File - Mrs.AVN Polytechnic : : visakhapatnam

File - Mrs.AVN Polytechnic : : visakhapatnam
on
VISAKHAPATNAM
NAME: ________________________________________________________________
PIN: __________________________________________________________________
BRANCH: D.CM.E
YEAR: 2nd year
SEMESTER: IV
Certificate
This is to certify that this is a bonafide lab work done by
Mr./Ms. _____________________________of
___________branch bearing the PIN number
_____________________ during the year
___________________and the number of experiments
conducted by him/her are____________
_____________________
Signature of Lab In-charge
INDEX
S.No
Experiment name
Remarks
Signature
INDEX
S.No
Experiment name
Remarks
Signature
EXPERIMENT -1
PREREQUISITES AND PRECAUTIONS FOR SYSTEM TROUBLESHOOTING
The troubleshooting tips provided here are to primarily solve an existing problem, not to create a
new one.
In case performing a certain action makes you uncomfortable, call in someone with more
expertise. And if you do decide to proceed with any of our Advanced Steps, please be careful
before proceeding.
Points to remember while troubleshooting
•
Prior to opening your computer's case, check to see if the machine's warranty is still valid.
If so, send it back to the manufacturer for repair, as digging around inside the case can
void the warranty.
•
You may also try calling your PC's manufacturer for tech support, especially if you've
already paid for it. Often, tech support can provide quick fixes or will replace faulty
components that are still under warranty. Many manufacturers offer online chat, email
support, and other options in addition to phone support.
•
Take the appropriate safety measures, before making any hardware adjustments –
o
First, purchase an antistatic wrist strap and mat. Static electricity can severely
damage your computer's internal components.
o
Keep the computer plugged into the wall but the power switch turned off when
working with its internal components.
o
Remember to hold on to the metal part of the computer's case when handling any
electrical parts.
•
Before you reseat, remove, or replace any internal components, arm yourself with a
working knowledge of computer components, what they do, and how they interact with
one another.
•
Location of the computers core internal components (hard disk drive, processor, RAM,
graphics card, etc.) vary from machine to machine, therefore knowledge of the same is
necessary.
•
Hardware, BIOS (basic input-output system, built-in software that controls the keyboard,
mouse, display, and other hardware and functions), firmware, and other software tools
vary by manufacturer.
•
Keep all of your computer documentation, driver CDs, and warranty information in a safe
place. Be sure to use your computer’s manuals before changing any settings.
Experiment -2
General Do’s and Don'ts
By completing this module, you will be able to understand and learn the following
How to maintain the Computers cleanly
How to take care of the disks
Materials used for Computer cleaning
Cleaning the case & other Plastic materials
Cleaning the key board and Mouse
Do:
Always shut down your computer properly
Do regular Scan disk to check the hard disk surface for damage
Defragment the hard drive periodically
Delete all files and programs you no longer need from your computer
Use an anti-virus program to prevent a virus on you computer
Back up data to floppy disks or zip disks to ensure you have a copy
Don't:
Do not eat around the computer
Do not drink around the computer
Do not use magnets around a computer
Taking Care of disks
Do:
Delete all files you no longer need from your disk
Use an anti virus program to scan for viruses on a disk
Do not try to erase and record information on a disk by write-protecting it
Don’t:
Do
Do
Do
Do
Do
not
not
not
not
not
use magnets around a disk
separate the disk
remove the disk while it is in use
store in extremely hot or cold locations
spill liquids on the disk
Cleaning Hardware
Follow instructions in the manual or in help files that came with the computer or other
hardware devices
Before cleaning anything, unplug it from the electrical wall socket
When to clean a computer
Computers do not need to be cleaned too often if they are kept in a clean environment
Clean the computer when it looks dirty or when a device (like a mouse) does not work
right
The two things that need the most cleaning are the screen and mouse
Materials needed for cleaning a computer
Most cleaning materials can be found in a home or any store
o soft lint-free cloth’s
o soapy water - a drop or two of dishwashing detergent in a gallon of water
o cotton swabs
o eraser
o water spray bottle to hold the soapy water
o used fabric softener cloth
You may have to buy the following at a computer or office supply store
o floppy disk drive cleaner kit
o CD-ROM drive cleaner kit
o compressed air
Cleaning the case and other plastic surfaces
Use a damp lint-free cloth to clean the case
o Spray the water on the cloth. NEVER SPRAY WATER ON A COMPUTER OR
OTHER ELECTRICAL DEVICES!
o Wipe the surfaces with the damp cloth
For more difficult marks use the eraser. An ink eraser works best
For cracks and tight places, use a slightly damp cotton swab
Cleaning a monitor's screen
Wipe the screen with the damp lint-free cloth
Use a dry cloth to dry the screen
Use fabric softener cloth to help remove static charges on the screen
o static charges attract dust to the screen
o a fabric softener cloth has anti-static chemicals on it
o wipe the screen very lightly with the used fabric softener cloth
o Do not use a fresh fabric softener cloth. It will leave streaks.
Cleaning the keyboard
Use a slightly damp cotton swab to clean in-between the keys
Wipe the outside of the keyboard with a damp cloth
Use compressed air to remove paper pieces and dust from under the keys
Do not take a keyboard apart to clean it! You may not get it back together again
Cleaning a mouse
Clean the outside of the mouse with a damp cloth
To clean the inside of the mouse
o Take the mouse apart
turn the mouse upside down
rotate the retaining ring until it comes free
turn the mouse right-side up and catch the ring and ball in your hand
o Use damp cotton swabs to clean the rollers inside the mouse. Be sure to rotate the
rollers to get all of the dirt off them
o Wash the ball in warm soapy water. Wipe dry with a lint-free cloth
o Blow out the inside of the mouse to remove any dust
o Put the mouse back together after it has dried
Inside the computer's case
The inside of the computer rarely has to be cleaned and it is not recommended that this be
done
If you must clean inside your computer follow the following precautions
o Be very careful. You can easily damage the computer or hurt yourself
o Do not touch the chips or other electrical components
o Use a vacuum cleaner to remove dust carefully
o Use compressed air or the blower option on a vacuum cleaner to blow out dust and
other particles
Floppy disk drives and other drives with removable media
Follow the instructions on the cleaning kit
Do not clean your drives too often, especially the floppy disk drive. The cleaning disk is
slightly abrasive and can wear down the drivers read/write heads
Ideal PC CONFIGURATION
By completing this module, you will be able to understand Ideal configuration for the various
purposes.
S No
Item
Processor
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
For Normal
Office
applications
Intel or AMD
basic level
processors
Processor
Speed
System Bus
Standard
Memory and
Type
Hard Disk
1.6 GHz onwards
Display
Integrated with
mother board
If networked
As per need
Sound Card
NIC
Keyboard,
Mouse, USB
Devices
800 MHz FSB
400 Mhz and 1
GB Standard
Memory
120 GB SATA
For
Developers
For TV, Video
Conference
Intel or AMD
Dual core
Processors
Intel or AMD
Dual Core
Processor
2.0 Ghz
onwards
800 Mhz FSB
800 Mhz and 1
GB Standard
Memory
160 GB SATA
2.4 Ghz
onwards
800 Mhz FSB
800 Mhz and 1
GB Standard
Memory
160 GB SATA
AGP card
AGP card with
64 MB RAM
Stereophonic
10/100 Mbps
As per need
Integrated
10/100 MBps
As per need
For
Multimedia
Development
Intel or AMD
Core 2 or
Quadra
processors
3Ghz
1024 MHz FSB
800 Mhz and 2
GB Standard
Memory
2X160 GB
SATA
AGP with 256
MB RAM
Stereophonic
10/100 Mbps
As per need
Experiment - 3
Important internal devices of CPU
By completing this module, you will be able to understand and learn the following
Important parts of CPU
Mother Board and its components
Memory – RAM & ROM
Sound card , Video Card and Net work card
Installing Storage device
Main parts of the computer:
Floppy Drive
Net
Net work
work
Card
Card
CD - Drive
Sound Card
Connecting
Cards
Graphics Card
RAM
Processor
System Fan
Mother
Mother Board
Board
Processor:
The processor is the main part of the computer. The greater the number
of GHz the faster the speed of Personal Computer (PC) and the more
expensive the processor will be. The processor is also known as the CPU
or Central Processing Unit.
Mother Board:
•
If the processor is the main part of the computer and the RAM is the memory, then the
motherboard is the backbone of the computer.
•
This is the circuit board that contains the slots and sockets that everything else plugs into.
•
Many motherboards now come with onboard sound, eliminating the need for a sound
card, video, networking ports and USB ports.
•
Several different types of slots can be found on your board. It is important to know what
these are for, as the number of them on your motherboard will affect the number of hard
disks, memory chips, graphics cards, optical cards, modems, network cards, sound cards.
Note: Diagram of a motherboard. Note that the location of these components vary,
depending on your motherboard.
AGP slot: This is for the graphics card; you only need one AGP slot.
DIMM slot: This is for your memory. There are several different types of memory. 2 slots =
good, 4 slots = better.
PCI slot: This is for cards like sound card, network card, modem etc. These slots will be the ones
you use most often, so make sure that mother board have plenty - at least four.
CPU socket: Make sure that the socket type is right for the processor you have chosen and the
case chosen.
Back panel of CPU:
There will also be a number of ports on the edge of your motherboard, which will form part of the
back panel of your PC.
In the example on the right there are PS/2 ports for connecting keyboard and mouse, a parallel
port for a printer or scanner, serial ports that will rarely be used, a couple of LAN ports, four USB
ports and a sound port. More and more devices like printers and scanners are connecting the
computer using USB.
Memory
RAM-Random Access Memory:
•
Memory is also known as RAM. The more memory you add to a
computer in theory the faster it will be.
ROM - Read-Only Memory
•
It is an integrated-circuit memory chip that contains configuration data.
•
ROM is commonly called firmware because its programming is fully embedded into the
ROM chip.
•
ROM is hardware and software in one, as data is fully incorporated at the ROM chip's
manufacture, data stored can neither be erased nor replaced.
•
ROM gives permanent and secure data storage. However, if a mistake is made in
manufacture, a ROM chip becomes unusable / useless.
•
The most expensive stage of ROM manufacture, therefore, is creating the template. If a
template is readily available, duplicating the ROM chip is very easy and affordable.
•
A ROM chip is also non volatile so data stored in it is not lost when power is turned off.
RAM versus ROM
•
•
•
RAM
provides the user random access to
stored data
provides only short-term memory, since
data stored in RAM is lost when power
is turned off
RAM's data can frequently and speedily
be altered and changed at will
•
ROM
provides the user random access to
stored data
• Provides long-term storage, since
data is permanently etched into the
ROM chip.
• ROM cannot be reconfigured at all
Sound Card:
•
Responsible for any noise that comes out of your PC
(apart from the whirring of fans and spinning drives).
Most motherboards now come with built in sound
chips.
Video Card:
• A video card also referred to as a graphics accelerator card,
display adapter, graphics card, and numerous other terms.
• It is an item of personal computer hardware whose function is to
generate and output images to a display.
• It operates on similar principles as a sound card or other
peripheral devices.
Network Card:
•
A network card, network adapter, LAN Adapter or NIC
(network interface card) is a piece of computer hardware
designed to allow computers to communicate over a
computer network.
Installing RAM
Inserting Sound and Graphics card
Storage Device
•
A Hard drive is the main storage area of the computer. All
software is likely to be stored on it along with all the files.
•
A hard drive works in a similar method to the floppy disk,
data is stored by magnetizing sections of the disk creating a
one, or not magnetizing sections creating a zero.
Steps in –‘Inserting the Hard Disk’:
•
Place hard disk drive into the HDD mounting slot of
the case;
•
Ensure the IDE/ATA connector is facing outwards.
•
Screw the HDD to the case using screws provided
with the HDD or the ATX case.
•
Insert the ATA 66 cable into the ATA connector of the
HDD.
•
Make sure the pin 1 on the cable is connected to pin 1
on the HDD connector. Pin 1 is the red or pink strip on
the edge of an ATA cable.
•
Most new IDE/ATA cables are designed so that it will
only go in one way which will correspond to pin 1.
•
Push the power cable into the power connector as shown. The power cable is designed to
go in one way, so you shouldn't have any problems.
•
Connect the other end of the ATA 66 cable to the primary ATA
socket of your motherboard as shown.
•
Ensure the pin 1 on the cable connects to the pin 1 on the ATA
socket.
Steps in – ‘Installation of CD-ROM / DVD-ROM
•
Connect the IDE cable to the drives IDE connector.
•
Make sure the pin 1 on the cable is connected to pin 1 on the drives IDE connector. Pin
1 is the red or pink strip on the edge of an IDE cable.
•
Connect the other end of the IDE cable to the IDE socket on your motherboard as
shown below. Ensure sure you connect the cable to pin 1.
•
The IDE socket could be your primary or secondary socket depending which socket you
choose. If your HDD is on the primary IDE socket and your secondary IDE socket is
free, then it is better to use your secondary IDE socket for the CD/DVD-ROM.
Optical drive:
•
An optical drive is a collective term for CD drives, DVD
drives, CD RW burners and DVD burners.
•
All of these devices read information from an optical disk
which is different from the magnetic media like floppy disks.
Experiment- 4
Flash Memory & Cache Memory
By completing module you will be able to understand about the flash Memory
and important types of flash memories available in the market
Cache memory and it’s importance
•
Flash memory is non-volatile computer memory that can be electrically erased and
reprogrammed.
•
It is a technology that is primarily used in memory cards and USB flash drives (thumb
drives, handy drive, memory stick, flash stick, jump drive, "Cap N' Go") for general
storage and transfer of data between computers and other digital products.
•
It is a specific type of EEPROM (Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory)
that is erased and programmed in large blocks.
•
The application examples include: PDAs (personal digital assistants) and laptop
computers, digital audio players, digital cameras and mobile phones.
•
It has also gained popularity in the game console market, where it is often used instead of
EEPROMs or battery-powered SRAM for game save data.
•
Flash memory is non-volatile, which means that it does not need power to maintain the
information stored in the chip.
•
Flash memory offers fast read access times (although not as fast as volatile DRAM
memory used for main memory in PCs) and better kinetic shock resistance than hard
disks.
Popular flash memory devices
Memory Stick: A Memory Stick is an IC (Integrated Circuit) which is
stored in a compact and rugged plastic enclosure.
Memory Sticks are designed to store data and to enable the transfer of
data between devices equipped with Memory Stick slots.
Compact Flash: A Compact Flash card is an IC (Integrated Circuit) which is
stored
in
a
compact
and
rugged
plastic
enclosure.
Compact Flash cards are designed to store data and to enable the transfer of
data between devices equipped with Compact Flash slots. Current Compact
Flash capacities range up to 8GB.
SD Card: A SD Card (Secure Digital Card) is an IC (Integrated Circuit)
which is stored in a compact and rugged plastic enclosure.
SD Cards are designed to store data and to enable the transfer of data
between devices equipped with SD Card slots.
Current SD Card capacities range up to 16 GB.
Multimedia Card (MMC): A MultiMediaCard (MMC) is an IC (Integrated
Circuit) which is stored in a compact and rugged plastic enclosure.
Multi Media Cards (MMC) are designed to store data and to enable the
transfer of data between devices equipped with MultiMediaCard (MMC) slots.
Current MultiMediaCard (MMC) capacities range up to 2GB.
Cache Memory
•
Cache Memory is a special high speed mechanism. It can be either a reserved part of
main memory or an independent high speed storage device.
•
In Personal Computers, There are two types of caching are commonly used are memory
caching and disk caching.
•
A memory cache, sometimes called a cache store or RAM cache, is a portion of memory
made of high-speed static RAM (SRAM) instead of the slower and cheaper dynamic RAM
(DRAM) used for Main Memory.
•
Memory caching is effective because most programs access the same data or instructions
over and over. By keeping as much of this information as possible in SRAM, the computer
avoids accessing the slower DRAM.
•
Some memory caches are built into the architecture of microprocessors.
•
Disk caching works under the same principle as memory caching, but instead of using
high-speed SRAM, a disk cache uses conventional main memory.
