Hoefer SE400 / SE410
user manual
Hoefer SE400 / SE410
The Sturdier vertical slab gel electrophoresis units
um
SE400-IM/Rev.C0/06-12
Contents
Important Information . .......................................... ii
Waste Electrical and
Electronic Equipment (WEEE)................................vii
1. Unit function and description..............................1
Annotated inventory................................................4
Specifications........................................................6
2. Operating instructions.........................................7
3. Care and maintenance......................................24
4. Troubleshooting................................................25
Appendix A. Laemmli System Gels.........................29
Gel recipes..........................................................36
Appendix B. Bibliography......................................37
Ordering information.............................................39
• pi
Important Information – English
• If this equipment is used in a manner not specified by Hoefer, Inc. the protection provided by the
equipment may be impaired.
• This instrument is designed for indoor laboratory
use only.
• Only accessories and parts approved or supplied
by Hoefer, Inc. may be used for operating, maintaining, and servicing this product.
• Rozeslat pouze voda nebo 50/50 voda/ethylenglykolu prostřednictvím výměník tepla je li to vybavena. Nemají připojení výměník tepla s vodními
setřepná nebo jakékoli chladicí kapaliny zdroje, kde
tlak vody je neregulo.
• Nikdy zavést prostředek proti zamrznutí nebo
jakákoli organická rozpouštědla do jakékoli části z
tohoto nástroje. Rozpustidlům způsobí nenapravitelné poškození jednotka!
• Only use a power supply that is CE marked or
safety certified by a nationally recognized testing
laboratory.
• Nejsou provozována s pufru teplotách nad
maximální stanovenou technickými specifikacemi. Přehřátí způsobí nenapravitelné poškození
jednotka!
• The safety lid must be in place before connecting
the power supply leads to a power supply.
Vigtig Information – Danish
• Turn all power supply controls off and disconnect
the power leads before removing the safety lid.
• Circulate only water or 50/50 water/ethylene glycol
through the heat exchanger if so equipped. Do
not connect the heat exchanger to a water tap or
any coolant source where the water pressure is
unregulated.
• Never introduce antifreeze or any organic solvent
into any part of the instrument. Organic solvents
will cause irreparable damage to the unit!
• Do not operate with buffer temperatures above
the maximum specified technical specifications.
Overheating will cause irreparable damage to the
unit!
Duležité Informace – Czech
• Pokud by toto zařízení je použito způsobem, který
není podle Hoefer, Inc. ochrana poskytovaná na
základě zařízení může být narušena.
• Tento nástroj je určen pro vnitřní použití v
laboratoři pouze.
• Pouze příslušenství a části schválen, nebo poskytnutých Hoefer, Inc. mohou být použity pro provoz,
údržbu, a údržbě tohoto výrobku.
• zdroj napájení používají jen že je opatřen
označením CE osvědčena nebo bezpečnost
vnitrostátně uznanými zkušebními laboratoř.
• Bezpečnosti lid musí být zavedena před připojením
napájecí zdroj napájení vede k.
• Turn veškeré napájení kontroly vypnuto a odpojit
před odběrem energie vede bezpečnostní víko.
• pii
• Hvis dette udstyr bruges i en måde ikke specificeret ved Hoefer, Inc. den beskyttelse, som er blevet
forsynet af udstyret kan måske svækkes.
• Dette instrument er designet for indendørs laboratoriumbrug bare.
• Bare tilbehør og del godkendede eller forsynede
ved Hoefer, Inc. kan måske bruges for drive, funktionsfejl, og betjening dette produkt.
• bruger Bare en strømforsyning, der er CE
markerede eller sikkerhed, som er blevet attesteret
af en, som nationalt er blevet anerkendt prøve
laboratorium.
• Sikkerhedlåget må være på plads før forbinding
strømforsyningsblyet til en strømforsyning.
• Drejer alle strømforsyningskontroller af og afbryder
kraftblyet før fjerning sikkerhedlåget.
• Cirkulerer bare vand eller 50/50 vand/ethylene
glykol gennem varmeveksleren i så fald udrustet.
Forbind ikke varmeveksleren til en vandhane
eller nogen kølemiddelkilde hvor vandtrykket er
unregulated.
• Introducerer Aldrig antifreeze eller noget organisk
opløsningsmiddel ind i nogen del af instrumentet.
Organiske opløsningsmidler vil forårsage uboelig
skade til enheden!
• Driver ikke med stødpudetemperaturer over
maksimummet specificerede tekniske specifications. Overheding vil forårsage uboelig skade til
enheden!
Belangrijke Informatie – Dutch
• Indien deze uitrusting in een manier wordt
gebruikt die niet door Hoefer, Inc. is gespecificeerd
de bescherming die door de uitrusting is verzorgd
kan worden geschaad.
• Dit instrument is voor binnenlaboratoriumgebruik
enkel ontworpen.
• Enkel onderdelen en delen keurden goed of
leverden door Hoefer, Inc. kan voor het bedienen
worden gebruikt, handhavend en onderhouden
van dit product.
• gebruik Enkel een netvoeding die CE is markeerde
of veiligheid die door een is gecertificeerd die
nationaal is herkend testene laboratorium.
• Het veiligheidsdeksel moet in plaats voor het
verbinden van de netvoeding leidt tot een
netvoeding zijn.
• Doe alle netvoedingscontroles Uit en koppel los
de machtleiding voor het verwijderen van het
veiligheidsdeksel.
• Circuleer enkel water of 50/50 water/ethyleenglycol door de hitte exchanger zo ja uitrust.
Verbind de hitte exchanger naar een waterkraan
of koelmiddelbron niet waar de waterdruk niet
geregulariseerd is.
• Stel Nooit antivriesmiddel of organische oplosmiddelen in deel van het instrument voor. Organische
oplosmiddelen zullen onherstelbare schade aan de
eenheid veroorzaken!
• Bedien niet met buffertemperaturen boven het
maximum specificeerde technische specificaties.
Oververhittend zal onherstelbare schade aan de
eenheid veroorzaken!
on kansallisesti tunnustettnut testaaminen laboratoriota.
• Turvallisuuskansi täytyy olla paikallaan ennen
yhdistäminen käyttöjännitelyijyjä käyttöjännitteeseen.
• Kiertää kaikki käyttöjännitevalvonnat ja irrottaa
valtalyijyt ennen poistaminen turvallisuuskantta.
• Kiertää vain vesi tai 50/50 vesi/ethyleneä glycol
siinä tapauksessa varustetun lämmönvaihtimen
läpi. Älä yhdistä lämmönvaihdinta vesinapautukseen eikä jäähdytysnestelähteeseen, missä vesipaine on unregulated.
• Pakkasneste eikä orgaaninen liuotin välineen
osassa ei esitele Koskaan. Orgaaniset liuottimet
aiheuttavat korvaamattoman vahingon yksikköön!
• Ei käytä puskuria yllä olevia lämpötiloja enintään
määritetyillä teknisillä täsmennyksillä. Ylikuumeneminen aiheuttaa korvaamattoman vahingon
yksikköön!
Information Importante – French
• Si cet équipement est utilisé dans une manière pas
spécifié par Hoefer, Inc. la protection fourni par
l’équipement pourrait être diminuée.
• Cet instrument est conçu pour l’usage de laboratoire intérieur seulement.
• Seulement les accessoires et les parties ont
approuvé ou ont fourni par Hoefer, Inc. pourrait
être utilisé pour fonctionner, maintenir, et entretenir ce produit.
• utilise Seulement une alimentation qui est CET a
marqué ou la sécurité certifié par un nationalement reconnu essayant le laboratoire.
Tärkeää Tietoa – Finnish
• Le couvercle de sécurité doit être à sa place avant
connecter l’alimentation mene à une alimentation.
• Jos tätä varusteita käytetään tavassa ei määritetty
Hoefer, Inc. suojelu ehkäisty varusteille saattaa olla
avuton.
• Tourner tous contrôles d’alimentation de et
débrancher les avances de pouvoir avant enlever le
couvercle de sécurité.
• Tämä väline suunnitellaan sisälaboratoriokäytölle
vain.
• Circuler seulement de l’eau ou 50/50 glycol d’eau/
éthylène par l’exchanger de chaleur si si équipé. Ne
pas connecter l’exchanger de chaleur à un robinet
d’eau ou à la source d’agent de refroidissement où
la pression d’eau est non régulée.
• Vain lisävarusteet ja osat hyväksyivät tai toimitti
Hoefer, Inc. oheen ää voi käyttää käyttämiselle,
valvoalle, ja servicing tämä tuote.
• Vain käyttää käyttöjännitettä joka on CE merkitsi
tai turvallisuus joka on todistanut aidoksi ohi joka
• Ne Jamais introduire d’antigel ou du dissolvant
organique dans n’importe quelle partie de
• piii
l’instrument. Les dissolvants organiques causeront
des dommages irréparables à l’unité!
• Ne pas fonctionner avec les températures de
tampon au-dessus du maximum a spécifié des
spécifications techniques. La surchauffe causera
des dommages irréparables à l’unité !
Wichtige Informationen – German
• Wenn diese Ausrüstung gewissermaßen nicht
angegeben durch Hoefer, Inc. verwendet wird,
kann der durch die Ausrüstung zur Verfügung
gestellte Schutz verschlechtert werden.
