Capturing Payload Sequences

Capturing Payload Sequences
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User Manual
UI4610
Graphical User Interface Software
070-8856-04
This document applies for software version 2.08
and above.
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Copyright E Tektronix, Inc. All rights reserved. Licensed software products are owned by Tektronix or its suppliers and
are protected by United States copyright laws and international treaty provisions.
Use, duplication, or disclosure by the Government is subject to restrictions as set forth in subparagraph (c)(1)(ii) of the
Rights in Technical Data and Computer Software clause at DFARS 252.227-7013, or subparagraphs (c)(1) and (2) of the
Commercial Computer Software – Restricted Rights clause at FAR 52.227-19, as applicable.
Tektronix products are covered by U.S. and foreign patents, issued and pending. Information in this publication supercedes
that in all previously published material. Specifications and price change privileges reserved.
Printed in the U.S.A.
Tektronix, Inc., P.O. Box 1000, Wilsonville, OR 97070–1000
TEKTRONIX and TEK are registered trademarks of Tektronix, Inc.
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WARRANTY
Tektronix warrants that this software product will conform to the specifications in the documentation provided with the
product, when used properly in the specified operating environment, for a period of three (3) months. The warranty period
begins on the date of shipment, except that if the program is installed by Tektronix, the warranty period begins on the date
of installation or one month after the date of shipment, whichever is earlier. If this software product does not conform as
warranted, Tektronix will provide remedial services as described in the documentation provided with the product.
Tektronix does not warrant that the functions contained in this software product will meet Customer’s requirements or that
operation of the programs will be uninterrupted or error-free or that all errors will be corrected.
In order to obtain service under this warranty, Customer must notify Tektronix of the defect before the expiration of the
warranty period and make suitable arrangements for such service in accordance with the instructions received from
Tektronix. If Tektronix is unable, within a reasonable time after receipt of such notice, to provide remedial services,
Customer may terminate the license for this software product and return this software product and any associated materials
to Tektronix for credit or refund.
This warranty shall not apply to any software product that has been modified or altered by Customer. Tektronix shall not be
obligated to furnish service under this warranty with respect to any software product a) that is used in an operating
environment other than that specified or in a manner inconsistent with the User Manual and documentation or b) when the
software product has been integrated with other software if the result of such integration increases the time or difficulty of
analyzing or servicing the software product or the problems ascribed to the software product.
THIS WARRANTY IS GIVEN BY TEKTRONIX WITH RESPECT TO THE LISTED PRODUCT IN LIEU OF
ANY OTHER WARRANTIES, EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED. TEKTRONIX AND ITS VENDORS DISCLAIM ANY
IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
TEKTRONIX’ RESPONSIBILITY TO PROVIDE REMEDIAL SERVICE WHEN SPECIFIED, REPLACE
DEFECTIVE MEDIA, OR REFUND CUSTOMER’S PAYMENT IS THE SOLE AND EXCLUSIVE REMEDY
PROVIDED TO THE CUSTOMER FOR BREACH OF THIS WARRANTY. TEKTRONIX AND ITS VENDORS
WILL NOT BE LIABLE FOR ANY INDIRECT, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES
IRRESPECTIVE OF WHETHER TEKTRONIX OR THE VENDOR HAS ADVANCE NOTICE OF THE
POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.
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Table of Contents
Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
vii
About This Manual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Related Manuals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
vii
viii
Understanding Computer System Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring the GPIB Hardware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring the MXI Hardware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Installing the UI4610 Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Establishing Communication with the VX4610 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Selecting SDH or SONET Operating Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Verifying Basic Functionality of the VX4610 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1–1
1–2
1–3
1–4
1–5
1–8
1–9
Recommended File Extensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Objects in Windows and Dialog Boxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Contents of the Main Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Command Builder Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Command Monitor Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Talk/Listen Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2–1
2–2
2–2
2–7
2–11
2–13
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting Test Control Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3–1
3–3
Setting the Test Time Duration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Starting and Stopping a Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3–3
3–4
Working with Test Setups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3–7
Saving and Recalling Test Setups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pass/Fail Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3–7
3–10
Checking Signal Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting Generator Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3–13
3–15
Generator and Receiver Coupling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Basic Generator Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the NRZ Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3–15
3–17
3–22
Setting Receiver Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3–23
Generator and Receiver Coupling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Basic Receiver Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the NRZ Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3–23
3–25
3–31
Setting and Viewing Overhead Bytes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3–33
Setting Overhead Bytes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Viewing Overhead Bytes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3–33
3–36
Setting Errors, Alarms, and Pointers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3–41
Simulating Error Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3–41
Getting Started
Operating Basics
Reference
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i
Table of Contents
Setting Alarms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Simulating Transmit Failures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting Pointers or Frequency Offset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3–43
3–44
3–45
Viewing Test Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3–57
Displaying an Error Count . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Viewing Detailed Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Viewing Pass/Fail Test Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Saving and Recalling Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3–57
3–57
3–64
3–64
Setting Trigger Outputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3–67
Selecting the Trigger Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Routing Triggers to the VXIbus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3–67
3–68
Generating Custom Payload Sequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3–69
Setting the Payload Sequence Content . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Transmitting the Custom Payload Sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Saving and Recalling Payload Sequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3–69
3–72
3–73
Capturing Payload Sequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3–77
Setting the Trigger Condition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Starting the Payload Capture Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Viewing the Captured Payload Sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Saving and Recalling Captured Payload Sequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Transmitting a Captured Payload Frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3–77
3–79
3–80
3–80
3–83
Appendix A: SDH/SONET Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Appendix B: Settings After Reset to Defaults . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Appendix C: Limited-Access Commands and Queries . . . . . . . . . . . .
A–1
B–1
C–1
Appendices
Glossary
Index
ii
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Table of Contents
List of Figures
Figure 1–1: Typical GPIB or MXI/VXI system configuration . . . . . .
Figure 1–2: Icons for the UI4610 Software group and program . . . .
Figure 1–3: The Setup Communications dialog box for GPIB setup .
Figure 1–4: The Setup Communications dialog box for VISA setup .
Figure 1–5: Search Bus dialog box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Figure 1–6: Selecting the SDH or SONET Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Figure 1–7: Location of the VX4610 READY light . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Figure 1–8: Location of the signal status lights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1–3
1–5
1–6
1–6
1–7
1–9
1–10
1–10
Figure 2–1: Typical main window and its contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Figure 2–2: The Auto Update Timer dialog box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Figure 2–3: The Command Group menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Figure 2–4: The Command Monitor window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Figure 2–5: The Talk/Listen window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2–3
2–3
2–9
2–11
2–13
Figure 3–1: Test Duration selector and Test Time indicators . . . . . . .
Figure 3–2: Stop and Start buttons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Figure 3–3: The Save dialog box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Figure 3–4: The Save As dialog box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Figure 3–5: The Recall dialog box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Figure 3–6: The Open dialog box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Figure 3–7: Pass/Fail test controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Figure 3–8: Pass/Fail Conditions dialog box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Figure 3–9: Signal status lights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Figure 3–10: Generator coupling choices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Figure 3–11: The GENERATOR group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Figure 3–12: The Generator window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Figure 3–13: Setting a repeating byte test pattern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Figure 3–14: Setting the NRZ connection Transmit/Drop parameters
Figure 3–15: Generator coupling choices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Figure 3–16: The RECEIVER group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Figure 3–17: The Receiver window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Figure 3–18: Setting a repeating byte test pattern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Figure 3–19: Received Signal Status window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Figure 3–20: Setting the NRZ connection Receive/Add parameters .
3–3
3–5
3–7
3–8
3–9
3–9
3–10
3–11
3–13
3–16
3–18
3–19
3–21
3–22
3–24
3–26
3–27
3–29
3–30
3–31
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iii
Table of Contents
Figure 3–21: Setting transmit overhead bytes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Figure 3–22: The Transmitted APS Bytes dialog box . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Figure 3–23: Viewing received overhead bytes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Figure 3–24: The Trigger Setup dialog box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Figure 3–25: The Received APS Bytes dialog box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Figure 3–26: Selecting error type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Figure 3–27: Entering a user-defined error rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Figure 3–28: Selecting the alarm type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Figure 3–29: Selecting the failure type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Figure 3–30: The Transmit Signal Control window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Figure 3–31: Setting single or burst pointer movements . . . . . . . . . . .
Figure 3–32: Alternating burst pointer movement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Figure 3–33: Setting Pointer Location to a specific value . . . . . . . . . .
Figure 3–34: Selecting pointer sequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Figure 3–35: Displaying pointer sequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Figure 3–36: Setting frequency offset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Figure 3–37: Error count display in main window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Figure 3–38: Measurement results grouped by errors . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Figure 3–39: Measurement results grouped by alarms . . . . . . . . . . . .
Figure 3–40: Measurement results grouped by failures . . . . . . . . . . .
Figure 3–41: Pointer-related measurement results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Figure 3–42: Measurement analysis of the RS or Section Layer . . . .
Figure 3–43: Measurement analysis of the MS or Line Layer . . . . . .
Figure 3–44: Measurement analysis of the Path Layer . . . . . . . . . . . .
Figure 3–45: Measurement analysis of the Payload Pattern . . . . . . . .
Figure 3–46: The Save dialog box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Figure 3–47: The Save As dialog box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Figure 3–48: The Recall dialog box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Figure 3–49: The Open dialog box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Figure 3–50: The Triggers Out window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Figure 3–51: The Payload Generation window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Figure 3–52: The Save dialog box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Figure 3–53: The Save As dialog box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Figure 3–54: The Recall dialog box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Figure 3–55: The Open dialog box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Figure 3–56: The Payload Capture window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Figure 3–57: The Trigger Setup dialog box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Figure 3–58: The Save dialog box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
iv
3–34
3–35
3–37
3–38
3–39
3–41
3–42
3–43
3–44
3–45
3–47
3–48
3–49
3–50
3–51
3–55
3–58
3–59
3–60
3–60
3–61
3–62
3–62
3–63
3–63
3–64
3–65
3–66
3–66
3–67
3–70
3–74
3–74
3–75
3–75
3–77
3–78
3–81
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Table of Contents
Figure 3–59: The Save As dialog box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Figure 3–60: The Recall dialog box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Figure 3–61: The Open dialog box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Figure 3–62: The Export Payload Data dialog box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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3–81
3–82
3–83
3–84
v
Table of Contents
List of Tables
vi
Table 1–1: Communications software required when using the UI4610
Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1–4
Table 2–1: Recommended file extensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2–1
Table 3–1: Interpreting the signal status lights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table 3–2: Pointer sequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table 3–3: Trigger output VXI line assignments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table 3–4: Maximum payload sequence length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table 3–5: Source and destination of generated payload sequence
data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table 3–6: Source and destination of captured payload sequence
data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3–14
3–51
3–68
3–71
3–73
3–80
Table A–1: SDH/SONET equivalent or similar terms . . . . . . . . . . . .
A–1
Table B–1: Default settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
B–1
Table C–1: Commands and queries accessible only with command
builder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C–1
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Preface
This manual describes how to use the UI4610 Graphical User Interface Software
to operate the VX4610 SDH/SONET Generator/Receiver. The UI4610 Software
is a Microsoft Windows-based application; familiarity with Windows-based
applications is assumed.
The UI4610 Software operates in either of two modes, SDH or SONET. Many
descriptions and illustrations in this manual show both operating modes. Refer to
the information that is appropriate for your application.
About This Manual
The following table shows you where to find information on common tasks.
Where to find information in this manual
If you want to know about:
Look in this part of the manual:
System requirements to run the UI4610
Software
Getting Started, starting on page 1–1
Installing the UI4610 Software
Getting Started, starting on page 1–4
Setting the operating mode, SDH or SONET
Getting Started, starting on page 1–8
Using the Main window menus
Operating Basics, starting on page 2–2
Using the Command Builder tool
Operating Basics, starting on page 2–7
Using the Command Monitor tool
Operating Basics, starting on page 2–11
Using the Talk/Listen tool
Operating Basics, starting on page 2–13
Operating the VX4610 using the simulated
front panel in the UI4610 Software
Reference, starting on page 3–1
This section is organized by common tasks
you may need to perform
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vii
Preface
Related Manuals
The following documents are also available for the VX4610 SDH/SONET
Generator/Receiver:
viii
H
The VX4610 User Manual (Tektronix part number 070-8855-XX) provides a
functional overview of the VX4610 as well as detailed information about
programming commands and instrument specifications.
H
The VX4610 Reference (Tektronix part number 070-8974-XX) provides a
quick overview of the instrument programming commands.
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Getting Started
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Getting Started
The UI4610 Graphical User Interface Software will help you explore, operate,
and program the Tektronix VX4610 SDH/SONET Generator/Receiver. The
UI4610 Software provides the following key benefits:
H
An intuitive, Microsoft Windows-based, graphical interface to explore the
functions and learn the capabilities of the VX4610
H
A convenient way to operate the VX4610 in interactive applications such as
troubleshooting or testing
H
A bridge from the human interface to the command language, providing an
easy way to construct and send commands and see the responses
H
A method to develop application programs by capturing sequences of
commands and exporting these command sequences into your program
The UI4610 Software is also useful when not connected to a VX4610. You can
use the UI4610 Software to explore the VX4610 features and command structure
even when no VX4610 is connected to the computer.
This section covers the following topics:
H
Understanding computer system requirements
H
Configuring GPIB hardware
H
Configuring MXI hardware
H
Installing the UI4610 Software
H
Establishing communication with the VX4610
H
Selecting SDH or SONET operating mode
H
Verifying basic functionality of the VX4610
Understanding Computer System Requirements
The UI4610 Software runs on any IBM-PC or compatible computer with the
following minimum system requirements:
H
486 processor
H
4 Mbyte RAM
H
Microsoft Windows operating system, version 3.1 or higher
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1–1
Getting Started
H
VGA color display monitor
H
National Instruments GPIB card or MXI card and supporting software
H
3.5 inch, high-density floppy disk drive
H
Keyboard
H
Mouse
Configuring the GPIB Hardware
The UI4610 Software may communicate with the VX4610 through a standard
GPIB interface connected to the VXIbus GPIB adapter. Install the GPIB board in
your computer according to the manufacturer instructions and safety precautions.
Turn off your computer and the VX4610 system. Install the GPIB cable between
the GPIB connector on your computer and the GPIB connector at the front of the
VXIbus GPIB adapter shown in Figure 1–1. For proper operation, the system
requires the following conventions when you use the GPIB interface:
1–2
H
Check the specification for the number of devices for your specific GPIB
interface. If you have other GPIB-configured devices connected to your
system, do not exceed the recommended maximum number of devices on
the bus.
H
Assign a unique address to each GPIB device. Refer to the VX4610 User
Manual for information about how to set the VX4610 logical address.
H
Connect one device for each 2 m (6 ft) of cable.
H
Do not exceed 20 m (65 ft) total cable length.
H
Turn on at least two-thirds of the connected devices when operating the
network.
H
Connect the network devices in a star or linear configuration rather than in a
loop or parallel configuration.
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Getting Started
Monitor
MXI or GPIB
Adapter
VXIbus Mainframe
Mouse
MXI or GPIB Card
Controller
Keyboard
MXI or GPIB
Cable
VX4610
Figure 1–1: Typical GPIB or MXI/VXI system configuration
Configuring the MXI Hardware
The UI4610 Software may communicate with the VX4610 through a standard
AT–MXI interface connected to the VXI/MXI bus Slot 0 controller. Install the
MXI board in your computer according to the manufacturer’s instructions and
safety precautions.
Turn off your computer and the VX4610 system, then install the MXIbus cable
between the MXI connector on your computer and the VXI/MXI connector at the
front of the MXI adapter as shown in Figure 1–1. For proper operation, the
system requires the following conventions when you use the MXI interface:
H
MXI systems can have up to eight devices connected by daisy-chain cable.
If you have other MXI-configured devices connected to the system, do not
exceed eight devices on one MXI bus.
H
Assign a unique address to each device. Refer to the VX4610 User Manual
for information about how to set the VX4610 logical address.
H
Connect one device for each 2 m (6 ft) of cable.
H
Do not exceed 20 m (65 ft) total cable length.
H
Connect the network devices in a star or linear configuration rather than in a
loop or parallel configuration.
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Getting Started
Installing the UI4610 Software
This section describes how to install and start the UI4610 Software.
