Orion 420 Weather Station™
Orion 420 Weather Station
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Orion 420 Weather Station™
User Manual
Version 2.03
Serial Number: ___________________
Date Purchased: __________________
All specifications subject to change without notice.
Printed in U. S. A.
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© Copyright 2005 - 2015 Columbia Weather Systems, Inc. All Rights
Reserved.
Proprietary Notice: Orion, Orion 420, Capricorn 2000, Capricorn 2000EX,
Capricorn FLX, Magellan, Vela and Pulsar Weather Stations are
trademarks of Columbia Weather Systems, Inc. The information and
drawings contained herein are the sole property of Columbia Weather
Systems, Inc. Use of this publication is reserved exclusively for
customers of Columbia Weather Systems, Inc. and their personnel.
Reproduction of this material is forbidden without the express written
consent of Columbia Weather Systems, Inc.
Parts of the Orion Weather Station™ user manual were adapted from the
Weather Transmitter WXT520 User’s Guide with permission from Vaisala
Oyj.
WINDCAP®, RAINCAP®, HUMICAP®, BAROCAP® and
THERMOCAP® are registered trademarks of Vaisala.
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Welcome!
Congratulations on your purchase of an Orion 420 Weather Station.
Please read this manual completely prior to installation.
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Important Notice: Shipping
Damage
BEFORE YOU READ ANY FURTHER, please inspect all system
components for obvious shipping damage. The Orion is a high
precision instrument and can be damaged by rough handling. Your unit
was packaged to minimize the possibility of damage in transit. Please
save the shipping container for any future shipment of your Orion sensor.
In the event your order arrives in damaged condition, it is important that
the following steps be taken immediately. The title transfers automatically
to you, the customer, once the material is entrusted to the transport
company.
NOTE: DO NOT RETURN THE INSTRUMENT TO COLUMBIA
WEATHER SYSTEMS until the following steps are completed. Failure to
follow this request will jeopardize your claim.
1. Open the container and inspect the contents. Do not throw away
the container or any damaged parts. Try to keep items in the
same condition as originally received.
2. Notify the transport company immediately.
3. Request the transport company’s representative inspect the
shipment personally.
4. After inspection, request a Return Materials Authorization (RMA)
from Columbia Weather Systems by calling (503) 629-0887.
5. Return approved items to us at the following address:
Columbia Weather Systems, Inc.
5285 NE Elam Young Parkway, Suite C100
Hillsboro, OR 97124
6. After a repair evaluation, an estimate of the cost of repair will be
sent to you.
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ESD Protection
Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) can cause immediate or latent damage to
electronic circuits. Vaisala products are adequately protected against
ESD for their intended use. However, it is possible to damage the
product by delivering electrostatic discharges when touching, removing,
or inserting any objects inside the equipment housing.
To avoid delivering high static voltages yourself:
1. Handle ESD sensitive components on a properly grounded and
protected ESD workbench. When this is not possible, ground
yourself with a wrist strap and a resistive connection cord to the
equipment chassis before touching the boards. When neither of
the above is possible, at least touch a conductive part of the
equipment chassis with your other hand before touching the
boards.
2. Always hold the boards by the edges and avoid touching the
component contacts.
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Table of Contents
WELCOME! -------------------------------------------------------------- 3
IMPORTANT NOTICE: SHIPPING DAMAGE ----------------- 5
ESD PROTECTION ............................................................................................. 6
SECTION 1: INTRODUCTION ----------------------------------- 11
THE ORION 420 WEATHER STATION ............................................................... 11
SPECIFICATIONS .............................................................................................. 12
Operating Conditions................................................................................. 12
Wind Speed ................................................................................................ 12
Wind Direction ........................................................................................... 12
Relative Humidity....................................................................................... 12
Temperature ............................................................................................... 13
Barometric Pressure .................................................................................. 13
Precipitation .............................................................................................. 13
Input Voltage.............................................................................................. 13
Sensor Housing .......................................................................................... 14
Heating Power Source ............................................................................... 14
Serial to Analog Converters ....................................................................... 14
PRINCIPLES OF MEASUREMENTS ..................................................................... 15
Wind Measurement .................................................................................... 15
Pressure, Temperature, and Relative Humidity (PTU) Module ................. 16
Rainfall Measurement ................................................................................ 17
SECTION 2: PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION ---------------------- 19
ORION SENSOR TRANSMITTER ........................................................................ 19
Sensor Transmitter Components ................................................................ 19
Mounting Adapter ...................................................................................... 21
Internal Terminal Block ............................................................................. 21
Heating (Optional) ..................................................................................... 22
Orion 420 Enclosure .................................................................................. 23
SURGE/LIGHTNING PROTECTORS .................................................................... 24
SECTION 3: INSTALLATION ------------------------------------ 25
WEATHER STATION SYSTEM CONFIGURATIONS ............................................. 25
INSTALLATION OVERVIEW.............................................................................. 26
UNPACKING THE UNIT .................................................................................... 26
Installing the Mast ..................................................................................... 27
Location ..................................................................................................... 27
Mounting Method ....................................................................................... 27
Routing Cable ............................................................................................ 27
Installing the Orion Sensor Transmitter .................................................... 29
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Site Selection .............................................................................................. 29
Installing the Mounting Adapter ................................................................ 29