• Dieses Instrument wird für den Innenlaborgebrauch nur dafür entworfen.
• Nur Zusätze und Teile genehmigten oder lieferten
durch Hoefer, Inc. kann für das Funktionieren, das
Aufrechterhalten, und die Wartung dieses Produktes verwendet werden.
• Verwenden Sie nur eine Energieversorgung,
die CE gekennzeichnet oder durch ein national
anerkanntes Probelaboratorium bescheinigte
Sicherheit ist.
• Der Sicherheitsdeckel muss im Platz vor dem
Anschließen der Energieversorgung sein führt zu
einer Energieversorgung.
• Alle Energieversorgungssteuerungen abdrehen
und die Macht trennen führt vor dem Entfernen
des Sicherheitsdeckels.
• Nur Wasser oder 50/50 Glykol des Wassers/
Äthylens durch den Wärmeaustauscher, wenn so
ausgestattet, in Umlauf setzen. Verbinden Sie den
Wärmeaustauscher mit einem Wasserklaps oder
jeder Kühlmittel-Quelle nicht, wo der Wasserdruck
ungeregelt wird.
• Führen Sie nie Frostschutzmittel oder jedes
organische Lösungsmittel in jeden Teil des Instrumentes ein. Organische Lösungsmittel werden
nicht wiedergutzumachenden Schaden der Einheit
verursachen!
• Mit Puffertemperaturen über angegebenen
technischen Spezifizierungen des Maximums
nicht funktionieren. Die Überhitzung wird nicht
wiedergutzumachenden Schaden der Einheit
verursachen!
• piv
Informazioni Importanti – Italian
• Se quest’apparecchiatura è usata in un modo
specificato da Hoefer, Inc. la protezione fornito
dall’apparecchiatura potrebbe essere indebolita.
• Questo strumento è disegnato per l’uso di laboratorio interno solo.
• Solo gli accessori e le parti hanno approvato o
hanno fornito da Hoefer, Inc. potrebbe essere
usato per operare, per mantenere, e per revisionare
questo prodotto.
• usa Solo un alimentatore che è CE ha marcato o la
sicurezza certificato da un nazionalmente riconosciuto testando il laboratorio.
• Il coperchio di sicurezza deve essere nel luogo
prima di collegare i piombi di alimentatore a un
alimentatore.
• Spegne tutto i controlli di alimentatore e disinserisce i piombi di potere prima di togliere il coperchio di sicurezza.
• Circola solo l’acqua o 50/50 glicole di acqua/etilene
attraverso lo scambiatore di calore se così equipaggiato. Non collegare lo scambiatore di calore a un
rubinetto di acqua o qualunque fonte di refrigerante dove la pressione di acqua è sregolata.
• Non introduce mai l’antigelo o qualunque solvente
organico in qualunque parte dello strumento. I
solventi organici causeranno il danno irreparabile
all’unità!
• Non opera con le temperature di tampone al di
sopra del massimo ha specificato le descrizioni
tecniche. Il surriscaldamento causerà il danno
irreparabile all’unità!
Viktig Informasjon – Norwegian
• Hvis dette utstyret blir brukt i en måte ikke spesifisert ved Hoefer, Inc. beskyttelsen som ha blitt git
av utstyret kan bli svekket.
• Dette instrumentet er utformet for innendørs laboratoriumbruk bare.
• Bare tilbehør og deler godkjente eller forsynte ved
Hoefer, Inc. kan bli brukt for drive, vedlikeholde, og
betjene dette produktet.
• bruker Bare en kraftforsyning som er CE merket
eller sikkerhet som ha blitt sertifisert av et som
nasjonalt ha blitt anerkjent prøver laboratorium.
• Sikkerheten lokket må være på plass før forbinding
kraftforsyningene blyene til en kraftforsyning.
• Vender all kraftforsyningsstyring av og frakopler
kreftene blyene før fjerning sikkerheten lokket.
• Sirkulerer bare vann eller 50/50 vann/ethylene
glykol gjennom oppvarmingen veksleren i så fall
utstyrer. Ikke forbind oppvarmingen veksleren
til en vanntapp eller noe kjølemiddelkilde hvor
vannet trykket er unregulated.
• Introduserer Aldri antifreeze eller noe organisk
løsemiddel inn i noe del av instrumentet. Organiske løsemiddler vil forårsake irreparabel skade på
enheten !
• Driver med buffertemperaturer over maksimum
ikke spesifiserte teknisk spesifikasjoner. Å overoppheting vil forårsake irreparabel skade på enheten !
Wazne Informacje – Polish
• Jeżeli ten sprzęt jest wykorzystywany w sposób nie
określone przez Hoefer, Inc. do ochrony przewidzianej przez urządzenie może zostać obniżony.
• Instrument ten jest przeznaczony do użytku w
laboratoriach kryty tylko.
• Tylko akcesoriów i części zatwierdzone lub dostarczone przez Hoefer, Inc. mogą być wykorzystane do
eksploatacji, utrzymania i obsługi tego produktu.
• korzystać jedynie zasilacza że jest noszące oznakowanie CE lub bezpieczeństwa uwierzytelnione
przez uznane na poziomie krajowym laboratorium
badawcze.
• Bezpieczeństwo lid musi być w miejsce przed
podłączeniem zasilania prowadzi do zasilania.
• Zaś wszystkie źródła zasilania urządzenia sterujące
off i odłączyć moc prowadzi przed odbiorem
bezpieczeństwa lid.
• Krążą tylko wody lub wody 50/50/ethylene glycol
wymiennik ciepła poprzez jeśli tak wyposażone.
Nie należy połączyć wymiennik ciepła woda z
kranu lub jakimkolwiek chłodziwo źródła, jeżeli
ciśnienie wody jest nieuregulowanych.
• Nigdy nie wprowadzać rozpuszczalnika organicznego przeciw zamarzaniu lub jakichkolwiek
na dowolną część dokumentu. Rozpuszczalniki
organiczne spowoduje nieodwracalne szkody dla
jednostki!
• Nie działają w buforze temperatury powyżej
maksymalnego określone specyfikacje techniczne.
Przegrzania spowoduje nieodwracalne szkody dla
jednostki!
Informações Importantes –
Portuguese
• Se este equipamento é usado numa maneira não
especificada por Hoefer, Inc. que a protecção fornecida pelo equipamento pode ser comprometida.
• Este instrumento é projectado para uso de interior
de laboratório só.
• Só acessórios e partes aprovaram ou forneceu por
Hoefer, Inc. pode ser usada para operar, manter, e
servicing este produto.
• Só usa um estoque de poder que é CE marcou ou
segurança registrada por um nacionalmente reconhecido testando laboratório.
• A tampa de segurança deve estar em lugar antes
de ligar o estoque de poder leva a um estoque de
poder.
• Desliga todos controlos de estoque de poder e
desconecta os chumbos de poder antes de retirar a
tampa de segurança.
• Circulam só água ou 50/50 glicol de água/ethylene
pelo exchanger de calor se for assim equiparam.
Não ligue o exchanger de calor a uma torneira de
água nem qualquer fonte de refrigerante onde a
pressão de água é não regulado.
• Nunca introduz anticongelante nem qualquer
orgânico solvente em qualquer parte do instrumento. Orgânico solvente causará agressão
irreparável à unidade!
• Não opera com temperaturas de buffer acima do
máximo especificou especificações técnicas. Superaquecer causará agressão irreparável à unidade!
Información Importante – Spanish
• Si este equipo es utilizado en una manera no especificado por Hoefer, Inc. la protección proporcionado por el equipo puede ser dañada.
• Este instrumento es diseñado para el uso interior
del laboratorio sólo.
• Sólo accesorios y partes aprobaron o suministraron
• pv
por Hoefer, Inc. puede ser utilizado para operar,
para mantener, y para atender a este producto.
• Sólo utiliza una alimentación que es CE marcó o
la seguridad certificada por un nacionalmente
reconocido probando el laboratorio.
• La tapa de la seguridad debe estar en el lugar
antes de conectar la alimentación lleva a una
alimentación.
• Apaga todos controles de alimentación y desconecta los plomos del poder antes de quitar la tapa
de la seguridad.
• Circula sólo agua o 50/50 glicol de agua/etileno
por el intercambiador de calor si ése es el caso
equiparon. No conecte el intercambiador de calor a
un toque de la agua ni cualquier fuente del líquido
refrigerante donde la presión del agua está libre.
• Nunca introduce anticongelante ni algún solvente
orgánico en cualquier parte del instrumento. Los
solventes orgánicos causarán daño irreparable a
la unidad!
• No opera con temperaturas de búfer encima del
máximo especificó especificaciones técnicas. Recalentar causará daño irreparable a la unidad!
Viktig Information – Swedish
• om denna utrustning används i ett sätt som inte
har specificeras av Hoefer, Inc. skyddet tillhandahöll vid utrustningen kan skadas.
• Detta instrument formges för inomhuslaboratorium användning bara.
• Bara medhjälpare och delar godkände eller levererade vid Hoefer, Inc. kan användas för fungera,
underhålla, och servicing denna produkt.
• använder bara en kraft tillgång som är CE
markerade eller säkerhet intygade vid en nationellt
erkänd testande laboratorium.
• Säkerheten locket måste vara på platsen före
koppla kraften tillgången blyen till en kraft tillgång.
