QP-WR454N
User’s Manual
QP-WR454N
802.11n Wireless
AP Router with 4 Ports 1T2R
www.qpcom.com
Terminology
3DES
Triple Data Encryption Standard
AES
Advanced Encryption Standard
ANSI
American National Standards Institute
AP
Access Point
CCK
Complementary Code Keying
CSMA/CA
Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision
Avoidance
CSMA/CD
Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Detection
DDNS
Dynamic Domain Name Server
DH
Diffie-Hellman Algorithm
DHCP
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
DSSS
Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum
EAP
Extensible Authentication Protocol
ESP
Encapsulating Security Payload
FCC
Federal Communications Commission
FTP
File Transfer Protocol
IEEE
Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers
IKE
Internet Key Exchange
IP
Internet Protocol
ISM
Industrial, Scientific and Medical
LAN
Local Area Network
MAC
Media Access Control
MD5
Message Digest 5
NAT
Network Address Translation
NT
Network Termination
NTP
Network Time Protocol
PPTP
Point to Point Tunneling Protocol
PSD
Power Spectral Density
RF
Radio Frequency
SHA1
Secure Hash Algorithm
SNR
Signal to Noise Ratio
SSID
Service Set Identification
TCP
Transmission Control Protocol
JTFTP
Trivial File Transfer Protocol
TKIP
Temporal Key Integrity Protocol
UPNP
Universal Plug and Play
VPN
Virtual Private Network
WDS
Wireless Distribution System
WEP
Wired Equivalent Privacy
WLAN
Wireless Local Area Network
WPA
Wi-Fi Protected Access
Introduction
The Wireless LAN Broadband Router is an affordable IEEE 802.11b/g with 802.11n Draft 2.0 specifications of wireless
LAN broadband router solution; setting SOHO and enterprise standard for high performance, secure, manageable and
reliable WLAN. This document describes the steps required for the initial IP address assign and other WLAN router
configuration. The description includes the implementation of the above steps.
Package contents
The package of the WLAN Broadband Router includes the following items,
• The WLAN Broadband Router
• The DC Power Adapter
• The Documentation CD
• RJ-45 Cable Line (Option)
Product Specifications
Product Name
WLAN 11n Router, 2.4G
Standard
802.11b/g/n(Wireless), 802.3(10BaseT), 802.3u(100BaseT)
Data Transfer Rate
1,2,5.5,6,9,11,12,18,24,36,48,54, and maximum of
300Mbps
Modulation Method
BPSK/QPSK/16-QAM/64-QAM
Frequency Band
2.4GHz - 2.483GJz ISM Band, DSSS
RF Output Power
< 14dBm(802.11n),< 17dBm(802.11b),< 15dBm(802.11g)
Receiver Sensitivity
802.11b: [email protected]%, 802.11g: [email protected]%,
802.11n: [email protected]%
Operation Range
[email protected] to 100 meters,[email protected] to 280 meters
Antenna
External Antenna(1Tx2R)
LED
Power, Active (WLAN), Act/Link (Ethernet)
Security
64 bit/128 bit WEP, TKIP, AES
LAN interface
One 10/100BaseT with RJ45 connector (WAN)
Four 10/100BaseT with RJ45 connectors (LAN)
Power Consumption
12 V, 1A Power Adapter
Operating Temperature
0 ~ 50°C ambient temperature
Storage Temperature
-20 ~ 70°C ambient temperature
Humidity
5 to 90 % maximum (non-condensing)
Dimension
160 x 120 x 30 mm
Product Features
Generic Router
• Compatible with IEEE 802.11n Draft 2.0 Specifications provides wireless speed up to 300Mbps data rate.
• Compatible with IEEE 802.11g high rate standard to provide wireless Ethernet speeds of 54Mbps data rate.
• Maximizes the performance and ideal for media-centric applications like streaming video, gaming and Voice
over IP technology.
• Supports multi-operation (bridge/gateway/WISP) modes between wireless and wired Ethernet interfaces.
• Supports WPS, 64-bit and 128-bit WEP, WPA, WPA2 encryption/decryption and WPA with Radius function to
protect the wireless data transmission.
• Supports IEEE 802.1x Authentication.
• Supports IEEE 802.3x full duplex flow control on 10/100M Ethernet interface.
• Supports DHCP server to provide clients auto IP addresses assignment.
• Supports DHCP client, static IP, PPPoE, PPTP of WAN Interface.
• Supports firewall security with port filtering, IP filtering, MAC filtering, port forwarding, trigger port, DMZ hosting
and URL filtering functions.
• Supports WEB based management and configuration.
• Supports UPnP for automatic Internet access.
• Supports Dynamic DNS service.
• Supports NTP client service.
• Supports Log table and remote Log service.
• Support Setup Wizard mode.
Front Panel Description
LED Indicator
1. PWR LED
2. WLAN LED
State
on
The WLAN Broadband Router is powered on.
off
The WLAN Broadband Router is powered off.
Flashing
off
3. LAN LED ACT
4. WAN LED ACT
Description
Flashing
Data is transmitting or receiving on the antenna.
No data is transmitting or receiving on the antenna.
Data is transmitting or receiving on the LAN interface.
on
Port linked.
off
No link.
Flashing
Data is transmitting or receiving on the WAN interface.
on
Port linked.
off
No link.
Rear Panel Description
Interfaces
Description
Antenna (Fixed / SMA)
The Wireless LAN Antenna.
Power
The power jack allows an external DC power supply connection.
The external DC adaptor provide adaptive power requirement to
the WLAN Broadband Router.
LAN
The RJ-45 sockets allow LAN connection through Category 5
cables. Support auto-sensing on 10/100M speed and half/ full
duplex; comply with IEEE 802.3/ 802.3u respectively.
WAN
The RJ-45 socket allows WAN connection through a Category 5
cable. Support auto-sensing on 10/100M speed and half/ full
duplex; comply with IEEE 802.3/ 802.3u respectively.
Reset
Push continually the reset button 5 ~ 10 seconds to reset the
configuration parameters to factory defaults.
Installation
Hardware Installation
Step 1:
Place the Wireless LAN Broadband Router to the best optimum transmission location. The best transmission location
for your WLAN Broadband Router is usually at the geographic center of your wireless network, with line of sign to all
of your mobile stations.
Step 2:
Connect the WLAN Broadband Router to your wired network. Connect the Ethernet WAN interface of WLAN
Broadband Router by category 5 Ethernet cable to your switch/ hub/ xDSL modem or cable modem. A
straight-through Ethernet cable with appropriate cable length is needed.
Step 3:
Supply DC power to the WLAN Broadband Router. Use only the AC/DC power adapter supplied with the WLAN
Broadband Router; it maybe occur damage by using a different type of power adapter.
The hardware installation finished.
Software Installation
There are no software drivers, patches or utilities installation needed, but only the configuration setting. Please refer to
chapter 3 for software configuration.
Notice: It will take about 50 seconds to complete the boot up sequence after powered on the WLAN Broadband
Router; Power LED will be active, and after that the WLAN Activity LED will be flashing to show the WLAN interface is
enabled and working now.
Software configuration
There are web based management and configuration functions allowing you to have the jobs done easily.
The WLAN Broadband Router is delivered with the following factory default parameters on the Ethernet LAN
interfaces.