•
The most recently accessed data from the disk is stored in a memory buffer. When a
program needs to access data from the disk, it first checks the disk cache to see if the
data is there.
•
Disk caching can dramatically improve the performance of applications, because accessing
a byte of data in RAM can be thousands of times faster than accessing a byte on a hard
disk.
For example, Internet connection is the slowest link in computer. So the browser
(Internet Explorer, Netscape, Opera, etc.) uses the hard disk to store HTML
pages, putting them into a special folder on the disk.
The first time you ask for an HTML page, the browser renders it and a copy of it is
also stored on your disk. The next time, on your request to access this page, your
browser checks if the date of the file on the Internet is newer than the one
cached.
If the date is the same, your browser uses the one on your hard disk instead of
downloading it from Internet. In this case, the smaller but faster memory system
is your hard disk and the larger and slower one is the Internet.
•
There are other caches like page cache, L1 cache, L2 Cache, virtual memory.
L2 Cache: If there is some special memory bank in the motherboard which is small but
very fast and two times faster than the main memory access. That's called a level 2 cache
or an L2 cache.
L1 cache: If there is smaller but faster memory system directly into the microprocessor's
chip and this memory will be accessed at the speed of the microprocessor and not the
speed of the memory bus, That's an L1 cache.
If the question that “ why can’t we make all memories at the same speed in such away that there
is no need of cache memory?” is rised
The answer would be : “ Yes, memories can be all made at the same speed. But it’s too
expensive. To reduce the charges, we have to use a small memory for cache.”
Experiment - 5
Sound & Video Card Troubleshooting
By completing this module you will be able to understand and learn about the trouble
shooting of Sound and Video card in the system.
Sound card trouble shooting
I. Making sure that you have a card and drivers for the installation
•
First, be sure that you have a sound card installed on your system and have speakers or
headphones connected to it.
•
The sound card is usually a card in the back of your machine, although some newer
machines have them installed on the motherboard.
•
Check that the wire from your speakers or headphones is connected to the "Speaker Out"
or " Spk Out" slot on the back of you machine.
Once you have checked these connections and you know that you have a sound card and
headphones or speakers, follow this guide:
Check that you have the drivers for the card installed:
1. In Windows 95/98/NT, go to "Start" - > "Settings" - >
"Control Panel" and double click the "Multimedia" icon.
This should bring up the "Multimedia Properties" box
2. On the Audio tab, you should see two areas: Playback and
Recording. If these are greyed out and have "None" listed
under preferred device for these sections, then your
sound card drivers have not been installed
3. If you have a device listed here, such as "AWE64 Wave
Out" or "Sound Blaster 16" then your drivers are installed.
Make sure to check the "Show volume control on the
taskbar" option
If you do not have drivers installed.
1. Consult your sound card documentation or follow this basic
guide on how to install drivers for your sound card.
2. You will need the disk or CDROM that was given to you
along with your sound card initially
3. Switch to the "Devices" tab of the Multimedia Properties box
4. Click "Add."
5. Choose "Unlisted or Updated Driver" and
click "OK."
6. Enter the path to the disk or CDROM that came with the Sound Card and hit "OK."
7. Select your card and click "OK"
8. Your machine may need to reboot
II.
Checking Sound Levels and Speaker Volume
Once you know you have a card and drivers installed,
check the volume and make sure it is at an audible level.
1. Go to the system Volume Control by double
clicking the small speaker icon next to the "Time"
field on the taskbar. If you do not have this icon,
follow the instructions above on getting to the
"Multimedia Properties" box and click "Show
volume control on the taskbar."
(Actual Volume Control Options may vary slightly
depending on your configuration.)
2. Make sure the "Play Control" or "Master" and the
"Wave" controls are set to a high enough level
and make sure that your speakers have the
volume turned up high enough
3. If the sound level available from your card is too
low, you may need to use headphones or
amplified speakers. Before doing this you should
ensure that both master volume and "wave" levels are set to their maximum, and not muted.
4. If you add speakers be sure the power supply is plugged in, and the power switch is on
Troubleshooting Video Card
•
Resolving video card problems can be costly if you opt to replace the hardware when a
problem does occur.
•
Before you take such drastic measures, you should consider other solutions such as
updating the driver.
Here are some of the common problems that can arise from video cards and some suggested
solutions.
Video Cards
There are several video-related components that are responsible for displaying the characters. The
hardware components include : the monitor, video card (also referred to as the video adapter
card), and the motherboard.
Problems with any of these components can cause problems with your computer's display.
For a quick refresher, the video adapter card is a board that is plugged into your computer's
system board and monitor to provide display capabilities.
There are many different types of video cards available on the market. However, most are
susceptible to the same common types of problems.
A few common video card related problems along with the possible trouble shooting tips are
dicussed below :
No Display on the Monitor
•
One common problem that occurs is that the operating system, such as Windows XP,
never appears. In other words, the computer starts up but nothing appears on the
monitor.
o
Assuming that you have already ruled out the monitor as being the source of the
problem, your next step should be to take a look at the video card.
o
This particular problem can be caused from several different things such as a
video card that is not properly seated or a loose connection from the video card to
the monitor.
•
Troubleshooting this problem will require you to locate the video card inside your
computer and verify the following:
o
Assuming that the video card adapter is separate from the motherboard, you
should check that the card is properly seated.
o
Sometimes one end of the card may come out of the slot when it is initially
screwed, resulting in no display appearing on the monitor.
o
Verify the correct jumper settings for video cards that are mounted to the
motherboard. This will require you to check the documentation that was sent with
the hardware.
o
The cable running from the monitor to the video port may also be the one of the
reason for the problem.
o
Examine the monitor cable to ensure that there are no broken or bent pins. A bent pin
can usually be straightened using a pair of sharp-nosed pliers. In the case of a broken
pin, you will need to contact the manufacturer of the monitor to determine if the cable
can be replaced.
o
Also check that the cable running from the monitor to the VGA port is secure.
Although these may seem like simple trouble shooting steps, it is often the simple
ones that people over looked.
Operating System does not appear
•
If the contents of the start up process appear on the monitor but the display is blank after
it is complete, this would indicate that there is an operating system video related problem.
o
•
For example, an incorrect video driver may have been installed such as one that is
not compatible with the operating system.
Trouble shooting this problem in Windows XP
o
you will have to start the computer in Safe Mode by pressing [F8] when the
Starting Windows message appears.
o
From the boot menu select the Safe Mode option. This will force Windows XP
to start using the standard VGA driver, instead of the video driver that is used
when the operating system is started normally.
o
Once the computer is started in Safe Mode, you can install the correct video driver
using Device Manager. These steps are outlined in detail under the heading
"Updating Video Drivers" later in the article.
o
The video problem discussed above can also be the result of over clocking. This is
a popular method used to get more performance out of a hardware component
such as a video card adapter. however, it can result in display problems.
The problem can once again be resolved by starting Windows XP is Safe
Mode and configure the video card to operate at its default speed.
Poor Display
A poor display on a monitor can mean a number of different things like •
Images may appear to be fuzzy.
•
Text that appears on the screen may be distorted and difficult to read.
•
The monitor may flicker.
A poor display can also lead to other problems such as head aches and sore eyes. Therefore, this
is definitely a problem that you are going to want to correct as soon as possible.
A poor display can be caused by a number of different things. You should first verify that the
latest driver for the video adapter has been installed. You can determine which driver version is
currently installed in Windows XP by completing the steps outlined below:
1. Right click the Windows desktop and click
Properties.
2. From the Display Properties dialog box, click the
Settings tab.
3. Click the Advanced button.
4. Click the Adapters tab.
5. Click the Properties button under Adapter Type as
shown below.
6. Click the Driver tab.
•
Select the Properties button under Adapter Type to locate specific driver information
including the driver version.
•
You can find the version information beside the Driver Version field. Compare this version
with the latest version on the manufacturer's Web site.
•
If the driver needs to be updated complete steps four through seven listed under the section
entitled "Updating Video Drivers".
•
If the latest driver is installed, you may need to adjust the resolution and refresh rate (this is
the rate at which the video card redraws the screen) for the video adapter card. Incorrect
display settings can cause problems with your display.
Screen Resolution
•
To configure display settings, right click the Windows XP desktop and click Properties to open
the Display Properties dialog box.
•
Select the Settings tab shown below to change the resolution settings. Use the slider under
Screen
resolution
to
settings. Typically, a 17
monitor
will
have
resolution of 800x600.
a
adjust
the
inch
default
Use the Settings tab from the Display Properties dialog box to change the resolution.
•
If you are unable to select the desired resolution that should be supported by the video card,
you will need to again check that the operating system has correctly identified the card.
•
In Windows XP, you can use Device Manager to make sure the card has been properly
detected. If the card has not been properly identified, you will once again need to check the
driver.
•
It is usually recommended that you use the drivers supplied by the manufacturer instead of
the drivers included with Windows.
•
The screen resolution may also be limited if the wrong monitor is selected.
•
To check the monitor selection, once again open the Display Properties dialog box and select
the Settings tab. Click the Advanced button and select the Monitor tab.
•
In case the monitor listed is not correct, you will need to update the driver for the monitor.
Refresh Rate
•
In case the problem still persists after adjusting the resolution, your next step should be to
adjust the refresh rate.
•
Lower refresh rates tend to cause flickering so it is important to verify this setting.
•
You can adjust the refresh rate using the Settings tab from the Display Properties dialog box.
•
Once again, select the Settings tab and click the advanced button.
•
Select the Monitor tab as shown below. Use the drop down arrow to adjust the refresh rate to
about 70 MHZ. Remember that a higher refresh rate will reduce the amount of flickering.
•
As with the screen resolution, if you are unable to select the desired refresh rate, go back to
the video driver to make sure the latest one is installed.
Use the Monitor tab to adjust the refresh rate
Note: It is important to verify that the monitor supports the screen resolution and refresh rate
configured in the Display Properties dialog box. The documentation or manual that came with your
monitor should identify the values that are supported.
Problems Displaying Videos or Animations
Problems with videos and animations are usually attributed to a display adapter driver that does
not support DirectDraw.
•
If videos and animations are not correctly displayed on the monitor, your first step should
be to determine if the video card adapter driver supports DirectDraw.
•
This can be accomplished using the DirectX Diagnostic Tool.
o
From the Run command type DxDiag.exe and click OK.
o
From the Display tab, click the Test DirectDraw button.
o
Windows XP will perform a series of tests.
o
If your display does not pass each of the tests, you will need to update the video
adapter.
•
If updating the video adapter driver does not solve the problem, verify that your video
card is indeed supported by the operating system installed on your computer.
•
If you are running Windows, you can check the Hardware Compatibility List (HCL) to
determine if the video card adapter is supported.
Updating Video Drivers
This is one of the most common problems with video cards.
•
Faulty or incorrect video drivers can result in such things as operating system instability,
video subsystem problems, and so on
•
Most video cards are provided with drivers on a
floppy disk or a CD-ROM
•
One may use the drivers that usually come along
with the hardware or visit the manufacturer's Web
site to obtain a more recent one
•
The drivers should come with a text file outlining the
installation process
•
The first step in updating the driver is to identify the
make and model of your video card
•
In Windows XP, you can see a list of all the hardware
components within Device Manager
•
The video card should be listed under Display
Adapters as shown
•
In case it is has not been recognized by Windows XP, it may be listed under Unknown
Devices. Double click on the video adapter listed to identify the make and model. This
information can be used to retrieve the latest driver from the manufacturer's Web site
Device Manager will list the Display Adapter installed
in the computer
If you are running Windows XP, you can update a device
driver using the steps listed below:
1. Right click My Computer and click Properties.
2. From the Hardware tab, click Device Manager.
3. Within Device Manager, double-click the video adapter listed under Display Adapters.
4. Click Update Driver as shown below to open the Hardware Update Wizard.
5. Accept the default option, Install the Software Automatically. Choose the Install from a List
or Specific Location option if you have the updated driver so you can indicate the file
location. Click Next.
6. Windows searches for an updated driver and instructs you if an updated driver has been
found.
7. Click Finish once the updated driver has been installed.
From the Driver tab, click the Update Driver button
•
The majority of video adapter card problems can be solved by ensuring that the correct
driver is installed and that the display settings are properly configured based on the
capabilities of your hardware.
•
In case you are unable to resolve the problem using the recommendations described as
given above, chances are the manufacturer of your video adapter card already has a
solution.
EXPERIMENT -6
Troubleshooting Device Manager Issues in Win XP
By completing this module you will be able to understand and learn the trouble
shooting the device manager.
Device Manager is an OS feature that lets you view and change the properties of all devices
attached to your computer.
When you use Device Manager, you can:
Determine if the hardware on your computer is working properly
Change hardware configuration settings
Identify the device drivers that are loaded for each device and obtain information about each
device driver
Change advanced settings and properties for devices
Install updated device drivers
Disable, enable, and uninstall devices
Reinstall the previous version of a driver
Identify device conflicts and manually configure resource settings
Print a summary of the devices that are installed on your computer
Typically, Device Manager is used to check the status of computer hardware and update device
drivers on the computer.
If you are an advanced user, and you have a thorough understanding of computer hardware, you
can use Device Manager's diagnostic features to resolve device conflicts, and change resource
settings.
To access Device Manager, use any of the following methods:
Click Start, and then click Control Panel
Click Performance and Maintenance, and then click System
Click the Hardware tab, and then click Device Manager
Or
Click Start; click Run, and then type "devmgmt.msc" (without the quotation marks).
Or
Right-click My Computer, clicks Manage, and then clicks Device Manager.
Or
Right-click My Computer, click Properties, click the Hardware tab, and then click Device
Manager
You can view the Details tab to see the following device information:
NOTE: Not all of these properties will be populated for a given device. In other words, although
all of these properties are listed, some may not contain information when viewing a particular
device.
Troubleshooting Device Conflicts in the Device Manager
Troubleshooting Information
If there is a problem with a device, it is listed in the hardware tree. Also, the problem
device has a symbol that indicates the type of problem
A black exclamation point (!) on a yellow field indicates the device is in a problem state.
Note that a device that is in a problem state can be functioning
A problem code explaining the problem is displayed for the device
A red "X" indicates a disabled device. A disabled device is a device that is physically
present in the computer and is consuming resources, but does not have a protected-mode
driver loaded
A blue "i" on a white field on a device resource in Computer properties indicates that the
Use automatic settings feature is not selected for the device and that the resource was
manually selected. Note that this does not indicate a problem or disabled state.
A green question mark "?" in Device Manager Means that a compatible driver for this device is
installed, indicating the possibility that all of the functionality may not be available. Note that this
applies only to Windows Millennium Edition (Me).
NOTE: Some sound cards and video adapters do not report all of the resources that they use to
Windows. This can cause Device Manager to show only one device in conflict, or no conflicts at all.
This can be verified by disabling the sound card, or by using the standard VGA video driver to see
if the conflict is resolved.
Note that this is a known problem with S3 video adapters and 16-bit Sound Blaster sound cards,
or those sound cards that are using Sound Blaster emulation for Sound Blaster compatibility.
When you double click a specific device in Device Manager, you see a property sheet. The
property sheet has a General tab.
NOTE: Some devices may have other tabs besides the General tab. Not all property sheets have
the same tabs; some devices may have a Resources tab, Driver tab, and Settings tab, or some
combination of these.
At the top of the property sheet, there is a description of the device. When you click the
Resources tab, the window in the middle of the tab indicates which resource types are available
for the selected device.
The list box at the bottom contains a Conflicting device list. This list indicates a conflict with an
error code.
Note the Use automatic settings check box. If Windows successfully detects a device, this
check box is selected, and the device should function correctly. However, if the resource settings
are based on Basic Configuration <n> (where <n> is any number from 0 to 9), it may be
necessary to change the configuration by selecting a different basic configuration from the list. If
the particular configuration you want for the device is not listed as a basic configuration, it may be
possible to click the Change Setting button to manually adjust the resource values.
For example, to edit the Input/Output Range setting:
Click the Use automatic settings check box to clear it.
Click Change Setting.
