AquiferTest v.4.2 User`s Manual

AquiferTest v.4.2 User`s Manual
AquiferTest v.4.2
User’s Manual
Advanced Pumping Test & Slug Test Analysis Software
© 2008, Co-developed by Thomas Röhrich and
Schlumberger Water Services
Preface
Schlumberger Water Services (SWS) is a recognized leader in the development and application of
innovative groundwater technologies in addition to offering expert services and professional training to
meet the advancing technological requirements of today’s groundwater and environmental professionals.
Waterloo Hydrogeologic Software (WHS) consists of a complete suite of environmental software
applications engineered for data management and analysis, modeling and simulation, visualization, and
reporting. WHS is currently developed by SWS and sold globally as a suite of desktop solutions.
For over 18 years, our products and services have been used by firms, regulatory agencies, and
educational institutions around the world. We develop each product to maximize productivity and
minimize the complexities associated with groundwater and environmental projects. To date, we have
over 14,000 registered software installations in more than 85 countries!
Need more information?
If you would like to contact us with comments or suggestions, you can reach us at:
Schlumberger Water Services
460 Phillip Street - Suite 101
Waterloo, Ontario, CANADA, N2L 5J2
Phone: +1 (519) 746-1798
Fax: +1 (519) 885-5262
General Inquiries: [email protected]
Web: www.swstechnology.com, www.water.slb.com
Obtaining Technical Support
To help us handle your technical support questions as quickly as possible, please have the following
information ready before you call, or include it in a detailed technical support e-mail:
• A complete description of the problem including a summary of key strokes and program event
(or a screen capture showing the error message, where applicable)
• Product name and version number
• Product serial number
• Computer make and model number
• Operating system and version number
• Total free RAM
• Number of free bytes on your hard disk
• Software installation directory
• Directory location for your current project files
You may send us your questions via e-mail, fax, or call one of our technical support specialists. Please
allow up to two business days for a response. Technical support is available 8:00 am to 5:00 pm EST
Monday to Friday (excluding Canadian holidays).
Phone: +1 (519) 746-1798
Fax: +1 (519) 885-5262
E-mail: [email protected]
Training and Consulting Services
Schlumberger Water Services offers numerous, high quality training courses globally. Our courses are
designed to provide a rapid introduction to essential knowledge and skills, and create a basis for further
professional development and real-world practice. Open enrollment courses are offered worldwide each
year. For the current schedule of courses, visit: www.swstechnology.com/training or e-mail us at: [email protected]
Schlumberger Water Services also offers expert consulting and peer reviewing services for data
management, groundwater modeling, aqueous geochemical analysis, and pumping test analysis. For
further information, please contact [email protected]
Waterloo Hydrogeologic Software
We also develop and distribute a number of other useful software products for the groundwater
professionals, all designed to increase your efficiency and enhance your technical capability, including:
• Visual MODFLOW Premium*
• HydroGeo Analyst*
• Aquifer Test Pro*
• AquaChem*
• GW Contour*
• UnSat Suite Plus*
• Visual HELP*
• Visual PEST-ASP
• Visual Groundwater*
Visual MODFLOW Premium
Visual MODFLOW Premium is a three-dimensional groundwater flow and contaminant transport
modeling application that integrates MODFLOW-2000, SEAWAT-2000, MODPATH, MT3DMS,
iv
MT3D99, RT3D, VMOD 3D-Explorer, WinPEST, Stream Routing Package, Zone Budget, MGO,
SAMG, and PHT3D. Applications include well head capture zone delineation, pumping well
optimization, aquifer storage and recovery, groundwater remediation design, simulating natural
attenuation, and saltwater intrusion.
Hydro GeoAnalyst
HydroGeo Analyst is an information management system for managing groundwater and environmental
data. HydroGeo Analyst combines numerous pre and post processing components into a single program.
Components include, Project Wizard, Universal Data Transfer System, Template Manager, Materials
Specification Editor, Query Builder, QA/QC Reporter, Map Manager, Cross Section Editor, HGA 3DExplorer, Borehole Log Plotter, and Report Editor. The seamless integration of these tools provide the
means for compiling and normalizing field data, analyzing and reporting subsurface data, mapping and
assessing spatial information, and reporting site data.
AquiferTest Pro
AquiferTest Pro, designed for graphical analysis and reporting of pumping test and slug test data, offers
the tools necessary to calculate an aquifer's hydraulic properties such as hydraulic conductivity,
transmissivity, and storativity. AquiferTest Pro is versatile enough to consider confined aquifers,
unconfined aquifers, leaky aquifers, and fractured rock aquifers conditions. Analysis results are
displayed in report format, or may be exported into graphical formats for use in presentations.
AquiferTest Pro also provides the tools for trends corrections, and graphical contouring water table
drawdown around the pumping well.
AquaChem
AquaChem is designed for the management, analysis, and reporting of water quality data. AquaChem’s
analysis capabilities cover a wide range of functions and calculations frequently used for analyzing,
interpreting and comparing water quality data. AquaChem includes a comprehensive selection of
commonly used plotting techniques to represent the chemical characteristics of aqueous geochemical
and water quality data, as well includes PHREEQC - a powerful geochemical reaction model.
GW Contour
The GW Contour data interpolation and contouring program incorporates techniques for mapping
velocity vectors and particle tracks. GW Contour incorporates the most commonly used 2D data
interpolation techniques for the groundwater and environmental industry including Natural Neighbor,
Inverse Distance, Kriging, and Bilinear. GW Contour is designed for contouring surface or water levels,
contaminant concentrations, or other spatial data.
v
UnSat Suite Plus
UnSat Suite Plus seamlessly integrates multiple one-dimensional unsaturated zone flow and solute
transport models into a single, intuitive working environment. Models include SESOIL, VS2DT,
VLEACH, PESTAN, Visual HELP and the International Weather Generator. The combination of
models offers users the ability for simulating the downward vertical flow of water and the migration of
dissolved contaminants through the vadose zone. UnSat Suite Plus includes tools for project
management, generating synthetic weather data, modeling flow and contaminants through the
unsaturated zone, estimating groundwater recharge and contaminant loading rates, and preparing
compliance reports.
Visual HELP
Visual HELP is a one-dimensional, unsaturated zone flow modeling application built for optimizing the
hydrologic design of municipal landfills. Visual HELP is based on the US E.P.A . HELP model
(Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance) and has been integrated into a 32-Bit Windows
application. It combines the International Weather Generator, Landfill Profile Designer, and Report
Editor. Applications include designing landfill profiles, predicting leachate mounding, and evaluating
potential leachate seepage to the groundwater.
Visual PEST-ASP
Visual PEST-ASP combines the powerful parameter estimation capabilities of PEST-ASP, with the
graphical processing and display features of WinPEST. Visual PEST-ASP can be used to assist in data
interpretation, model calibration and predictive analysis by optimizing model parameters to fit a set of
observations. This popular estimation package achieves model independence through its capacity to
communicate with a model through its input and output files.
Visual Groundwater
Visual Groundwater is a visualization software package that delivers high-quality, three-dimensional
representations of subsurface characterization data and groundwater modeling results. Combining
graphical tools for three-dimensional visualization and animation, Visual Groundwater also features a
data management system specifically designed for borehole investigation data. The graphical display
features allow the user to display site maps, discrete data contours, isosurfaces and cross sectional views
of the data.
Groundwater Instrumentation
Diver-NETZ
Diver-NETZ is an all-inclusive groundwater monitoring network system that integrates high-quality
field instrumentation with the industries latest communications and data management technologies. All
of the Diver-NETZ components are designed to optimize your project workflow from collecting and
recording groundwater data in the field - to project delivery in the office.
*Mark of Schlumberger
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Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
What’s New in AquiferTest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4
New Features in Version 4.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4
New Features in Version 4.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4
New Features in Version 4.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5
Installing AquiferTest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8
System Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8
Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9
Updating Old Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10
Learning AquiferTest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10
Online Help . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10
Sample Exercises and Tutorials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10
Suggested Reference Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10
About the Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11
Getting Around. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12
Navigation Tabs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13
Menu Bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16
AquiferTest Toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17
Project Navigator Panels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18
2. Getting Started . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Creating a Pumping Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19
Pumping Test Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20
Discharge Rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26
Water Level Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26
Creating a Pumping Test Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34
Reports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39
Creating a Slug Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40
Slug Test Information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41
Water Level Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43
Creating a Slug Test Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44
Reports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47
3. General Info and Main Menu Bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
General Info . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49
Project Navigator Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49
Data Entry and Analysis Tabs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .52
Main Menu Bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .86
File Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .86
Edit Menu. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .98
View Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .101
Table of Contents
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Test Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Analysis Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tools Menu. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Help Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
103
105
108
116
4. Theory and Analysis Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
Graphing Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
Diagnostic Plots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
Analysis Plots and Options. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
Analysis Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
Automatic Curve Fitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
Manual Curve Fitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
Theory of Superposition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
Variable Discharge Rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Multiple Pumping Wells. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Boundary Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Effects of Vertical Anisotropy and Partially Penetrating Wells. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
132
134
135
140
Pumping Test Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
Radial Flow to a Well in a Confined Aquifer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
Pumping Test Methods - Fixed Assumptions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
Theis Recovery Test (confined) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
Cooper-Jacob Method (confined; small r or large time) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
Pumping Test Methods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
Drawdown vs. Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Drawdown vs. Time with Discharge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Confined - Theis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Leaky - Hantush-Jacob (Walton) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hantush - Storage in Aquitard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unconfined, Isotropic - Theis with Jacob Correction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unconfined, Anisotropic. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fracture Flow, Double Porosity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Single Well Analysis with Well Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Large Diameter Wells with WellBore Storage - Papadopulos-Cooper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Recovery Analysis - Agarwal Solution (1980). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
152
153
154
157
160
163
165
171
181
181
186
Well Performance Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
Specific Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
Hantush-Bierschenk Well Loss Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
Slug Test Solution Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199
Bouwer-Rice Slug Test. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199
Hvorslev Slug Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
Cooper-Bredehoeft-Papadopulos Slug Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212
5. Data Pre-Processing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
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Table of Contents
Baseline Trend Analysis and Correction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .215
Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .216
Customized Water Level Trends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .218
Barometric Trend Analysis and Correction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .220
Modifying Corrections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .228
Deleting Corrections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .228
6. Mapping and Contouring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231
About the Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .231
Data Series . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .236
Contouring and Color Shading Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .238
Contour lines tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .238
Color Shading tab. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .239
Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .240
7. Demonstration Exercises and Benchmark Tests . . . . . . . . . . 245
Exercise 1: Confined Aquifer - Theis Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .246
Exercise 2: Leaky Aquifer - Hantush - Jacob Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .254
Exercise 3: Recovery Data Analysis - Agarwal Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .262
Exercise 4: Confined Aquifer, Multiple Pumping Wells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .270
Determining Aquifer Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .270
Determining the Effect of a Second Pumping Well . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .276
Predicting Drawdown at Any Distance from the Pumping well . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .279
Exercise 5: Adding Data Trend Correction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .283
Exercise 6: Adding Barometric Correction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .287
Exercise 7: Slug Test Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .292
Additional AquiferTest Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .298
Table of Contents
xi
xii
Table of Contents
1
Introduction
Congratulations on your purchase of AquiferTest, the most popular software package
available for graphical analysis and reporting of pumping test and slug test data!
AquiferTest is designed by hydrogeologists for hydrogeologists giving you all the
tools you need to efficiently manage hydraulic testing results and provide a selection of
the most commonly used solution methods for data analysis - all in the familiar and
easy-to-use Microsoft Windows environment.
AquiferTest has the following key features and enhancements:
• Runs as a native Windows 32-bit application
• Easy-to-use, intuitive interface
• Solution methods for unconfined, confined, leaky confined and fractured rock
aquifers
• Derivative drawdown plots
• Professional style report templates
• Easily create and compare multiple analysis methods for the same data set
• Step test/well loss methods
• Single well solutions
• Universal Data Logger Import utility (supports a wide variety of column
delimiters and file layouts).
• Support for Level Loggers and Diver Dataloggers
• Import well locations and geometry from an ASCII file
• Import water level data from text or Excel format
• Windows clipboard support for cutting and pasting of data into grids, and
output graphics directly into your project report
• Site map support for .dxf files and bitmap (.bmp) images
• Contouring of drawdown data
• Dockable, customizable tool bar and navigation panels
• Numerous short-cut keys to speed program navigation
AquiferTest provides a flexible, user-friendly environment that will allow you to
become more efficient in your aquifer testing projects. Data can be directly entered in
AquiferTest via the keyboard, imported from a Microsoft Excel workbook file, or
imported from any data logger file (in ASCII format). Test data can also be inserted
1
from a Windows text editor, spreadsheet, or database by “cutting and pasting” through
the clipboard.
Automatic type curve fitting to a data set can be performed for standard graphical
solution methods in AquiferTest. However, you are encouraged to use your
professional judgement to validate the graphical match based on your knowledge of the
geologic and hydrogeologic setting of the test. To easily refine the curve fit, you can
manually fit the data to a type curve using the parameter controls.
With AquiferTest, you can analyze two types of test results:
[1]
Pumping tests, where water is pumped from a well and the change in water level
is measured inside one or more observation wells (or, in some cases, inside the
pumping well itself). You can present data in three different forms:
• Time versus water level
• Time versus discharge (applicable for variable rate pumping tests)
• Discharge versus water level (applicable for well performance analysis)
The following pumping test analysis methods are available, with fixed analysis
assumptions:
•
•
•
•
Cooper-Jacob Time Drawdown
Cooper-Jacob Distance-Drawdown
Cooper-Jacob Time-Distance-Drawdown
Theis Recovery
With these analysis methods, it is not possible to modify the model assumptions. For
more details, please see see “Pumping Test Methods - Fixed Assumptions” on page 145
The following pumping test analysis methods allow adjusting the model assumptions
for customized analysis:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Theis (1935)
Hantush-Jacob (Walton) (1955)
Neuman (1975)
Theis with Jacob Correction
Warren Root Double Porosity (Fracture Flow)
Papadopulos - Cooper (1967)
Agarwal Recovery
Moench Fracture Flow (1984)
Hantush with storage (1960)
With these analysis methods, it is possible to adjust the model assumptions to match the
pumping test conditions. For more details, please see see “Pumping Test Methods” on
page 152.
Finally, the following test is available for analyzing well performance
• Specific Capacity Test
2
Chapter 1: Introduction
• Hantush-Bierschenk Well Losses
[2]
Slug (or bail) tests, where a slug is inserted into a well (or removed from a well)
and the change in water level in the side well is measured. You can have data in
one form:
• Time versus water level
The following slug test analysis methods are available:
• Hvorslev (1951)
• Bouwer-Rice (1976)
• Cooper-Bredehoeft-Papadopulos (1967)
The exercises in Chapter 7: Demonstration Exercises and Benchmark Tests, will
introduce you to many features of AquiferTest.
3
1.1 What’s New in AquiferTest
The main interface for AquiferTest has much of the same user-friendly look and feel as
the previous version, but with some significant improvements to analysis. Some of the
more significant upgrade features in the latest versions of AquiferTest are described
below.
1.1.1 New Features in Version 4.2
The following new features are available in Version 4.2
Analysis Methods
• Added Hantush-Bierschenk (1964) - step drawdown test, analysis of well loses.
Two data analysis options:
• Analyze discharge-water level data (for a step test, where steady-state is
reached in each step)
• Manually enter the time-discharge data and time-water level data, and extrapolate discharge-water levels from this data (appropriate for a step test,
where flow is at an unsteady-state).
• Added Moench Fracture Flow (1984) - analysis of fractured aquifers with a
fractured skin.
• Select from Transient or Pseudo-steady state block to fissure flow model
• Select sphere or slab block geometry.
• Added Hantush (1960) - Leaky aquifer, unsteady-state flow, accounts for
storage changes in the aquitard
Mapping
• Export drawdown contours to polyline shapefile (geometry and attributes)
• Export well locations to points shapefile (geometry and attributes)
• Import well locations from point shapefile (geometry and attributes)
Reports
• Added 4 user-defined report fields, with user-defined label name, text value
and style settings.
1.1.2 New Features in Version 4.1
The following new features are available in Version 4.1
4
Chapter 1: Introduction
Analysis Methods
• Added Theis Recovery analysis
• Added Cooper Jacob analysis
• Time-Drawdown
• Distance-Drawdown
• Time-Distance Drawdown
• Option show the Cooper Jacob validity line, and define different values
for "u"
• Added Boulton method; this analysis method is suitable for unconfined
aquifers, anisotropic or isotropic, with fully or partially penetrating wells. This
is an optional substitute for the Neuman analysis
• Added option to display Statistics for the Automatic fit, under the Analysis
menu. The statistics report may be saved to file .TXT or .XLS, or copied to a
clipboard, or printed as is
Maps and Contouring
• Export contour lines, modified the grid export routine, in order to have realworld x,y,z coordinates
• Added features to export to graphics format (.BMP) and copy to clipboard
Data Import
• Added support for .MON Diver Datalogger format
Units
• Added imperial gallons /min or /day also be included as a unit option for
discharge rate
1.1.3 New Features in Version 4.0
The following new features are available in Version 4.0.
Program Design
• The GUI in AquiferTest is easier to navigate and use. The data entry and
analysis are separated into 5 or 6 simple pages (tabs) depending on the type of
test used
• Windows XP browser panels can be used for short-cuts, or hidden from the
view
• Single file format (SDI application). Files are smaller in size, and more
manageable. There is one program window for each file/document. As such, it
What’s New in AquiferTest
5
is possible to open several instances of the program and working on several
files (projects) at the same time.
Analysis Features
• Analysis Plots: Choose from Drawdown plot or Type Curve (dimensionless) on
the fly
• Diagnostic Plots: compare observed data or drawdown derivative data to
standard curves in log-log or semi-log scales, to help determine aquifer type,
and diagnose the presence of well effects, boundary effects, leaky aquifer, etc.
before running the analysis.
• Automatically or manually fit a data set to type curves. Manually adjust
parameters for any analysis type, making any solution forward-predictive.
Analysis Methods
AquiferTest supports pumping test solutions for the following conditions:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Confined Aquifers
Unconfined Aquifers
Leaky Aquifers
Fracture Flow (Dual Porosity) Aquifers
Fully and partially penetrating Pumping wells and/or Observations wells or
Piezometers
Infinite extent of Aquifer or bounded by recharge or barrier boundary
Isotropic or Anisotropic Aquifer
Constant or Variable discharge rates
Single or Multiple pumping wells
Well losses and well storage
Agarwal Recovery analysis
For Slug tests, the following aquifer types are supported:
•
•
•
•
•
Confined Aquifers
Unconfined Aquifers
Leaky Aquifers
Fully and partially penetrating test wells
Large diameter well analysis (accounting for storage in the well)
Graphs
• More flexibility for graph settings (specify interval, max, min, log scale, grid
lines, etc.).
• Save custom graph settings, and set as defaults
• Floating parameters dialog for adjusting T, S, and K values for multiple wells
• Display calculated parameter values for all wells simultaneously
6
Chapter 1: Introduction
• Fit multiple wells to one type curve, simultaneously
• Display multiple drawdown or type curves simultaneously
• Use standard type curve, or derivative type curve for curve fitting and
parameter calculation
Site Maps
• Load and georeference a raster image or .DXF file containing a site plan.
• *Display contour lines or a color-shaded map of drawdown data, with an option
for a site map in the background. For more information see Chapter 6: Mapping
and Contouring.
NOTE: *Contouring and color shading available in AquiferTest Pro only.
Data Import and Management
• Import data from Excel, Text, .ASCII.
• Import data logger files, with pre-defined import settings for Level Loggers and
Diver Dataloggers
• Save data logger import settings for future use
• Import wells from text or excel files
• Data filter to reduce number of data points and improve calculation speed (it is
now possible to filter a data set AFTER it has have been imported)
• Filter option to keep data points where the discharge rate changes, to ensure that
critical data points are not lost.
• Import data from AquiferTest v.3.X database
Data Preprocessing Options
AquiferTest complies with the U.S. EPA Protocol: "U.S. EPA-SOP for Aquifer
Pumping Tests" (EPA/540/S-93/503), which requires pumping test data to be corrected
for barometric effects, and/or local/regional water level trends. There are three data preprocessing options now available:
• Data Trend Correction - determine if the water level trend affected pumping
test results. Run a t-test analysis on data set, to determine if trend is significant
or not. The drawdown can then be corrected according to the trends, and the
corrected drawdown data may be used for the calculation of the aquifer
parameters.
• Barometric Correction - Using the Barometric Efficiency (BE) of the aquifer,
determine if barometric influence was significant or not using a t-test analysis.
The drawdown can then be corrected according to the barometric effects, and
the corrected drawdown data may be used for the calculation of the aquifer
parameters.
What’s New in AquiferTest
7
• Create and save a custom data trend correction and apply it to a single well, or
all wells (for example, create a trend correction to account for the influence of
tidal effects during the pumping test)
NOTE: Data pre-processing options available in AquiferTest Pro only.
User Settings
• Save units as defaults for all new projects
• Easily change units and convert values on the fly.
• Display Transmissivity in units of US Gal / day-ft
Reports and Printing
• Customize company name, logo, and header info.
• Several standard pre-defined reports including:
• Site Map
• Wells
• Time vs. Drawdown Data
• Trend Correction Analysis
• Barometric Correction Analysis
• Analysis Plot
• Analysis Summary Results table
• It is now possible to print all reports at once, from one window, instead of
having to load data reports individually.
For more information on AquiferTest or to order an upgrade, please contact us at:
Schlumberger Water Services
460 Phillip Street - Suite 101
Waterloo, Ontario, Canada, N2L 5J2
Telephone: +519-746-1798
Fax: +519-885-5262
E-mail: [email protected]
Web: www.swstechnology.com
1.2 Installing AquiferTest
1.2.1 System Requirements
To run AquiferTest you need the following minimum system configuration:
• A CD-ROM drive for software installation
• A hard drive, with at least 35 MB free
• A local or network printer installed
8
Chapter 1: Introduction
• A Pentium processor, 300 MHz or better, with 128 MB RAM
• Windows 2000 Pro SP4 or Windows XP Pro, SP2, Windows Vista Business,
Enterprise or Ultimate. Note: Currently, Windows Vista Home Basic, Home
Premium and Starter versions are not supported.
• MSExcel (any version) installed
• A Microsoft or compatible mouse
• Minimum 600 x 800 screen resolution (1024 x 768 recommended)
• Recommended internet connection
1.2.2 Installation
AquiferTest is distributed on one CD-ROM.
Place the CD into your CD-ROM drive and the initial installation screen should load
automatically. Once loaded, an installation interface with several different tabs will be
presented.
Please take the time to explore the installation interface, as there is information
concerning other Schlumberger Water Services products, our worldwide distributors,
technical support, consulting, training, and how to contact us.
On the initial Installation tab, you may choose from the following two buttons:
• AquiferTest User’s Manual
• AquiferTest Installation
The User’s Manual button will display a PDF document of the manual, which requires
the Adobe Reader to view. If you do not have the Adobe Reader, a link has been created
in the interface to download the appropriate software.
The Installation button will initiate the installation of the software on your computer.
AquiferTest must be installed on your hard disk in order to run. If you are using
Windows XP or 2000, ensure that you have administrative rights for the installation and
software registration.
Please follow the installation instructions, and read the on-screen directions carefully.
After the installation is complete you should see the AquiferTest icon
on your
Desktop screen, labeled as such and/or have a link in your Programs menu to SWS
Software and consequently to AquiferTest. To start working with AquiferTest,
double-click this icon or navigate to the link described above.
NOTE: To install the software from the CD-ROM without the aid of the installation
interface, you can:
• Open Windows Explorer, and navigate to the CD-ROM drive
• Open the Installation folder
• Double-click on the installation file to initiate the installation
Installing AquiferTest
9
Follow the on-screen installation instructions, which will lead you through the install
and subsequently produce a desktop icon for you.
1.3 Updating Old Projects
AquiferTest is backwards compatible, and is able to open any projects from v.4.x and
v.3.x. It is recommended that you ALWAYS create a backup copy of any project files
before you open them in the new version. Specifically, ensure that you back up your
original MS Access database (.MDB), which contains all project data.
* Schlumberger Water Services is not responsible for any direct or indirect damages
caused to projects during conversion. It is strongly recommended that you create a
secure, independent back up of projects before converting.
1.4 Learning AquiferTest
1.4.1 Online Help
This User’s Manual is supplied to you in two forms: as a printed book, and as an on-line
help file. To view the electronic help version of this manual, select Help, then
Contents.
1.4.2 Sample Exercises and Tutorials
There are several sample projects included with AquiferTest, which demonstrate the
numerous features, and allow you to navigate and learn the program. Feel free to peruse
through these samples.
To begin working with your own data, please skip to Chapter 2: Getting Started, for a
step-by-step summary of how to create a pumping test, and how to create a slug test.
1.4.3 Suggested Reference Material
Additional information can be obtained from hydrogeology texts such as:
• Freeze, R.A. and J.A. Cherry, 1979. Groundwater, Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey 07632, 604 p.
• Kruseman, G.P. and N.A. de Ridder, 1990. Analysis and Evaluation of Pumping
Test Data Second Edition (Completely Revised) ILRI publication 47. Intern.
Inst. for Land Reclamation and Improvements, Wageningen, Netherlands, 377
p.
• Fetter, C.W., 1994. Applied Hydrogeology, Third Edition, Prentice-Hall, Inc.,
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, 691 p.
10
Chapter 1: Introduction
• Dominico, P.A. and F.W. Schwartz, 1990. Physical and Chemical
Hydrogeology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 824 p.
• Driscoll, F. G., 1987. Groundwater and Wells, Johnson Division, St. Paul,
Minnesota 55112, 1089 p.
In addition, several key publications are cited at the end of Chapter 4.
1.5 About the Interface
AquiferTest is designed to automate the most common tasks that hydrogeologists and
other water supply professionals typically encounter when planning and analyzing the
results of an aquifer test. The program design allows you to efficiently manage all
information from your aquifer test and perform more analyses in less time. For
example, you need to enter information about your testing wells (e.g. X and Y
coordinates, elevation, screen length, etc.) only once in AquiferTest. After you create a
well, you can see it in the navigator panel, or in the wells grid.
When you import data or create an analysis, you specify which wells to include from
the list of available wells in the project. If you decide to perform additional analyses,
you can again specify from the available wells without re-creating them in
AquiferTest. There is no need to re-enter your data or create a new project. Your
analysis graph is refreshed, and the data re-analyzed using the selected solution method.
This is useful for quickly comparing the results of data analysis using different solution
methods. If you need solution-specific information for the new analysis, AquiferTest
prompts you for the required data.
About the Interface
11
1.5.1 Getting Around
A typical AquiferTest window is shown below followed by descriptions of the
different sections.
Navigation Tabs
Menu
Bar
Toolbar
Navigator
Panels
Data
Entry
Status
Bar
The AquiferTest Interface is composed of several components:
• Navigation Tabs: Provide access to the data entry and analysis windows in the
program; these include Pumping/Slug Test, Discharge, Water Levels, Analysis,
Site Plan, and Reports.
• Menu Bar: Contains menu commands with access to all the functions available
in the AquiferTest.
• Toolbar: Contains several context sensitive short-cut buttons for some of the
frequently used AquiferTest tools.
• Navigation Panel: Contains a tree view of all of the components which
comprise an AquiferTest project. These include panels for Tests, Wells,
Discharge Rates, Water Level data, Analyses, and other frequently used tasks.
• Data Entry: Contains the fields and grids for data entry and visualization.
• Status Bar: Displays the program status.
The following sections describe each of these components in greater detail.
12
Chapter 1: Introduction
1.5.2 Navigation Tabs
The interface in AquiferTest has been designed so that information can be quickly and
easily entered, and modified later if needed. The data entry and analysis windows have
been separated into navigation tabs; the tabs are logically ordered such that the
information flow is in a left-to-right fashion; this means that data is first entered in the
far left tab, then the process proceeds to the right from there. The tabs are explained
below:
For pumping tests:
• Pumping Test - project particulars, aquifer properties, pumping test details and
info, well locations and dimensions and units
• Discharge - specify constant or variable discharge rates for one or more
pumping wells
• Water Levels - time drawdown data, filtering, and trend affects
• Analysis - contains selected analysis graphs and associated options (diagnostic
plots, drawdown derivatives) and calculated parameters
• Site Plan - map showing basemaps, well locations and optional contouring of
drawdown.
• Reports - preview and print selected reports
For slug tests:
• Slug Test - project particulars, aquifer properties, slug test details and info, well
locations and dimensions, and units
• Water Levels - water level data
• Analysis - analysis graphs and calculated parameters
• Site Plan - map showing basemaps and well locations
• Reports - preview and print selected reports
Pumping Test Tab
The pumping test tab contains all the general information pertaining to the site where
the tests were conducted. This information need only be entered once and is displayed
in the panel unchanged for any additional tests that are created.
Units are specified for the currently active pumping test. When a new pumping test is
created, the units return to default and must be changed accordingly. The default units
can be set by selecting Tools / Options / General. The units for Site Plan control the
About the Interface
13
XY coordinates and the elevation data; the Dimensions units control the well geometry
(r, L, etc.) and water levels; the Time, Discharge, and Pressure units control their
respective parameters; Transmissivity units control the units for the calculated
parameters transmissivity, storativity, and conductivity.
Pumping test details can be entered for each new test. Different descriptive names for
the tests allow for easy navigation using the Project Navigator panel.
Aquifer properties can be specified for each pumping test. These include the aquifer
thickness and the aquifer barometric efficiency (BE); the BE value is only necessary if
you intend to correct the measured drawdown data based on barometric influences. The
BE value may be directly entered in the field, or may be calculated from observed timepressure data. For more details, see Chapter 5: Data Pre-Processing.
In addition, well names, coordinates, elevations, and geometry is entered in this
window. XY coordinates are required, as they are used to calculate the radial distance
to the pumping well. Well geometry values (r, R, L, b) are necessary only for certain
solution methods.
If the option “use r(w)” is selected, then values for n (gravel pack porosity) must be
defined.
All wells are available for the entire project, i.e. within the file for several pumping/slug
tests. However, the Type attribute refers only to the current pumping/slug test.
Slug Test Tab
The slug test panel contains the same fields for the project, units, test, aquifer, wells,
and site information as does the pumping test panel.
Discharge Tab (Pumping Test only)
This panel allows the user to specify the discharge rates for each pumping well.
Discharge rates may be constant or variable. For variable pumping rates, the measured
rates are entered into the table, and are plotted automatically on the corresponding
graph window on the right. AquiferTest interprets the numerical data as the end of the
respective pumping stage. Therefore, there is no need to enter a pumping rate at time 0;
simply enter the rate at the end of the interval.
For example:
Time (s)
2000
3500
4500
Discharge (GPM)
100
200
150
The above inputs correspond to a first pumping stage from 0 to 2000 s with 100 gpm,
Pumping stage 2 from 2000 s to 3500 s with 200 gpm, and pumping stage 3 from 3500
to 4500 s with 150 gpm.
14
Chapter 1: Introduction
Water Levels Tab
This panel contains fields for observation well data entry and provides graphical
representation of this data. Data may be copied and pasted, imported using the Data
Logger Wizard, or imported from a text or Excel file. When importing from Excel, only
the first table sheet is imported and the data must be in the first two columns - Time in
the first and Water Levels in the second.
In addition, there are data filtering options, and data corrections (trend affects,
barometric affects, etc.) By reducing the number of measured values, you can improve
the program performance, and calculate the aquifer parameters quicker.
Analysis Tab
The analysis panel contains the forum for calculating the aquifer parameters using the
abundance of graphical solution methods. There are two main tabs available:
Diagnostic and Analysis.
Diagnostic graphs
The Diagnostic graph provides tools for interpreting the drawdown data, and is a visual
aid for determining the aquifer type if this is not well understood. The measured
drawdown data are plotted on a log-log scale, or a semi-log scale.
On the right side, apart from the actual graph, the processes characteristic of different
aquifer types are schematically represented. By comparing the observed data to the pre-
About the Interface
15
defined templates, it is possible to identify the aquifer type and conditions (confined,
well bore storage, boundary influences, etc.) Using this knowledge, an appropriate
solution method and assumptions can then be selected from the Analysis tab, and the
aquifer parameters calculated.
In addition, AquiferTest calculates and displays the derivative of the measured
drawdown values; this is helpful since quite often it is much easier to analyze and
interpret the derivative of the drawdown data, then just the measured drawdown data
itself.
Analysis graph tab
In the Analysis tab, there are several panels on the right hand side of the graph that
allow setting up the graph, changing the aquifer parameters to achieve an optimal curve
fit, model assumptions, display and other settings.
For more information, please see Chapter 3 - “Analysis Tab” on page 67.
Site Plan Tab
AquiferTest automatically plots the wells on a map layout. The site map layout may
contain a CAD file or raster image (e.g. a topographic map, an air or satellite
photograph etc.). Raster images must be georeferenced using two known co-ordinates,
at the corners of the image. For more details, see “Import Map Image...” on page 88.
Reports Tab
The Reports page displays report previews, and allows the user to select from various
report templates. The reports are listed in hierarchical order for the current pumping/
slug test. A zoom feature is available, with preview settings.
The dark grey area around the page displays the margins for the current printer. You
can modify these settings by selecting File/Printer Setup.
Select Print on this page to print all selected reports. Using Print on a selected tab will
print the context related report directly - such as a data report from the Water Levels
page.
1.5.3 Menu Bar
The menu bar provides access to most of the features available in AquiferTest. For
more details, see Chapter 3 - “Main Menu Bar” on page 86.
16
Chapter 1: Introduction
1.5.4 AquiferTest Toolbar
The following sections describe each of the items on the toolbar, and the equivalent
icons. For a short description of an icon, move the mouse pointer over the icon without
clicking either mouse button.
The toolbars that appear beneath the menu bar are dynamic, changing as you move
from one window to another. Some toolbar buttons become available only when certain
windows are in view, or in a certain context. For example, the Paste button is only
available after the Copy command has been used.
The following tool buttons appear at the top of the AquiferTest main window:
New button creates a new project.
Open button opens an existing project.
Save button saves the current project.
Print button prints the data item which is currently getting the focus.
Copy button copies selected character(s) in a grid cell or a plot to the
clipboard.
Paste button pastes text from the clipboard to the active cell.
Refresh button refreshes the current view.
About the Interface
17
1.5.5 Project Navigator Panels
The Project Navigator panel shows the tests, wells, and analyses
for the current project, along with additional tasks. The panel is
styled in a XP fashion. As with other Windows applications, you
can use the + or - icon to expand or collapse a frame in the panel.
In addition, you can show/hide the panel completely, using the
View / Navigation Panel option.
Creating and deleting elements contained within the panel,
including wells, data lists, pumping tests, slug tests, and associated
analyses is discussed in Chapter 2: Getting Started and Chapter 3:
General Info and Main Menu Bar.
Please do not confuse the Project Navigator panel and Analysis
Navigator panel. The Project Navigator panel is located on the
left of the program window and is always visible (unless you hide
it in the View menu). The Analysis Navigator panel is located on
the right of the main program window and is only visible in the
Analysis tab.
18
Chapter 1: Introduction
2
Getting Started
This chapter is designed to serve as a ‘quick start’ reference guide, and is divided into
sections for your convenience - feel free to read through the entire chapter or jump
directly to a section of interest.
[1]
2.1 - Creating a Pumping Test
•
•
•
•
•
[2]
2.1.1 - Pumping Test Information
2.1.2 - Discharge Rates
2.1.3 - Water Level Data
2.1.4 - Creating a Pumping Test Analysis
2.1.5 - Reports
2.2 - Creating a Slug Test
•
•
•
•
2.2.1 - Slug Test Information
2.2.2 - Water Level Data
2.2.3 - Creating a Slug Test Analysis
2.2.4 - Reports
2.1 Creating a Pumping Test
The dataset for this example was taken from Dawson and Istok, pg. 96.
To start AquiferTest navigate to Programs/SWS Software/AquiferTest 4.2/
AquiferTest 4.2, or double-click on the desktop icon
.
Once AquiferTest is loaded, there will be an empty project file loaded by default, as
shown below.
Creating a Pumping Test
19
The first page (tab) is Pumping Test. In this window, define the project specifics, test
details, units, aquifer dimensions, and wells.
2.1.1 Pumping Test Information
Enter the following information in the Pumping Test tab:
Project Information
General details of the project:
•
•
•
•
20
Project Name: Sample Project
Project No.: any number
Client: ABC
Location: Anywhere
Chapter 2: Getting Started
Pumping Test
General details for the selected pumping test:
• Name: Example
• Performed by: Your Name
• Date: Test Date
Once you have done this you should see Example in the Tests frame of the Navigator
Panel (you may need to click the highlighted test under the Tests frame of the
Navigator Panel to see the new information):
The Tests panel will allow you to switch between various pumping and slug tests in the
project.
Units
This section will address the issue of units for the project. There are 6 combo boxes in
the Units frame - click on the units list for Site Plan. There is a variety of metric and
imperial units to choose from - simply select the appropriate unit.
Creating a Pumping Test
21
Define the following units for this sample project:
Site Plan:
Dimensions:
Time:
Discharge:
Transmissivity:
Pressure:
ft
ft
min
US gal/min
US gal/day-ft
Pa
The Convert existing values checkbox allows you to convert the values to the new
units without having to calculate and re-enter them manually.
On the other hand, if you created a test with incorrect unit labels, you can switch the
labels by de-selecting the Convert existing values option. That way, the physical labels
will change but the numerical values will remain the same.
NOTE: The default units for new tests can be defined in the Tools/Options/General
window.
Aquifer Properties
Enter the following parameters of the investigated aquifer:
Aquifer Properties
Thickness (ft):
Type
Bar.Eff.
10
confined
leave blank
Well Locations and Geometry
Defining well locations and geometry can be accomplished either by entering each well
and associated geometry one-by-one (manually), or by importing the data from a text
file (.txt or .asc). For this example, you will manually enter and define the properties for
1 pumping well and 3 observation wells.
22
Chapter 2: Getting Started
To enter a well manually, locate the Wells table at the bottom half of the window. By
default, one pumping well will already have been defined for the new project.
Enter the following information for this well.
Name
Type
X-coordinate:
Y-coordinate:
Elevation (amsl):
Benchmark:
Penetration
R (effective radius):
L (screen length):
b (dist from bottom of well screen to
top of aquifer):
r (casing radius):
PW1
Pumping Well*
0
0
0
0
Fully
0.05
3
leave blank
0.025
*To change the well type click on the “Type” field twice (not double-click) and
select from the drop-down menu.
The remaining fields can be left blank.
NOTE: The ‘Pumping well b’ value is the distance from the bottom of the
pumping well screen to the top of the aquifer at the start time of the pumping test.
In this example ‘b’ is not required, however this value is required to complete an
analysis for partially penetrating wells.
Next, you must create an observation well. To do so,
Click “Click here to create a new well” located directly below the first row in the
Wells table.
Enter the following information for this well:
Name
Type
X-coordinate:
Y-coordinate:
Elevation (amsl):
Benchmark:
Penetration
R (effective radius):
L (screen length):
b (dist from bottom of well screen to
top of aquifer):
r (casing radius):
Creating a Pumping Test
OW1
Observation Well
30
0
0
0
Fully
0.05
3
leave blank
0.025
23
Using the same procedure add two additional observation wells and define the details as
listed below:
Name
Type
X-coordinate:
Y-coordinate:
Elevation (amsl):
Benchmark:
Penetration
R (effective radius):
L (screen length):
b (dist from bottom of well screen to
top of aquifer):
r (casing radius):
OW2
Observation Well
200
0
0
0
Fully
0.05
3
Name
Type
X-coordinate:
Y-coordinate:
Elevation (amsl):
Benchmark:
Penetration
R (effective radius):
L (screen length):
b (dist from bottom of well screen to
top of aquifer):
r (casing radius):
OW3
Observation Well
1000
0
0
0
Fully
0.05
3
leave blank
0.025
and
24
leave blank
0.025
Chapter 2: Getting Started
Once completed, your wells table should appear as seen in the following figure.
In this manner, you can add as many wells as required to a project.
The new wells that are added to the project will appear in the
Wells frame of the Project Navigator panel.
You will see there are now 4 wells in the Wells frame in the
Project Navigator panel on the left side of the main window. In
addition, wells that are set as type = Pumping Well, will appear
under the Discharge Rates frame in the Project Navigator panel
and all wells will appear under the Water Level Measurements
frame in the navigation panel. Selecting a well in one of these
frames will load the appropriate input page (tab) for the well. For
example, clicking on PW1 under the Discharge Rates will
activate the Discharge tab, and provide options for defining the
pumping rates for this well. Clicking on OW1 under Water
Level measurements will load the Water Levels tab, activate
this well, and provide input fields for water level data.
In the next section you will specify the discharge rate for the
pumping well, and add water level data for the observation wells.
Before proceeding, save your project by selecting File / Save As from the main menu.
Enter the name for the project “Sample”, then continue.
Creating a Pumping Test
25
2.1.2 Discharge Rates
The purpose of this step is to define the discharge (pumping rate) for the pumping well
PW1.
Click on the Discharge tab at the top of the window.
Or, from the Project Navigator panel, click on PW1 under Discharge Rates.
In the top left corner of the window, select PW1. Enter the following discharge rate:
• Constant (radio button)
• Type: 150 in the adjacent field
2.1.3 Water Level Data
The next step in creating a pumping test is to add observation well water level data.
AquiferTest provides several options for adding data to a pumping test including:
•
•
•
•
Manually entering each data measurement
Cut-and-pasting from the Windows clipboard
Importing data from a text file or Excel spreadsheet (.xls)
Importing data from an ASCII datalogger file (.asc, .txt) or Diver Datalogger
(.MON) or Level Logger (.lev)
Entering Data Manually
For OW1, the data will be entered manually.
26
[1]
Select the Water Levels tab at the top of the window.
[2]
Select OW1 from the Wells list in the top left corner of the window; ensure this
well is highlighted in blue before proceeding.
Chapter 2: Getting Started
[3]
Enter the Static WL of 0.
[4]
In the Time (min) and Depth to WL (ft) columns, enter the following data. Press
Enter after each value to move to the next field.
NOTE: Do not type anything in the Drawdown column.
Time [min]
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
20
30
40
50
60
100
200
300
400
500
800
1000
1440
Creating a Pumping Test
Water Level [ft]
1.53
1.87
2.07
2.22
2.33
2.42
2.50
2.56
2.62
2.67
3.02
3.22
3.37
3.48
3.57
3.82
4.17
4.37
4.52
4.63
4.86
4.97
5.16
27
Importing Data from an Excel File
[1]
In the Water Levels tab, select and highlight OW2 from the Wells list.
[2]
Enter the Static WL of 0
For this well, the data will be imported from an Excel file.
28
[3]
Select File/Import/Water Level measurements
[4]
A Windows Explorer dialogue will appear prompting you to select an Excel (.xls)
file. Navigate to AquiferTest/ImportFiles and select OW2_data.XLS.
[5]
Click [Open]. The data should appear in the grid.
Chapter 2: Getting Started
[6]
The drawdown graph will be displayed as shown below:
For more information on importing data and formatting Excel files, please refer to
Chapter 3: Import Water Levels...
Importing Data from a Datalogger File
[1]
In the Water Levels tab, select OW3 from the Wells frame.
[2]
Enter a Static WL of 0.
For this well, the data will be imported from a data logger file.
Creating a Pumping Test
29
[3]
From the Main Menu, click File/Import followed by Data logger file...
[4]
In the Windows Explorer window that appears, navigate to AquiferTest/
ImportFiles and select OW3_logger.txt.
[5]
Click Open to initiate the 6-step Logger file Wizard.
[6]
The first step displays a preview of the data; set the Start Import at row to 1.
NOTE: The Load Import Settings allows you to load the settings specified
during a previous import session. 