Default IP Address: 192.168.1.254
Default IP subnet mask: 255.255.255.0
WEB login User Name: <empty>
WEB login Password: <empty>
Prepare your PC to configure the WLAN Broadband Router
For OS of Microsoft Windows 2000/ XP:
1. Click the Start button and select Settings, then click Control Panel. The Control Panel window will appear.
2. Move mouse and double-click the right button on Network and Dial-up Connections icon. Move mouse and
double-click the Local Area Connection icon. The Local Area Connection window will appear. Click Properties
button in the Local Area Connection window.
3. Check the installed list of Network Components. If TCP/IP is not installed, click the Add button to install it;
otherwise go to step 6.
4. Select Protocol in the Network Component Type dialog box and click Add button.
5. Select TCP/IP in Microsoft of Select Network Protocol dialog box then click OK button to install the TCP/IP
protocol, it may need the Microsoft Windows CD to complete the installation. Close and go back to Network dialog
box after the TCP/IP installation.
6. Select TCP/IP and click the properties button on the Network dialog box.
7. Select Specify an IP address and type in values as following example.
IP Address: 192.168.1.1, any IP address within 192.168.1.1 to 192.168.1.253 is good to connect the
Wireless LAN Access Point.
IP Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0
8. Click OK to completes the IP parameters setting.
For OS of Microsoft Windows Vista:
1. Click the Start button and select Settings, then click Control Panel. The Control Panel window will appear.
2. Move mouse and double-click the right button on Network Connections item. The Network Connections window
will appear. Double click Local Area Connection icon, then User Account Control window shown. Right click
Continue button to set properties.
3. In Local Area Connection Properties window, Choose Networking tab, move mouse and click Internet Protocol
Version 4 (TCP/IPv4), then click Properties button.
4. Move mouse and click General tab, Select Specify an IP address and type in values as following example.
IP Address: 192.168.1.1, any IP address within 192.168.1.1 to 192.168.1.253 is good to connect the
Wireless LAN Access Point.
IP Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0
5. Click OK to complete the IP parameters setting.
For OS of Microsoft Windows 95/ 98/ Me:
1. Click the Start button and select Settings, then click Control Panel. The Control Panel window will appear.
Note: Windows Me users may not see the Network control panel. If so, select View all Control Panel options
on the left side of the window
2. Move mouse and double-click the right button on Network icon. The Network window will appear.
3. Check the installed list of Network Components. If TCP/IP is not installed, click the Add button to install it;
otherwise go to step 6.
4. Select Protocol in the Network Component Type dialog box and click Add button.
5. Select TCP/IP in Microsoft of Select Network Protocol dialog box then click OK button to install the TCP/IP
protocol, it may need the Microsoft Windows CD to complete the installation. Close and go back to Network dialog
box after the TCP/IP installation.
6. Select TCP/IP and click the properties button on the Network dialog box.
7. Select Specify an IP address and type in values as following example.
IP Address: 192.168.1.1, any IP address within 192.168.1.1 to 192.168.1.253 is good to connect the
Wireless LAN Access Point.
IP Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0
8. Click OK and reboot your PC after completes the IP parameters setting.
For OS of Microsoft Windows NT:
1. Click the Start button and select Settings, then click Control Panel. The Control Panel window will appear.
2. Move mouse and double-click the right button on Network icon. The Network window will appear. Click Protocol tab
from the Network window.
3. Check the installed list of Network Protocol window. If TCP/IP is not installed, click the Add button to install it;
otherwise go to step 6.
4. Select Protocol in the Network Component Type dialog box and click Add button.
5. Select TCP/IP in Microsoft of Select Network Protocol dialog box then click OK button to install the TCP/IP
protocol, it may need the Microsoft Windows CD to complete the installation. Close and go back to Network dialog
box after the TCP/IP installation.
6. Select TCP/IP and click the properties button on the Network dialog box.
7. Select Specify an IP address and type in values as following example.
IP Address: 192.168.1.1, any IP address within 192.168.1.1 to 192.168.1.253 is good to connect the
Wireless LAN Access Point.
IP Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0
8. Click OK to complete the IP parameters setting.
Connect to the WLAN Broadband Router
Open a WEB browser, i.e. Microsoft Internet Explore 6.1 SP1 or above, then enter 192.168.1.254 on the URL to
connect the WLAN Broadband Router.
Management and configuration on the WLAN Broadband Router
Status
This page shows the current status and some basic settings of the device, includes system, wireless, Ethernet LAN
and WAN configuration information.
Item
Description
System
Uptime
It shows the duration since WLAN AP Router is powered on.
Firmware version
It shows the firmware version of WLAN AP Router.
Wireless configuration
Mode
It shows wireless operation mode
Band
It shows the current wireless operating frequency.
SSID
It shows the SSID of this WLAN AP Router.
The SSID is the unique name of WLAN AP Router and shared among its
service area, so all device sat tempts to join the same wireless network
can identify it.
Channel Number
It shows the wireless channel connected currently.
Encryption
It shows the status of encryption function.
Associated Clients
It shows the number of connected clients (or stations,PCs).
BSSID
It shows the BSSID address of the WLAN AP Router.BSSID is a six-byte
address.
LAN configuration
IP Address
It shows the IP address of LAN interfaces of WLAN AP Router.
Subnet Mask
It shows the IP subnet mask of LAN interfaces of WLAN AP Router.
Default Gateway
It shows the default gateway setting for LAN interfaces outgoing data
packets.
DHCP Server
It shows the DHCP server is enabled or not.
MAC Address
It shows the MAC address of LAN interfaces of WLAN AP Router.
WAN configuration
Attain IP Protocol
It shows how the WLAN AP Router gets the IP address. The IP address
can be set manually to a fixed one or set dynamically by DHCP server or
attain IP by PPPoE / PPTP connection.
IP Address
It shows the IP address of WAN interface of WLAN AP Router.
Subnet Mask
It shows the IP subnet mask of WAN interface of WLAN AP Router.
Default Gateway
It shows the default gateway setting for WAN interface outgoing data
packets.
MAC Address
It shows the MAC address of WAN interface of WLAN AP Router.
Setup Wizard
This page guides you to configure wireless broadband router for first time.
I. Operation Mode
This page followed by Setup Wizard page to define the operation mode.
II. Time Zone Setting
This page is used to enable and configure NTP client.
III.LAN Interface Setup
This page is used to configure local area network IP address and subnet mask.
IV.
WAN Interface Setup
This page is used to configure WAN access type.
V. Wireless Basic Settings
This page is used to configure basic wireless parameters like Band, Mode, Network Type SSID, Channel Number,
Enable Mac Clone(Single Ethernet Client).
VI.
Wireless Security Setup
This page is used to configure wireless security.
Operation Mode
This page is used to configure which mode wireless broadband router acts.
Item
Description
Gateway
Traditional gateway configuration. It always connects internet via ADSL/Cable
Modem. LAN interface, WAN interface, Wireless interface, NAT and Firewall
modules are applied to this mode
Bridge
Each interface (LAN, WAN and Wireless) regards as bridge. NAT, Firewall
and all router's functions are not supported
Wireless ISP
Switch Wireless interface to WAN port and all Ethernet ports in bridge mode.
Wireless interface can do all router's functions
Apply Changes
Click the Apply Changes button to complete the new configuration setting.
Reset
Click the Reset button to abort change and recover the previous configuration
setting.
Wireless - Basic Settings
This page is used to configure the parameters for wireless LAN clients that may connect to your Broadband Router.
Here you may change wireless encryption settings as well as wireless network parameters.
