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Chapter 1
application
software
Program designed to make users more productive and/or assist them with
personal tasks.
blog
Informal Web site consisting of time-stamped articles in a diary or journal format,
usually listed in reverse chronological order.
CAM
Use of computers to assist with manufacturing processes such as fabrication and
assembly.
camera phone
Phone that can send picture messages.
client
Computer on a network that requests resources from the server. Also called a
workstation.
communications
device
Hardware component that enables a computer to send (transmit) and receive data,
instructions, and information to and from one or more computers.
computer
Electronic device, operating under the control of instructions stored in its own
memory, that can accept data, process the data according to specified rules,
produce results, and store the results for future use.
computer literacy Having a current knowledge and understanding of computers and their uses. See
also digital literacy.
computer-aided
manufacturing
(CAM)
Use of computers to assist with manufacturing processes such as fabrication and
assembly.
convergence
Term used to refer to the trend of manufacturers offering computers and devices
with technologies that overlap.
convertible tablet Tablet PC design that has an attached keyboard.
CPU (central
processing unit)
Electronic component on a computer's motherboard that interprets and carries out
the basic instructions that operate the computer. See also processor.
data
Collection of unprocessed items, which can include text, numbers, images, audio,
and video.
desktop
computer
Computer designed so the system unit, input devices, output devices, and any
other devices fit entirely on or under a desk or table.
developer
Person who writes and modifies computer programs. See also programmer.
digital camera
Device that allows users to take pictures and store the photographed images
digitally, instead of on traditional film
digital literacy
Having a current knowledge and understanding of computers and their uses. See
also computer literacy.
digital pen
Input device that allows users to write or draw on the screen by pressing the pen
and issue instructions to a Tablet PC by tapping on the screen.
e-book
Electronic version of a printed book, readable on computers and other digital
devices. Also called a digital book.
e-book reader
Handheld device that is used primarily for reading e-books. Short for electronic
book reader.
e-commerce
Short for electronic commerce, a business transaction conducted over the Web.
e-reader
Handheld device that is used primarily for reading e-books.
embedded
computer
Special-purpose computer that functions as a component in a larger product.
enterprise
computing
Term large companies use to refer to the use of a huge network of computers that
meets their diverse computing needs.
enterprise user
Computer user working for a business that has hundreds or thousands of
employees or customers that work in or do business with offices across a region,
the country, or the world.
execute
Process of a computer carrying out the instructions in a program.
FAQ
List that helps a user find answers to commonly asked questions.
game console
Mobile computing device designed for singleplayer or multiplayer video games.
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game console
Mobile computing device designed for singleplayer or multiplayer video games.
gaming desktop
computer
Desktop computer that offers high-quality audio, video, and graphics with optimal
performance for sophisticated single-user and networked or Internet multiplayer
games.
garbage in,
garbage out
Computing phrase that points out the accuracy of a computer's output depends on
the accuracy of the input.
graphical user
interface (GUI)
Type of user interface that allows a user to interact with software using text,
graphics, and visual images, such as icons.
green computing Practices that involve reducing the electricity consumed and environmental waste
generated when using a computer.
handheld
computer
Computer small enough to fit in one hand. See also handhelds or Ultra-Mobile PC
(UMPC).
handhelds
Computers small enough to fit in one hand. See also handheld computer; ultra
personal computer (uPC); handtop computer.
hardware
Electric, electronic, and mechanical components contained in a computer.
home theater PC
(HTPC)
Desktop computer that combines the features of a high-definition video/audio
entertainment system with a desktop computer that is designed to be connected to
a television and includes a Blu-ray Disc, digital video recorder, and digital cable
television connectivity.
home user
User who spends time on a computer at home.
icon
Miniature image displayed on a computer screen that represents a program, an
instruction, or some other object.
information
Processed data that conveys meaning and is useful to people.
information
processing cycle
Series of input, process, output, and storage activities performed by a computer.
information
system
Hardware, software, data, people, and procedures that a computer requires to
generate information.
information
technology (IT)
department
Group of employees who keeps the computers and networks running and
determines when the company requires new hardware or software.
input device
Any hardware component that allows users to enter data and instructions into a
computer.
installing
Process of setting up software to work with the computer, printer, and other
hardware components.
instant message
Real-time Internet communication where you exchange messages with other
connected users.
instructions
Steps that tell the computer how to perform a particular task.
Internet
Worldwide collection of networks that connects millions of businesses, government
agencies, educational institutions, and individuals.
Internet-enabled
Technology that allows mobile devices to connect to the Internet wirelessly.
laptop computer
Portable, personal computer often designed to fit on your lap. See also notebook
computer.
loads
Process of a computer copying a program from storage to memory.
mainframe
Large, expensive, powerful computer that can handle hundreds or thousands of
connected users simultaneously, storing tremendous amounts of data,
instructions, and information.
memory
Electronic components in a computer that store instructions waiting to be executed
and data needed by those instructions.
microblog
Blog that allows users to publish short messages, usually between 100 and 200
characters, for others to read.
mobile computer
Personal computer that a user can carry from place to place.
mobile device
Computing device small enough for a user to hold in his or her hand.
mobile users
Users who work on a computer while away from a main office, home office, or
school.
multimedia
Any application that combines text, graphics, audio, and video.
netbook
Type of notebook computer that is smaller, lighter, and often not as powerful as a
traditional notebook computer.
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traditional notebook computer.
network
Collection of computers and devices connected together, often wirelessly, via
communications devices and transmission media, allowing computers to share
resources.
neural network
System that attempts to imitate the behavior of the human brain.
notebook
computer
Portable, personal computer often designed to fit on your lap. See also laptop
computer.
online
Describes the state of a computer when it is connected to a network.
online banking
Online connection to a bank's computer to access account balances, pay bills, and
copy monthly transactions to a user's computer.
online investing
Use of a computer to buy and sell stocks and bonds online, without using a broker.
online social
network
Online community that encourages its members to share their interests, ideas,
stories, photos, music, and videos with other registered users. See also social
networking Web site.
operating system Set of programs that coordinates all the activities among computer hardware
devices.
output device
Any hardware component that conveys information to one or more people.
PC-compatible
Any personal computer based on the original IBM personal computer design.
PDA
PDA / Lightweight mobile device that provides personal information management
functions such as a calendar, appointment book, address book, calculator, and
notepad. See also personal digital assistant.
personal
computer
Computer that can perform all of its input, processing, output, and storage
activities by itself and contains a processor, memory, and one or more input and
output devices, and storage devices.
personal digital
assistant
Lightweight mobile device that provides personal information management
functions such as a calendar, appointment book, address book, calculator, and
notepad. See also PDA.
photo sharing
community
Specific type of social networking Web site that allows users to create an online
photo album and store and share their digital photos.
picture message
Photo or other image, sometimes along with sound and text, sent to or from a
smart phone or other mobile device.
podcast
Recorded audio stored on a Web site that can be downloaded to a computer or a
portable media player such as an iPod.
portable media
player
Mobile device on which you can store, organize, and play digital media.
power user
User who requires the capabilities of a workstation or other powerful computer,
typically working with multimedia applications and using industry-specific software.
processor
Electronic component on a computer's motherboard that interprets and carries out
the basic instructions that operate the computer. See also CPU (central processing
unit).
program
Series of instructions that tells a computer what tasks to perform and how to
perform them. See also software.
programmer
Person who writes and modifies computer programs. See also developer.
publish
Process of creating a Web page and making it available on the Internet for others
to see.
remote surgery
Surgery in which a surgeon performs an operation on a patient who is not located
in the same physical room as the surgeon. See also telesurgery.
resources
Hardware, software, data, and information shared using a network.
run
Process of using software.
server
Computer that controls access to the hardware, software, and other resources on
a network and provides a centralized storage area for programs, data, and
information.
slate tablet
PC Tablet design that does not include a keyboard, but provides other means for
typing.
small
office/home
office (SOHO:)
Describes any company with fewer than 50 employees, as well as the selfemployed who work from home.
smart phone
Internet-enabled telephone that usually also provides personal information
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smart phone
Internet-enabled telephone that usually also provides personal information
management functions.
social
networking Web
site
Online community that encourages its members to share their interests, ideas,
stories, photos, music, and videos with other registered users. See also online
social network.
software
Series of instructions that tells a computer what tasks to perform and how to
perform them. See also Program.
SOHO
Describes any company with fewer than 50 employees, as well as the selfemployed who work from home.
storage device
Hardware used to record (write and/or read) items to and from storage media.
storage media
The physical material on which a computer keeps data, instructions, and
information.
supercomputer
Fastest, most powerful, and most expensive computer, capable of processing
more than one quadrillion instructions in a single second.
system software
Programs that control or maintain the operations of a computer and its devices.
system unit
Case that contains the electronic components of a computer that are used to
process data.
Tablet PC
Special type of notebook computer that resembles a letter-sized slate, which
allows a user to write on the screen using a digital pen.
telecommuting
Work arrangement in which employees work away from a company's standard
workplace and often communicate with the office through the computer.
telematics
Wireless communications capabilities used in automobiles, including navigation
systems, remote diagnosis and alerts, and Internet access.
telemedicine
Form of long-distance health care where health-care professionals in separate
locations conduct live conferences on the computer.
telesurgery
Surgery in which a surgeon performs an operation on a patient who is not located
in the same physical room as the surgeon. See also remote surgery.
text message
Short note, typically fewer than 300 characters, sent to or from a smart phone or
other mobile device.
tower
Tall and narrow system unit that can sit on the floor vertically if desktop space is
limited.
Ultra-Mobile PC
(UMPC)
Computer small enough to fit in one hand. See also handheld computer or
handhelds.
user
Anyone who communicates with a computer or utilizes the information it
generates.
utility program
Type of system software that allows a user to perform maintenance-type tasks
usually related to managing a computer, its devices, or its programs.
video blog
Blog that contains video clips.
video message
Short video clip, usually about 30 seconds, sent to or from a smart phone or other
mobile device.
video phone
Phone that can send video messages.
video sharing
community
Type of social networking Web site that allows users to store and share their
personal videos.
Web
Worldwide collection of electronic documents called Web pages, the Web is one of
the more popular services on the Internet. See also World Wide Web.
Web 2.0
Term used to refer to Web sites that provide a means for users to share personal
information, allow users to modify Web site content, and have application software
built into the site for visitors to use.
Web Application
Web site that allows users to access and interact with software through a Web
browser on any computer or device that is connected to the Internet. See also
Web app.
Web cam
Video camera that displays its output on a Web page.
Web page
Electronic document on the Web, which can contain text, graphics, animation,
audio, and video and often has built-in connections to other documents, graphics,
Web pages, or Web sites.
Web site
Document on the Web that contains text, graphics, animation, audio, and video.
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Chapter 2
Chapter 2
access provider
Business that provides individuals and organizations access to the Internet free or for a fee.
add-on
Program that extends the capability of a browser; often used to enhance multimedia. See
also plug-in.
address book
List of names and e-mail addresses, created and stored by a user. Also called contacts
folder.
animated GIF
Animation technique that combines several GIF images in a single GIF file.
animation
Appearance of motion created by displaying a series of still images in sequence.
anonymous FTP
Feature of many FTP sites whereby anyone can transfer some, if not all, available files.
ARPA
Advanced Research Projects Agency; agency of the U.S. Department of Defense that built an
early computer network called ARPANET.
ARPANET
Network developed by the Pentagon’s Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) that
linked scientific and academic researchers across the United States.
Atom
Specification sometimes used by content aggregators to distribute content.
audio
Music, speech, or any other sound.
blog
Informal Web site consisting of time-stamped articles, or posts, in a diary or journal format,
usually listed in reverse chronological order. Short for Web log.
blogger
Author of a Weblog.
blogosphere
Worldwide collection of blogs.
bookmark
Saved Web address that you access by clicking its name in a list. See also favorite.
broadband
High-speed Internet connection provided through cable, DSL, fiber, radio signals, or satellite.
browser
Application software that allows users to access and view Web pages. See also Web
browser.
buddies
Established list of friends, family, and coworkers used in instant messaging.
business-tobusiness (B2B) ecommerce
E-commerce that takes place between businesses.
business-toconsumer (B2C) ecommerce
The sale of goods and services to the general public.
cable Internet
service
High-speed Internet access provided through the cable television network via a cable
modem.
ccTLD
Country code TLD (top-level domain).
cellular radio
network
High-speed Internet connection for devices with built-in compatible technology or computers
with wireless modems.
chat
Real-time typed conversation that takes place on a computer.
chat client
Program that allows a user to connect to a chat server to participate in a chat session.
chat room
Location on an Internet server that permits users to chat with each other.
click
To move the mouse pointer to a button or link on the computer screen, and then to press and
release the left mouse button.
consumer-toconsumer (C2C) ecommerce
E-commerce that occurs when one consumer sells directly to another, such as in an online
auction.
content aggregator Business that gathers and organizes Web content and then distributes, or feeds, the content
to subscribers for free or a fee.
dial-up access
Internet access that takes place when the modem in your computer connects to the Internet
via a standard telephone line that transmits data and information using an analog (continuous
wave pattern) signal.
DNS server
Internet server that usually is associated with an Internet access provider.
domain name
Text version of an IP address.
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domain name
system (DNS)
Method that the Internet uses to store domain names and their corresponding IP addresses.
downloading
Process of a computer receiving information, such as a Web page, from a server on the
Internet.
DSL
Acronym for digital subscriber line; type of digital technology that provides high-speed
Internet connections using regular copper telephone lines.
dynamic Web page
A Web page that allows visitors to customize some or all of the viewed content.
e-commerce
Short for electronic commerce, a business transaction that occurs over an electronic network
such as the Internet.
e-mail
Short for electronic mail, the transmission of messages and files via a computer network.
e-mail address
Combination of a user name and a domain name that identifies a user so that he or she can
receive Internet e-mail.
e-mail program
Software used to create, send, receive, forward, store, print, and delete e-mail messages.
e-retail
Occurs when businesses use the Web to sell products.
electronic
commerce
A business transaction that occurs over an electronic network such as the Internet.
electronic mail
The transmission of messages and files via a computer network. See also e-mail.
electronic
storefront
Online business a customer visits that contains product descriptions, graphics, and a
shopping cart.
emoticons
Symbols used on the Internet to express emotion.
FAQ
List that helps a user find answers to frequently asked questions.
favorite
Saved Web address that you access by clicking its name in a list. See also bookmark.
Fiber to the
Premises (FTTP)
Technology that uses fiber-optic cables to provide high-speed Internet access to home and
business users.
file
Named unit of storage.
fixed wireless
High-speed Internet connection that uses an antenna on a house or business to
communicate with a tower location via radio signals.
flame wars
Exchanges of flames using the Internet.
flames
Abusive or insulting messages sent using the Internet.
FTP
Short for File Transfer Protocol, an Internet standard that permits file uploading and
downloading with other computers on the Internet.
FTP server
Computer that allows users to upload and/or download files using FTP.
GIF
Graphics format that uses compression techniques to reduce file sizes.
graphic
Digital representation of nontext information such as a drawing, chart, or photo. See also
graphical image.
graphical image
Digital representation of nontext information such as a drawing, chart, or photo. See also
graphic.
gTLD
Generic TLD (top-level domain).
hits
Web page names displayed by a search engine that contain the search text specified by a
user.
home page
First page that a Web site displays.
host
Any computer that provides services and connections to other computers on a network.
hot spots
Wireless network that provides Wi-Fi Internet connections to mobile computers and devices.
http
A set of rules that defines how pages transfer on the Internet. See also Hypertext Transfer
Protocol.
hyperlink
Built-in connection to another related Web page or part of a Web page. See also link.
hypermedia
Web page content consisting of text-based links combined with graphic, audio, and video
links.
hypertext
Term that refers to links in text-based documents.
Hypertext Transfer
Protocol
A set of rules that defines how pages transfer on the Internet. See also http.
ICANN
Acronym for Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers; group that assigns and
controls top-level domains.
instant messaging
Real-time Internet communications service that notifies a user when one or more people are
Chapter 2 Page 7
instant messaging
(IM)
Real-time Internet communications service that notifies a user when one or more people are
online and then allows the user to exchange messages or files or join a private chat room
with those people.
instant messenger
Software used by people to participate in instant messaging.
Internet
Worldwide collection of networks that connects millions of businesses, government agencies,
educational institutions, and individuals. See also Net.
Internet backbone
Major carriers of network traffic on the Internet.
Internet telephony
Technology that allows users to speak to other users over the Internet. See also Voice over
IP (Internet Protocol) or VoIP.
IP address
A number that uniquely identifies each computer or device connected to the Internet.
IPv6
New IP addressing scheme that may increase the number of available IP addresses.
ISP (Internet
service provider)
Regional or national Internet access provider.
JPEG
Joint Photographic Experts Group; format that compresses graphics to reduce their file size.
keyword
(searching)
Each word entered as search text when using a search engine.
link
Built-in connection to another related Web page or part of a Web page. Short for hyperlink.
m-commerce
E-commerce that takes place using mobile devices.
mailing list
Group of e-mail names and addresses given a single name. Also called an e-mail list or a
distribution list.
media sharing Web Specific type of online social network that enables members to share media such as photos,
site
music, and videos.
message board
Popular Web-based type of discussion group that does not require a newsreader.
microblog
Blog that allows users to publish short messages, usually between 100 and 200 characters,
for others to read.
microbrowser
Special type of browser designed for the small screens and limited computing power of
Internet-enabled mobile devices.
MP3
Format that reduces an audio file to about one-tenth of its original size, while preserving
much of the original quality of the sound.
MP4
Popular video compression standard.
MPEG
Moving Pictures Experts Group.
MPEG-4
Current version of a popular video compression standard.
multimedia
Any application that combines text with graphics, animation, audio, video, and/or virtual
reality.
national ISP
Internet service provider that provides Internet access in cities and towns nationwide.
Net
Worldwide collection of networks that links millions of businesses, government agencies,
educational institutions, and individuals. See also Internet.
netiquette
Short for Internet etiquette, the code of acceptable behaviors users should follow while on the
Internet.
newsgroup
Online area in which users have written discussions about a particular subject.
newsreader
Program necessary for participating in a newsgroup.
NSFnet
The National Science Foundation’s network of five supercomputers.
online auction
E-commerce method that allows consumers to bid on an item being sold by someone else.
online community
Web site that joins a specific group of people with similar interests or relationships.
online service
provider (OSP)
Company that provides Internet access as well as many members-only features.
online social
network
Web site that encourages members in its online community to share their interests, ideas,
stories, photos, music, and videos with other registered users. See also social networking
Web site.
player
Software used by a person to listen to an audio file on a computer.
plug-in
Program that extends the capability of a browser; often used to enhance multimedia. See
also add-on.
PNG
Graphics format that improves upon the GIF format.
podcast
Recorded audio, usually an MP3 file, stored on a Web site that can be downloaded to a
computer or a portable media player such as an iPod.
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computer or a portable media player such as an iPod.
POP3
Latest version of Post Office Protocol.
portal
Web site that offers a variety of Internet services from a single, convenient location.
Post Office
Protocol
Communications protocol used by some incoming mail servers.
pull
Request information from a Web server.
push
Process of a Web server sending content to a computer at regular intervals, such as current
sport scores or weather reports.
real time
Describes users and the people with whom they are conversing being online at the same
time.
Really Simple
Syndication
Specification that content aggregators use to distribute content to subscribers. See also RSS
2.0.
regional ISP
Internet service provider that usually provides Internet access to a specific geographic area.
registrar
Organization that sells and manages domain names.
RSS 2.0
Really Simple Syndication. Specification that content aggregators use to distribute content to
subscribers.
satellite Internet
service
Provides high-speed Internet connections via satellite to a satellite dish that communicates
with a satellite modem.
search engine
Program that finds Web sites, Web pages, images, videos, news, maps, and other
information related to a specific topic.
search query
Word or phrase entered in a search engine’s text box that describes the item you want to find.
See also search text.
search text
Word or phrase entered in a search engine’s text box that describes the item you want to find.
See also search query.
shopping cart
Element of an electronic storefront that allows a customer to collect purchases.
SMTP
Acronym for simple mail transfer protocol; communications protocol used by some outgoing
mail servers.
social networking
Web site
Web site that encourages members in its online community to share their interests, ideas,
stories, photos, music, and videos with other registered users. See also online social network.
spam
Unsolicited e-mail message or newsgroups posting sent to many recipients or newsgroups at
once.
spider
Program used to build and maintain lists of words found on Web sites.
spoiler
Message that reveals a solution to a game or ending to a movie or program.
static Web page
A fixed Web page where visitors all see the same content.
streaming
Process of transferring data in a continuous and even flow.
streaming audio
Transfer of audio data in a continuous and even flow, which allows users to listen to the audio
file as it downloads.
streaming video
Transfer of video data in a continuous and even flow, which allows users to view longer or
live video images as they are downloaded.
subject directory
Search tool that classifies Web pages in an organized set of categories and subcategories.
subscribe
Process of a user adding his or her e-mail name and address to a mailing list.
surfing the Web
Activity of using links to explore the Web.
tabbed browsing
Option where the top of the browser displays a tab (similar to a file folder tab) for each Web
page you open.
thread
Group of newsgroup articles consisting of the original article and all subsequent related
replies. See also threaded discussion.
threaded
discussion
Group of newsgroup articles consisting of the original article and all subsequent related
replies. See also thread.
thumbnail
Small version of a larger graphic.
top-level domain
(TLD)
Identifies the type of organization associated with the domain.
traffic
Communications activity on the Internet.
Uniform Resource
Locator
Unique address for a Web page. See also URL or Web address.
unsubscribe
Process of a user removing his or her e-mail name and address from a mailing list.
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unsubscribe
Process of a user removing his or her e-mail name and address from a mailing list.
uploading
Process of transferring documents, graphics, and other objects from a computer to a server
on the Internet.
URL
Unique address for a Web page. See also Uniform Resource Locator or Web address.
user name
Unique combination of characters, such as letters of the alphabet and/or numbers, that
identifies a specific user.
video
Images displayed in motion.
video blog
Blog that contains video clips.
virtual reality (VR)
Computers used to simulate a real or imagined environment that appears as a threedimensional (3-D) space.
vlog
Video blog.
vlogger
Short for vlog author.
vlogosphere
Term used to refer to all vlogs worldwide.
Voice over IP
Technology that allows users to speak to other users over the Internet using their desktop
computer, mobile computer, or mobile device. See also Internet telephony or VoIP.
VoIP
Technology that allows users to speak to other users over the Internet using their desktop
computer, mobile computer, or mobile device. See also Internet telephony or Voice over IP.
VR world
3-D environment that contains infinite space and depth created with special VR software.
Web
Worldwide collection of electronic documents called Web pages, the Web is one of the more
popular services on the Internet. See also World Wide Web or WWW.
Web 2.0
Term used to refer to Web sites that provide a means for users to share personal information,
allow users to modify Web site content, and have application software built into the site for
visitors to use.
Web address
Unique address for a Web page. See also URL and Uniform Resource Locator.
Web app
Web site that allows users to access and interact with software through a Web browser on
any computer or device that is connected to the Internet. See also Web application.
Web application
Web site that allows users to access and interact with software through a Web browser on
any computer or device that is connected to the Internet. See also Web app.
Web browser
Application software that allows users to access and view Web pages. See also browser.
Web page
Electronic document on the Web, which can contain text, graphics, animation, audio, and
video and often has built-in connections to other documents.
Web publishing
Development and maintenance of Web pages.
Web server
Computer that delivers requested Web pages to a computer.
Web site
Collection of related Web pages and associated items stored on a Web server.
Weblog
Informal Web site consisting of time-stamped articles, or posts, in a diary or journal format,
usually listed in reverse chronological order. See also blog.
WebSlices
Internet Explorer feature that enables content aggregators to mark sections of their Web page
as feeds to which user can subscribe.
Wi-Fi
Short for wireless fidelity. Type of broadband Internet connection that uses radio signals to
provide high-speed Internet connections to compatible or properly equipped wireless
computers and devices.
wiki
Collaborative Web site that allows users to create, add to, modify, or delete the Web site
content via their Web browser.
wireless Internet
service provider
Company that provides wireless Internet access to desktop and notebook computers and
mobile devices, such as smart phones and portable media players, with built-in wireless
capability (such as Wi-Fi) or to computers using wireless modems or wireless access
devices.
wireless portal
Portal designed for Internet-enabled mobile devices.
WISP
See wireless Internet service provider.
World Wide Web
Worldwide collection of electronic documents. See also Web or WWW.
World Wide Web
Consortium (W3C)
Consortium of nearly 400 organizations from around the world that oversees research and
sets standards and guidelines for many areas of the Internet.