North Alignment ......................................................................................... 30
Installing the Surge Arrestor...................................................................... 31
Connecting the Sensor Transmitter to the Orion 420 Enclosure ............... 32
Connecting the 420 Enclosure to the PLC ................................................. 33
SECTION 4: OPTIONAL MOUNTING HARDWARE ------ 35
Sensor Mast................................................................................................ 35
Roof Mounting ........................................................................................... 35
Wall Mounting ........................................................................................... 36
Telescoping Tripod and Tiedown Kit ......................................................... 38
Specifications ............................................................................................. 39
SECTION 5: OPERATION ----------------------------------------- 41
SECTION 6: MONITORING OPTIONS ------------------------ 43
WEATHER DISPLAY CONSOLE (OPTIONAL) .................................................... 44
WEATHER MICROSERVER (OPTIONAL) ........................................................... 45
WEATHERMASTER SOFTWARE (OPTIONAL) ................................................ 46
SECTION 7: MAINTENANCE ------------------------------------ 47
CLEANING....................................................................................................... 47
REPLACING THE PTU MODULE....................................................................... 47
FACTORY CALIBRATION AND REPAIR SERVICE .............................................. 48
SECTION 8: TROUBLESHOOTING ---------------------------- 49
Loss of communication with Orion sensor module: ................................... 50
Wind measurement failure: ........................................................................ 50
Pressure, humidity and temperature measurement failure: ....................... 50
SECTION 9: USER SUPPORT INFORMATION ------------- 51
LIMITED WARRANTY ...................................................................................... 51
EXCLUSIONS ............................................................................................ 51
RETURN FOR REPAIR PROCEDURE .................................................................. 52
REFERENCE ----------------------------------------------------------- 54
GLOSSARY ...................................................................................................... 54
Aspirating Radiation Shield ....................................................................... 54
Barometric Pressure .................................................................................. 54
Celsius Temperature Scale......................................................................... 54
Dew Point .................................................................................................. 54
Density Altitude.......................................................................................... 54
Fahrenheit Temperature Scale................................................................... 54
Global Radiation........................................................................................ 55
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Heat Index .................................................................................................. 55
Pyranometer............................................................................................... 55
Relative Humidity....................................................................................... 55
Sea Level Pressure ..................................................................................... 55
Solar Radiation .......................................................................................... 55
Wind Chill .................................................................................................. 55
UNIT CONVERSION ......................................................................................... 56
Speed .......................................................................................................... 56
Temperature ............................................................................................... 56
Distance ..................................................................................................... 56
Pressure ..................................................................................................... 56
TABLES AND FORMULAS ................................................................................. 57
Wind Chill Chart ........................................................................................ 57
Wind Chill Equation .................................................................................. 58
Heat Index .................................................................................................. 59
Dew Point .................................................................................................. 60
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SECTION 1: INTRODUCTION
The Orion 420 Weather Station
The Orion 420 weather station provides ultrasonic wind direction and
speed measurements, a highly-accurate impact rain sensor, capacitive
relative humidity, temperature and barometric pressure readings – all in
a single sensor module.
The Orion 420 provides 4-20mA current output for the eight weather
parameters.
High accuracy and fine resolution make this system ideal for precision
weather monitoring.
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Specifications
Operating Conditions
Temperature Operation: -52 to +60°C (-61 to +140°F)
Relative humidity: 0 to 100%
Pressure: 600 to 1100 hPa
Wind: 0 to 60 m/s
Wind Speed
Range: 0-135mph (0-60 m/s)
Accuracy: ±3% at 10 m/s
Resolution: 1 mph (1 m/s)
Units Available: knots, mph, km/hr, m/s
Wind Direction
Azimuth: 0-360°
Accuracy: ±3°
Resolution: 1°
Units Available: ° Azimuth
Relative Humidity
Range: 0 - 100%
Accuracy: ±3% (0-90%), 5% (90-100%)
Resolution: 1%
Units Available: %RH
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Temperature
Range: -60 to 140°F (-52 to +60°C)
Accuracy: ±0.5°F (+/-0.3°C) at 68°F (+20°C)
Resolution: 0.1°F
Units Available: °F, °C
Barometric Pressure
Range: 17.50 to 32.50 InHg (600 to 1100 hPa)
Accuracy: ±0.015 InHg (0.5 hPa) at +32 to 86°F (0 to 30°C)
±0.03 InHg (1 hPa) at -60 to 140°F (-52 to 60°C)
Resolution: 0.01 InHg (0.1 hPa)
Units Available: Kpa, mbar, InHg
Precipitation
Range: cumulative
Collection Area: 602cm
Accuracy: ±5% (spatial variations may exist)
Resolution 0.01 in. (0.254mm)
Units Available: mm, inches
Input Voltage
The Orion 420 is powered with an internal switching power supply
Input: 120/240 VAC, 60 Hz
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Sensor Housing
Protection class: IP66 (with mounting adapter)
Materials: Polycarbonate + 20% glass fiber, stainless steel (AISI 316)
Weight: 650 g (1.43 lbs)
Heating Power Source
Input: 5 to 30 VDC (1.1 A at 12 VDC)
Serial to Analog Converters
Analog Range: 4-20 mA
Current sourcing
Accuracy at 25°C: 0.1% of range
Maximum load: 600 ohms
Output reaction time: 0 – 40 ms
DA Conversion: 12 bits (resolution 4096)
Current Consumption: 30 mA to 120 mA
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Principles of Measurements
Wind Measurement
Both wind speed and direction are measured using advanced ultrasonic
technology. The sensor utilizes ultrasound to determine horizontal wind
readings. The array of three equally-spaced ultrasonic transducers on a
horizontal plane is an ideal design that ensures accurate wind
measurement from all directions, without blind angles or corrupted
readings.