Item
Description
Disable Wireless LAN Interface
Click on to disable the wireless LAN data transmission.
Band
Click to select 2.4GHz(B) / 2.4GHz(G) / 2.4GHz(N) /
2.4GHz(B+G)/ 2.4GHz(G+N) / 2.4GHz(B+G+N)
Mode
Click to select the WLAN AP / Client / WDS / AP+WDS
wireless mode.
Network Type
While Mode is selected to be Client. Click to select the
network type infrastructure or Ad hoc.
SSID
It is the wireless network name. The SSID can be 32
bytes long.
Channel Width
Select the operating channel width 20 MHz or 40
MHz.[N band only]
Control Sideband
Select the Sideband with Upper or Lower for channel
width 40MHz. [N band only]
Channel Number
Select the wireless communication channel from
pull-down menu.
Broadcast SSID
Click to enable or disable the SSID broadcast function.
WMM
Click Enabled/Disabled to init WMM feature.
Data Rate
Select the transmission data rate from pull-down
menu.Data rate can be auto-select, 1M to 54Mbps or
MCS.
Associated Clients
Click the Show Active Clients button to open Active
Wireless Client Table that shows the MAC address,
transmit-packet, receive-packet and transmission-rate
for each associated wireless client.
Enable Mac Clone
(Single Ethernet Client)
Take Laptop NIC MAC address as wireless client MAC
address. [Client Mode only]
SSID of Extended
Click to enable Universal Repeater Mode
Interface
Assign SSID when enables Universal Repeater Mode.
Apply Changes
Click the Apply Changes button to complete the new
configuration setting.
Reset
Click the Reset button to abort change and recover the
previous configuration setting.
Wireless - Advanced Settings
These settings are only for more technically advanced users who have a sufficient knowledge about wireless LAN.
These settings should not be changed unless you know what effect the changes will have on your WLAN Broadband
Router.
Item
Description
Fragment Threshold
Set the data packet fragmentation threshold, value can be written
between 256 and 2346 bytes.
RTS Threshold
Set the RTS Threshold, value can be written between 0 and 2347 bytes.
Beacon Interval
Set the Beacon Interval, value can be written between 20 and 1024 ms.
Preamble Type
Click to select the Long Preamble or Short Preamble support on the
wireless data packet transmission.
IAPP
Click to enable or disable the IAPP function.
Protection
Protect 802.11n user priority.
Aggregation
Click to enable or disable the Aggregation function.
Short GI
Click to enable or disable the short Guard Intervals function.
RF Output Power
To adjust transmission power level.
Apply Changes
Click the Apply Changes button to complete the new configuration
setting.
Reset
Click the Reset button to abort change and recover the previous
configuration setting.
Wireless - Security Setup
This page allows you setup the wireless security. Turn on WEP, WPA, WPA2 by using encryption keys could prevent
any unauthorized access to your wireless network.
Item
Description
Select SSID
Select the SSID from multiple APs.
Encryption
Select the encryption supported over wireless access. The encryption
method can be None, WEP, WPA, WPA2 or WPA-Mixed.
Use 802.1x
Authentication
While Encryption is selected to be WEP. Click the check box to enable
IEEE 802.1x authentication function.
Authentication Type
Click to select the authentication type in Open System, Shared Key or
Auto selection.
Key Length
Select the WEP shared secret key length from pull-down menu. The
length can be chose between 64-bit and 128-bit (known as “WEP2”) keys.
The WEP key is composed of initialization vector (24 bits) and secret key
(40-bit or 104-bit).
Key Format
Select the WEP shared secret key format from pull-down menu. The
format can be chose between plant text (ASCII) and hexadecimal (HEX)
code.
Encryption Key
Secret key of WEP security encryption function.
WPA Authentication
Mode
While Encryption is selected to be WPA. Click to select the WPA
Authentication Mode with Enterprise (RADIUS) or Personal (Pre-Shared
Key).
WPA Cipher Suite
Select the Cipher Suite for WPA encryption.
WPA2 Cipher Suite
Select the Cipher Suite for WPA2 encryption.
Pre-Shared Key Format
While Encryption is selected to be WPA.
Select the Pre-shared key format from the pull-down menu. The format
can be Passphrase or Hex (64 characters).
[WPA, Personal(Pre-Shared Key) only]
Pre-Shared Key
Fill in the key value. [WPA, Personal(Pre-Shared Key) only]
Enable
Pre-Authentication
Click to enable Pre-Authentication.
[WPA2/WPA2 Mixed only, Enterprise only]
Authentication RADIUS
Server
Set the IP address, port and login password information of authentication
RADIUS sever.
Apply Changes
Click the Apply Changes button to complete the new configuration
setting.
Reset
Click the Reset button to abort change and recover the previous
configuration setting.
WEP encryption key (secret key) length:
Length
Format
64-bit
128-bit
ASCII
5 characters
13 characters
HEX
10 hexadecimal codes
26 hexadecimal codes
Wireless - Access Control
If you enable wireless access control, only those clients whose wireless MAC addresses are in the access control list
will be able to connect to your Access Point. When this option is enabled, no wireless clients will be able to connect if
the list contains no entries.
Item
Description
Wireless Access Control
Mode
Click the Disabled, Allow Listed or Deny Listed of drop down menu
choose wireless access control mode.
This is a security control function; only those clients registered in the
access control list can link to this WLAN Broadband Router.
MAC Address
Fill in the MAC address of client to register this WLAN Broadband Router
access capability.
Comment
Fill in the comment tag for the registered client.
Apply Changes
Click the Apply Changes button to complete the new configuration
setting.
Reset
Click the Reset button to abort change and recover the previous
configuration setting.
Current Access Control
List
It shows the registered clients that are allowed to link to this WLAN
Broadband Router.
Delete Selected
Click to delete the selected clients that will be access right removed from
this WLAN Broadband Router.
Delete All
Click to delete all the registered clients from the access allowed list.
Reset
Click the Reset button to abort change and recover the previous
configuration setting.
WDS Settings
Wireless Distribution System uses wireless media to communicate with other APs, like the Ethernet does. To do this,
you must set these APs in the same channel and set MAC address of other AP that you want to communicate with in
the table and then enable the WDS.
Item
Description
Enable WDS
Click the check box to enable wireless distribution system.
MAC Address
Fill in the MAC address of AP to register the wireless distribution system
access capability.
Data Rate
Select the transmission data rate from pull-down menu.
Data rate can be auto-select, 1M to 54Mbps or MCS.
Comment
Fill in the comment tag for the registered AP.
Apply Changes
Click the Apply Changes button to complete the new configuration
setting.
Reset
Click the Reset button to abort change and recover the previous
configuration setting.
Set Security
Click button to configure wireless security like WEP(64bits),
WEP(128bits), WPA(TKIP), WPA2(AES) or None
Show Statistics
It shows the TX, RX packets, rate statistics.
Delete Selected
Click to delete the selected clients that will be access right removed from
this WLAN Broadband Router.
Delete All
Click to delete all the registered clients from the access allowed list.
Reset
Click the Reset button to abort change and recover the previous
configuration setting.
WDS Security Setup
Requirement: Set [Wireless]->[Basic Settings]->[Mode]->AP+WDS
This page is used to configure the wireless security between APs.
WDS AP Table
This page is used to show WDS statistics.
Item
Description
MAC Address
It shows the MAC Address within WDS.
Tx Packets
It shows the statistic count of sent packets on the wireless LAN interface.
