Introducing Windows 8.1 for IT Professionals

Introducing Windows 8.1 for IT Professionals
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insights from award-winning journalist and Windows expert Ed
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deployment planning now.
Preview new features and enhanced capabilities,
including:
• The Windows 8.1 user experience
• Deployment tools and technologies
• Security features
• Internet Explorer 11
• Delivering Windows Store apps
• Recovery options
• Networking and remote access
• Virtualization
• Windows RT 8.1
• Managing mobile devices
Also see
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Contents
Introductionvii
Chapter 1 An overview of Windows 8.1
1
What is Windows 8.1? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Support for new device types
2
User experience
3
User accounts and synchronization
5
New apps
6
What’s new for IT pros?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Security enhancements
7
Deployment and migration
10
Manageability
11
Virtualization
11
Under the hood
22
Windows 8.1 installation and upgrade options. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Chapter 2 The Windows 8.1 user e
­ xperience
15
Introducing the Windows 8.1 user experience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
The Windows 8.1 desktop. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Customizing the Start screen. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Managing the user experience. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
What do you think of this book? We want to hear from you!
Microsoft is interested in hearing your feedback so we can continually improve our
books and learning resources for you. To participate in a brief online survey, please visit:
microsoft.com/learning/booksurvey
iii
Chapter 3 Deploying Windows 8.1
27
Windows 8.1 editions at a glance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Assessing compatibility. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Choosing a deployment strategy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Windows Assessment and Deployment Kit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Application Compatibility Toolkit (ACT)
34
Deployment and Imaging
34
Windows Preinstallation Environment
35
User State Migration Tool
35
Volume Activation Management Tool
37
Windows Performance Toolkit
37
Windows Assessment Toolkit
37
Windows Assessment Services
37
Microsoft Deployment Toolkit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Microsoft Deployment Toolkit 2013
38
System Center 2012 R2 Configuration Manager
39
Windows To Go. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Who should use Windows To Go
40
Preparation and requirements
41
Management and security
42
Windows To Go workspace creation
44
Chapter 4 Security in Windows 8.1
47
Assessing the threat landscape . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
New hardware, new security capabilities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Securing the boot process. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Securing the sign-in process. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Blocking malware. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
iv
Contents
Windows Defender
53
Internet Explorer 11
53
SmartScreen and phishing protection
55
Securing data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Pervasive device encryption
56
BitLocker Drive Encryption
56
Remote business data removal
57
Chapter 5 Internet Explorer 11
59
The two faces of Internet Explorer in Windows 8.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
What’s new in Internet Explorer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
Deploying and managing Internet Explorer 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
Dealing with compatibility issues. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
Chapter 6 Delivering Windows Store apps
69
What is a Windows Store app?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
How Windows Store apps work. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
Distributing a Windows Store app. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
Publishing an app to the Windows Store
74
Distributing apps within an enterprise
76
Managing Windows Store apps. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Chapter 7 Recovery options in ­Windows 8.1
85
Using Windows Recovery Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
Customizing Windows Recovery Environment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
Refresh and reset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
Refresh Your PC
93
Reset Your PC
93
Microsoft Diagnostics and Recovery Toolset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
Chapter 8 Windows 8.1 and networks
97
What’s new in Windows 8.1 networking?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
Mobile broadband support. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
Contents
v
Changes in the Wi-Fi user experience. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
Connecting to corporate networks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
VPN client improvements
101
BranchCache
102
DirectAccess
102
IPv6 Internet support. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
Chapter 9 Virtualization in Windows 8.1
105
Client Hyper-V. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
Desktop virtualization options. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
Application virtualization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
User Experience Virtualization (UE-V). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
Chapter 10 Windows RT 8.1
115
What Windows RT 8.1 can and can’t do. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
Office 2013 RT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
Connecting to corporate networks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
Access to data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
Chapter 11 Managing mobile devices
121
Mobile device management strategies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
System Center 2012 R2 Configuration Manager. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
Windows Intune . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
Workplace Join . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
Work Folders. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
Web Application Proxy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
Device lockdown (Assigned Access) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
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Microsoft is interested in hearing your feedback so we can continually improve our
books and learning resources for you. To participate in a brief online survey, please visit:
microsoft.com/learning/booksurvey
vi
Contents
Introduction
I
t’s difficult to believe that Windows 8 was introduced only a year ago,
and yet today its successor, Windows 8.1, is ready for widespread adoption.
By ­Microsoft’s standards, that is warp speed. And it is a tribute to the developers
who designed and built Windows 8 and 8.1 that they have been able to sustain
that pace and deliver such a polished product.
The Windows 8 product line represents a radical departure for Microsoft.
A new user experience. A new app platform. New security features and new
management tools. If you’re an IT pro, you have the daunting job of helping your
users adapt to the newness of Windows 8.1 while you try to stay at least one step
ahead.
Although I’ve written in-depth guides to Windows in the past, this book is not
one of those. Nor do I pretend to offer much in the way of opinions or review.
Only you can decide whether and how and when to incorporate Windows 8.1 into
your enterprise, based on your own organizational requirements.
My goal in this book is to help you on that upgrade path by presenting the
facts and features about Windows 8.1 as clearly as I can. If you’ve been living in an
environment built around a previous version of Windows, you have a lot to absorb
in the transition to Windows 8.1. I’ve tried to lay out those facts in as neutral a
fashion as possible, starting with an overview of the operating system, explaining
the many changes to the user experience, and diving deep into deployment and
management tools where it’s necessary.
By design, this book focuses on things that are new, with a special emphasis on
topics of interest to IT pros. So you might find fewer tips and tricks about the new
user experience than your users want but more about management, deployment,
and security—which ultimately is what matters to the long-term well-being of the
company you work for.
This book is just an introduction, an overview. For more detailed information
about the features and capabilities described in this book, I encourage you to
­become a regular visitor at the Springboard Series on TechNet: http://www
.microsoft.com/springboard. Tell ‘em Ed sent you.
Acknowledgments
I’d like to thank the many folks at Microsoft who contributed their in-depth
knowledge of Windows technologies to this book: Craig Ashley, Roger ­Capriotti,
Stella Chernyak, Adam Hall, Chris Hallum, Dustin Ingalls, Michael Niehaus,
vii
and Fred Pullen. I’d also like to thank the good folks at Microsoft Press—Anne
­Hamilton, Martin DelRe, Carol Dillingham, and especially Valerie Woolley—for
their efforts at making this project happen on very short notice.
About the author
Ed Bott is an award-winning technology journalist and author who has been
­writing about Microsoft technologies for more than two decades. He is the author
of more than 25 books on Microsoft Windows and Office. You can find his most
recent writing at The Ed Bott Report at ZDNet: http://www.zdnet.com/blog/bott.
Errata & book support
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viii
Introduction
CHAPTER 1
An overview of Windows 8.1
■
What is Windows 8.1? 2
■
What’s new for IT pros? 7
■
Windows 8.1 installation and upgrade options 13
W
indows 8.1, a free update to Windows 8 and Windows RT, arrives almost exactly
a year after Windows 8’s General Availability date. The final version was released
to Microsoft’s hardware partners in late August, ensuring that a new wave of hardware
devices powered by Windows 8.1 would debut at the same time.
Historically, new versions of Windows have come out roughly every three years,
with one or more service packs released in the interim to roll up security and reliability
updates. So what’s behind this sudden acceleration in the update process? Does the
rapid-fire schedule and the incremental name change mean that Windows 8.1 is a minor
update, equivalent to a service pack?
Not at all.
Windows 8.1 is, by any objective measure, a major release. It includes the historic
changes that were introduced in Windows 8 and adds a very long list of improvements,
refinements, and new features, big and small—more than enough to fill this book.
This faster update cycle isn’t a one-time event—it’s the new normal for Windows, a
reflection of the modern, fast pace of change in the technologies that define our lives.
There’s no guarantee that future versions of Windows will arrive at the same annual pace,
but it’s certain that the every-three-years cycle of upgrades is history.
If you formed your initial opinions about Windows 8 a year ago and haven’t been
paying much attention lately, this release deserves your attention. Microsoft says it
listened to feedback about Windows 8, from a wide range of sources. This update is an
attempt to address the most important feedback items and move the platform forward.
In this chapter, I provide an overview of Windows 8.1 and its changes, with a special
emphasis on features and capabilities of interest to IT pros.
1
What is Windows 8.1?
If you have any hands-on experience with Windows 8, you’re already familiar with its ­basic
underpinnings. The biggest, most obvious changes in the initial release of Windows 8 were
a touch-enabled user experience designed for a new generation of mobile hardware and
­support for a new class of applications. But the initial release of Windows 8 included many
changes under the hood as well, with significant gains in performance, reliability, ­security, and
­manageability over previous Windows versions.
In enterprise settings, the most important changes in Windows 8.1 involve features that
might not be immediately obvious. Significant enhancements in security, for example, are
important enough to warrant their own chapter (Chapter 4, “Security in Windows 8.1“). You’ll
also find improvements in management and virtualization features for client PCs, which are
introduced in this overview and covered in more detail in later chapters.
To follow along with this book, I encourage you to get the Windows 8.1 Enterprise
­ valuation, which is available as a free download from the Microsoft TechNet Evaluation
E
Center (http://technet.microsoft.com/en-US/evalcenter/ ). The trial is good for 90 days, and it
works on most modern hardware and in a virtual machine. It’s the best way to get hands-on
experience with the Windows 8.1 features and capabilities described in this book.
Support for new device types
Windows 8.1 has the same device requirements as Windows 8 and will run on most PC
­hardware that was originally designed for Windows Vista or Windows 7. That makes it
­possible to evaluate Windows 8.1 on a device that isn’t currently in production use.
To see Windows 8.1 at its best, however, you really need to see it in action on a variety of
devices, including modern hardware with touchscreens and processors and p
­ ower-management
subsystems engineered specifically to work with Windows 8.1. Widespread support for
­InstantGo, the new name for a feature previously called Connected Standby, for example, is just
beginning to ­appear in the first wave of hardware for Windows 8.1.
The core design principles of Windows 8 are a direct response to a defining trend in
­ odern technology: the movement to pervasive computing. Users are no longer tied to a
m
desktop but instead can use multiple devices, choosing each device for its suitability to the
task at hand. With proper management controls, these devices can switch easily between
personal files, digital media, and enterprise resources. Combined with robust online services,
the Windows 8 design allows people to remain productive regardless of where they are.
Windows 8 expanded the traditional definition of a Windows PC to include all sorts of
­mobile devices that are distinctly non-PC. These new device types include tablets that work
with touch and stylus input as well as hybrid designs that include detachable keyboards to
allow a single device to shift quickly between tablet and notebook form factors. Microsoft’s
original Surface Pro (Figure 1-1), with its integrated kickstand and click-on keyboard, is an
excellent example of the latter category.
2
Chapter 1
An overview of Windows 8.1
FIGURE 1-1 The Microsoft Surface Pro, released in 2013, was part of the first wave of hybrid devices
released with Windows 8.
In Windows 8.1, the specifications for these devices, especially screen size and resolution,
are relaxed, allowing an even wider array of mobile form factors. Previously, devices needed
to support a minimum resolution of 1366 by 768 to be certified by Microsoft. In W
­ indows 8.1,
the minimum resolution drops to 1024 by 768. The revised specifications also allow new aspect
ratios (4:3 and 16:10) that are more conducive to small devices used in portrait mode than the
16:9 ratio (typical in modern laptop and desktop displays) required for Windows 8.
The Acer Iconia W3-810, shown in Figure 1-2, was the first device available in this new
c­ ategory. Notice that the device in portrait orientation is more naturally suited to reading
online content or ebooks.
Windows 8.1 adds built-in support for embedded wireless radio on mobile devices. This
hardware configuration allows device makers to build thinner and lighter devices that should
cost less than designs using external radios. It also provides power savings that translate
into longer battery life. With mobile broadband enabled, you can use the built-in ­tethering
­feature to turn a Windows 8.1 PC or tablet into a personal Wi-Fi hotspot, allowing other
­devices to connect and access the Internet.
To work with mobile devices in an enterprise setting, you can take your choice of
­ anagement tools, which are described in more detail in Chapter 11, “Managing mobile
m
devices.“
User experience
This new generation of hardware benefits greatly from the Windows 8 user experience.
Touchscreens function as the primary form of input on a mobile device; on more traditional
PC form factors, touch becomes an equal partner to the keyboard and mouse.
What is Windows 8.1?
Chapter 1
3
FIGURE 1-2 The Acer Iconia W3-810, with its 8.1-inch screen, was the first commercially available device
designed for Windows 8.1.
Regardless of which input methods you use, the Windows 8.1 interface is consistent
across devices. Windows 8.1 adds a variety of important changes to the Start screen and the
­desktop, including significant changes to support users who prefer a mouse and keyboard
experience and who use desktop applications almost exclusively.
Here’s a partial list of important changes in the Windows 8.1 user experience:
■■
■■
■■
4
Two new tile sizes on the Start screen are available, in addition to the two sizes used in
Windows 8.
Customizing the Start screen is much easier, and a new Apps view lets you quickly sort
and arrange the list of installed apps and pinned websites.
Enhancements to the Touch Keyboard make it possible to type faster and more
­accurately.
Chapter 1
An overview of Windows 8.1
■■
A greatly expanded Search feature, accessible using the new keyboard shortcut
­Windows logo key+S, returns results from your device (programs, settings, and files) as
well as from the Internet, via Bing. Figure 1-3 shows an example.
FIGURE 1-3 Integrated search, a new feature in Windows 8.1, returns settings, local documents,
and webpages in a single scrolling results page.
■■
■■
A new option allows you to configure Windows 8.1 to go directly to the desktop
­instead of the Start screen when you sign in.
On the desktop, a Start hint appears on the taskbar, where the Windows 7 Start button
is located.
You’ll find more details about these and other user experience changes in Chapter 2, “The
Windows 8.1 user experience.“
User accounts and synchronization
One of the most significant changes in Windows 8 is support for a third user account
type in addition to the familiar local and domain accounts. Signing in with a Microsoft
­account instead of a local account provides tightly integrated support for cloud-based file
­storage (every Microsoft account includes 7 GBs of free SkyDrive storage), along with easy
­synchronization of settings and apps between devices.
Windows 8.1 expands the list of settings that can be synchronized, including the layout
of the Start screen, and it can automatically download and install Windows Store apps when
you sign in with a Microsoft account on a new device. It also adds the ability to automatically
back up settings that can’t be synced. This feature makes it possible to roam easily between
­devices, with personal settings, apps, and browser tabs, history, and favorites available from
What is Windows 8.1?
Chapter 1
5
each device on which you sign in using a synced Microsoft account. One related feature:
When you set up a new device, you’re offered the option to clone the settings from a device
you already own instead of using the default configuration.
On a device running Windows 8, synchronizing files to local storage from a SkyDrive
­ ccount in the cloud requires the installation of a separate utility. In Windows 8.1, this feature
a
is integrated into the operating system and for the first time is also compatible with Windows
RT. The option to enable SkyDrive file synchronization is available when you first set up an
account and can be toggled on or off through PC Settings. On a device with internet access,
you can browse files and folders from SkyDrive (including live thumbnails for documents and
images) without needing to download the full files.
In enterprise settings, you can link a Windows domain account with a Microsoft account
to allow robust security and effective network management while still getting the benefits of
synchronization with a Microsoft account, as shown in Figure 1-4.
FIGURE 1-4 Connecting a domain account to a Microsoft account in Windows 8.1 allows fine-grained
control over which settings sync between different devices.
New apps
Windows 8 includes support for virtually all desktop programs that are compatible
with ­Windows 7. It also supports a new programming model designed for immersive,
­touch-enabled apps that are secure, reliable, and optimized for mobility. These apps are
­available through the Windows Store—a capability that can be extended in corporate
­environments to include your company’s line-of-business apps.
For Windows 8.1, the Windows Store has been completely redesigned, with the goal
of making it easier to discover useful apps. Windows 8.1 also includes a handful of new
6
Chapter 1
An overview of Windows 8.1
“first party” (Microsoft-authored) apps as well as a complete refresh of the apps included with
a default installation of Windows 8. (For more details on these apps and on the changes to the
Windows Store, see Chapter 6, “Delivering Windows apps.”)
Apps written for Windows 8.1 can access new capabilities, most notably more options for
arranging apps side by side, on a single screen or multiple monitors. And a crucial addition in
Windows 8.1 allows Windows 8 apps to download and install updates automatically, without
requiring manual intervention or approval.
What’s new for IT pros?
As an IT pro, your first concern is probably your users. How much training will they need?
Which of your business applications will run problem-free, and which will require modification
or replacement? How much effort will a wide-scale deployment require? And most important
of all, can you keep your business data and your networks safe and available when they’re
needed?
Those questions become even more important to ask when users bring in personal
­ evices—smartphones, tablets, and PCs—and expect those devices to shift between ­business
d
apps and personal tasks with as little friction as possible. That flexibility has become so
­common in the modern era that the phenomenon has a name, “consumerization of IT.” To
­users, the strategy is known by a more colorful name: Bring Your Own Device (BYOD).
Microsoft’s approach to the consumerization of IT is to try to satisfy users and IT pros. For
users, the goal is to provide familiar experiences on old and new devices. IT pros can choose
from a corresponding assortment of enterprise-grade solutions to manage and secure those
devices when they access a corporate network.
Security enhancements
The cat-and-mouse game between online criminals and computer security experts affects
every popular software product. Microsoft’s commitment to securing Windows is substantial,
and it includes some groundbreaking advanced features. As part of the ongoing effort to
make computing safer, Windows 8 introduced major new security features, and Windows 8.1
adds still more improvements.
One group of Windows 8 features leverages modern hardware to ensure that the boot
process isn’t compromised by rootkits and other aggressive types of malware. On devices
equipped with the Unified Extensible Firmware Interface (UEFI), the Secure Boot process
­validates and ensures that startup files, including the OS loader, are trusted and properly
signed, preventing the system from starting with an untrusted operating system. After the OS
loader hands over control to Windows 8, two additional security features are available:
■■
Trusted boot This feature protects the integrity of the remainder of the boot
­process, including the kernel, system files, boot-critical drivers, and even the
­antimalware software itself. Early Launch Antimalware (ELAM) drivers are initialized
What’s new for IT pros?
Chapter 1
7
before other third-party applications and kernel-mode drivers are allowed to start. This
configuration prevents antimalware software from being tampered with and allows the
operating system to identify and block attempts to tamper with the boot process.
■■
Measured boot On devices that include a Trusted Platform Module (TPM), Windows 8
can perform comprehensive chain-of-integrity measurements during the boot process
and store those results securely in the TPM. On subsequent startups, the system measures
the operating-system kernel components and all boot drivers, including third-party
drivers. This information can be evaluated by a remote service to confirm that those key
­components have not been improperly modified and to further validate a computer’s
integrity before granting it access to resources, a process called remote attestation.
To block malicious software after the boot process is complete, Windows 8 includes two
signature features:
■■
■■
Windows Defender Previous Windows versions included a limited ­antispyware
­feature called Windows Defender. In Windows 8, the same name describes a
­full-featured antimalware program that is the successor to Microsoft Security
­Essentials. Windows Defender is unobtrusive in everyday use, has minimal impact
on system resources, and updates both its signatures and the antimalware engine
­regularly. In Windows 8.1, for the first time Windows Defender includes network
­behavior monitoring. If you install a different antimalware solution, Windows Defender
disables its real-time protection but remains available.
Windows SmartScreen Windows SmartScreen is a safety feature that uses
­application reputation-based technologies to help protect Windows 8 users from
malicious software. This browser-independent technology checks any new ­application
before installation, blocking potentially high-risk applications that have not yet
­established a reputation. The Windows SmartScreen app reputation feature works with
the SmartScreen feature in Internet Explorer, which also protects users from websites
seeking to acquire personal information such as user names, passwords, and billing
data.
Windows 8.1 adds significant new security capabilities to that already robust feature list:
■■
8
Improved Biometrics All Windows 8.1 editions include end-to-end biometric
­capabilities that enable authenticating with your biometric identity anywhere in
­Windows (Windows sign-in, remote access, User Account Control, and so on).
Windows 8.1 is optimized for fingerprint-based biometrics and includes a common
fingerprint enrollment experience that works with various touch-based readers
(an i­mprovement over the previous generation of devices that often required multiple
swipes to work properly). The new biometric framework includes liveliness detection, a
feature that prevents spoofing of biometric data. Purchases in the Windows Store and
Xbox Music and Video apps, as well as access to Windows Store apps and to functions
within those apps, can be managed using biometric identity information.
Chapter 1
An overview of Windows 8.1
■■
■■
Remote Business Data Removal (RBDR) In Windows 8.1, administrators can mark
and encrypt corporate content to distinguish it from ordinary user data. When the
­relationship between the organization and the user ends, the ­encrypted ­corporate
data can be wiped on command using Exchange ActiveSync or m
­ anagement ­systems
that support RBDR, such as Windows Intune. (This feature uses the ­OMA-DM ­protocol,
support for which is new in Windows 8.1.) This c­ apability ­requires ­implementation
in the client application (Mail, for example) and in the server ­application ­(Exchange
­Server). The client application determines if the wipe simply makes the data
­inaccessible or actually deletes it.
Pervasive Device Encryption Device encryption (previously available on ­Windows
RT and Windows Phone 8 devices that use ARM processors) is now available in
all ­editions of Windows. It is enabled out of the box and can be configured with
­additional BitLocker protection and management capability on the Pro and Enterprise
editions. Devices that support the InstantGo feature (formerly known as Connected
Standby) are automatically encrypted and protected when using a Microsoft account.
Organizations that need to manage encryption can easily add additional BitLocker
­protection options and manageability to these devices. On unmanaged Windows 8.1 devices,
BitLocker Drive Encryption can be turned on by the user, with the recovery key saved to a
Microsoft account, as shown in Figure 1-5.
FIGURE 1-5 In previous Windows versions, provisioning BitLocker Drive Encryption required time and IT
expertise. In Windows 8.1, the process is quick and streamlined so that an end user can do it.
What’s new for IT pros?
Chapter 1
9
BitLocker in Windows 8 supports encrypted drives, which are hard drives that come
­ re-encrypted from the manufacturer. On this type of storage device, BitLocker offloads
p
the cryptographic operations to hardware, increasing overall encryption performance and
decreasing CPU and power consumption.
On devices without hardware encryption, BitLocker encrypts data more quickly than in
­ revious versions. BitLocker allows you to choose to encrypt only the used space on a disk
p
instead of the entire disk. In this configuration, free space is encrypted when it’s first used. This
results in a faster, less disruptive encryption process so that enterprises can provision BitLocker
quickly without an extended time commitment. In addition, the user experience is improved
by allowing a standard user, one without administrative privileges, to reset the BitLocker PIN.
Chapter 4 provides more information about these security features.
Deployment and migration
Deploying Windows 8.1 in an organization is faster and easier than in Windows 7. Enhanced
tools help you make the right decisions with minimal downtime for users. A new version
of the Application Compatibility Toolkit (ACT) helps you understand potential application
compatibility issues by identifying which apps are or are not compatible with Windows 8.
ACT helps you to deploy Windows 8 more quickly by helping to prioritize, test, and detect
compatibility issues with your apps.
Migrating user data from a previous Windows installation can be automated with the User
State Migration Tool (USMT). Note that this tool in Windows 8.1 does not support migrating
user data from Windows XP or Windows Vista installations—with Windows XP reaching its
end-of-support date in April 2014, you’ll need to take this limitation into account.
For more information about planning and carrying out a Windows 8.1 deployment, see
Chapter 3, “Deploying Windows 8.1.”
On unmanaged devices, the Refresh Your PC and Reset Your PC options help ­streamline
the recovery process. The refresh and reset options allow users to restore a damaged
­Windows 8 installation without having to make an appointment with the help desk. Even
when Windows 8 cannot start, you can use these new features from within the Windows
Recovery Environment (Windows RE). Refresh Your PC allows users to reinstall Windows 8
while maintaining their personal files, accounts, and personalization settings. Reset Your PC
includes data-wiping options that make it possible for a user to transfer a device to another
person without worrying about sensitive data.
The File History feature saves copies of data files to external storage at regular ­intervals,
allowing users to recover quickly from inadvertent deletions or even wholesale drive
­corruption. This capability replaces the Previous Versions feature found in some prior editions
of Windows.
For more information about Refresh Your PC and Reset Your PC, see Chapter 7, “Recovery
options in Windows 8.1.” That chapter also describes the Microsoft Diagnostics And ­Recovery
Toolset, which provides more advanced troubleshooting and recovery tools that can be
­incorporated into Windows 8.1.
10
Chapter 1
An overview of Windows 8.1
Manageability
This section describes the most important manageability features in Windows 8 and 8.1.
It’s fitting to start with Windows PowerShell 4.0, which is an upgrade in Windows 8.1. This
task-based, command-line environment and scripting language allows IT pros and network
administrators to control and automate common Windows management tasks, on a local or
remote PC or server. The Windows PowerShell Integrated Scripting Environment (ISE) makes
it possible to author clear, maintainable, production-ready automation scripts. Some 1,200
built-in commands, called cmdlets, allow you to work (interactively or using scripts) with the
file system, Windows Management Interface, and registry. The Get-File hash cmdlet, for
­example, is new in Windows PowerShell 4.0 and allows you to calculate a hash for any file.
A key new feature in Windows 8.1 is Windows PowerShell Desired State Configuration, which
enables the deployment and management of configuration data for software services and the
environment in which these services run.
Other management tools available in Windows 8.1 include the following:
■■
■■
AppLocker Available as part of Windows 8.1 Enterprise edition, this tool is a simple
and flexible mechanism that allows you to specify exactly which apps are allowed to
run on users’ PCs. Using AppLocker, an administrator creates security policies through
Group Policy that prevent apps from running unless they’re on an approved list. The
effect is to block potentially harmful apps. With AppLocker, you can set rules based
on a number of properties, including the signature of the application’s package
or the app’s package installer, and you can more effectively control apps with less
­management.
