson Two: Equalization of Pathlength Differences ............................................................................................... 54
Lesson Three: The Effect of HRTF, ITD, and IID ...................................................................................................... 56
Lesson Four: Point-Sourcing ........................................................................................................................................ 57
Lesson Five: Reference ................................................................................................................................................ 57
Advanced Installation of the Legatia Component Systems ......................................................................................... 58
Mounting Baffle Considerations ................................................................................................................................... 58
Crossovers ...................................................................................................................................................................... 59
Time Correction .............................................................................................................................................................. 60
Scenario 1 ................................................................................................................................................................... 60
Scenario 2 ................................................................................................................................................................... 61
Scenario 3 ................................................................................................................................................................... 61
Amplitude Equalization .................................................................................................................................................. 61
Acoustic Treatment ........................................................................................................................................................ 61
Advanced Installation Conclusions .................................................................................................................................. 62
Warranty .............................................................................................................................................................................. 63
Thank You! .......................................................................................................................................................................... 64
References .......................................................................................................................................................................... 65
Welcome and Introduction
Congratulations on your purchase of high performance Legatia-series mobile audio component
loudspeakers, and welcome to the world of Hybrid Audio Technologies, where high-end mobile audio
loudspeaker development is our passion! When installed and set-up properly, the Legatia component
system you have purchased will make a remarkable improvement in the sound quality of virtually any
mobile audio sound system and give years of superior performance.
Thank you for going “on line” to read and download your User’s Manual. Our offices are located
amongst the evergreens in North Georgia USA, and we happen to like trees. Aside from the obvious
aesthetic benefits, trees improve our air, protect our water, save energy, and improve economic
sustainability. Additionally, it is expensive to print and distribute thousands of copies of an owner’s
manual; we’d rather invest our production dollars into an incredible line-up of speaker systems for
your listening pleasure. With online resources becoming the main source of information for more and
more people, we are pleased that you’re here, reading this manual on line, verses having a print copy
which might get read once and put back into the gift box, or worse yet, discarded.
With the publication of this specifications library and car audio reference guide, it is our goal to assist
the “do it yourself” enthusiast and professional installer alike in getting the highest level of
performance out of Legatia component speakers and sets using straight-forward installation advice
and practical application of timeless acoustic principles. The first part of this manual is comprised of a
specifications library for all of our available Legatia component speakers, passive crossover devices,
and available accessory hardware. Simply scroll through the library to learn more about the wide
variety of Legatia products. The second part of the manual has been written to be more or less a
miniature mobile audio reference guide that can be used to better any sound system, and in
particular, a system that utilizes the Legatia component speaker systems. It is an introductory primer
to the world of high-end mobile audio; we hope this user’s manual is not only informative, but
motivating. Keep it handy throughout your installation process, and any time you go to improve your
audio system with other Hybrid Audio Technologies products, or perhaps to take advantage of our
lifetime guaranteed value trade-in program. We are confident that if the principles explained in this
manual are exercised in your own installation, you will be ecstatic with the sound quality outcome!
We realize that you have a choice in loudspeakers, and are thrilled that you have chosen the Legatia
series. For more information about Hybrid Audio Technologies, our philosophies regarding high-end
mobile audio, to learn more about our lifetime guaranteed value program, and for information about
our other products, please visit us online at www.hybrid-audio.com.
Thank you, and happy listening!
Scott E. Buwalda
Founder – Hybrid Audio Technologies
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Legatia Speaker Design Considerations
The Legatia-series component speakers are electrodynamic drivers that are comprised of a
diaphragm (cone, or in the case of the Legatia L1V2 tweeter, a dome) that is set in motion by a motor
system that has both electrical and mechanical components. For more details about the Stage V
Legatia tweeter offering, the Legatia L1V2, please go to page 10. The following design tenets typical
of all Legatia-series midranges and midbass’ are as follows:
Motor
The motor of the Legatia midrange and midbass drivers are paramount to the performance of the
drivers, providing for a flat and wide BL curve. The BL curve is flat and extended in all models,
yielding exceptional two-way linear excursion, resulting in the Legatia midrange and midbass drivers
being able to accurately track the input signal. Reduced distortion and greater dynamics are the
immediate sonic benefits. The motor of the L3V2, L6V2, and L8V2 includes a high-energy strontium
magnet with an opposing high-grade NdFeB magnet at the top of the magnetic gap to improve
restorative force, compliance, motor strength, displacement, and power handling. The magnet
assemblies fully surround the voice coil. The motor of the L4 includes only a high-energy strontium
magnet for class-leading restorative force, compliance, motor strength, displacement, and power
handling.
Voice Coil
The voice coil diameter of the Legatia range of midrange and midbass drivers represents the optimal
balance of diameter, power handling, and moving mass. The L3V2 and L4 use a large 25.5mm (1inch) voice coil, and the L6V2 and L8V2 use 35.5mm (1.4-inch) voice coils. The voice coil diameter
serves several key functions: elevated power handling, dissipation of heat (thereby lowering power
compression), and maximizing the size of the magnet assembly for enhanced motor compliance. The
voice coils used in all Legatia designs are high-purity aluminum, which is superior to copper for heat
dissipation, as well as significantly reduced moving mass. The result is an extremely light weight
winding with good power handling and low inductance.
How much amplitude a speaker can reproduce depends on the volume of air it excites without
overheating. The volume of air that a speaker excites is determined by the surface area of the cone
and the excursion capability of the motor system. Xmax is defined as the width of the voice coil that
extends beyond the front plate, and relates to how far the speaker can move in either direction
without appreciable distortion. The Legatia designs boast exceptional one-way linear excursion
(Xmax).
Phase Plug and Shorting Rings
All Legatia midrange and midbass drivers come equipped with a phase plug pole piece extension at
the center of the cone. The phase plug is aluminum and, by design, ensures enhancement of the
total inductance profile, providing much of the inductance reduction benefits noted. The phase plug is
anodized black, which by design does not negatively reduce eddy current, and adds thermal
dissipation potential. The phase plug extends well down inside the pole vent, and acts as a very
large and efficient heatsink for any heat that radiates into the pole. The highest frequencies of audio
emanate from the area around the center of the cone and the lower frequencies are produced by the
area of the cone that is farther from the center. The phase plug pole piece extension improves the
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performance and clarity of all Legatia midrange and midbass designs by deflecting delicate midrange
and treble tones forward of the driver, while minimizing distortion and improving bandwidth.
All Legatia midrange and midbass drivers use copper shorting rings. The shorting rings consist of
optimally sized and placed rings of copper (Cu) to create a total inductance profile that is not just low,
but flat over stroke, frequency, and power. Inductance is the number one limiter of high frequency
extension and modulation of inductance with stroke, frequency and power, and is the primary source
of intermodulation distortion (IMD).
Cone
The shape, weight and strength of the Legatia midrange and midbass cones relate directly to the
extended frequency response of the Legatia range of drivers (in concert with the extended phase plug
pole piece, noted above). The Legatia cones are concave-shaped hybrid paper diaphragms,
described below. Convex shaped cones, typical of “dome” midranges, typically exhibit “peaky”
frequency response, so we opted instead on a concave cone topology for the resultant smoother
frequency response. And contrary to common belief, most convex cones have a narrow directivity
pattern. The concave cone of the Legatia midrange and midbass drivers have a wider directivity
pattern, and are excellent for use in “off-axis” applications.
You will find no composite or metal cone materials used in any Legatia midrange or midbass driver.
Our approach to point-sourcing is to allow the Legatia midbass/midrange drivers to effectively play
into treble frequencies; having virtually all imaging cues emanating from one set of drivers in an
installation ensures stable stereo imaging across the fundamental frequencies which define image
placement and definition. The Legatia midrange and midbass drivers include a proprietary hybrid
paper diaphragm with extremely low moving mass. Paper is widely acknowledged as the bestdamping material, as it provides the near optimum balance of strength and weight. The paper cone is
critical to tame unwanted cone modes, resonances, and the classic “cone breakup” associated with
most composite cones, but still be rigid enough for upper midbass response. All cones have been
treated with a water resistant element at the rear to accommodate door mounting, or other areas
prone to occasional contact with liquid.
All Legatia designs offer an outstanding extended frequency response; the usable frequency range of
the Legatia midrange and midbass drivers is at least six full octaves, and in many cases, seven or
more octaves of usable bandwidth with proper installation, aiming, set-up, and tuning. And because
of the employed cone technology which boasts exceptional off-axis response, described above, all
Legatia drivers offer exceptional off-axis bandwidth as well, exceeding five octaves for all designs.
Suspension
All Legatia midrange and midbass drivers include an inverted surround made of butyl rubber which is
highly consistent, and does not suffer the variance of natural rubbers. This rubber surround
terminates mechanical vibrations well, having a low stiffness for positive damping of resonances. The
surround, which acts as an air seal between the cone and the basket, adds to the restoring force of
the spider. Another function of the surround is to absorb cone flexure waves as they are transferred
up the cone. You'll also know a Legatia midrange and midbass design by its inverted surround; this
design feature allows for the use of a smaller height grille, and more flexibility in mounting options.
The spider material was chosen for optimal performance in all models; the spider is a 90/10
cotton/Nomex blend with single-dip low viscosity phenolic. This material provides the stiffness
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desired without being overly brittle or stiff, where vibrations in the spider are well damped and do not
translate into the former or the cone.
Basket
The basket of the Stage V Legatia series drivers are a shared design with the same size/diameter
drivers in the Stage VI Legatia Special Edition series, for easy upgrade potential; the frames of
similarly-sized drivers are interchangeable in mounting topology. The basket is a high-quality cast
aluminum design, and contains a large flange providing for the mounting of the driver via four screw
holes. The Legatia frame features large openings behind the cone to eliminate chuffing and other
aerodynamic-based noises, as well as provides adequate communication to the back of the cone for
acoustic suspension and proper operation.
Thiele/Small Parameters Introduction
Acoustics pioneers Neville Thiele and Richard Small developed a way to predict speaker
performance and frequency response. These parameters are known collectively as “Thiele/Small
Parameters”, and are divided into physical characteristics and response parameters:
The Physical Characteristics of a speaker are:
Re:
Sd:
BL:
Mms:
The D.C. resistance of the voice coil measured in Ohms.
The surface area of the speaker’s cone.
The magnetic strength of the motor structure.
The total moving mass of the speaker including the small amount of air in front of and behind
the cone.
Cms: The stiffness of the driver’s suspension.
Rms: The losses due to the suspension.
The Thiele/Small Response parameters are:
Re:
Sd:
Fs:
Qes:
Qms:
Qts:
Vas:
The D.C. resistance of the voice coil measured in Ohms.
The surface area of the speaker.
The resonant frequency of the speaker.
The electrical “Q” of the speaker.
The mechanical “Q” of the speaker.
The total "Q" of the speaker.
The volume of air having the same acoustic compliance as the speaker’s suspension.
Application to Thiele/Small Parameters to Legatia Designs
Enclosure Recommendations
The mechanical and electrical parameters of the Legatia midrange and midbass drivers are amenable
to a variety of different installations and speaker locations. In a typical vehicular installation, Hybrid
Audio Technologies recommends that the Legatia drivers be placed in an “infinitely large” enclosure,
which is more notably known as “infinite baffle.” Small sealed enclosures are not needed to be
constructed, nor are typically recommended in most circumstances for any of the Legatia range of
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products (there are some minor exceptions, based upon application, intended use, power handling,
and etc., please contact us for details). Hybrid Audio has also had great success incorporating the
Legatia midrange and midbass drivers in dipole configuration (detailed below), transmission lines,
and in larger vented enclosures.
In a typical installation, Legatia midrange and midbass products should be mounted with unrestricted
access to airspace to ensure the speaker’s ability to effectively reproduce its wide frequency
bandwidth. The reason why the speaker was designed in this way is highly empirical. When a
speaker is mounted in a small closed box, it radiates as much energy forward of the cone as it does
rearward of the cone. All speaker cones and dust caps (diaphragms) are a weak sound barrier at
best, and the result of the high amount of energy being “pushed” into a small enclosure is the energy
transmitting through to the outside of the cone (an additive phenomenon to the incidental wave). It is
conjectured that this effect is most notable in the low hundreds of Hz region, where acoustical stuffing
materials are ineffective and the internal dimensions are not small enough for the internal air volume
to act as a pure compliance. Consequently, Hybrid Audio has designed this speaker to work well
without an enclosure, and as such, should not be significantly prone to enclosure back-pressure and
sound coloration when placed infinitely baffled. The “infinitely large” enclosure, per se, improves
spectral response and power response variation between high and low frequencies. And in the case
where an infinite baffle operation is difficult or impossible to achieve in your car’s environment, we
highly suggest the use of acoustic resistors (aperiodic membranes or trade name Variovents®) in
sealed enclosures to help dissipate the backwave energy. If you absolutely must use a sealed
enclosure, we recommend that you contact us for details and assistance in targeting a sealed
enclosure volume applicable for your intended purpose. In all cases, the use of loosely-packed
fibrous damping materials, such as fiberglass, Dacron, or long-fiber wool will also significantly
improve the final installation, no matter what type of baffle and enclosure configuration is chosen.