Click [Next].
[7]
Step 2 will appear which allows you to specify the delimiter - ensure TAB is
selected.
Click [Next].
30
Chapter 2: Getting Started
[8]
Step 3 will appear which allows you to specify which column contains the Date,
and the Date format. Click on the column header which contains the Date data,
(i.e. the first column, in the example below)
Click [Next].
[9]
Step 4 will appear which allows you to specify the Time column. Click on the
column that contains the Time data (i.e. the second column, in the example
below).
Click [Next].
Creating a Pumping Test
31
[10] Step 5 will appear which allows you to specify the Depth to water level (WL)
column, and also to set the units for the data;
In this example, click on the third column.
[11] Select the source Units for the file: ft.
If the source units are different from the test units, AquiferTest will automatically
convert the data to the units used in the test.
[12] You can also specify the coordinate system to use for the data. In this example,
leave the default Top of Casing datum (as seen below).
Click [Next].
For more information on different types of the coordinate system, please see
Chapter 3: Selecting a coordinate system.
32
Chapter 2: Getting Started
[13] Step 6 will appear which illustrates the Date and Time format that will be used
for the data.
This final step also allows you to apply a filter to the data, which is an excellent
idea when working with datalogger files. Generally datalogger files contain
thousands of data points, however a large percentage of them are repeated values
that are essentially useless. By applying a filter to the data set, you can reduce a
large data set down to a reasonable few hundred data points.
The filter may also be applied after data import, in the Water Levels tab. For
further description of this feature, please see Filter, page 65.
Circled above is the “Save import settings” icon. Using this feature you can save
the settings you have used to load the logger file and recall them the next time a
logger file is loaded.
[14] Click [Import] to begin importing the data. Once completed, the following
dialogue will appear.
[15] Click [OK] to complete the import process, and the data will be imported into the
Water Level table.
[16] The graph of the Time vs. Drawdown for OW3 will be displayed as shown
Creating a Pumping Test
33
below:
Now that you have imported one datalogger file and saved the process as a
template, importing subsequent datalogger files of the same format can be
extremely quick.
In the next section, you will learn how to create an analysis to examine the water
level data that has been imported into the project.
[17] To save the project, click File / Save from the main menu, or click on the
(Save) button in the toolbar.
2.1.4 Creating a Pumping Test Analysis
The next step is to examine and analyze the data, and determine the aquifer parameters
from the pumping test data.
[1]
34
From the main menu, select Analysis/Create New Analysis and the Analysis tab
will be activated (alternately, click on Create a New Analysis under the
Chapter 2: Getting Started
Analyses frame of the Project Navigator).
[2]
Choose Time-Drawdown from the Analysis method frame of the Analysis
Navigator panel.
[3]
In the Analysis Name field, type “Time vs. Drawdown”
[4]
Expand the Time axis and Drawdown axis frames and if desired, change the
Creating a Pumping Test
35
scale from “Logarithm” to “Linear”
[5]
Adjust the Max and Min fields in the above mentioned frames by highlighting
the value (or word “Auto”) in the field and replacing it with a new value, so that
the graph fits comfortably in the graphing area (see the image below for
suggested values).
Your graph should now appear similar to the one shown below.
[6]
36
Click on the
(Automatic Fit) button to perform an automatic fit for
Chapter 2: Getting Started
the selected well.
[7]
Repeat this for each data set, by highlighting each well in the Data from window,
then clicking on the
(Automatic Fit) button.
[8]
To create a Theis analysis click Analysis/Create New Analysis from the Main
Menu bar.
[9]
In the Analysis methods frame of the Analysis Navigator panel choose Theis.
[10] In the Analysis Name field, type “Theis”
[11] Expand the Display frame and check the box beside “Dimensionless”
[12] This will display the Theis analysis on the traditional log-log plot.
[13] Perform an Automatic fit as described above. Your graph should look similar to
Creating a Pumping Test
37
the one shown below.
If necessary, modify the axis min and max values, as circled above.
[14] The calculated Transmissivity and Storativity values are displayed in the Results
frame for each well:
The curve fit can be manually adjusted using the parameter controls; click on the
(parameter controls) button located in the top right corner above the graph:
38
Chapter 2: Getting Started
The following dialog will appear.
Parameter controls allow you to apply your own expertise and knowledge of the
data by manually adjusting the curve fit and updating the values for
Transmissivity and Storativity.
2.1.5 Reports
To print a report with the results, perform the following:
[1]
Select Reports Tab
[2]
In the Select printouts frame, expand any categories you wish to print, and select
Creating a Pumping Test
39
the reports you wish to print
[3]
Select File/Print or click on the
(Print) button in the main toolbar.
This concludes the exercise for creating a pumping test. In the next section, we
will examine the process of creating a slug test.
[4]
Save your project before proceeding by selecting File / Save.
2.2 Creating a Slug Test
In this section you will learn how to create a slug test, set the slug test units, enter water
level data for the test well, and finally how to create the Slug Test analysis and calculate
the hydraulic conductivity.
The following instructions are presented with the assumption that you have gone
through the “Chapter 2: Creating a Pumping Test” and the screenshots will reflect that.
40
Chapter 2: Getting Started
For the slug test, the same sample project (Sample.HYT) will be used as in the first part
of this exercise.
In this example, data is recorded at MW5, where a slug (bail) of water is removed and
the water levels are recorded.
To create the slug test, select Test/Create Slug Test from the Main menu. This
will load the Slug Test tab (the first page), as shown below.
The first step is to define the test information, units, and the test well.
2.2.1 Slug Test Information
The Project information (Name, Number, Client, and Location) is defined on a project
level, and will be carried over from the previous pumping test.
Test Information
Enter the following new information for the slug test on the Slug Test tab:
Slug Test Information
Name:
Performed by:
Creating a Slug Test
Sample Slug Test
Your Name
41
Date:
Test Date
Aquifer Properties
Thickness (m):
Type
BE
10
confined
leave blank
Units
AquiferTest allows you to store unique units for each pumping or slug test. In this
example, you will define new units for the new slug test. Define the following units for
this slug test:
Site Plan:
Dimensions:
Time:
Discharge:
Transmissivity:
Pressure:
m
m
s
*N/A
m2/s
*N/A
* Units for Discharge and Pressure can be ignored, since these parameters are not
required for slug tests.
Well Locations and Geometry
A new well must be defined for the slug test.
• Click “Click here to create a new well”
In the Wells grid at the bottom of the window, enter the following information for this
well.
Name
Type
X-coordinate:
Y-coordinate:
Elevation (amsl):
Benchmark:
Penetration
R (effective radius):
L (screen length):
b (dist from bottom of well screen to
top of aquifer:
r (casing radius):
MW5
Test Well
0
0
0
0
Fully
0.05
3
leave blank
0.025
The remaining fields can be left blank.
42
Chapter 2: Getting Started
The ‘Pumping well b’ value is the distance from the bottom of the well screen to
the top of the aquifer at the start time of the pumping test. In this example ‘b’ is
not required, however this value is required to complete an analysis for partially
penetrating wells.
NOTE: The well details for previously created wells have been automatically
converted to the units scheme used in the slug test. If you click on your pumping
test (“Example” in the Tests frame of the Project Navigator panel), those values
would revert back, while the values for MW5 will be converted to the units of the
pumping test.
2.2.2 Water Level Data
The next step in creating a slug test is to add the recorded water level data from the test
well (MW5). As with pumping tests, you have several options for adding data to a slug
test including:
•
•
•
•
Manually entering each data point
Cut-and-pasting from the Windows clipboard
Importing data from a text file (.txt) or Excel (.xls) spreadsheet
Importing data from a datalogger file (.asc, .txt, or .lev)
For this example, the data will be imported from an Excel file. 
[1]
Click on the Water Level tab at the top of the window.
[2]
Enter the following information:
[3]
Static Water Level
14.80
Water level at t=0
15.23
Select File / Import / Water level measurements
[4]
Browse to the AquiferTest\ImportFiles folder, and locate the MW5.xls file.
[5]
Highlight the file and click [Open]
[6]
Click Refresh
to display the change in water level data, and graph of Time
vs. Change in Water Level. Once completed, your display should appear similar
to the following figure:
Creating a Slug Test
43
AquiferTest subtracts the Depth to Static WL value from each Water Level
value, and produces a third column of data - Change in WL (as seen above).
2.2.3 Creating a Slug Test Analysis
Now that you have successfully defined the test details and imported water level data,
you can analyze the data, and determine the conductivity.
44
[1]
Select Analysis/Create New Analysis from the Main menu, and the Analysis
tab will be activated. (Alternately, click on Create a New Analysis under the
Analyses frame).
[2]
Locate the Analysis frame, on the right side of the window. Under the Analysis
method frame, select Time vs. Change in WL
[3]
In the Analysis Name field (above the graph), type “Time vs. Change in WL”.
Chapter 2: Getting Started
[4]
Define the following properties for the plot axes:
Time axis
• Scale = Linear
• Min = 0
• Max = 500
Change in Water Level
• Scale = Linear
• Min = 0
• Max = 0.5
[5]
Using the steps listed above, create a new analysis for this data set.
[6]
Select “Hvorslev” from the Analysis methods frame of the Analysis Navigator
window.
[7]
Type “Hvorslev” in the Analysis name field at the top of the window.
[8]
Define the following properties for axes:
Time
Creating a Slug Test
45
• Min = 0
• Max = 500
Drawdown
[9]
• Min = 0.05
• Max = 1
• Reverse = Checked
Display the grid lines for both axes and your graph should now look similar to the
one shown below:
The calculated K value can be found in the Results frame of the Analysis
Navigator panel; for this example, K = 2.31E-6 m/s
[10] To create a Bouwer & Rice analysis of the same data set, create a new analysis
and choose Bouwer & Rice from the Analysis methods frame of the Analysis
Navigator panel.
[11] Type “Bouwer & Rice” in the Analysis name field.
[12] Define the following properties for the axes:
Time
• Min = 0
• Max = 500
Drawdown
46
Chapter 2: Getting Started
• Min = 0.05
• Max = 1
• Reverse = Checked
[13] Display the grid lines for both axes and your graph should look similar to the one
shown below:
The calculated K value can be found in the Results frame of the Analysis
Navigator panel; for this example, K = 1.77E-6 m/s
NOTE: The curve fit, and resulting conductivity value (K) can be manually
adjusted using the Parameter Controls as described in “Chapter 3: Parameter
Controls”.
NOTE: It is not necessary to create a new analysis each time you want to see a
new analysis. Simply change the analysis type in the Analysis method frame of
the Analysis Navigator panel. Creating new analysis windows is helpful,
however, if you wish to easily compare and print a hard copy of these analyses.
2.2.4 Reports
To obtain relevant printouts, click on the Reports tab. From this window you can
print out any information that you have entered or derived through analyses. For
example, to print the dataset for MW5, as well as the Hvorslev and the Bouwer &
Rice analyses complete the following:
[1]
Creating a Slug Test
Expand the Navigator tree in the Reports tab.
47
[2]
Check the boxes beside Water Level Data, Hvorslev, and Bouwer & Rice. Your
Reports window should now look similar to the one shown below:
[3]
From the main menu, select File / Print and all selected reports will be sent to the
printer.
This completes Chapter 2: Getting Started; we hope it has been useful for you.
For additional practice with AquiferTest, please refer to Chapter 7:
Demonstration Exercises and Benchmark Tests.
48
Chapter 2: Getting Started
3
General Info and Main Menu Bar
3.1 General Info
3.1.1 Project Navigator Panel
The Project Navigator allows you to easily move around the project as it contains
links to most of its major components. The Project Navigator contains following
frames: Tests, Wells, Discharge rates, Water level measurements, Analyses, and
Additional tasks.
General Info
49
Tests
This frame contains all of the pumping tests and slug tests for the current project.
Assign descriptive names to each test to allows for easy recognition.
Wells
This frame lists all the wells that are present in the project. Clicking on a well will
activate the first tab of the current test and highlight the row that contains this well in
the wells grid.
Discharge Rates
This frame lists all the PUMPING wells used in the current test. Clicking on the well in
this frame will activate the Discharge tab of the current test (applicable to pumping
tests only).
50
Chapter 3 : General Info and Main Menu Bar
Water level measurements
This frame lists all the wells (pumping and observation) used in the current test.
Clicking on the well in this frame will open the Water Levels tab of the current test.
Analyses
This frame lists the analyses that have been done for the current test. Clicking on an
analysis in this frame will open the Analysis tab of the current test.
The Analyses frame also contains links to some of the more common functions used in
a test.
• Create a New Analysis
• creates a new analysis for the current test
• Define analysis time range...
• allows you to select a time range for the current analysis (instead of using
an entire dataset) in case some data points are unusable for the curve fit.
Clicking on this link will produce the following dialog:
General Info
51
In this dialog, specify the time range that contains the data that you wish to
INCLUDE in the analysis.
• Add comments...
• allows you to add comments about the current analysis
Additional tasks
Provides links to some of the most commonly used features of AquiferTest.
• Import wells from file...
• allows you to import well data from an Excel or a Text file. Clicking on
this link will initiate the same process as selecting File/Import/Import
Wells from file... from the Main menu. For more details, see page 86.
• Create a pumping test...
• allows you to create a new pumping test in the project
• Create a slug test...
• allows you to create a new slug test in the project
• Contact technical support...
• displays information on how registered users can contact WHI technical
support
3.1.2 Data Entry and Analysis Tabs
The data entry and analysis window is organized into five or six tabs depending on the
type of test used. A pumping test has the following tabs: Pumping Test, Discharge,
Water Levels, Analysis, Site Plan and Reports. If slug test is selected there are only
five tabs, since there is no discharge in the slug test. Also, in the slug test the Pumping
Test tab is replaced by the Slug Test tab.
52
Chapter 3 : General Info and Main Menu Bar
Pumping Test Tab
This tab allows you to lay the groundwork for the test. It contains such information as
project name, location, date, the units of the test, and aquifer and well parameters.
Project Information
In this frame, specify the general information about the project, such as the project
name, number, person or organization for whom the project was performed, and the
location of the test.
General Info
53
Pumping Test
In this frame, provide a unique test name to facilitate navigation and your name as a
signature for the output. The Date reflects the date the test was conducted; use the pulldown calendar to select a new date.
Units
In this frame, specify the units for the collected data, and optionally convert the values
to different units for the output using the Convert existing values feature described
below.
• Site Plan: specify units in which the well XY coordinates, elevation, and
benchmark were measured. Available units are:
• Dimensions: specify the units in which the well and aquifer parameters were
measured. Available units are:
• Time: specify the units in which the time was recorded. Available units are:
54
Chapter 3 : General Info and Main Menu Bar
• Discharge: specify the units in which discharge was recorded. Available units
are:
• Transmissivity: specify the units in which the transmissivity values will be
calculated. Available units are:
• Pressure: specify units in which pressure data was recorded. Available units
are:
The Convert existing values checkbox allows you to convert the values to the new
units without having to calculate and re-enter them manually.
On the other hand, if you created a test with incorrect unit labels, you can switch the
labels by de-selecting the Convert existing values option. That way, the physical
labels will change but the numerical values will remain the same.
NOTE: The default units for new tests can be defined in the Tools/Options/General
window.
General Info
55
Any field that prompts you for (or displays calculated) values shows the units used in
square brackets [ ] unless the value is dimensionless.
Aquifer Properties
In this frame, enter aquifer parameters such as Thickness, Type (Confined,
Unconfined, Leaky, Fractured, Unknown), and Barometric Efficiency.
The diagram beside the frame displays different well geometry parameters that you will
be required to enter to describe the wells used in the project.
Wells Grid
This table contains the information about well geometry and location of each well in the
project.
• Name: provide a unique name for each well
• Type: define the type of well. In a pumping test, the available types are:
• Pumping well
• Observation well
• Piezometer
• Not used
while in a slug test the available types are:
• Test well
• Not used
NOTE: In a slug test, only one well can have the “Test Well” status. To add
additional wells, create new slug tests.
The Default setting for the first well in the project is Pumping well. The default setting
for any well created thereafter is Observation well (or Test Well, for a slug test). To
56
Chapter 3 : General Info and Main Menu Bar
change the well type, activate the Type field of the desired well and click again to
produce a pull-down menu. From the menu choose the desired well type.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
X [ ] - X coordinate of the well
Y [ ] - Y coordinate of the well
Elevation (amsl) [ ] - well elevation relative to sea-level
Benchmark [ ] - well elevation relative to a benchmark
Penetration - penetration type of the well (fully penetrating or partially
penetrating). The default is a Fully penetrating well.
R [ ] - the screen radius
L [ ] - screen length
b [ ] - distance from the top of the aquifer to the bottom of the screen
r [ ] - casing radius
B [ ] - borehole radius
n - gravel pack porosity [%]
Use r(w) check-box allows you to decide whether to use the effective radius.
The default setting is UNchecked.
Slug Test Tab
The Slug Test Tab contains the same frames as the Pumping Test tab. Project
information is carried over in new tests. The fields in the Units, Slug Test, and Aquifer
Properties frames return to their default values.
General Info
57
All wells created outside of the slug test change their type to “Not Used”. Any well
created in the slug test will have a default type of “Test Well”.
Discharge (Pumping Test only)
This window allows you to specify the type of discharge (constant or variable), and the
discharge rate for one or more pumping wells.
58
Chapter 3 : General Info and Main Menu Bar
You must select a pumping well for which the discharge data is to be entered.
If the discharge is variable, this tab is used to enter the time periods and values for the
discharge. AquiferTest also presents the time/discharge data graphically as it is entered.
NOTE: AquiferTest will not allow you to enter any information in the discharge table
until “Variable” (radio button) is selected in the Discharge frame, i.e. the discharge
table (time and discharge columns) is active only if “Variable” is selected as the
discharge type.
Under the wells list, there is a drop-down menu where you can switch from the default
Time vs. Discharge to Discharge vs. Water Level. Discharge - Water Level data is
required only for a single-well Specific Capacity analysis. See Chapter 4: Specific
Capacity, for more details.
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59
Water Levels Tab
In this tab, enter the water level data for the pumping and observation wells in the test.
Options in this tab allow you to import a dataset from an Excel or a data logger file, set
up the coordinate system, add data correction, and filter the data.
To proceed with data entry you must first select a well for which the data will be
entered.
The data can be entered in any of the following ways:
• manually
• cut-and-paste from Windows clipboard
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Chapter 3 : General Info and Main Menu Bar
• importing data from a text file or Excel spreadsheet (*.txt, *.xls)
• importing data from an ASCII datalogger (*.asc, *.txt) or Level Logger (*.lev),
or Diver Datalogger (.MON)
Import
The Import button is a shortcut to importing an Excel or a data logger file.
For more information on importing data, see “Import” on page 86.
Selecting a coordinate system
To the right of the Import button is a drop-down menu where you can choose the
coordinate system for the water level data. The options are:
Time - Water Level (TOC) - Top of Casing system: 
Using the Top of Casing Datum, the top of the casing (TOC) elevation is
designated as zero, and the data will be imported as measurements from the top of
the well casing to the water level (i.e. depth to water level, the traditional format).
After you import/enter the data, you must enter a value for Depth to static water
level. Then click on the Refresh icon and AquiferTest will make the appropriate
drawdown calculations, and plot the data on the graph.
Time-Drawdown:
Using the Time-Drawdown system, enter the drawdown data instead of the depth
to water levels.
Time - Water Level (AMSL):
Using the Sea-Level Datum, the top of casing (TOC) elevation is designated as
the Elevation (amsl) you have entered for that well. AquiferTest will read this
elevation from the value you have input in the Wells table. After you import/enter
the data, you must enter the value for the Static Water Elev. Then click on the
Refresh icon and AquiferTest will make the appropriate drawdown calculations.
Time - Water Level (Benchmark):
Using the Benchmark Datum, the top of casing (TOC) elevation is designated as
the benchmark elevation you have entered for that well. This elevation is relative
to an arbitrary benchmark that would have been established during a site survey.
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61
AquiferTest will read this elevation from the value you have input in the Wells
table. After you import/enter the data, you must enter the value for the Static
Water Elev. As with the sea-level datum, AquiferTest will make the appropriate
drawdown calculations by calculating the difference between the static water
level elevation and the water levels recorded during the test.
Add Data Correction
The data correction drop-down menu is located to the right of the Coordinate system.
Using this menu you can add a user-defined data correction, trend correction, or
barometric correction to the dataset. For more details, see Chapter 5: Data PreProcessing.
[1]
To add a User defined (Custom) correction click on the button Add data
correction itself (not the down-arrow beside it). The following dialog is
displayed:
In this dialogue, choose the type of correction you wish to implement by selecting
the appropriate radio button. As you do so, a formula is displayed on the right
hand side of the dialogue, and fields for variables involved in that formula appear
below. Define values for the required variables and choose whether to apply the
correction only to the currently selected well or to all wells in the pumping test.
When finished, click [OK] to apply the correction and return to the Water Levels tab.
For more details, see Chapter 5: Customized Water Level Trends
[2]
62
To add a Trend correction to the data, select the well and dataset, and select
Chapter 3 : General Info and Main Menu Bar
Trend Correction from the Add data correction drop-down menu:
The following window will appear:
Manually enter data in the grid or follow the Click here link above the table to
import a file that contains the time vs. water level correction data. Once loaded
into the table, the datapoints will be displayed on the graph to the right of the table
and the trend coefficient will be calculated. The trend significance is determined
by a t-test statistical analysis. Press [OK] to apply the correction to your data and
two new columns will appear in your water levels table - Trend Correction and
Corrected drawdown used in analyses. From this point continue with the
analysis.
For more details, please see Chapter 5: Baseline Trend Analysis and Correction
[3]
General Info
To add a Barometric correction, you must first enter or calculate the barometric
efficiency (BE) of the aquifer. To do so, move to the Pumping Test tab and click
on the button beside the Bar. Eff. field.
63
The following window will appear:
Manually enter data in the grid, or follow the Click here link above the table to
import a pressure vs. water level data file. As the data is imported into the table, it
is graphically displayed to the right of the table and the barometric efficiency is
calculated and displayed below the graph. Click [OK] and the coefficient will
appear in the Bar. Eff. field.
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Chapter 3 : General Info and Main Menu Bar
Return to the Water Levels tab, and select the appropriate well. From the Add
data correction drop-down menu choose Barometric correction to produce the
following dialog.
Manually enter data in the grid, or follow the Click here link to the file that
contains the time vs. pressure data that was collected at the same time as the
drawdown data. As it is imported, the data will be presented graphically on the
right. Click [OK] to apply the correction to the drawdown data and return to the
Water Levels tab. You will see that there are two new columns - Barometric
correction and Corrected drawdown used in analyses.
For more details, see Chapter 5: Barometric Trend Analysis and Correction.
Filter
The Filter check box is located to the right of the Data Correction menu and it allows
you to reduce the number of data points in the dataset according to a specific criteria.
There are two instances where filtering can be done in the program.
• While importing a data-logger file
• After manual data entry or importing a text/Excel file
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65
Clicking on the Filter link will display the following dialog:
In this dialog, you can specify the parameters for filtering.
There are three ways to filter data:
• By time difference
• By change in drawdown
• By change in drawdown after a trend, barometric, or user defined correction has
been applied
To define a filter, select the desired filter option, and enter the criteria for that category.
Once the filter has been defined, click [OK] to return to the Water Levels tab.
After applying the filter, excluded data points will be temporarily hidden from the data
table and the plot.
You can activate/deactivate the defined filter using the Filter check-box:
For more details on filtering during importing a data logger file, see “Import” on page
86.
Depth to Static Water level
Enter the depth to the water level before the test began, for either a pumping or slug
test. This depth is subtracted from the Water Level measurements to obtain the
Drawdown values.
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NOTE: The static water level should be entered before you proceed to enter / import
the time - water level data.
Water Level at t=0 (Slug tests only)
This field is located below Depth to static water level field and contains the water level
at the start of the measuring period of the slug test - i.e. immediately after the slug has
been inserted or removed.
This completes the Data Entry portion of the program. The next section describes the
analysis of the data and report generation.
Analysis Tab
The Analysis tab is dynamic and contains different options depending on the type of
test; however the general fields are the same. An example is shown below.
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67
Data From
Select which wells to use for the analysis (pumping tests only). All wells that contain
water level data will be listed in this window.
In a slug test there is only one test well and this well cannot be selected or unselected.
Analysis Name
Assign descriptive names to the analyses.
Date
Reflects the date for the test; by default, AquiferTest will use the date that the project
was created. The pull-down calendar allows you to select a different date.
Analysis performed by
Allows you to enter the name of the analyst.
Recovery period only
This check box allows you to analyze only the data recorded after the pump was turned
off. In this case, the recovery data will be analyzed using the Agarwal Recovery
method. For more information on this analysis method, see Chapter 4: Recovery
Analysis - Agarwal Solution (1980).
AquiferTest provides two graphing methods for the analysis: Diagnostic Graph and
Analysis Graph.
Note: You can hide the general meta data fields (described above), i.e., Date, Analysis
Name, Data From etc., to allow more screen space for the diagnostic and analysis
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Chapter 3 : General Info and Main Menu Bar
graphs. To do so, click the
Analysis tab.
Show/Hide button located in the top-right corner of the
Diagnostic Graph Tab
This tab allows you to view the data displayed in the log-log or semi-log graph. The
right side contains the diagnostic graphs with theoretical drawdown curves for different
aquifer conditions. Interpreting the data and the diagnostic graphs should help you
identify the assumptions that should be made about the data and thus, to choose the
appropriate analysis method.
The diagnostic graph displays the drawdown values on a log-log (or semi-log) scale, as
well as the derivatives of those values. For more details, please see Chapter 4:
Diagnostic Plots.
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69
Analysis Graph Tab
The Analysis Graph tab consists of a tool bar, graph area, message window, and an
Analysis Navigation panel.
Toolbar
Analysis
Navigator
panel
Graph area
Fit
The
(Automatic Fit) button is the first in the tool bar; pressing this button
will automatically fit the curve to your data set, and calculate the aquifer parameters.
AquiferTest uses the “downhill simplex method” which is a minimizing algorithm for
general non-linear functions. For more details, please see:
J.A. Nelder, R. Mead, A Simplex Method for Function Minimization, Computer
Journal 7 (1965) 308.
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Chapter 3 : General Info and Main Menu Bar
Exclude
The Exclude button allows you to exclude datapoints based on a time range. When
pressed, it will load the following dialog.
Enter the range of exclusion in the Start and End fields and press Add. The defined
period will appear in the Time Range list.
Select the defined period and click [OK] to apply it. This will exclude data points
between 400 and 800 minutes from analysis. They will still be displayed on the graph
but will no longer be considered when the automatic fit is applied.
Comments
Click on the
(Comments) button, to load a dialog where you can
record comments for the current analysis. You may alternately select Add
Comments... from the Analysis frame of the Project Navigator.
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71
Settings
The pull-down menu to the right of the Comments... button allows you to select from a