To operate the VX4610 with the UI4610 Software, you must also install the
National Instruments (NI) GPIB software or the NI-VXI and NI-VISA software
on your computer. The UI4610 Software installer program looks for the file
gpib.dll included with the GPIB software or the file visa.dll included with the
VISA software. The UI4610 Software installation will continue without the NI
GPIB, NI-VXI, or NI-VISA software, but you can not communicate with the
VX4610. Table 1–1 lists the interface types and the software required for each
interface. The software listed is included with your communications interface
and must be installed before attempting to operate the VX4610 with the UI4610
Software.
To install the UI4610 Software, perform the following steps:
1. Remove older versions of the UI4610 Software, if any, from your PC. The
installation software will not overwrite or automatically remove previous
versions the UI4610 Software.
2. Insert the UI4610 Graphical User Interface Software diskette number 1 into
the disk drive.
3. Start the installer program setup.exe located on the installed disk.
4. When prompted, insert the UI4610 Graphical User Interface Software
diskette number 2 into the disk drive and follow the instructions.
5. When the installation dialog box appears, confirm or change the destination
disk drive and directory.
6. The UI4610 Setup dialog box announces when the installation is complete.
Click on OK to acknowledge the successful installation.
Table 1–1: Communications software required when using the UI4610
Software
1–4
Bus type
Interface type
Required software
GPIB
GPIB
NI GPIB/gpib.dll
VISA
GPIB
NI GPIB/gpib.dll
NI VISA/visa.dll
VISA
GPIB-VXI
NI GPIB/gpib.dll
NI VISA/visa.dll
VISA
VXI/MXI
NI-VXI/nivxi.dll
NI VISA/visa.dll
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Getting Started
Starting the Software
After you install the UI4610 Software, double-click on the icon shown at the left
in Figure 1–2 to open the UI4610 window. Then, in the UI4610 window,
double-click on the icon shown at the right in Figure 1–2 to start the UI4610
program.
Figure 1–2: Icons for the UI4610 Software group and program
Establishing Communication with the VX4610
Each time the UI4610 Software starts, it automatically tries to communicate with
the VX4610. At start-up, the UI4610 Software temporarily displays a dialog box
that states whether communication with the VX4610 was successful or not.
Any time the UI4610 Software is running you can verify communication with
the VX4610 using the Communications menu. To display the Setup Communications window, click on the Communications menu and select the Setup
Bus command. The Setup Communications window provides selections to
support GPIB or VISA/MXI communications, as shown in Figures 1–3 and 1–4.
When the UI4610 Software can communicate with the VX4610, the Instrument
Connected check box contains an X. If you click on the ID command button in
the GPIB dialog box, the VX4610 responds with its GPIB identification in the
text box of the dialog.
Using VISA Software
VISA is the Virtual Instrument Software Architecture, which provides a vendor
independent communications interface. VISA is not required to establish GPIB
communications, but it can simplify communications. When you have the VISA
software installed in your system, you can select the VISA mode and your
communications link, such as MXI or GPIB, and get immediate communication.
VISA simplifies communication between controllers and VXI modules from
many vendors. The VX4610 and UI4610 products support the VISA system.
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Getting Started
Figure 1–3: The Setup Communications dialog box for GPIB setup
Figure 1–4: The Setup Communications dialog box for VISA setup
Setting the GPIB Address
To establish communications using the GPIB bus, follow these steps:
1. In the Setup Communications dialog box, click on the Search button to
display the Search Bus dialog box (see Figure 1–5).
2. Click on the Secondary Addressing check box to include a search of
secondary addresses.
1–6
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Getting Started
3. Click on Check to begin a search for all devices connected to the bus.
Figure 1–5: Search Bus dialog box
4. Once you recognize that your device is listed in Devices found on GPIB
Bus, select Stop to halt further searching. Note the address.
5. Click on OK to close the Search Bus dialog and return to the GPIB dialog.
6. Click on the up or down arrows in the Primary address box and, optionally,
the Secondary address box to set the correct address for your target device.
7. Click on the ID button to confirm communication with your instrument.
8. Click on OK to close the Communications dialog and proceed with other
operations.
Setting the VISA Address
To establish communications using the VXI/MXI bus, follow these steps:
1. In the Setup Communications dialog box, click on the VISA button and the
VXI/MXI interface button.
2. Find your instrument in the list of Devices found on the Bus and note its
logical address.
3. Enter the device logical address in the logical address box and click on the
ID button to confirm communication with your instrument.
4. Click on OK to close the Communications dialog and proceed with other
operations.
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Getting Started
Talk and Listen in the
Search Bus Dialog Box
You may have noticed that the Search Bus dialog box (see Figure 1–5) conveniently includes Send and Receive command buttons. They allow you to talk and
listen to a particular device while in the Search Bus dialog box. To talk and listen
from the Search Bus dialog box, follow these steps:
1. Choose the Setup BUS command from the Communications menu and click
on Search in the dialog box to display the Search Bus dialog.
2. Click on the up or down arrows in the Primary address box and optionally
the Secondary address box to set the correct address for your target device.
NOTE. This Talk/Listen session is independent of the Talk/Listen command found
in the Tools menu (refer to page 2–13 for more information).
3. Enter a valid command in the Send text box and click on the Send button.
4. Click on the Receive button to read the response, if your command requires
a response.
5. Click on OK to close the Search Bus dialog and return to the GPIB dialog.
6. Click on OK to close the GPIB dialog and return to the main window.
Selecting SDH or SONET Operating Mode
You must choose one of two operating modes to use the UI4610 Software: SDH
or SONET. This choice determines the terminology and content you see in most
of the windows.
To set the operating mode, pull down the Setup menu (see Figure 1–6). Select
either SDH Mode or SONET Mode. Once set, the terminology and content of
all windows reflects the standard you have chosen. Your choice of operating
mode remains set even when you exit the UI4610 Software or turn off the
computer. You can select the other standard at any time; however, all settings are
reset to the default settings when you change operating mode.
NOTE. When a VX4610 with options is connected to the UI4610 Graphical User
Interface Software, the software displays only those functions that apply to the
connected VX4610. If no VX4610 is connected to the UI4610 Graphical User
Interface Software, then sample functions are displayed.
1–8
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Getting Started
Figure 1–6: Selecting the SDH or SONET Mode
Verifying Basic Functionality of the VX4610
This section describes several simple steps you can perform to check that the
VX4610 is operating in the VXIbus mainframe:
1. Verify that the UI4610 Software and the VX4610 are communicating using
the method described in the section Establishing Communication with the
VX4610, beginning on page 1–5.
2. Verify that the READY light on the VX4610 front panel is on. This indicates
that the VX4610 has passed its power-on diagnostics. See Figure 1–7 for the
location of the READY light.
3. In the UI4610 Software menu bar, pull down the Setup menu and select
Reset to Defaults.
4. In the Setup menu, select Auto Update On.
5. Disconnect any 75 W coaxial cable connected between the TRANSMIT
output and the RECEIVE input on the VX4610.
6. Verify that the LOS and Pat. Lock status lights in the control and indicator
bar are red. See Figure 1–8 for the location of the signal status lights.
7. Connect a 75 W coaxial cable from the TRANSMIT output to the RECEIVE
input on the front panel of the VX4610 and click on the Transmit On button
in the Generator group of the UI4610 Graphical User Interface Software.
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Getting Started
READY Light
Figure 1–7: Location of the VX4610 READY light
8. Verify that all six lights, LOS, LOF, LOP, Alarm, Error, and Pat.Lock, are
green.
You have verified that a signal transmitted by the VX4610 is being received by
the VX4610 with no errors or alarms.
Signal
status
lights
Figure 1–8: Location of the signal status lights
1–10
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Operating Basics
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Operating Basics
The UI4610 Graphical User Interface Software runs under Microsoft Windows.
If a Windows-based, menu-driven program is new to you, refer to your Microsoft
Windows User’s Guide for general information about how to use Windows.
Operating Basics covers the topics listed below:
H
Recommended file extensions
H
Objects in windows and dialog boxes
H
Contents of the main window
H
Command Builder tool and its menus
H
Command Monitor tool and its menus
H
Talk/Listen tool and its menus
You can find additional information about most items in the graphical user
interface in the Reference section of this manual.
Recommended File Extensions
Using the UI4610 Software, you can save VX4610 setups, test results, and
payload data from the generation and capture processes to disk files. To
recognize these different file types when they are recalled, refer to the file
extensions listed in Table 2–1.
Table 2–1: Recommended file extensions
File type
File extension
VX4610 setups
.set
Test results
.res
Payload generator data
.gen
Payload capture data
.cap
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Operating Basics
Objects in Windows and Dialog Boxes
The UI4610 Software uses the mouse as its main control device for interface
objects. When you first start the program, the main window is displayed.
Figure 2–1 shows a typical window, the main window. Most windows displayed
by the UI4610 Software contain objects similar to those shown in the figure.
Figure 2–1 shows the names used throughout this manual to refer to objects in
windows.
Contents of the Main Window
The main window contains the basic controls needed to set up the VX4610, run
tests, and see summary test results. You can click command buttons in the main
window to display additional windows that provide access to more VX4610
features. The main window controls are arranged in the following groups to
simulate a front panel for the VX4610:
H
The GENERATOR group contains controls to set up the generator section.
H
The RECEIVER group contains controls to set up the receiver section.
H
The RESULTS group contains controls to set up tests and view detailed
measurement results and indicators to view summary test results.
The following sections describe items in the menu bar and the control and
indicator bar of the main window. Some of the items provide access to new
windows. Other items provide alternatives to using the simulated front panel.
Setup Menu
Use the Setup menu items to change the following UI4610 Software settings:
SDH Mode. Select this item to place the UI4610 Software and VX4610 in SDH
mode. This selection indicates that the terminology and content of the windows
are based on the SDH communication standards.
SONET Mode. Select this item to place the UI4610 Software and VX4610 in
SONET mode. This selection indicates that the terminology and content of the
windows are based on the SONET communication standards.
Auto Update On. Select this item to update the main and results windows
automatically with the current VX4610 test results, elapsed time, and signal
status. Auto Update does not update generator settings, receiver settings, or
overhead data. This menu item is replicated by check boxes in the main and
results windows.
2–2
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Operating Basics
Save and
Recall
icons
Test
Duration
selector
% Done
indicator
Signal status
lights
Menu bar
Control and indicator bar
Generator group
Receiver group
Results group
Test pattern
list
Figure 2–1: Typical main window and its contents
Auto Update Timer. Select this item to display the Auto Update Timer dialog box
(see Figure 2–2). The default refresh interval is once per second. You can set the
refresh interval to other values using the text box. Click on OK after you have
entered the new value.
Figure 2–2: The Auto Update Timer dialog box
Reset to Defaults. Select this item to initialize the VX4610 to a known state. See
Appendix B for a listing of the default setups for the SDH and SONET modes.
Save Current Setup. Select this item to display a Save dialog box with the
controls to save the current setup to disk or buffer. See Saving Setups to a Disk
on page 3–7 for more information.
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Operating Basics
Recall Setup. Select this item to display a Recall dialog box with the controls to
recall a setup from disk or buffer. See Recalling Setups from a Disk on page 3–9
for more information on this procedure.
Execute Self Test. Select this item to execute the VX4610 self-test diagnostics.
You can execute this test without disconnecting cables from the VX4610 front
panel. When the test is finished, a passed or failed test result is displayed in a
dialog box. Do not select this function while a testing is running.
Setup Printer. Select this item to choose the printer. You can also choose paper
orientation and size.
Print Results. Select this item to send the contents of the Main Results and Error
Analysis windows to the printer. The Print Results command prints only the
contents of open windows.
Exit. Select this item to quit the UI4610 Software program.
Test Menu
Use the Test menu items to set up Pass/Fail tests:
Pass/Fail On. Select this item to turn the Pass/Fail test feature on or off. This
menu item replicates the function of the On and Off option buttons in the
Pass/Fail group of the main window.
Pass/Fail Conditions. Select this item to display the Test Pass/Fail Setup menu.
This menu item replicates the function of the Fail if... command button in the
Pass/Fail group of the main window. See Pass/Fail Tests on page 3–10 for
information about setting Pass/Fail test conditions.
Results Menu
Use the Results menu items to save, recall, and print test results:
Save Results. Select this item to display the Save As dialog box with the controls
to save the current test results to disk. See Saving Results to Disk on page 3–64
for more information.
Recall Results. Select this item to display the Open dialog box with the controls
to recall test results from disk. See Recalling Results from Disk on page 3–65 for
more information.
2–4
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Operating Basics
Print Results. Select this item to send the contents of the Main Results and Error
Analysis windows to the printer. The Print Results command prints only the
contents of open windows.
Tools Menu
Use the Tools menu items to explore the instrument controls you can use in
addition to the simulated front panel provided by the UI4610 Software:
Command Builder. Select this item to open the Command Builder tool. See The
Command Builder Tool on page 2–7 for information.
Command Monitor. Select this item to open the Command Monitor tool. See The
Command Monitor Tool on page 2–11 for information.
Talk/Listen. Select this item to open the Talk/Listen tool. See The Talk/Listen Tool
on page 2–13 for information.
Notepad. Select this item to open the Windows Notepad text editor. Use Notepad
to take notes, edit files, or paste commands copied from the Command Builder
or Command Monitor. See the Microsoft Windows User’s Guide for instructions
on using Notepad.
Communications Menu
Use the Communications menu items to set up the communication interface:
Instrument Connected. Select this command to enable communication between
the UI4610 Software and the VX4610. A check mark next to the command
indicates that the UI4610 Software and the VX4610 are communicating.
No Communications Active. Select this command to disable communication
between the UI4610 Software and the VX4610. A check mark next to the
command indicates that the UI4610 Software and the VX4610 are not communicating. Select at any time to operate the UI4610 Software without affecting the
setup of the VX4610.
Setup Bus. Select this item to display the Setup Communications window. Use
this window to set and verify the communication connection between the
VX4610 and the UI4610 Software. See Establishing Communication with the
VX4610 on page 1–5 for instructions on how to use this window.
Help Menu
Use the Help menu items to access the help system:
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Operating Basics
Contents. Select this item to display the topics available in the help system.
How to use Help. Select this item to display information about how to navigate
through the help system.
About the Tektronix UI4610. Select this item to display a window that shows
information about the UI4610 Graphical User Interface Software version, the
VX4610 to which it is connected, and the host computer.
Control and Indicator Bar
The control and indicator bar, located just below the menu bar, contains the
following items:
Update Main Window Command Button. Click on this command button to update
only the main window contents. The current generator and receiver settings,
signal status, elapsed test time, and main window test results are loaded into the
UI4610 Software.
SAVE and RECALL Icons. Click on these icons to access disk storage for setups
and test results, as well as generated and captured data.
Test Duration Selector. Use this control to set the duration of a test.
% Done Indicator. This indicator displays the percent completion of a test that is
running.
Start/Stop Button. Click on this button to start and stop a test. To make any
measurements, a test must be running.
Clock Icon. This icon “ticks” when a test is running. The message displayed
below the clock, STOPPED or RUNNING, shows the state of a test.
Signal Status Lights. These lights show the status of the received signal. See
Checking Signal Status on page 3–13 for information on how to interpret the
lights.
NRZ Control with
Option 58
2–6
With the Option 58 tributary module installed, a PDH NRZ (SDH) or DSn NRZ
(SONET) button appears at the bottom of the Main window. Click on the button
to control Transmit and Receive parameters for the NRZ connectors and to
switch them on or off.
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Operating Basics
Updating the Windows
Periodic updating is necessary to load current information from the VX4610 into
the UI4610 Software. Use the Update command buttons to perform this
operation. You can also choose Auto Update to update certain information
automatically on a time interval you define. The following paragraphs describe
the differences between these update controls:
H
When you click on the Update MAIN WINDOW command button, the
generator and receiver settings, signal status, and elapsed test time are loaded
into the UI4610 Software. However, only the test results displayed in the
main window update. When powering up or changing operating modes
between SDH and SONET, click on the Update MAIN WINDOW button
twice to fully update the status lights.
H
When you click on the Update command button in the RESULTS group of
the main window, only the elapsed test time, signal status lights, and
measurement results displayed in the RESULTS group update.
H
When you click on Update command buttons located in other windows, such
as the Generator Overhead window, only the contents of that specific
window update.
H
When you select Auto Update in the Setup menu, the elapsed test time,
signal status lights, and all measurement results update automatically.
H
When you click on a button to open a window, the settings automatically
update if a VX4610 is connected to the UI4610 Software. However, this
feature doesn’t operate in the Overhead, Payload, Main Results, or Error
Analysis windows.
The Command Builder Tool
The Command Builder tool, available in the Tools menu, provides an easy way
to learn and use the VX4610 command language. Use the Command Builder to
construct and send commands and queries, and then view the response from the
VX4610. All VX4610 instrument commands and queries are presented according
to their hierarchy and can be selected using only the mouse.