Dipole Applications
While infinite baffle or resistive sealed enclosures are highly recommended for this driver, you might
find that in the rare instance that the Legatia drivers can be placed in a completely open baffle, i.e.
dipole. A word of caution: Legatia drivers mounted in an open baffle have to move more air than a
similar Legatia driver mounted in a resistive sealed enclosure, or infinitely baffled, just simply for the
fact that there’s a progressive acoustic short circuit between front and back waves below the
speaker’s resonance frequency (Fs) in the open baffle configuration. Great care must be taken in this
instance, because there is no acoustic compliance afforded in a dipole configuration, and the speaker
will reach its mechanical limits much quicker (and will net increased distortion). However, in certain
instances, a dipole-style midrange may work well in a vehicular installation, in that radiation from the
rear of the baffle, having undergone enough phase shift as it comes around to the front, adds to the
total sound at off-axis angles. Of great importance in the dipole midrange configuration is the setting
up of crossovers and weighing the negative effects of distortion of elevated amplitude levels.
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Legatia L1V2 Tweeter
History
The Legatia L1V2’s topology is an enhanced “version 2” of the very first tweeter offering from Hybrid
Audio Technologies, the Legatia L1. The L1 was launched in September 2006, and was only the
second product ever conceived by Hybrid Audio (second only to the original Legatia L3 3-7-inch
midrange). In the years since its inception, the L1 was used exclusively in all of Hybrid Audio
Technologies’ competition cars, and won a staggering forty six international championships. When it
came time to enhance the L1, we were very cognoscente of the L1’s abilities, and had three general
project objectives: 1) enhance the L1’s ability to effectively reproduce a wider frequency spectrum for
possible application in dedicated two-way systems, 2) increase power handling while reducing
distortion, and 3) upgrade the tweeter’s mounting flange to a machined aluminum structure over the
former ABS plastic structure of the original L1 for better modal damping. The Legatia L1V2 became
the first product to bear the “V2” designation in the Legatia series. To this end, the L1V2
development began in March 2008, and the first prototypes were developed by company founder and
lead designer Scott Buwalda.
By Fall 2008, a beta prototype pair of Legatia L1V2’s had been refined after hundreds of hours of
testing and development; these highly-evolved drivers were sent for in-field evaluation to various key
competitors within Hybrid Audio’s official competition branch known as Team Hybrids. After
countless hours testing on the speakers under various circumstances, both in two-way and three-way
configuration, The L1V2 was met with resounding approval. Production refinements were Fall of
2008, to incorporate features inclusive and proprietary to the Legatia line, and final production
commenced November 2008. The Legatia L1V2 was launched in December 2008 and is the
reference tweeter driver in Hybrid Audio’s product category known collectively as the Legatia Series.
Attributes
The L1V2 is a compact, high-resolution 20mm (3/4-inch) dome-type tweeter which has a very good,
extended linear response and exceptional transient response, and can be used for the reproduction
of treble frequencies in dedicated two-, three-, and four-way front stage systems. We are proud to be
one of the very few speaker manufacturers that understand what it takes to build a car audio tweeter:
larger diaphragm tweeters sound heavy and unremarkable, lack detail and have unnaturally fast rolloff in the upper treble frequencies, have undesirable polar response, and are extremely difficult to
install. Additionally, metal dome tweeters tend to be harsh, brittle, and add unnecessary coloration to
the music. This is why we have built the quintessential small-diameter car audio tweeter that is very
easy to install, boasts a small diameter soft-dome silk diaphragm and resonance frequency that is
complementary to all types of front-stage system architecture. The L1V2 can be listened to for hours
without listener’s fatigue, while having an industry-standard polar response. The design offers a wide
dispersion pattern for flexible mounting locations and easy installation. And the phase linearity of the
design ensures phase coherent imaging and staging cues in the car audiophile system. Tweeters
were meant to play treble, and ours does it effortlessly, in a package that fits easily in the palm of
your hand. The L1V2 is available in two finishes: brushed (natural) aluminum and anodized black.
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Dome
The L1V2 starts with an impregnated fine silk cloth dome diaphragm for a linear tonal character, with
a treated silk surround to damp edge modes and resonances. The L1V2 is efficient, exhibits low
distortion, and has a wide dispersion. The dome is of extremely low mass and is much less
susceptible to mechanical deformation than other designs, and yet yields a smooth response over the
extent of its range.
Motor
The motor assembly of the L1V2 is conventional dynamic, with a φ19.5 × 3 H NdFeB neodymium
magnet to ensure a small footprint size and shallow depth. The L1V2 tweeter has a resonance
frequency of 1,830 Hz, providing a considerable amount of flexibility for use with Legatia widebandwidth midbass drivers in point-source two-way front stage systems, as well as continuing to be
the tweeter of choice of point-source Hybrid Audio Technologies three-way and four-way front stage
kits. The power handling was doubled from the original L1 tweeter, and the L1V2 has a nominal
resistance of 4 ohms.
Grille
As mentioned previously, the dome is a fine silk diaphragm that has an acoustically transparent,
perforated steel grille to protect it. A major upgrade over the original L1 is a fully-machined aluminum
body and mounting flange to effectively damp dome and edge modes, reduce dome resonance, and
edge distortion. The mounting flange accommodates three screws for surface-mounted installation;
black anodized Alan-head screws are included with each tweeter kit. The L1V2 tweeter comes in two
colors to ensure cosmetic integration with the vehicle’s surroundings: natural (silver) aluminum, and
anodized black (there is no cost difference between the two colors).
Terminals Cap and Spring-Loaded Terminals
Another upgrade over the original L1 tweeter is the inclusion of an extruded polypropylene cap with
integrated high-end nickel-plated spring-loaded push terminals at the rear of the tweeter’s motor
assembly. The spring-loaded terminals give the end-user flexibility in direct connection with largegauge tinned wiring, without the need for crimp terminals. The overall dimensions of the driver are
very amenable for use in the car audio environment, boasting a depth of just 20mm, for the ultimate in
mounting flexibility.
Summary
The Legatia L1V2 tweeter is an excellent step-up in performance over the Unity/Clarus U1/C1 tweeter
driver offered in the Unity and Clarus kits, respectively, and is the bench-mark high-resonance
tweeter in Hybrid Audio’s complete product offering. Equally at home in two-way configuration paired
with a wide-bandwidth midrange or midbass, or as the dedicated tweeter transducer in a three-way
application, the Legatia L1V2 is an exemplary performer, and is eclipsed in performance by only the
Stage VI Legatia pro-series L1, and the Legatia L1 Pro Ring Radiator (R2) tweeters.
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Mechanical Drawing
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Thiele/Small Parameters
Overall Diameter
Φ55 mm
Mounting Depth
20 mm *
Mounting Methodology
Distortion
Surface-mount tweeter with three 3 mm screw
holes to secure the tweeter body from the front
Solid machined aluminum with integrated
polypropylene rear cap and push terminals
<5% max at rated power input, no crossover
Magnet Diameter and Construction
Φ19.5 × 3 H NdFeB
Recommended Minimum Crossover Frequency
3,200 Hz at 24 dB/octave highpass
Pnom Rated Power Input (No Crossover)
10 watts (AES Standard)
Pmax Rated Power Input (No Crossover)
20 watts (AES Standard)
Pmax (With Recommended Minimum Crossover)
75 watts
Resonance Frequency (Fs)
1,830 Hz
Frequency Range
2,500 Hz – 25,000 Hz, +/- 3 dB
Sensitivity
93 dB at 2.83V/1meter
Impedance
4Ω
DC Resistance
3.2Ω
Voice Coil Diameter
20 mm (3/4-inch)
Qms
3.103
Qes
3.553
Qts
1.656
Krm
198.84 nΩ
Erm
1.278
Kxm
2.136 mH
Exm
0.513
Construction
* Mounting depth can be significantly improved by removing the terminal cap at the rear of the
tweeter. For directions and assistance how to perform this modification, please contact Hybrid Audio
Technologies at [email protected]
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Frequency Response Graph
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Legatia L3V2 Wide-Bandwidth Midrange/Full-Range
History
The Legatia L3V2’s topology is an enhanced “version 2” of the massively successful first-generation
Legatia L3 transducer, which was launched in April 2006 to an enthusiastic reception of car audio
competitors, enthusiasts, and car audiophiles. The Legatia L3 was Hybrid Audio’s very first speaker
offering, and quickly established the company as a high-quality speaker manufacturer. In the years
since its inception, the L3 midrange has been included in several national- and world-championship
vehicles.
When it came time to enhance the L3, we were very cognoscente of the L3’s ability as a small-format
midrange, and had three general project objectives: 1) enhance the L3’s ability to effectively
reproduce a wider frequency spectrum for possible application as a dedicated full-range driver in a
two-way application, or in a wide-bandwidth three-way application, 2) to enhance the L3’s distortion
and inductance specifications, and 3) to improve power handling, sensitivity, motor strength, and
impulse response through more displacement and lighter moving mass, and the inclusion of a
proprietary opposing neo-ferrite motor system. The Legatia L3V2 joined Hybrid Audio Technologies’
Legatia L1V2 and L8V2 as the third driver in the Legatia series to be enhanced with performance
eclipsing the first iteration of each design. To this end, the L3V2 development began in January
2011, and the first prototypes were developed by company founder and lead designer Scott Buwalda.
By early Summer 2011, a beta prototype pair of Legatia L3V2’s had been refined after hundreds of
hours of testing and development; these highly-evolved drivers were sent to various national- and
world-championship competitors for real-world evaluation. After countless hours testing on the
speakers under various circumstances, both as a dedicated midrange and as a wide-bandwidth fullrange driver, final approval was given. Production refinements were late Summer of 2011, to
incorporate features inclusive and proprietary to the Legatia line, and final production commenced
September 2011. The Legatia L3V2 was launched in October 2011 and is the reference 3.7-inch
driver in Hybrid Audio’s product category known collectively as the Legatia Series.
Attributes
The Legatia L3V2 is a 93mm (3.7-inch) “small format” wide-bandwidth midrange/full-range driver to
compliment both two-way and three-way system designs, where a point-source midrange and/or fullrange driver is required. The following are the L3V2’s design attributes:
Basket
The basket of the L3V2 is a shared design with the Legatia L3SE for easy upgrade potential; the
L3V2 and L3SE are interchangeable in mounting topology. The basket is a high-quality cast
aluminum design, and contains a 93mm flange providing for the mounting of the driver via four screw
holes (the use of 3mm cap head screws is ideal). The overall dimensions of the driver are very
amenable for use in the car audio environment, and in locations typical of the standard “3-inch” driver,
or in custom locations at the discretion of the end-user, boasting a depth of just 43mm (1.69-inch).
The basket features large openings behind the cone to eliminate chuffing and other aerodynamicbased noises, as well as provides adequate communication to the back of the cone for acoustic
suspension and proper operation.
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Motor
The motor of the L3V2 is paramount to the performance of the driver, providing for a flat and wide BL
curve (as a learning note, BL is the equivalent of torque in a car; a car with a flat and constant torque
curve provides much better acceleration and performance than a car with a peaky, non-constant
torque curve). The BL curve is flat and extended, yielding 6mm of two-way linear excursion, resulting
in the L3V2 being able to accurately track the input signal. Reduced distortion and greater dynamics
are the immediate sonic benefits. The motor of the L3V2 includes a high-energy strontium magnet
with an opposing high-grade NdFeB magnet at the top of the magnetic gap to improve restorative
force, compliance, motor strength, displacement, and power handling. The magnet assemblies fully
surround the voice coil.
Voice Coil
The voice coil diameter of the L3V2 is a large 25.5mm (1-inch), which is the proper balance between
size and moving mass in super high-end mobile audio midranges/full-range drivers. The voice coil
diameter serves several key functions: elevated power handling, dissipation of heat (thereby lowering
power compression), and maximizing the size of the magnet assembly for enhanced motor
compliance. The voice coil is high-purity aluminum, which is superior to copper for heat dissipation,
as well as significantly reduced moving mass. The result is an extremely light weight winding with
good power handling and low inductance.
Suspension
The inverted surround is butyl rubber which is highly consistent, and does not suffer the variance of
natural rubbers. This rubber surround terminates mechanical vibrations well, having a low stiffness
for positive damping of resonances. The spider material was chosen for optimal performance; the
spider is a 90/10 cotton/Nomex blend with single-dip low viscosity phenolic. This material provides
the stiffness desired without being overly brittle or stiff, where vibrations in the spider are well damped
and do not translate into the former or the cone.
Cone
Like other Legatia midrange designs, you will find no composite or metal cone materials used on the
L3V2, as our approach to point-sourcing is to allow the Legatia midbass/midrange driver to effectively
play into upper treble frequencies. The Legatia L3V2 is a cone-type driver consisting of a proprietary
hybrid paper diaphragm with extremely low moving mass. Paper is widely acknowledged as the bestdamping material, as it provides the near optimum balance of strength and weight. The cone has
been treated with a water resistant element at the rear to accommodate door mounting, or other
areas prone to occasional contact with liquid. The cone design offers a wide dispersion pattern to
make for flexible installation and speaker location. The Legatia L3V2 has an outstanding extended
frequency response; the usable frequency range of this driver exceeds seven complete octaves of
usable bandwidth on-axis (140 Hz – 18,000+ Hz). Even off-axis, the L3V2 faithfully recreates more
than five full octaves of information, for the ultimate “small-format” midrange/full-range driver.