Claim-based access control This feature enables you to set up and manage usage
policies for files, folders, and shared resources.
With Windows 8.1 and Windows Server 2012 R2, you can dynamically allow users access
to the data they need based on the user’s role in the company. Unlike security groups, which
are defined statically, ­claim-based access control allows administrators to dynamically control
­access to corporate resources based on the user and device properties that are stored in
Active Directory. For e
­ xample, a policy can be created that enables individuals in the finance
group to have ­access to specific budget and forecast data, and the human resources group to
have access to p
­ ersonnel files.
Virtualization
Windows 8 is the first desktop version of Windows to include a robust, built-in virtualization
platform. Client Hyper-V uses the same hypervisor found in Windows Server, allowing you
to create virtual machines (VMs) capable of running 32-bit and 64-bit versions of Windows
client and server operating systems. IT pros and developers can create robust test beds for
­evaluating and debugging software and services without adversely affecting a production
environment.
What’s new for IT pros?
Chapter 1
11
Client Hyper-V leverages the security enhancements in Windows 8 and can be ­managed
easily by existing IT tools, such as System Center. VMs can be migrated easily between a
desktop PC running Windows 8 or 8.1 and a Hyper-V environment on Windows Server. C
­ lient
Hyper-V requires Windows 8.1 Pro or Windows 8.1 Enterprise; it also requires that specific
­hardware features be available on the host device. For more details about the capabilities of
Client Hyper-V, see Chapter 10, “Virtualization in Windows 8.1. ”
In conjunction with Windows Server 2012, Windows 8.1 also supports an alternative
form of virtualization: Virtual Desktop Infrastructure (VDI). Setting up a VDI environment is
straightforward, thanks to a simple setup wizard. Managing a VDI environment is simple with
administration, intelligent patching, and unified management capabilities.
The Remote Desktop client in Windows 8.1 allows users to connect to a virtual desktop
across any type of network, either a local area network (LAN) or wide area network (WAN).
Microsoft RemoteFX provides users with a rich desktop experience that compares favorably
with a local desktop, including the ability to play multimedia, display 3D graphics, use USB
peripherals, and provide input on touch-enabled devices. Features such as user-profile disks
and Fair Share ensure high performance and flexibility, with support for lower-cost storage
and sessions helping to reduce the cost of VDI. All these benefits are available across different
types of VDI desktops (personal VM, pooled VM, or session-based desktops).
For more information about both of these features, see Chapter 10.
Under the hood
Some of the most valuable improvements in Windows 8 and 8.1 are those you can’t see.
Startup times are considerably faster than earlier Windows versions on identical hardware, for
example, thanks to improvements in the operating system’s fundamentals.
But there are some system-level changes you can see.
In addition to the Start screen and other prominent new features, some familiar and ­essential
system applications get a major overhaul in Windows 8. These additions, which are included
“in the box” with Windows 8.1, include Internet Explorer 11 (which gets its turn in the spotlight
in Chapter 5). In addition, there’s a significantly updated File Explorer (with the addition of the
ribbon introduced in Microsoft Office) and an enhanced Task Manager, shown in Figure 1-6.
12
Chapter 1
An overview of Windows 8.1
FIGURE 1-6 The enhanced Task Manager, introduced in Windows 8, displays real-time performance
­information and also offers tools for managing startup programs.
Windows 8.1 installation and upgrade options
Windows 8.1 shares the same hardware recommendations as those for Windows 8 (and for
that matter, Windows 7). Table 1-1 and the following text list the hardware recommendations
for Windows 8.1.
Table 1-1 Windows 8.1 hardware recommendations
Component
Recommendation
Processor
1 GHz or faster
Memory
32-bit PCs: 1 GB
64-bit PCs: 2 GBs
Hard disk space
32-bit PCs: 16 GBs
64-bit PCs: 20 GBs
Graphics card
Microsoft DirectX 9 graphics device with WDDM driver
Windows 8.1 installation and upgrade options
Chapter 1
13
Additionally, some Windows 8 features require other hardware components:
■■
■■
■■
To use touch, you need a tablet or a monitor that supports multitouch.
To access the Windows Store to download and run apps, you need an active Internet
connection and a screen resolution of at least 1024 by 768.
To snap apps, you need a screen resolution of at least 1024 by 768. Note that this
­resolution is lower than the requirement for Windows 8.
You have multiple options for installing Windows 8.1. Which of the following options you
choose depends on your current environment and your deployment needs:
■■
■■
■■
14
Update via the Windows Store For most consumers, this is the preferred ­option.
The update appears as an option in the Windows Store, which downloads in the
­background and installs relatively quickly.
Enterprise deployment tools On enterprise networks, software distribution tools
such as Configuration Manager can easily be employed to push Windows 8.1 out to
users who need the update. I discuss these options in more detail in Chapter 3.
Integrated installation media For devices that do not include an operating system,
or where the goal is to completely replace the existing operating system, it’s possible
to install Windows 8.1 directly, using installation media that incorporates the update
without requiring a separate upgrade. This installation media is available for download
by Volume License customers from the Microsoft Volume Licensing Service Center.
This media is also available on a subscribers-only basis for members of the Microsoft
Developer Network (MSDN) and the Microsoft Partner Network.
Chapter 1
An overview of Windows 8.1
CHAPTER 2
The Windows 8.1 user
­experience
■
Introducing the Windows 8.1 user experience 16
■
The Windows 8.1 desktop 19
■
Customizing the Start screen 22
■
Managing the user experience 24
W
indows 8 introduced a completely new user experience that exists alongside the
familiar Windows desktop. As feedback to Microsoft in the first year after the
release of Windows 8 made clear, the transition to this new user experience caused
some frustration. If you worked with the initial release of Windows 8, you probably
­experienced some of those issues firsthand.
In response to that feedback, Microsoft made three important changes in
Windows 8.1:
■■
■■
■■
The Start screen is significantly refined, with a long list of enhancements that
­affect its appearance, functionality, and customizability.
More parts of the operating system, especially PC Settings, are available in the
new user experience. This lessens the need for potentially confusing transitions
between traditional desktop controls and the new, touch-friendly experience.
Windows 8.1 adds options to ease the transition between the Start screen and the
desktop. These options include a setting to boot straight to the desktop without
stopping at the Start screen, and the inclusion of a Start button at the left of the
taskbar.
Even with these refinements, Windows 8.1 represents a big change from its
­ redecessors, one that requires a thoughtful and thorough plan for training and
p
­orienting new users. This chapter describes what you need to know about the changes
in the Windows 8.1 user experience so that you can make those plans intelligently. It
also points to new customization options that IT pros might want to deploy to make the
experience more comfortable for users who work primarily in a desktop environment.
15
Introducing the Windows 8.1 user experience
Windows 8 represents the most significant change to the Windows user experience in two
decades, and Windows 8.1 adds another large helping of change. As an IT pro, you need to
understand the core elements of the Windows 8.1 user experience so that you can e
­ ffectively
train and support users (and, of course, be more productive yourself). Armed with that
­knowledge, you can also decide how and where to deploy custom settings to keep those
­users productive with the apps they use most often.
The most important building block of the Windows 8.1 user experience is the Start screen,
which appears by default after you sign in to a device running Windows 8.1. Figure 2-1 shows
a customized Start screen containing multiple tiles in all four sizes supported in Windows 8.1.
FIGURE 2-1 This Start screen has been customized, with a neutral background and tiles arranged into
groups, some of them with names.
Each tile on the Start screen is a shortcut to an app, website, or location in File Explorer.
Some are live tiles, with content that refreshes continuously to reflect underlying data for that
app. The new Large tile size, shown in the Weather and Finance apps in Figure 2-1, allows for
more information to appear in a live tile. Shortcuts for desktop programs, such as the eight
small Office 2013 tiles shown in Figure 2-1, now pick up the dominant color of the program
icon, just as they do in shortcuts on the taskbar.
When you’re using a mouse or trackpad in a single-monitor configuration, each of
the ­display’s four corners has a specific function. The charms menu, which appears when
you move the mouse pointer to the top or bottom corner on the right side, is essentially
­unchanged from Windows 8. (You’ll notice one small usability change if you use Windows 8.1
on a large, high-resolution monitor—in that configuration, the charms appear close to the
corner you activated, unlike in Windows 8, where the charms are always centered vertically.)
16
Chapter 2
The Windows 8.1 user e
­ xperience
Tapping the Search charm (at the top of the charms menu) or pressing Windows logo
key + S opens a search box, with the Everywhere scope selected by default.
In Windows 8.1, the Touch Keyboard supports swipe gestures you can use to enter a
­character without changing keyboard layouts. In the example shown in Figure 2-2, swiping up
on any of the keys in the top row enters the number shown in gray on that key. (This feature
is especially handy for entering passwords that mix letters and numbers.)
FIGURE 2-2 The gray characters in the top row of the Windows 8.1 Touch Keyboard indicate that you can
swipe up to enter that character without changing layouts.
Apps view in Windows 8.1 is significantly more usable than its predecessor in Windows 8
(which was called All Apps), especially on PCs that lack a touchscreen.
To get to Apps view from Start on a touchscreen device, swipe up from the bottom. On
a conventional PC, move the mouse toward the lower-left corner of the Start screen, where
a down arrow conveniently appears in response to the mouse movement. (By ­contrast,
­Windows 8 requires that you right-click the Start screen and then click All Apps on the
­Command bar.)
Apps view includes entries for all installed Windows 8 apps and desktop programs. In
a significant change from Windows 8, new programs are no longer pinned to Start as part
of the installation process. Instead, they appear as entries here, with each app able to use
­additional metadata to indicate its category and when it was installed.
In Windows 8.1, you can sort Apps view using any of four options, as shown in Figure 2-3.
Introducing the Windows 8.1 user experience
Chapter 2
17
FIGURE 2-3 In Windows 8.1, you can choose one of four sort orders for Apps view. Notice the Search box
in the upper-right corner.
In Windows 8, the touch-friendly PC Settings included a limited number of options.
In Windows 8.1, the number of options is expanded tremendously, duplicating virtually
all the options you would otherwise have to adjust using the desktop Control Panel. For
­example, Windows 8.1 includes the full range of settings for adjusting display resolution on
a ­single-monitor or multi-monitor configuration, options that required a trip to the desktop
Control Panel in Windows 8.
These usability improvements make it much easier to adjust settings on a touchscreen
­ evice, such as a tablet. Figure 2-4 shows the controls for the Quiet Hours feature, new in
d
Windows 8.1, which you use to mute notifications during your normal sleeping time. It’s
­especially useful for mobile devices like tablets that are kept on a nightstand or on a hotel
room desk, in close proximity to sleeping quarters.
In enterprise settings, you’re likely to manage updates centrally using Windows Server
Update Services, Windows Intune, or a similar service. On unmanaged devices, Windows 8.1
offers a much more complete implementation of Windows Update in PC Settings, meaning
there’s no need to visit the desktop to install Optional Updates.
Another subtle usability improvement in Windows 8.1: Apps view includes a PC Settings
shortcut that can be pinned to Start, eliminating the need to click a link at the bottom of the
charms menu.
18
Chapter 2
The Windows 8.1 user e
­ xperience
FIGURE 2-4 In Windows 8.1, the number of options available in PC Settings is greatly expanded, including
most Control Panel options and new features like this fine-grained control over notifications.
Windows 8.1 includes significant improvements in multiple-monitor support. Most
­noteworthy is the new capability to run each display at a scaling that’s appropriate to its size
and resolution. In Windows 8 and earlier versions, the same scaling is used for all ­monitors,
making for desktop apps that are too large or too small to work with comfortably. This
­difference is especially noticeable with the new breed of high-resolution mobile devices,
such as touchscreen Ultrabooks with 13-inch displays running at full HD resolution, 1920 by
1080. If you connect that mobile display to a 24-inch full HD desktop monitor, Windows 8.1
­automatically adjusts the scaling factors individually.
The capabilities of Windows 8 apps are both covered in Chapter 6, “Delivering Windows
apps.”
The Windows 8.1 desktop
Most of the elements that make up the desktop in Windows 8.1 should be familiar to anyone
who has used Windows in the past decade. The taskbar and notification area work very much
like their Windows 7 counterparts. Desktop programs work just as they did in Windows 7.
Control Panel and File Explorer look a little different but essentially work the same as their
The Windows 8.1 desktop
Chapter 2
19
predecessors. The techniques for moving, arranging, and managing program windows on the
desktop are the same.
The single difference is in the lower-left corner of the desktop, where Windows 8.1
­displays the same Windows flag icon that occupies the center spot in the charms menu. That’s
a change from Windows 8, where a thumbnail of the Start screen appeared only when you
moved the mouse to the lower-left corner. Figure 2-5 shows the differences between the Start
hints in Windows 8.1 (left) and Windows 8 (right).
FIGURE 2-5 The Windows logo in Windows 8.1 (shown on the left) is always visible at the left edge of the
taskbar; the corresponding element in Windows 8 is shown on the right.
Although this new element occupies the same spot as the Start button in Windows 7, it
doesn’t lead to a Start menu. Instead, it leads to the Start screen and Apps view.
For experienced users, it’s worth pointing out that many of the Start menu’s functions are
available from the power menu shown in Figure 2-6, which appears when you right-click the
Start hint. You can also summon this menu by pressing Windows key+X. (Even if you don’t use
that keyboard shortcut, it’s worth remembering so that you can find this menu’s Group Policy
settings under the WinX heading.)
FIGURE 2-6 This power menu offers many options found on the Start menu in previous Windows
­versions. The Shut Down option near the bottom is new in Windows 8.1.
20
Chapter 2
The Windows 8.1 user e
­ xperience
One common request in the feedback box for Windows 8 came from workers who want
the system-level benefits of Windows but spend all their time in desktop apps and prefer to
optimize the system for desktop usage.
Windows 8.1 addresses this feedback by adding a new Navigation tab in what was
­previously the Taskbar Properties dialog box. These new options are shown in Figure 2-7.
FIGURE 2-7 All the options on this tab are new in Windows 8.1 and are aimed at users who intend to use
the desktop for most tasks.
The first two options under the Corner Navigation heading allow you to enable or ­disable
the hot corners at the top of the display. These options are useful for users who want to avoid
accidentally triggering the charms menu or the app-switching bar. If you clear one or both
check boxes, the bottom corners continue to work, but moving the mouse pointer into one
of the top corners has no effect. The third option, also enabled by default, sets Windows
­PowerShell as the default command-line environment on the Windows key+X menu. Clear
this check box if you prefer to use the traditional Command Prompt (Cmd.exe) instead.
Options under the Start Screen heading allow you to configure the system so that it
­bypasses the Start screen for most common actions:
■■
■■
Go to the desktop instead of Start when I sign in Select this option, which is
cleared by default, to bypass the Start screen after signing in and go directly to the
desktop.
Show my desktop background on Start This setting replaces the normal
­background colors and patterns for the Start screen and uses the same background as
the desktop. Changing the desktop background in Personalization options changes the
background for the Start screen as well.
The Windows 8.1 desktop
Chapter 2
21
■■
Always show Start on my main display when I press the Windows logo key This
option is useful on systems with multiple monitors.
The final three options in this section allow you to set up Apps view to match your
­preferences:
■■
■■
■■
Show the Apps view automatically when I go to Start With this option selected,
clicking the Start hint on the taskbar or tapping the Windows logo key takes you to the
Apps view, bypassing the Start screen and its tiles.
Search everywhere instead of just my apps when I search from the Apps
view This option is available only if the previous option is selected and changes the
default search scope to Everywhere when you start typing from the Apps view.
List desktop apps first in the Apps view when it’s sorted by category This
­option flips the order of the two groups of apps in the Apps view, showing desktop
apps on the left, with Windows Store apps arranged to the right of desktop apps.
Again, this option is most useful for users who prefer desktop programs and want to
see a comprehensive list of those apps instead of Windows Store apps.
Many options described in this section can be set by an administrator using Group Policy
settings listed at the end of this chapter.
In Windows 8.1, as in Windows 8, there is no direct equivalent to the Start menu found
in Windows 7 and previous versions. Its functions have been distributed to other parts of
the user experience, and it’s not possible to flip a switch or edit the registry to make such an
option appear. In this area, one of the fundamental strengths of the Windows platform—
its openness to extensions and add-ons—has prevailed. Various third-party utilities take
advantage of the extensibility features in Windows and are available for those who want to
re-create the Start menu in Windows 8.1. An Internet search for Windows 8.1 start menu
replacements should turn up suitable candidates.
Customizing the Start screen
Creating a standard Windows 8.1 image for deployment involves the same set of actions as
customizing an individual user experience. For a worker who primarily uses desktop apps, you
might want to uninstall most of the Windows 8 apps included with a default installation and
pin shortcuts to those desktop apps as tiles on the standard Start screen. That creates a clean,
uncluttered experience where all available actions involve familiar program names.
To switch into customization mode, go to the Start screen or Apps view, swipe up from
the bottom (or right-click), and then click Customize on the command bar. Even simpler,
­right-click a tile on the Start screen or an app in Apps view, or on a touchscreen press
and hold a tile or app. That action selects the tile or app and switches into customization
mode, where you can continue selecting apps and tiles. Figure 2-8 shows the Start screen in
­customization mode.
22
Chapter 2
The Windows 8.1 user e
­ xperience
FIGURE 2-8 A check mark in the upper-right corner of a tile indicates that the tile has been selected for
customization, with options available from the command bar at the bottom of the display.
Windows 8.1 allows you to perform most of the following actions on multiple selections,
provided that the action you want to take applies:
■■
■■
■■
■■
■■
■■
Move tiles In Windows 8.1, you can select multiple tiles and drag them to a new
location on the Start screen.
Arrange tiles into groups, with or without names Windows 8.1 uses the same
­basic procedure as Windows 8 for grouping tiles on the Start screen, with two
­improvements. First, you can select multiple tiles and move them at once, and second,
you can name a group from the basic customization screen instead of having to zoom
out.
Pin and unpin tiles for Windows apps Any entry on the list of Windows 8 apps
and desktop programs in Apps view can be pinned to the Start screen. To unpin one
or more tiles, make a selection and then click Unpin From Start on the app bar at the
bottom of the display.
Pin and unpin tiles for Internet Explorer shortcuts and File Explorer
­shortcuts You can pin any website to Start from Internet Explorer.
Change the size of tiles on the Start screen Windows 8.1 supports a total of four
tile sizes. The Medium and Wide sizes were introduced in Windows 8 and remain
­unchanged. Windows 8.1 adds a new Small size, which allows eight Small tiles to fit
in the same space as one Wide tile. The new Large tile, which is twice the height of a
Wide tile, is available only for apps that are written to support it.
Turn live tiles on and off For Windows apps that support the feature, you can click
Turn Live Tile Off to disable automatic updates on the Start screen. Click Turn Live Tile
On to re-enable the feature.
Customizing the Start screen
Chapter 2
23
■■
Uninstall Windows Store apps You can uninstall most Microsoft-authored apps
that are included with a default installation of Windows 8.1. A handful of items can’t be
uninstalled and must remain in Apps view, although they can be unpinned from Start;
PC Settings, SkyDrive, Desktop, and Store are all in this group. Note that Windows
desktop apps can be uninstalled only by using a desktop uninstaller, typically reached
through the Programs And Features option in the desktop Control Panel.
Managing the user experience
Windows 8.1 includes a collection of new Group Policy options you can use to control the
desktop experience in a standard configuration. These policy settings are found under the
following two Group Policy paths:
■■
User Configuration\Administrative Templates\Windows Components\Edge UI
■■
■■
■■
■■
Do not show recent apps when the mouse is pointing to the upper-left corner
of the screen If you enable this policy setting, the user is no longer able to switch
to recent apps using the thumbnails of the last app and currently running apps that
appear in response to this mouse gesture. Touch gestures, keyboard shortcuts, and
the Start screen still work for app-switching purposes.
Prevent users from replacing the Command Prompt with Windows
PowerShell in the menu they see when they right-click the lower-left corner
or press the Windows logo key+X This policy setting allows you to prevent
users from replacing the Command Prompt with Windows PowerShell in the menu
they see when they right-click the lower-left corner or press Windows logo key+X.
If you enable this policy setting, the Command Prompt will always be listed in that
menu, and users won’t be able to replace it with Windows PowerShell. Users will still
be able to access Windows PowerShell using other methods—from Apps view or
from a shortcut, for example.
User Configuration\Administrative Templates\Start Menu and Taskbar
■■
■■
24
Search, Share, Start, Devices, and Settings don’t appear when the mouse
is pointing to the upper-right corner of the screen If you enable this policy
­setting, the charms (Search, Share, Start, Devices, and Settings) no longer appear
when the mouse pointer is in the upper-right corner. They are available if the mouse
is pointing to the lower-right corner.
Chapter 2
Go to the desktop instead of Start when signing in If you enable this policy
setting, users will always go to the desktop instead of the Start screen when they
sign in.
Show the Apps view automatically when the user goes to Start If this policy is
enabled, Apps view appears whenever the user goes to Start. Users are still able to
switch between the Apps view and the Start screen.
The Windows 8.1 user e
­ xperience
■■
■■
■■
Search just apps from the Apps view This policy setting prevents the user from
searching apps, files, and settings (and the Web if enabled) when searching from
Apps view. This policy setting is ignored unless Apps view is set as the default view
for Start.
List desktop apps first in the Apps view With this policy setting enabled,
desktop apps are listed first in the Apps view when apps are sorted by category.
Other sorting options are available, and the user can choose to change their default
sorting options.
Show Start on the display the user is using when they press the Windows
logo key This policy setting applies only when using multiple displays. With this
policy setting enabled, the Start screen appears on the display the user is using
when she presses the Windows logo key.
Managing the user experience
Chapter 2
25
CHAPTER 3
Deploying Windows 8.1
■
Windows 8 editions at a glance 27
■
Assessing compatibility 29
■
Choosing a deployment strategy 31
■
Windows Assessment and Deployment Kit 33
■
Microsoft Deployment Toolkit 38
■
Windows To Go 39
D
iving headfirst into a wide-scale deployment of Windows 8.1 without ­preparation
isn’t a recipe for success. On the contrary, deploying a new operating system
­requires careful planning and testing for application compatibility and hardware
­readiness.
The good news is that IT pros who’ve mastered the Windows 7 deployment tools
have a head start on Windows 8.1, which uses the most recent generation of those
proven tools and technologies. Automation and wizard-guided user interfaces ­reduce
the effort and risk of deploying and managing operating systems and a
­ pplications.
This ­deployment helps prevent configuration errors by reducing manual steps,
­avoiding ­human error. Automation also provides a repeatable process that can drive
­consistency and help you get more done with less time and effort. Also, wizard-guided
user ­interfaces help users customize configurations with less error, and centralized
­administration helps drive consistency and reduce configuration drift.
This chapter focuses on the most recent updates to those deployment tools and
technologies, updated for Windows 8.1. The biggest differences from their Windows 7
predecessors are support for features introduced in Windows 8, including Windows Store
apps, changes in security models, and Windows To Go.
Windows 8.1 editions at a glance
With Windows 8, Microsoft simplified the number of editions available to consumers and
businesses. Windows 8.1 continues that lineup, with no changes.
27
On mainstream PCs sold in the retail market to consumers, Windows 8.1 is commonly
preinstalled. This edition includes all the core features of Windows 8.1, including the new
touch-friendly user experience, improvements in security and reliability, and support for apps
delivered through the Windows Store.
For deployment in enterprise environments, you’ll want to choose one of the two Windows
editions designed expressly for business use. In this book, I assume you deployed one of these
editions. Here’s what you’ll find in each one:
■■
■■
Windows 8.1 Pro This edition is available preinstalled on new PCs, as a retail
­package, and as an upgrade direct from Microsoft. It is also available via volume
­licensing.
Windows 8.1 Enterprise This edition is available only to enterprise customers who
purchase Software Assurance for Windows as part of a volume-license agreement.
Table 3-1 lists features that are not available in the consumer edition of Windows 8.1. Note
that Windows 8.1 Enterprise edition is a complete superset of Windows 8.1 Pro.
TABLE 3-1 Features found only in Windows 8.1 business editions
Feature
Windows 8.1 Pro
Windows 8.1 Enterprise
BitLocker and BitLocker To Go
X
X
Encrypting File System
X
X
Boot from VHD
X
X
Client Hyper-V
X
X
Domain Join
X
X
Group Policy
X
X
Remote Desktop (host)
X
X
Windows To Go
X
DirectAccess
X
BranchCache
X
AppLocker
X
VDI enhancements
X
Windows 8.1 app deployment
X
Start Screen Control
X
NOTE The newest member of the Windows 8 family is Windows RT. It has a unique place
in the product lineup and defies easy categorization. For a full discussion of what Windows
RT can and can’t do, especially in an enterprise setting, see Chapter 10, “Windows RT.”
28
Chapter 3
Deploying Windows 8.1
Assessing compatibility
The most important step in planning a Windows 8.1 enterprise deployment is testing your
business apps for compatibility with the new operating system. That can be a daunting task,
because even a well-managed enterprise typically has several thousand apps that need to be
tested for compatibility.
In general, you can expect most apps that ran properly under Windows 7 to work under
Windows 8 and 8.1. However, some compatibility issues are possible because of changes to
the Windows 8.1 feature set and tightened security.
IT pros planning for application-compatibility testing should at least glance through
the “Windows and Windows Server Compatibility Cookbook,” which is available from the
­Microsoft Download Center at http://www.microsoft.com/en-us/download/details
.aspx?id=27416. This document, originally created while Windows 8 was available as a
­preview, is updated regularly and now covers changes in Windows 8.1 that could cause an
­application to break. Although this document is targeted primarily at developers working
on the ­compatibility of their apps, it offers a glimpse into potential compatibility issues and
­mitigation strategies.