WWW
Worldwide collection of electronic documents. See also Web or World Wide Web.
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Chapter 3
accounting software
Software that helps companies record and report their financial transactions.
application software
Program designed to make users more productive and/or assist them with personal tasks.
audio editing software Application software that allows a user to modify audio clips, produce studio-quality
soundtracks, and add audio to video clips.
bar chart
Chart that displays bars of various lengths to show the relationship of data. See also
column chart.
blog software
Software needed by blogger to create/maintain a blog.
blogware
Short for blog software. Software needed by blogger to create/maintain a blog.
business software
Application software that assists people in becoming more effective and efficient while
performing their daily business activities.
button
Graphical element that is activated to cause a specific action to occur.
cell
Intersection of a column and a row in a worksheet.
charting
Spreadsheet software feature that depicts data in a graphical form.
click
The act of moving the mouse pointer to a button and then pressing and releasing a button
on the mouse (usually the left mouse button).
clip art
Collection of electronic drawings, photos, and other images.
clip art/image gallery
A collection of clip art and photos included with application software.
clipboard
Temporary storage location for document content that is used in cutting and pasting or
copying and pasting operations.
color library
Standard set of colors used by designers and printers to ensure that colors will print
exactly as specified.
column chart
Chart that displays bars of various lengths to show the relationship of data. See also bar
chart.
command
Instruction on a menu that causes a program to perform a specific action.
computer-aided
Sophisticated type of application software that assists a professional user in creating
design (CAD) software engineering, architectural, and scientific designs.
computer-based
training (CBT)
Type of education in which students learn by using and completing exercises with
instructional software. Also called computer-aided instruction (CAI).
create
To enter text or numbers, insert images, and perform other tasks with a document using
an input device such as a keyboard, mouse, or digital pen.
custom software
Software that performs functions specific to a business or industry, developed by a user or
at a user’s request.
database
Collection of data organized in a manner that allows access, retrieval, and use of that
data.
database software
Application software used to create, access, and manage a database; add, change, and
delete data in the database; sort and retrieve data from the database; and create forms
and reports using the data in the database.
desktop
On-screen work area that has a graphical user interface.
desktop publishing
(DTP) software
Application software used by professional designers to create sophisticated documents
that can contain text, graphics, and many colors.
dialog box
Special window that provides information, presents available options, or requests a
response.
distance learning (DL) Delivery of education at one location while the learning takes place at other locations.
document
Application software that provides a means for sharing, distributing, and searching through
management software documents by converting them into a format that can be viewed by any user.
e-filing
Filing state and federal tax returns online.
e-learning
Short for electronic learning; delivery of education via some electronic method such as the
Internet, networks, or optical discs.
edit
To make changes to the existing content of a document.
educational software
Application software that teaches a particular skill.
Chapter 3 Page 11
entertainment
software
Application software, such as interactive games, videos, and other programs designed to
support a hobby or provide amusement and enjoyment.
field
Each column in a database that contains a specific category of data within a record.
file
Named collection of stored data, instructions, or information.
file name
Unique combination of letters of the alphabet, numbers, or other characters that identifies
a file.
filters
Audio editing software feature designed to enhance audio quality.
font
Name assigned to a specific design of characters.
font size
Size of the characters in a particular font.
font style
Font design, such as bold, italic, and underline, that can add emphasis to a font.
footer
Text that appears at the bottom of each page of a document.
format
To change a document’s appearance.
formula
Expression used to perform calculations on the data in a worksheet and display the
resulting value in a cell.
freeware
Copyrighted software provided at no cost to a user by an individual or a company that
retains all rights to the software.
function
Predefined worksheet formula that performs common calculations.
header
Text that appears at the top of each page of a document.
home
design/landscaping
software
Application software that assists users with the design, remodeling, or improvement of a
home, deck, or landscape.
icon
Small image displayed on a computer screen that represents a program, a document, or
some other object.
illustration software
Application software that allows users to draw pictures, shapes, and other graphical
images with various on-screen tools. See also paint software.
image editing
software
Application software that provides the capabilities of paint software and also includes the
capability to enhance and modify existing images and pictures.
image stitching
Process of combining multiple images into a larger image.
import
To bring graphics into a document.
label
Text entered in a worksheet cell that identifies the worksheet data and helps organize the
worksheet.
legal software
Application software that assists in the preparation of legal documents and provides legal
information to individuals, families, and small businesses.
line chart
Chart that shows a trend during a period of time, as indicated by a rising or falling line.
loaded
Copied from a computer’s hard disk into memory.
macro
Sequence of keystrokes and instructions that a user records and saves.
malware
Short for malicious software; programs that act without a user’s knowledge and
deliberately alter a computer’s operations.
margins
The portion of a page outside the main body of text, including the top, the bottom, and
both sides of the paper.
menu
Item on the computer screen that contains a list of commands from which a user can make
selections.
multimedia authoring
software
Software that allows users to combine text, graphics, audio, video, and animation in an
interactive application and that often is used for computer-based training and Web-based
presentations.
note taking software
Application software that enables users to enter typed text, handwritten comments,
drawings, or sketches anywhere on a page.
online banking
Online connection to a bank’s computer to access account balances, pay bills, and copy
monthly transactions to a user’s computer.
online Help
Electronic equivalent of a user manual that usually is integrated in a program.
open source software
Software provided for use, modification, and redistribution.
packaged software
Mass-produced, copyrighted retail software that meets the needs of a wide variety of
users, not just a single user or company.
page layout
Process of arranging text and graphics in a document on a page-by-page basis.
paint software
Application software that allows users to draw pictures, shapes, and other graphical
Chapter 3 Page 12
paint software
Application software that allows users to draw pictures, shapes, and other graphical
images with various on-screen tools. See also illustration software.
pasting
Process of transferring an item from a clipboard to a specific location in a document.
PDF
Portable Document Format. A popular file format used by document management
software to save converted documents.
personal DTP
(desktop publishing)
software
Application software that helps home and small office/ home office users create
newsletters, brochures, advertisements, postcards, greeting cards, letterhead, business
cards, banners, calendars, logos, and Web pages
personal finance
software
Simplified accounting program that helps home users or small office/home office users
manage finances.
personal information
manager (PIM)
Application software that includes features to help users organize personal information.
personal paint/image
editing software
Application software that provides an easy-to-use interface, usually with more simplified
capabilities that allows users to draw pictures, shapes, and other images.
personal photo
editing software
Application software that allows users to edit digital photos by removing red-eye, erasing
blemishes, restoring aged photos, adding special effects, enhancing image quality, or
creating electronic photo albums.
photo management
software
Application software that allows users to view, organize, sort, catalog, print, and share
digital photos.
pie chart
Chart that is displayed in the shape of a round pie cut into slices to show the relationship
of parts to a whole.
point
Measure of font size, equal to about 1/72 of an inch in height.
pointer
Small symbol displayed on a computer screen whose location and shape changes as a
user interacts with a mouse or other pointing device.
presentation software
Application software that allows a user to create visual aids for presentations to
communicate ideas, messages, and other information to a group.
print
Placing the copy of a document on paper or some other medium.
product activation
Technique that some software manufacturers use to ensure that software is not installed
on more computers than legally licensed.
professional photo
editing software
Type of image editing software that allows photographers, videographers, engineers,
scientists, and other high-volume digital photo users to edit and customize digital photos.
project management
software
Application software that allows a user to plan, schedule, track, and analyze the events,
resources, and costs of a project.
public-domain
software
Free software that has been donated for public use and has no copyright restrictions.
query
Request for specific data from a database.
record
Each row in a database that contains data about a given person, product, object, or event.
reference software
Application software that provides valuable and thorough information for all individuals.
sans serif font
Font that does not have the short decorative lines at the upper and lower ends of the
characters.
save
To transfer a document from a computer’s memory to a storage medium.
scrolling
Process of moving different portions of a document on the computer’s screen into view.
serif font
Font that has short decorative lines at the upper and lower edges of the characters.
shareware
Copyrighted software that is distributed at no cost for a trial period.
slide show
Display of a presentation on a large monitor or a projection screen.
smart tags
Word processing screen element that appears when you perform a certain action.
software suite
Collection of individual programs available together as a unit.
spelling checker
Feature in some application software that reviews the spelling of individual words, sections
of a document, or the entire document.
spreadsheet software
Application software that allows a user to organize data in rows and columns and to
perform calculations on the data.
system software
Software that serves as the interface between the user, the application software, and the
computer's hardware.
tax preparation
software
Application software that is used to guide individuals, families, or small businesses through
the process of filing federal taxes.
template
Document that contains the formatting necessary for a specific document type.
Chapter 3 Page 13
template
Document that contains the formatting necessary for a specific document type.
title bar
Horizontal space, located at the top of a window, that contains the window’s name.
travel and mapping
software
Application software that enables users to view maps, determine route directions, and
locate points of interest.
value
Number contained in a worksheet cell that can be used in a calculation.
video editing software Application software that allows a user to modify a segment of video, called a clip.
WBT
Web-based training; computer-based training that uses Internet technology and consists of
application software on the Web.
Web app
Web site that allows users to access and interact with software from any computer or
device that is connected to the Internet.
Web application
Web site that allows users to access and interact with software through a Web browser on
any computer or device that is connected to the Internet. See also Web app.
Web page authoring
software
Software used to create Web pages that include graphical images, video, audio,
animation, and other special effects with interactive content.
Web-based Help
Help located on Web sites that provides updates and comprehensive resources to
respond to technical issues about software.
Web-based training
Computer-based training that uses Internet technology and consists of application
software on the Web.
what-if analysis
Spreadsheet software feature that allows a user to change certain values in a spreadsheet
to reveal the effects of those changes.
window
Rectangular area of a computer screen that displays data or information.
word processing
software
One of the more widely used types of application software; allows a user to create and
manipulate documents containing mostly text and sometimes graphics. See also word
processor.
word processor
One of the more widely used types of application software; allows a user to create and
manipulate documents containing mostly text and sometimes graphics. See also word
processing software.
wordwrap
Feature of word processing software that allows users to type words in a paragraph
continually without pressing the ENTER key at the end of each line.
worksheet
Rows and columns used to organize data in a spreadsheet.
Chapter 3 Page 14
Chapter 4
AC adapter
External power supply, used by some external peripherals, that converts AC power into
DC power that the peripheral requires.
Accelerated Graphics
Port (AGP)
Expansion bus designed by Intel to improve the speed with which 3-D graphics and
video transmit.
access time
Measures the amount of time it takes a processor or storage device to read or locate
an item in memory or storage.
adapter card
Circuit board that enhances functions of a component of a system unit and/or provides
connections to peripherals.
address
Unique number that identifies the location of a byte in memory.
address bus
The part of a bus that transfers information about where data should reside in memory.
advanced transfer cache
(ATC)
L2 cache built directly on the processor chip.
ALU
Acronym for arithmetic logic unit; component of a processor that performs arithmetic,
comparison, and other operations.
analog
Continuous (wave form) signals.
arithmetic logic unit
Component of a processor that performs arithmetic, comparison, and other operations.
arithmetic operations
Basic calculations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division.
ASCII
American Standard Code for Information Interchange; the most widely used coding
system to represent data.
backside bus (BSB)
Bus that connects the processor to cache.
backward compatible
Term used to refer to a device's capability of supporting older devices, as well as
newer devices.
bay
Opening inside the system unit in which additional equipment can be installed.
binary digit
The smallest unit of data a computer can process. See also bit.
binary system
Number system used by computers that has just two unique digits, 0 and 1, called bits.
bit
The smallest unit of data a computer can process. Bit is short for binary digit.
Bluetooth
Network standard, specifically a protocol, that defines how two Bluetooth devices use
short-range radio waves to transmit data.
Bluetooth wireless port
adapter
Adapter that will convert an existing USB port into a Bluetooth port.
bus
Electrical channel that transfers electronic bits internally within the circuitry of a
computer, allowing the devices both inside and attached to the system unit to
communicate with each other.
bus width
The size of a bus, which determines the number of bits that a computer can transmit at
one time.
byte
Eight bits that are grouped together as a unit. A byte provides enough different
combinations of 0s and 1s to represent 256 individual characters.
cache
Area of memory that stores the contents of frequently used data or instructions.
Celeron
Intel processor used by less-expensive basic PCs.
central processing unit
(CPU)
Electronic component on a computer’s motherboard that interprets and carries out the
basic instructions that operate the computer. See also processor.
Centrino 2
Mobile technology that integrates wireless capabilities in notebook computers and
Tablet PCs.
chassis
Case of the system unit made of metal or plastic that protects the internal electronic
components from damage.
chip
Small piece of semiconducting material, usually silicon, on which integrated circuits are
etched.
clock cycle
One tick of the system clock.
clock speed
Pace of the system clock, measured by the number of ticks per second.
Chapter 4 Page 15
comparison operations
Operations that involve comparing one data item with another to determine whether the
first item is greater than, equal to, or less than the other item.
complementary metaloxide semiconductor
(CMOS)
Technology used by some RAM chips, flash memory chips, and other types of memory
chips that provides high speeds and consumes little power by using battery power to
retain information even when the power to a computer is off.
connector
Device that joins a cable to a port.
control unit
Component of a processor that directs and coordinates most of the operations in the
computer.
Core
Family of Intel processors used in most high-performance PCs.
data bus
Part of a bus that transfers actual data.
DDR SDRAM
Double Data Rate SDRAM; type of RAM that is even faster than SDRAM because it
transfers data twice for each clock cycle, instead of just once.
DDR2
Second generation of DDR; type of RAM that is faster than DDR.
DDR3
Third generation of DDR; type of RAM, faster than DDR2, designed for computers with
multi-core processors.
decoding
Processor operation that translates a program instruction into signals the computer can
execute.
digital
Representation of data using only two discrete states: on (1) and off (0).
DIMM (dual inline
memory module)
Type of memory module that has pins on opposite sides of the circuit board that do not
connect, thereby forming two sets of contacts. DIMMS typically hold SDRAM chips.
docking station
External device that attaches to a mobile computer or device and provides power
connections to peripherals, along with memory cards, optical disc drives, and other
devices.
drive bay
Rectangular opening in the system unit that typically holds disk drives.
dual-core processor
Processor chip that contains two separate processor cores.
dynamic RAM (DRAM)
Type of RAM chip that must be re-energized constantly or lose its contents.
EEPROM (electrically
erasable programmable
read-only memory) chip
Variation of a PROM chip that allows a programmer to erase microcode with an electric
signal.
eSATA port
Short for external SATA; special-purpose port that allows you to connect an external
SATA (Serial Advanced Technology Attachment) hard disk to a computer.
executing
Processor operation that carries out commands; part of the machine cycle.
expansion bus
Bus that allows the processor to communicate with peripherals.
expansion card
Circuit board that enhances functions of a component of a system unit and/or provides
connections to peripherals. See also adapter card.
expansion slot
Socket on a motherboard that can hold an adapter card.
ExpressCard module
Removable flash memory device that adds memory, communications, multimedia, and
security capabilities to mobile computers.
ExpressCard slot
Special type of expansion slot in desktop, notebook, and mobile computers that holds
an ExpressCard.
external bay
Drive bay that allows users to access openings in the bay from outside the system unit.
external SATA port
Special-purpose port that allows you to connect an external SATA (Serial Advanced
Technology Attachment) hard disk to a computer.
fast infrared port
A high-speed IrDA port.
fetching
Processor operation that obtains a program instruction or data item from memory.
FireWire bus
Expansion bus that eliminates the need to install cards in expansion slots.
FireWire hub
Device that plugs in a FireWire port on the system unit and contains multiple FireWire
ports in which you plug cables from FireWire devices.
FireWire port
Port that can connect multiple types of devices that require faster data transmission
speeds. See also IEEE 1394 port
firmware
ROM chips that contain permanently written data, instructions, or information, recorded
on the chips when they were manufactured.
flash memory
Type of nonvolatile memory that can be erased electronically and rewritten.
form factor
Term used to refer to size and shape of a desktop personal computer system unit.
front side bus (FSB)
Bus that is part of the motherboard and connects the processor to main memory. See
Chapter 4 Page 16
front side bus (FSB)
Bus that is part of the motherboard and connects the processor to main memory. See
also system bus.
gender changer
Device that joins a port and a connector that are both female or both male.
gigabyte (GB)
Approximately 1 billion bytes.
gigahertz (GHz)
One billion ticks of the system clock per second.
graphics card
Adapter card that converts computer output into a video signal that travels through a
cable to the monitor, which displays an image on the screen. See also video card.
heat pipe
Small cooling device used to cool processors in notebook computers
heat sink
Small ceramic or metal component with fins on its surface that absorbs and ventilates
heat produced by electrical components.
hertz
One clock cycle per second.
Hi-Speed USB
More advanced and faster type of USB. See also USB 2.0.
hot plugging
Feature that allows you to insert or remove a removable flash memory device and
other devices while the computer is running.
IEEE 1394 port
Port that can connect multiple types of devices that require faster data transmission
speeds. See also FireWire port.
integrated circuit
Electronic component that contains many microscopic pathways capable of carrying
electrical current.
Intel-compatible
processors
Processors that have an internal design similar to that of Intel processors, perform the
same functions as Intel processors, and can be as powerful, but often are less
expensive.
internal bay
Drive bay that is concealed entirely within the system unit.
IrDA
Infrared Data Association; network standard used to transmit data wirelessly via
infrared (IR) light waves.
IrDA port
Port that uses infrared light waves to transmit signals between a wireless device and a
computer.
Itanium
Intel processor used by workstations and low-end servers.
jack
Term sometimes used to identify an audio or video port.
kilobyte (KB or K)
Exactly 1,024 bytes.
L1 cache
A type of memory cache that is built directly into the processor chip, with a capacity of
8 KB to 128 KB.
L2 cache
A type of memory cache that is slightly slower than L1 cache, but has a much larger
capacity, ranging from 64 KB to 16 MB.
L3 cache
Cache on the motherboard that is separate from the processor.
liquid cooling technology A continuous flow of fluid(s), such as water and glycol, that transfers the heated fluid
away from the processor, cools the liquid, then returns the cooled fluid to the
processor.
machine cycle
The four basic operations (fetching, decoding, executing, and storing) performed by a
processor.
magnetoresistive RAM
(MRAM)
Newer type of RAM that stores data using magnetic charges instead of electrical
charges.
main memory
Type of memory that can be read from and written to by the processor and other
devices. Programs and data are loaded into RAM from storage devices such as a hard
disk and remain in RAM as long as the computer has continuous power. See also RAM
or random access memory.
massively parallel
processing
Large scale parallel processing that involves hundreds or thousands of processors.
megabyte (MB)
Approximately 1 million bytes.
memory
Electronic components in a computer that store instructions waiting to be executed by
the processor, the data needed by those instructions, and the results of processing the
data.
memory cache
Cache that helps speed the processes of a computer by storing frequently used
instructions and data.
memory card
Removable flash memory device, usually no bigger than 1.5" in height or width, that
you insert and remove from a slot in a personal computer, game console, mobile
device, or card reader/writer.
memory module
Small circuit board that houses RAM chips and is held in a memory slot on the
Chapter 4 Page 17
memory module
Small circuit board that houses RAM chips and is held in a memory slot on the
motherboard.
memory slots
Slots on the motherboard that hold memory modules.
microcode
Instructions programmers use to program a PROM chip.
microprocessor
Term used by some computer and chip manufacturers to refer to a processor chip for a
personal computer. See also processor.
MIDI port
Special type of serial port that connects the system unit to a musical instrument, such
as an electronic keyboard.
motherboard
Main circuit board of the system unit, which has some electronic components attached
to it and others built into it. See also system board.
multi-core processor
Single chip with two or more separate processor cores.
multi-threaded program
Software written to support multiple threads.
Musical Instrument
Digital Interface
Electronic music industry’s standard that defines how devices represent sounds
electronically.
nanosecond
One billionth of a second.
nonvolatile memory
Type of memory that does not lose its contents when a computer’s power is turned off.
ns
One billionth of a second. See also nanosecond.
parallel processing
Processing method that uses multiple processors simultaneously to execute a single
program or task in order to speed processing times.
PC Card
Thin, credit-card-sized removable flash memory device that primarily is used today to
enable traditional notebook computers and Tablet PCs to access the Internet
wirelessly.
PC Card bus
Expansion bus for a PC Card.
PC Card slot
Special type of expansion slot in desktop, notebook, and mobile computers that holds a
PC Card.
PCI bus (Peripheral
Component Interconnect
bus)
High-speed expansion bus that connects higher speed devices.
PCI Express (PCIe) bus
Expansion bus that expands on and doubles the speed of the original PCI bus.
Pentium
Family of Intel processors used by less expensive, basic PCs.
peripheral
Device that connects to a system unit and is controlled by the processor in the
computer.
pipelining
Concept in which the processor begins fetching a second instruction before it
completes the machine cycle for the first instruction
Plug and Play
Technology that gives a computer the capability to configure adapter cards and other
peripherals automatically as a user installs them.
port
Point at which a peripheral attaches to or communicates with a system unit so it can
send data to or receive information from the computer.
port replicator
External device that attaches to a mobile computer to provide connections to
peripherals through ports built into the replicator.
power supply
Component of the system unit that converts wall outlet AC power to the DC power that
is used by a computer.
processor
Electronic component on a computer’s motherboard that interprets and carries out the
basic instructions that operate the computer. See also central processing unit (CPU).
PROM (programmable
read-only memory) chip
Blank ROM chip on which a programmer can write permanently.
quad-core processor
Chip with four separate processor cores.
RAM
Type of memory that can be read from and written to by the processor and other
devices. Programs and data are loaded into RAM from storage devices such as a hard
disk and remain in RAM as long as the computer has continuous power. See also main
memory or random access memory.
random access memory
Type of memory that can be read from and written to by the processor and other
devices. Programs and data are loaded into RAM from storage devices such as a hard
disk and remain in RAM as long as the computer has continuous power. See also main
memory or RAM.
RDRAM
Rambus DRAM; type of RAM that is much faster than SDRAM because it uses
pipelining techniques.
Chapter 4 Page 18
pipelining techniques.
read-only memory (ROM) Type of nonvolatile memory that is used to store permanent data and instructions.
registers
Small, high-speed storage locations in a process that temporarily hold data and
instructions
RIMM (Rambus inline
memory module)
Type of memory module that houses RDRAM chips.
SAS (serial attached
SCSI)
Newer type of SCSI that transmits at much faster speeds than parallel SCSI.
SCSI (small computer
system interface)
Type of high-speed parallel interface used to attach peripheral devices to a computer.
See also SCSI.
SCSI port
Special high-speed parallel port to which peripherals, such as disk drives and printers,
can be attached.
SDRAM
Synchronous DRAM; type of RAM, much faster than DRAM, that is synchronized to the
system clock.
serial port
Type of interface that connects a device to the system unit by transmitting data one bit
at a time.
SIMM (single inline
memory module)
Type of memory module that has pins on opposite sides of the circuit board that
connect together to form a single set of contacts. SIMMs typically hold SDRAM chips.
sound card
Adapter card that enhances the sound generating capabilities of a personal computer
by allowing sound to be input through a microphone and output through external
speakers or headset.
static RAM (SRAM)
Type of RAM that is faster and more reliable than any variation of DRAM.
stored program concept
Concept of using memory to store both data and programs.
storing
Processor operation that writes a result to memory.
superscalar
Term describing processors that can execute more than one instruction per clock cycle
synthesizer
Peripheral or chip that creates sound from digital instructions.
system board
Name sometimes used for the motherboard. See also motherboard.
system bus
Bus that is part of the motherboard and connects the processor to main memory. See
also front side bus (FSB).
system clock
Small quartz crystal circuit that is used by the processor to control the timing of all
computer operations.
system unit
Case that contains the electronic components of a computer that are used to process
data.
system-on-a-chip
New type of processor that integrates the functions of a processor, memory, and a
video card on a single chip.
terabyte (TB)
Approximately one trillion bytes.
transistor
Element of an integrated circuit that can act as an electronic switch that opens or
closes the circuit for electrical charges.
Unicode
16-bit coding scheme that has the capability of representing more than 65,000
characters and symbols.
universal serial bus port
Port that can connect up to 127 different peripherals with a single connector type. See
also USB port.
USB 2.0
More advanced and faster type of USB. See also Hi-Speed USB.
USB 3.0
USB that is more than 10 times faster than USB 2.0.
USB flash drive
Flash memory storage device that plugs in a USB port on a computer or portable
device.
USB hub
Device that plugs in a USB port on the system unit and contains multiple USB ports in
which cables from USB devices can be plugged.