Phase Plug and Shorting Rings
The L3V2 comes equipped with a phase plug pole piece extension at the center of the cone, which is
one of the more notable enhancements of the L3V2 over its earlier sibling the L3. The phase plug is
Legatia User’s Manual
©Hybrid Audio Technologies
Page 16 of 65
aluminum and, by design, ensures enhancement of the total inductance profile, providing much of the
inductance reduction benefits noted between the L3V2 and the first-generation L3. The phase plug is
anodized black, which by design does not negatively reduce eddy current, and adds thermal
dissipation potential, not to mention sleek, under-stated cosmetics. The phase plug extends well
down inside the pole vent, and acts as a very large and efficient heatsink for any heat that radiates
into the pole. The highest frequencies of audio emanate from the area around the center of the cone
and the lower frequencies are produced by the area of the cone that is farther from the center. The
phase plug pole piece extension improves the L3V2’s performance and clarity by deflecting delicate
midrange and treble tones forward of the driver, while minimizing distortion and improving bandwidth.
The L3V2 uses copper shorting rings. The shorting rings consist of optimally sized and placed rings
of copper (Cu) to create a total inductance profile that is not just low, but flat over stroke, frequency,
and power. Inductance is the number one limiter of high frequency extension and modulation of
inductance with stroke, frequency and power, and is the primary source of intermodulation distortion
(IMD).
Tinsel Leads
The tinsel leads for the L3V2 are terminated on one side of the voice coil. The tinsel leads are
bonded directly to the former and brought out to the terminals, which reduces tinsel lead slap and
does not compromise the structural integrity of the cone.
Terminals
The Legatia L3V2 comes equipped with heavy-duty male slide terminals for both positive and
negative, which is an enhancement over the original L3 model. The terminals are gold-plated to
optimize contact, and give the end user flexibility in tinned wire or female slide terminations.
Summary
The Legatia L3V2 is the ideal multi-purpose super high-end speaker driver. Mechanical and electrical
parameters are amenable to a variety of different installations and speaker locations. This driver is
intended to be used in an infinite baffle configuration; a simple, solid baffle, solidly attached to the
car’s chassis with available airspace at the rear of the baffle is all that is required for optimum
operation. The size of the L3V2 allows it to be mounted in typical “3-inch” midrange locations within a
vehicle, or in custom locations at the discretion of the end-user, as long as there is adequate airspace
behind the driver to allow it to maintain proper damping and acoustic suspension.
At home in virtually any arrangement, the L3V2 is Hybrid Audio Technologies Legatia high-end smallformat midrange offering, boasting exceptional performance and a design philosophy that goes hand
in hand with true high-fidelity playback.
Legatia User’s Manual
©Hybrid Audio Technologies
Page 17 of 65
Mechanical Drawing
Legatia User’s Manual
©Hybrid Audio Technologies
Page 18 of 65
Thiele/Small Parameters
Overall Diameter
φ93 mm (3.7-inch)
Mounting Depth
43 mm
Bolt Circle Diameter
φ84.5 mm
Mounting Hole
φ74 mm
Recommended Minimum Crossover Frequency
185 Hz at 24 dB/octave highpass
Pnom Rated Power Input (No Crossover)
25 watts (AES Standard)
Pmax Rated Power Input (No Crossover)
50 watts (AES Standard)
Pmax (With Recommended Minimum Crossover)
125 watts
Frequency Range
113 Hz – 18,000 Hz, +/- 3 dB
Sensitivity
88.6 dB at 2.83V/1meter
Mms
2.65 g
Cms
743 um/N
BL
3.277 T*m
Voice Coil Diameter
25.5 mm (1-inch)
Impedance
4Ω
DC Resistance
3.4 Ω
Fs
113 Hz (free air)
Qms
2.766
Qes
0.598
Qts
0.492
Xmax
3 mm (one way)
Vas
0.96 L
Sd
3,019 mm2
Legatia User’s Manual
©Hybrid Audio Technologies
Page 19 of 65
Frequency Response Graph
Please note that the response peak at approximately 170 Hz is a testing room mode and is not indicative of the
speaker’s performance at that frequency. All speakers tested show this same phenomenon, and it has been
concluded to be a room artifact.
Legatia User’s Manual
©Hybrid Audio Technologies
Page 20 of 65
Legatia L4 Wide-Bandwidth Midrange/Full-Range
History
The Legatia L4 is the original high-end Legatia offering in a 4-inch format from Hybrid Audio
Technologies. The Legatia L4 transducer was originally launched in May 2007 to an enthusiastic
reception of car audio competitors, enthusiasts, and car audiophiles. The Legatia L4 followed the
imminently successful Legatia L3 as a larger format, phase plug-style midrange and wide-bandwidth
driver, and incidentally was one of the first 4-inch wide-bandwidth driver manufactured specifically for
use in the car environment. Hybrid Audio would like to think that we helped introduce the concept of
wide-bandwidth / full-range drivers to the car audio community starting in 2007.
The L4 is the only current Legatia product line that has not been revised, and the reason is that the
driver was, and is so good be begin with, and it has become difficult to justify a “V2” version for the
L4, since its performance is spectacular, as recognized around the world by consumers, competitors,
and dealers.
Attributes
The Legatia L4 is a 118mm (4.65-inch) wide-bandwidth midrange/full-range driver to compliment both
two-way and three-way system designs, where a point-source midrange and/or full-range driver is
required. The following are the L4’s design attributes:
Basket
The basket of the L4 is a shared design with the Legatia L4SE for easy upgrade potential; the L4 and
L4SE are interchangeable in mounting topology. The basket is a high-quality cast aluminum design,
and contains a 118mm flange providing for the mounting of the driver via four screw holes (the use of
3mm cap head screws is ideal). The overall dimensions of the driver are very amenable for use in
the car audio environment, and in locations typical of the standard “4-inch” driver, or in custom
locations at the discretion of the end-user, boasting a depth of just 54mm (2.12-inch). The basket
features large openings behind the cone to eliminate chuffing and other aerodynamic-based noises,
as well as provides adequate communication to the back of the cone for acoustic suspension and
proper operation.
Motor
The motor of the L4 is paramount to the performance of the driver, providing for a flat and wide BL
curve (as a learning note, BL is the equivalent of torque in a car; a car with a flat and constant torque
curve provides much better acceleration and performance than a car with a peaky, non-constant
torque curve). The BL curve is flat and extended, yielding 6mm of two-way linear excursion, resulting
in the L4 being able to accurately track the input signal. Reduced distortion and greater dynamics are
the immediate sonic benefits. The motor of the L4 includes a high-energy strontium magnet that fully
surrounds the voice coil.
Legatia User’s Manual
©Hybrid Audio Technologies
Page 21 of 65
Voice Coil
The voice coil diameter of the L4 is a large 25.5mm (1-inch), which is the proper balance between
size and moving mass in super high-end mobile audio midranges/full-range drivers. The voice coil
diameter serves several key functions: elevated power handling, dissipation of heat (thereby lowering
power compression), and maximizing the size of the magnet assembly for enhanced motor
compliance. The voice coil is high-purity aluminum, which is superior to copper for heat dissipation,
as well as significantly reduced moving mass. The result is an extremely light weight winding with
good power handling and low inductance.
Suspension
The inverted surround is butyl rubber which is highly consistent, and does not suffer the variance of
natural rubbers. This rubber surround terminates mechanical vibrations well, having a low stiffness
for positive damping of resonances. The spider material was chosen for optimal performance; the
spider is a 90/10 cotton/Nomex blend with single-dip low viscosity phenolic. This material provides
the stiffness desired without being overly brittle or stiff, where vibrations in the spider are well damped
and do not translate into the former or the cone.
Cone
Like other Legatia midrange designs, you will find no composite or metal cone materials used on the
L4, as our approach to point-sourcing is to allow the Legatia midbass/midrange driver to effectively
play into upper treble frequencies. The Legatia L4 is a cone-type driver consisting of a proprietary
hybrid paper diaphragm with extremely low moving mass. Paper is widely acknowledged as the bestdamping material, as it provides the near optimum balance of strength and weight. The cone has
been treated with a water resistant element at the rear to accommodate door mounting, or other
areas prone to occasional contact with liquid. The cone design offers a wide dispersion pattern to
make for flexible installation and speaker location. The Legatia L4 has an outstanding extended
frequency response; the usable frequency range of this driver exceeds seven complete octaves of
usable bandwidth on-axis (110 Hz – 18,000+ Hz). Even off-axis, the L4 faithfully recreates more than
five full octaves of information, for the ultimate midrange/full-range driver.
Phase Plug and Shorting Rings
The L4 comes equipped with a phase plug pole piece extension at the center of the cone. The phase
plug is aluminum and, by design, ensures enhancement of the total inductance profile, providing
much of the inductance reduction benefits noted in this design. The phase plug is anodized black,
which by design does not negatively reduce eddy current, and adds thermal dissipation potential, not
to mention sleek, under-stated cosmetics. The phase plug extends well down inside the pole vent,
and acts as a very large and efficient heatsink for any heat that radiates into the pole. The highest
frequencies of audio emanate from the area around the center of the cone and the lower frequencies
are produced by the area of the cone that is farther from the center. The phase plug pole piece
extension improves the L4’s performance and clarity by deflecting delicate midrange and treble tones
forward of the driver, while minimizing distortion and improving bandwidth.
The L4 uses copper shorting rings. The shorting rings consist of optimally sized and placed rings of
copper (Cu) to create a total inductance profile that is not just low, but flat over stroke, frequency, and
power. Inductance is the number one limiter of high frequency extension and modulation of
Legatia User’s Manual
©Hybrid Audio Technologies
Page 22 of 65
inductance with stroke, frequency and power, and is the primary source of intermodulation distortion
(IMD).
Tinsel Leads
The tinsel leads for the L4 are terminated on one side of the voice coil. The tinsel leads are bonded
directly to the former and brought out to the terminals, which greatly reduces tinsel lead slap and
does not compromise the structural integrity of the cone.
Terminals
The Legatia L4 comes equipped with heavy-duty male slide terminals for both positive and negative
connections. The terminals are gold-plated to optimize contact, and give the end user flexibility in
tinned wire or binding post terminations.
Summary
The Legatia L4 is the ideal multi-purpose super high-end speaker driver. Mechanical and electrical
parameters are amenable to a variety of different installations and speaker locations. This driver is
intended to be used in an infinite baffle configuration; a simple, solid baffle, solidly attached to the
car’s chassis with available airspace at the rear of the baffle is all that is required for optimum
operation. The size of the L4 allows it to be mounted in typical “4-inch” midrange locations within a
vehicle, or in custom locations at the discretion of the end-user, as long as there is adequate airspace
behind the driver to allow it to maintain proper damping and acoustic suspension.
At home in virtually any arrangement, the L4 is Hybrid Audio Technologies Legatia high-end
midrange offering, boasting exceptional performance and a design philosophy that goes hand in hand
with true high-fidelity playback.
Legatia User’s Manual
©Hybrid Audio Technologies
Page 23 of 65
Mechanical Drawing
Legatia User’s Manual
©Hybrid Audio Technologies
Page 24 of 65
Thiele/Small Parameters
Overall Diameter
φ118 mm (4.65-inch)
Mounting Depth
54 mm
Bolt Circle Diameter
φ109.5 mm
Mounting Hole
φ94.5 mm
Recommended Minimum Crossover Frequency
160 Hz at 24 dB/octave highpass
Pnom Rated Power Input (No Crossover)
30 watts (AES Standard)
Pmax Rated Power Input (No Crossover)
60 watts (AES Standard)
Pmax (With Recommended Minimum Crossover)
150 watts
Frequency Range
100 Hz – 17,000 Hz, +/- 3 dB
Sensitivity
89.4 dB at 2.83V/1meter
Mms
4.861 g
Cms
498 um/N
BL
4.065 T*m
Voice Coil Diameter
25.55 mm (1-inch)
Impedance
4Ω
DC Resistance
3.6 Ω
Fs
102 Hz (free air)
Qms
3.724
Qes
0.68
Qts
0.575
Xmax
3 mm (one way)
Vas
1.8 L
Sd
5,026 mm2
Legatia User’s Manual
©Hybrid Audio Technologies
Page 25 of 65
Frequency Response Graph
Please note that the response peak at approximately 170 Hz is a testing room mode and is not indicative of the
speaker’s performance at that frequency. All speakers tested show this same phenomenon, and it has been
concluded to be a room artifact.
Legatia User’s Manual
©Hybrid Audio Technologies
Page 26 of 65
Legatia L6V2 Wide-Bandwidth Midrange/Midbass
History
The Legatia L6V2’s topology is an enhanced “version 2” of the massively successful ‘original’ firstgeneration Legatia L6 transducer, which was launched in January 2007 to an enthusiastic reception
of car audio competitors, enthusiasts, and car audiophiles. In the years since its inception, the L6
midbass/midrange has been included in several national- and world-championship vehicles and was
the midbass of choice for five consecutive years of International Auto Sound Challenge Association
(IASCA) domination by Hybrid Audio competitors from 2007 through 2011. When it came time to
enhance the L6, we were very cognoscente of the L6’s midbass abilities, and had three general
project objectives: 1) enhance the L6’s ability to effectively reproduce a wider frequency spectrum for
possible application as a dedicated full-range driver in a two-way application, or as a midbass in a
wide-bandwidth three-way application, 2) to enhance the L6’s distortion and inductance
specifications, and 3) to improve power handling, sensitivity, motor strength, and impulse response
through more displacement and lighter moving mass and the inclusion of a proprietary opposing neoferrite motor system. The L6V2 joined Hybrid Audio Technologies’ Legatia L1V2, L8V2, and L3V2 as
the fourth driver in the Legatia series to be enhanced with performance eclipsing the first iteration of
each design. To this end, the L6V2 development began in January 2011, and the first prototypes
were developed by company founder and lead designer Scott Buwalda.
