Diskeeper 9 Home Edition User`s Manual

Diskeeper 9 Home Edition User`s Manual
User’s Manual
Diskeeper® Home Edition
for Windows®
October 2004
This document describes the installation and operation of Executive Software International’s Diskeeper, The
Standard in Entire Network Defragmentation™ for Microsoft® Windows. It is intended primarily for Windows
system administrators and managers.
Revision/Update Information:
This is a new manual
Software Versions:
Diskeeper 9.0 Home Edition
Operating Systems:
Windows XP (all editions)
Windows 2000 Professional
Windows Millennium Edition (Me)
Windows 98
Windows 95 (OSR 2 or higher)
Executive Software International, Inc., Burbank, California, USA
________________________
September 2004
__________
© 2002 – 2004 by Executive Software International, Inc.
The Software described in this document is owned by Executive Software International, Inc. and is protected by
United States copyright laws and international treaty provisions. Therefore, you must treat the Software like
any other copyrighted material (e.g. a book or musical recording) except that you may either (a) make one copy
of the Software solely for backup or archival purposes, or (b) transfer the Software to a single hard disk
provided you keep the original solely for backup or archival purposes. You may not copy the user
documentation provided with the Software, except for your own authorized use.
RESTRICTED RIGHTS LEGEND
The software and documentation are provided with RESTRICTED RIGHTS. Use, duplication, or disclosure by
the Government is subject to restrictions as set forth in subparagraph (c)(1)(ii) of the Rights in Technical Data
and Computer Software clause at DFARS 252.227-7013 or subparagraphs (c)(1) and (2) of the Commercial
Computer Software-Restricted Rights at 48 CFR 52.227-19 as applicable. Manufacturer is Executive Software
International, Inc., 7590 North Glenoaks Boulevard, Burbank, California 91504.
Executive Software, Diskeeper, Sitekeeper, Undelete, “I/O Smart”, “Set It and Forget It,” “Smart Scheduling,”
and “Focused development of system management tools,” and “The Standard in Entire Network
Defragmentation” are either registered trademarks or trademarks of Executive Software International, Inc. in the
United States and other countries.
Microsoft, Active Directory, Windows, Windows NT and Windows Server 2003 are either registered
trademarks or trademarks owned by Microsoft Corporation in the United States and/or other countries.
All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
Contents
iii
CONTENTS
PREFACE
VII
WHAT THIS BOOK IS ABOUT
STRUCTURE OF THIS BOOK
INTRODUCTION
ABOUT FRAGMENTATION
OTHER IMPORTANT PRODUCTS
VII
VII
VII
VIII
VIII
DISKEEPER INSTALLATION
1
BEFORE THE INSTALLATION
WINDOWS VERSIONS AND PLATFORMS SUPPORTED
FILE SYSTEMS SUPPORTED
DISKS SUPPORTED
RESOURCE REQUIREMENTS
ADDITIONAL SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS
INSTALLATION PROCEDURE—THE SHORT VERSION
INSTALLATION PROCEDURE—THE DETAILS
INSTALLATION OVERVIEW
INSTALLATION PROCEDURE
AFTER THE INSTALLATION
CHECK FOR PRODUCT UPDATE
REGISTERING DISKEEPER
ABOUT WINDOWS SERVICE PACKS
REPAIRING WINDOWS SYSTEMS
ABOUT THE DISKEEPER SERVICE
THE WINDOWS APPLICATION EVENT LOG
EVENT LOGGING UNDER WINDOWS 95/98/ME
REMOTE INSTALLATION
UNINSTALLING DISKEEPER
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
3
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
5
5
5
GETTING STARTED
7
INTRODUCTION
QUICK TOUR
7
8
OVERVIEW OF DISKEEPER
15
DISKEEPER FEATURES
OTHER THINGS TO KNOW
DEFRAGMENTATION MODES
EXCLUSION LIST
EVENT LOGGING
GETTING THE MOST FROM DISKEEPER
15
15
16
16
16
17
DISKEEPER OPERATION
19
THE DISKEEPER INTERFACE
INFORMATION PANE
THE PERFORMANCE PANE
THE RELIABILITY PANE
PERFORMANCE MAP PANE
19
20
20
22
23
iv
Contents
WHAT THE COLORS MEAN
THE FRAGMENTATION PANE
VOLUME SECTION
FRAGMENTATION PERCENTAGE SECTION
FILE FRAGMENTATION SECTION
PAGING FILE FRAGMENTATION SECTION
DIRECTORY FRAGMENTATION SECTION
MASTER FILE TABLE (MFT) FRAGMENTATION SECTION
MOST FRAGMENTED FILES
SAVING A FRAGMENTATION REPORT
PRINTING A FRAGMENTATION REPORT
DRIVE MAP PANE
WHAT THE COLORS MEAN
SET IT AND FORGET IT PANE
SMART SCHEDULING
SCREEN SAVER MODE
COMMAND PANE
SET IT AND FORGET IT MENU
ANALYZE SELECTED VOLUME
DEFRAGMENT SELECTED VOLUME
CHANGE YOUR SETTINGS MENU
HELP MENU
DISK VOLUME PANE
TOOLBAR BUTTONS
SETTING AN EXCLUSION LIST
DISKEEPER INTERNAL EXCLUSION LIST
I/O SMART – DISK PRIORITY
USING POWER MANAGEMENT
LOGGING DISKEEPER ACTIVITY
WINDOWS 2000/XP EVENT LOG
WINDOWS 95/98/ME EVENT LOG
SPECIFYING WHAT GETS LOGGED
24
24
25
25
26
26
26
27
27
28
28
29
29
30
32
34
34
35
36
37
37
38
39
40
41
43
43
44
44
44
45
45
THEORY OF OPERATION
49
INTRODUCTION
DESIGN GOALS
49
49
TABLE OF DISKEEPER EDITIONS
53
ANSWERS TO FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS
55
SUPPORT SERVICES
61
GLOSSARY
63
INDEX
71
Preface
vii
Preface
What This Book is About
Welcome to the Diskeeper Home Edition User’s Manual. We realize software manuals tend to be one of the
least-favorite pieces of reading material around, so we intend to make this one as painless as possible. This
book will first help you get Diskeeper quickly installed and running. Next, it describes the various Diskeeper
features and how to use them. Finally, it defines disk fragmentation and how it affects your Windows systems.
Structure of This Book
ƒ
Chapter 1 describes how to install Diskeeper.
ƒ
Chapter 2 explains how to start using Diskeeper and how to see the amount of fragmentation on your disk
volumes.
ƒ
Chapter 3 gives a brief overview of Diskeeper.
ƒ
Chapter 4 explains the various features of Diskeeper in detail.
ƒ
Chapter 5 presents the theory of Diskeeper operation.
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Appendix A has tables showing the different Diskeeper editions, and the operating systems, features and
capacities they support.
ƒ
Appendix B provides answers to frequently asked questions.
ƒ
Appendix C explains how to contact your Executive Software Customer Service Representative for
Support Services.
ƒ
The Glossary provides definitions of technical terms used in this manual.
Introduction
Throughout its history, Diskeeper has improved with each new version. Diskeeper Home Edition sets the
standard in simplified disk defragmentation with innovative new features and approaches to solving
fragmentation problems for home users.
From its trademark “Set It and Forget It” scheduling to the comprehensive performance and reliability analysis,
Diskeeper Home Edition is designed to solve your disk fragmentation problems permanently, and keep you
informed about the condition of all your disks.
Diskeeper Home Edition is only one member of the comprehensive Diskeeper family of defragmentation
products. There are different Diskeeper editions for everyone, from home users to the world’s largest IT
departments.
The Diskeeper lineup also includes:
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
Diskeeper Professional Edition
Diskeeper Server Standard Edition
Diskeeper Server Enterprise Edition
Diskeeper Administrator Edition
See Appendix A for tables showing all the Diskeeper editions with the features and operating system versions
they support.
viii
Preface
About Fragmentation
As used in this manual, the term disk fragmentation means two things:
ƒ
ƒ
a condition in which pieces of individual files on a disk volume are not contiguous, but rather are broken
up and scattered around the disk; and
a condition in which the free space on a disk volume consists of little pieces of space here and there rather
than a few large free spaces.
The effects of excessive fragmentation are twofold as well:
ƒ
ƒ
file access takes longer because a file must be collected in pieces here and there, requiring several disk
accesses instead of just one; and
file creations take longer because space for the file must be allocated in little pieces here and there instead
of just one contiguous allocation.
The bottom line⎯fragmentation slows Windows system performance. The longer you wait to defragment your
disk volumes, the slower your computer runs.
With Diskeeper, all the disks in a Windows operating system can be kept defragmented indefinitely. Diskeeper
cleans them up and keeps them that way. This includes disks with compressed, encrypted and sparse files on
NTFS volumes.
Running either invisibly as a background job or as a manual defragmenter, Diskeeper carefully rearranges files
and free space on a disk volume so they consist of as few pieces as possible. Because Diskeeper runs online,
there is no need to lock users off a disk while it is being defragmented.
Diskeeper is the complete “Set It and Forget It”® solution to the loss in system performance caused by disk
fragmentation!
Other Important Products
Executive Software is known throughout the computer industry for its focused development of system
management tools. If you are running Windows NT, Windows 2000, Windows XP or Windows Server 2003,
you should also use:
Undelete® for Windows
Instantly recover files that have been accidentally deleted anywhere on your network. Undelete sets up a
Recovery Bin that caches all deletions—even versions created between backups—and saves you the time and
money of wading through backups. Undelete also includes a recovery tool for files that have been deleted
before Undelete was installed. Data is your business. Complete your data protection solution with Undelete,
available from your local reseller or directly from Executive Software.
Sitekeeper® System Management Software
Get at-a-glance updates on every software version, build, update and patch. Also see detailed hardware
information including processor speed, RAM, hard drive size, logical free space and asset management tags
from the BIOS and motherboard. Install/uninstall programs with a few clicks of the mouse.
Installation
1
Chapter 1
Diskeeper Installation
This chapter provides information you need before, during, and after installing Diskeeper.
Before the Installation
Windows Versions and Platforms Supported
Diskeeper runs on the Intel® x86 platform (including Pentium™ and compatible CPUs from other
manufacturers) running Windows Server 2003, Windows XP Professional, Windows 2000 Professional or
Server, Windows NT 4.0 Workstation or Server, Windows Me, Windows 98, or Windows 95 (OSR 2).
The Windows versions supported varies by Diskeeper edition. See Table of Diskeeper Editions on page 53 for a
table showing the different Diskeeper editions and the Windows versions they support.
File Systems Supported
Operating System
File Systems
Windows XP
NTFS, FAT16 and FAT32
Windows Me
Windows 98
Windows 95 (OSR 2 or higher)
FAT16 and FAT32
Note that the 12-bit FAT file system is not supported. (The 12-bit FAT file system is used on FAT volumes
smaller than 16 megabytes in size, such as floppy disks).
Disks Supported
Diskeeper supports a wide range of SCSI and IDE disks, including:
ƒ
Primary Partitions
ƒ
Extended Partitions
ƒ
Logical Drives
ƒ
Volume Sets
ƒ
RAID Arrays
ƒ
Mirrored Disks
ƒ
Mounted Volumes (letterless drives)
2
Installation
Resource Requirements
The disk space requirements for Diskeeper depend on several factors. On most systems, Diskeeper will need
about 11 MB. Allow about 10 MB of extra free space for temporary files during the installation. If Internet
Explorer is not present on your computer, some other needed files (hhupd.exe, 50comupd.exe, and
wintdist.exe) may be added. Further, your system may require a new or updated version of DCOM (less than 3
MB) and/or MMC (less than 6 MB).
Additional Software Requirements
Diskeeper relies on the Microsoft Management Console (MMC). The MMC provides a single point of control
for system utilities such as Diskeeper. The MMC is used as a central location for a variety of Microsoft and
third party administrative tools.
Note: In most cases, Windows 95 systems are not running the MMC by default. The MMC normally has to be
installed separately, except on Windows 2000 and Windows XP systems, where it is already built into the
operating system. The Diskeeper setup process will automatically install the MMC on your computer if needed.
Installation Procedure—The Short Version
The Diskeeper installation is typically fast and simple. Here are the basic steps:
Note: On Windows 2000 and Windows XP, make sure you are logged onto an account that is a member of the
Administrators group.
1.
Insert the Diskeeper CD-ROM into the appropriate drive on your computer. (If you are installing from a
downloaded file, double-click the file you downloaded.)
2.
Follow the screens displayed, answering the questions asked as prompted.
That’s it! It would still be a good idea to read After the Installation on page 4, but you’re done with the
installation.
Installation Procedure—The Details
Installation Overview
Diskeeper is installed by the SETUP.EXE program supplied on the Diskeeper CD-ROM. The SETUP.EXE
program:
ƒ
Confirms that you have Administrator privileges (on Windows XP systems).
ƒ
Determines which Windows version you are running.
ƒ
Checks for sufficient space on the disk for the installation.
ƒ
Detects and removes any previously installed Diskeeper software.
ƒ
Copies the Diskeeper files to the destination directories, updates the Windows registry, starts the Diskeeper
service, creates a link in the Windows Start menu for Executive Software Diskeeper, and creates a
desktop shortcut (if you choose the option to do so).
Installation
3
Installation Procedure
Diskeeper can be installed from a CD-ROM, or it may be downloaded from the Web. This procedure applies to
both methods. Before you start the installation, please note the following:
ƒ
Windows 95 machines must be OSR 2 or higher.
ƒ
Installing Diskeeper on Windows 2000 and Windows XP computers will not remove the built-in
defragmenter, but Diskeeper will automatically become the default defragmenter. (The built-in
defragmenter will be restored if you uninstall Diskeeper.)
ƒ
To install Diskeeper on Windows 2000 or Windows XP systems, you must be logged into an account that
is a member of the Administrators group.
This installation procedure assumes you are installing from CD-ROM. If the Diskeeper software was
downloaded from the Web, double-click the executable file in the directory into which it was downloaded and
go directly to step 3.
1.
Insert the Diskeeper CD-ROM into the appropriate drive on your computer.
2.
The Windows AutoPlay feature automatically displays a screen that allows you to install Diskeeper or
choose from an assortment of trialware versions of Executive Software products.
If you have disabled the AutoPlay feature, simply double-click the Setup.exe file in the root-level folder on
the CD-ROM and follow the instructions displayed.
3.
Click Next when the welcome message appears.
4.
After you have read and accepted the license agreement, click Next to continue.
5.
As an option, you can change the destination location for the Diskeeper files. By default, Diskeeper is
installed here:
\Program Files\Executive Software\Diskeeper
You can choose a different disk volume or directory for the installation as follows:
a) Click Change.
b) Make the desired changes to the destination and click OK to accept the new destination. If the
directory you specify does not exist, a new directory will be created.
c) Click Next.
6.
If Internet Explorer 4.01 or higher is not installed on your computer, another installation program is started
and a package of necessary components is installed on your computer. Microsoft Management Console
(MMC), which is the interface for Diskeeper, requires these components. These components are a small
subset of Internet Explorer⎯not the complete Internet Explorer product. Installing these components
(hhupd.exe, 50comupd.exe, and wintdist.exe) will not affect your current web browser. Note that you must
restart your computer after installing Diskeeper if these components are installed.
7.
If the MMC is not installed on your computer, the MMC Setup program is started automatically. After the
MMC files are installed, the Diskeeper Setup program resumes.
8.
Setup detects and removes any previously installed Diskeeper software. (Any previous Diskeeper settings
are not saved.)
9.
On a Windows 2000 or Windows XP system, after Setup is complete, you can immediately start Diskeeper
after clicking Finish. On Windows 95/98/Me systems, you may be required to restart your computer before
running Diskeeper.
10. To run Diskeeper, click the Windows Start button, select Programs, and then Executive Software
Diskeeper.
4
Installation
After the Installation
Check for Product Update
The first time you run Diskeeper, it automatically checks to see if a more recent version of Diskeeper is
available. If so, you are given the option to download and install the newer version. When the download screen
is displayed, click Run this program from its current location to begin installing the update. Or, click Save
this program to disk to save the Diskeeper update installation package on your computer for later installation.