Click the appropriate I/O range for the device
NOTE: To disable a device in Device Manager, right-click the device, and then click Disable.
If the issue continues to occur, you may need to contact the manufacturer of your computer or
motherboard to inquire about how to obtain and install a BIOS update for your computer.
EXPERIMENT - 7
General troubleshooting tips for printers
By completing this module you will be able to understand and learn how to manage
general printer problems, that we normally face.
It is not possible to describe all of the steps one might take to fix every make, model, and type of
printer. However in many cases, following these simple set of procedures, and a logical approach
may save your time or money.
1. Refer the User Manual
•
Read the manual thoroughly and follow the steps to connect the printer to PC
o
o
In general, the printers are having connectivity with parallel port of PC and nowadays
the USB connectivity is also available with the printer.
Also we can connect the printers in the network if they are coming with RJ 45
connectors.
2. Check the manufacturer's web site
•
Suppose if you have missed somewhere the user manual of printer, you may access the
concerned manufacturer’s web site for the details of the printer.
3. Check the plug at Power outlet
Ensure the printer is plugged into a live outlet. If it is plugged into a surge protector,
make sure it is on.
4. What if the power is on but there is no print out?
Make sure that the power is on and there is no error lights (LEDs) lit.
If there are error lights, refer to the user manual/manufacturer's web site.
You should hear the print mechanism initialize when power is applied and most printers
have at least one light which will be illuminated when it is on.
5. Check whether it is online or not.
Online means, most of the printers are connected directly to the PC. Please check whether
the connectivity between PC and printer as per user manual or not.
6. In case it is beeping , try to find out the reason for it.
Most printers will beep once or twice during or after initialization. If it beeps more than
that or beeps constantly, it is an indication that something is wrong. Most of the printers
will beep when out of paper or out of ink.
7. Check wether you are able to give a test-print.
Most printers have a built-in diagnostics program which can be very useful for
troubleshooting problems and test-printing without a computer. They are usually initiated
by pressing a button or two while turning on the printer. Check your user manual.
If the printer test-prints OK, you don’t have any problem with print mechanism of the
printer. Then you may check the connectivity of the printer.
8. Check wether it has ink or toner
Check wether the ink or toner of the printer is there .
In case it is there check if it is properly filled or not.
Check if the heads of the toners are clean or not. One must have to clean them
periodically.
9. Check wether it has enough paper for printing purpose
Be sure the paper is installed correctly and there is enough of it. Most printers have a
paper-out detector. On most dot matrix printers it is a photo diode. If form-fed paper is
not aligned correctly (usually on the left side) the diode won't see it.
10. Check whether the printer is jammed?
•
Paper jams are frequently the reason for malfunction in many printers. Always read the
manual on how to clear a jam.
o Don't be in a rush with your printer as you can easily damage a printer or even get hurt, if
you do not follow instructions in the user manual.
o Don't move a print head unless the instructions direct it. You can damage the belt, etc.
•
Turn the power off & unplug it, before you start doing something .
o
Laser printers have some very fine wires to remove static charges from the paper near the
fuser mechanism which will break if you are not very careful. Also, the fuser itself can be
very hot (it fuses/melts toner to the paper).
11. Check wether the RAM is sufficient
The printer memory could be full and not getting prints and prints may be stuck in print
queue. Turn-off the printer, wait a few seconds and turn it back on.
12. Check whether the software (print drivers) installed or not
We have to check the correct device drivers (software) of the printer installed in OS.
Refer installation steps in windows, DOS, Linux in to user manual or vendors web site
13. Check the printer connectivity with right port in BIOS settings
Check Cable connectivity with printers Check the following points a) The pins of DB25 connector are properly connected or not
b) Check the various connectivity’s of either side (e.g USB, DB25 etc)
c) Many printers now require an IEEE 1284 and Bi-Directional. USB cables shouldn’t be
longer than 15 feet.
d) Check for bent pins. Try another cable.
Is there something else connected to the printer port?
Disconnect it and uninstall the device drivers for it.
Experiment - 8
Uninterrupted Power Supply (UPS)
By completing this module you will be able to understand various types of UPSs
available in the market.
UPS is an electronic device that continues to supply electric power to the load for certain periods
of time during a loss of main power from electricity board or when the power fluctuates from
normal limits.
The generic standard for UPS system defines the limits on the amplitude and duration of deviation
of the output voltage acceptable for switching power supply loads.
To make a power supply uninterruptable, we need energy storing backup for the period of time in
the form of battery, an AC-DC Charger, and AC-DC Inverter.
Types of UPS
•
•
•
Stand By UPS
Inline UPS
Online UPS
Stand by UPS includes a transfer switch that switches the load to the battery /inverter, in case
the primary AC Power source fails. The transfer time typically is 1-5 ms and the power to the load
will be interrupted.
Inline UPS also called as line interactive UPS which under normal condition smoothes and to
some degree regulates the input AC voltage by a filter and a tap changing transformer.
The bidirectional inverter/charger is always connected to the output of the UPS and uses a portion
of AC power to keep battery charged. When the power fails, the transfer switch from AC to
Battery and provides output power.
Online UPS always delivers all or at least a portion of the output power through its inverter even
under normal conditions. There are two types of online convertors 1) Double conversion and 2)
Delta Conversion.
1) Double Conversion Online UPS is continuously processing the whole power through
series connected AC-DC rectifier /charger and DC-AC inverter.
2) Delta Conversion UPS includes an additional “Delta Convertor” that delivers a portion of
the output power directly to the load and provides the power
EXPERIMENT - 9
Virus
By completing this you will be able to understand viruses and its threats
Virus and its threats
A virus is a computer program which can copy itself or infect the system without the
knowledge of the user.
A virus can spread from one system to the other system, whenever a file with virus in an
infected system is accessed from another system.
Some viruses may cause damage to the system by infecting the files, deleting the files,
formatting the hard disk etc.
To protect the system from virus one should have knowledge of each program or a file
they download into their computer. Since it is difficult, we can use anti-virus software
which can help the system by protecting it from virus.
Tips and tools to prevent virus into the system
Keep anti-virus software up-to-date and make sure that it is working properly
Scan the files with anti-virus software before you download it from the Internet and
execute it
Be careful while exchanging the files between the systems through disks or through
network .While using the disk make sure that it is write protected, so that it prevents
from accidental deletion and changes made to the files on the disk
While using Microsoft office make sure that macro virus protection option is enabled
Note: A Macro virus is a computer virus that infects Microsoft word and similar application by
inserting some undesirable text into the documents or by making some changes to the
documents
Take backup of the files which you feel important .This will help you in recovering the file
when it is completely affected by virus
Scan the system with anti-virus software daily and keep your operating system up to date
with all the latest patches
Some viruses start executing as soon as they appear on the Outlook Express preview
pane. So disable that option
Beware of the latest virus threats which may help you in detecting them and take the
appropriate action to avoid it
List of anti virus tools available for preventing virus in to the system are given below:
AVG free , Quick Heal, Avira Anti virus , Cleanwin Anti virus,cleaner4.2, AVG Internet security, Bit
defender free edition, Bit defender anti virus 2008, Avast 4 Home edition, McAfee Avert Stinger
3.8.0, CalmWin (open source) free anti virus.
UNIT- IX
Tips to deal with a few common PC problems
1) Problem: Computer does not Power up / start up
Initial Steps:
Make sure that the PC's power cable is plugged firmly into a wall socket or power strip
and that the power strip is on
Try plugging the PC or the power strip into another wall socket
Ensure that the power cable is firmly connected to the PC's power-supply outlet
Check to see that the power supply is switched to the "on" position
Make sure that the power supply is switched to the voltage appropriate to your region
Attach a working power cable to the PC's power supply and plug it in
Unplug all external devices from the PC -- including a CD drive or digital camera -- except
the monitor. If the computer powers on without the devices, add the peripherals back in
one at a time until you can identify the problem device
Unplug all external devices from the PC -- including a CD drive or digital camera -- except
the monitor. If the computer powers on without the devices, add the peripherals back in
one at a time until you can identify the problem device
If none of these steps solves the problem, check to see if your computer is still under warranty
and send it back to the manufacturer. If the warranty has expired and you are comfortable doing
so, proceed to the Advanced Steps below. Otherwise, talk to your volunteer consultant.
Advanced Steps:
Unplug the computer and open the PC's case. Verify that the power supply is connected to
the motherboard
Make sure that all internal cables are connected and that all of the PCI expansion cards
and RAM chips are tightly seated
Examine the motherboard for noticeable signs of damage, such as cracks or burns. If you
see problems, there's a good chance you'll need a new motherboard or a new computer.
Consult a technician for further advice
Remove the RAM and PCI cards and unplug your hard drive(s).
Depending on your drive, you'll see either a wide, flat, gray IDE
cable; a thinner red Serial ATA (SATA) cable; or a round gray or
black SCSI cable. Plug in the power cable. If the computer turns
on, begin plugging in additional cables and modules until you
identify the faulty component
Replace your power supply with a known working one or a with new one.
If none of these steps work, your motherboard or processor is likely fried. Consider taking
it to a repair shop or replacing the computer altogether
Procedure to replace power Supply:
•
Turn off your computer and all the peripherals (such as your monitor, printer, modem, and
scanner).
•
Unplug your PC and all the peripherals from their outlets. After that, unplug all peripherals
from the back of the computer.
•
Move to a well-lit, static-free area, such as a tile floor or a kitchen table. Remove the
computer case or panels to expose the interior of your PC. The power supply is enclosed in a
metal box located in the corner of your computer case.
2) Problem: Computer Powers up/ starts off, but Monitor is blank.
Initial Steps:
Ensure that your computer can boot normally and that all of the usual power lights are on
Make sure that the monitor is plugged firmly into a working wall socket or power strip and
that the power strip is on
Try plugging the PC or power strip into another wall socket
Verify that the monitor's power button is switched to the "on" position
Make sure the monitor's brightness and contrast controls are properly adjusted (check
your monitor's manual for information on how to do this)
Check to see that the monitor cable is plugged firmly into the back of the display and that
the pinned end is tightly screwed into the computer's video output on the back of the case
Remove the existing cable and replace it with a known working monitor cable. Connect it
to the display and to the computer
Obtain a working monitor and hook it up to your PC. If this display works, contact a
technician or buy a new monitor. If the monitor does not work, your video card may not
be working and you'll need to open the desktop's case
If none of these steps solves the problem, check to see if your computer is still under warranty
and find out how to send it back. If the warranty has expired, unplug the computer, open up the
PC's case, and proceed to the Advanced Steps below.
Advanced Steps:
Examine the video card for noticeable damage. If you spot defects or burnt components,
you'll likely need a new video card
Reseat the video card.
Inspect the RAM and all drive cables to make sure they are all tightly seated and
connected. If you find loose components or connections, tighten them.
If your display is still not working, contact a repair shop or consider replacing the video
card (or try swapping in a compatible card). To replace the card yourself.
3) Problem: Computer won't Boot From Hard Drive (not able to get to Windows Splash
Screen)?
Initial Steps:
Make sure that there is no bootable media in your floppy or CD drive
Listen to make sure your hard drive is spinning. If you don't hear or feel motion, or if you
don't see an error message on the screen, proceed to the advanced steps given below:
Remove all external drives or devices and try restarting the computer
If you receive a series of beeps or error messages, write them down, as they could be
instrumental in diagnosing your problem. Beep codes vary by manufacturer, so consult
your BIOS documentation for more in-depth info on what those beeps mean. Otherwise,
proceed as follows
Enter your computer's BIOS (access key varies by machine; usually you'll need to push
the F1 or Delete key as the computer boots) and write down the current settings before
proceeding further
Keep an eye out for any built-in diagnostic tools; you might be able to find an error by
using these
If no diagnostic tools exist, go to the BIOS's hard drive section and make sure it's
configured as "Auto."
If the BIOS has an auto detect feature, run it to make sure that it can actually detect your
hard drive
If your BIOS has an optimized default option, try loading it and rebooting
If the BIOS has a failsafe default option, try loading it and rebooting
Attempt to enter your PC in Safe Mode. (As your computer boots, quickly press the F8
key.) If you can get in, run Windows' built-in diagnostic tool to check your drive for bad
sectors and file system errors
While still in Safe Mode, scan your computer for viruses, Trojans, spyware, and other
threats that could be causing problems
If none of these steps solves the problem, check to see if your computer is still under
warranty and find out how to send it back.
If the warranty has expired, unplug the computer, open up the PC's case, and proceed to
the Advanced Steps.
Advanced Steps:
Make sure that the hard drive is firmly connected to both the power supply and the
motherboard
Reseat the video card
Clear the CMOS by resetting the jumper on the motherboard. Before you do so, consult
the motherboard or computer's documentation and be very careful while handling these
components
If your computer has more than one stick of RAM, remove them all and try adding them
back, starting with the slot closest to the processor. If the PC boots with one and not the
other, you likely have a faulty stick of RAM
Make sure that the correct hard drive is set as the primary (master) drive and that the
proper cable is connected. (See the back of the hard drive to set master and slave
settings
Replace the hard drive cable(s) with known working ones.
Remove the PC's main power supply and replace it with a known working one.
If none of this works you may want to take the drive in for service or replace it altogether. If at all
possible, back up your data first.
4) Problem: Windows won't Boot (After BIOS POST has been completed) orPC crashes.
Initial Steps
Make sure that there isn't a disk in your floppy or CD drive
Remove external drives or devices
Enter the Windows Advanced Options menu by pressing the F8 key during the BIOS's
Power-On Self Test (POST). Select the option for "Last Known Good Configuration." (Note:
if this works, you will lose any recently installed software or newly created files.)
Enter the Windows Advanced Options menu, boot into Safe Mode with networking, and
perform a system restore
While in Safe Mode run your antivirus and anti-spyware programs. Remove any detected
threats
If that fails, attempt to back up your data using back-up software, burn files to a CD, or
consult a professional. You may eventually have to reformat your hard drive and reinstall
Windows
Advanced Steps:
Enter the Windows Advanced Options menu and choose the option that enables the
bootlog.
Restart, then boot into Safe Mode to compare the new bootlog and the original one. If
you get error messages that certain drivers aren't loading correctly, write those down, and
update or remove the faulty devices via Windows' Device Manager. You can then reinstall
the drivers manually or ask Windows to locate a driver for the device
Insert your Windows Emergency Startup disk or the original CD-ROM and go to the
Recovery Console. From there, you can attempt to restore the master boot record, the
first logical sector on your hard drive where the BIOS loads a program to boot your
computer
5) Problem: The PC does not boot, the power and HDD LED does not come on, and
there is no display on monitor.
Check that your main power cable is plugged into the ATX power supply.
Make sure you have connected the ATX power connector to the motherboard.
Check if the cable for the power switch at front of the PC is connected to the correct pins
on the motherboard.
6) Problem: The power LED comes on but the PC does not boot, there is no display on
monitor.
Check if the processor is firmly into the socket. Check CPU jumpers to verify if CPU
frequency is correctly set.
7) Problem: The PC does not boot, but is beeping.
Different BIOS manufacturers use various number of beeps to indicate faults with various
hardware. In an Award BIOS motherboard you will get following kinds of beeps:
1 long 2 short: Graphics card is not securely into place, or faulty.
1 long 3 short: Graphics card is not securely into place, or faulty video memory.
Continuous beeps: No memory, or memory not securely into place, or could be faulty.
Continuous high/low beeps: No CPU, or CPU not securely into place, or could be faulty.
Please refer to your motherboard manual to confirm what the beeps are trying to tell you.
8) Problem: The PC boots but the CPU speed is incorrect.
The CPU frequency jumper setting is incorrect. Refer to your motherboard manual to set
it correctly.
9) Problem: The HDD is not being detected by the BIOS.
Check if you connected the IDE cable to the motherboard correctly.
Check wether the pin 1 on the IDE cable connected to pin 1 on the IDE sockets on both
motherboard connector and HDD connector.
Check if the HDD jumper is set to master and any other device sharing the same cable is
set to slave.
10)
Problem: Cannot access my CD/DVD-ROM in DOS mode, hence cannot install
Windows.
This is because the CD/DVD-ROM device driver is not installed.