The wind sensor has no moving parts, which makes it virtually
maintenance free.
Wind speed and wind directions are determined by measuring the time it
takes the ultrasound to travel from each transducer to the other two.
The wind sensor measures the transit time (in both directions) along the
three paths established by the array of transducers. This transit time
depends on the wind speed along the ultrasonic path. For zero wind
speed, both the forward and reverse transit times are the same. With
wind along the sound path, the up-wind direction transit time increases
and the down-wind transit time decreases.
The wind speed is calculated from the measured transit times using the
following formula:
Vw = 0.5 x L x (1/ tf – 1/tr)
where:
Vw = Wind speed
L = Distance between the two transducers
tf = Transit time in forward direction
tr = Transit time in reverse direction
Measuring the six transit times allows Vw to be computed for each of the
three ultrasonic paths. The computed wind speeds are independent of
altitude, temperature and humidity, which are cancelled out when the
transit times are measured in both directions, although the individual
transit times depend on these parameters.
Using Vw values of two array paths is enough to compute wind speed
and wind direction. A signal processing technique is used so that wind
speed and wind direction are calculated from the two array paths of best
quality.
The wind speed is represented as a scalar speed in selected units (m/s,
kt, mph, km/h). The wind direction is expressed in degrees (°). The wind
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direction reported indicates the direction that the wind comes from. North
is represented as 0°, east as 90°, south as 180°, and west as 270°.
The wind direction is not calculated when the wind speed drops below
0.05 m/s. In this case, the last calculated direction output remains until
the wind speed increases again to the level of 0.05 m/s.
The average values of wind speed and direction are calculated as a
scalar average of all samples over the selected averaging time (1 ... 900
s). The sample count is based on a 4 Hz sampling rate. The minimum
and maximum values of wind speed and direction represent the
corresponding extremes during the averaging time.
Pressure, Temperature, and Relative Humidity (PTU)
Module
Barometric pressure, temperature, and humidity measurements are
combined in an advanced sensor module (PTU) utilizing a capacitive
measurement method for each parameter. The PTU module contains
separate sensors for pressure, temperature, and humidity measurement.
The measurement principle of the pressure, temperature, and humidity
sensors is based on an advanced RC oscillator and two reference
capacitors against which the capacitance of the sensors is continuously
measured. The microprocessor of the transmitter performs compensation
for the temperature dependency of the pressure and humidity sensors.
Barometric pressure is measured using a capacitive silicon
BAROCAP® sensor. The sensor has minimal hysteresis and excellent
repeatability, as well as outstanding temperature and long-term stability.
Temperature is measured with a capacitive ceramic THERMOCAP®
sensor.
Relative humidity measurement is based on a capacitive thin film
polymer HUMICAP®180 sensor. The sensor is highly accurate with
negligible hysteresis and excellent long-term stability in a wide range of
environments.
Radiation Shield: This module is mounted in a specially-designed
radiation shield which protects the sensors from both scattered and
direct sunlight and precipitation. The composite material in the plates
offers excellent thermal characteristics and UV stabilized construction.
The white outer surface reflects radiation, while the black inside absorbs
accumulated heat.
The internal sensor module is easily replaceable and readily available as
a spare component. To order a replacement module, please use catalog
no. 9581.
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Rainfall Measurement
Rainfall is measured with an impact sensor, which detects the size and
impact of individual rain drops. The signals resulting from the impacts are
proportional to the volume of the drops. Hence, the signal from each
drop can be converted directly to the accumulated rainfall.
This measurement method eliminates flooding and clogging, as well as
wetting and evaporation losses.
The sensor transmitter uses RAINCAP® sensor 2-technology in
precipitation measurement.
The precipitation sensor is comprised of a steel cover and a piezoelectric
sensor mounted on the bottom surface of the cover.
The precipitation sensor detects the impact of individual raindrops. The
signals from the impact are proportional to the volume of the drops.
Advanced noise filtering technique is used to filter out signals originating
from other sources than raindrops.
The measured parameter is accumulated rainfall. Detection of each
individual drop enables computing of rain amount with high resolution.
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SECTION 2: PHYSICAL
DESCRIPTION
Orion Sensor Transmitter
The Orion Sensor Transmitter is an all-in-one sensor unit containing
ultrasonic wind speed and direction sensor, temperature sensor, relative
humidity sensor, barometric pressure sensor and an impact rain sensor.
The temperature, relative humidity and barometric pressure sensors are
combined in a single module housed in a self-aspirating radiation shield.
Sensor Transmitter Components
1: Top of the transmitter
2: Radiation Shield
3: Bottom of the transmitter
4: Screw cover
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Cut Away View
1: Wind Transducers (3 pcs)
2: Precipitation Sensor
3: Pressure sensor inside the Sensor Module
4: Humidity and temperature sensor inside the Sensor Module
Bottom of the Transmitter
1: Alignment direction sign
2: Service port
3: Watertight cable gland
4: Unused cable gland, covered
5: Optional M12 connector
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Mounting Adapter
To facilitate easy installation and north alignment, the Orion Sensor
Transmitter comes standard with a mounting adapter. The mounting
adapter is easily connected to the end of the mast and the sensor
transmitter simply snaps into it. The north alignment needs to be
performed only once.
