User Manual: PMM 9010 EMI Signal Analyzer

User Manual: PMM 9010 EMI Signal Analyzer
NARDA
Safety
Test
Solutions
S.r.l. Socio Unico
Sales & Support:
Via Leonardo da Vinci, 21/23
20090 Segrate (MI) - ITALY
Tel.: +39 02 2699871
Fax: +39 02 26998700
Manufacturing Plant:
Via Benessea, 29/B
17035 Cisano sul Neva (SV)
Tel.: +39 0182 58641
Fax: +39 0182 586400
http://www.narda-sts.it
User’s Manual
PMM 9010
EMI SIGNAL ANALYZER
10 Hz ÷ 30 MHz
EQUIPMENT SERIAL NUMBER
You can find the Serial Number on the rear panel of the instrument.
Serial Number is in the form: 0000X00000.
The first four digits and the letter are the Serial Number prefix, the last five digits are
the Serial Number suffix. The prefix is the same for identical instruments, it changes
only when a configuration change is made to the instrument.
The suffix is different for each instrument.
Document 9010EN-70306-1.59 – Copyright © NARDA 2007
NOTE:
If the instrument is used in any other way than as described in this Users Manual, it may become unsafe
Before using this product, the related documentation must be read with great care and fully understood to
familiarize with all the safety prescriptions.
To ensure the correct use and the maximum safety level, the User shall know all the instructions and
recommendations contained in this document.
This product is a Safety Class I instrument according to IEC classification and has been designed to meet
the requirements of EN61010-1 (Safety Requirements for Electrical Equipment for Measurement, Control
and Laboratory Use).
In accordance with the IEC classification, the battery charger of this product meets requirements Safety
Class II and Installation Category II (having double insulation and able to carry out mono-phase power
supply operations).
This product has a Pollution Degree II normally only non-conductive pollution occurs. Occasionally,
however, a temporary conductivity caused by condensation must be expected.
The information contained in this document is subject to change without notice.
EXPLANATION OF ELECTRICAL AND SAFETY SYMBOLS :
You now own a high-quality instrument that will give you many years of reliable service.
Nevertheless, even this product will eventually become obsolete. When that time
comes, please remember that electronic equipment must be disposed of in accordance
with local regulations. This product conforms to the WEEE Directive of the European
Union (2002/96/EC) and belongs to Category 9 (Monitoring and Control Instruments).
You can return the instrument to us free of charge for proper environment friendly
disposal. You can obtain further information from your local Narda Sales Partner or by
visiting our website at www.narda-sts.it .
Warning, danger of electric shock
Earth
Read carefully the Operating Manual and its
instructions, pay attention to the safety
symbols.
Unit Earth Connection
Earth Protection
Equipotential
EXPLANATION OF SYMBOLS USED IN THIS DOCUMENT :
The DANGER sign draws attention to a potential risk to a
DANGER person’s safety. All the precautions must be fully understood
and applied before proceeding.
WARNING
The WARNING sign draws attention to a potential risk of
damage to the apparatus or loss of data. All the precautions
must be fully understood and applied before proceeding.
CAUTION
The CAUTION sign draws attention against unsafe practices
for the apparatus functionality.
NOTE:
II
The NOTE draw attention to important information.
Note and symbols
Contents
Safety recommendations and instructions.………....……………….
EC Conformity Certificate…….....................................………………
Page
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IX
1. General Information
1.1 Documentation………………………………………………………….
1.2 Operating Manual changes……………………………………………
1.3 Introduction to PMM 9010……………………………………………..
1.4 Instrument Items………….…………………………………………….
1.5 Optional accessories……………….………………………………….
1.6 Other accessories………………………………………………………
1.7 Main Specifications…………………………………………………….
1.8 Front Panel………………………...……………………………………
1.9 Rear Panel………………………………………………………………
1.10 Functional Description………………………………………………..
1.11 Ultra fast measurement: a unique feature of the PMM 9010…….
1.12 Emission measurement……………..……………………………….
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2 Installation
2.1 Introduction………………………………………………………………
2.2 Initial Inspection……………………………….……………….………..
2.3 Packing and Unpacking……………………………………….……….
2.4 Preparation for Use…………………………………………………….
2.5 Battery Charger…………………………………………………….…..
2.5.1 To substitute the mains connector…………………………………
2.5.2 To Check the internal batteries…………………………………….
2.5.3 Indications of the battery on the screen and with PW led……….
2.6 Environment…………………………………………………………….
2.7 Return for Service………………………………………………………
2.8 Equipment Cleaning…………………………………………………….
2.9 Equipment ventilation…………………………………………………..
2.10 Hardware Installation…………………………………………………
2.11 Using Artificial Mains Network (LISNs)……………………………..
2.12 Using Pulse Limiter…………………………………………………..
2.13 Using Voltage Probes………………………………………………..
2.14 Using Antennas and other Transducers……………………………
2.15 The User Port…………………………………………………………
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3 Applications
3.1 Introduction……………………………………………………………..
3.2 Display…………………………………………………………………..
3.3 Autocal…………………………………………………………………..
3.4 Unit………………………………………………………………………
3.5 RF OUT…………………………………………………………………
3.6 Panel……………………………………………………………………
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III
4 Manual mode operating instructions
4.1 Introduction……………………………………………………………
4.2 Measure……………………………………………………………….
4.2.1 Frequency…………………………………………………………..
4.2.2 Level………………….……………………………………………..
4.2.2.1 Attenuator and Preamplifier…………………………………….
4.2.2.2 Misc…………………………………………………………….…
4.2.2.2.1 Tracking generator……………………………………………
4.2.2.3 Detector…………………………………………………………..
4.2.2.4 Smart detector…………………………………………………...
4.2.3 Conversion factor………………………………………………….
4.3 Limit……………………………………………………………………
4.4 Display………………………………………………………………..
4.5 Marker…………………………………………………………………
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5 Analyzer mode operating instructions
5.1 Introduction………………………………………………………….
5.2 Frequency……………………………………………………………
5.3 RBW………………………………………………………………….
5.4 Level………………………………………………………………….
5.4.1 Attenuator and Preamplifier……………..……………………….
5.4.2 OVER RANGE Message…………………………………………
5.4.3 Misc…………………..…………………………………………….
5.4.3.1 Tracking generator……………………………………………..
5.4.4 Detector………..…………………………………………………..
5.4.5 Conversion factor…………………………………………………
5.5 Marker……..….……………………………………………………..
5.6 Esc……………………………………………………………………
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6 Sweep mode operating instructions
6.1 Introduction…………………………………………………………..
6.2 Frequency…………………………………………………………….
6.3 Level…………………………………………………………………..
6.3.1 Input: Attenuator and preamplifier……………………………….
6.3.2 Misc…………………………………………………………………
6.4 RBW…………………………………………………………………..
6.5 Hold Time…………………………………………………………….
6.6 Demodulator………………………………………………………….
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7. Setup and Panel instructions
7.1 Mesuring the EMI Voltage…………………………………………..
7.1.1 Measuring Principle with a LISN…………………………………
7.1.2 Coupling Networks………………………………………………..
7.1.2.1 AMN………………………………………………………………
7.1.2.2 Current probe……………………………………………………
7.1.2.3 Voltage probe……………………………………………………
7.1.3 Test setup………………………………………………………….
7.1.4 Guidance on a preliminary Measuring Procedure……………..
7.1.5 Remarks and hints for Measuring……………………………….
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8. Updating firmware
8.1 Introduction…………………………………………………………..
8.2 System requirements ……………………………………………….
8.3 Preparing the Hardware……………………………………………..
8.4 Software installation………………………………………………….
8.5 To transfer data……………….………………………………………
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IV
Contents
9 Click Mode Operating Instructions (Option)
9.1 Introduction……………………………………………………………
9.2 Introduction to the discontinuous disturbance measurement……
9.2.1 Determination of click rate………………………………………..
9.2.2 Preliminary Conformity and Exceptions…………………………
9.2.2.1 Old and New exceptions………………………………………..
9.2.3 Calculate Limit Quartile……………………………………………
9.2.4 Measurements vs Lq limit…………………………………………
9.3 Start……………………………………………………………………
9.3.1 Stop and pause……………………………………………………
9.4 Report…………………………………………………………………
9.4.1 Fail during determination of the click rate N…………………….
9.4.2 Report after a successful test with less than 5 instantaneous
switching a one frequency………………………………………..
9.4.3 Report after a successful test at 4 frequencies………………..
9.4.4 Report after a line search………………………………………..
9.5 Setup………………………………………………………………….
9.5.1 External attenuator………………………………………………...
9.5.2 Limit…………………………………………………………………
9.5.3 Determination of N…………………………………………………
9.5.4 Factor……………………………………………………………….
9.5.5 Stop and fail………………………………………………………...
9.5.6 Terminate on………………………………………………………..
9.5.7 Line…………………………………………………………………..
9.5.8 Max time…………………………………………………………….
9.5.9 Idle Frequency.…………………………………………………….
9.5.10 Idle Level…………………………………………………………..
9.5.11 Smart Measure……………………………………………………
9.6 Click option……………………………………………………………
9.7 Test setup…………………………………………………………….
9.8 Diagnostic……………………………………………………………..
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Contents
V
10 PMM 9030 EMI Signal Analyzer 30 MHz – 3GHz (Option)
10.1 Introduction to PMM 9030…………………………………………………
10.2 Instruments items………..…………………………………………………
10.3 Optional PMM accessories………..………………………………………
10.4 Other accessories…………………..………………………………………
10.5 Main specifications.………….………..……………………………………
10.6 Front and rear panel……………………………………………………….
10.7 Functional description……………………………………………………..
10.8 No coaxial cable between the antenna and the receiver………………
10.9 Emission measurements………………………………………………….
10.10 Installation…………………………………………………………………
10.10.1 Introduction………………………………………………………………
10.10.2 Initial inspection…………………………………………………………
10.10.2.1 Packing and Unpacking……………………………………………...
10.10.3 Preparation for use……………………………………………………..
10.10.4 Battery charger………………………………………………………….
10.10.4.1 To replace the mains connector of the battery charger…………..
10.10.4.2 To charger internal battery……………………………………………
10.10.4.3 Indication of the battery status on the screen and with PW led….
10.10.5 Environment………………………………………………………………
10.10.6 Return for Service……………………………………………………….
10.10.7 Equipment cleaning…………………………………………………….
10.10.8 Equipment ventilation…………………………………………………..
10.10.9 Hardware installation……………………………………………………
10.10.10 PMM 9010+ PMM 9030 initial screen……………………………….
10.10.11 Led on the PMM 9010 and on the PMM 9030………………………
10.10.12 PMM 9010 + PMM 9030 main screen……………………………….
10.10.13 PMM 9010 + PMM 9030 Setup panel……………………………….
10.10.14 PMM 9010 + PMM 9030 Link failure…………………………………
10.10.15 Using an antenna………………………………………………………
10.11 Analyzer Mode Operating instructions…………………………………..
10.11.1 Introduction………………………………………………………………
10.11.2 Frequency………………………………………………………………..
10.11.3 RBW………………………………………………………………………
10.11.4 Level………………………………………………………………………
10.11.4.1 Input: Attenuators and preamplifier…………………………………
10.11.4.2 Misc…………………………………………………………………….
10.11.4.3 Detector………………………………………………………………...
10.11.4.4 Conversion factor……………………………………………………..
10.11.5 Marker…………………………………………………………………….
10.11.6 ESC……………………………………………………………………….
10.12 Sweep Mode Operating Instructions…………………………………….
10.12.1 Introduction………………………………………………………………
10.12.2 Measure…………………………………………………………………..
10.12.2.1 Frequency………………………………………………………………
10.12.2.2 Advanced……………………………………………………………….
10.12.2.3 Level…………………………………………………………………….
10.12.2.3.1 Input: Attenuators and preamplifier……………………………….
10.12.2.3.2 Misc…………………………………………………………………..
10.12.2.3.3 Tracking generator………………………………………………….
10.12.2.3.4 Detector………………………………………………………………
10.12.2.4 Conversion factor……………………………………………………...
10.12.3 Limit……………………………………………………………………….
10.12.4 Display…………………………………………………………………….
10.12.5 Marker…………………………………………………………………….
10.12.6 Load store……………………………………………………………..…
10.13 Manual Mode Operating Instructions……………………………………
10.13.1 Introduction………………………………………………………………
10.13.2 Frequency………………………………………………………………...
10.13.3 Level………………………………………………………………………
10.13.3.1 Input: Attenuator and preamplifier…………………………………..
10.13.3.2 Misc……………………………………………………………………..
10.13.4 RBW………………………………………………………………………
10.13.5 Hold Time………………………………………………………………...
10.13.6 Demodulator……………………………………………………………...
VI
Contents
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Figures
Figure
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Page
Front Panel………..……………………………………………..
Rear Panel……………………………………………………….
BP-01 Replaceable battery…………………………………….
PMM 9010 Functional Diagram………………………………..
Display setting..………………………………………………….
Sweep…………………………………………………………….
Spectrum…….…………………………………………………..
Manual……………………………………………………………
AMN Principle: a) ∆-type or T-type LISN ; b) V-type LISN….
Example of test Setup for RFI Voltage Measurements….….
Click………………………………………………………………
Front and rear panel……………………………………………
PMM 9030 Functional BLOCK Diagram……………...……...
PMM 9030 Fiber Optic Link to PMM 9010……………………
PMM 9030 Antenna Holder spare parts………………………
Mounting the Tripod Joint………………………………………
Fixing the base of Antenna Holder……………………………
Closing the Antenna Holder……………………………………
Inserting the adapter for PMM Log-Periodic…………………
Complete assembling…………………………………………..
Complete assembling for other antennas…………………….
Mounting the Antenna Holder on PMM 9030………………..
Screwing the N-N Adapter for Antenna Matching…………..
Fixing onto the Tripod………………………………………….
Attaching PMM Log Periodic………………………………….
Spectrum…………………………………………………………
Sweep…………………………………………………………….
Manual……………………………………………………………
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Tables
Table
1-1
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Page
Main Specifications 9010….…………………………………….
Led status……………………...………………………………….
Main Spécifications 9030………………………………………..
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Contents
VII
SAFETY RECOMMENDATIONS AND INSTRUCTIONS
This product has been designed, produced and tested in Italy, and it left the factory in conditions fully
complying with the current safety standards. To maintain it in safe conditions and ensure correct use,
these general instructions must be fully understood and applied before the product is used.
• When the device must be connected permanently, first provide effective grounding;
• If the device must be connected to other equipment or accessories, make sure they are all safely
grounded;
• In case of devices permanently connected to the power supply, and lacking any fuses or other
devices of mains protection, the power line must be equipped with adequate protection
commensurate to the consumption of all the devices connected to it;
• In case of connection of the device to the power mains, make sure before connection that the voltage
selected on the voltage switch and the fuses are adequate for the voltage of the actual mains;
• Devices in Safety Class I, equipped with connection to the power mains by means of cord and plug,
can only be plugged into a socket equipped with a ground wire;
• Any interruption or loosening of the ground wire or of a connecting power cable, inside or outside the
device, will cause a potential risk for the safety of the personnel;
• Ground connections must not be interrupted intentionally;
• To prevent the possible danger of electrocution, do not remove any covers, panels or guards installed
on the device, and refer only to NARDA Service Centers if maintenance should be necessary;
• To maintain adequate protection from fire hazards, replace fuses only with others of the same type
and rating;
• Follow the safety regulations and any additional instructions in this manual to prevent accidents and
damages.
VIII
Safety considerations
EC Conformity Certificate
(in accordance with the Directives: EMC 89/336/EEC and Low Voltage 73/23/EEC)
This is to certify that the product: PMM 9010 Signal Analyzer
Produced by: NARDA S.r.l.
Safety Test Solution
Via Benessea 29/B
17035 Cisano sul Neva (SV) – ITALY
complies with the following European Standards :
Safety: CEI EN 60950 - CEI EN 60950/A4 – CEI EN 60950/A11
EMC: EN 61326-1 - EN 61326/A1
This product complies with the requirements of Low Voltage Directive 73/23/EEC, amended by
93/68/EEC, and with the EMC Directive EMC 89/336/EEC amended by 92/31/EEC, 93/68/EEC,
93/97/EEC.
NARDA S.r.l.
EC Conformity
IX
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X
1 – General Information
1.1 Documentation
Enclosed with this manual are:
• a service questionnaire to send back to NARDA in case an equipment
service is needed
• an accessories checklist to verify all accessories enclosed in the
packaging.
1.2 Operating
Manual Changes
Instruments manufactured after the printing of this manual may have a
serial number prefix not listed on the title page; this indicates that
instruments with different Serial Number prefix may be different from those
documented in this manual.
Document 9010EN-70306-1.59 - © NARDA 2007
General Information
1-1
1.3 Introduction
to PMM 9010
PMM 9010 is a powerful EMI receiver, fully CISPR 16-1-1, to measure
conducted and radiated interferences from 10 Hz up to 30 MHz, or even up
to 3 GHz when matched with PMM 9030 extension unit (optional). All
measurements performed by the PMM 9010 are according to the most
accepted standards like: IEC, CISPR, EN (EuroNorm), FCC, VDE, ….
Thanks to its built-in tracking generator, PMM 9010 is also suitable for
designing, characterizing and testing RF filters, transducers and other
components.
The PMM 9010 has been designed adopting an innovative philosophy
made possible only in the recent years by the availability of superior
technology components. This equipment is fully digital but the input
preselector and attenuator – and, of course, the output stage of the internal
reference tracking generator - and therefore combines into a pure EMI
Receiver and Signal Analyzer the precision and accuracy of a numeric
approach, with flexibility and user friendly approach typical of a modern
instrument.
1.4 Instrument Items
PMM 9010 includes the following items:
• EMI Receiver from 10 Hz up to 30 MHz
• BP-01 Li-ion battery pack;
• External power supply/battery charger;
• Flexible black cover/accessories holding;
• BNC-BNC coaxial cable 2m length;
• RS232 cable, 2m;
• USB cable, 2m;
• Operating manual;
• PMM 9010 Utility Software on CD;
• Certificate of Compliance;
• Return for Repair Form.
1.5 Optional
accessories
PMM 9010 can be used with several optional accessories, the most
common being the following:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
1.6 Other accessories
Of course, the PMM 9010 can be used with other accessories available on
the market, like:
•
•
•
•
1-2
PMM 9030 EMI Signal Analyzer 30 MHz - 3 GHz;
9010-BTA Serial Bluetooth Adapter;
Single Channel Click option;
L1-150: Single line LISN, 150A (50Ω//1 Ω+5µH);
L2-16: Two lines, Single phase, 16A LISN, (50Ω//5 Ω+50µH);
L3-32: Four lines, 3-phase, 32A LISN, (50Ω//5 Ω+50µH);
L3-64: Four lines, 3-phase, 64A LISN, (50Ω//5 Ω+50µH);
L3-100: Four lines, 3-phase, 100A LISN, (50Ω//5 Ω+50µH);
L3-500: Four lines, 3-phase, 350A LISN, (50Ω//5 Ω+50µH);
SHC-1: 35 dB CISPR Voltage probe, 1500Ω;
SHC-2: 30 dB CISPR Voltage probe, 1500Ω;
RA-01: Rod Antenna (10 kHz – 30 MHz).
LISNs, any type;
Antennas and Loops;
Near Field Probes;
Various TEM/GTEM Cells.
General Information
1.7 Main Specifications
Table 1-1 lists the PMM 9010 performance specifications.
The following conditions apply to all specifications:
• The ambient temperature shall be 0°C to 40°C
Electrical Characteristics
TABLE 1-1 Main Specifications
Performance Limits
Frequency range
10 Hz to 30 MHz (CISPR-16-1-1 Full-Compliance
from 9 kHz to 30 MHz)
Resolution
Frequency accuracy
0,1 Hz
< 1 ppm
RF input
Zin 50 Ω, BNC fem.
VSWR ≥ 10 dB RF att.
VSWR 0 dB RF att.