Tx Errors
It shows the statistic count of error sent packets on the Wireless LAN
interface.
Rx Packets
It shows the statistic count of received packets on the wireless LAN
interface.
Tx Rare (Mbps)
It shows the wireless link rate within WDS.
Refresh
Click to refresh the statistic counters on the screen.
Close
Click to close the current window.
Site Survey
This page is used to view or configure other APs near yours.
Item
Description
SSID
It shows the SSID of AP.
BSSID
It shows BSSID of AP.
Channel
It show the current channel of AP occupied.
Type
It show which type AP acts.
Encrypt
It shows the encryption status.
Signal
It shows the power level of current AP.
Refresh
Click the Refresh button to re-scan site survey on the screen.
Connect
Click the Connect button to establish connection.
WPS
This page allows you to change the setting for WPS (Wi-Fi Protected Setup). Using this feature could let your wireless
client automically syncronize its setting and connect to the Access Point in a minute without any hassle.
Item
Description
Disable WPS
Click on to disable the Wi-Fi Protected Setup function.
WPS Status
Show WPS status is Configured or UnConfigured.
Self-PIN Number
Fill in the PIN Number of AP to register the wireless distribution system
access capability.
Push Button
Configuration
The Start PBC button provides tool to scan the wireless network. If any
Access Point or IBSS is found, you could connect it automatically when
client join PBC mode.
Apply Changes
Click the Apply Changes button to complete the new configuration
setting.
Reset
Click the Reset button to abort change and recover the previous
configuration setting.
Current Key Info
Authentication:It shows the Authentication is opened or closed.
Encryption:It shows the Encryption mode.
Key:It shows the Encryption key.
Client PIN Number
Fill in the Client PIN Number from your Client sites.
LAN Interface Setup
This page is used to configure the parameters for local area network that connects to the LAN ports of your WLAN
Broadband Router. Here you may change the setting for IP address, subnet mask, DHCP, etc.
Item
Description
IP Address
Fill in the IP address of LAN interfaces of this WLAN Access Point.
Subnet Mask
Fill in the subnet mask of LAN interfaces of this WLAN Access Point.
Default Gateway
Fill in the default gateway for LAN interfaces out going data packets.
DHCP
Click to select Disabled, Client or Server in different operation mode
of wireless Access Point.
DHCP Client Range
Fill in the start IP address and end IP address to allocate a range of IP
addresses; client with DHCP function set will be assigned an IP
address from the range.
Show Client
Click to open the Active DHCP Client Table window that shows the
active clients with their assigned IP address, MAC address and time
expired information. [Server mode only]
Static DHCP
Select enable or disable the Static DHCP function from pull-down
menu. [Server mode only]
Set Static DHCP
Manual setup Static DHCP IP address for specific MAC address.
[Server mode only]
Domain Name
Assign Domain Name and dispatch to DHCP clients. It is optional
field.
802.1d Spanning Tree
Select enable or disable the IEEE 802.1d Spanning Tree function
from pull-down menu.
Clone MAC Address
Fill in the MAC address that is the MAC address to be cloned
Apply Changes
Click the Apply Changes button to complete the new configuration
setting.
Reset
Click the Reset button to abort change and recover the previous
configuration setting.
Static DHCP Setup
Item
Description
IP Address
If you select the Set Static DHCP on LAN interface, fill in the IP
address for it.
MAC Address
If you select the Set Static DHCP on LAN interface, fill in the MAC
address for it.
Comment
Fill in the comment tag for the registered Static DHCP.
Apply Changes
Click the Apply Changes button to complete the new configuration
setting.
Reset
Click the Reset button to abort change and recover the previous
configuration setting.
Static DHCP List
It shows IP Address、MAC Address from the Static DHCP.
Delete Selected
Click to delete the selected clients that will be removed from the Static
DHCP list.
Delete All
Click to delete all the registered clients from the Static DHCP list.
Reset
Click the Reset button to abort change and recover the previous
configuration setting.
WAN Interface Setup
This page is used to configure the parameters for wide area network that connects to the WAN port of your WLAN
Broadband Router. Here you may change the access method to Static IP, DHCP, PPPoE or PPTP by click the item
value of WAN Access Type.
Static IP
Item
Description
Static IP
Click to select Static IP support on WAN interface. There
are IP address, subnet mask and default gateway
settings need to be done.
IP Address
If you select the Static IP support on WAN interface, fill in
the IP address for it.
Subnet Mask
If you select the Static IP support on WAN interface, fill in
the subnet mask for it.
Default Gateway
If you select the Static IP support on WAN interface, fill in
the default gateway for WAN interface out going data
packets.
MTU Size
Fill in the mtu size of MTU Size. The default value is
1400.
DNS 1
Fill in the IP address of Domain Name Server 1.
DNS 2
Fill in the IP address of Domain Name Server 2.
DNS 3
Fill in the IP address of Domain Name Server 3.
Clone MAC Address
Fill in the MAC address that is the MAC address to be
cloned.
Enable uPNP
Click the checkbox to enable uPNP function.
Enable IGMP Proxy
Click the checkbox to enable IGMP Proxy.
Enable Ping Access on WAN
Click the checkbox to enable WAN ICMP response.
Enable Web Server Access on WAN
Click the checkbox to enable web configuration from
WAN side.
Enable IPsec pass through on VPN
connection
Click the checkbox to enable IPSec packet pass through.
Enable PPTP pass through on VPN
connection
Click the checkbox to enable PPTP packet pass through.
Enable L2TP pass through on VPN
connection
Click the checkbox to enable L2TP packet pass through.
Apply Changes
Click the Apply Changes button to complete the new
configuration setting.
Reset
Click the Reset button to abort change and recover the
previous configuration setting.
DHCP Client
Item
Description
DHCP Client
Click to select DHCP support on WAN interface for IP
address assigned automatically from a DHCP server.
Host Name
Fill in the host name of Host Name. The default value is
empty.
MTU Size
Fill in the mtu size of MTU Size. The default value is
1400.
Attain DNS Automatically
Click to select getting DNS address for DHCP support.
Please select Set DNS Manually if the DHCP support is
selected.
Set DNS Manually
Click to select getting DNS address for DHCP support.
DNS 1
Fill in the IP address of Domain Name Server 1.
DNS 2
Fill in the IP address of Domain Name Server 2.
DNS 3
Fill in the IP address of Domain Name Server 3.
Clone MAC Address
Fill in the MAC address that is the MAC address to be
cloned.
Enable uPNP
Click the checkbox to enable uPNP function.
Enable IGMP Proxy
Click the checkbox to enable IGMP Proxy.
Enable Ping Access on WAN
Click the checkbox to enable WAN ICMP response.
Enable Web Server Access on WAN
Click the checkbox to enable web configuration from
WAN side.
Enable IPsec pass through on VPN
connection
Click the checkbox to enable IPSec packet pass through.
Enable PPTP pass through on VPN
connection
Click the checkbox to enable PPTP packet pass through.
Enable L2TP pass through on VPN
connection
Click the checkbox to enable L2TP packet pass through.
Apply Changes
Click the Apply Changes button to complete the new
configuration setting.
Reset
Click the Reset button to abort change and recover the
previous configuration setting.
PPPoE
Item
Description
PPPoE
Click to select PPPoE support on WAN interface. There
are user name, password, connection type and idle time
settings need to be done.
User Name
If you select the PPPoE support on WAN interface, fill in
the user name and password to login the PPPoE server.