By early Summer 2011, a beta prototype pair of Legatia L6V2’s had been refined after hundreds of
hours of testing and development; these highly-evolved drivers were sent to various national- and
world-championship competitors for real-world evaluation, including Todd Luliak, MECA champion.
After countless hours testing on the speakers under various circumstances, both as a dedicated
midrange and as a wide-bandwidth full-range driver, final approval was given. Production refinements
were late Summer of 2011, to incorporate features inclusive and proprietary to the Legatia line, and
final production commenced September 2011. The Legatia L6V2 was launched in October 2011 and
is the reference 7.1-inch driver in Hybrid Audio’s product category known collectively as the Legatia
Series.
Attributes
The Legatia L6V2 is a 181mm (7.1-inch) wide-bandwidth midbass/midrange driver to compliment
both two-way and three-way system designs, where a point-source midrange and/or dedicated
midbass driver is required. The following are the L6V2’s design attributes:
Basket
The basket of the L6V2 is a shared design with the Legatia L6SE for easy upgrade potential; the
L6V2 and L6SE are interchangeable in mounting topology. The basket is a high-quality cast
aluminum design, and contains a 181mm flange providing for the mounting of the driver via four
screw holes (the use of 4mm cap head screws is ideal). The overall dimensions of the driver are very
amenable for use in the car audio environment, and in locations typical of the standard “6-inch” driver,
or in custom locations at the discretion of the end-user, boasting a depth of 76mm (3-inch). The
basket features large openings behind the cone to eliminate chuffing and other aerodynamic-based
noises, as well as provides adequate communication to the back of the cone for acoustic suspension
and proper operation.
Legatia User’s Manual
©Hybrid Audio Technologies
Page 27 of 65
Motor
The motor of the L6V2 is paramount to the performance of the driver, providing for a flat and wide BL
curve (as a learning note, BL is the equivalent of torque in a car; a car with a flat and constant torque
curve provides much better acceleration and performance than a car with a peaky, non-constant
torque curve). The BL curve is flat and extended, yielding 17mm of two-way linear excursion,
resulting in the L6V2 being able to accurately track the input signal. Reduced distortion and greater
dynamics are the immediate sonic benefits. The motor of the L6V2 includes a high-energy strontium
magnet with an opposing high-grade NdFeB magnet at the top of the magnetic gap to improve
restorative force, compliance, motor strength, displacement, and power handling. The magnet
assemblies fully surround the voice coil.
Voice Coil
The voice coil diameter of the L6V2 is a large 35.55mm (1.4-inch), which is the proper balance
between size and moving mass in super high-end mobile audio midranges/midbass. The voice coil
diameter serves several key functions: elevated power handling, dissipation of heat (thereby lowering
power compression), and maximizing the size of the magnet assembly for enhanced motor
compliance. The voice coil is high-purity aluminum, which is superior to copper for heat dissipation,
as well as significantly reduced moving mass. The result is an extremely light weight winding with
good power handling and low inductance.
Suspension
The inverted surround is butyl rubber which is highly consistent, and does not suffer the variance of
natural rubbers. This rubber surround terminates mechanical vibrations well, having a low stiffness
for positive damping of resonances well above the usable range of the L6V2. The spider material
was chosen for optimal performance; the spider is a 90/10 cotton/Nomex blend with single-dip low
viscosity phenolic. This material provides the stiffness desired without being overly brittle or stiff,
where vibrations in the spider are well damped and do not translate into the former or the cone.
Cone
Like other Legatia midrange designs, you will find no composite or metal cone materials used on the
L6V2, as our approach to point-sourcing is to allow the Legatia midbass/midrange driver to effectively
play into upper midrange and lower treble frequencies. The Legatia L6V2 is a cone-type driver
consisting of a proprietary hybrid paper diaphragm with extremely low moving mass. Paper is widely
acknowledged as the best-damping material, as it provides the near optimum balance of strength and
weight. The cone has been treated with a water resistant element at the rear to accommodate door
mounting, or other areas prone to occasional contact with liquid. The cone design offers a wide
dispersion pattern to make for flexible installation and speaker location. The Legatia L6V2 has an
outstanding extended frequency response; the usable frequency range of this driver exceeds seven
complete octaves of usable bandwidth on-axis (50 Hz – 9,000 Hz). Even off-axis, the L6V2 faithfully
recreates more than five full octaves of information, for the ultimate “large-format” midrange/midbass.
Legatia User’s Manual
©Hybrid Audio Technologies
Page 28 of 65
Phase Plug and Shorting Rings
The L6V2 comes equipped with a phase plug pole piece extension at the center of the cone. The
phase plug is aluminum and, by design, ensures enhancement of the total inductance profile. The
phase plug is anodized black, which by design does not negatively reduce eddy current, and adds
thermal dissipation potential, not to mention sleek, under-stated cosmetics. The phase plug extends
well down inside the pole vent, and acts as a very large and efficient heatsink for any heat that
radiates into the pole. The highest frequencies of audio emanate from the area around the center of
the cone and the lower frequencies are produced by the area of the cone that is farther from the
center. The phase plug pole piece extension improves the L6V2’s performance and clarity by
deflecting delicate midrange and treble tones forward of the driver, while minimizing distortion and
improving bandwidth.
An enhancement from the original L6 is the inclusion of copper shorting rings in the motor of the
L6V2. The shorting rings consist of optimally sized and placed rings of copper (Cu) to create a total
inductance profile that is not just low, but flat over stroke, frequency, and power. Inductance is the
number one limiter of high frequency extension and modulation of inductance with stroke, frequency
and power, and is the primary source of intermodulation distortion (IMD).
Tinsel Leads
The tinsel leads for the L6V2 are terminated on one side of the voice coil, with a second, unused set
of tinsel leads exiting the opposite side of the termination. Having two sets of tinsel leads reduces the
rocking of the system under high stroke; the spider is mechanically balanced. Additionally the tinsel
leads are stitched into the spider and bonded directly to the former and brought out to the terminals,
which completely eliminates tinsel lead slap and does not compromise the structural integrity of the
cone.
Terminals
The Legatia L6V2 comes equipped with heavy-duty spring loaded brass core terminals that are nickel
plated to optimize contact, and give the end user flexibility in tinned wire or binding post terminations.
The terminals are designed to accept up to 12-gauge wiring.
Summary
The Legatia L6V2 is the ideal multi-purpose super high-end speaker driver. Mechanical and electrical
parameters are amenable to a variety of different installations and speaker locations. This driver is
intended to be used in an infinite baffle configuration; a simple, solid baffle, solidly attached to the
car’s chassis with available airspace at the rear of the baffle is all that is required for optimum
operation. The size of the L6V2 allows it to be mounted in typical “6-inch” midbass locations within a
vehicle, or in custom locations at the discretion of the end-user, as long as there is adequate airspace
behind the driver to allow it to maintain proper damping and acoustic suspension.
At home in virtually any arrangement, the L6V2 is Hybrid Audio Technologies Legatia high-end largeformat midrange/midbass offering, boasting exceptional performance and a design philosophy that
goes hand in hand with true high-fidelity playback.
Legatia User’s Manual
©Hybrid Audio Technologies
Page 29 of 65
Mechanical Drawing
Legatia User’s Manual
©Hybrid Audio Technologies
Page 30 of 65
Thiele/Small Parameters
Overall Diameter
φ181 mm (7.1-inch)
Mounting Depth
76 mm
Bolt Circle Diameter
φ167.5 mm
Mounting Hole
φ146.5 mm
Recommended Minimum Crossover Frequency
45 Hz at 24 dB/octave highpass
Pnom Rated Power Input (No Crossover)
80 watts (AES Standard)
Pmax Rated Power Input (No Crossover)
160 watts (AES Standard)
Pmax (With Recommended Minimum Crossover)
215 watts
Frequency Range
49 Hz – 9,500 Hz, +/- 3 dB
Sensitivity
92.5 dB at 2.83V/1meter
Mms
13.33 g
Cms
781 um/N
BL
5.846 T*m
Voice Coil Diameter
35.55 mm (1.4-inch)
Impedance
4Ω
DC Resistance
3.4 Ω
Fs
49 Hz (free air)
Qms
2.843
Qes
0.51
Qts
0.433
Xmax
8.5 mm (one way)
Vas
20.1 L
Sd
13,478 mm2
Legatia User’s Manual
©Hybrid Audio Technologies
Page 31 of 65
Frequency Response Graph
Please note that the response peak at approximately 170 Hz is a testing room mode and is not indicative of the
speaker’s performance at that frequency. All speakers tested show this same phenomenon, and it has been
concluded to be a room artifact.
Legatia User’s Manual
©Hybrid Audio Technologies
Page 32 of 65
Legatia L8V2 Wide-Bandwidth Midrange/Midbass
History
The Legatia L8V2’s topology is an enhanced “version 2” of the massively successful ‘original’ firstgeneration Legatia L8 transducer, which was launched in September 2007 to an enthusiastic
reception of car audio competitors, enthusiasts, and car audiophiles. In the years since its inception,
the L8 midbass has been included in several national- and world-championship vehicles; the L8 was
debuted initially by David Brooks in competition, and the first-generation L8 went undefeated in
organized competition its first and second seasons, including the season-ending championships in
2007 and 2008. When it came time to enhance the L8, we were very cognoscente of the L8’s
midbass abilities, and had two general project objectives: 1) enhance the L8’s ability to effectively
reproduce a wider frequency spectrum for possible application as a dedicated midrange in a two-way
application, and 2) to improve power handling, sensitivity, motor strength, and impulse response
through more displacement and lighter moving mass and the inclusion of a proprietary opposing neoferrite motor system. The Legatia L8V2 joined Hybrid Audio Technologies’ Legatia L1V2 as the
second driver in the Legatia series to be enhanced with performance eclipsing the first iteration of
each design. To this end, the L8V2 development began in January 2010, and the first prototypes
were developed by company founder and lead designer Scott Buwalda.
By Fall 2010, a beta prototype pair of Legatia L8V2’s had been refined after hundreds of hours of
testing and development; these highly-evolved drivers were sent to Jim Becker and Jorge Juaristi,
both multiple IASCA and USACi champions for final testing, evaluation, and debut in organized
competition. After countless hours testing on the speakers under various circumstances, both as a
dedicated midbass and as a midbass/midrange in two-way configuration, Juaristi and Becker gave
their final approval. Production refinements were Fall of 2010, to incorporate features inclusive and
proprietary to the Legatia line, and final production commenced November 2010. The Legatia L8V2
was launched in December 2010 and is the reference 8.85-inch driver in Hybrid Audio’s product
category known collectively as the Legatia Series.
Attributes
The Legatia L8V2 is a 225mm (8.85-inch) “large format” wide-bandwidth midbass/midrange driver to
compliment both two-way and three-way system designs, where a point-source midrange and/or
dedicated midbass driver is required. The following are the L8V2’s design attributes:
Basket
The basket of the L8V2 is a shared design with the Legatia L8SE for easy upgrade potential; the
L8V2 and L8SE are interchangeable in mounting topology. The L8V2 differs from the first-version L8
in that the basket geometry has been enhanced in the V2 model to a slightly larger outside diameter
for greater clamping surface area (from 8.5-inch on the L8 to 8.85-inch on the L8V2); the mounting
holes for each driver remain nearly identical however, with a difference of only 2mm (188mm verses
186mm). Provided enough outside mounting diameter difference can be obtained, the L8V2 will often
fit into the first-generation L8’s mounting hole.
The basket is a high-quality cast aluminum design, and contains a 225mm flange providing for the
mounting of the driver via four screw holes (the use of 5mm cap head screws is ideal). The overall
dimensions of the driver are very amenable for use in the car audio environment, and in locations
Legatia User’s Manual
©Hybrid Audio Technologies
Page 33 of 65
typical of the standard “8-inch” driver, or in custom locations at the discretion of the end-user,
boasting a depth of 94mm (3.7-inch). The basket features large openings behind the cone to
eliminate chuffing and other aerodynamic-based noises, as well as provides adequate communication
to the back of the cone for acoustic suspension and proper operation.
Motor
The motor of the L8V2 is paramount to the performance of the driver, providing for a flat and wide BL
curve (as a learning note, BL is the equivalent of torque in a car; a car with a flat and constant torque
curve provides much better acceleration and performance than a car with a peaky, non-constant
torque curve). The BL curve is flat and extended, yielding 18mm of two-way linear excursion,
resulting in the L8V2 being able to accurately track the input signal. Reduced distortion and greater
dynamics are the immediate sonic benefits. The motor of the L8V2 includes a high-energy strontium
magnet with an opposing high-grade NdFeB magnet at the top of the magnetic gap to improve
restorative force, compliance, motor strength, displacement, and power handling. The magnet
assemblies fully surround the voice coil.
Voice Coil
The voice coil diameter of the L8V2 is a large 35.55mm (1.4-inch), which is the proper balance
between size and moving mass in super high-end mobile audio midranges/midbass. The voice coil
diameter serves several key functions: elevated power handling, dissipation of heat (thereby lowering
power compression), and maximizing the size of the magnet assembly for enhanced motor
compliance. The voice coil is high-purity aluminum, which is superior to copper for heat dissipation,
as well as significantly reduced moving mass. The result is an extremely light weight winding with
good power handling and low inductance.