< 1,2
< 2,0
Attenuator
0 dB to 35 dB(5dB steps)
Pulse limiter
Built in (selectable)
Preamplifier gain
20 dB (after preselector, selectable)
Max input level
(without equipment damage)
Sinewave AC voltage
137 dBµV (1 W)
Pulse spectral density
97 dBµV/MHz
Preselector
One lowpass filter
< 9 kHz
Six bandpass filters
9 kHz
150kHz
500kHz
3 MHz
10 MHz
20 MHz
to 150 kHz
to 500 kHz
to 3 MHz
to 10 MHz
to 20 MHz
to 30 MHz
IF bandwidth
3 dB bandwidth
3, 10, 30, 100, 300 kHz
CISPR 16-1-1 bandwidth (6 dB)
0,2 and 9 kHz
General Information
1-3
Noise level (preamplifier ON)
9 to 150 kHz (200 Hz BW)
< -8 dBµV (QP); < -15 dBµV (AV)
150 kHz to 30 MHz (9 kHz BW)
< -4 dBµV (QP); < -10 dBµV (AV)
Measuring Detectors
Peak, Quasi-peak, Average, RMS, Smart Detector
Level measuring time
Peak, Quasi-peak, Average, RMS
(simultaneous detectors)
1 ms to 30 sec. (CISPR 16-1-1 default)
Display units
dBm, dBµV (as stand-alone);
dBm, dBµV, dBµV/m, dBmA, dBmA/m, dBpW (through 9010
SW Utility on PC)
Spectrum
Span/division
From 100 Hz to 3 MHz
Measurement accuracy
S/N > 20 dB
10 Hz to 9 kHz
9 kHz to 30 MHz
± 1,0 dB typical
± 1,0 dB
Demodulation
Built-in AM demodulator (earphones jack output)
RF output
(Tracking Generator)
Zout 50 Ω, BNC fem.
Frequency range
10 Hz to 50 MHz
Level
60 dBµV to 90 dBµV (0,1 dB steps)
Level accuracy (10 Hz to 30 MHz)
± 0,5 dB
I/O Interface Out
USB 2.0 (rear); USB 2.0 (front ; only for future
implementation); RS-232; High Speed Optical Link (2
channels; 2nd channel for future implementation); User Port
(for LISNs connection, etc.); Bluetooth through optional
adapter; IEEE-488 (GPIB) optional
Operating temperature
0° to 40°C
Power supply
10 - 15 Volt DC, 2,5A; Li-Ion interchangeable battery
(8 h operations, average)
Dimensions
235 x 105 x 335 mm
Weight
4,1 kg
1-4
General Information
1.8 Front Panel
Fig. 1-1 Front Panel
Legend from left to right:
- USB
USB 2.0 connection port (future implementation only)
- PW
Power led
Indicates the power status
-
Earphone connector
To listen to the demodulated signals
- DISPLAY
Main display
To graphically show the instrument status
- User keys
5 command keys
To select the various available functions
- Controls
Rotary Knob, Left and Right (decrease / increase) Arrow Keys; Esc; Enter/Switch Key
The Rotary Knob and the Arrows Keys can be used to increase and decrease the setting
values; the Esc key allows to return to the previous status/display; the Enter/switch key
is used to confirm a set value and to switch On and Off the equipment
- Input and Output connectors
Tracking Generator Output and Receiver Input
- RF Output led “ON”
Indicates when the internal generator is switched ON
- RF Input led “0dB”
Is ON when the input attenuator has been set to 0 dB; blinking when PMM 9030 is
connected through fiber optic cable and properly communicating with 9010
General Information
1-5
1.9 Rear Panel
PS1
PS2
Fig. 1-2 Rear Panel
Legend from left to right:
- RS232
9 pin, DB9 connector
- GPIB
IEEE488 I/O Port (optional)
- USER PORT
User I/O Port
- USB
Fully functional USB 2.0 Port
- LINK1/LINK2
Optical link connectors for PMM equipments (Link 2 for future implementation)
- Power Supply
Power Supply Inputs for use to power the apparatus and simultaneously charge
its battery (PS1) and to simply charge the battery when it’s out of the receiver
(PS2).
- Fan
Cooling Fan controlled by firmware
- Replaceable Li-Ion Battery (Fig. 1-3) with main Battery Charger connector
- Earth ground connector
- Product Label and Serial Number
Fig. 1-3 BP-01 Replaceable Battery
1-6
General Information
1.10 Functional
Description
The PMM 9010 features a completely new receiver architecture based on
the most recent DSP and RSP technology, as shown on the diagram below.
The PMM 9010 diagram is shown in Fig. 1-4
Fig. 1-4 PMM 9010 Functional BLOCK Diagram
1.11 Ultra fast
measurement: a
unique feature of
the PMM 9010
In the CISPR band A (9 ÷ 150 kHz), the standards requires the use of a
200 Hz filter that is, by nature, a filter that implies a long measurement time:
a complete scan may require even more than 10 minutes, depending the
detector in use.
Thanks to its architecture and to the large internal memory capability, the
PMM 9010 can take a “snapshot” of the whole band in just one second and,
using a true built-in FFT capability, perfectly displays the complete band in
all its details. Later on will be then possible to make the QuasiPeak
evaluation of all the frequencies of interest after the measurements will
been taken.
This feature is not only useful to greatly increase the productivity of the test
lab, but also to make better and more comprehensive analysis in case the
disturbance to be evaluated is somehow intermittent and with an irregular
repetition rate; its analysis with a traditional receiver could be hardly made
in a proper way (even if an FFT capability is available: this feature needs a
very comprehensive design), as irregular pulses could be lost during a
usual sweep.
To be noted that during the FFT analysis the PMM 9010 makes use of
internal standard Gaussian filters in compliance with the norms, while in
other cases it uses filters mathematically modelled to the perfection using a
FIR technique.
General Information
1-7
1.12 Emission
measurements
All electric and electronic devices are potential generators of ElectroMagnetic Interference (EMI).
The term EMI thus refers to the electromagnetic energy emitted by a device
which propagates itself along cables or through the air and couples with
other devices that are present in the surroundings.
These electromagnetic fields (conducted or radiated interferences) may
generate interfering currents and voltages into nearby equipment and
therefore can cause possible malfunctions.
In order to prevent and control such interferences there are nowadays a
number of national and international standards, like IEC and CISPR, which
specifies limits and methods of tests. Moreover, within the European Union
the application of several European Norms on Electromagnetic
Compatibility is enforced by law and therefore the commercialization and
use of all the electric and electronic equipment is subject to the
measurement of the EMC characteristics, which must be within well defined
limits.
The design approach adopted for the PMM 9010 is that the instrument shall
be innovative, full compliant with all the relevant standards and at the same
time simple and reliable to use, to be the base building block for any
possible emission system to measure and evaluate any electric or
electronic device from the very first design stages to the final certification.
The need to precisely measure the conducted and radiated EMI noises
forces the equipment manufactures to use reliable equipment to verify the
limits imposed by the relevant standards and/or enforced by local rules.
In this view the PMM 9010 receiver is the ideal solution from prototype
debugging to final certification, as it fully meets all the performance criteria
dictated by these standards, although it remains small, lightweight and very
easy to use.
The PMM 9010 Utility control software permits an immediate use of the
instrument without any training or special difficulties: the operator can
concentrate just on analyzing the measurement results.
Moreover, the PMM 9010 software has also been designed for a fast and
easy installation on any PC with the Windows operating system and with
at least one free USB or Serial Port.
The device under test (DUT) must be installed according to the procedures
indicated in the constructor’s manual and normal operating conditions
respected.
Be sure not to overload PMM 9010: the input signal should not exceed
the maximum level indicated in the main specifications in chapter 1.
Also do not apply any signal to RF generator output connector.
1-8
General Information
2 - Installation
2.1 Introduction
This section provides the information needed to install your PMM 9010.
It includes the information pertinent to initial inspection and power
requirements, connections, operating environment, instrument mounting,
cleaning, storage and shipment.
2.2 Initial Inspection
When receiving the equipment, first inspect the shipping cardbox for any
damages.
If the shipping box is damaged, it should be kept until the contents of the
shipment have been checked for completeness and the instrument has
been checked mechanically and electrically.
2.3 Packing and
Unpacking
Verify the availability of all the shipped items with reference to the shipping
check list enclosed with the Operating Manual.
Notify any damage to the forwarder personnel as well as to your NARDA
Representative.
To avoid further damage, do not turn on the instrument when there
are signs of shipping damage to any portion of it.
2.4 Preparation for Use
This is a Safety Class I apparatus, but it is also equipped with a
protective/functional earth terminal on the rear panel. A good
safety/functional ground connection should be provided before to
operate the receiver.
2.5 Battery charger
The battery charger supplied with the receiver can work at either 50 Hz or
60 Hz with a supply voltage rated between 100 and 240 Volt.
It is supplied with different connectors to fit all the possible outlets in
accordance with the various National standards.
-
Battery charger: DC, 10 - 15 V, ~ 2500 mA
=> DC Connector
+
2.5.1 To replace the
mains connector of
the battery charger
To replace the mains connector, simply remove the one installed on the
battery charger sliding it off, and insert the one that fits the outlets in use.
2.5.2 To charge the
internal battery
In order to guarantee the best autonomy of the internal battery, we
recommend to fully recharge it before using the receiver.
To charge the battery, simply connect the battery charger to the mains
power socket and then insert the DC output connector of the battery
charger to the input CHARGER on the rear panel of the receiver.
ALWAYS connect the battery charger to the mains power BEFORE
connecting the DC output to PMM 9010. The battery charger has an
internal protective circuit that will not let it work if there is a load
connected to the output connector before the connection to the
mains is done.
Document 9010EN-70306-1.59 - © NARDA 2007
Installation
2-1
The charge status of the battery is displayed on the top right-hand corner of
2.5.3 Indication of the
the screen in most of the receiver modes. The symbol of a small battery will
battery status on
the screen and with be filled up proportionally to the status of the battery charge.
PW led
When the battery is not under charge, the actual voltage value is displayed
under the symbol and the length of the black bar filling the symbol indicates
the available autonomy still remaining.
When the battery charger is connected to the PMM 9010 the indication
“PWR” appears just below to the battery icon and the front panel PW led
becomes yellow if the receiver is switched on and red if the receiver is off.
The battery charging is suspended or ends automatically when one of the
following events occurs:
- the full capacity of the battery has been achieved,
- the internal temperature of the battery is higher then a preset safety
threshold,
- the charging time limit has been exceeded.
Both during recharging and when charge is completed PMM 9010 is ready
for use.
The PW led on the front panel blinks green when the battery voltage
drops below 7,0V to warn the Operator that the instrument is running
out of battery.
To prevent any damage to the battery, the PMM 9010 automatically
switches off when the battery voltage falls below 6,5V.
In order to keep the batteries fully functional, it is crucial to have a
complete recharge before storing them for periods longer than 4
months. Therefore, it is suggested to recharge the batteries at least
every 4 months even when the receiver has not been used.
2.6 Environment
The operating environment of the receiver is specified to be within the
following limits:
• Temperature
• Humidity
• Altitude
+0° to +40° C
< 90% relative
4000 meters
The instrument should be stored and shipped in a clean, dry environment
which is specified to be within the following limitations:
• Temperature
• Humidity
• Altitude
2-2
Installation
-40° to + 50° C
< 95% relative
15.000 meters
2.7 Return for Service
If the instrument should be returned to NARDA for service, please complete
the service questionnaire enclosed with the Operating Manual and attach it to
the instrument.
To minimize the repair time, be as specific as possible when describing the
failure. If the failure only occurs under certain conditions, explain how to
duplicate the failure.
If possible, reusing of the original packaging to ship the equipment is
preferable.
In case other package should be used, ensure to wrap the instrument in
heavy paper or plastic.
Use a strong shipping box and use enough shock absorbing material all
around the equipment to provide a firm cushion and prevent movement in the
shipping box; in particular protect the front panel.
Seal the shipping box securely.
Mark the shipping box FRAGILE to encourage careful handling.
2.8 Equipment Cleaning Use a clean, dry, non abrasive cloth for external cleaning of the equipment.
To clean the equipment do not use any solvent, thinner, turpentine,
acid, acetone or similar matter to avoid damage to external plastic or
display surfaces.
2.9 Equipment
ventilation
To allow correct equipment ventilation ensure that the vent grids on the
rear panel and on the bottom of the receiver are free by any obstructing
object.
2.10 Hardware
Installation
PMM 9010 is delivered from factory ready to use. Remove the receiver from
its cardboard shipping box and keep the “ON” button pressed until the PW
Led lights up (about 1 second), then release the button. To avoid unwanted
starts, if the “ON” button is kept pressed for a too short time or for more then
2 seconds the instrument is switched automatically off.
After having been switched ON, the PMM 9010 boots with its internal BIOS
and runs the firmware which manages the receiver.
At the beginning the instrument performs a diagnostic test to check if
everything is working properly.
The boot sequence is very fast and the receiver is ready to use in a couple of
seconds after having pressed the ON button.
Before to see the main menu on the LCD display, you will see all the front
panel LED’s flashing ON and OFF.
During the switch-on procedure the LCD displays the results of the autotest
and the release – and date - of the loaded firmware: if the display shows
“OK” it means that the PMM 9010 is working properly. When the sequence is
completed the main screen shows the test results and the main functional
keys on the right of the LCD display: the receiver is now ready to operate.
Connect the output of any LISN, or antenna, or absorbing clamp or any other
transducers to the RF input.
When using a PMM LISN, it is possible to control from the receiver the lines
of the LISN and automatically switch between them connecting a special
cable between the User Port of the receiver and the LISN remote control
input.
Push and keep pressed the “ON/OFF” button for more then 2 seconds to
switch off the receiver.
Installation
2-3
Fig. 2-1 PMM 9010 initial screen showing the results of the initial self-test
and the five main function keys menu.
2.11 Using an Artificial
Mains Network
(AMN or LISN)
When the PMM 9010 receiver is connected to a LISN to perform conducted
interference measurements of the EUT, the RF output of the LISN shall be
connected to the RF input of the receiver. In order to switch automatically
between the lines of the LISN, it shall be connected to the User Port of the
receiver thanks to the dedicated cable supplied with the LISN .
Using PMM 9010 Software Utility it is possible to carry out an automatic
measurements on all mains lines and get the worst case.
In order to avoid the unwanted tripping of the protection devices, an
insulation transformer shall always be used between the mains supply
and a LISN.
2.12 Using the Pulse
Limiter
The built in pulse limiter is a useful device to protect the input of the receiver
from transient over voltages. Sometime the conducted disturbances entering
the receiver through the LISN are too high - even if they cannot be seen on
the PMM 9010 because they are out of measurement bandwidth - and the
associate energy is high enough to damage the input circuit.
The pulse limiter shall be used only as a protection of the input from
unexpected pulses.
When using an external Artificial Mains Network, to reduce the
probability of damages caused by transient voltage pulses always
disconnect the PMM 9010 RF input before switching Equipment Under
Test supply ON or OFF.
2-4
Installation
2.13 Using Current and
Voltage Probes
When a LISN cannot be used – e.g. when measurements have to be made
on terminals other than the mains ones, such as load or command
terminals, sensitive to inserted capacities for example, or when LISNs of
adequate current capabilities aren’t available, or when the line voltage is too
high – a current or voltage probe can be used.
The characteristics of these probes, and some advises on their uses, are
given in §5 of CISPR 16-1-2.
The CISPR voltage probe contains a resistor with a minimum resistance of
1500 ohm, in series with a capacitor of negligible reactance vs. the
resistance (in the 150 kHz to 30 MHz range), and it is insulated at least up to
1500V.
All these probes have an insertion loss and a frequency response that can
be stored in the memory of the PMM 9010, so that the actual readings of the
receiver can be automatically corrected by these characteristics values.
2.14 Using Antennas and In the frequency range from 10 Hz to 30 MHz any other transducer can be
used to pick-up and measure RF conducted and radiated emissions, like
other Transducers
active and passive loop antennas, rod antennas, near field probes etc.
The characteristics of these transducers are usually specified in the relevant
standards (e.g. Military or Automotive Standards).
Their use with PMM 9010 is very easy, as it’s enough to enter their response
with the frequency into the memory of the receiver to have the readings
automatically corrected. When the cable is not calibrated together with the
transducer, even the cable loss can be entered.
2.15 The User Port
The PMM 9010 features on the rear panel a programmable User Port that
can be used to drive external devices or, more generally, to output signals
and data.
The User Port can easily be programmed and managed; the connector has
the following hardware connection:
PIN #
Signal
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8 and 9
10
11
12
13
14
15
IN3
IN1
+ 12 VDC (max 50 mA)
OUT 0
OUT 2
OUT 4
USR-MISO
IN 2
IN 0
GND
OUT 1
OUT 3
USR-MOSI
USR-CLK
Data output (OUT 0 to OUT 4) and input (IN 0 to IN 3) are opto-coupled TTL
level with max. 1 mA draining.
Every other detail about User Port functionality is described in a separate
and more specific manual, available upon request.
Installation
2-5
This page has been left blank intentionally
2-6
Installation
3 – Setup and Panel Instructions
3.1 Introduction
Press this function key in the main menu to enter in the Setup window,
which allows the Operator to set the global parameters of the receiver,
visualization options, etc.
The Setup function is divided into five sub windows:
•
•
•
•
•
Display
Autocal
Unit
Rf Out
Panel
Always use Esc button to return to the previous view/condition.
3.2 Display
The Display setup has four function keys:
• Inverse: to reverse the text and background colors;
• Style: to switch between font style 0 and font style 1;
• Key border: to choose the style of the key borderlines between three
different possibilities;
• Contrast / Back Light (toggle switch): to adjust the backlight and
contrast settings by the rotary knob.
Fig. 3-1 Display setting
Document 9010EN-70306-1.59 - © NARDA 2007
Setup and Panel Instructions
3-1
3.3 Autocal
Pressing the Autocal button PMM 9010 starts performing its automatic
self-calibration, using the internal precise tracking generator as a reference.
The connection between the internal tracking generator and the input of the
receiver is done automatically inside the instrument.
To interrupt the self-calibration press the key Abort.
When the self-calibration is successfully finished a message is displayed:
In order to avoid any possible external influence, it is suggested to
disconnect all cables from the PMM 9010 RF ports during the selfcalibration process.
It is strongly recommended that the User launches the self-calibration
every now and then, and every time the instrument is used in
temperature-limit conditions.
3-2
Setup and Panel Instructions
3.4 Unit
Entering in the Unit menu it is possible to change the indicated unit used to
display the measured levels.
The available units are dBµV and dBm.
In a 50 Ohm system the relationship between dBm and dBµV is:
dBµV = dBm + 107
i.e., 0 dBm (1 mW) = 107 dBµV
3.5 RF OUT
The tracking generator is an internal, high stability and accuracy, 50 Ohm
RF generator ranging from 10 Hz to 50 MHz.
Activating the Tracking On function the generator is always tuned at the
same PMM 9010 measurement frequency and scans the range together
with the receiver. This is the standard way a tracking generator works in all
spectrum analyzers.
If the Tracking On function is disabled, the generator becomes a CW signal
source tuned at the frequency set under the RF OUT Freq window.
As usual, to set a given frequency it is therefore enough to edit the value
with the soft keys and the left and right arrows, confirming the selections
entering the units value (kHz, MHz or GHz).
Pressing 0 as the first figure the decimal dot appears automatically.
In both operating modes (tracking or fixed frequency) the output level can
be set between 60,0 and 90,0 dBµV with 0,1dB steps using the RF OUT
Level button.
If a higher or lower level is needed, the User shall adopt either an external
amplifier or an external attenuator.
The tracking generator is extremely useful for several applications: first of
all it is essential to calibrate the receiver itself thanks to the automatic
internal routines specifically developed to this extent, then it can also be
used to transform the PMM 9010 in a scalar network analyzer, helping a lot
in designing and testing RF filters, active stages and a lot of other circuits.
3.6 Panel
The Panel function allows the User to store up to 2 different setups that can
be recalled any time.
Pressing Save #1 or Save #2 the actual setup is stored in the internal
memory; with the two Recall buttons the corresponding setup is loaded to
the receiver.
Please remember each time one of the Save buttons is pressed, the stored
set-up is overwritten by the new one: the saved setups are therefore kept
memorized in the receiver until a new set-up is stored in the same memory.
The Default button can be used to load a default standard setup saved into
the memory at the factory.