USB port
Port that can connect up to 127 different peripherals with a single connector type. See
also universal serial bus port.
video card
Adapter card that converts computer output to a video signal that travels through a
cable to a monitor, which displays an image on the screen. See also graphics card.
volatile memory
Type of memory that loses its contents when a computer’s power is turned off.
vPro technology
Technology used by Intel's dual-core and multi-core processors that provides the
capability to track computer hardware and software, diagnose and resolve computer
problems, and secure computers from outside threats.
Chapter 4 Page 19
problems, and secure computers from outside threats.
Windows ReadyBoost
Windows feature that can allocate available storage space on removable flash memory
devices as additional cache.
word size
Number of bits a computer can interpret and execute at a given time.
Xeon
Intel processor used by workstations and low-end servers.
Chapter 4 Page 20
Chapter 5
air mouse
Motion-sensing mouse that, in addition to the typical buttons, allows you to control objects,
media players, and slide shows by moving the mouse in predetermined directions through the
air.
Americans with
Disabilities Act
(ADA)
Federal law that requires any company with 15 or more employees to make reasonable
attempts to accommodate the needs of physically challenged workers.
audio input
Process of entering any sound, such as speech, music, and sound effects, into the computer.
automated teller
machine (ATM)
Special-purpose terminal, connected to a host computer through a network that functions as
a self-service banking machine.
bar code
Identification code consisting of either vertical lines and spaces of different widths or a twodimensional pattern of dots, squares, and other images that represent a manufacturer and an
item.
bar code reader
Optical reader that uses laser beams to read bar codes by using light patterns that pass
through the bar code lines. See also barcode scanner.
bar code scanner
Optical reader that uses laser beams to read bar codes by using light patterns that pass
through the bar code lines. See also barcode reader.
biometric device
Device that translates a personal characteristic into a digital code that is compared with a
digital code stored in a computer.
biometric identifier
Physiological or behavioral characteristic, such as fingerprints, hand geometry, facial
features, voice, signatures, and eye patterns.
biometrics
Technology of authenticating a person’s identity by verifying a personal characteristic.
charge-coupled
device
Digital camera chip that generates an analog symbol that represents an image.
Click Wheel
Touch-sensitive scroll pad on a portable media player that users rotate to browse through
song, picture, or movie lists and press to play or pause media, display a menu, and other
actions.
cordless keyboard
Battery-powered keyboard that transmits data using wireless technology, such as radio
waves or infrared light waves. See also wireless keyboard.
cordless mouse
Battery-powered device that transmits data using wireless technology, such as radio waves or
infrared light waves. See also wireless mouse.
cursor
Symbol on a computer screen, usually a blinking vertical bar, that indicates where the next
character a user types will appear. See also insertion point.
dance pad
Flat electronic device divided into panels that users press with their feet in response to
instructions from a music video game.
data collection
device
Device that obtains data directly at the location where the transaction or event takes place.
digital camera
Mobile device that allows users to take pictures and stores the photographed images digitally,
instead of on traditional film.
digital pen
Input device that allows users to write or draw on the screen by pressing the pen and issue
instructions to a Tablet PC by tapping on the screen.
digital video (DV)
camera
Video camera that records video as digital signals instead of as analog signals.
digitizer
Large-scale application term for a graphics tablet. See also graphics tablet.
download
With digital cameras, refers to transferring a copy of images from the digital camera to the
computer's hard disk.
DVD kiosk
Self-service DVD rental machine that connects to a host computer through a network.
enhanced
keyboard
Keyboard that has twelve function keys along the top; two Control (CTRL) keys and two
Alternate (ALT) keys along the bottom; and a set of keys and additional keys between the
typing area and the numeric keypad.
enhanced
resolution
Digital camera resolution calculated by a special formula that adds pixels between those
generated by optical resolution.
ergonomic
keyboard
Keyboard whose design reduces the chance of wrist or hand injuries.
Chapter 5 Page 21
ergonomics
The science of incorporating comfort, efficiency, and safety into the design of the workplace.
face recognition
system
Biometric device that captures a live face image and compares it with a stored image to
determine if the person is a legitimate user.
field camera
Portable digital camera with many lenses and other attachments.
fingerprint reader
Biometric device that captures curves and indentations of a fingerprint and compares them
with those of a stored image.
flatbed scanner
Type of light-sensing input device that scans a document and creates a file of the document
in memory instead of a paper copy.
function keys
Special keys programmed to issue commands to a computer.
game controller
Input device that directs movements and actions of on-screen objects in video and computer
games.
gamepad
Input device that controls the movement and actions of players or objects in video games or
computer games.
gaming keyboard
Keyboard designed specifically for users who enjoy playing games on the computer.
gesture recognition Computer’s capability of detecting human motion.
graphics tablet
Flat, rectangular, electronic, plastic board that is used to create drawings and sketches.
hand geometry
system
Biometric device that measures the shape and size of a person’s hand and compares these
measurements to stored measurements.
handwriting
recognition
software
Software that translates handwritten letters and symbols into characters that a computer or
device can process.
head-mounted
pointer
Pointer that is placed on a user’s head and can be used by a physically challenged person.
image processing
Business practice that consists of capturing, storing, analyzing, displaying, printing, and
manipulating images with scanners.
image processing
system
Storing and indexing electronic documents to provide access to exact reproductions of the
original documents.
input
Any data and instructions entered into the memory of a computer.
input device
Any hardware component that allows users to enter data and instructions into a computer.
insertion point
Symbol on a computer screen, usually a blinking vertical bar, that indicates where the next
character a user types will appear. See also cursor.
iris recognition
system
Biometric device that uses iris recognition technology to read patterns in the iris of the eye.
joystick
Handheld vertical lever mounted on a base used to control actions of a simulated vehicle or
player.
keyboard
Input device that contains keys users press to enter data and instructions into a computer.
keyguard
Metal or plastic plate placed over the keyboard that allows users to rest their hands on the
keyboard without accidentally pressing any keys.
kiosk
Free-standing computer that usually includes a touch screen.
laser mouse
Mouse type that uses a laser sensor.
light gun
Input device used in video and computer games to shoot targets and moving objects after
you pull the trigger on the weapon.
magnetic stripe
card reader
Reading device that reads the magnetic stripe on the back of credit, entertainment, bank, and
other similar cards. See also magstripe reader.
magnetic-ink
character
recognition
Technology that reads text printed with magnetized ink.
magstripe reader
Reading device that reads the magnetic stripe on the back of credit, entertainment, bank, and
other similar cards. See also magnetic stripe card reader.
MICR
Technology that reads text printed with magnetized ink.
MICR reader
Reading device that converts MICR characters into a form that a computer can process.
Microsoft Surface
Touch screen with a 30-inch tabletop display that allows one or more people to interact with
the screen using their fingers or hands.
motion-sensing
game controllers
Input devices used with computer and video games that allow the user to guide on-screen
elements by moving a handheld input device in predetermined directions through the air.
mouse
Pointing device that fits comfortably under the palm of a user’s hand.
Chapter 5 Page 22
mouse
Pointing device that fits comfortably under the palm of a user’s hand.
mouse gestures
Capability that allows users to perform certain operations by holding a mouse button while
moving the mouse in a particular pattern.
mouse pointer
Small symbol displayed on a computer screen whose location and shape changes as a user
moves a mouse.
MP
One million pixels.
multi-touch
Term used to describe touch screens that recognize multiple points of contact at the same
time.
music production
software
Software that allows users to record, compose, mix, and edit music and sounds.
OCR (optical
character
recognition)
software
Software that enables scanners to read and convert text documents into electronic files.
OCR devices
Optical character recognition devices that include small optical scanners for reading
characters and sophisticated software to analyze what is read.
on-screen
keyboard
Type of keyboard, sometimes used by physically challenged users, in which a graphic of a
standard keyboard is displayed on the user’s screen.
optical character
recognition (OCR)
Optical reader technology that involves reading typewritten, computer-printed, or hand-printed
characters from ordinary documents and translating the images to a form that a computer can
process.
optical mark
recognition (OMR)
Optical reader technology that reads hand-drawn marks such as small circles or rectangles.
optical mouse
Mouse that uses devices, such as optical sensors or lasers, that emit and sense light to
detect the mouse’s movement.
optical reader
Device that uses a light source to read characters, marks, and codes and then converts them
into digital data that a computer can process.
optical resolution
The actual photographed resolution at which a digital camera can capture a digital image.
optical scanner
Light-sensing input device that reads printed text and graphics and then translates the results
into a form the computer can process.
PC video camera
Type of digital video camera that enables a home or small business user to capture video and
still images, send e-mail messages with video attachments, add live images to instant
messages, broadcast live images over the Internet, and make video telephone calls. See also
Web cam.
pen input
Input method in which you touch a stylus or digital pen on a flat surface to write, draw, and
make selections.
personal
identification
number (PIN)
Numeric password, either assigned by a company or selected by a user.
photo scanner
Sheet-fed scanner model designed specifically for photos.
pixel
The smallest element in an electronic image. Short for picture element.
pixels per inch
(ppi)
Number of pixels in one inch of screen display.
point-and-shoot
camera
Affordable and lightweight camera that provides acceptable quality photographic images for
home or small office users.
pointer
Small symbol displayed on a computer screen whose location and shape changes as a user
moves a pointing device.
pointing device
Input device that allows a user to control a pointer on the screen.
pointing stick
Pressure-sensitive pointing device shaped like a pencil eraser that is positioned between
keys on a keyboard and moved by pushing the pointing stick with a finger.
portable keyboard
Full-size keyboard that communicates with a smart phone or PDA.
POS terminal
Terminal used by retail stores to record purchases, process credit or debit cards, and update
inventory.
predictive text
input
Smart phone technology where you press one key on the keypad for each letter in a word
and software on the phone predicts the word you want.
program
Series of related instructions that tells a computer what tasks to perform and how to perform
them. See also software.
radio frequency
Standard, specifically a protocol, that defines how a network uses radio signals to
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radio frequency
identification
Standard, specifically a protocol, that defines how a network uses radio signals to
communicate with a tag placed in or attached to an object, an animal, or a person.
resolution
The number of horizontal and vertical pixels in a display device.
retinal scanners
Biometric devices that scan patterns of blood vessels in the back of the retina.
RFID
Short for radio frequency identification; standard, specifically a protocol, that defines how a
network uses radio signals to communicate with a tag placed in or attached to an object, an
animal, or a person.
RFID reader
Reading device that reads information on an RFID tag via radio waves.
scanner
Light-sending input device that reads printed text and graphics and then translates the results
into a form the computer can process. See also optical scanner.
signature capture
pad
Pen input device that captures handwritten signatures with a stylus or pen that is attached to
the device.
signature
verification system
Biometric device that recognizes the shape of a person’s handwritten signature and
measures the pressure exerted and the motion used to write the signature.
source document
Document that contains the original form of data to be processed.
speech recognition Computer’s capability of distinguishing spoken words. See also voice recognition.
streaming cam
Type of Web cam that has the illusion of moving images because it sends a continual stream
of still images.
studio camera
Stationary camera used for professional studio work.
stylus
Small metal or plastic device that looks like a ballpoint pen, but uses pressure instead of ink
to write, draw, or make selections.
terminal
Device that consists of a keyboard, a monitor, a video card, and memory, which often all are
housed in a single unit.
toggle key
Key that switches between two states each time a user presses the key.
touch screen
Touch-sensitive display device with which users interact by touching areas of the screen.
touch-sensitive
pad
Input device that enables users to scroll through and play music, view pictures, watch videos
or movies, adjust volume, and/or customize settings.
touchpad
Small, flat, rectangular pointing device that is sensitive to pressure and motion.
trackball
Stationary pointing device with a ball on its top or side.
turnaround
document
Document that a user returns to the company that has created and sent it.
UPC (universal
product code)
Bar code used by retail and grocery stores.
user response
An instruction a user issues by replying to a question displayed by a program.
video capture card
Adapter card that converts an analog video signal to a digital signal that a computer can
process.
video conference
Meeting between two or more geographically separated people who use a network or the
Internet to transmit audio and video data.
video input
Process of capturing full-motion images and storing them on a computer’s storage medium.
video telephone
call
Telephone call made using a PC video camera that allows both parties to see each other as
they communicate over the Internet.
voice input
Process of entering data by speaking into a microphone.
voice recognition
Computer’s capability of distinguishing spoken words. See also speech recognition.
voice verification
system
Biometric device that compares a person’s live speech with his or her stored voice pattern to
determine if the person is a legitimate user.
Web cam
Digital video camera that enables a home or small business user to capture video and still
images, send e-mail messages with video attachments, add live images to instant messages,
broadcast live images over the Internet, and make live video telephone calls.
wheel
Steering-wheel-type input device that is used to simulate driving a vehicle.
whiteboard
Video conference feature in which another window on the screen displays notes and
drawings simultaneously on all participants’ screens.
Wii Remote
Nintendo's motion-sensing input device that uses Bluetooth wireless technology to
communicate with the Wii game console.
wireless keyboard
Battery-powered keyboard that transmits data using wireless technology, such as radio
waves or infrared light waves. See also cordless keyboard.
Chapter 5 Page 24
wireless mouse
Battery-powered device that transmits data using wireless technology, such as radio waves or
infrared light waves. See also cordless mouse.
Chapter 5 Page 25
Chapter 6
active-matrix display LCD monitor or screen technology that uses a separate transistor to apply charges to each
liquid crystal cell and thus displays high-quality color that is viewable from all angles. See
also TFT (thin-film transistor) display.
all-in-one device
Output device that looks like a printer or copy machine but provides the functionality of a
printer, scanner, copy machine, and perhaps a fax machine. See also multifunction
peripheral.
aspect ratio
Defines a display's width relative to its height.
audio output device
Component of a computer that produces music, speech, or other sounds, such as beeps.
bit depth
The number of bits a video card uses to store information about each pixel. See also color
depth.
Bluetooth printing
Type of printing process that uses radio waves to transmit output to a printer.
Braille printer
Type of printer that prints information on paper in Braille for use by visually impaired users.
candela
Standard unit of luminous intensity.
cathode-ray tube
(CRT)
Large, sealed glass tube whose front, the screen, is coated with dots of red, green, and blue
phosphor material.
color depth
The number of bits a video card uses to store information about each pixel. See also bit
depth.
continuous-form
paper
Type of paper, used by most dot-matrix printers, which consists of thousands of pages
connected together end to end.
contrast ratio
Difference in light intensity between the brightest white and darkest black that can be
displayed on an LCD monitor.
CRT monitor
Type of desktop monitor that contains a cathode-ray tube.
data projector
Output device that takes the text and images displaying on a computer screen and projects
them on a larger screen so that an audience can see the image clearly.
digital light
processing (DLP)
projector
Projector that uses tiny mirrors to reflect light, which produces crisp, bright, colorful images
that remain in focus and can be seen clearly, even in a well-lit room.
digital photo printer
Thermal printer that uses heat to transfer colored dye to specially coated paper. See also
dye-sublimation printer
digital television
(DTV)
Television that receives digital television signals and produces a higher-quality picture.
display
Output device that visually conveys text, graphics, and video information. See also display
device.
display device
Output device that visually conveys text, graphics, and video information. See also display.
DisplayPort
Port that is an alternative to DVI that also supports HDMI.
dot pitch
The distance in millimeters between pixels on a display device. See also pixel pitch.
dot-matrix printer
Type of impact printer that produces printed images when tiny wire pins on a print head
mechanism strike an inked ribbon.
dots per inch (dpi)
Printer resolution measurement of the number of dots a printer can print.
DVI (Digital Video
Interface) port
Video card port that enables digital signals to transmit directly to an LCD monitor.
dye-sublimation
printer
Thermal printer that uses heat to transfer color dye to specially coated paper, creating
images of photographic quality. See also digital photo printer.
earbuds
Audio output device that rests inside the ear canal. See also earphones.
earphones
Audio output device that rests inside the ear canal. See also earbuds.
flat-panel display
Display device with a shallow depth and flat screen that typically uses LCD or gas plasma
technology.
force feedback
Technology that sends resistance to a joystick or wheel in response to actions of the user.
graphics processing
unit (GPU)
Chip that controls the manipulation and display of graphics on a display device.
hard copy
Printed information that exists physically and is a more permanent form of output than that
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hard copy
Printed information that exists physically and is a more permanent form of output than that
presented on a display device (soft copy). See also printout.
HDMI (HighDefinition Media
Interface) port
Port that combines DVI with high-definition (HD) television and video.
HDTV
High-definition television; the most advanced form of digital television, working with digital
broadcast signals, transmitting digital sound, supporting wide screens, and providing
resolutions up to 1920 x 1080 pixels.
head-mounted
display
Display that uses OLED technology in a helmet, goggles, or glasses.
headphones
Audio output device that covers or is placed outside the ear.
headset
Device that functions as both headphones and a microphone.
high-definition
television
The most advanced form of digital television, working with digital broadcast signals,
transmitting digital sound, supporting wide screens, and providing resolutions up to 1920 x
1080 pixels. See also HDTV.
impact printer
Type of printer that forms characters and graphics on a piece of paper by striking a
mechanism against an inked ribbon that physically contacts the paper.
infrared printing
Printing that uses infrared light waves to transmit output to a printer.
ink-jet printer
Type of nonimpact printer that forms characters and graphics by spraying tiny drops of
liquid ink on a piece of paper.
interactive
whiteboard
Touch-sensitive device, resembling a dry-erase board, that displays the image on a
connected computer screen.
Internet postage
Digital postage technology that allows users with an authorized postage account to buy and
print digital postage.
label printer
Small printer that prints on adhesive-type material that can be placed on items such as
envelopes, packages, optical discs, photos, file folders, and toys.
landscape
orientation
A printout that is wider than it is tall with information printed across the widest part of the
paper.
large-format printer
Printer that creates photo-realistic quality color prints, used mainly by graphic artists.
laser printer
Type of high-speed, high-quality nonimpact printer that creates images using a laser beam
and powdered ink called toner.
LCD monitor
Desktop monitor that uses a liquid crystal display instead of a cathode-ray tube to produce
images on a screen, resulting in a sharp, flicker-free display.
LCD projector
Projector that uses liquid crystal display technology that attaches directly to a computer and
uses its own light source to display the information shown on the computer screen.
line printer
Type of high-speed impact printer that prints an entire line at a time.
liquid crystal display Type of display that uses a liquid compound to present information on a display device.
(LCD)
mobile printer
Small, lightweight, battery-powered printer used by a mobile user to print from a notebook
computer, smart phone, or other mobile device while traveling.
monitor
Display device that is packaged as a separate peripheral.
monochrome
Display device capability in which information appears in one color on a different color
background.
multifunction
peripheral
Output device that looks like a printer or copy machine but provides the functionality of a
printer, scanner, copy machine, and perhaps a fax machine. See also all-in-one device.
native resolution
The specific resolution for which an LCD is geared.
near letter quality
(NLQ)
Printer output that is slightly less clear than what is acceptable for business letters.
nit
Unit of visible light intensity that is equal to one candela per square meter.
nonimpact printer
Type of printer that forms characters and graphics on a piece of paper without actually
striking the paper.
organic LED (OLED)
TFT technology that uses organic molecules that produce an even brighter, easier-to-read
display than standard TFT displays.
output
Data that has been processed into a useful form.
output device
Any hardware component that conveys information to one or more people.
page description
language (PDL)
Software that tells a printer how to lay out the contents of a printed page.
Chapter 6 Page 27
language (PDL)
passive-matrix
display
LCD monitor or screen technology that uses fewer transistors, requires less power, and is
less expensive than an active-matrix display.
PCL (Printer Control
Language)
Standard printer language that supports the fonts and layout used in standard office
documents.
photo printer
Type of nonimpact color printer that produces photo-lab-quality pictures.
PictBridge
Standard technology used with photo printers that allows you to print photos directly from a
digital camera by connecting a cable from the digital camera to a USB port on the printer.
pixel
The smallest element in an electronic image. Short for picture element.
pixel pitch
The distance in millimeters between pixels on a display device. See also dot pitch.
plasma monitor
Display device that uses gas plasma technology, which sandwiches a layer of gas between
two glass plates.
plotters
Sophisticated printers that produce high-quality drawings such as blueprints, maps, and
circuit diagrams using a row of charged wires (called styli) to draw an electrostatic pattern
on specially coated paper and then fuse toner to the pattern.
portrait orientation
A printout that is taller than it is wide, with information printed across the shorter width of the
paper.
postage printer
Special type of label printer that prints postage stamps.
PostScript
Standard printer language used by professionals in the desktop publishing and graphics
arts fields, designed for complex documents with intense graphics and colors.
printer
Output device that produces text and graphics on a physical medium such as paper.
printout
Printed information that exists physically and is a more permanent form of output than that
presented on a display device (soft copy). See also hard copy.
resolution
The number of horizontal and vertical pixels in a display device.
response time
The time in milliseconds (ms) that it takes to turn a pixel on or off.
S-video port
Video card port that allows users to connect external analog devices such as a television,
DVD player, or video recorder to the computer.
satellite speakers
Speakers positioned around one or two center speakers and positioned so that sound emits
from all directions.
soft copy
Temporary output presented on a display device.
speakers
Audio output devices that generate sound.
subwoofer
Speaker component that boosts low bass sounds.
SVGA
Super Video Graphics Array; video standard with a resolution of 800 x 600.
SXGA
Super XGA; video standard with a resolution of 1280 x 1024.
tactile output
Feature included with some input devices that provides the user with a physical response
from the device.
TFT (thin-film
transistor) display
Thin-film transistor; LCD monitor or screen technology that uses a separate transistor to
apply charges to each liquid crystal cell and thus displays high-quality color that is viewable
from all angles. See also active-matrix display.
thermal printer
Type of nonimpact printer that generates images by pushing electrically heated pins against
heat-sensitive paper.
thermal wax-transfer Thermal printer that generates images by using heat to melt colored wax onto heatprinter
sensitive paper.
toner
Type of powdered ink that is used by some laser printers and copy machines to produce
output.
UXGA
Ultra XGA; video standard with a resolution of 1600 x 1200.
viewable size
Diagonal measurement of the actual viewing area provided by the screen in a CRT monitor.
voice output
Audio output that occurs when a user hears a person’s voice or when a computer talks to
the user through the speakers on the computer.
widescreen
Term used to refer to LCD monitors that are wider than they are tall.
WQXGA
Wide Quad XGA; video standard with a resolution of 2560 x 1600.
WSXGA
Wide Super XGA; video standard with a resolution of 1680 x 1050.
WUXGA
Wide Ultra XGA; video standard with a resolution of 1920 x 1200.
WXGA
Wide XGA; video standard with a resolution of 1280 x 1024 or 1366 x 768.
Chapter 6 Page 28
XGA
Extended Graphics Array; video standard with a resolution of 1024 x 768.
Chapter 6 Page 29
Chapter 7
access time
Measures the amount of time it takes a processor or storage device to read or locate an
item in memory or storage.
allocation unit
Smallest unit of disk space that stores data and information. See also cluster.
archive disc
CD that stores photos from an online photo center in jpg file format, usually at a maximum
resolution of 7200 pixels per photo.
backup
Duplicate of a file, program, or disk placed on a separate storage medium that can be
used if the original is lost, damaged, or destroyed.
BD-R
High-capacity DVD-recordable format.
BD-RE
High-capacity rewritable DVD format.
Blu-Ray Disc-ROM
(BD-ROM)
Newer, expensive type of DVD with storage capacities of 100 GB, with expectations of
exceeding 200 GB in the future.
burning
Process of writing on an optical disc.
capacity
Number of bytes a storage medium can hold.
card reader/writer
Device that reads and writes data, instructions, and information stored on flash memory
cards.
CD-R
Multisession optical disc on which users can write, but not erase, their own items such as
text, graphics, and audio. See also compact disc-recordable.
CD-ROM
Type of optical disc that uses laser technology to store data, instructions, and information
that users can read but not write on or erase. See also compact disc read-only memory.
CD-ROM drive
Drive that can read CD-ROM discs and sometimes audio CDs.
CD-RW
Erasable multisession optical disc on which users can write data, instructions, and
information multiple times. See also compact disc-rewritable.
CD-RW drive
Drive that can read audio CDs, standard CD-ROMs, CD-Rs, CD-RWs, and can write on,
or record, CD-RWs.
cloud storage
Internet service that provides storage to computer users.
cluster
Smallest unit of disk space that stores data and information. See also allocation unit.
compact disc readonly memory
Type of optical disc that uses laser technology to store data, instructions, and information
that users can read but not write on or erase. See also CD-ROM.
compact discrecordable
Multisession optical disc on which users can write, but not erase, their own items such as
text, graphics, and audio. See also CD-R.
compact discrewritable
Erasable multisession optical disc on which users can write data, instructions, and
information multiple times. See also CD-RW.