Internal Terminal Block
The sensor transmitter is shipped with a one (1) foot cable terminated by
an 8-pin connector half.
This cable is connected to the sensor transmitter (at the factory) via a
terminal block.
1: Grounding jumper (remove for ship marine applications).
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Heating (Optional)
Heating elements located below the precipitation sensor and inside the
wind transducers keeps the precipitation and wind sensors free from
snow and ice. A heating temperature sensor (Th) underneath the
precipitation sensor controls the heating.
Note that (Th) is measured inside the transmitter, where temperature is
much higher than the ambient temperature (Ta).
Three fixed temperature limits, namely +4 °C, 0 °C, and -4 °C (+39 °F,
+32 °F, +25 °F) control the heating power as follows:
•
When ambient temperature (Ta) falls below +4°C, heating is
enabled.
•
Heating keeps Th > +4 °C until Ta < -1 °C
•
Heating keeps Th > 0 °C until Ta < -15 °C
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Orion 420 Enclosure
The Orion 420 Enclosure contains the following:
1. AC power supply with +24 VDC output
2. AC power filter and suppressor
3. Two RS-232 to 4-20 mA converters
4. Sensor connection terminal block
The enclosure used is UL 508 Type 4, NEMA/EEMAC Type 4.
Enclosure flammability rating UL94-5V.
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Surge/Lightning Protectors
A nearby lightning strike may induce a high voltage surge which the
internal suppressor of your weather instrument may not be able to
withstand, causing significant damage to the weather station. Protect
your weather station investment with the Orion Surge Protector. This
compact transient overvoltage suppressor is designed for weather
stations in areas with an elevated risk of lightning strikes such as the top
of high buildings, or installations with cable lengths greater than 100 feet.
•
Superior 3-stage surge protection
•
Tolerates up to 10kA surge currents
•
Both differential and common mode protection on each channel
•
Filtering against HF and RF noise
•
Two power channels and two data channels
•
Environmental protection class IP66
Catalog Number: 8355
Includes adjustable mounting kit
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SECTION 3: INSTALLATION
Weather Station System Configurations
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Installation Overview
Unpacking the System
Installing the Mast
Installing the Sensor Transmitter
Installing the Surge Arrestor
Installing the Orion 420 Weatherproof Enclosure
Connecting the Sensor Transmitter to the enclosure
Connecting the enclosure to the PLC
Unpacking the Unit
The sensor transmitter comes in a custom shipping container. Be careful
when removing the device.
CAUTION: Beware of damaging any of the wind transducers located at
the top of the three antennas. Dropping the device can break or damage
the transducers. If the antenna bends or twists, the re-aligning can be
difficult or impossible.
Unpack the Orion 420 weather station and verify that all parts are
included.
1. Standard system includes:
Orion Sensor Transmitter
50 ft sensor cable + additional cable length if ordered
Orion 420 Weatherproof Enclosure
User Manual
Inspect all system components for obvious shipping damage (Refer to
“Important Notice: Shipping Damage” in case of damage).
Save the shipping carton and packing material in case the unit needs to
be returned to the factory. If the system does not operate or calibrate
properly, see Section 6: Maintenance and Section 7: Troubleshooting, for
further instructions.
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Installing the Mast
There are three acceptable methods for mounting the mast to a roof or
building structure: Sloped roof mounting, flat roof mounting or wall
mounting. See Optional Sensor Mounting Hardware for more
information.
Location
Do not attach the sensor transmitter to a radio transmitting mast or
tower.
Select a mounting location that will allow the sensor cable to be routed
away from other data cables to avoid interference. Do not mount sensors
close to power lines. For normal roof mounting, the recommended
minimum distance from power lines is 25 ft. (8 m). Use extreme caution
when working close to power lines.
Mounting Method
Choose the appropriate mounting method for the installation and obtain
any necessary mounting hardware. Refer to Optional Sensor Mounting
Hardware section for information on optional sensor mounting hardware
and accessories which are available from the factory.
If the mounting hardware is not obtained from the factory, be certain to
use metal parts which are plated or galvanized to assure maximum
longevity.
Secure the mast to the roof, using guy wires with sufficient tensile
strength or to building wall using a wall-mount hardware kit.
Routing Cable
Use plastic tie wraps to secure the cable to mast, particularly at the mast
base. Tighten the tie wraps securely and clip off any excess length with a
wire cutter tool.
Once the Orion sensor transmitter has been placed, route the cable back
to the weatherproof enclosure.
CAUTION: There may be electric wires in the wall. When routing cable
through walls, we recommend that you shut off the electricity in the
room(s) where you are drilling.
Any mast or tower should always be properly earth grounded to minimize
electrical storm damage. The use of a properly grounded metal mast or
tower, however, does not insure protection from electrostatic discharge.
These items could become electrically charged resulting in damage to
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the sensors and/or console. This could damage the system in the event
of an electrical storm.
Note: If the standard 50 ft. cable provided with the sensor transmitter is
not long enough, it may be extended by splicing on an appropriate length
of 22-gauge, stranded, seven conductor shielded cable with the same
color code. When cutting and splicing, insure good contacts, proper color
coding of the terminal leads, and a good seal. (A good solder splice, and
water proof insulation are essential; merely twisting the respective wires
together is not adequate.) Additional cable (Part No. 81547) is available
from the factory.