Setup and Panel Instructions
3-3
This page has been left blank intentionally
3-4
Setup and Panel Instructions
4 - Sweep Mode Operating Instructions
4.1 Introduction
The Sweep mode is used to operate the PMM 9010 as a powerful scanning
receiver. To enter in this mode it’s enough to depress the Sweep soft key on
the main screen, and immediately the scan setup window pops up and allows
the operator to set the parameters for the scan.
Fig. 4-1 Sweep
As for the Analyzer operating mode, all the relevant information are reported
on the screen.
From the upper left corner, the User can see if the Preselector is ON or OFF;
if the Preamplifier is ON or OFF; which detector is in use and the relevant
hold time; if the function “Smart Detector” is activate and which one; if the
input attenuation is Automatic or Manual and the set attenuation and if the
Minimum attenuation is 10 dB or 0dB.
Just above the graph there is on the left the Reference level. During the
scan, in the center above the graph the actual frequency measured and/or
any other relevant operation (e.g. FFT, etc.).
Below the graph the start and the stop frequency, and loaded limits, if any.
When the sweep has been executed, on the bottom of the screen the most
important sweep parameters are repeated.
If the graph has been loaded from the memory, just below the start frequency
there is the symbol # followed by the memory position loaded (position
number 2 in figure 4-1).
Please note that the information in the upper part above the graph refers to
the next sweep to be done, while the information in the lower part, below the
graph, concerns to the actual displayed data.
Thanks to its digital architecture and to the clever design, the PMM
9010 receiver can make very fast measurements in the lower CISPR
band using the 200 Hz filter, yet maintaining full compliance to the
standards even in this very difficult condition.
Document 9010EN-70306-1.59 - © NARDA 2007
Sweep Mode Operating Instructions
4-1
The Sweep mode function is divided into five sub windows:
•
•
•
•
•
Measure
Limit
Display
Marker
Load Store
Always use Esc button to return to the previous view/condition.
4.2 Measure
The Measure button is used to set the scan parameters and to run the
sweep.
After having chosen the frequency band and set all the other parameters it is
possible to run the measurement scan simply touching the Exec Sweep
button.
To make subsequent sweeps with the same setting parameters, simply
press ReDo Sweep. This key is particularly useful after having loaded a
previously stored track (see 4.6), as with the Re Do Sweep the original
settings are kept for the new measurement: it is extremely easy to make
comparisons, for example, before and after a modification of the EUT.
Once the scan starts, it can be stopped at any time during the execution by
the Stop function key that appears during the scan.
4.2.1 Frequency
The Frequency menu features five function buttons:
Pressing A Band the receiver will be set to scan the 9 - 150 kHz frequency
band. The definition of band A is a given in CISPR.
Pressing B Band the receiver will be set to scan the 0,15 - 30 MHz frequency
band. The definition of band B is a given in CISPR.
Pressing A + B Band the receiver will be set to scan the entire band from 9
kHz to 30 MHz.
Using these automatic band settings, the Frequency Step and Resolution
Bandwidth are set automatically according to CISPR standard requirement.
The Start and Stop frequency buttons can be used to set any frequency
interval for the measurement; to enter the frequency values press the
corresponding function keys.
Pressing either one of these 2 keys the figures 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 are
selectable at first; with the right arrow key it is possible to select the figures
from 5 to 9, and pressing again the right arrow key the units kHz, MHz and
GHz becomes accessible, as well as the decimal dot and the Back Space.
The left arrow key can be used as well to move back and forth from one
screen to the other. Pressing 0 as the first figure the decimal dot appears
automatically.
To set a given frequency it is therefore enough to edit the value with the soft
keys and the left an right arrows, confirming the selections entering the units
value (kHz, MHz or GHz).
The figures entered appear in a small window just below the graph and the
default unit is MHz.
4-2
Sweep Mode Operating Instructions
4.2.2 Level
The Level function has 5 sub-menus, each one with several options..
Pressing the Display button it is possible to set two parameters: the
visualized Dynamic range (chosen between 80, 100 and 120dB) and the
Reference Level, that can be increased or reduced by steps of 5dB within
the range +80 dBµV to 135 dBµV (-25 to +30 dBm).
The Input button opens a submenu which is dedicated to the setting of the
input attenuator and to switch on-off the built-in preamplifier.
The PMM 9010 receiver takes automatically into account the settings of all
the Input parameters and always displays the correct value of the level. The
User is not required to make any correction to the readings.
4.2.2.1 Input:
Attenuators and
preamplifier
Being entered in the Input submenu, to increase or decrease the attenuation
at the input, press Att + or Att -, and for each touch the attenuation is
increased or decreased of 5 dB (preset value). Depressing either one of
these keys force the receiver in manual attenuation.
When the input attenuation is 0dB (condition that can be achieved only if the
Minimum Attenuation is set to 0 dB as well), the yellow led to the left of the
input BNC connector is ON and indicates a warning status.
The Min Att button acts as a toggle switch: it selects or deselects the
minimum attenuation of 10 dB. When the minimum attenuation is selected,
the attenuator – doesn’t matter if in automatic or in manual condition cannot be lowered under 10 dB.
Unless specifically required by the test conditions, do not remove the
minimum attenuation of 10 dB.
With the Preamp key it is possible to insert or exclude the built-in low noise
preamplification of 20 dB.
The internal 20 dB preamplifier can be used when very weak signals have to
be investigated. As already mentioned, with the preamplifier ON the receiver
takes automatically care of the 20 dB gain when measuring the signals.
The Att Auto button is used to switch from the two conditions of manual or
automatic attenuation setting.
Please note that the switching of the attenuators is relatively noisy and you
can perceive it distinctly with a “click” for each switch operation.
Using 0 dB attenuation PMM 9010 has no input protection.
This is a potentially dangerous condition for the input stage of the
receiver.
Use 0 dB attenuation only if you are very sure that your input signal is
less than 1 V (or 120 dBµV).
Before to apply an unknown signal to PMM 9010 receiver, use an
oscilloscope or a wide band RF voltmeter to measure it. In any case set
Min. ATT at 10 dB and select the maximum available attenuation with
preamplifier OFF.
If needed, add an external coaxial attenuator on the input signal line.
Sweep Mode Operating Instructions
4-3
4.2.2.2 Misc
Under the Miscellanea functions menu it is possible to activate or exclude
the Preselector filters, the Pulse Limiter, and also to enter in the Tracking
generator menu pressing the RF OUT button.
The Preselector is composed by a group of filters automatically selected by
the PMM 9010 while it is sweeping or anyway measuring. The aim of the
preselector is to reduce the amount of out-of-band energy entering in the
receiver, thus helping a lot in reducing intermodulation problems and similar
undesired behaviors.
It can be set either ON or OFF with the associated button, and normally it
should be always enabled.
On the top left corner of the screen the symbol “Off” or “On” will be displayed.
The Pulse Limiter is a very useful device to protect the input of the receiver
from transient overvoltages. Doing conducted emission tests, quite often
there are conducted disturbances (usually associated to switching operations
in the EUT or along the line under test) which are too high and that
propagates through the LISN up to the receiver. Sometime these
disturbances cannot be seen on the receiver because they are out of
measurement bandwidth, nevertheless the associate energy is high enough
to damage the input attenuator and/or the Analog-to-Digital Converter of the
PMM 9010 (the first mixer in a traditional receiver).
This pulse limiter has an integrated 10dB attenuator and a 30 MHz low-pass
filter.
When the Pulse Limiter is selected, on the upper part of the screen the
letters P.L. appear next the value of the Minimum Attenuation and the
reading on the receiver is automatically corrected for the attenuation factor of
the Pulse Limiter.
4.2.2.2.1 Tracking
generator
Pressing the RF OUT button the receiver enters the Tracking generator
menu.
.
The tracking generator is an internal, high stability and accuracy, 50 Ohm
RF generator ranging from 10 Hz to 50 MHz.
Activating the Tracking On function the generator is always tuned at the
same PMM 9010 measurement frequency and scans the range together with
the receiver. This is the standard way a tracking generator works in all
spectrum analyzers.
If the Tracking On function is disabled, the generator becomes a CW signal
source tuned at the frequency set under the RF OUT Freq window.
As usual, to set a given frequency it is therefore enough to edit the value with
the soft keys and the left an right arrows, confirming the selections entering
the units value (kHz, MHz or GHz).
Pressing 0 as the first figure the decimal dot appears automatically.
In both operating modes (tracking or fixed frequency) the output level can be
set between 60,0 and 90,0 dBµV with 0,1dB steps using the RF OUT Level
button.
If a higher or lower level is needed, the User shall adopt either an external
amplifier or an external attenuator.
The tracking generator is extremely useful for several applications: first of all
it is essential to calibrate the receiver itself thanks to the automatic internal
routines specifically developed to this extent, then it can also be used to
transform the PMM 9010 in a scalar network analyzer, helping a lot in
designing and testing RF filters, active stages and a lot of other circuits.
4-4
Sweep Mode Operating Instructions
4.2.2.3 Detector
This menu allows the operator to select the most appropriate detector for
the test.
In Sweep mode the Peak, Average, RMS (Root Mean Square) and QuasiPeak detectors are available and can be selected via the appropriate button.
Hold time (ms)
The Hold Time (expressed in milliseconds) represents the time the receiver
uses to “take a snapshot” of the incoming signal and to measure it with the
chosen detector. When selecting a detector, the default hold time value is
automatically loaded, but in some cases this time is not appropriate, e.g.
when the interference signals have a low repetition rate. In this case the
PMM 9010 sees a high input signal and therefore tries to set the proper
attenuation automatically increasing the value or the input attenuators.
However, when the input attenuation is set the signal is gone, so the receiver
lowers the attenuation, but then a new peak arrives, and so on and so forth.
On the other hand, if the Hold Time is too high the PMM 9010 cannot
properly follow the signals.
In this situation the Hold Time value should be manually set to find a correct
compromise.
To set the Hold Time to the lowest possible value (this value dynamically
depends from the measurement conditions), enter the figure 0; if a value
lower than the allowed is entered, the lowest possible value is automatically
selected.
The max. Hold Time that can be set is 30 sec (30.000 ms).
4.2.2.4 Smart Detector
The Smart Detector is an innovative special function implemented in the
PMM 9010 receiver with the purpose of reducing the test time and increasing
the productivity of the lab.
This function works only when at least one limit is loaded, therefore
remember to enable a limit to run the Smart detector function.
Selecting one out of the three Smart detectors the receiver will execute the
scan using at first the Peak detector and, if a peak value is found over the
selected limit minus a Margin set with the specific button, the reading is remeasured and displayed with the chosen (AVG, RMS or QPeak) detector.
Obviously this way of operation results in a much faster scan sweep and
moreover it immediately draws the attention of the test Engineer to the most
critical points. The limit associated to the Margin is displayed as a bold black
line and is automatically selected by the receiver depending which Smart
detector is chosen; for example, if a Smart QP is selected, the associated
QP limit line will be displayed as a bold black line.
The Smart RMS detector is disabled until a reference limit is defined by
CISPR.
It is immediately clear that this function is very useful to dramatically reduce
test time and increase the productivity of the test lab.
To deselect the Smart Detector function simply select a single detector.
The weighting time must be properly set in the Hold Time window to
allow the Smart detectors functions to operate as intended.
Sweep Mode Operating Instructions
4-5
4.2.3 Conversion factor
When using a transducer to make a measurement – a Voltage or Current
Probe, an Antenna, etc. – there is always the need to add to the measured
values the conversion factor of the transducer in use.
The Conversion factor may also take proper account of losses as cable loss,
attenuators added externally to the receiver, etc.
The PMM 9010 can handle these factors in an automatic way and directly
correct the readings.
The PMM 9010 can store in its internal non-volatile memory up to 4 different
correction factors, and use them one at a time when recalled.
However, the Conversion Factors shall be created and loaded via the PMM
9010 Software Utility.
4.3 Limit
Press the relevant button to load the conversion factor, and NONE to unload
it.
Each emission standard has one or more limits the User shall comply with.
The PMM 9010 receiver has the possibility to load and activate one limit with
the simple click of a button.
The preloaded standard limits refer to the most popular EMC emission
standards: CISPR22, CISPR14 and CISPR11.
Other limits – or any custom designed limit – can be created, managed,
selected and loaded through the PMM 9010 Software Utility running on a PC
(and the test, of course, shall be handled via the PC software).
These additional custom limits cannot be stored in the memory of the PMM
9010, but only in the one of the PC where the 9010SW Utility is running.
The limits are shown on the scan display and they appear like a thin black
line when the Smart Detector function is not enabled, while one of them
appears in bold black when the Smart Detector function is active.
By pressing the NONE button all limits are deactivated.
4.4 Display
4-6
Pressing the Display button it is possible to set two parameters: the
visualized Dynamic range (chosen between 80, 100 and 120dB) and the
Reference Level, that can be increased or reduced by steps of 5dB within
the range +80 dBµV to 135 dBµV (-25 to +30 dBm); see also 4.2.
Sweep Mode Operating Instructions
4.5 Marker
Selecting this function a Marker is immediately enabled, and it appears on
the screen as a small black pointing down arrow corresponding to the highest
reading; simultaneously a small window shows up in the bottom left corner of
the screen, indicating the actual frequency and level read by the marker.
The Marker function is not a simple search for the highest readings on the
screen – it would be a useless exercise that would display a number of points
all grouped together – but it’s a true peak search that measures the degree
of variation of the signal: a peak is so classified only if it “pops-up” from the
adjacent signals with at least 5 dB difference in amplitude.
Following this criterion, if the measured signal is a flat line no peaks will be
found.
Selecting Highest X – where X represents the maximum number of markers
found by the receiver during its sweep – few more markers are added, each
one “diamond” shaped, defined as per the previous explanation.
The maximum number of markers available is 10.
By using arrow keys it is possible to quickly move on markers from higher
amplitude (left arrow) to lower amplitude (right arrow), i.e. if the highest is
nd
selected, pressing the right arrow key the 2 highest is selected, then
rd
pressing again the same key the 3 highest and so on and so forth.
It is also possible to use the rotary knob to move from a marker to the next
one.
The marker under analysis (main marker) is a black arrow pointing down, the
others are diamond shaped.
Pressing the Peak button the marker returns to the highest reading.
In order to make easier and faster the evaluation of the more noisy signals,
the User can now select either the Analyzer or the Tune function, entering
respectively into a spectrum analysis of main marker position or in the
manual mode evaluation of it. To operate this two conditions please refer to
the appropriate section of this Operating Manual.
In manual mode, i.e. having selected Tune on the main marker, it is possible
to navigate from one peak to the other just pressing the arrow keys, without
to come back to the Sweep display and remaining in manual mode.
This is another unique feature of PMM 9010 to improve the productivity of the
test lab and make easier the work of the test engineer.
The Marker Off exits from the marker function.
Sweep Mode Operating Instructions
4-7
4.6 Load Store
Pressing this key allows the User to have access to the memory of the
receiver and enables the storing up to a number of different
configurations/sweeps that depends on the parameters set on the receiver
(i.e. the number of measured points). For example, using standard CISPR
parameters it is possible to store up to 15 sweeps on the A+B band.
Each new scan will be stored in the first available memory position thanks to
the button Store #x, where x is the first available position. When all positions
are occupied by a scan, this function is disabled until one of the previous
scan is erased.
To load a stored trace, press the Load #x button until the proper scan is
displayed; to unload a trace select the Unload Trace button.
Please note that the Load function is scanning the memory in a circular way,
therefore all the occupied memory positions are shown in sequence. When
the key shows “Load #4”, it means the trace #3 is displayed and that the #4
will be loaded after the key is pressed, and so on and so forth.
To erase a trace, press the Erase#x button.
Due to the structure of the memory, it is possible to erase only the latest
stored memory, with a sequence “LIFO” (Last In First Out), therefore after
having erased the #x, the #(x-1) will be the trace to be erased. With
reference to the example at the left, the last stored trace is the #4, and it is
the first that will be erased. After that, the key will show “Erase #3”, and so on
and so forth.
A more advanced trace management could be done using the PMM 9010
Software Utility.
Turn Off the tracking generator, if it is not used, while you are in Scan
Mode.
This prevents interferences and the measurements are more clean and
accurate.
4.7 Ultra Fast FFT scan
The Ultra Fast FFT (Fast Fourier Transform), as described at §1.11, provides
a “snapshot” of the whole band in just one second, what is useful for a more
comprehensive analysis in case the disturbance to be evaluated is somehow
intermittent and with an irregular repetition rate.
To activate this feature few settings have to be manually performed at first,
as per the following:
- Peak detector
- ≤ 50ms Hold Time
- Band A sweep.
Once all these conditions are satisfied, the Sweep is performed in really “one
second”, what is very useful to soon realize overall behaviour of EUTs in a
debugging phase, saving time and making it possible even in those cases
where the EUT cannot stay ON for a long time without getting damaged
(small electric motors, etc.)
Later on will be then possible to make the full-compliant Quasi-Peak
evaluation of all the frequencies of interest after the measurements will been
taken.
During such FFT analysis the PMM 9010 makes use of internal standard
Gaussian filters still in compliance with the norms.
4-8
Sweep Mode Operating Instructions
5 - Analyzer Mode Operating Instructions
5.1 Introduction
To enter in the ANALYZER Mode it’s enough to depress the Analyzer soft
key on the main screen.
In this mode the receiver works as a powerful Spectrum Analyzer and the
display shows the "spectrum analysis" (span max 30 MHz) in the frequency
domain of a signal tuned at a given frequency.
The analysis is done at the selected span frequency.
Using the marker facility the User can accomplish a very accurate
measurement of the signals either in frequency as well as in level.
Entering Analyzer Mode from the main menu, the display will look like the
following:
Fig. 5-1 Spectrum
The SPAN per division is automatically managed by the equipment and
divided by 10. The minimum SPAN is 100Hz per division.
On the screen of the Analyzer Mode all the relevant information are reported.
From the upper left corner, the User can see if the Preselector is ON or OFF;
if the Preamplifier is ON or OFF; which detector is in use and the relevant
hold time; if the input attenuation is Automatic or Manual and the set
attenuation and if the Minimum attenuation is 10 dB or 0dB.
Just above the graph, from left to right, there is the Reference level, the
Resolution bandwidth and the span value.
Below the graph the start, center and stop frequency.
The bottom left corner is dedicated to the marker indication, with actual
frequency and level of the marker.
Document 9010EN-70306-1.59 - @ NARDA 2007
Analyzer Mode Operating Instructions
5-1
The Spectrum mode function is divided into five sub windows:
•
•
•
•
•
Frequency
Resolution Bandwidth
Level
Marker
Wide Mode
The fifth button is used to change the spectrum view to wide screen mode,
as shown in the picture 5-1, and with the Esc button the original view can be
restored.
Always use Esc button to return to the previous view/condition.
5.2 Frequency
Allows the User to set the tuning frequency and also the Span.
The Center frequency of the Spectrum window can be directly edited into the
window or set by the arrow buttons or by the rotary knob, which frequency
steps are set under the Manual mode.
Depressing the Center button the figures 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 are selectable;
with the right arrow key it is possible to select the figures from 5 to 9, and
pressing again the right arrow key the units kHz, MHz and GHz becomes
accessible, as well as the decimal dot and the Back Space. The left arrow
key can be used as well to move back and forth from one screen to the
other. Pressing 0 as the first figure the decimal dot appears automatically.
To set a given frequency it is therefore enough to edit the value with the soft
keys and the left an right arrows, confirming the selections entering the units
value (kHz, MHz or GHz).
The figures entered appear in a small window just below the graph and the
default unit is MHz, so 100 kHz = 0,1 MHz; 10 kHz = 0,01 MHz;
1 kHz = 0,001 MHz and 100 Hz = 0,0001 MHz.
Using the Start and Stop buttons it is possible to select any start and stop
value in the frequency range 10 Hz to 30 MHz band.
Another method for setting the frequency is to enter the Center frequency
and the appropriate Span.
In this mode of operation the frequency step (spectrum resolution) is set
automatically, therefore it cannot be changed manually.
In order to better analyze the signals close to the ends of the band and
see them properly with any of the applicable filters, the receiver is able
to go lower than 10 Hz and higher than 30 MHz.
The actual minimum frequency that can be displayed on the screen is 0
Hz, the maximum is 32 MHz.