You will need empirical data from your environment to assess and mitigate applications
that are currently in use. The Application Compatibility Toolkit (ACT) is included with the
­Windows Assessment and Deployment Kit, which is described later in this chapter. Using the
most recent version of the toolkit, ACT 6.3, you can inventory and test applications, devices,
and PCs for compatibility with Windows 8.1. You can get compatibility information from
Microsoft and independent software vendors (ISVs), identify compatibility issues in your
­environment, and share compatibility data with other ACT users. ACT provides tools that can
help you analyze and mitigate the compatibility issues you discover in your organization.
Additional application-compatibility resources for IT pros include the following:
■■
■■
Application Compatibility TechCenter on TechNet at http://technet.microsoft.com/
en-us/windows/aa905066.
Windows Compatibility Center at http://www.microsoft.com/en-us/windows/­
compatibility/en-US/CompatCenter/Home.
The following list describes common sources of compatibility issues for Windows 8 and 8.1,
particularly when using an application originally designed for Windows XP:
■■
User Account Control (UAC) In Windows 8 and 8.1, by default, all interactive
­users, including members of the Administrators group, run as standard users. UAC
is the mechanism through which users can elevate applications to full administrator
­privileges. Because of UAC, applications that require administrator rights or check for
administrator privileges behave differently in Windows 8 and 8.1, even when run by a
user as administrator.
Assessing compatibility
Chapter 3
29
NOTE Windows Store apps require that the User Account Control (UAC) feature be
enabled. If you disable UAC, those apps will not run properly.
■■
■■
■■
■■
■■
■■
30
Windows Resource Protection (WRP) WRP is designed to protect key system
files, folders, and registry keys from being modified or replaced by unauthorized
­applications or users, potentially affecting the stability of components and applications
that ship with the operating system. Updates to protected resources are restricted to
trusted installers (members of the TrustedInstaller group), such as Windows Servicing.
Custom installations that try to replace files and registry settings covered by WRP
will fail.
Internet Explorer Enhanced Protected Mode In Windows 8.1, Internet Explorer 11
processes run in Enhanced Protected Mode, with greatly restricted privileges. This
feature significantly reduces the ability of an attack to write, alter, or destroy data on
the user’s computer, or to install malicious code. This security feature can interfere with
ActiveX controls and other script code that tries to modify objects running at a higher
integrity level.
Deprecation Any application that uses dynamic-link library (DLL) files, executable
files, Component Object Model (COM) objects, registry keys, application programming
interfaces (APIs), or other files that are deprecated in Windows 8 and Windows 8.1
might break.
Graphical Identification and Authentication (GINA) DLL Prior to the release
of Windows Vista, ISVs were able to modify a
­ uthentication by installing a GINA
DLL. The GINA DLL performed user identification and a
­ uthentication functions. The
­authentication model used in Windows 8 and 8.1 does not require the GINA DLL
and ignores all previous GINA DLLs. This change affects any application or hardware
component that attempts to log on by using c­ ustomized logon applications, including
biometric devices (fingerprint readers), customized user interfaces, and virtual private
network (VPN) solutions for remote users with ­customized logon user interfaces.
Session 0 isolation Running services and user applications together in Session 0
poses a security risk because services run at an elevated privilege and therefore are
targets for malicious agents looking for a means to elevate their own privilege level. In
earlier versions of the Windows operating system, services and applications ran in the
same session as the first user who logged on to the console (Session 0). To help protect
against malicious agents in Windows 8 and Windows 8.1 Session 0 has been isolated
from other sessions. This could impact services that communicate with applications
using window messages.
Windows Filtering Platform (WFP) WFP is an API that enables developers to c­ reate
code that interacts with the filtering at several layers in the networking stack and
throughout the operating system. With previous versions of the WFP API, you might
experience failures when running network scanning, antivirus, or firewall applications.
Chapter 3
Deploying Windows 8.1
■■
■■
■■
Operating system and Internet Explorer versioning Many applications check
the version of the operating system and behave differently or fail to run when an
­unexpected version number is detected. Windows 8.1 changes this behavior so that
calls for a specific version will return the Windows 8 version number (6.2) rather than
the Windows 8.1 version number (6.3). For applications that fail, you can resolve
this ­issue by setting appropriate compatibility modes or applying versioning shims
(application-compatibility fixes).
Windows 64-bit 64-bit versions of Windows use the Windows on Windows 64
(WOW64) emulator. This emulator enables the 64-bit operating system to run 32-bit
applications and can cause an application or a component that uses 16-bit programs
or installers, or 32-bit kernel drivers, to break.
New folder locations User folders, My Documents folders, and folders with
­localization have changed since Windows XP. Applications that use hard-coded
paths based on those older paths might fail. You can mitigate these failures by using
­directory junctions or by replacing hard-coded paths with appropriate API calls to get
folder locations.
Choosing a deployment strategy
Microsoft recommends a few targeted strategies for deploying Windows 8.1. These strategies
range from manually configuring Windows 8.1 on a few computers to using automation tools
and technologies to deploy the operating system to thousands of computers.
For client PCs that are already running Windows 8, an in-place upgrade is the fastest,
s­ implest, and most reliable alternative, accomplished either by installing the Windows 8.1
­update package or by refreshing the operating system. In either case, there’s little worry
about drivers or update states. Although this upgrade path requires some app compatibility
testing, it should be a significantly more manageable project than a traditional operating
system deployment.
For enterprises that want to deploy Windows 8.1 on new or existing hardware that isn’t
already running Windows 8, the following list describes the four recommended deployment
strategies:
■■
■■
High Touch with retail media This is a hands-on, manual deployment, where
you install Windows 8.1 on each client PC by using retail installation media and then
­manually configure each PC. This strategy is most appropriate for organizations with
fewer than 100 client computers, no dedicated IT staff, and a small, unmanaged
­network.
High Touch with standard image This strategy is similar to the High Touch with
retail media strategy, but it uses an operating system image that includes your
­customizations and application configurations. Organizations that choose this strategy
should have at least one IT pro (with or without prior deployment experience) on staff,
and a small or distributed network with 100–200 client PCs.
Choosing a deployment strategy
Chapter 3
31
■■
■■
Lite Touch, high-volume deployment This strategy requires limited ­interaction
during deployment. Interaction occurs at the beginning of the installation, but the
remainder of the process is automated. Microsoft recommends this strategy for
­organizations that have a dedicated IT staff (ideally with prior deployment experience)
and a managed network with 200–500 client computers.
Zero Touch, high-volume deployment This strategy requires no interaction during
deployment. The process is fully automated by using System Center Configuration
Manager. Microsoft recommends this strategy if your IT organization includes experts
in deployment, networking, and System Center Configuration Manager, and it has a
managed network with 500 or more client computers.
Table 3-2 shows guidelines for choosing a strategy based on many factors, including the
following:
■■
The skill level of your organization’s IT staff members
■■
Your organization’s license agreement
■■
The number of client computers
■■
Your infrastructure
To use the table, choose the column that best matches your organization’s network
­scenario. In cases where you identify with multiple columns, start with the leftmost column.
As you move to the right, the solutions require more skills and investment to implement, and
they provide for quicker, more thorough and more automated deployments.
As you plan to deploy more computers, consider improving your scenario to enable you to
move to the right in the table. For example, if the only thing preventing you from performing
a Lite Touch, high-volume deployment is that you are using retail media, consider purchasing
a volume license.
TABLE 3-2 Choosing a deployment strategy
32
High Touch with
Retail Media
High Touch with
Standard Image
Lite Touch,
­High-Volume
Deployment
Zero Touch,
High-Volume
­Deployment
IT skill level
IT generalist
IT pro with ­optional
deployment
­experience
IT pro with
­deployment
­experience
­recommended
IT pro with
­deployment and
Configuration
Manager
­experience
Windows license
agreement
Retail
Retail or Software
Assurance
Software Assurance
Enterprise
Agreement
Number of client
computers
<100
100–200
200–500
>500
Chapter 3
Deploying Windows 8.1
High Touch with
Retail Media
High Touch with
Standard Image
Lite Touch,
­High-Volume
Deployment
Zero Touch,
High-Volume
­Deployment
Infrastructure
Distributed
­locations
Small,
­unmanaged
­networks
Manual ­client
computer
­configuration
Distributed locations
Small networks
Standardized
­configurations,
­including
­applications
Managed network
At least one office
with more than 25
users
Windows Server
products
Configuration
Manager (optional)
Managed network
At least one office
with more than 25
users
Windows Server
products
Configuration
Manager
Application support
Manually
­installed
­commercial
­applications
Manually installed
commercial or
­line-of-business
(LOB) applications
Automatically
­installed
­commercial or LOB
applications
Automatically
­installed
­commercial or LOB
applications
User interaction
Manual,
­hands-on
­deployment
Manual, hands-on
deployment
Limited interaction
at the beginning of
installation
Fully automated
deployment
Windows 8.1 Tools
Retail media
Windows
Assessment And
Deployment Kit
(ADK)
Retail or
­volume-licensed (VL)
media
Windows ADK
Microsoft
Deployment Toolkit
(MDT) 2013
VL media
Windows ADK
MDT 2013
Windows
Deployment
Services
VL media
Windows ADK
MDT 2013
Windows
Deployment
Services
Configuration
Manager
NOTE The deployment strategies described involve traditional installations on a physical
PC. An attractive alternative for some scenarios is desktop virtualization, which provides
a way to deliver a working environment that users can access from any device. Desktop
virtualization is powered by Remote Desktop Services (RDS), which is a server role in
Windows Server 2012 and later. It provides a single platform to deliver any type of hosted
desktop, and RemoteFX provides a consistently rich user experience. You can read more
about these options in Chapter 9, “Virtualization in Windows 8.1.”
Windows Assessment and Deployment Kit
The Windows Assessment and Deployment Kit (Windows ADK) is a comprehensive
­collection of tools designed for use by original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) and IT
pros. D
­ epending on the task at hand, you can mix and match tools to accomplish specific
goals ranging from identifying potential hardware and software issues to customizing and
­automating a large-scale Windows deployment.
Windows Assessment and Deployment Kit
Chapter 3
33
The Windows ADK includes deployment tools that were previously available in the
OEM Preinstallation Kit (OPK) and the Windows Automated Installation Kit (AIK). It also
­consolidates deployment tools that were previously available as separate downloads,
such as the User State Migration Tool. You can download the Windows ADK from
http://www.microsoft.com/en-us/download/details.aspx?id=39982.
In the remainder of this section, I discuss the individual tools that are part of the Windows
ADK.
Application Compatibility Toolkit (ACT)
ACT 6.3, the most recent version of the toolkit, adds support for Windows 8.1 and is
­otherwise essentially unchanged from its predecessor, ACT 6.0. Its purpose is to provide
­compatibility information for d
­ eployment scenarios; unlike previous versions, ACT 6.x does
not provide update information. The only way to get the most recent ACT version is to install
it as part of the Windows ADK.
The runtime-analysis package gathers compatibility information. You install it on PCs
running Windows 8.1 for compatibility testing. Application reports appear in Application
Compatibility Manager (ACM). If multiple versions of an application are detected, the reports
for that application are grouped together under a single parent entry.
Deployment and Imaging
The Deployment and Imaging component of the Windows ADK contains the tools you
need to customize, deploy, and service Windows images. These tools can stand alone but
are r­ ecommended for use with the Microsoft Deployment Toolkit 2013 and System Center
Configuration Manager 2012 R2. The tools in the Deployment and Imaging component of the
Windows ADK are required by both.
The Deployment and Imaging component includes the following components:
■■
■■
Deployment Image Servicing and Management (DISM) DISM is a c­ ommand-line
tool that mounts and services Windows images before deployment. You can use
DISM image-management commands and PowerShell cmdlets to mount, and get
­information about, Windows image (.wim) files or virtual hard disk (VHD) files and to
capture, split, and otherwise manage .wim files. DISM replaces the ImageX tool for
­image management.
Windows System Image Manager (Windows SIM) Windows SIM creates
­unattended Windows Setup answer files. You can create an answer file by using
­information from a .wim file and a catalog (.clg) file. Component settings are added to
appropriate configuration settings in the answer file. You can also add packages to be
installed during Windows Setup.
Two tools that were previously part of this group are now included in the ­operating
­system: The System Preparation (Sysprep) tool prepares a computer for delivery by
­configuring it to create a new computer security identifier (SID) when the computer is
34
Chapter 3
Deploying Windows 8.1
r­ estarted, removing user-specific and computer-specific settings and data that must not
be copied to a destination computer. Windows Recovery Environment (Windows RE) is a
­recovery environment that can repair common causes of unbootable operating systems and
is discussed in more detail in Chapter 7, “Recovery options in Windows 8.1.”
The Deployment and Imaging tools include many other command-line tools that assist in
the deployment and imaging of Windows, boot configuration, and Windows Preinstallation
Environment configuration.
Windows Preinstallation Environment
The Windows Preinstallation Environment (Windows PE) is a minimal operating system
designed to prepare a computer for Windows installation by starting a computer that has no
operating system. During Windows deployment, you can use Windows PE to partition and
format hard drives, copy disk images to a computer, and start Windows Setup from a network
share.
Windows PE 5.0 is based on the Windows 8.1 operating system, and it is available as
a ­standalone product to customers who have the appropriate licensing agreement. It is
an ­integrated component of many Windows technologies, including Windows Setup and
­Windows Deployment Services. Both MDT 2013 and System Center Configuration
Manager rely on it.
Customized Windows PE images can be created using the tools provided with W
­ indows
PE. MDT 2013 and System Center Configuration Manager can also create customized
­Windows PE images.
User State Migration Tool
The User State Migration Tool (USMT) migrates user profiles and files from existing Windows
operating systems to Windows 8.1. It captures the user state from the existing operating
system and restores the user state to Windows 8.1. USMT can perform complex, repeatable
migrations of user state data between a source and target installation of Windows. USMT is
flexible enough to support migrations from a 32-bit Windows source to a 64-bit target.
(The opposite path, from 64-bit to 32-bit, is not supported.)
If you’re planning to use USMT as part of a Windows 8.1 deployment, you should be aware
of one significant change. Earlier versions of USMT supported migrations with Windows 8 as
the target and Windows XP or later running on the source computer. USMT version 6.3, which
is included in the Windows ADK and is required for Windows 8.1 migrations, supports only
Windows 7, 8, and 8.1 as both target and host operating systems. Windows XP and W
­ indows
Vista are not supported. As a workaround, Microsoft recommends using USMT version 5
to capture the user state from Windows XP and Vista; that state can then be restored to
­Windows 8.1 using USMT 6.3.
Windows Assessment and Deployment Kit
Chapter 3
35
NOTE An alternative to using USMT to migrate user state, especially if moving from
­Windows XP or Windows Vista to Windows 8.1, is to implement user state ­virtualization
prior to deployment of the new operating system. Part of the Microsoft ­Desktop
­Optimization Pack (MDOP) for Software Assurance customers, User Experience
­Virtualization (UE-V) synchronizes Windows and application settings in a settings store
(a simple but secure file share). The most recent version of UE-V 2 for Windows 8.1 allows
storage of settings for Windows Store apps—a major change from the corresponding
feature in Windows 8, which supported only desktop programs. Folder Redirection moves
­
users’ documents off the endpoint to a central location on the network. The ­combination
of the two features allows users to move between devices while maintaining access to
all apps and documents. For more information about user state virtualization, see the
­Microsoft Desktop Virtualization website at http://www.microsoft.com/dv.
The USMT includes three command-line tools:
■■
■■
■■
ScanState.exe The ScanState.exe tool captures user state from the existing ­operating
system (Windows 7, 8, or 8.1). You can store the captured user state on a removable
drive or on a network shared folder. The ScanState.exe tool also can estimate the
amount of disk storage required by the migrated user state.
LoadState.exe The LoadState.exe tool restores the captured user state from the
location where it was saved by the ScanState.exe tool.
UsmtUtils.exe The UsmtUtils.exe tool performs functions related to user-state
­migration, such as extracting files from a compressed migration store or removing
hard-link stores that cannot be otherwise deleted because of a sharing lock.
USMT includes three .xml files that configure the user-state capture and restore process
(MigApp.xml, MigDocs.xml, and MigUser.xml). In addition, the Config.xml file specifies files
or configuration settings to exclude from the migration. You can create custom .xml files to
­support specialized migration needs.
Both MDT 2013 and SCCM rely on USMT to migrate user states. At the appropriate time
during the deployment process, the ScanState.exe and LoadState.exe command-line tools
automatically run to migrate user state. You can customize the process in both deployment
tools.
NOTE Although USMT is the most appropriate choice for enterprise migrations, some
businesses might opt for the simpler alternative of Windows Easy Transfer, a feature of
Windows 8.1. It is particularly useful in one-off scenarios for individual users. Windows
Easy Transfer can move user accounts, files and folders, program settings, Internet settings
and favorites, and email settings between computers running Windows 7, 8, or 8.1. Note
that the version of Windows Easy Transfer in Windows 8.1 does not support migrations
from Windows XP or Windows Vista.
36
Chapter 3
Deploying Windows 8.1
Volume Activation Management Tool
The Volume Activation Management Tool (VAMT) enables you to automate and centrally
manage the volume and retail-activation processes of Windows, Microsoft Office, and select
other Microsoft products. The VAMT can manage volume activation using Multiple ­Activation
Keys (MAKs) or Key Management Service (KMS) and is typically deployed in enterprise
environments. The VAMT is a standard Microsoft Management Console (MMC) snap-in that
requires MMC 3.0. You can install it on any computer running Windows 7, 8, or 8.1; Windows
Server 2012; Windows Server 2012 R2; or Windows Server 2008 R2.
Windows Performance Toolkit
The Windows Performance Toolkit (WPT) contains performance-monitoring tools that
produce in-depth performance profiles of Windows operating systems and applications.
It is a powerful recording tool that creates Event Tracing for Windows (ETW) recordings.
You can run the WPT from the WPT user interface or from the command line. It provides
­built-in profiles you can use to select the events to be recorded. Alternatively, you can author
­custom profiles in XML. The WPT is a powerful analysis tool that combines a very flexible
user ­interface with extensive graphing capabilities and data tables that can be pivoted and
that have full text-search capabilities. It allows you to explore the root cause of any identified
performance issues.
Windows Assessment Toolkit
The Windows Assessment Toolkit helps you determine the quality of a running operating
system or a set of components with regard to performance, reliability, and functionality. The
toolkit includes the tools you need to assess a local computer, review the results, diagnose
problems, and determine how to make improvements. Assessments can be performed using
the Windows Assessment Console or command-line tools.
Windows Assessment Services
The final component in the Windows ADK is the Windows Assessment Services ­component
(Windows ASC). Windows Assessment Services is a test framework used to automate
­running assessments that measure performance, reliability, and functionality on multiple
computers in a lab environment. It helps you eliminate fragmented, error-prone, expensive,
­pre-deployment test processes, and it enables you to replace multiple steps and inconsistent
tools with just one tool.
Windows ASC is the graphical user interface that interacts with Windows Assessment
Services. This enables you to manage settings and assets, such as which lab computers to
test, which images should be applied to those computers, and which assessments should be
run on the test computers. You can use Windows ASC to monitor the progress of a running
job and to view and compare the results that were produced. Additional benefits include the
­ability to import results into a central database for consolidated report generation.
Windows Assessment and Deployment Kit
Chapter 3
37
Microsoft Deployment Toolkit
As described in the previous section, the Windows ADK is the fundamental collection of tools
for configuring and deploying Windows 8.1. For the most part, these tools are rarely used
directly on an individual basis. Instead, Microsoft provides various deployment options that
are built on top of the Windows ADK.
The Microsoft Deployment Toolkit 2013 (MDT 2013) is the most recent version of one
of the most popular toolsets built on top of the Windows ADK. It’s more of a deployment
­framework. MDT 2013 helps manage deployment content in preparation for d
­ eployment,
and then it collects and applies deployment information through wizards at the time
of ­deployment. You can use MDT 2013 to control the level of information required at
­deployment time. You also can use MDT 2013 to perform fully automated deployments that
require no deployment information at the time of deployment.
You can use MDT 2013 by itself or in conjunction with Configuration Manager. Although
Configuration Manager is capable of deploying Windows 8.1 without using MDT 2013,
­Microsoft recommends that you use MDT 2013 with Configuration Manager to extend
its capabilities with a well-tested deployment framework built to simplify this otherwise
­complicated set of tasks.
Microsoft Deployment Toolkit 2013
MDT 2013 helps automate the deployment and ongoing management of Windows 8.1
deployment content. It leverages and automates the tools in the Windows ADK to deploy
Windows 8.1 and applications along with it. MDT 2013 provides wizards that help in the initial
creation of deployment content.
MDT 2013 also reduces the effort and complexity of performing deployments. It performs
highly automated deployments that allow you to control the type of information you want to
provide at the time of deployment. It provides different deployment methods:
■■
■■
■■
38
Lite Touch installation (LTI) LTI can perform partially and fully automated
­deployments for environments without Configuration Manager. This allows you
to determine the deployment configuration settings you want to provide prior to
­deployment and at the time of deployment.
User-Driven installation (UDI) UDI can perform partially and fully automated
deployments for environments with Configuration Manager. This also allows you to
determine the type of deployment configuration settings you want to provide prior to
deployment and at the time of deployment.
Zero Touch installation (ZTI) ZTI performs fully automated deployments for
­environments with Configuration Manager. This allows you to provide all the
­configuration settings in advance and eliminate the need for any user or deployment
technician interaction at the time of deployment.
Chapter 3
Deploying Windows 8.1
The deployment process and guidance provided by MDT 2013 are based on industry
best-practice recommendations for operating-system and application deployment. This helps
ensure that deployments are performed efficiently and with minimal risk.
On the whole, if you’re already familiar with previous MDT versions, you should feel
c­ omfortable with MDT 2013. It adds support for the Windows ADK, Windows 8.1, and
new features like UDI. Basic tasks remain largely unchanged, however, including ­stocking
­deployment shares with applications, operating systems, packages, and device drivers;
­creating task sequences; and running the Windows Deployment Wizard. You can learn more
about MDT 2013 on TechNet at http://www.microsoft.com/deployment.
System Center 2012 R2 Configuration Manager
As with MDT 2013, if you’re familiar with operating-system deployment in earlier versions of
System Center Configuration Manager, you should be comfortable with System Center 2012 R2
Configuration Manager. This release adds support for deploying and managing Windows 8.1
and Windows Server 2012 R2. It also adds the capability to create prestaged content files for
task sequence content as well as virtual hard-disk management. See http://technet.microsoft
.com/en-us/library/gg682108.aspx#BKMK_OSDIntroWhatsNewR2 for a complete list of
changes in this release.
As previously mentioned, Configuration Manager is more than capable of deploying
­ indows 8.1 without using MDT 2013. However, MDT 2013 adds an additional framework to
W
Configuration Manager that helps you build a more flexible and intelligent deployment ­process
for your organization. (With the latest updates, System 2012 Configuration ­Manager SP1 will
also be able to deploy Windows 8.1, by using a Windows PE 5.0 boot image for d
­ eployment.)
Learn more about operating-system deployment with Configuration Manager on TechNet
at http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/gg682018.aspx.
Windows To Go
What if you could sit down at any PC, plug in a USB flash drive, and access a secure ­version of
your desktop, complete with apps and files? That’s the idea behind Windows To Go, a feature
first made available with Windows 8 Enterprise. In Windows 8.1, it allows an administrator to
create a portable Windows 8.1 Enterprise workspace on a high-performance flash drive. You
can slip that bootable Windows To Go USB drive into your pocket and boot to it from any PC,
­completely bypassing the operating system installed on that PC. What you see when you sign
in is your personal Windows account, exactly as you left it.
When creating the bootable Windows To Go workspace, you can use the default
­ indows 8.1 Enterprise image, or you can choose one of the custom images you created for
W
­deployment on desktops and laptops in the enterprise. The most important new Windows To
Go feature in Windows 8.1 is support for the Windows Store, which allows you to roam to any
number of machines, access the Windows Store, and use Windows Store apps in a Windows
To Go workspace.
Windows To Go
Chapter 3
39
You’re expected to shut down a Windows To Go session completely before removing
the USB drive. If the drive is inadvertently disconnected, though, don’t panic: You have a
­60-second window to reinsert the drive and resume where you left off.
Who should use Windows To Go
Windows To Go is not suited for every organization and user. Choosing whether and when
to provide users with Windows To Go workspaces should be based on your organization’s
needs. Following are some sample scenarios in which using Windows To Go could benefit an
organization:
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■■
■■
■■
■■
Continuance of operations (COO) Continuance of operations employees often
­require work desktop environments at home. In this scenario, you provide selected
COO employees with a Windows To Go USB drive. This drive can be preconfigured
with their Group Policies and provisioned using standard provisioning tools, such as
Configuration Manager. For users requiring network access, Windows To Go supports
VPN and DirectAccess.
Temporary workers If temporary workers require specific programs or just a work
environment, you could provide a Windows To Go workspace. This gives the user
­access to company programs while not requiring the user to have company hardware.
The device then can be returned at the end of the specified contract or assignment.
With Windows To Go, no software installation is ever required on the host machine, so
it remains completely unaffected.
Ability to travel lighter This situation involves employees who frequently travel or
move between remote offices. Instead of requiring those employees to have a laptop,
they can simply take their Windows To Go USB drive and boot to it from any PC at the
new location.
Telecommuting Many professionals either fully or partially telecommute. In this
scenario, Windows To Go drives can be provisioned using standard tools and then
provided to employees. The initial boot to Windows To Go needs to be on-site for
it to cache the employee’s credentials for later access. After they are on their home
computer, employees can access their Windows To Go drive with or without enterprise
network connectivity.