list of graph settings. When AquiferTest is installed on your computer, there will be
two default graph settings: Log-Log and Semi-Log. As you continue to use the
software, you can save your settings using the
(Save the graph settings as a
template) icon.
The following dialog will appear where you can provide a unique name to your
settings.
The new settings will now appear in the pull-down Settings combo box. To retrieve
and apply settings for the current analysis graph, select a template from the list.
By using different graphical interpretations, you may be able to gain a better
interpretation and analysis of a data set. For example, in comparing the Cooper Jacob to
the Theis analysis, you can see that both methods generate similar results. As these are
graphical methods of solution, there will often be a slight variation in the answers,
depending upon the accuracy of the graph construction and subjective judgements in
matching field data to type curves. (Fetter, 1994).
For an example of a semi-log straight line analysis (similar to the Cooper Jacob straight
line method), see the example CooperJacob.HYT in the AquiferTest\Examples folder.
Parameter Controls
Click on the
(Parameter controls) button to load a dialog where you can manually
adjust the curve fit, and modify the Storativity, Transmissivity, Conductivity and other
parameters that are displayed in the Results frame of the Analysis Navigator window.
This feature allows you to apply your expertise and knowledge of the site conditions to
obtain more accurate values for the above stated parameters.
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Clicking on this icon will produce the following dialog box.
Parameters can be adjusted using the slider bars or the arrows beside the fields. The
values can also be manually entered into the fields.
When the parameters are set to the desired values they can be locked for use in
predictive analyses by pressing on the
(Lock) icon beside the values.
The value becomes locked and the icon changes to
.
When a parameter is locked, it will not be modified during an automatic fit. To unlock
the parameter, simply click on the lock button again.
The tabs at the top of the window are used to switch between the wells. Right-clicking
anywhere in the dialog will allow you to switch to a “View by Parameter” view of the
dialog.
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73
Now you can manipulate the parameter in both wells at the same time. The tabs at the
top of the window are used to switch between parameters. This feature is useful is you
wish to set a parameter to the same value in both wells.
Scatter Diagram
Click the
Scatter Diagram button to load a scatter diagram of the current fit. The
diagram plots the observed drawdown values (X-axis) against the calculated drawdown
values (Y-axis), providing a visual representation of the quality of the fit. The 45 degree
line colored red represents an ideal scenario, where the calculated values equal the
observed values. However, this is not likely to happen in many real-life scenarios. If the
data points appear above the line, then the calculated values are larger than the
observed values, which may indicate that the model is over-predicting. If the data
points are under the line, then the calculated values are less than the observed values,
which may indicate that the model is under-predicting.
The scatter diagram can also be viewed in the statistics report, which can be accessed
by selecting Analysis / Statistics from the main menu.
Note: The Scatter Diagram is only available for analysis methods with model
functions, e.g., Theis, Hantush, etc. It is not available for the legacy methods (straight
line methods), e.g., Cooper & Jacob, Hantush Bierschenk, Specific Capacity, Slug
Tests, etc.
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Message window
The message window displays all the messages, warnings, and error reports that occur
while you conduct the data analysis. This message fades after five seconds.
Analysis Navigator panel
The Analysis Navigator panel is located to the right of the graph area. It contains all
the functions that control the analysis of the selected data and the display on the screen.
The Analysis Navigator contains following frames:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
General Info
Analysis method
Results
Model Assumptions (pumping test only)
Time axis
Drawdown axis
Diagram
Display
Type curves
75
In the image above, all frames are shown collapsed. To view the contents of each
frame, click on the “+” beside the name of the frame to expand it. In the following
section, the components of each frame will be discussed.
Analysis method frame
• Pumping Tests
• Slug Tests
The analysis frame contains all analysis methods available for the current test. The
available test methods differ for pumping tests and slug tests. To select a test method
for the analysis, simply click on the analysis you wish to use, and it will become
highlighted in blue. To learn more about the analysis methods available in
AquiferTest, see Chapter 4: Theory and Analysis Methods.
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Chapter 3 : General Info and Main Menu Bar
Results
In the Analysis Panel, there is one Result frame for every data set (observation well) in
the test. The values listed in the Results frame vary depending on the analysis used.
These values can be altered using Parameter Controls as described above.
Model Assumptions (Pumping Tests only)
This frame lists the assumptions for the analysis you have chosen.
These assumptions change depending on the selected analysis method, and can be
altered based on the knowledge of the aquifer in question. For example, if you
conducted a pumping test near a recharge boundary, start with a basic Theis analysis; if
the data is characteristic of a boundary effects, then modify the “Aquifer Extent”
assumption, and attempt a new curve fit. If the automatic fit fails, then attempt a manual
curve fit using the parameter controls.
To change the assumption, click on the right portion of the assumption you wish to
change, and select a new assumption from the list. The analysis view will refresh
automatically. To learn more about analysis methods and their assumptions, see
Chapter 4: Theory and Analysis Methods.
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77
Time axis
Time axis frame specifies parameters for the horizontal axis of the analysis.
• Title - axis title that is displayed on the graph
• Title Font - the font for the axis title
• Scale - switch between linear and log scale. To switch, click on the right portion
of the Scale line to produce a drop-down menu and choose the alternate system.
• Minimum - minimum value on the axis
• Maximum - maximum value on the axis
• Show Values - show/hide axis values
• Value Font - font for axis values
• Value format - specify the number of decimal places the axis values
• Major unit - number of divisions on the axis
• Gridlines - display vertical gridlines on the graph
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Chapter 3 : General Info and Main Menu Bar
Drawdown axis
Drawdown axis frame specifies parameters for the vertical axis of the analysis.
• Title - axis title that is displayed on the graph
• Title Font - the font for the axis title
• Scale - switch between linear and log scale. To switch, click on the right portion
of the Scale line to produce a drop-down menu and choose the alternate system.
• Minimum - minimum value on the axis
• Maximum - maximum value on the axis
• Show Values - show/hide axis values
• Value Font - font for axis values
• Value format - specify the number of decimal places the axis values
• Major unit - number of divisions on the axis
• Gridlines - display horizontal gridlines on the graph
• Reverse - set the origin (0,0) to the bottom-left corner or the top-left corner of
the graph.
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79
Diagram
Diagram frame allows you to format the graph and the area immediately around it. The
parameters in the frame control the following parameters in the graph area:
Margins
Line
width
Legend
Legend
(position) font
Marker size
The graph width and height control the graph size.
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Chapter 3 : General Info and Main Menu Bar
Width
Height
Display
Display frame allows you to specify what information will be displayed on the graph.
• Data Series - show/hide time drawdown data points
• Type Curve - show/hide the type curve
• Derivation of data points - display the derivative of the time drawdown data
points
• Derivation of type curve - display the derivative of the type curve
• Dimensionless - display dimensionless Drawdown vs. Time
When data pre-processing is applied, another option, Measured Data, will be
presented. This option allows you to display the original measured data along with the
corrected.
General Info
81
The Display frame is dynamic, presenting the appropriate display options for different
analysis methods.
Type curves
Allows you to overlay a type curve. Clicking on “Add type curve” will produce the
following dialogue:
Select the type curve and specify the display parameters for that curve. For more
details, see Chapter 4: Theory and Analysis Methods.
NOTE: You must have the “Dimensionless” mode active to see the added type curves.
This concludes the section on the Data Entry and Analysis windows. The next section
will discuss the Site Plan tab.
Site Plan Tab
The Site Plan tab allows you to load a map for the project, and optionally display
contours of the drawdown data for your tests.
For information on how to use the Site Plan tab, please see Chapter 6: Mapping and
Contouring.
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Chapter 3 : General Info and Main Menu Bar
Reports
The Reports tab allows you to customize the printed output of your project.
The individual reports templates are organized in the form of a tree where you can
select one or more of the reports you wish to print.
You can scroll through multi-page report components (e.g. water level data report for
hundreds of data points) using the Next Page / Previous Page buttons above the
Preview window.
The company header and logo for the reports can be defined in the Options dialog,
available under the Tools menu.
AquiferTest includes several pre-defined report templates; the report template structure
cannot be modified; however, using the Layout drop-down menu (in the upper right
corner), you can specify which components to show/hide in the various reports.
General Info
83
• Layout/Wells - specify what information you wish to be printed in the Wells
report.
• Layout/Trend Analysis - specify what information you wish to be printed in
the Trend Analysis report.
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Chapter 3 : General Info and Main Menu Bar
• Layout/Barometric effects report - specify what information you wish to be
printed in the Barometric Effects report.
• Layout/Analyses - specify what information you wish to be printed in the
Analysis report.
The Report tab is test specific, i.e. it offers the options to print components only for the
currently selected pumping or slug test.
To print specific reports, place a check mark beside the desired report, and click the
(Print) button, or select File / Print from main menu.
This concludes the description of the tabs. In the next section the main menu items will
be discussed.
General Info
85
3.2 Main Menu Bar
3.2.1 File Menu
The File menu contains the following items:
New
Create a new project. To return to the existing project, select Open Project.
AquiferTest projects are saved with the extension .HYT.
Open
Open an existing AquiferTest project. Recently opened projects appear at the bottom
of the File Menu.
Close
Close the current project.
Save
Save the current project.
Save As
Save the current project as a new file name.
Import
The import menu contains several options. You can import one of the following:
•
•
•
•
•
Well locations and geometry (from an .ASC, .TXT, .XLS or .SHP file)
Site Maps
Water Level data
Data Logger File
An AquiferTest version 3.X project database
Importing Well Locations and Geometry
You can import well locations and geometry into your project from two locations:
• File/Import/Import Wells from file menu option
• By right-clicking on the Wells grid and selecting Import Wells from file
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Chapter 3 : General Info and Main Menu Bar
• Selecting Import wells from file from the Additional tasks frame of the
Project Navigator.
Using one of the methods listed above, the following dialogue is produced in
which you can select the file (either .ASC, .TXT, .XLS or .SHP file) containing
your well information:
Once selected, the Wells Import dialog will open as shown below.
The data to be imported falls into the following categories:
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87
•
•
•
•
•
Well name
Well coordinates (X and Y)
Elevation
Benchmark elevation
Well geometry (L, r, R, b, and Gravel Pack Porosity)
In the Wells Import dialog, match the data columns in the source file to the format
required by AquiferTest.
The source file can be a Text file, Excel file or Shapefile, with one row allocated for
each well.
[1]
In the first column, select the wells you wish to import.
[2]
The screen on the left shows the data set-up in the file. The Field mapping area
on the right allows you to specify which columns in the file contain the data
required by AquiferTest.
[3]
If the first row in the data file contains names of the fields, check the box beside
First row contains headers
[4]
Click [Import] to complete the operation.
[5]
Review the data in the Wells table to verify if the data was correctly imported.
Import Map Image...
You can import a map image in two ways:
[1]
88
• File/Import/Map Image... menu option
• Load button in the Site Plan tab of the project
Using one of the methods listed, a dialog will load, in which you can navigate to
the appropriate file.
Chapter 3 : General Info and Main Menu Bar
[2]
Select the file, then click [Open] to produce the following dialogue:
AquiferTest will scan the image for the number of pixels in the image, and assign
1 length unit per pixel, in the X and Y axis, by default.
[3]
To georeference the image, enter the coordinates for the map’s bottom left and
top right corner.
[4]
Press [OK]
The map will be loaded in the Site Plan tab of the project. For more information on
map options and well symbols, see Chapter 6: Mapping and Contouring.
Import Water Levels...
You can import water level data from an ASCII text file, or Excel spreadsheet, into
your project from three locations:
• File/Import/Water Level measurements... menu option
• Clicking on the Import button in the Water Levels tab of the project
• Right clicking on the Water Level table and selecting Import data
[1]
Using one of the methods listed, a dialog will load, in which you can navigate to
the appropriate file.
[2]
Select the file, then click [Open]
NOTE: Ensure that you are in the Water Levels tab and that the appropriate well is
selected before importing water level data.
This procedure will copy the data into the Water Level table.
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89
Text and Excel Import Format
To import data from a file, it must be set up in a specific format. The source data must
be in a text (.TXT) or MSExcel (.XLS) file, containing two columns of data.
The first column must be in column A (far left side of the page) and it must contain the
elapsed time data.
The second column must be in column B (immediately adjacent to the time data,
separated by Tab), and it must contain water level data. This may be in the format of
depth to water level, drawdown, or water elevations (amsl or above a benchmark). An
example is shown below.
NOTE: Be sure to select the water level coordinate system for the source file
before importing (i.e. Time - Water Level (TOC) Time - Water Level (amsl), etc.)
from the drop-down menu above the measurements window. For more
information on the coordinate system see page 95.
The source file may contain a header in the first or second row; AquiferTest will
ignore this during the import.
AquiferTest will not convert data from different units during the import. If the
units in the source file are different from that defined in the current pumping/slug
test, you can either change the units later, or ensure they are properly defined
before importing.
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Chapter 3 : General Info and Main Menu Bar
Import Data Logger File
You can import a data logger file into your project from three locations:
• File/Import/Data Logger File menu option
• By selecting Import Data Logger File from the Import drop down menu in the
Water Levels tab of the project
• Right-clicking on the Time/Water Levels table and selecting Import Data
Logger File...
[1]
Using one of the methods listed, a dialog will load in which you can navigate to
the appropriate file.
[2]
Select the file, then click [Open] to launch the six-step data logger wizard
described below.
AquiferTest supports the following formats:
• Generic Text (.TXT., .ASC)
• Level Logger (.LEV)
• Level Logger: F-Series (Feet)
• Level Logger: M-Series (Meters)
• Level & Temperature Logger: F-Series (Feet)
• Level & Temperature Logger: M-Series (Meters)
• Level Loader (Feet)
• Level Loader (Meters)
• Diver Datalogger (.MON):
• Baro-Diver(14)
• Cera-Diver(16)
• CTD-Diver(ceramic)(12)
• CTD-Diver(stainless steel(9)
• Mini-Diver(14)
• Micro-Diver(15)
• (M)TD-Diver(10)
• TD-Diver(07)
Logger File Wizard - Step 1
In the first step, specify the row number where you want to start importing. This is
useful if there is header information in the logger file, that should be ignored.
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91
At this step, you can also Load Import Settings saved from a previous import session.
This eliminates the task of manually specifying individual settings at each step - a
tremendous time-saver when importing multiple datalogger files of the same format.
If your data was recorded using a Level Logger or Diver datalogger, you have the
option of selecting one of these pre-defined import settings:
If you are using a Diver Datalogger or Level Logger, choose the correct model for your
data logger. AquiferTest will then load the appropriate data settings for this logger file,
including the starting row, delimiter, date format, and column locations. Simply press
the [Next>] button to confirm that your file matches the pre-defined import settings in
AquiferTest.
If you have previously saved your settings, locate them in the Load Import Settings
drop-down menu. If there are no errors in the settings, the Import button will be
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activated. Press the Import button to import the file. If there are errors, the Import
button will not activate and you will need to determine the source of the error, by
manually going through the six steps.
Logger File Wizard - Step 2
In the second step, specify the data delimiter. Knowledge of which data delimiter is
used by your data logger is not required. Under Separators, simply click to choose the
delimiter options until the data preview becomes separated into columns of date, time,
and water level. The correct delimiter when chosen will separate the data columns
automatically.
Logger File Wizard - Step 3
In the third step, click on the column header representing the Date. The word Date will
appear in the column header title box. The Date format also needs to be selected; the
Logger File Wizard supports the following formats:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Main Menu Bar
DD/MM/YY
DD/MM/YYYY
MM/DD/YY
MM/DD/YYYY
DD.MM.YY
MM.DD.YY
YYYY/MM/DD
M/d/yyyy
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Logger File Wizard - Step 4
In the fourth step, click on the column header representing the Time. The word Time
will appear in the column header title box.
Logger File Wizard - Step 5
In the fifth step, click on the column header representing the Depth to WL data. The
title Depth to WL will appear in the column header title box. The Unit for the water
level data also needs to be selected; the Logger File Wizard supports the following
formats:
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•
•
•
•
•
•
m
cm
mm
inch
ft
yrd
Data will be converted to the units defined for the current test.
At the bottom of this window, specify the Co-ordinate system used during the data
collection:
The default system is Top of Casing Datum; however if your data logger recorded data
as water level elevation, then you have the option of importing the data in these formats
as well.
• Using the Top of Casing Datum, the top of the casing (TOC) elevation is
designated as zero, and the data will be imported as measurements from the top
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95
of the well casing to the water level (i.e. depth to water level, the traditional
format). After you import/enter the data, you must enter a value for Depth to
static water level. Then click on the Refresh icon and AquiferTest will make
the appropriate drawdown calculations.
• Using the Sea-Level Datum, the top of casing (TOC) elevation is designated
as the elevation (amsl) you have entered for that well. AquiferTest will read
this elevation from the value you have input in the Wells section. AquiferTest
will make the appropriate drawdown calculations by calculating the difference
between the static water level elevation and the water levels recorded during the
test.
• Using the Benchmark Datum, the top of casing (TOC) elevation is designated
as the benchmark elevation you have entered for that well. AquiferTest will
read this elevation from the value you have input in the Wells section. This
elevation is relative to an arbitrary benchmark that would have been established
during a site survey. As with the sea-level datum, AquiferTest will make the
appropriate drawdown calculations by calculating the difference between the
static water level elevation and the water levels recorded during the test.
NOTE: Please ensure that you have entered the necessary Well details (elevation
(amsl) or the benchmark elevation) BEFORE you import/enter your data.
Logger File Wizard - Step 6
In the sixth step, specify which data values are imported. If the file contains many
duplicate water levels (typical for a logger file), you may want to filter the data as
shown below. You can filter the data by either change in time or change in water level.
The number of datapoints that can be imported by AquiferTest is limited by available
system resources. However from a practical point of view, importing duplicate
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datapoints is not useful in a conventional aquifer analysis. You should try to minimize
the number of datapoints imported for each analysis as the performance decreases with
increased data points. Applying one of the import filter options under Import will
allow you to reduce the number of datapoints imported. You can also apply a filter after
the data has been imported. See “Filter” on page 65 for more details.
Click on the Save icon in the lower-left corner, to save the settings that you have just
used for the datalogger import:
Enter a name for the personalized settings, and click [OK] (My_Settings, for example).
These settings can be recalled in the future and used for importing data sets in a similar
format (see Logger File Wizard - Step 1).
To finish the import process, click [Import] and the datapoints will be imported into
your project.
Import AquiferTest 3.X Project...
To import a project from AquiferTest v3.X, from the main menu select File/Import/
AquiferTest 3.x Database.
Main Menu Bar
[1]
In the dialogue that appears, navigate to the database (.mdb) that contains the
desired project.
[2]
Double-click on the database or click [Open] after highlighting the database. The
following dialogue will appear:
[3]
Select the appropriate project and click [OK]
[4]
The selected project will load into the active AquiferTest project window.
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The imported project can then be saved in v.4.X format.
Print
There are two ways that you can send your report to the printer:
• Select File/Print
• Click the
(Print) icon in the toolbar below the Main Menu.
Both options listed above will produce an output depending on which window is active
in the project:
• Pumping (Slug) Test/Wells tab - prints the list of wells in the project
accompanied by the coordinates and geometry
• Discharge - no output available
• Water Levels - print water levels for the currently active well
• Analysis - prints the current analysis graph and results
• Pumping (Slug) Test/Site Map tab - prints the current map view. This could
include well locations, basemaps, and drawdown contours or color shaded map
• Report - in the Report tab you have the opportunity to select from desired
report templates. To do so, expand the navigation tree in the left portion of the
Reports tab and select which printouts you wish to obtain, and press Print.
NOTE: A print preview of any printable report can be obtained in the Reports tab by
selecting the appropriate view from the navigator tree.
Print options are not available for Discharge plots or the plots in the Diagnostic Graphs
tab. Use the copy feature (Edit / Copy from the main menu), then paste these images
into a document or graphics editor.
Printer Setup
Selecting this option will load the dialogue to set-up your printer.
Exit
Exit the program. Ensure that you have saved the project before exiting.
3.2.2 Edit Menu
The Edit menu contains the following items:
Copy
Copy the selected item from AquiferTest to the Windows clipboard. Depending on
your Windows System setup, the decimal sign used for the data will either be a period
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(.) or a comma (,). You can change this within Windows by selecting Start > Settings >
Control Panel > Regional Options.
Paste
Paste data from the Windows clipboard into AquiferTest. With this command, only the
first two columns are transferred. Therefore, ensure that the first two columns of the
information on the clipboard are the desired columns of data. When pasting data from a
spreadsheet, the data must be in adjacent columns with the time data on the left and the
water level data on the right. When pasting data from a text editor, the columns of data
must be separated by tabs (tab delimited).
Delete
Delete an entry. Alternately, highlight the entry, then right-click and select Delete from
the menu that appears. Entries include Time/Water level measurements and Well data.
To delete a Test or an Analysis use the Delete Object option.
Delete Object
Delete objects such as analyses or tests.
Delete a Test
Main Menu Bar
[1]
Select Edit/Delete Object/Test...
[2]
From the dialogue that has appears, choose the test you wish to delete:
[3]
Press Delete
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Delete an Analysis
[1]
Select the analysis to delete from the Project Navigator
[2]
Select Edit/Delete Object/Analysis...
[3]
From the dialogue that has appeared, choose the analysis you wish to delete
[4]
Click Delete
Delete a Graph Template
On page 72 you learned how to save the graph settings you used for a particular
analysis. To delete a graph settings template, follow the procedure below:
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[1]
Select Edit/Delete Object/Graph Template...
[2]
From the dialogue that has appears, choose the template you wish to delete:
Chapter 3 : General Info and Main Menu Bar
[3]
Click Delete
NOTE: There is no undo function. Be sure that you select the appropriate object before
deleting.
3.2.3 View Menu
The View menu contains the following items:
Navigation Panel
Show or hide the Project Navigator.
Button Labels
When this item is selected, a label is displayed under each toolbar icon.
When this option is not selected, the toolbar buttons are displayed under the menu bar
without any labels. This saves space on the window.
Analysis Panel
Show or hide the analysis panel. The analysis panel is visible when the Analysis tab is
activated, and is located on the right side of the window.
Analysis
panel
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101
Analysis Status
Show the analysis status message box. The analysis status message box is visible when
the Analysis tab is activated, and an Autofit is performed. The information may be
advisory in nature, or may report the specifics of an error in the analysis. Errors are
usually caused by the absence of required data for a chosen analysis.
Analysis Parameters
Show or hide the analysis parameter controls. These controls allow you to manually
position the type curve, to your data.
Depending on the test you can adjust the values for different parameters to see how this
affects the drawdown curve. Use the up and down arrow keys, or the slider bars, to
adjust the values and see the resulting drawdown curve change in the graph below.
For more details, please see Chapter 4: Manual Curve Fitting.
Scatter Diagram
Show a scatter diagram of the current fit. For more information on the scatter diagram,
please refer to “Scatter Diagram” on page 74.
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3.2.4 Test Menu
The Test menu contains the following items:
Create a Pumping test
Selecting this menu option will create a new pumping test. Another way to create a
pumping test is to select the link Create a Pumping test under the Additional tasks
frame, in the Project Navigator.
When this is done, the Pumping Test tab will appear, and all fields will be blank (except
the Project Information if you have already completed this in an earlier test).
In addition, any existing wells will be copied over to the new test, but will be set to
“Not Used” by default.
In the Pumping test notebook page, you can enter the details of the pumping test
including the Saturated Aquifer thickness, Units, and Wells. For more information see
“Pumping Test Tab” on page 53.
The new pumping test will be saved in the existing AquiferTest project (.HYT file).
Create a Slug test
Selecting this menu option will create a new slug test. Another way to create a slug test
is to select the link Create a Slug test under the Additional tasks frame, in the Project
Navigator.
When this is done, the Slug Test tab will appear, and all fields will be blank (except the
Project Information if you have already completed this in an earlier test).
Any existing wells will be copied over to the new test, but will be set to “Not Used” by
default.
For a slug test, only one well can be selected as the “Test Well”. This is done in the well
Type column, in the Wells grid (in the Slug Test tab). Create a new slug test for each
additional test well.
For more information see “Slug Test Tab” on page 57
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Trend Correction
Load options for correcting water levels due to trend effects.
For more details, please see Chapter 5: Data Pre-Processing
Barometric Correction
Load options for correcting water levels due to the influence of barometric effects.
For more details, please see Chapter 5: Data Pre-Processing.
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3.2.5 Analysis Menu
The Analysis menu contains the following items:
Create Analysis
Create an analysis for the current pumping test. Another way to create an analysis is to
select the Create a New Analysis link from the Analyses frame of the Project
Navigator.
Depending on which test is selected, this function will create a new pumping test
analysis or a new slug test analysis.
Create Analysis Considering Well Effects
Creates an analysis using the Papadopulos-Cooper method, which accounts for wellbore storage. For more details see Chapter 4: Theory and Analysis Methods.
Create Analysis for Specific Capacity
Creates a Specific Capacity analysis for the selected well. For more details, see Chapter
4: Specific Capacity.
Well Losses
Creates a Hantush Biershenk analysis for the selected well. For more details, see
Chapter 4: Hantush-Bierschenk Well Loss Solution
Define Analysis Time Range
Defines a time range of data points for the selected data set. Another way to perform
this action is to select Define analysis time range from the Analyses frame of the
Project Navigator.
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Selecting this option will produce the following dialogue:
In this dialogue you can specify the time range for points that should be included. The
excluded points will be removed completely from the analysis graph.
Fit
Performs an automatic fit for the selected well. Alternately, you may click the Fit
button above the analysis graph.
Exclude