5-2
Analyzer Mode Operating Instructions
5.3 RBW
The Resolution Bandwidth command is used to select the bandwidth of the
measuring filter. Seven bandwidth filters are available:
• 200 Hz CISPR 16 shaped at -6dB
•
9 kHz CISPR 16 shaped at -6dB
•
3 kHz at -3dB
•
10 kHz at -3dB
•
30 kHz at -3dB
• 100 kHz at -3dB
• 300 kHz at -3dB
The three larger filters are selectable from the first RBW screen, and
pressing the More RBW button it is possible to select all the other filters.
These filters are mathematically modeled using FIR (Finite Impulse
Response) technique and they are exactly as required by the standards.
More filters will be available as an option for specific applications, e.g. to
cover Military Standards requirements, etc.
5.4 Level
The Level function has 5 sub-menus, each one with several options.
Pressing the Display button it is possible to set two parameters: the
visualized Dynamic range (chosen between 80, 100 and 120dB) and the
Reference Level, that can be increased or reduced by steps of 5dB within the
range +70 dBµV to 105 dBµV (-35 to 0 dBm).
The Input button opens a submenu which is dedicated to the setting of the
input attenuator and to switch on-off the built-in preamplifier.
The PMM 9010 receiver takes automatically into account the settings of all
the Input parameters and always displays the correct value of the level. The
User is not required to make any correction to the readings.
5.4.1 Input: Attenuators Being entered in the Input submenu, to increase or decrease the attenuation
at the input, press Att + or Att -, and for each touch the attenuation is
and preamplifier
increased or decreased of 5 dB (preset value). Depressing either one of
these keys force the receiver in manual attenuation.
When the input attenuation is 0dB (condition that can be achieved only if the
Minimum Attenuation is set to 0 dB as well), the yellow led to the left of the
input BNC connector is ON and indicates a warning status.
The Min Att button acts as a toggle switch: it selects or deselects the
minimum attenuation of 10 dB. When the minimum attenuation is selected,
the attenuator – doesn’t matter if in automatic or in manual condition cannot be lowered under 10 dB.
Unless specifically required by the test conditions, do not remove the
minimum attenuation of 10 dB.
With the Preamp key it is possible to insert or exclude the built-in low noise
preamplification of 20 dB.
The internal 20 dB preamplifier can be used when very weak signals have to
be investigated. As already mentioned, with the preamplifier ON the receiver
takes automatically care of the 20 dB gain when measuring the signals.
The Att Auto button is used to switch from the two conditions of manual or
automatic attenuation setting.
Please note that the switching of the attenuators is relatively noisy and you
can perceive it distinctly with a “click” for each switch operation.
Analyzer Mode Operating Instructions
5-3
Using 0 dB attenuation PMM 9010 has no input protection.
This is a potentially dangerous condition for the input stage of the
receiver.
Use 0 dB attenuation only if you are very sure that your input signal is
less than 1 V (or 120 dBµV).
Before to apply an unknown signal to PMM 9010 receiver, use an
oscilloscope or a wide band RF voltmeter to measure it. In any case set
Min. ATT at 10 dB and select the maximum available attenuation with
preamplifier OFF.
If needed, add an external coaxial attenuator on the input signal line.
5.4.2 OVER RANGE
Message
An Over Range indication will automatically appear on the screen to inform
the User that the levels of the measured signals in the spectrum window is
too high: to avoid measuring errors and even damages to the receiver a
higher attenuation shall be set.
5.4.3 Misc
Under the Miscellanea functions menu it is possible to activate or exclude
the Preselector filters, the Pulse Limiter, and also to set the Tracking
Generator.
The Preselector is composed by a group of filters automatically selected by
the PMM 9010 while it is sweeping or anyway measuring. The aim of the
preselector is to reduce the amount of out-of-band energy entering in the
receiver, thus helping a lot in reducing intermodulation problems and similar
undesired behaviors.
In Analyzer mode the preselector is available only if the entire span falls in
one filter band (see the main specification in chapter 1 to verify the frequency
bands). In this situation on the display it will be shown: Preselector ON. If the
span is larger then one filter only, on the display the symbol *** will appear
instead.
It can be set either ON or OFF with the associated button, and normally it
should be always enabled.
On the top left corner of the screen the symbol “Off” or “On” will be displayed.
The Pulse Limiter is a very useful device to protect the input of the receiver
from transient overvoltages. Doing conducted emission tests, quite often
there are conducted disturbances (usually associated to switching operations
in the EUT or along the line under test) which are too high and that
propagates through the LISN up to the receiver. Sometime these
disturbances cannot be seen on the receiver because they are out of
measurement bandwidth, nevertheless the associate energy is high enough
to damage the input attenuator and/or the Analog-to-Digital Converter of the
PMM 9010 (the first mixer in a traditional receiver).
This pulse limiter has an integrated 10dB attenuator and a 30 MHz low-pass
filter.
When the Pulse Limiter is selected, on the upper part of the screen the
letters P.L. appear next the value of the Minimum Attenuation and the
reading on the receiver is automatically corrected for the attenuation factor of
the Pulse Limiter.
Pressing the RF OUT button the receiver enters the Tracking generator
menu.
5-4
Analyzer Mode Operating Instructions
5.4.3.1 Tracking
generator
The tracking generator is an internal, high stability and accuracy, 50 Ohm
RF generator ranging from 10 Hz to 50 MHz.
Activating the Tracking On function the generator is always tuned at the
same PMM 9010 measurement frequency and scans the range together
with the receiver. This is the standard way a tracking generator works in all
spectrum analyzers.
If the Tracking On function is disabled, the generator becomes a CW signal
source tuned at the frequency set under the RF OUT Freq window.
As usual, to set a given frequency it is therefore enough to edit the value
with the soft keys and the left an right arrows, confirming the selections
entering the units value (kHz, MHz or GHz).
Pressing 0 as the first figure the decimal dot appears automatically.
5.4.4 Detector
In both operating modes (tracking or fixed frequency) the output level can
be set between 60,0 and 90,0 dBµV with 0,1dB steps using the RF OUT
Level button.
If a higher or lower level is needed, the User shall adopt either an external
amplifier or an external attenuator.
The tracking generator is extremely useful for several applications: first of
all it is essential to calibrate the receiver itself thanks to the automatic
internal routines specifically developed to this extent, then it can also be
used to transform the PMM 9010 in a scalar network analyzer, helping a lot
in designing and testing RF filters, active stages and a lot of other circuits.
This menu allows the Operator to select the most appropriate detector for
the test.
In Analyzer mode the Peak, Average and RMS (Root Mean Square)
detectors are available and can be selected via the appropriate button.
Hold time
The Hold Time (expressed in milliseconds) represents the time the receiver
uses to “take a snapshot” of the incoming signal and to measure it with the
chosen detector. When selecting a detector, the default hold time value is
automatically loaded, but in some cases this time is not appropriate, e.g.
when the interference signals have a low repetition rate. In this case the
PMM 9010 sees a high input signal and therefore tries to set the proper
attenuation automatically increasing the value or the input attenuators.
However, when the input attenuation is set the signal is gone, so the
receiver lowers the attenuation, but then a new peak arrives, and so on and
so forth..
On the other hand, if the Hold Time is too high the PMM 9010 cannot
properly follow the signals.
In this situation the Hold Time value should be manually set to find a
correct compromise.
To set the Hold Time to the lowest possible value (this value dynamically
depends from the measurement conditions), enter the figure 0; if a value
lower than the allowed is entered, the lowest possible value is automatically
selected.
The max. Hold Time that can be set is 30 sec (30.000 ms).
Analyzer Mode Operating Instructions
5-5
5.4.5 Conversion factor
When using a transducer to make a measurement – a Voltage or Current
Probe, an Antenna, etc. – there is always the need to add to the measured
values the conversion factor of the transducer in use.
The Conversion factor may also take proper account of losses as cable
loss, attenuators added externally to the receiver, etc.
The PMM 9010 can handle these factors in an automatic way and directly
correct the readings.
The PMM 9010 can store in its internal non-volatile memory up to 4
different correction factors, and use them one at a time when recalled.
However, the Conversion Factors shall be created and loaded via the
PMM 9010 Software Utility.
Press the relevant button to load the conversion factor, and NONE to
unload it.
5.5 Marker
With this command the Marker function can be enabled.
Switching ON the marker it appears on the screen as a small black pointing
down arrow, and simultaneously a small window shows up in the bottom left
corner of the screen, indicating the actual frequency and level read by the
marker.
Pressing the Peak button the marker will automatically move to the highest
signal found in the span range in that given moment, and with the help of
the Center button the frequency selected by the marker becomes the
center frequency on the screen, making very easy any signal analysis.
5.6 ESC
5-6
This button allows to return to the previous view or condition.
Analyzer Mode Operating Instructions
6 - Manual Mode Operating Instructions
6.1 Introduction
The MANUAL mode is a very useful feature to manually control the
receiver and to deeply investigate electrical signals modifying the
parameters of receiver exactly as per the needs of the Test Engineer.
It is possible, for example, to observe the signals exceeding the limits
frequency by frequency; evaluating their levels measured simultaneously
with 4 different detectors (Peak, QuasiPeak, Average and RMS); listening
to them after a demodulation, etc.
To enter in .Manual Mode press the key in the main menu, and
immediately the first Manual window opens as follow.
Fig. 6-1 Manual
In manual mode the levels corresponding to the detectors in use are
displayed both in analogue and in digital format, and exactly as for the other
operating modes, all the relevant information are reported on the screen.
From the upper left corner, the User can see if the Preselector is ON or
OFF; if the Preamplifier is ON or OFF; the resolution bandwidth, the longest
hold time associated to the detectors in use; if the input attenuation is
Automatic or Manual and the set attenuation and if the Minimum
attenuation is 10 dB or 0dB; if there a demodulation and the level of the
volume, represented by a small black bar.
Then there are three or fours vertical bars representing the detectors and
indicating in analogue and digital (the figures below each bar) the level
measured; on top of the bars the relevant detector, the unit in use and the
tuned frequency. The analogue scale of the analogue bars is set
automatically by the receiver.
Document 9010EN-70306-1.59 - © NARDA 2007
Manual Mode Operating Instructions
6-1
The Manual mode function has five sub windows:
•
•
•
•
•
Frequency
Level
Resolution Bandwidth
Hold Time
Demodulation
Always use Esc button to return to the previous view/condition.
6.2 Frequency
Under this menu it is possible to set the tuning frequency and also the knob
and the arrow keys steps.
The center Frequency of the reading can be directly edited into the Tune
window or set by the left and right arrow buttons or by rotating the knob.
The figures entered appear in a small window just below the graph and the
default unit is MHz.
Having selected Tune, the figures 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 are selectable at first;
with the right arrow key it is possible to select the figures from 5 to 9, and
pressing again the right arrow key the units kHz, MHz and GHz becomes
accessible, as well as the decimal dot and the Back Space. The left arrow
key can be used as well to move back and forth from one screen to the
other. Pressing 0 as the first figure the decimal dot appears automatically.
To set a given frequency it is therefore enough to edit the value with the
soft keys and the left an right arrows, confirming the selections entering the
units value (kHz, MHz or GHz).
If Knob is selected, the small window below the bars indicate the step
which is going to be selected. After having fixed the step size, rotate the
know and tune the desired frequency.
If Arrow is selected, the small window below the bars indicate the step
which is going to be selected. After having fixed the step size, press the left
and the right arrow keys to decrease or increase the frequency by the
selected step.
6.3 Level
The Level function has 4 sub-menus.
Pressing the Display button it is possible to set two parameters: the
visualized Dynamic range (chosen between 80, 100 and 120dB) and the
Reference Level, that can be increased or reduced by steps of 5dB within
the range +72 dBµV to 107 dBµV (-35 to 0 dBm).
The Input button opens a submenu which is dedicated to the setting of the
input attenuator and to switch on-off the built-in preamplifier.
The PMM 9010 receiver takes automatically into account the settings of all
the Input parameters and always displays the correct value of the level. The
User is not required to make any correction to the readings.
6-2
Manual Mode Operating Instructions
6.3.1 Input: Attenuator
and preamplifier
Being entered in the Input submenu, to increase or decrease the
attenuation at the input, press Att + or Att -, and for each touch the
attenuation is increased or decreased of 5 dB (preset value). Depressing
either one of these keys force the receiver in manual attenuation.
When the input attenuation is 0dB (condition that can be achieved only if
the Minimum Attenuation is set to 0 dB as well), the yellow led to the left of
the input BNC connector is ON and indicates a warning status.
The Min Att button acts as a toggle switch: it selects or deselects the
minimum attenuation of 10 dB. When the minimum attenuation is selected,
the attenuator – doesn’t matter if in automatic or in manual condition cannot be lowered under 10 dB.
Unless specifically required by the test conditions, do not remove the
minimum attenuation of 10 dB.
With the Preamp key it is possible to insert or exclude the built-in low noise
preamplification of 20 dB.
The internal 20 dB preamplifier can be used when very weak signals have
to be investigated. As already mentioned, with the preamplifier ON the
receiver takes automatically care of the 20 dB gain when measuring the
signals.
The Att Auto button is used to switch from the two conditions of manual or
automatic attenuation setting.
Please note that the switching of the attenuators is relatively noisy and you
can perceive it distinctly with a “click” for each switch operation.
Using 0 dB attenuation PMM 9010 has no input protection.
This is a potentially dangerous condition for the input stage of the
receiver.
Use 0 dB attenuation only if you are very sure that your input signal is
less than 1 V (or 120 dBµV).
Before to apply an unknown signal to PMM 9010 receiver, use an
oscilloscope or a wide band RF voltmeter to measure it. In any case
set Min. ATT at 10 dB and select the maximum available attenuation
with preamplifier OFF.
If needed, add an external coaxial attenuator on the input signal line.
6.3.2 Misc
Under the Miscellaneous functions menu it is possible to activate or
exclude the Preselector filters, the Pulse Limiter, and also to set the
Tracking generator.
The Preselector is composed by a group of filters automatically selected
by the PMM 9010 while it is sweeping or anyway measuring. The aim of the
preselector is to reduce the amount of out-of-band energy entering in the
receiver, thus helping a lot in reducing intermodulation problems and similar
undesired behaviors.
It can be set either ON or OFF with the associated button, and normally it
should be always enabled.
On the top left corner of the screen the symbol “Off” or “On” will be
displayed.
Manual Mode Operating Instructions
6-3
The Pulse Limiter is a very useful device to protect the input of the
receiver from transient overvoltages. Doing conducted emission tests, quite
often there are conducted disturbances (usually associated to switching
operations in the EUT or along the line under test) which are too high and
that propagates through the LISN up to the receiver. Sometime these
disturbances cannot be seen on the receiver because they are out of
measurement bandwidth, nevertheless the associate energy is high enough
to damage the input attenuator and/or the Analog-to-Digital Converter of the
PMM 9010 (the first mixer in a traditional receiver).
This pulse limiter has an integrated 10dB attenuator and a 30 MHz lowpass filter.
When the Pulse Limiter is selected, on the upper part of the screen the
letters P.L. appear next the value of the Minimum Attenuation and the
reading on the receiver is automatically corrected for the attenuation factor
of the Pulse Limiter.
Pressing the RF OUT button the receiver enters the Tracking generator
menu.
The tracking generator is an internal, high stability and accuracy, 50 Ohm
RF generator ranging from 10 Hz to 50 MHz.
Activating the Tracking On function the generator is always tuned at the
same PMM 9010 measurement frequency and scans the range together
with the receiver. This is the standard way a tracking generator works in all
spectrum analyzers.
If the Tracking On function is disabled, the generator becomes a CW signal
source tuned at the frequency set under the RF OUT Freq window.
As usual, to set a given frequency it is therefore enough to edit the value
with the soft keys and the left an right arrows, confirming the selections
entering the units value (kHz, MHz or GHz).
Pressing 0 as the first figure the decimal dot appears automatically.
In both operating modes (tracking or fixed frequency) the output level can
be set between 60,0 and 90,0 dBµV with 0,1dB steps using the RF OUT
Level button.
If a higher or lower level is needed, the User shall adopt either an external
amplifier or an external attenuator.
The tracking generator is extremely useful for several applications: first of
all it is essential to calibrate the receiver itself thanks to the automatic
internal routines specifically developed to this extent, then it can also be
used to transform the PMM 9010 in a scalar network analyzer, helping a lot
in designing and testing RF filters, active stages and a lot of other circuits.
6-4
Manual Mode Operating Instructions
6.4 RBW
The Resolution Bandwidth command is used to select the bandwidth of
the measuring filter. Seven bandwidth filters are available:
• 200 Hz CISPR 16 shaped at -6dB
•
9 kHz CISPR 16 shaped at -6dB
•
3 kHz at -3dB
•
10 kHz at -3dB
•
30 kHz at -3dB
• 100 kHz at -3dB
• 300 kHz at -3dB
The three larger filters are selectable from the first RBW screen, and
pressing the More RBW button it is possible to select all the other filters.
These filters are mathematically modeled using FIR (Finite Impulse
Response) technique and they are exactly as required by the standards.
More filters will be available as an option for specific applications, e.g. to
cover Military Standards requirements, etc.
With the Auto Cispr function, the filter will be automatically selected,
according to CISPR standard, depending on the tuned frequency.
When a non-CISPR filter is selected, the Quasi Peak detector is disabled.
6.5 Hold Time
The Hold Time (expressed in milliseconds) represents the time the receiver
uses to “take a snapshot” of the incoming signal and to measure it with the
chosen detector. When selecting a detector, the default hold time value is
automatically loaded, but in some cases this time is not appropriate, e.g.
when the interference signals have a low repetition rate. In this case the
PMM 9010 sees a high input signal and therefore tries to set the proper
attenuation automatically increasing the value or the input attenuators.
However, when the input attenuation is set the signal is gone, so the
receiver lowers the attenuation, but then a new peak arrives, and so on and
so forth..
On the other hand, if the Hold Time is too high the PMM 9010 cannot
properly follow the signals.
In this situation the Hold Time value should be manually set to find a
correct compromise.
To set the Hold Time to the lowest possible value (this value dynamically
depends from the measurement conditions), enter the figure 0; if a value
lower than the allowed is entered, the lowest possible value is automatically
selected.
The max. Hold Time that can be set is 30 sec (30.000 ms).
6.6 Demodulator
Switching ON the built-in AM demodulator, the volume can be adjusted with
the rotating knob, and the level is shown by the black bar on the screen.
The demodulated signals can be heard with headphones or earphones
connected to the front panel of the PMM 9010, or amplified and/or recorded
by any suitable device.
An FM demodulator – or other demodulators - is not available for the time
being in the frequency band covered by the PMM 9010.
Manual Mode Operating Instructions
6-5
This page has been left blank intentionally
6-6
Manual Mode Operating Instructions
7 – Applications
7.1 Measuring the
EMI Voltage
ElectroMagnetic Interference (EMI) voltage measurements on power supply
lines or on signal lines are carried out by means of "Coupling Networks"
(e.g. LISNs) or other transducers (e.g. antennas, voltage probes). The
frequency range is dictated by the applicable standard, however it is
generally limited from 9 kHz to 30 MHz in commercial applications, while for
measurements on other equipment/accessories - e.g. military, automotive,
information technology and communication equipment (ITE), ISDN devices,
etc. - the frequency range extends down to 20 Hz and up to 200 MHz,
depending the relevant standards.
Nevertheless, the most common tests in the frequency range covered by
PMM 9010 are certainly the conducted measurements done with the help
of a LISN.
7.1.1 Measuring Principle In the case of a system with two floating conductors, the EMI voltages of
the two conductors relative to each other and with reference to the ground
with a LISN
form a vector system where three kind of RFI voltages are present
(sometime EMI is also referred as RFI: Radio Frequency Interference).
They are:
• Symmetrical (or differential mode) voltages. These RFI components are
measured between the two conductors. They behave like the wanted
signal on the forward and return lines.
• Asymmetrical (or common mode) voltages. These EMI components are
measured between the electrical midpoint of the two conductor voltages
and reference ground. Usually these are the components most likely to
cause interference effects.
• Unsymmetrical voltages. These RFI components are measured from
each line conductor and the reference ground. They consist of
symmetrical and asymmetrical components. The measurement of these
RFI voltages is the easiest to do and the most commonly performed.