(To install an update stored on your computer in this manner, simply double-click the file you download and
follow the instructions displayed.)
You can check for Diskeeper updates any time you want. Use the Check for product update option in the
Change your settings menu to see if a newer version of Diskeeper is available.
Registering Diskeeper
After the Diskeeper installation is complete, you may be given the option to register your Diskeeper purchase
online. You can also register Diskeeper by mailing or faxing the registration card that comes with the CD.
Be sure to register your Diskeeper purchase to receive the free 90 days of telephone support included with
Diskeeper.
About Windows Service Packs
Since Diskeeper uses mechanisms built into Windows 2000 and Windows XP that allow the safe movement of
files on a disk that is actively being accessed by users, there is usually no need to upgrade Diskeeper Home
Edition each time you install a new Windows Service Pack upgrade.
Repairing Windows Systems
Performing an emergency repair of a Windows system can possibly change or disable certain system
information or services, which may make it necessary to reinstall Diskeeper after repairing your Windows
system.
About the Diskeeper Service
Diskeeper is primarily designed as a “Set It and Forget It” disk defragmenter. In order to accomplish this goal,
it creates a Windows service. The service allows Diskeeper to run in the background while other applications
are running. As long as your operating system is up and running, Diskeeper can defragment your disks, whether
you are logged on or not.
After installation, the Diskeeper service starts automatically each time your computer is restarted. The
Diskeeper service runs all the time, whether or not defragmentation is occurring. This service consumes
negligible system resources, and in most cases will never need to be disabled.
The Windows Application Event Log
When running under Windows 2000 or Windows XP, Diskeeper places messages in the Windows Application
Event Log. By default, this log is 512 kilobytes in size and is set to overwrite events older than 7 days old.
Diskeeper can quickly fill the log file if these default settings are used. To prevent this, perform these steps to
change the size and overwriting characteristics of the Application Event Log:
1.
Right-click the My Computer icon on your desktop and select Manage.
2.
When the Computer Management Console is displayed, select System Tools, and then Event Viewer.
Installation
3.
Expand the Event Viewer (by double-clicking it) and select Application.
4.
Next, click the Action menu and select Properties.
5
a) Set the Maximum log size to 2048 KB.
b) Enable the Overwrite events as needed option.
c) Click OK.
Diskeeper allows you to specify what information is written to the Application Event Log. For more
information, see Windows 2000/XP Event Log on page 44.
Event Logging under Windows 95/98/Me
When running on Windows 95/98/Me, Diskeeper provides the option of logging Diskeeper events into a text
file. When Diskeeper logs an event, the event and its message are appended to the Diskeeper log file. These
events are written as a text file, which can then be viewed with Notepad, or your choice of text editor programs.
The Diskeeper log file is named DkEventLog.txt and it is stored in the directory folder where Diskeeper is
installed. The file is limited to 1 MB in size. When it reaches this size, the log is purged completely and the
event log is started from scratch.
Remote Installation
Diskeeper can be installed simultaneously on multiple computers in a network, using Diskeeper Administrator
Edition.
Remote installation can be a tremendous time saver for system administrators, especially on large networks,
where they may have to install Diskeeper on hundreds, or even thousands of computers.
For more information on remotely installing Diskeeper, see Appendix D.
Uninstalling Diskeeper
To uninstall Diskeeper on Windows NT, Windows 2000, Windows XP, and Windows Server 2003 systems,
you must be logged into an account that is a member of the Administrators group.
Note that the controls may have slightly different names, depending on your version of Windows.
Follow these steps to completely remove and uninstall Diskeeper from your computer:
1.
From the Control Panel, double-click Add/Remove Programs. (On Windows 95/98/Me or Windows NT
systems, click the Install/Uninstall tab.)
2.
Highlight the Diskeeper entry.
3.
Click Remove or Add/Remove (Windows 95/98/Me and Windows NT). This removes the Diskeeper
program files from your computer. In most cases, the Diskeeper installation directory will not be removed.
4.
On Windows 2000, Windows XP, or Windows Server 2003 systems, the Windows Disk Defragmenter is
restored to the state it was in before Diskeeper was installed.
5.
Manually delete the Diskeeper installation directory if it exists.
Note: If the MMC has been installed on your computer, it will not be removed when Diskeeper is uninstalled.
Getting Started
7
Chapter 2
Getting Started
This chapter explains how to analyze the fragmentation on a disk volume, save the results, defragment the
volume, and do a “before and after” comparison.
Introduction
Marketing research has shown that computer system performance and reliability continue to be major concerns
among system administrators and computer users. Disk fragmentation is a major cause of these performance
and reliability problems. Diskeeper is designed to not only handle the fragmentation problem, but to give you
information about the performance and reliability status of your disk volumes.
Keep in mind the primary purpose of a defragmenter is not to make your disks look “pretty”, but to improve the
operating condition of your disk volumes. So while Diskeeper does provide a graphic view of your disks and
any fragmentation found, more importantly, it shows you performance measurements and reliability data that
you can apply to proactively keep your disk volumes in top shape.
Diskeeper performs a comprehensive analysis of the fragmentation on your disk volumes. After analyzing a
disk, Diskeeper shows you the amount of performance improvement you will get by defragmenting the disk,
and rates the reliability of the disk, based on the analysis results. Diskeeper also provides multiple methods by
which to see the extent of the fragmentation—several graphic displays giving a graphic representation of the
fragmentation on your volumes and a fragmentation report view showing statistical information about the
fragmentation on your volumes.
After installing Diskeeper, you are ready to start Diskeeper and begin defragmenting your disk volumes. In
order to see the actual gains from defragmentation, analyze the condition of your volumes before you begin
defragmenting them. By reviewing the Diskeeper displays both before and after running Diskeeper, you will be
able to see the actual reduction of file fragmentation and improvement in performance and reliability.
8
Getting Started
Quick Tour
When you start Diskeeper for the first time after a successful installation, you’ll see this welcoming message:
Read the message—it contains simple instructions on how to start using Diskeeper. After you have read the
message, you can prevent it from displaying in the future by clearing the check box in the bottom left corner.
Click OK to continue.
After the Welcome screen is displayed, Diskeeper checks to see if a more recent version is available.
Click OK to check to see if an update is available for Diskeeper. (Note that you must have an active internet
connection in order for Diskeeper to check for a more recent version.)
If a newer version of Diskeeper is available, you are given the option of downloading it. When the download
screen is displayed, click Run this program from its current location to begin installing the update.
Otherwise, click Save this program to disk to save the Diskeeper update installation package on your
computer for later installation. (To install an update stored on your computer in this manner, simply doubleclick the file you download and follow the instructions displayed.)
You can also check for Diskeeper updates any time you want. Use the Check for product update option in the
Diskeeper Help menu.
Getting Started
9
After checking for updates, it’s time to start learning about Diskeeper.
Toolbar
Menu Bar
Tab
Controls
Disk
Volume
Pane
Command
Pane
Status
Bar
Information
Pane
When you first start Diskeeper, the Performance tab pane is displayed. Like the other tab-controlled panes, this
one gives quite a bit of information. This pane gives instructions for analyzing your drives, and also give you
some background information about the effects of fragmentation.
Let’s analyze a disk volume before we continue with the tour. Select a disk volume and click Analyze selected
volume, then Start in the Command pane.
Tip: You can also use the Analyze button
to start the analysis of the selected disk.
After Diskeeper analyzes or defragments a disk volume, the Performance pane displays a graph showing the
performance loss on that disk due to fragmentation. Here’s an example after analyzing drive C:
As you can see, the Performance pane now shows a performance analysis for drive C. The upper bar graph
shows the current read times for only the fragmented files on the drive and the lower graph shows read times
10
Getting Started
for all the files on the drive. The graphs also show the expected optimum read time for both cases, based on
drive performance measurements. This view gives you a detailed picture of your disk performance losses due to
fragmentation, and the expected improvement you will see after defragmentation.
It should be noted that the first performance analysis is based on pre-determined disk performance values
measured as a part of disk performance research done by Executive Software. To get a more accurate
performance measurement of your actual disks, Diskeeper must scan your drives to measure their performance.
Since this measurement can briefly slow down your computer, this scan operation is disabled by default, but
you can turn it on easily. The Set performance data options option is described in the Change your settings
menu section on page 37.
Now that we see how the performance of drive C is impacted by fragmentation. Let’s look at reliability issues.
Click the Reliability tab to see the Reliability pane:
Reliability
Tab
The Reliability pane gives a reliability analysis and rating, the reasons for that rating, and recommendations for
improving or maintaining the reliability of the disk volume.
In this example, the reliability analysis for drive C shows a considerable amount of fragmentation, warranting a
“Warning” rating. The ratings are based on several factors. You may see different conditions on your disks,
such as too little free space or a badly fragmented paging file.
Getting Started
11
Now we’ll look at a picture of the fragmentation on drive C. Click the Performance Map tab to open the
Performance Map pane shown here:
Performance
Map Tab
The group of horizontal bars in the Performance Map pane gives a graphic representation of the fragmentation
of your disk volume (similar to the Drive Map pane, discussed shortly), with one major difference: It shows the
extent of performance degradation on the disk instead of simply showing the fragmented files.
For example, a large file in two or three fragments causes no significant performance loss. In this case, the
Drive Map tab would display this file in red (since it is fragmented) but the Performance Map would display the
same file in blue (since it is not affecting the performance of your computer). The Performance Map tab gives
you a more accurate look at the condition of the disk as it relates to the overall performance of your system.
The color legend in the Command pane shows what the colors in the display mean. Of particular interest in this
example, the red areas show the fragmented files on the disk.
Next, click the Fragmentation tab to see the Fragmentation pane:
Fragmentation
Tab
12
Getting Started
Useful information about the disk volume is shown in the Fragmentation pane. Note that most of the
information here can also be recorded in the Diskeeper Event Log. For more information, see Logging
Diskeeper Activity on page 44.
Now we’ll look at another, more detailed picture of the fragmentation on drive C. Click the Drive Map tab to
open the Drive Map pane shown here:
Drive Map
Tab
Like the Performance Map pane, the horizontal bars in the Drive Map pane give a graphic representation of the
fragmentation of your disk volume. The Drive Map pane shows additional detail, including the paging file (if it
exists) and other system files like the MFT on NTFS volumes. It also shows all the fragmentation (even
fragmented file that are not affecting your system’s performance).
Next, let’s defragment drive C and see what type of improvement Diskeeper can provide. Click Defragment
selected volume, then Start in the Command pane to start the defragmentation process. (Notice that drive C is
still selected)
Tip: You can also use the Defragment button
to start defragmenting the selected volume.
You can watch the progress of the defragmentation if you keep the Drive Map pane open while Diskeeper is
defragmenting your disk.
Getting Started
13
After the defragmentation is complete, it’s time to see how Diskeeper has improved the condition of the disk.
Open the Performance pane by clicking the Performance tab. You will see a display similar to this:
Performance
Tab
In this example, you can see that defragmenting drive C has restored its performance back to the optimum level.
The dotted lines in the graph display shows a good “before and after” picture of your drive's performance.
Next, check the reliability rating (or index) after defragmentation. Click the Reliability tab to open the
Reliability pane. You’ll see a display similar to this:
Reliability
Tab
Now that drive C has been defragmented, its reliability index is “Healthy.”
A quick review of the Performance Map pane, the Fragmentation pane and the Drive Map pane will also show
improvement to the condition of the disk. Keep in mind that badly-fragmented disks may need more than one
defragmentation run to completely handle the fragmentation problem.
Now, if you set up and start scheduled “Set It and Forget It” defragmentation jobs for your disk volumes,
Diskeeper can maintain your disks in optimum condition automatically by running occasionally in the
background without further intervention from you! For more information, see page 30.
Overview of Diskeeper
15
Chapter 3
Overview of Diskeeper
This chapter provides important general information about Diskeeper Home Edition.
Diskeeper Features
The following list summarizes the most important Diskeeper Home Edition features:
Wide Array of Diskeeper Editions—The Diskeeper family of products offers specialized defragmentation of
Windows operating systems ranging from Windows 95 through Windows Server 2003 Datacenter Edition. See
the tables on page 53 for the complete Diskeeper lineup.
Descriptive Interface—The Diskeeper interface provides an intuitive and informative defragmentation
experience. Common commands are grouped together in the Command pane, and a group of tabbed panes show
you a wide variety of information. Diskeeper shows you the condition of your disks, and provides suggestions
for improving or maintaining your disks.
Performance and Reliability Analysis—Diskeeper collects and displays data regarding the performance and
reliability of your disk volumes. This information allows you to be more proactive in the management and
maintenance of your computers. See pages 20 and 22 for more information about the Performance pane and the
Reliability pane.
Set It and Forget It Operation—Diskeeper is designed to operate without your intervention. Set a schedule
for the times you want Diskeeper to run, then sit back and let Diskeeper take care of your disk fragmentation.
Of course, you can also run Diskeeper manually. (But you probably have better things to do with your time—
that’s what Set It and Forget It is for!)
Smart Scheduling®—This feature allows Diskeeper to automatically determine the optimum defragmentation
schedule for each disk volume individually, and adjust that schedule as disk usage changes. By default,
Diskeeper Home Edition enables Smart Scheduling automatically on all your disk volumes.
I/O Smart™—This feature keeps the defragmentation process from impacting your other work by “throttling”
(suspending) the defragmentation process whenever disk I/O activity is detected on a disk while it is being
defragmented. This ensures the defragmentation process will be transparent to you, no matter how active the
disk.
Exclusion Lists—Diskeeper exclusion lists allow you to specify files and directories that will not be allowed to
be processed by Diskeeper.
Event Logging—Diskeeper can record information about its activity in a log file. A wide variety of
information can be saved for future reference.
Other Things to Know
ƒ
When running Diskeeper in the Set It and Forget It or Manual Defragmentation modes, you can run other
tasks while defragmentation is occurring.
ƒ
Diskeeper runs as a Windows Service and it optionally logs useful defragmentation information into either
the Windows Application Event Log (under Windows 2000 and Windows XP) or to a text file (under
Windows 95/98/Me).
ƒ
Diskeeper can be uninstalled in the standard manner using the Add/Remove Programs applet in the
Windows Control Panel. See page 5 for more information.
16
Overview of Diskeeper
ƒ
You must be logged into an account that is a member of the Administrators group to run Diskeeper on
Windows 2000 or Windows XP systems.
ƒ
Diskeeper relies on the Microsoft Management Console (MMC), which is available for Windows 95 and
Windows 98. MMC is built into Windows 2000, Windows XP and Windows Server 2003. For more
information about the MMC, see the Glossary.
Defragmentation Modes
Diskeeper Home Edition is designed to operate in two different ways—the “Manual Defragmentation” and “Set
It and Forget It” modes. Both modes run while your disk volumes are online and available to other users.
Manual Defragmentation—Manual defragmentation gives you direct control over Diskeeper operation. You
have control over which disk volumes are defragmented, when defragmentation is started and stopped, and the
priority at which manual defragmentation jobs run. You can also choose between different defragmentation
methods, to emphasize system performance or defragmentation speed.
in the Diskeeper toolbar to do a
Highlight the disk volume of your choice, then click Defragment
manual defragmentation. (Alternatively, you can click Defragment selected volume, then Start in the
Command pane, or right-click the highlighted disk volume and select Defragment.)
Click Pause
, Resume
or Stop
in the Diskeeper toolbar if you want to pause, resume or stop
manual defragmentation at any time. These options are also available in the Action menu. For more
information, see Toolbar Buttons on page 40.
Set It and Forget It—“Set It and Forget It” scheduling allows Diskeeper to run automatically in the
background, either after hours or while users and other processes are active on the system, according to
predetermined schedules you set. (Diskeeper supports two separate schedules for each disk volume on your
computer—a “primary” and “secondary” schedule can be set for each.) By default, Diskeeper Home Edition
enables Smart Scheduling automatically on all your disk volumes. The Smart Scheduling option allows
Diskeeper to automatically determine the optimum defragmentation schedule for each of your disk volumes. As
with manual defragmentation jobs, you can select several different defragmentation methods to suit your needs.