Allows you to exclude certain data points from the analysis. Alternately, you may click
the Exclude button above the graph.
In the window that appears, define the time limit ranges that should be excluded.
NOTE: The excluded points will remain on the graph, but will be excluded from the
Automatic fit. To temporarily hide data points from the graph, use the Define analysis
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time range option which allows you to limit the data Before, After, or Between
specified time(s).
Comments
Allows you to add comments to the active analysis. Alternately, click the Comments
button.
In the window that appears enter any comments. These will appear when the Analysis
report is printed.
Statistics
Allows you to view statistics for the selected analysis, and current selected well. This
option may also be loaded by right-clicking on the Analysis graph, and selecting
Statistics.
The following Statistics window will appear.
The summary report contains statistics for the automatic fit, as well as the delta S
between the observed drawdown, and the drawdown value on the modeled curve. A
scatter diagram is displayed at the bottom of the window, providing a visual
representation of the quality of the current fit.
NOTE: All data is converted to time in seconds, and length in meters.
The statistics summary may be printed as is, or exported to .TXT or .XLS format.
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3.2.6 Tools Menu
Options
Specify settings for various program options.
Reports tab
This tab allows you to format the report printouts.
• Page Margins - set Left, Right, Top, and Bottom margins
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Page Margins
• Title Block - set up your company title the way you wish it to appear on reports.
You have the option of disabling the title block so that it doesn’t print on every
page of the report. Change the font and size of the title by clicking on the Font
button.
• Logo/Logo Preview - define a logo that will be printed with the company info.
Specify the image file that contains the logo and choose the size in which it will
be displayed. Image files supported by AquiferTest include bitmap (.BMP),
icon (.ICO), metafile (.WMF), and enhanced metafile (.EMF). Generally your
graphic should have a length-to-height ratio of 1:1. If your logo appears on the
screen but not on printed reports, your printer may not be set up for Windows
operation. If this occurs, ask your network administrator for technical
assistance.
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• Advanced/Wells - produces a dialogue that allows you to specify what
information you wish to be printed in the Wells report.
• Advanced/Trend Analysis - produces a dialogue that allows you to specify
what information you wish to be printed in the Trend Analysis report.
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• Advanced/Barometric effects report - produces a dialogue that allows you to
specify what information you wish to be printed in the Barometric Effects
report.
• Advanced/Analyses - produces a dialogue that allows you to specify what
information you wish to be printed in the Analysis report.
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General Tab
Contains general program settings such as:
• File location - specify default folder for saving/opening projects
• Additional options
• Load the program as full screen
• Display notifications (warning messages) in the Analysis tab
• Create back-up files of your project with extension .BAK
• Enable the Autosave feature and specify the time interval
• Set the display language
• Select a graph template to be used when you switch to “Dimensionless”
view
• Default method for unconfined, anisotropic aquifer analysis: Choose
between Neuman or Boulton. The selected analysis method will be used
by default, whenever unconfined, anisotropic is set for the model
assumptions
• Default Units: set the units that are loaded with each newly created test
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Constants tab
Define the physical and mathematical constants that AquiferTest uses for different
computations.
• The density of water and acceleration due to gravity are used e.g. in the
barometric pressure correction calculations
• The confidence interval of the t-test is used in the trend correction.
• Automatic fit: specify the maximum number of iterations, to be used during
the automatic fit, and display a progress bar in the Analysis graph window.
Higher iterations will result in slower processing times.
• Parameter Factor: Set a factor for adjusting parameter values; this is used in
the Analysis Parameter controls, when doing the manual adjustment of the
curve fit and aquifer parameters. The default interval value is 1.5.
• Cooper Jacob:
• Set a value for u for the validity line. Value must be between 0.01 and 0.1
• Select the option for determining closest point, for the Cooper Jacob
Distance Drawdown analysis. When using this method, you are required
to enter a time value for the analysis. If there is no observed water level
for this time value, AquiferTest will search for the next closest
observation point, back and forward in time. Assume you are looking for
the closest point for t = 100 s and you have data points at 10 s and 300 s.
If Linear is selected the program takes the data point at 10 s, because delta
t is 90 s (compared to the other point, where delta t is 200 s). If Log is
selected the program uses the 300 s data point, because ABS (log(300) –
log(100)) is 0.477, compared to ABS (log(10)-log(100)) which is 1.
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Appearance tab
Colors for Wells Table
Specify the colors to differentiate between the pumping and observation wells.
Marker Symbols
In this form you can also customize the appearance of the symbols which are used to
represent the wells on the site map and analysis graphs. Use the combo-boxes to select
the color and shape of the symbol. The symbols are assigned to the wells based on the
order in which they were created.
If the Type curves use same color as markers check box is selected, all type curves
will be colored the same color as the markers. If the Draw marker symbols behind
type curve option is selected, the marker symbols will always appear behind the type
curves.
Form Scaling
The Form Scaling option allows you to set a scaling factor for the main form. This is
helpful when using large fonts for your display, or having other problems with
displaying labels on the AquiferTest forms. It scales up/down so all controls can be
seen and accessed.
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User fields tab
AquiferTest allows you to create up to four user-defined fields, for displaying in project
reports. A text field can be added to any of the following project tabs: Pumping/Slug
Test, Discharge, Water Level and Analysis. Use this tab to specify the properties for
each user-defined field.
The field properties include:
Visible
Enable/Disable user-defined field. Selecting this option will add
the field to its respective tab. Deselecting this option will remove
the field from its respective tab.
For example, when the user-defined field for the Pumping/Slug Test tab is enabled, it
will appear below the date field under the Pumping/Slug Test tab, as shown in the
image below.
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115
Caption
Specify a caption for the field, e.g.,“Sample” in the image above.
Use default font
Select to show the field on the report using the default report font
Font
If Use default font is unchecked, specify a customized font style
for the field text
Use default positionSelect to position the field on the report in its default position.
Deselect this option, and use Left [mm] and Top[mm] to define a
different position on the report page.
Left [mm]
Define a position along the Y-axis
Top [mm]
Define a position along the X-Axis
Note: Page coordinates values are expressed relative to the upper-left corner of the
page (0,0).
If the Use default position option is disabled, you can also drag and drop the field
anywhere on the report, as desired.
3.2.7 Help Menu
The Help menu contains links to assist you, should problems arise while you are
working with AquiferTest.
Contents...
Opens the table of contents of the on-line help file. The help file is identical to the
printed user’s manual, however it contains cross-referenced links that allow you to find
information quicker.
Tutorial...
Loads the Tutorial instructions. The “Learning by Doing” tutorial will guide you
through most of the major functions of AquiferTest and is designed to highlight the
program’s capabilities.
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About...
Displays license, version, and copyright information for AquiferTest and how to
contact us.
Main Menu Bar
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Chapter 3 : General Info and Main Menu Bar
4
Theory and Analysis Methods
AquiferTest is used to analyze data gathered from pumping tests and slug tests.
Solution methods available in AquiferTest cover the full range of aquifer settings:
unconfined, confined, leaky, and fractured.
The full theoretical background of each solution method is beyond the scope of this
manual. However, a summary of each solution method, including limitations and
applications, is included in this chapter. This information is presented to help you select
the correct solution method for your specific aquifer settings.
Additional information can be obtained from hydrogeology texts such as:
• Freeze, R.A. and J.A. Cherry, 1979. Groundwater, Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey 07632, 604 p.
• Kruseman, G.P. and N.A. de Ridder, 1990. Analysis and Evaluation of
Pumping Test Data Second Edition (Completely Revised) ILRI publication 47.
Intern. Inst. for Land Reclamation and Improvements, Wageningen,
Netherlands, 377 p.
• Fetter, C.W., 1994. Applied Hydrogeology, Third Edition, Prentice-Hall, Inc.,
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, 691 p.
• Dominico, P.A. and F.W. Schwartz, 1990. Physical and Chemical
Hydrogeology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 824 p.
• Driscoll, F. G., 1987. Groundwater and Wells, Johnson Division, St. Paul,
Minnesota 55112, 1089 p.
In addition, several key publications are cited in the References section at the end of
this chapter.
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4.1 Background
The methodology of AquiferTest is very different from its predecessors. In earlier
versions, you would select the most suitable analysis method for the data, based on the
assumptions and data requirements, and obtain the results. In AquiferTest, the approach
is somewhat reversed. Now, you specify the model assumptions (aquifer type, isotropy,
boundary conditions, discharge type, and well penetration), and AquiferTest attempts to
select the most suitable solution method.
In addition, some of the methods from v. 3.5 have been replaced. For example, in
AquiferTest v.3.5 Pro, the Theis method was implemented in five formats:
• Classical Theis solution: with the assumption of isotropic, infinitely extending
confined aquifer, and constant pumping rate
• Theis Prediction, same assumptions as classical Theis solution, however no
drawdown data was necessary
• Theis Forward: similar assumptions, however using superposition, could also
support multiple pumping wells, variable pumping rates, and correction for
partially penetrating pumping wells
• Stallman Forward, Recharge Boundary: Theis method, with the addition of a
correction factor for a recharge boundary
• Stallman Forward, Barrier Boundary: Theis method, with the addition of a
correction factor for a negative (barrier) boundary condition.
The abundance of solution methods led to some ambiguity and vagueness concerning the
assumptions and limitations of an individual method. In AquiferTest, there is a single
Theis method; by changing the model assumptions, you can replicate any of the
aforementioned scenarios.
The process in AquiferTest is systematic, and as such, easier to understand. By explicitly
indicating the known aquifer type and/or conditions, (which can be determined using the
diagnostic plots), you know which effects are considered in the selected solution method.
Generally, it is recommended that you start with a simple model, and gradually increase
the complexity. That is, for a pumping test, start with the default Theis set of assumptions,
and change them only if you observe phenomena that do not fit this model. For example, if
you know that the aquifer is bounded 400 m away, you could initially change the
assumptions from “infinite” to “barrier bounded”, however this would not be the correct
approach. It takes some time until the depression cone reaches that barrier, and you might
miss other important effects in the meantime.
To summarize, AquiferTest allows you to calculate aquifer parameters in all the possible
scenarios that were available in previous versions; the difference is that instead of using
explicitly defined solution names (Stallman, etc), the results are obtained by starting with
a standard solution, and sequentially applying correction factors in order to get to the most
suitable solution.
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Chapter 4: Theory and Analysis Methods
4.2 Graphing Options
4.2.1 Diagnostic Plots
Calculating hydraulic characteristics would be relatively easy if the aquifer system (i.e.
aquifer plus well) were precisely known. This is generally not the case, so interpreting a
pumping test is primarily a matter of identifying an unknown system. System
identification relies on models, the characteristics of which are assumed to represent the
characteristics of the real aquifer system (Kruseman and de Ridder, 1990).
In a pumping test the type of aquifer, the well effects (well losses and well bore storage,
and partial penetration), and the boundary conditions (barrier or recharge boundaries)
dominate at different times during the test. They affect the drawdown behavior of the
system in their own individual ways. So, to identify an aquifer system, one must
compare its drawdown behavior with that of the various theoretical models. The model
that compares best with the real system is then selected for the calculation of the
hydraulic parameters (Kruseman and de Ridder, 1990).
AquiferTest now includes the tools to help you to determine the aquifer type and
conditions before conducting the analysis. In AquiferTest, the various theoretical
models are referred to as Diagnostic plots. Diagnostic plots are plots of drawdown vs.
the time since pumping began; these plots are available in log-log or semi-log format.
The diagnostic plots allow the dominating flow regimes to be identified; these yield
straight lines on specialized plots. The characteristic shape of the curves can help in
selecting the appropriate solution method (Kruseman and de Ridder, 1990).
In addition, the Diagnostic plots also display the theoretical drawdown derivative
curves (i.e. the rate of change of drawdown over time). Quite often, the derivative data
can prove to be more meaningful for choosing the appropriate solution method.
NOTE: Diagnostic Graphs are available for Pumping Tests only.
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121
To view the Diagnostic Plots, load the Analysis tab, select the Diagnostic Graphs tab,
and the following window will appear:
The main plot window will contain two data series:
1. the time-drawdown data
2. the drawdown derivative data (time vs. change in drawdown).
The drawdown derivative data series will be represented by a standard symbol with the
addition of an X through the middle of the symbol.
On the right side of the window, you will see five time-drawdown graph templates, each
one representing different aquifer conditions, and/or scenarios encountered during a
pumping test. These include:
•
•
•
•
•
Confined
Leaky or Recharge Boundary
Barrier Boundary
Double Porosity (Fractured Flow) and Unconfined
Well Effects
In the Diagnostic plots, the time (t) is plotted on the X axis, and the drawdown (s) is
plotted on the y axis. There are two different representations are available:
1. Log-Log scale
2. Semi-log, whereby the drawdown (s) is plotted on a linear axis.
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Chapter 4: Theory and Analysis Methods
The scale type may be selected directly above the time-drawdown graph templates.
Changing the plot type will display a new set of the graph templates, and also plot the
observed drawdown data in the new scale.
Each diagnostic graph contains three lines:
•Theis type curve (dashed black line)
•Theoretical drawdown curve under the expected conditions
(solid black line)
•Drawdown derivative curve (solid green line).
NOTE: The curves on the diagnostic plots assume a constant pumping rate from one
pumping well; using a diagnostic plot with a variable rate pumping test will not provide
meaningful results.
In some diagnostic plots, there is no distinguishable difference between the time vs.
drawdown curves, and it may be difficult to diagnose the aquifer type and conditions. In
this case, study the time vs. drawdown derivative curves, as they typically provide a
clearer picture of the aquifer characteristics.
The diagnostic plots are available as a visual aid only; your judgement should coincide
with further hydrogeological and geological assessment.
The theoretical drawdown graph templates are further explained below.
Confined Aquifer
In an ideal confined aquifer (homogeneous and isotropic, fully penetrating, small
diameter well), the drawdown follows the Theis curve. When viewing the semi-log
plot, the time-drawdown relationship at early pumping times is not linear, but at later
pumping times it is. If a linear relationship like this is found, it should be used to
calculate the hydraulic characteristics because the results will be much more accurate
than those obtained by matching field data points with the log-log plot (Kruseman and
de Ridder, 1990).
Unconfined Aquifer
The curves for the unconfined aquifer demonstrate a delayed yield. At early pumping
times, the log-log plot follows the typical Theis curve. In the middle of the pumping
duration, the curve flattens, which represents the recharge from the overlying, less
permeable aquifer, which stabilizes the drawdown. At later times, the curve again
follows a portion of the theoretical Theis curve.
The semi-log plot is even more characteristic; it shows two parallel straight-line
segments at early and late pumping times. (Kruseman and de Ridder, 1990).
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123
Double Porosity
The theoretical curve for double porosity is quite similar to that seen in an unconfined
aquifer, which illustrates delayed yield. The aquifer is called double porosity, since there
are two systems: the fractures of high permeability and low storage capacity, and the
matrix blocks of low permeability and high storage capacity. The flow towards the well in
this system is entirely through the fractures and is radial and in unsteady state. The flow
from the matrix blocks into the fractures is assumed to be in pseudo-steady-state.
In this system, there are three characteristic components of the drawdown curve. Early in
the pumping process, all the flow is derived from storage in the fractures. Midway through
the pumping process, there is a transition period during which the matrix blocks feed their
water at an increasing rate to the fractures, resulting in a (partly) stabilized drawdown.
Later during pumping, the pumped water is derived from storage in both the fractures and
the matrix blocks (Kruseman and de Ridder, 1990).
Leaky
In a leaky aquifer, the curves at early pumping times follow the Theis curve. In the middle
of the pumping duration, there is more and more water from the aquitard reaching the
aquifer. At later pumping times, all the water pumped is from leakage through the
aquitard(s), and the flow to the well has reached steady-state. This means that the
drawdown in the aquifer stabilizes (Kruseman and de Ridder, 1990).
Recharge Boundary
When the cone of depression reaches a recharge boundary, the drawdown in the well
stabilizes. The field data curve then begins to deviate more and more from the theoretical
Theis curve (Kruseman and de Ridder, 1990).
Barrier (Impermeable) Boundary
With a barrier boundary, the effect is opposite to that of a recharge boundary. When the
cone of depression reaches a barrier boundary, the drawdown will double. The field data
curve will then steepen, deviating upward from the theoretical Theis curve. (Kruseman
and de Ridder, 1990). Analytically this is modelled by an additional pumping well (an
image well). After this phase (in which the two drawdowns accumulate) and the curve
again adapts itself to the Theis function.
Well Effects
Well effects, in particular storage in the pumping well, can contribute to delayed
drawdown at the beginning of the pumping test. At early pumping, the drawdown data will
deviate from the theoretical Theis curve, since there will be a storage component in the
well. After this, in mid - late pumping times, the drawdown curve should represent the
theoretical Theis curve. These well effects are more easily identified in the semi-log plot.
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Chapter 4: Theory and Analysis Methods
4.2.2 Analysis Plots and Options
The Analysis plots are the most important feature in AquiferTest. In the analysis
graph, the data is fit to the type curve, and the corresponding aquifer parameters are
determined. In the graph the data can be plotted linearly or logarithmically. The
program calculates the Type curve automatically, and plots it on the graph. Above the
graph, the analysis method is listed. To the right of the graph, in the Analysis
Navigator panel, the aquifer parameters for each well are displayed in the Results
frame, and can be manually modified using parameter controls. (for more information
see “Manual Curve Fitting” on page 129).
Model Assumptions
The model assumptions control which solution method will be chosen for your data,
and what superposition factors will be applied.
Using the diagnostic plots as a guide, select the appropriate model assumptions, and
AquiferTest will select the appropriate Analysis Method from the Analysis Navigator
panel. From here, you may continue to adjust the model assumptions in order to reach a
more representative solution. Alternately, you may directly select the Analysis Method
and AquiferTest will then select the corresponding model assumptions.
The following model assumptions are available for the pumping test solutions:
•
•
•
•
•
Type: Confined, Unconfined, Leaky, Fractured
Extent: Infinite, Recharge Boundary, Barrier Boundary
Isotropy: Isotropic, Anisotropic
Discharge: Constant, Variable
Well Penetration: Fully, Partially
Each time a model assumption is modified, AquiferTest will attempt to recalculate the
theoretical drawdown curve, and a new automatic fit must be applied by the user. If the
automatic fit fails, then a manual curve fit can be done using the parameter controls.
Also, adjusting model assumptions may result in the addition of a new aquifer
parameter(s), or removal of existing ones (apart from the usual parameters
Transmissivity (T) and Storativity (S)). For example, if you change the aquifer type
from confined to leaky, an additional parameter for hydraulic resistance (c) will be
added for each well in the Results frame of the Analysis Navigator panel, and its value
will be calculated. Alternately, changing the aquifer type back to confined will hide this
parameter, and the c value will no longer appear in the Results frame.
NOTE: Model assumptions are not available for slug test solutions, nor for the Theis
Recovery or Cooper-Jacob methods.
Graphing Options
125
Dimensionless Graphs
AquiferTest also provides a dimensionless representation of the analysis graph. In this
graph, time (tD) and drawdown (sD) are plotted without dimensions.
NOTE: Similar to the diagnostic plots, the dimensionless graph is appropriate for constant
pumping rates only, and a single pumping well.
The following definitions are specified:
tD 
Tt
r 2S
sD 
2Ts
Q
where,
T: Transmissivity
t: Time since beginning of pumping
r: radial distance to the pumping well
S: Storage coefficient
s: Drawdown
Q: pumping rate
Reference: Renard, P. (2001): Quantitative analysis of groundwater field experiments.222 S., ETH Zürich, unpublished. p. 41
126
Chapter 4: Theory and Analysis Methods
Adding Type Curves
In the dimensionless mode, additional user-defined type curves may be added for an
improved analysis. In the Analysis Navigator Panel, under Type Curves, click on the
Add Type curve option, and the following dialogue will appear.
For each selected model function the dimensionless curve parameters must be defined.
Define the range for the parameters. Also, define the color, line thickness, and
description, so that it may be easily identified on the graph window.
Click [OK], and the window will close and the type curve will be displayed on the
graph. The curve name will appear as a new item under the Type Curves panel. Simply
select this item to modify the curve later; or, right mouse click on the curve name in the
panel and select Delete to remove it.
The type curve options for each solution method are explained in their respective
sections below.
4.3 Analysis Parameters
4.3.1 Automatic Curve Fitting
To fit a type curve to your data using the Automatic Fit option, ensure that the desired
well is highlighted at the top of the window in the Analysis tab, in the Data from box;
if the well is selected, it will be outlined in a blue box. Then click the
(Fit)
icon from the analysis menu bar.
Analysis Parameters
127
AquiferTest uses the “downhill simplex method” which is a minimizing algorithm for
general non-linear functions, to automatically match the type curve to your data. If the
automatic fit is successful, there will be a confirmation message. If the fit fails, there may
be a warning message and a suggestion on what to do to fix it.
NOTE: If the automatic fit fails, or the fit results in the data being plotted off the graph
window (i.e. the data is not visible), then a manual curve fitting should be used. This could
also suggest aquifer conditions that are outside the typical range for Transmissivity and
Storativity.
For more complex model assumptions, attempt a manual fit with appropriate parameter
values for your site, (adjust the values for the parameters manually or enter numeric values
in the parameter fields). THEN use the Automatic Fit feature.
Excluding Data Points from the Automatic Fit
When data points are excluded from the analysis they remain visible on the graph,
however they are no longer considered in the automatic fit calculations.
To exclude points from analysis click the
(Exclude) button above the analysis graph
and define the time range for the data points to be excluded:
Enter the time range, and press [Add].
Then, highlight the defined range and click [OK] to exclude the points.
128
Chapter 4: Theory and Analysis Methods
Upon returning to the analysis graph, once again perform Automatic fit. AquiferTest
will do an autofit on the remaining points, however the excluded points will still be
visible.
For more information on excluding data points please see “Exclude” on page 71.
Define Analysis Time Range
Defining an analysis time range will restrict AquiferTest to performing calculations
using only data points that fall within the defined boundaries. The points that fall
outside these boundaries will neither be displayed on the graph nor be considered in the
analysis.
To define the time range for an analysis select Define analysis time range... from the
Project Navigator panel to the left of the analysis graph. In the window that appears,
select the type of range you wish to impose on your data and enter the bounding values.
Click [OK] to implement the changes and return to the analysis graph. Perform an
Automatic fit on the modified dataset. Points not within the time range will be
temporarily hidden from the graph.
For more information on defining analysis time range, please see “Define analysis time
range...” on page 51.
4.3.2 Manual Curve Fitting
The Automatic Fit may not always yield the most appropriate curve match, and as such,
you can use a manual curve fit. Your professional judgement is essential for the proper
assessment of the AquiferTest data. You are encouraged to use your knowledge of the
local geologic and hydrogeologic settings of the test to manually fit the data to a type
curve.
Analysis Parameters
129
For the manual adjustment of the parameters, there are several options:
• Enter new parameter values manually in the fields in the Results panel.
• Use the Parameter Controls. The Parameter Controls window can be loaded
by clicking on the
(Parameter Controls) button, or by selecting View/
Analysis Parameters.
Use the options here to modify the parameter values, and achieve the optimal curve fit. In
the parameter controls, there are several options:
• Enter new parameter values manually in their respective fields;
• Adjust the parameter values up/down using the slider controls;
• If the cursor is in the input field, the parameter can be adjusted by the use of the
keyboard arrow keys: “up” will increase the value, - “down” will decrease the
value (division and/or multiplication by a default factor 1.5)
• Use the up/down buttons adjacent to each respective parameter field.
The parameters can become fixed by clicking the “lock” button; by locking a parameter,
the value will remain constant the next time an automatic fit is applied.
When the parameter is locked, the icon will appear as follows:
Using this feature, you can lock in a certain curve shape and then use the Autofit option
and see the resulting drawdown. You can also lock parameters for use in:
• Predicting drawdown at other locations
• Fixing known parameter ratios (e.g. P value for Boundary barrier)
• Fixing known parameter values (e.g. Lambda for Double Porosity solution)
When a parameter is not locked, the icon will appear as follows:
, and it will be
considered when the Automatic fit is applied.
In the Parameter Control window, the parameters can be displayed by wells or by
parameter type. Right mouse click anywhere in the Parameters window to change the
display type.
130
Chapter 4: Theory and Analysis Methods
By Well
Analysis Parameters
By Parameter
131
4.4 Theory of Superposition
The pumping test solution methods included with AquiferTest are:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Theis
Theis with Jacob Correction
Hantush-Jacob
Neuman
Papadopulos - Cooper
Warren Root - Double Porosity
Boulton
Hantush (Leaky, with storage in aquitard)
Moench (Fractured flow, with skin)
Agarwal Recovery
Theis Recovery
Cooper Jacob I: Time Drawdown
Cooper Jacob II: Distance Drawdown
Cooper Jacob III: Time Distance Drawdown
These methods each have some general assumptions:
•
•
•
•
aquifer extends radially and infinitely
single pumping well
constant pumping rate
fully penetrating well (except for the Neuman method)
These assumptions may be modified if the pumping test data are analyzed utilizing the
theory of superposition. AquiferTest uses the theory of superposition to calculate
drawdown in variable aquifer conditions. Superposition can be applied to any solution
method.
Superposition may be used to account for the effects of pumping well interference, aquifer
discontinuities, groundwater recharge, well/borehole storage and variable pumping rates.
The differential equations that describe groundwater flow are linear in the dependent
variable (drawdown). Therefore, a linear combination of individual solutions is also a
valid solution. This means that:
• The effects of multiple pumping wells on the predicted drawdown at a point can
be computed by summing the predicted drawdowns at the point for each well; and
• Drawdown in complex aquifer systems can be predicted by superimposing
predicted drawdowns for simpler aquifer systems (Dawson and Istok, 1991).
In AquiferTest, the standard solution methods can be enhanced by applying
superposition; the various superposition principles are explained below.
4.4.1 Variable Discharge Rates
Pumping rates from an aquifer are sometimes increased in several steps in order to better
assess aquifer properties. In AquiferTest, drawdown calculated during variable discharge
periods is analyzed using the superposition principle. Using the superposition principle,
132
Chapter 4: Theory and Analysis Methods
two or more drawdown solutions, each for a given set of conditions for the aquifer and
the well, can be summed algebraically to obtain a solution for the combined conditions.
For variable discharge rates, the following equation is used:

 r 2 S  n Qi  Qi 1  r 2 S
Q1

  
s t  
W 
W 


4T  4Tt  i  2 4T
4
T
t
t

i 1 

(the equation shown here applies for the Theis solution).
where t > ti-1
with
Q1 = pumping rate starting from t=0
Qi = pumping rate at pumping stage i
n = number of pumping stages
The drawdown at the time t corresponds to the drawdown caused by the initial pumping
rate plus the sum of all drawdowns caused by the change of pumping rate.
For more information, please refer to “Analysis and Evaluation of Pumping Test Data”
(Kruseman and de Ridder, 1990, p. 181).
Entering Variable Discharge Rates
Ensure you have the time-discharge data formatted correctly when using a variable
pumping rate analysis. The sample table below illustrates the pumping time and
discharge rates for a pumping test:
Time (min.)
180
360
540
720
900
1080
Discharge (m3/d)
1306
1693
2423
3261
4094
5019
When you enter time-discharge data in AquiferTest, your first entry is the initial
pumping rate. Using the table above as an example, the pumping rate from 0-180
minutes was 1306 m3/day. The second pumping rate from 180-360 minutes was 1693
m3/day, and so on.
Theory of Superposition
133
For your convenience, the figure below has been included to demonstrate the correct data
format, in the Discharge tab:
Be sure to select “Variable” discharge type from the Model assumptions frame in the
Analysis Navigator panel; otherwise, AquiferTest will average the pumping rates into
one constant value.
4.4.2 Multiple Pumping Wells
Determining the cone of influence caused by one or more pumping wells can be a
challenge. To do so one must assume that the aquifer is limitless; therefore, the cone of
influence is also regarded as limitless. The cone of influence is considered mathematically
finite only with a positive aquifer boundary condition.
In AquiferTest, multiple pumping wells can be considered using superposition. The
principle states that the drawdown caused by one or more wells, is the sum of multiple
wells superimposed into one. The following equation is used to superimpose a pumping
rate for multiple pumping wells:
n
s
i 1
134
 r 2S 
Qi
W  i 
4T  4Tt 
Chapter 4: Theory and Analysis Methods
with,
n = number of pumping/injection wells
Qi = pumping rate at the well i
ri = distance from the observation well to well i
It is important to notice that superimposition of groundwater flow causes the cone of
depression to develop an eccentric form as it ranges further up gradient and lesser down
gradient. In AquiferTest, this situation is not considered as the depression cone is
symmetrical to all sides and extends over the stagnation point. This means
representation of the cone of depression and calculation of the cone of influence does
not consider overall groundwater flow.
4.4.3 Boundary Effects
Pumping tests are sometimes performed near the boundary of an aquifer. A boundary
condition could be a recharge boundary (e.g. a river or a canal) or a barrier boundary
(e.g. impermeable rock). When an aquifer boundary is located within the area
influenced by a pumping test, the assumption that the aquifer is of infinite extent is no
longer valid.
The delineation of the aquifer by an impermeable layer and/or a recharge boundary can
also be considered using the superposition principle. According to this principle, the
drawdown caused by two or more wells is the sum of the drawdown caused by each
separate well. By taking imaginary (image) wells (pumping or injection) into account,
you can calculate the parameters of an aquifer with a seemingly infinite extent.
AquiferTest creates an imaginary pumping and/or injection well, which is added to the
calculation.
To account for the boundary condition, a term is added to the Theis function:
 –u 
Q   –u
s  r t  = ----------   e du   e du
- 
4T  u --------u -------i u
r u
where,
Theory of Superposition
135
2
rr S
u r = ---------4T
and
2
ri S
u i = ---------4T
where,
rr = distance between observation well and real well
ri = distance between observation well and imaginary well
The extension for boundary conditions will be demonstrated only in a confined aquifer,
but its use in a semi-confined and unconfined aquifer occurs similarly. According to
Stallman (in Ferris et al., 1962) the total drawdown is determined as:
s = sr  si
s: total drawdown
sr: drawdown caused by the real pumping well
+si: drawdown caused by the imaginary pumping well
-si: drawdown caused by the imaginary injection well
Using the new variable ri, the user must enter a value for the parameter, P, when a
boundary condition is applied in the Model assumptions frame:
r
P = ----i
rr
where P = ratio of ri to rr
136
Chapter 4: Theory and Analysis Methods
The P value can be entered in the Results frame, in the Analysis Navigator panel.
Once the value is entered, the parameter should be locked, since it is a constant value
(i.e. the ratio between the distances is constant, and should not change during the
automatic fit).
The explanation of each boundary type is further discussed below.
Recharge Boundary
For a recharge boundary (with an assumed constant head) two wells are used: a real
discharge well and an imaginary recharge well. The imaginary well recharges the
aquifer at a constant rate, Q, equal to the constant discharge rate of the real well. Both
the real well and the imaginary well are equidistant from the boundary, and are located
on a line normal to the boundary (Kruseman and de Ridder, 1990).
River
(Recharge boundary)
Piezometer
rr
ri
o
90
a
a
Recharging Well
(imaginary)
Discharging Well
(Real)
Line of Zero
Drawdown
where,
a = distance between pumping well and the boundary
rr = distance between observation well and real well
ri = distance between observation well and imaginary well
There is a “line of zero drawdown” that occurs at the point of the recharge or barrier
boundary. The cross-sectional view of the Stallman recharge condition is seen in the
following figure:
Theory of Superposition
137
Q
Recharging boundary
a
Real Bounded System
water level at t=0
water level at t=t
a
Confining Layer
T, S
Line of Zero Drawdown
Discharging
Well (real)
Recharging Q
Well (image)
Q
a
impression cone
Equivalent System
water level at t=0
water level at t=t
depression
cone
a
Confining Layer
a
T, S
Barrier Boundary
For a barrier boundary, the imaginary system has two wells discharging at the same rate:
the real well and the imaginary well. The image well induces a hydraulic gradient from the
boundary towards the imaginary well that is equal to the hydraulic gradient from the
boundary towards the real well.
138
Chapter 4: Theory and Analysis Methods
Impermeable rock
(Barrier boundary)
Piezometer
rr
ri
o
90
a
a
Discharging Well
(imaginary)
Discharging Well
(Real)
Line of Zero
Drawdown
The cross-sectional view of the Stallman Barrier condition is seen below:
Barrier boundary
Q
Real Bounded System
water level at t=0
water
level at t=t
b
a
Confining Layer
T, S
Line of Zero Drawdown
Discharging Q
Well (real)
Q
Discharging
Well (image)
a
Equivalent System
water level at t=0
water level at t=t
a
resulting
depression
cone
Confining Layer
a
T, S
For more details, please see p. 109, Kruseman and de Ridder
Theory of Superposition
139
4.4.4 Effects of Vertical Anisotropy and Partially Penetrating Wells
Pumping wells and monitoring wells often only tap into an aquifer, and may not
necessarily fully penetrate the entire thickness. This means only a portion of the aquifer
thickness is screened, and that both horizontal and vertical flow will occur near the
pumping well. Since partial penetration induces vertical flow components in the vicinity
of the well, the general assumption that the well receives water only from horizontal flow
is no longer valid (Krusemann and de Ridder, 1990, p 159).
Consequently, as soon as there is a vertical flow component, the anisotropic properties of
the aquifer should also be considered. If the aquifer is anisotropic, then the permeability in
the horizontal direction is different from the vertical permeability.
To account for partially penetrating wells, the user must enter the values for the well
screen lengths, the distance from the bottom of the screen to the top of the aquifer (b
value) and the initial saturated aquifer thickness. (These parameters are defined in the
Pumping Test tab). AquiferTest will then calculate the distance between the top of the
well screen and the top of the aquifer, and the bottom of the well screen and the bottom of
the aquifer, and uses these factors in the drawdown calculations. AquiferTest uses the
well geometry after Reed (1980), shown in the following diagram.
AquiferTest uses the vertical flow correction developed by Weeks (1969):
s
Q
W u   s
4T
(equation shown here is for confined aquifer).
with
W(u) = Theis well function
140
Chapter 4: Theory and Analysis Methods
 = difference in drawdown between the observed drawdowns and the drawdowns
predicted by the Theis equation.
is computed as follows:
s 
Q
fs
4T
For the calculation of fs, two formulae exist:
• one for a piezometer, and
• one for observation wells
For a piezometer, fs is modified, and calculated with:
f s  

na  nb
nd 
2D
1

 sin
W u, n 'cos
sin


 (b  d ) n 1 n
D 
D
D 

with
D: thickness
a: distance from aquifer top to bottom of piezometer
b: distance from top of aquifer to bottom of well screen, for the pumping well.
d: distance from top of aquifer to top of well screen, for the pumping well.
The calculation for  is as follows:
 '
r
Kv / Kh
D
with
r: distance from Pumping well to piezometer
Kv: vertical conductivity
Kh: horizontal conductivity
For the case where t > SD/2Kv, (S = storage coefficient) the function is:
Theory of Superposition
141
W u , n '
the modified Bessel' function of the 2nd order, is approximated:
2 K 0 n '
AquiferTest uses the following formula for the computation of fs at a piezometer:
f s  

na  nb
nd 
4D
1

 sin
K 0 u , n 'cos
sin


 (b  d ) n 1 n
D 
D
D 

For observation wells, fs is slightly different, and is defined as:
f s  

2D 2
1
na  nb
nd 
 nz
W u , n 'sin
 sin
 sin

sin

2
2
D
D 
D
D 
 (b  d ) z  a  n 1 n

with
a: distance from top of aquifer to top of well screen in the observation well
z: distance from top of aquifer to bottom of well screen, in the observation well.
Using the same restriction as with the piezometer, t >SD/2Kv can be replaced with 
W(u, n, ’) with 2 Ko (n, ’) and the formula used by AquiferTest reads:

4D 2
1
na  nb
n d 
 nz
K 0 u , n 'sin
 sin
f s   2
 sin

sin

2
D
D 
D
D 
 (b  d ) z  a  n 1 n

NOTE: The corrections for partial penetration effect and anisotropy require significant
computing resources. As such, it is recommended to first complete a calculation with fully
penetrating wells, and only after the model function is fitted, to apply the correction for
partially penetrating wells.
142
Chapter 4: Theory and Analysis Methods
4.5 Pumping Test Background
4.5.1 Radial Flow to a Well in a Confined Aquifer
The partial differential equation that describes saturated flow in two horizontal
dimensions in a confined aquifer is:
Written in terms of radial coordinates, the equation becomes:
The mathematical region of flow, illustrated below, is a horizontal one-dimensional line
through the aquifer from r = 0 at the well to r =  at the infinite extremity.
The initial condition is:
Pumping Test Background
143
where h0 is the initial hydraulic head (i.e., the piezometric surface is initially horizontal).
The boundary conditions assume that no drawdown occurs at an infinite radial distance:
and that a constant pumping rate, Q, is used:
The solution of the above equation describes the hydraulic head at any radial distance, r, at
any time after the start of pumping.
144
Chapter 4: Theory and Analysis Methods
4.6 Pumping Test Methods - Fixed Assumptions
The following pumping test methods require a fixed set of assumptions; as such, these
assumptions may not be modified on the Analysis plot. These include:
• Theis Recovery Analysis
• Cooper Jacob Methods
• Cooper Jacob I: Time-Drawdown
• Cooper Jacob II: Distance-Drawdown
• Cooper Jacob III: Time-Distance Drawdown
4.6.1 Theis Recovery Test (confined)
When the pump is shut down after a pumping test, the water level inside the pumping
and observation wells will start to rise. This rise in water level is known as residual
drawdown (s'). Recovery-test measurements allow the transmissivity of the aquifer to
be calculated, thereby providing an independent check on the results of the pumping
test.
Residual drawdown data can be more reliable than drawdown data because the
recovery occurs at a constant rate, whereas constant discharge pumping is often
difficult to achieve in the field. Residual drawdown data can be collected from both the
pumping and observation wells.
Strictly applied, this solution is appropriate for the conditions shown in the following
figure. However, if additional limiting conditions are satisfied, the Theis recovery
solution method can also be used for leaky, unconfined aquifers and aquifers with
partially penetrating wells (Kruseman and de Ridder, 1990, p. 183).
Pumping Test Methods - Fixed Assumptions
145
According to Theis (1935), the residual drawdown, after pumping has ceased, is
s' 
Q
W (u )  W (u ' )
4T
where:
r2S
u
4Tt
u' 
r 2 S'
4Tt'
s' = residual drawdown
r = distance from well to piezometer
T = transmissivity of the aquifer (KD)
S and S' = storativity values during pumping and recovery respectively.
t and t' = elapsed times from the start and ending of pumping respectively.
146
Chapter 4: Theory and Analysis Methods
Using the approximation for the well function, W(u), shown in the Cooper-Jacob
method, this equation becomes:
When S and S' are constant and equal and T is constant, this equation can be reduced to:
To analyze the data, s' is plotted on the logarithmic Y axis and time is plotted on the
linear X axis as the ratio of t/t' (total time since pumping began divided by the time
since the pumping ceased).
An example of a Theis Recovery analysis graph has been included below:
Pumping Test Methods - Fixed Assumptions
147
An example of a Theis Recovery analysis is available in the project:
AquiferTest\Examples\Theis_Recovery.HYT
The Theis Recovery Solution assumes the following:
• The aquifer is confined and has an “apparent” infinite extent
• The aquifer is homogeneous, isotropic, and of uniform thickness over the area
influenced by pumping
• The piezometric surface was horizontal prior to pumping
• The well is fully penetrating and pumped at a constant rate
• Water removed from storage is discharged instantaneously with decline in head
• The well diameter is small, so well storage is negligible
The data requirements for the Theis Recovery Solution are:
• Recovery vs. time data at a pumping or observation well
• Distance from the pumping well to the observation well
• Pumping rate and duration
4.6.2 Cooper-Jacob Method (confined; small r or large time)
The Cooper-Jacob (1946) method is a simplification of the Theis method valid for greater
time values and decreasing distance from the pumping well (smaller values of u). This
method involves truncation of the infinite Taylor series that is used to estimate the well
function W(u). Due to this truncation, not all early time measured data is considered to be
valid for this analysis method. The resulting equation is:
This solution is appropriate for the conditions shown in the following figure.
148
Chapter 4: Theory and Analysis Methods
The Cooper-Jacob Solution assumes the following:
• The aquifer is confined and has an “apparent” infinite extent
• The aquifer is homogeneous, isotropic, and of uniform thickness over the area
influenced by pumping
• The piezometric surface was horizontal prior to pumping
• The well is pumped at a constant rate
• The well is fully penetrating
• Water removed from storage is discharged instantaneously with decline in head
• The well diameter is small, so well storage is negligible
• The values of u are small (rule of thumb u < 0.01)
In AquiferTest, it is possible to define different values of u for the validity line. For
more details, see “Constants tab” on page 113.
Cooper-Jacob I: Time-Drawdown Method
The above equation plots as a straight line on semi-logarithmic paper if the limiting
condition is met. Thus, straight-line plots of drawdown versus time can occur after
sufficient time has elapsed. In pumping tests with multiple observation wells, the closer
wells will meet the conditions before the more distant ones. Time is plotted along the
logarithmic X axis and drawdown is plotted along the linear Y axis.
Transmissivity and storativity are calculated as follows:
Pumping Test Methods - Fixed Assumptions
149
An example of a Cooper-Jacob Time-Drawdown analysis graph has been included below:
An example of a CooperJacob I analysis is available in the project:
AquiferTest\Examples\CooperJacob1.HYT
The data requirements for the Cooper-Jacob Time-Drawdown Solution method are:
• Drawdown vs. time data at an observation well
• Finite distance from the pumping well to the observation well
• Pumping rate (constant)
Cooper-Jacob II: Distance-Drawdown Method
If simultaneous observations of drawdown in three or more observation wells are
available, a modification of the Cooper-Jacob method may be used. The observation well
distance is plotted along the logarithmic X axis, and drawdown is plotted along the linear
Y axis.
Transmissivity and storativity are calculated as follows:
150
Chapter 4: Theory and Analysis Methods
where r0 is the distance defined by the intercept of the zero-drawdown and the straightline though the data points.
An example of a Cooper-Jacob Distance-Drawdown analysis graph has been included
below:
An example of a CooperJacob II analysis is available in the project:
AquiferTest\Examples\CooperJacob2.HYT
The data requirements for the Cooper-Jacob Distance-Drawdown Solution method are:
• Drawdown vs. time data at three or more observation wells
• Distance from the pumping well to the observation wells
• Pumping rate (constant)
Both distance and drawdown values at a specific time are plotted, so you must specify
this time value.
Cooper-Jacob III: Time-Distance-Drawdown Method
As with the Distance-Drawdown Method, if simultaneous observations are made of
drawdown in three or more observation wells, a modification of the Cooper-Jacob
method may be used. Drawdown is plotted along the linear Y axis and t/r2 is plotted
along the logarithmic X axis.
Transmissivity and storativity are calculated as follows:
Pumping Test Methods - Fixed Assumptions
151
where r0 is the distance defined by the intercept of the zero-drawdown and the straightline though the data points.
An example of a Cooper-Jacob Time-Distance-Drawdown analysis graph has been
included in the following figure:
An example of a CooperJacob III analysis is available in the project:
AquiferTest\Examples\CooperJacob3.HYT
The data requirements for the Cooper-Jacob Time-Distance-Drawdown Solution method
are:
• Drawdown vs. time data at three or more observation wells
• Distance from the pumping well to the observation wells
• Pumping rate (constant)
4.7 Pumping Test Methods
Before doing the pumping test analysis, it is helpful to plot the time-drawdown data, or the
time vs. drawdown with variable discharge rates. These plots are explained below.
4.7.1 Drawdown vs. Time
152
Chapter 4: Theory and Analysis Methods
A preliminary graph that displays your drawdown versus time data. This is available in
the Analysis tab.
When the drawdown vs. time plot is selected, the Model assumptions frame is not
accessible in the Analysis Navigator panel.
To create an analysis, select one of the solution methods from the Analysis Navigator
panel.
4.7.2 Drawdown vs. Time with Discharge
The discharge data can also be displayed on the Drawdown vs. Time plot. This graph
can be useful for visualizing changes in drawdown that occur as a result of variable
discharge rates.
To view the discharge plot, select a Drawdown vs. Time plot. In the Display frame (in
the Analysis Navigator panel), enable the Discharge Rate option.
The discharge info will then appear at the bottom half of the time drawdown plot. In
addition, a new node Discharge Axis will appear in the Analysis panel.
Pumping Test Methods
153
In here, you can specify several options:
• Percentage of Height: specify the proportions of the graphs; for example, if 50
percent is specified, then the discharge data will consume the lower 50 percent of
the time drawdown plot.
• Fill area: fill in the area under the discharge line
• Fill color: specify a color for the filled area.
NOTE: The fill options should be used with one pumping well only, since it may result in
overlapping the lines/fills if used with more than one well.
The Discharge axis will use the same label fonts as defined for the drawdown axis.
An example of a time-drawdown plot with discharge is shown below:
4.7.3 Confined - Theis
Theis (1935) developed an analytical solution for the equations presented in the previous
section as follows:
154
Chapter 4: Theory and Analysis Methods
For the specific definition of u given above, the integral is known as the well function,
W(u) and can be represented by an infinite Taylor series of the following form:
Using this function, the equation becomes:
The line on a log-log plot with W(u) along the Y axis and 1/u along the X axis is
commonly called the Theis curve. The field measurements are plotted as t or t/r2 along
the X axis and s along the Y axis. The data analysis is done by matching the line drawn
through the plotted observed data to the Theis curve.
The solution is appropriate for the conditions shown in the following figure:
An example of the Theis graph is shown below:
Pumping Test Methods
155
In this example, the dimensionless view is shown. An example of a Theis analysis is
available in the project: AquiferTest\Examples\Confined.HYT.
The Data requirements for the Theis solution are:
• Drawdown vs. time at an observation well, or from the pumping well
• Finite distance from the pumping well to observation well
• Pumping rate
The Theis solution can be used as either a single-well solution, or in combination with
drawdown data from an observation well. If used as a single-well solution, the pumping
well is used as the discharge well and as the observation point at which drawdown
measurements were taken. However, the user should be aware of well effects when
analyzing a single well solution.
Dimensionless Parameters
Dimensionless parameters are required for the type curves in the Dimesionless view.
For the Theis method, no additional parameters are required.
Theis - Straight Line Analysis
The Theis analysis can also be done using a semi-log straight line analysis; similar to the
Cooper-Jacob analysis. An example is shown below.
156
Chapter 4: Theory and Analysis Methods
In this example, the time data is plotted on a logarithmic axis, and the drawdown axis is
linear.
4.7.4 Leaky - Hantush-Jacob (Walton)
Most confined aquifers are not totally isolated from sources of vertical recharge. Less
permeable layers, either above or below the aquifer, can leak water into the aquifer
under pumping conditions. Walton developed a method of solution for pumping tests
(based on Hantush-Jacob, 1955) in leaky-confined aquifers with unsteady-state flow.
The conditions for the leaky aquifer are shown below.
Pumping Test Methods
157
In the case of leaky aquifers, the well function W(u) can be replaced by the function
Walton W(u, r/L) or Hantush W(u, ), and the solution becomes:
s
Q
W u , r / L 
4T
where
L  Tc
L = leakage factor (the leakage factor is termed  when used with the Hantush method)
and T = KD
where,
T = Transmissivity
K = Conductivity
D = saturated aquifer thickness
In AquiferTest, the model parameter C (hydraulic resistance, units [time]) is used with
the Hantush method. The larger C, the smaller and/or more slowly the infiltration is due to
Leakage. The C value must be defined for each data set, in the Results frame of the
Analysis Navigator panel.
158
Chapter 4: Theory and Analysis Methods
An example of a Hantush-Jacob analysis graph has been included below:
In this example, the dimensionless view is shown. An example of a Hantush-Jacob
analysis is available in the project: AquiferTest\Examples\Leaky.HYT.
The data requirements for the Hantush-Jacob (no aquitard storage) Solution are:
•
•
•
•
Drawdown vs. time data at an observation well
Distance from the pumping well to the observation well
Pumping rate
 value: leakage factor
Dimensionless Parameters
For Hantush the dimensionless curve parameter  is defined, which characterizes the
leakage.
The leakage factor, , and the hydraulic resistance, c, are defined as:

r
B
with
Pumping Test Methods
159
B  Tc  T
D'
K'
c: hydraulic resistance [time]
D': saturated thickness of the leaky Aquitard
K': vertical hydraulic conductivity of the leaky Aquitard
If K' = 0 (non-leaky aquitard) then r/B = 0 and the solution reduces to the Theis solution
for a confined system.
A log/log scale plot of the relationship W(u,r/B) along the Y axis versus 1/u along the X
axis is used as the type curve as with the Theis method. The field measurements are
plotted as t along the X axis and s along the Y axis. The data analysis is done by curve
matching.
The leakage factor  must be greater than 3 times the saturated aquifer thickness.
4.7.5 Hantush - Storage in Aquitard
Hantush (1960) presented a method of analysis that takes into account the storage changes
in the aquitard. For small values of pumping time, he gives the following drawdown
equation for unsteady flow (Kruseman and de Ridder, 1990):
Q
s = --------------- W  u  
4KD
160
Chapter 4: Theory and Analysis Methods
where
r2S u = ------------4KDt
r K'  D' S'
 = --- --------------  ---4 KD
S
S' = aquitard storativity

 u
e –y
W  u   =  ------ erfc ----------------------- dy
y
yy – u
u
An example of a dimensionless Hantush with Storage analysis graph has been included
below:
Hantush’s curve-fitting method can be used if the following assumptions and
conditions are satisfied:
• The flow to the well is in at unsteady state
• The water removed from storage in the aquifer and the water supplied by
leakage from the aquitard is discharged instantaneously with decline of head
• The diameter of the well is very small,i.e. the storage in the well can be
neglected.
• The aquifer is leaky
Pumping Test Methods
161
• The aquifer and the aquitard have a seemingly infinite areal extent
• The flow in the aquitard is vertical
• The drawdown in the unpumped aquifer (or in the aquitard, if there is no
unpumped aquifer) is negligible.
• The aquitard is compressible, i.e. the changes in aquitard storage are appreciable
• t < S'D'/10K'
Only the early-time drawdown data should be used so as to satisfy the assumption that the
drawdown in the aquitard (or overlying unpumped aquifer) is negligible.
To estimate the aquitard storativity value, S', ensure that the Aquitard Storage option is
selected under the Model Assumptions frame, as shown below.
Dimensionless Parameters
Dimensionless parameters are required for the type curves in the dimensionless view.
The leakage factor, r/B, is defined as:
r
r
--- = --B
L
Where:
162
Chapter 4: Theory and Analysis Methods
L =
KDc
KD: transmissivity
c: hydraulic resistance of the aquitard
Typical values for r/B range from 0.001 - 2.
Beta controls the storage properties of the aquitard and is defined below:
r K'  D' S'
 = --- --------------  ---S
4 KD
Where:
S' = aquitard storativity
Typical values for Beta range from 0.05 - 1
An example of a Hantush - Storage in Aquitard analysis is available in the project:
AquiferTest\Examples\Hantush Storage.HYT
The table below illustrates a comparison between the results in AquiferTest 4.2 and
those published in Kruseman and de Ridder (1990) on page 93.
AquiferTest 4.2
Published
Kruseman and de
Ridder, 1990 p.93
T
1.52E-3
1.15E-3
S
1.50E-3
1.50E-3
c[d]
4.50E2
4.50E2
S‘
5.00E-3
5.00E-3
4.7.6 Unconfined, Isotropic - Theis with Jacob Correction
The water table in an unconfined aquifer is equal to the elevation head (potential).
Transmissivity is no longer constant, and it will decrease with increasing drawdown.
This means that there is not only horizontal flow to the well, but there is also a vertical
component, which will increase the closer you get to the well.
Pumping Test Methods
163
Since transmissivity in unconfined aquifers is not constant, there is no closed solution for
this aquifer type. That is why the measured drawdown is corrected, and the pumping test is
interpreted as being in a confined aquifer.
The Jacob modification (Jacob, 1944) applies to unconfined aquifers only when delayed
yield is not an issue, and when drawdowns are small relative to the total saturated
thickness (Neuman, 1975). Delayed yield is present in most unconfined aquifers at “early
times” during the pump test, and is only absent at “late times” when the drawdown
approximates the Theis curve. As such, Jacob’s correction should only be applied to latetime drawdown data (Kruseman and DeRidder, 1994).
Jacob (1944) proposed the following correction
scor = s - (s2/2D)
where:
scor = the corrected drawdown
s = measured drawdown
D = original saturated aquifer thickness
An example of a Theis (Jacob Correction) analysis graph has been included below:
In this example, the dimensionless view is shown. An example of a Theis (Jacob
Correction) analysis is available in the project: AquiferTest\Examples\Unconfined.HYT.
164
Chapter 4: Theory and Analysis Methods
Dimensionless Parameters
There are no additional type curve parameters for this solution method.
4.7.7 Unconfined, Anisotropic
For an unconfined, anisotropic aquifer, AquiferTest provides two options: Neuman or
Boulton. The Neuman analysis can be demanding on your system resources, due to the
complex calculations for the anisotropy. In some cases, the Boulton analysis may be a
better choice. AquiferTest provides the option to define which analysis to use as default
when specifying “Anisotropic and Unconfined” in the Model Assumptions. For more
details, “General Tab” on page 112.
Neuman
Neuman (1975) developed a solution method for pumping tests performed in
unconfined aquifers, which can be used for both fully or partially penetrating wells.
When analyzing pumping test data from unconfined aquifers, one often finds that the
drawdown response fails to follow the classical Theis (1935) solution. When drawdown
is plotted versus time on logarithmic paper, it tends to delineate an inflected curve
consisting of:
(1) a steep segment at early time;
(2) a flat segment at intermediate time; and
(3) a somewhat steeper segment at later time.
The early segment indicates that some water is released from aquifer storage
instantaneously when drawdown increases. The intermediate segment suggests an
additional source of water, which is released from storage with some delay in time.
When most of the water has been derived from this additional source, the timedrawdown curve becomes relatively steep again. In the groundwater literature, this
phenomenon has been traditionally referred to as “delayed yield” (Neuman, 1979).
This solution is appropriate for the conditions shown in the following figure.
Pumping Test Methods
165
The equation developed by Neuman representing drawdown in an unconfined aquifer is
given by:
where:
W(uA, uB, ) is known as the unconfined well function
uA = r2S / 4Tt (Type A curve for early time)
uB = r2Sy / 4Tt (Type B curve for later time)
 = r2Kv / D2Kh
Kv, Kh: vertical and/or horizontal permeability
Sy: Specific Yield, usable pore volume
The value of the horizontal hydraulic conductivity can be determined from:
Kh 
T
D
The value of the vertical hydraulic conductivity can be determined from:
166
Chapter 4: Theory and Analysis Methods
Two sets of curves are used. Type-A curves are good for early drawdown data when
water is released from elastic storage. Type-B curves are good for later drawdown data
when the effects of gravity drainage become more significant. The two portions of the
type curves are illustrated in the following figure:
Type A: Storativity (S)
Type B: Specific Yield (Sy)
In this example, the dimensionless view is shown. An example of a Neuman analysis is
available in the project: AquiferTest\Examples\PartiallyPenetratingWells.HYT.
The data requirements for the Neuman Solution are:
• Drawdown vs. time data at an observation well
• Distance from the pumping well to the observation well
• Pumping rate
Dimensionless Parameters
The dimensionless parameters are defined as follows:

K z rD2
Kr
The following factors can be defined in the Type curve options window for the Neuman
method:
Pumping Test Methods
167

S
Sy

1 DS y
Kz
rD 
r
D
zD 
z
D
lD 
l
D
dD 
d
D
g = Gamma
1: Empirical constant for the drainage from the unconfined zone [T-1]
 = Sigma, typical range is 0.0001-0.1
where,
Kz: vertical hydraulic permeability
Kr: horizontal hydraulic permeability
rD: dimensionless distance
r: distance to observation well
D: saturated aquifer thickness
Sy: Usable pore volume
The practical range for the curves are, = 0.001 to 4.0.
Boulton
Boulton (1963) developed a method for analyzing pumping tests performed in unconfined
aquifer (isotropic or anisotropic), which can be used for both fully or partially penetrating
wells.
168
Chapter 4: Theory and Analysis Methods
2T  H – b 
s D = ---------------------------Q
Tt
t D = -----2
rS
where H is defined as the average head along the saturated thickness,
b
1
H = ---  h dz
b
0
and b = the thickness of the saturated zone
The simplified solution of Boulton can be used to interpret the data. The procedure is as
follows:
• Data from the final stages of the test are fitted to a Theis curve. This provides
an estimate of T and Sy + S
• Data from the early stages of the test are fitted to a second Theis curve by
keeping T and adjusting S. Knowing S one can determine Sy.
• Knowing S and Sy, one can calculate and adjust the Boulton type curve. The
only remaining unknown being from which can be obtained. This later part
is not of main interest as is an empirical parameter without a clear physical
signification.
The following image displays the Boulton (1963) type curves for a constant 
Pumping Test Methods
169
The following image displays a diagnostic plot of Boulton (1963) type curve
An example of a Boulton analysis is shown below:
An example of a Boulton analysis is available in the project:
AquiferTest\Examples\Boulton.HYT.
Dimensionless Parameters
The dimensionless parameters are defined as follows:
1 r S
 = -----------T
2
170
Chapter 4: Theory and Analysis Methods

S
Sy
1: Empirical constant for the drainage from the unconfined zone [T-1]
 = Sigma, typical range is 0.0001-0.1
Phi, typical range is 0.01-3
The following factors can be defined in the Type curve options window for the Boulton:
4.7.8 Fracture Flow, Double Porosity
Groundwater flow in a fractured medium can be extremely complex, therefore
conventional pumping test solutions methods that require porous flow conditions are
not applicable. One approach is to model the aquifer as a series of porous lowpermeability matrix blocks separated by hydraulically connected fractures of high
permeability: the dual porosity approach. In this case, block-to-fracture flow can be
either pseudo-steady-state or transient.
The solutions are appropriate for the conditions shown in the following figure, where
the aquifer is confined and D is the thickness of the saturated zone.
Pumping Test Methods
171
If the system is treated as an equivalent porous medium, there is no flow between blocks
and fractures. Groundwater travels only in the fractures around the blocks. In this sense,
the porosity is the ratio of the volume of voids to the total volume.
Where there is flow from the blocks to the fractures, the fractured rock mass is assumed to
consist of two interacting and overlapping continua: a continuum of low-permeability
primary porosity blocks, and a continuum of high permeability, secondary porosity
fissures (or fractures).
There are two double porosity models used in AquiferTest, which have been widely
accepted in the literature. These are the pseudo-steady-state flow (Warren and Root, 1963)
and the transient block-to-fracture flow (for example, Kazemi, 1969).
The pseudo-steady-state flow assumes that the hydraulic head distribution within the
blocks is undefined. It also assumes that the fractures and blocks within a representative
elemental volume (REV) each possess different average hydraulic heads. The magnitude
of the induced flow is assumed to be proportional to the hydraulic head difference
(Moench, 1984).
172
Chapter 4: Theory and Analysis Methods
Both the Warren Root and Moench (fracture flow with skin) analysis methods are
described below.
Warren Root (1963)
AquiferTest uses the pseudo-steady-state double porosity flow model developed by
Warren and Root, 1963. The solution states that a fractured aquifer consists of blocks
and fissures. For both the blocks (matrix) and the fractures, a hydraulic conductivity,
specific storage coefficient and a water level height are defined as follows:
Parameter
Fractures
Matrix (Blocks)
Water Level height
h
h’
Hydraulic conductivity
Kh
K’h
Specific storage coefficient
Ss
S’s
The main assumption underlying the double porosity model is that the matrix and the
fracture can be considered as two overlapping continuous media (Renard, 2001). In
addition, it is also assumed that the water moves from matrix block to fracture, not from
block to block or fracture to block; the matrix block serves only as a source of water.
Therefore, the flow equation in the matrix is defined as q:
It is often assumed that the flow rate between the matrix and the fractures is
proportional to the conductivity of the matrix and to the hydraulic head differences
between the two systems.
q  k h' h' h 
 is a parameter that is dependent on the geometry of the matrix blocks; it has units of
L-2 (inverse of the square length), and is defined as:

Pumping Test Methods
A
lV
173
with
: Surface of the matrix block
V: Matrix volume
l: characteristic block length
At the beginning of the pumping test, the water is pumped from storage in the fracture
system; the matrix blocks does not affect the flow. Midway through, the flow to the well is
augmented by water released from the matrix, while the drawdown in the matrix is small
compared to drawdown in the fractures. Towards the end of pumping, the drawdown in the
matrix approaches the drawdown in the fractures, and the aquifer behaves like a single
porosity aquifer with the combined property of the matrix and the fractures (i.e. the
drawdown follows the Theis curve).
An example of a Warren Root, Double Porosity analysis graph has been included below:
In this example, the dimensionless view is shown. An example of a Fracture Flow analysis
is available in the project: AquiferTest\Examples\Fractured.HYT.
The Warren Root solution requires the following data:
• Drawdown vs. time data at an observation well
• Distance from the pumping well to the observation well
• Pumping rate
174
Chapter 4: Theory and Analysis Methods
Dimensionless parameters
AquiferTest uses the dimensionless parameters, s and L, which characterize the flow
from the matrix to the fissures:

r 2 k h'
kh

S s'
Ss
rD 
r
rw
with
rD: dimensionless distance
r: Distance from the pumping well to the observation well
rw: effective radius of the pumping well, (radius of the well screen)
Pumping Test Methods
175
For a given value of varying lamda) changes the time at which the flat part of the S
(drawdown) starts; the larger this value, the longer is the middle phase of the decreased
drawdown and the longer it will take before the drawdown follows the Theis curve.
For a given value of varying changes the time duration of the flat part of the curve
(the late time Theis curve is translated horizontally).
Large values of  indicate that water will drain from fractures quickly, then originate from
the blocks.
A small value of indicates that the transition will be slow.
For more details, please see Kruseman and de Ridder, p. 257.
Moench - Fracture Flow, with Skin
The theory for pseudo-steady-state flow is as follows (Moench, 1984, 1988):
td 
Kt
Ss r 2
4KD
h d = ---------------  h 0 – h f 
Q
where hd is the dimensionless drawdown, and td is the dimensionless time.
176
Chapter 4: Theory and Analysis Methods
The initial discharge from models using the pseudo-steady-state flow solution with no
well-bore storage is derived primarily from storage in the fissures. Later, the fluid will
be derived primarily from storage in the blocks. At early and late times, the drawdown
should follow the familiar Theis curves.
For transient block to fissure flow, the block hydraulic head distribution (within an
REV) varies both temporally and spatially (perpendicular to the fracture block
interface). The initial solution for slab-shaped blocks was modified by Moench (1984)
to support sphere-shaped blocks. Well test data support both the pseudo-steady-state
and the transient block-to-fracture flow solutions.
For transient block-to-fracture flow, the fractured rock mass is idealized as alternating
layers (slabs or spheres) of blocks and fissures.
Sphere-shaped
Slab-shaped
Moench (1984) uses the existence of a fracture skin to explain why well test data
support both the pseudo-steady-state and transient block-to-fracture flow methods. The
fracture skin is a thin skin of low permeability material deposited on the surface of the
blocks, which impedes the free exchange of fluid between the blocks and the fissures.
If the fracture skin is sufficiently impermeable, most of the change in hydraulic head
between the block and the fracture occurs across the fracture skin and the transient
block-to-fracture flow solution reduces to the pseudo-steady-state flow solution.
Pumping Test Methods
177
The fracture skin delays the flow contributions from the blocks, which results in pressure
responses similar to those predicted under the assumption of pseudo-steady state flow as
follows:
4KH
h wD = ---------------  h t – h w 
QT
4KH
h' D = ---------------  h i – h' 
QT
where hwD is the dimensionless head in the pumping well, and h'D is the dimensionless
head in the observation wells.
With both the pseudo-steady-state and transient block-to-fracture flow solutions, the type
curves will move upward as the ratio of block hydraulic conductivity to fracture hydraulic
conductivity is reduced, since water is drained from the blocks faster.
With the fracture flow analysis, you can also plot type curves for the pumping wells.
However, for pumping wells it may be necessary to consider the effects of well bore
storage and well bore skin. If the well bore skin and the well bore storage are zero, the
solution is the same as the Warren and Root method (1963). The equations for well bore
storage are as follows:
C W D = ------------2
2r S
where:
C=R2 (for changing liquid levels) or
C=VwwgCobs
where Vw is volume of liquid in the pressurized section, w is the density, g is the
gravitational constant, Cobs is the observed compressibility of the combined fluid-well
system, and S is the calculated storativity.
This solution, however, is iterative. If you move your data set to fit the curve, your
storativity will change which in turn alters your well bore storage.
An example of a Moench Fracture Flow analysis graph has been included in the following
figure:
178
Chapter 4: Theory and Analysis Methods
An example of a Moench Fracture Flow analysis is available in the project:
AquiferTest\Examples\Moench Fracture Skin.HYT
The following table illustrates a comparison of the AquiferTest results, to those
published in Moench,1984.
AquiferTest 4.2
Published
(Moench, 1984)
T
4.00E-3
4.00E-3
S
6.00E-4
6.00E-4
Sigma
2.00E2
2.00E2
Gamma
1.40E-3
1.40E-3
SF
1.00
1.00
The Moench Solution for fracture flow assumes the following:
• The aquifer is anisotropic and homogeneous
• The aquifer is infinite in horizontal extent
• The aquifer is of constant thickness
Pumping Test Methods
179
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
The aquifer is confined above and below by impermeable layers
Darcy's law is valid for the flow in the fissures and blocks
Water enters the pumped well only through the fractures
Observation piezometers reflect the hydraulic head of the fractures in the REV
Flow in the block is perpendicular to the block-fracture interface
The well is pumped at a constant rate
Both the pumping well and the observation wells are fully penetrating
The model assumptions must be defined in the Analysis Panel, as shown below:
For the block-to-fissure flow model, select either transient or pseudo-steady state. For
the block geometry, select either slab or sphere.
Dimensionless Parameters
The dimensionless parameters are defined below:
Sigma: must be > 1

180
S s'
Ss
Chapter 4: Theory and Analysis Methods
Gamma: Interporosity flow coefficient, typical range 0.0001-5
1
---
r K' 2
 =  ---w-  -----
 b'   K 
Dimensionless Distance: typical value, >=1
rD 
r
rw
Dimensionless fracture skin:
K'b
SF = ---------s
K s b'
4.7.9 Single Well Analysis with Well Effects
Measuring Drawdown in the Well
Quite often project budget restrictions prevent the installation of an observation well or
piezometer at the site. As such, the pumping test must be conducted with a single
pumping well, and the drawdown measurements must be observed at this well.
The drawdown in the pumping well is affected however not only by the aquifer
characteristics, but also influenced by the following factors:
• Well storage
• Well Skin effects
• Well Losses
With a single well analysis, the storage coefficient may not be determined, or the value
that is calculated may not accurately and reliably represent the actual site conditions.
When doing a single well analysis, it is recommended to use a solution method that
accounts for well bore storage. The Papadopulos-Cooper method available in
AquiferTest accounts for these well effects.
4.7.10 Large Diameter Wells with WellBore Storage Papadopulos-Cooper
Standard methods of aquifer data analysis assume storage in the well is negligible;
however, for large-diameter wells this is not the case. At the beginning of the pumping
test, the drawdown comes not only from the aquifer, but also from within the pumping
well itself, or from the annular space surrounding the well (i.e. the gravel/filter pack).
Pumping Test Methods
181
Thus the drawdown that occurs is reduced compared to the standard Theis solution.
However, this effect becomes more negligible as time progresses, and eventually there is
no difference when compared to the Theis solution for later time drawdown data.
Papadopulos devised a method that accounts for well bore storage for a large-diameter
well that fully penetrates a confined aquifer (Kruseman and de Ridder, 1990). Using the
Jacob Correction factor, this method can also be applied to unconfined aquifers.
The diagram below shows the required conditions for a large-diameter well:
Q
Confining Layer
rc
D
Aquifer
rew
Confining Layer
where,
D: initial saturated aquifer thickness
rew: effective radius of the well screen or open hole
rc: radius of the unscreened portion of the well over which the water level is changing
The mathematical model for the solution is described in Papadopulos & Cooper (1967).
The drawdown in the pumping well (r=rw) is calculated as follows:
sw t  

Q  Tt
F  2 ,  
4T  rw S 
with
182
Chapter 4: Theory and Analysis Methods
rw2 S
1
 2 
rc
2C D
sw: drawdown in the pumping well
rew: effective radius of the filter/well
rc: radius of the full pipe, in which the water level changes
CD: dimensionless well storage coefficient. For the Papadopulos method, the symbol 
is used.
As shown in the above equations, the well storage coefficient CD correlates with the
storage coefficient S.
If only early time-drawdown data are available, it will be difficult to obtain a match to
the type curve because the type curves differ only slightly in shape. The data curve can
be matched equally well with more than one type curve. Moving from one type curve to
another results in a value of S (storativity) that differs an order of magnitude. For early
time data, storativity determined by the Papadopulos curve-fitting method is of
questionable reliability. (Kruseman and de Ridder, 1990)
An example of a Papadopulos-Cooper Solution graph has been included in the
following figure:
Pumping Test Methods
183
An example of a Papadopulos - Cooper analysis is available in the project:
AquiferTest\Examples\WellBoreStorage.HYT.
Data requirements for the Papadopulos-Cooper solution are:
• Time vs. Drawdown data at a pumping well
• Pumping well dimensions
• Pumping rate
184
Chapter 4: Theory and Analysis Methods
Dimensionless Parameters
For Papadopulos the dimensionless curve parameter SD is defined as.
1 rc2
SD 
2CD rw2
with
rc: Radius of the full pipe in that the water level changes
rw: Radius of the screen
Using Effective Well Radius
The effective radius of the well typically lies somewhere between the radius of the filter
and the radius of the borehole (i.e. it is a calculated value). The exact value depends on
the usable pore volume of the filter pack.
In AquiferTest, the following values are defined in the wells table.
B: Radius of the borehole
R: Radius of the screen
r: Radius of the riser pipe (casing)
n: Effective porosity of the annular space (gravel/sand pack)
Pumping Test Methods
185
Though not specifically indicated, AquiferTest uses the value R (i.e. screen radius) as
effective radius; however, if the option to “use effective well radius (use r(w))” is selected
in the Wells table, AquiferTest computes this value according to the formula
rw  R 2 (1  n)  nB 2
4.7.11 Recovery Analysis - Agarwal Solution (1980)
When the pump is shut down after a pumping test, the water level inside the pumping and
observation wells begin to rise. This rise in water level is known as recovery drawdown
(s'). Recovery-test measurements allow the Transmissivity of the aquifer to be calculated,
thereby providing an independent check on the results of the pumping test.
Recovery drawdown data can be more reliable than drawdown data because the recovery
occurs at a constant rate, whereas constant discharge pumping is often difficult to achieve
in the field. Recovery drawdown data can be collected from both the pumping and
observation wells.
Agarwal (1980) proposed a method to analyze recovery data with interpretation models
developed for the pumping period. The method is based on defining a recovery drawdown
sr and replacing the time axis, during the recovery, by an equivalent time te.
drawdown s
residual
drawdown s'
recovery
recovery
drawdown sr
s - s'
Extended time
drawdown curve
0
Pumping
tp
Recovery
Time
Agarwal defines the recovery drawdown sr as the difference between the head h at any
time during the recovery period and the head hp at the end of the pumping period.
sr  h  h p
186
Chapter 4: Theory and Analysis Methods
The recovery time tr is the time since the recovery started. It is related to the time t since
pumping started and to the total duration of pumping tp.
tr  t  t p
If we consider the case of the recovery after a constant rate pumping test, the head h in
the aquifer can be expressed with the Theis solution or can be approximated by the
Cooper-Jacob expression. Using the Cooper-Jacob expression, Agarwal expresses the
recovery drawdown as:
sr 
4T (t r  t p )
4 Tt r 
Q  4 Tt p

ln
ln 2  ln

4 T  r S
r 2S
r 2S 
sr 
Q 4T t r t p  Q 4Tt e 
ln  2
ln  2 


4T 
r S (t r  t p )  4 T  r S 
or

with te the equivalent Agarwal time:
te 
tr t p
(tr  t p )
The expression of the recovery drawdown in this case is identical to the Cooper-Jacob
expression if one replaces the usual time by the equivalent Agarwal time te.
In the case of n successive pumping periods: with constant rate q1 for t=0 to t=t1,
constant rate q2 for t=t1 to t2, etc., the same result is obtained:
sr 
4Tt 
qn
ln  2 e 
4 T  r S 
with an equivalent Agarwal time defined by:
Pumping Test Methods
187
q j q j 1 





 n
t n  t j1  q n 
t e   j1
t r

t  t  t 


r
n
j1




with t0 = 0 and q0 = 0, and tr the time since the beginning of the recovery.
An example of a Agarwal Recovery analysis graph has been included below:
In this example, only the recovery data is displayed. An example of an Agarwal recovery
solution is available in the project: AquiferTest\Examples\Agarwal-Recovery.HYT.
The data requirements for the Recovery Solution are:
• Recovery vs. time data at a pumping or observation well
• Distance from the pumping well to the observation well
• Pumping rate and duration
The Recovery solution can be applied to any standard pumping test method.
You must enter the pumping duration in the Discharge tab, and specify the pumping rate
as variable. If you entered measurements since the beginning of pumping, select the
“Recovery Period only” option, to analyze only the data recorded after pumping was
stopped. This check box is located directly above the Analysis graph.
188
Chapter 4: Theory and Analysis Methods
You may enter recovery data only in the Water Levels tab, however, you still need to
define the pumping rate information.
Assumptions and Domain of Validity
Agarwal (1980) derived rigorously the previous expressions under the assumptions of a
two dimensional radial convergent flow field, in an infinite confined aquifer, with a
fully penetrating well, with or without skin effect, and no well-bore storage. It assumes
also that the Cooper-Jacob approximation is valid (late time asymptote).
Agarwal shows empirically that the method is valid for a single well test with well bore
storage and skin effect when the pumping time is large.