Indeed, for practical reasons, Standards mostly specify the measurements
of unsymmetrical voltages instead of the theoretically more meaningful
common mode EMI, but the standard doesn’t necessarily reflect the real life
exactly as it is: it shall be a common practice reference aiming to create a
database of fully comparable results.
See figure 7-1 for a graphic explanations of these differences between the
EMI voltages.
Some Regulations require both measurement of symmetrical and
asymmetrical RFI voltages, also defining separate and different limits for
them.
7.1.2 Coupling Networks
Coupling Networks are electrical interfaces which allow to “transfer” the
quantity to be measured (e.g. EMI voltages or currents) from the lines
under test to the receiver.
Some types of Coupling Networks are: AMN (Artificial Mains Network), also
known as "LISN" (Line Impedance Stabilization Network), Current Probe
and Voltage Probe. Again, Fig. 7-1 also shows the AMN principle.
Document 9010EN-70306-1.59 - © NARDA 2007
Applications
7-1
V-LISN
mains
mains
DUT
lowpass
filter
250 µH
2µ F
L1
V-LISN (only one
line is shown)
test
receiver
50Ω
8µ F
5Ω
highpass
filter
test
receiver
50µ H 0.25 µ F
DUT
Vsym
RF load to
interference
Vsym
Z sym
L1
L2
Zasym
L1
L2
Vasym
Vunsym
Vunsym
a)
Vunsym
Vunsym
b)
Fig. 7-1 AMN Principle: a) ∆-type or T-type LISN ; b) V-type LISN
7.1.2.1 AMN
AMNs are usually classified depending their configuration: V-type
Networks, ∆-type Networks, T-type Networks.
• The V-type Network is used for measuring the unsymmetrical RFI
voltage on AC and DC supply line. Standard impedances specified by
CISPR and other international standards are 50Ω // 50 µH+5Ω and 50Ω
// 5 µH+1Ω.
• The ∆-type Network is used for measuring the symmetrical RFI voltage
on balanced telecommunication lines. It is generally designed to permit
switchover between symmetrical and asymmetrical RFI measurements.
Its use is limited; Standards usually specify the T-type Network instead.
The most common impedance for ∆-type Network is 150Ω.
• The T-type Network is used for measuring the asymmetrical RFI voltage
on balanced (electrically symmetrical) audio frequency, control and data
lines. Standard impedance is 150Ω as well.
An Artificial Mains Network shall be designed in order to:
1. terminate each line (power, signal, etc.) of the EUT (Equipment Under
Test) with a standardized impedance;
2. permit the feeding of the EUT with the proper supply voltage and current
or with the signal and data required for operations;
3. isolate the side of the test circuit where EMI voltages are measured
against interference coming from mains network or from the auxiliary
equipment supplying the EUT with the required data;
4. provide a suitable test point – to be connected to the test receiver - to
pick up the RFI voltages from the conductor under test;
5. ensure that the impedance of the source (power, signal) is not varied in
a significant way, otherwise EUT response to the interference may
change.
7-2
Applications
7.1.2.2 Current Probe
Current Probes may be Clamp-on Probes or Fixed-ring Probes.
Current Probes are used to measure differential or common mode RFI
currents. In some cases it may be important to make a distinction between
the two kinds of current flowing in a system.
RFI current measurements with Current Probes may be required, for
example, when measuring EMI from shielded lines or from complex wiring
systems, when finding interference sources among other sources in a
system, when performing compliance to some Standards, etc.
7.1.2.3 Voltage Probe
Voltage Probes include Active Probes and Passive Probes.
Active Probe has a very high input impedance Zin > 100 KΩ // < 10 pF.
Passive Probe has a standard impedance Zin = 1,5 KΩ // < 10 pF.
Voltage Probe is used for measuring the unsymmetrical RFI voltage when it
is not possible to carry out measurement by interconnecting an Artificial Vtype Network. Such situation may occur, for example, when measuring on
lines on which only small loads are permissible (control and signal lines),
when measuring on a EUT (Equipment Under Test) which would not
operate correctly using V-type LISN or a DUT (Device Under Test)
requiring very high power supply current for which no V-type LISN is
available.
For diagnostic or design purposes on high impedance circuits, Voltage
Probe may be used to determine, for example, noisy components or
conductors that cause interference on CMOS PC boards.
Some Regulations give statements when Voltage Probe are to be used and
specify relevant setup and RFI voltage limits.
Fig. 7-2 Example of Test Setup for RFI Voltage Measurement
Applications
7-3
7.1.3 Test Setup
Fig. 7-2. shows an example of test setup for RFI voltage measurement.
The DUT is placed 0,4 m from an horizontal or vertical earthed conducting
surface of at least 2 m x 2 m in size.
A table top DUT is placed 0,8 m from the LISN and at least 0,8 m from any
other earthed conducting surface. If the measurements are made in a
shielded room, the DUT shall be placed 0,4 m from one of the walls of the
room.
The LISN shall be bonded to the reference conducting surface.
A Floor standing DUT is placed 0,1 m above an horizontal earthed
conducting surface of at least 2 m x 2 m in size. This size shall be
exceeding by at least 0,5 m the projection of the DUT on the conducting
surface. The power cable should be 1m long; longer cable should be
centrally bundled for at least 40 cm.
DUTs without a PE (Protective Earth) conductor and manually operated
DUTs shall be measured in conjunction with an auxiliary screen or an
“Artificial Hand”, as duly specified in the relevant standards.
All the details and information on the test setup are written on the latest
version of the applicable Standard.
7.1.4 Guidance on a
preliminary
Measuring
Procedure
7-4
A step-by-step example of a conducted test manually performed is the
following:
1. Switch ON the PMM 9010 and enter in Sweep Mode pressing the
relevant button;
2. Select Display and then 120dB; Reference Level should be between
110 and 135 dBµV; press Esc;
3. Touch the Measure key, then Freq and A+B Band;
4. Then Level, Input and set the Minimum Attenuation to 10 dB and the
Attenuation is automatic; press Esc;
5. Select Misc, Presel and Pulse Limiter to enable the preselction and
the protection of the input from voltage spikes; press Esc;
6. Enter in the Detector menu and select Peak; press Esc two times;
7. Connect a LISN or any other suitable transducer to the RF input,
selecting the proper phase/line whenever applicable;
8. With the EUT switched OFF touch Exec Sweep and wait until the first
scan has been finished;
9. Carry out an overview of the whole spectrum and check the by
executing a pre-measurement with peak detector that the ambient RF
disturbances are at least 20 dB below the desired emission levels;
10. If the ambient noises are low enough continue to the next step,
otherwise take all the necessary steps to reduce the ambient
disturbances (e.g. go to a shielded room, etc.);
11. Switch ON the EUT and then Measure, Exec Sweep again and wait
until the scan has been finished;
12. Enter in the Display menu and adjust the Dynamic Range and the
Reference Level to the most convenient visualization;
13. If the results are satisfactory select Marker, Peak and then either
Analyzer or Tune to enter respectively in Spectrum Mode or in Manual
Mode and deeply investigate the highest signals;
14. If the results of the scan need to be refined, select a Limit, if
appropriate, and then Measure, Level and Smart Detector (if a limit
has been loaded);
15. In the Smart Detector menu check the best combination among those
listed; enter a Margin, if needed; press Esc;
16. Exec Sweep again and repeat from step #12.
Applications
7.1.5 Remarks and Hints
for Measuring
To avoid errors caused by ambient interference, measurements should be
carried out inside a properly shielded room. Different sites, like basements
or other rooms with low ambient interferences, are often sufficient for a
preliminary evaluation.
Conducted measurements do not strictly require any anechoic
environment, while radiated tests may need it if so specified by the relevant
standard.
Using the PMM 9010 SW Utility running on an external PC it is possible to
make automatic measurements and to automatically select LISNs lines
(with a PMM LISN), etc.
Applications
7-5
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7-6
Applications
8 - Updating firmware
8.1 Introduction
The PMM 9010 features a simple and user-friendly method for updating its
internal firmware through a Personal Computer (PC). This section provides
all the information required for easy updating.
8.2 System requirements
The minimum requirements to allow the software to operate properly are
the following:
•
•
•
•
486 Processor or Pentium
16 Mb of RAM
at least 10 Mb of free space on hard disk
1 free Serial Port (RS-232), or, alternatively, a USB/RS-232 Adapter
with related driver
• Windows Operating System 95/98/2000/XP
8.3 Preparing the
Hardware
Connect the RS-232 cable supplied with PMM 9010 directly or through a
USB/RS-232 Adapter separately purchased (once related driver has been
properly installed), to the 9 pin socket situated on the back panel of PMM
9010 on one side and to a free RS232 port (or USB in case of Adapter’s
use) on the PC side.
The first free RS-232 port will be automatically detected by the Firmware
Update Program during installation. In case of troubles please check port
assignments on the PC through the Control Panel utility.
Document 9010EN-70106-1.59 - © NARDA 2007
Updating Firmware
8-1
8.4 Software Installation
The Update Firmware Program is installed together with the PMM 9010
Software Utility, provided on a CD-Rom with PMM 9010 Receiver.
Once the PMM 9010 Software Utility has been installed in the PC, another
item is created in the Programs list at Start Menu, which is “9010
Accessories”, from where the “9010 Update” program can be easily run
Click on “9010 UPDATE” (9010UP.EXE) once for running the update
program, so getting the following window:
Please be sure the new FW file named “9010FW.bin” is stored in the same
directory of the 9010UP.exe file, otherwise just copy it there before
performing the upgrade.
Be sure batteries of PMM 9010 and connected Laptop (PC) are fully
charged before performing the FW Upgrade, otherwise the upgrade
progress could not terminate properly.
Alternatively, be sure to have both PMM 9010 and Laptop (PC)
powered through their respective AC/DC power adapters.
Anyway, even in case of failure, the internal BIOS will never be
corrupted and you’ll just need to repeat the procedure once more
(this is a unique feature!).
8-2
Updating Firmware
8.5 To transfer data
To finally perform the Firmware Update, switch OFF the PMM 9010 at first,
run the “9010 Update” to make the related window appearing with the
“Waiting for BIOS” writing at the bottom, then switch ON the PMM 9010 and
the FW download will begin automatically.
During the firmware storing procedure, a blue bar will progress from left to
right in the window of the PC, showing percentage of downloading time by
time until 100%. In the meanwhile on the 9010 display the BIOS page
appears, showing again the updating status.
When FW download finishes, following message appears to show that
everything was properly completed:
In case of failure, an error message is showed instead.
After Firmware Update is successfully completed, switch OFF and then ON
again the PMM 9010, looking at screen.
Now at the top of the display a different FW Release Number and Date is
showed after “9010-BIOS-…”, as per the following:
In case the release should not comply with what expected, just check about
the FW file used during installation or get in contact with the nearest
NARDA Local Distributor.
It is now possible to disconnect the cable connected to the PC, with the
PMM 9010 receiver either switched On or Off.
To obtain up-to-date Firmware or PC Utility for PMM 9010, the user
can contact his NARDA agent or download it directly from Support
area of EMC Product Range on the following Web Site: www.nardasts.it.
Updating Firmware
8-3
This page has been left blank intentionally
8-4
Updating Firmware
9 - Click Mode Operating Instructions
(Option)
9.1 Introduction
The CLICK mode allows the User to make in a fast, easy and fully
automatic way a difficult test like the Discontinuous Disturbances
measurement, as defined by current CISPR standards.
To enter in Click Mode press the key in the main menu, and immediately
the first window opens as follow:
Fig. 9-1 Click
The Click mode function has four commands:
•
•
•
•
Start
Clear: cancel and reset all data to start an idle test;
Report
SETUP
Always use Esc button to return to the previous view/condition.
To increase test productivity the PMM 9010 has some very unique features:
it allows skipping as many as 2 steps, as it may predict how many clicks
would overcome the Lq limit and may also advice the User if the next step
would fail.
Moreover, it makes a Qpeak measure and not a mere threshold
comparison, as only a fully digital receiver can detect whether a Qpeak
level came from an unsaturated signal or not: an analogue analyzer only
have the final weighted Qpeak.
Document 9010EN-70306-1.59 - © NARDA 2007
Click Mode Operating Instructions
9-1
9.2 Introduction
to the discontinuous
disturbance (click)
measurement
9-2
Mechanical or electronic switching procedures - e.g. those due to
thermostats or program controls – may unintentionally generate broadband
discontinuous disturbances with a repetition rate lower than 1 Hz.
Indeed, CISPR 16-2-1 and CISPR 14-1 define a discontinuous disturbance,
also called “click, as a disturbance the amplitude of which exceeds the
quasi-peak limit of continuous disturbance, the duration of which is not
longer than 200 ms and which is separated from a subsequent disturbance
by at least 200 ms. The durations are determined from the signal which
exceeds the IF reference level of the measuring receiver.
A click may also contain a number of impulses; in which case the relevant
time is that from the beginning of the first to the end of the last impulse.
The test procedures and the test setup for click measurement are indicated
in CISPR 16-2-1 and in CISPR 14-1 standards.
It basically consists in the measurement of the number of clicks exceeding
a certain level determined as function of the click number and duration.
Moreover, several “exceptions” shall be dealt with by the click analyzer in
order to make the test as per the standard.
To better understand the click measurement process – automatically made
by PMM 9010 - it could be useful also to know few more definitions:
• switching operation: one opening or closing of a switch or contact;
• minimum observation time T: the minimum time necessary when
counting clicks (or switching operations) to provide firm evidence
for the statistical interpretation of the number of click (or switching
operations) per time unit;
• click rate N: number of clicks or switching operations within one
minute (this figure is being used to determine the click limit);
• Click limit Lq: the relevant limit L for continuous disturbance for the
measurement with the quasi-peak detector, increased by a certain
value (offset) determined from the click rate N. The click limit
applies to the disturbance assessed according to the upper quartile
method;
• Upper quartile method: a quarter of the number of the clicks
registered during the observation time T is allowed to exceed the
click limit Lq. In the case of switching operations a quarter of the
number of switching operations registered during the observation
time T is allowed to produce clicks exceeding the click limit Lq.
• short click 1: a disturbance not longer than 10 ms;
• short click 2 (E3): a disturbance between 10 ms and 20 ms;
• click: a disturbance longer than 10 ms and not longer than 200 ms;
• other than click: a discontinuous disturbance longer than 200 ms.
With reference to the mentioned standards, a schematic process flow of
the measurement is the following:
● Determination of the click rate N
● Pass/fail decision if instantaneous switching and if N>=30
● Check conformity to definitions
● Apply Exceptions (whenever applicable)
● Calculate Limit Quartile
● Measurement using Upper Quartile Method
● Pass/fail using Upper Quartile criterion
● Repeat for next frequency
As PMM 9010 manages all these steps in a completely automatic way, a
detailed step by step description is here given before to describe each
command and function.
Click Mode Operating Instructions
9.2.1 Determination of
the click rate
The first step of the measuring process is to determine the click rate N in
the minimum observation time. This is done measuring the time needed to
count up to 40 clicks or 40 switching operations; the maximum time allowed
is anyway 2 hours (120 minutes), unless the cycle is determined by a
program which needs additional time to be terminated.
Therefore, if the equipment has a cycle and in this cycle less than 40 clicks
appear, then the cycle shall be repeated until 40 clicks are counted or until
the observation time is 2 hours.
If the equipment has a cycle and in this cycle more than 40 clicks appear,
the observation time is anyway determined by the cycle.
When the minimum observation time has been defined, it is possible to
calculate the click rate N using the simple relationship:
N=
n1
T
where n1 is the number of clicks measured and T is the minimum
observation time.
However, in certain conditions – see CISPR 14-1 for further reference – the
click rate N must be calculated using a different approach:
N=
n2 ⋅ f
T
where n2 is the number of switching operations and f is a factor dictated in
the standard.
The click rate shall be determined at two frequencies: 150 kHz and 500
kHz.
9.2.2 Preliminary
Conformity and
Exceptions
Once the number of clicks – or switching operations – has been
determined, then some preliminary controls can be made to verify if the rate
is greater than 30 (fail conditions); if the measured clicks are conforming to
the definition of the standard; if there are exceptions applicable.
Thanks to its digital architecture, PMM 9010 can easily record and store all
the relevant parameters, keeping trace of all the events occurring during
the test and allowing the User to postprocess all these data; PMM 9010 will
also notify immediately the test results to the User.
9.2.2.1 Old and New
exceptions
The “Click” test also requires to verify if exceptions E1 to E4 are applicable.
While E1 and E2 are “old” exceptions easy to deal with, the new E3 and, in
particular, E4 are calling for a new hardware structure: an old click analyzer
is no longer compliant.
E3 is an additional counter, does not require additional memory and implies
only minor changes in the test flow, thus can be implemented in a relatively
easy way.
E4 is very demanding in terms of hardware requirements: a memory for
storing each disturbance duration and interval is required in order to postelaborate them, and it is mandatory to provide all the data in the test report.
Moreover, as the application of E4 is conditional to the final click rate N which in turn may prevent using E4 – the test flow significantly changes.
Only new analysers specifically designed – like the PMM 9010 - can
successfully meet the requirements of the standard and be compliant with
the new Click test criteria.
Click Mode Operating Instructions
9-3
9.2.3 Calculate Limit
Quartile
When the click rate N is determined it is possible to calculate the click limit
Lq by increasing the relevant limit (quasi-peak) L for continuous
disturbances with:
●
●
44 dB for N<0,2, or
20 log (30/N) dB for 0,2<N<30
Therefore
Lq = L + 20 ⋅ Log
30
N
9.2.4 Measurement vs.
Lq limit
Now the test can be done at the 4 fixed frequencies dictated by the
standard: 150 kHz, 500 kHz, 1.4 MHz, 30 MHz, and the results compared
with the limit Lq.
If less than 25% of the clicks measured exceeds the limit Lq, then the test
is positive, otherwise it fails.
The PMM 9010 can now produce an extensive report with all the relevant
data.
9.3 Start
As soon as the Setup has been done (see § 9.5), it is possible to start the
test.
First of all the PMM 9010 will determine the click rate N, and – if all the
conditions apply – after that the analyzer will immediately continue
measuring the number of clicks exceeding the upper quartile limit Lq.
Simply select Start: the PMM 9010 will automatically take care of all the
necessary steps, reporting at the end of the test all the relevant results.
During the test, the evolution of the measurements can be continuously
controlled in the Data and Details windows, where all the info are duly
provided.
At any time it is possible to Stop the measure or to Pause it.
The PMM 9010 does the determination of the click rate at the two
frequencies of 150 kHz and 500 kHz, and then it executes the test.
9-4
Click Mode Operating Instructions
In certain conditions the analyzer may judge the input attenuation is not
adequate: in that case a screen like the following appears and requires
additional attenuation.
It’s enough to touch OK to adjust the input attenuation to the optimum value
and continue the test.
Please remember that the maximum input signal is 1 V (120 dBµV),
and that a click test may result in a potentially dangerous condition
for the input stage of the receiver.
Before to apply an unknown signal to PMM 9010 receiver, use an
oscilloscope or a wide band RF voltmeter to measure it.
If needed, add a coaxial attenuator to the input signal line (a 20dB
external attenuator is always provided with PMM 9010-Click Option).
9.3.1 Stop and Pause
If Stop has been selected during a measurement, the test can then be
aborted or it is possible to go immediately to the next step.
If Paused, the test can be resumed at any convenient time.
Click Mode Operating Instructions
9-5
9.4 Report
After a Click test the PMM 9010 reports all the relevant data.
Due to the complexity of the test and to the various conditions that may
happen during the measurement, several reports may be issued.
Here following some examples well representing the completeness and the
accuracy of the analyzer.
9.4.1 Fail during
determination of
the click rate N
In case a fail is recorded during the determination of the click rate N at the
frequency of 150 kHz, a report like the following is displayed (which is just
an example with a not-realistic N number):
If the fail occurs during the determination of the click rate at 500 kHz, the
report may be like this:
9.4.2 Report after a
successful test with
less than 5
instantaneous
switching a one
frequency
9-6
If the determination of the click rate N shows that at a given frequency (500
kHz in this examples) there are less than 5 instantaneous switching
operations, there is no need of any further test at that frequency or
frequencies (the investigation frequencies are 150 kHz for the interval from
150 to 500 kHz, and 500 kHz for the interval from 500 kHz to 30 MHz).