Password
If you select the PPPoE support on WAN interface, fill in
the user name and password to login the PPPoE server.
Service Name
Fill in the service name of Service Name. The default
value is empty.
Connection Type
Select the connection type from pull-down menu. There
are Continuous, Connect on Demand and Manual
three types to select.
Continuous connection type means to setup the
connection through PPPoE protocol whenever this
WLAN AP Router is powered on.
Connect on Demand connection type means to setup
the connection through PPPoE protocol whenever you
send the data packets out through the WAN interface;
there are a watchdog implemented to close the PPPoE
connection while there are no data sent out longer than
the idle time set.
Manual connection type means to setup the connection
through the PPPoE protocol by clicking the Connect
button manually, and clicking the Disconnect button
manually.
Idle Time
If you select the PPPoE and Connect on Demand
connection type, fill in the idle time for auto-disconnect
function. Value can be between 1 and 1000 minutes.
MTU Size
Fill in the mtu size of MTU Size. The default value is
1400.
Attain DNS Automatically
Click to select getting DNS address for DHCP support.
Please select Set DNS Manually if the DHCP support is
selected.
Set DNS Manually
Click to select getting DNS address for DHCP support.
DNS 1
Fill in the IP address of Domain Name Server 1.
DNS 2
Fill in the IP address of Domain Name Server 2.
DNS 3
Fill in the IP address of Domain Name Server 3.
Clone MAC Address
Fill in the MAC address that is the MAC address to be
cloned.
Enable uPNP
Click the checkbox to enable uPNP function.
Enable IGMP Proxy
Click the checkbox to enable IGMP Proxy.
Enable Ping Access on WAN
Click the checkbox to enable WAN ICMP response.
Enable Web Server Access on WAN
Click the checkbox to enable web configuration from
WAN side.
Enable IPsec pass through on VPN
connection
Click the checkbox to enable IPSec packet pass through.
Enable PPTP pass through on VPN
connection
Click the checkbox to enable PPTP packet pass through.
Enable L2TP pass through on VPN
connection
Click the checkbox to enable L2TP packet pass through.
Apply Changes
Click the Apply Changes button to complete the new
configuration setting.
Reset
Click the Reset button to abort change and recover the
previous configuration setting.
PPTP
Enter topic text here.
Item
Description
PPTP
Allow user to make a tunnel with remote site directly to
secure the data transmission among the connection.
User can use embedded PPTP client supported by this
router to make a VPN connection.
Enable Dynamic Mode
Click to select PPTP Dynamic support on WAN interface
for IP address assigned automatically from a PPTP
server.
IP Address
If you select the PPTP support on WAN interface, fill in
the IP address for it.
Subnet Mask
If you select the PPTP support on WAN interface, fill in
the subnet mask for it.
Gateway
If you select the Static PPTP support on WAN interface,
fill in the gateway for WAN interface out going data
packets.
Server IP Address
Enter the IP address of the PPTP Server.
Server Domain Name
Assign Domain Name and dispatch to PPTP servers. It
is optional field.
User Name
If you select the PPTP support on WAN interface, fill in
the user name and password to login the PPTP server.
Password
If you select the PPTP support on WAN interface, fill in
the user name and password to login the PPTP server.
MTU Size
Fill in the mtu size of MTU Size. The default value is
1400.
Request MPPE Encryption
Click the checkbox to enable request MPPE encryption.
Attain DNS Automatically
Click to select getting DNS address for PPTP support.
Please select Set DNS Manually if the PPTP support is
selected.
Set DNS Manually
Click to select getting DNS address for PPTP support.
DNS 1
Fill in the IP address of Domain Name Server 1.
DNS 2
Fill in the IP address of Domain Name Server 2.
DNS 3
Fill in the IP address of Domain Name Server 3.
Clone MAC Address
Fill in the MAC address that is the MAC address to be
cloned.
Enable uPNP
Click the checkbox to enable uPNP function.
Enable IGMP Proxy
Click the checkbox to enable IGMP Proxy.
Enable Ping Access on WAN
Click the checkbox to enable WAN ICMP response.
Enable Web Server Access on WAN
Click the checkbox to enable web configuration from
WAN side.
Enable IPsec pass through on VPN
connection
Click the checkbox to enable IPSec packet pass through.
Enable PPTP pass through on VPN
connection
Click the checkbox to enable PPTP packet pass through.
Enable L2TP pass through on VPN
connection
Click the checkbox to enable L2TP packet pass through.
Apply Changes
Click the Apply Changes button to complete the new
configuration setting.
Reset
Click the Reset button to abort change and recover the
previous configuration setting.
Note: PPTP Gateway
Your ISP will provide you with the Gateway IP Address. If your LAN has a PPTP gateway, then enter that PPTP
gateway IP address here. If you do not have PPTP gateway then enter the ISP’s Gateway IP address above.
Firewall - Port Filtering
Entries in this table are used to restrict certain types of data packets from your local network to Internet through the
Gateway. Use of such filters can be helpful in securing or restricting your local network.
Item
Description
Enable Port Filtering
Click to enable the port filtering security function.
Port Range Protocol
Comments
To restrict data transmission from the local network on certain
ports, fill in the range of start-port and end-port, and the
protocol, also put your comments on it.
The Protocol can be TCP, UDP or Both.
Comments let you know about whys to restrict data from the
ports.
Apply Changes
Click the Apply Changes button to complete the new
configuration setting.
Reset
Click the Reset button to abort change and recover the
previous configuration setting.
Delete Selected
Click to delete the selected port range that will be removed
from the port-filtering list.
Delete All
Click to delete all the registered entries from the port-filtering
list.
Reset
Click the Reset button to abort change and recover the
previous configuration setting.
Firewall - IP Filtering
Entries in this table are used to restrict certain types of data packets from your local network to Internet through the
Gateway. Use of such filters can be helpful in securing or restricting your local network.
Item
Description
Enable IP Filtering
Click to enable the IP filtering security function.
Local IP Address Protocol To restrict data transmission from local network on certain IP
Comments
addresses, fill in the IP address and the protocol, also put
your comments on it.
The Protocol can be TCP, UDP or Both.
Comments let you know about whys to restrict data from the
IP address.
Apply Changes
Click the Apply Changes button to complete the new
configuration setting.
Reset
Click the Reset button to abort change and recover the
previous configuration setting.
Delete Selected
Click to delete the selected port range that will be removed
from the IP-filtering list.
Delete All
Click to delete all the registered entries from the IP-filtering
list.
Reset
Click the Reset button to abort change and recover the
previous configuration setting.
Firewall - MAC Filtering
Entries in this table are used to restrict certain types of data packets from your local network to Internet through the
Gateway. Use of such filters can be helpful in securing or restricting your local network.
Item
Description
Enable MAC Filtering
Click to enable the MAC filtering security function.
MAC Address Comments
To restrict data transmission from local network on certain
MAC addresses, fill in the MAC address and your comments
on it.
Comments let you know about whys to restrict data from the
MAC address.
Apply Changes
Click the Apply Changes button to register the MAC
address to MAC filtering list.
Reset
Click the Reset button to abort change and recover the
previous configuration setting.
Delete Selected
Click to delete the selected port range that will be removed
from the MAC-filtering list.
Delete All
Click to delete all the registered entries from the MAC-filtering
list.
Reset
Click the Reset button to abort change and recover the
previous configuration setting.