The Command Builder menus contain most of the controls you need to use the
window. The menus also contain items that access other windows in the UI4610
Software. The only Command Builder control that is not in the menus is the
Send command button. Click on the Send command button after constructing the
command or query you want to send to the VX4610.
Command Structure
There are two basic types of commands and queries used to program the
VX4610. Most of the VX4610 commands and queries use a command language
derived from the SCPI standard (Standard Commands for Programmable
Instruments). A SCPI-derived command begins with the command subsystem
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Operating Basics
and is constructed of additional nodes, each separated by a colon. The SCPIderived command usually ends with a parameter; the query form ends with a
question mark. An example of a SCPI-derived command with five nodes is
“SENSe:DATA:TELecom:TEST:STARt;”.
The VX4610 also uses IEEE 488.2 Common Commands, which consist of an
asterisk followed by a three-character mnemonic and, in some cases, a parameter.
The query form of the IEEE 488.2 Common Command ends with a question
mark. The end of all commands and queries is punctuated with a semicolon. An
example of an IEEE 488.2 Common Command is “*RST;”.
Command Group Menu
Use the Command Group menu to construct commands and queries to send to
the VX4610. Pull down the Command Group menu to display the command
subsystems (see Figure 2–3). Complete the command or query by selecting and
clicking additional command nodes as described in the following paragraphs.
NOTE. The Command Builder only displays those commands that apply to the
SDH or SONET mode selected in the Setup menu.
H
Click on one of the command subsystems to select it. As you make the
selection, the command string begins to form in the Command String text
box. If you chose a command subsystem without a trailing arrow, a list of
command nodes appears in the Command List box. Select one of these
command nodes to append it to the command string. At the same time,
parameters may appear in the Parameters box. If so, select one of the
parameters to complete the command.
When finished, the complete command is in the Command String text box.
Click on the Send command button to send the command to the VX4610.
NOTE. Executing commands while running a test produces undefined results.
Choose Error Checking in the Command Builder window Options menu to
receive status messages about command execution.
2–8
H
Several of the command subsystems in the menu are followed by an arrow. If
you click on one with an arrow, the next level of command nodes appears in
a new menu box at the right. Continue building the command by selecting a
command node from the new menu box. Depending on your selection, you
may need to repeat this process several times. Finally, select a command
node from the Command List box (and in a few cases a parameter from the
Parameters box) to complete the command.
H
Some commands require text or numerical parameters that you must enter
with the keyboard. When this information is needed, a User Supplied Input
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Operating Basics
dialog box appears. Enter the parameter into the text box, and then click on
the OK command button to append the parameter to the command string.
H
Construct queries like commands, except the lowest level of the command
string is a question mark (?). In some cases, the question mark is already
attached to the lowest-level command node. In other cases, the question
mark is one of the available parameters and you select it to create the query.
Figure 2–3: The Command Group menu
To exit the Command Builder, click on Exit in the Command Group menu.
Edit Menu
Use items in the Edit menu to clear, copy, or paste text strings.
Clear All. This selection clears the Command String and Response text boxes.
Use this menu item if you make a mistake and want to start over.
Copy. This selection copies the selected text to the Windows clipboard. To select
the text you want to copy, drag the mouse selection cursor ( ) across it.
Paste. This selection copies the Windows clipboard content to a text box where
the mouse selection cursor ( ) has been placed.
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Operating Basics
Options Menu
The Options menu provides access to several Command Builder options. It also
provides access to other tools and windows in the UI4610 Software.
Short Commands. This selection substitutes the short version of all commands.
To form the short version, use only the capital letters from the long version of
the commands.
Error Checking. This selection displays the most recent error or event messages in
the status bar at the bottom of the Command Builder window after each
command or query is sent.
Auto Send. This selection sends each command or query to the VX4610
automatically after you have finished constructing it.
Setup Bus. This selection displays the GPIB dialog box. Use this dialog box to
set and verify the communication connection between the VX4610 and the
UI4610 Software. See Establishing Communication with the VX4610 on
page 1–5 for instructions on how to use this dialog box.
Command Monitor. This selection opens the Command Monitor tool. See The
Command Monitor Tool on page 2–11 for information about this feature.
Talk/Listen. This selection opens the Talk/Listen tool. See The Talk/Listen Tool on
page 2–13 for information about this feature.
Help Window
The Help window provides access to the help system.
Contents. This selection displays the list of topics available in the help system.
How to use Help. This selection displays the window that explains how to
navigate through the help system.
2–10
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Operating Basics
The Command Monitor Tool
The Command Monitor tool can help you develop an application program while
you operate the VX4610 with either the simulated front panel or the Command
Builder. The Command Monitor records command, query, and response traffic
between the UI4610 Software and the VX4610. You can choose to record
incoming only, outgoing only, or bidirectional traffic. By recording only
outgoing commands during a session, later you can copy the recorded communications into a text editor or your application program. Figure 2–4 shows an
example of bidirectional communication traffic recorded by the Command
Monitor.
NOTE. Communication traffic generated or received by the Talk/Listen tool is not
captured by the Command Monitor tool.
Figure 2–4: The Command Monitor window
You can use the Command Monitor in two ways. In one method, the Command
Monitor buffer records and displays communication traffic while you use the
simulated front panel or the Command Builder to operate the VX4610. At any
time, you can save the content of the buffer to a disk file. In the alternative
method, you use menu items in the Command Monitor window to start and stop
a process of saving communication traffic directly into a disk file. For either
method, the Command Monitor window must remain open or be reduced to an
icon during the recording process.
You can adjust the Command Monitor window to any size that is convenient.
Make it larger to see more commands or make it smaller to take up less space.
File Menu
Use items in the File menu of the Command Monitor window to control the
recording and printing of communication traffic.
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Operating Basics
Start Save. This selection opens the Save As dialog box where you can specify a
file to record communication traffic. After you click on OK in the Save As
window, communication traffic is written to the file until the Stop Save menu
item is selected. The Command Monitor window must stay open or be iconified
during the recording process.
Stop Save. This selection stops the recording process that was started with the
Start Save menu item.
Save Buffer. This selection opens the Save As dialog box where you can specify a
file to save the Command Monitor buffer to.
Print Buffer. This selection sends the contents of the Command Monitor buffer to
the printer.
Exit. This selection closes the Command Monitor window.
Edit Menu
Use items in the Edit menu to clear or copy the buffer content.
Copy. This selection copies the selected text from the buffer into the Windows
clipboard.
Clear Buffer. This selection clears the entire Command Monitor buffer.
Options Menu
The Options menu accesses several Command Monitor options. You can select
only one of the three traffic options.
Show all Traffic. In this mode, the Command Monitor records bidirectional traffic
between the UI4610 Software and the VX4610. This traffic includes commands
and queries going to and responses coming from the VX4610.
Show Traffic from Instrument Only. In this mode, the Command Monitor records
only responses from the VX4610.
Show Traffic to Instrument Only. In this mode, the Command Monitor records
only commands and queries sent to the VX4610.
Max Buffer Size. This selection displays a menu that allows you to select the
maximum buffer length.
2–12
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Operating Basics
Save/Copy Direction Indicators. When this item is checked, the direction
indicators are saved or copied along with the commands. The direction indicators
are >> for outgoing and << for incoming. They are displayed in the Command
Monitor window and are useful to determine the direction of communication
traffic. However, the indicators are not part of the command syntax and should
not be included when you copy commands into your application programs.
The Talk/Listen Tool
The Talk/Listen tool provides a method to communicate with other instruments,
either on the same or on a different GPIB network than the VX4610. You can
address other instruments, send commands or queries, and receive responses, all
without leaving the UI4610 Graphical User Interface Software or affecting the
VX4610. Figure 2–5 shows a Talk/Listen window with a query and response
from another GPIB instrument. You can also select the Talk/Listen tool from the
Command Builder window by using the Options menu.
Figure 2–5: The Talk/Listen window
There are three basic steps to use the Talk/Listen window to communicate with
another GPIB instrument:
1. In the Command Builder window, select Setup Bus from the Options menu
to set the address for the other instrument. Click OK when done.
2. Select Talk/Listen from the Options menu. Enter a command into the
Command String text box and send it by clicking on the Send command
button.
3. View a response from the instrument by clicking the Receive command
button. The response is displayed in the Response text box.
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Operating Basics
Options Menu
Edit Menu
Choose Setup Bus to display the communications dialog box. Use this dialog to
set and verify the communication connection between another instrument and
your computer. Set the GPIB primary and secondary addresses and the GPIB
port to which the second instrument is connected. Click on the ID command
button to verify the connection. If the communication link is made successfully,
the instrument responds with its GPIB identification in the text box.
Use items in the Edit menu to clear, copy, or paste text strings:
Clear All. This selection clears the Command String and Response text boxes.
Use this menu item if you make a mistake and want to start over.
Copy. This selection copies the selected text to the Windows clipboard.
Paste. This selection puts the contents of the Windows clipboard into a text box.
Close Command Button
2–14
To exit the Talk/Listen window, click on Close in the Talk/Listen window.
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Reference
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Introduction
The Reference section describes how to operate the VX4610 using a simulated
front panel provided by the UI4610 Graphical User Interface Software. The
section is organized by the following list of common tasks:
H
Setting test control parameters
H
Working with test setups
H
Checking signal status
H
Setting generator parameters
H
Setting receiver parameters
H
Setting and viewing overhead bytes
H
Setting errors, alarms, and pointers
H
Viewing test results
H
Setting trigger outputs
H
Generating custom payload sequences
H
Capturing payload sequences
NOTE. When tributary signal Options 22, 36, or 58 are installed, some UI4610
Software window and dialog box controls and selections change. To familiarize
yourself with the tributary option changes, refer to the tributary option topics
listed under the Options entries in the Index.
NOTE. When the ECL signal Option 02 is installed, additional rate selections are
available, such as 155ECL. Use these additional rates as you do other electrical
rate selections.
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Introduction
3–2
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Setting Test Control Parameters
The VX4610 has two test states, running and stopped. The VX4610 takes
measurements only while a test is running. This section describes how to set the
duration of a test and how to start and stop a test.
Setting the Test Time Duration
Before running a test, you must specify how long the test will run. The default
test duration is continuous, which means a test runs until you stop it manually.
To set the duration of a test, locate the Test Duration selector in the main window
(see Figure 3–1). Using the mouse, drag across the days, hours, minutes, and
seconds in the Test Duration selector. Use the keyboard to enter the new test
time. When you start the next test, it will run for the duration you set unless you
stop the test manually.
NOTE. If you recall an instrument setup from disk, the restored setup overwrites
the test time specified in the Test Duration selector.
TestDuration
selector
% Done
indicator
Elapsed time
indicator
Figure 3–1: Test Duration selector and Test Time indicators
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Setting Test Control Parameters
Viewing Elapsed Test Time
While running a test, an elapsed-time indicator in the RESULTS group shows
the time since the test began (see Figure 3–1). Click on the Update command
button to display the current elapsed time. With each update, the % Done
indicator also shows the percentage of the test remaining, in both numerical and
bar-graph form.
If you want the elapsed-time and % Done indicators to update automatically,
click on the Auto Update check box. Auto Update allows you to watch the test
count down to its completion.
Starting and Stopping a Test
If a test is not running, the Start button is visible in the Main window and the
message STOPPED appears below the clock icon (see Figure 3–2). To start a
test, click on the Start button. The clock icon begins to “tick” and the message
RUNNING appears below it.
To stop the test manually, click on the Stop button.
NOTE. Clicking on the Stop button while a test is running stops the test
immediately, regardless of the Test Duration setting.
Making Changes While a
Test is Running
If you change any receiver settings while a test is running, the test restarts. The
VX4610 clears error counts and the test begins again using the new settings.
You can change the Test Duration while a test is running without affecting the
test as long as the new Test Duration is greater than the elapsed time. The test
stops immediately if the new Test Duration is less than or equal to the elapsed
time.
You can change the generator settings at any time without affecting a test.
3–4
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Setting Test Control Parameters
Start Button
SDH
Stop Button
SONET
Figure 3–2: Stop and Start buttons
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Setting Test Control Parameters
3–6
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Working with Test Setups
This section describes how to save and recall VX4610 test setups. The section
also explains how to set up and run a Pass/Fail test.
Saving and Recalling Test Setups
Test setups are files, stored in memory or on disk, that completely describe how
the VX4610 is set up. Setups include all generator and receiver settings,
overhead data, the test duration, and any predefined Pass/Fail criteria. If you
regularly set up the VX4610 in the same way, you can save the instrument
settings in a test setup. Then, you can recall the test setup whenever you want the
VX4610 configured exactly the same way. This capability saves you time and
minimizes the chances of error when setting up the VX4610 for standard tasks.
NOTE. The VX4610 does not retain test setups stored in internal setup buffers
when the instrument is turned off. For permanent storage, save the setups to
disk.
Saving Setups to a Disk
To save the current VX4610 setup to a disk file, perform the following steps:
1. Click on the SAVE icon in the control and indicator bar to display the Save
dialog box (see Figure 3–3).
Figure 3–3: The Save dialog box
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3–7
Working with Test Setups
2. Click on the Save to Disk command button in the Save Setups group. This
action displays the Save As dialog box (see Figure 3–4).
Figure 3–4: The Save As dialog box
3. Select the asterisk (*) in the File Name text box and then enter a file name
consisting of up to eight characters. Setup files have the file extension .set.
4. Click on the Drives: drop-down list and then select the disk drive where you
want the file to be saved.
5. In the Directories: list box, select the directory into which you want the file
placed.
6. If you want the file to have read-only protection, click on the Read Only
check box.
7. Click on the OK command button to save the settings file to disk.
Saving Setups to a
Setup Buffer
To save the current VX4610 setup to one of the setup buffers, perform the
following steps:
1. Click on the SAVE icon in the control and indicator bar to display the Save
dialog box (see Figure 3–3).
2. In the Save Setups group, click on the up or down arrows in the Buffer No.
box to select the setup buffer you want to use.
3. Click on the Save to Buffer command button to load the current settings
into the buffer. The current settings overwrite any settings previously stored
in the buffer.
3–8
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Working with Test Setups
Recalling Setups
from a Disk
To recall VX4610 setups from a disk file, perform the following steps:
1. Click on the RECALL icon in the control and indicator bar to display the
Recall dialog box (see Figure 3–5).
Figure 3–5: The Recall dialog box
2. Click on the From Disk command button in the Recall Setups group to
display the Open dialog box (see Figure 3–6).
Figure 3–6: The Open dialog box
3. Click on the Drives: drop-down list and select the disk drive that contains
the setup file you want to recall.
4. In the Directories: list box, select the directory that contains the setup file
that you want to recall.
5. In the File Name: list box, select the setup file you want to recall.
6. Click on the OK command button to recall the setup file from disk.
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Working with Test Setups
Recalling Setups from a
Setup Buffer
To recall VX4610 setups from one of the setup buffers contained in the VX4610,
perform the following steps:
1. Click on the RECALL icon in the control and indicator bar to display the
Recall dialog box (see Figure 3–5).
2. Click on the up or down arrows in the Buffer No. box to select the buffer
from which you want to recall the setup.
3. Click on the From Buffer command button to load the setup from the buffer.
After recall, the contents of the setup buffer remain intact in case they need
to be recalled again.
Pass/Fail Tests
A Pass/Fail test is an easy way to run a test and get a simple response stating
whether or not the VX4610 encountered specific failure conditions during the
test. When a Pass/Fail test completes, the UI4610 Software displays a message
stating that the test has either passed or failed. To set up Pass/Fail test criteria,
click on the Fail if command button in the Pass/Fail group (see Figure 3–7). The
Pass/Fail test criteria are stored along with the rest of the test setup when you
save a setup.
Pass/Fail
Group
Figure 3–7: Pass/Fail test controls
3–10
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Working with Test Setups
Setting Pass/Fail Criteria
To set Pass/Fail criteria, click on the Fail if command button in the Pass/Fail
group to display the Pass/Fail Conditions dialog box (see Figure 3–8). You can
now define up to four failure criteria. For each failure criterion you want to set,
perform the following steps:
1. Choose an event type from the Type drop-down box.
NOTE. The pass/fail conditions listed depend upon the VX4610 configuration you
have connected. You must choose the appropriate errors, alarms, and failures
based on the transmission rate and mapping you have selected.
2. Choose the event source from the Source drop-down box. The available
event sources depend on the event type you selected.