Install the manufacturer supplied device driver.
If you do not have a device driver disk, you can use the windows boot disk which will
provide access to your CD/DVD-ROM, so that you can install Windows.
10. INSTALLING AND UNINSTALLING THE HARDWARE
& TROUBLESHOOTING MALFUNCTIONS OF
HARDWARE INSTALLATIONS
You can install most hardware or mobile devices just by plugging them into your
computer. Windows will automatically install the appropriate driver if it's available.
If it's not, Windows will prompt you to insert a software disc that may have come
with your hardware device.
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
Install a USB device
Install a printer
What to do when a device isn't installed properly
Install, view, and manage your devices
Automatically get recommended drivers and updates for your devices
Install or remove a sound card
Install or remove a hard disk drive
How can I decide which drivers are safe to install?
Typically, the first time you connect a device that plugs into a USB port, Windows
automatically installs a driver for that device. Drivers allow your computer to
communicate with hardware devices; without one, a USB device that you connect
to your computer—for example, a mouse or a webcam—won't work properly.
Before installing a device
Check the instructions that came with the device to see if you need to install a
driver before connecting the device. Although Windows usually does this
automatically after you connect a new device, some devices require that you
install drivers manually. In those cases, the device manufacturer includes a
software disc and instructions on installing the driver before plugging in the
device.
If your USB device came with software from the manufacturer, check to see if it's
compatible with this version of Windows. If it's not compatible, or doesn't say
which versions of Windows it's designed for, try plugging the device in first to see
if Windows can find a compatible driver.
If the instructions that came with your device contradict the information in this
topic, follow those instructions.
Plugging in and turning on a device
Most USB devices that have power switches should be turned on before you
connect them. If your device uses a power cord, connect the device to a power
source. Then, turn it on before connecting it.
Next, determine which USB port you want to connect your device to. If your
computer has USB ports on the front, consider using one of those if you plan to
frequently connect and disconnect the device. (You can use any port the next
time you plug in the
device.)
Plug the device into the USB port. If Windows can find and install the device
driver automatically, you'll be notified that the device is ready to use. Otherwise,
you'll be prompted to insert a disc containing the driver.
Windows will notify you when it finishes successfully installing a device
After installation is complete, check the information that came with your device to
see if you need to install any additional software.
Occasionally, a USB device isn't recognized by Windows and doesn't come with
a disc containing a driver. In that case, you can try to find a device driver online.
Start by checking the website of the device manufacturer—you can often
download drivers from the "Support" section of such sites.
Notes
·
When connecting a device to a USB port on a USB hub, monitor, or other
device that's plugged into your computer, make sure that the USB port has
enough power to support your device. Smaller devices, such as USB flash
drives and mice—and devices with their own power cords, such as
printers—typically work properly when connected to an unpowered USB
hub. Some devices that use more power, such as USB-powered scanners
and web cameras, require a hub that has its own power cord to function
properly. If a device doesn't work properly when connected to a hub, try
connecting it directly to one of your computer's USB ports.
·
Devices that transfer large amounts of information, such as external hard
disks, scanners, and video cameras, function best when connected to
high-speed USB 2.0 ports. Some older computers might include only USB
1.x ports, or a mix of USB 1.x and 2.0 ports. If your device requires a highspeed port to function properly, check the information that came with your
computer to make sure that the port you're using supports USB 2.0. If your
computer includes only USB 1.x ports, you can add USB 2.0 ports by
installing a USB 2.0 card inside your computer.
Disconnecting a device
Most USB devices can be removed and unplugged. When unplugging storage
devices, such as USB flash drives, make sure that the computer has finished
saving any information to the device before removing it. If the device has an
activity light, wait for a few seconds after the light has finished flashing before
unplugging it.
If you see the Safely Remove Hardware icon in the notification area on the right
side of the taskbar, you can use this as an indication that devices have finished
all operations in progress and are ready to be removed. Click the icon and you'll
see a list of devices. Click the device you want to remove. Windows will display a
notification telling you it's safe to remove the device.
Install a printer
There are several ways to connect a printer to your PC. Which option you choose
depends on the device itself, and whether you're at home or at the office.
Always consult the information that came with your model for specific
instructions.
Local printers
The most common way to install a printer is to connect it directly to your
computer. This is known as a local printer.
If your printer is a universal serial bus (USB) model, Windows should
automatically detect and install it when you plug it in.
If it's an older model that connects using the serial or parallel port, you might
have to install it manually.
To install (add) a local printer
1.
2.
3.
4.
Click to open Devices and Printers.
Click Add a printer.
In the Add Printer wizard, click Add a local printer.
On the Choose a printer port page, make sure that the Use an existing
port button and the recommended printer port are selected, and then click
Next.
5. On the Install the printer driver page, select the printer manufacturer and
model, and then click Next.
o If your printer isn't listed, click Windows Update, and then wait while
Windows checks for additional drivers.
o If none are available and you have the installation CD, click Have
Disk, and then browse to the folder where the printer driver is
located. (For additional help, consult the printer manual.)
6. Complete the additional steps in the wizard, and then click Finish.
Tips
o
o
You can print a test page to make sure the printer is working
correctly. See Print a test page.
If you've installed the printer but it doesn't work, check the
manufacturer's website for troubleshooting information or driver
updates.
Network printers
In the workplace, many printers are network printers. These connect directly to a
network as a stand-alone device. Inexpensive network printers are also made for
the home. To learn more, see Install a printer on a home network.
To install a network, wireless, or Bluetooth printer
If you're trying to add a network printer at the office, you'll usually need the
name of the printer. If you can't find it, contact your network administrator.
1.
open Devices and Printers.
2. Click Add a printer.
3. In the Add Printer wizard, click Add a network, wireless or Bluetooth
printer.
4. In the list of available printers, select the one you want to use, and then
click Next.
5. If prompted, install the printer driver on your computer by clicking Install
driver.
6. Complete the additional steps in the wizard, and then click Finish.
Removing a printer
If you'll no longer be using a printer, you can remove it from the Devices and
Printers folder.
1. Open Devices and Printers.
2. Right-click the printer that you want to remove, click Remove device, and
then click Yes.
If you can't delete the printer, right-click it again, click Run as
administrator, click Remove device, and then click Yes.
Notes
o
o
If you have a multi-function or all-in-one printer, you can often
remove the printer from Devices and Printers without affecting other
device functions. So, for example, you might continue to see a
scanner or fax icon for the device.
You can't uninstall a printer if you have unfinished jobs in your print
queue. Either delete the jobs, or wait until Windows has finished
printing them. Once the queue is clear, Windows will remove the
printer.
What to do when a device isn't installed properly
When you connect a new device to your computer, Windows automatically tries
to install it for you and will notify you if a driver for the device can't be found.
There are several things you can try if this happens:
Make sure your computer is connected to the Internet and automatic updating is turned
on
Your computer must be connected to the Internet for Windows to be able to
search online for a device driver. To see if your computer is connected to the
Internet, open your web browser and try accessing a website. If you're
temporarily disconnected, such as when you're traveling with a laptop, wait until
you're online again, and then try reinstalling your device.
Windows can't check for the latest drivers unless automatic updating is turned
on. Most people turn on automatic updating the first time they use Windows, but
if you're not sure you did, you should check to make sure it's turned on. Be sure
to select the option to include recommended updates, or Windows will install
important updates only. Important updates provide significant benefits, such as
improved security and reliability, but recommended updates might include drivers
for some of your devices
Manually check for drivers on Windows Update
If you didn't have automatic updating turned on, or you weren't connected to the
Internet when you connected a new device to your computer, you should check
to see if Windows can now find a driver for your device. Even if your computer is
always connected to the Internet, you should still check Windows Updates for
optional updates if some of your hardware isn't working properly. Optional
updates often contain new driver updates. Windows Update does not install
optional updates automatically, but it will notify you when it finds some and let
you choose whether to install them.
Install software for the device
If Windows Update can't find a driver for your device, try checking the
manufacturer's website for a driver or other software for the device. If your device
came with a software disc, that disc might contain software needed to make your
device work properly, but first check the manufacturer's website for the latest
software and drivers.
If you don't find any new software or drivers for your device on the manufacturer's
website, try inserting the disc that came with the device, and then follow the
instructions for installing the software.
Note
·
Many drivers come with software that installs the driver for you (often
called a self-installing package), but you might have to install some drivers
manually as well.
If your device still doesn't work properly after trying these suggestions, a driver
might not be available for your device. In this case, try contacting the device
manufacturer.
Install, view, and manage your devices
When you want to see all the devices connected to your computer, use one of
them, or troubleshoot one that isn't working properly, open the Devices and
Printers folder.
To open the Devices and Printers folder
open Devices and Printers in control panel
Devices displayed in the Devices and Printers folder are typically external
devices you can connect to or disconnect from your computer through a port or
network connection. Your computer is also displayed.
Devices listed include:
·
·
·
·
·
·
Portable devices you carry with you and occasionally connect to your
computer, such as mobile phones, portable music players, and digital
cameras.
All devices you plug into a USB port on your computer, including external
USB hard drives, flash drives, webcams, keyboards, and mice.
All printers connected to your computer, which include printers connected
by USB cable, the network, or wirelessly.
Wireless devices connected to your computer, including Bluetooth devices
and Wireless USB devices.
Your computer.
Compatible network devices connected to your computer, such as
network-enabled scanners, media extenders, or Network Attached
Storage devices (NAS devices).
The Devices and Printers folder allows you to perform many tasks, which vary
depending on the device. Here are the main tasks you can do:
·
·
·
·
·
Add a new wireless or network device or printer to your computer.
View all the external devices and printers connected to your computer.
Check to see if a specific device is working properly.
View information about your devices, such as make, model, and
manufacturer, including detailed information about the sync capabilities of
a mobile phone or other mobile device.
Perform tasks with a device.
When you right-click a device icon in the Devices and Printers folder, you
can select from a list of tasks that vary depending on the capabilities of the
device. For example, you might be able to see what's printing on a
network printer, view files stored on a USB flash drive, or open a program
from the device manufacturer. For mobile devices that support the new
Device Stage feature in Windows, you can also open advanced, devicespecific features in Windows from the right-click menu, such as the ability
to sync with a mobile phone or change ringtones.
·
Take steps to fix devices that aren't working properly.
Troubleshoot a device with a problem
o
Right-click a device or computer with the yellow warning icon, click
Troubleshoot, wait while the troubleshooter tries to detect problems
(this may take several minutes), and then follow the instructions.
11. INSTALLING AND UNINSTALLING THE SOFTWARE
AND TROUBLESHOOTING MALFUNCTIONS OF
SOFTWARE INSTALLATIONS
You can do a lot with the programs and features included in Windows, but you'll
probably want to install other programs.
How you add a program depends on where the installation files for the program
are located. Typically, programs are installed from a CD or DVD, from the
Internet, or from a network. If you want to uninstall or make changes to a
program already installed on your computer, see Uninstall or change a program.
To install a program from a CD or DVD
Insert the disc into your computer and follow the instructions on your screen.
Many programs installed from CDs or DVDs launch an installation wizard for the
program automatically. In these cases, the AutoPlay dialog box will appear and
you can choose to run the wizard.
If a program doesn't begin to install, check the information that came with the
program. This information will likely provide instructions for installing the program
manually. If you cannot access the information, you can also browse through the
disc and open the program setup file, usually called Setup.exe or Install.exe. If
your program was written for an earlier version of Windows, some older
programs might run poorly or not at all. If a program written for an earlier version
of Windows doesn't run correctly, you can try changing the compatibility settings
for the program, either manually or by using the Program Compatibility
troubleshooter.
Setting
Description
Runs the program using settings from a previous version of
Windows. Try this setting if you know the program is
Compatibility mode
designed for (or worked in) a specific previous version of
Windows.
Uses a limited set of colors in the program. Some older
Run in 256 colors
programs are designed to use fewer colors.
Runs the program in a smaller-sized window. Try this setting
Run in 640 × 480
if the graphical user interface appears jagged or is rendered
screen resolution
improperly.
Disables themes on the program. Try this setting if you
Disable visual
notice problems with the menus or buttons on the title bar of
themes
the program.
Turns off transparency and other advanced display features.
Disable desktop
Choose this setting if window movement appears erratic or
composition
you notice other display problems.
Turns off automatic resizing of programs if large-scale font
Disable display
size is in use. Try this setting if large-scale fonts are
scaling on high DPI interfering with the appearance of the program. For more
settings
information, see Make the text on your screen larger or
smaller.
Runs the program as an administrator. Some programs
require administrator privileges to run properly. If you are not
Privilege level
currently logged on as an administrator, this option is not
available.
Change settings for Lets you choose settings that will apply to all users on this
all users
computer.
To install a program from the Internet
1. In your web browser, click the link to the program.
2. Do one of the following:
·
·
To install the program immediately, click Open or Run and follow the
instructions on your screen.
To install the program later, click Save and download the installation file to
your computer. When you are ready to install the program, double-click
the file and follow the instructions on your screen. This is a safer option
because you can scan the installation file for viruses before you proceed.
Note
o
When downloading and installing programs from the Internet, be sure you
trust the publisher of the program and the website that is offering the
program.
Uninstall or change a program
You can uninstall a program from your computer if you no longer use it or if you
want to free up space on your hard disk. You can use Programs and Features to
uninstall programs or to change a program's configuration by adding or removing
certain options.
1. Go to Control panel and open Programs and Features.
2. Select a program, and then click Uninstall. Some programs include the
option to change or repair the program in addition to uninstalling it, but
many simply offer the option to uninstall. To change a program, click
Change or Repair.
12. BACKUP AND RESTORATION PROCESS OF DATA IN A
SYSTEM
To help ensure that you don't lose your files, you should back them up regularly.
You can set up automatic backups or manually back up your files at any time.
1. Open Backup and Restore in the control panel
2. Do one of the following:
3. If you have never used Windows Backup before, click Set up backup, and
then follow the steps in the wizard.
4. If you have created a backup before, you can wait for your regularly
scheduled backup to occur, or you can manually create a new backup by
clicking Back up now.
Note
·
It is recommended that you don't back up your files to the same hard disk
that Windows is installed on.
·
Always store media used for backups (external hard disks, DVDs, or CDs) in
a secure place to prevent unauthorized people from having access to your
files; we recommend a fireproof location separate from your computer. You
might also consider encrypting the data on your backup.
To create a new, full backup
After you create your first backup, Windows Backup will add new or
changed information to your subsequent backups. If you're saving your
backups on a hard drive or network location, Windows Backup will create
a new, full backup for you automatically when needed. If you're saving
your backups on CDs or DVDs and can't find an existing backup disc, or if
you want to create a new backup of all of the files on your computer, you
can create a full backup. Here's how to create a full backup:
1. Open Backup and Restore in the control panel
2. In the left pane, click Create new, full backup.
Note: You will only see this option if your backup is being
saved on CDs or DVDs.
To set up backup after upgrading from a previous version of
Windows
After you upgrade Windows, you will need to set up Windows Backup, even if
you had a scheduled backup in the previous version of Windows. This is because
there are several changes to the backup program. Instead of selecting file types
to back up, you can have Windows back up data files saved in libraries, on the
desktop, and in default Windows folders, or you can choose specific libraries and
folders to be backed up. You can also create a system image of your computer.
Back up your programs, system settings, and files
You can create a system image, which contains a copy of Windows and copies of
your programs, system settings, and files. The system image is then stored in a
separate location from the original programs, settings, and files. You can use this
image to restore the contents of your computer if your hard disk or entire
computer ever stops working.
If you're using Windows Backup to back up your files, you can have a system
image created each time your files are backed up. By default, this system image
will only include the drives required for Windows to run. To include additional
drives in the system image or to create a system image manually, follow the
steps below.
1. Open Backup and Restore in the control panel
2. In the left pane, click Create a system image, and then follow the steps in
the wizard.
Restore files from a backup
You can restore backed-up versions of files that are lost, damaged, or changed
accidentally. You can also restore individual files, groups of files, or all of the files
that you have backed up.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Open Backup and Restore in the control panel
To restore your files, click Restore my files.