CompactFlash (CF)
Memory card capable of storing between 512 MB and 100 GB of data.
computer output
microfilm recorder
Device that records images on microfilm and microfiche.
cylinder
The vertical section of a hard disk track that passes through all platters.
density
Number of bits in an area on a storage medium.
digital versatile discread-only memory
Extremely high capacity optical disc on which users can read, but not write or erase, that is
capable of storing 4.7 GB to 17 GB of data. See also DVD-ROM; digital versatile discROM; digital video disc-ROM; digital video disc read-only memory.
digital video discread-only memory
Extremely high capacity optical disc on which users can read, but not write or erase, that is
capable of storing 4.7 GB to 17 GB of data. See also DVD-ROM; digital versatile discROM; digital video disc-ROM.
direct access
Type of data access in which the storage device can locate a particular data item or file
immediately, without having to move consecutively through items stored in front of the
desired data item or file. See also random access.
disk cache
Memory chips on a hard disk that store frequently accessed items such as data,
instructions, and information. Sometimes called a buffer.
disk controller
Special-purpose chip and electronic circuits that control the transfer of data, instructions,
and information between a disk and the system bus and other components in a computer.
DVD+R
DVD-recordable format with up to 4.7 GB capacity that allows users to write on the disc
once and read it many times.
Chapter 7 Page 30
once and read it many times.
DVD+RAM
(DVD+random access
memory)
Rewritable DVD format with capacities up to 4.7 GB per side.
DVD+RW
Rewritable DVD format with capacities up to 4.7 GB per side.
DVD-R
DVD-recordable format with up to 4.7 GB capacity that allows users to write on the disc
once and read it many times.
DVD-ROM
High-capacity optical disc on which users can read, but not write or erase. See also digital
versatile disc-read-only memory and digital video disc-read-only memory.
DVD-ROM drive
Device that can read a DVD-ROM. Most DVD-ROM drives also can read audio CDs, CDROMs, CD-Rs, and CD-RWs.
DVD-RW
Rewritable DVD format with capacities up to 4.7 GB per side.
EIDE (Enhanced
Integrated Drive
Electronics)
Interface that uses parallel signals to transfer data, instructions, and information and can
support up to four hard disks at 137 GB per disk.
eSATA
Acronym for external SATA; hard disk interface that is much faster than USB and
FireWire.
ExpressCard module
Removable flash memory device that can be used to add memory, storage,
communications, multimedia, and security capabilities to a computer.
external hard disk
Separate freestanding hard disk that connects with a cable to a USB port or FireWire port
on the system unit.
fixed disk
Name sometimes given to the hard disk mounted inside a system unit.
form factor
Term that refers to the size of platters in a hard disk.
formatting
Process of dividing a disk into tracks and sectors so that the operating system can store
and locate data and information on the disk.
GBps
Gigabytes per second.
hard disk
Type of storage device that contains one or more inflexible, circular platters that use
magnetic particles to store data, instructions, and information. See also hard disk drive.
hard disk drive
Type of storage device that contains one or more inflexible, circular platters that use
magnetic particles to store data, instructions, and information. See also hard disk.
HD VMD (Versatile
Multilayer Disc)
High-density format that potentially will contain up to 20 layers, each with a capacity of 5
GB.
head crash
Type of hard disk failure that occurs when a read/write head touches the surface of a
platter.
jewel box
Protective case that is used to store optical discs when not in use.
KBps
Kilobytes per second.
LightScribe
technology
Technology used by some optical drives that can etch labels directly on a specially coated
optical disc, as opposed to placing an adhesive label on the disc.
longitudinal recording Storage technique in which magnetic particles are aligned horizontally around the surface
of the disk.
magnetic stripe card
Credit card, entertainment card, bank card, or other similar card, with a stripe that contains
information identifying you and the card.
MBps
Megabytes per second.
memory card
Removable flash memory device, usually no bigger than 1.5" in height or width, that you
insert and remove from a slot in a computer, mobile device, or card reader/writer.
Memory Stick
Type of miniature mobile storage medium that is a memory card capable of storing
between 1 and 16 GB of data.
Memory Stick Micro
(M2)
Memory card capable of storing between 1 and 16 GB of data.
microfiche
A small sheet of film, usually about 4 inches by 6 inches in size, on which microscopic
images of documents are stored.
microfilm
A roll of film, usually 100 to 215 feet long, on which microscopic images of documents are
stored.
microSD
Memory card capable of storing between 1 and 2 GB of data.
microSDHC
Memory card capable of storing between 4 and 16 GB of data.
mini discs
Optical disc with a size of three inches or less used by smaller computers and devices.
Chapter 7 Page 31
mini discs
Optical disc with a size of three inches or less used by smaller computers and devices.
multisession
Optical disc that can be written on more than once, allowing users to save additional data
on the disc at a later time.
NAS
See network attached storage.
network attached
storage
Server connected to a network with the sole purpose of providing storage. See also NAS.
optical disc
Type of storage medium that consists of a flat, round, portable disc made of metal, plastic,
and lacquer that is written on and read by a laser.
perpendicular
recording
Storage technique in which magnetic particles are aligned vertically, or perpendicular to
the disk's surface, making much greater storage capacities possible.
Picture CD
Single-session CD-ROM that stores digital versions of film using a jpg file format at a lower
resolution, typically 1024 x 1536 pixels.
platter
Component of a hard disk that is made of aluminum, glass, or ceramic and is coated with
an alloy material that allows items to be recorded magnetically on its surface.
pocket hard drive
Term that refers to smaller external hard disks because they enable users easily to
transport photos and other files from one computer to another.
portable
The capability of a storage medium to be removed from one computer and carried to
another computer.
RAID
Redundant array of independent disks; group of two or more integrated hard disks.
random access
Type of data access in which the storage device can locate a particular data item or file
immediately, without having to move consecutively through items stored in front of the
desired data item or file. See also direct access.
read/write head
Mechanism in a disk drive that reads items or writes items as it barely touches the disk’s
recording surface.
reading
Process of transferring data, instructions, and information from a storage medium into
memory.
removable hard disk
Hard disk that can be inserted and removed from a drive.
revolutions per
minute (rpm)
The number of times per minute that a hard disk platter rotates.
ripping
Process of copying audio and/or video data from a purchased disc and saving it on digital
media.
SAS (serial-attached
SCSI)
Newer type of SCSI that uses serial signals to transfer data, instructions, and information.
SATA (Serial
Hard disk interface that uses serial signals to transfer data, instructions, and information
Advanced Technology and has transfer rates of up to 300 MBps and higher.
Attachment)
SCSI
Small computer system interface.
secondary storage
The physical material on which a computer keeps data, instructions, and information.
sectors
The small arcs into which tracks on a disk are divided.
Secure Digital (SD)
Memory card capable of storing between 512 MB and 8 GB of data.
Secure Digital High
Capacity (SDHC)
Memory card capable of storing between 4 and 32 GB of data.
sequential access
Type of data access in which the storage device reads or writes data consecutively.
single-session disc
Disc on which manufacturers write all items at one time.
smart card
Card, similar in size to a credit card or ATM card, that stores data on a thin microprocessor
embedded in the card.
solid state drive (SSD) Storage device that typically uses flash memory to store data, instructions, and
information.
solid-state media
Term used to refer to components that consist entirely of electronic components, such as
integrated circuits, and contain no moving parts.
storage
Location in which data, instructions, and information are held for future use.
storage device
Hardware used to record (write and/or read) items to and from storage media.
storage medium
The physical material on which a computer keeps data, instructions, and information.
tape
Magnetically coated ribbon of plastic capable of storing large amounts of data and
information at a low cost.
tape cartridge
Small, rectangular, plastic housing for tape.
Chapter 7 Page 32
tape cartridge
Small, rectangular, plastic housing for tape.
tape drive
Device used to read and write data and information on tape.
tape library
Separate cabinet for larger computers in which tape cartridges are mounted.
thumb drive
Flash memory device that plugs in a USB port on a computer or portable device. See also
USB flash drive.
track
Narrow recording band that forms a full circle on the surface of a disk.
transfer rate
The speed at which data, instructions, and information transfer to and from a device.
U3 smart drive
Special type of USB flash drive that includes preinstalled software accessed through a
Windows-type interface.
UMD
Universal Media Disc. Mini-DVD used specifically with the PlayStation Portable handheld
game console.
USB flash drive
Flash memory storage device that plugs in a USB port on a computer or portable device.
See also thumb drive.
writing
Process of transferring data, instructions, and information from memory to a storage
medium.
xD Picture Card
Memory card capable of storing between 256 MB and 2 GB of data.
Chapter 7 Page 33
Chapter 8
administrator
account
Computer account held by computer and network administrators that enables them to access
all files and programs on the computer or network, install programs, and specify settings that
affect all users on a computer or network.
adware
Program that displays an online advertisement in a banner or pop-up window on Web pages,
e-mail, or other Internet services.
adware
remover
Program that detects and deletes adware from a user's computer.
Aero Flip 3-D
Windows 7 feature that works with the mouse to flip through open windows arranged in a
stack.
anti-spam
program
Program that attempts to remove spam before it reaches a user’s inbox.
antivirus
program
Program that protects a computer against viruses by identifying and removing any computer
viruses found in memory, on storage media, or on incoming files.
automatic
update
Operating system feature that automatically provides updates to a program.
back up
To make a copy of selected files or an entire hard disk to another storage medium.
background
Programs that are running, but not in use.
backup utility
Utility program that allows users to copy, or back up, selected files or an entire hard disk to
another storage medium, such as another hard disk, optical disc, USB flash drive, or tape.
basic
input/output
system
Firmware that contains the computer’s startup instructions.
BIOS
Basic input/output system; firmware that contains the computer’s startup instructions.
BlackBerry
Operating system that runs on handheld devices supplied by RIM (Research In Motion).
boot disk
Special disk that contains a few system files capable of starting a computer, which is used
when the computer cannot boot from its hard disk. See also recovery disk.
boot drive
Drive from which a personal computer boots (starts).
booting
Process of starting or restarting a computer.
buffer
Segment of memory or storage in which items are placed while waiting to be transferred from
an input device or to an output device.
bugs
Program errors.
client operating Term used to refer to some stand-alone operating systems that also work in conjunction with
systems
a server operating system.
cold boot
Process of turning on a computer that has been powered off completely.
command
language
The set of commands entered into a computer with a command-line interface.
command-line
interface
Type of user interface in which a user types commands or presses special keys on the
keyboard (such as function keys or key combinations) to enter data and instructions.
compress
To shrink the size of a file.
cross-platform
Program that runs the same on multiple operating systems.
defragmenting
Reorganizing a disk so that the files are stored in contiguous sectors, thus speeding up disk
access and the performance of the entire computer.
Desktop
Gadget Gallery
Windows 7 feature that allows users to display a variety of gadgets on the Windows desktop.
device driver
Small program that tells an operating system how to communicate with a specific device. See
also driver.
devicedependent
Program that runs only on a specific type or make of computer.
deviceindependent
Operating systems that run on computers provided by a variety of manufacturers.
disc burning
software
Utility program that writes text, graphics, audio, and video files to a recordable or rewritable
CD, DVD, or Blu-ray Disc.
Chapter 8 Page 34
software
CD, DVD, or Blu-ray Disc.
disk cleanup
Utility that searches for and removes unnecessary files.
disk
defragmenter
Utility that reorganizes the files and unused space on a computer’s hard disk so that the
operating system accesses data more quickly and programs run faster.
Documents
Explorer
Windows Vista feature that helps users locate documents by showing thumbnails that
preview documents' content and allowing users to adjust thumbnail size to view document
without opening it.
driver
Small program that tells an operating system how to communicate with a specific device. See
also device driver.
embedded
Linux
Scaled-down Linux operating system designed for smart phones, PDAs, portable media
players, Internet telephones, and many other types of devices and computers requiring an
embedded operating system.
embedded
operating
system
The operating system that resides on a ROM chip inside most PDAs and small devices.
encryption
The process of encoding data and information to an unreadable form.
Explorers
Windows file manager that includes the Documents Explorer, Pictures Explorer, and Music
Explorer.
fault-tolerant
computer
Computer that has duplicate components so that it can continue to operate when one of its
main components fail.
file
compression
utility
Utility program that shrinks the size of a file(s), so that the file takes up less storage space
than the original file.
file manager
Utility that performs functions related to file management.
Flip 3D
Windows Vista feature that works with the mouse to flip through open windows arranged in a
stack.
folder
Specific named location on a storage medium that contains related documents.
foreground
Program with which the user currently is interacting.
fragmented
State of a file whose contents are scattered across two or more noncontiguous sectors of a
disk.
gadget
Mini-program with limited functionality that connects to another program or provides
information. See also widget.
ghosting
The permanent etching of images on a monitor’s screen.
Google
Android
Operating system designed by Google for mobile devices.
graphical user
interface (GUI)
Type of user interface that allows a user to interact with software using text, graphics, and
visual images, such as icons.
hacker
Someone who accesses a computer or network illegally.
hibernate
Operating system function that saves any open documents and programs to a hard disk
before removing power from the computer.
image viewer
Utility that allows users to display, copy, and print the contents of a graphics file, such as a
photo.
index
Search utility feature that stores a variety of information about a file, including its name, date
created, date modified, author name, and so on.
Internet
Explorer
Web browser included with Windows operating system.
iPhone OS
Operating system developed by Apple for the iPhone and iPod touch.
kernel
The core of an operating system that manages memory and devices, maintains the
computer’s clock, starts programs, and assigns the computer’s resources.
Linux
Popular, multitasking UNIX-type operating system.
log on
To access a computer or network as a user.
lossless
Compression method in which a compressed file can be returned to its exact original state.
lossy
File compression method in which a file cannot be returned to its exact original state after
compression, because the quality of a file decreases each time it is compressed,
Mac OS X
Multitasking operating system that is the latest version of the Macintosh operating system.
Macintosh
Operating system for Apple’s Macintosh computer.
Chapter 8 Page 35
Macintosh
operating
system
Operating system for Apple’s Macintosh computer.
malware
Short for malicious software; programs that act without a user’s knowledge and deliberately
alter a computer’s operations.
media player
Utility program that allows you to view images and animation, listen to audio, and watch video
files.
memory
management
Operating system activity that optimizes the use of random access memory (RAM).
memory
resident
Remaining in memory while a computer is running.
multiprocessin
g
In reference to operating systems, supports two or more processors running programs at the
same time.
multipurpose
operating
system
Operating system that is both a stand-alone operating system and a server operating system.
multiuser
In reference to operating systems, enables two or more users to run programs
simultaneously.
Music Explorer
Windows Vista feature that helps users locate files by allowing users to adjust thumbnail size
to view document without opening it.
NetWare
Server operating system designed by Novell for client/server networks.
network
administrator
Employee who configures, installs, and maintains LANs, WANs, intranets, and Internet
systems; identifies and resolves connectivity issues.
nonresident
Instructions that remain on a storage medium until they are needed.
open source
software
Software provided for use, modification, and redistribution.
operating
system (OS)
Set of programs containing instructions that work together to coordinate all the activities
among computer hardware devices.
page
Amount of data and program instructions that can swap at a given time.
paging
Technique of swapping items between memory and storage.
Palm OS
Scaled-down operating system that runs on smart phones and PDAs.
password
Private combination of characters associated with a user name that allows access to certain
computer resources.
performance
monitor
Operating system program that assesses and reports information about various computer
resources and devices.
permissions
Define who can access certain resources and when they can access those resources.
personal
computer
maintenance
utility
Utility program that identifies and fixes operating system problems, detects and repairs disk
problems, and includes the capability of improving a computer’s performance.
personal
firewall
Utility program that detects and protects a personal computer from unauthorized intrusions.
phishing
Scam in which a perpetrator attempts to obtain your personal and/or financial information.
phishing filter
Program that warns or blocks you from potentially fraudulent or suspicious Web sites.
Pictures
Explorer
Windows Vista feature that helps users locate files by showing thumbnails that preview
documents' content and allowing users to adjust thumbnail size to view document without
opening it.
platform
Set of programs containing instructions that coordinate all the activities among computer
hardware resources.
Plug and Play
Technology that gives a computer the capability to configure adapter cards and other
peripherals automatically as a user installs them.
pop-up ad
Internet advertisement that suddenly appears in a new window in the foreground of a Web
page displayed in the user’s browser.
pop-up blocker Filtering program that stops pop-up ads from displaying on Web pages.
power-on self
test (POST)
Series of tests that is executed by the BIOS to make sure the computer hardware is
connected properly and operating correctly.
preemptive
Process in which the operating system interrupts a program that is executing and passes
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preemptive
multitasking
Process in which the operating system interrupts a program that is executing and passes
control to another program waiting to be executed.
print spooler
Program that intercepts documents to be printed from the operating system and places them
in a queue.
proprietary
software
Software that is privately owned and limited to a specific vendor or computer model.
queue
Lineup of multiple print jobs within a buffer.
recovery disk
Special disk that contains a few system files capable of restarting a computer, which is used
when the computer cannot boot from its hard disk. See also boot disk.
registry
Several files that contain the system configuration information.
restore utility
Program that reverses the backup process and returns backed up files to their original form.
screen saver
Utility program that causes a display device’s screen to show a moving image or blank
screen if no mouse activity occurs for a specified time.
search utility
Program that attempts to locate a file on your computer based on criteria you specify.
server
operating
system
Operating system that organizes and coordinates how multiple users access and share
resources on a network.
service pack
Free downloadable software updates provided by the software manufacturer to users who
have registered and/or activated their software.
shortcut
Icon on the desktop that provides a user with immediate access to a program or file.
single
user/multitaski
ng
In reference to an operating system, allowing a single user to work on two or more programs
that reside in memory at the same time.
single
user/single
tasking
In reference to an operating system allowing only one user to run one program at a time.
sleep mode
Operating system function that saves any open documents and programs to RAM, turns off
all unneeded functions, and then places the computer in a low-power state.
Snipping Tool
Windows 7 feature that allows you to copy screen elements to a file on your computer.
Solaris
A version of UNIX developed by Sun Microsystems that is a server operating system
designed specifically for e-commerce applications.
spam
Unsolicited e-mail message or newsgroups posting sent to many recipients or newsgroups at
once.
spooling
Operating system process that sends documents to be printed to a buffer instead of sending
them immediately to the printer.
spyware
Program placed on a computer without the user’s knowledge that secretly collects
information about the user.
spyware
remover
Program that detects and deletes spyware and other similar programs on a user’s computer.
stand-alone
operating
system
Complete operating system that works on a desktop computer, notebook computer, or mobile
computing device.
Startup folder
Contains a list of programs that open automatically when you boot a computer.
swap file
Area of the hard disk used for virtual memory.
Symbian OS
An open source multitasking operating system designed for smart phones and allows users
to perform a variety of functions in addition to making telephone calls.
system files
Specific operating system files.
system
software
Programs that control or maintain the operations of a computer and its devices.
thrashing
The state of an operating system that spends much of its time paging, instead of executing
application software.
Trojan horse
Malicious-logic program named after the Greek myth that hides within or looks like a
legitimate program.
uncompress
To restore a compressed, or zipped, file to its original form. See also unzip.
uninstaller
Utility program that removes a program, as well as any associated entries in the system files.
UNIX
Multitasking operating system that now is available for most computers of all sizes.
Chapter 8 Page 37
unzip
To restore a compressed, or zipped, file to its original form. See also uncompress.
user ID
Unique combination of characters, such as letters of the alphabet and/or numbers, that
identifies a specific user. See also user name.
user interface
The portion of software that defines how a user interacts with a computer, including how the
user enters data and instructions and how information is displayed on the screen.
user name
Unique combination of characters, such as letters of the alphabet and/or numbers, that
identifies a specific user.
utility
Type of system software that allows a user to perform maintenance-type tasks, usually
related to managing a computer, its devices, or its programs.
utility program
Type of system software that allows a user to perform maintenance-type tasks usually related
to managing a computer, its devices, or its programs.
virtual memory
A portion of a storage medium, usually the hard disk, that the operating system allocates to
function as additional RAM.
virtualization
Practice of sharing or pooling computing resources, such as servers.
virus
Potentially damaging computer program that affects, or infects, a computer negatively by
altering the way the computer works without a user’s knowledge or permission.
virus author
Programmer who intentionally writes a virus program.
warm boot
Process of using the operating system to restart a computer.
Web filtering
software
Program that restricts access to certain material on the Web.
widget
Mini-program with limited functionality that connects to another program or provides
information. See also gadget.
Windows 7
Microsoft's fastest, most efficient operating system to date, offering quicker program start up,
built-in diagnostics, automatic recovery, improved security, enhanced searching and
organizing capabilities, and an easy-to-use interface.
Windows 7
Windows 7 edition that includes all the capabilities of Windows 7 Starter and also includes
Home Premium Windows Aero with its Aero Flip 3D feature.
Windows 7
Professional
Windows 7 edition that provides users in all sizes of businesses with a secure operating
environment that uses Windows Aero where they easily can search for files, protect their
computers from unauthorized intruders and unwanted programs, use improved backup
technologies, securely connect to Wi-Fi networks, quickly view messages on a powered-off,
specially equipped notebook computer, easily share documents and collaborate with other
users, and watch and record live television.
Windows 7
Starter
Windows 7 edition designed for netbooks and other small notebook computers that allows
users to search for files, connect to printers and devices, browse the Internet, join home
networks, and connect to wireless networks.
Windows 7
Ultimate
Windows 7 edition that includes all features of Windows 7 Home Premium and provides
additional features designed to keep files secure and support for 35 languages.
Windows Aero
Interface for computers with more than 1 GB of RAM that provides an enhanced visual look,
additional navigation options, and animation.
Windows
Calendar
Windows 7 feature that allows you to coordinate your schedule with others' schedules.
Windows
Contacts
Windows Vista feature that allows you to organize name and address information.
Windows
Defender
Windows 7 security feature that protects your computer from spyware.
Windows DVD
Maker
Windows 7 feature that allows users to create DVDs from digital videos.
Windows
Embedded CE
Scaled-down Windows operating system designed for use on communications,
entertainment, and computing devices with limited functionality.
Windows
Firewall
Windows 7's built-in personal firewall that protects computers or a network from hackers.
Windows Live
Essentials
Windows 7 feature that includes programs for instant messaging, photo editing and sharing,
e-mail, blogging, and video editing and sharing.
Windows Live
Mail
Windows 7 e-mail feature.
Windows Live
Messenger
Windows 7 instant messaging feature.
Chapter 8 Page 38
Windows Live
Movie Maker
Windows 7 video editing and sharing feature.
Windows Live
Photo Gallery
Windows 7 photo editing and sharing feature.
Windows Live
Writer
Windows 7 blogging feature.
Windows Media Windows 7 program that allows users to listen to Internet radio stations, play MP3 and other
Player
music formats, copy music and data to CDs, and watch movies.
Windows
Messenger
Windows Vista program that allows users to send and receive instant messages.
Windows
Phone 7
Embedded operating system that includes functionality, programs, and a user interface
designed for specific types of smart phones.
Windows Photo An image viewer that is included with Windows Vista, which also allows you to manage and
Gallery
edit photos.
Windows Photo Windows image viewer that allows you to print and e-mail photos.
Viewer
Windows
ReadyBoost
Windows feature that can increase the size of memory by allocating available storage space
on removable flash memory devices as additional memory cache.
Windows
Server 2008
Server operating system designed by Microsoft that is an upgrade to Windows Server 2003,
including Web server management, enhanced server security, network access protection,
and protection against malware features.
Windows
Server 2008
family
Collection of network operating system products, including Windows Server 2008 for ItaniumBased Systems; Windows Server 2008, Standard Edition; Windows Server 2008, Enterprise
Edition; Windows Server 2008, Datacenter; and Windows Web Server 2008.
Windows
Server operating system designed for use by computers with 64-bit processors that function
Server 2008 for as a Web server.
Itanium-Based
Systems
Windows
Server 2008,
Datacenter
Server operating system designed for use by businesses with huge volumes of transactions
and large-scale databases.
Windows
Server 2008,
Enterprise
Edition
Server operating system designed for use by medium- to large-sized businesses, including
those with e-commerce operations.
Windows
Server 2008,
Standard
Edition
Server operating system designed for use by typical small- to medium-sized business
networks.
Windows
Sidebar
Vertical bar along the edge of the Windows Vista desktop that allows users to control and
customize a variety of gadgets or widgets.
Windows
SideShow
Windows Vista feature that allows viewing of messages on a powered-off notebook computer
equipped with a secondary display.