3. Define an appropriate threshold in the Threshold drop-down list or text box.
4. After all failure criteria are defined, click on the Set command button and
then click on Close to close the Pass/Fail Conditions dialog box.
Figure 3–8: Pass/Fail Conditions dialog box
Running a Pass/Fail Test
Once you have defined the failure criteria, click on the On option button in the
Pass/Fail group. To start the test, click on the Start button. The Pass/Fail
message NONE shows while the test is running. When the test is complete, the
VX4610 evaluates the test results against the failure criteria you defined. The
UI4610 Software then reports a green PASSED or red FAILED message in the
Pass/Fail group. The message remains in the display until the next test starts.
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Working with Test Setups
3–12
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Checking Signal Status
This section describes how to use the UI4610 Graphical User Interface Software
to check signal status. The VX4610 continuously monitors the received signal
for alarms, errors, and failures. Signal status lights in the control and indicator
bar show you the state of the signal at a glance (see Figure 3–9).
Signal
status
lights
SDH
Signal
status
lights
SONET
Figure 3–9: Signal status lights
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3–13
Checking Signal Status
A green status light indicates the normal signal condition with no errors, no
alarms, and no failures. A green Pat. Lock light means the receiver is locked to a
recognizable test pattern. When the status lights turn red, they indicate the
presence of an error, alarm, or failure, or the loss of pattern lock at the time of
the last update. To update the lights with the most recent signal status, click
either Update command button in the Main window. Table 3–1 describes which
status lights can also display intermittent signal problems.
If you want the status lights to continually show the most recent signal status,
click the Auto Update check box in the TEST RESULTS group.
Table 3–1: Interpreting the signal status lights
Status lights in the control
and indicator bar
Displays signal problem
existing at the time of an
update command
Displays intermittent signal
problems occurring between
update commands
Pat. Lock (Pattern Lock)
Yes
No
All others
Yes
Yes
Refer to The Status Command Button on page 3–30 for information about
viewing all the status lights found on the VX4610 front panel.
3–14
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Setting Generator Parameters
The VX4610 SDH/SONET Generator/Receiver contains independent generator
and receiver modules. One group of parameters controls the generator module
and another group controls the receiver module. You can set the parameters that
control the generator independently or you can couple its parameters to the
receiver settings.
This section describes how to set the following functions:
H
Set whether to couple the generator and receiver
H
Set basic parameters such as transmit rate, AU4 or STS signal type, and
payload mapping and content
H
Set parameters for the NRZ connections (Option 58 only)
Generator and Receiver Coupling
Coupling determines whether the transmitter and receiver operate at separate
rates, share signal settings or detect an incoming signal and pass it through
unchanged. A drop-down list sets the generator and receiver coupling as shown
in Figure 3–10. The following topics describe the four coupling choices.
Independent
In the Independent mode, you can set the transmit and receive settings independently. For example, the VX4610 can receive an electrical signal at the STS-1
rate while simultaneously generating an optical signal at the OC-3 rate.
NOTE. When Option 22, 36, or 58 is installed and you select tributary rates or
mappings for the Generator and Receiver and select Independent coupling, the
tributary rates or mappings for the Generator and Receiver automatically
match.
Coupled Tx to Rx
If your application requires identical transmit and receive settings, you can save
time by coupling them together. Select Coupled Tx to Rx to copy the settings
from the GENERATOR group to the RECEIVER group. Once you establish
coupling, any change you make to a parameter in either group changes that
parameter in both groups. To remove the coupling, change coupling to Independent.
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3–15
Setting Generator Parameters
Coupling drop-down list
SDH
Coupling drop-down list
SONET
Figure 3–10: Generator coupling choices
Coupled Rx to Tx
Through Mode
3–16
Coupled Rx to Tx has the same effect as Coupled Tx to Rx except that the
RECEIVER group settings are copied to the GENERATOR group. When
coupled, any parameter change affects both groups. To remove the coupling,
change coupling to Independent.
Use the Through Mode to monitor an SDH/SONET signal without changing it.
While in the Through Mode, the GENERATOR control group disappears, and
the rate and content of the generated signal matches the received signal. With no
generator control, you cannot make changes to pointers, timing, or overhead
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Setting Generator Parameters
bytes, and you cannot insert alarms or errors. To exit the Through Mode, select
another coupling choice.
Basic Generator Settings
The GENERATOR group provides the primary controls needed to control the
generated signal (see Figure 3–11). It also includes command buttons that open
additional windows containing controls for defining the generated signal. All
changes to generator settings take effect immediately. The More command
button opens the Generator window which gives you access to more transmitter
settings.
Use the following references to get information on the other GENERATOR
group buttons:
H
To set the transport/section and path overhead, see page 3–33.
H
To set errors, alarms and pointers, see page 3–41.
H
To set custom payload sequences, see page 3–69.
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3–17
Setting Generator Parameters
Generator group
SDH
Generator group
SONET
Figure 3–11: The GENERATOR group
Transmit On and Off
To enable transmissions from the VX4610, click the Transmit On command
button. To disable transmissions from the VX4610, click the Transmit Off
command button.
When you have Option 22, 36, or 58 installed, tributary signals are always
available.
3–18
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Setting Generator Parameters
The More Command
Button
Click the More command button in the GENERATOR group to display the
Generator window shown in Figure 3–12. The Generator window contains the
full set of generator controls, including the drop-down lists found in the main
window.
SDH
SONET
Figure 3–12: The Generator window
Using Update
Setting Transmit
Parameters
Before changing any settings, use the Update command button to update all
parameters to the current VX4610 settings.
You can set some of the Generator transmit parameters from the main window or
use the complete group of settings available in the Generator window shown in
Figure 3–12.
Perform the following steps to set the transmit parameters:
1. Click on the More command button in the GENERATOR group to display
the Generator window (see Figure 3–12).
2. Click on the Update command button to update all displayed settings to
match the current VX4610 settings.
3. To set the transmit rate, click on the Tx Rate drop-down list and select one
of the available transmit rates.
When Option 22, 36, or 58 are installed and you select a tributary rate, the
Overhead and Payload Gen buttons are removed from the GENERATOR
group. In addition, two new list boxes replace the STM/STS Active and
AU4/STS Mapping lists in the GENERATOR group and Generator window
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Setting Generator Parameters
to allow you to select payload framing (Framing) and line encoding (Line
Code).
4. To select the transmit clock source, click on the Tx Clock drop-down list.
Choose one of the list items:
H
Internal derives the transmit clock from the internal oscillator
H
Recovered derives the transmit clock from the received signal
H
External takes the transmit clock from the front-panel EXT connector
H
2 Mb/s derives the transmit clock from a 2.048 Mb/s reference signal
(SDH only)
H
BITS derives the transmit clock from a 1.544 Mb/s BITS reference
signal (SONET only)
NOTE. Do not select the External clock source unless a valid clock signal is
connected to the VX4610 EXT input. Refer to the VX4610 User Manual for
information about external clock requirements.
5. To set the active channel, click on the STM Active (SDH) or STS Active
(SONET) drop-down list and select the active channel.
6. To set the payload mapping, click on the AU4 Mapping (SDH) or STS
Mapping (SONET) drop-down list and then select one of the choices.
When you choose Equipped or Unequipped, the VX4610 transmits the test
pattern selected in the Test Pattern drop-down list. If you select Custom, the
VX4610 transmits a custom payload data sequence that you define. For more
information, refer to Generating Custom Payload Sequences on page 3–69.
When you have Option 22, 36, or 58 installed and you select TU/VT
mapping, two new list boxes are added to the GENERATOR group and to
the Generator window: Active TU/VT and TU/VT Payload. The Active
TU/VT list selects which channel will contain the transmitted pattern. The
TU/VT Payload list selects the type of payload framing. However, if you add
an external tributary, such as DS1 Ext Add, then the framing and pattern
used are those contained in the external signal (the Test Pattern list disappears).
When you have Option 22, 36, or 58 installed and you select DS3/140Mb
AU4/STS Mapping, a Payload list box appears. Use it to select the type of
payload framing. If you add an external tributary, such as DS3 Ext Add, then
the framing and pattern used are those contained in the external signal (the
Test Pattern list disappears).
3–20
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Setting Generator Parameters
7. To set the test pattern, click on Test Pattern and then select one of the
available patterns.
To enter a byte pattern to use as a repeating pattern, follow these steps:
a. Select User Byte#H00.
b. When the text box appears as shown in Figure 3–13, remove the two
digits 00 in the text box.
c. Enter one or two digits of a hexadecimal number. To enter a decimal
value, remove the symbols #H. Maximum value is FF hexadecimal.
d. To set the byte to this value, click on the Set command button.
SDH
SONET
Figure 3–13: Setting a repeating byte test pattern
When you have Option 22, 36, or 58 installed and you select a tributary rate
or mapping, additional test patterns are added to the Test Pattern list.
8. To set the transmit level, select one of the option buttons in the Level group.
9. To set the signal structure (SONET only), select one of the option buttons in
the Structure group.
10. To set scrambling on or off, select the appropriate button in the Scrambling
group. Scrambling ensures frequent signal transitions when sending all ones
or zeros. Scrambling conforms to ITU and ANSI standards.
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Setting Generator Parameters
Using the NRZ Connections
The Option 58 module has NRZ signal and clock connections, which you can
configure with the UI4610 Software. Click on the PDH NRZ or DSn NRZ
command button in the main window to enter the corresponding NRZ dialog box
shown in Figure 3–14.
SDH
SONET
Figure 3–14: Setting the NRZ connection Transmit/Drop parameters
The dialog boxes shown in Figure 3–14 present both transmit and receive
settings. For information on the Receive/Add settings, refer to page 3–31.
Perform the following steps to set the NRZ transmit parameters:
1. Click the PDH NRZ or DSn NRZ command button in the main window.
This button is displayed only when Option 58 is detected.
2. Set Data Polarity to either High true or Low true.
3. Set Clock Edge to clock data on either the Rising or Falling edge.
4. For SDH 140 mB (E4) tributaries, set Level to ECL or PECL for negative or
positive ECL logic levels. When active, the Transmitter drives the Single
and Differential outputs continuously.
5. Click the Close command button.
6. In the main window, set the receive rate and the transmit rate.
3–22
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Setting Receiver Parameters
The VX4610 SDH/SONET Generator/Receiver contains independent generator
and receiver modules. One group of parameters controls the generator module
and another set controls the receiver module. You can set the parameters that
control the receiver independently or you can couple its parameters to the
generator settings.
This section describes how to set the receive rate, define the AU4 or STS under
test, set the payload mapping and content, and check the received signal
electrical voltage or optical power.
CAUTION. To avoid damaging the Receive optical inputs, use a 10 dB attenuator
for high–power optical sources, such as the Option 05 and 10 modules. Without
adequate attenuation, these 0 dB optical sources will overdrive and damage the
receive inputs.
Generator and Receiver Coupling
Coupling determines whether the transmitter and receiver operate at separate
rates, share signal settings or detect an incoming signal and pass it through
unchanged. A drop-down list sets the generator and receiver coupling as shown
in Figure 3–15. The following topics describe the four coupling choices.
Independent
In the Independent mode, you can set the transmit and receive settings independently. For example, the VX4610 can receive an electrical signal at the STS-1
rate while simultaneously generating an optical signal at the OC-3 rate.
NOTE. When Option 22, 36, or 58 is installed and you select tributary rates or
mappings for the Generator and Receiver and select Independent coupling, the
tributary rates or mappings for the Generator and Receiver automatically
match.
Coupled Tx to Rx
If your application requires identical transmit and receive settings, you can save
time by coupling them together. Select Coupled Tx to Rx to copy the settings
from the GENERATOR group to the RECEIVER group. Once you establish
coupling, any change you make to a parameter in either group changes that
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Setting Receiver Parameters
parameter in both groups. To remove the coupling, change coupling to Independent.
Coupled Rx to Tx
Coupled Rx to Tx has the same effect as Coupled Tx to Rx except that the
RECEIVER group settings are copied to the GENERATOR group. When
coupled, any parameter change affects both groups. To remove the coupling,
change coupling to Independent.
Coupling drop-down list
SDH
Coupling drop-down list
SONET
Figure 3–15: Generator coupling choices
3–24
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Setting Receiver Parameters
Through Mode
Use the Through Mode to monitor an SDH/SONET signal without changing it.
While in the Through Mode, the GENERATOR control group disappears, and
the rate and content of the generated signal matches the received signal. With no
generator control, you cannot make changes to pointers, timing, or overhead
bytes, and you cannot insert alarms or errors. To exit the Through Mode, select
another coupling choice.
NOTE. When you have Option 22, 36, or 58 installed and select tributary rates,
the Through Mode is disabled.
Basic Receiver Settings
The RECEIVER group provides the primary controls needed to detect the
connected signal with the VX4610 receiver as shown in Figure 3–16. It also
includes command buttons that open additional windows containing controls for
the receiver. All changes to receiver settings take effect immediately. The More
command button opens the Receiver window which gives you access to more
receiver settings.
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Setting Receiver Parameters
Receiver group
SDH
Receiver group
SONET
Figure 3–16: The RECEIVER group
3–26
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Setting Receiver Parameters
The More Command
Button
Click on the More command button in the RECEIVER group to display the
Receiver window shown in Figure 3–17. The Receiver window contains the full
set of receiver controls, including the drop-down lists found in the main window.
SDH
SONET
Figure 3–17: The Receiver window
Using Update
Setting Receive
Parameters
Before changing any settings, use the Update command button to update all
parameters to the current VX4610 settings.
You can set some of the Receiver parameters from the main window or use the
complete group of settings available in the Receiver window shown in
Figure 3–17.
Perform the following steps to set the receiver parameters:
1. Click on the More command button in the RECEIVER group to display the
Receiver window shown in Figure 3–17
2. Click on the Update command button to update all displayed settings to
match the current VX4610 settings.
3. To set the receive rate, click on the Rx Rate drop-down list and select one of
the available receive rates.
When you have Option 22, 36, or 58 installed and you select a tributary rate,
the Overhead and Payload Gen buttons are removed from the RECEIVER
group. In addition, two new list boxes replace the STM/STS Active and
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3–27
Setting Receiver Parameters
AU4/STS Mapping lists in the RECEIVER group and Receiver window to
allow you to select payload framing (Framing) and receiver level (Rx Level).
4. To set the active channel, click on the STM Active (SDH) or STS Active
(SONET) drop-down list and select the active channel.
5. To set the payload mapping, click on the AU4 Mapping (SDH) or STS
Mapping (SONET) drop-down list and then select one of the choices.
When you have Option 22, 36, or 58 installed and you select TU/VT
mapping, three new list boxes are added to the RECEIVER group and to the
Receiver window: Active TU/VT, TU/VT Payload, and External Drop. The
Active TU/VT list selects which channel will contain the received pattern.
The TU/VT Payload list selects the type of payload framing. The External
Drop list enables dropped tributary signal encoding (On AMI or On B8ZS)
or disables dropping of the tributary signal.
When you have Option 22, 36, or 58 installed and you select DS3/140Mb
mapping, the Payload and External Drop list boxes appear. The Payload list
selects the type of DS3/140Mb payload framing. The External Drop list
enables or disables tributary signal dropping.
6. To set the test pattern, click on Test Pattern and then select one of the
available patterns.
If you do not know the transmitted test pattern, select Unknown. When you
select Unknown, the VX4610 ignores all payload bit errors.
When you have Option 22, 36, or 58 installed and you select a tributary rate
or mapping, additional test patterns are available in the Test Pattern list.
To enter a byte pattern to use as a repeating pattern, follow these steps:
a. Select User Byte#H00.
b. When the text box appears as shown in Figure 3–18, remove the two
digits 00 in the text box.
c. Enter one or two digits of a hexadecimal number. To enter a decimal
value, remove the symbols #H. Maximum value is FF hexadecimal.
d. To set the byte to this value, click on the Set command button.
3–28
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Setting Receiver Parameters
SDH
SONET
Figure 3–18: Setting a repeating byte test pattern
7. To set the receive level, select one of the option buttons in the Level group.
8. To set the signal structure (SONET only), select one of the option buttons in
the Structure group.
9. To set scrambling on or off, select one of the option buttons in the Scrambling group. If the received signal is scrambled, you must turn on scrambling
to properly decode the signal. Scrambling ensures frequent signal transitions,
according to ITU and ANSI standards, when sending all ones or zeros.