Firewall - Port Forwarding
Entries in this table allow you to automatically redirect common network services to a specific machine behind the
NAT firewall. These settings are only necessary if you wish to host some sort of server like a web server or mail server
on the private local network behind your Gateway's NAT firewall.
Item
Description
Enable Port Forwarding
Click to enable the Port Forwarding security function.
Local IP Address Protocol To forward data packets coming from WAN to a specific IP
Port Range Comment
address that hosted in local network behind the NAT firewall,
fill in the IP address, protocol, port range and your comments.
The Protocol can be TCP, UDP or Both.
The Port Range for data transmission.
Comments let you know about whys to allow data packets
forward to the IP address and port number.
Apply Changes
Click the Apply Changes button to register the IP address
and port number to Port forwarding list.
Reset
Click the Reset button to abort change and recover the
previous configuration setting.
Delete Selected
Click to delete the selected IP address and port number that
will be removed from the port-forwarding list.
Delete All
Click to delete all the registered entries from the
port-forwarding list.
Reset
Click the Reset button to abort change and recover the
previous configuration setting.
Firewall - URL Filtering
URL Filtering is used to restrict users to access specific websites in internet.
Item
Description
Enable URL Filtering
Click to enable the URL Filtering function.
URL Address
Add one URL address.
Apply Changes
Click the Apply Changes button to save settings.
Reset
Click the Reset button to abort change and recover the
previous configuration setting.
Delete Selected
Click to delete the selected URL address that will be removed
from the URL Filtering list.
Delete All
Click to delete all the registered entries from the URL Filtering
list.
Reset
Click the Reset button to abort change and recover the
previous configuration setting.
Firewall - DMZ
A Demilitarized Zone is used to provide Internet services without sacrificing unauthorized access to its local private
network. Typically, the DMZ host contains devices accessible to Internet traffic, such as Web (HTTP) servers, FTP
servers, SMTP (e-mail) servers and DNS servers.
Item
Description
Enable DMZ
Click to enable the DMZ function.
DMZ Host IP Address
To support DMZ in your firewall design, fill in the IP address
of DMZ host that can be access from the WAN interface.
Apply Changes
Click the Apply Changes button to register the IP address of
DMZ host.
Reset
Click the Reset button to abort change and recover the
previous configuration setting.
Management - Statistics
This page shows the packet counters for transmission and reception regarding to wireless, Ethernet LAN and Ethernet
WAN networks.
Item
Description
Wireless LAN
Sent Packets
It shows the statistic count of sent packets on the wireless
LAN interface.
Received Packets
It shows the statistic count of received packets on the
wireless LAN interface.
Ethernet LAN
Sent Packets
It shows the statistic count of sent packets on the Ethernet
LAN interface.
Received Packets
It shows the statistic count of received packets on the
Ethernet LAN interface.
Ethernet WAN
Sent Packets
It shows the statistic count of sent packets on the Ethernet
WAN interface.
Received Packets
It shows the statistic count of received packets on the
Ethernet WAN interface.
Refresh
Click the refresh the statistic counters on the screen.
Management - DDNS
This page is used to configure Dynamic DNS service to have DNS with dynamic IP address.
Item
Description
Enable DDNS
Click the checkbox to enable DDNS service.
Service Provider
Click the drop down menu to pickup the right provider.
Domain Name
To configure the Domain Name.
User Name/Email
Configure User Name, Email.
Password/Key
Configure Password, Key.
Apply Change
Click the Apply Changes button to save the enable DDNS
service.
Reset
Click the Reset button to abort change and recover the
previous configuration setting.
Management - Time Zone Setting
Click the Reset button to abort change and recover the previous configuration setting.
Item
Description
Current Time
It shows the current time.
Time Zone Select
Click the time zone in your country.
Enable NTP client update Click the checkbox to enable NTP client update.
NTP Server
Click select default or input NTP server IP address.
Apply Change
Click the Apply Changes button to save and enable NTP
client service.
Reset
Click the Reset button to abort change and recover the
previous configuration setting.
Refresh
Click the refresh the current time shown on the screen.
Management - Denial-of-Service
This page is used to enable and setup protection to prevent attack by hacker’s program. It provides more security for
users.
Item
Description
Enable DoS Prevention
Click the checkbox to enable DoS prevention.
Whole System Flood /
Per-Source IP Flood…
Enable and setup prevention in details.
Select ALL
Click the checkbox to enable all prevention items.
Clear ALL
Click the checkbox to disable all prevention items.
Apply Changes
Click the Apply Changes button to save above settings.
Management - Log
This page is used to configure the remote log server and shown the current log.
Item
Description
Enable Log
Click the checkbox to enable log.
System all
Show all log of wireless broadband router.
Wireless
Only show wireless log
DoS
Only show Denial-of-Service log
Enable Remote Log
Click the checkbox to enable remote log service.
Log Server IP Address
Input the remote log IP address.
Apply Changes
Click the Apply Changes button to save above settings.
Refresh
Click the refresh the log shown on the screen.
Clear
Clear log display screen.
Management - Upgrade Firmware
This page allows you upgrade the Access Point firmware to new version. Please note, do not power off the device
during the upload because it may crash the system.
Item
Description
Select File
Click the Browse button to select the new version of web firmware
image file.
Upload
Click the Upload button to update the selected web firmware image to
the WLAN Broadband Router.
Reset
Click the Reset button to abort change and recover the previous
configuration setting.
Management - Save/ Reload Settings
This page allows you save current settings to a file or reload the settings from the file that was saved previously.
Besides, you could reset the current configuration to factory default.
Item
Description
Save Settings to File
Click the Save button to download the configuration parameters to your
personal computer.
Load Settings from File
Click the Browse button to select the configuration files then click the
Upload button to update the selected configuration to the WLAN
Broadband Router.
Reset Settings to Default
Click the Reset button to reset the configuration parameter to factory
defaults.
Management - Password Setup
This page is used to set the account to access the web server of Access Point. Empty user name and password will
disable the protection.
Item
Description
User Name
Fill in the user name for web management login control.
New Password
Fill in the password for web management login control.
Confirmed Password Because the password input is invisible, so please fill in the password again
for confirmation purpose.
Apply Changes
Clear the User Name and Password fields to empty, means to apply no web
management login control.
Click the Apply Changes button to complete the new configuration setting.
Reset
Click the Reset button to abort change and recover the previous configuration
setting.
FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS (FAQ)
Enter topic text here.
What and how to find my PC’s IP and MAC address?
IP address is the identifier for a computer or device on a TCP/IP network. Networks using the TCP/IP protocol route
messages based on the IP address of the destination. The format of an IP address is a 32-bit numeric address written
as four numbers separated by periods. Each number can be zero to 255. For example, 191.168.1.254 could be an IP
address.
The MAC (Media Access Control) address is your computer's unique hardware number. (On an Ethernet LAN, it's the
same as your Ethernet address.) When you're connected to the Internet from your computer (or host as the Internet
protocol thinks of it), a correspondence table relates your IP address to your computer's physical (MAC) address on
the LAN.
To find your PC’s IP and MAC address,
Open the Command program in the Microsoft Windows.
Type in ipconfig /all then press the Enter button.
Your PC’s IP address is the one entitled IP Address and your PC’s MAC address is the one entitled Physical
Address.
What is Wireless LAN?
A wireless LAN (WLAN) is a network that allows access to Internet without the need for any wired connections to the
user’s machine.