Suspension
The inverted surround is butyl rubber which is highly consistent, and does not suffer the variance of
natural rubbers. This rubber surround terminates mechanical vibrations well, having a low stiffness
for positive damping of resonances well above the usable range of the L8V2. The spider material
was chosen for optimal performance; the spider is a 90/10 cotton/Nomex blend with single-dip low
viscosity phenolic. This material provides the stiffness desired without being overly brittle or stiff,
where vibrations in the spider are well damped and do not translate into the former or the cone.
Cone
Like other Legatia midrange designs, you will find no composite or metal cone materials used on the
L8V2, as our approach to point-sourcing is to allow the Legatia midbass/midrange driver to effectively
play into upper midrange and lower treble frequencies. The Legatia L8V2 is a cone-type driver
consisting of a proprietary hybrid paper diaphragm with extremely low moving mass. Paper is widely
acknowledged as the best-damping material, as it provides the near optimum balance of strength and
weight. The cone has been treated with a water resistant element at the rear to accommodate door
mounting, or other areas prone to occasional contact with liquid. The cone design offers a wide
dispersion pattern to make for flexible installation and speaker location. The Legatia L8V2 has an
outstanding extended frequency response; the usable frequency range of this driver exceeds six
complete octaves of usable bandwidth on-axis (40 Hz – 3,800 Hz). Even off-axis, the L8V2 faithfully
recreates more than five full octaves of information, for the ultimate “large-format” midrange/midbass.
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©Hybrid Audio Technologies
Page 34 of 65
Phase Plug and Shorting Rings
The L8V2 comes equipped with a phase plug pole piece extension at the center of the cone, which is
one of the more notable enhancements of the L8V2 over its earlier sibling the L8. The phase plug is
aluminum and, by design, ensures enhancement of the total inductance profile, providing much of the
inductance reduction benefits noted between the L8V2 and the first-generation L8. The phase plug is
anodized black, which by design does not negatively reduce eddy current, and adds thermal
dissipation potential, not to mention sleek, under-stated cosmetics. The phase plug extends well
down inside the pole vent, and acts as a very large and efficient heatsink for any heat that radiates
into the pole. The highest frequencies of audio emanate from the area around the center of the cone
and the lower frequencies are produced by the area of the cone that is farther from the center. The
phase plug pole piece extension improves the L8V2’s performance and clarity by deflecting delicate
midrange and treble tones forward of the driver, while minimizing distortion and improving bandwidth.
The L8V2 uses copper shorting rings. The shorting rings consist of optimally sized and placed rings
of copper (Cu) to create a total inductance profile that is not just low, but flat over stroke, frequency,
and power. Inductance is the number one limiter of high frequency extension and modulation of
inductance with stroke, frequency and power, and is the primary source of intermodulation distortion
(IMD).
Tinsel Leads
The tinsel leads for the L8V2 are terminated on one side of the voice coil, with a second, unused set
of tinsel leads exiting the opposite side of the termination. Having two sets of tinsel leads reduces the
rocking of the system under high stroke; the spider is mechanically balanced. Additionally the tinsel
leads are bonded directly to the former and brought out to the terminals, which keeps tinsel lead slap
to a minimum and does not compromise the structural integrity of the cone.
Terminals
The Legatia L8V2 comes equipped with heavy-duty spring loaded brass core terminals that are nickel
plated to optimize contact, and give the end user flexibility in tinned wire or binding post terminations.
The terminals are designed to accept up to 12-gauge wiring.
Summary
The Legatia L8V2 is the ideal multi-purpose super high-end speaker driver. Mechanical and electrical
parameters are amenable to a variety of different installations and speaker locations. This driver is
intended to be used in an infinite baffle configuration; a simple, solid baffle, solidly attached to the
car’s chassis with available airspace at the rear of the baffle is all that is required for optimum
operation. The size of the L8V2 allows it to be mounted in typical “8-inch” midbass locations within a
vehicle, or in custom locations at the discretion of the end-user, as long as there is adequate airspace
behind the driver to allow it to maintain proper damping and acoustic suspension.
At home in virtually any arrangement, the L8V2 is Hybrid Audio Technologies Legatia high-end largeformat midrange/midbass offering, boasting exceptional performance and a design philosophy that
goes hand in hand with true high-fidelity playback.
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©Hybrid Audio Technologies
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Mechanical Drawing
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©Hybrid Audio Technologies
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Thiele/Small Parameters
Overall Diameter
φ225 mm (8.85-inch)
Mounting Depth
94 mm
Bolt Circle Diameter
φ211 mm
Mounting Hole
φ186 mm
Recommended Minimum Crossover Frequency
40 Hz at 24 dB/octave highpass
Pnom Rated Power Input (No Crossover)
80 watts (AES Standard)
Pmax Rated Power Input (No Crossover)
160 watts (AES Standard)
Pmax (With Recommended Minimum Crossover)
215 watts
Frequency Range
40 Hz – 3,800 Hz, +/- 3 dB
Sensitivity
91.5 dB at 2.83V/1meter
Mms
30.5 g
Cms
398 um/N
BL
7.85 T*m
Voice Coil Diameter
35.55 mm (1.4-inch)
Impedance
4Ω
DC Resistance
3.4 Ω
Fs
43 Hz (free air)
Qms
2.974
Qes
0.683
Qts
0.655
Xmax
9 mm (one way)
Vas
25 L
Sd
21,124 mm2
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©Hybrid Audio Technologies
Page 37 of 65
Frequency Response Graph
Please note that the response peak at approximately 170 Hz is a testing room mode and is not indicative of the
speaker’s performance at that frequency. All speakers tested show this same phenomenon, and it has been
concluded to be a room artifact.
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©Hybrid Audio Technologies
Page 38 of 65
Legatia L2x Two-Way Vertically-Biamplified Passive Crossover
History
The Legatia L2x topology is an enhanced Stage V version of the Stage IV Clarus C2x passive
crossover network, which was first released with the Clarus C61-2 set in January 2008. It’s no secret
that Hybrid Audio Technologies highly recommends the use of active crossovers that are set-up and
adjusted by an industry specialist, such as a master tuner, or a highly-qualified car audio shop
installer (please read any number of White Papers on the subject of passive crossovers on the
www.hybrid-audio.com/downloads.htm web page). In some cases, however, using active crossovers
is not a viable option, so we designed and manufactured the Legatia L2x to allow for easy Legatia
installations, especially when multiple amplifier channels and/or adequate active crossover
processing was not available in the car audio installation.
The L2x can be used for two-way passively crossed-over systems, or used as the two-way dividing
network for midrange and treble drivers in a “quasi-active” three-way (six speaker) system, where the
midbass is actively crossed-over at the amplifier.
The L2x is based loosely off of the Clarus C2x crossover, with key enhancements, including the
option for vertical bi-wiring, as well as an enhanced filter set using low-tolerance, super high-quality
parts. The Legatia L2x was launched in September 2009 and is the reference two-way passive
crossover in Hybrid Audio’s product category known collectively as the Legatia Series.
Key Issues in Passive Crossover Design
Before highlighting the L2x’s design attributes, there are certain key issues in passive crossover
design that the end-user should be aware of. For years, vocal manufacturers have coerced the
consumer into believing that capacitors, coils, and resistors are not only desirable, but are a
requirement. One notable “high-end” speaker manufacturer boasts that they spend “months” working
on crossover designs to ‘enhance’ their speakers. To ‘enhance’ means to add considerable filtering
to fix speaker response anomalies, aka poor speaker designs.
Our speaker design philosophy is to spend the time and resources necessary to make the speakers
exceptional in the design phase, and then use simpleton filtering to protect only for thermal protection
at resonance and provide the desired frequency response filtering via crossovers. It is our philosophy
that the passive crossover should not contain any level of equalization; none of our designs, in any
series, use crossovers that contain any form of equalization beyond simple tweeter attenuation. We
believe in making the speaker great, not trying to fix a poor speaker with filtering and attenuation.
There's no crossover in the world that can make a poorly-designed speaker sound good. This is why
there’s a relatively simple, high-quality crossover topology employed on the Legatia L2x crossover,
with no additional board-mounted equalization. And this is also why we implore you to use our worldclass speaker systems in concert with the L2x.
Attributes
The Legatia L2x is a bi-amplified two-way passive crossover for use with virtually any midrange,
midbass and tweeter pairing Hybrid Audio manufactures. The following are the L2x’s design
attributes:
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©Hybrid Audio Technologies
Page 39 of 65
Filter Set
The L2x is a bi-wired two-way passive crossover that has the following filters:
Lowpass (midrange): 5,700 Hz at 12 dB/octave Linkwitz Riley
Highpass (treble): 5,200 Hz at 12 dB/octave Linkwitz Riley
The only filtering on the board is mentioned above, and in essence are elementary highpass and
lowpass filters common in any two-way crossover design. As noted above, there is no boardmounted equalization specific to one brand or type of midrange or tweeter, or common of competitor’s
designs where equalization correction (filtering) is added. The L2x can be used with any number of
drivers we produce (including any midrange, midbass, and tweeter from the Imagine, Unity, Clarus,
Legatia, Legatia SE, and Legatia Pro range of offerings). The more common uses for the L2x are
Legatia L6 or Legatia L6SE, paired with Legatia L1V2, Legatia L1 Pro, or Legatia L1 Pro R2, but the
design is not limited to those uses and can be expanded to any number of possible bespoke two-way
configurations, or used as the two-way dividing network for midrange and treble drivers in a “quasiactive” three-way system, where the midbass is actively cross-over at the amplifier.
The L2x passive crossover networks incorporate super high quality and low tolerance metalized
polypropylene film capacitors, air-core inductors, and low tolerance non-inductive resistors. No
output level switches were used in the passive crossover design because switches add a resistive
effect and are typically of extremely low quality. Additionally, “jumper pins” add an unnecessary pair
of splices in the signal path to the tweeter, and were not included in our design either. Rather, all
tweeter level adjustments are done on the board level with dedicated non-inductive resistors; tweeter
attenuation is accomplished by selecting the appropriate output (-3 dB, 0 dB, or +3 dB) on the passive
crossover circuit board. The components selected are complimentary and ensure no appreciable
signal degradation between the input and output side of the crossovers. Likewise, the capacitors and
inductors are arranged on the board to reduce the coupling between circuits and electromagnetic
interference by basic physical separation, while still keeping the footprint size of the circuit board
small. Finally, the use of 12 dB/octave filters on both low pass and high pass minimizes phaserelated distortion typical of crossovers with mismatched orders, and ensures relative phasecoherency.
Connection
The L2x has convenient spring-loaded terminals for wire connection. Bare wire can be twisted tightly
and inserted into the spring-loaded terminal, however Hybrid Audio recommends that the wire be
tinned with solder to avoid oxidation, fraying, and to promote a better connection. The following is the
connection nomenclature on the L2x, from left to right on the circuit board:
+WF
IN +WF
OUT + TW
IN HI +
MID +
LOW +
Woofer positive input from amplifier
Woofer negative input from amplifier
Woofer positive output to Hybrid Audio Technologies midbass or midrange positive terminal
Woofer negative output to Hybrid Audio Technologies midbass or midrange negative terminal
Tweeter positive input from amplifier
Tweeter negative input from amplifier
Tweeter positive output to Hybrid Audio Technologies tweeter positive terminal, +3 dB setting
Tweeter positive output to Hybrid Audio Technologies tweeter positive terminal, 0 dB setting
Tweeter positive output to Hybrid Audio Technologies tweeter positive terminal, -3 dB setting
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©Hybrid Audio Technologies
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TW -
Tweeter negative output to Hybrid Audio Technologies tweeter negative terminal
NOTE: the L2x is a bi-wired crossover, meaning the crossover has two sets of inputs for use with two
two-channel amplifiers or a four-channel amplifier. If you wish to not use two two-channel amplifiers
or a four-channel amplifier, and use only one two-channel amplifier instead, simply “bridge” the
connections between + WF and + TW and IN – and IN – with two short strands of insulated wire.
Once all speakers are installed, you will need to do a brief listening test with CD-quality music that
you are intimately familiar with to determine which tweeter attenuation you desire. Be sure that all
equalization, bass, and treble levels are defeated or set to “zero” on the source unit before evaluating
the intensity of the tweeters with respect to your midrange/midbass level and your listening taste.
Note also, after approximately 25 hours, the speakers will begin to “break in”, like any mechanical
component, and intensities may need to be re-adjusted again. In other words, the midbass need to
be broken in with typical play-time before final tweeter attenuation is set. You may find that after
break-in, the tweeter intensity will need to be re-adjusted.
Mounting
Choose your L2x mounting location carefully. The L2x contains parts that are susceptible to damage
through repeated shock, moisture, and electromagnetic interference. For example, it is advisable to
install the passive crossovers inside the passenger compartment versus the door, since the door is
exposed to repeated opening and closing “shock” which may damage the delicate passive crossover
components, or cause soldered joints to break over time. Likewise, moisture may be present in a
door installation. Finally, if you are mounting the passive crossovers in the kick panels or dashboard,
be sure to keep the networks away from any noise-inducing device within the vehicle, such as factory
ECU’s, auto transmission control ECU’s, BCM’s, alternator field/stator wiring, and numerous other
devices. Readers note: be mindful of the location of throttle, brake, and clutch pedals when you are
selecting a mounting location and where to route the speaker wiring.