Free seating This scenario includes organizations that provide temporary offices for
off-site or roaming employees. Providing a Windows To Go drive to these roaming
employees allows them to maintain the same user experience at whatever site they are
currently located.
NOTE If DirectAccess is not enabled, employees using Windows To Go should connect to
the enterprise network frequently using VPN. This minimizes the risk of the drive’s deletion
from Active Directory and retains its access privileges.
40
Chapter 3
Deploying Windows 8.1
Preparation and requirements
Properly preparing for a deployment such as Windows To Go increases its overall ­success.
There are few preliminary requirements for Windows To Go, because it is intended to
­seamlessly integrate with existing hardware. Aside from the following few exceptions, the
Windows To Go workspace operates exactly like any other Windows platform:
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■■
■■
■■
■■
■■
Offline internal disks When a user boots into a Windows To Go workspace,
­internal hard disks are disabled by default. The Windows To Go workspace completely
­disassociates itself from the other drives in a machine. This minimizes the risk of
­unwanted manipulation of either device, as well as data leakage.
Absence of Trusted Platform Module (TPM) Traditionally, BitLocker is
­implemented using the TPM-integrated hardware. Because the TPM is linked with a
specific computer, it cannot be used with Windows To Go. This is because Windows
To Go can be used on multiple computers. To replace TPM for a Windows To Go
­workspace, a preoperating-system boot password is used for security.
Disabled hibernation Hibernation is disabled by default to maximize a workspace’s
ability to move between machines. If a machine is in hibernation, a user might remove
the USB media, thinking the computer is turned off.
Removed Windows Recovery Environment In a Windows To Go workspace, the
Windows Recovery Environment is not available. In the event that a recovery is needed,
re-image the drive.
Disabled Push Button Reset This feature is disabled because of the ­nonsensical
nature of resetting to the manufacturer’s standard for a computer while running
­Windows To Go.
Absence of Multiple Activation Key (MAK) method The MAK activation method
is not supported for Windows To Go. This is because each host PC would require a
separate activation.
Hardware requirements
Windows To Go does not require any software to be installed on the host machine to run.
However, the host machine does have to meet several basic hardware requirements. In
­general, hardware that is certified for use with Windows 7 or Windows 8.1 works well with
­Windows To Go. Table 3-3 describes the basic hardware requirements for Windows To Go.
NOTE Windows To Go is not supported when booting from a Mac computer or Windows
RT device.
Windows To Go
Chapter 3
41
TABLE 3-3 Hardware requirements for Windows To Go
Item Required
Description
USB port
Must have a USB 2.0 port or greater. A USB 3.0 port offers improved
­performance.
NOTE External USB hubs are not supported. The
­Windows To Go USB drive must be directly inserted into
the host machine.
USB boot
Must be capable of booting from a USB drive. Ensure that USB booting is
enabled in the BIOS.
RAM
2 GBs or greater is required.
Processor
1 GHz or faster is required.
Graphics
DirectX 9 compatible device with Windows Display Driver Model (WDDM)
1.2 or greater.
NOTE USB drives must be certified for use with Windows To Go. If a USB drive is not
­certified, it is not supported.
In addition to the requirements listed in Table 3-3, corresponding Windows To Go
­architectures must be matched with the host PC firmware type and processor architecture.
Table 3-3 describes the requirements for each.
TABLE 3-4 BIOS compatibility for Windows To Go
Host PC Firmware
Host PC Architecture
CompatIble Windows To Go
­Architecture
Legacy BIOS
32-bit
32-bit only
Legacy BIOS
64-bit
32-bit or 64-bit
UEFI BIOS
32-bit
32-bit only
UEFI BIOS
64-bit
64-bit only
Management and security
Because a Windows To Go workspace, from a user aspect, is identical to a standard Windows 8.1
installation, there are many security and management features available. Windows To Go
provides a standard user interface regardless of which PC a user decides to use, while still
providing the same access management and security as a physical machine. Using advanced
features found in Windows 8.1, that standardization can be taken a step further. An example
of this is Microsoft User Experience Virtualization (UE-V), which can be used to cache user
­settings and implement them on physical systems as well as Windows To Go.
42
Chapter 3
Deploying Windows 8.1
User state virtualization
Windows To Go offers the same user-state virtualization opportunities as a traditional
­installation of Windows 8.1. The following features describe the profile data-management
­options for user profiles and data files when using Windows To Go:
■■
■■
■■
Folder redirection Enables you to redirect the known path of a folder to a new
­location. Even though the folder is being redirected, from a user’s perspective, the
folder is still local. Implementing folder redirection also allows users to access their files
from anywhere on the network, whether it is on their Windows To Go drive or a local
machine. For example, Windows To Go users would save to their documents folder
while the path would be redirected to a file server on the enterprise network. This
scenario requires DirectAccess to be enabled.
Offline Files Makes network files available to users when DirectAccess is not
­configured or the enterprise network is not accessible. After computers using the
­Offline Files feature are reconnected to the enterprise network, they are automatically
synced with the file server.
User Experience Virtualization (UE-V) Allows administrators to provide an
­optimum user experience by saving user settings for specified programs. This can be
used in conjunction with Windows To Go configured with DirectAccess.
These user-state virtualization features can be easily implemented with either ­DirectAccess
or a VPN. Windows To Go allows users to take advantage of these advanced Windows 8.1
features on any machine booting their Windows To Go drive. Consider your organization’s
available bandwidth and resources before implementing these advanced features. For more
information, see Chapter 9.
Active Directory integration
Just like a standard Windows installation, Windows To Go will not be joined to your domain
upon creation. However, Windows To Go can be joined easily to a domain in one of two ways:
■■
■■
Traditional method The traditional way to join a computer to the domain is through
the computer properties.
Offline domain join Offline domain join is a process that allows Windows To Go to
join a domain without contacting a domain controller. This makes it possible to join
computers to a domain in locations where there is no connection to the network.
NOTE For more information about offline domain join, see the article “Offline Domain
Join (Djoin.exe) Step-by-Step Guide” at http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/
jj574150.aspx.
Windows To Go
Chapter 3
43
Group Policy management
Group Policy management of Windows To Go is nearly identical to what is available for
­t ypical machine installations of Windows 8.1. In addition to the Windows 8.1 policies, there
is added functionality specifically for Windows To Go. The unique Windows To Go Group
Policy s­ ettings can be found in \Computer Configuration\Policies\Administrative Templates\­
Windows Components\Portable Operating System\ in the Group Policy Management Editor.
Enabling BitLocker security
Because most Windows To Go users will be using their USB drives off-premises, it is
­recommended to secure them using BitLocker. Enabling BitLocker security on a Windows To
Go drive ensures the safety of your organization’s programs, network resources, and user
data if the drive is lost or stolen. Unlike the BitLocker available on standard devices that
provide the Trusted Platform Module (TPM), BitLocker for Windows To Go is secured with
a boot ­password to unlock the drive and boot into Windows. The password requirements
for BitLocker can be defined by your domain controller. You can encrypt a Windows To Go
­workspace when you create it by using the Windows To Go Creator Wizard or Windows
­PowerShell, or you can encrypt it later by using the BitLocker user interface.
Windows To Go workspace creation
When creating a Windows To Go workspace, you can use any existing Windows 8.1
­installation image, including the generic image available with volume-licensed media or a
custom image that has been generalized using the Sysprep tool and is in Windows ­Imaging
Format (WIM). If an image does not exist, one needs to be created before a Windows To
Go drive can be ­created. After a WIM file is created, a Windows To Go workspace can be
­provisioned two ways:
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44
Windows To Go Creator Wizard The Windows To Go Creator Wizard (shown in
Figure 3-1) is a GUI application that provisions a Windows To Go drive. Available only
in Windows 8.1 Enterprise, this wizard automates most of the creation process by
prompting only for a few pieces of information. To access the Windows To Go Creator
wizard, press Windows key+W and type Windows To Go in the search box.
PowerShell You can automate the creation of a Windows To Go workspace by using
Windows PowerShell. PowerShell must be run with administrative privileges in order to
create a Windows To Go drive.
Chapter 3
Deploying Windows 8.1
FIGURE 3-1 Windows To Go Creator Wizard.
NOTE For detailed step-by-step instructions for creating a Windows To Go workspace by
using either method, see http://social.technet.microsoft.com/wiki/contents/articles/6991.
windows-to-go-step-by-step.aspx.
NOTE The initial boot of Windows To Go should be on a work machine. This approach
allows the drive to join the domain, download any security policies, and enable BitLocker
security. If the drive cannot be booted first from work, an offline domain join can be run.
After the Windows To Go workspace is created and configured, you are ready to boot from
the USB drive on any computer that meets the minimum hardware requirements. A computer
can be enabled to always boot from the USB, to allow but not prioritize USB boots, or to set
boot options in Windows 7 or later.
TIP Group Policy can be used to enable Windows To Go booting on a domain level for
Windows 8 machines.
Windows To Go
Chapter 3
45
CHAPTER 4
Security in Windows 8.1
■
Assessing the threat landscape 48
■
New hardware, new security capabilities 48
■
Securing the boot process 49
■
Securing the sign-in process 51
■
Blocking malware 52
■
Securing data 55
C
omputer security is a cat-and-mouse game, with occasionally expensive and even
deadly stakes. The players include criminals and spies and the computer scientists
tasked with fighting them. At Microsoft, security is a top priority, and it has been a core
principle since the Trustworthy Computing initiative began formally in 2002. Since then,
each new version of Windows has been progressively more effective at protecting users
from common and not-so-common threats.
Windows 8 introduced significant security enhancements, and Windows 8.1 raises the
bar still higher.
How effective are these changes? Microsoft’s security researchers have found that
Windows 8 is significantly more effective than its predecessors at preventing malware
infections. With Windows 7, they say, you’re several times more likely to experience a
malware attack compared to the same system running Windows 8. Using Windows XP
you are even more likely to be a malware victim as you are with Windows 8, a
­ ccording
to those researchers. The security improvements in Windows 8.1 should make these
­advantages even more pronounced. (For a detailed report containing up-to-date
­statistics, see the most recent Microsoft Security Intelligence Report at
http://www.microsoft.com/security/sir/.)
Because of the ever-changing threat landscape, security is best thought of as a ­process,
in which Windows 8.1 is one layer among several. Most casual observers see the ­obvious
manifestations of security, in the form of features that have a visible set of c­ ontrols, such as
Windows Defender and the Windows Firewall. Windows 8.1 also e
­ nables ­crucial features
in other security layers that you can’t see, specifically hardware-based ­protection, which
­operates before Windows loads, and network-based security ­capabilities that can be
­defined and enforced by administrators using Group Policy and ­management tools.
47
Assessing the threat landscape
In the movies and in popular fiction, computer security topics usually focus on flashy viruses
and hackers who can break into any system in minutes. Here in the real world, the threat
landscape certainly includes malware and intrusions, but it also includes data breaches,
­unauthorized access to local and network resources, and physical theft.
The threat landscape and attacker motivations have evolved over the past two decades. In
the past, hackers were motivated by personal fame and bragging rights. Today, cyber attacks
have become big business, ranging from malware and phishing attacks that cast a wide net to
targeted attacks that aim to exploit weaknesses in a specific company or government agency.
And, of course, just about every nation on earth is developing cyber-espionage capabilities.
In general, attacks can occur at any layer of the stack. Malicious agents can lurk in
s­ oftware, in seemingly innocent web pages, or in packets on a network. They can target
vulnerabilities in the operating system or in popular applications. Some of the most ­successful
attacks in recent years have come through so-called social engineering, where a would-be
­attacker pretends to be something he isn’t—forging the sender’s name on an email message
to convince its recipient to open a booby-trapped attachment, for example.
New hardware, new security capabilities
The first layer of protection for a Windows 8.1 device starts with the hardware itself, with
three key features. Although Windows 8.1 security doesn’t depend on these features, you’ll
get best results when they are present:
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■■
48
Unified Extensible Firmware Interface (UEFI) After 30 years, the PC BIOS has
finally been retired. Its replacement is UEFI, a firmware interface that takes over the
functions traditionally performed by the BIOS. UEFI plays a critical role in security with
Windows 8.1. It offers the Secure Boot capability and support for self-encrypted drives,
for example. (I’ll say more about both those features later in this chapter.) Although
Windows 8.1 can run on systems that use a legacy BIOS, many of its new security
­features require UEFI. You’re likely to find a wide selection of UEFI-equipped devices,
because UEFI is a requirement for an original equipment manufacturer (OEM) to
certify a system or hardware device for Windows 8 or 8.1 under the Windows
­Hardware Certification Program (formerly known as the Windows Logo program).
Trusted Platform Module (TPM) A TPM is a hardware chip (sometimes included
as part of another component, such as a network card) that supports high-grade
­encryption and prevents tampering with or unauthorized export of certificates and
­encryption keys. The TPM can perform cryptographic operations and store keys for
BitLocker volumes and virtual smartcards. A TPM can also digitally sign data, using
a private key that software can’t access. The presence of a TPM enables several key
Windows 8.1 features, including BitLocker drive encryption, virtual smartcards, and
Measured Boot. I discuss all these features later in this chapter.
Chapter 4
Security in Windows 8.1
■■
Improved support for biometric devices The capability to identify yourself to a
device or a network using biometric information such as a fingerprint is a proven way
to overcome the inherent flaws of passwords. Windows has had biometrics support
since Windows XP; Windows 8.1 significantly improves the experience of setting up
and using a fingerprint reader. The biometric technology in Windows 8.1 is designed
to be extremely effective at resisting attempts to spoof its protection, unlike simpler
technology found in some popular consumer-focused devices.
Securing the boot process
The most aggressive forms of malware try to insert themselves into the boot process as early as
possible so that they can take control of the system early and prevent antimalware ­software from
doing its job. This type of malicious code is often called a rootkit (or bootkit). The best way to avoid
having to deal with it is to secure the boot process so that it’s ­protected from the very start.
Windows 8.1 supports multiple layers of boot protection, some of which are available only
if specific types of hardware are installed. Figure 4-1 shows how these features are integrated
into the boot process.
FIGURE 4-1 New security features in Windows 8.1 and compatible hardware help prevent malicious
­software from tampering with the boot process.
Securing the boot process
Chapter 4
49
Here is a description of the elements shown in Figure 4-1:
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■■
Secure Boot The most basic protection is the Secure Boot feature, which is a
­standard part of the UEFI architecture. (It’s defined in Chapter 27 of the UEFI 2.3.1
specification.) On a PC with a conventional BIOS, anyone who can take control of the
boot process can boot using an alternative OS loader, potentially gaining access to
system resources. When Secure Boot is enabled, you can boot using only an OS loader
that’s signed using a certificate stored in the UEFI firmware. Naturally, the Microsoft
certificate used to digitally sign the Windows 8.1 OS loader is in that store, allowing the
UEFI firmware to validate the certificate as part of its security policy. All devices that
are certified for Windows 8.1 under the Windows Hardware Certification Program.
Early Launch Antimalware (ELAM) Antimalware software that’s compatible with
the advanced security features in Windows 8 and 8.1 can be certified and signed by
Microsoft. Windows Defender, the antimalware software that is included with
Windows 8.1, supports this feature; it can be replaced with a third-party solution if
that’s what your organization prefers. These signed ­drivers are loaded before any other
­third-party drivers or applications, allowing the a
­ ntimalware software to detect and
block any a
­ ttempts to tamper with the boot ­process by trying to load unsigned or
untrusted code.
Trusted Boot This feature verifies that all Windows boot components have integrity
and can be trusted. The bootloader verifies the digital signature of the kernel before
loading it. The kernel, in turn, verifies every other component of the Windows startup
process, including the boot drivers, startup files, and the ELAM component.
Measured Boot This feature requires the presence of a TPM on the Windows 8.1
­device. This feature takes measurements of the UEFI firmware and each of the ­Windows
and antimalware components as they load during the boot process. When these
­measurements are complete, their values are digitally signed and stored securely in the
TPM and c­ annot be changed unless the system is reset. During each subsequent boot,
the same ­components are measured, allowing the current values to be compared with
those in the TPM.
For additional security, the values recorded during Measured Boot can be signed and
transmitted to a remote server, which can then perform the comparison. This process, called
remote attestation, allows the server to verify that the Windows client is secure. After this
analysis is complete, the server can issue a signed Claim ticket, which can then be used to
determine whether that device should be granted access to a resource such as a corporate
server.
The most common use of Claim tickets is in the Windows 8 and Windows 8.1 Dynamic
­Access Control (DAC) feature, which uses the claims-based infrastructure to control access to
File Server and SharePoint resources.
50
Chapter 4
Security in Windows 8.1
Securing the sign-in process
Passwords are, to put it mildly, notoriously ineffective at protecting devices and data. They’re
too easily stolen: on the client by keylogging software or phishing attempts, and on the
server by data breaches that give intruders access to large sets of user names and passwords.
And because humans frequently reuse those passwords, a breach on one site can lead to
intrusions on other sites that use the same credentials.
That’s why, increasingly, enterprises insist on a second, physical factor for authentication.
Windows 8.1 adds significant support for two forms of hardware-based authentication.
The first is biometric authentication—specifically, using a fingerprint reader as a form of
authentication. Windows offered support for fingerprint readers in previous versions, but
the overall experience for crucial activities like enrolling fingerprints has historically required
third-party software with its own user experience. Windows 8.1, for the first time, manages
the fingerprint-authentication process end to end, with a consistent enrollment process.
­Figure 4-2 shows the modern ­fingerprint enrollment experience.
FIGURE 4-2 Windows 8.1 offers end-to-end functionality for fingerprint authentication, with drivers and
an enrollment experience that is consistent with the rest of the operating system.
If you’ve used fingerprint readers in the past, you might not recognize the new ­generation
that should begin appearing on devices with Windows 8.1. Although the traditional
­swipe-style devices are still supported, new devices allow you to touch a sensor, which can
identify your unique fingerprint with startling accuracy.
Fingerprint authentication isn’t just for signing in to Windows, either. Fingerprint access
is possible when you’re accessing network resources, signing in to a website, or making a
­purchase. And it works in domain and nondomain environments.
Securing the sign-in process
Chapter 4
51
Another built-in, hardware-based authentication option, the virtual smart card (VSC), was
introduced in Windows 8 and gets some improvements in Windows 8.1. The idea behind a
VSC is to require two-factor authentication, with an authorized device and a PIN (or biometric
authentication) to access specific resources, such as your corporate virtual private network
(VPN). Historically, this has been done with dedicated hardware devices that read ­physical
smartcards. Adding a card reader to a notebook PC or tablet isn’t practical. But what if
there’s another way to securely identify the device you’re using and in essence turn it into a
­smartcard? That’s a VSC.
This feature requires that a device be equipped with a TPM; enrolling the device creates a
certificate that is stored securely in the TPM and allows the device to authoritatively ­identify
itself to a remote server. An attacker who learns your user name and password won’t be able
to impersonate you and gain access to that resource because he won’t have the second,
­crucial piece of ID: the virtual smart card.
Windows 8.1 adds APIs that simplify the VSC enrollment process. This enrollment process
works on multiple hardware types, including ARM-based devices, and it doesn’t require that
the device be domain joined making this feature especially useful in BYOD scenarios.
Blocking malware
Successfully resisting malware and phishing attacks starts with some fundamental security
features that have protected the core of the operating system for several years. The first
two features are designed to protect against exploits that use vulnerabilities such as buffer
­overruns in the operating system and in applications:
■■
■■
Address Space Layout Randomization (ASLR) This feature randomizes how and
where important data is stored in memory, making it more likely that attacks that try
to write directly to system memory will fail because the malware can’t find the specific
location it needs to attack. Windows 8.1 increases the level of entropy significantly,
making it more difficult for most exploits to succeed. In addition, ASLR is unique across
devices, making it more difficult for an exploit that works on one device to also work
on another.
Data Execution Prevention (DEP) This feature substantially reduces the range of
memory that code (including malicious code) can run in. Windows 8 and 8.1 require
hardware-based DEP support and will not install on a device that lacks this feature.
DEP uses the Never eXecute (NX) bit on supported CPUs to mark blocks of memory so
that they can store data but never run code. Therefore, even if malicious users succeed
in loading malicious code into memory, they are unable to run it.
Windows 8.1 improves the process of automatically providing security updates through
Windows Update or a corresponding enterprise tool. A system that is regularly updated is far
less likely to be susceptible to malware.
52
Chapter 4
Security in Windows 8.1
In addition, the security status and configuration tool in Windows Action Center provides a
complete picture of the system’s current status, identifying problems in the Windows Firewall,
for example, and flagging virus protection that’s out of date.
Windows Defender
Windows 8 was the first version of Windows to ship antimalware software in the box,
and Windows 8.1 continues this configuration. In previous Windows versions, Windows
Defender was the name of a limited antispyware solution. In Windows 8 and 8.1, this is a
full-featured solution (the successor to Microsoft Security Essentials) capable of detecting all
sorts of malicious software. Because it supports the ELAM feature, it also prevents rootkits
that try to infect third-party boot drivers. In Windows 8.1, Windows Defender for the first
time includes network behavior monitoring.
Windows Defender is designed to be unobtrusive, updating automatically and providing
messages only when required to do so. It is intended primarily for use in unmanaged PCs. In
enterprise settings, you’ll probably want to use an alternative antimalware solution. Microsoft’s
System Center 2012 Endpoint Protection, which uses the same engine as Windows Defender
and also includes support for ELAM, is designed for use with enterprise-management tools.
A number of third-party solutions that meet those same criteria are also available.
Internet Explorer 11
Windows 8.1 includes Internet Explorer 11 as part of a default installation. The new version,
which replaces Internet Explorer 10 in an upgrade to Windows 8, includes a plethora of new
features that are covered in Chapter 5, “Internet Explorer 11.” This section focuses exclusively
on security-related changes. (And no, you can’t replace Internet Explorer 11 with an earlier
version—at least, not without using a virtual machine.)
The most notable change in Internet Explorer 11 is that Enhanced Protected Mode (EPM)
is enabled in the desktop browser by default. This feature was available in Internet Explorer 10
in Windows 8 but was disabled by default. You can control this option using Group Policy or
on an individual basis, using a setting on the Advanced tab of the Internet Options dialog
box, as shown in Figure 4-3.
Blocking malware
Chapter 4
53
FIGURE 4-3 In Internet Explorer 11 on Windows 8.1, Enhanced Protected Mode is enabled by default.
Note that 64-bit EPM processes are not enabled by default.
EPM restricts the ability of browser processes and plugins to perform potentially
­dangerous actions in the following ways:
■■
■■
■■
On devices running 64-bit Windows 8.1, EPM is capable of using 64-bit processes. This
feature increases the effectiveness of memory-protection features such as ASLR by
­giving them a larger space in which to work.
Internet Explorer is restricted from accessing personal information such as files unless
the user explicitly grants permission. Access is managed by a broker process that works
seamlessly in the background, using standard dialog boxes without any potentially
confusing additional security prompts.
On corporate networks, tab processes in the Internet zone (which load untrusted
pages) do not have access to a user’s domain credentials. In addition, those processes
cannot act as web servers or make connections to intranet servers. The net effect is to
protect corporate network resources from unauthorized access.
Enhanced Protected Mode also requires that browser add-ons be rewritten for
­compatibility. Incompatible add-ons won’t load in EPM-enabled browser processes at all.
The Adobe Flash add-on that is included with Internet Explorer 11 is compatible with EPM.
Administrators who want to restrict the ability of Flash content to run can control it using
ActiveX Filtering or Group Policy.
54
Chapter 4
Security in Windows 8.1
SmartScreen and phishing protection
Windows 8.1 includes two separate but related features that share a common name:
­SmartScreen. The basic security principle is simple: It’s much more effective to stop malicious
code from running in the first place than to remove it after it’s already secured a foothold on
the system.
Independently of the browser, SmartScreen checks any executable file when it’s run. If the
file is marked as being from an online source, a web service checks a hash of the file against
Microsoft’s application-reputation database. Files that have established a positive reputation
and are thus presumed to be safe are allowed to run. Files with a negative reputation that are
presumed to be malicious are blocked.
Windows SmartScreen technology is particularly effective at preventing untrained users
from running files of unknown provenance that have a greater-than-normal chance of being
malicious. When SmartScreen identifies a file that has not yet established a reputation, it
blocks execution and displays a warning message like the one shown in Figure 4-4.
FIGURE 4-4 If a Windows 8.1 user attempts to run an unrecognized app, Windows SmartScreen blocks
the app’s execution. Administrators can override this behavior.
Local administrators can override the block shown in Figure 4-4 by clicking the More Info
link and then clicking Run Anyway. If you want to disable the SmartScreen technology or
adjust its behavior (for example, to prevent users from overriding SmartScreen actions), you
can use Group Policy.
Securing data
Watch enough movies and read enough pulp fiction, and you’ll be forgiven for assuming
that the greatest threat to your data is from a mad genius cybercriminal in a far-off land like
Freedonia. In reality, your data is more likely to be stolen by an old-fashioned thief, with no
technical skills required. As we increasingly rely on mobile devices, those risks increase.
Securing data
Chapter 4
55
If someone walks away with a laptop or tablet stuffed with confidential corporate
i­nformation, you’ll be able to sleep better if you made sure the data on that device is
­encrypted and protected by a strong password. You’ll get an even better night’s sleep if
you’re able to wipe the confidential data clean from an administrative console.
In certain regulated industries, having a comprehensive and effective data-protection plan
isn’t just a good idea, it’s mandated by law and backed by threats of fines and jail time.
As a direct response to those realities, Windows 8.1 incorporates robust data-encryption
options that encompass a full range of devices. Device encryption is now a standard f­ eature in
all editions of Windows. That’s a significant change from previous editions, which ­traditionally
reserved that feature for business/enterprise editions. Encryption can be enabled out of
the box on ­Windows 8.1 and can be configured with additional BitLocker protection and
­management capability on the Pro and Enterprise editions.