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Installing the Orion Sensor Transmitter
Site Selection
Finding a suitable site for the sensor transmitter is important for getting
representative ambient measurements. The site should represent the
general area of interest.
The sensor transmitter should be installed in a location that is free from
turbulence caused by nearby objects, such as trees or buildings.
WARNING: To protect personnel (and the device), a lightning rod should
be installed with the tip at least 40 inches (one meter) above the sensor
transmitter. The rod must be properly grounded, compliant with all local
applicable safety regulations.
Installing the Mounting Adapter
1. Insert the mounting adapter in the transmitter bottom side as
shown in the diagram above.
2. Turn the adapter firmly until you feel that it has snapped into the
locked position.
3. Align the transmitter in such a way that the arrow (at the bottom of
the transmitter) points to north (see North Alignment).
4. Tighten the fixing screw to fix the adapter firmly to the mast.
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North Alignment
To help with alignment, there is an arrow and text North on the bottom of
the transmitter. The transmitter should be aligned in such a way that this
arrow points to the north.
Wind direction can be referenced to true north, which uses the earth’s
geographic meridians, or magnetic north, which is read with a magnetic
compass. The magnetic declination is the difference in degrees between
the true north and magnetic north.
Compass Alignment
1. If the sensor transmitter is already mounted, loosen the fixing
screw on the mounting adapter.
2. Use a compass to determine that the transducer heads are
exactly in line with the compass and that the arrow on the bottom
of the transmitter points to north.
3. Tighten the fixing screw on the mounting adapter when done.
Once the sensor transmitter is aligned to north, the transmitter can be
removed from the mounting adapter without losing the north orientation.
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Installing the Surge Arrestor
1. Attach the unit to the mast close to the weather sensor with the
adjustable mounting clamp, see figure above.
2. Slide the steel strip beneath the latch on the back of the
enclosure.
3. Wrap the steel strip around the pole mast. You may shorten the
strip to a suitable length.
4. Loosen the fastener by backing up the screw half way.
5. Attach the steel strip ends to the fastener by latching the fastener
to a hole on the strip and folding it over.
6. Tighten the fastener’s screw in order to secure the unit to the
pole.
2
7. Ground the unit using an AWG 6 (16 mm ) copper wire.
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Connecting the Sensor Transmitter to the Orion 420
Enclosure
Using a #1 Straight Slot screwdriver, attach the wires from the end of the
sensor cable to the terminal block screws as shown below:
For heated sensor transmitters, connect the brown wire along with the
red wire to position 1 and connect the blue wire along with the white and
bare to terminal 2.
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Connecting the 420 Enclosure to the PLC
4-20mA cables are user supplied.
The 4-20mA converters source power to the load.
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SECTION 4: OPTIONAL
MOUNTING HARDWARE
Sensor Mast
10-foot steel mast available for use with Roof Mount Hardware Kit (Part
No. 88002) or Wall Mounting Kit (Part No.88003).
Roof Mounting
The Roof Mounting Kit (Part No. 88002) is suitable for both a slanted and
flat roof installation. The figure and table below illustrates and describes
the individual parts.
Description
Ref.
Qty.
Part No.
Steel mast, 10 ft.
1
1
88005
Universal Mast Anchor
2
1
88010
Lag Screw, Roof Mast Mount
3
4
88030
4
1
88070
1/4" x 2 1/4" (for comp. roofs)
Guy Wire Clamp, 1/8"
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Steel Guy Wire, Galvanized
6
50ft.
88080
Eye Bolt Wood Screws, 1/4" x 3"
7
4
88090
3
88100
Turnbuckles, 6" open x 4" closed (not shown)
Wall Mounting
The figure and table below illustrates and describes the individual parts
in the Wall Mounting Kit (Catalog No. 88003). Individual parts are also
available.
Description
Ref. Qty.
Part No.
Mast, 10 ft.
1
1
88005
4" Wall Mount Bracket
9
2
88120
Lag Screw
3
4
88030
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Telescoping Tripod and Tiedown Kit
The tripod is designed to provide up to 10 feet of stable, secure support
for your meteorological sensors. Constructed from welded aluminum and
powder coated for appearance and longevity, the 15-pound tripod can
easily support up to 60 pounds of equipment. An optional tie-down kit
allows for additional security in high-wind areas.
To install, insert the legs into the main body and secure with stainless
steel retainer pins. Extend the mast to the desired height and insert
another retainer pin. Install the guy wires to complete the set-up.
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Tripod Parts List:
Description
Ref. Qty.
Body/Mast Assembly
1
1
Legs
2
3
Retainer Pins
3
4
Guy Wire Ring with
3 Wires and Turnbuckles
4
1
Anchor Screw with Chain
5
1
Clamp with Strap
6
1
Specifications
Capacity: Supports up to 60 lbs.
Shipping Weight: 17 lbs
Shipping Box Dimensions: 71" x 9" x 9"
Tripod and Tiedown Kit Catalog Number: 88019
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SECTION 5: OPERATION
The Orion 420 outputs the following 8 parameters in 4-20 mA current
signals:
Channel 1: Wind Direction
Description: Instantaneous wind direction.
Range: 0 to 360 degrees
Channel 2: Wind Speed
Description: Instantaneous wind speed.
Range: 0 to 135 mph
Channel 3: Temperature
Description: Instantaneous temperature.