What are ISM bands?
ISM stands for Industrial, Scientific and Medical; radio frequency bands that the Federal Communications Commission
(FCC) authorized for wireless LANs. The ISM bands are located at 915 +/- 13 MHz, 2450 +/- 50 MHz and 5800 +/- 75
MHz.
How does wireless networking work?
The 802.11 standard define two modes: infrastructure mode and ad hoc mode. In infrastructure mode, the wireless
network consists of at least one access point connected to the wired network infrastructure and a set of wireless end
stations. This configuration is called a Basic Service Set (BSS). An Extended Service Set (ESS) is a set of two or
more BSSs forming a single subnetwork. Since most corporate WLANs require access to the wired LAN for services
(file servers, printers, Internet links) they will operate in infrastructure mode.
Example 1: wireless Infrastructure Mode
Ad hoc mode (also called peer-to-peer mode or an Independent Basic Service Set, or IBSS) is simply a set of 802.11
wireless stations that communicate directly with one another without using an access point or any connection to a
wired network. This mode is useful for quickly and easily setting up a wireless network anywhere that a wireless
infrastructure does not exist or is not required for services, such as a hotel room, convention center, or airport, or
where access to the wired network is barred (such as for consultants at a client site).
Example 2: wireless Ad Hoc Mode
What is BSSID?
A six-byte address that distinguishes a particular a particular access point from others. Also know as just SSID.
Serves as a network ID or name.
What is ESSID?
The Extended Service Set ID (ESSID) is the name of the network you want to access. It is used to identify different
wireless networks.
What are potential factors that may causes interference?
Factors of interference:
Obstacles: walls, ceilings, furniture… etc.
Building Materials: metal door, aluminum studs.
Electrical devices: microwaves, monitors and electrical motors.
Solutions to overcome the interferences:
Minimizing the number of walls and ceilings.
Position the WLAN antenna for best reception.
Keep WLAN devices away from other electrical devices, eg: microwaves, monitors, electric motors, … etc.
Add additional WLAN Access Points if necessary.
What are the Open System and Shared Key authentications?
IEEE 802.11 supports two subtypes of network authentication services: open system and shared key. Under open
system authentication, any wireless station can request authentication. The station that needs to authenticate with
another wireless station sends an authentication management frame that contains the identity of the sending station.
The receiving station then returns a frame that indicates whether it recognizes the sending station. Under shared key
authentication, each wireless station is assumed to have received a secret shared key over a secure channel that is
independent from the 802.11 wireless network communications channel.
What is WEP?
An optional IEEE 802.11 function that offers frame transmission privacy similar to a wired network. The Wired
Equivalent Privacy generates secret shared encryption keys that both source and destination stations can use to alert
frame bits to avoid disclosure to eavesdroppers.
WEP relies on a secret key that is shared between a mobile station (e.g. a laptop with a wireless Ethernet card) and
an access point (i.e. a base station). The secret key is used to encrypt packets before they are transmitted, and an
integrity check is used to ensure that packets are not modified in transit.
What is Fragment Threshold?
The proposed protocol uses the frame fragmentation mechanism defined in IEEE 802.11 to achieve parallel
transmissions. A large data frame is fragmented into several fragments each of size equal to fragment threshold. By
tuning the fragment threshold value, we can get varying fragment sizes. The determination of an efficient fragment
threshold is an important issue in this scheme. If the fragment threshold is small, the overlap part of the master and
parallel transmissions is large. This means the spatial reuse ratio of parallel transmissions is high. In contrast, with a
large fragment threshold, the overlap is small and the spatial reuse ratio is low. However high fragment threshold
leads to low fragment overhead. Hence there is a trade-off between spatial re-use and fragment overhead.
Fragment threshold is the maximum packet size used for fragmentation. Packets larger than the size programmed in
this field will be fragmented.
If you find that your corrupted packets or asymmetric packet reception (all send packets, for example). You may want
to try lowering your fragmentation threshold. This will cause packets to be broken into smaller fragments. These small
fragments, if corrupted, can be resent faster than a larger fragment. Fragmentation increases overhead, so you'll want
to keep this value as close to the maximum value as possible.
What is RTS (Request To Send) Threshold?
The RTS threshold is the packet size at which packet transmission is governed by the RTS/CTS transaction. The
IEEE 802.11-1997 standard allows for short packets to be transmitted without RTS/CTS transactions. Each station
can have a different RTS threshold. RTS/CTS is used when the data packet size exceeds the defined RTS threshold.
With the CSMA/CA transmission mechanism, the transmitting station sends out an RTS packet to the receiving station,
and waits for the receiving station to send back a CTS (Clear to Send) packet before sending the actual packet data.
This setting is useful for networks with many clients. With many clients, and a high network load, there will be many
more collisions. By lowering the RTS threshold, there may be fewer collisions, and performance should improve.
Basically, with a faster RTS threshold, the system can recover from problems faster. RTS packets consume valuable
bandwidth, however, so setting this value too low will limit performance.
What is Beacon Interval?
In addition to data frames that carry information from higher layers, 802.11 includes management and control frames
that support data transfer. The beacon frame, which is a type of management frame, provides the "heartbeat" of a
wireless LAN, enabling stations to establish and maintain communications in an orderly fashion.
Beacon Interval represents the amount of time between beacon transmissions. Before a station enters power save
mode, the station needs the beacon interval to know when to wake up to receive the beacon (and learn whether there
are buffered frames at the access point).
What is Preamble Type?
There are two preamble types defined in IEEE 802.11 specification. A long preamble basically gives the decoder more
time to process the preamble. All 802.11 devices support a long preamble. The short preamble is designed to improve
efficiency (for example, for VoIP systems). The difference between the two is in the Synchronization field. The long
preamble is 128 bits, and the short is 56 bits.
What is SSID Broadcast?
Broadcast of SSID is done in access points by the beacon. This announces your access point (including various bits
of information about it) to the wireless world around it. By disabling that feature, the SSID configured in the client must
match the SSID of the access point.
Some wireless devices don't work properly if SSID isn't broadcast (for example the D-link DWL-120 USB 802.11b
adapter). Generally if your client hardware supports operation with SSID disabled, it's not a bad idea to run that way to
enhance network security. However it's no replacement for WEP, MAC filtering or other protections.
What is Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA)?
Wi-Fi’s original security mechanism, Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP), has been viewed as insufficient for securing
confidential business communications. A longer-term solution, the IEEE 802.11i standard, is under development.
However, since the IEEE 802.11i standard is not expected to be published until the end of 2003, several members of
the WI-Fi Alliance teamed up with members of the IEEE 802.11i task group to develop a significant near-term
enhancement to Wi-Fi security. Together, this team developed Wi-Fi Protected Access.
To upgrade a WLAN network to support WPA, Access Points will require a WPA software upgrade. Clients will require
a software upgrade for the network interface card, and possibly a software update for the operating system. For
enterprise networks, an authentication server, typically one that supports RADIUS and the selected EAP
authentication protocol, will be added to the network.
What is WPA2?
It is the second generation of WPA. WPA2 is based on the final IEEE 802.11i amendment to the 802.11 standard.
What is 802.1x Authentication?
802.1x is a framework for authenticated MAC-level access control, defines Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP)
over LANs (WAPOL). The standard encapsulates and leverages much of EAP, which was defined for dial-up
authentication with Point-to-Point Protocol in RFC 2284.