To restore the files of all users, click Restore all users' files.
To browse the contents of the backup, click Browse for files or Browse for
folders.
5. When you are browsing for folders, you won't be able to see the individual
files in a folder. To view individual files, use the Browse for files option.
6. To search the contents of the backup, click Search, type all or part of a file
name, and then click Search.
Recover lost or deleted files
If you can't find a file on your computer or you accidently modified or deleted a
file, you can restore it from your backup (if you are using Windows backup) or
you can try to restore it from a previous version. Previous versions are copies of
files and folders that Windows automatically saves as part of a restore point.
Previous versions are sometimes referred to as shadow copies.
13. INSTALL OR REMOVE A SOUND CARD
Most new desktop computers come with a built-in sound card that you can
replace. If your computer doesn't have a sound card installed or you want to
upgrade the sound playback or recording capabilities of your computer, you can
install a sound card. Most laptops have built-in sound processing chips (also
called sound processors) but not internal sound cards. You can upgrade the
sound on a laptop by plugging an external sound device into a USB port or
external card slot, but this is rarely done. Sound processors can also be built into
desktop computers. You can't remove them, but to upgrade your sound, you can
usually install an internal sound card and turn off the sound processor.
Before installing a sound card, check the information that came with it. The
guidelines shown here are general, and the sound card documentation might
contain important information specific to installing that card. Also, be sure to
check the information that came with your computer to see if opening your
computer affects the computer's warranty coverage.
Before installing a sound card, you'll need the following:
·
·
·
The sound card you want to install
A Phillips screwdriver to open your computer, if needed
An empty PCI slot inside your computer, unless you plan to replace an
existing sound card (in which case you can put the new card into that slot)
If your sound card came with a CD, DVD, or other removable media, it might
contain a driver for your sound card. Hold on to that until Windows has finished
looking for and installing a driver. Windows does this automatically after you
install the sound card in your computer and turn the computer back on. If
Windows can't find a good driver for your sound card, then try installing the driver
that came with the sound card. Software from the manufacturer might also
include other programs for your sound card.
To open your computer case
1. Turn off your computer and unplug it from its power source. This is very
important. Installing a card in a computer that's plugged in could shock
you or damage the card and computer.
2. Open the computer case. Look on the computer cover (usually on the
back) for screws or clasps to undo the case. Computer documentation
typically includes instructions on how to open the case.
3. After opening the case, ground yourself by touching the metal casing that
surrounds the jack where the power cord plugs in. This can help protect
you from an electric shock and can help protect the new card and existing
computer components from static electricity.
To remove an existing sound card
If you have an existing internal sound card, you should remove it before
installing the new card. If your computer has a built-in sound processor,
you can proceed to the "To install your new sound card" section of this
topic.
1. Locate your sound card. If you're not certain which card is your sound
card, follow the wires from your speakers to the back of the card, and then
note which slot that card is in.
2. Unplug any speaker and microphone cables from the back of the sound
card.
3. If there's a cable inside your computer connecting the sound card to your
CD drive, disconnect it. Many newer computers don't have this cable, so if
it's not there, you can skip this step.
4. Remove any screw or hook holding your sound card in place.
5. Carefully pull the sound card straight out of the slot. Be careful not to twist
or bend the card as you remove it.
Note
The card might need one or two gentle up-and-down nudges to come loose.
Even if you're throwing away the old sound card, use caution when removing it to
avoid damaging the motherboard. If it seems stuck, it's better to spend a few
extra minutes tugging gently than to rip the card out too quickly.
6. If you're not installing a new sound card, install a slot cover if you have
one, and replace the screw. Then, close the computer case and replace
any screws you removed when opening the case.
To install your new sound card
1. Locate an empty expansion slot in the computer that will accept your new
sound card.
If your computer doesn't have an empty slot, you'll have to remove another
card before you can install the new one. If you removed an existing sound
card, you can use the same slot if your new card uses the same type of
expansion slot. Check your computer's documentation if you need to
determine the types of expansion slots it has available.
2. Gently place the sound card on top of the slot. Line up the pins on the
sound card with the slot and push the card gently down so that it sits in the
slot. Be sure that the card is pushed all the way in and that it's secure. If
the pins on the card aren't perfectly aligned with the pins in the expansion
slot, the card won't work properly.
3. If your computer has an audio cable that connects the CD drive directly to
the sound card, plug it into the card. Check the information that came with
your sound card to determine the location of the CD audio connector on
the card. This cable is rarely necessary with current audio hardware, and
in most cases, plugging it in is optional.
4. Screw the sound card to the frame. Don't bend the sound card or the
frame while tightening the screw. It might be best to tighten the screw
barely more than you can tighten it with your fingers.
5. Close the computer case and replace any screws you removed when
opening the case. Plug your speakers into your new sound card and, if
applicable, plug your microphone in too.
6. Plug your computer back into its power source and then turn it on.
Windows will install the necessary drivers for your new sound card. If your
sound card came with a disc containing software, install that now. Check
the information that came with your sound card for the installation steps.
14.INSTALL OR REMOVE A MODEM
Usually, Windows will find, and then automatically install, the necessary drivers
when you install a modem. However, if Windows can't find or install the correct
driver, you might need to install the modem manually.
To manually install a modem
1. Open Phone and Modem option in the control panel menu.You might
need to provide information, such as your country or region and any
special phone dialing rules, in the Location Information dialog box before
you can access the Phone and Modem dialog box.
2. Click the Modems tab.
3. Click Add, and then follow the instructions in the Add Hardware Wizard.
To remove a modem
If Windows automatically installs the wrong driver, or if you have problems
with your modem, you can remove it.
1. Open Phone and Modem option in the control panel menu.
2. Click the Modems tab.
3. Select the modem you want to remove, and then click Remove.
Change modem settings
You can change modem settings, such as the speaker volume.
1. Open Phone and Modem option in the control panel menu
2. Click the Modems tab.
3. Select the modem you want to change the settings for, and then click
Properties.
4. Change the settings you want, and then click OK.
Set up a broadband (DSL or cable) connection
To set up a Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) or cable connection, you first need an
account with an Internet service provider (ISP). For DSL, the ISP is usually a
phone company; for cable, it's usually a cable TV provider.
You will also need a modem, a router, or a device that combines the two. Some
ISPs will provide you with these devices; if your ISP doesn't, you'll need to buy
them. When you have your modem, router, or combination device, either follow
the instructions provided by your ISP, or follow the corresponding steps below.
To setup a combined modem and router
1. Plug the device into an electrical outlet.
2. Plug one end of a phone cord or cable into the wide area network (WAN)
port of the device, and then plug the other end into the wall jack. The WAN
port should be labeled "WAN." (DSL users: Don't use a DSL filter on the
phone line.)
3. Plug one end of an Ethernet cable into the local area network (LAN) port
on the device, and then plug the other end into the networking port of the
computer that you want to connect to the Internet. The LAN port should be
labeled "LAN." (If you are connecting wirelessly, skip this step.)
4. Start (or restart) the computer.
5. In the Control Panel, Open connections and Internet .Then open the
Connect to the Internet wizard.
6. Follow the steps in the wizard.
Too setup a separate modem and router
1. Plug the modem into an electrical outlet.
2. Plug one end of a phone cord or cable into the modem, and plug the other
end into the wall jack. (DSL users: Don't use a DSL filter on the phone
line.)
3. Plug one end of an Ethernet cable into the modem, and plug the other end
into the wide area network (WAN) port on the router.
4. Plug the router into an electrical outlet.
5. Plug one end of an Ethernet cable into the local area network (LAN) port
on the router, and plug the other end into the networking port on the
computer that you want to connect to the Internet. (If you are connecting
wirelessly, skip this step.)
6. Start (or restart) the computer.
7. In the Control Panel, Open connections and Internet .Then open the
Connect to the Internet wizard.
8. Follow the steps in the wizard.
TROUBLESHOOTING CONNECTION PROBLEMS:
Internet connection problems are most commonly caused by disconnected
cables or by routers or modems that are not operating properly. First, try these
steps:
1. If you haven't already done so, run the Network troubleshooter to see if it
can help diagnose and solve your problem .Click on Control panel ,in that
open connections and Internet open the Network troubleshooter.
2. Make sure that all cables are connected (for example, make sure your
modem is connected to a working phone jack or cable connection, either
directly or through a router).
3. Restart your modem, and then restart your router. Remove the power
cable from the modem and router. After all lights on the device have gone
out, wait at least 10 seconds, and then plug the modem and router back
in. Some modems have a battery backup that prevents the lights from
going out. For this type of modem, press and quickly release the Reset
button.
Problem: The system can't connect to the Internet through a
broadband Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) or cable connection
Try these things:
·
·
Make sure that your modem is turned on.
Check to see that the Ethernet cable is plugged correctly into the Ethernet
port on the modem and on your computer. Each end of an Ethernet cable
looks like this:
·
Verify that you are not using a DSL filter between the phone jack and the
modem.
Check the lights on your modem. These can sometimes indicate the
location of the problem—whether it is the Ethernet connection, the power
to the modem, or the DSL or cable connection.
Winsock corruption can cause connectivity problems. To fix this, open the
Network troubleshooter
·
·
·
·
Ask your Internet service provider (ISP) to verify that its servers are
functioning correctly and that you have an ISP user account and access to
the ISP service.
If you have recently replaced your router or modem, ask your ISP if it uses
MAC address filtering. If so, your ISP must add your new device to the list
of devices that can access the network.
Problem: the system can't connect to the Internet through a dial-up
connection, or system being disconnected
Try these things:
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
Make sure that you are dialing the correct number, including any required
access numbers (such as 9), and that the number is not busy.
Make sure that the phone jack is working. To test this, plug in a working
phone and see if there is a dial tone.
Make sure that the phone cable is plugged into the "line" jack on your
modem, not the "telephone" jack.
Make sure that the phone cable is not defective by plugging a working
phone into the "telephone" jack of your modem. If there is a dial tone, the
phone cable is working.
If you have call waiting, try disabling it, and then try the connection again.
Your ISP might have disconnected you if you weren't interacting with the
website for a while. Try connecting again.
If someone picked up the phone while you were online, you might have
been automatically disconnected. Try connecting again.
Most dial-up modems work only with analog phone lines. Verify that you
have analog phone lines installed, or, if you have digital phone lines
installed, verify that your computer has a digital modem.
Make sure that your modem is working properly. For more information,
check the information that came with your modem or go to the
manufacturer's website.
Contact your telephone company to verify the quality of your line.
If your computer has two network connections, the networking software
must choose which connection to use for network traffic. The networking
software picks the connection with the best performance. If connection A
has Internet connectivity but slow performance and connection B has no
Internet connectivity but better local network performance, the networking
software will route network traffic over connection B. This means that you
won't be able to view websites, so the networking icon and the network
diagram in Network and Sharing Center will report that you only have local
connectivity (no Internet). This is correct, but it's not what you want. To
force your computer to use connection A—the connection with Internet
connectivity—disconnect connection B and try again.
15. SETTING UP A WIRELESS NETWORK
Hubs, switches, routers, and access points are all used to connect computers
together on a network, but each of them has different capabilities.
Hubs
Hubs enable computers on a network to communicate. Each computer plugs into
the hub with an Ethernet cable, and information sent from one computer to
another passes through the hub. A hub can't identify the source or intended
destination of the information it receives, so it sends the information to all of the
computers connected to it, including the one that sent it. A hub can send or
receive information, but it can't do both at the same time. This makes hubs
slower than switches. Hubs are the least complex and the least expensive of
these devices.
Switches
Switches work the same way as hubs, but they can identify the intended
destination of the information that they receive, so they send that information to
only the computers that are supposed to receive it. Switches can send and
receive information at the same time, so they can send information faster than
hubs can. If your home network has four or more computers or you want to use
your network for activities that require passing a lot of information between
computers (such as playing network games or sharing music), you should
probably use a switch instead of a hub. Switches cost a little more than hubs.
Routers
Routers enable computers to communicate and they can pass information
between two networks—such as between your home network and the Internet.
This capability to direct network traffic is what gives the router its name. Routers
can be wired (using Ethernet cables) or wireless. If you just want to connect your
computers, hubs and switches work well; however, if you want to give all of your
computers access to the ......
10. INSTALLING AND UNINSTALLING THE HARDWARE
& TROUBLESHOOTING MALFUNCTIONS OF
HARDWARE INSTALLATIONS
You can install most hardware or mobile devices just by plugging them into your
computer. Windows will automatically install the appropriate driver if it's available.
If it's not, Windows will prompt you to insert a software disc that may have come
with your hardware device.
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
Install a USB device
Install a printer
What to do when a device isn't installed properly
Install, view, and manage your devices
Automatically get recommended drivers and updates for your devices
Install or remove a sound card
Install or remove a hard disk drive
How can I decide which drivers are safe to install?
Typically, the first time you connect a device that plugs into a USB port, Windows
automatically installs a driver for that device. Drivers allow your computer to
communicate with hardware devices; without one, a USB device that you connect
to your computer—for example, a mouse or a webcam—won't work properly.
Before installing a device
Check the instructions that came with the device to see if you need to install a
driver before connecting the device. Although Windows usually does this
automatically after you connect a new device, some devices require that you
install drivers manually. In those cases, the device manufacturer includes a
software disc and instructions on installing the driver before plugging in the
device.
If your USB device came with software from the manufacturer, check to see if it's
compatible with this version of Windows. If it's not compatible, or doesn't say
which versions of Windows it's designed for, try plugging the device in first to see
if Windows can find a compatible driver.
If the instructions that came with your device contradict the information in this
topic, follow those instructions.
Plugging in and turning on a device
Most USB devices that have power switches should be turned on before you
connect them. If your device uses a power cord, connect the device to a power
source. Then, turn it on before connecting it. Next, determine which USB port you
want to connect your device to. If your computer has USB ports on the front,
consider using one of those if you plan to frequently connect and disconnect the
device. (You can use any port the next time you plug in the
device.)
Plug the device into the USB port. If Windows can find and install the device
driver automatically, you'll be notified that the device is ready to use. Otherwise,
you'll be prompted to insert a disc containing the driver.
Windows will notify you when it finishes successfully installing a device
After installation is complete, check the information that came with your device to
see if you need to install any additional software.
Occasionally, a USB device isn't recognized by Windows and doesn't come with
a disc containing a driver. In that case, you can try to find a device driver online.
Start by checking the website of the device manufacturer—you can often
download drivers from the "Support" section of such sites.
Notes
·
When connecting a device to a USB port on a USB hub, monitor, or other
device that's plugged into your computer, make sure that the USB port has
enough power to support your device. Smaller devices, such as USB flash
drives and mice—and devices with their own power cords, such as
printers—typically work properly when connected to an unpowered USB
hub. Some devices that use more power, such as USB-powered scanners
and web cameras, require a hub that has its own power cord to function
properly. If a device doesn't work properly when connected to a hub, try
connecting it directly to one of your computer's USB ports.
·
Devices that transfer large amounts of information, such as external hard
disks, scanners, and video cameras, function best when connected to
high-speed USB 2.0 ports. Some older computers might include only USB
1.x ports, or a mix of USB 1.x and 2.0 ports. If your device requires a highspeed port to function properly, check the information that came with your
computer to make sure that theport you're using supports USB 2.0. If your
computer includes only USB 1.x ports, you can add USB 2.0 ports by
installing a USB 2.0 card inside your computer.
Disconnecting a device
Most USB devices can be removed and unplugged. When unplugging storage
devices, such as USB flash drives, make sure that the computer has finished
saving any information to the device before removing it. If the device has an
activity light, wait for a few seconds after the light has finished flashing before
unplugging it.
If you see the Safely Remove Hardware icon in the notification area on the right
side of the taskbar, you can use this as an indication that devices have finished
all operations in progress and are ready to be removed. Click the icon and you'll
see a list of devices. Click the device you want to remove. Windows will display a
notification telling you it's safe to remove the device.
Install a printer
There are several ways to connect a printer to your PC. Which option you choose
depends on the device itself, and whether you're at home or at the office.
Always consult the information that came with your model for specific
instructions.