In the example Lq is calculated for 150 kHz and no tests are done at the
other frequencies as the number in instantaneous switching at 500 kHz
during the observation time is less than 5.
Click Mode Operating Instructions
9.4.3 Report after a
successful test at 4
frequencies
Here following the example of a report for a test done on all the defined
frequencies.
All the relevant information is provided.
9.4.4 Report after a line
search
When connected to a PMM LISN, the PMM 9010 can also automatically
search for the worst line.
After having found the most noisy line, the analyzer start with the normal
test flow (determination of N , etc.) measuring on the worst line.
An example of report when the worst line search has been requested is as
follows:
Click Mode Operating Instructions
9-7
Due to the complexity of the discontinuous disturbance test, this panel is
rather complex, as many parameters shall be defined.
However, the PMM 9010 has been designed to be extremely user-friendly
and to take care in a fully automatic way of all the necessary steps of the
test.
9.5 Setup
Due to the fact that the standard fixes the frequencies at which the test
shall be done, these frequencies are factory established and the User can
vary the other parameters only.
From the main window select SETUP and the main Setup panel will be
displayed.
The User can navigate through the different parameters rotating the control
knob.
9.5.1 External attenuator
In case an external attenuator is used to protect the input of the analyzer,
the value of this attenuator can be entered, in order to have the PMM 9010
taking count of the value in all the calculation of the measured levels.
The way to enter the value of the attenuator is the same adopted in all the
other modes (see for examples §4.1).
A 20dB external attenuator is provided in the PMM 9010-Click Option kit,
which has to be taken into account in this field when inserted at RF input.
9.5.2 Limit
9-8
Three most used limits are built-in into the analyzer: CISPR 14, CISPR22
and CISPR11.
Either one can be selected simply by pressing the relevant key.
The limit will be loaded and all the calculations will be done with reference
to the selected limit.
Click Mode Operating Instructions
9.5.3 Determination of N
As required by the standard, N may be determined either by counting the
clicks, or by counting the switching operations.
Select Clicks if N has to be calculated on the number of clicks, or select
Sw.Op.+ or Sw.Op.- to determine N on the number of switching
operations, going up and down the list of the available options in terms of
switched current: 10mA; 20 mA; 50 mA; 100mA; 200mA; 500mA; 1A; 2A
and 5A.
9.5.4 Factor f
The applicable standard may require a certain factor f to be used to
calculate the click rate N (see § 9.2.1). For example, table A2 of the
CISPR14 gives the factor f for several products.
This factor depends from the nature of the EUT and shall be entered by the
User in the normal way (see for example §4.1).
9.5.5 Stop on Fail
The Click test my be rather long, as the observation time and EUT cycle
can take as long as 120 minutes.
In order to save time and increase productivity, the PMM 9010 can stop the
test as soon as a fail condition is achieved.
Two options are therefore available: stop immediately as the fail condition
occurs (Right away) or anyway at the End of Step.
Press Change to flip from one to the other option.
Click Mode Operating Instructions
9-9
9.5.6 Terminate on
To define the automatic stop condition, it is possible to select between two
options: 40 Clicks/Time and Time/Manually.
In the first case the stop of the step happens either after 40 clicks or after
the defined time has elapsed; in the second case the step is not terminated
when reaching 40 clicks (allowing thus testing EUTs which are commanded
by a program) but only when the defined time has elapsed. It is always
possible to stop the step manually.
it is also possible to stop the test manually.
Press Change to flip from one to the other option.
9.5.7 Line
When using a PMM LISN, it’s possible to select the Line on which to
perform the test through the Setup Menu, just selecting “LINE” and
accessing the related sub-menu, as per the following:
In case a 3rd party LISN would be used, just leave “NONE” in the menu.
9-10
Click Mode Operating Instructions
Once the PMM LISN sub-menu has been selected, a choice is available to
define if to run the test on a specific Line (L1, L2, L3, N)
or to perform the test automatically on each test frequency, one Line after
the other, in order to find the worst of them in terms of Emission
and finally execute the complete test on that specific Line only, so
dramatically reducing time consumption.
Click Mode Operating Instructions
9-11
9.5.8 Max Time
To define the duration of the test it’s enough to enter the relevant time in
minutes in the usual way.
9.5.9 Idle Frequency
A frequency (0,15 – 0,5 – 1,4 – 30 MHz) can be selected for preliminary
investigation in Idle Mode.
9.5.10 Idle Level
An arbitrary Level for the Emission Limit can be chosen in Idle Mode, just to
apply a certain tolerance in the debugging phase with respect to the limit
which will be mandatory at the final test stage.
9.5.11 Smart Measure
The “Smart Measure” is a PMM 9010 unique feature which allows a
relevant time saving in Click measuring approach.
It’s usually very difficult to measure QuasiPeak values for pulsed signals, in
a way that linearity of the receiver could normally not fulfill such a special
measurement’s requirement.
PMM 9010 can trace and memorize eventual saturation, instead, just got
during automatic measurement test procedure, in a way that, in case no
saturation conditions at all have been detected, the so got test result can be
used directly to soon calculate the new limit Lq, without the need of
repeating the test for it.
At the end of a Smart Measurement the operator can clearly define if the
test has to be repeated with the new Lq Limit or if not repeating it at all in
case of failure at this first step, so saving time and soon starting with further
debugging of EUT.
The operator can face then 3 different situations:
- “No Smart”, where such a function is not used at all;
- “Ask”, where a saturation is detected and the operator is asked to
decide if continuing anyway or not;
- normal “Smart Measure”, where the measurement is normally
performed until the end, i.e. the new Limit Lq is evaluated and the test
is then performed taking such a new Limit into account.
9-12
Click Mode Operating Instructions
9.6 Click option
The click option includes:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Switching Operation Box;
Power supply cable for the switching Box;
EUT Power connector;
User Port cable, 2m;
20 dB external coaxial attenuator;
Activation Code
For quick reference look at the following picture.
Click Mode Operating Instructions
9-13
9.7 Test Set up
As required by the relevant standards, the discontinuous measurement
(Click) test set up shall be the same adopted for continuous disturbances,
therefore usually a LISN is used to sample the RF signal to be measured.
In case the click rate N shall be determined counting the number of
“Switching” operations, a proper unit called “Switching Box” shall be
connected to the User Port of the PMM 9010.
In this case the EUT Power Connector will be used to feed the EUT through
the Switching Box and the hardware connection scheme will become then:
User port
User port Input
User port
9010
220V
LISN remote
control
LISN
EUT
9.8 Diagnostic
20dB Attenuator
In case the Switching Box unit is not connected – or anyway non properly
functioning – the following message is displayed:
Three Leds are visible on the Switching Operation Box, with the following
meaning:
TABLE 9-1 LED Status
ERROR
(Red)
DATA
(Yellow)
POWER ON
(Green)
Blinking
Off
On
Off
Off
On
Off
Blinking
On
On
Off
On
Meaning
Condition at Power On,
before attempting any access
to the Box
Normal Condition after an
access
Normal Usage with data
transfer
Error Condition (general)
In case of Error conditions please check both HW connections and SW
settings at first, then call closest NARDA representative for help.
9-14
Click Mode Operating Instructions
10 – PMM 9030 EMI Signal Analyzer
30 MHz - 3 GHz
(Option)
10.1 Introduction
to PMM 9030
The PMM 9030 is a powerful EMI receiver, fully CISPR 16-1-1, which
extends capabilities of PMM 9010 to measure conducted and radiated
interferences from 30 MHz up to 3 GHz. All measurements performed by
the PMM 9030 are according to the most accepted standards like: IEC,
CISPR, EN (EuroNorm), FCC, VDE, ….
The PMM 9030 has been designed adopting an innovative philosophy
made possible only in the recent years by the availability of superior
technology components. This equipment is a combination of digital and
analogue circuitries to realize a true EMI receiver and signal analyzer with
the precision and accuracy of a numeric approach added to the flexibility
and easiness of use of a modern instrument.
The PMM 9030 has been conceived as a “smart extension unit” of the
PMM 9010, to which the PMM 9030 shall be connected via high speed
optic link.
Document 9010EN-70306-1.59 - © NARDA 2007
PMM 9030 Frequency Extension
10-1
10.2 Instrument Items
PMM 9030 includes the following items:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
10.3 Optional PMM
accessories
EMI receiver from 30 MHz up to 3 GHz
BP-01 Li-Ion battery pack;
External power supply/battery charger;
20m Fiber Optic Cable;
Antenna Holding/Support with adapters for various antennas;
N-N adapter
Operating Manual (included in PMM 9010 Manual);
Certificate of Compliance.
PMM 9030 can be used with several optional accessories, the most
common being the following:
• AS-02 : Antenna Set (biconic, log-periodic, tripod, 5 m coaxial cable,
carrying case)
• RF-300 : Van Veen Loop
• SB-600 : Automatic Slide Bar for radiated power tests
10.4 Other accessories
Of course, the PMM 9030 can be used with any other accessories available
on the market, like:
• Antennas and loops, any type;
• Near Field Probes;
• Various TEM and GTEM Cells.
10-2
PMM 9030 Frequency Extension
10.5 Main Specifications
Table 10-1 lists the PMM 9030 performance specifications.
The following conditions apply to all specifications:
• thanks to its analogue+digital architecture, the PMM 9030 needs only
15 minutes of warm-up period before to operate in full-compliance with
specifications;.
• the ambient temperature shall be 0°C to 40°C
Electrical Characteristics
TABLE 10-1 Main Specifications
Performance Limits
Frequency range
30 MHz to 3 GHz (CISPR-16-1-1 Full-Compliance)
Resolution
Frequency Accuracy
100 Hz
< 2 ppm
RF input
Zin 50 Ω, N fem.
VSWR ≥ 10 dB RF att.
VSWR 0 dB RF att.
< 1,2; <2 over 1 GHz
< 2,0
Attenuator
0 dB to 55 dB (5dB steps)
Preamplifier gain
10 dB (selectable)
Max input level
(without equipment damage)
Sinewave AC voltage
137 dBµV (1 W)
Pulse spectral density
97 dBµV/MHz
Preselector
Three tracking filters;
30,0 MHz
96,6 MHz
311,0 MHz
One highpass filter
> 1 GHz
to
to
to
96,6 MHz
311,0 MHz
1,0 GHz
IF bandwidth
3 dB bandwidth
3, 10, 30, 100, 300 kHz, 1 MHz
CISPR 16-1-1 bandwidth (6 dB)
120 kHz
PMM 9030 Frequency Extension
10-3
Noise level (preamplifier ON)
30 to 300 MHz (120 kHz BW)
300 MHz to 3 GHz (120 kHz BW)
< -1 dBµV (QP); < -5 dBµV (AV)
< 2 dBµV (QP); < -2 dBµV (AV)
Measuring Detectors
Peak, Quasi-peak, Average, RMS, Smart Detector
Level meas. time
Peak, Quasi-peak,
RMS and Average
(simultaneous detectors)
1 ms to 30 sec. (CISPR 16-1-1 default)
Display units
dBm, dBµV (as stand-alone);
dBm, dBµV, dBµV/m, dBmA, dBmA/m, dBpW (through 9010
SW Utility on PC)
Spectrum
Span/division
Up to 300 MHz
Measurement accuracy
S/N > 20 dB
30 to 1000 MHz
1 to 3 GHz
± 1,0 dB
± 1,5 dB
Demodulation
AM demodulator (through PMM 9010)
I/O Interface Out
High Speed Optical Link;
RS232 (service only)
Operating temperature
0° to 40°C
Power supply
10 - 15 Volt DC, 2,5A; Li-Ion interchangeable battery (4 h
operations, average)
Dimensions
235 x 105 x 105 mm
Weight
2,0 kg
10-4
PMM 9030 Frequency Extension
10.6 Front and Rear Panel
Fig. 10-1 Front and Rear Panels
Only the input N connector is available on the front panel.
All other interfaces and connections are on the rear panel.
Legend top-down, from left to right on the rear panel:
- Replaceable Li-Ion Battery with Battery Charger connector
- OPTIC LINK
Optical link connector for PMM 9010
- RS232
9 pin, DB9 connector
- ON
Power ON-OFF switch button
- PW
Power ON/Communication led
(Blinking Red at power-on until communication
with PMM 9010 is established, then Fixed
Green during normal communication)
- Product Label and Serial Number
PMM 9030 Frequency Extension
10-5
10.7 Functional
Description
The PMM 9030 features a completely new receiver architecture based on
the most recent DSP technology, as shown on the diagram below.
The PMM 9030 block diagram is shown in Fig. 10-2
Fig. 10-2 PMM 9030 Functional BLOCK Diagram
10.8 No coaxial cable
between the
antenna and the
receiver: a unique
features of the
PMM 9030
10-6
Thanks to its very limited dimensions and lightweight construction, the
PMM 9030 can be connected directly to the antenna using the supplied
antenna support/adapter; the PMM 9030 is then linked to the PMM 9010 via
the built-in high speed optical link. This is a very unique feature that makes
the dream of all test engineers come true: no losses or mismatches
between the antenna and the receiver, no more bulky cables full of ferrites,
no more additional uncertainties due to the cables from the antenna to the
receiver!
The Optical link, whose transfer rate is more than 2,5 Gb/s, and the
proprietary transfer protocol help to ensure a communication almost error
free and always reliable in all test measurement conditions.
A result of all these innovating features is that the PMM 9030 is extremely
fast and a scan of the complete band up to 3 GHz can be performed in just
8 seconds: a terrific productivity increase in any test lab, in particular
because these performances are obtained with no quality or performance
compromises and with reduced uncertainties, compared to a traditional
solution.
PMM 9030 Frequency Extension
10.9 Emission
measurements
All electric and electronic devices are potential generators of
ElectroMagnetic Interference (EMI).
The term EMI thus refers to the electromagnetic energy emitted by a device
which propagates itself along cables or through the air and couples with
other devices that are present in the surroundings.
These electromagnetic fields (conducted or radiated interferences) may
generate interfering currents and voltages into nearby equipment and
therefore can cause possible malfunctions.
In order to prevent and control such interferences there are nowadays a
number of national and international standards, like IEC and CISPR, which
specifies limits and methods of tests. Moreover, within the European Union
the application of several European Norms on Electromagnetic
Compatibility is enforced by law and therefore the commercialization and
use of all the electric and electronic equipment is subject to the
measurement of the EMC characteristics, which must be within well defined
limits.
The design approach adopted for the PMM 9030 is that the instrument shall
be innovative, full compliant with all the relevant standards and at the same
time simple and reliable to use, to be the base building block for any
possible emission system to measure and evaluate any electric or
electronic device from the very first design stages to the final certification.
The need to precisely measure the conducted and radiated EMI noises
forces the equipment manufactures to use reliable equipment to verify the
limits imposed by the relevant standards and/or enforced by local rules.
In this view the PMM 9030 receiver is the ideal solution from prototype
debugging to final certification, as it fully meets all the performance criteria
dictated by these standards, although it remains small, lightweight and very
easy to use.
The PMM 9010 Utility control software permits an immediate use of the
instrument without any training or special difficulties: the operator can
concentrate just on analyzing the measurement results.
Moreover, the PMM 9010 software has also been designed for a fast and
easy installation on any PC with the Windows operating system and with
at least one free USB or Serial Port.
The device under test (DUT) must be installed according to the procedures
indicated in the constructor’s manual and normal operating conditions
respected.
Be sure not to overload PMM 9030: the input signal should not exceed
the maximum level indicated in the main specifications in chapter 10.
Also do not apply any signal to the 9010 input and generator output
connectors.
PMM 9030 Frequency Extension
10-7
10.10 - Installation
10.10.1 Introduction
This section provides the information needed to install your PMM 9030.
It includes the information pertinent to initial inspection and power
requirements, connections, operating environment, instrument mounting,
cleaning, storage and shipment.
10.10.2 Initial Inspection
When receiving the equipment, first inspect the shipping cardbox for any
damages.
If the shipping box is damaged, it should be kept until the contents of the
shipment have been checked for completeness and the instrument has
been checked mechanically and electrically.
10.10.2.1 Packing and
Unpacking
Verify the availability of all the shipped items with reference to the shipping
check list enclosed with the Operating Manual.
Notify any damage to the forwarder personnel as well as to your NARDA
Representative.
To avoid further damage, do not turn on the instrument when there
are signs of shipping damage to any portion of it.
10.10.3 Preparation for
Use
This is a Safety Class III apparatus, but it is also equipped with a
protective/functional earth terminal on the rear panel. A good
safety/functional ground connection should be provided before to
operate the receiver.
10.10.4 Battery charger
The battery charger supplied with the receiver can work at either 50 Hz or
60 Hz with a supply voltage rated between 100 and 240 Volt.
It is supplied with different connectors to fit all the possible outlets in
accordance with the various National standards.
-
Battery charger: DC, 10 - 15 V, ~ 2500 mA
=> DC Connector
+
10.10.4.1 To replace the
mains
connector of the
battery charger
To replace the mains connector, simply remove the one installed on the
battery charger sliding it off, and insert the one that fits the outlets in use.
10.10.4.2 To charge the
internal battery
In order to guarantee the best autonomy of the internal battery, we
recommend to fully recharge it before using the receiver.
To charge the battery, simply connect the battery charger to the mains
power socket and then insert the DC output connector of the battery
charger to the input CHARGER on the rear panel of the receiver.
ALWAYS connect the battery charger to the mains power BEFORE
connecting the DC output to PMM 9030. The battery charger has an
internal protective circuit that will not let it work if there is a load
connected to the output connector before the connection to the
mains is done.
10-8
PMM 9030 Frequency Extension
10.10.4.3 Indication of
the battery
status on
the screen and
with PW led
The charge status of the battery is displayed at the right and on the middle
of the PM9010 screen when initializing the PMM 9030.
The symbol of a small battery will be filled up proportionally to the status of
the battery charge.
When the battery is not under charge, the actual voltage value is displayed
under the symbol and the length of the black bar filling the symbol indicates
the available autonomy still remaining.
When the battery charger is connected to the PMM 9030 the indication
“PWR” appears just below to the battery icon and the front panel PW led
becomes yellow if the receiver is switched on and red if the receiver is off.
The battery charging is suspended or ends automatically when one of the
following events occurs:
- the full capacity of the battery has been achieved,
- the internal temperature of the battery is higher then a preset safety
threshold,
- the charging time limit has been exceeded.
Both during recharging and when charge is completed PMM 9030 is ready
for use.
The PW led on the back panel blinks green when the battery voltage
drops below 7,0V to warn the Operator that the instrument is running
out of battery.
To prevent any damage to the battery, the PMM 9030 automatically
switches off when the battery voltage falls below 6,5V.
In order to keep the batteries fully functional, it is crucial to have a
complete recharge before storing them for periods longer than 4
months. Therefore, it is suggested to recharge the batteries at least
every 4 months even when the receiver has not been used.
The PMM 9010 and the PMM 9030 have the same model of battery.
It means they are perfectly exchangeable among the two equipment.
To make an easy example, the 9010 could be installed in an
instrument/control room and connected to the mains, to keep the
battery at its highest charge. The PMM 9030 could be in the test
chamber – connected to 9010 via fiber optic link - and running on its
battery. When the battery of the 9030 is almost fully discharged, the
User can stop the test, replace the battery of the 9030 with a charged
battery (e.g. the one of 9010) and then restart the test.
PMM 9030 Frequency Extension
10-9
10.10.5 Environment
The operating environment of the receiver is specified to be within the
following limits:
• Temperature
• Humidity
• Altitude
+0° to +40° C
< 90% relative
4000 meters
The instrument should be stored and shipped in a clean, dry environment
which is specified to be within the following limitations:
10.10.6 Return for
Service
-40° to + 50° C
• Temperature
< 95% relative
• Humidity
15.000 meters
• Altitude
If the instrument should be returned to NARDA for servicing, please
complete the service questionnaire enclosed with the Operating Manual and
attach it to the instrument.
To minimize the repair time, be as specific as possible when describing the
failure. If the failure only occurs under certain conditions, explain how to
duplicate the failure.
If possible, reusing of the original packaging to ship the equipment is
preferable.
In case other package should be used, ensure to wrap the instrument in
heavy paper or plastic.
Use a strong shipping box and use enough shock absorbing material all
around the equipment to provide a firm cushion and prevent movement in the
shipping box; in particular protect the front panel.