7 rc2
t p  30   

4  T
where:
T = Transmissivity
rc = Casing radius if different from the screen radius
= Skin factor
In addition, Agarwal demonstrates that the method provides good results for vertically
fractured wells with infinite and finite flow capacity fracture (Gringarten et al.
solution).
Reference
Agarwal, R.G., 1980. A new method to account for producing time effects when
drawdown type curves are used to analyze pressure buildup and other test data.
Proceedings of the 55th Annual Fall Technical Conference and Exhibition of the
Society of Petroleum Engineers. Paper SPE 9289.
Pumping Test Methods
189
4.8 Well Performance Methods
4.8.1 Specific Capacity
This test is commonly used to evaluate over time the productivity of a well, which is
expressed in terms of its specific capacity, Cs. Specific capacity is defined as:
Q
C s = --------h w
where,
Q = pumping rate
hw = drawdown in the well due to both aquifer drawdown and well loss. 
Well loss is created by the turbulent flow of water through the well screen and into the
pump intake. The results of testing are useful to track changes in well yield over time, or to
compare yields between different wells.
Specific capacity is estimated by plotting discharge on a linear X axis and drawdown on a
linear Y axis, and measuring the slope of the straight line fit.
An example of a Specific Capacity test has been included in the following figure:
An example of a Specific Capacity analysis is available in the project:
AquiferTest\Examples\SpecificCapacity.HYT.
190
Chapter 4: Theory and Analysis Methods
The units for the specific capacity measurement are the following:
Pumping rate (units) per distance (ft or m) of drawdown. For example:
3
ft
------s-----ft
which becomes....
ft 2
------s
The Specific Capacity test assumes the following:
• The well is pumped at a constant rate long enough to establish an equilibrium
drawdown
• Drawdown within the well is a combination of the decrease in hydraulic head
(pressure) within the aquifer, and a pressure loss due to turbulent flow within
the well
The data requirements for the Specific Capacity test are:
• Pumping well geometry
• Drawdown vs. discharge rate data for the pumping well. This data is entered in
the Discharge tab, as shown below.
Well Performance Methods
191
4.8.2 Hantush-Bierschenk Well Loss Solution
The Hantush-Bierschenk Well Loss Solution is used to analyze the results of a variable
rate “step test” to determine both the linear and non-linear well loss coefficients B and C.
These coefficients can be used to predict an estimate of the real water level drawdown
inside a pumping well in response to pumping. Solution methods such as Theis (1935)
permit an estimate of the theoretical drawdown inside a pumping well in response to
pumping, but do not account for linear and non-linear well losses which result in an
increase in drawdown inside the well. Quite often, these non-linear head losses are caused
by turbulent flow around the pumping well (Kruseman and de Ridder, 1990).
The solution is appropriate for the conditions shown in the following figure, where the
aquifer is confined and D is the thickness of the saturated zone.
192
Chapter 4: Theory and Analysis Methods
Area of drawdown
influenced by well losses.
D
The figure above illustrates a comparison between the theoretical drawdown in a well
(S1) and the actual drawdown in the well (S2) which includes the drawdown
components inherent in S1 but also includes additional drawdown from both the linear
and non-linear well loss components.
The general equation for calculating drawdown inside a pumping well that includes
well losses is written as:
s w = BQ + CQ p
where,
sw = drawdown inside the well
B = linear well-loss coefficient
C = non-linear well-loss coefficient
Q = pumping rate
p = non-linear well loss fitting coefficient
p typically varies between 1.5 and 3.5 depending on the value of Q; Jacob proposed a
value of p = 2 which is still widely used today (Kruseman and de Ridder, 1990).
AquiferTest calculates a value for the well loss coefficients B and C which you can use
in the equation shown above to estimate the expected drawdown inside your pumping
well for any realistic discharge Q at a certain time t (B is time dependent). You can then
use the relationship between drawdown and discharge to choose, empirically, an
Well Performance Methods
193
optimum yield for the well, or to obtain information on the condition or efficiency of the
well.
An example of a Hantush-Bierschenk Well Loss analysis graph has been included below:
An example of a Hantush-Bierschenk analysis is available in the project:
AquiferTest\Examples\Hantush Bierschenk2.HYT
The table below illustrates a comparison of the results, with those published in Kruseman
and de Ridder,1990.
AquiferTest 4.2
Published:
Kruseman and de
Ridder, 1990
B
3.07E-3
3.26E-3
C
1.15E-7
1.45E-7
The Hantush-Bierschenk Well Loss Solution assumes the following:
• The aquifer is confined, leaky, or unconfined
• The aquifer has an apparent infinite extent
• The aquifer is homogeneous, isotropic, and of uniform thickness over the area
influenced by pumping
• The piezometric surface was horizontal prior to pumping
• The aquifer is pumped step-wise at increased discharge rates
• The well is fully penetrating
• The flow to the well is in an unsteady state
194
Chapter 4: Theory and Analysis Methods
The data requirements for the Hantush-Bierschenk Well Loss Solution are:
• Time-drawdown data from the pumping well
• Time-discharge data for at least three equal duration pumping sessions
Using the Hantush-Bierschenk Well Loss Solution is simply a matter of formatting the
data correctly. The table below illustrates the pumping time and discharge rates for the
example project (Hantush Bierschenk2.HYT).
Time (min.)
180
360
540
720
900
1080
Discharge (m3/d)
1306
1693
2423
3261
4094
5019
When you enter your time-discharge data in AquiferTest, your first entry is the initial
pumping rate. Using the table above as an example, the pumping rate from 0-180
minutes was 1306 m3/day. The second pumping rate from 180-360 minutes was 1693
m3/day, and so on.
The figure below shows the data entered in the Time-Discharge table.
Well Performance Methods
195
If steady-state flow is reached in each step, enter the discharge-water level data in the
Discharge-Waterlevel table, as shown in the image below.
196
Chapter 4: Theory and Analysis Methods
Alternatively, for a step-test where flow is at an unsteady-state, click on the
Extrapolate... button to extrapolate the discharge-water level values from the timedrawdown data.
Upon selecting, the Extrapolate Discharge-Waterlevel dialog will open, as shown
below.
This dialogue allows you to edit the number of steps to include in the analysis, as well
as the line-fitting parameters for each step.
Each step in the analysis corresponds to a pumping rate entered in the pumping test tab.
In the example above, there are six pumping rates in the test which therefore allows a
maximum of six steps in the analysis.
The time-drawdown data is plotted on a semi-log graph, and the slope of each line is
determined based on the Number of data points you specify. Selection of data points
begins at the end of the step and progresses backward in time as you add more points
for the line slope calculation. For example, if the number of points is equal to five then
AquiferTest will use the last five data points in each step to calculate the slope.
The Time Interval is the time from the beginning of each step at which the change in
drawdown (s) for each step is measured. The point of time for calculating s is
calculated as follows:
Well Performance Methods
197
t i + t = t ds
where:
• ti = starting time of step
• t = the specified time interval
• tds = calculation point for s
This measurement point is essential as the difference in drawdown is calculated between
each step. The selection of the time interval is left to the discretion of the user.
AquiferTest then uses the drawdown differences and the specified time interval to produce
two coefficients: B (linear well loss coefficient) and C (non-linear well loss coefficient).
These coefficients can be used to estimate the expected drawdown inside your pumping
well for a realistic discharge (Q) at a certain time (t). This relationship can allow you to
select an optimum yield for the well, or to obtain information on the condition or
efficiency of the well.
Finally, the Number of pumping steps allows you to edit the number of steps (i.e.
changes in the discharge rate) to use in the discharge versus drawdown plot. You should
have a minimum of three steps specified to assist in obtaining a good fit of the line to the
analysis plot.
Once the extrapolation settings have been defined, click [Ok] to accept the drawdown
values. To select the analysis method, from the main menu, go to Analysis \ Pumping
Well Analysis \ Well Losses.
For more information on the Hantush-Bierschenk Well Loss solution, please refer to a
pumping test reference such as Kruseman and de Ridder (1990).
198
Chapter 4: Theory and Analysis Methods
4.9 Slug Test Solution Methods
In a slug test, a solid “slug” is lowered into the piezometer, instantaneously raising the
water level in the piezometer. The test can also be conducted in the opposite manner by
instantaneously removing a “slug” or volume of water (bail test).
With the slug test, the portion of the aquifer “tested” for hydraulic conductivity is small
compared to a pumping test, and is limited to a cylindrical area of small radius (r)
immediately around the well screen.
AquiferTest provides three slug test analysis methods:
• Bouwer & Rice
• Hvorslev
• Cooper-Bredehoeft-Papadopulos
4.9.1 Bouwer-Rice Slug Test
The Bouwer-Rice (1976) slug test is designed to estimate the hydraulic conductivity of
an aquifer. The solution is appropriate for the conditions shown in the following figure.
Bouwer-Rice (1976) developed an equation for hydraulic conductivity as follows:
Slug Test Solution Methods
199
R cont
2
r ln  -------- R  1
h
K = --------------------------  ---  ln  ----o

2L
t
ht 
where:
r = piezometer radius (or reff if water level change is within the screened interval)
R = radius measured from centre of well to undisturbed aquifer material
Rcont = contributing radial distance over which the difference in head, h0, is
dissipated in the aquifer
L = the length of the screen
b = length from bottom of well screen to top of the aquifer
ht = displacement as a function of time (ht/h0 must always be less than one, i.e.
water level must always approach the static water level as time increases)
h0 = initial displacement
Since the contributing radius (Rcont) of the aquifer is seldom known, Bouwer-Rice
developed empirical curves to account for this radius by three coefficients (A,B,C) which
are all functions of the ratio of L/R. Coefficients A and B are used for partially penetrating
wells, and coefficient C is used only for fully penetrating wells.
To analyze partially penetrating wells, select the “Partially” Penetration option in the
Wells table.
The calculated coefficient values can be displayed for a Bouwer & Rice analysis by
pressing Ctrl-Alt-D (NOT Ctrl-Alt-Del). An example of the information window is
shown below:
The data are plotted with time on a linear X axis and ht/ho on a logarithmic Y axis.
The effective piezometer radius, r, should be specified as the radius of the piezometer,
unless the water level falls within the screened portion of the aquifer during the slug test.
200
Chapter 4: Theory and Analysis Methods
If the water level is in the well screen, the effective radius may be calculated as follows:
where n is the porosity of the gravel pack around the well screen.
reff is the same as r(w), which is defined in the Wells table.
Slug Test Solution Methods
201
Slug Test
Bail Test
In cases where the water level drops within the screened interval, the plot of h/h0 vs. t will
often have an initial slope and a shallower slope at later time. In this case, the fit should be
obtained for the second straight line portion (Bouwer, 1989).
An example of a Bouwer-Rice analysis graph has been included in the following figure:
An example of a Bouwer & Rice slug test is available in the project:
AquiferTest\Examples\SlugTest1.HYT.
The Bouwer-Rice Solution assumes the following:
• Unconfined or leaky-confined aquifer (with vertical drainage from above) of
“apparently” infinite extent
• Homogeneous, isotropic aquifer of uniform thickness
• Water table is horizontal prior to the test
• Instantaneous change in head at start of test
• Inertia of water column and non-linear well losses are negligible
202
Chapter 4: Theory and Analysis Methods
•
•
•
•
Fully or partially penetrating well
The well storage is not negligible
The flow to the well is in a steady state
There is no flow above the water table
Data requirements for the Bouwer-Rice Solution are:
• Drawdown / recovery vs. time data at a test well
• Observations beginning from time zero onward (the value recorded at t=0 is
used as the initial displacement value, H0, by AquiferTest and thus it must be
a non-zero value)
NOTE: It is important to emphasize that when the Bouwer-Rice method is applied to
data from a test in a well screened across the water table, the analyst (user) is adopting a
simplified representation of the flow system, i.e., both the position of the water table
and the effective screen length, are not changing significantly during the course of the
test (Butler, 1998).
For the Bouwer-Rice slug test method, you must enter all values for the piezometer
geometry.
The effective piezometer radius (r) should be entered as the inside radius of the
piezometer/well casing if the water level in the piezometer is always above the screen,
or as calculated by reff=[r2(1-n) + nR2]1/2, where n = porosity, if the water level falls
within the screened interval during the slug test (where r = the inside radius of the well,
R = the outside radius of the filter material or developed zone, and n = porosity). To use
the effective radius, check the box in the Use r(w) column in the wells grid (scroll to
the very right) of Slug test tab.
The radius of the developed zone (R) should be entered as the radius of the borehole,
including the gravel/sand pack.
The Length of the screened interval (L), should be entered as the length of screen
within the saturated zone under static conditions.
The height of the stagnant water column (b), should be entered as the length from the
bottom of the well screen to the top of the aquifer.
The saturated thickness of the aquifer (D), should be entered as the saturated thickness
under static conditions.
Slug Test Solution Methods
203
4.9.2 Hvorslev Slug Test
The Hvorslev (1951) slug test is designed to estimate the hydraulic conductivity of an
aquifer. The rate of inflow or outflow, q, at the piezometer tip at any time t is proportional
to K of the soil and the unrecoverable head difference:
The following figure illustrates the mechanics of a slug test:
Hvorslev defined the time lag, TL (the time required for the initial pressure change
induced by the injection/extraction to dissipate, assuming a constant flow rate) as:
where:
r is the effective radius of the piezometer
F is a shape factor that depends on the dimensions of the piezometer intake (see
Hvorslev (1951) for an explanation of shape factors)
204
Chapter 4: Theory and Analysis Methods
K is the bulk hydraulic conductivity within the radius of influence.
Substituting the time lag into the initial equation results in the following solution:

K
r 2  ln
ht 

h0 

FTL
where:
ht is the displacement as a function of time
h0 is initial displacement.
The field data are plotted with log ht / ho on the Y axis and time on the X axis. The
value of TL is taken as the time which corresponds to ht/ho = 0.37, and K is determined
from the equation above. Hvorslev evaluated F for the most common piezometers,
where the length of the intake is greater than eight times the screen radius, and
produced the following general solution for K:
where:
L is the screen length
R is the radius of the well including the gravel pack
TL is the time lag when ht/h0 = 0.37
The effective piezometer radius, r, should be specified as the radius of the piezometer
(check the Use r(w) in the Wells grid).
Slug Test Solution Methods
205
Slug Test
Bail Test
In cases where the water level drops within the screened interval, the plot of ht/h0 vs. t will
often have an initial slope and a smaller slope at later time (known in the literature as the
‘double straight line effect’). In this case, you should manually fit the line to the second
straight-line portion of the data (Bouwer, 1989). It is not necessary for the line to go
through (1,0).
An example of a Hvorslev analysis graph has been included in the following figure
:
An example of a Hvorslev slug test is available in the project:
AquiferTestAquiferTest\Examples\SlugTest2.HYT.
The Hvorslev Solution assumes the following:
• Unconfined or non-leaky confined aquifer of “apparently” infinite extent
206
Chapter 4: Theory and Analysis Methods
• Homogeneous, isotropic aquifer of uniform thickness
• Water table is horizontal prior to the test
• Instantaneous injection/withdrawal of a volume of water results in an
instantaneous change in water level
• Inertia of water column and non-linear well losses are negligible
• Fully penetrating well
• The well is considered to be of an infinitesimal width
• Flow is horizontal toward or away from the well
Data requirements for the Hvorslev Solution are:
• Drawdown / recovery vs. time data at a test well
• Observations beginning from time zero onward (the observation at t=0 is taken
as the initial displacement value, H0, and thus it must be a non-zero value)
NOTE: Hvorslev has presented numerous formulae for varying well and aquifer
conditions. AquiferTest uses a formula method that can be applied to unconfined in
addition to confined conditions. This method could be applied to unconfined conditions
for most piezometer designs, where the length is typically quite a bit greater than the
radius of the well screen. In this case, the user must assume that there is a minimal
change in the saturated aquifer thickness during the test. Finally, it is also assumed that
the flow required for pressure equalization does not cause any perceptible drawdown of
the groundwater level. For other conditions and more details, please refer to the original
Hvorslev paper.
For the Hvorslev analysis method, you must enter all values for the piezometer
geometry.
The effective piezometer radius (r) should be entered as the inside radius of the
piezometer / well casing if the water level in the piezometer is always above the screen,
or as calculated by reff=[r2(1-n) + nR2]1/2 if the water level falls within the screened
interval during the slug test (where r = the inside radius of the well, R = the outside
radius of the filter material or developed zone, and n = porosity). To use effective
radius, check the box in the Use r(w) column of the wells grid (scroll to the very right).
The radius of the developed zone (R) should be entered as the radius of the borehole,
including the gravel/sand pack. The Length of the screened interval (L), should be
entered as the length of screen within the saturated zone under static conditions.
4.9.3 Cooper-Bredehoeft-Papadopulos Slug Test
The Cooper-Bredehoeft-Papadopulos (1967) slug test applies to the instantaneous
injection or withdrawal of a volume of water from a large diameter well cased in a
confined aquifer. If water is injected into the well, then the initial head is above the
equilibrium level and the solution method predicts the buildup. On the other hand if
water is withdrawn from the well casing, then the initial head is below the equilibrium
Slug Test Solution Methods
207
level and the method calculates the drawdown. The drawdown or buildup s is given by the
following equation:

2
2H 0

ur
ur
1
---------exp  – u
---------  J 0  -----  uY 0  u  – 2Y 1  u   – Y 0  -----  uJ 0  u  – 2J 1  u    ----------- du
s =

r 
    u 

     rc
c
0
where
  u  =  uJ 0  u  – 2J 1  u   +  uY 0  u  – 2Y 1  u  
2
2
 =  r ws S   r cc
2
2
 =  Tt   r c
2
and
H0 = initial change in head in the well casing due to the injection or withdrawal
r = radial distance from the injection well to a point on the radial cone of depression
rc = effective radius of the well casing
rw = effective radius of the well open interval
T = Transmissivity of the aquifer
S = Storativity of the aquifer
t = time since the injection or withdrawal
J0 = Zero Order Bessel function of the first kind
J1 = First Order Bessel function of the first kind
Y0 = Zero Order Bessel function of the second kind
Y1 = First Order Bessel function of the second kind
The following diagram illustrates the mechanics for the Cooper-Bredehoeft-Papadopulos
Solution:
208
Chapter 4: Theory and Analysis Methods
An example of a Cooper-Bredehoeft-Papadopulos analysis graph has been included in
the following figure:
Slug Test Solution Methods
209
An example of a Cooper-Bredehoeft-Papadopulos slug test is available in the project:
AquiferTest\Examples\SlugTest1.HYT.
The Cooper-Bredehoeft-Papadopulos method assumes the following:
•
•
•
•
confined aquifer
the aquifer is isotropic, homogenous, compressible and elastic
the layers are horizontal and extend infinitely in the radial direction
the initial piezometric surface (before injection) is horizontal and extends
infinitely in the radial direction
• Darcy’s law is valid for the flow domain
• the well is screened over the entire saturated thickness of the aquifer (is fully
penetrating)
• the volume of water is injected or withdrawn instantaneously at time t = 0
The data requirements for the Cooper-Bredehoeft-Papadopulos Solution are:
• Time vs. depth to water level at a large diameter test well
• well geometry
Dimensionless Parameters
Additional type curves for this method may be added by changing the CD value, in the
Type Curve properties dialog, as shown below.
210
Chapter 4: Theory and Analysis Methods
Slug Test Solution Methods
211
4.10 References
Birsoy V.K. and W.K Sumpzers, 1980. Determination of aquifer parameters from step
tests and intermittent pumping data. Ground Water, vol. 18, pp. 137-146.
Boulton, N.S. (1963). Analysis of data from non-equilibrium pumping tests allowing for
delayed yield from storage. Proc. Inst. Civil.Eng. 26, 469-482
Bouwer, H. 1989. The Bouwer and Rice Slug Test - An Update, Ground Water, vol.27, No.
3, pp. 304-309.
Bouwer, H. and R.C. Rice, 1976. A slug test method for determining hydraulic
conductivity of unconfined aquifers with completely or partially penetrating wells,
Water Resources Research, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 423-428.
Butler, James J. 1998. The Design, Performance, and Analysis of Slug Tests. Lewis
Publishers, Boca Raton, Florida, 252 p.
Cooper, H.H., J.D. Bredehoeft and I.S. Papadopulos, 1967. Response of a finite-diameter
well to an instantaneous charge of water. Water Resources Research, vol. 3, pp. 263269.
Cooper, H.H. and C.E. Jacob, 1946. A generalized graphical method for evaluating
formation constants and summarizing well field history, Am. Geophys. Union
Trans., vol. 27, pp. 526-534.
Dawson, K.J. and J.D. Istok, 1991. Aquifer Testing: design and analysis of pumping and
slug tests. Lewis Publishers, INC., Chelsea, Michigan 48118, 334 p.
Dominico, P.A. and F.W. Schwartz, 1990. Physical and Chemical Hydrogeology. John
Wiley & Sons, Inc. 824 p.
Driscoll, F. G., 1987. Groundwater and Wells, Johnson Division, St. Paul, Minnesota
55112, 1089 p.
Ferris, J.G., D.B. Knowless, R.H. Brown, and R.W. Stallman, 1962. Theory of aquifer
tests. U.S. Geological Survey, Water-Supply Paper 1536E, 174 p.
Fetter, C.W., 1988. Applied Hydrogeology, Second Edition, Macmillan Publishing
Company, New York, New York, 592 p.
Fetter, C.W., 1994. Applied Hydrogeology, Third Edition, Prentice-Hall, Inc., Upper
Saddle River, New Jersey, 691 p.
Freeze, R.A. and J.A. Cherry, 1979. Groundwater, Prentice-Hall, Inc. Englewood Cliffs,
New Jersey 07632, 604 p.
Gringarten, A.C.; Bourdet, D.; Landel, P.A.; Kniazeff, V.J. 1979. A comparison between
different skin and wellbore storage type curves for early-time transient analysis:
paper SPE 8205, presented at SPE-AIME 54th Annual Fall Technical Conference
and Exhibition, Las Vegas, Nev., Sept. 23-26.
Hantush, M.S. and C.E. Jacob, 1955. Non-steady radial flow in an infinite leaky aquifer,
Am. Geophys. Union Trans., vol. 36, pp. 95-100.
212
Chapter 4: Theory and Analysis Methods
Hall, P., 1996. Water Well and Aquifer Test Analysis, Water Resources Publications.
LLC., Highlands Ranch, Colorado 80163-0026, 412p.
Hvorslev, M.J., 1951. Time Lag and Soil Permeability in Ground-Water Observations,
bul. no. 26, Waterways Experiment Station, Corps of Engineers, U.S. Army,
Vicksburg, Mississippi
Kruseman, G.P. and N.A. de Ridder, 1979. Analysis and evaluation of pumping test
data. Bull. 11, Intern. Inst. for Land Reclamation and Improvements,
Wageningen, Netherlands, 200 p.
Kruseman, G.P. and N.A. de Ridder, 1990. Analysis and Evaluation of Pumping Test
Data Second Edition (Completely Revised) ILRI publication 47. Intern. Inst. for
Land Reclamation and Improvements, Wageningen, Netherlands, 377 p.
A.F., 1984. Double-Porosity Models for Fissured Groundwater Reservoir with Fracture
Skin. Water Resources Research, vol. 20, No. 7, pp. 831-846.
A.F., 1988. The Response of Partially Penetrating Wells to Pumpage from DoublePorosity Aquifers. Symposium Proceedings of International Conference on Fluid
Flow in Fractured Rocks. Hydrogeology Program-Department of Geology,
Georgia State University, pp. 208-219.
Moench, A.F., 1984. Double-Porosity Models for a Fissured Groundwater Reservoir
With Fracture Skin. Water Resources Research, vol. 20, No. 7, pp.831-845.
Moench, A.F., 1993. Computation of Type Curves for Flow to Partially Penetrating
Wells in Water-Table Aquifers. Ground Water, vol. 31, No. 6, pp. 966-971.
Moench, A.F., 1994. Specific Yield as Determined by Type-Curve analysis of
Aquifer_Test Data. Ground Water, vol. 32, No.6, pp. 949-957.
Moench, A.F., 1995. Combining the Neuman and Boulton Models for Flow to a Well in
an Unconfined Aquifer. Ground Water, vol. 33, No. 3, pp. 378-384.
Moench, A.F., 1996. Flow to a Well in a Water-Table Aquifer: An Improved Laplace
Transform Solution. Ground Water, vol. 34. No. 4, pp. 593-596.
Nwankwor, G.I., 1985. Delayed Yield Processes and Specific Yield in a Shallow Sand
Aquifer. Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Earth Sciences, University of Waterloo.
Neuman, S.P., 1975. Analysis of pumping test data from anisotropic unconfined
aquifers considering delayed yield, Water Resources Research, vol. 11, no. 2, pp.
329-342.
Papadopulos, I.S.; Cooper, H.H. Jr. (1967): Drawdown in a well of large diameter.Water Resources Res., Vol. 3, pp. 241-244.
Reed, J. C. (1980): Techniques of Water-Resource Investigations of the United States
Geological Survey, Chapter B3, Type curves for selected problems of flow to
wells in confined aquifers.- USGS, Book 3 Application of Hydraulics, Arlington,
VA.
References
213
Renard, P. (2001): Quantitative analysis of groundwater field experiments.- 222 S., ETH
Zürich, unpublished.
Theis, C.V., 1935. The relation between the lowering of the piezometric surface and the
rate and duration of discharge of a well using groundwater storage, Am. Geophys.
Union Trans., vol. 16, pp. 519-524.
Walton, W.C., 1962. Selected analytical methods for well and aquifer elevation. Illinois
State Water Survey, Bull., No. 49; 81 pg.
Walton, W.C., 1996. Aquifer Test Analysis with WINDOWS Software. CRC Press, Inc.,
Boca Raton, Florida 33431, 301 p.
Warren, J.E. & Root, P.J. (1963): The behaviour of naturally fractured reservoirs.- Soc. of
Petrol. Engrs. J., Vol. 3, 245-255.
Weeks, E.P. (1969): Determining the ratio of horizontal to vertical permeability by
aquifer-test analysis.- Water Resources Res., Vol. 5, 196-214.
214
Chapter 4: Theory and Analysis Methods
5
Data Pre-Processing
Surrounding water level trends and barometric affects may have a significant impact on
the water levels recorded during your pumping test. AquiferTest now includes the tools
to analyze these affects to determine if they played a role in your pumping test. Using
the data pre-processor utilities, you can correct your water level measurements for
baseline trends (trend effects) and barometric pressure changes. This corrected
drawdown data should then be used for the calculation of the aquifer parameters.
NOTE: Data Pre-Processing tools are available in AquiferTest Pro only.
According to the U.S. EPA-SOP for Pumping Tests (Osborne, 1993), data preprocessing is a critical step in any pumping test analysis:
“Collecting data on pre-test water levels is essential if the analysis of the test data is to
be completely successful. The baseline data provides a basis for correcting the test data
to account for on-going regional water level changes. Although the wells on-site are the
main target for baseline measurements, it is important to measure key wells adjacent to
the site and to account for off-site pumping which may affect the test results.”
(Osborne, 1993)
During the baseline trend observation period, it is desirable to monitor and record the
barometric pressure to a sensitivity of +/- 0.01 inches of mercury. The monitoring
should continue throughout the test and for at least one day to a week after the
completion of the recovery measurement period. This data, when combined with the
water level trends measured during the baseline period, can be used to correct for the
effects of barometric changes that may occur during the test.” (Osborne, 1993)
For more details, please see:
EPA Groundwater Issue: Suggested Operating Procedures for Aquifer Pumping Tests
Paul S. Osborne, EPA/540/S-93/503, February 1993
5.1 Baseline Trend Analysis and Correction
Historic and baseline water level trends can impact the drawdown data you record
during your pumping test. Surrounding pumping activities, or even surface disturbances
Baseline Trend Analysis and Correction
215
such as trains, can effect the water level during the pumping test. It is important to
identify all major disturbances (especially cyclic activities) which may impact the test
data. Enough measurements have to be made to fully characterize the pre-pumping
trends of these activities (Osborne, 1993). Therefore, the user must record water levels
near or at the well, either before or after the test. (For example, daily water level
measurements taken 1 week prior to the test, up to the day of the test, is a general
recommendation from the EPA.) Using the measured trend data, AquiferTest
performs a line fit to calculate a trend coefficient. The program will also run a “t-test”,
to see if the trend is significant. If significant, the data is then corrected based on this
trend.
As an example, a trend analysis shows a trend of water levels rising 2cm/hr due to
surrounding activities. During the pumping test, for a water level recorded 3 hours
after the test begins, you need to add 6 cm to the water level measurements in order to
conduct a representative analysis of the aquifer.
If the data trend is already known (i.e. water level fluctuations due to tidal or ebbflows), then the trend can be defined using a simple linear time-dependent correction.
For more details, see “Customized Water Level Trends” on page 218.
A trend analysis generally involves the following steps:
1. Collect baseline trend data (time vs. water level) prior to, and after, the test;
measurements should be recorded at a location that will not be influenced by the
pumping test activities.
2.AquiferTest calculates a baseline trend, and trend coefficient. AquiferTest
calculates the simple linear regression of the measured values and runs a t-test to
determine if the trend is significant.
3. Apply the trend coefficient to the data collected during the pumping test (time vs.
water level), resulting in “corrected drawdown” measurements.
4. Use the corrected drawdown values for the calculation of the aquifer parameters.
5.1.1 Theory
The general formula for trend computation is a polynomial and a function of the time
t:
m
XT t    bk t k
k 0
where
k= 0, 1, 2, ...m
Only the linear part of the trend is considered for hydrogeological observations (trend
of 1st order):
216
Chapter 5 : Data Pre-Processing
XT t   b0  b1t
To calculate b0 and b1, the standard regression analysis is used. To check the quality of
the trend, compare the linear correlation coefficient with tabular values for the t-test,
available in most statistical texts. A linear coefficient value is calculated that can be
used to calculate corrected drawdown at the observation wells. AquiferTest calculates
the change in water level based on the trend.
t-Test (Student-test)
To check the trend for statistical significance, the Pearson correlation coefficient r, is
calculated as below:
r
n XY    X  Y 
n X
2
  X  n Y    Y  
2
2
2
The calculated value of r is compared with the “critical value”. The critical values are
available in tabular form, in most statistical reference books.
To calculate the critical value, first obtain the value of quantile of the test, t DF
There are two required parameters:
confidence interval
DF: degrees of freedom, which is n-2 (n = number of data points)
The formula to calculate, tDF is complex, and is not illustrated in this manual.
The confidence interval can be defined in AquiferTest in the main menu under Tools /
Options, and under the Constants tab. The default value is 95%.
To obtain the critical value r,DF, the formula from Sachs (1974) is used:
r , DF 
Baseline Trend Analysis and Correction
t , DF
t2 , DF  n  2
217
If the absolute value of the Pearson coefficient (r) is GREATER than the “critical
value” (r,DF) then the trend is SIGNIFICANT.
If the absolute value of the Pearson coefficient (r) is LESS than the “critical value” 
(r,DF) then the trend is NOT SIGNIFICANT.
Reference: Langguth & Voigt (1980), 413 ff.
Example
An example demonstrating a data trend analysis is available in Chapter: 7, Exercise 5:
Adding Data Trend Correction.
5.2 Customized Water Level Trends
AquiferTest provides the option to create a user-defined correction factor, and apply
this to the observed drawdown data.
In confined and leaky aquifers, rhythmic fluctuations of the hydraulic head may be
due to the influence of tides or river-level fluctuations, or to rhythmic variations in the
atmospheric pressure. In unconfined aquifers whose water tables are close to the
surface, diurnal fluctuations of the water table can be significant because of the great
difference between day and night evapotranspiration. The water table drops during the
day because of the consumptive use by the vegetation, and recovers during the night
when the plant stomata are closed (Kruseman and de Ridder, 1991).
To access the User Defined Data Corrections, go to the Water Levels tab, click on the
Add Data Correction button and the following dialog will appear:
218
Chapter 5 : Data Pre-Processing
In the Data Correction dialog, enter a name for the correction, then select a formula
type. There are four formula types to choose from:
Simple Delta S (drawdown)
s  A
Linear Time Dependent
s  A  t
Logarithmic Time Dependent
s  A  log10 B  C  t 
Periodic Time Dependent
s  A  sin B  C  t 
D
Depending upon selected type, there will be input fields for the different coefficients
(A, B, C, and D).
Determining the values of the coefficients is a complex process, which depends on the
type of data correction and the cause of the displacement.
In short for the four different types:
• addition/subtraction: this is simple +- operation, could be used to correct wrong
offsets of logger measurements
• linear time function: general trend correction, i.e. if the change of water level
in the aquifer can be approximated by a linear function for the time of the
pumping test. An Example would be seasonal drainage.
• log function of time: An Example would be drainage of an aquifer after
precipitation.
• periodic function, could be tidal effects
Note: It is not possible to apply a data correction only to a certain period of time, it
always applies to all data. It is only possible to limit to a particular well.
For tidal corrections, the coefficients are defined as follows:
Customized Water Level Trends
219
A: amplitude, half amount of the tidal change during one period (high - low tide)
B: phase displacement, calculated as follows; For example, 2 hours after ebb: = (PI/
2) + [ (2h/ 6.2h) * PI ]. Please note that B is dimensionless, so it must be given in
radian
C: period = ( PI/12 h 25 min)
D: = 1
The range of application indicates whether the correction applies only to the current
well data set, or to all wells. For example, a local trend usually affects all wells, while
a periodic correction of the Tidal influences depends on the distance to the sea, and
therefore must be unique for each observation well.
When defining the coefficients, be aware of the sign (positive or negative). The result
of the calculation is added to the drawdown values; i.e. if the value is positive, the
drawdown increases; for negative values, the drawdown decreases. For example, if
you have a local trend where the water table decreases 1cm/d, the value must then be
defined as negative, so that the appropriate amount is subtracted from the observed
drawdown. Alternatively, if the trend shows the water table elevation rising 1cm/day,
the value must then be defined as positive, so that the appropriate amount is added to
the observed drawdown data.
Upon clicking OK, the data correction will be applied to the measured drawdown
data, and an additional column will appear in the data table. This column will contain
the corrected drawdown using this data correction; the corrected drawdown will be
used in the analysis to calculate the aquifer parameters.
5.3 Barometric Trend Analysis and Correction
During the pumping test, changes in the barometric pressure can have an affect on the
recorded drawdown data, and should be considered during the data analysis.
AquiferTest includes the tools to correct drawdown data for barometric effects, using
data pre-processor tools. Barometric pre-processing generally involves the following
steps:
1. Collecting data (barometric pressure vs. water level) prior to, or after, the test;
2. Use this data to calculate the barometric efficiency (BE) of the aquifer.
3. During the pumping test, collect time vs. water level data AND time vs. barometric
pressure data.
4. Using the BE value, determine the equivalent water level measurement at the
observed time. If the pressure is not recorded at the same time as the water levels,
linear interpolation may be used to find and correct the next available water level
measurement.
5. Apply the correction to the observed drawdown data.
6. Use the corrected water levels for determining the aquifer parameters.
220
Chapter 5 : Data Pre-Processing
Theory
In wells or piezometers penetrating confined and leaky aquifers, the water levels are
continuously changing as the atmospheric pressure changes. When the atmospheric
pressure decreases, the water levels rise in compensation. When the atmospheric
pressure increases, the water levels decrease in compensation. By comparing the
atmospheric changes, expressed in terms of a column of water, with the actual changes
in water levels observed during the pre-test period, it is possible to calculate the
barometric efficiency of the aquifer. (Kruseman and de Ridder, 1991)
The barometric efficiency (BE) is a parameter of the aquifer, and specifies how it reacts
to changes in atmospheric pressure. The BE value usually ranges between 0.2 and 0.75.
The BE is defined as the ratio of change in water level in a well ( h) to the
corresponding change in atmospheric pressure ( p)
BE 
h  
p
with
 h = change in water level [m]
 p = change in pressure [Pa = N/m²]
 = specific weight of water [N/m³] (this value can be defined in the Tools / Options,
Constants tab)
The specific weight ) is defined as
 = g
= density of water (Kg/m3)
g= acceleration of gravity (m/s2)
The acceleration of gravity (g) depends on geographic latitude. For most places on
Earth, the value is 9.82 m/s². However, if you are close to the equator the value
decreases to 9.78 m/s², whereas close to the poles (North or South) it is about 9.83 m/s².
The density of water () is a function of the temperature. At 10°C, the value is 999.7
kg/m³. However, for heated thermal water or water with solute minerals a correction of
this value may be necessary.
The default value for () used in AquiferTest is 9807.057 N/m³.
To calculate the change of water level in an aquifer caused by the atmospheric pressure
change alone, rearrange the formula for the BE, to get:
Barometric Trend Analysis and Correction
221
h 
BEp