Local printers
The most common way to install a printer is to connect it directly to your
computer. This is known as a local printer.
If your printer is a universal serial bus (USB) model, Windows should
automatically detect and install it when you plug it in.
If it's an older model that connects using the serial or parallel port, you might
have to install it manually.
To install (add) a local printer
1.
2.
3.
4.
Click to open Devices and Printers.
Click Add a printer.
In the Add Printer wizard, click Add a local printer.
On the Choose a printer port page, make sure that the Use an existing
port button and the recommended printer port are selected, and then click
Next.
5. On the Install the printer driver page, select the printer manufacturer and
model, and then click Next.
o If your printer isn't listed, click Windows Update, and then wait while
Windows checks for additional drivers.
o If none are available and you have the installation CD, click Have
Disk, and then browse to the folder where the printer driver is
located. (For additional help, consult the printer manual.)
6. Complete the additional steps in the wizard, and then click Finish.
Tips
o
You can print a test page to make sure the printer is working
correctly. See Print a test page. If you've installed the printer
but it doesn't work, check the manufacturer's website for
troubleshooting information or driver updates.
Network printers
In the workplace, many printers are network printers. These connect directly to a
network as a stand-alone device. Inexpensive network printers are also made for
the home. To learn more, see Install a printer on a home network.
To install a network, wireless, or Bluetooth printer
If you're trying to add a network printer at the office, you'll usually need the
name of the printer. If you can't find it, contact your network administrator.
1.
open Devices and Printers.
2. Click Add a printer.
3. In the Add Printer wizard, click Add a network, wireless or Bluetooth
printer.
4. In the list of available printers, select the one you want to use, and then
click Next.
5. If prompted, install the printer driver on your computer by clicking Install
driver.
6. Complete the additional steps in the wizard, and then click Finish.
Removing a printer
If you'll no longer be using a printer, you can remove it from the Devices and
Printers folder.
1. Open Devices and Printers.
2. Right-click the printer that you want to remove, click Remove device, and
then click Yes.
If you can't delete the printer, right-click it again, click Run as
administrator, click Remove device, and then click Yes.
Notes
o
o
If you have a multi-function or all-in-one printer, you can often
remove the printer from Devices and Printers without affecting other
device functions. So, for example, you might continue to see a
scanner or fax icon for the device.
You can't uninstall a printer if you have unfinished jobs in your print
queue. Either delete the jobs, or wait until Windows has finished
printing them. Once the queue is clear, Windows will remove the
printer.
What to do when a device isn't installed properly
When you connect a new device to your computer, Windows automatically tries
to install it for you and will notify you if a driver for the device can't be found.
There are several things you can try if this happens:
Make sure your computer is connected to the Internet and automatic
updating is turned onYour computer must be connected to the Internet for
Windows to be able to search online for a device driver. To see if your computer
is connected to the Internet, open your web browser and try accessing a website.
If you're temporarily disconnected, such as when you're traveling with a laptop,
wait until you're online again, and then try reinstalling your device.
Windows can't check for the latest drivers unless automatic updating is turned
on. Most people turn on automatic updating the first time they use Windows, but
if you're not sure you did, you should check to make sure it's turned on. Be sure
to select the option to include recommended updates, or Windows will install
important updates only. Important updates provide significant benefits, such as
improved security and reliability, but recommended updates might include drivers
for some of your devices
Manually check for drivers on Windows Update
If you didn't have automatic updating turned on, or you weren't connected to the
Internet when you connected a new device to your computer, you should check
to see if Windows can now find a driver for your device. Even if your computer is
always connected to the Internet, you should still check Windows Updates for
optional updates if some of your hardware isn't working properly. Optional
updates often contain new driver updates. Windows Update does not install
optional updates automatically, but it will notify you when it finds some and let
you choose whether to install them.
Install software for the device
If Windows Update can't find a driver for your device, try checking the
manufacturer's website for a driver or other software for the device. If your device
came with a software disc, that disc might contain software needed to make your
device work properly, but first check the manufacturer's website for the latest
software and drivers.
If you don't find any new software or drivers for your device on the manufacturer's
website, try inserting the disc that came with the device, and then follow the
instructions for installing the software.
Note
·
Many drivers come with software that installs the driver for you (often
called a self-installing package), but you might have to install some drivers
manually as well.
If your device still doesn't work properly after trying these suggestions, a driver
might not be available for your device. In this case, try contacting the device
manufacturer.
Install, view, and manage your devices
When you want to see all the devices connected to your computer, use one of
them, or troubleshoot one that isn't working properly, open the Devices and
Printers folder.
To open the Devices and Printers folder
open Devices and Printers in control panel
Devices displayed in the Devices and Printers folder are typically external
devices you can connect to or disconnect from your computer through a port or
network connection. Your computer is also displayed.
Devices listed include:
·
·
·
·
·
·
Portable devices you carry with you and occasionally connect to your
computer, such as mobile phones, portable music players, and digital
cameras.
All devices you plug into a USB port on your computer, including external
USB hard drives, flash drives, webcams, keyboards, and mice.
All printers connected to your computer, which include printers connected
by USB cable, the network, or wirelessly.
Wireless devices connected to your computer, including Bluetooth devices
and Wireless USB devices.
Your computer.
Compatible network devices connected to your computer, such as
network-enabled scanners, media extenders, or Network Attached
Storage devices (NAS devices).
The Devices and Printers folder allows you to perform many tasks, which vary
depending on the device. Here are the main tasks you can do:
·
·
·
·
·
Add a new wireless or network device or printer to your computer.
View all the external devices and printers connected to your computer.
Check to see if a specific device is working properly.
View information about your devices, such as make, model, and
manufacturer, including detailed information about the sync capabilities of
a mobile phone or other mobile device.
Perform tasks with a device.
When you right-click a device icon in the Devices and Printers folder, you
can select from a list of tasks that vary depending on the capabilities of the
device. For example, you might be able to see what's printing on a
network printer, view files stored on a USB flash drive, or open a program
from the device manufacturer. For mobile devices that support the new
Device Stage feature in Windows, you can also open advanced, devicespecific features in Windows from the right-click menu, such as the ability
to sync with a mobile phone or change ringtones.
·
Take steps to fix devices that aren't working properly.
o Troubleshoot a device with a problemRight-click a device or
computer with the yellow warning icon, click Troubleshoot, wait
while the troubleshooter tries to detect problems (this may take
several minutes), and then follow the instructions.
11. INSTALLING AND UNINSTALLING THE SOFTWARE
AND TROUBLESHOOTING MALFUNCTIONS OF
SOFTWARE INSTALLATIONS
You can do a lot with the programs and features included in Windows, but you'll
probably want to install other programs.
How you add a program depends on where the installation files for the program
are located. Typically, programs are installed from a CD or DVD, from the
Internet, or from a network. If you want to uninstall or make changes to a
program already installed on your computer, see Uninstall or change a program.
To install a program from a CD or DVD
Insert the disc into your computer and follow the instructions on your screen.
Many programs installed from CDs or DVDs launch an installation wizard for the
program automatically. In these cases, the AutoPlay dialog box will appear and
you can choose to run the wizard.
If a program doesn't begin to install, check the information that came with the
program. This information will likely provide instructions for installing the program
manually. If you cannot access the information, you can also browse through the
disc and open the program setup file, usually called Setup.exe or Install.exe. If
your program was written for an earlier version of Windows, some older
programs might run poorly or not at all. If a program written for an earlier version
of Windows doesn't run correctly, you can try changing the compatibility settings
for the program, either manually or by using the Program Compatibility
troubleshooter.
Setting
Description
Runs the program using settings from a previous version of
Windows. Try this setting if you know the program is
Compatibility mode
designed for (or worked in) a specific previous version of
Windows.
Uses a limited set of colors in the program. Some older
Run in 256 colors
programs are designed to use fewer colors.
Runs the program in a smaller-sized window. Try this setting
Run in 640 × 480
if the graphical user interface appears jagged or is rendered
screen resolution
improperly.
Disables themes on the program. Try this setting if you
Disable visual
notice problems with the menus or buttons on the title bar of
themes
the program.
Turns off transparency and other advanced display features.
Disable desktop
Choose this setting if window movement appears erratic or
composition
you notice other display problems.
Turns off automatic resizing of programs if large-scale font
Disable display
size is in use. Try this setting if large-scale fonts are
scaling on high DPI interfering with the appearance of the program. For more
settings
information, see Make the text on your screen larger or
smaller.
Runs the program as an administrator. Some programs
require administrator privileges to run properly. If you are not
Privilege level
currently logged on as an administrator, this option is not
available.
Runs the program as an administrator. Some programs
require administrator privileges to run properly. If you are not
Privilege level
currently logged on as an administrator, this option is not
available.
Change settings
Lets you choose settings that will apply to all users on this
for all users
computer.
To install a program from the Internet
1. In your web browser, click the link to the program.
2. Do one of the following:
·
To install the program immediately, click Open or Run and follow the
instructions on your screen.
·
To install the program later, click Save and download the installation file to
your computer. When you are ready to install the program, double-click
the file and follow the instructions on your screen. This is a safer option
because you can scan the installation file for viruses before you proceed.
Note
o
When downloading and installing programs from the Internet, be sure you
trust the publisher of the program and the website that is offering the
program.
Uninstall or change a program
You can uninstall a program from your computer if you no longer use it or if you
want to free up space on your hard disk. You can use Programs and Features to
uninstall programs or to change a program's configuration by adding or removing
certain options.
1. Go to Control panel and open Programs and Features.
2. Select a program, and then click Uninstall. Some programs include the
option to change or repair the program in addition to uninstalling it, but
many simply offer the option to uninstall. To change a program, click
Change or Repair.
12. BACKUP AND RESTORATION PROCESS OF DATA IN A
SYSTEM
To help ensure that you don't lose your files, you should back them up regularly.
You can set up automatic backups or manually back up your files at any time.
1. Open Backup and Restore in the control panel
2. Do one of the following:
3. If you have never used Windows Backup before, click Set up backup, and
then follow the steps in the wizard.
If you have created a backup before, you can wait for your
regularly scheduled backup to occur, or you can manually create a
new backup by clicking Back up now. Note
·
It is recommended that you don't back up your files to the same hard disk
that Windows is installed on.
·
Always store media used for backups (external hard disks, DVDs, or CDs) in
a secure place to prevent unauthorized people from having access to your
files; we recommend a fireproof location separate from your computer. You
might also consider encrypting the data on your backup.
To create a new, full backup
After you create your first backup, Windows Backup will add new or
changed information to your subsequent backups. If you're saving your
backups on a hard drive or network location, Windows Backup will create
a new, full backup for you automatically when needed. If you're saving
your backups on CDs or DVDs and can't find an existing backup disc, or if
you want to create a new backup of all of the files on your computer, you
can create a full backup. Here's how to create a full backup:
1. Open Backup and Restore in the control panel
2. In the left pane, click Create new, full backup.
Note: You will only see this option if your backup is being
saved on CDs or DVDs.
To set up backup after upgrading from a previous version of
Windows
After you upgrade Windows, you will need to set up Windows Backup, even if
you had a scheduled backup in the previous version of Windows. This is because
there are several changes to the backup program. Instead of selecting file types
to back up, you can have Windows back up data files saved in libraries, on the
desktop, and in default Windows folders, or you can choose specific libraries and
folders to be backed up. You can also create a system image of your computer.
Back up your programs, system settings, and files
You can create a system image, which contains a copy of Windows and copies of
your programs, system settings, and files. The system image is then stored in a
separate location from the original programs, settings, and files. You can use this
image to restore the contents of your computer if your hard disk or entire
computer ever stops working.
If you're using Windows Backup to back up your files, you can have a system
image created each time your files are backed up. By default, this system image
will only include the drives required for Windows to run. To include additional
drives in the system image or to create a system image manually, follow the
steps below.
1. Open Backup and Restore in the control panel
In the left pane, click Create a system image, and then follow the
steps in the wizard. Restore files from a backup
You can restore backed-up versions of files that are lost, damaged, or changed
accidentally. You can also restore individual files, groups of files, or all of the files
that you have backed up.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Open Backup and Restore in the control panel
To restore your files, click Restore my files.
To restore the files of all users, click Restore all users' files.
To browse the contents of the backup, click Browse for files or Browse for
folders.
5. When you are browsing for folders, you won't be able to see the individual
files in a folder. To view individual files, use the Browse for files option.
6. To search the contents of the backup, click Search, type all or part of a file
name, and then click Search.
Recover lost or deleted files
If you can't find a file on your computer or you accidently modified or deleted a
file, you can restore it from your backup (if you are using Windows backup) or
you can try to restore it from a previous version. Previous versions are copies of
files and folders that Windows automatically saves as part of a restore point.
Previous versions are sometimes referred to as shadow copies.
13. INSTALL OR REMOVE A SOUND CARD
Most new desktop computers come with a built-in sound card that you can
replace. If your computer doesn't have a sound card installed or you want to
upgrade the sound playback or recording capabilities of your computer, you can
install a sound card. Most laptops have built-in sound processing chips (also
called sound processors) but not internal sound cards. You can upgrade the
sound on a laptop by plugging an external sound device into a USB port or
external card slot, but this is rarely done. Sound processors can also be built into
desktop computers. You can't remove them, but to upgrade your sound, you can
usually install an internal sound card and turn off the sound processor.
Before installing a sound card, check the information that came with it. The
guidelines shown here are general, and the sound card documentation might
contain important information specific to installing that card. Also, be sure to
check the information that came with your computer to see if opening your
computer affects the computer's warranty coverage.
Before installing a sound card, you'll need the following:
·
·
·
The sound card you want to install
A Phillips screwdriver to open your computer, if needed
An empty PCI slot inside your computer, unless you plan to replace an
existing sound card (in which case you can put the new card into that slot)
If your sound card came with a CD, DVD, or other removable media, it might
contain a driver for your sound card. Hold on to that until Windows has finished
looking for and installing a driver. Windows does this automatically after you
install the sound card in your computer and turn the computer back on. If
Windows can't find a good driver for your sound card, then try installing the driver
that came with the sound card. Software from the manufacturer might also
include other programs for your sound card.
To open your computer case
1. Turn off your computer and unplug it from its power source. This is very
important. Installing a card in a computer that's plugged in could shock
you or damage the card and computer.
2. Open the computer case. Look on the computer cover (usually on the
back) for screws or clasps to undo the case. Computer documentation
typically includes instructions on how to open the case.
After opening the case, ground yourself by touching the metal
casing that surrounds the jack where the power cord plugs in. This
can help protect you from an electric shock and can help protect
the new card and existing computer components from static
electricity. To remove an existing sound card
If you have an existing internal sound card, you should remove it before
installing the new card. If your computer has a built-in sound processor,
you can proceed to the "To install your new sound card" section of this
topic.
1. Locate your sound card. If you're not certain which card is your sound
card, follow the wires from your speakers to the back of the card, and then
note which slot that card is in.
2. Unplug any speaker and microphone cables from the back of the sound
card.
3. If there's a cable inside your computer connecting the sound card to your
CD drive, disconnect it. Many newer computers don't have this cable, so if
it's not there, you can skip this step.
4. Remove any screw or hook holding your sound card in place.
5. Carefully pull the sound card straight out of the slot. Be careful not to twist
or bend the card as you remove it.
Note
The card might need one or two gentle up-and-down nudges to come loose.
Even if you're throwing away the old sound card, use caution when removing it to
avoid damaging the motherboard. If it seems stuck, it's better to spend a few
extra minutes tugging gently than to rip the card out too quickly.
6. If you're not installing a new sound card, install a slot cover if you have
one, and replace the screw. Then, close the computer case and replace
any screws you removed when opening the case.
To install your new sound card
1. Locate an empty expansion slot in the computer that will accept your new
sound card.
If your computer doesn't have an empty slot, you'll have to remove another
card before you can install the new one. If you removed an existing sound
card, you can use the same slot if your new card uses the same type of
expansion slot. Check your computer's documentation if you need to
determine the types of expansion slots it has available.