Seal the shipping box securely.
Mark the shipping box FRAGILE to encourage careful handling.
10.10.7 Equipment
Cleaning
10.10.8 Equipment
ventilation
10-10
Use a clean, dry, non abrasive cloth for external cleaning of the equipment.
To clean the equipment do not use any solvent, thinner, turpentine,
acid, acetone or similar matter to avoid damage to external plastic or
display surfaces.
To allow correct equipment ventilation ensure that the vent grids on the side
panels and on the bottom of the receiver are free by any obstructing object.
PMM 9030 Frequency Extension
10.10.9 Hardware
Installation
PMM 9030 is delivered from factory ready to use as a companion of the
PMM 9010.
Remove the receiver from its cardboard and install it where desired, e.g.
directly on the antenna output connector (see detailed instruction later on in
this manual), or anyway connect the output of your antenna or transducer
device to the N connector on the front panel of PMM 9030 and immediately
start to measure up to 3 GHz.
Remove the Optic Link protective cover pressing the small tab under the
protective cover and gently pull it; keep it aside for future protection of the
port on the receiver. Repeat the same operations for the Optical Link #1 on
the PMM 9010.
Connect the Optic Fiber delivered with PMM 9030 to the PMM 9030 and to
the PMM 9010 pushing the connector in the Optical port until a “click” can be
heard; be sure the key of the connector is in the right orientation.
Once fiber optic cable has been connected properly on both sides it’s
possible to start in operating PMM 9030 together with PMM 9010.
Fig. 10-3 PMM 9030 Fiber Optic Link to PMM 9010
Switch ON the PMM 9030 keeping the “ON” small red button pressed until
the PW Led lights up blinking in Red colour (about 1 second), then release
the button. To avoid unwanted starts, if the “ON” button is kept pressed for
a too short time or for more then 2 seconds the instrument is switched
automatically off.
Push and keep pressed the “ON/OFF” button for more then 2 seconds to
switch off the receiver.
After having been switched ON, the PMM 9030 boots with its internal BIOS
and in matter of few tens of second runs the firmware which manages the
receiver.
Now switch ON the 9010: a screen like the following should appear.
PMM 9030 Frequency Extension
10-11
10.10.10 PMM 9010 +
PMM 9030
initial screen
The PMM 9030 is now ready to work in conjunction with the PMM 9010.
10.10.11 LED on the
PMM 9010
and on the
PMM 9030
When the PMM 9030 is connected to PMM 9010, the yellow led next to the
RF input of PMM 9010 (“0dB led”) blinks to indicate that an expansion unit
is connected and that this BNC input shall be kept free of any other
connections.
The PW led on the back of the PMM 9030 remains on in fix green color, to
indicate the connection is good and stable.
When for any reason the link between PMM 9010 and PMM 9030 is
interrupted, the PW led on the PMM 9030 blinks red (as just after the power
ON), to indicate there is a connection problem. After about 60 seconds in
this condition, the PMM 9030 switches automatically OFF to save the
battery.
10.10.12 PMM 9010 +
PMM 9030
main screen
10-12
After having selected any key and being returned to the main screen, the
usual appearance of the main screen is as follows:
PMM 9030 Frequency Extension
10.10.13 PMM 9010 +
PMM 9030
Setup panel
No changes in this panel, but that the Autocalibration function is no longer
available in this condition.
PMM 9030 Frequency Extension
10-13
10.10.14 PMM 9010 +
PMM 9030
Link failure
When, for any reason, the optical connection between PMM 9010 and
PMM 9030 is lost, a message is shown on the screen like the following:
In this case, press the button 9030 Search: if there are no changes, check
the PMM 9030 and verify it is ON. Replace the battery if needed (almost all
the occurrences of link failure are due to the battery too low) and switch ON
again the PMM 9030.
A new screen like the following should be displayed:
10-14
PMM 9030 Frequency Extension
10.10.15 Using an
Antenna
In the frequency range from 30 MHz to 3 GHz two different antennas, a
Biconic and a Log-Periodic can be used to pick-up and measure RF radiated
emissions; alternatively, some Biconi-Log antennas are also available to
cover the whole range without changing between two antennas, even if such
a solution is mostly more expensive and the antenna size is usually bigger.
The really “unique” feature of PMM 9030 is that of allowing direct connection
between antenna output connector and EMI receiver input, so dramatically
increasing system immunity to environmental noise at detection side and
completely cutting-off any capacitive coupling between antenna, ground
plane and connectin cables.
In order to perfectly match antennas to PMM 9030, a dedicated Teflon
Antenna Holder is also provided as a standard accessory, so balancing
weight between receiver and antenna when attached to a tripod or antenna
mast.
Such Antenna Holder comes with some spare parts plus nuts and bolts,
which can be easily assembled with provided wrench, as per step-by-step
operations in following pictures.
Fig. 10-4 PMM 9030 Antenna Holder spare parts
PMM 9030 Frequency Extension
10-15
Assembling Steps (from left to right)
Fig. 10-5 Mounting the Tripod Joint
Fig. 10-6 Fixing the base of Antenna Holder
Fig. 10-7 Closing the Antenna Holder
10-16
PMM 9030 Frequency Extension
Fig. 10-8 Inserting the Adapter for PMM Log-Periodic
Fig. 10-9 Complete assembling
Fig 10-10 Complete assembling for other antennas
Fig. 10-11 Mounting the Antenna Holder on PMM 9030
Fig. 10-12 Screwing the N-N Adapter for Antenna Matching
Fig. 10-13 Fixing onto the Tripod
Fig. 10-14 Attaching PMM LogPeriodic
PMM 9030 Frequency Extension
10-17
10.11 - Analyzer Mode Operating Instructions
10.11.1 Introduction
To enter in the ANALYZER Mode it’s enough to depress the Analyzer soft
key on the main screen.
In this mode the receiver works as a powerful Spectrum Analyzer and the
display shows the "spectrum analysis" (span max 3 GHz) in the frequency
domain of a signal tuned at a given frequency.
The analysis is done at the selected span frequency.
Using the marker facility the User can accomplish a very accurate
measurement of the signals either in frequency as well as in level.
Entering Analyzer Mode from the main menu, the display will look like the
following:
Fig. 10-15 Spectrum
The SPAN per division is automatically managed by the equipment.
On the screen of the Analyzer Mode all the relevant information are reported.
From the upper left corner, the User can see if the Preselector is ON or OFF;
if the Preamplifier is ON or OFF; which detector is in use and the relevant
hold time; if the input attenuation is Automatic or Manual and the set
attenuation and if the Minimum attenuation is 10 dB or 0dB.
Just above the graph, from left to right, there is the Reference level, the
Resolution bandwidth and the span value.
Below the graph the start, center and stop frequency.
The bottom left corner is dedicated to the marker indication, with actual
frequency and level of the marker.
10-18
PMM 9030 Frequency Extension
The Spectrum mode function is divided into five sub windows:
•
•
•
•
•
Frequency
Resolution Bandwidth
Level
Marker
Wide Mode
The fifth button is used to change the spectrum view to wide screen mode,
as shown in the picture 4-1, and with the Esc button the original view can be
restored.
Always use Esc button to return to the previous view/condition.
10.11.2 Frequency
Allows the User to set the tuning frequency and also the Span.
The Center frequency of the Spectrum window can be directly edited into the
window or set by the arrow buttons or by the rotary knob, which frequency
steps are set under the Manual mode.
Depressing the Center button the figures 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 are selectable;
with the right arrow key it is possible to select the figures from 5 to 9, and
pressing again the right arrow key the units kHz, MHz and GHz becomes
accessible, as well as the decimal dot and the Back Space. The left arrow
key can be used as well to move back and forth from one screen to the
other. Pressing 0 as the first figure the decimal dot appears automatically.
To set a given frequency it is therefore enough to edit the value with the soft
keys and the left an right arrows, confirming the selections entering the units
value (kHz, MHz or GHz).
The figures entered appear in a small window just below the graph and the
default unit is MHz, so 100 kHz = 0,1 MHz; 10 kHz = 0,01 MHz;
1 kHz = 0,001 MHz and 100 Hz = 0,0001 MHz.
Using the Start and Stop buttons it is possible to select any start and stop
value in the frequency range 10 Hz to 3 GHz band.
Another method for setting the frequency is to enter the Center frequency
and the appropriate Span.
In this mode of operation the frequency step (spectrum resolution) is set
automatically, therefore it cannot be changed manually.
10.11.3 RBW
The Resolution Bandwidth command is used to select the bandwidth of the
measuring filter. Seven bandwidth filters are available:
• 120 kHz CISPR 16 shaped at -6dB
•
3 kHz at -3dB
•
10 kHz at -3dB
•
30 kHz at -3dB
• 100 kHz at -3dB
• 300 kHz at -3dB
•
1 MHz at -3dB
The four larger filters are selectable from the first RBW screen, and pressing
the More RBW button it is possible to select all the other filters.
These filters are mathematically modeled using FIR (Finite Impulse
Response) technique and they are exactly as required by the standards.
More filters will be available as an option for specific applications, e.g. to
cover Military Standards requirements, etc.
PMM 9030 Frequency Extension
10-19
The Level function has 5 sub-menus, each one with several options.
10.11.4 Level
Pressing the Display button it is possible to set two parameters: the
visualized Dynamic range (chosen between 80, 100 and 120dB) and the
Reference Level, that can be increased or reduced by steps of 5dB within
the range +55 dBµV to 90 dBµV (-50 to - 15 dBm).
The Input button opens a submenu which is dedicated to the setting of the
input attenuator and to switch on-off the built-in preamplifier.
The PMM 9030 receiver takes automatically into account the settings of all
the Input parameters and always displays the correct value of the level. The
User is not required to make any correction to the readings.
10.11.4.1 Input:
Attenuators
and
preamplifier
Being entered in the Input submenu, to increase or decrease the attenuation
at the input, press Att + or Att -, and for each touch the attenuation is
increased or decreased of 5 dB (preset value) up to the max attenuation
available of 55 dB.
Depressing either one of these keys force the receiver in manual attenuation.
The Min Att button acts as a toggle switch: it selects or deselects the
minimum attenuation of 10 dB. When the minimum attenuation is selected,
the attenuator – doesn’t matter if in automatic or in manual condition cannot be lowered under 10 dB.
Unless specifically required by the test conditions, do not remove the
minimum attenuation of 10 dB.
With the Preamp key it is possible to insert or exclude the built-in low noise
preamplification of 10 dB.
The internal 10 dB preamplifier can be used when very weak signals have to
be investigated. As already mentioned, with the preamplifier ON the receiver
takes automatically care of the 10 dB gain when measuring the signals.
The Att Auto button is used to switch from the two conditions of manual or
automatic attenuation setting.
Please note that the switching of the attenuators is relatively noisy and you
can perceive it distinctly with a “click” for each switch operation.
Using 0 dB attenuation PMM 9030 has no input protection.
This is a potentially dangerous condition for the input stage of the
receiver.
Use 0 dB attenuation only if you are very sure that your input signal is
less than 1 V (or 120 dBµV).
Before to apply an unknown signal to PMM 9030 receiver, use an
oscilloscope or a wide band RF voltmeter to measure it. In any case set
Min. ATT at 10 dB and select the maximum available attenuation with
preamplifier OFF.
If needed, add an external coaxial attenuator on the input signal line.
10-20
PMM 9030 Frequency Extension
10.11.4.2 Misc
Under the Miscellanea functions menu it is possible to activate or exclude
the Preselector filters and also to set the Tracking Generator.
The Preselector is composed by a group of filters automatically selected
by the PMM 9030 while it is sweeping or anyway measuring. The aim of the
preselector is to reduce the amount of out-of-band energy entering in the
receiver, thus helping a lot in reducing intermodulation problems and similar
undesired behaviors.
In Analyzer mode the preselector is available only if the entire span falls in
one filter band (see the main specification in chapter 1 to verify the
frequency bands). In this situation on the display it will be shown:
Preselector ON. If the span is larger then one filter only, on the display the
symbol *** will appear instead.
It can be set either ON or OFF with the associated button, and normally it
should be always enabled.
On the top left corner of the screen the symbol “Off” or “On” will be
displayed.
Pressing the RF OUT button the receiver enters the Generator menu.
10.11.4.3 Detector
This menu allows the Operator to select the most appropriate detector for
the test.
In Analyzer mode the Peak, Average and RMS (Root Mean Square)
detectors are available and can be selected via the appropriate button.
Hold time
The Hold Time (expressed in milliseconds) represents the time the receiver
uses to “take a snapshot” of the incoming signal and to measure it with the
chosen detector. When selecting a detector, the default hold time value is
automatically loaded, but in some cases this time is not appropriate, e.g.
when the interference signals have a low repetition rate. In this case the
PMM 9030 sees a high input signal and therefore tries to set the proper
attenuation automatically increasing the value or the input attenuators.
However, when the input attenuation is set the signal is gone, so the
receiver lowers the attenuation, but then a new peak arrives, and so on and
so forth..
On the other hand, if the Hold Time is too high the PMM 9030 cannot
properly follow the signals.
In this situation the Hold Time value should be manually set to find a
correct compromise.
To set the Hold Time to the lowest possible value (this value dynamically
depends from the measurement conditions), enter the figure 0; if a value
lower than the allowed is entered, the lowest possible value is automatically
selected.
The max. Hold Time that can be set is 30 sec (30.000 ms).
PMM 9030 Frequency Extension
10-21
10.11.4.4 Conversion
factor
When using a transducer to make a measurement – a Voltage or Current
Probe, an Antenna, etc. – there is always the need to add to the measured
values the conversion factor of the transducer in use.
The Conversion factor may also take proper account of losses as cable
loss, attenuators added externally to the receiver, etc.
The PMM 9030 can handle these factors in an automatic way and directly
correct the readings.
The PMM 9030 can store in its internal non-volatile memory up to 4
different correction factors, and use them one at a time when recalled.
However, the Conversion Factors shall be created and loaded via the
PMM 9010 Software Utility.
Press the relevant button to load the conversion factor, and NONE to
unload it.
10.11.5 Marker
With this command the Marker function can be enabled.
Switching ON the marker it appears on the screen as a small black pointing
down arrow, and simultaneously a small window shows up in the bottom left
corner of the screen, indicating the actual frequency and level read by the
marker.
Pressing the Peak button the marker will automatically move to the highest
signal found in the span range in that given moment, and with the help of
the Center button the frequency selected by the marker becomes the
center frequency on the screen, making very easy any signal analysis.
10.11.6 ESC
10-22
This button allows to return to the previous view or condition.
PMM 9030 Frequency Extension
10.12 - Sweep Mode Operating Instructions
10.12.1 Introduction
The Sweep mode is used to operate the PMM 9030 as a powerful scanning
receiver. To enter in this mode it’s enough to depress the Sweep soft key on
the main screen, and immediately the scan setup window pops up and allows
the operator to set the parameters for the scan.
Fig. 10-16 Sweep
As for the Analyzer operating mode, all the relevant information are reported
on the screen.
From the upper left corner, the User can see if the Preselector is ON or OFF;
if the Preamplifier is ON or OFF; which detector is in use and the relevant
hold time; if the function “Smart Detector” is activate and which one; if the
input attenuation is Automatic or Manual and the set attenuation and if the
Minimum attenuation is 10 dB or 0dB.
Just above the graph there is on the left the Reference level. During the
scan, in the center above the graph the actual frequency measured and/or
any other relevant operation.
Below the graph the start and the stop frequency, and loaded limits, if any.
When the sweep has been executed, on the bottom of the screen the most
important sweep parameters are repeated.
If the graph has been loaded from the memory, just below the start frequency
there is the symbol # followed by the memory position loaded (position
number 2 in figure 10-16).
Please note that the information in the upper part above the graph refers to
the next sweep to be done, while the information in the lower part, below the
graph, concerns to the actual displayed data.
PMM 9030 Frequency Extension
10-23
The Sweep mode function is divided into five sub windows:
•
•
•
•
•
Measure
Limit
Display
Marker
Load Store
Always use Esc button to return to the previous view/condition.
10.12.2 Measure
The Measure button is used to set the scan parameters and to run the
sweep.
After having chosen the frequency band and set all the other parameters it is
possible to run the measurement scan simply touching the Exec Sweep
button.
To make subsequent sweeps with the same setting parameters, simply
press ReDo Sweep. This key is particularly useful after having loaded a
previously stored track (see 10.12.6), as with the Re Do Sweep the original
settings are kept for the new measurement: it is extremely easy to make
comparisons, for example, before and after a modification of the EUT.
Once the scan starts, it can be stopped at any time during the execution by
the Stop function key that appears during the scan.
10.12.2.1 Frequency
The Frequency menu features four function buttons:
With the C+D Band the receiver will be set to work in the 30 – 1000 MHz
range. The definition of bands C (30-300 MHz) and D (300-1000 MHz) is a
given in CISPR 16-1-1.
Pressing E Band the receiver will be set to scan the 1 - 3 GHz frequency
band. The definition of band E (1-18 GHz) is a given in CISPR 16-1-1.
Pressing C+D+E Band the receiver will be set to scan the entire band from
30 MHz to 3 GHz.
Using these automatic band settings, the Frequency Step and Resolution
Bandwidth are set automatically according to CISPR standard requirement.
For the Advanced option please see next paragraph.
Please note that to make effective the changes after having selected a band,
the receiver needs to start its sweep.
10-24
PMM 9030 Frequency Extension
10.12.2.2 Advanced
The Advanced submenu features five function buttons:
RBW Auto automatically adjust the resolution bandwidth to selected
frequency range as per the CISPR standards.
The User can also decide which resolution bandwidth use simply selecting
either one of the 2 bands available: 120 kHz or 1 MHz.
The Start and Stop frequency buttons can be used to set any frequency
interval for the measurement; to enter the frequency values press the
corresponding function keys.
Pressing either one of these 2 keys the figures 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 are
selectable at first; with the right arrow key it is possible to select the figures
from 5 to 9, and pressing again the right arrow key the units kHz, MHz and
GHz becomes accessible, as well as the decimal dot and the Back Space.
The left arrow key can be used as well to move back and forth from one
screen to the other. Pressing 0 as the first figure the decimal dot appears
automatically.
To set a given frequency it is therefore enough to edit the value with the soft
keys and the left an right arrows, confirming the selections entering the units
value (kHz, MHz or GHz).
The figures entered appear in a small window just below the graph and the
default unit is MHz.
10.12.2.3 Level
The Level function has 4 sub-menus, each one with several options..
Pressing the Display button it is possible to set two parameters: the
visualized Dynamic range (chosen between 80, 100 and 120dB) and the
Reference Level, that can be increased or reduced by steps of 5dB within
the range +55 dBµV to 90 dBµV (-50 to - 15 dBm).
The Input button opens a submenu which is dedicated to the setting of the
input attenuator and to switch on-off the built-in preamplifier.
The PMM 9030 receiver takes automatically into account the settings of all
the Input parameters and always displays the correct value of the level. The
User is not required to make any correction to the readings.
With the PM9030 the function Smart Detector is not available.
Using 0 dB attenuation PMM 9030 has no input protection.
This is a potentially dangerous condition for the input stage of the
receiver.
Use 0 dB attenuation only if you are very sure that your input signal is
less than 1 V (or 120 dBµV).
Before to apply an unknown signal to PMM 9030 receiver, use an
oscilloscope or a wide band RF voltmeter to measure it. In any case set
Min. ATT at 10 dB and select the maximum available attenuation with
preamplifier OFF.
If needed, add an external coaxial attenuator on the input signal line.
PMM 9030 Frequency Extension
10-25
10.12.2.3.1 Input:
Attenuators
and
preamplifier
Being entered in the Input submenu, to increase or decrease the attenuation
at the input, press Att + or Att -, and for each touch the attenuation is
increased or decreased of 5 dB (preset value) up to the max attenuation
available of 55 dB.
Depressing either one of these keys force the receiver in manual attenuation.
The Min Att button acts as a toggle switch: it selects or deselects the
minimum attenuation of 10 dB. When the minimum attenuation is selected,
the attenuator – doesn’t matter if in automatic or in manual condition cannot be lowered under 10 dB.
Unless specifically required by the test conditions, do not remove the
minimum attenuation of 10 dB.