Range: -60 to +140°F
Channel 4: Relative Humidity
Description: Instantaneous relative humidity.
Range: 0 to 100%
Channel 5: Barometric Pressure
Description: Instantaneous barometric pressure.
Range: 17 to 33 inches Hg.
Channel 6: Peak Wind Speed
Description: Maximum wind speed in the last 1 second interval.
Range: 0 to 135 mph
Channel 7: Rainfall
Description: 0.001 inches rain accumulation. The sensor internal counter
will reset to zero inches when rainfall accumulation reaches 10.00 inches
or when power to the sensor is lost.
Range: 0 to 10.00 inches
Channel 8: Rain Intensity
Description: Instantaneous rain intensity. Running one minute average in
10-second steps.
Range: 0 to 8 inches/hour
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SECTION 6: MONITORING
OPTIONS
In addition to the 4-20mA outputs the Orion 420 system can be
configured to connect to optional weather monitoring devices.
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Weather Display Console (Optional)
Displays weather information • Designed to be viewed clearly from a
distance • Industrial grade WVGA touchscreen.
Seven-inch, TFT color LCD panel with 800 x 480 pixel resolution.
Performs computations for wind chill, heat index and other calculated
parameters • 200MHz ARM9 CPU
Serial or Ethernet connection: Connects directly to weather station with
serial port or connects to a Weather MicroServer over a network utilizing
an existing Ethernet infrastructure -- no extra wiring. The MicroServer
configuration also allows for data from one weather station to be
monitored from multiple display consoles at various locations.
Screens can be factory-customized to meet specialized market and
industry requirements.
The Weather Display is also available in a 19” rack-mount chassis and a
panel-mount configuration.
Please refer to the Weather Display Console user manual for more
information.
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Weather MicroServer (Optional)
The Weather MicroServer uses a small computer board that runs an
embedded Linux operating system.
The MicroServer has 32MB flash memory for operation and 8 GB SD
card for data logging.
The Orion transmitter connects to the MicroServer via COM1.
The MicroServer has two RS-232 COM ports and an Ethernet port.
The MicroServer offers the following:
•
XML Weather Data
•
FTP weather data in XML or CSV format
•
Modbus/TCP, Modbus RTU (Serial RS-232), and Modbus ASCII
interfaces
•
SNMP interface
•
Weather Underground & Anything Weather interface
•
CWOP interface
•
Three months of data logging at 1-minute interval
•
Interface to optional visibility and solar radiation sensors
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Orion 420 Weather Station
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WeatherMaster
 Software (Optional)
WeatherMaster is professional grade weather monitoring software. This
software package is designed for specialized markets that require robust
weather calculations, interoperability with computer models, and data
interfaces to other industrial systems. WeatherMaster utilizes Microsoft
Access database for easy data access and manipulation.
Please refer to the WeatherMaster user manual for installation and
operation procedures.
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SECTION 7: MAINTENANCE
This chapter contains instructions for the basic maintenance of the
sensor transmitter.
Cleaning
To ensure the accuracy of measurement results, the sensor transmitter
should be cleaned when it becomes contaminated. Leaves and other
such particles should be removed from the precipitation sensor and the
transmitter should be cleaned carefully with a soft, lint-free cloth
moistened with mild detergent.
Replacing the PTU Module
Note: Avoid contacting the white filter cap with your hands. Handle the
PTU module from the plastic connector base (5).
1. Disconnect Orion sensor connector from cable and remove from
mounting adapter.
2. Loosen the three screws at the bottom of sensor and slide out
completely as shown below.
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Orion 420 Weather Station
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3. Remove the base section and disconnect the flat ribbon cable.
4. Pull out the top of the sensor.
5. Release the small white flap and remove the PTU module.
6. Connect a new PTU module, replace the top, re-connect the flat
ribbon cable, replace the base and tighten the three bottom
screws.
7. Re-install on mounting adapter and reconnect cable connector.
Factory Calibration and Repair Service
Send the device to Columbia Weather Systems, Inc. for calibration and
adjustment, see Section 9: USER SUPPORT INFORMATION for more
information.
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SECTION 8:
TROUBLESHOOTING
This chapter describes common problems, their probable causes and
remedies.
Problem
Possible Cause
Action
Wind measurement
failure. Both the
speed and direction
sensors are not
reporting correct
data
Blockage (trash,
leaves, branches,
bird nests) between
the wind
transducers.
Remove the
blockage.
Pressure, humidity
or temperature
measurement
failure.
PTU module may
not be properly
connected. There
may be water in the
PTU module.
Ensure the proper
connection of the
PTU module.
Loss of
communication from
Orion sensor module
Blown fuse
Check the Interface
Module fuse, replace
if needed.
Check that the wind
transducers are not
damaged.
Poor cable
connection
Surge protector
tripped
Remove and dry the
module.
Check all cable
connections
between sensor and
optional monitoring
device.
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Loss of communication with Orion sensor module:
•
Check the Interface Module. If the Green Power LED and Red
Power LED are off then it is possible that the fuse has blown.
Disconnect power and then remove the four screws on the front
panel of the Interface Module to check the fuse.
•
Check all weatherproof cable connectors between the Orion
sensor and any optional monitoring device, e.g., MicroServer,
Display Console. Look for broken or damaged pins also inspect
the cables connectors for water intrusion.