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Setting Receiver Parameters
The Status Command
Button
Click on the Status command button in the RECEIVER group to view various
types of status information as shown in Figure 3–19, including all the status
lights found on the VX4610 front panel. Status information displays for the
following areas:
H
Received Peak Voltage or Optical Power
H
Trigger Condition
H
VX4610 Signals
H
Tributaries (for Options 22, 36, and 58 only when a received tributary rate or
mapping is selected)
The status readouts update whenever you click on the Update command button
or continually when Auto Update is On.
SDH
SONET
Figure 3–19: Received Signal Status window
3–30
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Setting Receiver Parameters
Using the NRZ Connections
The Option 58 module has NRZ signal and clock connections which you can
configure with the UI4610 Software. Click on the PDH NRZ or DSn NRZ
command button in the main window to enter the corresponding NRZ dialog box
shown in Figure 3–20.
SDH
SONET
Figure 3–20: Setting the NRZ connection Receive/Add parameters
The dialog boxes shown in Figure 3–20 present both generator and receiver
settings. For information on the Transmit/Drop settings, refer to page 3–22.
Perform the following steps to set the NRZ receive parameters:
1. Click on the PDH NRZ or DSn NRZ command button in the main window.
This button is displayed only when Option 58 is detected.
2. Set Data Polarity to either High true or Low true.
3. Set Clock Edge to clock data on either the Rising or Falling edge.
4. For SDH 140 mB (E4) tributaries, set Level to ECL or PECL for negative or
positive ECL logic levels. Set Receiver Type to Single or Differential. Single
sets the receiver for a single connection with the polarity set by the
Receive/Add Data Polarity selection. Differential sets the receiver for two
signal connections with identical data but opposite polarity.
5. Click the Close command button.
6. In the main window, set the receive rate and the transmit rate.
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Setting Receiver Parameters
3–32
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Setting and Viewing Overhead Bytes
To stress test a network element, you sometimes need to simulate errors or
alarms or create other stress conditions. One way to simulate these conditions is
to edit the Transport/Section and Path Overhead bytes. This section describes
how to edit overhead bytes directly. The section also describes how to view the
overhead bytes received by the VX4610.
Setting Overhead Bytes
The overhead bytes generated by the VX4610 are available in separate Section/
Transport and Path windows.
Click on the Tran Overhd command button and the Path Overhd command
button in the GENERATOR group to display the Transmit Overhead windows
(see Figure 3–21). These windows display each of the path and transport/section
overhead bytes, show their current values (after an update), and provide a means
to edit transport overhead parameters. You cannot edit the bytes indicated by the
value ** because they are indirectly controlled by the instrument.
To update all displayed overhead bytes to the current VX4610 settings, click on
the Update command button.
To edit overhead bytes, follow these steps:
1. Select the byte you want to edit with the mouse; each cell is editable.
Depending on the signal structure, you may need to scroll to access the byte
of interest. Use the Data Format option buttons to choose hexadecimal,
binary, or decimal form.
2. Enter the new byte value with the keyboard. The new cell value updates the
VX4610 when you make the next selection.
3. If you want to reset all transmit overhead bytes to their default values, click
the Reset to Defaults command button.
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Setting and Viewing Overhead Bytes
SDH
SONET
Figure 3–21: Setting transmit overhead bytes
3–34
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Setting and Viewing Overhead Bytes
Setting the Path Trace
Byte String
To set the path trace byte string, click in the VC4 Path Trace text box for SDH
or the Path Trace text box for SONET. Type a string of up to 62 characters. The
new value updates the VX4610 when you make another selection.
The path trace accepts uppercase, lowercase, and all special characters except the
quotation mark (”), which is used as a delimiter. The VX4610 automatically adds
CR and LF characters to complete the 64-byte path trace string.
If you make a typing mistake or need to edit an existing string, use the mouse to
select the characters you want to change and then type in new characters to
replace them.
To get the path trace message currently being transmitted by the VX4610, click
on the Update command button.
Setting the APS Bytes
The UI4610 Software provides a convenient way to set the K1 and K2 bytes to
send APS commands. To set the APS bytes, perform the following steps:
1. Click the APS menu in the Transmit Section/Transport Overhead window to
display the Transmitted APS Bytes dialog box (see Figure 3–22).
2. If you want to see the APS bytes currently being transmitted, click the
Update command button in the Transmitted APS Bytes dialog box.
3. Set the APS Mode, to either Span or Ring by clicking on the appropriate
option button. This selection affects only the APS byte labels.
SDH
SONET
Figure 3–22: The Transmitted APS Bytes dialog box
4. Select either a Binary or Hex display of the APS bytes using the option
buttons.
5. Select any K1 and K2 bits you want to change and enter the new values with
the keyboard.
6. Click on the Set command button to enter the new APS bytes.
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Setting and Viewing Overhead Bytes
7. If you want to revert to the default APS byte values, click the Default
command button.
8. Click on Close to dismiss the dialog box.
Viewing Overhead Bytes
The overhead bytes received by the VX4610 are available in separate Overhead
Section/Transport and Overhead Path windows.
Click on the Sec Overhd and Path Overhd command buttons in the
RECEIVER group to display the Receive Section/Transport Overhead and
Receive Path windows (see Figure 3–23). These windows display each of the
Section/Transport and Path Overhead bytes and shows the values currently stored
in the VX4610.
To update all displayed overhead bytes to new ones currently being received by
the VX4610, click on the Acquire New Data command button. This command
captures new overhead data and displays it in the current overhead window.
To change the display format for bytes, select the Hex, Binary, or Decimal
option button in the Data Format button group. Depending on the signal
structure, you may have to use the scroll bars to view a byte of interest.
3–36
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Setting and Viewing Overhead Bytes
SDH
SONET
Figure 3–23: Viewing received overhead bytes
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Setting and Viewing Overhead Bytes
Triggered Overhead
Capture
A single trigger event determines the timing of the both the payload and
overhead capture processes. To set up the trigger condition, click on Triggers in
either of the Receive Overhead windows. This action displays the Trigger Setup
dialog box (see Figure 3–24).
Figure 3–24: The Trigger Setup dialog box
In the Trigger Setup dialog box, perform the following steps:
1. Click the Position drop-down list to select the trigger position within the
sequence of captured payloads. The captured overhead is always acquired
from the last frame of the captured payload sequence. Select one of the list
items:
H
Begin captures payload sequence data relative to a trigger event in the
second frame of the sequence.
H
Middle captures payload sequence data relative to a trigger event in the
middle frame of the sequence.
H
End captures payload sequence data relative to a trigger event in the
second-to-last frame of the sequence.
2. Click the Trigger Source drop-down list to select the trigger source. Select
one of the list items:
3–38
H
Manual turns off all trigger sources except the Manual command
buttons in the UI4610 Software. The Manual command buttons are
always active, even if you select another trigger source.
H
Sense sets the trigger condition to an event detected in the received
signal. Click on the Condition drop-down list to select the specific
event.
H
TTL Trig sets the trigger source to one of the TTLTRG* lines in the
VXIbus backplane. Click on the Condition drop-down list to specify the
line number and polarity (rising- or falling-edge sensitivity).
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Setting and Viewing Overhead Bytes
H
Front Panel takes the trigger source from the front-panel External
Trigger input. Click on Polarity to select Positive (rising-edge sensitivity) or Negative (falling-edge sensitivity).
3. After you have set the above controls, click on Close to return to the Receive
Overhead window.
Acquiring New Data
To acquire new path data, including the Path Trace J1, click on the Acquire New
Data command button. This command arms and triggers the VX4610 and then
updates the path data.
Viewing the Path Trace
Byte String
To view the path trace byte string, click the Update command button in the
Receive Overhead window. The path trace message is displayed in the Path Trace
J1 text box. You can also view the Path Trace J1 by selecting the Acquire New
Data command button, as described above.
Viewing APS Bytes
The UI4610 Software provides a convenient way to view the network response
to APS commands. To view the APS bytes, perform the following steps:
1. Click on the APS menu in the Receive Overhead window to display the
Received APS Bytes dialog box(see Figure 3–25).
SDH
SONET
Figure 3–25: The Received APS Bytes dialog box
2. If you want to see the APS bytes currently being received, click on the
Update command button in the Received APS Bytes dialog.
3. Select the APS Mode, either Span or Ring, by clicking on the appropriate
option button. This selection affects only the APS byte labels.
4. Select either a Binary or Hex display of the APS bytes using the option
buttons.
5. Click on Close to dismiss the dialog box.
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Setting and Viewing Overhead Bytes
Viewing the Current
Pointer Value
To view the current pointer value, click on the Pointer menu in the Receive
Overhead window, and then click on the Update command button. The Received
Pointer dialog box shows the current pointer value.
If you have Options 22, 36, or 58 installed and have a tributary mapping
selected, the TU/VT Received Pointer Value is also displayed.
NOTE. A test must be running to get the current pointer values. When no test is
running, the value zero (0) is returned.
3–40
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Setting Errors, Alarms, and Pointers
This section describes how to simulate error conditions, set alarms, and simulate
network failures. To test the response of a network element, you might simulate
parity errors, send alarm signals, and simulate failures.
The last part of this section describes how to generate pointer movements within
the transmitted signal. When stress testing a network, you may want to move
pointers or introduce a frequency offset.
Simulating Error Conditions
The VX4610 can simulate error conditions, either as a single event or at a
continuous rate. To access these capabilities, click on the Err/Alrm/Ptr
command button in the GENERATOR group. This selection displays the
Transmit Signal Control window (see Figure 3–26).
SDH
SONET
Figure 3–26: Selecting error type
To set a simulated error, perform the following steps:
1. To update to the current VX4610 error settings, click on the Update
command button in the Transmit Signal Control window.
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3–41
Setting Errors, Alarms, and Pointers
2. To select an error type, click on the Error Type drop-down list in the
ERRORS group and then select one of the available error types.
3. To insert a single occurrence of the selected error type, click on the Single
command button. Each time you click on Single, the error is inserted once.
4. To insert the error at a continuous rate, click on the Rate option button in the
ERRORS group. This action displays the Error Rate drop-down list.
5. Click on the Error Rate drop-down list and choose one of the pre-defined
error rates. You might need to use the scroll bars to see all the available rates.
6. If you want to enter a specific error rate, follow these steps:
a. Select User Defined in the Error rate drop-down list.
b. Select the number in the Error Rate Value: text box and enter a new
rate with the keyboard (see Figure 3–27).
c. When you have completed the entry, click on the Set Value command
box.
Once entered, user-defined error rates are rounded to one significant digit. If
the error rate you entered is outside the allowed range, the UI4610 Software
displays a message that states Invalid Error Rate.
7. To turn off continuous error insertion, click on the Single option button in
the ERRORS group.
SDH
SONET
Figure 3–27: Entering a user-defined error rate
3–42
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Setting Errors, Alarms, and Pointers
Setting Alarms
The VX4610 simulates alarm conditions to test the response of a network
element. To access these capabilities, click on the Err/Alrm/Ptr command
button in the GENERATOR group. This selection displays the Transmit Signal
Control window (see Figure 3–28).
SDH
SONET
Figure 3–28: Selecting the alarm type
To set a simulated alarm, perform the following steps:
1. To update to the current VX4610 alarm settings, click on the Update
command button in the Transmit Signal Control window.
2. To select an alarm type, click on the Alarm Type drop-down list in the
ALARMS group, and select one of the available alarm types.
3. All alarms remain in effect until they are deliberately turned off. To turn off
all alarms, select NONE in the Alarm Type drop-down list.
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Setting Errors, Alarms, and Pointers
Simulating Transmit Failures
The VX4610 simulates failure conditions to test the response of a network
element. To access these capabilities, click on the Err/Alrm/Ptr command
button in the GENERATOR group. This selection displays the Transmit Signal
Control window (see Figure 3–29). To set a simulated failure, perform the
following steps:
1. To update to the current VX4610 failure settings, click on the Update
command button in the Transmit Signal Control window.
2. To select a failure type, click on the Failure Type drop-down list in the
FAILURES group and then select one of the available failure types.
3. All transmit failures remain in effect until they are deliberately turned off. To
turn all failures off, select NONE in the Failure Type drop-down list.
SDH
SONET
Figure 3–29: Selecting the failure type
3–44
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Setting Errors, Alarms, and Pointers
Setting Pointers or Frequency Offset
This section describes how to generate pointer movements within the generated
signal. When stress testing a network element, you may want to move pointers or
introduce a frequency offset. The UI4610 Software allows you to control this
type of testing four ways:
H
Make discrete pointer movements under manual or program control
H
Make a burst of pointer movements under manual or program control
H
Make continuous, repetitive pointer movements at a rate you determine
H
Select from a list of pointer sequences
H
Introduce a frequency offset in the transmit rate
To set the VX4610 to make pointer movements, click on the Err/Alrm/Ptr
command button in the GENERATOR group. This selection displays the
Transmit Signal Control window (see Figure 3–30). To update to the current
VX4610 settings, click on the Update command button in the Transmit Signal
Control window.
SDH
SONET
Figure 3–30: The Transmit Signal Control window
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Setting Errors, Alarms, and Pointers
Continuous Pointer
Movements
To set the VX4610 to make continuous pointer movements, perform the
following steps:
1. If you have Options 22, 36, or 58 installed and have a tributary mapping
selected, click on the TU Pointers or VT Pointers option button.
If you have Options 22, 36, or 58 installed and have not selected a tributary
mapping, click on the AU Pointers or STS Pointers option button.
2. Click on the Continuous option button in the POINTERS/TIMING group of
the Transmit Signal Control window (see Figure 3–30).
3. Select one of the Direction option buttons to increment, decrement, or
alternate the direction of the pointer movements.
4. Select the current value in the Rate text box and enter a new value with the
keyboard. The number you enter is the time in milliseconds between pointer
movements.
5. Click on the Set Rate command button to enter the rate.
Single or Burst Pointer
Movements
To set the VX4610 to make single or burst pointer movements, follow these
steps:
1. If you have Options 22, 36, or 58 installed and have a tributary mapping
selected, click on the TU Pointers or VT Pointers option button.
If you have Options 22, 36, or 58 installed and have not selected a tributary
mapping, click on the AU Pointers or STS Pointers option button.
2. Click on the Single/Burst option button in the POINTERS/TIMING group
of the Transmit Signal Control window (see Figure 3–31).
3–46
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Setting Errors, Alarms, and Pointers
SDH
SONET
Figure 3–31: Setting single or burst pointer movements
3. To make a single pointer movement, click on the Single command button.
Each click on this button moves the pointer up or down by one location. The
first click increments it, the second click decrements it, the third click
increments it, and so forth.
4. To set up for burst pointer movements, click on the up or down arrows of the
Burst Size box to set the number of pointer movements to be included in the
burst.
5. To start a burst of pointer movements, click on the Burst command button.
Each click on this button starts a burst of pointer movements. Each burst
consists of a series of one-location pointer movements that are spaced four
frames apart. Clicking on Burst repeatedly alternates between an incrementing burst and a decrementing burst (see Figure 3–32).
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Setting Errors, Alarms, and Pointers
First Burst
command
button click
Example
burst of four Next two Burst command button clicks
pointer
movements
Increment
500 ms,
nominal
Decrement
Figure 3–32: Alternating burst pointer movement
Setting a Pointer to a
Specific Value
You can move the pointer immediately to a new location, with or without a new
data flag being set. You can lose payload data when you use pointer movements
of this type. To set the pointer to a specific value, perform the following steps:
1. If you have Options 22, 36, or 58 installed and have a tributary mapping
selected, click on the TU Pointers or VT Pointers option button.
If you have Options 22, 36, or 58 installed and have not selected a tributary
mapping, click on the AU Pointers or STS Pointers option button.
2. Click on the Set Value option button in the POINTERS/TIMING group of
the Transmit Signal Control window (see Figure 3–33).
3. Select the pointer value displayed in the Value text box and then enter a new
value. Legal pointer values are in the range of 0 to 782. You can also set
illegal values beyond this range.
4. If you want a new data flag (NDF) to be set along with the pointer movement, click on the NDF On option button. If not, select NDF Off.
5. If you want to set the S bits of the pointer bytes to specific values, click on
the S-Bits drop-down list and select one of the choices (this step does not
apply to tributary pointers).
6. Click on Set Value to move the pointer to the defined location.
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Setting Errors, Alarms, and Pointers
SDH
SONET
Figure 3–33: Setting Pointer Location to a specific value
Setting Pointer Sequences
You can select from several pointer sequences. Each selection configures a
sequence of pointer movements that occur at specific intervals and directions.
To set the pointer sequence, perform the following steps:
1. If you have Options 22, 36, or 58 installed and have a tributary mapping
selected, click on the TU Pointers or VT Pointers option button.
If you have Options 22, 36, or 58 installed and have not selected a tributary
mapping, click on the AU Pointers or STS Pointers option button.