• Vänder sig alla kraft tillgång kontroller av och
kopplar bort kraften blyen före flytta säkerheten
locket.
• Cirkulerar bara vatten eller 50/50 vatten/ethylene
glycol genom värmen exchanger i så utrustad fall.
Inte kopplar värmen exchanger till en vatten kran
eller något kylmedel källa där vattnet trycket är
• pvi
unregulated.
• Inför aldrig kylvätska eller något organiska
lösningsmedel in i någon del av instrumentet.
Organiskt lösningsmedel ska orsaka irreparable
skada till enheten!
• Använd inte med buffert temperaturer över
det högsta angivna tekniska specifikationerna.
Överhettning skulle orsaka irreparabla skador på
enheten!
Waste Electrical and
Electronic Equipment (WEEE)
English
This symbol indicates that the waste of electrical and
electronic equipment must not be disposed as unsorted
municipal waste and must be collected separately. Please
contact an authorized representative of the manufacturer
for information concerning the decommissioning of your
equipment.
French
Ce symbole indique que les déchets relatifs à l’équipement
électrique et électronique ne doivent pas être jetés comme
les ordures ménagères non-triées et doivent être collectés
séparément. Contactez un représentant agréé du fabricant
pour obtenir des informations sur la mise au rebut de votre
équipement.
German
Dieses Symbol kennzeichnet elektrische und elektronische
Geräte, die nicht mit dem gewöhnlichen, unsortierten
Hausmüll entsorgt werden dürfen, sondern separat
behandelt werden müssen. Bitte nehmen Sie Kontakt mit
einem autorisierten Beauftragten des Herstellers auf, um
Informationen hinsichtlich der Entsorgung Ihres Gerätes zu
erhalten.
Italian
Questo simbolo indica che i rifiuti derivanti da
apparecchiature elettriche ed elettroniche non devono essere
smaltiti come rifiuti municipali indifferenziati e devono invece
essere raccolti separatamente. Per informazioni relative alle
modalità di smantellamento delle apparecchiature fuori uso,
contattare un rappresentante autorizzato del fabbricante.
Spanish
Este símbolo indica que el equipo eléctrico y electrónico no
debe tirarse con los desechos domésticos y debe tratarse por
separado. Contacte con el representante local del fabricante
para obtener más información sobre la forma de desechar el
equipo.
Swedish
Denna symbol anger att elektriska och elektroniska
utrustningar inte får avyttras som osorterat hushållsavfall och
måste samlas in separat. Var god kontakta en auktoriserad
tillverkarrepresentant för information angående avyttring av
utrustningen.
• pvii
1. Unit function and description
The Hoefer® SE400 and SE410 Sturdier™
Vertical Slab Gel Electrophoresis Units are
intended for electrophoretic separation of
proteins and nucleic acids under both denaturing
and native conditions. Up to 28 samples can be
compared on a single slab gel. One gel (or two
gels if using the divider plate, ordered separately)
is cast in the casting stand side of the unit. The
size of the gel is 14 × 15 cm if using the SE400,
and 14 × 23 cm if using the SE410. After casting, the sandwich is transferred into the lower
buffer chamber for electrophoresis.
The basic unit includes one set of glass plates
(18 × 16 cm for the SE400, and 18 × 24 cm for
the SE410), two clamp assemblies (SE400: two
16 cm clamps; SE410: two 16 cm clamps and
two 8 cm clamps), and two cams. The complete
unit includes one 15-well comb and two spacers,
1.5 mm thick, in addition to the basic unit.
• p1
Unpacking and disassembly
Unwrap all packages carefully and compare
contents with the packing list, making sure all
items arrived. If any part is missing, contact
your local sales office. Inspect all components
for damage that may have occurred while the
unit was in transit. If any part appears damaged,
contact the carrier immediately. Be sure to keep
all packing material for damage claims or to use
should it become necessary to return the unit.
This unit is partially assembled to protect
components during shipping. To disassemble:
1
Position the unit so that the electrical connectors
face you.
2
Note the holes at each side on the upper buffer
chamber. Rest your thumbs in these holes and use
your index fingers to lift the sides of the safety lid
gently until the electrode connectors unplug. First lift
the lid straight up so that the upper electrode shield
clears the upper chamber and then lift the lid out
(toward you) to remove it completely.
3
ift out the upper buffer chamber and then the glass
L
plate assembly.
4
Remove the clamps by loosening the thumb screws.
• p2
Fig 1. SE400 series
main components.
Included but not shown:
Cams
GelSeal grease, ¼ oz.
Spacer-Mate
Wonder Wedge
Level
safety lid
Required but not included:
Approved power supply
color-coded connectors (2)
upper buffer chamber
glass plates (2)
clamps
casting cradle
lower buffer chamber
color-coded leads (2)
leveling feet (4)
• p3
Annotated inventory
Buffer chambers. Both buffer chambers are
chemically resistant to common electrophoretic
buffers but not to organic solvents or strong
acids and alkalis.
Safety lid. The lid contains both electrodes and
both electrode connectors. The electrode connectors plug into the lead connectors on the lower
buffer chamber. The color-coded leads plug into
color-coded jacks on the power supply.
Glass plates. Two 18-cm wide glass plates are
included. Plates for the SE400 are 16 cm long,
and plates for the SE410 are 24 cm long.
(A notched divider plate, ordered separately,
can be used to run two gels at the same time.)
Clamps. Two 16-cm clamps are required to
secure the 16 cm long sandwich. These and an
additional pair of 8-cm clamps are required to
secure a 24-cm long sandwich.
Casting stand. The caster can be leveled with
the adjustable leveling feet on the bottom of the
unit. A laminated gasket seals the bottom of
the glass plate assembly when it is locked into
the stand.
Cams. Cams are used twice; first to secure the
assembled sandwich in the casting stand and
again to lock the sandwich and the upper buffer
chamber together.
Rubber gaskets. There are two gaskets. The
laminated gasket fits into the bottom of the casting stand and provides the seal for the bottom
of the gel sandwich. The slotted gasket fits
under the upper chamber and provides the seal
between the sandwich and the upper chamber.
Two ridges help position this gasket.
• p4
Spacer-Mate assembly template. Aligns spacers
for sandwich assembly.
Wonder Wedge Plate Separator Tool. Use to
disassemble gel sandwiches and to gauge spacer
and comb thickness.
Spacers. (May be ordered separately.) Spacers
determine the thickness of the gel. They are 2 cm
wide and are available in three thicknesses: 0.75,
1.0, and 1.5 mm.
Combs. (May be ordered separately.) Combs are
available in sizes that form 10, 12, 15, 20, or 28
wells. Preparative combs include 1 or 2 reference
wells in addition to a preparative well. Most
combs are available in all three thicknesses:
0.75, 1.0 and 1.5 mm.
All preparative combs, and combs with fewer
than 28 wells form wells that are 25 mm deep.
The 28-well comb forms wells that are only
15 mm deep so that wells do not collapse when
the comb is removed. The sample volume held
by each well depends on the gel thickness, well
depth and the number of wells per comb. Table
2 on page 15 lists volume per 1 mm depth for
wells created by each comb size. See the ordering
information for additional comb specifications.
• p5
Specifications
Glass plate size
SE400: 18 × 16 cm
SE410: 18 × 24 cm
Approximate gel size
SE400: 14 × 15 cm
SE410: 14 × 23 cm
Max. wattage
20 W
Max. voltage
500 V at 40 mA
Max. amperage30 mA/gel
(60 mA total at 325 V)
Max. temperature
45 °C
Environmental Indoor use: 4– 40 °C
operating conditions
Humidity up to 80%
Altitude up to 2000 m
Installation category: II
Pollution degree: II
Dimensions (w × h × d) SE400: 24 × 28 × 15 cm
(9.5 × 11 × 6 in.)
SE410: 24 × 36 × 15 cm
(9.5 × 14.2 × 6 in.)
Product certificationsEN61010–1, UL3101–1,
CSA, C22.2 1010.1, CE
This declaration of conformity is only valid for the
instrument when it is:
• used in laboratory locations,
•u
sed as delivered from Hoefer, Inc. except for alterations described in the user manual, and
• c onnected to other CE-labeled instruments or products recommended or approved by Hoefer, Inc.
• p6
2. Operating instructions
Procedures for casting gels and electrophoretic
separation follow. Included are instructions for
both single percentage (homogeneous) and
gradient polyacrylamide gels. Appendix A lists
recipes and Appendix B gives a bibliography.
2.1 Gel casting preparation
2.1.1 Options—precast gels and self-cast gels
The SE400 unit accepts standard precast gels
purchased from commercial suppliers as well
as self-cast gels, which can be prepared using
the built-in casting stand. (To cast multiple
14 × 16 cm gels, the Multiple Gel Caster Kit,
which holds up to 10 sandwiches, and the Gel
Caster Kit, which holds up to four sandwiches,
can be ordered separately.) Gels for the SE410
must be self-cast.
Glass plates, spacers, and clamp sets are sized
so that the assembled sandwich can be easily
aligned to create the required seal. When assembling sandwiches, take extra care to align all
components for best results.
• p7
2.1.2 Preliminary casting steps
1
Prepare the caster
Place the spirit level into the lower buffer chamber
and adjust the leveling feet.
2
Prepare the clamps
Loosen all clamp screws and make space for the
sandwich by sliding the pressure plates toward
the screws.