Windows
Touch
Windows 7 support for computers with multi-touch technology.
Windows Vista
Successor to Windows XP, Microsoft's fastest, most efficient operating system to date,
offering quicker program start up, built-in diagnostics, automatic recovery, improved security,
and enhanced searching and organizing capabilities.
Windows Vista
Business
Vista edition designed for businesses of all sizes that uses Windows Aero.
Windows Vista
Home Basic
Vista edition designed for the basic home user.
Windows Vista Vista edition that includes all capabilities of Windows Vista Home Basic and also includes
Home Premium Windows Aero.
Windows Vista
Ultimate
Vista edition that includes all features of Windows Vista Home Premium and provides
additional features designed to make mobile users' computers more secure and easier to
network.
Windows Web
Server
Network operating system designed for Web server and Web hosting businesses.
worm
Malicious-logic program that copies itself repeatedly, using up system resources and possibly
Chapter 8 Page 39
worm
Malicious-logic program that copies itself repeatedly, using up system resources and possibly
shutting down the system.
zipped files
Type of compressed files that usually have a .zip extension.
Chapter 8 Page 40
Chapter 9
10-Gigabit Ethernet
Ethernet standard that supports transfer rates up to 10 Gbps.
100-Gigabit Ethernet Ethernet standard that supports transfer rates up to 100 Gbps.
1G
Abbreviation for first generation, used in reference to cellular transmission standards, used
to transmit analog data.
2G
Abbreviation for second generation, used in reference to cellular transmission standards,
that transmits digital data at speeds from 9.6 Kbps to 19.2 Kbps.
3G
Abbreviation for third generation, used in reference to cellular transmission standards, that
transmits digital data at speeds from 144 Kbps to 2.4 Mpbs.
40-Gigabit Ethernet
Ethernet standard that supports transfer rates up to 40 Gbps.
4G
Abbreviation for fourth generation, used in reference to cellular transmission standards, that
transmits digital data at speeds up to 15 Mbps.
802.11
Series of network standards developed by IEEE that specifies how two wireless devices
communicate over the air with each other. See also wireless Ethernet standard.
802.16
Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access. Newer network standard developed by
IEEE that specifies how wireless devices communicate over the air in a wide area. See also
WiMAX.
ADSL (asymmetric
digital subscriber
line)
Short for asymmetric digital subscriber line; type of DSL that supports faster transfer rates
when receiving data than when sending data.
ATM
Short for Asynchronous Transfer Mode; service that carries voice, data, video, and
multimedia at very high speeds.
bandwidth
The amount of data, instructions, and information that can travel over a communications
channel.
Bluetooth
Network standard, specifically a protocol, that defines how two Bluetooth devices use shortrange radio waves to transmit data.
broadband
Type of media that transmits multiple signals simultaneously.
broadband modem
Digital modem that sends and receives digital data over the cable television (CATV)
network. See also cable modem.
broadcast radio
Wireless transmission medium that distributes radio signals through the air over long
distances such as between cities, regions, and countries and short distances such as within
an office or home.
bus
Electrical channel that transfers electronic bits internally within the circuitry of a computer,
allowing the devices both inside and attached to the system unit to communicate with each
other.
bus network
Type of network topology in which a single central cable connects all computers and other
devices.
cable modem
Digital modem that sends and receives digital data over the cable television (CATV)
network. See also broadband modem.
CDMA
Code Division Multiple Access. 3G standard for mobile communications.
cellular radio
Form of broadcast radio that is used widely for mobile communications, specifically wireless
modems and cell phones.
client/server network Network in which one or more computers act as a server, and the other computers on the
network request services from the server.
clients
Other computers and mobile devices on a network that rely on a server for its resources.
coax
Short for coaxial; a single copper wire surrounded by at least three layers: (1) an insulating
material, (2) a woven or braided metal, and (3) a plastic outer coating. See also coaxial
cable.
coaxial cable
A single copper wire surrounded by at least three layers: (1) an insulating material, (2) a
woven or braided metal, and (3) a plastic outer coating. See also coax.
collaborate
Work online with other users connected to a server.
collaborative
software
Software that includes tools that enable users to share documents via online meetings and
communicate with other connected users.
common short code
Four- or five-digit number assigned to a specific content or wireless service provider.
Chapter 9 Page 41
common short code
(CSC)
Four- or five-digit number assigned to a specific content or wireless service provider.
communications
Process in which two or more computers or devices transfer data, instructions, and
information.
communications
channel
Transmission media on which data, instructions, or information travel.
communications
device
Any type of hardware capable of transmitting data, instructions, and information between a
sending device and a receiving device.
communications
satellite
Space station that receives microwave signals from an earth-based station, amplifies
(strengthens) the signals, and broadcasts the signals back over a wide area to any number
of earth-based stations.
communications
software
Programs that (1) help users establish a connection to another computer or network; (2)
manage the transmission of data, instructions, and information; and (3) provide an interface
for users to communicate with one another.
cybercafé
Coffeehouse, restaurant, or other location that provides personal computers with Internet
access to its customers.
database server
Server that stores and provides access to a database.
dedicated line
Type of always-on connection that is established between two communications devices
(unlike a dial-up line where the connection is reestablished each time it is used).
dedicated servers
Servers that perform specific tasks and can be placed with other dedicated servers to
perform multiple tasks.
dial-up line
Temporary connection that uses one or more analog telephone lines for communications.
dial-up modem
Communications device that can convert digital signals to analog signals and analog signals
to digital signals, so that data can travel along an analog telephone line.
digital modem
Communications device that sends and receives data and information to and from a digital
line.
Digital Subscriber
Line
Type of digital technology that provides high-speed Internet connections using regular
copper telephone lines. Commonly called DSL.
document
System for storage and management of a company's documents, such as word processing
management system documents, presentations, and spreadsheets.
downlink
Transmission from a satellite to an earth-based station.
downstream rate
The transfer rate that is achieved when data is being received on a communications
channel.
DSL
Type of digital technology that provides high-speed Internet connections using regular
copper telephone lines.
DSL modem
Modem that sends digital data and information from a computer to a DSL line and receives
digital data and information from a DSL line.
EDGE
Enhanced Data GSM Environment; 3G standard for mobile communications.
EDI (electronic data
interchange)
Standard that defines how data transmits across telephone lines or other means.
electronic funds
transfer (EFT)
Service in which users connected to a network can transfer money from one bank account
to another via transmission media.
Ethernet
Network standard that specifies no central computer or device on the network should control
when data can be transmitted.
EVDO
Evolution Data Optimized. 3G standard.
extranet
Portion of a company’s network that allows customers or suppliers of a company to access
parts of an enterprise’s intranet.
Fast Ethernet
Recent Ethernet standard with a data transfer rate of 100 Mbps, which is ten times faster
than the original standard.
fiber-optic cable
Dozens or hundreds of thin strands of glass or plastic that use light to transmit signals.
file server
Server that stores and manages files.
file sharing network
Type of peer-to-peer network on which users access each other’s hard disks and exchange
files directly over the Internet. See also P2P.
fixed wireless
High-speed Internet connection that uses an antenna on a house or business to
communicate with a tower location via radio signals.
fractional T1
T-carrier line in which users share a connection to the T1 line with other users.
FTTB (Fiber to the
Type of FTTP that provides extremely high-speed Internet access to small businesses that
Chapter 9 Page 42
FTTB (Fiber to the
Building)
Type of FTTP that provides extremely high-speed Internet access to small businesses that
use fiber-optic cables to access the Internet.
FTTH (Fiber to the
Home)
Type of FTTP that provides extremely high-speed Internet access for home users via fiberoptic cable.
FTTP (Fiber to the
Premises)
Dedicated line that uses fiber-optic cable to provide extremely high-speed Internet access to
a user's physical permanent location.
Gigabit Ethernet
Ethernet standard with transfer rates of 1Gbps (1 billion bits per second).
global positioning
system (GPS)
Navigation system that consists of one or more earth-based receivers that accept and
analyze signals sent by satellites in order to determine the receiver’s geographic location.
GPRS
General Packet Radio Service; 3G standard for mobile communications.
GPS receiver
Handheld, mountable, or embedded device that contains an antenna, or radio receiver, and
a processor.
groupware
Software that helps groups of people work together on projects and share information over
a network.
GSM
Global System for Mobile Communications; 3G standard for mobile communications.
hardware firewall
Built-in feature in routers that prevents unauthorized users from accessing files and
computers in a network.
home network
Network consisting of multiple devices and computers connected together in a home.
host computer
Computer that controls access to the hardware, software, and other resources on a network
and provides a centralized storage area for programs, data, and information. See also
server.
hot spot
Wireless network that provides Internet connections to mobile computers and other devices.
hub (star network)
The device that provides a common central connection point for nodes on a network.
intelligent home
network
Home network that extends basic network capabilities to include features such as lighting
control, thermostat adjustment, and a security system.
intranet
An internal network that uses Internet technologies.
IrDA
Network standard used to transmit data wirelessly via infrared (IR) light waves.
ISDN
Integrated Services Digital Network; set of standards for digital transmission of data over
standard copper telephone lines.
ISDN modem
Modem that sends digital data and information from a computer to an ISDN line and
receives digital data and information from an ISDN line.
latency
The time it takes a signal to travel from one location to another on a network.
line-of-sight
transmission
Requirement for infrared that the sending device and the receiving device be in line with
each other so that nothing obstructs the path of the infrared light wave.
local area network
(LAN)
Network that connects computers and devices in a limited geographical area such as a
home, school computer laboratory, office building, or closely positioned group of buildings.
mashup
Web application that combines services from two or more sources, creating a new
application.
metropolitan area
network (MAN)
High-speed network that connects local area networks in a metropolitan area such as a city
or town and handles the bulk of communications activity across that region.
microwave station
Earth-based reflective dish that contains the antenna, transceivers, and other equipment
necessary for microwave communications.
microwaves
Radio waves that provide a high-speed signal transmission.
MIMO
Multiple-input multiple-output.
MMS (multimedia
message service)
Multimedia message service; service that allows users to send graphics, pictures, video
clips, and sound files, as well as short text messages to another smart phone or other
personal mobile device.
mobile TV
Service that provides television programs over the cellular network.
multiplexing
ISDN line technique of carrying three or more signals at once through the same line.
network
Collection of computers and devices connected together via communications devices and
transmission media, allowing computers to share resources.
network architecture The design of computers, devices, and media in a network.
network card
Communications device that enables a computer or device that does not have built-in
networking capability to access a network. See also network interface card (NIC).
network interface
card (NIC)
Communications device that enables a computer or device that does not have built-in
networking capability to access a network. See also network card.
Chapter 9 Page 43
card (NIC)
networking capability to access a network. See also network card.
network license
Legal agreement that allows multiple users to access the software on a server
simultaneously.
network server
Server that manages network traffic.
network standard
Guidelines that specify the way computers access the medium to which they are attached,
the type(s) of medium used, the speeds used on different types of networks, and the type(s)
of physical cable and/or the wireless technology used.
network topology
Layout of computers and devices in a communications network.
node
Term used to refer to each computer or device on a network.
noise
Electrical disturbance that can degrade communications.
online meeting
Meeting conducted online that allows users to share documents with others in real time.
optical fiber
Single strand of a fiber optic cable.
P2P
Type of peer-to-peer network on which users access each other’s hard disks and exchange
files directly over the Internet. See also file sharing network.
packet switching
Network technique of breaking a message into individual packets, sending the packets
along the best route available, and then reassembling the data.
packets
Small pieces into which messages are divided by TCP/IP.
PCS
Personal Communications Services; term used by the U.S. Federal Communications
Commission (FCC) to identify all wireless digital communications.
peer
Any of the computers on a peer-to-peer network.
peer-to-peer network Simple, inexpensive network that typically connects fewer than 10 computers.
phoneline network
Easy-to-install and inexpensive home network that uses existing telephone lines in the
home.
physical
transmission media
Type of media that use wire, cable, and other tangible materials to send communications
signals.
picture messaging
Wireless messaging service that allows users to send pictures and sound files, as well as
short text messages, to a phone, PDA, or computer. See also MMS (multimedia message
service).
powerline cable
network
Type of home network that uses the same lines that bring electricity into the house and
requires no additional wiring.
print server
Server that manages printers and print jobs.
protocol
Standard that outlines characteristics of how two network devices communicate.
public switched
telephone network
(PSTN)
Worldwide telephone system that handles voice-oriented telephone calls.
radio frequency
identification
Standard, specifically a protocol, that defines how a network uses radio signals to
communicate with a tag placed in or attached to an object, an animal, or a person.
receiving device
Device that accepts the transmission of data, instructions, or information.
RFID
Short for radio frequency identification; standard, specifically a protocol, that defines how a
network uses radio signals to communicate with a tag placed in or attached to an object, an
animal, or a person.
ring network
Type of network topology in which a cable forms a closed loop (ring) with all computers and
devices arranged along the ring.
router
Communications device that connects multiple computers or other routers together and
transmits data to its correct destination on a network.
sending device
Device that initiates instructions to transmit data, instructions, or information.
server
Computer that controls access to the hardware, software, and other resources on a network
and provides a centralized storage area for programs, data, and information. See also host
computer.
short message
service
Service that allows users to send and receive short text messages on a phone or other
mobile device or computer. See also text messaging.
site license
Legal agreement that permits users to install software on multiple computers – usually at a
volume discount.
SMS
Short message service; service that allows users to send and receive short text messages
on a phone or other mobile device or computer. See also text messaging.
star network
Type of network topology in which all computers and devices on the network connect to a
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star network
Type of network topology in which all computers and devices on the network connect to a
central device, thus forming a star.
switch
The device that provides a common central connection point for nodes on a network.
T-carrier line
Any of several types of long-distance digital telephone lines that carry multiple signals over
a single communications line.
T1 line
The most popular T-carrier line.
T3 line
The fastest T-carrier line, equal in speed to 28 T1 lines.
TCP/IP
Short for Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol; network standard, specifically a
protocol, that defines how messages (data) are routed from one end of a network to the
other, ensuring the data arrives correctly.
text messaging
Service that allows users to send and receive short text messages on a smart phone or
other mobile device or computer. See also SMS (short message service).
token
Special series of bits that functions like a ticket.
token ring
Network standard in which computers and devices on the network share or pass a special
signal, called a token, in a unidirectional manner and in a preset order.
transmission media
Materials or substances capable of carrying one or more signals in a communications
channel.
twisted-pair cable
Transmission media that consists of one or more twisted-pair wires bundled together.
twisted-pair wire
Two separate insulted copper wires that are twisted together.
UMTS
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System. 3G standard for mobile communications.
uplink
Transmission from an earth-based station to a satellite.
upstream rate
The transfer rate that is achieved when data is being sent over a communications channel.
UWB (ultrawideband)
Network standard that specifies how two UWB devices use short-range radio waves to
communicate at high speeds with each other.
value-added network Third-party business that provides networking services such as secure data and information
(VAN)
transfer, storage, e-mail, and management reports.
video messaging
Wireless messaging service that allows users to send short video clips, usually about 30
seconds in length, in addition to all picture messaging services.
visual voice mail
Voice mail feature that allows users to view message details such as the length of calls and,
in some cases, read message contents instead of listening to them.
voice mail
Service that functions much like an answering machine, allowing a user to leave a voice
message for one or more people.
voice mailbox
Storage location on a hard disk in a voice mail system.
Web conference
Online meeting that takes place on the Web.
Web server
Computer that delivers requested Web pages to your computer.
Web services
Set of software technologies that allows businesses to create products and B2B (businessto-business) interactions over the Internet.
Wi-Fi
Short for wireless fidelity; term for any network based on the 802.11 series of standards.
Wi-Fi mesh network
Network in which each mesh node routes its data to the next available node until the data
reaches its destination – usually an Internet connection.
wide area network
(WAN)
Network that covers a large geographic area (such as a city, country, or the world) using a
communications channel that combines many types of media such as telephone lines,
cables, and radio waves.
WiMAX
Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access. Newer network standard developed by
IEEE that specifies how wireless devices communicate over the air in a wide area. See also
802.16.
wireless access
point
Central communications device that allows computers and devices to transfer data
wirelessly among themselves or to transfer data wirelessly to a wired network.
Wireless Application Network standard, specifically a protocol, that specifies how some wireless mobile devices
Protocol (WAP)
such as smart phones can display the content of Internet services such as the Web, e-mail,
and chat rooms.
wireless Internet
access point
Location where people can connect wirelessly to the Internet using notebook computers,
smart phones, handheld game consoles, or other devices.
wireless LAN
(WLAN)
Local area network that uses no physical wires.
wireless modem
Modem that uses the cell phone network to connect to the Internet wirelessly from a
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wireless modem
Modem that uses the cell phone network to connect to the Internet wirelessly from a
notebook computer, a smart phone, or other mobile device.
wireless network
card
Network card, often with an antenna, that provides wireless data transmission.
wireless
transmission media
Type of media that send communications signals through the air or space using radio,
microwave, and infrared signals.
workgroup
computing
Concept in which network hardware and software enable group members to communicate,
manage projects, schedule meetings, and make group decisions.
XML
eXtensible Markup Language.
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Chapter 10
access privileges
Restrictions that establish who can enter new data, change existing data, delete unwanted
data, and view data in a database.
accessible
information
Information that is available when the decision maker needs it.
accurate
information
Information that is error free.
after image
Copy of a database file after changes were made.
alphabetic check
Validity check that ensures users enter only alphabetic data in a field.
alphanumeric
Text that can include letters, numbers, or special characters.
attribute
Each data element in an object. Also called a property.
back end
Application that supports a front-end program.
backup
Duplicate or copy of a file, program, or disk that can be used if the original is lost, damaged,
or destroyed.
backward recovery Technique for recovering data in a database where the DBMS uses the log to undo any
changes made to a database during a certain period, such as an hour. See also rollback.
before image
Copy of a database file before changes were made.
BLOB
Binary large object.
Boolean
Consisting of Yes or No, or True or False, values.
CGI (Common
Gateway Interface)
script
Program that manages the sending and receiving of data between the front end and the
database server.
character
A number, letter, punctuation mark, or other symbol that is represented by a single byte in the
ASCII and EBCDIC coding schemes.
check digit
Validity check consisting of a number(s) or character(s) that is appended to or inserted in a
primary key value.
collaborative
databases
Web databases where users store and share photos, videos, recordings, and other personal
media with other registered users.
column
Term used by users of relational databases for field.
completeness
check
Validity check that verifies that a required field contains data.
composite key
Primary key that consists of multiple fields.
computer-aided
design (CAD)
database
Database that stores data about engineering, architectural, and scientific designs.
consistency check
Validity check that tests the data in two or more associated field to ensure that the relationship
is logical and their data is in the correct format.
continuous backup Backup plan in which all data is backed up whenever a change is made.
cost-effective
information
Information that gives more value than it costs to produce.
data
Collection of unprocessed items, which can include text, numbers, images, audio, and video.
data dictionary
A DBMS element that contains data about each file in a database and each field in those files.
See also repository.
data entry form
Window on the screen that provides areas for entering or changing data in a database. See
also form.
data file
Collection of related records stored on a storage medium such as a hard disk, CD, or DVD.
data integrity
The quality of data that is entered in a database.
data mart
Smaller version of a data warehouse that contains a database that helps a specific group or
department make decisions.
data mining
Process used with data warehouses to find patterns and relationships among data.
data model
Rules and standards that define how a database organizes data.
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data modeler
Person who focuses on the meaning and usage of data, including proper placement of fields,
defining the relationships among data, and identifying users’ access privileges. See also
database analyst (DA).
data type
Specifies the kind of data a field in a database can contain and how the field can be used.
data warehouse
Huge database that stores and manages the data required to analyze historical and current
transactions.
database
Collection of data organized in a manner that allows access retrieval, and use of that data.
database
administrator
(DBA)
Person who creates and maintains the data dictionary, manages security of a database,
monitors the performance of a database, and checks backup and recovery procedures.
database analyst
(DA)
Person who focuses on the meaning and usage of data, including proper placement of fields,
defining the relationships among data, and identifying users’ access privileges. See also data
modeler.
database approach System used to store and manage data in which many programs and users share the data in
a database.
database
management
system (DBMS)
Program that allows user to create a computerized database; add, change, and delete data in
the database, sort and retrieve data from the database; and create forms and reports from the
data in the database. See also database software.
database server
Computer that stores and provides access to a database.
database software
Program that allows user to create a computerized database; add, change, and delete data in
the database, sort and retrieve data from the database; and create forms and reports from the
data in the database. See also database management system (DBMS).
default value
Value that a DBMS initially displays in a field.
distributed
database
Database in which the data exists in many separate locations throughout a network or the
Internet.
e-form
Electronic form used as a means to secure data while it is transported across a network.
electronic form
A form that sends entered data across a network or the Internet.
field
A combination of one or more related characters or bytes, a field is the smallest unit of data a
user accesses.
field name
Name that uniquely identifies each field in a database.
field size
Defines the maximum number of characters a field can contain.
file maintenance
Procedures that keep data current.
file processing
system
System used to store and manage data in which each department or area within an
organization has its own set of files.
form
Window on the screen that provides areas for entering or changing data in a database. See
also data entry form.
forward recovery
Technique for recovering data in a database where the DBMS uses the log to reenter
changes made to a database since the last save or backup. See also rollforward.
front end
Program that generally has a more user-friendly interface than a DBMS.
garbage in,
garbage out
(GIGO)
Computing phrase that points out the accuracy of a computer’s output depends on the
accuracy of the input.
GIS
Geographic information system. Type of database that stores maps and other geographic
data.
groupware
database
Database that stores documents such as schedules, calendars, manuals, memos, and
reports.
hypercube
The multiple dimensions in which data is stored in a multidimensional database.
hypermedia
database
Database that contains text, graphics, video, and sound.
hypertext database Database that contains text links to other types of documents.
information
Processed data that conveys meaning and is useful to people.
log
Listing of activities that change the contents of a database.
metadata
Detailed data in a data dictionary about the data in a database.
multidimensional
database
Database that stores data in dimensions.
multimedia
Database that stores images, audio clips, and/or video clips.
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multimedia
database
Database that stores images, audio clips, and/or video clips.
normalization
Process designed to ensure the data within the relations (tables) in a database contains the
least amount of duplication.
numeric check
Validity check that ensures users enter only numeric data in a field
object
Database item that contains data, as well as the actions that read or process the data.
object query
language (OQL)
Query language used with object-oriented and object-relational databases to manipulate and
retrieve data. See also OQL.
object-oriented
database (OODB)
Database that stores data in objects.
object-relational
databases
Databases that combine features of the relational and object-oriented data models.
organized
information
Information that is arranged to suit the needs and requirements of the decision maker.
primary key
Field in a database that uniquely identifies each record in a file.
principle of least
privilege
Policy adopted by some organizations, where users' access privileges are limited to the
lowest level necessary to perform required tasks.
query
Request for specific data from a database.
query by example
(QBE)
DBMS feature that has a graphical user interface to assist users with retrieving data.
query language
Language used with databases that consists of simple, English-like statements that allows
users to specify the data to display, print, or store.
range check
Validity check that determines whether a number is within a specified range.
record
Group of related fields in a database.
recovery utility
DBMS feature that uses logs and/or backups to restore a database when it becomes
damaged or destroyed.
relation
Term used by developers of relational databases for file.
relational database Database that stores data in tables that consist of rows and columns, with each row having a
primary key and each column having a unique name.
relationship
Link within the data in a database.
report generator
DBMS feature that allows users to design a report on the screen, retrieve data into the report
design, and then display or print the report. See also report writer.
report writer
DBMS feature that allows users to design a report on the screen, retrieve data into the report
design, and then display or print the report. See also report generator.
repository
A DBMS element that contains data about each file in a database and each field in those files.
See also data dictionary.
rollback
Technique for recovering data in a database where the DBMS uses the log to undo any
changes made to a database during a certain period, such as an hour. See also backward
recovery.
rollforward
Technique for recovering data in a database where the DBMS uses the log to reenter
changes made to the database since the last save or backup. See also forward recovery.
row
Term used by users of relational databases for record.
Structured Query
Language (SQL)
Query language used with databases that allows users to manage, update, and retrieve data.
table
Term used by users of relational databases for file.
timely information
Information that has an age suited to its use.
tuple
Term used by developers of relational databases for record.
useful information
Information that has meaning to the person who receives it.
validation
Process of comparing data with a set of rules or values to find out if the data is correct.
validation rules
Check that analyzes entered data to help ensure that it is correct. See also validity check.
validity check
Check that analyzes entered data to help ensure that it is correct. See also validation rules.
verifiable
information
Information that can be proven as correct or incorrect.