Tip: Select Set It and Forget It from the Command pane to choose from several commonly-used
schedules.
This option is also available from the Action menu. For more information, see page 30.
Exclusion List
In some cases, you may have files or directory folders you do not want to defragment. For example, you may
not want to defragment temporary files that will soon be deleted. Any files or directories can be excluded from
Diskeeper processing by adding them to the exclusion list.
To use this feature, click Change your settings in the Command pane and select Exclude selected files and
folders, or select the same option from the Action menu. For more information, see Setting an Exclusion List
on page 41.
Event Logging
Diskeeper allows you to record information about its activity in a log file. Click Change your settings in the
Diskeeper Command pane then select Set event logging options to alternately enable or disable the logging of
various events to the Diskeeper Event Log. The logging method varies, depending on the version of Windows
you are using. This option is also available from the Action menu. For more information, see Logging
Diskeeper Activity on page 44.
Overview of Diskeeper
17
Getting the Most from Diskeeper
Diskeeper Home Edition provides a variety of features, all of which are designed to help you get the best
performance from your computer. While there are no “hard and fast” rules governing the use of Diskeeper, here
are some general guidelines that will help you get the most from Diskeeper.
ƒ
When you first install Diskeeper, analyze all the disk volumes on your computer. This gives you good
information about the extent of fragmentation on your computer.
ƒ
After you have analyzed your volumes, defragment them by running Diskeeper in its Manual
Defragmentation mode. This provides the fastest method for defragmenting the files and free space on your
volume. For more information on how to analyze and defragment manually, see page 7.
ƒ
Finally, schedule Diskeeper to run in the background in Set It and Forget It mode. Running in the Set It
and Forget It mode, Diskeeper works quietly, keeping your disks in prime condition. (Diskeeper Home
Edition automatically sets up Smart Scheduling for all your disk drives when it is installed.) For more
information about scheduling Diskeeper, see page 32.
Diskeeper Operation
19
Chapter 4
Diskeeper Operation
This chapter describes how to operate Diskeeper.
The Diskeeper Interface
As explained in Chapter 2, the Diskeeper user interface is made up of several distinct components. These are, in
order of discussion:
ƒ
Information Pane—Shows the main “Operations Center” for Diskeeper. Each tab pane shows a different
aspect of your disks’ condition, or controls when Diskeeper runs.
ƒ
Command Pane—The Command pane is where you’ll find easy access to the commonly-used Diskeeper
features, as well as several shortcuts for performing common tasks.
ƒ
Disk Volume Pane—The disk volume pane shows all the supported disks detected on your computer.
ƒ
Toolbar—Diskeeper displays a toolbar of commonly-used controls above the Disk Volume pane. (The
toolbar and other display components can be hidden by using the Customize option in the View menu.)
Note that many of the functions on the toolbar are available from the Action menu, and can also be
activated from the menu displayed when you right-click on a selected disk volume in the disk volume pane.
ƒ
Menu Bar—The Diskeeper menus provide an alternative way to access the features available from the
Information pane and the Command pane.
ƒ
Status Bar—This section of the Diskeeper display shows the progress of any Diskeeper tasks currently
running. The status bar also shows other useful information, like the folder location and name of the file
being moved, as well as numbers showing the size of the file chunk being moved and the total size of the
file.
ƒ
System Tray Icon—The Diskeeper icon
in the Windows system status area (or system tray) provides
a convenient way to see when Diskeeper is defragmenting one or more disk volumes on your computer.
Right-click the icon to display these options:
o
Open Diskeeper
o
Stop running engines
o
Delay scheduled defragmentation
20
Diskeeper Operation
Information Pane
The Information pane section of the Diskeeper display is the main “Operations Center” for Diskeeper. Each tab
pane shows a different aspect of your disks’ condition, or controls when Diskeeper runs.
Tabbed
Controls
Information
Pane
The Performance Pane
One of the main reasons for defragmenting a disk volume is to restore or maintain the performance of the disk.
As files become more and more fragmented, it takes longer to read those files from the disk. Measuring the
length of time it takes to read a set of files from a disk (known as read time) is a common way of determining
the anticipated performance level of that disk.
Each time you analyze or defragment a disk, Diskeeper calculates the read time of the disk in two ways. First, it
shows the predicted time to read all the files on the disk. Secondly, it shows the time to read only the
fragmented files. Additionally, it determines the optimum (fastest) read time potential for the disk.
It should be noted that by default, the performance analysis is based on pre-determined disk performance values
measured as a part of disk performance research done by Executive Software. To get a more accurate
performance measurement of your actual disks, Diskeeper must scan your drives to measure their performance.
Since this measurement can briefly slow down your computer, this scan operation is disabled by default, but
you can turn it on easily. The Set performance data options option is described in the Change your settings
menu section on page 37.
When you first start Diskeeper, the Performance pane gives instructions for analyzing your drives, and also
give you some background information about the effects of fragmentation. After a disk has been analyzed or
defragmented, the performance pane changes to show a graph illustrating the performance characteristics of the
disk, based on current read times calculated by Diskeeper—both for all the files on the drive and for only the
fragmented files on the drive. It also shows the expected optimum read time for all the files and for only the
fragmented files. This view gives you a detailed picture of your performance losses due to fragmentation, and
the expected improvement you will see after defragmentation.
The Performance pane displays information for a single disk volume at a time. The disk highlighted in the disk
volume pane is the disk described in the Performance pane.
Diskeeper Operation
21
Using the Performance pane, you can see at a glance how much disk performance is being lost to
fragmentation, and equally important, you can confirm that Diskeeper is keeping your disk performance at peak
levels.
Here is an example of the Performance pane before running an analysis or defragmentation:
Read the screen—it tells you how to get started analyzing your disks, and explains the effects of fragmentation.
After you’ve analyzed a fragmented disk volume, the Performance pane takes on a new look. Here’s an
example:
Shows performance loss
to read only the
fragmented files
Shows performance loss to read
all the files – uneven graph bars
mean performance is being lost.
Recommendations
Summary of
findings
After the fragmented disk has been defragmented by Diskeeper, the Performance pane helps show the real gain
from defragmentation. Here’s an example:
22
Diskeeper Operation
Equal graph bars mean
optimum performance!
All the information on the Performance pane is dynamic—it changes based on the condition of the disk.
The Reliability Pane
The Reliability pane gives a reliability analysis and rating, the reasons for that rating, and recommendations for
improving or maintaining the reliability of the disk volume.
Executive Software has done extensive research into the causes of disk performance and reliability problems.
This research has shown these factors play a significant role in regards to disk performance and reliability:
ƒ
Overall fragmentation1
ƒ
MFT fragmentation
ƒ
Paging file fragmentation
ƒ
Available free space
Diskeeper uses these factors to determine a disk reliability index each time it analyzes or defragments a disk
volume.
Disk reliability is rated into three categories—Healthy, Warning and Critical.
This table shows the Warning and Critical levels used in determining the reliability index.
Reliability Factor
Warning Level
Critical Level
Overall Fragmentation
> 10% fragmentation
> 50% fragmentation
MFT Fragmentation
> 250 fragments
>2000 fragments
Paging File Fragmentation
> 250 fragments
>1500 fragments
Free Space
< 15% free space
< 5% free space
The Reliability pane displays information for a single disk volume at a time. The disk highlighted in the disk
volume pane is the disk shown in the Reliability pane.
Here is an example of the Reliability pane view after analysis of a disk that needs corrective action:
1
Overall fragmentation is calculated by dividing the time required to read the fragmented files on the volume by the time
required to read all the files on the volume, and multiplying the result by 100.
Diskeeper Operation
23
After analyzing a disk, the Reliability pane shows reliability index and the reasons behind it, and offers
suggestions for correcting any problems found. In this example, the reliability analysis for drive C shows a high
fragmentation level, warranting a “Warning” rating.
Now here’s an example of the Reliability pane after defragmentation, showing a disk in good condition:
Notice that after defragmentation, the Reliability pane again shows the reliability index, but it changes to show
the current condition of the disk. Recommendations for maintaining the condition of the disk (or for further
improvement, if necessary) are also shown.
Like the Performance pane, the information shown in the Reliability pane is dynamic, changing as the
conditions on your disks change.
Performance Map Pane
The Performance Map pane gives a view of the fragmentation on your disk volume with an emphasis on the
performance impact of that fragmentation. See below for an example of a typical Performance Map pane
display. (This example shows a moderately fragmented volume).
The Performance Map pane displays information for a single disk volume at a time. The disk highlighted in the
disk volume pane is the disk reflected in the Performance Map pane.
24
Diskeeper Operation
What the Colors Mean
The group of horizontal bars in the Performance Map pane gives a graphic representation of the fragmentation
of your disk volume (similar to the Drive Map pane, discussed later in this chapter), with one major difference:
It shows the extent of performance degradation on the disk instead of simply showing the fragmented files.
For example, a large file in two or three fragments causes no significant performance loss. In this case, the
Drive Map tab would display this file in red (since it is fragmented) but the Performance Map would display the
same file in blue (since it is not affecting the performance of your computer). The Performance Map tab gives
you a more accurate look at the condition of the disk as it relates to the overall performance of your system.
The Performance Map pane gives a graphic representation of the performance of your disk volume. The colors
of the display indicate the type and condition of the data on your volume.
ƒ
Red areas show low-performing files.
ƒ
Pink areas show low-performing system files
ƒ
Dark blue areas show high-performing files.
ƒ
White areas show free space on the volume.
ƒ
Green-striped areas (on Windows 2000 and Windows XP systems only) show space on the volume
reserved for expansion of the MFT. This space is reserved when a volume is formatted, and cannot be used
by applications, including Diskeeper. However, the operating system will write files to this area when the
volume becomes extremely full and no other free space is available. Windows provides the capability for
Diskeeper to move files out of this reserved area, but on Windows 2000 does not allow Diskeeper to move
files into it. These areas appear only on NTFS volumes.
The Fragmentation Pane
The Fragmentation pane shows useful information about your disk volume after either analysis or
defragmentation. Note that most of the information shown in the Fragmentation pane can also be recorded in
the Diskeeper Event Log. For more information, see Logging Diskeeper Activity on page 44.
The Fragmentation pane displays information for a single disk volume at a time. The disk highlighted in the
disk volume pane is the disk shown in the Fragmentation pane.
Here is an example of the Fragmentation pane after analyzing a disk volume:
Diskeeper Operation
25
The Fragmentation pane shows this information:
Volume Section
Volume Size
This section of the Fragmentation pane or event log entry shows the total amount of space on the disk volume.
This includes files and free space, as well as disk space used by the operating system (such as directory files
and the Master File Table) but not reported in “Used Space.”
Cluster Size
This section of the Fragmentation pane or event log entry shows the cluster size for the volume. A disk cluster
represents a number of disk sectors treated as a single unit. The entire disk is divided into clusters, each one a
minimum increment of storage.
Used Space
This section of the Fragmentation pane or event log entry shows the total amount of disk space (in kilobytes)
currently occupied by files. This does not include zero-length files, or certain files used by the operating
system, such as directory files and the Master File Table.
Free Space
This section of the Fragmentation pane or event log entry shows the total amount of free space on the disk
volume.
Percent Free Space
This section of the Fragmentation pane or event log entry shows the percentage of space on the disk volume
that is free. This includes the free space in the area reserved for the Master File Table (MFT) on NTFS
volumes.
Fragmentation Percentage Section
Volume Fragmentation
This section of the Fragmentation pane or event log entry shows the overall percentage of fragmentation on the
disk volume.
The Volume fragmentation figure gives you an overall view of the fragmentation on your volume, by taking
both the file fragmentation level and the free space fragmentation level into account. These two values are
weighted depending on the ratio of free space to used space on the disk. The formula is:
Fragmented space on the volume * 100 / Total space on the volume
Where Fragmented space on the volume is the summed cluster count of all fragmented files times the bytes per
clusters.
Data Fragmentation
This section of the Fragmentation pane or event log entry shows the percentage of file fragmentation on the
disk volume.
Data fragmentation is calculated like this:
Volume Fragmentation * Total Space on the Volume / Used Space on the volume
Note: The calculations are for both Data fragmentation and Volume fragmentation are done based on the
uncompressed size of the files. If a volume has a large number of fragmented compressed files, these values
can exceed 100%. This is similar to looking at files in Windows Explorer—if a large number of files are
compressed, the total size of the data can exceed the volume size. This is why you can compare the volume size
in Disk Management to the total number of bytes on a volume, and they don’t “add up”.
26
Diskeeper Operation
File Fragmentation Section
Total Files
This section of the Fragmentation pane or event log entry shows the total number of files on the disk volume.
This number does not include zero-length files or (in most cases) files less than one cluster in size on NTFS
volumes. Files less than one cluster in size may be included, depending on the file size and the cluster size.
Average File Size
This section of the Fragmentation pane or event log entry shows the average size of all the files on the disk
volume. This number does not include any zero-length files or paging files.
Total Fragmented Files
This section of the Fragmentation pane or event log entry shows the total number of fragmented files on the
disk volume.
Total Excess Fragments
This section of the Fragmentation pane or event log entry shows the total number of file fragments on the disk
volume. Contiguous files are not counted in this total, but each additional piece of any fragmented file is
counted.
Average Fragments per File
This section of the Fragmentation pane or event log entry shows the average number of fragments per file on
the disk volume. This is a good index of how fragmented the files on the volume are.
If the average fragment per file figure is 1.00, the files are contiguous. If the figure is 1.10, then 10% of the
files, on average, are in two pieces. 1.20 means 20%, 1.30 means 30%, etc. A figure of 2.00 means the files
average two fragments each. 1.00 is the best figure attainable, indicating that all files or nearly all files are
contiguous.
Paging File Fragmentation Section
Paging/Swap File Size
This section of the Fragmentation pane or event log entry shows the size of the paging file (or swap file on
Windows 95/98/Me systems) on the disk volume. This section displays zero when no paging file is present.
Total Fragments
This section of the Fragmentation pane or event log entry shows the number of fragments the paging file is
broken into (if it exists on the disk volume).
Directory Fragmentation Section
Total Directories
This section of the Fragmentation pane or event log entry shows the total number of directories present on the
disk volume.
Fragmented Directories
This section of the Fragmentation pane or event log entry shows the number of fragmented directories on the
disk volume.
Diskeeper Operation
27
Excess Directory Fragments
This section of the Fragmentation pane or event log entry shows the total number of directory fragments on the
disk volume. Contiguous directories are not counted in this total, but each additional piece of any fragmented
directory is counted.
Master File Table (MFT) Fragmentation Section
Total MFT Size
This section of the Fragmentation pane or event log entry shows the size of the Master File Table (MFT).
Since the MFT is only used on NTFS volumes, this section is not displayed for FAT volumes in the text
analysis display, and shows as zeros in the event log.
MFT Records in Use
This section of the Fragmentation pane or event log entry shows the number of individual file records found in
the Master File Table (MFT). This figure will not necessarily correspond with the number of files presently on
the volume, since the file records remain in the MFT, even after a file is deleted.
Since the MFT is only used on NTFS volumes, this section is not displayed on FAT volumes.
Percent of MFT In Use
This section of the Fragmentation pane or event log entry shows the percentage of the Master File Table (MFT)
in use.
The MFT grows as the number of files on the volume increases, but is not reduced in size when files are deleted
from the volume.
Since the MFT is only used on NTFS volumes, this section is not displayed on FAT volumes.
Total MFT Fragments
This section of the Fragmentation pane or event log entry shows the number of fragments the Master File Table
(MFT) is broken into.
Since the MFT is only used on NTFS volumes, this section is not displayed on FAT volumes.
Most Fragmented Files
Click the …most fragmented files link at the bottom of the Fragmentation pane to show a list of the most
fragmented files on the disk volume. For each fragmented file listed, this option shows:
Fragments
Shows the number of fragments associated with the most fragmented files on your disk volume.
File Size
Shows the size of the most fragmented files on your disk volume.
File Name
Shows the names of the most fragmented files on your volume.
If these files are ones that users access frequently, the impact to your system performance may be worse than
indicated by the Average Fragments per File figure.