3
Construct each gel sandwich
For each sandwich, choose two perfectly clean
unchipped glass plates and two spacers. Lay one
plate on a flat surface, lay the Spacer-Mate assembly
template onto the plate (wide side at the top), place
a spacer along each edge, and lay the second glass
plate on top.
4
Secure the sandwich with clamps
Slide one clamp at a time along the sandwich sides.
Finger tighten one screw on each clamp, set the
sandwich upright on a flat surface, and loosen the
screw to align the stack. Take great care in aligning to
ensure a seal. Finger tighten all screws. Remove the
Spacer-Mate.
24-cm sandwich (SE410)
16 cm
(SE400)
24 cm
(SE410)
Fig 2. A 24-cm sandwich requires
two 16-cm and two 8-cm clamps.
A 24-cm sandwich requires two clamp assemblies on
each side. Align each end separately. That is, align
one end, finger-tighten the screws, turn the sandwich
180° and align the other end. In each case allow the
clamp to slide down and align perfectly with the top
(or bottom) edge of the glass plates.
For 24 cm long plates, position the 8 cm clamp at
the bottom (see Fig 2).
• p8
2-gel sandwich
glass plates
(at the outer sides
of the sandwich)
A 16- or 24-cm long notched divider plate (ordered
separately) doubles the number of gels that can be
cast and run (see Fig 3).
Assemble in the same manner as a single gel sandwich, except before placing the top glass plate, lay
the divider plate atop the first set of spacers and a
second set of spacers atop the divider plate. Place the
notch so that it will be at the top of the gels. As with
a regular sandwich, it is essential that the spacers and
plates align perfectly in order to create a seal.
notched
divider plate
5
spacers
Fig 3. 2-gel sandwich assembly:
2-gel sandwiches are limited to
thinner gels; no spacers thicker
than 1.5 mm can be used.
both top and bottom
sandwich edges must
be flush with the
clamp guide ridges.
pressure bar
Inspect the bottom of the sandwich to make sure that
edges are aligned flush in order to ensure a complete
seal. Adjust if necessary (see Fig 4).
Optional: Apply a light film of GelSeal only on the
bottom outside corners if your sandwiches tend to
leak. Do not use silicone grease or petroleum jelly
to seal the sandwich because these substances are
difficult to remove and ultimately may cause artifacts
in the gel.
6
Place the laminated gasket into the casting cradle
with the foam side down. Place the glass plate
assembly in the casting cradle, screw side facing
out (see Fig 5).
24-cm plates: Place the sandwich so that the short
clamps are at the bottom.
7
Fig 4. Sandwich assembly:
Inspect glass plates for nicks.
Use only unchipped plates to
prevent leaking.
Tip: Remove the laminated
gasket from the cradle and use
the casting cradle to hold the
sandwich for alignment.
Insert a cam into the hole on each side of the casting
tray with the ridge (short end) pointing up. Seal the
gel sandwich by turning both cams as far as needed,
usually 90° to 150°, up to 180°. The cam action
presses the plates into the gasket to seal the bottom
of the sandwich. The seal is complete once the glass
edge appears darker and nearly transparent against
the gasket. Do not tighten the cam past this point.
• p9
Fig 5. Caster components
and assembly.
1. L
ower the assembled sandwich
into the casting cradle.
glass plates (2)
2. Insert cams into the cam holes,
ridge end up.
3. T
urn cam up to 180° until
the glass plates seal against
the gasket.
spacers
clamps
(the number required
depends on the
plate length.)
cams (2)
Insert the cam(s) in
the cam holes and
turn toward the center
to lock the glass plate
assembly.
gasket (foam side down)
casting cradle
leveling feet (4)
Note: It is easier to keep the caster balanced if you turn
both cams toward the center of the caster.
• p10
2.2 Acrylamide gel preparation
Note: Appendix A on page
29, lists recipes for the
Laemmli gel system.
Table 1. Approximate monomer solution volume
required for a single gel
Gel thickness (mm)
Model
0.75
1.00
1.5
SE400
15 ml
23 ml
30 ml
SE410
23 ml
34 ml
45 ml
2.2.1 Resolving gel
1
Prepare the monomer solution and pour the gel.
Prepare the required amount of monomer solution,
deaerate, and add the initiator and catalyst just prior
to pouring the gel.
2
Pipet the solution into one corner of the sandwich,
taking care not to introduce any air bubbles. See
below for the appropriate solution level:
o stacking gel (Continuous system). Fill solution to
N
just below the top of the upper plate edge. If bubbles
are trapped, remove with a pipet or syringe. Introduce
a comb (at a slight angle) into each sandwich, taking
care not to trap air bubbles under the teeth.
2-gel sandwich. Pipet the solution into both sandwiches, filling each to the same level below the
notched edge.
tacking gel. Fill solution to 3–4 cm below the top of
S
the glass plate. This height allows 1 cm of stacking
gel below the wells. Pour the gel and apply an overlay
(see step 3). After the gel is set, prepare the stacking
gel as described in the next section.
-D electrophoresis (Discontinuous system). For the
2
second dimension resolving gel, fill solution to ~1.0
cm below the top of the glass plate (leave extra space
for a stacking gel, if required). One centimeter allows
enough space for the first dimension IPG strip or tube
gel and an agarose seal. (While transferring, take care
to avoid trapping air between the tube gel and slab
gel; seal the tube gel into place with agarose in electrophoresis buffer.)
• p11
3
If combs are in place, skip to step 4.
If no combs are in place, overlay the resolving gel
with a thin layer of water-saturated n-butanol, water,
or diluted gel buffer to prevent exposure of the top
surface of the gel solution to atmospheric oxygen.
Slowly deliver the overlay solution from a glass
syringe fitted with a 22-gauge needle. Apply the
solution near the spacer and allow it to flow across
the surface unaided.
4
Allow the gel to polymerize for a minimum of
one hour.
2.2.2 Stacking gel
Pour the stacking gel before removing the
sandwich from the gel caster. Stacking gel
resolution is optimal when prepared just before
electrophoresis.
1
emove the overlay by rinsing the top of the gel
R
several times with distilled water. Invert the caster
to drain. To ensure a seamless contact between the
resolving and stacking gels, remove residual liquid by
blotting one corner with a lint-free tissue.
2
Calculate the stacking gel monomer solution volume.
3
repare the stacking gel monomer solution, deaerate
P
it, and add catalyst and initiator. Pour the stacking
gel onto the resolving gel with a disposable or Pasteur
pipet to a level about 2 mm from the top of the
glass plate.
4
Introduce a comb (at a slight angle) into the sandwich, taking care not to trap air under the teeth. Allow
a minimum of one hour for the gel to polymerize.
• p12
2.2.3 Gradient gels
Fig 6. Pouring a gradient gel.
Linear gradient gels can be poured in the gel
caster. For easy gradient mixing, we recommend using one of the Hoefer SG series gradient
makers. Gradient gels are poured from the top
of the caster with a cannula if using the provided
gel caster or from the bottom if using a Hoefer
multiple gel caster (see instructions accompanying the caster). Once the gradient gel polymerizes, a stacking gel is poured.
1
Assemble the glass plate assembly into the caster as
described in section 2.1.2.
2
Set up the monomer solution flow path. Run a length
of clear vinyl tubing through a peristaltic pump.
Attach one end of the tubing to the gradient maker
outlet port and the other end to a 20 cm cannula.
(The outside diameter of the cannula must be less
than the spacer thickness.) Place the cannula so
that it rests at the bottom of the sandwich, midway
between the spacers.
3
Note: With Coomassie™ Blue,
it is possible to detect 1 µg in
a single band; with the more
sensitive silver stains, it is
possible to detect as little as
10 ng.
Prepare the monomer solution. Calculate the total
volume needed. Prepare one half of this volume of
higher and the other half of lower % acrylamide solution. (Optional: Add 15% sucrose or 25% glycerol
[final concentration] to the higher % solution to
improve layering.)
4
Pour the “light” solution into the reservoir chamber
(the chamber furthest from the inlet). Open the
stopcock long enough to displace air between the
chambers and then close. Pour the “heavy” solution
into the mixing chamber and place a stirring bar into
this chamber. Place the gradient maker on a magnetic
stirrer and begin stirring at a rate that does not
introduce bubbles in the solution.
• p13
5
Mix the gradient. While the solution is stirring, begin
pumping (5–10 ml/min) from the mixing chamber and
immediately open the stopcock to the reservoir chamber. Raise the cannula as liquid enters the sandwich,
keeping the tip at the gel surface.
6
Overlay each gel with a thin layer of water-saturated
n-butanol, water, or diluted gel buffer to prevent gel
exposure to oxygen. Slowly deliver the overlay solution
from a glass syringe fitted with a 22-gauge needle.
Apply the solution near the spacer and allow it to flow
across the surface unaided.
7
Allow the gel(s) to polymerize for a minimum of one
hour. After polymerization, pour off the overlay and
rinse the gel surface several times with distilled water.
8
repare the stacking gel monomer solution, pour the
P
stacking gel and introduce a comb (at a slight angle)
into the sandwich, taking care not to trap air under
the teeth. Allow a minimum of one hour for the gel
to polymerize.
• p14
2.3 Sample preparation
The amount of sample loaded depends on the
thickness of the gel, the sensitivity of the detection method used, and the amount of sample
expected in each band. In a continuous buffer
system, the protein sample should be relatively
concentrated because no stacking gel is used.