Device encryption
On any device that supports the InstantGo (formerly Connected Standby) standard and is
running Windows 8.1, data is encrypted by default. On a device that clears those two hurdles,
even one intended for casual use by consumers, encryption is automatically enabled for the
operating-system volume during setup.
This encryption initially uses a clear key, allowing access to the volume until a local
administrator signs in with a Microsoft account and, by so doing, automatically turns on
encryption. The recovery key is automatically stored in the user’s SkyDrive storage in case an
administrator needs to recover the encrypted data later (if a password is lost, for example,
or an employee leaves the company and management needs to access encrypted files on a
company-owned device). If you need to reinstall the operating system or move the drive to a
new PC, you can unlock the drive with the recovery key (which is stored at http://skydrive
.com/recoverykey) and re-seal the drive with a key from your new machine.
BitLocker Drive Encryption
From a technological standpoint, Device Encryption and BitLocker are identical. Both ­device
encryption and BitLocker default to 128-bit Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), but
­BitLocker can be configured to use AES-256.
The most important advantages for BitLocker in enterprise scenarios involve c­ ontrol
and manageability. BitLocker comes with a long list of features that are ­appropriate for
­enterprise-class data protection, including the capability to use a TPM plus a PIN for
­encryption as well as Network Unlock, which allows management of BitLocker-enabled
­devices in a domain environment by providing automatic unlocking of operating-system
volumes at system reboot when connected to a trusted wired corporate network.
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Chapter 4
Security in Windows 8.1
Normally, BitLocker uses software-based encryption to protect the contents of Windows
operating-system and data volumes. On devices without hardware encryption, BitLocker
­encrypts data more quickly than in previous versions. With BitLocker, you can choose to
­encrypt only the used space on a disk instead of the entire disk. In this configuration, free
space is encrypted when it’s first used. This results in a faster, less disruptive ­encryption
process so that enterprises can provision BitLocker quickly without an extended time
­commitment.
An administrator can use Group Policy settings to require that either Used Disk Space Only
or Full Encryption is used when BitLocker Drive Encryption is enabled. The following Group
Policy settings are located under the \Computer Configuration\Administrative Templates\
Windows Components\BitLocker Drive Encryption path of the Local Group Policy Editor:
■■
Fixed Data Drives\Enforce drive encryption type on fixed data drives
■■
Operating System Drives\Enforce drive encryption type on operating system drives
■■
Removable Data Drives\Enforce drive encryption type on removable data drives
For each of these policies, you can also require a specific type of encryption for each drive
type. In addition, the user experience is improved by allowing a standard user, one without
administrative privileges, to reset the BitLocker PIN.
In Windows 8 and 8.1, BitLocker supports a new type of storage device, the Encrypted
Hard Drive, which includes a storage controller that uses hardware to perform e
­ ncryption
­operations more efficiently. Encrypted Hard Drives offer Full Disk Encryption (FDE), which
means encryption occurs on each block of the physical drive rather than data being
­encrypted on a per-volume basis.
Windows 8.1 is able to identify an Encrypted Hard Drive device, and its disk-management
tools can activate, create, and map volumes as needed. Windows 8.1 also provides API
­support for applications to manage Encrypted Hard Drives independently of BitLocker Drive
Encryption. The BitLocker Control Panel allows users to manage Encrypted Hard Drives using
the same tools as on a standard hard drive.
Remote business data removal
In Windows 8.1, administrators can mark and encrypt corporate content to distinguish it
from ordinary user data. When the relationship between the organization and the user ends,
the encrypted corporate data can be wiped on command using Exchange ActiveSync (with
or without the OMA-DM protocol). This capability requires implementation in the client
­application (Mail, for example) and in the server application (Exchange Server). The client
­application determines whether the wipe simply makes the data inaccessible or actually
­deletes it. This feature includes support for an API that allows third-party apps to adopt the
remote-wipe capability.
Securing data
Chapter 4
57
CHAPTER 5
Internet Explorer 11
The two faces of Internet Explorer in Windows 8.1 59
What’s new in Internet Explorer 62
Deploying and managing Internet Explorer 11 64
Compatibility changes in Internet Explorer 11 67
■
■
■
■
F
or nearly two decades, each new version of Microsoft Windows has been
­accompanied by a new version of Internet Explorer. Windows 8.1 carries on that
­tradition, including Internet Explorer 11 as part of a standard installation.
Internet Explorer 11 is a significant upgrade from its predecessor, Internet Explorer 10,
which debuted with Windows 8. It includes an assortment of important security
­enhancements, comprehensive support for modern web standards, and excellent
­performance, especially on touchscreen devices. Collectively, these improvements make
Internet Explorer 11 a sound choice for enterprise networks.
Microsoft has released Internet Explorer 11 as an upgrade for Windows 7, making it
possible to standardize on this version even in mixed computing environments. Several of
the most significant changes in Internet Explorer 11 are available only with Windows 8.1,
however. IT pros looking for detailed information on deploying Internet Explorer can find
useful resources at http://technet.microsoft.com/en-US/ie.
The two faces of Internet Explorer in Windows 8.1
In Windows 8.1, Internet Explorer 11 uses a single engine with two distinctly different
user experiences, depending on your starting point.
Clicking the Internet Explorer tile on the Start screen (or tapping a pinned tile on
the Start screen) launches the immersive Internet Explorer 11 user experience, which
­incorporates the same user-interface conventions found in apps available from the
­Windows Store. By contrast, opening Internet Explorer on the desktop uses the ­familiar
multitabbed interface in a desktop window that can be maximized, minimized, and
resized like any other desktop program.
59
Figure 5-1 shows the immersive browsing experience.
FIGURE 5-1 The user experience for tabbed browsing in Internet Explorer 11 moves the tab thumbnails
along the bottom and adds support for up to 100 tabs per session.
Compared with its predecessor, the immersive Internet Explorer 11 includes a broad set of
usability enhancements that improve the everyday browsing experience significantly. This list
includes the following features:
■■
■■
■■
■■
60
Tabs Internet Explorer 11 supports up to 100 tabs per window. (By contrast, Internet
Explorer 10 supports only 10 tabs per session.) Tabs can be suspended for efficient use
of memory and battery, and switching between tabs is faster. The tabs bar appears at
the bottom of the Internet Explorer screen, and tab thumbnails scroll left and right if
more tabs are open than will fit in the screen width at one time.
Side-by-side browsing In the immersive Internet Explorer experience, opening a
link in a new window opens a second browser window alongside the original window,
with each taking up half the screen.
Address bar In another response by Microsoft to feedback from users, Internet
Explorer 11 includes a new option to always show the tabs and address bar instead of
keeping them hidden.
Favorites Internet Explorer 11 significantly improves the experience of saving and
managing Favorites when using the immersive browser. By clicking the star button in
the command bar to save a Favorite, you can select a custom thumbnail image and
a location for the saved favorite, using the same group of folders available from the
desktop user experience, as shown in Figure 5-2.
Chapter 5
Internet Explorer 11
FIGURE 5-2 Arrows along the top of the Save Favorite dialog box let you pick a thumbnail for
the favorite. You can also choose a location, using the same folders as Internet Explorer on the
desktop.
If you want to customize an individual Windows 8.1 installation so that shortcuts to saved
webpages always open in Internet Explorer on the desktop, you can do so by using the
­Opening Internet Explorer section at the top of the Programs tab in the Internet Options
dialog box. This section contains three options, as shown in Figure 5-3.
FIGURE 5-3 The three options at the top of the Internet Options dialog box allow you to specify which
user experience Internet Explorer uses when you click a link.
The two faces of Internet Explorer in Windows 8.1
Chapter 5
61
The default option, Let Internet Explorer Decide, generally uses the immersive browser
if you open or switch to Internet Explorer from a pinned shortcut on the Start screen, and
it uses the desktop browser when your navigation begins on the desktop. The other two
­options make the immersive browser or desktop browser the default for all actions, regardless
of their starting point.
When browsing a page in the immersive browser, you can open that page in the d
­ esktop
browser by using the Page Tools menu in the command bar. (It looks like a wrench.) To
­perform the reverse operation—opening the current page in the immersive browser when
starting from the desktop—right-click an open tab and then click Open In Immersive Browser.
Note that Internet Explorer must be set as the default browser to use the immersive
­ xperience. If another browser is set as the default, tapping or clicking the Internet Explorer
e
tile on the Start screen opens the desktop browser only.
What’s new in Internet Explorer
Internet Explorer 10, which debuted in Windows 8, included a long list of new features.
Internet Explorer 11 expands that list significantly. Many of the changes in both iterations are
under the hood, with significant improvements in performance and reliability as well as better
support for interactions on touchscreen devices. Here are some of the highlights for features
you and your users are likely to see:
■■
■■
■■
62
Adobe Flash as a platform feature Adobe Flash is included by default,
­automatically updated via Windows Update and available even in the immersive
­Internet Explorer 11, which does not allow the installation of any browser plug-ins.
The ability to play back Flash content can be disabled via the Internet Options dialog
box or using Group Policy.
Do Not Track (DNT) The DNT header is enabled as part of the Express setup option
to enhance privacy online. This feature sends a DNT=1 signal with every page request,
enabling users to express their preference about whether their browsing history should
be collected and used for targeted ads, content, and other purposes. Additionally,
third-party Tracking Protection Lists can block or allow content from specific sites,
further protecting users’ privacy. These features are controllable through Group Policy,
as discussed at the end of this chapter.
Enhanced Protected Mode Enhanced Protected Mode provides additional security
compared with the Protected Mode that was first introduced in Internet Explorer 7.
Enhanced Protected Mode enforces additional restrictions on the browser’s capabilities,
preventing many common exploit scenarios and also limiting the information that the
browser can provide to untrusted sites. In Internet Explorer 11, Enhanced Protected Mode
is enabled by default.
Chapter 5
Internet Explorer 11
MORE INFO See http://blogs.msdn.com/b/ie/archive/2012/03/14/enhanced-protected-
mode.aspx for more information on Enhanced Protected Mode.
■■
Support for CSS3 and HTML5 Internet Explorer 10 added support for several
­additional CSS features, including CSS3 regions; flexible box, grid, and multicolumn
layout; device adaptation; 3-D transforms; fonts; animations; gradients; and transitions.
HTML5 features supported for the first time in Internet Explorer 10 include history,
Web Workers, WebSockets, Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG), asynchronous script
­execution, and several application programming interfaces (APIs) like AppCache, File,
and Drag-and-Drop, among other features. Internet Explorer 11 enhances flexible box
support and adds support for drag and drop touch, Mutation Observers, and Pointer
Events.
MORE INFO See the Developer Guide for Internet Explorer 11 at http://msdn
.microsoft.com/en-us/library/bg182636(v=vs.85).aspx for more information about
­additional web standards.
■■
■■
■■
■■
Support for Web Graphics Library (WebGL) The WebGL standard does for web
applications what OpenGL does for desktop applications. Internet Explorer 11 is the
first version to support WebGL, which enables developers of web applications to
­deliver smooth animations and 3-D graphics.
Flip Ahead Internet Explorer 11 uses the Flip Ahead feature (configurable through
privacy settings and in Group Policy) that makes navigating sites through the touch
interface easy. Users can “flip” to the next page with a swipe and navigate backward
using a swipe gesture as well. This is especially useful when browsing search results and
­multipage news articles.
Sync Internet Explorer 10 included the capability to automatically sync history and
typed URLs, Favorites/Bookmarks, and home-page settings. Internet Explorer 11
expands sync capabilities to include recently opened browser tabs, saved ­website
­passwords, and a broader range of settings and preferences. The list of saved tabs
­appears on the New Tab on other devices where the user signs in with the same
­Microsoft account.
F12 Developer Tools This toolbar, which is normally hidden, is designed primarily
for web developers to debug code, fix compatibility issues, improve performance, and
resolve problems with the display of webpages. This toolbar appears when you press
the F12 shortcut key (naturally); it’s also available from Internet Explorer’s Tools menu.
The F12 Tools pane is normally docked to the bottom of a browser window but can be
dragged out and positioned separately for maximum visibility, as shown in Figure 5-4.
What’s new in Internet Explorer
Chapter 5
63
FIGURE 5-4 Each of the icons along the left side of the F12 Developer Tools leads to advanced features
suitable for web developers and website administrators, like this profile of network performance for a
target page.
Deploying and managing Internet Explorer 11
A determined user can adjust hundreds of settings for Internet Explorer 11. In an enterprise
environment, the most common way to ensure that these settings are uniform across an
organization is to use the Internet Explorer Administration Kit (IEAK). Using the IEAK, you can
customize, brand, and distribute Internet Explorer in any supported language across your
organization. (In some Windows versions, the Internet Explorer executable files are included
with the IEAK package; this isn’t necessary in Windows 8.1, because Internet Explorer is
­installed with the operating system.)
Settings you can adjust with the help of the IEAK Wizard include the following feature
groups:
64
■■
Language Selection
■■
Feature Selection
■■
Corporate Install
■■
User Experience
■■
Browser User Interface
■■
Search Providers
■■
Important URLs - Home page and Support
■■
Accelerators
■■
Favorites, Favorites Bar, and Feeds
Chapter 5
Internet Explorer 11
■■
Browsing Options
■■
Connection Settings
■■
Automatic Configuration
■■
Proxy Settings
■■
Security and Privacy Settings
The most recent version of IEAK is available from http://ieak.microsoft.com.
Use the IEAK to configure initial settings; use Group Policy objects (GPOs) to enforce
those settings and control the behavior of Internet Explorer in its immersive mode and on
the ­desktop. In total, there are almost 1,500 settings that can be changed in Group Policy for
Internet Explorer 10 and 11.
MORE INFO You can find a comprehensive list of all new Group Policy settings for
­Internet Explorer 10 at http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/hh846775. Most of them
apply to Internet Explorer 11 as well. A corresponding document listing new Group Policy
settings exclusive to Internet Explorer 11 is available at http://technet.microsoft.com/
en-US/library/dn321453.aspx.
Table 5-1 highlights the most interesting of the new Group Policy settings for Internet
Explorer 11.
TABLE 5-1 Useful Group Policy settings for Internet Explorer 11
Setting
Description
Open Internet Explorer Tiles on the desktop
When Tiles are opened, they are opened using Internet
Explorer for the desktop.
Set how links are opened in Internet Explorer
When links are opened, such as when clicked from
an email, this setting configures whether they will be
opened in Internet Explorer or Internet Explorer for the
desktop.
Turn off loading websites and content in the
­background to optimize performance
Prevents Internet Explorer from preemptively ­loading
websites and content in the background, a default
­setting that speeds up performance when the user clicks
a hyperlink.
Allow Microsoft services to provide enhanced
­suggestions as the user types in the Address bar
Allows Internet Explorer to send the user’s ­keystrokes to
a Microsoft service that provides ­enhanced suggestions
as the user types in the Address bar.
Allow Internet Explorer to use the SPDY/3 network
protocol
Determines whether Internet Explorer can use the
SPDY/3 network protocol, which optimizes the ­latency
of HTTP requests through ­compression, m
­ ultiplexing,
and prioritization; this feature is ­enabled on a per-zone
basis.
Don’t run antimalware programs against ActiveX
controls
When enabled, this setting blocks Internet Explorer
from checking with your antimalware program to see if
it’s safe to create an instance of the ActiveX control.
Deploying and managing Internet Explorer 11
Chapter 5
65
Setting
Description
Turn on Enhanced Protected Mode
Enables Enhanced Protected Mode for any zone that
uses Protected Mode and prevents users from ­disabling
Enhanced Protected Mode.
Turn on 64-bit tab processes when running in
Enhanced Protected Mode on 64-bit versions of
Windows
Determines whether Internet Explorer 11 uses 64-bit
processes (for greater security) or 32-bit processes
(for greater compatibility) when running in Enhanced
Protected Mode on 64-bit versions of Windows.
Turn off Adobe Flash in Internet Explorer and
prevent applications from using Internet Explorer
technology to instantiate Flash objects
This setting disables Flash within Internet Explorer.
Turn off phone number detection
Disables the feature that recognizes phone numbers in
webpages and turns them into hyperlinks, which can
be used to invoke the default phone application on the
system (Skype or Lync, for example).
Turn off the flip ahead with page prediction
­feature
Disables background loading of pages in Internet
Explorer when using the swipe gesture or Forward
­button. Doesn’t apply to Internet Explorer for the
­desktop.
Prevent deleting ActiveX Filtering, Tracking
Protection and Do Not Track data
When enabled, this setting prevents users from ­deleting
this data for visited websites.
Always send Do Not Track header
When this setting is enabled, Internet Explorer sends a
DNT:1 header with all HTTP and HTTPS requests; when it’s
disabled, a DNT header is sent only if a Tracking Protection
List is enabled or inPrivate Browsing mode is used.
Start Internet Explorer with tabs from last
­browsing session
When enabled, Internet Explorer will begin with the same
tabs from the previous session. This cannot be overridden
by users so that they can begin with a home page.
Install new versions of Internet Explorer
­automatically
Administrators might want to disable this setting to
prevent Internet Explorer from being automatically
­upgraded when a new version is available.
Notify users if Internet Explorer is not the default
web browser
Users will be notified that Internet Explorer is not the
default web browser. If this policy isn’t set, u
­ sers will
be able to choose whether to be notified. This ­setting
replaces the Prevent Changing Default Browser Check
setting from previous Internet Explorer versions.
Other Group Policy settings exist for configuring the behavior of HTML5 features such as
WebSockets—including the maximum number of connections and whether the WebSocket
object is enabled. Other HTML5-related settings include configuration for the behavior and
storage of indexed databases, AppCache, and websites in general.
Internet Explorer 11 no longer supports the following Group Policy settings:
66
■■
Turn on Internet Explorer 7 Standards Mode
■■
Turn off Compatibility View button
■■
Turn off Quick Tabs functionality
■■
Turn off the quick pick menu
■■
Use large icons for command buttons
Chapter 5
Internet Explorer 11
Compatibility changes in Internet Explorer 11
In recent versions of Internet Explorer, Microsoft has used Compatibility View to help deal
with sites that display incorrectly when viewed in Internet Explorer. The most frustrating
display problems arise when the user visits a site that should work correctly with ­Internet
­Explorer 11 but is forced into rendering improperly because the site tries to use code
­designed for an older version of Internet Explorer.
In Internet Explorer 11, Microsoft has changed the user-agent string that the browser
sends to websites when it visits. The new user-agent string is
Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.3; Trident/7.0; rv:11.0) like Gecko
Compared with earlier versions of Internet Explorer, this user-agent string includes the
­following changes:
■■
■■
■■
The compatible (“compatible“) and browser (“MSIE“) tokens have been removed.
The “like Gecko“ token has been added for consistency with other browsers. (Gecko is
the name of the rendering engine used by Mozilla Firefox.)
The version of the browser is now reported by a new revision (“rv“) token.
On well-written pages, these changes should prevent Internet Explorer 11 from being
detected as an out-of-date browser. For pages that incorrectly detect the browser, Microsoft
uses a Compatibility View list, which is downloaded automatically as part of default
Windows 8.1 installation. You can add sites individually to this list by using the Compatibility
View d
­ ialog box on the Tools menu. (Tap Alt or F10 to make this menu visible.)
Resources that can help developers build sites that work properly with Internet Explorer 11
include the following:
■■
■■
■■
modern.IE A set of tools to help developers updates sites using modern standards,
incorporating best practices from MSDN documentation including the ­Compatibility
Cookbook. An intranet scanner is available for download, for use on corporate
­networks. It’s available at http://modern.ie.
Compat Inspector A JavaScript-based testing tool to help sites migrating to modern
standards. It’s available at http://ie.microsoft.com/testdrive/HTML5/CompatInspector/.
Compatibility Cookbook Documentation on changes to features, general tools,
and guidance for sites updating to recent versions of Internet Explorer. It’s available at
http://msdn.microsoft.com/library/ie/dn384059.
Compatibility changes in Internet Explorer 11
Chapter 5
67
CHAPTER 6
Delivering Windows Store
apps
What is a Windows Store app? 70
How Windows Store apps work 71
Distributing a Windows Store app 74
Managing Windows Store apps 79
■
■
■
■
D
evices designed and built for Windows 8 and its successors can do something their
predecessors in the Windows family never could. These modern machines can run a
new class of modern apps, built using the new Windows Runtime (WinRT) platform, with
a clean user experience that takes full advantage of touch-enabled devices.
Windows 8.1 includes a large selection of Microsoft-authored apps in this category,
all of them included as part of a default Windows 8.1 installation. Additional apps are
­available through the Windows Store, whose distinctive green tile can be found on the
Windows 8.1 Start screen. In addition, enterprises running Windows 8.1 can make c­ ustom
line-of-business (LOB) apps available to users inside their organization. These apps can
be deployed using enterprise app stores or through a process called sideloading.
In addition to creating and deploying apps, administrators can also use Group Policy
to control the use of all apps, including those that are built in to Windows 8.1. For
­example, an organization might choose to remove the Sports app or prohibit it from
running.
If you read enough technical material for developers and administrators, you’ll find
this class of apps referred to variously as Windows Store apps, WinRT apps, modern apps,
and immersive apps. You might also find occasional references to Metro, a code name
used in prerelease documents for Windows 8 and still used by some writers today. In this
book, I use the term Windows Store apps.
This chapter looks at the ways you can deliver and control Windows apps. But first,
let’s take a closer look at what these apps are and what they do.
69
What is a Windows Store app?
Unlike every previous Windows version, Windows 8 (and its successor, Windows 8.1) can
run apps built on two separate platforms. Virtually any desktop program that runs under
Windows 7 will also run on Windows 8.1. The new WinRT apps run only on Windows 8 and
Windows 8.1.
NOTE Devices powered by Windows RT 8.1 can run most Windows Store apps but are
unable to run desktop programs, including installers and browser add-ons. For a more
detailed discussion of what makes this edition different, see Chapter 10, “Windows RT 8.1.“
To build apps for Windows 8.1, you must use Microsoft Visual Studio 2013 running on
Windows 8.1. If you run these development tools on Windows 8, or if you use Visual Studio
2012 on any supported Windows version, you can target apps for Windows 8, but not for
Windows 8.1.
Three Visual Studio 2013 editions—Professional, Premium, and Ultimate—are intended for
professional developers. A fourth edition, Visual Studio Test Professional 2013, consists of an
integrated test toolset that allows collaboration between developers and testers. The most
common way to acquire these tools is with an MSDN subscription. Visual Studio Express 2013,
the free member of the family, includes the same core tools as its paid brethren as well as the
Software Development Kit (SDK) for developing Windows apps.
NOTE More information about Visual Studio features and pricing is available from
http://www.microsoft.com/visualstudio.
Within the Visual Studio 2013 environment, you can take your choice of multiple
­ rogramming languages for developing Windows apps. For example, an organization
p
­standardized around Visual C# development with the requisite in-house expertise can
continue to use Visual C# to develop LOB Windows apps. Other organizations might choose
Microsoft Visual Basic or Visual C++, both of which are traditional client-side languages that
can be used to build server-side web applications.
Notably, you can also use JavaScript, HTML, and cascading style sheets (CSS) for Windows
app development. This capability allows you to build fully functional Windows apps that
leverage modern web technologies that might already be in use within your organization.
Regardless of the language you choose, the resulting apps all use the same Windows
Runtime application programming interface (API) to access the standard Windows app library
and other application functions. The end product is an app package (with the extension
.appx), which contains a manifest and the files that make up the app. The manifest is used by
Windows 8.1 when it installs or removes the associated app.
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The package manifest also specifies the app’s capabilities. For enterprise apps you
c­ reate using a company account (described later in this chapter), you can apply s­ pecial-use
­capabilities that determine whether the app requires enterprise authentication and
­programmatic access to protected resources or connected devices.
MORE INFO For a full discussion of app capabilities with an emphasis on enterprise app
development, see the MSDN Dev Center article “App capability declarations (Windows
Store apps),“ at http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-US/library/windows/apps/hh464936.aspx.
How Windows Store apps work
Windows Store apps are designed and built first and foremost for use with
­touchscreen-equipped devices. Touch is not a requirement, however; these apps also work
well on conventional PCs and notebooks, where every action can be accomplished with a
mouse and keyboard or other pointing device.
Windows Store apps have the following common characteristics:
■■
■■
■■
■■
Apps are installed on a per-user basis, using a simple installation mechanism that does
not require local administrative rights.
Every app has an application tile, which can be programmed to update dynamically,
making it a live tile. (Hint: In enterprise apps, live tiles can draw from your business
data, making the Windows 8.1 Start screen a dashboard where employees can get
­at-a-glance status updates and messages.)
Apps must adhere to a strict set of APIs that prevent them from directly ­accessing
system resources. That limits an app’s ability to perform many functions that are
­commonplace for desktop apps. The trade—off is those limitations help ensure the
­security and reliability of the underlying operating system by blocking the most
­common attack vectors.
The default user experience is immersive, using the full screen with a chromeless design
that eschews menus and borders. Although a limited number of app commands are
visible, most are available in a normally hidden app bar at the top and bottom of the
screen, which appears in response to a swipe gesture or a right-click. Figure 6-1 shows
the Weather app (included in Windows 8.1) with its app bar visible.
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FIGURE 6-1 Swiping from the bottom edge on a tablet (or right-clicking on a conventional PC)
reveals the commands on the app bar in a Windows Store app.
■■
■■
All apps share a common group of user-interface conventions and gestures designed
for use with touch, pen, traditional pointing devices, and keyboards.
The width (but not the height) of a Windows Store app can be adjusted, allowing two
or more apps to be arranged side by side on one or more displays. In this arrangement,
the Windows desktop functions like an app and can be snapped alongside a Windows
Store app. Windows 8.1 significantly improves this capability compared to Windows 8,
which allowed only a single app to snap into a slim bar alongside another app or the
Windows desktop. Figure 6-2 shows the new capabilities in action.