In addition to the names of the most fragmented files, the Most Fragmented Files report also shows information
explaining reasons why certain files were not moved or defragmented. The following “tags” may be added to
specific filenames in the Most Fragmented Files listing:
28
Diskeeper Operation
Tag
Displayed
After
File
System
[Cannot Open]
Defragmentation
Only
NTFS
and FAT
This file cannot be opened (and
thus moved) by Diskeeper. This is
often the result of the access
controls (permissions) on the file
being set to prevent Diskeeper
from accessing it. File
permissions must allow SYSTEM
to have full control of a file in
order for Diskeeper to defragment
it.
[Excluded]
Defragmentation
Only
NTFS
and FAT
This file is listed on one of the
Diskeeper exclusion lists. This
can be either the user-specified
exclusion list or the internal
exclusion list.
[Excess
Allocation]
Analysis and
Defragmentation
NTFS
Only
With the NTFS file system, a file
can be allocated more clusters
than its data is actually using. On
Windows 2000, only the data
portion of the allocation can be
defragmented. As a result, even
though a file is reported as
fragmented, the data portion of
the file may in fact be contiguous.
This most commonly occurs with
registry files and (under Windows
2000) files that have been
decompressed. In some cases,
files of this type can be
defragmented after a system
restart
[Partially
Defragmented]
Defragmentation
Only
NTFS
and FAT
This file has been partially
defragmented. Its fragments have
been reduced in number, but the
file is not yet contiguous.
Description
Saving a Fragmentation Report
Click the Save report link at the bottom of the Fragmentation pane to save the fragmentation report to a text
file. When you click the link, a dialog box is displayed allowing you to specify the name of the report and the
location where you want to store it.
The saved report shows all the information available from the Fragmentation pane.
Printing a Fragmentation Report
Click the Print report link at the bottom of the Fragmentation pane to print the fragmentation report. When
you click the link, a dialog box is displayed allowing you to specify the printer on which you want to print the
report.
Diskeeper Operation
29
The printed report shows all the information available from the Fragmentation pane.
Drive Map Pane
Like the Performance Map pane, the horizontal bars in the Drive Map pane give a graphic representation of the
fragmentation of your disk volume. The Drive Map pane shows additional detail, including the paging file (if it
exists) and other system files like the MFT on NTFS volumes. It also shows all the fragmentation (even
fragmented file that are not affecting your system’s performance).
The example below shows an example of a typical Drive Map pane display. (This example shows a moderately
fragmented volume).
The Drive Map pane displays information for a single disk volume at a time. The disk highlighted in the disk
volume pane is the disk reflected in the Drive Map pane.
What the Colors Mean
The group of horizontal bars in the Drive Map pane gives a graphic representation of the fragmentation of your
disk volume. The colors of the display indicate the type and condition of the data on your volume.
ƒ
Red areas show fragmented files.
ƒ
Dark blue areas show contiguous (non-fragmented) files.
ƒ
White areas show free space on the volume.
ƒ
Light blue areas show the directory folders on the volume (and their fragments).
ƒ
Green areas show unmovable system files. On Windows NT, Windows 2000, Windows XP, and Windows
Server 2003 systems, green areas particularly show the Master File Table (MFT), but also several other
unmovable files. These files cannot be moved safely by Diskeeper (or any other defragmenter), except at
boot-time. Note that boot-time defragmentation is not available with Diskeeper Home Edition. Keep in
mind, however, although these area are referred to as “system files”, these are not the files that make up the
operating system (which Diskeeper can successfully defragment online). Instead, they make up the NTFS
file system. The green areas of the display appear only on NTFS volumes.
ƒ
Green-striped areas (on Windows NT, Windows 2000, Windows XP, and Windows Server 2003 systems
only) show space on the volume reserved for expansion of the MFT. This space is reserved when a volume
is formatted, and cannot be used by applications, including Diskeeper. However, the operating system will
write files to this area when the volume becomes extremely full and no other free space is available.
Windows provides the capability for Diskeeper to move files out of this reserved area, but does not allow
Diskeeper to move files into it. These areas appear only on NTFS volumes.
ƒ
Yellow areas show the paging file (for Windows NT, Windows 2000, Windows XP, and Windows Server
2003) or the swap file (for Windows 95/98/Me) if it exists on the volume.
30
Diskeeper Operation
Set It and Forget It Pane
The “Set It and Forget It” feature allows Diskeeper to run automatically in the background while users and
other processes are active on the system. The Set It and Forget It pane shows the details about any schedules
you have set, and it’s where you set custom defragmentation schedules for your disk volumes.
A defragmentation schedule specifies the times or days of the week that Diskeeper will (or will not) be allowed
to run. Most Diskeeper editions provide for two types of schedules—primary and secondary—allowing you to
assign up to two schedules per disk volume.
Note: Secondary schedules are not available with Diskeeper Home Edition.
You can specify separate defragmentation schedules for individual disk volumes, or you can create a single
schedule for more than one volume.
Click the Set It and Forget It option in the Command pane to pick from one of several commonly-used
schedules, or to create a custom schedule of times when “Set It and Forget It” defragmentation jobs will be
forced to run (or times they will not be allowed to run). When you click the Set It and Forget It option, the Set
It and Forget It pane is displayed.
Schedules only affect “Set It and Forget It” defragmentation jobs. Any active defragmentation job previously
started on a disk volume will complete. After it completes, the new schedule takes effect.
When you use the Set It and Forget It pane, always select one or more volumes in the disk volume pane before
clicking any of the other Set It and Forget It controls. You can select more than one volume by holding the
CTRL key while clicking on the volumes listed in the disk volume pane.
Here is an example of the Set It and Forget It pane when you first start Diskeeper:
And here’s an example after choosing the Set a custom schedule option from the Set It and Forget It menu:
Setting a custom schedule for one or more disks is easy. Here are the basic steps after clicking Set It and
Forget It in the Command pane and selecting Set a custom schedule:
Diskeeper Operation
1. Select the
disk(s) to
schedule
31
2. Choose
this option if
you want to
select all
your disk
volumes
3. Select the type
of schedule
4. Select which
days to run
5. Select the
starting time
6. Select the
ending time
7. Click the Set
Schedule button
The following controls are available in the Set It and Forget It pane:
Primary schedule / Secondary schedule
Since Diskeeper Home Edition does not provide for secondary schedules, this option is not enabled. You can
only set a primary schedule with Diskeeper Home Edition.
Select type of schedule
Use this section of the Set It and Forget It pane to specify how often Diskeeper should run on the selected disk
volumes. You can specify any of these run frequencies:
One Time
Continuously
Every 2 hours
Every 4 hours
Every 8 hours
Every 12 hours
Every 24 hours
Every 48 hours
Every 72 hours
Smart Scheduling (see the description of Smart
Scheduling later in this chapter)
Screen Saver (see the description of Screen Saver
mode later in this chapter)
32
Diskeeper Operation
Select which days to run
Use this section of the Set It and Forget It pane to specify days the Diskeeper job will (or will not) be allowed
to run on the selected volumes. You can specify any of these time periods to control when Diskeeper is allowed
to run:
Everyday
Except Everyday
Weekends
Except Weekends
Weekdays
Except Weekdays
Mondays
Except Mondays
Tuesdays
Except Tuesdays
Wednesdays
Except Wednesdays
Thursdays
Except Thursdays
Fridays
Except Fridays
Saturdays
Except Saturdays
Sundays
Except Sundays
Select a starting time
Use this section of the Set It and Forget It pane to specify the beginning of a time period the Diskeeper job will
(or will not) be allowed to run on the selected volumes. You can specify any of these time periods to specify the
beginning of a Diskeeper schedule period:
All Day
12:00 midnight through 11:00 P.M., in one hour increments
Select an ending time
Use this section of the Set It and Forget It pane to specify the end of a time period the Diskeeper job will (or
will not) be allowed to run on the selected volumes. You can specify any of these time periods to specify the
end of a time period Diskeeper will (or will not) be allowed to run:
12:00 midnight through 11:00 P.M., in one hour increments
Set Schedule
Click Set Schedule to accept the specified run schedule for the selected volumes. You must click Set Schedule
for each schedule you specify.
Any defragmentation job previously started on a volume will complete the current run through the volume
before the new schedule takes effect.
Clear Schedule
Click Clear Schedule to clear the currently active Set It and Forget It defragmentation schedule on the selected
volumes. If Diskeeper is in the process of defragmenting a volume at the time the Clear Schedule button is
clicked, it will run to completion.
Smart Scheduling
By default, Diskeeper Home Edition enables Smart Scheduling automatically on all your disk volumes. With
Smart Scheduling, you no longer have to decide how often to defragment your disks—Diskeeper will
automatically determine the optimum defragmentation schedule for each of your disk volumes and adjust it
accordingly.
Diskeeper Operation
33
The method used to determine how often Diskeeper should run is elegant in its simplicity. When Smart
Scheduling is enabled, Diskeeper keeps track of the number of files moved every time it runs on each disk
volume. When the number of fragmented files moved during a defragmentation run increases, Diskeeper is
automatically scheduled to run more often. When the number of files moved decreases, the time between
defragmentation runs is increased.
The Smart Scheduling option is available within the Select type of schedule drop-down list in the Set It and
Forget It pane.
You can also set exclusion times when the Smart Scheduling option will be prevented from scheduling a
defragmentation run. When Smart Scheduling is selected, the Select which days to run drop-down option list
will be limited to these times:
Except Everyday
Except Weekends
Except Weekdays
Except Monday
Except Tuesday
Except Wednesday
Except Thursday
Except Friday
Except Saturday
Except Sunday
You can use the “starting” and “ending” time drop down lists to further define times when the scheduling of
automatic defragmentation runs will not be allowed. For example, a schedule set like this:
Type of Schedule
Which Days
Smart Scheduling
Except Weekdays
Starting Time
Ending Time
1:00 am
3:00 am
will allow Diskeeper to automatically determine how often to run, but will also prevent it from running between
1:00 am and 3:00 am on weekdays (i.e., when your nightly backup is running).
Here’s another example, showing a Smart Schedule that will run everyday, but only between the hours of 7:00
pm and 7:00 am:
Type of Schedule
Which Days
Smart Scheduling
everyday
Starting Time
Ending Time
7:00 pm
7:00 am
Tip: The Set It and Forget It option on the Command pane includes several commonly-used
defragmentation schedules, pre-configured and ready to use. See page 35 for more information about the Set It
and Forget It option in the Command pane.
34
Diskeeper Operation
Screen Saver Mode
When enabled, Screen Saver mode automatically starts defragmenting the selected disk volume(s) any time the
screen saver starts on your computer. The defragmentation operation is paused whenever keyboard or mouse
activity is detected on the computer. This option is available under the Select type of schedule drop-down list
in the Set It and Forget It pane. Note that you must have a screen saver enabled for this option to function.
If you only have a single disk volume selected for Screen Saver mode, the defragmentation operation is restarted at the logical "beginning" of the volume each time the screen saver re-starts after being interrupted (by
keyboard activity, for example).
When more than one disk volume is selected for Screen Saver mode, the volumes are handled in a round-robin
manner. If a defragmentation pass is stopped, the operation resumes on the next volume when the screen saver
starts again. For example, if you select volumes C and D for Screen Saver mode, when your screen saver starts,
Diskeeper begins a defragmentation pass on volume C. If that pass is interrupted, and then the screen saver
starts again, Diskeeper will begin a pass on volume D.
If the screen saver has not been interrupted after Diskeeper completes the defragmentation pass on each of the
selected disk volumes, Diskeeper is automatically scheduled to re-start the defragmentation operation in one
hour.
Because of the "start and stop" nature of the Screen Saver mode, it is not recommended on disk volumes that
are heavily fragmented, unless you expect the computer's screen saver to be on for several hours. In cases
where your screen saver activity is only for short periods of time, a thorough manual defragmentation or
scheduled Set It and Forget It defragmentation should be performed before running Diskeeper in Screen Saver
mode.
Note: Screen Saver mode is not recommended for servers. Many servers spend a good deal of time with the
screen saver active, which could cause Diskeeper to run more often than necessary. This can cause unnecessary
system resource use on the server at times when it is under heavy demand.
Command Pane
The Command pane is where you’ll find easy access to the commonly-used Diskeeper features, as well as
several shortcuts for performing common tasks.
Command
Pane
Diskeeper Operation
35
The Command pane is made up of these parts:
ƒ
Set It and Forget It Menu—Gives you several pre-configured defragmentation schedules with just a few
mouse clicks, or gives you the option to create your own custom schedules
ƒ
Analyze Selected Volume—Start the analysis of the drive selected in the disk volume pane
ƒ
Defragment Selected Volume—Start the manual defragmentation of the drive selected in the disk volume
pane
ƒ
Change Your Settings Menu—Change Diskeeper settings
ƒ
Help Menu—Get help about using Diskeeper
Set It and Forget It Menu
Click the Set It and Forget It menu in the Command pane to expand it and reveal the different options
available. Here’s an example:
Click here . . .
. . . to access
these options.
Set Smart Schedule
Use this option to quickly set a Smart Schedule for any selected disk(s) in the disk volume pane. A Smart
Schedule lets Diskeeper automatically determine when it should run on each disk. By default, Diskeeper Home
Edition enables Smart Scheduling automatically on all your disk volumes. See page 35 for more information
about Smart Scheduling.
Set Smart Schedule after hours
Similar to the Smart Scheduling option above, this option also quickly sets a Smart Schedule for any selected
disk(s). However, this specialized schedule will only run after normal office hours. When set, this schedule will
only allow defragmentation to run between 10:00 pm and 4:00 am. Keep in mind though, since this is a Smart
Schedule, Diskeeper will only run as often as necessary to keep fragmentation minimized on the chosen disks.
Set to run every night
Use this option to quickly set a schedule that runs every 2 hours, but only between the hours of 10:00 pm and
4:00 am, for any selected disk(s) in the disk volume pane.
Set to run on weekends only
Use this option to quickly set a Smart Schedule, which runs only on Saturday and Sunday, for any selected
disk(s) in the disk volume pane.
36
Diskeeper Operation
Set Screen Saver mode
Use this option to quickly set defragmentation to run only when the screen saver is active on your computer.
Like the other options in the Set It and Forget It menu, when clicked, this option is set for any selected disk(s)
in the disk volume pane. See page 34 for more information about Screen Saver mode.
Set a custom schedule
Use this option to set a custom schedule for any selected disk(s) in the disk volume pane. You can set the days
and times when Diskeeper will (or will not) be allowed to run. See page 30 for more information about creating
a custom schedule.
Clear a Schedule
Use this option to clear a previously-set schedule for any selected disk(s) in the disk volume pane. This option
removes any schedule set for the selected volume(s), but any ongoing defragmentation jobs will continue until
completion.
If you need to stop (but not clear) a scheduled defragmentation job when it is running, simply highlight the
volume in the disk volume pane and click the Stop button in the toolbar.
Analyze Selected Volume
This option on the Command pane is self-explanatory—select a disk in the disk volume pane, then click
Analyze selected volume, then Start in the Command pane to see the extent of fragmentation on the disk.
After the analysis is complete, click the different tab controls in the Information pane to see the condition of the
disk.
Select a disk volume . . .
. . . click here to
open the menu . . .
. . . and click Start.
Tip: You can also use the Analyze button
to start the analysis of the selected disk.
When you are analyzing a disk, the Command pane displays options to Pause, Resume or Stop the analysis.
You can also perform these functions with the equivalent toolbar buttons.
Diskeeper Operation
37
Defragment Selected Volume
This option on the Command pane is also self-explanatory—select a disk in the disk volume pane, then click
Defragment selected volume in the Command pane to run a manual defragmentation job on the disk. After the
defragmentation is complete, click the different tab controls in the Information pane to review the condition of
the disk.
Select a disk volume . . .
. . . click here to
open the menu . . .
. . . and click Start.
Tip: You can also use the Defragment button
to start defragmenting the selected volume.
When you are defragmenting a disk, the Command pane displays options to Pause, Resume or Stop the
defragmentation. You can also perform these functions with the equivalent toolbar buttons.