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Chapter 11
1024-bit encryption
Higher-level Web browser encryption protection level.
128-bit encryption
Higher-level Web browser encryption protection level.
40-bit encryption
Web browser encryption protection level.
802.11i
Sometimes called WPA2, a network standard developed by IEEE with enhanced
security for wireless communications.
access control
Security measure that defines who can access a computer, when they can access it,
and what actions they can take while accessing the computer.
access point mapping
Intrusion technique in which an individual attempts to detect wireless networks via their
notebook computer while driving a vehicle through areas they suspect have a wireless
network. See also war driving.
adware
Program that displays an online advertisement in a banner or pop-up window on Web
pages, e-mail, or other Internet services.
anti-spam program
Program that attempts to remove spam before it reaches a user’s inbox.
antivirus program
Program that protects a computer against viruses by identifying and removing any
computer viruses found in memory, on storage media, or on incoming files.
asymmetric key
encryption
Type of encryption that uses two encryption keys: a public key and a private key. See
also public key encryption.
audit trail
Computer file that records both successful and unsuccessful access attempts.
authentication
Access control that verifies an individual is the person he or she claims to be.
back door
Program or set of instructions in a program that allow users to bypass security controls
when accessing a program, computer, or network.
back up
To make a copy of a file.
backup
Duplicate or copy of a file, program, or disk that can be used if the original is lost,
damaged, or destroyed.
biometric device
Device that authenticates a person’s identity by translating a personal characteristic,
such as a fingerprint, into a digital code that then is compared with a digital code
stored in a computer verifying a physical or behavioral characteristic.
biometric payment
Payment method where the customer's fingerprint is read by a fingerprint scanner that
is linked to a payment method such as a checking account or credit card.
blackout
A complete power failure.
bot
Program that performs a repetitive task on a network.
botnet
Group of compromised computers connected to a network such as the Internet that
are used as part of a network that attacks other networks, usually for nefarious
purposes. See also zombie army.
brownout
A prolonged undervoltage.
Business Software
Alliance (BSA)
Organization formed by a number of major software companies to promote a better
understanding of software piracy problems and, if necessary, to take legal action.
CAPTCHA
Completely Automated Public Turing test to tell Computers and Humans Apart;
program used by some Web sites to provide further protection for a user's password
by verifying that user input is not computer generated.
carpal tunnel syndrome
(CTS)
Inflammation of the nerve that connects the forearm to the palm of the wrist.
CERT/CC
Federally funded Internet security research and development center.
certificate authority (CA)
Authorized person or company that issues and verifies digital certificates.
child
Term used in three-generation backups to refer to the most recent copy of the file.
ciphertext
Encrypted (scrambled) data.
clickjacking
Scam in which an object that can be clicked on a Web site, such as a button, image, or
link, contains a malicious program.
code of conduct
Written guidelines that help determine whether a specific computer action is ethical or
unethical.
computer addiction
Growing health problem that occurs when the computer consumes someone’s entire
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computer addiction
Growing health problem that occurs when the computer consumes someone’s entire
social life.
computer crime
Any illegal act involving a computer.
Computer Emergency
Response Team
Coordination Center
Federally funded Internet security research and development center. See also
CERT/CC.
computer ethics
Moral guidelines that govern the use of computers and information systems.
computer forensics
The discovery, collection, and analysis of evidence found on computers and networks.
See also cyberforensics, digital forensics, or network forensics.
computer security risk
Any event or action that could cause a loss of or damage to computer hardware,
software, data, information, or processing capability.
computer vision
syndrome
Eyestrain due to prolonged computer usage.
content filtering
Process of restricting access to certain material on the Web.
cookie
Small text file that a Web server stores on a computer.
copyright
Exclusive rights given to authors and artists to duplicate, publish, and sell their
materials.
cracker
Someone who accesses a computer or network illegally with the intent of destroying
data, stealing information, or other malicious action.
crimeware
Software used by cybercriminals.
CVS
Eyestrain due to prolonged computer usage.
cybercrime
Online or Internet-based illegal acts.
cyberextortionist
Someone who uses e-mail as a vehicle for extortion.
cyberforensics
The discovery, collection, and analysis of evidence found on computers and networks.
See also computer forensics, digital forensics, or network forensics.
cyberterrorist
Someone who uses the Internet or network to destroy or damage computers for
political reasons.
cyberwarfare
Computer or network attack whose goal ranges from disabling a government's
computer network to crippling a country.
cypher
Set of steps that can convert readable plaintext into unreadable ciphertext. See also
encryption algorithm.
DDoS (distributed DoS)
attack
More devastating type of denial of service attack in which a zombie army is used to
attack multiple computer networks.
decrypt
Process of deciphering encrypted data into a readable form.
denial of service attack
Assault on a computer or network whose purpose is to disrupt computer access to an
Internet service such as the Web or e-mail. See also DoS attack.
digital certificate
A notice that guarantees a user or a Web site is legitimate.
digital forensics
The discovery, collection, and analysis of evidence found on computers and networks.
See also computer forensics, cyberforensics, or network forensics.
digital rights management Strategy designed to prevent illegal distribution of movies, music, and other digital
(DRM)
content.
digital signature
Encrypted code that a person, Web site, or organization attaches to an electronic
message to verify the identity of the message sender.
DoS attack
Assault on a computer or network whose purpose is to disrupt computer access to an
Internet service such as the Web or e-mail. See also denial of service attack.
DRM
Strategy designed to prevent illegal distribution of movies, music, and other digital
content. See also digital rights management.
e-mail filtering
Service that blocks e-mail messages from designated sources.
e-mail spoofing
Spoofing that occurs when the sender's address or other components of the e-mail
header are altered so that it appears the e-mail originated from a different sender.
employee monitoring
The use of computers to observe, record, and review an employee’s use of a
computer, including communications such as e-mail messages, keyboard activity
(used to measure productivity), and Web sites visited.
encryption
Process of converting readable data into unreadable characters to prevent
unauthorized access.
encryption algorithm
Set of steps that can convert readable plaintext into unreadable ciphertext. See also
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encryption algorithm
Set of steps that can convert readable plaintext into unreadable ciphertext. See also
cypher.
encryption key
Set of characters that the originator of the encrypted data uses to encrypt the plaintext
and the recipient of the data uses to decrypt the ciphertext.
end-user license
agreement (EULA)
License agreement included with software purchased by individual users. See also
single-user license agreement.
ENERGY STAR program
Program developed by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the United
States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to help reduce the amount of electricity
used by computers and related devices.
ergonomics
The science of incorporating comfort, efficiency, and safety into the design of the
workplace.
Fair Credit Reporting Act
1970 law that limits the rights of others viewing a credit report to only those with a
legitimate business need.
fault-tolerant computer
Computer that has duplicate components so that it can continue to operate when one
of its main components fail.
firewall
Hardware and/or software that protects a network’s resources from intrusion by users
on another network such as the Internet.
full backup
Backup procedure that copies all program and data files in the computer. Also called
archival backup.
grandparent
Term used in three-generation backups to refer to the oldest copy of a file.
green computing
Computer usage that reduces the electricity and environmental waste involved in using
a computer.
hacker
Someone who accesses a computer or network illegally.
hardware theft
The act of stealing computer equipment.
hardware vandalism
The act of defacing or destroying computer equipment.
hash
Mathematical formula that generates a code from the contents of an electronic
message.
honeypot
Vulnerable computer that is set up to entice an intruder to break into it in order to allow
a company to learn how intruders are exploiting its network.
identification
Access control that verifies an individual is a valid user.
information privacy
Right of individuals and companies to deny or restrict the collection and use of
information about them.
information theft
Computer security risk that occurs when someone steals personal or confidential
information.
inoculate
Capability of an antivirus program to record information such as file size and file
creation date in a separate file in order to detect viruses.
intellectual property (IP)
Unique and original works such as ideas, inventions, art, writings, processes, company
and product names, and logos.
intellectual property
rights
Rights to which creators are entitled for their work.
Internet Content Rating
Association (ICRA)
Organization that developed a rating system in order to filter content on the Web.
intrusion detection
software
Program that automatically analyzes all network traffic, assesses system
vulnerabilities, identifies any unauthorized intrusions, and notifies network
administrators of suspicious behavior patterns or system breaches.
IP spoofing
Spoofing technique where an intruder computer fools a network into believing its IP
address is associated with a trusted source.
Joule
Unit of energy a surge protection device can absorb before it can be damaged.
keygen
Short for key generator; program that creates software registration numbers and
sometimes activation codes used for software theft.
license agreement
An agreement issued by a software manufacturer that gives the user the right to use
the software.
macros
Instructions saved in software such as a word processor or spreadsheet program.
malicious software
Programs that act without a user’s knowledge and deliberately alter a computer’s
operations.
malware
Short for malicious software; programs that act without a user’s knowledge and
deliberately alter a computer’s operations.
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deliberately alter a computer’s operations.
network forensics
The discovery, collection, and analysis of evidence found on computers and networks.
See also computer forensics, cyberforensics, or digital forensics.
noise
Electrical disturbance that can degrade communications.
offline UPS
Type of UPS device that switches to battery power when a problem occurs in the
power line. See also standby UPS.
offsite
Location separate from a computer site.
online security service
Web site that evaluates a computer to check for Internet and e-mail vulnerabilities.
online UPS
Type of UPS device that always runs off a battery, which provides continuous
protection.
overvoltage
Electrical disturbance that occurs when the incoming electrical power increases
significantly above the normal 120 volts. See also power surge.
parent
Term used in three-generation backups to refer to the second oldest copy of the file.
passphrase
Private combination of words, often containing mixed capitalization and punctuation,
associated with a user name that allows access to certain computer resources.
password
Private combination of characters associated with a user name that allows access to
certain computer resources.
payload
Destructive event or prank a malicious-logic program is intended to deliver.
personal firewall
Utility program that detects and protects a personal computer and its data from
unauthorized intrusions.
personal identification
number (PIN)
Numeric password, either assigned by a company or selected by a user.
pharming
Scam, similar to phishing, where a perpetrator attempts to obtain your personal and
financial information, except they do so via spoofing.
phishing
Scam in which a perpetrator sends an official looking e-mail that attempts to obtain
your personal and financial information.
phishing filter
Program that warns or blocks you from potentially fraudulent or suspicious Web sites.
piracy
Unauthorized and illegal duplication of copyrighted material.
plaintext
Unencrypted, readable data.
possessed object
Any item that a user must carry to gain access to a computer or computer facility.
power surge
Electrical disturbance that occurs when the incoming electrical power increases
significantly above the normal 120 volts. See also overvoltage.
power usage
effectiveness (PUE)
Ratio that measures how much power enters a computer facility, or data center,
against the amount of power required to run the computers.
Pretty Good Privacy
(PGP)
Popular e-mail encryption program that is free for personal, noncommercial use.
private key encryption
Type of encryption where both the originator and the recipient use the same secret key
to encrypt and decrypt the data. See also symmetric key encryption.
product activation
Process that attempts to prevent software piracy by requiring users to provide a
software product’s 25-character identification number in order to receive an installation
identification number.
proxy server
Server outside a company’s network that controls which communications pass into the
company’s network.
public key encryption
Type of encryption that uses two encryption keys: a public key and a private key. See
also asymmetric key encryption.
quarantine
Separate area of a hard disk that holds the infected file until a virus can be removed.
real time location system
(RTLS)
Safeguard used by some businesses to track and identify the location of high-risk or
high-value items.
repetitive strain injury
(RSI)
Injury or disorder of the muscles, nerves, tendons, ligaments, and joints.
restore
To copy backed up files by copying them to their original location on the computer.
rootkit
Program that hides in a computer and allows someone from a remote location to take
full control of the computer.
script kiddie
Someone who accesses a computer or network illegally with the intent of destroying
data, stealing information, or other malicious action but does not have the technical
skills and knowledge.
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skills and knowledge.
secure HTTP (S-HTTP)
Security technique that allows users to choose an encryption scheme for data that
passes between a client and a server.
secure site
Web site that uses encryption techniques to secure its data.
Secure Sockets Layer
(SSL)
Security technique that provides encryption of all data that passes between a client
and an Internet server.
selective backup
Type of backup in which users choose which folders and files to include in the backup.
Also called partial backup.
session cookie
Type of cookie that is used by online shopping sites to keep track of items in a user’s
shopping cart.
single-user license
agreement
License agreement included with software purchased by individual users. See also
end-user license agreement (EULA).
social engineering
Gaining unauthorized access or obtaining confidential information by taking advantage
of the trusting human nature of some victims and the naivety of others.
software theft
Computer security risk that occurs when someone (1) steals software media, (2)
intentionally erases programs, (3) illegally copies a program, or (4) illegally registers
and/or activates a program.
spam
Unsolicited e-mail message or newsgroups posting sent to many recipients or
newsgroups at once.
spike
Electrical disturbance that occurs when an overvoltage lasts for less than one
millisecond (one thousandth of a second).
spim
Spam sent through an instant messaging service.
spit
Spam sent via VoIP.
spoofing
Technique intruders use to make their network or Internet transmission appear
legitimate to a victim computer or network.
spyware
Program placed on a computer without the user’s knowledge that secretly collects
information about the user.
SSID
Service set identifier.
standby UPS
Type of UPS device that switches to battery power when a problem occurs in the
power line. See also offline UPS.
surge protector
Device that uses special electrical components to smooth out minor noise, provide a
stable current flow, and keep an overvoltage from reaching the computer and other
electronic equipment. See also surge suppressor.
surge suppressor
Device that uses special electrical components to smooth out minor noise, provide a
stable current flow, and keep an overvoltage from reaching the computer and other
electronic equipment. See also surge protector.
symmetric key encryption Type of encryption where both the originator and the recipient use the same secret key
to encrypt and decrypt the data. See also private key encryption.
system failure
Prolonged malfunction of a computer.
tendonitis
Inflammation of a tendon due to repeated motion or stress on that tendon.
three-generation backup
Backup policy that preserves three copies of important files: the grandparent, the
parent, and the child.
Transport Layer Security
(TLS)
Successor to Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), a security technique that provides
encryption of all data that passes between a client and an Internet server.
Trojan horse
Program named after the Greek myth that hides within or looks like a legitimate
program.
trusted source
Company or person a user believes will not send a virus-infected file knowingly.
unauthorized access
Use of a computer or network without permission.
unauthorized use
Use of a computer or its data for unapproved or possibly illegal activities.
undervoltage
Electrical disturbance that occurs when the electrical supply drops.
Underwriters
Laboratories (UL) 1449
Standard
Safety specification that allows no more than 500 maximum volts to pass through an
electrical line.
uninterruptible power
supply (UPS)
Device that contains surge protection circuits and one or more batteries that can
provide power during a temporary or permanent loss of power.
user ID
Unique combination of characters, such as letters of the alphabet or numbers, that
identifies one specific user. See also user name.
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identifies one specific user. See also user name.
user name
Unique combination of characters, such as letters of the alphabet and/or numbers, that
identifies a specific user.
virtual private network
(VPN)
Network that provides a mobile user with a secure connection to a company network
server, as if the user has a private line.
virus
Potentially damaging computer program that affects, or infects, a computer negatively
by altering the way the computer works without the user’s knowledge or permission.
virus definition
Known specific pattern of virus code. See also virus signature.
virus hoax
E-mail message that warns users of a nonexistent virus or other malware.
virus signature
Known specific pattern of virus code. See also virus definition.
war driving
Intrusion technique in which an individual attempts to detect wireless networks via their
notebook computer while driving a vehicle through areas they suspect have a wireless
network. See also access point mapping.
war flying
Intrusion technique in which individuals use an airplane to detect unsecured wireless
networks.
Web bug
Type of spyware that is hidden on Web pages or in e-mail messages in the form of
graphical images.
Web filtering software
Program that restricts access to certain material on the Web.
Wi-Fi Protected Access
(WPA)
Security standard that improves on older security standards by authenticating network
users and providing more advanced encryption techniques.
worm
Program that copies itself repeatedly, using up system resources and possibly shutting
down the system.
zombie
A compromised computer whose owner is unaware the computer is being controlled
remotely by an outsider.
zombie army
Group of compromised computers connected to a network such as the Internet that
are used as part of a network that attacks other networks, usually for nefarious
purposes. See also botnet.
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Chapter 12
abrupt cutover
Conversion strategy where the user stops using an old system and begins using a new
system on a certain date. See also direct conversion.
acceptance test
Test performed by end-users during the program development cycle that checks the new
system to ensure that it works with actual data.
actor
User or other entity such as a program represented in a use case diagram.
adaptive maintenance
Operation, support, and security phase process of including new features or capabilities in
an information system.
analysis phase
Step in the system development cycle that consists of two major activities: (1) conduct a
preliminary investigation, and (2) perform detailed analysis.
attribute
Each data element in an object. See also property.
benchmark test
Test that measures the performance of hardware or software.
change management
Skill required for project leaders so they can recognize when a change in a project has
occurred, take actions to react to the change, and plan for opportunities because of the
change.
chief security officer
(CSO)
Employee responsible for physical security of an organization’s property and people; in
charge of security computing resources.
class diagram
Analysis and design tool in the UML that graphically shows classes and subclasses in a
system.
computer security
plan
Written summary of all the safeguards that are in place to protect an organization’s
information assets.
computer-aided
software engineering
(CASE)
Software tools designed to support one or more activities of the system development
cycle, typically including diagrams to support both process and object modeling.
context diagram
Top level DFD that identifies only major processes.
corrective
maintenance
Operation, support, and security phase process of diagnosing and correcting errors in an
information system.
cost/benefit feasibility
Measure of whether lifetime benefits of a proposed information system will be greater than
its lifetime costs. See also economic feasibility.
custom software
Software that performs functions specific to a business or industry, developed by a user or
at a user’s request.
data conversion
Converting existing manual and computer files so that a new computer system can use
them.
data dictionary
A DBMS element that contains data about each file in a database and each field in those
files. See also repository.
data flow
Element in a DFD, indicated by a line with an arrow, that shows the input or output of data
or information into or out from a process.
data flow diagram
Systems analysis and design tool that graphically shows the flow of data in a system.
data model
Rules and standards that define how a database organizes data.
data store
Element in a DFD, indicated by a rectangle with no sides, that is a holding place for data
and information.
decision table
Table that lists a variety of conditions and the actions that correspond to each condition.
decision tree
Graphic representation showing a variety of conditions and the actions that correspond to
each condition.
deliverable
Any tangible item such as a chart, diagram, report, or program file.
design phase
Phase of the system development cycle that consists of two major activities: (1) if
necessary, acquire hardware and software and (2) develop all of the details of the new or
modified information system.
detailed analysis
Activity in the system development cycle that involves three major activities: (1) study how
the current system works; (2) determine the users’ wants, needs, and requirements; and
(3) recommend a solution. See also logical design.
DFD
Systems analysis and design tool that graphically shows the flow of data in a system.
direct conversion
Conversion strategy where the user stops using an old system and begins using a new
Chapter 12 Page 56
direct conversion
Conversion strategy where the user stops using an old system and begins using a new
system on a certain date. See also abrupt cutover.
documentation
Collection and summarization of data and information.
e-zine
Publication available on the Web. See also electronic magazine.
economic feasibility
Measure of whether lifetime benefits of a proposed information system will be greater than
its lifetime costs. See also cost/benefit feasibility.
electronic magazine
Publication available on the Web. See also e-zine.
entity
Object in a system that has data.
entity-relationship
diagram
Systems analysis and design tool that graphically shows the connections among entities
in a system.
ERD
Systems analysis and design tool that graphically shows the connections among entities
in a system.
extreme project
management
Team-driven project management approach in which a project leader is more of a
participant and facilitator than a manager during the project.
feasibility
Measure of how suitable the development of a system will be to the company.
feasibility study
Investigation that determines the exact nature of a problem or improvement and decides
whether it is worth pursuing. See also preliminary investigation.
focus groups
Lengthy, structured, group meetings in which users and IT professionals work together to
design or develop an application. See also joint application design (JAD).
Gantt chart
Bar chart developed by Henry L. Gantt that uses horizontal bars to show project phases or
activities.
horizontal market
software
Packaged software that meets the needs of many different types of organizations.
I-CASE
Integrated case products. Also called a CASE workbench.
implementation phase
Phase of the system development cycle during which the new or modified system is
constructed, or built, and then delivered to the users. Four major activities performed
include: (1) develop programs, (2) install and test the new system, (3) train users, and (4)
convert to the new system.
information system
(IS)
Collection of hardware, software, data, people, and procedures that work together to
produce quality information.
inheritance
Concept of lower levels inheriting methods and attributes of higher levels in a class
diagram.
inspection
Formal review of any system development deliverable.
integration test
Test performed during the program development cycle that verifies an application works
with other applications.
International
Computer Security
Association (ICSA)
Labs
Organization that provides assistance via the telephone or the Web to organizations and
individuals that need help with computer security plans.
Internet solutions
provider
Company that provides Web hosting services that include managing shopping carts,
inventory, and credit card processing.
IT consultant
Employee, typically hired based on computer expertise, who provides computer services
to his or her clients.
joint-application
design (JAD)
Lengthy, structured, group meetings in which users and IT professionals work together to
design or develop an application. See also focus groups.
layout chart
Technical chart that contains programming-like notations for data items.
logical design
Activity in the system development cycle that involves three major activities: (1) study how
the current system works; (2) determine the users’ wants, needs, and requirements; and
(3) recommend a solution. See also detailed analysis.
method
Procedure in an object that contains the activities that read or manipulate the data. See
also operation.
mockup
Sample of the input or output that contains actual data.
moderator
Systems analyst who acts as leader during a JAD session.
object
Database item that contains data, as well as the actions that read or process the data.
object modeling
Analysis and design technique that combines data with the processes that act on that data
into a single unit, called an object. See also object-oriented (OO) analysis and design.
object-oriented (OO)
Analysis and design technique that combines data with the processes that act on that data
Chapter 12 Page 57
object-oriented (OO)
analysis and design
Analysis and design technique that combines data with the processes that act on that data
into a single unit, called an object. See also object modeling.
operation
Procedure in an object that contains the activities that read or manipulate the data. See
also method.
operation, support,
and security phase
Phase of the system development cycle that consists of three major activities: (1) perform
maintenance activities, (2) monitor system performance, and (3) assess system security.
operational feasibility
Measure of how well a proposed information system will work.
outsource
Having a source outside a company develop software for the company. Some companies
outsource just the software development aspect of their IT operation, while others
outsource more or all of their IT operation.
packaged software
Mass-produced, copyrighted, prewritten software available for purchase.
parallel conversion
Conversion strategy where the old system runs alongside the new system for a specified
time.
perfective
maintenance
Operation, support, and security phase process of making an information system more
efficient and reliable.
performance
monitoring
Operation, support, and security phase activity that determines whether a system is
inefficient or unstable at any point.
PERT chart
Program Evaluation and Review Technique chart; systems analysis and design tool
developed by the U.S. Department of Defense to analyze the time required to complete a
task and identify the minimum time required for an entire project.
phased conversion
Conversion strategy used by larger systems with multiple sites where each location
converts at a separate time.
phases
Categories into which system development activities are grouped: (1) planning phase, (2)
analysis phase, (3) design phase, (4) implementation phase, and (5) support phase.
physical design
Detailed design that specifies hardware and software – the physical components
required – for automated procedures. See also detailed design.
pilot conversion
Conversion strategy where only one location in an organization uses a new system – so
that it can be tested.
planning phase
Step in the system development cycle that begins when a steering committee receives a
project request.
post-implementation
system review
Operation, support, and security phase activity that involves holding a meeting to discover
whether an information system is performing according to users’ expectations.
preliminary
investigation
Investigation that determines the exact nature of a problem or improvement and decides
whether it is worth pursuing. See also feasibility study.
process
Element in a DFD, indicated by a circle, that transforms an input data flow into an output
data flow.
process modeling
Analysis and design technique that describes processes that transform inputs into
outputs. See also structured analysis and design.
program development
life cycle
Part of the implementation phase of the system development cycle that follows six steps:
(1) analyze the requirements, (2) design the solution, (3) validate the design, (4)
implement the design, (5) test the solution, and (6) document the solution.
program specification
package
Item prepared during program design that identifies the required programs and the
relationship among each program, as well as the input, output, and database
specifications.
project dictionary
Record that contains all the documentation and deliverables of a project. See also
repository.
project leader
Member of a project team who manages and controls the budget and schedule of the
project.
project management
Process of planning, scheduling, and then controlling the activities during the system
development cycle.
project management
software
Software that assists in the planning, scheduling, and controlling of development projects.
project manager
Member of a project team who controls the activities during system development.
project notebook
Record that contains all documentation for a single project.
project plan
Record of project elements, including goal, objectives, and expectations of the project;
required activities; time estimates for each activity; cost estimates for each activity; order
of activities; and activities that can take place at the same time.
project request
Written, formal request for a new or modified system. See also request for system
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project request
Written, formal request for a new or modified system. See also request for system
services.
project team
Group of people that consists of users, the systems analyst, and other IT professionals.
proof of concept
Working model of a proposed system. See also prototype.
property
Each data element in an object. See also attribute.
prototype
Working model of a proposed system. See also proof of concept.