2. Click on the Sequences option button in the POINTERS/TIMING group of
the Transmit Signal Control window (see Figure 3–34).
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Setting Errors, Alarms, and Pointers
SDH
SONET
Figure 3–34: Selecting pointer sequences
3. Click on the Show Sequences command button to display the Pointer
Sequences Window. See Figure 3–35.
The sequence process includes three periods: Initialization, Cool Down, and
Sequence.
H
Initialization – a thirty second period where the VX4610 produces a
30 second burst of 1 pointer movement per second in the same direction
as the specified pointer sequence. Initialization fills up Network Element
timing adjustment buffers. Initialization can be turned on or off.
H
Cool Down – a period at least 60 seconds long, following the Initialization period, where the specified pointer sequence is running. Cool Down
allows the Network Element buffers to reach a steady state condition.
Cool Down can be turned on or off.
H
Sequence – the period following the Cool Down period where the
specified pointer sequence runs continuously. Test sequences are applied
continuously to test the Network Element under worst case conditions.
The VX4610 generates the pointer sequences described in the revised
ITU-T G.783 standard and in the ANSI T1.105.03–1994 standard.
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Setting Errors, Alarms, and Pointers
SDH
SONET
Figure 3–35: Displaying pointer sequences
4. The current status is shown in the Pointer Sequence Status group.
5. In the Setup group, select the Sequence Type from the drop-down list.
Table3–2 describes each available sequence.
Table 3–2: Pointer sequences
Pointer
sequence
Description
Single
Time between pointer adjustments is 30 s.
Burst
Time between bursts of 3 pointers for STS pointers is 0.5 ms and for VT
pointers is 2 ms.
Time between pointer bursts is 30 s.
Phase Transient
Time between pointer movement burst of seven pointers is 0.25 s, 0.25 s,
0.5 s, 0.5 s, 0.5 s, 0.5 s.
Time between pointer bursts is 30 s.
Periodic
Continuous
Time between STS pointers has a range of 0.034 s to 10 s with a resolution
of 1 ms.
Periodic
Continuous with
Cancel
Time between STS and AU pointers has a range of 0.034 s to 10 s with a
resolution of 1 ms.
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Setting Errors, Alarms, and Pointers
Table 3–2: Pointer sequences (cont.)
Pointer
sequence
Description
Periodic
Continuous with
Add
Time between added pointer movement and previous normal pointer
movement for STS and AU-4 pointers is 0.5 ms and for VT1.5 pointers is
2 ms. Time between normal pointer movements is as follows:
D
STS pointers have a range of 0.34 s to 10 s with a resolution of 1 ms.
D
VT1.5 pointer movements has a range of 1 s to 10 s with a resolution of
1 ms.
D
AU-4 and TU-3 pointers have a range of 0.34 s to 10 s with a resolution of
1 ms.
D
TU-12 pointer movements has a range of 0.760 s to 10 s with a resolution
of 1 ms.
Periodic 87–3
Sequence pattern is 87 pointer movements followed by 3 missing pointer
movements.
Time between STS and AU pointer movements has a range of 0.34 s to
10 s with a resolution of 1 ms.
Periodic 87–3
With Cancel
Sequence pattern is 87 pointer movements followed by 3 missing pointer
movements with a cancelled pointer movement at the 87th pointer.
Time between STS and AU pointer movements has a range of 0.34 s to
10 s with a resolution of 1 ms.
Periodic 87–3
With Add
Sequence pattern is 87 pointer movements followed by 3 missing pointer
movements with an added pointer movement after the 43rd pointer.
Time between STS and AU pointer movements has a range of 0.34 s to
10 s with a resolution of 1 ms; time between added pointer movement and
previous normal pointer movement for STS and AU pointers is 0.5 ms.
Periodic 26–1
Sequence pattern is 26 pointer movements followed by 1 missing pointer
movement.
Time between VT1.5 pointer movements has a range of 1 s to 10 s with a
resolution of 1 ms.
Periodic 26–1
With Cancel
Sequence pattern is 26 pointer movements followed by 1 missing pointer
movement with a cancelled pointer movement at the 26th pointer, yielding a
gap of 2.
Time between VT1.5 pointer movements has a range of 1 s to 10 s with a
resolution of 1 ms.
Periodic 26–1
With Add
Sequence pattern is 26 pointer movements followed by 1 missing pointer
movement with an added pointer movement after the 13th pointer.
Time between normal pointer movements has a range of 1 s to 10 s with a
resolution of 1 ms; time between added pointer movement and previous
normal pointer movement is 2 ms.
Single
Alternating
3–52
Alternating single pointer movement. The time between pointer movements
is 30 s.
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Setting Errors, Alarms, and Pointers
Table 3–2: Pointer sequences (cont.)
Pointer
sequence
Description
Double
Alternating
Alternating double pointer movement. The time between the double pointer
movements is 2 ms, and the time between each pair of pointer movements
is 30 s.
Regular +
Double
Time between added pointer movement and previous normal pointer
movement for AU-4 and TU-3 pointers is 0.5 ms and for TU-12 pointers is
2 ms. Time between normal pointer movements is as follows:
D
AU-4 and TU-3 pointers have a range of 0.34 s to 10 s with a
resolution of 1 ms.
D
TU-12 pointer movements has a range of 0.760 s to 10 s with a
resolution of 1 ms.
Regular + Missing
Time between AU pointers has a range of 0.034 s to 10 s with a resolution
of 1 ms.
Periodic 85–5
Sequence pattern is 85 pointer movements followed by 5 missing pointer
movements.
Time between pointer movements has a range of 0.34 s to 10 s with a
resolution of 1 ms.
Periodic 85–5
With Cancel
Sequence pattern is 85 pointer movements followed by 5 missing pointer
movements with a cancelled pointer movement at the 85th pointer, yielding
a gap of 6.
Time between pointer movements has a range of 0.34 s to 10 s with a
resolution of 1 ms.
Periodic 85–5
With Add
Sequence pattern is 85 pointer movements followed by 5 missing pointer
movements with an added pointer movement after the 43rd pointer.
Time between AU pointer movements has a range of 0.34 s to 10 s with a
resolution of 1 ms; time between added pointer movement and previous
normal pointer movement for AU pointers is 0.5 ms.
Periodic 35–1
Sequence pattern is 35 pointer movements followed by 1 missing pointer
movement.
Time between pointer movements has a range of 0.760 s to 10 s with a
resolution of 1 ms.
Periodic 35–1
With Cancel
Sequence pattern is 35 pointer movements followed by 1 missing pointer
movement with a cancelled pointer movement at the 35th pointer, yielding a
gap of 2.
Time between pointer movements has a range of 0.760 s to 10 s with a
resolution of 1 ms.
Periodic 35–1
With Add
Sequence pattern is 35 pointer movements followed by 1 missing pointer
movement with an added pointer movement after the 17th pointer.
Time between normal pointer movements has a range of 0.760 s to 10 s
with a resolution of 1 ms; time between added pointer movement and
previous normal pointer movement is 2 ms.
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Setting Errors, Alarms, and Pointers
6. Set the pointer direction to either increment (+) or decrement (–) using the
options in the Direction group.
7. Set the Pointer Rate to a value between 34 and 30,000 ms. The rate is
automatically set to 30,000 ms for sequence types single, burst, phase, single
alternating, and double alternating.
8. You can disable the Initialization and Cooldown periods using the option
buttons at the bottom of the window.
9. The time between pointer adjustments is not adjustable.
Setting a Frequency
Offset
You can offset the transmit line rate from its nominal value to stress test a
network element. Both the transmit line rate and the payload data rate are offset
by the same amount, so no pointer movements are generated. To set a frequency
offset, perform the following steps:
1. If you have Options 22, 36, or 58 installed and have a tributary mapping
selected, click on the AU Pointers or STS Pointers option button.
NOTE. If you have Options 22, 36, or 58 installed and have a tributary mapping
selected, selecting Tributary Pointers removes the Freq Offset function.
2. Click on the Freq. Offset option button in the POINTERS/TIMING group
of the Transmit Signal Control window (see Figure 3–36).
3. Select the offset value displayed in the Offset (ppm) text box and then enter a
new value. The allowed offset range is from –100 ppm to +100 ppm (range
values are different for tributary mappings).
4. Click on Set Offset to enter the new offset value.
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SDH
SONET
Figure 3–36: Setting frequency offset
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Setting Errors, Alarms, and Pointers
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Viewing Test Results
While the VX4610 runs a test, it measures and analyzes errors, alarms, failures,
pointer movements, and other events that occur during the test. The VX4610
analyzes errors according to industry standards: ITU-T G.821 or G.826 (SDH) or
ANSI T1M1.3 (SONET). This section describes several ways to display the
measurement and analysis results. Then it describes how to save and recall test
results to and from a disk.
Displaying an Error Count
The UI4610 Software provides space in the main window to display an error
count using large, easy-to-see digits. If you are concerned about one particular
type of error, you can display that error count directly in the main window (see
Figure 3–37). To select the specific error count, perform the following steps:
1. In the RESULTS group, click on the Show drop-down list to select the error
count to display.
2. Click on the Start button. A test must be running to take measurements.
3. Click on the Update command button in the RESULTS group to display the
current error count.
4. If you want the error count to update automatically, click on the Auto
Update check box.
Viewing Detailed Results
While a test is running, the VX4610 compiles an extensive set of measurement
results. You can view interim results while a test is running or wait until the test
is complete for final results.
The UI4610 Software provides two ways to display measurement results and
analysis:
H
Results organized and analyzed by measurement type. You can view the
results from all layers in groupings of errors, alarms and failures, or pointer
measurements.
H
Error results analyzed by layer. You can view ITU-T G.821 or G.826 (SDH)
or ANSI T1M1.3 (SONET) error analysis grouped by the RS/section,
MS/line, path, or payload layers.
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Viewing Test Results
SDH
SONET
Figure 3–37: Error count display in main window
Results Grouped by
Measurement Type
To view measurement results and analysis grouped by measurement type,
perform the following steps:
1. Click on the Main Results command button in the RESULTS group to
display the Main Results window (see Figure 3–38).
2. Click on the Update command button in the Main Results window to load
all current measurement results into the UI4610 Software.
3. Click on the Errors command button to view the errors that occurred in each
of the protocol layers during the test (see Figure 3–38).
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Viewing Test Results
4. Click on the Alarms command button to view the alarms that occurred
during the test (see Figure 3–39).
5. Click on the Failures command button to view the failures that occurred
during the test (see Figure 3–40).
6. Click on the Pointers command button to view measurements of pointer-related events that occurred during the test (see Figure 3–41).
NOTE. Auto Update updates only the current measurement type displayed.
SDH
SONET
Figure 3–38: Measurement results grouped by errors
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Viewing Test Results
SDH
SONET
Figure 3–39: Measurement results grouped by alarms
SDH
SONET
Figure 3–40: Measurement results grouped by failures
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Viewing Test Results
SDH
SONET
Figure 3–41: Pointer-related measurement results
Error Analysis by Protocol
Layer
To view measurement results and analysis grouped by protocol layer, perform the
following steps:
1. Click on the Error Analysis command button in the main window to
display the Error Analysis window (see Figure 3–42).
2. Click on the Update command button in the Error Analysis window to
retrieve all current measurement results.
3. To view error analysis of the regenerator section or section layer, select RS
or Section from the G.82X Analysis for or T1M1.3 Analysis for dropdown list (see Figure 3–42).
NOTE. The G.82X field changes with the receiver rate, mapping, and measurement type selected for SDH analysis.
4. To view error analysis of the multiplexer section or line layer, select MS or
Line from the G.82X Analysis for or T1M1.3 Analysis for drop-down list
(see Figure 3–43).
5. To view error analysis of the path layer, select Path from the G.82X
Analysis for or T1M1.3 Analysis for drop-down list (see Figure 3–44).
6. To view payload bit error analysis, select Payload from the G.82X Analysis
for or T1M1.3 Analysis for drop-down list (see Figure 3–45).
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Viewing Test Results
SDH
SONET
Figure 3–42: Measurement analysis of the RS or Section Layer
SDH
SONET
Figure 3–43: Measurement analysis of the MS or Line Layer
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Viewing Test Results
SDH
SONET
Figure 3–44: Measurement analysis of the Path Layer
SDH
SONET
Figure 3–45: Measurement analysis of the Payload Pattern
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Viewing Test Results
Viewing Pass/Fail Test Results
The qualitative result of a Pass/Fail test, either PASSED or FAILED, appears in
the main window after the test completes. You can also review the full set of
quantitative measurement results of a Pass/Fail test in the Main Results and
Error Analysis windows, using the methods described in the previous section.
For more information on Pass/Fail tests, see Pass/Fail Tests on page 3–10.
Saving and Recalling Results
You can save test results to disk and recall the test results for later display and
analysis. This capability is important if you are running a series of tests because
the VX4610 clears the previous test results from its internal memory when you
start the next test.
Saving Results to Disk
To save the test results that are displayed in the Main Results and Error Analysis
windows to disk, perform the following steps:
1. Click on the SAVE icon in the control and indicator bar to display the Save
dialog box (see Figure 3–46).
Figure 3–46: The Save dialog box
2. Click on the Save to Disk command button in the Save Results group. This
action displays the Save As dialog box (see Figure 3–47).
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Viewing Test Results
Figure 3–47: The Save As dialog box
3. Select the asterisk (*) in the File Name text box. Enter a file name of up to
eight characters. Results files have the file extension .res.
4. Click on the Drives: drop-down list, and select the disk drive where you
want the file to be saved.
5. In the Directories: list box, select the directory where you want the file
placed.
6. If you want the file to have read-only protection, click on the Read Only
check box.
7. Click on the OK command button to save the results file.
Recalling Results from
Disk
You can recall results from disk at any time, even while a test is running.
Recalled results are for viewing only and do not affect results stored in the
VX4610. After results are recalled, they are displayed in the Main Results and
Error Analysis windows. The title box in that window shows the file name the
results were recalled from.
NOTE. When viewing recalled results, avoid clicking Update command buttons
or turning on Auto Update. If an update occurs, the VX4610 replaces the
recalled results with the current results stored in the VX4610.
To recall test results from disk, perform the following steps:
1. Click on the RECALL icon in the control and indicator bar to display the
Recall dialog box (see Figure 3–48).
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Viewing Test Results
Figure 3–48: The Recall dialog box
2. Click on the Recall command button in the Recall Results File group. This
action displays the Open dialog box (see Figure 3–49).
Figure 3–49: The Open dialog box
3. Click on the Drives: drop-down list, and select the disk drive that contains
the results file you want to recall.
4. In the Directories: list box, select the directory that contains the results file
that you want to recall.
5. In the File Name: list box, select the results file you want to recall.
6. Click on the OK command button to recall the results file.
7. View the recalled results in the Main Results and Error Analysis windows
using the methods described in Viewing Detailed Results on page 3–57.
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Setting Trigger Outputs
Both the generator and receiver subsystems in the VX4610 produce trigger
output signals based on generated or received events. These signals are always
available at the front-panel trigger output connectors (Tx SECTION and
Rx SECTION). In addition, you can route these signals to a pair of TTLTRG*
lines in the VXIbus backplane.
You can select two specific events, one from the generator and one from the
receiver, to produce trigger outputs. This section describes how to select the
trigger events and how to route the trigger signals to the backplane.
Selecting the Trigger Events
To set up the trigger outputs, click on the Triggers Out command button in the
RECEIVER group. The Triggers Out window (see Figure 3–50) lets you select
generator and receiver triggers and lets you select a VXI bus trigger.
Figure 3–50: The Triggers Out window
Click on the Select Event drop-down list in the Tx Section (Generator) group to
select a trigger event derived from the generated signal. Select one of the
available events. Likewise, to select a trigger event derived from the received
signal, click on the Select Event drop-down list in the Rx Section (Receiver)
group.
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Setting Trigger Outputs
Routing Triggers to the VXIbus
To route the trigger signals to the VXIbus backplane, click on the VXI Line Pair
drop-down list and select the pair of lines you want to use. Table 3–3 shows the
available line assignments.
Table 3–3: Trigger output VXI line assignments
Even-numbered line driven
by Tx section
Odd-numbered line
driven by Rx section
TTLTRG0*
TTLTRG1*
TTLTRG2*
TTLTRG3*
TTLTRG4*
TTLTRG5*
TTLTRG6*
TTLTRG7*
If you do not want the trigger signals to be present on the VXIbus backplane,
select NONE in the VXI Line Pair drop-down list.