In a discontinuous buffer system, the zone into
which each molecular species migrates is sharpened by the stacking gel, so the sample need not
be as concentrated.
Table 2. Well volume (µl) per
1 mm depth for each comb size
Comb thickness
(mm)
No. of wells
0.75 1.0
10
6.2 8.3 12.4
1.5
12
5.8 7.7
11.5
15
4.3
5.7
8.6
20
3.1 4.1 6.2
28
2.1 2.7 4.1
1
Prepare the wells. Remove the comb by gently
rocking it side to side and then lifting it straight
up to avoid damaging the well walls. Carefully rinse
each well with electrophoresis buffer to remove
unpolymerized acrylamide and then drain by inverting
the gel sandwich (or caster). Fill each well with
electrophoresis buffer.
2
repare the sample. Increase liquid sample density
P
with 10% glycerol or sucrose. Add a tracking dye such
as phenol red, bromophenol blue, or pyronin Y.
F or SDS protein gels, use 2X treatment buffer to
denature both liquid and dry samples in a test tube:
T o liquid protein samples, add an equal volume of
2X treatment buffer.
T o dry protein samples, add equal volumes of 2X
treatment buffer and deionized water to achieve the
desired concentration.
eat the tube in boiling water for 90 seconds, then
H
allow to cool to room temperature. Treated samples
can be stored at -40 to -80 °C for future runs.
eat membrane proteins to 60 °C for 20 minutes.
H
Store unused sample at 4 °C.
• p15
2.4 Final assembly
Note: Before the first use,
disassemble the unit and wash
with a dilute solution of a
laboratory detergent and rinse
thoroughly, first with water and
then distilled water.
Note: To help hold the gasket
against the upper buffer
chamber, dab a small amount
of GelSeal at each end of the
gasket only and then install.
1
inse both buffer chambers with water and distilled
R
water thoroughly before each use.
2
Install the gel sandwich in the lower buffer chamber
Release the sandwich from the caster by removing
both cams. Clean away any gel adhering to the
exterior of the gel sandwich. Install the sandwich
in the lower buffer chamber, clamp screws facing
toward the leads.
3
Important! A smooth fit between
the sandwich and gasket is
essential for a good seal.
Carefully fill each sample well with electrophoresis
buffer, then underlay prepared sample into the
wells using a fine-tipped microsyringe or gel loading
pipet tip.
4
Attach the upper buffer chamber to the gel sandwich
Invert the upper chamber and press the slotted gasket
into the grooves for a precise fit.
Proceed with care so that the samples are not
disturbed: Lower the upper chamber onto the gel
sandwich. Install the cams, ridge pointing down, into
the cam holes as shown on page 17. Simultaneously
turn one cam clockwise and the other counterclockwise a full 180° to secure the assembly.
• p16
Fig 7. Upper buffer chamber
assembly: First place the upper
chamber onto the sandwich
assembly, then insert the cams
into the cam holes, ridge (short
end) pointing down. To secure the
assembly, turn the cams a full
180° so that the ridge points up
(not shown).
cam starting
position
final
clamping
position
• p17
5
Note: Do not force the cams.
If encountering unusual
resistance, disassemble the unit
and inspect clamp and glass
alignment along the top of the
sandwich. Align and reinstall
the upper chamber.
Pour ~100 ml of electrophoresis buffer into the upper
chamber, directing the buffer stream against the wall
to avoid disturbing the samples. Inspect the installation
for leaks. Fill both chambers (the final volume for each
chamber is ~350 ml).
6
Safety lid installation.
Note: If the assembly leaks,
take the assembly to a sink and
partially release the cams to
allow buffer to drain.
Remove the upper chamber,
check alignment of all sandwich
components, and adjust if
necessary.
• p18
Built-in safety features require that all three guides are
properly placed (see Fig 8).
7
Plug the color-coded leads into the jacks of an
approved power supply (min. 50 mA, 300 V). Plug the
red lead into the red output jack and the black lead
into the black output jack. In most systems, the red
lead, which is connected to the bottom electrode, is
the anode (+), and the black lead, connected to the
top electrode, is the cathode (–).
1
2
3
shield guides
Fig 8. Safety lid installation.
The safety lid seats effortlessly
if all three features are properly
aligned:
1. T
he recessed upper electrode
shield slides into the upper
buffer chamber.
2. T
he lower electrode shield fits
into the lower buffer chamber
and rests in front of the shield
guides.
3. T
he electrode connectors align
and seat.
If you are unfamiliar with the installation,
please note:
The upper electrode is protected by a recessed
shield, which rests in the upper buffer chamber
once the lid is installed. It is easiest to install the
lid by first approaching the upper buffer chamber
from the front, and then sliding the safety lid down
straight down onto the connectors. If the lid does
not fit properly, check the position of the lower
electrode shield, which must clear the connectors
and rest in the lower buffer chamber, in front of
the the shield guides. Once all guides are in place,
press gently to connect the plugs.
• p19
2.5 Resolving the sample
Electrophoresis parameters for discontinuous
polyacrylamide gels
Gels may be run at either constant current or
constant voltage settings. A constant current
setting is traditionally used with a discontinuous
buffer system so that the rate of electrophoretic
migration remains unchanged throughout the
run. Under constant current conditions, the
voltage increases as the run proceeds. A lower
current setting is recommended for higher resolution. The optimal current level must be determined empirically; the main factors that must be
balanced are the gel concentration and migration
speed, and the resulting Joule heating and band
distortion. Table 3 lists starting point guidelines
and adjustments for gel thickness, number of
gels, and migration rate.
Table 3. Laemmli buffer system starting point guidelines
Note: The cross section
(and current requirement) is
determined by gel thickness.
The running time is determined
by the length of the plate.
Gel thickness*
Current per gel†
Starting voltage
1.5 mm
25 mA constant current
80–90 V
Gel length (cm)
model
final voltage (V)
16
SE400
200–250
24
SE410
275–325
*Thicker or thinner gels require proportionally more or less
current. For example, a 0.75 mm gel, which is half as thick
as a 1.5 mm gel, requires half as much current, or 12.5 mA.
†
• p20
he current must be multiplied by the number of gels. For
T
instance, if a 1 mm 2-gel sandwich is installed, twice as
much current is required than for a single 1 mm gel at the
same voltage.
Current
Note: Passive cooling, such as
running the unit in a cold room,
may be required to reduce the
effects of Joule heating.
Current acts on the total cross-sectional area of
all the gels, and in terms of a circuit, the gels
are considered to run in parallel. Therefore, any
current setting for one gel must be multiplied by
the number of gels run. For a gel 1.5 mm thick,
we suggest a starting point current setting of
25 mA. (Two 1.5 mm gels = 50 mA.)
Voltage
The starting voltage for a 1.5 mm slab gel
connected to a power supply set to 25 mA is
usually 80–90 V (for the SE400 model and a
Laemmli discontinuous buffer system). The final
voltage is typically 200–325 V, depending on the
length of the gel. (See Table 3 on page 20.)
Time
Important! After initial
monitoring, do not leave the
unit unattended for more than
1 hour without checking the
progress of the bands and the
buffer level.
A run is complete when the tracking dye reaches
the bottom of the gel. A 16-cm long, 1.5 mm
thick Laemmli SDS gel, run at 25 mA/gel without cooling, usually requires 5 hours. A 24-cm
gel requires about 8 hours.
• p21
Record each run
Keep a record of the current or voltage setting,
number and thickness of gels, buffer system, and
the starting and final current or voltage readings
for each run so that results can be compared.
Inconsistent results for the same system and
settings can indicate potential problems such as
current leaks, incorrect buffer concentrations,
high salt concentrations, or inconsistent
chemical quality.
Check band progress after 5 minutes, and
again after an hour, noting the migration rate
of the tracking dye. The run is complete when
the tracking dye reaches the bottom of the
gel. Watch the buffer level and, if necessary,
replenish it as required to keep the top electrode
submerged. (A small volume of buffer may
leak past a nicked plate or gasket, or buffer
may pass through the gel.)
• p22
2.6 After electrophoresis
1
Tip: To avoid splashing, add
staining or fixative solution
to the tray after the gel is
transferred.
nce the tracking dye reaches the bottom of the gel,
O
turn off the power supply and disconnect the leads.
Remove the safety lid, using finger leverage — rest
your thumbs on the top of the cams and gently pull
the lid up with your index fingers. Once loose, lift the
lid straight up and then out to clear the ledge on the
upper buffer chamber.
2
our out the buffer by inverting the unit over a sink.
P
Release the upper buffer chamber by removing the
cams. Lift the chamber off and lift the sandwich out
of the lower chamber.
Note: Use only flexible plastic
prying tools to avoid chipping
the glass plates.
3
nscrew the clamps from the sandwiches and remove.
U
Gently loosen and then slide away both spacers. Use
the Wonder Wedge plate separator tool to separate
the plates.
4
Carefully lift off one glass plate. Handle the gel with
care to avoid damaging it. Over an empty stain tray,
either invert the plate holding the gel near the bottom
of the tray and lift one corner so that the gel drops
into the tray, or, if the gel is thick enough to handle,
lift it and place into the tray. Add enough fixative or
stain to completely submerge the gel.