2. Gently place the sound card on top of the slot. Line up the pins on the
sound card with the slot and push the card gently down so that it sits in the
slot. Be sure that the card is pushed all the way in and that it's secure. If
the pins on the card aren't perfectly aligned with the pins in the expansion
slot, the card won't work properly.
3. If your computer has an audio cable that connects the CD drive directly to
the sound card, plug it into the card. Check the information that came with
your sound card to determine the location of the CD audio connector on
the card. This cable is rarely necessary with current audio hardware, and
in most cases, plugging it in is optional.
4. Screw the sound card to the frame. Don't bend the sound card or the
frame while tightening the screw. It might be best to tighten the screw
barely more than you can tighten it with your fingers.
5. Close the computer case and replace any screws you removed when
opening the case. Plug your speakers into your new sound card and, if
applicable, plug your microphone in too.
6. Plug your computer back into its power source and then turn it on.
Windows will install the necessary drivers for your new sound card. If your
sound card came with a disc containing software, install that now. Check
the information that came with your sound card for the installation steps.
14.INSTALL OR REMOVE A MODEM
Usually, Windows will find, and then automatically install, the necessary drivers
when you install a modem. However, if Windows can't find or install the correct
driver, you might need to install the modem manually.
To manually install a modem
1. Open Phone and Modem option in the control panel menu.You might
need to provide information, such as your country or region and any
special phone dialing rules, in the Location Information dialog box before
you can access the Phone and Modem dialog box.
2. Click the Modems tab.
3. Click Add, and then follow the instructions in the Add Hardware Wizard.
To remove a modem
If Windows automatically installs the wrong driver, or if you have problems
with your modem, you can remove it.
1. Open Phone and Modem option in the control panel menu.
2. Click the Modems tab.
Select the modem you want to remove, and then click Remove.
Change modem settings
You can change modem settings, such as the speaker volume.
1. Open Phone and Modem option in the control panel menu
2. Click the Modems tab.
3. Select the modem you want to change the settings for, and then click
Properties.
4. Change the settings you want, and then click OK.
Set up a broadband (DSL or cable) connection
To set up a Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) or cable connection, you first need an
account with an Internet service provider (ISP). For DSL, the ISP is usually a
phone company; for cable, it's usually a cable TV provider.
You will also need a modem, a router, or a device that combines the two. Some
ISPs will provide you with these devices; if your ISP doesn't, you'll need to buy
them. When you have your modem, router, or combination device, either follow
the instructions provided by your ISP, or follow the corresponding steps below.
To setup a combined modem and router
1. Plug the device into an electrical outlet.
2. Plug one end of a phone cord or cable into the wide area network (WAN)
port of the device, and then plug the other end into the wall jack. The WAN
port should be labeled "WAN." (DSL users: Don't use a DSL filter on the
phone line.)
3. Plug one end of an Ethernet cable into the local area network (LAN) port
on the device, and then plug the other end into the networking port of the
computer that you want to connect to the Internet. The LAN port should be
labeled "LAN." (If you are connecting wirelessly, skip this step.)
4. Start (or restart) the computer.
5. In the Control Panel, Open connections and Internet .Then open the
Connect to the Internet wizard.
6. Follow the steps in the wizard.
Too setup a separate modem and router
1. Plug the modem into an electrical outlet. Plug one end of a phone cord or
cable into the modem, and plug the other end into the wall jack. (DSL
users: Don't use a DSL filter on the phone line.)
2. Plug one end of an Ethernet cable into the modem, and plug the other end
into the wide area network (WAN) port on the router.
3. Plug the router into an electrical outlet.
4. Plug one end of an Ethernet cable into the local area network (LAN) port
on the router, and plug the other end into the networking port on the
computer that you want to connect to the Internet. (If you are connecting
wirelessly, skip this step.)
5. Start (or restart) the computer.
6. In the Control Panel, Open connections and Internet .Then open the
Connect to the Internet wizard.
7. Follow the steps in the wizard.
TROUBLESHOOTING CONNECTION PROBLEMS:
Internet connection problems are most commonly caused by disconnected
cables or by routers or modems that are not operating properly. First, try these
steps:
1. If you haven't already done so, run the Network troubleshooter to see if it
can help diagnose and solve your problem .Click on Control panel ,in that
open connections and Internet open the Network troubleshooter.
2. Make sure that all cables are connected (for example, make sure your
modem is connected to a working phone jack or cable connection, either
directly or through a router).
Restart your modem, and then restart your router. Remove the power
cable from the modem and router. After all lights on the device have gone
out, wait at least 10 seconds, and then plug the modem and router back
in. Some modems have a battery backup that prevents the lights from
going out. For this type of modem, press and quickly release the Reset
button.
Problem: The
system can't connect to the Internet
through a broadband Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) or
cable connection
Try these things:
·
·
Make sure that your modem is turned on.
Check to see that the Ethernet cable is plugged correctly into the Ethernet
port on the modem and on your computer. Each end of an Ethernet cable
looks like this:
·
Verify that you are not using a DSL filter between the phone jack and the
modem.
Check the lights on your modem. These can sometimes indicate the
location of the problem—whether it is the Ethernet connection, the power
to the modem, or the DSL or cable connection.
·
·
·
·
Winsock corruption can cause connectivity problems. To fix this, open the
Network troubleshooter
Ask your Internet service provider (ISP) to verify that its servers are
functioning correctly and that you have an ISP user account and access to
the ISP service.
If you have recently replaced your router or modem, ask your ISP if it uses
MAC address filtering. If so, your ISP must add your new device to the list
of devices that can access the network.
Problem: the system can't connect to the Internet through a dial-up
connection, or system being disconnected
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
Try these things: Make sure that you are dialing the correct number,
including any required access numbers (such as 9), and that the number
is not busy.
Make sure that the phone jack is working. To test this, plug in a working
phone and see if there is a dial tone.
Make sure that the phone cable is plugged into the "line" jack on your
modem, not the "telephone" jack.
Make sure that the phone cable is not defective by plugging a working
phone into the "telephone" jack of your modem. If there is a dial tone, the
phone cable is working.
If you have call waiting, try disabling it, and then try the connection again.
Your ISP might have disconnected you if you weren't interacting with the
website for a while. Try connecting again.
If someone picked up the phone while you were online, you might have
been automatically disconnected. Try connecting again.
Most dial-up modems work only with analog phone lines. Verify that you
have analog phone lines installed, or, if you have digital phone lines
installed, verify that your computer has a digital modem.
Make sure that your modem is working properly. For more information,
check the information that came with your modem or go to the
manufacturer's website.
Contact your telephone company to verify the quality of your line.
If your computer has two network connections, the networking software
must choose which connection to use for network traffic. The networking
software picks the connection with the best performance. If connection A
has Internet connectivity but slow performance and connection B has no
Internet connectivity but better local network performance, the networking
software will route network traffic over connection B. This means that you
won't be able to view websites, so the networking icon and the network
diagram in Network and Sharing Center will report that you only have local
connectivity (no Internet). This is correct, but it's not what you want. To
force your computer to use connection A—the connection with Internet
connectivity—disconnect connection B and try again.
15. SETTING UP A WIRELESS NETWORK
Hubs, switches, routers, and access points are all
used to connect computers together on a
network, but each of them has different
capabilities. Hubs
Hubs enable computers on a network to communicate. Each computer plugs into
the hub with an Ethernet cable, and information sent from one computer to
another passes through the hub. A hub can't identify the source or intended
destination of the information it receives, so it sends the information to all of the
computers connected to it, including the one that sent it. A hub can send or
receive information, but it can't do both at the same time. This makes hubs
slower than switches. Hubs are the least complex and the least expensive of
these devices.
Switches
Switches work the same way as hubs, but they can identify the intended
destination of the information that they receive, so they send that information to
only the computers that are supposed to receive it. Switches can send and
receive information at the same time, so they can send information faster than
hubs can. If your home network has four or more computers or you want to use
your network for activities that require passing a lot of information between
computers (such as playing network games or sharing music), you should
probably use a switch instead of a hub. Switches cost a little more than hubs.
Routers
Routers enable computers to communicate and they can pass information
between two networks—such as between your home network and the Internet.
This capability to direct network traffic is what gives the router its name. Routers
can be wired (using Ethernet cables) or wireless. If you just want to connect your
computers, hubs and switches work well; however, if you want to give all of your
computers access to theInternet using one modem, use a router or a modem with
a built-in router. Routers also typically provide built-in security, such as a firewall.
Routers are more expensive than hubs and switches.
Access points
Access points (also called base stations) provide wireless access to a wired Ethernet
network. An access point plugs into a hub, switch, or wired router and sends out wireless
signals. This enables computers and devices to connect to a wired network wirelessly.
Access points act a lot like cellular phone towers: you can move from one location to
another and continue to have wireless access to a network. When you connect to the
Internet wirelessly using a public wireless network in an airport, coffee shop, or hotel,
you are usually connecting through an access point. If you want to connect your
computers wirelessly and you have a router that provides wireless capability, you don't
need an access point. Access points don't have built-in technology for sharing Internet
connections. To share an Internet connection, you must plug an access point into a
router or a modem with a built-in router.
............
The using software is free version, you can upgrade it to the
upgrade version.http://www.allofficetool.com
Before you can set up your wireless network, you'll need the following items:
Broadband Internet connection and modem
A broadband Internet connection is a high-speed Internet connection—in contrast
to a dial-up connection, which is slower and not powerful enough to support a
wireless network. Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) and cable are two of the most
common broadband connections. You can get a broadband connection by
contacting an Internet service provider (ISP). Typically, ISPs that provide DSL
are telephone companies and ISPs that provide cable are cable TV companies.
ISPs often offer broadband modems and might even install it for you. Some ISPs
also offer combination modem/wireless routers. You can also find these at
computer or electronics stores.
Wireless router
A router sends information between your network and the Internet. With a
wireless router, you can connect computers to your network using radio signals
instead of wires. There are a few different types of wireless network technologies,
including 802.11a, 802.11b, and 802.11g. We recommend using a router that
supports 802.11g because it is fast and provides a strong wireless signal.
Wireless network adapters
A network adapter is a device that connects your computer to a network. To
connect your laptop or desktop computer to your wireless network, the computer
must have a wireless network adapter. Most laptops—and many desktop
computers—come with a wireless network adapter already installed. To check if
your computer has a wireless network adapter, follow these steps:
1. open Device Manager in Control panel options
2. Double-click Network adapters.
3. Look for a network adapter that includes "wireless" in the name.
If your computer needs a wireless network adapter, you can purchase one from a
computer or electronics store and install it yourself. The universal serial bus (USB) type
are a nice choice because they are small, easy to install, and they can be moved around
to different computers. Make sure you get the same type of adapters as your wireless
router. The type of adapter is usually marked on the package, typically with a letter, such
as G or A.
Setting up the modem and Internet connection
Once you have all of the equipment, you'll need to set up your modem and
Internet connection. If your modem wasn't set up for you by your Internet service
provider (ISP), follow the instructions that came with your modem to connect it to
your computer and the Internet. If you're using Digital Subscriber Line (DSL),
connect your modem to a phone jack. If you are using cable, connect your
modem to a cable jack.
Positioning the wireless router
Put your wireless router somewhere where it will receive the strongest signal with
the least amount of interference. For the best results, follow these tips:
·
·
·
Position your wireless router in a central location. Place the router as close
to the center of your home as possible to increase the strength of the
wireless signal throughout your home.
Position the wireless router off of the floor and away from walls and metal
objects, such as metal file cabinets. The fewer physical obstructions
between your computer and the router's signal, the more likely that you'll
be using the router's full signal strength.
Reduce interference. 802.11g networking equipment uses a 2.4 gigahertz
(GHz) radio frequency. This is the same frequency as most microwaves
and many cordless phones. If you turn on the microwave or get a call on a
cordless phone, your wireless signal might be temporarily interrupted. You
can avoid most of these issues by using a cordless phone with a higher
frequency, such as 5.8 GHz.
Securing your wireless network
Security is always important; with a wireless network, it's even more important
because your network's signal could go beyond the boundaries of your home. If
you don't secure your network, people with computers nearby might be able to
access the information stored on your network computers and use your Internet
connection to get onto the web. To help secure your network, do the following:
·
·
Protect your router by changing the default user name and password.
Most router manufacturers have a default user name and password on the
router as well as a default network name. Someone could use this
information to access your router without you knowing it. To avoid that
risk, change the default user name and password for your router. Check
the information that came with your device for instructions.
Set up a security key for your network. Just as file cabinets have keys and
safes have combinations, wireless networks have a network security key
to help protect them from unauthorized access. To set up a network
security key, follow these steps:
1. open Network and Sharing Center in connection settings of control
panel
2. Click Set up a new connection or network.
3. Click Set up a new network, and then click Next.
The wizard will walk you through creating a network name and a security
key. If your router will support it, the wizard will default to Wi-Fi Protected
Access (WPA or WPA2) security. We recommend that you use WPA2, if
possible, because it offers better security than WPA or Wired Equivalent
Privacy (WEP) security. With WPA2 or WPA you can also use a
passphrase, so you don’t have to remember a cryptic sequence of letters
and numbers.
·
·
Write down your security key and keep it in a safe place. You can also
save your security key on a USB flash drive by following the instructions in
the wizard.
Use a firewall. A firewall is hardware or software that can help protect your
computer from hackers or malicious software. Running a firewall on each
computer on your network can help control the spread of malicious
software on your network, as well as help to protect your computers when
you're accessing the Internet.
Adding computers to your network
To connect your laptop or desktop computer to your wireless network, follow
these steps:
1. Open Connect to a Network.
2. In the list of networks, click the network that you want to connect to, and
then click Connect.
3. Enter the security key. You can either type in the key or insert a USB flash
drive that contains the security key into a USB port on the computer.
Sharing files and printers
Most people have a wireless network so they can access the Internet from any
room in the house, but they also want the freedom of accessing files and printers
wirelessly.
Sharing files
The easiest way to share files on your network is to set up sharing with a
homegroup. If you don't have a homegroup, you can share files by placing them
in one of the Public folders. Any file or folder you put in a Public folder is
automatically shared with the people connected to your network. To turn on
Public folder sharing, follow these steps:
1. open Advanced sharing settings.
2. Click the chevron to expand the current network profile.
3. Under Public folder sharing, click one of the following options:
o Turn on sharing so anyone with network access can read and write
files in the Public folders
o Turn off Public folder sharing (people logged on to this computer
can still access these folders)
4. Click Save changes. If you are prompted for an administrator password or
confirmation, type the password or provide confirmation.
You will need to repeat the previous steps on each computer that you
want to share files from.
To share your files, save them or copy them to a Public folder on your
computer. There is a Public folder for each type of library (Documents,
Music, Videos, and Pictures). Every person with a user account on the
computer shares these folders. For example, to open the Public
Documents folder:
1. Open the Documents library.
2. In the navigation pane, under Libraries, double-click
Documents, and then double-click Public Documents.
Sharing a printer
If you have a printer attached to one of your computers, you can print to it from
any computer connected to your wireless network. The easiest way to share a
printer is to select the Printers check box when you set up your homegroup. If
you don't have a homegroup, you can follow these steps:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Log on to the computer that has the printer attached to it.
open Advanced sharing settings.
Click the chevron to expand the current network profile.
Under File and printer sharing, click Turn on file and printer sharing, and
then click Save changes. If you are prompted for an administrator
password or confirmation, type the password or provide confirmation.
Note
o
If you have password-protected sharing turned on, people will need
a user account with a password on your computer to access your
printer.
To access the printer from any computer on the network, follow these steps:
1. Open Network option.
2. Double-click the icon for the computer that has the printer attached to it.
3. Double-click the icon for the printer. Windows will automatically add the
printer to your computer and install the printer driver.
16. SHARING ONE INTERNET CONNECTION AMONG SEVERAL
COMPUTERS
Internet connection methods
If you want to connect to the Internet, here are the options.
Wireless
Choose this if you have a wireless router or network, even if you also have a
broadband connection. Also choose this if you're connecting to a hotspot.
Broadband (PPPoE)
Choose this if your computer is connected directly to a broadband modem (also
called a Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) or cable modem), and you have a Point-toPoint Protocol over Ethernet (PPPoE) Internet account. With this type of account,
you need to provide a user name and password to connect
Dial-up
Choose this if you have a modem but it's not a DSL or cable modem, or if you
want to use Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) to connect your computer
to the Internet.