Change Your Settings Menu
Click the Change your settings menu in the Command pane to expand it and reveal the different options
available.
Here’s an example:
Click here . . .
. . . to access
these options.
Exclude selected files and folders
Diskeeper allows you to specify files and directory folders that you do not want moved. Click this option in the
Change your settings menu to create or modify an exclusion list.
This option is also available from the Action menu. For more information about exclusion lists, see Setting an
Exclusion List on page 41.
38
Diskeeper Operation
Set defragmentation priority
Click this option in the Change your settings menu to set I/O Smart settings for both “Set It and Forget It” and
“Manual Defragmentation” jobs.
This option is also available from the Action menu. See I/O Smart on page 43 for more information about
setting the Diskeeper priority in Diskeeper Home Edition.
Set event logging options
Diskeeper allows you to record information about its activity in a log file. Click this option in the Change your
settings menu to alternately enable or disable the logging of various events to the Diskeeper Event Log. The
logging method varies, depending on the version of Windows you are using.
This option is also available from the Action menu. For more information, see Logging Diskeeper Activity on
page 44.
Set power management options
This option is intended for users of laptop or portable computers. When enabled, this option prevents Diskeeper
from running when the computer switches to battery power. Click this option in the Change your settings
menu to enable or disable this option.
This option is also available in the Action menu. For more information, see Using Power Management on page
44.
Set performance data options
Use this option to enable or disable the scanning your disk drives to gather disk performance data. When
enabled, the scan runs one time on each disk volume detected, and runs any time a new disk volume detected
on your computer. This option is disabled by default.
Diskeeper uses the data gathered during the performance data scan to measure the performance of each of your
disk drives. It uses this information to determine how much performance you are losing due to fragmentation,
and shows the results in the Performance pane when you run an analysis or defragmentation.
Allowing this scan to take place improves the accuracy of the performance data displayed by Diskeeper after
the analysis or defragmentation of a disk. When this option is disabled, Diskeeper uses default disk
performance values when calculating your performance loss due to fragmentation.
This performance scan may take as much as 1 to 10 minutes per volume to perform an accurate scan and may
temporarily slow down your computer, but only while the scan is running.
Help Menu
Click the Help menu in the Command pane to expand it and see the different options available. Here’s an
example:
Diskeeper Operation
39
Click here . . .
. . . to access
these options.
Help Topics
Click this option to open the main Diskeeper Help system. The Diskeeper Help provides quick access to useful
information about Diskeeper.
About Diskeeper
Click this option to see information about the specific version and build number of the Diskeeper version
installed on your computer.
View Readme
Click this option to read the Diskeeper Readme.txt file. This file contains the most current information about
the version of Diskeeper installed on your computer, and gives information that may not be included in the
other published documentation. The Diskeeper Readme file contains late-breaking information that could not
be included in other published documentation like this manual or the Diskeeper Help system.
Diskeeper FAQs
Click this option to see to a list of Frequently-Asked Questions (FAQs) about Diskeeper, and the answers to
them.
Check for product update
Click this option to check for a more recent version of Diskeeper. If a newer version of Diskeeper is available,
you are given the option of downloading it. When the download screen is displayed, click Run this program
from its current location to begin installing the update.
Otherwise, click Save this program to disk to save the Diskeeper update installation package on your
computer for later installation. (To install an update stored on your computer in this manner, simply doubleclick the file you download and follow the instructions displayed.)
Disk Volume Pane
The disk volume pane section of the Diskeeper display shows all the supported disks detected on your
computer.
40
Diskeeper Operation
The disk volume pane is a quick way to see:
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
Volume letter and name
Session status (shows what Diskeeper is doing or has done on the volume)
File system on the volume
Capacity of the volume
Free space available on the volume
Percentage of volume size that is free space
When you are viewing the Set It and Forget It pane, the columns in the disk volume pane change to shows
different information:
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
Volume letter and name
Next scheduled defragmentation
Schedule type
Days
Starting time
Ending time
The icons in either view of the disk volume pane show which volumes have been scheduled with either primary
or secondary schedules.
Note: Secondary schedules are not available with Diskeeper Home Edition. Only Primary schedules are shown.
This volume has a primary schedule
This volume has a secondary schedule
This volume has both a primary and
secondary schedule
Toolbar Buttons
By default, Diskeeper displays a toolbar of commonly-used controls above the disk volume pane. (The toolbar
and other display components can be hidden by using the Customize option in the View menu.)
Note: Many of the functions described in this section can also be activated from the menu that appears when
you right-click on a selected disk volume in the disk volume pane.
Analyze Button
Click Analyze
in the Diskeeper toolbar, the Analyze selected volume option in the Command pane or
on the Action menu to begin the analysis of the selected disk volume.
Diskeeper Operation
41
Defragment Button
Click Defragment
in the Diskeeper toolbar, the Defragment selected volume option in the Command
pane or the Action menu to start the manual defragmentation of the selected volume.
Pause Button
Click Pause
in the Diskeeper toolbar or the Pause option in the Action menu to temporarily pause a
fragmentation analysis or the manual defragmentation of the selected volume.
Resume Button
Click Resume
in the Diskeeper toolbar or the Resume option in the Action menu to continue a paused
Diskeeper analysis or defragmentation operation.
Stop Button
Click Stop
in the Diskeeper toolbar or the Stop option in the Action menu to stop a fragmentation
analysis or the manual defragmentation of the selected volume. Any file movement in progress will be safely
ended as Diskeeper stops.
Help Button
Click Help
system.
in the Diskeeper toolbar or the Help option in the Action menu to access the Diskeeper Help
Setting an Exclusion List
Diskeeper exclusion lists allow you to specify files and directories that will not be allowed to be processed by
Diskeeper in the Set It and Forget It or manual defragmentation modes. For example, you might not want to
defragment temporary files that will soon be deleted.
Keep in mind that fragmented files that are excluded from defragmentation can “skew” the analysis results
displayed in the Performance and Reliability panes.
Choose the Exclude selected files and folders option from the Change your settings menu in the Command
pane to open the Exclude dialog box shown below: (This option is also available from the Action menu.)
42
Diskeeper Operation
Note: Wildcard file specifications such as * or ? are allowed.
The following controls are available in the Exclude dialog box:
Files
Use this section of the Exclude dialog box to choose specific files (by name) to be excluded from
defragmentation. Highlight the file(s) to be excluded, and then click Add Files to add the file to the exclusion
list.
Path
Use this section of the Exclude dialog box to choose specific directories to be excluded from defragmentation.
Select a directory by highlighting it, and then click Add Folder to add the directory to the exclusion list.
When a directory folder is added to the exclusion list, any subdirectories below the directory in the tree are also
excluded.
Volumes
Use this section of the Exclude dialog box to choose the disk volume from which you want to exclude files or
directories from defragmentation.
Add Files Button
Click Add Files to add the selected file(s) to the Diskeeper exclusion list.
Diskeeper Operation
43
Add Folder Button
Click Add Folder to add the selected directory path to the Diskeeper exclusion list.
Exclusion List Box
This box shows the files, directories, and volumes that will be excluded from defragmentation.
Remove Button
Click Remove to remove specific files, directories, or volumes from the Diskeeper exclusion list. To remove
one or more items from the list, highlight the items in the Exclusion List Box and click Remove.
Save Button
Click Save to save the exclusion list and return to Diskeeper.
Cancel Button
Click Cancel to cancel any changes you have made to the Diskeeper exclusion list and return to the main
Diskeeper display.
Help Button
Click Help for context-sensitive help about the Diskeeper file exclusion list option.
Diskeeper Internal Exclusion List
There are certain files that should not be moved under any circumstances. These files may be system files or
files related to specific applications. Moving these specific files can cause system or application failure. As a
result, Diskeeper uses an “internal” exclusion list to ensure these files are always excluded from Diskeeper
processing. This list is fixed in memory and cannot be modified. These are the files that are currently in the
Diskeeper internal exclusion list:
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
bootsect.dos
hiberfil.sys
memory.dmp
safeboot.fs
safeboot.csv
ƒ
safeboot.rsv
Note that these files are not displayed in the Diskeeper user-defined exclusion list. See page 55 for more
information about the Diskeeper internal exclusion list.
I/O Smart – Disk Priority
Select the Set defragmentation priority option from the Change your settings menu in the Command pane to
select the I/O Smart settings for Diskeeper defragmentation jobs. (This option is also available from the Action
menu.) You can enable the I/O Smart option independently for both “Set It and Forget It” and “Manual
Defragmentation” defragmentation jobs.
The I/O Smart option “throttles” (suspends) the defragmentation process whenever disk I/O activity is detected
on a disk while it is being defragmented. This ensures the defragmentation process will be transparent to you,
no matter how active the disk.
44
Diskeeper Operation
To change the I/O Smart setting for either Set It and Forget It or manual defragmentation, select the appropriate
option and then click OK.
Using Power Management
The Power Management option is intended for users of laptop or portable computers. Use the Set power
management options option in the Change your settings menu to enable or disable this feature. (This option
is also available from the Action menu.)
When this option is enabled and the computer is running on battery power, any scheduled defragmentation jobs
are postponed, and a message noting this is written to the Windows Application Event Log. If you manually
start a defragmentation job when this option is enabled (and the computer is running on battery power), a
message is displayed asking if you want to continue, even though running Diskeeper on battery power may
reduce the available battery time.
When this option is enabled and the computer switches from normal power to battery power, any ongoing
scheduled analysis or defragmentation jobs are safely stopped and a message noting this is written to the
Windows Application Event Log. If you are running Diskeeper manually and the computer switches to battery
power when this option is enabled, a message is displayed informing you that Diskeeper has stopped running.
Logging Diskeeper Activity
Use the Set event logging options option from the Change your settings menu in the Command pane to open
the Event Logging dialog box. (This option is also available from the Action menu.) Use this option to enable
and disable the logging of various Diskeeper events to the Windows Application Event Log.
Windows 2000/XP Event Log
When Diskeeper is running on Windows 2000 or Windows XP, a log of Diskeeper activity is stored in the
Application Event Log file.
Diskeeper Operation
45
When Diskeeper logs an event, the event and its message are appended to the Windows Application Event Log
file, along with the date, time, user, and other identifying information.
These events can then be viewed with the Windows Event Viewer by choosing the Application option in the
Log menu of the Event Viewer. This can be done on either local computers or remote computers on your
network. The Event Viewer is found in the Computer Management Console on Windows 2000 and Windows
XP.
By default, the Application Event Log is 512 kilobytes in size and is set to overwrite events older than 7 days.
Diskeeper may quickly fill the log file if these default settings are used. To make this log a more useful size,
perform the steps described in “The Windows Application Event Log,” page 4.
Windows 95/98/Me Event Log
When Diskeeper is running on Windows 95/98/Me systems, it provides the option of logging Diskeeper events
into a text file. When Diskeeper logs an event, the event and its message are appended to the Diskeeper log file.
These events are written as a text file, which can then be viewed with Notepad, or your choice of text editor
programs.
The Diskeeper log file is named DkEventLog.txt and it is stored by default in the directory folder where
Diskeeper is installed. The file is limited to 1 MB in size. When it reaches this size, the log is purged
completely and the event log is started from scratch.
Specifying What Gets Logged
Use the Set event logging options option from the Change your settings menu in the Command pane to open
the Event Logging dialog box. (This option is also available from the Action menu.)
The Event Logging dialog box displays a list of events for which logging can be enabled or disabled. Click the
check boxes for the following options to alternately enable or disable each option.
Service start and stop
When this option is enabled, an entry is made to the Event Log each time the Diskeeper service starts or stops.
This option is enabled by default.
46
Diskeeper Operation
Defragmentation start and stop
When this option is enabled, an entry is made to the Event Log whenever a defragmentation run starts or stops.
The Event Log entry for this option also includes information about files that cannot be moved, either because
the files are on a Diskeeper exclusion list, or the files cannot be opened. Common causes preventing a file from
being opened include access controls or permissions on the file being set to prevent Diskeeper from accessing
it. File permissions must allow SYSTEM to have full control of a file in order for Diskeeper to defragment it.
See page 57 for more information about setting access permissions.
This option is enabled by default.
Defragmented files
When this option is enabled, an entry is made to the Event Log listing each file that is defragmented by
Diskeeper. Note that enabling this option can cause the Event Log to fill rather quickly, especially if Diskeeper
defragments a high number of fragmented files. (This will be particularly likely when Diskeeper is first run on a
volume, since Diskeeper will probably be defragmenting a large number of files.)
This option is not enabled by default.
Moved files
When this option is enabled, an entry is made to the Event Log each time a file is moved for reasons other than
to defragment the file. This would include cases where files are moved in order to create more contiguous free
space. This option also notes when files could not be moved, such as files that are on a Diskeeper exclusion list
or files that cannot be opened. Common causes preventing a file from being opened include access controls or
permissions on the file being set to prevent Diskeeper from accessing it. As mentioned previously, file
permissions must allow SYSTEM to have full control of a file in order for Diskeeper to defragment it. See page
57 for more information about setting access permissions.
Here again, enabling this option can cause the Event Log to fill quickly. This option is not enabled by default.
Disk information
On Windows 2000 and Windows XP: When this option is enabled, an entry is made to the Application Event
Log at the end of each defragmentation run showing general information about the disk volume that was
defragmented. This appears in the Windows Event Viewer as Diskeeper Event 15. This option is not enabled by
default.
On Windows 95/98/Me: When this option is enabled, an entry is made in the Diskeeper EventLog.txt file
containing information as described above. This option is not enabled by default.
For a description of information contained in the Description box, see page 23.
File information
On Windows 2000 and Windows XP: When this option is enabled, an entry is made to the Event Log at the
end of each defragmentation run showing information about the files on the disk volume that was
defragmented. This appears in the Windows Event Viewer as Diskeeper Event 16. This option is not enabled by
default.
On Windows 95/98/Me: When this option is enabled, an entry is made in the Diskeeper EventLog.txt file
containing information described above. This option is not enabled by default.
For a description of information contained in the Description box, see page 23.
Paging File information
On Windows 2000 and Windows XP: When this option is enabled, an entry is made to the Event Log at the
end of each defragmentation run showing information about the paging file on the volume that was
defragmented (if it exists on the volume). This appears in the Windows Event Viewer as Diskeeper Event 17.
This option is not enabled by default.
Diskeeper Operation
47
On Windows 95/98/Me: When this option is enabled, an entry is made in the Diskeeper EventLog.txt file
containing information as described above. This option is not enabled by default.
For a description of information contained in the Description box, see page 23.
Directory information
On Windows 2000 and Windows XP: When this option is enabled, an entry is made to the Event Log at the
end of each defragmentation run showing information about the directories on the volume that was
defragmented. This appears in the Windows Event Viewer as Diskeeper Event 18. This option is not enabled by
default.
On Windows 95/98/Me: When this option is enabled, an entry is made in the Diskeeper EventLog.txt file
containing information as described above. This option is not enabled by default.
For a description of information contained in the Description box, see page 23.
MFT information
On Windows 2000 and Windows XP: When this option is enabled, an entry is made to the Event Log at the
end of each defragmentation run showing information about the Master File Table (MFT) on the volume that
was defragmented. (Keep in mind, since only NTFS volumes have an MFT, this information will only apply to
NTFS volumes.) The entry appears in the Windows Event Viewer as Diskeeper Event 19. This option is not
enabled by default.
This option does not exist on Windows 95/98/Me machines, as MFT files are unique to Windows NT through
Windows Server 2003.
For a description of information contained in the Description box, see page 23.
Theory of Operation
49
Chapter 5
Theory of Operation
This chapter describes the Diskeeper design goals and how those goals were met.
Introduction
As described in the introduction of this manual, the term disk fragmentation means two things:
ƒ
a condition in which pieces of individual files on a disk are not contiguous, but rather are broken up and
scattered around the disk volume; and
ƒ
a condition in which the free space on a disk volume consists of little pieces of space here and there rather
than a few large free spaces.
The effects of excessive fragmentation are twofold as well:
ƒ
file access takes longer because a file must be collected in pieces here and there, requiring several disk
accesses instead of just one; and
ƒ
file creation takes longer because space for the file must be allocated in little pieces here and there instead
of just one contiguous allocation.