FIGURE 6-2 Windows 8.1 allows Windows Store apps and the desktop to be resized in a ­flexible
range of widths—side by side, in this example. On large, high-resolution displays, you can
­arrange up to four apps per display.
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■■
Apps can interact with the operating system and with other apps using the controls on
the charms menu. The Settings charm is the standard means for adjusting app-specific
configuration options, which take over the top of the Settings pane as shown in the
previous figure. The Share charm allows a user to send a selection from the current app
to another app—to a new mail message or the (new in Windows 8.1) Reading List app,
or to another LOB app that connects to a web service on your intranet.
Figure 6-3 shows the Share charm in action, using a real-world example: If you want to
encourage a colleague to install the official Twitter app from the Windows Store, you
can find its listing in the Store, click the Share charm, and send that link via email. You
can also bookmark the link in the Reading List app (new in Windows 8.1).
FIGURE 6-3 Using the Share charm allows you to share information between Windows Store apps.
This example includes options to bookmark a link to a specific Store app or share it via email or a
social network.
■■
■■
Apps can trigger notifications and alerts, using standard APIs.
In the interest of power management, a crucial factor on mobile devices, most
­Windows 8.1 apps are suspended within a few seconds when the user switches away
from the app. Some apps (music players and apps that need to download files in the
background, for example) can be configured for background operation.
MORE INFO You can find more information on the app life cycle, including details about
the inner workings of suspend and resume, at http://msdn.microsoft.com/library/windows/
apps/hh464925.aspx.
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By default, apps in Windows 8.1 update automatically, with no user intervention required.
This is a significant change from Windows 8, which used the Store’s live tile to notify users
that updates for one or more of their apps were available but required that those updates be
installed manually. The auto-update option can be disabled using the App Updates options
available from Settings in the Store. In managed environments, you can use Group Policy to
disable access to the Store app. (See the final section of this chapter for more details.)
Distributing a Windows Store app
A finished app can be submitted to the Windows Store, where it is subject to a set of rules
and must be approved for distribution. Distributing through the Windows Store makes an
app available to the general public and has its own set of rules. After it is distributed in the
Windows Store, the app is available to the public.
LOB apps distributed within an organization use an enterprise app store that is separate
from the public Windows Store. These apps don’t need to be certified by Microsoft, but they
do need to be signed with a certificate that is trusted by one of the trusted root authorities
on the system.
You’ll have best results using a code signing certificate issued by an internal certificate
authority or an external certificate vendor that is already part of the trusted root store. Except
for limited testing purposes, avoid using the self-signed certificate generated automatically
by Visual Studio when creating a new app project.
This section describes the process for each distribution route.
Publishing an app to the Windows Store
Distributing an app through the Windows Store involves multiple steps, starting with the
requirement to open a developer account. You can choose either an individual account or
a company account. For most readers of this book, a company account is the right choice,
because it supports three types of advanced capabilities for apps:
■■
■■
■■
74
enterpriseAuthentication This capability allows the use of Windows credentials for
access to a corporate intranet and is typically used in LOB apps that connect to servers
within an enterprise.
sharedUserCertificates Financial and enterprise apps require this capability to
­access software and hardware certificates, such as certificates stored on a smartcard
and used for authentication.
documentsLibrary Use this capability for apps that require programmatic access
to the user’s Documents library, rather than allowing access to that library using the
­file-picker control.
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Use your developer account to register with the Windows Store and submit apps to
­ icrosoft for approval. Every app is reviewed according to the terms described in the
M
­“ Windows 8 app certification requirements” document (http://msdn.microsoft.com/library/
windows/apps/hh694083.aspx).
The requirements for an app to be accepted, listed, and sold in the Windows Store include
the following:
■■
The app must provide value and be fully functional.
■■
The app must provide more functionality than a simple website and can’t just display ads.
■■
The app must behave predictably and reliably, even on low-powered computers.
■■
The app must support a snapped layout and suspend and resume to a reasonable state.
■■
■■
■■
The app must adhere to privacy and security practices, including the presence of a
privacy statement and opt-in consent to share personal information.
The app’s content and subject matter must be appropriate for many audiences or be
rated to prevent inappropriate age groups from accessing its content.
The app must be identified easily with a unique name and other information.
MORE INFO See http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-US/library/windows/apps/br230836.aspx
for more information on the requirements for Windows app developers.
The certification process to distribute an app through the Windows Store is a multistep
process that begins when you upload the app package to Microsoft, where it’s checked for
compliance with various app certification requirements.
During the certification and review process, Microsoft performs the following tests:
1. Security tests, to verify that the app is not malicious.
2. Technical compliance tests. The Windows App Certification Kit is used to test the app
for compliance. The Windows App Certification Kit can also be used by the developer
prior to submission to perform the same tests and help ensure a successful test when
performed by Microsoft.
3. Content compliance tests. As the final test prior to release, the content compliance test
is a manual process performed by someone at Microsoft.
When an app is approved, Microsoft digitally signs the app to prevent tampering, and
then it publishes the app to the Windows Store. The publisher can set the release date and
other aspects of the app.
MORE INFO See http://msdn.microsoft.com/windows/apps/ for more information on the
process of developing and submitting an app to the Windows Store. See http://msdn
.microsoft.com/library/windows/apps/hh694062.aspx for a checklist that can be helpful
when preparing an app for submission.
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Distributing apps within an enterprise
Distributing an app within an enterprise (sideloading) requires that the client PCs be ­running
Windows 8.1 Enterprise edition, Windows 8.1 Pro, or Windows RT 8.1. The most common
scenario is to develop an LOB app and automatically push it out to computers within the
organization. Aside from the edition of Windows 8.1 being used, there are three primary
requirements for sideloading apps:
■■
■■
■■
The target computer must have sideloading enabled. (This is automatic when a
Windows 8.1 Enterprise computer is joined to the domain. To enable sideloading on
a Windows 8.1 Enterprise computer that is not joined to the domain or on a device
running Windows 8 Pro or Windows RT, you must use a sideloading product activation
key, which can be acquired through the Volume Licensing Service Center.)
The Group Policy setting Allow All Trusted Apps To Install must be enabled.
The app must be signed by a Certificate Authority (CA) that is trusted by the target
computer.
The Group Policy setting is found within the Windows Components\App Package
­Deployment hierarchy, as shown in Figure 6-4.
FIGURE 6-4 Configuring the Allow All Trusted Apps To Install Group Policy setting is a crucial step in
­allowing sideloading of internal apps that require the use of the Windows Store.
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NOTE The detailed steps for installing a sideloading product key on a device that’s not
domain-joined are beyond the scope of this chapter. See http://msdn.microsoft.com/
library/windows/apps/hh975356.aspx and http://technet.microsoft.com/library/hh852635
.aspx for more information.
Assuming that the certificate is installed and trusted on the target computer, and that
Group Policy has been set accordingly, the app package can be installed using the
Add-AppxPackage Windows PowerShell cmdlet. This cmdlet is run on the local computer
where the app is being installed; this step can be scripted in an enterprise scenario.
MORE INFO See http://technet.microsoft.com/library/hh856045.aspx for a listing of all the
related installation cmdlets in PowerShell for Windows apps.
After installing the app package, you must run a series of validation tests before ­publishing
or deploying it. The Windows App Certification Kit is part of the Windows 8.1 Software
­Development Kit (SDK) and is also available as a standalone package. For details and
­download links, see http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-US/windows/apps/bg127575.
To create Windows Store apps for use with Windows 8.1, you must use the Windows App
Certification Kit 3.0. This version includes performance and usability improvements over
­previous releases, but more importantly it includes tests that are essential for certifying
­Windows 8.1 apps. (It also supports the Windows 7, Windows 8, and Windows 8.1 Desktop
App Certification Programs.)
The list of new tests includes the following:
■■
■■
■■
■■
■■
■■
Supported directory structure Ensures that apps don’t create a structure on disk
that results in files longer than MAX_PATH (260 characters).
File extensions and protocols Limits the number of file extensions and protocols
that an app can register.
Platform appropriate files Checks for packages that contain cross-architecture
binaries.
Banned file check Examines apps for use of outdated or prerelease components
known to have security vulnerabilities.
JavaScript background tasks Verifies that apps that use JavaScript have the proper
close statement in the background task so that the app doesn’t consume battery
power unnecessarily.
Framework dependency rules For all frameworks, ensures that apps are taking the
right framework dependencies for Windows 8 and Windows 8.1.
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The Windows App Certification Kit is a wizard-driven tool whose first step allows you to
choose the Windows Store App option, which in turn leads to the list of tests shown in Figure 6-5.
FIGURE 6-5 The Windows App Certification Kit runs your app package through a gauntlet of tests to
verify that it meets the requirements for distribution.
The test cycle can take some time and should not be interrupted. When it completes, you
see the results, as shown in Figure 6-6.
FIGURE 6-6 After your Windows Store app completes all tests, the results are shown here.
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After your enterprise app is verified, you can deploy the app across your organization in
one of two ways.
You can allow employees to install apps automatically through an enterprise app store,
which is managed by System Center Configuration Manager R2 (required for Windows 8.1)
or Windows Intune. This scenario does not require administrator rights. Using ­Configuration
Manager, the user can visit an App Catalog website to find and install enterprise apps.
­Using Windows Intune allows the user to access apps from a Windows Store App called the
­Company App Portal.
You can install the app automatically for each user of the target device by using the
­ icrosoft Deployment Toolkit, the Deployment Image Servicing and Management (DISM)
M
tool, or the Add-AppxProvisionedPackage cmdlet in Windows PowerShell. These options add
the app to the Windows image so that the app is installed for every user automatically, when
the user signs in for the first time. This process is called provisioning.
MORE INFO For full details on how to provision LOB apps, see the “Add and Remove Apps
Using DISM” topic at http://technet.microsoft.com/library/hh852635.aspx.
To add an app to an image that has already been deployed, use the Add-AppxPackage
cmdlet in Windows PowerShell. There is no limit to the number of apps you can add in this
fashion.
To update an app, you must remove the provisioned app and then deploy the new version.
The update is applied the next time the user signs in.
Note that you can install provisioned LOB apps on any Windows 8.1 or Windows RT 8.1
device. However, the apps will not run until the computer meets the sideloading requirements
described earlier in this chapter by being joined to a domain or having a sideloading product
key installed.
Managing Windows Store apps
Certain aspects of Windows apps can be managed through Group Policy. The previous
­section detailed the Group Policy setting to enable LOB apps to be installed. Other settings
are configured using AppLocker.
NOTE This chapter assumes that you’re familiar with AppLocker and therefore doesn’t give
an overview of its capabilities. For more information on AppLocker, see http://technet
.microsoft.com/library/hh831440.aspx.
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AppLocker is managed through Group Policy Management Editor, as shown in Figure 6-7.
FIGURE 6-7 AppLocker managed through Group Policy Management Editor.
Creating the rules for Windows apps involves configuring rules within the Packaged App
Rules section. Right-click this option to display a context menu that allows you to configure
rules manually, use the Automatically Generate Rules option (recommended), or use the
­Create Default Rules option.
The Automatically Generate Rules option is the simplest route. Choosing this option runs a
background command and then displays the dialog box shown in Figure 6-8.
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FIGURE 6-8 Choose this AppLocker option to automatically generate rules for currently installed apps on
a target device running Windows 8.1.
The next step shows the number of packaged apps that were detected as well as the
­number of rules that will be automatically generated, as shown in Figure 6-9.
FIGURE 6-9 Before accepting this mass list of automatically generated rules, you should review the apps
to ensure that the resulting rules match your organizational security policy.
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As a final step, click Review The Packaged Apps That Were Analyzed. That opens a dialog
box similar to the one shown in Figure 6-10, where you can clear the check box next to any
item for which you do not want to generate a rule automatically.
FIGURE 6-10 This dialog box allows you to choose which apps you want to include in your AppLocker
rules list.
Choosing the Create Default Rules option from the context menu automatically generates
a rule that allows all signed-in users to run all signed packaged apps, as shown in Figure 6-11.
FIGURE 6-11 The default rule allows any user in the Everyone group to run signed Windows Store apps.
For most organizations, this default is unacceptably broad and potentially allows unwanted
apps to run. As an alternative, you can right-click this rule and use the Properties dialog box
to change this policy from Allow to Deny. After that step is complete, use the Exceptions tab
to specify apps that will be allowed to run.
If the process of configuring exceptions for individual apps seems too cumbersome, you
can choose to add exceptions using installed packages. For this to work, the app must already
be installed on the computer from which you’re using AppLocker. Figure 6-12 shows the Local
Group Policy Editor, where the default rule has already been set to Deny. Double-clicking the
rule opens the Deny Properties dialog box.
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FIGURE 6-12 To add exceptions to a default rule that blocks the running of packaged Windows Store
apps, use the Exceptions tab shown here.
Clicking Add opens a dialog box that allows you to select from a list of installed packaged
apps (similar to the list shown earlier in Figure 6-10).
In a typical enterprise scenario, it’s common practice to configure exceptions for apps
that are allowed, while disallowing apps that an organization doesn’t want its users to
run. It’s worth noting that exceptions can be configured based on Active Directory group
­membership, so certain groups could be allowed to run the built-in Finance or Travel apps, for
example.
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CHAPTER 7
Recovery options in
­Windows 8.1
Using Windows Recovery Environment 85
Customizing Windows Recovery Environment 90
Refresh and reset options 91
Microsoft Diagnostics and Recovery Toolset 94
■
■
■
■
M
odern businesses have a mix of managed and unmanaged devices to deal with. For
conventional PCs that are deployed on a site where IT staff is readily available, any
hardware or software problems can usually be dealt with quickly. In the case of a device
that won’t boot, you can use your deployment environment to restore a standard image
and then restore the user’s environment from the network.
Unmanaged devices, or managed mobile devices that are in use on the road, pose a
different set of problems. For those situations, Windows 8.1 includes a set of recovery
tools that are available for a user (perhaps with assistance from the help desk) to ­perform
common repair operations, up to and including a complete refresh of the default
­operating system.
For organizations that have a volume license agreement with Software Assurance,
an additional, extremely powerful resource is available: the Microsoft Diagnostics and
Recovery Toolset (DaRT).
This chapter discusses all of these recovery options.
Using Windows Recovery Environment
What happens when a Windows 8.1 device won’t boot? The starting point for all repair
and recovery options is Windows Recovery Environment (Windows RE), which includes
a handful of essential tools for troubleshooting issues, repairing startup problems, and
(usually as a last resort) resetting or restoring the operating environment.
85
MORE INFO See http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/hh825173.aspx for a d
­ etailed
technical overview of Windows RE.
When you install Windows 8.1 using Setup, the Windows RE image file (WinRE.wim) is
copied to a separate volume. This arrangement has several advantages: It allows the device
to boot to the recovery tools even if the volume containing the Windows system files is
­damaged or protected by BitLocker Drive Encryption. It also prevents users from accidentally
or deliberately modifying or removing these recovery tools. On Universal Extensible Firmware
Interface (UEFI)–based PCs, the image is copied to a dedicated Windows RE Tools volume.
On BIOS-based PCs, the image is copied to the System volume. In either case, the volume is
formatted as NTFS.
If you use system images to deploy Windows 8.1, you need to manually configure the
recovery partitions, a topic discussed later in this chapter.
Windows RE is based on Windows Preinstallation Environment (Windows PE), runs
­ utomatically, and attempts to repair the system if Windows detects a problem with booting
a
the computer. The following scenarios cause Windows RE to run at start-up:
■■
■■
Two consecutive failed attempts to start Windows
Two consecutive unexpected shutdowns within two minutes after the boot process
completes
■■
A Secure Boot error
■■
A BitLocker error on a touch-only device
When Windows detects any of these situations, it attempts an automatic repair. If the
repair is unsuccessful, you are taken to the full Windows RE environment.
You can also start Windows RE manually, using any of the following techniques:
■■
■■
■■
■■
Click the Settings charm, click Power, and hold the Shift key while clicking Restart.
From PC Settings, click Update And Recovery, click Recover, and then click Restart Now
(found under the Advanced Startup heading). Note that this option has been moved
from its Windows 8 location, where it was found under the General heading.
At a command prompt, run the Shutdown /r /o command.
Restart the device using a USB flash drive or DVD that contains the Windows RE files.
You can create this drive at any time using the RecoveryDrive.exe utility. The Windows
RE files are also available if you boot from Windows 8.1 installation media and choose
Repair Your Computer from the bottom of the Install Now screen.
Any of those actions automatically restarts the device and displays the Choose An Option
menu, shown in Figure 7-1.
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­ indows 8.1
FIGURE 7-1 The Choose An Option menu is your entry to Windows Recovery Environment.
In the Choose An Option menu, clicking Continue allows the user to attempt to boot into
the default operating system without taking any further action. (This is the correct option if
the system booted into Windows RE because of a transient issue that doesn’t need repair.)
If multiple operating systems are installed on the computer, the Choose An Option menu
might also display Use Another Operating System, which allows you to choose an alternative
operating system to boot into.
Click Use A Device if you want to boot from a USB flash drive, DVD drive, or network boot
server.
Clicking Troubleshoot opens the Troubleshoot screen, which displays three options:
■■
Refresh Your PC
■■
Reset Your PC
■■
Advanced Options
The Refresh and Reset options are covered fully later in this chapter.
If you click Advanced Options, you’ll see a menu that resembles the one shown in
Figure 7-2.
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FIGURE 7-2 This Windows RE menu provides access to essential troubleshooting and recovery tools.
Table 7-1 lists the functions available from the Advanced Options menu, many of which are
direct descendants of recovery tools found in previous Windows editions.
TABLE 7-1 Advanced options for recovery
Option
Description
System Restore
Allows you to choose a restore point created earlier and
restore the system configuration.
System Image Recovery
Replaces everything on the computer with a system ­image
created using the Windows 7 or Windows 8 Windows
Backup utility. (In Windows 8.1, this utility is available in the
desktop Control Panel, via the System Image Backup link,
at the bottom of the File History option.)
Startup Repair
If you choose this option, Windows attempts to diagnose
and automatically correct common boot problems.
Command Prompt
Opens an administrative command prompt, where you can
use command-line tools such as Bootrec and Bcdedit.
Startup Settings
Changes the boot process so that you can alter other
­options.
MORE INFO On a device that uses the UEFI, the Advanced Options menu contains
an additional UEFI Firmware Settings option. If you’re unable to reach this menu on a
­UEFI-equipped tablet, power down the device, press and hold the Volume Down hardware
button, and then press the Power button. This is the only way to enable or disable Secure
Boot, for example.
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­ indows 8.1
Clicking Startup Repair allows you to manually attempt the same set of repairs Windows
uses when it detects a failure and launches Windows RE automatically. (This feature was
­previously called Automatic Repair.) System Image Recovery requires a previously saved
­image from an external storage device.
MORE INFO See http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/hh824837 for more
­information on Startup Repair and System Image Recovery.
The Startup Settings option displays several additional items that can be selected to
help troubleshoot or correct a problem. Several options should be familiar if you’ve used
the equivalent recovery options in earlier Windows versions, including Safe Mode
(with Networking and Command Prompt options), debugging, and boot logging. New in
Windows 8 and 8.1 are options you use to disable driver signature enforcement and early
launch antimalware protection. These options should be used with extreme care, ­because
they potentially expose the system to significant security risks.
The Startup Settings page is shown in Figure 7-3.
FIGURE 7-3 Use this Windows RE menu to restart using specific diagnostic and troubleshooting options.
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Customizing Windows Recovery Environment
A command-line tool, REAgentC.exe, allows an administrator to configure a Windows RE
boot image and a push-button reset recovery image, and to administer recovery options
and ­customizations. You can run the REAgentC command on an offline Windows image or
on a PC running Windows 8.1. See http://technet.microsoft.com/library/hh825204 for more
­information on this tool.
Many organizations develop custom recovery tools to help troubleshoot, manage, and fix
computer issues quickly. The recovery image on your organization’s PCs can be configured so
that these tools and other customizations are available on the Boot Options menu.
As noted earlier, Windows RE is based on Windows Preinstallation Environment (Windows PE).
This means that the optional components available in Windows PE are also available to be added
to a Windows RE image. Customizing the Windows RE image requires the Windows Assessment
And Deployment Kit (ADK).
NOTE Working with Windows PE and installing the ADK is beyond the scope of this
­chapter. See http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/hh825110.aspx for more
­information on using and customizing Windows PE.
Prior to customizing Windows RE, you need to set up the environment. This involves
several steps, as described in Table 7-2. These steps assume that you have downloaded and
installed the ADK (http://www.microsoft.com/en-US/download/details.aspx?id=39982), that the
ADK is running on a Windows 8.1 computer, and that you have the Windows product DVD
available.
The overall process for customizing Windows RE is as follows:
1. Mount a Windows image.
2. Locate the Windows RE image inside of that Windows image.
3. Mount and customize the Windows RE image.
TABLE 7-2 Steps to begin customizing Windows RE
90
Step
Description
Run the Deployment and
Imaging Tools Environment
Open a command prompt with the ADK’s Deployment and Imaging Tools
available. You must run this as an administrator.
Copy a Windows image to the
computer
Use xcopy to copy a Windows image from the Windows product DVD to
your computer. Any of the valid images on the DVD can be used.
Mount the Windows image
Use the Deployment Image Servicing and Management (DISM) tool to
mount the Windows image that you just copied in the previous step.
Mount the Windows RE image
Mount the Windows RE image on the computer so that it can be edited.
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­ indows 8.1
Once the initial steps are complete, the Windows RE image is ready to be customized. The
customization process varies depending on the needs of your organization, but it frequently
includes some or all of the items described in Table 7-3.
TABLE 7-3 Typical customization points for Windows RE
Customization
Description
Add drivers
You can include device and other drivers that are critical to booting the
­computer. This is accomplished with the DISM tool.
Add a custom tool to the
Boot Options menu
You can add a tool that shows up within the Boot Options menu screen. See
http://technet.microsoft.com/library/jj126994.aspx for more information
­specific to this process.
Add language packs
Language support must be added to both the Windows RE image and to each
of the optional components included in the Windows PE image.
Add Windows PE optional
components
Several optional components are available with Windows PE and can be
added to the image. See http://technet.microsoft.com/library/hh824858
.aspx and http://technet.microsoft.com/library/hh824926.aspx for more
­information on this process.
Once the image has been customized, the next step is to unmount the image and its
corresponding Windows image and then deploy the image. Deployment of a Windows RE
image involves updating computers that have a Windows RE partition and updating any other
recovery media used in your organization.
MORE INFO See http://technet.microsoft.com/library/hh825221.aspx for more information
on deploying a Windows RE image.
Refresh and reset options
When you click Troubleshoot on the Choose An Option menu in Windows RE, the ­resulting
menu (shown in Figure 7-4) includes two push-button reset options intended to ­allow users
to recover or restore a system quickly: Refresh Your PC and Reset Your PC.
Refresh and reset options
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FIGURE 7-4 The two options at the top of this menu are intended to help users restore the original
­operating system configuration.
On PCs purchased through normal retail channels, the push-button reset recovery image
is normally contained in a dedicated partition at the end of the hard drive. This arrangement
makes it possible to delete the recovery image (after optionally copying it to external media).
This recovery image can consist of a single image file or a set of split image files. Windows 8.1
adds the ability to compress this image file using a new file format with the file name
­extension .esd instead of using the standard .wim file.
In enterprise deployments, you can customize these push-button reset features using
scripts that can install apps or preserve additional data. You can also use a custom image
instead of the image included with an original equipment manufacturer (OEM) PC.
When a computer has repeated problems, many organizations choose to wipe the
c­ omputer and restore it from their standard build image. The push-button reset options
­described here can accomplish the same result without wiping out potentially valuable data.
MORE INFO For detailed instructions on how to customize a system image for use with
push-button reset features, see http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/jj126997.aspx.
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Refresh Your PC
The Refresh Your PC option changes all PC settings back to their defaults while retaining
data files, personalization settings, and apps installed from the Windows Store. Files in the
user’s profile (except those in the AppData folder) are preserved, as are any folders created in
the root of the system drive and on other partitions. Any desktop programs included in the
recovery image are restored. All user-installed desktop programs are removed, and a list of
removed programs is saved on the desktop.
The Refresh Your PC option boots into Windows RE and gathers user accounts, settings,
data, and Windows Store apps. It then expands the operating system image file from the
Recovery partition, moving the current operating-system files to a Windows.old folder.
The contents of the following folders, including all subfolders, are completely replaced with
the corresponding folders from the recovery image:
■■
\Windows
■■
\ProgramData
■■
\Program Files
■■
\Program Files (x86)
■■
%UserProfile%\AppData
■■
Any OEM folders added to the recovery image
After a reboot, the saved settings, data files, and apps are applied to the new operating
system. This process can take several minutes to complete.
Note that the Refresh Your PC option requires a significant amount of free disk space to
function—Microsoft recommends that you have at least enough space to hold the expanded
operating-system image, plus a buffer of 20 percent of that space.
Reset Your PC
The Reset Your PC option removes all apps and user data, including user accounts and
­personalization settings. This option is useful when you plan to sell an existing PC or reassign
it to a new employee.
Because this process, by design, involves significant data loss, the user must click through
multiple warning screens that clearly describe what’s about to happen. The reset process
also includes an option to scrub data from the drive so that it cannot be easily recovered
­using disk utilities. As Figure 7-5 notes, the Fully Clean The Drive option can add hours to the
process. Note that this option, while thorough, is not certified to meet any government or
industry standards for data removal.
Refresh and reset options
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FIGURE 7-5 The Reset Your PC process includes an option to securely wipe the drive so that confidential
data files can’t be recovered by the next owner of the device.