If the only option for crossover mounting is in the door, it would typically be prudent to install the
passive crossovers immediately adjacent to the midbass location to keep speaker wiring and
connections short and allow access to the OEM wiring, if it is used, without having to extend it and
creating an additional resistive splice in the wire. If you must install the L2x in the door, DO NOT
MOUNT THE CROSSOVER INSIDE THE DOOR CAVITY! Rather, install the networks on the same
mounting plane as the midbass, toward the passenger compartment, and behind the OEM door
panel/skin, so as to not expose the delicate electronic parts contained within to moisture inside the
door cavity. Once an adequate spot for mounting the L2x is found, securely mount the crossover
networks using the supplied screws. Before any cutting, drilling, or insertion of screws, check the
clearance of the panel from behind to verify that you won’t be damaging existing wiring, window or
door lock motors, window tracks and the windows themselves, and etc.
Summary
The Legatia L2x is an exceptional-quality two-way passive crossover device that can be used with
any Hybrid Audio speaker system to accommodate any number of different bespoke system designs.
At home in virtually any arrangement, the L2x is Hybrid Audio Stage V high-end two-way passive
crossover, boasting exceptional performance and a design philosophy that goes hand in hand with
true high-fidelity playback.
Legatia User’s Manual
©Hybrid Audio Technologies
Page 41 of 65
Mechanical Drawing
Legatia User’s Manual
©Hybrid Audio Technologies
Page 42 of 65
Frequency Filter Plot
Legatia User’s Manual
©Hybrid Audio Technologies
Page 43 of 65
Legatia L3x Three-Way Vertically Biamplified Passive Crossover
History
The Legatia L3x topology is loosely based off of the Legatia L2x crossover topology, which was first
released in October 2009. It’s no secret that Hybrid Audio Technologies highly recommends the use
of active crossovers that are set-up and adjusted by an industry specialist, such as a master tuner, or
a highly-qualified car audio shop installer (please read any number of White Papers on the subject of
passive crossovers on the www.hybrid-audio.com/downloads.htm web page). In some cases,
however, using active crossovers is not a viable option, so we designed and manufactured the
Legatia L3x to allow for easy Legatia installations, especially when multiple amplifier channels and/or
adequate active crossover processing was not available in the car audio installation.
The L3x can be used for virtually any Legatia three-way passively crossed-over systems, or used in
conjunction with other Hybrid Audio products to create a truly “bespoke” three-way system. The
Legatia L3x was launched in June 2011 and is the reference three-way passive crossover in Hybrid
Audio’s product category known collectively as the Legatia Series.
Key Issues in Passive Crossover Design
Before highlighting the L3x’s design attributes, there are certain key issues in passive crossover
design that the end-user should be aware of. For years, vocal manufacturers have coerced the
consumer into believing that capacitors, coils, and resistors are not only desirable, but are a
requirement. One notable “high-end” speaker manufacturer boasts that they spend “months” working
on crossover designs to ‘enhance’ their speakers. To ‘enhance’ means to add considerable filtering
to fix speaker response anomalies, aka poor speaker designs.
Our speaker design philosophy is to spend the time and resources necessary to make the speakers
exceptional in the design phase, and then use simpleton filtering to protect only for thermal protection
at resonance and provide the desired frequency response. It is our philosophy that the passive
crossover should not contain any level of equalization; none of our designs, in any series, use
crossovers that contain any form of equalization beyond simple tweeter attenuation. We believe in
making the speaker great, not trying to fix a poor speaker with filtering and attenuation. There's no
crossover in the world that can make a poorly-designed speaker sound good. This is why there’s a
relatively simpleton, high-quality crossover topology employed on the Legatia L3x crossover, with no
additional board-mounted equalization. And this is also why we implore you to use our world-class
speaker systems in concert with the L3x.
Attributes
The Legatia L3x is a bi-amplified three-way passive crossover for use with virtually any midrange,
midbass and tweeter pairing Hybrid Audio manufactures. The following are the L3x’s design
attributes:
Filter Set
The L3x is a bi-wired three-way passive crossover that has the following filters:
Legatia User’s Manual
©Hybrid Audio Technologies
Page 44 of 65
Lowpass (midbass): 300 Hz at 12 dB/octave Linkwitz Riley
Bandpass (midrange): 300 Hz to 6,000 Hz at 12 dB/octave Linkwitz Riley
Highpass (treble): 6,000 Hz at 12 dB/octave Linkwitz Riley
The only filtering on the board is mentioned above, and in essence are elementary highpass,
bandpass, and lowpass filters common in any three-way crossover design. As noted above, there is
no board-mounted equalization specific to one brand or type of midrange or tweeter, or common of
competitor’s designs where equalization correction (filtering) is added. The L3x can be used with any
number of drivers we produce (including any midrange, midbass, and tweeter from the Imagine,
Unity, Clarus, Legatia, Legatia SE, and Legatia Pro range of offerings). The more common uses for
the L3x are Legatia L6 or Legatia L6SE, paired with Legatia L3, L3SE, L4, or Legatia L4SE, and
Legatia tweeters, such as the L1V2, Legatia L1 Pro, or Legatia L1 Pro R2, but the design is not
limited to those uses and can be expanded to any number of possible bespoke three-way
configurations.
The L3x passive crossover networks incorporate asymmetrically arranged super high quality and low
tolerance metalized polypropylene film capacitors, air-core inductors, and low tolerance non-inductive
resistors. Even the massive lowpass and bandpass capacitors are super high-quality polypropylene
capacitors, nearly unheard of by today’s standards. No output level switches were used in the passive
crossover design because switches add a resistive effect and are typically of extremely low quality.
Additionally, “jumper pins” add an unnecessary pair of splices in the signal path to the tweeter, and
were not included in our design either. Rather, all tweeter level adjustments are done on the board
level with dedicated non-inductive resistors; tweeter attenuation is accomplished by selecting the
appropriate output (-3 dB, 0 dB, or +3 dB) on the passive crossover circuit board. Likewise, midrange
attenuation is accomplished by selecting the appropriate output (0 dB or -3 dB). The components
selected are complimentary and ensure no appreciable signal degradation between the input and
output side of the crossovers. Likewise, the capacitors and inductors are arranged on the board to
reduce the coupling between circuits and electromagnetic interference by basic physical separation,
while still keeping the footprint size of the circuit board small. Finally, the use of 12 dB/octave filters
on both low pass and high pass minimizes phase-related distortion typical of crossovers with
mismatched orders, and ensures relative phase-coherency.
Connection
The L3x has convenient spring-loaded terminals for wire connection. Bare wire can be twisted tightly
and inserted into the spring-loaded terminal, however Hybrid Audio recommends that the wire be
tinned with solder to avoid oxidation, fraying, and to promote a better connection. The following is the
connection nomenclature on the L3x, from left to right on the circuit board:
+WF
IN +WF
OUT +M/TW
IN +M/H
+M/L
Woofer positive input from amplifier
Woofer negative input from amplifier
Woofer positive output to Hybrid Audio Technologies midbass or midrange positive terminal
Woofer negative output to Hybrid Audio Technologies midbass or midrange negative terminal
Midrange and tweeter positive input from amplifier
Midrange and tweeter negative input from amplifier
Midrange positive output to Hybrid Audio Technologies midrange positive terminal, 0 dB
setting
Midrange positive output to Hybrid Audio Technologies midrange positive terminal, -3 dB
setting
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©Hybrid Audio Technologies
Page 45 of 65
+T/H
+T/M
+T/L
TW -
Tweeter positive output to Hybrid Audio Technologies tweeter positive terminal, +3 dB setting
Tweeter positive output to Hybrid Audio Technologies tweeter positive terminal, 0 dB setting
Tweeter positive output to Hybrid Audio Technologies tweeter positive terminal, -3 dB setting
Tweeter negative output to Hybrid Audio Technologies tweeter negative terminal
NOTE: the L3x is a bi-wired crossover, meaning the crossover has two sets of inputs for use with two
two-channel amplifiers or a four-channel amplifier. If you wish to not use two two-channel amplifiers
or a four-channel amplifier, and use only one two-channel amplifier instead, simply “bridge” the
connections between + WF and + M/T and IN – and IN – with two short strands of insulated wire.
Once all speakers are installed, you will need to do a brief listening test with CD-quality music that
you are intimately familiar with to determine which midrange and/or tweeter attenuation you desire.
Be sure that all equalization, bass, and treble levels are defeated or set to “zero” on the source unit
before evaluating the intensity of the tweeters with respect to your midrange/midbass level and your
listening taste. Note also, after approximately 25 hours, the speakers will begin to “break in”, like any
mechanical component, and intensities may need to be re-adjusted again. In other words, the
midbass and midrange need to be broken in with typical play-time before final midrange and tweeter
attenuation is set. You may find that after break-in, the midrange and/or tweeter intensity will need to
be re-adjusted.
Mounting
Choose your L3x mounting location carefully. The L3x contains parts that are susceptible to damage
through repeated shock, moisture, and electromagnetic interference. For example, it is advisable to
install the passive crossovers inside the passenger compartment versus the door, since the door is
exposed to repeated opening and closing “shock” which may damage the delicate passive crossover
components, or cause soldered joints to break over time. Likewise, moisture may be present in a
door installation. Finally, if you are mounting the passive crossovers in the kick panels or dashboard,
be sure to keep the networks away from any noise-inducing device within the vehicle, such as factory
ECU’s, auto transmission control ECU’s, BCM’s, alternator field/stator wiring, and numerous other
devices. Readers note: be mindful of the location of throttle, brake, and clutch pedals when you are
selecting a mounting location and where to route the speaker wiring.
If the only option for crossover mounting is in the door, it would typically be prudent to install the
passive crossovers immediately adjacent to the midbass location to keep speaker wiring and
connections short and allow access to the OEM wiring, if it is used, without having to extend it and
creating an additional resistive splice in the wire. If you must install the L3x in the door, DO NOT
MOUNT THE CROSSOVER INSIDE THE DOOR CAVITY! Rather, install the networks on the same
mounting plane as the midbass, toward the passenger compartment, and behind the OEM door
panel/skin, so as to not expose the delicate electronic parts contained within to moisture inside the
door cavity.
Once an adequate spot for mounting the L3x is found, securely mount the crossover networks using
the supplied screws. Before any cutting, drilling, or insertion of screws, check the clearance of the
panel from behind to verify that you won’t be damaging existing wiring, window or door lock motors,
window tracks and the windows themselves, and etc.
Legatia User’s Manual
©Hybrid Audio Technologies
Page 46 of 65
Summary
The Legatia L3x is an exceptional-quality three-way passive crossover device that can be used with
any Hybrid Audio speaker system to accommodate any number of different bespoke system designs.
At home in virtually any arrangement, the L3x is Hybrid Audio Stage V high-end three-way passive
crossover, boasting exceptional performance and a design philosophy that goes hand in hand with
true high-fidelity playback.
Legatia User’s Manual
©Hybrid Audio Technologies
Page 47 of 65
Mechanical Drawing
Legatia User’s Manual
©Hybrid Audio Technologies
Page 48 of 65
Frequency Filter Plot
Legatia User’s Manual
©Hybrid Audio Technologies
Page 49 of 65
Legatia L3G Grille Assembly
The Legatia L3G grille has application for the Legatia L3V2,
Legatia L3SE, as well as the original Legatia L3 offering.
NOTE: The grille height clearance is very close to the height of the phase plug extended pole piece
on certain Hybrid Audio models. For this reason, the end-user MUST use the supplied non-hardening
gasket material between the plastic retainer and the grille mesh to keep the grille mesh firmly in
place, and to allow enough height clearance to the phase plug extended pole piece.
Legatia User’s Manual
©Hybrid Audio Technologies
Page 50 of 65
Legatia L4G Grille Assembly
The Legatia L4G grille has application for the Legatia L4,
Legatia L4SE, as well as the Legatia L4SE Carbon.
NOTE: The grille height clearance is very close to the height of the phase plug extended pole piece on certain
Hybrid Audio models. For this reason, the end-user MUST use the supplied non-hardening gasket material
between the plastic retainer and the grille mesh to keep the grille mesh firmly in place, and to allow enough
height clearance to the phase plug extended pole piece.
Legatia User’s Manual
©Hybrid Audio Technologies
Page 51 of 65
Legatia L6G Grille Assembly
Note: The Legatia L6G grille has application for the Legatia L6V2,
Legatia L6SE, as well as the original Legatia L6 offering.
NOTE: The grille height clearance is very close to the height of the phase plug extended pole piece on certain
Hybrid Audio models. For this reason, the end-user MUST use the supplied non-hardening gasket material
between the plastic retainer and the grille mesh to keep the grille mesh firmly in place, and to allow enough
height clearance to the phase plug extended pole piece.
Legatia User’s Manual
©Hybrid Audio Technologies
Page 52 of 65
Legatia L8G Grille Assembly
Note: The Legatia L8G grille has application for the Legatia L8V2,
Legatia L8SE, as well as the original Legatia L8 offering.
NOTE: The grille height clearance is very close to the height of the phase plug extended pole piece
on certain Hybrid Audio models. For this reason, the end-user MUST use the supplied non-hardening
gasket material between the plastic retainer and the grille mesh to keep the grille mesh firmly in
place, and to allow enough height clearance to the phase plug extended pole piece.
Legatia User’s Manual
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Advanced System Installation
Hybrid Audio Technologies has prepared a more advanced topical discussion of Legatia installation
techniques, concepts, and principals, where a little bit of additional installation work can net immense
gains in overall sound quality.