Beyond encapsulating EAP packets, the 802.1x standard also defines EAPOL messages that convey the shared key
information critical for wireless security.
What is Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP)?
The Temporal Key Integrity Protocol, pronounced tee-kip, is part of the IEEE 802.11i encryption standard for wireless
LANs. TKIP is the next generation of WEP, the Wired Equivalency Protocol, which is used to secure 802.11 wireless
LANs. TKIP provides per-packet key mixing, a message integrity check and a re-keying mechanism, thus fixing the
flaws of WEP.
What is Advanced Encryption Standard (AES)?
Security issues are a major concern for wireless LANs, AES is the U.S. government’s next-generation cryptography
algorithm, which will replace DES and 3DES.
What is Inter-Access Point Protocol (IAPP)?
The IEEE 802.11f Inter-Access Point Protocol (IAPP) supports Access Point Vendor interoperability, enabling roaming
of 802.11 Stations within IP subnet.
IAPP defines messages and data to be exchanged between Access Points and between the IAPP and high layer
management entities to support roaming. The IAPP protocol uses TCP for inter-Access Point communication and
UDP for RADIUS request/response exchanges. It also uses Layer 2 frames to update the forwarding tables of Layer 2
devices.
What is Wireless Distribution System (WDS)?
The Wireless Distribution System feature allows WLAN AP to talk directly to other APs via wireless channel, like the
wireless bridge or repeater service.
What is Universal Plug and Play (uPNP)?
UPnP is an open networking architecture that consists of services, devices, and control points. The ultimate goal is to
allow data communication among all UPnP devices regardless of media, operating system, programming language,
and wired/wireless connection.
What is Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU) Size?
Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU) indicates the network stack of any packet is larger than this value will be
fragmented before the transmission. During the PPP negotiation, the peer of the PPP connection will indicate its MRU
and will be accepted. The actual MTU of the PPP connection will be set to the smaller one of MTU and the peer’s
MRU. The default is value 1400.
What is Clone MAC Address?
Clone MAC address is designed for your special application that request the clients to register to a server machine
with one identified MAC address. Since that all the clients will communicate outside world through the WLAN
Broadband Router, so have the cloned MAC address set on the WLAN Broadband Router will solve the issue.
What is DDNS?
DDNS is the abbreviation of Dynamic Domain Name Server. It is designed for user own the DNS server with dynamic
WAN IP address.
What is NTP Client?
NTP client is designed for fetching the current timestamp from internet via Network Time protocol. User can specify
time zone, NTP server IP address.
What is VPN?
VPN is the abbreviation of Virtual Private Network. It is designed for creating point-to point private link via shared or
public network.
What is IPSEC?
IPSEC is the abbreviation of IP Security. It is used to transferring data securely under VPN.
What is WLAN Block Relay Between Clients?
An Infrastructure Basic Service Set is a BSS with a component called an Access Point (AP). The access point
provides a local relay function for the BSS. All stations in the BSS communicate with the access point and no longer
communicate directly. All frames are relayed between stations by the access point. This local relay function effectively
doubles the range of the IBSS.
What is WMM?
WMM is based on a subset of the IEEE 802.11e WLAN QoS draft standard. WMM adds prioritized capabilities to
Wi-Fi networks and optimizes their performance when multiple concurring applications, each with different latency and
throughput requirements, compete for network resources. By using WMM, end-user satisfaction is maintained in a
wider variety of environments and traffic conditions. WMM makes it possible for home network users and enterprise
network managers to decide which data streams are most important and assign them a higher traffic priority.
What is WLAN ACK TIMEOUT?
ACK frame has to receive ACK timeout frame. If remote does not receive in specified period, it will be retransmitted.
What is Modulation Coding Scheme (MCS)?
MCS is Wireless link data rate for 802.11n. The throughput/range performance of a AP will depend on its
implementation of coding schemes. MCS includes variables such as the number of spatial streams, modulation, and
the data rate on each stream. Radios establishing and maintaining a link must automatically negotiate the optimum
MCS based on channel conditions and then continuously adjust the selection of MCS as conditions change due to
interference, motion, fading, and other events.
What is Frame Aggregation?
Every 802.11 packet, no matter how small, has a fixed amount of overhead associated with it. Frame Aggregation
combines multiple smaller packets together to form one larger packet. The larger packet can be sent without the
overhead of the individual packets. This technique helps improve the efficiency of the 802.11n radio allowing more
end user data to be sent in a given time.
What is Guard Intervals (GI)?
A GI is a period of time between symbol transmission that allows reflections (from multipath) from the previous data
transmission to settle before transmitting a new symbol. The 802.11n draft specifies two guard intervals: 400ns (short)
and 800ns (long). Support of the 400ns GI is optional for transmit and receive. The purpose of a guard interval is to
introduce immunity to propagation delays, echoes, and reflections to which digital data is normally very sensitive.
Configuration examples
Example one - PPPoE on the WAN
Sales division of Company ABC likes to establish a WLAN network to support mobile communication on sales’
Notebook PCs. MIS engineer collects information and plans the WLAN Broadband Router implementation by the
following configuration.
WAN configuration:PPPoE
User Name
Password
84549386
2uprlamv
Note:User Name and Password.ISP provide.
LAN configuration:
IP Address
192.168.1.254
Subnet Mask
255.255.255.0
Default Gateway
0.0.0.0
DHCP Client Range
192.168.1.100 – 192.168.1.200
WLAN configuration:
SSID
Channel Number
AP
11
1. Configure the WAN interface:
Open WAN Interface Setup page, select PPPoE then enter the User Name “84549386” and Password “2uprlamv”,
the password is encrypted to display on the screen.
Press
button to confirm the configuration setting.
2. Configure the LAN interface:
Open LAN Interface Setup page, enter the IP Address “192.168.1.254”, Subnet Mask “255.255.255.0”, Default
Gateway “0.0.0.0”, enable DHCP Server, DHCP client range “192.168.1.100” to “192.168.1.200”.
Press
button to confirm the configuration setting.
3. Configure the WLAN interface:
Open WLAN Interface Setup page, enter the SSID “AP”, Channel Number “11”.
Press
button to confirm the configuration setting.
Example two - fixed IP on the WAN
Company ABC likes to establish a WLAN network to support mobile communication on all employees’ Notebook PCs.
MIS engineer collects information and plans the WLAN Broadband Router implementation by the following
configuration.
WAN configuration:Fixed IP
IP Address
Subnet Mask
Default Gateway
DNS Address
LAN configuration:
IP Address
Subnet Mask
Default Gateway
DHCP Client Range
192.168.2.254
255.255.255.0
192.168.2.10
168.95.1.1
192.168.1.254
255.255.255.0
192.168.2.254
192.168.1.100 – 192.168.1.200
WLAN configuration:
SSID
Channel Number
AP
11
1. Configure the WAN interface:
Open WAN Interface Setup page, select Fixed IP then enter IP Address “192.168.2.254”, subnet mask
“255.255.255.0”, Default gateway “192.168.2.10”.
Press
button to confirm the configuration setting.
2. Configure the LAN interface:
Open LAN Interface Setup page, enter the IP Address “192.168.1.254”, Subnet Mask “255.255.255.0”, enable DHCP
Server, DHCP client range “192.168.1.100” to “192.168.1.200”.
Press
button to confirm the configuration setting.
3. Configure the WLAN interface:
Open WLAN Interface Setup page, enter the SSID “AP”, Channel Number “11”.
Press
button to confirm the configuration setting.
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