During a reset, the PC boots into Windows RE. If the system contains multiple partitions
that are accessible by the user (such as a dedicated data volume), the user is given the option
to format the entire drive or just the Windows partition. All user accounts, data files, settings,
applications, and customizations on the Windows partition are removed. The recovery image
is applied to the newly formatted Windows partition, and a new Boot Configuration Data
store is created on the system partition.
When the system restarts, the user must go through the standard procedures for ­setting
up the PC and creating a new user account, a process formally known as the out-of-box
­experience (OOBE) phase.
Microsoft Diagnostics and Recovery Toolset
The Diagnostics and Recovery Toolset (DaRT) is part of the Microsoft Desktop ­Optimization
Package (MDOP), which is available by subscription for volume-license customers with
­Software Assurance. It can also be acquired for evaluation purposes through Microsoft
­TechNet and MSDN subscriptions.
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­ indows 8.1
DaRT version 8 is designed to work with Windows 8. It will not install on a device running
Windows 8.1, although a new version should appear around the time of General Availability
and might be available by the time you read this.
The chief benefit of DaRT is that it provides extended recovery and repair options
­ eyond those provided in Windows RE. DaRT supports UEFI boot and can create Windows
b
­Imaging Format (.wim) or ISO images that can be deployed with USB media. Using DaRT, an
­organization can also allow remote connections within the recovery partition, thus enabling
support staff to reach a computer for recovery without having to be physically present at the
computer.
A default DaRT installation adds a Recovery Image Wizard that can be used to create an
advanced recovery tool for IT professionals. As Figure 7-6 shows, this image can include a rich
collection of tools that allows local users to perform a range of recovery tasks. This toolset
includes Disk Commander, which can be used to repair damaged disk partitions and volumes;
a Crash Analyzer, which makes sense of crash dump files; and a Hotfix Uninstall tool that can
be used if a hotfix causes problems with a PC.
FIGURE 7-6 Using the DaRT Recovery Image Wizard, you can add any or all of these diagnostic and repair
tools to the recovery image.
Microsoft Diagnostics and Recovery Toolset Chapter 7
95
This image can be customized to add drivers and other items necessary to aid in the
­recovery of a computer.
Once an image has been created, it can be deployed in a number of ways:
■■
Manual boot with removable media such as a USB flash drive
■■
Manual installation as a recovery partition on the computer’s hard drive
■■
■■
Automated installation as a recovery partition using enterprise-deployment tools, such
as System Center Configuration Manager
As a network service delivered using Windows Deployment Services
Some organizations deploy DaRT as the default recovery partition in standard images.
Doing so makes the recovery tools available at all times and eliminates the need for bootable
removable media.
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CHAPTER 8
Windows 8.1 and networks
What’s new in Windows 8.1 networking? 97
Mobile broadband support 98
Changes in the Wi-Fi user experience 98
Connecting to corporate networks 100
IPv6 internet support 103
■
■
■
■
■
O
ne of the key design goals of Windows 8.1 is to enable mobility features in portable
PCs and tablets. So it should come as no surprise that Windows 8.1 adds significant
new features to the networking capabilities introduced in Windows 8. It also introduces
some changes to the user interface for managing wireless connections.
What’s new in Windows 8.1 networking?
The following wireless networking features are new in Windows 8.1:
■■
■■
■■
Near field communication (NFC) tap-to-pair printing Enabling ­printing
­support on an enterprise network can be difficult and confusing, with the
­worst-case scenario being that a sensitive document is sent to the wrong printer.
Windows 8.1 devices that include NFC support can connect to an NFC-enabled
enterprise printer with a simple tap. Existing printers can be NFC enabled with
NFC tags.
Wi-Fi Direct printing Wi-Fi Direct is a new standard that allows devices to
connect to one another over a wireless network in peer-to-peer fashion, without
requiring an access point. Although the most popular uses of the technology
involve consumer scenarios such as media playback, the same technology can also
be used on enterprise networks to allow easy and secure connections to printers
without requiring additional drivers or software on a Windows 8.1 device.
Native Miracast wireless display Miracast is another standard that uses
Wi-Fi Direct to stream audio and video from a device to a Miracast-enabled
display or projector. An obvious application in enterprise environments is to pair a
Windows 8.1 tablet or laptop to a conference room projector with Miracast, then
project your presentation without wires or dongles.
97
Mobile broadband support
Windows 8 introduced a built-in management tool and integrated, mobile broadband class
driver to simplify the process of configuring mobile broadband connections on portable
­devices. The result is that virtually all mobile broadband devices work out of the box. Using
the Windows Connection Manager, you can manage all wireless radios side by side.
Because mobile broadband connections often involve data caps, Windows 8.1 includes
metered connection awareness features that allow you to turn off or delay potentially
­expensive network activities while a metered connection is in use.
Windows 8.1 adds support for broadband tethering, which allows you to share the
data connection from a mobile broadband-enabled PC or tablet, turning the device into a
­personal Wi-Fi hotspot. This capability has been common in phones for several years and
is now available in PCs and tablets that are capable of using those same mobile broadband
­connections.
Changes in the Wi-Fi user experience
Windows 8.1 also changes the user experience for connecting to conventional Wi-Fi access
points. As in Windows 8, the availability of a wireless network is indicated by an icon that
appears when you click the Settings charm. Clicking an available network from the list allows
you to enter a wireless access key.
As in previous versions, Windows 8.1 maintains a list of wireless access points to which
a device has previously connected. If you select the Connect Automatically check box, the
­access key is saved and synced to other devices that sign in using the same Microsoft account.
To view the properties of the current Wi-Fi connection, open PC Settings, click Network,
and select the connection name from beneath the Wi-Fi heading. That displays a page like
the one shown in Figure 8-1, where you can define a connection as Metered. This option is
especially useful when a worker is traveling and connecting to networks that might charge by
the amount of data transferred rather than by time.
Windows 8.1 automatically prioritizes networks using its own straightforward algorithm.
Ethernet (wired) networks always have first priority, followed by Wi-Fi networks, and then
mobile broadband. You can manually connect to a mobile network when a Wi-Fi network is
in range, but your preference is saved only for the current session.
Each time you connect to a new wireless network, its name and properties, including an
access key if you enter one, are added to the list of saved networks. When you choose the
Connect Automatically check box, the connection information is saved and the network
is added to the top of the list of preferred networks. The next time you’re in range of that
access point Windows 8.1 will automatically make a wireless connection. When resuming
from standby, reconnecting to a wireless network is much faster than in previous Windows
versions—Windows 8.1 is capable of connecting to a saved wireless network in less than two
seconds.
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FIGURE 8-1 Using PC Settings, you can view and adjust properties for the currently connected Wi-Fi
network.
Unlike in previous Windows versions, there’s no easy way to view and manage saved
network profiles other than the currently connected one. To see a list of all saved wireless
profiles, you need to open a command prompt and use the following command:
netsh wlan show profiles
To delete a saved profile, use the following command:
netsh wlan delete profile name="profile_name"
The string following name= matches the name of the saved profile from the list you ­displayed
earlier. Note that the profile name is not case-sensitive, but it must be enclosed in quotes.
The option to display a connection as metered lets you see total data usage on that
c­ onnection, with an option to reset the counter when you start a new billing period.
Figure 8-2 shows an example of metered usage monitoring.
Changes in the Wi-Fi user experience
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99
FIGURE 8-2 Using PC Settings, you can view and adjust properties for the currently connected Wi-Fi
network.
The Networks panel also provides easy access to Airplane Mode, which disables all internal
network connections, including Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, GPS, and mobile broadband. Each individual
component can be re-enabled from the Network panel in PC Settings.
Connecting to corporate networks
Remote networks are by definition untrusted. A worker who connects to a free Wi-Fi
hotspot in an airport or uses a hotel’s guest network runs the risk of having the connection
­intercepted by a malicious outsider, with potentially devastating consequences for data on a
corporate network.
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Windows 8.1 and networks
The solution, historically, is to use a virtual private network (VPN), which encrypts the
c­ onnection between the corporate network and the remote PC so that packets traveling over
the untrusted network are unreadable by an attacker.
VPN client improvements
Windows 8 included a basic VPN client. Windows 8.1 and Windows RT 8.1 add support for a
wider range of VPN providers, including Check Point, F5, Juniper Networks, and SonicWall,
in ­addition to the Microsoft client. Setting up a VPN connection is accomplished from the
­Network pane in PC Settings, as shown in Figure 8-3.
FIGURE 8-3 The built-in VPN client supports multiple VPN providers and allows the use of smartcards
and one-time passwords in lieu of usernames and passwords.
Connecting to corporate networks
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The other major new feature in Windows 8.1 is the ability to automatically trigger VPN
connections when you select an app or resource that requires the VPN. If you access your
company’s intranet site from a remote network, for example, Windows 8.1 automatically
prompts you to sign in with one click. This feature is available with third-party VPN providers
when using the built-in VPN client.
BranchCache
BranchCache was first introduced in Windows Server 2008 as a way of caching content from
wide area network (WAN) web and file servers locally at branch offices. BranchCache greatly
reduces network traffic by accessing reused files from the local cache instead of the WAN.
BranchCache in Windows Server 2012 R2 and Windows 8.1 are designed to work optimally
together.
BranchCache supports two modes:
■■
■■
Hosted Cache mode In this configuration, the hosted cache server is a central
repository of data that is downloaded from the central office. This repository does
not require a dedicated server but can be on an existing server at the local branch.
In this model, when a file is requested, the central server is contacted as it would be
without BranchCache. The central server then authenticates the request and sends the
­metadata for the file only. The client then searches the local hosted cache repository
for the file. If it is not cached locally, the file is then taken from the central server and
copied from the client to the local hosted cache.
Distributed Cache mode Using this option saves the cache on individual client
­machines. This quick deployment cache method is best suited for small offices with fewer
than 50 users. It can also automatically self-configure as Hosted Cache mode once server
infrastructure is implemented. In this model, when a file is requested, the central server is
contacted as it would be without BranchCache. However, instead of ­pointing the client to
a hosted cache repository, it provides the location of another client’s cache repository. If
the file is not cached on one of the local clients, it is retrieved from the central server and
cached into the requesting client’s cache repository.
NOTE In distributed cache mode, cache availability decreases as PCs go offline.
DirectAccess
Remotely connecting to corporate network resources through a VPN involves hassles, starting
with configuration headaches and continuing with potential security problems if users do
not frequently reconnect to the network to receive security and Group Policy updates. The
improved VPN client in Windows 8.1 reduces some of this friction, but there’s an even better
solution.
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Windows 8.1 and networks
DirectAccess allows remote users to securely access shared resources, websites, and
­ pplications every time they connect their DirectAccess-enabled mobile device to the
a
­Internet. DirectAccess does not require frequent logins or access maintenance, and it
even allows remote computer management to administrators without an established VPN
­connection. This availability of constant connection minimizes frustration and improves
­efficiency in everyday “out-of-the-office” needs.
DirectAccess requires Windows 8.1 Enterprise edition and Windows Server 2012 or later.
IPv6 Internet support
Most currently implemented networks have the ability to connect to the Internet via IPv4.
However, IPv4 has address limitations that are beginning to show strain and cannot keep up
with the quickly expanding Internet. Currently, network address translation (NAT) is used to
share addresses in local networks, allowing homes and small businesses to have one IPv4
address but multiple devices connected to the Internet. The widespread use of NATs makes
location-based services less effective and degrades many applications that rely on direct
communication.
To remedy these issues, IPv6 was created with unimaginable scale, offering 3x10^38
available IP addresses (enough for every person to have billions to themselves). In addition
to offering an immense address range, IPv6 also offers new security features such as IPsec,
which provides security at the packet level. During the transition from IPv4 to IPv6, dual-stack
topologies are being implemented. This allows devices to be configured with both IPv6 and
IPv4 addresses. In Windows 8 and 8.1, if an IPv6 address is present, it will automatically take
connection priority over the IPv4 address. Because some applications do not support IPv6,
Windows will automatically select the correct connection for applications, using a method
called address sorting. These advanced Windows features indicate that Windows 8.1 is fully
capable of supporting the IPv6 Internet.
Windows Server 2012 R2 expands support for IPv6 in Group Policy and allows these new
settings to be used with Windows 8.1. The expanded support includes the following:
■■
■■
■■
TCP/IP printers can be configured to use IPv6 addresses.
In any Group Policy preference, item-level targeting can be used to set an IPv6 address
instead of an IP address range.
For VPN connections, a Use IPv6 check box is available.
More details about these settings are available at http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/
library/dn265973.aspx.
IPv6 Internet support
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CHAPTER 9
Virtualization in Windows 8.1
Client Hyper-V 106
Desktop virtualization options 108
Application virtualization 111
User Experience Virtualization (UE-V) 113
■
■
■
■
I
n its most common configurations, Windows 8.1 is installed on a physical device,
with the operating system, apps, and data running directly from local storage media.
That approach has undeniable advantages in terms of performance, but it also causes
­management headaches for administrators. If the local storage on that physical device
fails, its data is gone for good, for example. And switching to a different device means
that the user no longer has access to her familiar environment.
The solution to these and other challenges is virtualization, which comes in
­ ultiple forms. Windows 8.1 Pro and Enterprise include the capability to create v­ irtual
m
­machines that can run other copies of Windows, even different editions, using the
same ­professional-strength hypervisor found in Windows Server products. In corporate
­settings, administrators can use server-based virtualization tools to give users access to
apps or entire desktop environments, which can be delivered to a wide range of device
types.
This chapter explains how each of these different virtualization options works in
­Windows 8.1.
MORE INFO Virtualization topics could fill an entire book all on their own, so this
chapter just scratches the surface. For detailed discussions and lab guides for all
types of virtualization solutions, see the Microsoft Desktop Virtualization website at
http://www.microsoft.com/dv.
Let’s start with the simplest solution of all, one that requires only the most minimal
setup to get started.
105
Client Hyper-V
Windows 8 was the first version of Windows to include a built-in hypervisor, which
­allows d
­ evelopers and IT pros to create virtual machines running Windows or alternative
­operating systems, primarily for test and evaluation purposes. Client Hyper-V is also a useful
­compatibility tool, allowing users to run programs that require earlier versions of Windows
without having to give up the benefits of Windows 8.1.
Client Hyper-V uses the same technology and virtual machine formats as in Windows
­Server 2012 and Windows Server 2012 R2, which allows you to move virtual machines
­between server and client machines and run them without modification. Client Hyper-V runs
on 64-bit versions of Windows 8.1 Pro and Enterprise. It supports 32-bit and 64-bit guest
operating systems, which can be created on the fly from physical installation media or by
mounting an ISO file. You can also create a virtual hard disk (VHD) from a physical disk, even
one that contains a running operating system, using the Windows Sysinternals Disk2vhd tool,
available from http://technet.microsoft.com/en-US/sysinternals/ee656415.
MORE INFO In enterprise environments, the Virtual Machine Manager in System Center
allows you to convert physical computers into virtual machines. For an overview of the
process, see “How to Deploy a Virtual Machine by Converting a Physical Computer (P2V),”
at http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/hh368990.aspx.
Client Hyper-V is not enabled in a default installation of Windows 8.1 Pro or Enterprise.
Before you can use it on an individual PC or as part of a standard image, you need to first
confirm that you’re running a 64-bit operating system, that the host machine supports
­Second Level Address Translation (SLAT), and that this feature is enabled. Most modern 64-bit
PCs designed for enterprise use include this capability.
To enable Client Hyper-V, follow these steps:
1. From the desktop Control Panel, click Programs, and then select Programs And
­Features.
2. Select Turn Windows Features On Or Off.
3. Select the Hyper-V option, and make sure that the additional items beneath it are
selected as well, as shown in Figure 9-1. Click OK, and then restart the PC to enable the
features.
106 Chapter 9
Virtualization in Windows 8.1
FIGURE 9-1 The Client Hyper-V components must be enabled using this dialog box.
To enable Client Hyper-V using Windows PowerShell, use the following cmdlet:
Enable-WindowsOptionalFeature-Online-FeatureName Microsoft-Hyper-V
Once Hyper-V is enabled, you must fully shut down and restart your computer to
c­ omplete installation. Upon restart, you will be able to create and manage virtual machines
(VMs) through Hyper-V Manager or the Hyper-V Module for Windows PowerShell. Figure 9-2
shows the settings for a virtual machine running Windows 8.1 Enterprise.
Client Hyper-V
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FIGURE 9-2 One useful feature of Client Hyper-V in Windows 8.1 is the capability to use Dynamic
­Memory, which allows the host machine to provide the VM with memory when it’s needed.
You can use the Virtual Machine Connection program to work with VMs or access them
via Remote Desktop. Note that a Hyper-V machine can use up to 12 monitors, with support
for wireless networks and sleep and hibernate states on the host machine. Hyper-V machines
do not natively support audio or USB devices, although these capabilities can be enabled via
­Remote Desktop by specifying local resources on the device running the Remote Desktop
client. Multitouch capabilities are not available with a Hyper-V VM, although single-touch
capability is available when used on compatible hardware.
Desktop virtualization options
In a world where users are likely to switch frequently among multiple devices, some of them
unmanaged, it’s important to provide a way for those users to access a familiar, consistent
working environment securely. For enterprises, Microsoft provides a range of solutions that
allow these managed desktops to run in the data center. Users can access these hosted
­desktops for work, keeping their personal environment separate.
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Windows 8.1, Windows Server 2012 R2, and the Microsoft Desktop Optimization Pack
(MDOP) offer virtualization solutions that provide a rich user experience, virtually identical to
that on a physical desktop. Additional server-side solutions allow virtualization of individual
apps and of the user experience. In the data center, administrators can effectively manage
apps and data and ensure that security and compliance policies are properly enforced.
These desktop virtualization options are powered by Remote Desktop Services (RDS) in
Windows Server 2012 and Windows Server 2012 R2. RDS provides a single platform to deliver
any type of hosted desktop, while RemoteFX provides a consistently rich user experience:
■■
■■
■■
Rich experience RemoteFX uses a built-in software graphics processing unit
(GPU) or hardware GPU on the server to provide 3-D graphics and a rich multimedia
­experience. RemoteFX also offers USB redirection and multitouch support so that users
can be productive even on tablets. Performance is consistent even over high-latency,
low-bandwidth networks, including wide area networks (WANs).
Lower cost FairShare ensures high system performance by distributing system
resources dynamically. User-profile disks provide the flexibility to deploy ­lower-cost
pooled and session-based desktops while enabling users to personalize their
­experience. It also supports lower-cost disk storage like Direct Attached Storage.
Streamlined management A simplified wizard makes setting up desktop
­virtualization easier with automatic configuration of VMs. The management console
on the server provides powerful administration of users, VMs, and sessions, without
requiring additional tools. VMs and sessions can be intelligently patched through
­randomization and throttling of tasks, ensuring high system performance.
MORE INFO For more information about Remote Desktop Services,
including a series of useful lab guides to help you set up a test environment,
see http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/hh831447.aspx.
Using RDS, you can deliver virtualized desktops using any of the following methods:
■■
■■
■■
Personal VMs Personal VMs give users access to a dedicated, high-performance
desktop over which they have full administrative control.
Pooled VMs Pooled VMs give users access to high-performance desktops from
­connected devices. RDS assigns VMs on demand from an existing pool to users. When
a user logs off a VM, RDS returns the VM to the pool for another user.
Session-based desktops Session-based desktops provide access to applications,
data, and shared desktops that are centralized in the data center. This option is a
­variation on the traditional terminal services approach to desktop virtualization.
Desktop virtualization options
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NOTE With pooled VMs and session-based desktops, users can personalize their
­experiences, although they cannot install applications. Roaming user profiles and folder
redirection enable personalized environments, while RDS adds support for user-profile
disks. With user-profile disks enabled, RDS mounts a virtual hard disk containing the user’s
settings and data to the user’s profile folder and persists between sessions.
Regardless of the common benefits of these methods, your choice of which one to use
depends on various considerations, as described here and summarized in Table 9-1:
■■
■■
■■
■■
■■
Personalization Do users need the ability to customize their desktops? If so, what
level of customization do they need? With session-based desktops and pooled VMs,
users have limited personalization capability with user-profile disks (that is, the
­ability to persist their data across different logins). However, they cannot keep their
­user-installed applications across logins. On personal VMs with administrator access,
users can change any aspect of their desktop, including installing applications that
persist across multiple logins.
Application compatibility Session-based desktops share a common server
­operating system; therefore, any applications that are to be installed need to be
­compatible with Windows Server 2012 or later. In VM scenarios, however, Windows 8.1
is running in the VM, allowing installation of applications that are compatible with that
client operating system. Administrators control applications installed on pooled VMs.
User density Because session-based desktops share a single-server operating
system, the number of users that a single server can accommodate is always going to
be higher than either VM scenario. With pooled VMs, because user data is not stored
locally (but can be stored on a separate user profile disk), the sizes are typically smaller
than personal VMs. As a result, pooled VMs have slightly higher density. You can
improve the density of pooled and personal VMs by using user state virtualization and
application-virtualization technologies on the VM, but they will always have a lower
density than session-based desktops.
Image count If maintaining a single image is important, the best way to achieve that
goal is through session-based desktops or by deploying pooled VMs. In a ­session-based
desktop, all users share a single server image. With pooled VMs, all users use a cloned
copy of a single master image. Single-image configurations are easier to manage and
have lower costs than personal VMs, in which each user uses an individual image.
Cost Because session-based virtualization offers the highest densities and a
­single image, it is usually easier to manage at the lowest cost. Pooled VMs have
the ­single-image and management benefits of session-based virtualization, but
­reduced densities and increased management effort means that they are more
110 Chapter 9
Virtualization in Windows 8.1
­ xpensive to ­deploy. Personal VMs have the lowest density and highest management
e
­efforts, m
­ aking them the most expensive deployment method. Organizations can
­reduce ­overall costs by taking advantage of lower-cost storage options, application
­virtualization, dynamic memory, and user-profile disks.
TABLE 9-1 Choosing the right desktop virtualization option
Session-Based Desktop
Pooled VMs
Personal VMs
Personalization
**
**
***
Application compatibility
**
***
***
Ease of management
***
**
*
Cost effectiveness
***
**
*
* = Good; ** = Better; *** = Best
Application virtualization
Microsoft offers two solutions for application virtualization, both available in Windows Server
2012 and Windows Server 2012 R2. The first is RemoteApp, a feature that is based on session
virtualization. It enables you to provision applications remotely through RDS. Applications run
on IT-managed hardware in the data center. By moving them from the endpoint to the data
center, you can better manage the security and continuity of confidential data.
Users can easily access their remote applications from a variety of clients—through a
webpage or an RDS client. Additionally, remote applications run side by side with local
­applications. For example, they run in their own resizable windows, can be dragged between
multiple monitors, and have their own icons on the Start screen or taskbar.
The second solution is App-V, which is part of MDOP. It works by packaging apps that can
be streamed from a server and run without requiring an application installation. Users can
access their applications dynamically from almost anywhere on any authorized PC just by
clicking and running a package. The resulting experience is no different from what the user
would experience if the app were running locally.
Virtual applications run in their own self-contained virtual environments on users’ PCs. This
eliminates application conflicts—you can actually run different versions of the same ­program
on the same PC, even running apps that prohibit side-by-side installations on the same PC.
Virtual applications and user settings are preserved whether users are online or offline.
­Combined with user state virtualization, App-V provides a consistent experience and reliable
access to applications and business data, regardless of users’ locations or the PCs they are
using.
You use a sequencer app, like the one shown in Figure 9-3, to create the application
­package, which is saved using the file name extension .appv. The sequencer monitors the
installation process, which you can choose to do manually if you prefer.
Application virtualization
Chapter 9
111
FIGURE 9-3 The App-V Sequencer creates an app package that can be deployed across the network
without requiring local installations.
You can deploy virtual application packages by using App-V servers, which stream virtual
applications on demand to users’ PCs and cache them locally so that they can be used offline.
Another option is to use Configuration Manager to deploy, upgrade, and track usage of both
physical and virtual applications in a single management experience. As a result, you can use
existing processes, workflows, and infrastructures to deliver virtual applications to users.
App-V 5.0, which was released at the same time as Windows 8, offers a web-based
­ anagement interface and support for Windows PowerShell, to enable scripting of complex
m
or repetitive tasks. Dynamic configuration options allow you to deliver a single package with
different customizations for different groups of users. You can also package applications and
their dependencies separately to make the updating process easier.
App-V 5.0 SP2 will debut after the release of Windows 8.1 as part of a new version
of MDOP. It comes in desktop and RDS versions and offers usability and performance
­improvements. It also adds the capability to install apps that use shell extensions and to
include runtime dependencies like MSXML and Visual C++ libraries.
112 Chapter 9
Virtualization in Windows 8.1
User Experience Virtualization (UE-V)
User Experience Virtualization (UE-V) debuted in MDOP along with Windows 8. This
­enterprise feature allows administrators to centralize applications and Windows settings in the
data center, enabling users to access their desktop applications virtually anywhere, on their
choice of devices.
UE-V 2.0, which is designed for the next version of MDOP, adds support for Windows Store
apps, including apps purchased through the Store and line-of-business (LOB) apps deployed
internally. Administrators can define which Windows Store apps are synchronized; all apps
that are included in a default Windows 8.1 installation are configured so that ­personalized
settings for those apps roam across devices. This release also includes a new Company
­Settings Center that allows users to control which settings are synced across devices,
­troubleshoot issues that occur with those devices, and sync settings manually rather than wait
for an automatic sync. Figure 9-4 shows this feature in action.
FIGURE 9-4 The Company Settings Center, new in UE-V 2, allows administrators to grant users more
control over which settings are synced between devices.
UE-V 2 includes a new sync provider that now allows a sync at specific,
­administrator-defined intervals (with the default being every 30 minutes), in addition to the
normal triggers, such as lock and unlock and connections to RDS. Unlike with its processor,
this new sync engine does not require the Offline Files feature.