Before the introduction of Diskeeper, there was no method for completely correcting the problems of file and
free space fragmentation on Windows NT computers or in a mixed Windows network.
Design Goals
In designing Diskeeper for Windows, the following goals were established:
ƒ
The product must be completely safe to use.
ƒ
It must improve Windows system performance. It is not designed to make the disk look “pretty”—it is
designed to improve disk performance and, as a result, overall system performance.
ƒ
It should process live disks without interfering with user access to files.
ƒ
It should run without operator intervention.
ƒ
It must defragment all possible files and consolidate free space into the smallest possible number of large
spaces.
Diskeeper defragments files and free space on a disk, allowing access to the files on the disk at any time while
Diskeeper is running.
Safety
Diskeeper is designed with safety as the highest priority.
To ensure the safe movement of files on Windows NT, Windows 2000, Windows XP, and Windows Server
2003 systems, Diskeeper uses mechanisms built into the operating system that were developed and
implemented by Executive Software, and fully incorporated into Windows NT, Windows 2000, Windows XP,
and Windows Server 2003 by Microsoft. On Windows 95, Windows 98, and Windows Me systems, Diskeeper
uses similar mechanisms used by Microsoft and others.
By using these built-in mechanisms, Diskeeper maintains cache coherency, file security and permissions
information, and file content integrity no matter how fragmented the files on the disk are.
50
Theory of Operation
The foremost design goal for Diskeeper is to make sure that no data is ever lost. To accomplish this goal
Diskeeper uses the following criteria for accessing files:
ƒ
the contents of data files are never modified under any circumstances
ƒ
only one file is processed at a time, not the whole disk
ƒ
each processing pass is independent of the other passes
ƒ
no information is stored on any other device or in a “scratch space”
ƒ
Diskeeper accesses a file in such a way that no user access can conflict with Diskeeper during the critical
portion of the relocation process
ƒ
file relocation is aborted if any error is encountered, leaving the file in its original state
Diskeeper was designed to err on the side of caution. In other words, it only moves a file on the volume when it
is absolutely certain that no data will be lost, including file attributes. The only change to file attribute-type
information is the physical location of the file on the volume. None of the file dates are changed and no other
fields in the file record header are used to store Diskeeper information.
Diskeeper never defragments or moves files that are specifically stored at a specific physical location on the
volume.
If anything causes your computer to crash while Diskeeper is running, or if you abort the Diskeeper
defragmentation run in the middle of the file relocation process, no data is ever at risk.
Windows 95/98/Me Note: Stopping or pausing a Diskeeper job through its menus or toolbars is completely
safe. Note, however, that in the event of a system crash or other non-standard termination of the Diskeeper
process while it is running, it is possible for free space and file information to be stored incorrectly. Executive
Software strongly recommends running the Windows Scandisk error checking utility immediately when
Diskeeper is stopped abnormally. Scandisk will correct any potential file errors.
Performance
When running in the “Set It and Forget It” mode, Diskeeper is designed to run in the background, without
adversely affecting performance of your Windows computer. Steps have been taken to assure that, by default,
Diskeeper overhead has the lowest possible impact on system performance. Diskeeper can be run at the lowest
possible Windows priority, using only otherwise unused CPU cycles. Diskeeper was designed in such a way to
ensure it will not interfere with other processes on your Windows computer.
Process Live Disks
It is not acceptable to force users off the disk while performing routine defragmentation. To do so would be a
case of the cure being worse than the disease. Access to fragmented files is better than no access at all.
The best solution is to defragment online with users active on the same disk volume. Diskeeper was designed
with this in mind. During most of the time Diskeeper is processing a file, it shares the file with any other users
that may access the same file. The last step of processing the file, however, involves locking the file for a very
brief period, a matter of milliseconds. If another user requests a file that Diskeeper has locked, that request is
suspended for the brief period until Diskeeper releases the file. Then the request is serviced. There is never an
interruption of either process as a result of this delay.
This solution allows Diskeeper to defragment open files safely, regardless of whether they are open for read
operations or for write operations.
Note: Due to the Windows NT 4.0 design, directories, MFT and paging files cannot be moved safely on live
disks. (NTFS directories can be moved on Windows 2000, Windows XP and Windows Server 2003.)
Therefore, Diskeeper performs these operations at the only safe time, while the computer is starting up.
Theory of Operation
51
No Operator Intervention
In keeping with the design goals, after Diskeeper has been started in the “Set It and Forget It” mode, it runs
automatically in the background, without the need for operator intervention. It runs indefinitely, unless told
otherwise by you.
Diskeeper Editions
53
Appendix A
Table of Diskeeper Editions
The table below shows the different editions of Diskeeper available, as well as the features and capabilities of
each:
54
Diskeeper Editions
This table shows the different Diskeeper editions available and the Windows operating systems they support:
Answers to Frequently Asked Questions
55
Appendix B
Answers to Frequently Asked Questions
Does Diskeeper work with Windows XP Service Pack 2?
Yes. However, if you are installing or running Diskeeper on a computer running Windows XP Service Pack 2,
be sure to visit http://www.executive.com/sp2 for the latest information about running Diskeeper with Service
Pack 2.
Why won’t my volume defragment completely?
This can be the result of several situations. If your volume is extremely full, there may not be sufficient free
space to defragment the files completely. In that case, we recommend temporarily moving some of the files off
the volume, particularly large files. This temporary measure often allows Diskeeper the “working room” it
needs to complete the defragmentation process. It also allows Diskeeper to defragment the free space on the
volume, increasing the possibility that the temporarily-moved files can be moved back to the volume in a
contiguous or less fragmented condition.
Another cause of incomplete defragmentation is a fragmented paging file. For more information, see Can
Diskeeper defragment paging files? on page 56.
A volume that, at some time, has been filled to capacity may have a severely fragmented Master File Table
(MFT). Volumes that have been converted from FAT to NTFS often also have a fragmented MFT. A White
Paper describing the causes and effects of MFT fragmentation is available from the Executive Software Web
site at http://www.execsoft.com/whats-new/whitepaper.asp. Another situation that can prevent complete
defragmentation of a volume is the existence of a large number of directories on the volume. For more
information, see Can Diskeeper move directories? on page 56.
Yet another cause for incomplete defragmentation on Windows NT, Windows 2000, Windows XP, and
Windows Server 2003 systems can be a security access situation. Both SYSTEM and ADMINISTRATOR must
have full control over a file (or the directory folder it is in) in order for Diskeeper to have access to move the
file. This is because the Diskeeper service runs under the Administrator account, and System access is
necessary to defragment files safely. This security feature is governed by the Windows NT, Windows 2000,
Windows XP, and Windows Server 2003 C2 security requirements. Included with Diskeeper is a batch file that
sets the access permissions on a disk volume to allow Diskeeper to run properly. See page 57 for information
about using this batch procedure.
Diskeeper won't move some files no matter what I do. Is there a problem with
Diskeeper?
Diskeeper has a built-in list of files that it will not move under any circumstances. This list is referred to as the
Diskeeper internal exclusion list.
The most common reason for a file existing on the Diskeeper internal exclusion list is safety. The file cannot or
should not be moved in order to maintain the integrity of your system.
For example, the file memory.dmp is on the Diskeeper internal exclusion list. This file is on the exclusion list
because the disk locations where this file is stored are loaded by the kernel when the system boots and stored in
memory. These disk locations are then used to write the dump file should it need writing. If Diskeeper were to
move this file, then the system failed, the dump file would be written over other files or in space considered to
be free space. This could result in a very corrupted disk.
The same situation applies to hiberfil.sys. When your system goes into hibernation mode, the pre-fetched disk
locations are overwritten with the hibernation data. If Diskeeper moved hiberfil.sys out and moved other files
into those disk locations, then disk corruption would occur.
56
Answers to Frequently Asked Questions
Why doesn't Diskeeper move all of the files into one place on the volume?
Our primary philosophy with Diskeeper is improving and maintaining the performance of your computer. The
disk drives are the primary bottleneck in your computer's performance. Diskeeper restores the disks to top
speed by eliminating fragmentation.
It is a common misconception that a defragmented disk should look very neat and tidy in the Drive Map pane,
with solid blue bars all the way across the screen (representing fragmentation-free files) and the rest white
space (representing consolidated space).
Clearly, the speed of the disk (meaning how fast you can access the data on it) is more important than the
prettiness of the display or the consolidation of all the free space into one place. Free space consolidation might
be important if the next file that you plan to create needs to be one gigantic contiguous file, but it has no effect
on performance. Because of this, Diskeeper uses algorithms that achieve the highest speed from your drive
regardless of the arrangement of the free spaces on the drive and on the screen—and it does so without wasting
time on excessive consolidation of free space. We simply go for the fastest possible file access times and then
stop.
Even so, you might ask why we don't continue and rearrange the files further to get a neat display? Because it
takes computer power to do so. We long ago decided that it would be wrong for Diskeeper to consume more of
your computer's performance than it gives back. So Diskeeper defragments until the disk is in top shape
performance-wise and then stops. Any further work is a waste of your computer resources.
Now this might not be important to you if you like to sit and watch the display as Diskeeper defragments your
drive, but it is a very big deal to large corporate data centers and people who depend on their computers for
their work. They need all the performance they can get and can't hold up production while the defragmenter
works to enhance the “look” of the disk but not improve its performance. This is why Diskeeper is designed to
run in the background at the lowest possible priority, giving way to any other program that needs to run. And it
is also why Diskeeper stops defragmenting when maximum performance has been achieved.
Can Diskeeper move directories?
On Windows 95/98/Me computers, and NTFS volumes on Windows 2000 and Windows XP systems,
Diskeeper Home Edition can safely move and defragment directories.
Can Diskeeper defragment paging files?
Diskeeper Home Edition does not defragment active paging files, since paging files must be open for exclusive
use by Windows at all times.
Can Diskeeper defragment the Master File Table?
The Master File Table (MFT) is the area on an NTFS disk volume where Windows 2000 and Windows XP
keep the necessary information for retrieving files from the disk volume. The MFT also contains information
such as file creation, modification, and backup dates and times. Diskeeper Home Edition can safely defragment
this critical system file while Windows is running.
Why doesn’t Diskeeper completely consolidate the free space on my volume?
Several factors can prevent the free space on a volume from being defragmented.
On NTFS volumes, a portion of the free space on the volume is reserved by Windows for the Master File Table
(MFT). For more information, see Can Diskeeper defragment the MFT? above.
Having all of the free space in a single, contiguous piece provides very little (if any) performance benefit. Free
space fragmented into hundreds of pieces will affect your disk performance, but free space that’s in a few
pieces should not have any effect on the performance of your volume.
Why don’t my files get moved to the beginning of the volume?
On NTFS volumes, Windows 2000 and Windows XP reserve a portion of the free space on a disk volume for
the Master File Table (MFT). This free space is usually most noticeable at the physical “beginning” of the
volume (easily seen using Drive Map pane), but space is also reserved for use by the MFT in other areas of the
volume.
Answers to Frequently Asked Questions
57
Since this space is reserved for exclusive use, Diskeeper will not move files into these areas of the volume, but
will move them out of these areas.
Why don't all of my NTFS volumes appear in the Diskeeper Volume List?
Both SYSTEM and ADMINISTRATOR must have full control over a file (or the directory folder it is in) in
order for Diskeeper to have access to move the file. This is because the Diskeeper service runs under the
Administrator account, and System access is necessary to defragment files safely. This is a security feature
governed by the Windows 2000 and Windows XP C2 security requirements.
If the root-level directory folder does not have SYSTEM and ADMINISTRATOR set for full control (as seen
in the Permissions section under the Security tab in the Properties dialog box) Diskeeper will not display the
disk volume in the Volume list under some circumstances.
How do I determine how often to run Diskeeper on my volume?
This depends on many factors, including the level of file activity, the sizes and types of files used, and the
amount of free space available on the volume. While there are no set rules on how often to defragment your
disk volumes, here are some guidelines.
ƒ
Of course, the first suggestion is to let the Diskeeper Smart Scheduling feature automatically and
dynamically determine the optimum run frequency for your particular disk volumes. Smart Scheduling
monitors the fragmentation levels of your volumes and adjusts the defragmentation schedule to best fit
your needs, even as those needs change. See Smart Scheduling on page 32.
ƒ
To determine how often to run Diskeeper on your disk volumes, you can use the logging function of
Diskeeper to monitor the number of files moved during each Diskeeper run. For information about how
files that are moved by Diskeeper are logged, see “Logging Diskeeper Activity” on page 44. In general, if
Diskeeper moves fewer than 50 files per run, you are running Diskeeper frequently enough to maintain the
performance of your Windows system at an optimum level. If the number of files moved during each run is
greater, or is increasing, schedule Diskeeper to run more frequently. (Here again, you can automate this by
letting the Diskeeper Smart Scheduling feature control when to run Diskeeper.)
How do I set access permissions to allow Diskeeper to defragment my files?
In order for Diskeeper to have access to move files on NTFS volumes, both SYSTEM and ADMINISTRATOR
must have full control over a file (or the directory folder it is in). This version of Diskeeper includes a batch file
that sets the access permissions on a disk volume to allow Diskeeper to run properly. This batch file is called
setdkacls.bat, and it is located in the directory folder where Diskeeper is installed.
If you find you have made files inaccessible to Diskeeper, or that you have some files inaccessible to
Diskeeper, open a command-prompt window, change directory to the Diskeeper installation directory, and type:
setdkacls x:
where x: is the letter name of the disk volume on which you want to change access permissions.
The setdkacls.bat procedure automates the following sequence of commands:
cd /d x:
cd \
cacls *
/e /t /c /g Administrators:F System:F
For more information about the cacls command, type cacls /? at a command prompt.
This batch procedure will only work if the account you are logged onto has been granted access to the file(s)
you are wanting to defragment.
58
Answers to Frequently Asked Questions
Why doesn’t the free space reported by the post-analysis (or postdefragmentation) summary pop-up screen match what the Diskeeper
Fragmentation pane shows?
Several post-analysis and post-defragmentation summary screens include information about the amount of free
space available on the volume for defragmentation. This figure is based on the space available to Diskeeper,
which may be less than the total free space on an NTFS volume. NTFS volumes reserve a percentage of the
total volume for the Master File Table (MFT), which Diskeeper cannot use for defragmenting files. Because of
this, the figure shown in the Diskeeper post-analysis and post-defragmentation summaries on NTFS volumes
will not match the total free space figure displayed in the Diskeeper Fragmentation pane (or other utilities like
Disk Properties in Windows Explorer).
Why do I get an incorrect excess fragment count after defragmenting an NTFS
drive under Windows 2000?
Under Windows 2000, NTFS files that have been compressed, then decompressed, accumulate excess space
allocations that Diskeeper cannot move. (The defragmentation APIs can only move actual data, not unused
allocated space in the file.)
Microsoft states in knowledge base article Q228198 "Disk Defragmenter Analysis Shows More File Fragments
Than File Size Suggests" that the "excess allocation" is released when the file is closed. Experiments performed
in our labs show that this is not the case. The disk must be dismounted and remounted (or the system rebooted)
followed by an open and a close of the file for the excess allocation to be released.
Therefore, when this condition exists on an NTFS volume, Diskeeper moves the data portion of a file, and if the
file has an excess allocation, it can actually fragment the file—one piece being the data just moved, the other
piece being the excess allocation “left behind”. Diskeeper notes this properly in its statistics. However,
sometime after the file movement is completed and the file is closed, the excess allocation is released by
Windows 2000. Thus, a subsequent analysis shows the fragmentation figures reported at the end of the
defragmentation run to be wildly wrong.
This excess allocation phenomena was introduced in Windows 2000, but is not present in Windows XP or
Windows Server 2003.
Diskeeper engineers are working on a solution for this inconsistency. Until it is found, you can (1) avoid using
NTFS disk compression or (2) perform a subsequent disk analysis to get the correct information.
How can I run Diskeeper from an account that is not a member of the
Administrators group?