There are certainly many things you can do to improve your mobile audio system, such as addition of
amplification, a dedicated subwoofer system, higher-gauge speaker wire, and higher-end passive
crossovers, and active crossovers. All of these things require an additional amount of monetary
investment into your audio system, and may not net the immediate gains that other, more elementary
installation items can net. The following discussion is pertinent to easy and cost-effective
enhancements you can do for your audio system, particularly as it relates to the installation of Legatia
component speakers.
In any mobile audio system, the weakest link will always be the speaker systems, followed closely by
installation techniques (sometimes its vice-versa). Since the Legatia component system you have
purchased has solved the first issue, the second issue, that being installation techniques, can see a
significant improvement as well by understanding and incorporating some or all of the techniques in
the following sections.
Lessons Learned
We like to call this our “Lessons Learned” section, where we expose some critical lessons that we
have learned through thousands upon thousands of hours of trial and error:
Lesson One: Off-Axis Response
When a speaker system like the Legatia is placed in an automotive environment, we hear the direct
(shortest path) and reflected (longer path) sounds, such as resonances and reverberations. The two
sounds are processed by the brain as one sound, and this influences our perception of height, width,
and depth of soundstage, as well as rearward ambience. For this reason, the off-axis radiation pattern
of any speaker in a vehicular environment has a significant influence on how natural the music
sounds.
The lesson to learn here is that most mobile audio sound systems benefit greatly from having the
front stage speakers at least partially “off-axis.” Off-axis means that the speakers are not pointing at
you, but rather at some angle less than 90 degrees away from you.
Lesson Two: Equalization of Pathlength Differences
Quite possibly the most important functional consideration that a do-it-yourself enthusiast or
professional installer should give to the Legatia speaker placement is to optimize, as best as possible,
pathlength differences (PLD’s) in the vehicle. PLD’s are defined mathematically as follows (this
example assumes a right-hand drive vehicle---PLD’s are always a positive number):
X–Y=Z
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Where:
X = distance of the center of the left speaker from your left ear.
Y = distance of the center of the right speaker from your right ear.
Z = pathlength difference.
Applying this formula, assume that the distance of the left speaker from your left ear is 140cm, and
the distance of the right speaker from your right ear is 100cm, the pathlength difference is 40cm.
Good stereo imaging is completely dependent on arrival times of the fundamental vocal frequencies.
Differences as little as 10 microseconds can be detected by the brain. A PLD of 30 centimeters
equates to the sound from the nearest channel arriving about 0.9 milliseconds earlier than the furthest
channel. It is Hybrid Audio’s opinion that the end-user should try to keep PLD’s to less than 30
centimeters in a vehicle which is intended to have good imaging and staging character from both
seated positions.
The best way to go about evaluating certain locations in your vehicle is, in general, to look for the
potential locations as far forward and away from you as possible, but still with a general “line of sight”
to the speakers (particularly the speaker on the far side of the vehicle). An easy way to test various
potential locations is to hold a tape measure or other measurement device from the potential speaker
mounting locations, and measure those locations with respect to your ears.
Reference the figure, below. In this scenario, three potential locations for the mounting of the Legatia
midbass driver are shown:
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In scenario “a”, we show the installation of the Legatia midbass in the dashboard, high in a door
panel, or in the dashboard. As you can see from the diagram, the PLD’s between the left and right
speakers are large, due to the proximity of the listener to the near-side speaker. While the mounting
of primary drivers in the dashboard or a-pillars has become increasingly popular, this configuration
will undoubtedly require both time and intensity domain equalization in most vehicles to ensure a
good, focused center image, properly located in the center of the vehicle for one seated position.
There are, however, some rare exceptions, and you may actually find that the dashboard locations
provide the best equalized PLD of the available mounting locations; this is very rare though – in our
experience, less than one percent of vehicles on the market today have optimized dashboard speaker
locations for the midbass drivers.
In scenario “b”, a typical door installation location is shown, and in many vehicles represents a good
improvement in PLD’s from the dashboard, high in the door panel, and a-pillar location identified in
scenario “a.” The door speaker installation scenario is the one detailed in the basic installation section
at the beginning of this manual, and in most vehicles represents a satisfactory location to mount
speakers; not ideal but satisfactory. The door speaker installation scenario will likely also require
some amount of time and intensity equalization to ensure a centered image in most vehicles; this can
be as simple as adjusting the balance control on your source unit, to more advanced ways of digital
time and intensity manipulation.
The third and final potential mounting location as shown in this diagram (scenario “c”) represents a
kick panel installation, where the midbass are placed far forward in the A-frame cavity of the kick
panels, present in most vehicles. The kick panels are the small panel next to the throttle and brake
pedals, down by your feet. While it is not immediately obvious looking at a two-dimensional drawing,
in many cases the kick panel location affords the best equalization of pathlength differences for most
vehicles. And the reason why this is a good choice for most vehicles is defined in the second full
paragraph of Lesson Three, below.
The lesson to be learned here is that by taking a few moments to evaluate the potential mounting
locations in your vehicle, in a very short period of time, you will be able to find the best location for
your Legatia midbass by determining the location with the smallest PLD.
Lesson Three: The Effect of HRTF, ITD, and IID
Head-related transfer function (HRTF), interaural intensity differences (IID), and interaural time delay
(ITD) all play a key role in the optimum placement location for the Legatia component speakers. A
sound wave approaching the eardrum from your chosen speaker location is shaped by interactions
with the size and shape of your head, torso, and outer ear, resulting in the HRTF. More specifically,
the HRTF is the ratio between the sound pressures of the wave at the eardrum, as compared to the
sound pressure that would exist at the center of the head if the head were removed. In general, the
sound arriving at the ear further from the source is attenuated and delayed relative to the sound
arriving at the ear closer to the source. This generates an interaural intensity difference (IID) and an
interaural time delay (ITD). As a sound approaches the head, the ratio of distances from the speaker
location to the near and far ears increases, and the effects of head-shadowing are amplified, causing
the IID to increase. The spectral shaping caused by the head and the shape of the outer ear may also
change. The ITD, which results from the absolute difference in path length from the source to the
ears, remains approximately constant as distance decreases. From this we learn:
•
ITD is the dominant factor for frequencies below about 500 Hz;
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•
•
A combination of ITD and IID are dominant for frequencies between approximately 500 Hz and
2,000 Hz; and
IID, in concert with HRTF, are dominant above about 2,000 Hz.
These are generalizations, and are subject to the size and shape of one’s head and torso, and size
and shape of the outer ear (the folds and ridges of the ear), but in general, the above is a good
guideline for establishing ITD, IID and HRTF thresholds for the human auditory system.
Because the Legatia midbass’ ability to play into the sub-200 Hz range, an effect clearly dominated
by ITD, up to and including frequencies exceeding 6,000 Hz, an effect clearly dominated by IID and
HRTF, placement of this driver is extremely important. The driver should be placed as far forward as
possible in the vehicle to optimize ITD. Lateral (forward to back) placement is much more important
than horizontal placement (up and down). This is because of the brain’s ability to process sounds
such as spectral envelope cues, and use a phenomenon known as the “precedence effect”; the brain
can be easily “fooled” into thinking a sound stage is high with kick panel or floor-mounted speakers (a
word to the wise: the best place to put a set of speakers is not always “up high”, as most vehicles do
not offer an amicable location in the dashboard or a-pillars for good image placement for both seated
passengers, especially in the critical frequencies sub-500 Hz). In addition to the time equalized
placement of the drivers, the end-user must also consider that above approximately 2,000 Hz,
intensity plays a key role in good sound staging and imaging. Therefore, the Legatia midbass’ should
be placed in an area where intensity differences can be equalized, either mechanically or
electronically, to ensure good imaging and sound staging.
The lesson to be learned is that, like Lesson Two, the Legatia midbass should be placed as far
forward from your listening position as possible, and every effort should be made to optimize time and
intensity domain characteristics of the installation.
Lesson Four: Point-Sourcing
The term “point-sourcing” is often used to describe the technique of having a single pair of speakers
in an installation cover the majority of the critical middle band frequencies. In many installation
scenarios, the Legatia midbass could be considered a point-source speaker driver, because it has the
ability to reproduce six octaves of tones. Point-sourcing, if done correctly, can lend itself to a variety
of valuable attributes, including precise image definition and stable sound staging character. By
applying Lessons 1-3 above, the Legatia midbass can be used as a point-source driver to achieve
excellent staging and imaging results.
The lesson to be learned here is that the Legatia midbass, given its wide-bandwidth design, can
faithfully reproduce as much as six octaves of tones, and would make a valuable addition to any
sound system as a point-source driver for the spectrum comprising vocal imaging cues.
Lesson Five: Reference
One of the most important things to do before completing your Legatia installation is to get a
reference for your future listening tests. To really know what a snare drum sounds like, you must go
and listen to one, in person, live and un-amplified. There is no substitute for the visceral impact and
emotion of live music. Nothing else in life can touch your soul the way music does. Whether it’s a
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200-member orchestra, or a four-piece fusion band, nothing compares to the phenomenon of live
music.
Take this as Hybrid Audio’s official request: become a student of music and your mobile audio sound
system will be better for it. We want nothing more than to know there are great sounding audio
systems around the world using our products, and you’d make us all very proud if you became a
student of music and learned its beauty and passion.
Advanced Installation of the Legatia Component Systems
Mounting Baffle Considerations
Now that we have revealed five of our most important “Lessons Learned”, we can now apply these
lessons to the Legatia installation. The first important matter is the physical installation of your Legatia
midbass and/or midrange, and more specifically with respect to improving the Legatia midbass’ or
midrange’s mounting baffles. Most vehicles’ factory mounting locations for speakers are less than
ideal. In most cases, the OEM speaker mounting flanges are likely nothing more than flimsy extruded
plastic, and provide no sonic benefit to your Legatia installation. The Legatia drivers are long-throw
midbass, and high-performance midrange, and the plastic mounting baffles that come from the
factory in virtually every vehicle will lead to buzzes, rattles, vibrations, and resonances, all of which
negatively affect the Legatia installation. In other vehicles, you may have attached the Legatia
midbass’ or midrange’s directly to the door metal (hopefully with a layer or two of self-adhesive sound
damping in between), but this is still not entirely ideal. In whatever scenario you have installed your
Legatia midbass and/or midrange, there are certain “tricks” and techniques that may be applied to get
the most out of your Legatia component set, specifically the midbass and midrange installation, as
follows:
Mounting the baffle, sound damping, and “decoupling”: the mounting baffle or mounting location
should either be secured extremely well to the vehicle’s body, or completely isolated from the
vehicle’s chassis. The reasoning is that the speaker baffle panel will vibrate and will radiate sound.
Even small vibrations can result in the baffle itself radiating more sound than the actual speaker at
certain frequencies. The mounting baffle or mounting location should be damped with a layer of
typical sound damping to reduce the Q of the baffle and lower its vibration resonance frequency
below the range of the driver’s frequency response. In many cases, using thicker baffle panel in
concert with self-adhesive sound damping can also be advantageous, provided the rearward wave of
the speaker has no obstructions created by the baffle itself. Finally, if possible, the speaker should be
mechanically decoupled from the baffle. This can be something as simple as a layer of self-adhesive
foam tape, to more exotic examples of decoupling, including rubberized rings or multiple-layer septum
shielding.
Building solid mounting baffles: in many cases, it is advisable to mount your Legatia midbass’
and/or midrange’s in high-stiffness wood or high-density fiberglass (or wood treated with fiberglass
resin). Hybrid Audio Technologies recommends the use of a solid hardwood, such as birch or oak,
namely because these woods are stiff and help to dissipate resonance, and screws can be inserted
and removed multiple times without stripping. Avoid Medium Density Fiberboard (MDF), particularly in
wet environments like the door, as the MDF will act like a sponge with humidity and moisture, and not
only that, the MDF is a dense, but not stiff type of wood, and the results may not be particularly
noticeable if you use MDF. Once your baffle is built, it must be covered in one or two layers of a
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good-quality, brand name self-adhesive damping product; a solid wood mounting baffle with sound
damping treatment will augment the Legatia installation by eliminating resonances.
Mounting baffle dimensions: While building baffles is important, it is notable that mounting baffle
size is equally important. All mounting baffles should be kept as small as possible with respect to the
size of the speaker. The purpose of using a small baffle is to avoid the potential for low amplitude
diffracted sound waves becoming summed with the incidental waves. A narrower baffle also becomes
increasingly important as frequencies range into the Legatia midbass’ and/or midrange’s upper
bandwidth, where the power response is more uniform and incident and reflected waves are
indistinguishable. In practical terms, keep baffle dimensions small with respect to the size of the
Legatia midbass and/or midrange, chamfer or round sharp edges (including, in particular, the
mounting hole’s rear inner edge), flush-mount the speaker whenever possible, and use shallow,
surface-mounted hardware. Also, remove all unnecessary protrusions from the baffle surface.
Crossovers
One of the most fundamental and important considerations in the final tweaking of a car audio system
is the set-up of the speaker’s crossovers. The Legatia drivers use rigid paper cones that exhibits little
if any cone breakup in its upper frequency bandwidth. However, it is still important to utilize
crossovers, especially active crossover networks to suit the speaker system to the car’s acoustic
signature. It has been Hybrid Audio’s philosophy to tune the speaker system to the vehicle’s acoustic
signature using just active crossovers, and only a very minor amount of equalization. Our very best
world championship vehicles have always had one thing in common: creative use of active crossover
filters and very minimal equalization. Use your crossovers to tune your car, and the equalizer to suit
the vehicle’s speaker response to your own tastes.