5
Clean the unit as described in “Care and
maintenance” on page 24.
• p23
3. Care and maintenance
Cleaning
• Rinse with water immediately after use.
•D
o not autoclave or heat any part of the instrument
above 45 °C.
•D
o not use organic solvents, abrasives, strong
cleaning solutions, or strong acids or bases to clean
any plastic part.
•D
o not soak the gaskets. Clean with a mild detergent
and allow to air dry.
•H
andle the safety lid with care to prevent damage to
the electrode connectors.
Clean glass plates and spacers with a dilute
solution of a laboratory cleanser such as
RBS-35™, then rinse thoroughly with tap and
distilled water. Glass plates can also be treated
with (but not stored in) acid cleaning solutions.
• p24
4. Troubleshooting
problem/possible cause
remedy
Gel sandwich leaks while casting
Dirty or damaged componentsPlates, spacers, and the gasket must be completely clean.
Wash if necessary.
Replace chipped plates (especially if chipped near
the spacers).
Check the caster gasket for cuts or cracks and replace
if necessary.
Mis-aligned partsCheck plate and spacer alignment and realign if necessary.
Over-clampingTurn cam only as far as necessary to create a seal (usually
90–150°, but up to 180°).
On each spacer apply a light film of GelSeal compound to the
bottom outside corner only. Do not use silicone grease.
Sample wells damaged or irregular
Air bubblesRemove air bubbles before inserting combs. Slide comb into
solution at an angle. If comb must be removed, add more
monomer solution before reinserting the comb.
Incomplete or delayed polymerization
Allow acrylamide gels to set for a minimum of 1 h.
Debris in wells
Rinse out unpolymerized gel with sample buffer.
Comb removal
Remove the comb at a slight angle and very slowly to prevent
damaging the gel.
Agarose gels: Lower the comb no more than 1 cm into the gel.
Incomplete gel polymerization
ChemicalsUse only recent stocks of the highest-quality reagents.
If the dry ammonium persulphate does not crackle when
added to water, replace with fresh stock.
Increase TEMED or APS concentration, or both.
pHSolutions with extreme pH values (especially acidic) may
not polymerize.
OxygenRemove oxygen from the gel environment: Degas the monomer
solution 5–10 min before pouring and then overlay the gel
surface with water-saturated n-butanol.
TemperatureAdjust the gel solution temperature to a minimum of 20 °C,
especially for low %T gels.
• p25
problem/possible cause
remedy
Upper buffer chamber leaks
Mis-aligned partsCheck that the glass plates, spacers, and clamps are aligned
and fit snugly into the upper chamber gasket.
Check that both gaskets are centered and that the positioning
ridges fit inside the grooves.
Dirty or Check that the gasket is not damaged or pinched. Replace if
damaged componentsnecessary. Check that the upper buffer chamber is not warped
from prior exposure to excessive heat.
Dye front curves up (smiles) at edges Excessive heat
Prechill the buffer.
Decrease the current or voltage setting.
Run the gel in the cold room.
Protein streaks vertically
Particulates in sampleCentrifuge or filter sample before loading to remove particulates.
Overloading
DegradationAdd protease inhibitor such as PMSF.
Load less sample.
Unusually slow (or fast) run
Current leakage around gelCheck for leaks; all plates and spacers must be aligned
and free of grease and cracks.
Sample or reagent preparationIf the required pH of a solution is overshot, do not
back-titrate. Discard and prepare fresh buffer.
Check recipes, gel concentrations, and buffer dilution.
(For instance, do not use Tris-HCl instead of Tris for Laemmli
tank buffer.) Decrease the salt concentration of samples.
Reagent qualityDispose of older acrylamide solutions and use only stock of
the highest quality.
Use only freshly deionized urea.
Voltage or current settingsTo increase or decrease the migration rate, adjust the voltage
or current by 25–50%.
Bands are skewed or distorted
Incomplete gel preparation and polymerization
Degas the stacking-gel solution and avoid trapping air bubbles
under the comb teeth.
Irregular interface between
stacking and running gels
Overlay the running gel with water-saturated butanol before
polymerization begins, to avoid forming an uneven gel surface.
Sample preparation
Dialyze or desalt the sample.
• p26
problem/possible cause
remedy
Stained sample collects:
Near the buffer front
Gel concentrationMolecules are not sufficiently restricted by the resolving gel
pore size: increase the %T.
DegradationProteins may be degraded by endogenous proteases:
use protease inhibitors during the isolation step.
Near the top of the gel when the
buffer front has reached the bottom
Gel concentrationThe gel pore size is too small: decrease the %T of the
resolving (or stacking) gel.
PrecipitationThe protein has precipitated. Heat the sample at a lower
temperature (70 °C or less) for 1–2 min.
At both top and bottom of the gel
Gel concentrationThe molecular weight range of the sample requires an
acrylamide concentration gradient to resolve the full range
of protein sizes.
Poor band resolution
Running conditionsBegin electrophoresis as soon as the sample is loaded to
prevent low molecular weight species from diffusing.
Conduct the separation at a lower current or voltage setting to
reduce Joule heating.
Reagent qualityUse only the highest-quality reagents.
Poor stackingUse only gels that were recently prepared.
Add a stacking gel or increase height of the stacking gel.
Prepare the resolving-gel surface by first rinsing it with
stacking-gel monomer before pouring the stacking gel to
ensure continuity between the gels.
Check pH values of the resolving- and stacking-gel solutions.
Do not back-titrate buffers.
Incomplete gel polymerizationAllow gel to polymerize fully.
• p27
problem/possible cause
remedy
Poor band resolution (continued)
Sample preparationStore sample on ice before it is denatured.
Dialyze or desalt the sample.
Heat samples in SDS sample buffer for no more than
1–2 min at 100 °C to improve dissociation of subunits.
Store on ice after heating.
Adjust the sample volume or concentration.
Add more mercaptoethanol or dithiothreitol; check sample
treatment.
Add protease inhibitors such as PMSF if necessary to prevent
proteolytic degradation of sample.
Increase glycerol or sucrose to increase sample density.
Store samples to be frozen in aliquots to avoid repeated
freeze-thawing. Store at -40 to -80 °C.
Tracking dye does not sharpen
into a concentrated zone in
the stacking gel
Poor stackingPour a taller stacking gel. (For best results, allow a stackinggel height of 2.5 times the height of the sample in the well.)
Reagent qualityDispose of outdated acrylamide solutions and use only the
highest grade of acrylamide.
Sample preparationWhen preparing samples, avoid using solutions with high salt
concentrations.
• p28
Appendix A. Laemmli System Gels
Table 4. Laemmli gels — final concentrations
Resolving gel
Acrylamide conc. 10% T*, 2.6% C
Tris-Cl
Tris-Glycine
0.375 M
Electrophoresis
buffer
Stacking gel
4% T, 2.6% C
0.125 M
0.025 M Tris base
0.192 M glycine
pH
8.8
6.8 ~8.3
SDS
0.1% 0.1%
0.1%
APS†
0.05% w/v
0.05 – 0.1% w/v
TEMED‡
0.05% v/v
0.05 – 0.1% v/v
*To achieve any other desired final concentration, adjust the acrylamide
stock and water volumes. Volumes for different concentrations are
listed in Table 5.
†
Ammonium persulfate.
‡
Tetramethylethylenediamine
The Laemmli system is the most common electrophoresis protocol for SDS-denatured proteins. The leading
ion in this discontinuous buffer system is chloride and
the trailing ion is glycine. Accordingly, the resolving
gel and the stacking gel contain Tris-Cl buffers (of
different concentration and pH), and the electrophoresis buffer contains Tris-glycine. All buffers contain
0.1% SDS.
Polyacrylamide gel composition is indicated by two
different percentages:
Caution! Acrylamide is a
neurotoxin. Always wear gloves
while handling in any form and
wear a mask while weighing the
powder. Never mouth pipette
the solution.
%T =
%C =
g(acrylamide + bisacrylamide)
100 ml
g(bisacrylamide)
g(acrylamide + bisacrylamide)
× 100
× 100
The total percent of acrylamide (%T) in the resolving
gel, which can range from 4 to 20%, determines the
pore size. Commonly, the amount of crosslinker used
(%C) is 2.6%. In the following system example, the
resolving gel composition is 10%T, 2.6%C, which
results in a medium pore size. The stacking gel
composition is 4%T, 2.6%C. The %T in the stacking
gel is lower because a larger pore size is required.
• p29
Solutions
Note: Filter solutions 1–4
through a 0.45 µm filter.
Important! Refer to the
material safety data sheet
(MSDS) accompanying each
chemical for detailed handling
and safety information.
1. Acrylamide stock solution
(30.8% T 2.6% C Bis, 200 ml)
Acrylamide (FW 71.08)
30% w/v
Bis* (FW 154.2)
0.8% w/v
Deionized H2O 60.0 g
1.6 g
to 200 ml
Store at 4 °C away from light.
*N,N’ Methylenebisacrylamide
2. 4X Resolving gel buffer
(1.5 M TrisCl, pH 8.8, 1 liter)
Tris base (FW 121.1)
1.5 M
181.5 g
HCl to pH 8.8
Deionized H2O to 1000 ml
Store up to 3 months at 4 °C in the dark.