On Windows 2000 and Windows XP, if the account you are using is not a member of the Administrators group,
you will not be able to install or operate Diskeeper. We recommend that you simply use the Set and Forget It
feature to set a schedule to allow Diskeeper to run in the background on all systems. Since the Set It and Forget
It operation runs under the SYSTEM process, there is no need for an administrator to be logged in when it is
running.
Do I need to have the Diskeeper service running all the time?
Yes. DkService is the program that actually runs Diskeeper defragmentation jobs. It monitors the Diskeeper
schedule file and starts defragmentation jobs when they are needed. If the Diskeeper service is disabled or not
present, you will not be able to run Diskeeper at all.
That said, if you look at the DkService process using Task Manager, you will see that it uses only a few
seconds of CPU time each week. The fact that it is running all the time is not going to use up system resources,
or cause any problems.
Answers to Frequently Asked Questions
59
Since installing Diskeeper, the number of disk errors I get has increased. Why
is that?
Diskeeper tends to increase disk activity, and just by running, it can make weak points in the system break. In
this case, you have some disk error, most likely in the free space where the Windows disk error checking utility
(CHKDSK) cannot find it.
Run CHKDSK/R on your operating system volume at least, preferably on all volumes. That should correct any
errors. (CHKDSK/F may not correct this issue.)
If CHKDSK itself aborts when it reaches the bad block, it indicates a disk problem which CHKDSK can't
handle, and which will likely cause more trouble in the future. You should back up the volume and reformat
(or replace) it to prevent the possibility of data loss due to drive failure.
If you are running Windows 95/98/ME, run Scandisk Thorough instead of CHKDSK.
How can I find which version of Diskeeper I have installed?
Open Diskeeper, click the Action menu, then select About. This tells you which Diskeeper edition, version
and build is installed.
Support Services
61
Appendix C
Support Services
U.S. Support Services
Registered users are entitled to 90 days of free telephone support, as well as special upgrade pricing, from
Executive Software. Our free U.S. technical support is available Monday through Friday during the first 90
days from 7:00 A.M. to 5:30 P.M. Pacific time. If you have not yet registered your Diskeeper for Windows
purchase, use the registration card in your Diskeeper box and do so now. Or, register your purchase online via
our Web site at:
www.executive.com
Most technical support questions can be answered from the Technical Support section of our Web site at the
address shown above.
You can also contact our technical support team via the Internet at:
[email protected]
Or via FAX at:
818-252-5514
If you are within your 90-day free support period, or have purchased telephone support, you can call:
818-771-1600
When your 90-day free support period has expired, you can purchase the support plan which best suits your
needs. Executive Software offers 24-hour, 7-day support plans. Contact Executive Software to find out which
support options suit you best.
Executive Software’s address is:
Executive Software
7590 North Glenoaks Boulevard
Burbank, California 91504, USA
62
Support Services
European Support Services
Registered users are entitled to 90 days of free telephone support, as well as special upgrade pricing, from
Executive Software. Our free European technical support is available Monday through Friday during the first
90 days from 8:30 to 17:30 GMT. If you have not yet registered your Diskeeper for Windows purchase, use the
registration card in your Diskeeper box and do so now. Or, register your purchase online via our Web site at:
www.executive-europe.com
Most technical support questions can be answered from the Technical Support section of our Web site at the
address shown above.
You can also contact our technical support team via the Internet at:
[email protected]
Or via FAX at:
+44 (0) 1342-327390
If you are within your 90-day free support period, or have purchased telephone support, you can call:
+44 (0) 1342-327477
When your 90-day free support period has expired, you can purchase the support plan which best suits your
needs. Executive Software offers 24-hour, 7-day support plans. Contact Executive Software to find out which
support options suit you best.
Executive Software’s address is:
Executive Software UK Inc.
Kings House, Cantelupe Road
East Grinstead, West Sussex RH19 3BE
England
Glossary
63
Glossary
access: To store data on, or retrieve data from, a disk drive or other peripheral device. See also file.
administrator: See system administrator.
applet: A small application program that is usually built into an operating system or a larger application
program. For example, the built-in writing and drawing programs that come with Windows are sometimes
called “applets.”
application: A computer program, which causes a computer system to perform some useful work for the user.
AutoPlay: A feature of some Windows applications on CD-ROM that causes the program to start automatically
when the CD-ROM is placed in the drive.
background processing: The execution of certain operations during momentary lulls in the primary
(foreground) process. An example of a background process is printing while a word processor is waiting for
keystrokes.
binary: From Latin “bini,” meaning two by two and “ary,” meaning of, or pertaining to. Computers use the
binary number system, which is a way of counting in which only two digits (0 and 1) are used. Contrast with
the familiar decimal number system, in which we count with 10 digits (0 through 9).
bit: Short for binary digit. The smallest unit of information handled by a computer. Like a light switch, a bit is
either on or off, which corresponds to a numerical value of one or zero. Larger numbers are expressed by
groups of bits. See also byte.
boot: Refers to the initial start-up of a computer, such as when you turn on the computer’s power. From the
word “bootstrap,” indicating the computer “lifts itself by the bootstraps;” that is, it gets itself going.
boot-time: The time during which a computer boots; that is, the computer is starting up and the operating
system has not yet taken over control of the computer.
browser: A software program, such as Microsoft’s Internet Explorer, designed to locate and view Web pages
on the Internet. In addition to displaying text, modern browsers also can display pictures and play sounds.
byte: A group of eight bits, which can represent a number from zero through 255, a letter of the alphabet, or a
variety of other things.
cache: From the French word cacher, meaning “to hide.” A temporary storage facility designed to speed things
up by providing information to software that would otherwise have to be obtained from a slower medium.
Caches exist for Web browsers, disk drives and CPUs. See also cache memory.
cache coherency: A condition where the data contained in the cache memories in a computer with multiple
processors is kept consistent at all times.
cache memory: In computers, a cache is a small amount of very fast memory that is placed close to (or inside)
the CPU chip, in order to improve performance. The cache memory holds copies of recently accessed data.
Because computer programs often run the same instructions repeatedly, many times the CPU will find the data
it needs in the cache and therefore will run faster because it does not need to access the computer’s main
memory.
CD-ROM: Compact Disk Read-Only Memory. A stiff plastic disk commonly used by software manufacturers
to distribute software to customers. As the name implies, the original contents of a CD-ROM cannot be
changed.
central processing unit (CPU): The part of the computer hardware that controls the computer’s overall
operation and performs computations. Most modern CPUs are built into a single integrated circuit or chip. See
also Pentium, x86.
64
Glossary
chip: See integrated circuit.
CHKDSK: A program (supplied with Windows NT, Windows 2000, Windows XP, and Windows Server
2003) that checks the integrity of a disk and corrects disk errors such as lost clusters. See also scandisk.
client: In a computer network, a computer that uses the services of another computer, called a server. For
example, a client can “ask” a server to provide it with needed data, or to print a file for the client. See also
server, workstation.
cluster: Smallest addressable unit of space on a disk. A one-byte file will actually use a cluster of disk space.
The minimum size of a cluster depends on the size of the disk volume. The FAT file system allows a maximum
of 65,536 clusters per volume, which means that the cluster size on a 64-megabyte disk volume is one kilobyte,
while a 128-megabyte volume uses two-kilobyte clusters. Thus, the FAT file system can be very wasteful of
disk space on large volumes. The NTFS file system does not suffer from this limitation.
COM: Acronym for Component Object Model, a specification developed by Microsoft for building software
components that can be made into programs or add functionality to existing programs running on Microsoft
Windows platforms.
component: A small modular program that performs a specific function and is designed to work interactively
with other components and applications. See also applet, COM.
contiguous: Adjacent; placed one after the other. A contiguous file is not fragmented; that is, it takes up a
single “chunk” of disk space. See also fragmentation, defragmentation.
control file: A file (Diskeep.ctl) used by Diskeeper to keep track of and control scheduled defragmentation of
disk volumes. See also Set It and Forget It.
controller: A specialized electronic circuit, which serves as an interface between a device, such as a disk drive,
and a computer. See also IDE, SCSI.
CPU: see central processing unit.
data: Information, as processed by a computer. Plural of the Latin word datum, meaning an item of
information.
database: A collection of related information about a subject, organized in a useful manner that provides a base
or foundation for procedures such as retrieving information, drawing conclusions, and making decisions.
datum: Singular of data.
defragmentation: The reduction or elimination of fragmentation, by making files and/or free disk space more
contiguous.
device: A machine, such as a printer or a disk drive.
digit: From Latin “digitus,” meaning finger. Any of the numbers 0 through 9 in the decimal number system,
called a digit because people originally used their fingers for counting. Computers use a binary number system
with only two digits (0 and 1).
directory: A file that contains a catalog of files and other directories stored on a disk, which allows you to
organize your files into groups, making them easier to find.
directory consolidation: A Diskeeper feature which, at boot-time, gathers (almost) all directory entries on a
disk volume into a single area on the disk, instead of scattered in many places. Directory consolidation makes
defragmentation more effective than it would otherwise be. Directory consolidation requires sufficient
contiguous free disk space into which the directories can be moved.
disk drive: A device containing one or more disks, treated as a unit by a computer.
Diskeeper: A software product that increases system performance through disk defragmentation. It eliminates
resource-wasting file fragmentation safely, by consolidating fragmented files and free space.
diskette: See floppy disk.
Glossary
65
domain: In Windows NT, Windows 2000, Windows XP and Windows Server 2003, a group of workstations and
servers, defined by an administrator, that share a common directory database and allow a user to log onto any
resource in the domain with a single user ID and password. Each domain in a network has a unique name.
drive: See disk drive.
drive letter: In Windows and MS-DOS operating systems, the naming convention for disk drives, consisting of
a letter, followed by a colon. Drives A: and B: are normally reserved for floppy disk drives and C: typically
indicates the first hard drive. See also volume.
encrypted file: A file that has been scrambled and made unrecognizable by anyone who does not have the
proper “key” to decode it. The Windows 2000, Windows XP and Windows Server 2003 Encrypting File
System (EFS) allows users to encrypt files and folders on an NTFS volume to prevent access by unauthorized
individuals.
event logging: The process of recording audit information when certain events occur, such as services starting
and stopping, users logging on and off and accessing resources. When running Diskeeper on Windows NT,
Windows 2000, Windows XP, and Windows Server 2003 systems, logged events can be viewed with the Event
Viewer utility (in Administrative Tools.) When run on Windows 95/98/Me systems, Diskeeper logs events to a
text file that can be viewed with a variety of text editor programs such as Notepad.
Event Viewer: A utility available on Windows NT, Windows 2000, Windows XP, and Windows Server 2003,
which permits the viewing of logged events. See also event logging.
extended partition: A type of partition that permits the limitation of four partitions per disk drive to be
overcome. A disk drive may be partitioned into a maximum of four primary partitions, or three primary
partitions plus an extended partition. One or more logical drives may be created within an extended partition.
FAT: See file allocation table.
FAT file system: The file system used by MS-DOS and adapted for Windows to store information on disks,
which makes use of a file allocation table. There are three types of FAT file system. The FAT12 (12-bit) is
used on FAT volumes smaller than 16 megabytes in size, such as floppy disks—it is not supported by
Diskeeper. FAT16 can be found on all versions of Windows from Windows 95 through Windows Server 2003.
Windows Server 2003, Windows 2000, Windows Me, Windows 98, and the later OSR 2 version of Windows
95 also support FAT32; Windows NT does not.
field: A subdivision of a record in a file. For example, a record in a customer file may contain a name field, an
address field and a phone number field.
file: A complete, named collection of data, such as a program, a set of data used by a program, or a usercreated document. See also record, field.
file allocation table (FAT): A table or list maintained by some operating systems, to keep track of how files
are stored on a disk.
file system: The method used by an operating system, of naming, accessing and organizing files and directories
on a disk. See also NTFS, FAT file system.
floppy disk: A removable storage medium, consisting of a small magnetic disk made of flexible plastic, housed
in a square protective envelope or cartridge. Originally, floppy disks really were “floppy,” because they were
enclosed in a paper envelope. Also called a diskette, which is a better name for the more recent design that uses
a stiff plastic cartridge. Contrast with hard disk.
formatting: A method of preparing a disk surface for use by placing certain magnetic patterns on it, which are
used by the file system in storing and retrieving data.
fragmentation: The word fragmentation means “the state of being fragmented.” The word fragment means “a
detached, isolated or incomplete part.” It is derived from the Latin “fragmentum,” which in turn is derived from
“frangere,” meaning “break.” So, fragmentation means that something is broken into parts that are detached,
isolated or incomplete.
66
Glossary
gigabyte: A measure of computer storage capacity equal to approximately a billion bytes. A gigabyte is two to
the 30th power, or 1,073,741,824 bytes.
graphical user interface (GUI): Pronounced “gooey.” A user interface, as used in the Windows operating
systems, which uses a mouse and graphic displays to interact with the user, with the purpose to make the
computer system easier to use than other operating systems, such as MS-DOS.
GUI: See graphical user interface.
hard disk: One or more rigid metal platters, coated with magnetic material. Contrast with floppy disk, or
diskette, which is made of plastic. Also used to refer to the physical unit that makes up a disk drive.
hardware: The physical parts of a computer system, including devices such as printers and disk drives.
Contrast with software.
IDE: Integrated Device Electronics. One of two common types of interfaces between a disk drive and a
computer, where the controller is built into the disk drive, which eliminates the need for a separate controller
card in the computer. See also SCSI.
integrated circuit: Also called a chip. A collection of electronic parts with a specific purpose, built into a
single physical package. See also central processing unit.
Intel: Manufacturer of processor chips, known especially for the Pentium and x86 processors.
interface: The connection and interaction between hardware, software and/or the user. For example, a disk
controller provides a physical interface between a computer and a disk drive. The keyboard, mouse and display
are an interface between a computer and the user.
Internet: A global network that links millions of computers. One popular section of the Internet is the World
Wide Web, which allows computer users to view text and pictures with the aid of a browser, such as Internet
Explorer. E-mail (electronic mail) is another popular part of the Internet, which allows computer users to send
and receive written messages.
Internet Explorer: A software package developed by Microsoft for browsing the Internet, but increasingly
used with other applications.
job: A request to have the computer or its peripherals perform some activity. In relation to Diskeeper, it is a
request to have a disk defragmented.
log file: A file that keeps track of certain events as they occur. The Windows NT/2000/XP operating system
maintains several log files that can be viewed with the Event Viewer. On Windows 95/98/Me systems,
Diskeeper uses a specially created text file for the same purpose. See also Event Logging.
logical drive: That portion of the space on a disk drive that is considered by the software to be a single unit. In
this context, logical means “conceptual.” because there is no direct relationship between the name and a
physical object. See also partition, volume.
long filenames: In the DOS operating system, filenames were limited to a maximum of eight characters,
followed by a period and up to three characters to indicate the type of file. This is also referred to as the 8.3 file
naming convention. The Windows 95/98/Me, Windows NT, Windows 2000, Windows XP, and Windows
Server 2003 operating systems allow filenames that are over 200 characters long. In addition, these filenames
may contain a mixture of upper- and lowercase characters and embedded spaces.
master file table (MFT): On an NTFS volume, the master file table is a file, which contains information about
all other files in that volume. This includes the name of each file, its physical location on the disk, and other
information.
media: A collective word for the physical material on which computer-based information is stored, such as a
CD-ROM or floppy disk. Media is the plural of medium, but like data is often used in the singular form.
medium: See media.
Glossary
67
memory: The computer’s temporary working storage, where program instructions and data are kept,
permitting the CPU to process the instructions.
MFT: See master file table.
Microsoft: A computer software company, with its head office in the state of Washington; creators of the MSDOS and Windows operating systems.
MMC: Microsoft Management Console. MMC can be used to create, save and open administrative tools
(called snap-ins), such as Diskeeper. MMC provides a common user interface for system tools, as well as a
system for managing hardware, software and network components.
MS-DOS: Microsoft Disk Operating System. An operating system designed for a small computer with a single
user running one application program at a time.
multitasking: A feature of an operating system, where the computer can work on more than one task at a time.