User Experience Virtualization (UE-V)
Chapter 9
113
You can learn more about UE-V at http://www.microsoft.com/technet/mdop.
Although UE-V roams user settings, Folder Redirection complements UE-V by ­centralizing
user data folders (Documents, Pictures, Videos, and so on) in the data center, making these
folders accessible to users from any PC they log on to by using their domain credentials.
Folder Redirection in Windows 8 and 8.1 works largely the same as it did in Windows 7. Users
have full-time access to their documents, pictures, videos, and other files from any PC.
A new feature called Work Folders offers significant improvements over Folder
­ edirection and Offline Files. (Most notable is the ability to sync files on devices that aren’t
R
­domain-joined.) You can read more about this feature in Chapter 11, “Managing mobile
devices.”
114 Chapter 9
Virtualization in Windows 8.1
CHAPTER 10
Windows RT 8.1
What Windows RT 8.1 can and can’t do 116
Office 2013 RT 117
Connecting to corporate networks 119
Access to data 120
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W
indows RT is a recent addition to the Windows family, originally debuting
­alongside Windows 8 in October 2012. Windows RT 8.1 was released at the same
time as Windows 8.1. It is not sold in retail or original equipment manufacturer (OEM)
packages, as other members of the Windows 8.1 family are, nor is it available to ­Volume
License customers. Instead, it is available pre-installed on PCs and tablets powered by
ARM processors, such as the Microsoft Surface with Windows RT and the Surface 2,
which is the first device powered by Windows RT 8.1.
The power-sensitive, efficient design of Windows RT 8.1 helps hardware
­manufacturers design and build thin and lightweight devices with remarkable ­battery
life. The main focus for Windows RT 8.1 is running cloud-enabled, touch-enabled,
web-connected apps based on the Windows Runtime (WinRT); these are, with very rare
exceptions, the same apps available in the Windows Store on Windows 8.1.
As befits a brand-new platform that is still developing rapidly, Windows RT 8.1
devices are in small supply, especially when compared with the massive market for
­general-purpose PCs running x86 and x64 Windows editions. In enterprise environments,
Windows RT 8.1 is suitable for specific use cases, especially where extreme mobility is a
top requirement. However, Windows RT 8.1 devices are not general-purpose PCs, and
knowing their limitations is crucial to deciding whether (and if so, where) Windows RT 8.1
has a place in your organization.
This chapter discusses the features and capabilities of Windows RT 8.1. For more
­details on how to manage these devices, see Chapter 11, “Managing mobile devices.”
115
What Windows RT 8.1 can and can’t do
In general, Windows RT 8.1 has the same features as the base edition of Windows 8, ­including
the desktop versions of File Explorer and Control Panel as well as the modern PC Settings.
This section discusses in detail the significant exceptions that apply to all devices on the
­Windows RT platform.
First, and by far most important, Windows RT 8.1 does not support the installation of
­ indows desktop programs. Any software compiled for Intel-compatible x86/x64 chips will
W
not run on any release of Windows RT. This includes any program that uses an MSI installer
or an EXE file. Although it might be theoretically possible, there is currently no supported
way for third-party developers to adapt and compile their existing Windows desktop apps
to run on the Windows RT platform, nor has Microsoft announced any plans to change the
­fundamental design of the platform in this regard.
In Windows RT 8.1, a handful of Microsoft apps are included with the operating system,
including a Windows RT–specific edition of Microsoft Office (discussed in the following
­section). Any additional apps can be installed only through the Windows Store and run in the
sandboxed WinRT environment. The benefits of this design are obvious: users can’t ­knowingly
or unknowingly install malicious or buggy desktop programs that can destroy data, steal
confidential information, and cause reliability and performance issues.
Those benefits come at a price, however, which is a much greater lack of backward
c­ ompatibility than any other Windows 8.1 edition. If you are considering deploying
Windows RT 8.1 in an enterprise setting, this fact could have a very large influence on your
final ­decision. Here are some of the questions you should ask:
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Are Windows RT 8.1 drivers available for the devices I use? The operating
­system includes class drivers that support most mouse, keyboard, printer, camera,
­scanner, smartcard, Bluetooth, and storage devices on ARM processors. As a result,
many devices, such as USB storage devices, work as soon as you plug them in. The list
of compatible printers is large but not complete. Wired network devices are also
an area of potential compatibility concern. To check device compatibility, visit
http://www.microsoft.com/en-us/windows/compatibility/CompatCenter/Home. For
business-critical devices, don’t rely exclusively on a compatibility list; hands-on testing
is essential in that case.
Do essential services require utilities written for desktop Windows? Take a close
look at any online services you use to confirm that they will work in Windows RT 8.1.
Online file storage services, for example, often depend on a helper application to
synchronize files between the cloud and the local file system. Windows RT 8.1 adds
that capability for Microsoft’s cloud storage system, SkyDrive. Third-party services do
not have that capability at this time.
NOTE Microsoft has agreed to change the name of its SkyDrive service for legal
­reasons. The working of the service will be unchanged.
116 Chapter 10
Windows RT 8.1
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Do I need access to alternative web browsers? Internet Explorer 11 is the only
browser available in Windows RT 8.1. If you require the use of third-party browsers,
you should choose a PC with an x86/x64 or Atom processor running Windows 8.1.
Are web plugins essential to my business? Internet Explorer 11 on Windows RT 8.1
does not support the installation of any third-party plugins, including password
­managers, video players, and runtime engines. This is true even when using ­Internet
Explorer on the desktop. Adobe Flash support is built in to Internet Explorer 11
(both the desktop and immersive browser experiences), and updates are delivered
­automatically along with other Windows RT 8.1 updates.
Does my business rely on any Office add-ins? As I explain later in this c­ hapter,
­Office 2013 RT is included with Windows RT 8.1. Although it’s capable of most tasks
you expect from a modern version of Office, it lacks the capability to run many
­common add-ins and plugins. It also lacks support for macros, which means any
­custom document templates based on macros will not work properly on a
Windows RT 8.1 device.
Can my business-critical apps run in a WinRT or web-only environment? If your
business relies on a Windows desktop program to handle accounting, ­point-of-sale
transactions, or custom line-of-business (LOB) activities, you need to find a
­replacement that runs on Windows RT 8.1. The only alternatives are WinRT apps
(from the Windows Store or written in-house) or web apps that run acceptably in
Internet Explorer 11.
Is my network architecture compatible with Windows RT 8.1? The feature list for
Windows RT 8.1 includes support for some virtual private network (VPN) and mobile
broadband clients, but you need to confirm support for the specific network features
your business uses.
In addition, some features that are available on Windows 8.1 PCs are not available on
Windows RT 8.1 devices:
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The Storage Spaces feature is not available.
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The desktop Windows Media Player utility is unavailable.
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Windows RT 8.1 devices cannot be joined to a domain.
The Local Group Policy Editor (Gpedit.msc) is available in Windows RT 8.1, but the Group
Policy Client service must be enabled before local policies will be applied.
Windows PowerShell on Windows RT 8.1 also lacks some features found in x86 and x64
Windows 8.1 editions. Scripting access to the Microsoft .NET Framework, for example, is not
supported, and the PowerShell Integrated Scripting Environment (ISE) found in other editions
is not included in Windows RT 8.1.
What Windows RT 8.1 can and can’t do
Chapter 10 117
Office 2013 RT
Windows 8.1 includes Microsoft Office 2013 RT as a standard feature. This unique edition
of Office is compiled to run on ARM processors. Although the user experience and feature
set for individual programs are similar (and in many cases identical) to the corresponding
Office editions built for x86 and x64 processors, it cannot be upgraded to other Office 2013
­editions, including those that are part of Office 365. Office 2013 RT updates are delivered
only through updates to Windows RT 8.1.
These are touch-optimized, desktop versions of Microsoft Word, Excel, PowerPoint,
­ neNote, and Outlook. Outlook was not included in the original release of Windows RT; if you
O
install the Windows RT 8.1 update on a device running the original release of Windows RT, the
Office 2013 RT programs are updated, with Outlook added to the lineup. Figure 10-1 shows the
Backstage view in Office 2013 RT, with connections to SkyDrive and other online services.
FIGURE 10-1 Every copy of Windows RT 8.1 includes Office 2013 RT, with the five programs shown here.
It allows connections to online services but cannot be replaced with a different edition.
118 Chapter 10
Windows RT 8.1
Two additional free Office apps are available from the Windows Store. The OneNote and
Lync apps provide a subset of the functionality in their desktop equivalents.
The Office 2013 RT license agreement is identical to the license for Office Home and
Student 2013. Note that these programs are not licensed for commercial use, and they lack
support for most add-ons (and all macros), which might limit their usefulness in some types of
enterprise deployments.
It is possible to upgrade the usage rights for Office 2013 RT to permit commercial use. This
can be done when the Windows RT device is a companion device for the primary user of a
device with one of the following Office licenses:
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Business editions of Office 365 include commercial use rights that extend to Office
2013 RT. Qualifying editions include Office 365 ProPlus, Office Small Business Premium,
Office 365 Midsize Business, and Office 365 Enterprise (E3/E4).
Office Standard and Professional Plus 2013 include this offering as a secondary use
right.
An enterprise with a Volume License agreement can purchase commercial-use rights
for Office that enables a Windows RT device for use in business scenarios.
Connecting to corporate networks
The ability to connect to wireless networks is a core feature of Windows RT 8.1. The original
release of Windows RT did not support wired network adapters at all. Windows RT 8.1 adds
a built-in Ethernet adapter class driver for USB network adapters that have been specifically
designed for InstantGo (Connected Standby) operation.
In addition, Windows RT 8.1 supports a variety of corporate networking features,
­described in this section.
The use of VPNs helps protect the integrity and security of corporate networks from
­ eing compromised over external networks whose security can’t always be guaranteed.
b
The ­Windows RT 8.1 VPN client allows connections to Windows servers and can connect to
­third-party VPN servers using standard protocols: PPTP, L2TP, and IKEv2. The client can be
configured directly or with scripts or a central device-management tool.
New in Windows RT 8.1 is built-in support for third-party clients from F5, Dell SonicWall,
CheckPoint, and Juniper.
In addition, Windows RT 8.1 includes improved support for multifactor authentication,
including through the use of virtual smartcards.
Finally, Windows RT 8.1 includes the same two Remote Desktop clients available in other
Windows 8.1 editions: one for use on the desktop, and the other a WinRT app designed for
the touch-friendly immersive interface. Either of these clients can be used to access desktop
and app sessions on a remote PC or a RemoteApp server.
Connecting to corporate networks
Chapter 10 119
Access to data
Windows RT 8.1 supports the same types of local storage as other Windows 8.1 editions,
allowing you to access built-in hard drives and flash storage as well as devices connected
through USB ports. In addition, you can access the following types of remote data sources
with the following limitations:
SkyDrive Windows RT 8.1 adds the capability to sync files and folders from SkyDrive
to local storage. (This capability was not available in the original release of Windows RT.)
In ­addition, with an active Internet connection, you can access files from remote SkyDrive
­folders.
SkyDrive Pro Some editions of Office 2013 include a SkyDrive Pro client utility that
can sync files from a cloud-based SharePoint personal site document library and make them
­available for offline use on a local drive. This capability is not included with Office 2013 RT
and cannot be added. As a result, SkyDrive Pro files are available from within Office programs
or through Internet Explorer 11, only with an active Internet connection.
Network shares Shared folders are available in File Explorer using standard Windows
networking protocols. Because Windows RT 8.1 doesn’t support domain-based credentials,
you might need to specify an alternate user ID and password (or use a smartcard) to provide
authenticated access. Note that the client-side caching (CSC) functionality found in
Windows 8.1 Pro and Enterprise—support for offline files and folder redirection—is not
­available in Windows RT 8.1. You can, however, use Work Folders, a technology discussed in
more detail in Chapter 11.
120 Chapter 10
Windows RT 8.1
CHAPTER 11
Managing mobile devices
Mobile device management strategies 121
System Center 2012 R2 Configuration Manager 122
Windows Intune 124
Workplace Join 124
Work Folders 126
Web Application Proxy 130
Device lockdown (Assigned Access) 130
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A
lthough it probably didn’t seem so at the time, network management used to
be relatively simple. Workers sat down at a desk, where they logged on to a
­company-issued PC and connected to company-owned resources on company-managed
servers.
Today, that’s all changed.
In our new Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) world, workers expect to be able to do their
job from anywhere, using any device, with full access to their work resources and data.
That proliferation of devices makes many traditional management techniques ­impractical
at best and often technically impossible. Yet you still have the challenge of securing
­confidential data and maintaining compliance with regulations that affect your industry.
Fortunately, a new generation of standards-based management tools, from Microsoft
and other companies, allow you to provide access to corporate apps and information
while still maintaining effective control over those resources.
Mobile device management strategies
For the wide range of devices in your organization, Microsoft offers two primary
­management tools:
■■
System Center Configuration Manager 2012 R2 adds support for Windows 8.1. It
offers full management capabilities over traditional domain-joined Windows PCs,
including those running Windows To Go and Windows Embedded. It also works
with Apple-branded devices running OS X.
121
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Windows Intune is a cloud-based service that can manage PCs running Windows 8.1
and Windows RT 8.1, as well as mobile devices running Windows Phone 8, iOS, and
Android. You don’t have the same control as with a fully managed, domain-joined PC,
but you can effectively exercise light control over predictable scenarios.
The key to successfully integrating your workers’ personal PCs and tablets into a mobile
device management strategy is a set of open standards that use the Open Mobile ­Alliance
Device Management protocols—OMA-DM 1.2.1, to be specific. These protocols allow
­communication with cloud-based management services using secure HTTP.
This management agent is available on most mobile devices, and it is included by default
with all editions of Windows 8.1, including Windows RT 8.1, with no additional software
required. For company-owned and managed PCs, you can deploy the full Configuration
­Manager client. For personal devices that employees bring in as part of a BYOD strategy,
­joining the domain as a fully managed device is either impractical or impossible—­personal
devices running the Core edition of Windows 8.1 or Windows RT 8.1 lack domain-join
­capabilities. In that case, you can use Windows Intune to perform light management
­capabilities.
Management tools that support OMA-DM—including Microsoft Windows Intune,
­MobileIron, and AirWatch—can perform a variety of useful tasks:
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Hardware and software inventory
■■
Configuration of key settings
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Installation and configuration of modern line-of-business (LOB) applications
■■
Certificate provisioning and deployment
■■
Data protection, including the ability to wipe a lost or stolen device
Two additional features that are new in Windows 8.1 and Windows Server 2012 R2 can
also be used as part of a BYOD strategy. Workplace Join enables a personal device to be
­authenticated on the enterprise network and allowed to access corporate resources and
­applications. Work Folders is a simplified file synchronization feature that personal devices
running Windows 8.1 can use to securely store and access files from a corporate network.
This chapter looks at all of the preceding strategies.
System Center 2012 R2 Configuration Manager
System Center 2012 R2 Configuration Manager is the most recent release of ­Microsoft’s
­comprehensive management tool for Windows systems (physical and virtual) and
­Windows-based mobile devices. When used in combination with Windows Intune, it provides
a unified management environment that supports both company-owned and personal BYOD
devices.
Configuration Manager is a user-centric tool designed to work with your organization’s
Active Directory infrastructure. This means that it associates hardware assets with specific
122 Chapter 11
Managing mobile devices
­ sers, allowing fine-tuned management of exactly which software and features are ­available
u
to users. Configuration Manager also provides IT pros with a comprehensive reporting
­platform and deployment options.
Using Configuration Manager, you can perform the following functions:
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Application management A set of tools and resources allow you to package,
­manage, deploy, and monitor applications in the enterprise.
Endpoint protection Security, antimalware, and Windows Firewall management
features are included.
Compliance settings Use built-in tools to assess and, if necessary, adjust the
­configuration of client devices to meet compliance requirements.
Company resource access New in the System Center 2012 R2 release is a set of
tools and resources you can use to grant remote access to resources by setting up
­Wi-Fi profiles, virtual private network (VPN) profiles, and certificate profiles. For
­example, you can install trusted root CA certificates for your enterprise to authenticate
Windows 8.1 and Windows RT 8.1 devices on corporate Wi-Fi hotspots and VPNs.
Remote connection profiles Also new in the System Center 2012 R2 release are
tools to help you create and deploy remote connection settings to devices, making it
easier for users to connect to their computer on the corporate network.
Operating system deployment You can create operating-system images and
deploy them to computers that are managed by Configuration Manager, as well as to
unmanaged computers, by using PXE boot or bootable media.
Inventory As an administrator, you can collect detailed information about hardware,
software, data files, and license usage on managed devices.
Configuration Manager also includes remote control tools for help desks and capabilities
for deploying software updates.
One of the most important changes in System Center 2012 R2 Configuration Manager is
the ability to configure enrolled devices as company-owned or personal-owned. Personal
devices are not domain-joined and do not have the Configuration Manager client installed.
These mobile devices report software inventory only on company content. Wipe and ­retire
functions also provide the option to remove only company content from these devices,
­preserving personal content and apps.
You can use Windows Intune (described in the next section) to manage Windows 8.1
devices that are not joined to the domain and do not have the Configuration Manager client
installed.
MORE INFO For a more detailed discussion of new features in this release, see “What’s
New in System Center 2012 R2 Configuration Manager,” at http://technet.microsoft.com/
en-us/library/dn236351.aspx.
System Center 2012 R2 Configuration Manager
Chapter 11 123
Windows Intune
Windows Intune uses a unified web-based administration console to provide cloud-based
device-management features, software-deployment capabilities, and security ­capabilities.
­Because it is a cloud-based management tool, the console does not require a VPN ­connection
to your local domain. Windows Intune does not require any established ­infrastructure,
­although it works well in combination with Configuration Manager.
One of the signature features found in Windows Intune is its customizable company
­portal, which is also available with Configuration Manager 2012 R2. The company portal is an
­interface customized with downloadable applications that IT a
­ dministrators can make available
for an organization. The company portal also allows users to directly contact IT and request
remote assistance. Figure 11-1 shows a sample company portal.
FIGURE 11-1 The company portal is a customizable destination where administrators can make apps
available for users on a self-service basis.
In addition to offering remote application and service features, the company portal feature
allows an administrator to use a remote security wipe u
­ tility to clear data from the device the
next time it connects to the Internet.
Workplace Join
With Windows 8.1, a PC that is domain joined can access corporate resources (if allowed to do
so by administrator-assigned permissions), and IT can control the PC through Group Policy and
other mechanisms. Personal devices that aren’t joined to the domain have no such capabilities.
124 Chapter 11
Managing mobile devices
Windows 8.1, in combination with Windows Server 2012 R2, adds a new feature called
­ orkplace Join, which provides a middle ground between this all-or-nothing access scenario.
W
With Workplace Join, users can register personal devices on the corporate network using Active
Directory, without joining the domain. On the server side, administrators can create rules that
allow a user to access corporate resources only when they sign in on a device that has been
­registered via Workplace Join (and is therefore trusted). This security feature offers a
­ dministrators
the ability to control access to corporate resources without requiring sign-on with an Active
Directory account or applying group policy.
Workplace Join is currently available for all Windows 8.1 editions as well as iOS devices.
Here’s how it works with Windows 8.1.
On the server side, there are three requirements:
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■■
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The Windows Server 2012 R2 version of Active Directory Federation Services (ADFS)
must be installed.
Two custom DNS entries are required. One is automatically created by ADFS; the
second resolves to enterpriseregistration.yourdomain (where yourdomain is your
­enterprise domain). The DNS record must be accessible internally and can optionally
be available in external DNS.
A Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) certificate must resolve correctly to the ADFS and
­enterpriseregistration DNS records.
Once this infrastructure is set up, a Windows 8.1 client registers on the network using the
Workplace Join option under Network, in PC Settings, as shown in Figure 11-2.
FIGURE 11-2 To register a device on the network, enter your email address as it’s shown in Active
­Directory and then click Join in this PC Settings page.
Assuming the administrator has set up multifactor authentication (a highly recommended
configuration), the user next sees a response from the server, as shown in Figure 11-3.
Workplace Join
Chapter 11 125
FIGURE 11-3 The recommended configuration for Workplace Join includes multifactor authentication.
Successfully completing the WorkPlace Join process installs a certificate in the local user
account on the device and links it to Active Directory. That certificate acts as a “thumbprint”
for the device, allowing domain members to sign in to corporate resources. (For auditing
­purposes, ADFS records details of the domain account that performed the registration, but
any domain member is eligible to use the registered device.)
Workplace Join offers a solution to a common BYOD problem: some devices cannot
be ­domain joined, either because one device is a personal device or because the device is
­running an operating system that doesn’t support domain join.
Work Folders
Work Folders is another new feature supported by default on Windows 8.1 devices that
­connect to Windows Server 2012 R2. With Work Folders enabled, a user can securely sync
data to her device from a user folder located in the corporate data center, allowing the user
to work with it offline. Files created or modified in the local copy of the folder sync back to
the file server in the corporate environment. You can set up Work Folders on a multitude
of devices running Windows 8.1, iOS, or another supported platform. If you store all your
­personal work files in the Work Folders location (with as many subfolders as you want to
­create), they’ll roam with you to all your devices.
126 Chapter 11
Managing mobile devices
If this feature sounds familiar, that’s because it is, at least at a low level. This is a new
­ eneration of the client-side caching (CSC) technology that has been part of Windows
g
­networks for many years, powering folder redirection and Offline Folders. The difference
is that Offline Folders requires that a device be joined to the domain. That excludes any
­personal devices running consumer versions of Windows. It also doesn’t work with tablets
running operating systems other than Windows.
Windows 8.1 devices do not need to be domain joined for synchronization with personal
files. Your domain credentials unlock access to Work Folders. As a result, you can use Work
Folders on a device running Windows RT 8.1 and still maintain secure offline access to files.
On the server side, you enable Work Folders by installing the feature as part of the
­ indows Server 2012 R2 File Services role. Doing so installs a new panel where you can
W
­define a server file location to be synced with a specific user and then either create a DNS
entry or publish a custom URL to reach the shared files.
Setting up Work Folders also enables Individual Rights Management (IRM) and Dynamic
Access Control (DAC) for files in the shared location. Using these capabilities, administrators
can designate specific documents as company resources, which can then be managed to
prevent unauthorized access from the local device.
On the client side, syncing is natively integrated into the file system. To connect to Work
Folders, you start in the desktop Control Panel\System And Security\ by clicking the Set Up
Work Folders option shown in Figure 11-4.
FIGURE 11-4 The Work Folders capability is built into the desktop Control Panel in all editions of
­Windows 8.1.
That, in turn, leads to a dialog box where you enter either your email address or the URL
that the administrator established. In either case, when you click Next you will be prompted
to enter your domain credentials to establish the connection, as shown in Figure 11-5.
After you successfully authenticate, the next step of the setup process (shown in Figure 11-6)
notifies you that administrators can apply security policies to data files in the Work Folders share,
including the right to remotely delete them. Some device capabilities such as encryption and a
password-protected screen lock might be required.
Work Folders
Chapter 11 127
FIGURE 11-5 Connecting to the Work Folders share requires that you enter an email address or a custom
URL and then authenticate using your domain credentials.
FIGURE 11-6 The final step in setting up Work Folders on a Windows 8.1 device contains a notification
about security policies that must be accepted before the feature is enabled.
128 Chapter 11
Managing mobile devices
The Work Folders feature is similar in concept to other Microsoft file-related
features—specifically, SkyDrive and SkyDrive Pro. What makes it different?
SkyDrive is a consumer service intended for storage of personal files. It’s connected to a
Microsoft account and can’t be centrally managed or backed up. That makes it unsuitable for
enterprise data.
SkyDrive Pro provides access to SharePoint resources and is designed primarily for data
collaboration in teams, with strong workflow-related features. It can be securely managed,
but its extensive feature set means it’s unnecessarily complex for simple file storage and
­synchronization between devices.
Work Folders doesn’t have any file-sharing features, but it’s incredibly easy to use. This
f­ eature can optionally be set up outside the firewall, a configuration that allows access
without requiring a VPN connection. The administrator can require that Workplace Join be
enabled, preventing a potential attacker (or a careless ­employee) from accessing files ­using
untrusted devices. On Windows 8.1 and Windows RT 8.1, it doesn’t require the ­installation
of a sync utility—it just works. A Control Panel app, shown in Figure 11-7, lets you view
usage statistics and provides some simple management tools. ­Beyond that, no additional
­configuration is necessary.
FIGURE 11-7 This simplified management interface lets you view the status of your synced Work Folders
and manually sync files, view any file errors, and stop using Work Folders on the current device.
Work Folders
Chapter 11 129
Web Application Proxy
The Web Application Proxy is a new role service in the Windows Server Remote Access
role. It provides the ability to publish access to corporate resources and enforce multifactor
­authentication, as well as apply conditional access policies to verify both the user’s identity
and the device he is using.
On mobile devices, this feature can be used to improve the user experience of Workplace
Join. By connecting an ADFS server to the Web Application Proxy, users can connect to
resources with multifactor authentication enforced, as well as receiving verification that the
device being used for access is registered (and therefore trusted).
Device lockdown (Assigned Access)
This feature is new in Windows 8.1 (Pro and Enterprise editions only) and in Windows RT 8.1.
Using the Assigned Access feature allows the device to run a single Windows Store app
while restricting access to all other apps and features (including web browsers, email, games,
and other potential sources of confusion or distraction). That’s a useful feature in kiosk
­applications, where you want customers to be able to view product or service information
in a controlled environment. It’s also ideal in classrooms (for a test-taking application, for
­example) and for point-of-sale, check-in, and other line-of-business apps that management
might want to use exclusively on a device.
130 Chapter 11
Managing mobile devices
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