•
If a surge protector was purchased and installed, an electrical
event may have tripped the surge. To determine if this is the
reason for loss of communication, bypass the surge protector,
reconnect the cables, and then check to see if communication
has been reestablished. To purchase a replacement surge
protector please call 1-503-629-0887 and reference Catalog No.
8355.
Wind measurement failure:
•
If both the wind speed and direction sensors are not reporting
correct data check to see if a blockage (trash, leaves, branches,
bird nests) exists between the wind transducers. If this is the
case remove the blockage and check to see if the wind reports
have continued. Also check to see if the wind transducers are
damaged. If they are damaged please follow the “Return for
Repair Procedure” in Section 10.
Pressure, humidity and temperature measurement
failure:
•
The PTU module may not be properly connected. Ensure the
proper connection of the PTU module by following the
“Replacing PTU module” procedure in Section 8. There may be
water in the PTU module. Remove and dry the module before
reconnecting the sensor.
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SECTION 9: USER SUPPORT
INFORMATION
This section consists of the following items:
1. One-Year Limited Warranty: Please read this document carefully.
2. Return for Repair Procedure: This procedure is for your convenience
in the event you must return your Orion for repair or replacement.
Follow the packing instructions carefully to protect your instrument in
transit.
Limited Warranty
Columbia Weather Systems, Inc. (CWS), warrants the Orion Weather
Station to be free from defects in materials and/or workmanship when
operated in accordance with the manufacturer’s operating instructions,
for one (1) years from date of purchase, subject to the provisions
contained herein. CWS warranty shall extend to the original purchaser
only and shall be limited to factory repair or replacement of defective
parts.
EXCLUSIONS
Certain parts are not manufactured by CWS (i.e., certain purchased
options, etc.) and are therefore not covered by this warranty. These parts
may be covered by warranties issued by their respective manufacturers
and although CWS will not warrant these parts, CWS will act as agent for
the administration of any such independent warranties during the term of
this warranty. This warranty does not cover normal maintenance,
damage resulting from improper use or repair, or abuse by the operator.
Damage caused by lightning or other electrical discharge is specifically
excluded. This warranty extends only to repair or replacement, and shall
in no event extend to consequential damages. In the event of operator
repair or replacement, this warranty shall cover neither the advisability of
the repair undertaken, nor the sufficiency of the repair itself.
THIS DOCUMENT REFLECTS THE ENTIRE AND EXCLUSIVE
UNDERSTANDING OF THE PARTIES, AND EXCEPT AS OTHERWISE
PROVIDED HEREIN, ALL OTHER WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR
IMPLIED, PARTICULARLY THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANT
ABILITY AND/OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE
EXCLUDED.
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Orion 420 Weather Station
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This warranty gives you specific legal rights, and you may also have
other rights which vary from state to state.
Return for Repair Procedure
1.
In the event of defects or damage to your unit, first call the
Service Department Monday through Friday, 8:30 am to 4:00 pm
PST, (503) 629-0887 to determine the advisability of factory
repair. The Service Department will issue an RMA number
(Return Merchandise Authorization) to help us identify the
package when received. Please write that number on the outside
of the box.
2.
In the event factory service is required, return your Orion
Weather Station as follows:
A.
Packing
Wrap the Sensor Transmitter in a plastic bag first.
Pack in original shipping carton or a sturdy oversized
carton.
Use plenty of packing material.
B.
Include:
A brief description of the problem with all known
symptoms.
Your telephone number.
Your return street shipping address (UPS will not deliver
to a P.O. box).
Write the RMA number on the outside of the box.
C.
Shipping
Send freight prepaid (UPS recommended).
Insurance is recommended. (The factory can provide the
current replacement value of the item being shipped for
insurance purposes.)
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D.
Send to:
Columbia Weather Systems, Inc.
5285 NE Elam Young Parkway, Suite C100
Hillsboro, Oregon 97124
E.
C.O.D. shipments will not be accepted.
3.
If your unit is under warranty, after repair or replacement has
been completed, it will be returned by a carrier and method
chosen by Columbia Weather, Inc. to any destination within the
continental U.S.A. If you desire some other specific form of
conveyance or if you are located beyond these borders, then you
must bear the additional cost of return shipment.
4.
If your unit is not under warranty, we will call you with an
estimate of the charges. If approved, your repaired unit will be
returned after all charges, including parts, labor and return
shipping and handling, have been paid. If not approved, your unit
will be returned as is via UPS COD for the amount of the UPS
COD freight charges.
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Orion 420 Weather Station
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Reference
Glossary
Aspirating Radiation Shield
A device used to shield a sensor such as a temperature probe from
direct and indirect radiation and rain while providing access for
ventilation.
Barometric Pressure
The pressure exerted by the atmosphere as a consequence of
gravitational attraction exerted upon the “column” of air lying directly
above the point in question.
Celsius Temperature Scale
A temperature scale with the ice point at 0 degrees and the boiling point
of water at 100 degrees.
Dew Point
The temperature to which a given parcel of air must be cooled at
constant pressure and constant water-vapor content in order for
saturation to occur. When this temperature is below 0°C, it is sometimes
called the frost point.
Density Altitude
Density altitude is a meteorological variable that is important to pilots,
especially during the summer. The density altitude is the altitude in a
standard atmosphere where the density is the same as the given
atmospheric density. During a hot muggy summer day, a pilot begins
take off from an airport with an elevation of 2500 feet. Because of the
warm temperature and the moisture in the air, the airplane has to work
as if it was taking off at an airport at an elevation of 6000 feet resulting in
the plane needing more power and a longer roll down the runway to take
off.