Rational Unified
Process (RUP)
Popular methodology that uses the UML.
repository
A DBMS element that contains data about each file in a database and each field in those
files. See also data dictionary.
request for
information (RFI)
Less formal document sent to a vendor during the system development cycle that uses a
standard form to request information about a product or service.
request for proposal
(RFP)
Document sent to a vendor during the system development cycle where the vendor
selects the product(s) that meets specified requirements and then quotes the price(s).
request for quotation
(RFQ)
Document sent to a vendor during the system development cycle that identifies required
products.
request for system
services
Written, formal request for a new or modified system. See also project request.
schedule feasibility
Measure of whether established deadlines for a project are reasonable.
scope
The goal, required activities, time estimates for each activity, cost estimates for each
activity, order of activities, and activities that can take place at the same time during
system development.
scope creep
Problem that occurs when one activity has led to another that was not originally planned,
thereby causing the project to grow.
scribe
System development team member who records facts and action items assigned during a
JAD session.
source
Element in a DFD, indicated by a square, that identifies an entity outside the scope of a
system.
standards
Sets of rules and procedures a company expects employees to accept and follow.
steering committee
Decision-making body in a company.
structured analysis
and design
Analysis and design technique that describes processes that transform inputs into
outputs. See also process modeling
structured English
Style of writing that describes the steps in a process; used to enter items in a project
dictionary.
subclasses
Lower levels in a class diagram that inherit the methods and attributes of the objects in its
higher-level class.
system
Set of components that interact to achieve a common goal.
system developer
Person responsible for designing and developing an information system. See also
Systems analyst.
system development
Set of activities used to build an information system, including planning, analysis, design,
implementation, and support.
system development
life cycle (SDLC)
Collection of phases in system development.
system proposal
Document that assesses the feasibility of each alternative solution and then recommends
the most feasible solution for a project.
systems analyst
Person responsible for designing and developing an information system. See also system
developer.
systems developer
Person responsible for designing and developing an information system. See also
systems analyst.
systems test
Test performed during the program development cycle that verifies all programs in an
application work together properly.
technical feasibility
Measure of whether an organization has or can obtain the hardware, software, and people
needed to deliver and then support a proposed information system.
trade publication
Magazine written for a specific business or industry.
training
Showing users exactly how they will use new hardware and software in a system.
turnkey solution
Complete systems offered by value-added resellers.
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turnkey solution
Complete systems offered by value-added resellers.
UML
Unified Modeling Language; graphical tool that enables systems analysts to document a
system, which has been adopted as a standard notation for object modeling and
development.
Unified Modeling
Language
Graphical tool that enables systems analysts to document a system, which has been
adopted as a standard notation for object modeling and development.
unit test
Test performed during the program development cycle that verifies each individual
program or object works by itself.
use case
UML tool that graphically shows how actors interact with the information system.
use case diagram
Analysis and design tool in the UML that graphically shows how actors interact with the
information system.
users
Anyone for whom the system is being built.
value-added reseller
(VAR)
Company that purchases products from manufacturers and then resells these products to
the public – offering additional services with the product.
vertical market
software
Packaged software specifically designed for a particular business or industry.
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Chapter 13
.NET
Microsoft’s set of technologies that allows almost any type of program to run on the Internet
or an internal business network, as well as stand-alone computers and mobile devices.
4GL
Fourth-generation language; nonprocedural language that enables users and programmers
to access data in a database.
Active X
Set of object-oriented technologies by Microsoft that allows components on a network to
communicate with one another.
ActiveX control
Small program that runs on a client computer, instead of the server.
Ada
Programming language derived from Pascal, developed by the U.S. Department of
Defense, named after Augusta Ada Lovelace Byron, thought to be the first female computer
programmer.
Ajax
Asynchronous JavaScript and XML. Method of creating interactive Web applications
designed to provide immediate response to user requests.
ALGOL
ALGOrithmic Language. The first structured procedural programming language.
algorithm
Set of steps.
annotation symbol
Flowchart symbol that explains or clarifies logic in a solution algorithm. See also comment
symbol.
API
Application programming interface; collection of tools that programmers use to interact with
an environment such as a Web site or operating system.
APL
A Programming Language. Scientific language designed to manipulate tables of numbers.
applet
Interpreted program that runs on a client, but is compiled.
application
generator
Program that creates source code or machine code from a specification of the required
functionality.
ASCII file
File that does not contain any formatting, that is, no graphics, italics, bold, underlining,
styles, bullets, shading, color, or any other type of graphical format.
ASP.NET
Web application framework that provides the tools necessary for the creation of dynamic
Web sites.
assembler
Program used by programmers to convert assembly language source program into machine
language.
assembly language
Programming language in which a programmer writes instructions using symbolic
instruction codes.
ATOM
XML application that content aggregators use to distribute content to subscribers.
BASIC
Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code. Programming language developed by
John Kemeny and Thomas Kurtz as a simple, interactive problem-solving language.
beta
Program that has most or all of its features and functionality implemented.
bugs
Program errors.
bytecode
Resulting object code in a Java program.
C
Programming language developed in the early 1970s at Bell Laboratories used for business
and scientific applications.
C#
Object-oriented programming language based on C++ developed primarily by Anders
Hejlsberg at Microsoft.
C++
Object-oriented programming language developed at Bell Laboratories that is an extension
of the C programming language.
cascading style
sheet (CSS)
Contains formats for how a particular object should be displayed in a Web browser.
case control
structure
Type of selection control structure that can yield one of three or more possibilities.
CGI (common
gateway interface)
Communications standard that defines how a Web server communicates with outside
sources.
CGI script
Program that manages sending and receiving across a CGI.
CLR
Common Language Runtime; environment that enables programmers to develop .NET
programs using a variety of languages.
Chapter 13 Page 61
COBOL
COmmon Business-Oriented Language. Programming language designed for business
applications, which evolved out of a joint effort between the United States government,
businesses, and major universities in the early 1960s.
code
Programming term meaning to write.
code review
Process of programmers, quality control testers, and/or peers reviewing code in order to
locate and fix errors so that the final programs work correctly.
code snippets
Prewritten code and templates associated with common programming tasks.
coding
Translating a solution algorithm into a programming language and then typing the
programming language code into the computer.
comment symbol
Flowchart symbol that explains or clarifies logic in a solution algorithm. See also annotation
symbol.
comments
Internal documentation contained in a program.
COmmon BusinessOriented Language
Programming language designed for business applications, which evolved out of a joint
effort between the United States government, businesses, and major universities in the
early 1960s. See also COBOL.
compiler
Separate program that converts an entire source program into machine language before
executing it.
computer program
Series of instructions that directs a computer to perform tasks
construct
Used during program design, a depiction of the logical order of program instructions. See
also control structure.
control structure
Used during program design, a depiction of the logical order of program instructions. See
also construct.
counter
Web site element that tracks the number of visitors to a Web site.
dead code
Any program instructions that a program never executes.
debug utility
Utility that assists programmers with identifying syntax errors and finding logic errors. See
also debugger.
debugger
Utility that assists programmers with identifying syntax errors and finding logic errors. See
also debug utility.
debugging
Process of locating and correcting syntax and logic errors in a program.
Delphi
Powerful visual programming tool that is ideal for large-scale enterprise and Web
application development.
design tools
Tools such as pseudocode and program flowcharts that help programmers document a
solution algorithm.
desk check
Validation technique in which programmers use test data to step through a program’s logic.
developer
Person who creates and modifies computer programs. See also programmer.
Director
Multimedia authoring program with powerful features that allow programmers to create
highly interactive multimedia applications.
do-until control
structure
Type of repetition control structure similar to a do-while control structure, except it tests the
condition at the end of the loop and continues looping until the condition is true.
do-while control
structure
Type of repetition control structure that repeats one or more times as long as a condition is
true.
document object
model (DOM)
Format that defines every item on a Web page as an object, allowing developers to change
properties, such as color or size, of any or all of the objects on the Web page
Dreamweaver
Web page authoring program by Adobe Systems that allows Web developers to create,
maintain, and manage professional Web sites.
dynamic HTML
(DHTML)
Type of HTML that allows Web developers to include more graphical interest and
interactivity in a Web page.
Eclipse
Open source, advanced development environment that works with a variety of programs
including Java and C++.
elements
HTML words, abbreviations, and symbols that specify links to other documents and indicate
how a Web page is displayed when viewed on the Web. See also tags.
encapsulation
Concept of packaging data and procedures into a single object.
event
An action to which a program responds.
event-driven
program
Program that checks for and responds to events.
execute
Process of a computer carrying out the instructions in a program.
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execute
Process of a computer carrying out the instructions in a program.
Expression Web
Microsoft's Web page authoring program that enables Web developers to create
professional, dynamic, interactive Web sites.
extreme
programming (XP)
Strategy that proposed that programmers should immediately begin coding and testing
solutions as soon as requirements are defined.
F#
Programming language included with Visual Studio 2010 that combines the benefits of an
object-oriented language with the benefits of a functional language.
Flash
Web page authoring program by Adobe Systems that enables Web developers to combine
interactive content with text, graphics, audio, and video.
flowchart
Graphically shows the logic in a solution algorithm. See also program flowchart.
flowcharting
software
Software used by programmers to help develop flowcharts.
form
Window on the screen that provides areas for entering or changing data in a database. See
also data entry form.
Forth
Programming language similar to C, used for small computerized devices.
FORTRAN
FORmula TRANslator. One of the first high-level programming languages used for scientific
applications.
fourth-generation
language
Nonprocedural language that enables users and programmers to access data in a
database.
functional language
Programming language whose natural programming structure is useful in mathematical
programs.
global comments
Internal documentation, usually at the top of a program, that explains the program’s
purpose and identifies the program name, its author, and date written.
hierarchy chart
Structured design tool that shows program modules graphically. See also structure chart.
high-level language
Programming language in which each language instruction typically equates to multiple
machine instructions.
HTML
Hypertext Markup Language; special formatting language that programmers use to format
documents for display on the Web.
HyperTalk
Object-oriented programming language developed by Apple to manipulate cards that can
contain text, graphics, and sound.
Hypertext Markup
Language
Special formatting language that programmers use to format documents for display on the
Web.
IDE (integrated
development
environment)
Includes program development tools for building graphical user interfaces, an editor for
entering program code, a compiler and/or interpreter, and a debugger.
if-then-else control
structure
Type of selection control structure that yields only one of two possibilities: true or false.
image map
Graphical image that points to one or more Web addresses.
implementation
Process of generating or writing code that translates a program design into a program and,
if necessary, creating the user interface.
internal comments
Documentation that appears throughout the body of the program that explains the purpose
of the code statements within the program.
interpreter
Program used to convert a source program into machine language and then executes the
machine language instructions.
IPO chart
Chart that identifies a program’s inputs, its outputs, and the processing steps required to
transform the inputs into the outputs.
Java
Object-oriented programming language developed by Sun Microsystems.
Java EE (Java
Platform, Enterprise
Edition)
Set of technologies built on Sun's Java EE that allows programmers to develop and deploy
Web services for a company, often used in Web 2.0 environments.
Java Platform, Micro
Edition (Java ME)
Java platform used to create programs for smart phones and other mobile devices.
Java Platform,
Standard Edition
(Java SE)
Java platform developed by Sun Microsystems to create stand-alone programs for desktop
computers and servers.
JavaScript
Interpreted language that allows a programmer to add dynamic content and interactive
elements to a Web page.
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just-in-time (JIT)
compiler
Program that converts bytecode into machine-dependent code that is executed
immediately.
keywords
(programming
language)
Command words used in programming.
LISP
LISt Processing. Programming language used for artificial intelligence applications.
logic error
Flaw in program design that causes inaccurate results.
LOGO
An educational tool used to teach programming and problem-solving to children.
loop
Type of control structure that enables a program to perform one or more actions repeatedly
as long as a certain condition is met. See also repetition control structure.
low-level language
Programming language that is machine dependent.
machine language
The only language a computer directly recognizes, using a series of binary digits or a
combination of numbers and letters that represent binary digits.
machine-dependent
language
Programming language that runs on only one particular type of computer.
machineindependent
language
Programming language that can run on many different types of computers and operating
systems.
macro (application
program)
Series of statements that instructs an application how to complete a task.
macro (assembly
language)
Capability of assembly language that generates many machine language instructions for a
single assembly language instruction.
macro recorder
Program development tool that records all actions until it is turned off.
main module
Main function of a program. See also main routine.
main routine
Main function of a program. See also main module.
maintaining
Act of correcting errors or adding enhancements to an existing program.
menu generator
Application generator feature that enables users to create a menu for the application
options.
Microsoft
Intermediate
Language (MSIL)
Resulting object code compiled by a .NET-compatible language.
Modula-2
Successor to Pascal programming language used for developing systems software.
modules
Smaller sections into which a main routine is broken down by a programmer during
structured design. See also subroutines.
mouse rollover
Event that occurs when text, a graphic, or other object changes as the user moves the
mouse pointer over an object on the screen. See also mouseover.
mouseover
Event that occurs when text, a graphic, or other object changes as the user moves the
mouse pointer over an object on the screen. See also mouse rollover.
multimedia
authoring software
Software that allows users to combine text, graphics, audio, video, and animation in an
interactive application and that often is used for computer-based training and Web-based
presentations.
nonprocedural
language
Type of programming language in which a programmer writes English-like instructions or
interacts with a graphical environment to retrieve data from files or a database.
object
Database item that contains data, as well as the actions that read or process the data.
object code
Machine language version of a program that results from compiling a 3GL source program.
See also object program.
object program
Machine language version of a program that results from compiling a 3GL source program.
See also object code.
object-oriented (OO)
design
Design approach in which a programmer packages the data and program (or procedure)
into a single unit, an object.
object-oriented
programming (OOP)
language
Programming language used to implement an object-oriented design.
open language
Term that refers to a language anyone can use without purchasing a license.
Pascal
Programming language developed to teach students structured programming concepts,
named in honor of Blaise Pascal, a French mathematician who developed one of the
earliest calculating machines.
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earliest calculating machines.
Perl
Practical Extraction and Report Language; scripting language developed at NASA’s Jet
Propulsion Laboratory as a procedural language similar to C and C++.
PHP
PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor; free, open source scripting language.
PILOT
Programmed Inquiry Learning Or Teaching; programming language used to write computeraided instruction programs.
PL/I
Programming Language One; business and scientific programming language that combines
many features of FORTRAN and COBOL.
posttest
Process used in a do-until control structure that tests a condition at the end of the loop.
PowerBuilder
Powerful program development RAD tool developed by Sybase that is best suited for Webbased, .NET, and large-scale enterprise object-oriented applications.
Practical Extraction
and Report
Language
Scripting language developed at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory as a procedural
language similar to C and C++.
pretest
Process used in a do-while control structure that tests a condition at the beginning of the
loop.
procedural language
Type of programming language in which a programmer writes instructions that tell the
computer what to accomplish and how to do it using a series of English-like words to write
instructions. See also third-generation language (3GL).
processing form
Web site element that collects data from site visitors, who fill in blank fields and then click a
button that sends the information. Often simply called a form.
program
development
Series of steps programmers use to build computer programs.
program
development life
cycle (PDLC)
Series of steps programmers use to build computer programs, consisting of six steps: (1)
analyze requirements, (2) design solution, (3) validate design, (4) implement design, (5) test
solution, and (6) document solution.
program
development tool
Program that provides a user-friendly environment for building programs.
program flowchart
Graphically shows the logic in a solution algorithm. See also flowchart.
program logic
Graphical or written description of the step-by-step procedures to solve a problem. See also
solution algorithm.
programmer
Person who creates and modifies computer programs. See also developer.
programming
language
Set of words, abbreviations, and symbols that enables a programmer to communicate
instructions to a computer.
programming team
A group of programmers that may develop programs during the program development
cycle.
Prolog
PROgramming LOGic. Programming language used for development of artificial intelligence
applications.
pseudocode
Design tool that uses a condensed form of English to convey program logic.
RAD
Rapid application development; method of developing software in which a programmer
writes and implements a program in segments instead of waiting until an entire program is
completed.
Rails
Ruby on Rails; open source framework that provides technologies for developing objectoriented, database-driven Web sites. See also Ruby; RoR; Ruby on Rails.
rapid application
development
Method of developing software in which a programmer writes and implements a program in
segments instead of waiting until an entire program is completed.
repetition control
structure
Type of control structure that enables a program to perform one or more actions repeatedly
as long as a certain condition is met. See also loop.
report writer
DBMS feature that allows users to design a report on the screen, retrieve data into the
report design, and then display or print the report. See also report generator.
Restructured
Extended Executor
Restructured Extended Executor. Procedural interpreted scripting language for both
professional programmers and nontechnical users.
Rexx
Restructured Extended Executor. Procedural interpreted scripting language for both
professional programmers and nontechnical users.
RoR
Ruby on Rails; open source framework that provides technologies for developing objectoriented, database-driven Web sites. See also Ruby; Rails; Ruby on Rails.
RPG
Report Program Generator; programming language used to assist businesses in generating
reports and to access/update data in databases.
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reports and to access/update data in databases.
RSS 2.0
Really Simple Syndication; specification that content aggregators use to distribute content
to subscribers.
Ruby
Ruby on Rails. Open source framework that provides technologies for developing objectoriented, database-driven Web sites. See also RoR; Rails; Ruby on Rails.
Ruby on Rails
Open source framework that provides technologies for developing object-oriented,
database-driven Web sites. See also Ruby; Rails; RoR.
run-time error
Program error or event that causes the program to stop running.
script
Interpreted program that runs on a client.
scripting language
Interpreted language that typically is easy to learn and use.
selection control
structure
Type of control structure that tells the program which action to take, based on a certain
condition.
sequence control
structure
Type of control structure that shows one or more actions following each other in order.
servlet
Applet that runs on a server.
SharePoint Designer Web page authoring program that is part of the Microsoft Office and SharePoint families of
products.
Smalltalk
Object-oriented programming language.
solution algorithm
Graphical or written description of the step-by-step procedures to solve a problem. See also
program logic.
source program
Program that contains the language instructions, or code, to be converted to machine
language.
SQL
Query language that allows users to manage, update, and retrieve data in a relational
DBMS.
structure chart
Structured design tool that shows program modules graphically. See also hierarchy chart.
structured design
Program design approach in which a programmer typically begins with a general design
and moves toward a more detailed design. See also top-down design.
style sheet
Contains descriptions of a document’s characteristics.
subroutines
Smaller sections into which a main routine is broken down by a programmer during
structured design. See also modules.
symbolic address
Meaningful name used with assembly languages that identifies a storage location.
symbolic instruction
codes
Meaningful abbreviations used with an assembly language.
syntax
Set of grammar and rules that specifies how to write instructions for a solution algorithm.
syntax error
Program error that occurs when the code violates the syntax, or grammar, of the
programming language.
tags
HTML words, abbreviations, and symbols that specify links to other documents and indicate
how a Web page is displayed when viewed on the Web. See also elements.
Tcl
Tool Command Language; interpreted scripting language maintained by Sun Microsystems
Laboratories.
test data
Sample data that mimics real data a program will process once it is in production.
third-generation
language (3GL)
Type of programming language in which a programmer writes instructions that tell the
computer what to accomplish and how to do it using a series of English-like words to write
instructions. See also procedural language.
Tool Command
Language
See Tcl.
ToolBook
Multimedia authoring program with a graphical user interface that uses an object-oriented
approach, so that programmers can design multimedia applications using basic objects.
top-down design
Program design approach in which a programmer typically begins with a general design
and moves toward a more detailed design. See also structured design.
validate
Check for accuracy.
VBScript
Visual Basic, Scripting Edition; subset of the Visual Basic language that allows
programmers to add intelligence and interactivity to Web pages.
Visual Basic
Programming language that allows programmers easily to build complex task-oriented
object-based programs.
Visual Basic for
Programming language that can work with Visual Studio Tools for Office or a similar
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Visual Basic for
Applications (VBA)
Programming language that can work with Visual Studio Tools for Office or a similar
language as their macro programming language.
Visual Basic,
Scripting Edition
Subset of the Visual Basic language that allows programmers to add intelligence and
interactivity to Web pages.
Visual C#
Programming language that combines programming elements of C++ with an easier, rapid
development environment.
Visual C++
Programming language based on C++.
visual programming
environment (VPE)
Graphical interface in a visual programming language that allows programmers to drag and
drop objects to develop programs.
visual programming
language
Programming language that uses a visual or graphical interface for creating all source code.
Visual Studio
Suite of program development tools from Microsoft that assists programmers in building
programs for Windows, Windows Mobile, or operating systems that support
Microsoft’s .NET framework.
Visual Studio Tools
for Office (VSTO)
A set of tools integrated in Visual Studio that enables developers to create programs that
work with Microsoft's Office suite, including Word, Excel, PowerPoint, Outlook, and Project.
Web developers
Designers of Web pages.
Web page authoring
software
Software used to create Web pages that include graphical images, video, audio, animation,
and other special effects with interactive content.
WML
Wireless markup language; subset of XML that allows Web developers to design pages
specifically for microbrowsers.
XHTML
Extensible HTML; markup language that enables Web sites to be displayed more easily on
microbrowsers in smart phones and other mobile devices, as well as on desktop and
notebook computers.
XML
Extensible Markup Language; format for sharing data that allows Web developers to create
customized tags, as well as use predefined tags, used for developing a single Web site
whose content can be formatted to display appropriately on various devices.
XSL
Extensible Stylesheet Language; language for creating a style sheet that describes how to
present the data described in an XML document on a Web page.
XSLT
Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformation; extension of XSL that creates styles
sheets that describe how to transform XML documents into other types of documents.
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Chapter 14
3-D visualization
Technique used by engineers that allows them to interact with a product without the
need to build a prototype.
artificial intelligence (AI)
The application of human intelligence to computers.
availability
Measure of how often hardware is online.
backup plan
Component of a disaster recovery plan that specifies how a company uses backup files
and equipment to resume information processing.
batch processing
Processing technique in which the computer collects data over time and processes all
transactions later, as a group.
blade
Single card in a blade server.
blade server
Complete computer server, such as a Web server or network server, packed on a
single card. See also ultradense servers.
blade server chassis
Component in which blades in a blade server are held.
business intelligence (BI) Several types of applications and technologies for acquiring, storing, analyzing, and
providing access to information to help users make more sound business decisions.
business process
automation (BPA)
Automation that provides easy exchange of information among business applications,
reduces the need for human intervention in processes, and utilizes software to
automate processes wherever possible.
business process
management (BPM)
Set of activities that enterprises perform to optimize their business processes, such as
accounting and finance, hiring employees, and purchasing goods and services.
centralized
Approach to information technology in which a company maintains central computers
supported by a central information technology department.
chief information officer
(CIO)
IT executive position that reports to the CEO.
click stream
Collection of every action that users make as they move through a Web site.
closed
Term used to describe information systems that are more difficult to interoperate with
other information systems. See also proprietary.
cloud computing
Internet service that provides computing needs to computer users.
cold site
Separate facility that mirrors a critical site, but does not become operational until the
critical site becomes unavailable.
computer-aided design
(CAD)
Software that aids in engineering, drafting, and design.
computer-aided
engineering (CAE)
Use of computers to test product designs.
computer-aided
manufacturing (CAM)
Use of computers to assist with manufacturing processes such as fabrication and
assembly.
computer-integrated
manufacturing (CIM)
Use of computers to integrate the many different operations of the manufacturing
process.
content management
system (CMS)
An information system that is a combination of databases, software, and procedures
that organizes and allows access to various forms of documents and other files,
including images and multimedia content.
controlling
Management activity that involves measuring performance and, if necessary, taking
corrective action.
core activities
Activities that relate to the main mission of a company.
customer interaction
management (CIM)
Software that manages the day-to-day interactions with customers, such as telephone
calls, e-mail interactions, Web interactions, and instant messaging sessions.
customer relationship
management (CRM)
System that manages information about customers, interactions with customers, past
purchases, and interest.
data center
Centralized location for managing and housing hardware and software.
data processing
Term used to refer to the function of computerized transaction processing systems.
data warehouse
Huge database that stores and manages the data required to analyze historical and
current transactions.
decentralized
Approach to information technology in which departments and divisions maintain their
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decentralized
Approach to information technology in which departments and divisions maintain their
own information systems.
decision support system
(DSS)
Information system that helps users analyze data and make decisions.
detailed report
Report generated by a management information system that lists just transactions.
disaster recovery plan
Written plan describing the steps a company would take to restore computer operations
in the event of a disaster. Contains four major components: emergency plan, backup
plan, recovery plan, and test plan.
distribution systems
Provides forecasting for inventory control, manages and tracks shipping of products,
and provides information and analysis on inventory in warehouses.
document management
system (DMS)
System that allows for storage and management of a company’s documents, such as
word processing documents, presentations, and spreadsheets.
downtime
Any time a computer crashes, needs repairs, or requires installation of replacement or
upgrade parts.
e-retail
Business transaction that occurs when retailers use the Web to sell their products and
services. See also e-tail.
e-tail
Business transaction that occurs when retailers use the Web to sell their products and
services. See also e-retail.