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Generating Custom Payload Sequences
In addition to generating payload test patterns for transmission, the VX4610 can
generate and transmit a custom payload sequence. You can use the UI4610
Graphical User Interface Software to define the custom payload sequence. This
section describes how to define the sequence length and content, and how to
generate the sequence for transmission. It also describes how to save and recall
payload sequences.
Setting the Payload Sequence Content
To access the controls to set up a payload sequence, click on the Payload Gen
command button in the GENERATOR window. This action displays the Payload
Generation window (see Figure 3–51). Click on the Update command button to
load the current content of payload generator memory into the UI4610 Software.
The UI4610 Software provides four ways to set or change payload bytes. You
can use any one method or combine them if needed:
H
Import data for transmission from the VX4610 payload capture memory
H
Load one of the predefined setups provided with the UI4610 Software
H
Set the data for transmission, one frame at a time, to one of several built-in
sequences or to a user-defined word
H
Edit an individual byte from any payload of the sequence to a desired value
To make any changes to the payload sequence, the AU4 Mapping or STS
Mapping must be set to Equipped or Unequipped, or if you have Option 22 or
Option 36 installed, you can choose a tributary mapping. You cannot change the
payload sequence bytes in Custom mapping.
NOTE. If you close the Payload Generation window, you will lose the custom
sequence you have defined. To prevent the loss of data, save the sequence. If the
Payload Generation window is in the way, you can reduce it to an icon without
losing any data contained in the window.
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3–69
Generating Custom Payload Sequences
Importing the Payload
Sequence
Use the Payload Capt command button in the RECEIVER group to copy payload
data from the receive capture memory to the generator memory in the VX4610;
see Transmitting a Captured Payload Frame, on page 3–83, for instructions.
Once the captured payload data has been copied, see Transmitting the Custom
Payload Sequence, on page 3–72, for instructions about starting the transmitted
sequence.
Loading a Predefined
Payload Sequence
You can load one of the predefined payload sequences provided with the UI4610
Software. Refer to Recalling Payload Generator Data from Disk on page 3–75
for additional information.
SONET
SDH
Figure 3–51: The Payload Generation window
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Generating Custom Payload Sequences
Loading Preset Patterns
You can set the payload data sequence, one frame at a time, to one of several
built-in sequences with the following steps:
1. Set the AU4 Mapping or STS Mapping to Equipped or Unequipped.
2. Click on the up or down arrows in the Current Frame box and click on the
Show command button to select the frame you want to load.
3. Click on the Preset Frame drop-down list and select one of the available
sequences. If you select User Word, select the four digits in the User Word
text box, and then enter a new word.
4. After defining the sequence, click on the Set command button in the Preset
Frame group to load the sequence for the current frame into payload
generator memory. If you want to load the same preset pattern into additional
frames, select a new current frame and click on the Set command button.
5. Repeat steps 2 through 4 to define additional frames.
Editing Individual Payload
Bytes
You can edit an individual byte from any frame of the payload sequence with the
following steps:
1. Set the AU4 Mapping or STS Mapping to Equipped or Unequipped.
2. Click on the up or down arrows in the Current Frame box and click on the
Show command button to select the frame that contains the byte to edit.
3. Select the byte to edit; each cell is editable. Depending on the signal
structure, you may have to use the scroll bars to access the byte of interest.
Use the Data Format option buttons to choose hexadecimal, binary, or
decimal form.
4. Enter the new byte value with the keyboard. The new cell value updates the
VX4610 when you make the next selection.
Setting the Sequence
Length
To set the sequence length, click on the up or down arrows in the Total Frames
box. Or, select the current sequence length with the mouse and enter a new
length with the keyboard. The minimum sequence length is one frame. The
maximum sequence length depends on the signal structure (see Table 3–4). To
set the new sequence length, click on the Set Total command button.
Table 3–4: Maximum payload sequence length
SDH signal structure
SONET signal structure
Maximum length
Not applicable
STS-1
64 frames
AU4
STS-3c
54 frames
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Generating Custom Payload Sequences
Copying Payload Data
Use the Copy menu in the Payload Generation window to copy a specified
payload frame to another specified frame. To copy payload data, perform the
following steps:
1. Click on the Copy menu to display the Copy Payload Data dialog box.
2. Click on the left up or down arrows to select the copy-from frame number
and on the right up or down arrows to select the copy-to frame number.
3. Click on the Copy button to begin copying.
4. Click on Close to end copying, close the Copy Payload dialog, and return to
the Payload Generation window.
Transmitting the Custom Payload Sequence
When you have defined the payload sequence you want to generate, select Send
Current, Send Total, or Send All in the Send menu. Then click on the
AU4 Mapping or STS Mapping drop-down list and select Custom. When the
mapping is set to Custom, the VX4610 generates and repeats the defined payload
sequence. To turn off the payload sequence and resume transmission of a
standard test pattern, select either an Equipped or Unequipped mapping.
NOTE. If you close the Payload Generation window, you will lose the custom
sequence you have defined. To prevent the loss of data, save the sequence. If the
Payload Generation window is in the way, you can reduce it to an icon without
losing data contained in the window.
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Generating Custom Payload Sequences
Saving and Recalling Payload Sequences
You can save and recall payload sequence data to and from a system disk. The
source and destination for the payload sequence data depends on whether the
Payload Generation window is open, as explained in Table 3–5.
Table 3–5: Source and destination of generated payload sequence data
Payload sequence data
operation
Payload Generation
window is open
Payload Generation
window is not open
Saving to disk
Data source is Total Frames1
from the UI4610 Software
Data source is Total Frames1
from the VX4610
Recalling from disk
Data destination is the
VX4610 if instrument is connected2
Data destination is the
VX4610 if instrument is connected2
Data destination is the UI4610
Software
Data destination is the UI4610
Software
The Payload Generation
window opens automatically
Saving Payload Generator
Data to Disk
1
Total Frames is the payload sequence length. All payloads in the sequence are saved.
2
Instrument connected means the UI4610 Software is in communication with a VX4610.
Save payload generator data from the VX4610 to disk only when no sequence is
being transmitted. To save the generator data to disk, perform the following
steps:
1. In the GENERATOR group, set the AU4 Mapping or STS Mapping to
either Equipped or Unequipped.
2. Click on the SAVE icon in the control and indicator bar to display the Save
dialog box (see Figure 3–52).
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3–73
Generating Custom Payload Sequences
Save Payload
Generate group
Figure 3–52: The Save dialog box
3. Click on the Save to Disk command button in the Save Payload Generate
Data group. This action displays the Save As dialog box (see Figure 3–53).
4. Select the asterisk (*) in the File Name text box. Enter a file name consisting
of up to eight characters. The payload file extension is .gen.
5. Click the Drives: drop-down list and then select the disk drive where you
want the file to be saved.
Figure 3–53: The Save As dialog box
6. In the Directories: list box, select the directory into which you want the file
placed.
7. If you want the file to have read-only protection, click on the Read Only
check box.
8. Click on the OK command button to save the payload generator data file.
3–74
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Generating Custom Payload Sequences
Recalling Payload
Generator Data from Disk
Recall payload generator data from disk only when no sequence is being
transmitted. After the data is recalled, the UI4610 Software displays it in the
Payload Generation window. The title box in that window shows the file name
from which the data was recalled.
To recall the generator data from disk, perform the following steps:
1. In the GENERATOR group, set the AU4 Mapping or STS Mapping to
either Equipped or Unequipped.
2. Click on the RECALL icon in the control and indicator bar to display the
Recall dialog box (see Figure 3–54).
3. Click on the Recall command button in the Recall Results File group. This
action displays the Open dialog box (see Figure 3–55).
Recall Payload
Generator File
group
Figure 3–54: The Recall dialog box
Figure 3–55: The Open dialog box
4. Click on the Drives: drop-down list and select the disk drive that contains
the payload generator data file you want to recall.
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3–75
Generating Custom Payload Sequences
5. In the Directories: list box, select the directory that contains the desired
payload generator data file.
6. In the File Name: list box, select the desired payload generator data file.
7. Click on the OK command button to recall the payload generator data file.
3–76
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Capturing Payload Sequences
With the UI4610 Graphical User Interface Software, you can set up the VX4610
to capture a sequence of payload data. Once captured, you can use the UI4610
Software to retrieve the data from memory and view it. This section describes
how to set up the capture process and view the captured data. It describes how to
save and recall captured payload data to and from a disk. Finally, the section
describes how to move captured payload data directly to the generator for
transmission.
To begin setting up the capture process, click on the Payload Capt command
button in the RECEIVER window to display the Payload Capture window (see
Figure 3–56).
Figure 3–56: The Payload Capture window
Setting the Trigger Condition
A trigger event determines the timing of the payload capture process. To set up
the trigger condition, perform the following steps:
1. Click on the Payload Capt command button in the RECEIVER window,
then click on the Set Triggers command in the Triggers menu of the Payload
Capture window. This action displays the Trigger Setup dialog (see
Figure 3–57).
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3–77
Capturing Payload Sequences
Figure 3–57: The Trigger Setup dialog box
2. Click on the Position drop-down list to select the trigger position within the
sequence of captured payloads and choose one of the following:
H
Begin captures payload-sequence data relative to a trigger event in the
second frame of the sequence.
H
Middle captures payload-sequence data relative to a trigger event in the
middle frame of the sequence.
H
End captures payload-sequence data relative to a trigger event in the
second-to-last frame of the sequence.
3. Click on the Trigger Source drop-down list to select the trigger source and
choose one of the following:
H
Manual turns off all trigger sources except the Manual command
buttons in the UI4610 Software. The Manual command buttons are
always active, even if you select another trigger source.
H
Sense sets the trigger condition to an event detected in the received
signal. Click on the Condition drop-down list to select the specific
event.
H
TTL Trig sets the trigger source to one of the TTLTRG* lines in the
VXIbus backplane. Click on the Condition drop-down list to specify the
line number and polarity (rising- or falling-edge sensitivity).
H
Front Panel takes the trigger source from the front-panel External
Trigger input. Click on Polarity to select Positive (rising-edge sensitivity) or Negative (falling-edge sensitivity).
4. After you have set the above controls, click on Close to return to the Payload
Capture window.
3–78
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Capturing Payload Sequences
Starting the Payload Capture Process
The Payload Capture window contains the Trigger menu commands that control
the payload capture process (see Figure 3–56). The trigger controls are replicated
in the Trigger Setup dialog, so you can start the payload capture process from
either location. For instance, perform the following steps:
1. Click on the Payload Capt command button in the RECEIVER window.
Then click on either One Payload or All Payloads in the Payloads to
Update or Acquire group of the Payload Capture window. These selections
determine how many frames to capture when the trigger event occurs.
2. In the Triggers menu, select Set Triggers to display the Trigger Setup
dialog box.
3. To arm the VX4610 to capture a payload sequence, click on the Initiate
command button. When the trigger condition you previously defined occurs,
the sequence is captured. The messages Armed and Triggered in the Trigger
Setup dialog box indicate the status of the capture process.
4. Click on Update to load the current capture status.
5. To cancel the armed condition, click on the Abort command button in the
Trigger Setup window.
6. To capture a payload immediately, ignoring any trigger conditions that are
set, click on the Manual command button.
7. Click on Close to return to the Payload Capture window.
Another method you can use to capture payload data is to click on the Acquire
New Data command button in the Payload Capture window. This command
arms and triggers the VX4610, and then it updates the path data.
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3–79
Capturing Payload Sequences
Viewing the Captured Payload Sequence
The Payload Capture window displays the captured payload sequence when you
click on the Payload Capt command button in the RECEIVER window, and
then click on the Update command button (see Figure 3–56). Use the horizontal
scroll button to access all the bytes in the payload.
To select another frame in the sequence to view, click on the up or down arrows
in the Current Frame box and then click on the Show command button.
To display payload bytes in hexadecimal, binary or decimal form, click on the
Hex, Binary or Decimal option button in the Data Format group.
Saving and Recalling Captured Payload Sequences
You can save and recall captured payload sequence data to and from the disk.
The source and destination for the payload sequence data depends on whether the
Payload Capture window is open, as explained in Table 3–6.
Table 3–6: Source and destination of captured payload sequence data
Payload sequence data
operation
Payload Capture window is
open
Payload Capture window is
not open
Saving to disk
Data source is the selected
frames from the UI4610
Software
Data source is the selected
frames from the VX4610
Recalling from disk
Data destination is the UI4610
Software
Data destination is the UI4610
Software
The Payload Capture window
is opened automatically
3–80
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Capturing Payload Sequences
Saving Payload Capture
Data to Disk
You can save payload capture data only after a capture is complete. To save the
capture data to disk, perform the following steps:
1. Click on the SAVE icon in the control and indicator bar to display the Save
dialog box (see Figure 3–58).
Save Payload
Capture Data
group
Figure 3–58: The Save dialog box
2. You must select the part of the payload capture sequence you want to save:
H
If you want to save only the payload data from the frame that contained
the trigger event, click on the One Payload (at trigger) option button.
The frame containing the trigger event is displayed in the message at the
bottom of the Save Payload Capture Data group.
H
If you want to save a range of payloads, select the From option button,
and then click on the up or down arrows to set the beginning and ending
frame numbers.
3. Click on the Save to Disk command button in the Save Payload Capture
Data group. This action displays the Save As dialog box (see Figure 3–59).
Figure 3–59: The Save As dialog box
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3–81
Capturing Payload Sequences
4. Select the asterisk (*) in the File Name text box. Enter a file name of up to
eight characters. Capture data files have the file extension .cap.
5. Click on the Drives: drop-down list and then select the disk drive where you
want the file to be saved.
6. In the Directories: list box, select the directory for the file.
7. If you want the file to have read-only protection, click on the Read Only
check box.
8. Click on the OK command button to save the payload capture data file.
Recalling Payload Capture
Data from Disk
You can recall payload capture data at any time. Recalled capture data is for
viewing only and does not affect captured data currently stored in the VX4610.
After the data is recalled, it is displayed in the Payload Capture window. The
title box in that window shows the file name from which the data was recalled.
NOTE. When viewing recalled payload capture data, avoid clicking on Update
command buttons or icons. If you click on Update, the recalled data is replaced
by current data stored in the VX4610.
To recall the capture data from disk, perform the following steps:
1. Click on the RECALL icon in the control and indicator bar to display the
Recall dialog box (see Figure 3–60).
Recall
payload
capture
data
Figure 3–60: The Recall dialog box
3–82
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Capturing Payload Sequences
2. Click on the Recall command button in the Recall Payload Capture File
group. This action displays the Open dialog box (see Figure 3–55).
Figure 3–61: The Open dialog box
3. Click on the Drives: drop-down list and select the disk drive that contains
the payload capture data file you want to recall.
4. In the Directories: list box, select the directory that contains the payload
capture data file that you want to recall.
5. In the File Name: list box, select the payload capture data file you want to
recall.
6. Click on the OK command button to recall the payload capture data file.
7. Click on the Payload Capt command button in the RECEIVER group. This
action displays the Payload Capture window where you can view the recalled
payload data.
Transmitting a Captured Payload Frame
To move a frame of captured payload data directly into a memory location for
transmission, follow these steps:
1. Check that AU4 Mapping or STS Mapping in the GENERATOR group of
the main window is set to Equipped or Unequipped. If you have Option 22,
36, or 58 installed, you can choose a tributary mapping.
2. Click on the Export menu in the Payload Capture window to display the
Export Payload Data dialog box (see Figure 3–62).
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3–83
Capturing Payload Sequences
Figure 3–62: The Export Payload Data dialog box
3. Select the payload capture frames you want to copy to the generator memory
by clicking on the up or down arrows of the Payload Capture Frame No.
boxes.
4. Select the starting frame number in generator memory to copy the payload
data into by clicking on the up or down arrows of the Starting Payload
Generate Frame No. box.
5. Click on the >> Export >> command button to copy the data. This action
overwrites any previous generator memory data in the VX4610.
6. Repeat steps 3 through 5 for any additional frames of captured payload data
you want to transmit.
7. Click on Close to dismiss the Export Payload Data dialog and return to the
Payload Capture window.
8. Click on Close to dismiss the Payload Capture window and return to the
main window.
Refer to Generating Custom Payload Sequences, beginning on page 3–69, for
additional information on defining, editing, and transmitting a sequence of
payload data.
3–84
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Appendices
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Appendix A: SDH/SONET Terminology
This appendix provides a cross reference between SDH and SONET terminology
used in this manual. Table A–1 lists terms side by side that have equivalent or
similar meanings. Terms that have no direct equivalent in the other standard are
marked with the words no equivalent. Acronyms and abbreviations in Table A–1
are defined in the Glossary.