Fahrenheit Temperature Scale
A temperature scale with the ice point at 32 degrees and the boiling point
of water at 212 degrees.
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Global Radiation
The total of direct solar radiation and diffused sky radiation received by a
unit horizontal surface. Global radiation is measured by a pyranometer.
Heat Index
The heat index or apparent temperature is a measure of discomfort due
to the combination of heat and high humidity. It was developed in 1979
and is based on studies of evaporative skin cooling for combinations of
temperature and humidity.
Pyranometer
It measures the combined intensity of incoming direct solar radiation and
diffused sky radiation. The pyranometer consists of a radiation-sensing
element, which is mounted so that it views the entire sky.
Relative Humidity
Popularly called humidity. The ratio of the actual vapor pressure of the
air to the saturation vapor pressure.
Sea Level Pressure
The atmospheric pressure at mean sea level, either directly measured
or, most commonly, empirically determined from the observed station
pressure.
In regions where the earth’s surface pressure is above sea level, it is
standard observational practice to reduce the observed surface pressure
to the value that would exist at a point at sea level directly below.
Solar Radiation
The total electromagnetic radiation emitted by the sun. 99% of the sun’s
energy output falls within the wavelength interval from 0.15 microns to
4.0 microns, with peak intensity near 0.47 microns. About one-half of the
total energy in the solar beam is contained within the visible spectrum
from 0.4 to 0.7 microns, and most of the other half lies near infrared, a
small additional portion lying in the ultraviolet.
Wind Chill
That part of the total cooling of a body caused by air motion.
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Unit Conversion
Speed
Kilometers per hour = 1.610 x miles per hour
Knots = 0.869 x miles per hour
Meters per second = 0.448 x miles per hour
Feet per second = 1.467 x miles per hour
Temperature
Temperature in °C = 5/9 (temperature in °F - 32)
Temperature in °F = (1.8 x temperature in °C) + 32
Distance
Millimeters = 25.4 x inches
Pressure
Millibars = 33.86 x inches of mercury
Kilopascals = 3.386 x inches of mercury
Pounds per square inch = 0.49 x inches of mercury
Standard atmospheres = 0.0334 x inches of mercury
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Tables and Formulas
Wind Chill Chart
In 2001, NWS implemented an updated Wind chill Temperature (WCT)
index. The change improves upon the former WCT Index used by the
NWS and the Meteorological Services of Canada, which was based on
the 1945 Siple and Passel Index.
In the fall of 2000, the Office of the Federal Coordinator for
Meteorological Services and Supporting Research (OFCM) formed a
group consisting of several Federal agencies, MSC, the academic
community (Indiana University-Purdue University in Indianapolis (IUPUI),
University of Delaware and University of Missouri), and the International
Society of Biometeorology to evaluate and improve the windchill formula.
The group, chaired by the NWS, is called the Joint Action Group for
temperature Indices (JAG/TI). JAG/TI's goal is to upgrade and
standardize the index for temperature extremes internationally (e.g. Wind
chill Index).
The current formula uses advances in science, technology, and
computer modeling to provide a more accurate, understandable, and
useful formula for calculating the dangers from winter winds and freezing
temperatures.
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Wind Chill Equation
WC = 35.74 + 0.6215 T -35.75(V
0.16
) + 0.4275 T(V
0.16
)
Where:
WC = wind chill temperature in °F
V = wind velocity in mph
T = air temperature in °F
Note: Wind chill Temperature is only defined for temperatures at or
below 50 degrees F and wind speeds above 3 mph.
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Heat Index
Temperature in °F
70
75
80
85
90
95
100 105 110 115 120 125 130 135
0
64
66
73
78
83
87
91
95
99
5
64
69
74
79
84
88
93
97
102 107 111 116 122 126
10
65
70
75
80
85
90
95
100 105 111 116 123 131
15
65
71
76
81
86
91
97
102 108 115 123 131
20
66
72
77
82
87
93
99
105 112 120 130 141
25
66
72
77
83
88
94
101 109 117 127 139
30
67
73
78
84
90
96
104 113 123 135 148
35
67
73
79
85
91
98
107 118 130 143
40
68
74
79
86
93
101 110 123 137 151
45
68
74
80
87
95
104 115 129 143
50
69
75
81
88
96
107 120 135 150
55
69
75
81
89
98
110 126 142
60
70
76
82
90
100 114 132 149
65
70
76
83
91
102 119 138
70
70
77
84
93
106 124 144
75
70
77
85
95
109 130 150
80
71
78
86
97
113 136
85
71
78
87
99
117 140
90
71
79
88
102 122 150
95
71
79
89
105 126
100
72
80
90
108 131
RH
103 107 111 117 120
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Dew Point
B = (ln (RH/100) + ((17.2694*T) / (238.3+T))) / 17.2694
Dew Point in °C = (238.3 * B) / (1-B)
Where:
RH = Relative Humidity
T = Temperature in °C
Ln = Natural logarithm
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Columbia Weather Systems, Inc.
5285 NE Elam Young Parkway, Suite C100
Hillsboro, OR 97124
Telephone
(503) 629-0887
Fax
(503) 629-0898
Web Site
http://www.columbiaweather.com
Email
[email protected]
Catalog Number: 81655
Version 2.03
Printed in U.S.A.
Columbia Weather Systems, Inc.
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