3. 4X Stacking gel buffer
(0.5 M TrisCl, pH 6.8, 500 ml)
Tris base (FW 121.1)
0.5 M
30.3 g
HCl to pH 6.8
Deionized H2O to 500 m
Store up to 3 months at 4 °C in the dark.
4. 10% SDS solution
(100 ml)
SDS* (FW 288.4)
0.35 M
Deionized H2O 10.0 g
to 100 ml
Store up to 6 months at room temperature.
*Sodium dodecylsulfate
5. 10% APS (Initiator)
(1 ml)
APS* (FW 228.2)
0.44 mm
Deionized H2O 0.1 g
to 1.0 ml
Fresh APS “crackles” when water is added. If yours does not,
replace it with fresh stock. Prepare just prior to use.
*Ammonium persulfate
• p30
6. Resolving gel overlay
(0.375 M TrisCl, 0.1% SDS, pH 8.8, 100 ml)
1.5 M Tris-Cl, pH 8.8 (Solution #2) 0.375 M 25.0 ml
10% SDS (Solution #4)
3.5 mm
Deionized H2O 1.0 ml
to 100.0 ml
Store up to 3 months at 4 °C in the dark.
—OR—
Water-saturated n-butanol
Shake n-butanol and deionized H2O in a separatory
funnel. Remove the aqueous (lower) phase. Repeat
this procedure several times. Use the upper phase.
—OR—
If an overlay interferes with the preferred protocol,
isolate the gel from atmospheric oxygen by placing a
preparative comb or resolving gel former on the gel.
7. 2X Sample treatment buffer
(0.125 M TrisCl, 4% SDS, 20% glycerol,
0.2 mM DTT*, pH 6.8, 10 ml)
0.5 M Tris Cl, pH 6.8 (Solution #3) 0.125 M
2.5 ml
10% SDS, 0.35 M (Solution #4)
0.14 M
4.0 ml
Glycerol (FW 92.09)
20% v/v
2.0 ml
Dithiothreitol (DTT) (FW 154.2)
0.2 mM
0.31 g
Bromphenol Blue (FW 691.9)
0.3 mM
2.0 mg
Deionized H2O to 10.0 ml
*or 2-mercaptoethanol* (FW 78.13)
0.2 ml
2% v/v
Divide into 1.0 ml aliquots and store at -40 °C to -80 °C for
up to 6 months.
—OR—
6X Sample treatment buffer
(0.35 M TrisCl, 10% SDS, 30% glycerol, 9.3% DTT,
pH 6.8, ~10 ml)
0.5 M TrisCl, pH 6.8 (Solution #3)
0.35 M
7.0 ml
SDS (FW 288.4)
0.35 M
1.0 g
Glycerol (FW 92.09)
30% v/v
3.0 ml
DTT (FW 154.2)
0.6 M
0.93 g
Bromphenol Blue (FW 691.9)
0.175 mm
1.2 mg
Divide into 1.0 ml aliquots and store at -70 °C.
• p31
8. Electrophoresis buffer
(0.025 M Tris, 0.192 M glycine, 0.1% SDS, pH 8.3,
5.0 liters)
Tris (FW 121.1)
0.025 M
15.1 g
Glycine (FW 75.07)
0.192 M
72.1 g
SDS (FW 288.4)
3.5 mm
Deionized H2O 5.0 g
to 5.0 liters
The pH of this buffer is approximately 8.3. Do not adjust pH.
Up to 20 liters can be prepared and stored for up to 2
months.
9. Coomassie stain solution
(0.025% Coomassie Blue R-250, 40% Methanol,
7% Acetic acid, 2 liters)
Coomassie Blue R-250 (FW 826)
0.3 mm
0.5 g
Methanol (Stir until dissolved)
40% v/v
800.0 ml
Acetic acid
7% v/v
Deionized H2O 140.0 ml
to 2.0 liters
10. Destain solution I
(40% methanol, 7% acetic acid, 1 liter)
Methanol
40% v/v
Acetic acid
7% v/v
Deionized H2O 400.0 ml
70.0 ml
to 1.0 liter
11. Destain solution II
(7% acetic acid, 5% methanol)
Methanol
5% v/v
Acetic acid
7% v/v
Deionized H2O Caution! Glutaraldehyde should
only be handled in a fume hood.
12. Cross-linking solution
(10% glutaraldehyde)
20 ml of 50% glutaraldehyde stock
Distilled water to 100 ml.
13. DTT (dithiothreitol) solution
(5 µg/ml)
5 mg DTT
Bring to 1 L with ddH2O.
• p32
50.0 ml
70.0 ml
to 1.0 liter
14. Silver Nitrate solution
(0.1% w/v silver nitrate)
1 g silver nitrate
Distilled water 1 to L.
15. 3% Sodium Carbonate solution
(3% w/v)
60 g sodium carbonate
Bring to 2 L with distilled water, store in glass container.
16. Developing solution
(3% sodium carbonate, 0.019% formaldehyde)
200 ml of 3% sodium carbonate
100 µl of 37% formaldehyde
Prepare just before use.
17. Stop solution
(2.3 M sodium citrate)
67.64 sodium citrate, dihydrate (FW 294.1)
Bring to a final volume of 100 ml with deionized water.
• p33
Coomassie Stain Protocol
A. S
tain gel in coomassie stain solution at room
temperature overnight. Gels can also be stained
rapidly by placing them at 55 °C in a shaking water
bath for 30– 45 min.
B. P
lace gel in Destain solution I at room temperature. Change the destain solution when it reaches
a deep blue color until clear background results.
C. Store the gel in Destain solution II.
For a more sensitive method, silver stain protocol is
recommended.
Silver Stain Protocol
(adapted from Morrissey, 1981)
Note: Because this is a highly
sensitive staining method, it
is important to wear gloves
when handling gels and to use
clean containers. To reduce the
background, use only high-purity
reagents and remove all buffer
from the gels during the fixing
and destaining steps.
Gentle agitation is recommended throughout
this procedure.
A. Stain the gel as usual with Coomassie Blue.
Destain the gel with several changes of
Destain solution II.
—OR—
Fix the gel in 100 ml Destain solution I for
30 minutes, then place the gel in 100–200 ml
Destain solution II for 30 minutes. Discard the
solution, refill, and wash with Destain solution II
a second 30 minutes.
B. T
ransfer the gel to 100 ml crosslinking solution
for 30 minutes.
C. D
ecant the glutaraldehyde and rinse the gel
with several changes of deionized water over a
period of two hours.
—OR—
• p34
Soak the gel in 500 ml of deionized water overnight.
The next day, rinse the gel with several changes of
deionized water over 30–60 minutes.
D. P
lace the gel in 100–200 ml of 5 µg/ml DTT in
deionized water for 30 minutes.
E. P
our off the DTT solution but do not rinse the gel.
Add 100 ml of silver nitrate solution directly to the
gel. Shake gently for 30 minutes and then rinse
the gel for 1–2 seconds with deionized water.
F. A
dd 50 ml of developer solution, quickly swirl the
gel, and pour off developer. Repeat once more.
Note: Some bleaching
may occur if using Destain
solution II as a stop solution.
F. A
dd 100 ml of developer and agitate until the
bands are visible. Be sure to stop the development
before the background becomes significant by
neutralizing the solution with 5 ml of stop solution.
Alternatively, pour off developer and add 100 ml
Destain solution II.
G. W
ash the gel in 2–3 changes of deionized water.
Keep the gel in Destain solution II or dry it for
permanent storage.
• p35
Gel recipes
The Laemmli gel recipes are for 30 ml of a single concentration solution (enough for
one 1.5-mm 18 × 16 cm gel). Tabulated are ingredients and volumes for relatively
large pore gels (7.5 to 10%T range) as well as smaller pore gels (12.5 to 15%T range).
A 4% stacking gel is common. The linear gradient recipe is for 100 ml of solution.
The total volume needed depends on the number of gels cast and the gel thickness;
adjust as necessary. All gels are crosslinked with 2.6%C.
Table 5. Laemmli gel recipes
(per 30 ml resolving gel solution, 5 ml stacking gel solution)
7.5%
Resolving gel
10%
12.5%
Acrylamide stock (Soln. #1)
7.5 ml
10 ml
12.5 ml
1.5 M TrisCl, pH 8.8 (Soln. #2)
7.5 ml
7.5 ml
7.5 ml
Stacking gel
15%
4%
15 ml
0.67 ml
7.5 ml
0.5 M TrisCl, pH 6.8 (Soln. #3)
1.25 ml
10% SDS (Soln. #4)
0.3 ml
0.05 ml
3.00 ml
0.3 ml
0.3 ml
14.6 ml
12.1 ml
9.6 ml
7.1 ml
150 µl
150 µl
150 µl
150 µl
25 µl
TEMED
10 µl
10 µl
10 µl
10 µl
2.5 µl
Final Volume
30.0
30.0 ml
30.0 ml
30.0 ml
5.0 ml
Deionized H2O
10% APS (Soln. #5)
0.3 ml
For linear gradient gels, use equal volumes of low % and high % acrylamide solutions.
Less APS is added to extend polymerization time, and less still is added to the higher
%T solution to allow polymerization to occur from the top down. In our experience with
the concentrations in the 10–20% gradient example below, ten gel sandwiches can be
poured in a multiple gel caster at a flow rate of 5–10 ml/min.