Table A–1: SDH/SONET equivalent or similar terms
Category
SDH term
SONET term
Line rates
STM-0E (not supported)
STS-1
STM-1E
STS-3
STM-0 (not supported)
OC-1
STM-1
OC-3
STM-4
OC-12
AU-3 (not supported)
STS-1 SPE
AU-4
STS-3c SPE
Section overhead
Transport overhead
Regenerator section overhead
Section overhead
Multiplexer section overhead
Line overhead
Path overhead
Path overhead
MSP bytes
APS bytes
National use bytes
No equivalent
VC
SPE
AU
No equivalent
Tributaries
TU
VT
Alarms
MS AIS
Line AIS
MS FERF
Line FERF
Path AIS
Path AIS
Path FERF
Path FERF
RS B1 error
Section B1 error
MS B2 error
Line B2 error
Path B3 error
Path B3 error
MS FEBE
Line FEBE
Path FEBE
Path FEBE
Structures
Overhead
Payload
Errors
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A–1
Appendix A: SDH/SONET Terminology
Table A–1: SDH/SONET equivalent or similar terms (cont.)
Category
SDH term
SONET term
Error analysis
Degraded Minutes
No equivalent
No equivalent
Type A errored seconds
No equivalent
Type B errored seconds
RS DCC
Section DCC
MS DCC
Line DCC
2 Mb/s
No equivalent
No equivalent
BITS
External add/drop
External clock references
A–2
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Appendix B: Settings After Reset to Defaults
Table B–1 lists the VX4610 settings, for SDH and SONET modes, after you
click Reset to Defaults.
Table B–1: Default settings
Parameter
SDH setting
SONET setting
Tx/Rx coupling
Independent
Independent
Tx rate
STM-1E
STS-1
Tx level
–6 dB
X connect
Tx clock
Internal
Internal
Tx frequency offset
0 ppm
0 ppm
Tx signal structure
AU-4
STS-1
Tx active channel
1
1
Tx mapping
Equipped
Equipped
Tx test pattern
PRBS2^23–1
PRBS2^23–1
Tx test pattern user byte
00
00
Tx section trigger event
Frame pulse
Frame pulse
Transmit Overhead
Refer to description of
SOURce:DATA:
TELecom:OVERhead
:PRESet command in
VX4610 User Manual
Refer to description of
SOURce:DATA:
TELecom:OVERhead
:PRESet command in
VX4610 User Manual
Path Overhead
Refer to description of
SOURce:DATA:
TELecom:POVerhead
:PRESet command in
VX4610 User Manual
Refer to description of
SOURce:DATA:
TELecom:POVerhead
:PRESet command in
VX4610 User Manual
Path trace string
“ ” (64 null characters)
“ ” (64 null characters)
Error insertion
Single
Single
Error rate
1E–10
1E–10
Error type
B1 Error
B1 Error
Alarm type
None
None
Failure type
None
None
Pointer mode
Single
Single
Pointer value
522
522
NDF flag
On
On
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B–1
Appendix B: Settings After Reset to Defaults
Table B–1: Default settings (cont.)
Parameter
SDH setting
SONET setting
Pointer direction
Alternate
Alternate
Pointer rate
100 ms
100 ms
APS bytes
00
00
APS mode
Ring
Ring
Freq offset mode
Offset Line
Offset Line
Rx rate
STM-1E
STS-1
Rx level
–6 dB
X connect
Rx signal structure
AU-4
STS-1
Rx active channel
1
1
Rx mapping
Equipped
Equipped
Rx test pattern
PRBS2^23–1
PRBS2^23–1
Rx test pattern user byte
00
00
Rx section trigger event
Frame pulse
Frame pulse
Test duration
00d:00h:00m:00s
00d:00h:00m:00s
Pass/Fail test criteria
None
None
Trigger state
Armed
Armed
Trigger position
Begin
Begin
Trigger source
Manual
Manual
VXI line pair
None
None
Rx tributary rate level1
Normal
Normal
Tx tributary framing1
Unframed
Unframed
Rx tributary framing1
Unframed
Unframed
Tx tributary add1
Off
Off
Rx tributary drop1
Off
Off
Tx DS1 line code1
1
1
Rx Active VT/TU1
1
1
Tx VT/TU Payload1
Unframed
Unframed
Rx VT/TU Payload1
Unframed
Unframed
1
B–2
AMI
Tx Active VT/TU1
For Option 22, 36, or 58 only.
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Appendix C: Limited-Access Commands and Queries
The parts of the UI4610 Graphical User Interface Software that simulate a
VX4610 front panel do not use the commands and queries listed in Table C–1.
However, you can send these commands and queries using the Command
Builder window.
Table C–1: Commands and queries accessible only
with command builder
Command or Query
SOURce:DATA:TELecom:OVERhead:INSert
SOURce:DATA:TELecom:POVerhead:INSert
SOURce:DATA:TELecom:ERRor:MASK
SOURce:DATA:TELecom:ERRor:FEBEvalue
SOURce:DATA:TELecom:ICHAnnels
INPUT1:TELecom:STATus?
INPUT1:TELecom:ECL:TYPE?
OUTPUT1:TELecom:ECL:TYPE?
SENSe:DATA:TELecom:OVERhead:DROP
SENSe:DATA:TELecom:POVerhead:DROP
SENSe:DATA:TELecom:MEASure:BUFFer
SENSe:DATA:TELecom:MEASure:HISTory: (all)
SENSe:DATA:TELecom:MEASure:STESts:DESCription
SENSe:DATA:TELecom:MEASure:STESts:DONE
SENSe:DATA:TELecom:AUTOscan
TRIGger:SENSe:TPOLarity
DIAGnostic: (all)
SYSTem:DATE
SYSTem:TIME
SYSTem:OWNer
SYSTem:USER
SYSTem:SDEScription
SOURce:DATA:TELecom:TRIButary:BACKground:PATTern1
1
For Options 22, 36 and 58 only.
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C–1
Appendix C: Limited-Access Commands and Queries
C–2
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Glossary
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Glossary
AIS
An acronym for Alarm Indication Signal. An AIS is used to alert downstream equipment that an upstream failure has been detected.
APS
An acronym for Automatic Protection Switching.
ASCII
An acronym for American Standard Code for Information Interchange.
AU
An acronym for Administrative Unit.
AU-4
Virtual Container (VC) plus the Transport Overhead pointers.
BBE
An acronym for Background Block Error. A Background Block Error is an
errored block that occurs outside of a Severely Errored Second.
BER
An acronym for Bit Error Ratio (or Rate). The principal measure of quality
of a digital transmission system. BER is defined as:
BER +
Number of Errors
Total Number of Bits
BER is usually expressed as a negative exponent. For example, a BER of
10–7 means that 1 bit out of 107 bits is in error.
BIP
An acronym for Bit Interleaved Parity. A method used to monitor errors in
the transmitted signal.
Bit Error
An incorrect bit. Also known as a coding violation.
BITS
An acronym for Building Integrated Timing Supply.
Class 2
A term for ECL-level signals on the VXI Local Bus.
Coding Violation (CV)
An error detected by Bit Interleaved Parity (BIP) checks.
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Glossary–1
Glossary
COFA
An acronym for Change of Frame Alignment.
CV
An acronym for Coding Violation.
dB
The symbol for decibels.
dBm
The symbol for power level in decibels relative to 1 mW.
DM
An acronym for Degraded Minute. A minute with a BER greater than 10–6.
DSn
An acronym for Digital Signal-n (DS1, DS2, DS3, and DS4). DS1 is the
basic multiplex rate in North America; additional rates are DS2, DS3, and
DS4. The following table lists the DSn rates and their multiple of DS1:
Digital signal transmission rates
Level
Rate
Multiple of DS1
DS1
1.544 Mb/s
1
DS1c
3.152 Mb/s
2
DS2
6.312 Mb/s
4
DS3
44.736 Mb/s
24
EB
An acronym for Errored Block. An Errored Block is a block with one or
more bit errors, usually applied to a single SDH frame.
ECL
An acronym for Emitter Coupled Logic.
EFS
An acronym for Error Free Seconds.
ES
An acronym for Errored Second. A second with at least one error.
E1, E2, E3, E4
The preferred names for the ITU 2 Mb/s, 8 Mb/s, 32 Mb/s, and 140 Mb/s
tributary signals.
Glossary–2
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Glossary
FEBE
An acronym for Far End Block Error. An indication returned to the
transmitting LTE that an errored block has been detected at the receiving
LTE. See REI.
FERF
An acronym for Far End Receive Failure. A FERF indicates to the transmitting LTE that the receiving LTE has detected an incoming line failure or is
receiving a Line AIS. See RDI.
Gapped Clock
A discontinuous clock signal that appears in bursts separated by gaps.
ITU
An acronym for the International Telecommunication Union.
Line
The portion of a transmission line between two multiplexers.
Line Alarm Indication Signal (AIS)
A Line AIS is generated by Section Terminating Equipment upon Loss of
Signal or Loss of Frame.
Line Coding Violation (CV)
The sum of the BIP errors detected at the Line layer. Line CVs are collected
using the BIP codes in the B2 bytes of the Line Overhead.
Line Errored Second (ES)
A second during which at least one Line CV occurred, or a second during
which the line was in the Line AIS state.
Line Far End Receive Failure (FERF)
An indication returned to a transmitting LTE from the receiving LTE that a
Line AIS or incoming line failure has been detected.
Line Overhead (LOH)
Controls the payload information using the section layer and provides alarm
indications, error monitoring, and message signalling between two LTEs.
Line Severely Errored Second (SES)
A second with N or more Line CVs, or a second during which the line was
in the Line AIS state. The value of N varies with the transmit rate, but
corresponds to a 2 × 10–7 BER.
LOF
An acronym for Loss of Frame.
Logical address
A specific, unique address setting for modules in a VXIbus system.
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Glossary–3
Glossary
LOP
An acronym for Loss of Pointer.
LOS
An acronym for Loss of Signal.
LTE
An acronym for Line Terminating Equipment.
Mapping
The process of placing a tributary signal into a SONET SPE or an SDH AU.
Mb/s
Megabits per second.
MS
An acronym for Multiplexer Section.
MS–RDI
An SDH acronym for Line Remote Defect Indication. A signal returned to
the transmitting Terminating Equipment upon detecting a Loss of Signal
defect. Previously known as MS-FERF.
NE
An acronym for Network Element.
OC
An acronym for Optical Carrier.
OOF
An acronym for Out of Frame.
Optical Carrier Level N (OC-N)
An optical version of an STS-N signal.
Path
The portion of a transmission network between two terminal multiplexers.
Path Overhead (POH)
A set of bytes allocated within the information payload to carry status and
maintenance information between two network elements.
POH
An acronym for Path Overhead.
PTE
An acronym for Path Terminating Equipment. Network elements, such as
fiber-optic terminating systems, which can access, generate, and process Path
Overhead.
RAI
An acronym for Remote Alarm Indication. A code sent upstream in a DSn
Glossary–4
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Glossary
network as a notification that a failure condition has been declared
downstream. Previously known as Yellow signals.
RDI
An acronym for Remote Defect Indication. A signal returned to the
transmitting Terminating Equipment upon detecting a Loss of Signal, Loss
of Frame, or AIS defect. Previously known as Far End Receive Failure
(FERF).
RDI–L
A SONET acronym for Line Remote Defect Indication. A signal returned to
the transmitting Line Terminating Equipment (LTE) upon detecting a Loss of
Signal, Loss of Frame, or AIS–L defect. Previously known as Line FERF or
LFERF.
RDI–P
A SONET acronym for STS Path Remote Defect Indication. A signal
returned to the transmitting STS Path Terminating Equipment (PTE) upon
detecting certain defects on the incoming path. Previously known as Path
FERF or PFERF.
RDI–V
A SONET acronym for Virtual Tributary or VT Path Remote Defect
Indication. A signal returned to the transmitting VT PTE upon detecting
certain defects on the incoming path. Previously known as Path VTFERF.
REI
An acronym for Remote Error Indication. An indication returned to a
transmitting node (source) that an errored block has been detected at the
receiving node (sink). Previously known as Far End Block Error (FEBE).
REI–L
An acronym for Line Remote Error Indication. An indication returned to a
transmitting node (source) that an errored block has been detected at the
receiving node (sink). Previously known as Line FEBE.
REI–P
An acronym for STS Path Remote Error Indication. An indication returned
to a transmitting node (source) that an errored block has been detected at the
receiving node (sink). Previously known as Path FEBE.
REI–V
An acronym for VT or Virtual Tributary Remote Error Indication. An
indication returned to a transmitting node (source) that an errored block has
been detected at the receiving node (sink). Previously known as VTFEBE.
RS
An acronym for Regenerator Section.
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Glossary–5
Glossary
Rx
An abbreviation for Receive.
Scrambling
Scrambling is a form of data manipulation to improve clock recovery from a
signal.
SDH
An acronym for Synchronous Digital Hierarchy.
Section
The portion of a transmission line between a Network Element (NE) and a
Line Terminating Equipment (LTE) or two LTEs.
Section Coding Violation (CV)
A BIP error that is detected at the Section layer. CVs for the Section layer
are collected using the BIP-8 in the B1 byte located in the Section overhead
of STS-1 number 1.
Section Errored Second (ES)
A second during which at least one Section CV or OOF/COFA event
occurred, or a second during which the NE was (at any point during the
second) in the LOS state.
Section Overhead (SOH)
A set of bytes allocated within each frame to carry framing and error
monitoring information between an NE and LTE or between two LTEs. Part
of the transport overhead.
SES
An acronym for Severely Errored Seconds.
Severely Errored Seconds (SES)
A second with more than N CVs. N varies with the transmit rate but
corresponds to a BER of 2 × 10–7.
Slot 0
The location in a VXIbus mainframe for a controller or resource manager
module.
SOH
An acronym for Section Overhead.
SONET
An acronym for Synchronous Optical NETwork.
SPE
An acronym for Synchronous Payload Envelope.
STE
An acronym for Section Terminating Equipment.
Glossary–6
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Glossary
STM
An acronym for Synchronous Transport Module.
STM-N
An acronym for Synchronous Transport Module-N (STM-1, -4, -16). The
different STM-N rates for the SDH Signal Hierarchy are listed in the
following table:
SDH signal hierarchy
Electrical signal
Optical signal
STM-0E
STM-1E
Data rate (Mb/s)
51.84
STM-1
155.52
STM-4
622.08
STM-8
1244.16
STM-16
2488.32
STS
An acronym for Synchronous Transport Signal.
STS-N
An acronym for Synchronous Transport Signal level-N (STS-1, -3, -9, -12,
-18, -24, -36, -48). The different STS-N rates (and their optical equivalents)
for the SONET Signal Hierarchy are listed in the following table:
SONET signal hierarchy
Electrical signal
Optical signal
Data rate (Mb/s)
STS-1
OC-1
51.84
STS-3
OC-3
155.52
STS-9
OC-9
466.56
STS-12
OC-12
622.08
STS-18
OC-18
933.12
STS-24
OC-24
1244.16
STS-36
OC-36
1866.24
STS-48
OC-48
2488.32
TE
An acronym for Terminal Equipment.
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Glossary–7
Glossary
Through Mode
The ability to retransmit the incoming signal and manipulate its contents.
TOH
An acronym for Transport Overhead.
Transport Overhead (TOH)
A set of bytes allocated within each frame to carry operation, administration,
and maintenance information from one end of the system to the other.
Tributary
The lower rate signal that is input to a multiplexer for combination (multiplexing) with other low rate signals to form a higher rate signal.
TTLTRG*
The TTL-level trigger bus on the VXIbus backplane.
TU
An acronym for Tributary Unit. A structure (not a signal) designed for
transport and switching of sub-AU-4 payloads. The TU sizes currently in use
are TU-11, TU-12, and TU-3.
TUG
An acronym for Tributary Unit Group.
Tx
An abbreviation for Transmit.
VC
An acronym for Virtual Container.
VT
An acronym for Virtual Tributary. A structure (not a signal) designed for
transport and switching of sub-STS payloads. The sizes of VT currently in
use are VT1.5, VT2, VT3, and VT6.
VXIbus
A standardized backplane and system specification for modular
instrumentation.
VXI Local Bus
Lines in the VXIbus backplane for direct communication between adjacent
modules.
Yellow Signal
A code sent upstream to indicate that a failure condition has been declared
downstream. See RAI.
Glossary–8
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Index
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Index
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Index–1
Index
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Index
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Index–3
Index
Index–4
UI4610 Software User Manual
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