See also background processing.
network: A group of computers that are connected together and capable of exchanging data with each other.
See also server, client.
NTFS: New Technology File System. A file system designed specifically for use with Windows NT, Windows
2000, Windows XP, and Windows Server 2003.
OEM: Acronym for original equipment manufacturer. The term is misleading, because an OEM typically buys
computers from another manufacturer, customizes them for a particular application, and then sells them under
the OEM’s own brand name.
operating system: A collection of programs, which perform system functions and control the running of
application programs and the allocation of resources.
OSR 2: Acronym for OEM Service Release 2, a version of Windows 95 released in late 1996, which features an
improved file system, called FAT32, while the original version of Windows 95 used FAT16.
page file or paging file: An area of a disk that is set aside to hold data intended to reside in the computer’s
memory. Portions of the paging file are copied to memory as needed. This mechanism requires a much smaller
amount of physical memory than would be required if the entire program were to be loaded into memory all at
once. See also swap file.
partition: A subdivision of the space on a disk drive that is treated as though it were a separate physical unit. A
computer with only one hard disk drive can have a single partition, often called drive C:, or it can have several
partitions, such as drive C:, drive D:, and drive E:. See also volume, drive letter, primary partition, extended
partition, logical drive.
Pentium: The name of a type of processor, introduced by Intel in 1993. It is the successor to the 80486 and
equivalent to the 80586 chip in the x86 series.
peripheral device: (Related to periphery, roughly meaning “on the outside.”) A device, such as a disk drive,
printer, keyboard or mouse, connected to and used by a computer.
permission: The ability of a user on a computer system to access or modify files, especially those that he or she
did not create. Permissions exist for security reasons, to prevent unauthorized access to sensitive information.
The system administrator assigns permissions, or “who has access to what.”
platform: The environment, in which a computer system operates, either based on the computer’s CPU or its
operating system. For example: the x86 platform, or the Windows Server 2003 platform.
platter: A disk drive consists of one or more platters, each of which can receive magnetic recordings on both
sides. The platter spins like a phonograph record on a turntable.
primary partition: In Windows and MS-DOS operating systems, the disk space on a disk drive may be divided
into a maximum of four primary partitions; or three primary partitions plus an extended partition, which in turn
can contain one or more logical drives.
68
Glossary
priority: On a Windows system, several programs can appear to be running at once, even though the CPU can
only process one instruction at a time. With the help of the operating system, the CPU processes a few
instructions from one program, then a few instructions of the next program, and so on, over and over. Without
priority assignments, each program would be given about the same amount of time in each “time slot.” but by
assigning priorities, the more important programs can be given longer time intervals than the less important
ones, allowing them to complete faster.
process: A program, along with the system resources the program requires to run. A process represents a unit
of resource ownership and work to be done. The operating system creates processes to keep track of resources
and to ensure the proper scheduling of tasks.
processor: See central processing unit.
program: A set of instructions that tell a computer what to do. Synonym: software.
RAID: Redundant Array of Independent Disks. A method of combining several disk drives to make one large
volume. Typically used on a network file server to achieve faster access, greater protection against disk failure,
or both.
record: A collection of related data items, treated as a unit. For example, in a file containing information about
a company’s customers, one record would consist of the particulars (name, address, phone number, etc.) of one
customer. See also field.
registry: A database that contains information about current hardware settings, installed software, user
preferences and associations between file types, and applications that access those files.
resource: Any part of a computer system, such as a disk drive, printer, or memory, which can be used by a
program.
scandisk: A program (supplied with Windows 95, Windows 98 and Windows Me) that checks the integrity of
a disk and corrects disk errors such as lost clusters. See also CHKDSK.
SCSI: Small Computer System Interface. One of two common methods of interfacing disk drives and other
devices to computers. See also IDE.
server: On a computer network, a computer that makes resources available to other computers (clients or
workstations.) For example, all the computers on a network can be set up to share a single high-speed printer,
which is connected to the server. Usually, the server is faster and more powerful than the client computers
connected to it.
service: A process that performs a specific system function and often provides an application programming
interface (API) for other processes to call. Diskeeper uses a Windows service, which allows Diskeeper to run in
the background while other applications are running.
Service Pack: A collection of software used to issue corrections and updates to software between major
releases. Usually refers to compilations of corrections and updates to a Windows operating system.
Set It and Forget It: A term that was created by Executive Software, which is a registered trademark and
hallmark of the company. A “Set It and Forget It” product can operate transparently (unseen by the user) and in
the background (concurrent with other applications). After a schedule is set up for its operation, it thereafter
performs its functions at predetermined times, without further intervention or attention from the user or
administrator.
Smart Scheduling: A feature, introduced with Diskeeper 6.0, which has a built-in mechanism to determine
how frequently a disk volume needs to be defragmented. With Smart Scheduling, Diskeeper automatically
schedules defragmentation runs to occur more often when a disk volume becomes more fragmented, or less
often when it becomes less fragmented.
SMS: System Management Server. A software product from Microsoft, which permits the system administrator
on a Windows NT, Windows 2000 or Windows Server 2003 network to do such things as install and run new
software on different computers on the network, all from a single location.
Glossary
69
snap-in: A program, such as Diskeeper, that can be used with the Microsoft Management Console (MMC). For
more information, see the MMC Help facility.
software: A generic term for computer programs, taken collectively. Contrast with hardware. Software can be
categorized into application software and system software.
sparse files: A method of storing large files—that contain mostly empty space and not much data—in a way
that uses much less disk space than would otherwise be used. Sparse file support allows an application to create
very large files without committing disk space for every byte.
swap file: A file on a disk drive that Windows 95/98/Me uses to hold temporary data that will not fit into
memory. When needed, the operating system moves data from the swap file to memory. See also paging file.
system: The collection of one or more computers and peripheral devices. Sometimes used as a synonym for
operating system, or the combination of hardware and software, as a logical unit.
system administrator: The person in charge of maintaining a multi-user computer system.
system file: In general, a file that is part of, or accessed by, the operating system. The Diskeeper Drive Map
display shows certain system files in green, particularly the master file table (MFT) and several other files that
cannot be moved safely by Diskeeper (or any other defragmenter). These are not the files that make up the
Windows operating system, but the files that make up the NTFS file system.
task: A program or portion thereof that is run as an independent entity.
terabyte: A measure of computer storage capacity equal to 2 to the 40th power or approximately a thousand
billion bytes (or a thousand gigabytes).
trialware: A free software package from Executive Software, such as Diskeeper, that has the same
functionality as the official version of the software, but which works for a limited time period, after which it
expires. Trialware allows you to try the software before making a buying decision.
utility: A program that provides basic services or functions.
volume: A subdivision of the space on a disk drive that is treated as though it were a separate physical unit, or a
combination of physical disks treated as a single unit. A computer with only one hard disk drive can have a
single volume, often called drive C:, or it can have several volumes, such as drive C:, drive D:, and drive E:.
See also drive letter, logical drive, partition.
volume set: In Windows, a single logical drive, which is composed of up to 32 areas of free space on one or
more disk drives. Volume sets can be used to combine small areas of free space on one or more disk drives into
a larger logical drive, or to create a single large logical drive out of two or more small disks.
Windows: A family of operating systems, first introduced by Microsoft in 1983, with a graphical user
interface and which ran on MS-DOS based computers. See also Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows NT,
Windows 2000, Windows XP and Windows Server 2003.
Windows 2000: Originally named Windows NT 5.0, Windows 2000 is a family of operating systems for
desktop computers and network servers, announced by Microsoft in 1998. Windows 2000 resembles Windows
NT 4.0 and Windows 98, but has many enhancements and new features. Windows 2000 is available in several
editions, ranging from Windows 2000 Professional to Windows 2000 Advanced Server.
Windows 95: A version of Windows released in 1995. New features in Windows 95 with regard to its
predecessor, Windows 3.1, include a new user interface and support for 32-bit applications. See also OSR 2.
Windows 98: Successor to the Windows 95 operating system, Windows 98 features support for the FAT32 file
system, greater Internet integration, and supports recent hardware developments.
Windows Me: Short for Windows Millennium Edition, an operating system released by Microsoft in
September 2000. Successor to Windows 98 and designed for home use, Windows Me offers enhancements in
the areas of digital media, user interface, home networking, and the Internet.
70
Glossary
Windows NT: An operating system released by Microsoft in 1993 (NT stands for New Technology.) It has a
similar graphical user interface to Windows, but it does not run over MS-DOS and has been designed
specifically for computer network environments.
Windows Server 2003: An operating system released by Microsoft in 2003 as the follow-up version to
Windows 2000 Server. Like its predecessor, it has a similar graphical user interface to Windows, but it does not
run over MS-DOS and has been designed specifically for computer network environments. Windows Server
2003 is available in Standard, Web, Enterprise, and Datacenter editions.
Windows XP: An operating system released by Microsoft in 2001 as the follow-up version to Windows 2000.
Like its predecessor, it has a similar graphical user interface to other Windows versions, but it does not run
over MS-DOS and has been designed specifically for computer network environments. Windows XP is
available in several editions for different uses, such as Windows XP Professional for corporate use, or
Windows XP Home Edition for home users.
workgroup: In Windows NT, Windows 2000, Windows XP, or Windows Server 2003, a workgroup consists of
one or more computers that do not participate in a domain and are therefore responsible for their own security
and administration.
workstation: A computer that has been set up for use by an individual typically connected to a network. The
term is also used to indicate a client computer, in contrast with a server.
x86: Symbol to represent a series of CPUs, manufactured by Intel and others, including model numbers 8086,
80286, 80386, 80486 and 80586 (Pentium). All of the CPUs in this series have certain characteristics in
common, which permits software to be written that will run on any of them.
Index
71
Index
A
About Diskeeper option ............................................... 39
About the Diskeeper Service.......................................... 4
Access permissions
setting ...................................................................... 57
Analysis
fragmentation............................................................. 7
Analyze Button ............................................................ 40
Analyze selected volume ............................................. 36
Application Event Log ................................. See Logging
Automating Diskeeper ................................................. 30
AutoPlay ........................................................................ 3
Average File Size......................................................... 26
Average Fragments per File ......................................... 26
B
Background process ................................4, 13, 16, 30, 50
Before the Installation.................................................... 1
C
cache coherency ........................................................... 50
CD-ROM ................................................................... 2, 3
Check for product update ............................................... 4
Clear a schedule ........................................................... 36
Colors, what they mean.......................................... 24, 29
Command pane ............................................................ 34
Consolidating free space .............................................. 56
Control, tabbed............................................................. 20
Custom schedule .......................................................... 36
D
Defragment Button....................................................... 41
Defragment selected volume........................................ 37
Defragmentation
and the Master File Table ........................................ 56
files not moved to beginning of disk ....................... 56
free space consolidation........................................... 56
how often to run....................................................... 57
incomplete ............................................................... 55
manual ..................................................................... 16
modes....................................................................... 16
power management............................................ 38, 44
Set It and Forget It ................................................... 16
Design Goals................................................................ 49
Disk space required........................................................ 2
Disk Volume pane........................................................ 39
Diskeeper
before and after comparison ...................................... 7
design goals ............................................................. 49
directories not moved .............................................. 56
FAQs option ............................................................ 39
features..................................................................... 15
getting started............................................................. 7
getting the most from ............................................... 17
how often to run ....................................................... 57
installation.................................................................. 1
interface ................................................................... 19
logging activity ........................................................ 44
overview................................................................... 15
program group............................................................ 2
reinstalling ................................................................. 4
seeing reduction in fragmentation .............................. 7
service ........................................................................ 4
uninstalling................................................................. 5
Disks supported .............................................................. 1
DkEventLog.txt ........................................................ 5, 45
Drive Map pane ............................................................ 29
E
Event Log ..................................................... See Logging
setting up the .............................................................. 4
Event Logging
setting options .......................................................... 38
Event Viewer................................................................ 45
Exclusion List............................................................... 16
dialog box ................................................................ 42
internal ............................................................... 43, 55
User-defined............................................................. 37
Extended partitions......................................................... 1
F
FAQs option ................................................................. 39
File Systems Supported .................................................. 1
Files not moved to beginning of disk ........................... 56
Fragmentation
analysis ...................................................................... 7
definition of.......................................................viii, 49
effects of ...........................................................viii, 49
Fragmentation pane ...................................................... 24
Free Space
consolidation ............................................................ 56
mismatch in reporting .............................................. 58
Frequently-Asked Questions (FAQs) option ................ 39
G
Getting Started................................................................ 7
Getting the most from Diskeeper.................................. 17
Glossary........................................................................ 63
H
Help Button .................................................................. 41
Help Topics option ....................................................... 39
72
Index
I
I/O Smart...................................................................... 43
Information pane .......................................................... 20
Installation
before the ................................................................... 1
details......................................................................... 2
overview .................................................................... 2
remote........................................................................ 5
short version .............................................................. 2
Interface
user .......................................................................... 19
L
Logging
Application Event Log........................4, 15, 16, 44, 45
Defragmentation start and stop ................................ 46
Defragmented files .................................................. 46
Directory information .............................................. 47
Disk information...................................................... 46
Diskeeper activity .................................................... 44
File information ....................................................... 46
MFT information ..................................................... 47
Moved files.............................................................. 46
on Windows 95/98/Me .............................................. 5
Paging File information ........................................... 46
Service start and stop............................................... 45
Specifying What Gets Logged................................. 45
Logical drives ................................................................ 1
M
Master File Table (MFT) ............................................. 56
Menu
Set It and Forget It ................................................... 35
MMC........................................................................ 3, 16
Most Fragmented Files................................................. 27
N
NTFS......................................................... viii, 26, 29, 55
P
Paging File Defragmentation ....................................... 56
Partitions
extended..................................................................... 1
primary ...................................................................... 1
Pause Button ................................................................ 41
Pentium processor .......................................................... 1
Performance ................................................................. 50
Performance data ......................................................... 38
Performance Map pane ................................................ 23
Performance pane......................................................... 20
Platforms supported ....................................................... 1
Power management ................................................ 38, 44
Preface ......................................................................... vii
Primary / Secondary schedule...................................... 31
Primary partitions........................................................... 1
Process Live Disks ....................................................... 50
Q
Quick Tour ..................................................................... 8
R
RAID arrays ................................................................... 1
Registering Diskeeper .................................................... 4
Registry .......................................................................... 2
Reliability pane ............................................................ 22
Repairing Windows ........................................................ 4
Resource requirements ............................................... 2, 4
Resume Button ............................................................. 41
Run every night ............................................................ 35
Run weekends only ...................................................... 35
S
Safety............................................................................ 49
Schedule
clearing a.................................................................. 36
custom...................................................................... 36
primary and secondary ............................................. 31
Scheduling
Screen Saver mode................................................... 34
Set It and Forget It ................................................... 30
Smart Scheduling ..................................................... 32
Screen Saver mode ................................................. 34, 36
Select schedule type ..................................................... 31
Service Pack ................................................................... 3
Service, Diskeeper.......................................................... 4
Set It and Forget It........................................................ 30
pane.......................................................................... 30
Set It and Forget It pane
controls..................................................................... 31
Setting up the Application Event Log ............................ 4
SETUP.EXE ................................................................... 2
Sitekeeper ....................................................................viii
Smart Scheduling ................................................... 32, 35
after hours ................................................................ 35
Specifying What Gets Logged...................................... 45
Stop Button................................................................... 41
Support Services
Europe...................................................................... 62
U.S. .......................................................................... 61
T
Tabbed Control............................................................. 20
Theory of Operation ..................................................... 49
U
Undelete ......................................................................viii
Uninstalling Diskeeper ................................................... 5
Updates
checking for ......................................................... 4, 39
User Interface ............................................................... 19
Index
V
Versions supported......................................................... 1
View Readme option.................................................... 39
Volume sets.................................................................... 1
73
file systems supported................................................ 1
registry ....................................................................... 2
repairing ..................................................................... 4
resource requirements ................................................ 2
versions and platforms supported............................... 1
Windows 95/98/Me
Event Logging............................................................ 5
W
Windows
Application Event Log............................................. 45
disks supported .......................................................... 1
X
X86 processor family ..................................................... 1
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