Table 6. Linear gradient gel recipes (per 100 ml solution)
Acrylamide stock (Solution #1)
Sucrose
1.5 M TrisCl, pH 8.8 (Solution #2)
10% SDS (Solution #4)
10% T
20% T
33.30 ml
66.70 ml
—
15.00 g
25.00 ml
25.00 ml
1.00 ml
1.00 ml
to 100.00 ml
to 100.00 ml
10% APS (Solution #5)
0.300 ml
0.060 ml
TEMED
0.036 ml
0.036 ml
Deionized H2O
• p36
Appendix B. Bibliography
General
Gallagher, S.R., and J.A. Smith., Electrophoretic
separation of proteins. In Current Protocols in
Molecular Biology. (F.A. Ausubel, et. al, eds.)
10.2.1–10.2.21 (1991).
Hames, B. D. and Rickwood, D., Gel Electrophoresis
of Proteins, A Practical Approach. Second edition,
IRL Press (1990).
Sambrook, J, Fritsch, E.F. and Maniatis, T., Standard
Formaldehyde Protocol. Molecular Cloning:
A Laboratory Manual. Cold Spring Harbor
Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, NY (1990).
Sasse, J., and Gallagher, S.R., Staining proteins in
gels. Current Protocols in Molecular Biology. (F.A.
Ausubel, R. Brent, R.E. Kingston, D.D. Moore,
J.G. Seidman, J.A. Smith, and K. Struhl, eds.)
10.6.1–10.6.8 (1991).
Denaturing gel systems
Laemmli, U.K. Cleavage of structural proteins during
the assembly of the head of bacteriophage T.
Nature. 227, 680–685 (1970).
Matsudaira, P.T. and Burgess, D.R., SDS microslab
linear gradient polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.
Anal. Biochem. 87, 386–396 (1978).
Schreier, M.H., Erni, B. and Staehelin, T., SDS gels,
pH 8.8. J. Mol. Biol. 116, 727–752 (1977).
Shapiro, A.L. and Maizel, J.V. Jr., Molecular weight
estimation for polypeptides. Anal. Biochem. 29,
505–514 (1969).
Schaegger, H. and Von Jagow, G., Tricine-sodium
dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis
for the separation of proteins in the range from 1
to 100 kDa. Anal. Biochem. 166, 368–379 (1987).
Weber, K., and Osborn, M., The reliability of
molecular weight determinators by dodecyl sulfatepolyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. J. Biol. Chem.
224, 4406–4412 (1969).
• p37
Native gel systems
Reisfeld, R.A., et al., Acidic buffer system for
resolution of cationic proteins. Nature. 195,
281 (1962).
McLellan, T. Electrophoresis buffers for
polyacrylamide gels at various pH values. Anal.
Biochem. 126, 94 (1982).
Hedrick, J.L. and Smith, A.J., Size and charge
isomer separation and estimation of molecular
weights of proteins by discontinuous gel
electrophoresis. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 126,
155 (1968).
Two-dimensional electrophoresis
Adams, L.D. and Gallagher, S.R.,
Two-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis Using
the O’Farrell System. Current Protocols in
Molecular Biology, pp. 10.4.1–10.4.13 (1992).
Anderson, N.G., Anderson, N.L., and Tollaksen,
S.L., Clin. Chem. 25, 1199–1210 (1979).
Anderson, N.L. and Anderson, N.G., Proc. Natl.
Acad. Sci. USA. 74, 5421–5425 (1977).
Bravo, R., et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 79,
2281–2285 (1982).
Hurkman, W.J. and Tanaka L.K., Plant
Physiology. 81, 802–906 (1986).
Mets, L.J. and Bogorad. Anal. Biochem. 57,
200–210 (1974).
O’Farrell, P.H. J. Biol. Chem. 250, 4007–4021
(1975).
• p38
Ordering information
product
quantity
product number
for 18 × 16 cm gels
SE400 Sturdier Vertical Unit, complete.
Includes: one set of glass plates 18 × 16 cm, 2 clamp assemblies,
2 cams and 15-well comb and 2 spacers, 1.5-mm thick.
(Other size combs and spacers ordered separately.)
1
SE400-15-1.5
SE400 Sturdier Vertical Unit, basic.
Includes: one set of glass plates 18 × 16 cm, 2 clamp assemblies,
2 cams. Order comb and spacers separately.
1
SE400
for 18 × 24 cm gels
SE410 Sturdier Vertical Slab Electrophoresis Unit, complete.
Includes: one set of glass plates 18 × 24 cm, two 16 cm and
two 8 cm clamp assemblies, 2 cams, 15-well comb and 2 spacers,
1.5 mm thick. (Other size combs and spacers ordered separately.)
1
SE410 Sturdier Vertical Slab Electrophoresis Unit, basic.
1
Includes: one set of glass plates 18 × 24 cm, two 16 cm and
two 8 cm clamp assemblies, and 2 cams. Order comb and spacers separately.
SE410-15-1.5
SE410
Replacement parts
Slotted silicone rubber gasket for upper buffer chamber
Blank silicone rubber gasket for casting stand
Lid with electrodes for SE400, 16 cm
Lid with electrodes for SE410, 24 cm
Lower buffer chamber/casting stand
Upper buffer chamber with gasket
High voltage safety lead set
Wonder Wedge plastic gel plate separation tool GelSeal, ¼ oz. tube
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
SE4008B
SE4009
SE4156
SE416
SE4151
SE4154
SE6056-HV
SE1514
SE6070
1
12
4
2
2
SE6003UK
SE6003U-2
SE6005L
SE6403U
SE6003U
Clamps and Cams
Clamp and Cam Kit, four 16-cm clamps and 8 black cams
Replacement thumbscrews for clamps
Cams, black, for new-style clamps with cam holes
Clamp assemblies, 8 cm
Clamp assemblies, 16 cm
Glass Plates 18 × 16 cm
Glass plates
Glass plate, club sandwich divider, notched
2
1
SE6102
SE6102D
Glass Plates 18 × 24 cm
Glass plates
Glass plate, club sandwich divider, notched
2
1
SE6602
SE6602D
• p39
Combs
number
of wells
thickness (mm)
width
(mm)
quantity
product number
10
0.75
8.3
1
SE511-10-.75
10
1.00
8.3
1
SE511-10-1.0
10
1.50
8.3
1
SE511-10-1.5
12
0.75
7.6
1
SE511-12-.75
12
1.00
7.6
1
SE511-12-1.0
12
1.50
7.6
1
SE511-12-1.5
15
0.75
5.7
1
SE511-15-.75
15
1.00
5.7
1
SE511-15-1.0
15
1.50
5.7
1
SE511-15-1.5
20
0.75
4.1
1
SE511-20-.75
20
1.00
4.1
1
SE511-20-1.0
20
1.50
4.1
1
SE511-20-1.5
28a
0.75
2.7
1
SE511-28-.75
28a
1.00
2.7
1
SE511-28-1.0
28a
1.50
2.7
1
SE511-28-1.5
a
Comb depth 15 mm; all others 25 mm.
Preparative combs
These combs are 25 mm deep, adjustable to 10 or 15 mm.
no. of wells
prep/ref
thickness
(mm)
width (mm)
prep/ref quantity
product number
1/1
0.75
121/6
1
SE511-R-.75
1/1
1.00
121/6
1
SE511-R-1.0
1/1
1.50
121/6
1
SE511-R-1.5
1/2
0.75
113/6
1
SE511-DR-.75
1/2
1.00
113/6
1
SE511-DR-1.0
1/2
1.50
113/6
1
SE511-DR-1.5
1
SE511-BKA
Adjustable comb back
Required to convert any 25-mm deep comb to 10 or 15 mm depth.
• p40
Spacers
thickness
(mm)
length
(cm)
width
(cm)
quantity
product number
0.75
16
2
2
SE6119-2-.75
1.0
16
2
2
SE6119-2-1.0
1.5
16
2
2
SE6119-2-1.5
1.0
16
1
2
SE6118-2-1.0
1.5
16
1
2
SE6118-2-1.5
0.75
24
2
2
SE6619-2-.75
1.00
24
2
2
SE6619-2-1.0
1.50
24
2
2
SE6619-2-1.5
1
SE675
1
SE615
Hoefer SE100 Plate Mate washing and storage unit
1
SE100
Hoefer PS300B Power Supply
1
PS300B
Gel Casters
Order combs and spacers separately.
For up to 4 gels
Gel Caster Kit, 4 gels, 18 × 16 cm. Includes: 8 glass plates, 3 space-saver plates,
5 filler sheets, 100 sheets of wax paper,
Spacer-Mate alignment template, and filler plugs.
For up to 10 gels
Multiple Gel Caster Kit, 10 gels, 18 × 16 cm
Includes: 20 glass plates, space-saver plate,
5 filler sheets, 100 sheets of wax paper,
and Spacer-Mate alignment template.
Recommended
• p41
Hoefer, Inc.
84 October Hill Road
Holliston, MA 01746
Toll Free: 1-800-227-4750
Phone: 1-508-893-8999
Fax: 1-508-893-0176
E-mail: [email protected]
Web: www.hoeferinc.com
Hoefer is a registered trademark
of Hoefer, Inc. Coomassie is a
trademark of ICI plc. RBS-35 is a
trademark of Pierce Chemical Co.
© 2012 Hoefer, Inc. —
All rights reserved.
Printed in the USA.
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