Sharing one Internet connection among all the computers on your home network
saves time because you have to set up only one connection. And it saves money
because you don't have to buy an individual Internet account for each computer.
SHARING INTERNET COLNNECTION AMONG DIFFERENT COMPUTERS:
There are two ways to set up Internet connection sharing: by using a router, or by
using Internet Connection Sharing (ICS).
Using a router
Each computer connects to a router (sometimes called an Internet gateway
device). The router, which can be wired or wireless, connects to a broadband
(DSL or cable) modem, and the modem connects to the Internet. The router and
modem can also be purchased as a single device.
Make sure your router has a built-in firewall. A firewall can help stop unwanted
connections to your network from the Internet.
Using ICS
One computer on the network is designated as the host computer. The host
computer connects to the Internet and the other network computers share that
Internet connection. This method is a bit less convenient because it requires the
host computer to be turned on all the time. However, it's the best method if you
have a dial-up Internet connection, or if you use a modem with a USB
connection.
Note:
·
If you share your Internet connection by setting up an ad hoc network, the
connection is shared only for that session. When you restart your
computer, the connection will no longer be shared.
·
If you set up an ad hoc network and share your Internet connection, and
then someone logs on to the same computer by using Fast User
Switching, the Internet connection will still be shared. Only restarting the
computer will end the Internet connection sharing.
17. Study on Antivirus and Antispyware
What is a virus?
A virus is a program that replicates itself. It spreads by making copies of itself on
a computer or by inserting computer code into program or operating system files.
Viruses don't always damage files or computers, but they usually affect a
computer's performance and stability. For a virus to infect a computer or to
spread, you usually have to do something, such as open an infected e-mail
attachment.
Virus damage can range from slowing computer performance to a loss of
information and programs. In the worst case, viruses delete or modify information
and programs on your computer. Some e-mail viruses send confidential
information in messages when spreading. Even when a virus is not directly
damaging information, the process of replication can slow your computer and
Internet connection.
Types of viruses
There are many type of viruses. Typical viruses are simply programs or scripts
that will do various damage to your computer, such as corrupting files, copying
itself into files, slowly deleting all your hard drive etc. This depends on the virus.
Most viruses also mail themselves to other people in the address book. This way
they spread really fast and appear at others' inboxes as too many people still fall
for these. Most viruses will try to convince you to open the attachment, but I have
never got one that tricked me. In fact, I found myself emailing people just to make
sure they really did send me something. It does not hurt to be safe.
Worms
Worms are different type of viruses, but the same idea, but they are usually
designed to copy themselves a lot over a network and usually try to eat up as
much bandwidth as possible by sending commands to servers to try to get in.
The code red worm is a good example of this. This worm breaks in a security
hole in Microsoft IIS (Internet Information Server) in which is a badly coded http
server that, despite the security risks, a lot of people use it. When the worm
successfully gets in, it will try to go into other servers from there.
Trojans
Trojans are another type of virus. They are simply like a server in which enables
hackers to get into and control the computer. A trojan such as Subseven can
enable a hacker to do various things such as control the mouse, eject the cd-rom
drive, delete/download/upload files and much more.
MBR viruses
Boot sector viruses are another type, they are similar to file viruses, but instead
they go in the boot sector and can cause serious damage when the computer is
booted, some can easily format your drive simply by booting your computer.
These are hard to remove.
Most viruses have various characteristics. For example, a worm can also be a
trojan and also infect the boot sector. It all depends on how the virus is written
and what it is designed to do. That's why there are not really strong structured
categories, as they can easily mix one in the other.
IDENTIFYING A VIRUS ATTACK
If you can answer "yes" to any of the following questions, your computer might
have a virus.
Is your computer running very slowly? A common symptom of a virus is much
slower than normal computer performance. However, there can be other reasons
for slow performance, including a hard disk that needs defragmenting, a
computer that needs more memory (RAM), or the existence of spyware or
adware. For more information about spyware, see How to tell if your computer is
infected with spyware.
Are you getting unexpected messages, or are programs starting automatically?
Some viruses can cause damage to Windows or some of your programs. The
results of this damage might include messages appearing unexpectedly,
programs starting or closing automatically, or Windows shutting down suddenly.
Is your modem or hard disk working overtime? An e-mail virus works by sending
many copies of itself by e-mail. One indicator of this is that the activity light on
your broadband or external modem is constantly lit; another is the sound of your
computer's hard disk continually working. These are not always symptoms of a
computer virus, but when combined with other problems, can indicate a virus
infection.
Methods to protect computer from viruses
·
Install an antivirus program. Installing an antivirus program and keeping it
up-to-date can help defend your computer against viruses. Antivirus
programs scan for viruses trying to get into your e-mail, operating system,
or files. New viruses appear daily, so check the antivirus manufacturer's
·
·
website frequently for updates. Most antivirus programs are sold with
annual subscriptions, that can be renewed as needed. To find an antivirus
scanner, visit the Windows Security software providers webpage.
Do not open e-mail attachments. Many viruses are attached to e-mail
messages and will spread as soon as you open the e-mail attachment. It's
best not to open any attachment unless it is something you are expecting.
Microsoft Outlook and Windows Mail help block potentially dangerous
attachments.
Keep Windows updated. Periodically, Microsoft releases special security
updates that can help protect your computer. These updates can help
prevent viruses and other computer attacks by closing possible security
holes. Make sure that Windows receives these updates by turning on
Windows automatic updating. Use a firewall. Windows Firewall or any
other firewall program can help alert you to suspicious activity if a virus or
worm attempts to connect to your computer. It can also block viruses,
worms, and hackers from attempting to download potentially harmful
programs to your computer.
REMOVAL OF A VIRUS FROM THE COMPUTER:
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·
·
Keep your antivirus program up to date. If you have already installed an
antivirus program on your computer, it's important that you keep it up to
date. Because new viruses are being written all the time, most antivirus
programs are updated frequently. Check your antivirus program's
documentation or visit their website to learn how to receive updates. Be
aware that some viruses block common antivirus websites, making it so
you cannot go to the website to download antivirus updates. If this
happens, check with your antivirus vendor to see if they have a disc you
can use to install the latest updates. It might be possible for you to create
this disc on a computer that is not infected (for example, on a friend's
computer)..
Use the Malicious Software Removal Tool. Microsoft offers the Malicious
Software Removal Tool, The tool scans your computer for most new
viruses and malicious software. After you run the tool, you will get a report
that describes any malicious software found on your computer and lists all
the viruses it scanned for.
Stop a runaway virus. Viruses are often created specifically to take control
of your computer and send copies of themselves from your computer to
other computers. You can usually tell this is happening if your computer is
performing slowly and accessing the network more frequently than normal.
If this is happening, you should disconnect from the Internet and network
(if you're on one). If you are connected to the Internet through a physical
connection, disconnect the network or phone cable from your computer. If
you're connected to the Internet through a wireless connection on a
laptop, turn off the wireless adapter on the computer (either by turning off
a switch or removing your wireless adapter card). Once your computer is
·
·
·
disconnected from the Internet, run your antivirus software (from a disc or
software on your computer) to remove the virus.
Manually remove viruses. Sometimes a virus must be removed manually.
This is often a technical process and should only be attempted by
computer users who have experience with the Windows registry and who
know how to view and delete system and program files in Windows.
The first step is to identify the virus. Run your antivirus software to identify
the name of the virus. If you don't have an antivirus program, or if your
program does not detect the virus, you can still identify the virus by looking
for clues about how it behaves. Write down the text in any messages
displayed by the virus or, if you received the virus in e-mail, write down the
subject line or name of the file attached to the message. Search the
antivirus vendor's website for references to those specific things you wrote
down to try to find the name of the virus and instructions for how to
remove it.
Once a virus is removed, you might have to reinstall some software, or restore
lost information. Doing regular backups can go a long way toward easing the pain
of a virus attack.
Protection Methods
These are ways to help protect your computer against potential security threats:
·
·
·
·
Firewall. A firewall can help protect your computer by preventing hackers
or malicious software from gaining access to it.
Windows Update. Windows can routinely check for updates for your
computer and install them automatically.
Virus protection. Antivirus software can help protect your computer against
viruses, worms, and other security threats.
Spyware and other malware protection. Antispyware software can help
protect your computer from spyware and other potentially unwanted
software.
18. Study on Security issues over Networks and On-line
The security settings in Internet Explorer can help block potentially unsafe web
content. We recommend that you maintain security levels at or above the
recommended levels when modifying or customizing your settings.
A website might not be trustworthy if:
·
·
·
·
·
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The site is referred to you through an e-mail message from someone you
don't know.
The site offers objectionable content, such as pornography or illegal
materials.
The site makes offers that seem too good to be true, indicating a possible
scam or the sale of illegal or pirated products.
You are lured to the site by a bait and switch scheme, in which the product
or service is not what you were expecting.
You are asked for a credit card as a verification of identity or for personal
information that does not seem necessary.
You are asked to provide a credit card number without proof that the
transaction is secure.
When to trust a website
Knowing when to trust a website depends in part on who publishes the website,
what information they want, and what you want from the site. If you're not sure
whether to trust a website, consider these questions:
Are you visiting a secure site?
Is the website certified by an Internet trust organization?
Is the website owned by a company or organization that you know well?
Does the website ask you for personal information?
On a retail website, is there a way to contact someone by phone or mail?
If you don't recognize the site, do you have other information to help you decide?
When to trust an e-mail message
E-mail is a great way to keep in touch with other people. Unfortunately, it can
also open your computer to security risks, computer viruses, and potentially
malicious software if you're not careful about the messages and attachments that
you open. Before opening any e-mail message or attachment, be sure that you
have an up-to-date antivirus program installed. The antivirus program should be
configured to scan messages as they arrive (real-time), and to scan all types of
file attachments.
Here are some questions you can ask yourself to help decide whether to open an
e-mail message or attachment.
Do you know the person who sent you the e-mail message?
Have you received e-mail from the sender before?
Were you expecting e-mail from this sender?
Does the subject line or attachment file name make sense?
When to trust a software publisher
A software publisher is a person or company that creates or packages software.
The publisher can be the website you are downloading a file from or a software
retailer. Before deciding to trust a software publisher, ask yourself the following
questions.
Is the software from a trusted source?
Do you need the software, and do you know what it does?
Does the software have a digital signature?
How do I know if a wireless network is secure?
There is no way to guarantee complete security on a wireless network. However,
there are precautions you can take to help minimize security risks when you use
a wireless network.
·
Whenever possible, only connect to wireless networks that require a
network security key or have some other form of security, such as a
certificate. The information sent over these networks is encrypted, which
can help protect your computer from unauthorized access. When you view
available wireless networks in Connect to a Network, wireless networks
that do not have security enabled will be identified with a yellow shield
icon.
·
Before you connect to a network provided by a wireless Internet service
provider (ISP), such as a public network in a coffee shop or airport, read
the privacy statement carefully and make sure that you understand which
·
files, if any, are saved to your computer and what type of information the
network provider collects from your computer.
If you connect to a network that's not secure, be aware that someone with
the right tools can see everything that you do, including the websites you
visit, the documents you work on, and the user names and passwords you
use. Make sure that you don't work on any company-sensitive information
or visit password-protected areas of your business network while you're
connected to that network.
Security zones: adding or removing websites
Internet Explorer assigns all websites to one of four security zones: Internet,
Local intranet, Trusted sites, or Restricted sites. The zone to which a website is
assigned specifies the security settings that are used for that site. You can
choose which websites to assign to the Intranet, Trusted, or Restricted zones. By
adding a website to a specific zone, you can control the level of security used on
that site. For example, if you have a list of websites that you visit and you
completely trust those sites, add those sites to the Trusted zone.
To add a website to a security zone
1.
2.
3.
4.
Open Internet Explorer.
Navigate to the website that you want to add to a specific security zone.
Click the Tools button, and then click Internet Options.
Click the Security tab, and then click a security zone (Local intranet,
Trusted sites, or Restricted sites).
5. Click Sites.
6. If you clicked Local intranet in step 4, click Advanced.
7. The website should be shown in the Add this website to the zone field.
Click Add.
If the site is not a secure site (HTTPS), clear the Require server
verification (https:) for all sites in this zone check box.
8. Click Close, and then click OK (or click OK twice if you clicked Local
intranet in step 4).
To remove a website from a security zone
1. Click to open Internet Explorer.
2. Click the Tools button, and then click Internet Options.
3. Click the Security tab, and then click a security zone (Local intranet,
Trusted sites, or Restricted sites).
4. Click Sites.
5. If you clicked Local intranet in step 3, click Advanced.
6. In Websites, click the website that you want to remove.
7. Click Remove.
8. Click Close, and then click OK (or click OK twice if you clicked Local
intranet in step 3).
19. SETTING UP Wi-Fi Network
Wireless networking
A network can be one computer connected to the Internet, or two or more
computers connected to each other (and possibly to the Internet as well). In a
wireless (Wi-Fi) network, the computers are connected by radio signals instead of
wires or cables. Advantages of wireless networks include mobility and the
absence of unsightly wires. Disadvantages can include a slower connection
speed than a wired network and interference from other wireless devices, such
as cordless phones.
Currently, there are four types of Wi-Fi: 802.11b, 802.11a, 802.11g, and 802.11n.
The tables below compare these technologies.
802.11b
Speed Up to 11 megabits per second (Mbps)
· Has good signal range
Pros
Cons
·
·
·
Has the slowest transmission speed
Allows for fewer simultaneous users
Uses the 2.4 gigahertz (GHz) frequency (the same as many
microwave ovens, cordless phones, and other appliances), which
can cause interference
802.11a
Speed Up to 54 Mbps
· Allows for more simultaneous users
· Uses the 5 GHz frequency, which limits interference from other
Pros
devices
·
Cons
·
Has a shorter signal range, which is more easily obstructed by
walls and other obstacles
Is not compatible with 802.11b network adapters, routers, and
access points
802.11g
Speed Up to 54 Mbps
· Has a transmission speed comparable to 802.11a under optimal
conditions
· Allows for more simultaneous users
· Has good signal range and isn't easily obstructed
Pros
· Is compatible with 802.11b network adapters, routers, and access
points
·
Cons
Uses the 2.4 GHz frequency so it has the same interference
problems as 802.11b
802.11n
Depending upon the number of data streams the hardware supports,
Speed 802.11n can transmit data at up to 150 Mbps, 300 Mbps, 450 Mbps, or
600 Mbps
· Has the fastest speed
· Uses multiple signals and antennas for better speed
· Allows for more simultaneous users
· Has the best signal range and isn't easily obstructed
Pros
· Is resistant to interference from other devices
· Can use either the 2.4 GHz or 5.0 GHz frequency
· If using 2.4 GHz frequency, it's compatible with 802.11g network
adapters, routers, and access points
·
Cons
·
If using the 2.4 GHz frequency, it can have the same interference
problems as 802.11b
This protocol is still being finalized, and some requirements could
change
In the list of available wireless networks, you'll see a symbol that shows the
wireless signal strength for each network. The more bars, the stronger the signal.
A strong signal (five bars) usually means that the wireless network is close or
there's no interference. For best performance, connect to the wireless network
with the strongest signal. However, if an unsecured network has a stronger signal
than a security-enabled one, it's safer for your data if you connect to the securityenabled network (but you must be an authorized user of that network to do so).
To improve the signal strength, you can move your computer closer to the
wireless router or access point, or move the router or access point so it's not
close to sources of interference, such as brick walls or walls that contain metal
support beams.
View and connect to available wireless networks
If you have a laptop, you can see a list of available wireless networks, and then
connect to one of those networks, no matter where you are. The wireless
networks appear only if your computer has a wireless network adapter and driver
installed and the adapter is enabled.
1. Click to open Connect to a Network.
2. In the list of available wireless networks, click a network, and then click
Connect.
Some networks require a network security key or passphrase. To connect
to one of those networks, ask the network administrator or the service
provider for the security key or passphrase.
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