EDI (electronic data
interchange)
Set of standards that controls the transfer of business data and information among
computers both within and among enterprises.
emergency plan
Component of a disaster recovery plan that specifies the steps to be taken immediately
after a disaster strikes.
employee relationship
management (ERM)
system
Information system that automates and manages much of the communications between
the employees and the business.
empowering
Business trend of providing nonmanagement users with access to information
necessary to make decisions that previously were made by managers.
enterprise
Term that commonly describes a business or venture of any size.
enterprise computing
The use of computers in networks, such as LANs and WANs, or a series of
interconnected networks that encompass a variety of different operating systems,
protocols, and network architectures.
enterprise hardware
Devices geared for heavy use, maximum availability, and maximum efficiency that large
organizations use to manage and store information and data.
enterprise information
Information gathered in the ongoing operations of an enterprise-sized organization.
enterprise resource
planning (ERP)
Provides centralized, integrated software to help manage and coordinate the ongoing
activities of the enterprise.
enterprise search
Technology that allows users to perform searches across many enterprise-wide
information systems and databases.
enterprise storage
system
Strategy that focuses on the availability, protection, organization, and backup of storage
in a company.
enterprise-wide system
General purpose information systems in an enterprise that crosses the boundaries of
functional units and is used by one or more functional units in an enterprise.
exception criteria
Out-of-the-ordinary conditions that define the normal activity or status range in an
exception report.
exception report
Report generated by a management information system that identifies data outside of a
normal condition.
executive information
system (EIS)
A special type of decision support system that supports the strategic information needs
of executive management.
executive management
The highest management positions in a company, which focuses on the long-range
direction of the company.
expert system
Information system that captures and stores the knowledge of human experts and then
imitates human reasoning and decision making.
external sources
Source of data obtained from outside an enterprise, which might include interest rates,
trends, or raw material pricing.
extranet
Portion of a company’s network that allows customers or suppliers of a company to
access parts of an enterprise’s intranet.
failover
Process of one system automatically taking the place of a failed system.
Fibre Channel
Technology used to connect to storage systems at data rates up to 4 Gbps.
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Fibre Channel
Technology used to connect to storage systems at data rates up to 4 Gbps.
functional units
Individual operating entities in an enterprise.
grid computing
Technology that combines many servers and/or personal computers on a network to
act as one large computer.
high-availability system
System that continues running and performing tasks for at least 99 percent of the time.
hot site
Separate facility that mirrors the systems and operations of a critical site.
hot-swapping
Feature that allows components to be replaced while the rest of the system continues
to perform its tasks.
human resources
information system
(HRIS)
Information system that manages one or more human resources function(s).
indexes
Arranging content so that it later can be searched.
inference rules
Component of an expert system that contains a set of logical judgments that are
applied to the knowledge base each time a user describes a situation to the expert
system.
information architecture
Overall technology strategy of a company.
information system
Hardware, software, data, people, and procedures that a computer requires to generate
information.
internal sources
Source of data obtained from inside an enterprise, which might include sales order,
inventory records, or financial data from accounting and financial analyses.
Internet backup
Storage of data, information, and instructions on the Web.
interoperability
Sharing information with other information systems within an enterprise.
knowledge base
Component of an expert system that contains the combined subject knowledge and
experiences of human experts.
knowledge management
(KM)
The process by which an enterprise collects, archives, indexes, and retrieves its
knowledge, or resources.
knowledge management
software (KMS)
Software that assists in the task of knowledge management and captures the expertise
of knowledge workers, so that their knowledge is not lost when they leave the
company.
knowledge workers
Individuals whose jobs center on the collection, processing, and application of
information.
leading
Management activity, sometimes referred to as directing, that involves communicating
instructions and authorizing others to perform the necessary work.
legacy system
Information system that has existed within an organization for an extended length of
time and is relied upon heavily.
level 1
RAID storage design that writes data on two disks at the same time to duplicate the
data. See also mirroring.
management information Information system that generates accurate, timely, and organized information, so that
system (MIS)
managers and other users can make decisions, solve problems, supervise activities,
and track progress.
managers
Employees responsible for coordinating and controlling an organization’s resources.
Manufacturing Resource
Planning II (MRP II)
Extension of MRP that includes software that helps in scheduling, tracking production in
real time, and monitoring product quality.
market research system
Type of marketing information system that stores and analyzes data gathered from
demographics and surveys.
marketing information
system
Information system that serves as a central repository for the tasks of the marketing
functional unit.
Material Requirements
Planning (MRP)
Approach to information management in a manufacturing environment that uses
software to help monitor and control processes related to production.
metadata
Detailed data in a data dictionary about the data in a database.
middle management
Level of management responsible for implementing the strategic decision of executive
management.
mirroring
RAID storage design that writes data on two disks at the same time to duplicate the
data. See also level 1.
network attached
storage (NAS)
Server that is placed on a network with the sole purpose of providing storage to users
and information systems attached to the network.
nonmanagement
Production, clerical, and other personnel.
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nonmanagement
employees
Production, clerical, and other personnel.
office automation
Information system that enables employees to perform tasks using computers and
other electronic devices, instead of manually. See also office information system (OIS).
office information
system (OIS)
Information system that enables employees to perform tasks using computers and
other electronic devices, instead of manually. See also office automation.
online analytical
processing (OLAP)
Term used to refer to programs, such as those in a decision support system, that
analyze data.
online banking
E-commerce activity that allows users to pay bills from their computer or mobile device,
that is, transfer money electronically from their account to a payee's account.
online trading
E-commerce activity that allows users to invest in stocks, options, bonds, treasuries,
certificates of deposit, money markets, annuities, and mutual funds -- without using a
broker.
online transaction
processing (OLTP)
Processing technique in which the computer processes each transaction as it is
entered.
open
Term used to describe information systems that more easily share information with
other information systems.
operational decision
Decision that involves day-to-day activities within a company.
operational management Level of management that supervises the production, clerical, and other
nonmanagement employees of a company.
operations
Core activities of a business involving the creation, selling, and support of the products
and services that the company produces.
optical disc jukebox
Server that holds hundreds of optical discs that can contain programs and data. See
also optical disc server.
optical disc server
Server that holds hundreds of optical discs that can contain programs and data. See
also optical disc jukebox.
organizing
Management activity that includes identifying and combining resources, such as money
and people, so that the company can reach its goals and objectives.
outsourcing
Practice of offloading storage management to an outside organization or online Web
service.
personal computer blade Server configuration that works much like a blade server.
personalization
Customization of portal pages to meet users’ needs.
planning
Management activity that involves establishing goals and objectives.
portal
Web site that offers a variety of Internet services from a single, convenient location.
procedure
Instruction or set of instructions a user follows to accomplish an activity.
proprietary
Term used to describe information systems that are more difficult to interoperate with
other information systems. See also closed.
quality control software
Software that uses statistical analysis to identify and predict product defects and
problems with the company's processes.
quality control system
System used by an organization to maintain or improve the quality of its products or
services.
RAID (redundant array of Redundant array of independent disks; group of two or more integrated hard disks that
independent disks)
acts like a single large hard disk.
reciprocal backup
relationship
Agreement with another firm, where one firm provides space and sometimes equipment
to the other in case of a disaster.
recovery plan
Component of a disaster recovery plan that specifies the actions to be taken to restore
full information processing operations.
redundant components
Components used so that a functioning computer can take over automatically the tasks
of a similar component that fails.
repository
A DBMS element that contains data about each file in a database and each field in
those files. See also data dictionary.
sales force automation
(SFA)
Software that equips traveling salespeople with the electronic tools they need to be
more productive.
scalability
Measure of how well computer hardware, software, or an information system can grow
to meeting increasing performance demands.
security software
Software that enables an IT department to limit access to sensitive information.
server virtualization
Capability to logically divide a physical server into many virtual servers.
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server virtualization
Capability to logically divide a physical server into many virtual servers.
service-oriented
architecture (SOA)
Architecture that enterprises use so that information systems provide services to other
information systems in a well-defined manner over a network.
small- and medium-sized Business that is smaller in size than an enterprise and typically does not have an
business (SMB)
international presence.
storage appliance
Network attached storage server.
storage area network
(SAN)
High-speed network with the sole purpose of providing storage to other servers to
which it is attached.
storage virtualization
Capability to create a single logical storage device from many physical storage devices.
strategic decisions
Decisions that center on a company’s overall goals and objectives.
striping
RAID storage technique that splits data, instructions, and information across multiple
disks in the array.
summary report
Report generated by a management information system that consolidates data usually
with totals, tables, or graphs, so that managers can review it quickly and easily.
supporting activities
Activities relating to running a business.
tactical decisions
Short-range decisions that apply specific programs and plans necessary to meet stated
objectives.
tape library
Separate cabinet for larger computers in which tape cartridges are mounted.
technical lead
Employee who guides design, development, and maintenance tasks; serves as
interface between programmer/developer and management.
test plan
Component of a disaster recovery plan that contains information for simulating various
levels of disasters and recording an organization’s ability to recover.
thin client
Small terminal-like computer that mostly relies on a server for data storage and
processing.
transaction
Individual business activity.
transaction processing
system (TPS)
Information system that captures and processes data from day-to-day business
activities.
ultradense server
Complete computer server, such as a Web server or network server, packed on a
single card. See also blade servers.
uptime
Measurement of availability.
virtual private network
(VPN)
Network that provides a mobile user with a secure connection to a company network
server, as if the user has a private line.
virtualization
Practice of sharing or pooling computing resources, such as servers and storage
devices.
VPN tunnel
Secure connection created over the Internet between the user’s computer and the
company’s network.
Web farming
Process of collecting data from the Internet as a source for a data warehouse.
Web services
Set of software technologies that allows businesses to create products and B2B
(business-to-business) interactions over the Internet.
Web site management
programs
Software that collects data designed to help organizations make informed decisions
regarding their Web presence.
workflow
Defined process that identifies the specific set of steps involved in completing a
particular project or business process.
workflow application
Program that assists in the management and tracking of all the activities in a business
process from start to finish.
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10:49 AM
A+
Hardware certification that tests entry-level knowledge of personal computer setup,
configuration, maintenance, troubleshooting; basic networking skills; and system
software.
Adobe Certified
Associate
Application software certification that tests user's expertise in a variety of Adobe
software including Flash and Dreamweaver.
Adobe Certified Expert
(ACE)
Application software certification that tests a user’s expertise on Adobe software.
Adobe Certified
Instructor (ACI)
Application software certification that demonstrates a user's ability to provide instruction
on Adobe software.
articulation agreement
Agreement between educational institutions that ensures credits will be received for
courses taken at another school.
Association for
Computing Machinery
(ACM)
Scientific and educational organization dedicated to advancing knowledge and
proficiency of information technology.
Association of
Information Technology
Professionals (AITP)
Professional organization with more than 9,000 members consisting of programmers,
systems analysts, and information processing managers.
certification
Process of verifying the technical knowledge of an individual who has demonstrated
competence in a particular area.
Certified Computer
Examiner (CCE)
Digital forensics certification that tests core knowledge of acquisition, marking,
handling, and storage of computer evidence using a particular operating system.
Certified Computer
Forensics Examiner
(CCFE)
Digital forensics certification that tests in-depth knowledge of forensic imaging,
examination, collection, and reporting.
Certified Electronic
Evidence Collection
Specialist (CEECS)
Digital forensics certification that tests basic knowledge of forensic ethics, imaging,
examination, collection, and reporting.
Certified Forensic
Computer Examiner
(CFCE)
Digital forensics certification that tests in-depth knowledge of forensic imaging,
examination, collection, and reporting.
Certified Information
Forensics Investigator
(CIFI)
Digital forensics certification that tests knowledge of information forensics in areas
related to auditing, incident response, law and investigation, tools and techniques,
traceback, and countermeasures.
Certified Information
Systems Security
Professional (CISSP)
Security certification that tests in-depth knowledge of access control methods,
information systems development, cryptography, operations security, physical security,
and network and Internet security.
Certified Internet
Webmaster (CIW)
Internet certification that tests knowledge of Web development, security, and
administration.
Certified Software
Development Associate
(CSDA)
Programmer/developer certification that tests basic knowledge of software development
processes and tools.
Certified Software
Development
Professional (CSDP)
Programmer/developer certification that tests advanced knowledge of software
development process and tools.
Certified Web
Professional (CWP)
Internet certification that tests advanced knowledge in areas of Web site design and
development, and server administration and security.
chief information officer
(CIO)
Employee who directs the company’s information service and communications
functions. See also chief technology officer (CTO).
chief security officer
(CSO)
Employee responsible for physical security of a company’s property and people; in
charge of security computing resources.
chief technology officer
(CTO)
Employee who directs the company’s information service and communications
functions. See also chief information officer (CIO).
Cisco Certified
Internetwork Expert
Internet certification that tests expert level knowledge in areas of internetwork
communications, security, routing, and switching.
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Internetwork Expert
(CCIE)
communications, security, routing, and switching.
Cisco Certified Network
Associate (CCNA)
Networking certification that tests basic knowledge of installing, configuring, and
operating LAN, WAN, and dial-up access services for small networks.
Cisco Certified Network
Professional (CCNP)
Networking certification that tests advanced knowledge of installing, configuring, and
operating LANs and WANs.
compositor
Employee who formats and combines text and graphics to produce publication-ready
materials. See also desktop publisher.
computer engineering
(CE)
Curriculum that teaches students how to design and develop the electronic components
found in computers and peripheral devices.
computer equipment
field
Consists of manufacturers and distributors of computers and computer-related
hardware such as magnetic and optical drives, monitors, printers, and communications
and networking devices.
computer games
designer/programmer
Employee who designs computer games and translates the design into a computer
program using an appropriate computer language.
computer information
systems (CIS)
Curriculum that teaches students technical knowledge and skills and focuses on how to
apply these skills. Also called management information systems (MIS) or management
information technology. See also information technology (IT).
computer operator
Employee who performs equipment-related activities such as monitoring performance,
running jobs, backup, and restore.
computer salespeople
Job that requires a general understanding of computers and a specific knowledge of the
product being sold.
computer science (CS)
Curriculum that focuses on the theory of programming and operating systems.
computer science/IT
instructor
Professional who teaches basic computer courses in addition to specialized classes
such as computer engineering, Internet development, networking, programming, or
systems analysis and design.
computer scientist
Employee who researches, invents, and develops innovative solutions to complex
software requirements or problems.
computer security
specialist
Employee responsible for the security and data and information stored on computers
and mobile devices within an organization. See also mobile security specialist.
computer service and
repair field
Provides preventive maintenance, component installation, and repair services to
customers.
computer software field
Consists of companies that develop, manufacture, and support a wide range of
software.
computer technician
Employee who installs, maintains, and repairs hardware; installs, upgrades, and
configures software; and troubleshoots hardware problems.
computerized adaptive
testing (CAT)
Testing technique where the tests analyze a person’s responses while taking the test.
corporate trainer
Employee who teaches employees who to use software, design and develop systems,
program, and perform other computer-related activities.
data communications
analyst
Employee who evaluates, installs, and monitors data and/or voice communications
equipment and software; maintains connections to the Internet and other WANs. See
also VoIP specialist.
database administrator
Employee who creates and maintains the data dictionary; manages security and
monitors performance of the database.
database analyst
Employee who uses modeling techniques and tools to analyze, tune, and specify data
usage within an application area.
Dell Certified Systems
Expert
Hardware certification that tests knowledge of computer configuration and installation,
troubleshooting, operating system fundamentals, and hardware replacement.
desktop or mobile
application
programmer/developer
Employee who converts the system design into the appropriate computer language,
such as Visual Basic 2005, Java, C#, and C+.
desktop publisher
Employee who formats and combines text and graphics to produce publication-ready
materials. See also compositor.
digital forensics
examiner
Employee who collects and analyzes evidence found on computers and networks.
e-commerce director
Employee who supervised the development and execution of Internet or e-commerce
systems; works with the company’s marketing and customer service divisions.
end-user certifications
Software certifications.
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end-user certifications
Software certifications.
graphic designer
Employee who develops visual impressions of products for advertisements and
marketing materials.
Help desk specialist
Employee who answers hardware, software, or networking questions in person, over
the telephone, and/or in a chat room.
IBM Certified
Professional for Lotus
Software
Application software certification that tests a user’s knowledge of Lotus programs.
IBM Certified Solution
Developer
Programmer/developer certification that tests knowledge of developing XML
applications with Web services.
IBM Certified Solutions
Expert - DB2
Database certification that tests skills of administration of the DB2 database
management system.
IBM Certified Solutions
Expert - Informix
Database certification that tests advanced skills of administration of the Informix
database management system.
IBM Certified Specialist
Operating system certification that tests knowledge of AIX operating system and
network security.
IBM eServer Certified
Specialist
Hardware certification that tests knowledge of IBM eServer line.
illustrator
Employee who develops visual impressions of products for advertisements and
marketing materials.
Institute for the
Certification of
Computing
Professionals (ICCP)
Professional organization that offers certifications and defines standards designed to
raise the competence level for the computer industry.
International Consumer
Electronics Show (CES)
Large technology trade show, which brings together more than 130,000 attendees.
IT consultant
Employee, typically hired based on computer expertise, who provides computer
services to his or her clients.
IT department
Group of employees who work together as a team to meet the information requirements
of their organization and are responsible for keeping all the computer operations and
networks running smoothly.
management information Curriculum that teaches students technical knowledge and skills and focuses on how to
systems (MIS)
apply these skills. See also management information technology or computer
information systems (CIS).
management information Curriculum that teaches students technical knowledge and skills and focuses on how to
technology
apply these skills. See also management information systems (MIS) or computer
information systems (CIS).
Microsoft Certified
Desktop Support
Technician (MCDST)
Application software certification that tests a user’s skills solving problems associated
with applications that run on Windows Vista and the operating system itself.
Microsoft Certified IT
Professional (MCITP)
Database certification that tests skills required to use SQL Server 2005 to design or
install, manage, and maintain a database system.
Microsoft Certified
Professional Developer
(MCPD)
Programmer/developer certification that tests knowledge of developing Web and
Windows-based applications using programs in the Visual Studio 2005 suite and
the .NET framework.
Microsoft Certified
Systems Administrator
(MCSA)
Operating systems certification that tests technical expertise in one of several areas
including managing and troubleshooting networks using Windows operating systems.
Microsoft Certified
Technology Specialist
(MCTS)
Operating systems certification that tests technical expertise in a specialized area
including Windows and .NET environments.
Microsoft Office
Specialist (MOS) - Core
Application software certification that tests a user's basic skills of Microsoft Office and
other related programs.
Microsoft Office
Application software certification that tests a user's advanced skills of Microsoft Office
Specialist (MOS) - Expert Word and Excel in industry applications such as budgets, publications, and
collaboration.
mobile security
specialist
Employee responsible for the security and data and information stored on computers
and mobile devices within an organization. See also computer security specialist.
NACSE Hardware
Technician
Hardware certification that tests basic knowledge of personal computers, operating
systems, and cabling.
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Technician
systems, and cabling.
network administrator
Employee who installs, configures, and maintains LANs, WANs, wireless networks,
intranets, and Internet systems; identifies and resolves connectivity issues. See also
wireless network administrator.
network security
administrator
Employee who configures routers and firewalls; specifies Web protocols and enterprise
technologies.
Network+
Networking certification that tests competency in several network areas including
transmission media and topologies, protocols, and standards.
Novell Certified
Administrator (NCA)
Networking certification that tests knowledge of Novell’s networking products including
NetWare, IntraNetWare, and GroupWise.
Novell Certified Engineer Networking certification that tests knowledge of designing, configuring, implementing,
(NCE)
administering, and troubleshooting the Novell network system.
Novell Certified Linux
Professional (CLP)
Operating systems certification that tests technical expertise in installing, managing,
and troubleshooting the Linux operating system.
Oracle Certified
Professional (OCP)
Database certification that tests knowledge of developing and deploying large-scale
Oracle database management systems.
project leader/manager
Employee who oversees all assigned projects, allocates resources, selects teams,
performs systems analysis and programming tasks, and conducts performance
appraisals.
quality assurance
specialist
Employee who reviews programs and documentation to ensure they meet the
organization’s standards.
Red Hat Certified
Engineer (RHCE)
Operating system certification that tests technical expertise of setting up and
administering network services and the Linux operating system.
Red Hat Certified
Technician (RHCT)
Operating system certification that tests basic knowledge of setting up and managing a
Linux operating system.
security administrator
Employee who administers network security access; monitors and protects against
unauthorized access.
Security Certified
Network Architect
(SCNA)
Security certification that tests network security skills related to wireless security, e-mail
security, digital certificates, digital signatures, and biometrics.
Security Certified
Network Professional
(SCNP)
Security certification that tests skills with firewalls and defending against network
intrusions.
Security Certified
Network Specialist
(SCNS)
Security certification that tests basic network security skills.
software engineering
Curriculum that focuses on the theory of programming and operating systems. See also
computer science (CS).
special interest groups
(SIGs)
Organization that brings together members with shared interests, needs, knowledge,
and experience.
sponsoring
organizations
Vendors that develop and administer examinations to determine whether a person is
qualified for certification.
storage
administrator/analyst
Employee who installs, maintains, and upgrades storage systems and analyzes an
organization's storage needs.
Sun Certified Enterprise
Architect (SCEA)
Programmer/developer certification that tests knowledge of creating and maintaining
J2EE applications.
Sun Certified Java
Developer (SCJD)
Programmer/developer certification that tests advanced knowledge of Java
programming language.
Sun Certified Java
Programmer (SCJP)
Programmer/developer certification that tests basic knowledge of Java programming
language.
Sun Certified Mobile
Application Developer
(SCMAD)
Programmer/developer certification that tests knowledge of using Java to create
applications for mobile devices such as smart phones.
Sun Certified Network
Administrator (SCNA)
Networking certification that tests knowledge of administering Sun networks.
Sun Certified System
Administrator (SCSA)
Operating system certification that tests knowledge of administering the Solaris
operating system.
Sybase Certified
Professional
Database certification that tests skills in developing and administering Sybase database
management systems.
Chapter 15 Page 76
Professional
management systems.
systems analyst
Person responsible for designing and developing an information system. See also
system developer.
systems programmer
Employee who installs and maintains operating system software and provides technical
support to the programming staff.
Systems Security
Certified Practitioner
(SSCP)
Security certification that tests basic knowledge of access controls, cryptography, data
communications, and malicious code.
technical writer
Employee who works with the analyst, programmer, and user to create system
documentation and user materials.
trade school
Educational institution that offers programs primarily in areas of programming, Web
design and development, graphics design, hardware maintenance, networking,
personal computer support, and security. Also called a technical school, vocational
school, or career college.
user group
Collection of people with common computer equipment or software interests that meets
regularly to share information.
video resume
Resume in video form posted to Web sites.
VoIP specialist
Employee who installs and monitors communications equipment and software;
maintains Internet/WAN connections. See also data communications analyst.
Web administrator
Employee who maintains an organization’s Web site; creates or helps users create
Web pages; oversees Web site performance. See also Webmaster.
Web designer
Employee who develops graphical content using Photoshop, Flash, and other
multimedia tools.
Web software developer
Employee who analyzes, designs, implements, and supports Web applications; works
with HTML, Ajax, JavaScript, and multimedia.
Webmaster
Employee who maintains an organization’s Web site; creates or helps users create
Web pages; oversees Web site performance. See also Web administrator.
wireless network
administrator
Employee who installs, configures, and maintains LANs, WANs, wireless networks,
intranets, and Internet systems; identifies and resolves connectivity issues. See also
network administrator.
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