With the Preamp key it is possible to insert or exclude the built-in low noise
preamplification of 10 dB.
The internal 10 dB preamplifier can be used when very weak signals have to
be investigated. As already mentioned, with the preamplifier ON the receiver
takes automatically care of the 10 dB gain when measuring the signals.
The Att Auto button is used to switch from the two conditions of manual or
automatic attenuation setting.
Please note that the switching of the attenuators is relatively noisy and you
can perceive it distinctly with a “click” for each switch operation.
10.12.2.3.2 Misc
Under the Miscellanea functions menu it is possible to activate or exclude
the Preselector filters and also to enter in the Tracking generator menu
pressing the RF OUT button.
The Preselector is composed by a group of filters automatically selected by
the PMM 9030 while it is sweeping or anyway measuring. The aim of the
preselector is to reduce the amount of out-of-band energy entering in the
receiver, thus helping a lot in reducing intermodulation problems and similar
undesired behaviors.
It can be set either ON or OFF with the associated button, and normally it
should be always enabled.
On the top left corner of the screen the symbol “Off” or “On” will be displayed.
10.12.2.3.3 Tracking
generator
Pressing the RF OUT button the receiver enters the Tracking generator
menu.
.
The Tracking generator is an internal, high stability and accuracy, 50 Ohm
RF generator ranging from 10 Hz to 50 MHz.
It is a CW signal source tuned at the frequency set under the RF OUT Freq
window.
As usual, to set a given frequency it is therefore enough to edit the value with
the soft keys and the left an right arrows, confirming the selections entering
the units value (kHz, MHz or GHz).
Pressing 0 as the first figure the decimal dot appears automatically.
The output level can be set between 60,0 and 90,0 dBµV with 0,1dB steps
using the RF OUT Level button.
If a higher or lower level is needed, the User shall adopt either an external
amplifier or an external attenuator.
With the PMM 9030 the Tracking On function is not available.
10-26
PMM 9030 Frequency Extension
10.12.2.3.4 Detector
This menu allows the operator to select the most appropriate detector for
the test.
In Sweep mode the Peak, Average, RMS (Root Mean Square) and QuasiPeak detectors are available and can be selected via the appropriate button.
Hold time (ms)
The Hold Time (expressed in milliseconds) represents the time the receiver
uses to “take a snapshot” of the incoming signal and to measure it with the
chosen detector. When selecting a detector, the default hold time value is
automatically loaded, but in some cases this time is not appropriate, e.g.
when the interference signals have a low repetition rate. In this case the
PMM 9010 sees a high input signal and therefore tries to set the proper
attenuation automatically increasing the value or the input attenuators.
However, when the input attenuation is set the signal is gone, so the receiver
lowers the attenuation, but then a new peak arrives, and so on and so forth.
On the other hand, if the Hold Time is too high the PMM 9010 cannot
properly follow the signals.
In this situation the Hold Time value should be manually set to find a correct
compromise.
To set the Hold Time to the lowest possible value (this value dynamically
depends from the measurement conditions), enter the figure 0; if a value
lower than the allowed is entered, the lowest possible value is automatically
selected.
The max. Hold Time that can be set is 30 sec (30.000 ms).
10.12.2.4 Conversion
factor
When using a transducer to make a measurement – a Voltage or Current
Probe, an Antenna, etc. – there is always the need to add to the measured
values the conversion factor of the transducer in use.
The Conversion factor may also take proper account of losses as cable loss,
attenuators added externally to the receiver, etc.
The PMM 9030 can handle these factors in an automatic way and directly
correct the readings.
The PMM 9030 can store in its internal non-volatile memory up to 4 different
correction factors, and use them one at a time when recalled.
However, the Conversion Factors shall be created and loaded via the PMM
9010 Software Utility.
Load the conversion factor with the relevant button, and NONE to unload it.
10.12.3 Limit
Each emission standard has one or more limits the User shall comply with.
The PMM 9030 receiver has the possibility to load and activate one limit with
the simple click of a button.
The preloaded standard limits refer to the most popular EMC emission
standards: CISPR22, CISPR14 and CISPR11.
Other limits – or any custom designed limit – can be created, managed,
selected and loaded through the PMM 9010 Software Utility running on a PC.
These additional custom limits cannot be stored in the memory of the PMM
9030, but only in the one of the PC where the 9010SW Utility is running.
The limits are shown on the scan display and they appear like a thin black
line .
By pressing the NONE button all limits are deactivated.
PMM 9030 Frequency Extension
10-27
10.12.4 Display
Pressing the Display button it is possible to set two parameters: the
visualized Dynamic range (chosen between 80, 100 and 120dB) and the
Reference Level, that can be increased or reduced by steps of 5dB within
the range +55 dBµV to 90 dBµV (-50 to - 15 dBm).
10.12.5 Marker
Selecting this function a Marker is immediately enabled, and it appears on
the screen as a small black pointing down arrow corresponding to the highest
reading; simultaneously a small window shows up in the bottom left corner of
the screen, indicating the actual frequency and level read by the marker.
The Marker function is not a simple search for the highest readings on the
screen – it would be a useless exercise that would display a number of points
all grouped together – but it’s a true peak search that measures the degree
of variation of the signal: a peak is so classified only if it “pops-up” from the
adjacent signals with a certain amount of dBs.
Following this criterion, if the measured signal is a flat line no peaks will be
found.
Selecting Highest X – where X represents the maximum number of markers
found by the receiver during its sweep – few more markers are added, each
one diamond shaped, defined as per the previous explanation.
The maximum number of markers available is 10.
By using arrow keys it is possible to quickly move on markers from higher
(left arrow) to lower (right arrow), i.e. if the highest is selected, pressing the
nd
right arrow key the 2 highest is selected, then pressing again the same key
rd
the 3 highest and so on and so forth.
It is also possible to use the rotary knob to move from a marker to the next
one.
The marker under analysis main marker) is a black arrow pointing down, the
others are diamond shaped.
Pressing the Peak button the marker returns to the highest reading.
In order to make easier and faster the evaluation of the more noisy signals,
the User can now select either the Analyzer or the Tune function, entering
respectively into a spectrum analysis of main marker position or in the
manual mode evaluation of it. To operate this two conditions please refer to
the appropriate section of this Operating Manual.
In manual mode, i.e. having selected Tune on the main marker, it is possible
to navigate from one peak to the other just pressing the arrow keys, without
to come back to the Sweep display and remaining in manual mode.
This is another unique feature of PMM 9030 to improve the productivity of the
test lab and make easier the work of the test engineer.
The Marker Off exits from the marker function.
10-28
PMM 9030 Frequency Extension
10.12.6 Load Store
Pressing this key allows the User to have access to the memory of the
receiver and enables the storing up to a number of different
configurations/sweeps that depends on the parameters set on the receiver.
For example, using standard CISPR parameters it is possible to store up to 5
sweeps on the C+D+E bands (RBW120 kHz and 1 MHz, respectively).
Each new scan will be stored in the first available memory position thanks to
the button Store #x, where x is the first available position. When all positions
are occupied by a scan, this function is disabled until one of the previous
scan is erased.
To load a stored trace, press the Load #x button until the proper scan is
displayed; to unload a trace select the Unload Trace button.
Please note that the Load function is scanning the memory in a circular way,
therefore all the occupied memory positions are shown in sequence. When
the key shows “Load #4”, it means the trace #3 is displayed and that the #4
will be loaded after the key is pressed, and so on and so forth.
To erase a trace, press the Erase#x button.
Due to the structure of the memory, it is possible to erase only the latest
stored memory, with a sequence “LIFO” (Last In First Out), therefore after
having erased the #x, the #(x-1) will be the trace to be erased. With
reference to the example at the left, the last stored trace is the #4, and it is
the first that will be erased. After that, the key will show “Erase #3”, and so on
and so forth.
A more advanced trace management could be done using the PMM 9010
Software Utility.
Turn Off the tracking generator, if it is not used, while you are in Scan
Mode.
This prevents interferences and the measurements are more clean and
accurate.
PMM 9030 Frequency Extension
10-29
10.13 - Manual Mode Operating Instructions
10.13.1 Introduction
The MANUAL mode is a very useful feature to manually control the
receiver and to deeply investigate electrical signals modifying the
parameters of receiver exactly as per the needs of the Test Engineer.
It is possible, for example, to observe the signals exceeding the limits
frequency by frequency; evaluating their levels measured simultaneously
with 4 different detectors (Peak, QuasiPeak, Average and RMS); listening
to them after a demodulation, etc.
To enter in .Manual Mode press the key in the main menu, and
immediately the first Manual window opens as follow.
Fig. 10-17 Manual
In manual mode the levels corresponding to the detectors in use are
displayed both in analogue and in digital format, and exactly as for the other
operating modes, all the relevant information are reported on the screen.
From the upper left corner, the User can see if the Preselector is ON or
OFF; if the Preamplifier is ON or OFF; the resolution bandwidth, the longest
hold time associated to the detectors in use; if the input attenuation is
Automatic or Manual and the set attenuation and if the Minimum
attenuation is 10 dB or 0dB; if there a demodulation and the level of the
volume, represented by a small black bar.
Then there are three or fours vertical bars representing the detectors and
indicating in analogue and digital (the figures below each bar) the level
measured; on top of the bars the relevant detector, the unit in use and the
tuned frequency. The analogue scale of the analogue bars is set
automatically by the receiver.
10-30
PMM 9030 Frequency Extension
The Manual mode function has five sub windows:
•
•
•
•
•
Frequency
Level
Resolution Bandwidth
Hold Time
Demodulation
Always use Esc button to return to the previous view/condition.
10.13.2 Frequency
Under this menu it is possible to set the tuning frequency and also the knob
and the arrow keys steps.
The center Frequency of the reading can be directly edited into the Tune
window or set by the left and right arrow buttons or by rotating the knob.
The figures entered appear in a small window just below the graph and the
default unit is MHz.
Having selected Tune, the figures 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 are selectable at first;
with the right arrow key it is possible to select the figures from 5 to 9, and
pressing again the right arrow key the units kHz, MHz and GHz becomes
accessible, as well as the decimal dot and the Back Space. The left arrow
key can be used as well to move back and forth from one screen to the
other. Pressing 0 as the first figure the decimal dot appears automatically.
To set a given frequency it is therefore enough to edit the value with the
soft keys and the left an right arrows, confirming the selections entering the
units value (kHz, MHz or GHz).
If Knob is selected, the small window below the bars indicate the step
which is going to be selected. After having fixed the step size, rotate the
know and tune the desired frequency.
If Arrow is selected, the small window below the bars indicate the step
which is going to be selected. After having fixed the step size, press the left
and the right arrow keys to decrease or increase the frequency by the
selected step.
10.13.3 Level
The Level function has 4 sub-menus.
Pressing the Display button it is possible to set two parameters: the
visualized Dynamic range (chosen between 80, 100 and 120dB) and the
Reference Level, that can be increased or reduced by steps of 5dB within
the range +57 dBµV to 92 dBµV (-50 to -15 dBm).
The Input button opens a submenu which is dedicated to the setting of the
input attenuator and to switch on-off the built-in preamplifier.
The PMM 9030 receiver takes automatically into account the settings of all
the Input parameters and always displays the correct value of the level. The
User is not required to make any correction to the readings.
PMM 9030 Frequency Extension
10-31
10.13.3.1 Input:
Attenuator and
preamplifier
Being entered in the Input submenu, to increase or decrease the
attenuation at the input, press Att + or Att -, and for each touch the
attenuation is increased or decreased of 5 dB (preset value) up to the max
attenuation available of 55 dB.
Depressing either one of these keys force the receiver in manual
attenuation.
The Min Att button acts as a toggle switch: it selects or deselects the
minimum attenuation of 10 dB. When the minimum attenuation is selected,
the attenuator – doesn’t matter if in automatic or in manual condition cannot be lowered under 10 dB.
Unless specifically required by the test conditions, do not remove the
minimum attenuation of 10 dB.
With the Preamp key it is possible to insert or exclude the built-in low noise
preamplification of 10 dB.
The internal 10 dB preamplifier can be used when very weak signals have
to be investigated. As already mentioned, with the preamplifier ON the
receiver takes automatically care of the 10 dB gain when measuring the
signals.
The Att Auto button is used to switch from the two conditions of manual or
automatic attenuation setting.
Please note that the switching of the attenuators is relatively noisy and you
can perceive it distinctly with a “click” for each switch operation.
Using 0 dB attenuation PMM 9030 has no input protection.
This is a potentially dangerous condition for the input stage of the
receiver.
Use 0 dB attenuation only if you are very sure that your input signal is
less than 1 V (or 120 dBµV).
Before to apply an unknown signal to PMM 9030 receiver, use an
oscilloscope or a wide band RF voltmeter to measure it. In any case
set Min. ATT at 10 dB and select the maximum available attenuation
with preamplifier OFF.
If needed, add an external coaxial attenuator on the input signal line.
10.13.3.2 Misc
Under the Miscellaneous functions menu it is possible to activate or
exclude the Preselector filters and also to set the Tracking generator.
The Preselector is composed by a group of filters automatically selected
by the PMM 9030 while it is sweeping or anyway measuring. The aim of the
preselector is to reduce the amount of out-of-band energy entering in the
receiver, thus helping a lot in reducing intermodulation problems and similar
undesired behaviors.
It can be set either ON or OFF with the associated button, and normally it
should be always enabled.
On the top left corner of the screen the symbol “Off” or “On” will be
displayed.
Pressing the RF OUT button the receiver enters the Tracking generator
menu.
10-32
PMM 9030 Frequency Extension
The Tracking generator is an internal, high stability and accuracy, 50 Ohm
RF generator ranging from 10 Hz to 50 MHz.
It is a CW signal source tuned at the frequency set under the RF OUT Freq
window.
As usual, to set a given frequency it is therefore enough to edit the value
with the soft keys and the left an right arrows, confirming the selections
entering the units value (kHz, MHz or GHz).
Pressing 0 as the first figure the decimal dot appears automatically.
The output level can be set between 60,0 and 90,0 dBµV with 0,1dB steps
using the RF OUT Level button.
If a higher or lower level is needed, the User shall adopt either an external
amplifier or an external attenuator.
With the PMM 9030 the Tracking On function is not available.
10.13.4 RBW
The Resolution Bandwidth command is used to select the bandwidth of
the measuring filter. Seven bandwidth filters are available:
• 120 kHz CISPR 16 shaped at -6dB
•
3 kHz at -3dB
•
10 kHz at -3dB
•
30 kHz at -3dB
• 100 kHz at -3dB
• 300 kHz at -3dB
•
1 MHz at -3dB
The four larger filters are selectable from the first RBW screen, and
pressing the More RBW button it is possible to select all the other filters.
These filters are mathematically modeled using FIR (Finite Impulse
Response) technique and they are exactly as required by the standards.
More filters will be available as an option for specific applications, e.g. to
cover Military Standards requirements, etc.
With the Auto Cispr function, the filter will be automatically selected,
according to CISPR standard, depending on the tuned frequency.
When a non-CISPR filter is selected, the Quasi Peak detector is disabled.
10.13.5 Hold Time
The Hold Time (expressed in milliseconds) represents the time the receiver
uses to “take a snapshot” of the incoming signal and to measure it with the
chosen detector. When selecting a detector, the default hold time value is
automatically loaded, but in some cases this time is not appropriate, e.g.
when the interference signals have a low repetition rate. In this case the
PMM 9030 sees a high input signal and therefore tries to set the proper
attenuation automatically increasing the value or the input attenuators.
However, when the input attenuation is set the signal is gone, so the
receiver lowers the attenuation, but then a new peak arrives, and so on and
so forth.
On the other hand, if the Hold Time is too high the PMM 9030 cannot
properly follow the signals.
In this situation the Hold Time value should be manually set to find a
correct compromise.
To set the Hold Time to the lowest possible value (this value dynamically
depends from the measurement conditions), enter the figure 0; if a value
lower than the allowed is entered, the lowest possible value is automatically
selected.
The max. Hold Time that can be set is 30 sec (30.000 ms).
PMM 9030 Frequency Extension
10-33
10.13.6 Demodulator
Switching ON the built-in AM demodulator, the volume can be adjusted with
the rotating knob, and the level is shown by the black bar on the screen.
The demodulated signals can be heard with headphones or earphones
connected to the front panel of the PMM 9010, or amplified and/or recorded
by any suitable device.
An FM demodulator – or other demodulators - is not available for the time
being in the frequency band covered by the PMM 9030.
10-34
PMM 9030 Frequency Extension
NARDA
Safety
Test
Solutions
S.r.l. Socio Unico
Sales & Support:
Via Leonardo da Vinci, 21/23
20090 Segrate (MI) - ITALY
Tel.: +39 02 2699871
Fax: +39 02 26998700
Manufacturing Plant:
Via Benessea, 29/B
17035 Cisano sul Neva (SV)
Tel.: +39 0182 58641
Fax: +39 0182 586400
http://www.narda-sts.it
Mod. 18-1
Caro cliente
grazie per aver acquistato un prodotto NARDA! Sei in possesso di uno strumento che per molti anni ti garantirà un’alta qualità di
servizio. NARDA riconosce l'importanza del Cliente come ragione di esistenza; ciascun commento e suggerimento, sottoposto
all'attenzione della nostra organizzazione, è tenuto in grande considerazione. La nostra qualità è alla ricerca del miglioramento
continuo. Se uno dei Suoi strumenti NARDA necessita di riparazione o calibrazione, può aiutarci a servirla più efficacemente
compilando questa scheda e accludendola all’apparecchio.
Tuttavia, anche questo prodotto diventerà obsoleto. In questo caso, ti ricordiamo che lo smaltimento dell'apparecchiatura deve
essere fatto in conformità con i regolamenti locali. Questo prodotto è conforme alle direttive WEEE dell’Unione Europea
(2002/96/EC) ed appartiene alla categoria 9 (strumenti di controllo). Lo smaltimento, in un ambiente adeguato, può avvenire anche
attraverso la restituzione del prodotto alla NARDA senza sostenere alcuna spesa. Può ottenere ulteriori informazioni contattando i
venditori NARDA o visitando il nostro sito Web www.narda-sts.it.
Dear Customer
thank you for purchasing a NARDA product! You now own a high-quality instrument that will give you many years of reliable service.
NARDA recognizes the importance of the Customer as reason of existence; in this view, any comment and suggestion you would like
to submit to the attention of our service organization is kept in great consideration. Moreover, we are continuously improving our
quality, but we know this is a never ending process. We would be glad if our present efforts are pleasing you. Should one of your
NARDA equipment need service you can help us serve you more effectively filling out this card and enclosing it with the product.
Nevertheless, even this product will eventually become obsolete. When that time comes, please remember that electronic equipment
must be disposed of in accordance with local regulations. This product conforms to the WEEE Directive of the European Union
(2002/96/EC) and belongs to Category 9 (Monitoring and Control Instruments). You can return the instrument to us free of charge for
proper environment friendly disposal. You can obtain further information from your local NARDA Sales Partner or by visiting our
website at www.narda-sts.it.
5 Servizio richiesto: 5 Service needed:
… Solo taratura
… Calibration only
… Riparazione
… Repair
… Riparazione & Taratura
… Repair & Calibration
… Taratura SIT
… Certified Calibration
… Altro:
… Other:
Ditta:
Company:
Indirizzo:
Address:
Persona da contattare:
Technical contact person:
Telefono:
Phone n.
Modello:
Equipment model:
Numero di serie:
Serial n.
5 Accessori ritornati con l’apparecchiatura: … Nessuno … Cavo(i)
… Cavo di alimentazione
5 Accessories returned with unit:
… None
… Cable(s) … Power cable
Altro:
Other:
5 Sintomi o problemi osservati: 5 Observed symptoms / problems:
… Intermittente
5 Guasto: … Fisso
5 Failure: … Continuous … Intermittent
Sensibile a : … Freddo
… Cold
Sensitive to:
… Caldo
… Heat
Descrizione del guasto/condizioni di funzionamento:
Failure symptoms/special control settings description:
Se l’unità è parte di un sistema descriverne la configurazione:
If unit is part of system please list other interconnected equipment and system set up:
… Vibrazioni … Altro
… Vibration
… Other
Suggerimenti / Commenti / Note:
Suggestions / Comments / Note:
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