The first thing to remember is that every speaker exhibits some sort of a natural roll-off. This rolloff
typically amounts to about 12 dB/octave, and needs to be taken into account, especially when
designing passive crossover systems (this roll-off has been accounted for in the Legatia L2x and L3x
designs). Simply adding a capacitor and inductor in series (6 dB/octave bandpass filter) to a Legatia
midrange driver does not necessarily mean that you’ll see a phase coherent 6 dB/octave bandpass
filter at its crosspoints. In fact, summing the effect of the driver’s natural bandpass roll-off, you might
actually be approaching a theoretical 18 dB/octave bandpass filter at certain frequencies. Not only
this, but the speaker could potentially begin to exhibit significant intermodulation distortion as the
cone becomes non-linear trying to reproduce the lowest octave of tones, not to mention irregular
polar radiation patterns between the Legatia midbass/midrange and the accompanying Legatia
tweeter.
Given the large uncertainty of low-order crossover systems, Hybrid Audio recommends the use of
higher-order electronic crossovers so that fine tuning can be done electronically. The active network
benefits from easy correction of different speaker sensitivities and equalizing not only the individual
drivers but the combined response as well. Not having to account for the speaker’s impedance
verses frequency, as well as the passive device impedance and phase shift makes the active filter
superior to most passive crossover networks, due to the fact that each and every aspect can be
tailored to better suit the individual installation’s requirements. However, we understand that in some
cases that passive filters are required, and thus the reason why we have manufactured the Legatia
L2x two-way and Legatia L3x three-way passive crossover systems. In our humble opinion, however,
the ideal crossover system for most users, is an active one that takes into account the Legatia driver
location and its characteristics, in concert with the polar radiation patterns of other speakers involved,
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all the while balancing linear and non-linear distortion (non-linear harmonic distortion increases with
sound pressure level or cone displacement, and thus, crossover frequency is critical and can be
vehicle and user dependent).
As mentioned previously in “Lesson Three”, imaging cues of near-field (within 3m) sources come from
effectively two auditory methods: ITD and IID. ITD is the time it takes for sound to reach the far ear
after reaching the near ear. Typical adult male heads have an ITD maximum of approximately 400
microseconds. IID is the measure of intensity difference of the far ear as compared to the near ear.
ITD is typically used by the brain to localize low frequency sources below 500 Hz. IID is typically used
by the brain to localize high frequency sources, above 2,000 Hz. HRTF is also used in conjunction
with IID. Above approximately 4,000 Hz, the higher frequencies are attenuated by the head for the
far side ear. A sound to your left will have a different spectral content for the left ear as compared to
the right ear. The HRTF is unique for each individual (based upon shape and size of the head and
torso) but typically occurs at around 4,000-5,000 Hz. HRTF will affect the IID at even higher
frequencies, more so than simple average SPL. Above 6,000 Hz or so, the HRTF portion of IID
becomes the dominant factor. The spoken word (human voice) comprises a fundamental frequency
range of approximately 150 Hz to 6,000 Hz.
Taking the above into account, your desired crossover frequency for the Legatia midrange and/or
midbass should be one that allows the midbass or midrange to play as much of the audible spectrum
of the spoken voice to ensure point-source delivery of the tones and pinpoint image definition. In
many cases, this would be around 200-250 Hz for high pass, and around 6,000 Hz, or higher, for low
pass. In all cases, the chosen crossover frequencies should be evaluated for sonic character, while
balancing distortion and power compression at high amplitude levels.
Time Correction
It is our humble opinion that time correction should only be used in three different circumstances:
1) When the installer recognizes that a vehicle cannot image properly from both seated positions
and it seems more plausible to make the vehicle stage and image well from only one seated
position.
2) To counter the effects of group delay.
3) Time alignment between pairs of drivers.
Scenario 1
The first scenario is rather elementary. If a vehicle is too small to achieve equalized PLD’s, it doesn’t
lend itself well to equalized PLD’s, or the vehicle’s owner doesn’t wish to embark on physical
reconstruction of the car to achieve optimized PLD’s, it is a good use of time correction to make the
vehicle image well from the single seated position. It should be noted that it is Hybrid Audio’s opinion
that it is always better to improve the car mechanically and attempt to fix mechanical problems with
mechanical solutions, than it is use to electronics to fix mechanical problems. However, we realize
that there is the occasion when there is little desire to try to mechanically optimize one’s listening
space, and electronic manipulation is desired. It is important to recognize that, given the
fundamentals of ITD and IID discussed previously, time alignment is rendered virtually useless for
frequencies above approximately 2,000 Hz.
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Scenario 2
In the second scenario, the use of time correction is much more cognitive, and shows great promise
for countering the effects of group delay. Group delay is impulse response over time. Group delay
increases significantly at low frequencies, and is considerable in larger midbass and subwoofers. An
excellent use of time correction would be to delay the smaller Legatia midranges and tweeters with
respect to the larger midbass and subwoofers, so that the low frequency delay of these drivers is
synchronized in the time domain with the output of the midrange and treble frequencies.
Scenario 3
The final scenario is time alignment between pairs of drivers. When employing multiple drivers in
order to achieve a unified listening experience within a vehicle, it’s usually a requirement to install the
drivers at physically separated locations; for example, your midbass may be located in the doors, and
the midrange and tweeter may be located in the dashboard or a-pillar. In order to compensate for
this, you might choose to selectively delay certain speakers in the installation so that all of the tones
reach your ears at the same time (note that as previously alluded to, time alignment of your tweeters
would be rendered virtually useless).
Amplitude Equalization
An excellent use of today’s dual-mono equalizers and advanced digital signal processing is the ability
to equalize amplitude anomalies between speakers and sets of speakers installed in a vehicle. In a
vehicular installation, the frequency response of drivers can sometimes be manipulated for the
betterment of the system using independent left and right amplitude adjustment. Virtually any good
car audio system can be made better with judicious use of a minor amount of equalization. And while
equalization will not cure phasing anomalies in a car, usually the product of vehicular mechanics, they
can certainly be helpful in fine-tuning the system to your own personal taste or in the quest for
playback accuracy to the original musical composition.
One important consideration of amplitude equalization (also known in some circles as “amplitude
alignment”) is the ability to tune those frequencies above about 500 Hz that are not completely
affected by time correction. The very best vehicles have some sort of amplitude equalization
between the left and right speakers to account for IID and HRTF. After your Legatia system is
installed, you may wish to attempt some minor amplitude equalization between the left and right
channels to achieve a more stable image that is not frequency dependent, or perhaps to improve
image placement or stage coherency.
Acoustic Treatment
A considerable benefit can be made to any mobile audio system with the select placement of acoustic
treatments. The purpose of using acoustic treatments is to reduce the amount of reflected energy in
the hostile automotive environment, and hear more of the direct sound being emanated from the
speaker. It is akin to the signal to noise (S/N) ratio in a piece of electronics, where the signal could be
considered the direct energy coming from the speaker, and the noise could be considered the
reflected waves off of nearby surfaces, such as windows, hard center consoles and door panels,
windscreens, and etc. A word of warning though: there is a fine line between too little and too much
acoustic treatment; just as some vehicles can benefit from some selectively applied treatments, there
is a point where the vehicle can begin to approach “semi-anechoic” conditions, and lose its liveliness,
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which is not ideal. Reflections are all around us, and are a part of our day-to-day lives. It is our
opinion that some lateral reflection is a good thing; it helps to establish stage boundaries, and gives
the recoded playback and more visceral and “believable” sound.
The first principle to understand is that below 200 Hz, acoustic treatments are rendered virtually
useless. It is Hybrid Audio’s assertion that only those frequencies above 200 Hz benefit from the use
of treatments, given that a 200 Hz waveform is about 1.7 m long; 1.7 meters is less than or equal to
most vehicle widths. This is also the frequency where we believe pure tones in the vehicle are going
to be difficult, if not impossible to localize. Finally, most vehicles exhibit a Schroeder Frequency (Fs)
between 50 at 125 Hz; the Fs (or cabin-gain frequency) is vehicle dependent, and is the frequency at
which resonances become so tightly packed in frequency and space that the acoustical properties of
the vehicle behave quite uniformly. (As an aside, one significant benefit of car audio sound systems
is that frequencies below the lowest room resonance increase at a theoretical 12 dB/octave…it’s no
wonder car audio systems have such great bass!)
Acoustic treatment can be very effective above 200 Hz, depending mostly on the polar radiation
pattern of the speaker. In the case of the Legatia midbass, the polar radiation pattern is quite large at
lower frequencies, with a narrowing of the radiation pattern (“beaming”) at frequencies into the treble
bandwidth.
Should the Legatia midbass and/or midrange be placed in the kick panel locations, one may find that
a notable improvement can be made by adding acoustical treatments, such as open-cell foam, into
the underside of the dashboard. Likewise, should the midbass, midrange, and/or tweeter be placed
up high on a-pillars, or in the dashboard, where comb filtering (reflective summation and cancellation
off of a hard surface, such as a windscreen) may become an issue, a dashboard “mat” or other soft
furnishing may be a noticeable improvement. It will require trial and error to get it right, but the
learning is in the experimentation!
Advanced Installation Conclusions
Sadly, there are no rules in mobile audio, only several hypothesis and theorems that seem to work for
most vehicles. Your vehicle may be different, and defy everything we know, and everything written in
this manual. You may find that getting that rich, detailed sound that you crave may require some
experimentation and a lot of work to make it right. Or you might be fortunate to have a vehicle that
sounds excellent with minimal work. Have patience and work through the issues; the result will be a
rewarding musical experience in your vehicle! Just remember, it is critical to get a reference, as
detailed in Lesson 5. Go out and become a student of music and audio, learn, and improve your
audio system one step at a time. The journey is exciting and rewarding!
What we have included above is only a very brief primer to the world of high-end mobile audio
systems. We invite you to read more by going to our website.
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Warranty
Hybrid Audio Technologies extends a limited one year warranty to the original purchaser, certifying
that this product will be free from defects in materials and workmanship under normal and proper use
for one year from the date of purchase.
Hybrid Audio Technologies’ responsibility under this warranty is limited to replacing or repairing, at
Hybrid Audio Technologies’ option, products or parts determined by Hybrid Audio Technologies to be
defective either in materials, or workmanship. To attain warranty service, the customer must deliver
the product or the defective part(s), appropriately packed with proof of purchase date, to an
authorized Hybrid Audio Technologies dealer. In the event that a direct return from a consumer is
required, the consumer must obtain from Hybrid Audio Technologies a return authorization number,
and ship the defective product directly to Hybrid Audio Technologies. All shipping expenses are the
customer’s responsibility. If the product has been updated or superseded, a replacement will be made
with a current model of the same quality and function. Warranty of the replacement parts is limited to
90 days or the unexpired portion of the warranty period of the product on which the parts are being
used, whichever is longer.
This warranty does not cover any defects or costs caused by: (1) modification, alteration, repair or
service of this product by any persons or company other than Hybrid Audio Technologies; (2) physical
abuse to, overload of, or misuse of, the product or operation thereof in a manner inconsistent with the
use indicated in the instructions; (3) any use of the product other than that for which it was intended;
or (4) shipment of the product to Hybrid Audio Technologies for service. This warranty does not cover
labor costs.
Hybrid Audio Technologies is not liable for any special incidental or consequential damages,
including, but not limited to, personal injury, property damage, damage to or loss of equipment, loss
of profits or revenue, costs of renting or buying replacements and/or any other additional expenses,
even if Hybrid Audio Technologies has been informed of the prospect of such damages. Any express
warranty not provided herein, and any remedy which other than the warranty contained herein might
arise by inference or operation of law, is hereby excluded and disclaimed including the implied
warranties of merchantability and of the fitness for a particular purpose.
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Thank You!
Hybrid Audio Technologies is delighted that you have chosen a Legatia component system for your
high-end mobile audio sound system. We are convinced that a great product offering, backed up with
unsurpassed customer service and technical support will advance the Hybrid Audio Technologies
namesake in the coming years. We are pleased that you have joined us in our “new generation of incar audio.”
If there is anything we can do to help you get the most out of your Legatia installation, please do not
hesitate to contact us at [email protected], or by visiting us at www.hybrid-audio.com!
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References
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Hartmann, William M. Auditory Localization in Rooms. Proc. AES 12th International Conf.,
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Klippel, Wolfgang. Loudspeaker Nonlinearities - Causes, Parameters, Symptoms. 119th AES
Convention, New York, October 2005, Preprint 6584.
Linkwitz, Siegfried. A Loudspeaker Design for Reduced Reverberant Sound Power Output. AES
Convention, New York, 1987. JAES, Vol. 35, No. 12, December 1987.
Linkwitz, Siegfried. A Three-Enclosure Loudspeaker System with Active Delay and Crossover.
Parts 1, 2, 3, Speaker Builder: 2/80, 3/80, 4/80.
Linkwitz, Siegfried. Loudspeaker System Design. Wireless World, May/June/December 1978.
Linkwitz, Siegfried. Narrow Band Impulse Testing of Acoustical System. 60th AES Convention,
Los Angeles 1978, Preprint 1342.
Moore, Brian C.J. Controversies and Mysteries in Spatial Hearing. Proc. AES 16th International
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Moulton, David. The Creation of Musical Sounds for Playback Through Loudspeakers. Proc.
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Legatia User’s Manual
©Hybrid Audio Technologies
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