The Barometric Efficiency (BE) may be entered directly into AquiferTest (in the
Pumping Test tab), or may be calculated. To calculate the BE value, the user must
provide pressure vs. water level data recorded from a well near the test site, before or
after the test.
Once the BE is known, the measured drawdown can be corrected. To do so, the user
must provide time vs. pressure data, recorded DURING the pumping test. It is
possible that the atmospheric pressure measurements are not recorded at the same
point in time as the drawdown measurements. In this case, AquiferTest uses linear
interpolation between the next available pressure value, to modify the original data.
An example is illustrated below:
In the figure above you can see how AquiferTest will interpolate the atmospheric
pressure p(a) for the time of water level measurement WL2 at t=2 where no value for
p(a) is available.
AquiferTest will use the values of p(a)2 and p(a)3 for linear interpolation and to
calculate a straight line function of the form y = mx + b.
222
Chapter 5 : Data Pre-Processing
m
p (a ) p (a ) 3  p (a ) 2 99000  100100  1100



 1100
t p ( a )3  t p ( a ) 2
t
2 .5  1 .5
1
b  y  mx  100100  (1100 1.5)  100100  1650  101750
Once the coefficients m and b are calculated the value of t=2 will be inserted into the
equation, y = mx + b, and the result is the value of p(a)WL2 used for the calculation of
hp.
p(a ) t  2  1100  2  101750  99550
From the changes in pressure observed during the test, and the known relationship
between p and h, the water level changes as a result of changes in pressure alone
(p) can be calculated for the test period for each well. Subsequently, the actual
drawdown during the test can be corrected for the water level changes due to
atmospheric pressure:
For falling atmospheric pressures,
s corr = s + h p
For rising atmospheric pressures,
s corr = s – h p
(Kruseman and de Ridder, 1991)
Calculating BE from Observed Data
The BE value can be defined in the Pumping Test tab, or it may be calculated based on
observed data. To calculate the BE value, locate the Bar.Eff. (BE) field in the Aquifer
Properties frame of the Pumping Test tab, and press the button beside the BE field.
Barometric Trend Analysis and Correction
223
A blank window for barometric data entry will appear.
In this window, enter Pressure vs. Water Level data. This data must be recorded
before or after the test, at a location near the test well. The data values can be entered
in the grid on the left hand side. Or to import data, click on the appropriate link above
the table. Data may be imported in .TXT or .XLS formats.
When importing data, observe the following requirements:
• the source file must be in the same units as the test
• data file must be .TXT or .XLS, with two columns of data (pressure and water
level)
Once the data is entered, the dialog will look similar to the following:
224
Chapter 5 : Data Pre-Processing
The dialog displays a graph with the data and fits a line – and calculates the BE value.
Click [OK] to accept the barometric efficiency value. This value will now appear in the
BE field in the Pumping Test tab.
Correct Observed Drawdown Data for Barometric Effects
Once the BE value has been determined, it can be used for correcting the observed
drawdown data. To do so, load the Water Levels tab, and ensure there is time
drawdown data for an existing well. Then, select “Add Barometric Correction” and
the following window will appear:
Barometric Trend Analysis and Correction
225
In this window, enter time vs. pressure data, that was recorded simultaneously as the
time drawdown data. As mentioned earlier, if the time measurements were not
recorded at exactly the same time intervals, AquiferTest will use interpolation to
correct the next available water level measurement.
When importing data, observe the following requirements:
• the source file must be in the same units as the test
• data file must be .TXT or .XLS, with two columns of data (time vs. pressure)
The example below shows a sample data set of time - pressure data.
226
Chapter 5 : Data Pre-Processing
Click [OK] to close the dialog, and return to the Water Levels window. In the time water level grid, two new columns will appear beside the drawdown column. The first
column contains the correction due to barometric effects; the second column contains
the new corrected drawdown value. The following equation is used:
s corr = s + h p
The corrected drawdown measurements can then be used in the analysis, to calculate
the aquifer parameters.
Example
An example demonstrating a barometric trend analysis is available in Chapter: 7,
Exercise 6: Adding Barometric Correction.
Barometric Trend Analysis and Correction
227
5.4 Modifying Corrections
When a data correction is created, the correction column header appears blue. This
header is created as a link, and clicking on it will allow you to access and modify the
settings for the correction.
5.5 Deleting Corrections
To delete a data correction (barometric, user-defined, or baseline trend effects), place
the mouse in the data correction column, right mouse click, and select “Delete Data
Correction” from the context menu (as shown below).
This option is available only if the cursor is in the table and in a column with
correction data.
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Chapter 5 : Data Pre-Processing
Deleting Corrections
229
230
Chapter 5 : Data Pre-Processing
6
Mapping and Contouring
AquiferTest now includes enhanced mapping features, which allow you to display
contouring and color shading of drawdown data, along with site maps, in the Site Map
window.
NOTE: Contouring and Color Shading is available in AquiferTest Pro only.
6.1 About the Interface
The mapping and contouring options are available under the Site Plan tab, displayed in
the image below:
This tab allows you to load a map of the site of the project. You can only load one map
per project. For instructions on how to load a map see description of [Load Image...]
button below.
The Site Plan tab is managed using a tool bar located above the map image, and the
Display wells from and Map properties dialog boxes.
About the Interface
231
The tool bar consists of the following buttons:
Zoom in - draw a rectangle around the area you wish to magnify.
Zoom out - zoom out to the full extent of the map
Load Image... - opens an Explorer window where you can navigate to the
appropriate image file containing the map. Supported image formats are
*.bmp, *.wmf, *.emf, *.jpg, and *.dxf.
• Select the image file and click Open and the following dialog will load.
• In this dialog, georeference the image by entering the coordinates for the
map’s lower left and upper right corners.
NOTE: By default, the number of pixels are converted to meters to keep the
map proportions.
• Click [OK]
After georeferencing the image will appear similar to the image below:
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Chapter 6: Mapping and Contouring
After the map is loaded, you may need to re-scale or zoom in/out to achieve the desired
view.
Clear Image - deletes the image from the map field
Re-scale - allows you to re-scale the map
The Re-scale determines the range of real coordinates for the wells in the pumping
test:
Range x = Max x - Min x
Range y = Max y - Min y
The Re-Scale also determines the origin of the wells in real coordinates:
Origin x = Min x
Origin y = Min y
Finally, the Re-Scale calculates a scale both for x and y, to ensure that all wells are
displayed on the map.
Scale x = Map width (mm) / Range x
About the Interface
233
Scale y = Map width (mm) / Range y
AquiferTest will use the scale that is the smaller from both calculations. The value is
then rounded down, to a typical scale number, which is divisible by 10. (for example,
1:875 would go to 1:1000). AquiferTest does not use the full map width/height for the
calculation, in order to have a buffer distance on the map, so that wells which lie on
the map edge are not truncated. (This may result in a negative value for X or Y min).
The rescale does not change width or height of the map, zoom factor or view port.
Save Map... - allows you to save the sitemap in bitmap (*.BMP) format.
This option also allows you to export drawdown contour lines and project
wells to shapefile format (*.SHP). Upon selecting this option, a Windows
explorer dialog will open, as shown below.
Navigate to the desired folder location on your hard drive, and specify a file name.
From the Save as type combo box, select the file type you would like to export, e.g,
Bitmap Graphic (*.BMP), Well Locations Shape (*.SHP) or Contour Lines Shape
(*.SHP). Finally, click Save to export the data.
The Display wells from option allows you to select the pumping test with the
appropriate wells. Select all the boxes to display all wells in the project.
NOTE: If no map is loaded the wells will be displayed on a white background.
In the Map properties dialog you can change the following settings:
• Scale 1: - specify the scale for the map/drawing canvass. This is the ratio
between distance on the printed map and the actual dimensions. i.e. 1:1000
means 1 cm in the map is equivalent to 1000 cm (or 10 m).
• x-Minimum [ ] - the x-coordinate of the left edge of the map field
• y-Minimum [ ] - the y-coordinate of the bottom edge of the map field
• Map Image - check-box that allows you to show/hide the map image
• Font - modify the font for the well name
• Delete background - check-box that allows you to show/hide the background
box around the well name
• Symbol Size - define the size of the well symbol
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Chapter 6: Mapping and Contouring
• Symbol Color - select a color for the well symbol
• Width - controls the area map width; modify this value for printing purposes.
To restore the default, enter Auto in this field
• Height - controls the map height; modify this value for printing purposes. To
restore the default, enter Auto in this field
• Georeference... - loads the same Georeference the image dialog box as
during the Load Image procedure. Allows you to assign new georeference
points for the map image
• Contouring - enable or disable contour lines using this check-box
• Color shading - enable or disable color contouring using this check-box
Contour Lines
Color Shaded
• Data Series... - provides options to select the pumping test data set for
contouring. These options are shown below:
About the Interface
235
Specify the pumping test, the analysis, the well, and the point in time from
which to draw data for contouring, as well as the grid specifications. A larger
grid size (> 100X100) will result in greater detail, and smoother contour lines,
but may also increase processing time.
• Contour Settings... - loads the dialogues that allow you to fine-tune the line
and color contouring, as well as edit the legend and labels. For more details,
see Chapter 6: Contouring and Color Shading Properties below.
• Axis Labels - allows you to display the X and Y axis interval labels on the
report view; useful for interpreting maps to scale.
6.2 Data Series
Before you can display contours or a color may, you must select the pumping test,
well, and time interval. This is done in the Data Series dialog. Load the Data Series
options from the Map properties frame. The dialog is shown below.
• Pumping test - select the pumping test for which you wish to generate
contours.
NOTE: Contouring is not available for Slug Tests.
• Analysis - from the list of the analyses available for the selected pumping test,
choose the one for which you wish to generate contours
• Well - from the list of wells used in the selected analysis, choose the one for
which you wish to generate contours
• at point of time [ ] - type in the point in time for which you wish to view the
contouring
• Grid Density - allows you to set the number of rows and columns for the grid
used to generate contours. The higher the number of rows and columns, the
finer the grid. A fine grid allows for smoother contours, however it also takes
longer to process.
AquiferTest calculates contours based on the pumping rate of the selected pumping
test and the Transmissivity and Storativity values calculated in the selected analysis. If
236
Chapter 6: Mapping and Contouring
you enter a point in time which is AFTER the test time period, there are two
possibilities for the drawdown calculations:
• In case of constant pumping rate, the pumping duration is assumed to be
infinite.
• In case of variable pumping rate, it is assumed that the pumping has stopped
after the last pumping period, and the time afterwards is recovery.
Exporting Gridded Drawdown Data
Once the grid has been calculated, you may export the grid values to a text file for
interpretation/analysis with other tools. Simply right-mouse click on the Map window,
and select Export Grid. A dialog will appear, prompting for a filename. The file will be
saved as a tab-delimited text file, containing three columns: X, Y, Drawdown.
Exporting Drawdown Contours
You can export drawdown contours to shapefile format by clicking on the Save Map
button in the toolbar. Specify a filename, and select the Contours Line Shape *.SHP
option from the Save As Type combo box.
Exporting Wells
You can export project wells to shapefile format by clicking on the Save Map button
the toolbar. Specify a filename, and select the Well locations shape *.SHP option from
the Save As Type combo box.
Exporting Site Map
Once the site map is displayed to your liking, you have a few options for exporting:
• Click on the Copy icon on the toolbar, then paste the map image into an image
editor
• Click on the Save Map icon. The image can be saved as a .BMP file, then
loaded into an image editor for further processing, or converting to alternate
formats.
By default, AquiferTest will create an image that is high resolution (1859 X 2094).
Data Series
237
6.3 Contouring and Color Shading Properties
The Contouring and Color Shading map properties may be accessed by clicking Contour
Settings button from the Map Properties frame of the Site Plan tab.The Properties
window for the graph will appear, as shown in the following figure:
The Map Appearance window contains two tabs:
• The Contour lines settings tab is used to set the appearance properties for the
contour lines and labels.
• The Color Shading tab is used to set the appearance properties for the color
shading contours.
6.3.1 Contour lines tab
The Show contour lines check-box is used to enable/disable the line contours. The same
function is performed by clicking the Contouring check-box in the Map Properties frame
of the Site Plan tab.
In addition, you may specify the line color and width.
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Chapter 6: Mapping and Contouring
Labels frame
Under the Label frame, specify the display properties for the contour labels.
• the Value Format controls the number of decimal places for the contour labels
• the Min. Distance value controls the space between the contour labels (the
smaller the value, the closer and more numerous the labels will be)
• the Delete Background check box allows you to show/hide the background
box around the label. This feature is helpful if you want to read the labels on
top of a map or the color shading.
• Font - select the label font, size, style, and color
Intervals frame
Under the Intervals frame, specify the range of values for the contour lines:
• Minimum - specify the minimum value for the contour line; Auto is the default.
• Maximum - specify the maximum value for the contour line; Auto is the
default.
• Distance - set the value for the interval between the contour lines. The smaller
the Distance value, the more numerous and closer the contour lines will be.
6.3.2 Color Shading tab
The Show Color shading check-box allows you to show/hide the color shaded map.
The same function is performed by clicking the Color Shading check box in the Map
Properties frame of the Site Plan tab.
The Transparency (%) value is used only when there is a site map image in the
background, and you want to display the color shading on top. A higher Transparency
value will result in a more transparent color shaded map, allowing you to view the map
layer below. (100 % Transparency will make the color shading completely transparent).
A lower Transparency value will result in a less transparent color shaded map (i.e.
Contouring and Color Shading Properties
239
darker color shading). 0 % Transparency will make the color shading non-transparent, and
will hide the underlying site map.
Intervals frame
Specify the range of values to use for the color shading map.
• < - allows you to specify a color for values that are below (less than) the Minimum
value; this is useful if you want to assign a unique color to a threshold/cut-off
value.
• Minimum - specify the color for the minimum value; the default minimum value
is Auto
• Maximum - specify the color for the maximum value; the default value is Auto
• > - allows you to specify a color for values that are above (greater than) the
Maximum; this is useful if you want to assign a unique color to a threshold value.
At the bottom of this dialog, you can set the position for the Legend.
6.4 Example
The following example will illustrate the use of contours in a pumping test.
240
[1]
Start AquiferTest, and open the Confined.HYT project, located in the “Examples”
directory (you may also try creating a drawdown map using the Getting Started
example from Chapter 2).
[2]
In this example, using a Theis analysis, the calculated parameters are: 
T = 9.10 E-3 (m2/s), and
S = 5.11 E-4
[3]
Move to the Site Plan tab, and click on the Data Series button
[4]
In this dialogue, select the pumping test from the top, the appropriate analysis (Theis
Chapter 6: Mapping and Contouring
in this example), and the well where the data was observed (OW3b), and the time
duration. Once you select the Well, you will see a preview of the calculated
Aquifer Parameters directly below the list box. You may also define the grid size,
however the default is fine for this example.
Example
[5]
Click [OK]
[6]
Check the boxes beside Color shading and Contouring
[7]
Click the Zoom Out button until you see the following figure:
241
The line contours are blue-colored by default, and the color shading is mono-chromatic
blue.
To modify the properties, click on the Contour settings button. In here, you can further
customize your contours by changing the style and color of the lines, and customizing the
well and label display as described above. In addition, you can modify the Data Series by
selecting a different time duration, well, or analysis for which to calculate and grid the
contours.
Try the following:
In the Map Appearance window,
•
•
•
•
•
•
Define a Minimum value of 0.7 for the contour lines
Define a Minimum value of 0.7 for the color shading
Set the Minimum color shading to blue
Set the < color shading to white
Set the Maximum color shading to red
Set the > color shading also to red
This will produce a map view similar to the one shown below.
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Chapter 6: Mapping and Contouring
If the edge of the colored field is too rough (i.e. appears as large steps), Click the Data
Series... button and increase the number of Rows and Columns in the grid to make it
finer.
This concludes the chapter on mapping and contouring.
Example
243
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Chapter 6: Mapping and Contouring
7
Demonstration Exercises and Benchmark Tests
This chapter will explore many features of AquiferTest including various single and
multiple pumping well solution methods, importing data from Excel and a datalogger
file (.ASC), and planning a pumping test. The functionality of each feature is explained
in detail in the following exercises:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Exercise 1: Confined Aquifer - Theis Analysis
Exercise 2: Leaky Aquifer - Hantush - Jacob Analysis
Exercise 3: Recovery Data Analysis - Agarwal Solution
Exercise 4: Confined Aquifer, Multiple Pumping Wells
Exercise 5: Adding Data Trend Correction
Exercise 6: Adding Barometric Correction
Exercise 7: Slug Test Analysis
These exercises are designed to help you familiarize yourself with various functions of
the program, but also to provide you with comparisons of the results obtained from
AquiferTest to some other sources including published works and AquiferTest 3.5.
The sequence of a typical AquiferTest session is:
[1]
Open or create a project
[2]
Enter and/or import data and well information
[3]
Select an analysis method
[4]
Fit the type curve
[5]
Print the output.
If AquiferTest is not already installed, follow the instructions found in Chapter 1:
Introduction - “Installing AquiferTest” on page 8.
245
7.1 Exercise 1: Confined Aquifer - Theis Analysis
This exercise is designed to introduce you to the basic functions and pathways in
AquiferTest. Go through this chapter carefully, taking note of the locations of different
shortcuts, buttons, tabs, links, etc.
This exercise is based on the pumping test data published in Fetter, Applied
Hydrogeology, 3rd Edition, 1994, p. 223.
[1]
If you have not already done so, double-click the AquiferTest icon
an AquiferTest session.
to start
[2]
When you launch an AquiferTest session, a blank project with the Pumping Test
tab active loads automatically. The loaded page should look similar to the one
shown below:
[3]
In this step you will fill in the information needed for the project and/or the test.
Not all information is required, however it is helpful in organizing tests and data
sets.
In the Project Information frame enter the following:
•
•
•
•
246
Project Name: Example 1
Project No.: 1
Client: ABC
Location: Address, City, State/Province
Chapter 7: Demonstration Exercises and Benchmark Tests
In the Pumping Test frame enter the following:
• Name: Example 1: Theis Analysis
• Performed by: Your Name
• Date: Filled in automatically with the current date
HINT: To move from one data entry box to the next, use the Tab key or the arrow
keys
In the Units frame fill in the following:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Site Plan: ft
Dimensions: ft
Time: min
Discharge: US gal/min
Transmissivity: ft2/d
Pressure: mbar
In the Aquifer Properties frame enter the following:
• Thickness: 48
• Type: Confined
• Bar. Eff.: leave blank
Your fields should now look similar to the figure below:
[4]
All new projects have one default pumping well created in the Wells table
(located in the bottom half of this window). Define the following well parameters
for this well:
•
•
•
•
[5]
Name: PW1
Type: Pumping Well
X: 0
Y: 0
“Click here to create a new well” link under the first well to create a new well.
Define the following well parameters:
• Name: OW1
Exercise 1: Confined Aquifer - Theis Analysis
247
• Type: Observation Well
• X: 824
• Y: 0
The Wells table should now look similar to the following tab:
NOTE: It is not necessary to enter well geometry data, since the Theis analysis
assumes fully penetrating wells.
[6]
Click on the Discharge tab to enter the discharge rate for the pumping well
[7]
In the Discharge frame select the “Constant” option
[8]
Enter the following discharge rate: 220.
NOTE: PW1 is highlighted in the window to the left of the Discharge frame.
When there are multiple pumping wells in the test, the one that is highlighted is
the one for which you are entering data; ensure that correct well is selected.
[9]
Click on the Water Levels tab to enter the water level data for the observation
well.
[10] In the box in the top left corner of the tab, select OW1, and ensure it is
highlighted.
[11] In this exercise you will import data from an MSExcel file. From the main menu,
select File / Import / Water level measurements.
248
Chapter 7: Demonstration Exercises and Benchmark Tests
[12] Navigate to the folder “AquiferTest\ImportFiles\ and select the file Exercise 1.xls
[13] Click Open. The data should now appear in the time - water levels table.
[14] Type 0 in the Static Water Level field.
[15] Click on the
(Refresh) button in the toolbar, to refresh the graph.
[16] You will see the calculated drawdown data appear in the Drawdown column and
a drawdown graph displayed on the right.
[17] Click on the Analysis tab
[18] In the Data from window, select OW1
[19] In the Analysis Name field, type “Theis Analysis”. Your fields should now look
Exercise 1: Confined Aquifer - Theis Analysis
249
similar to the figure below
[20] Click on the
(Fit) icon, to fit the data to the type curve, and the
analysis graph should appear, as shown below.
[21] To modify the plot axes, expand the Display frame of the Analysis Navigator
panel and check the box beside Dimensionless
You should now see the following analysis graph.
250
Chapter 7: Demonstration Exercises and Benchmark Tests
NOTE: You may need to adjust the Min and Max values for the Time and
Drawdown axis.
[22] Click on the
(Automatic Fit) icon, to fit the data to the type curve.
[23] Click on the
(Parameter Controls) icon to manually adjust the curve fit, and
the calculated parameters.
[24] Use the sliders to adjust the parameters for Transmissivity and Storativity, or, if
you notice that the increment is too large and your curve moves too quickly, type
the new parameter values in the fields manually.
[25] When you have achieved the best fit between the fitted line and your data, close
the parameter controls.
[26] The Results frame of the Analysis navigator displays the calculated values.
These values should be approximately:
Exercise 1: Confined Aquifer - Theis Analysis
251
• Transmissivity = 1.32E+3 ft2/d
• Storativity = 2.09E-5
The following table illustrates a comparison of these values, to that in
AquiferTest 3.5, and with those published.
AquiferTest
4.X
AquiferTest 3.5
Published
(Fetter, 1994)
Transmissivity (ft2/d)
1.32 E+3
1.29 E+3
1.40 E+3
Storativity
2.09 E-5
2.18 E-5
2.40 E-5
[27] To print the analysis, click the Reports tab
[28] The navigation tree in the left portion of the tab lists all reports that are available
for printing. Expand this tree.
[29] Under the Analysis Graphs, select the box beside “Theis Analysis”
[30] In the window to the right you will see the preview of the print-out
Navigator
tree
Print
preview
You can define your company information and logo under Tools / Options.
252
Chapter 7: Demonstration Exercises and Benchmark Tests
[31] Click on the
(Print) button in the tool bar, or select File/Print from the main
menu.
[32] Save your project by selecting File/Save As, and define a project name (Example
1).
This concludes the exercise on the Theis analysis. In the next exercise you will
analyze data using a method. You have a choice of exiting AquiferTest or
continuing on to the next exercise.
Exercise 1: Confined Aquifer - Theis Analysis
253
7.2 Exercise 2: Leaky Aquifer - Hantush - Jacob Analysis
This exercise is written with the assumption that you have gone through the first
exercise, and are familiar with the AquiferTest interface.
This exercise is based on the pumping test data published in Dawson and Istok, Aquifer
Testing: Design and Analysis of pumping and slug tests, 1991, p. 113
[1]
Launch AquiferTest or, if you already have the window open, create a new
project by clicking the
(New) button from the toolbar or select File/New
from the main menu.
[2]
In the Pumping Test tab, enter the following information in the appropriate
fields:
Project Information:
•
•
•
•
Project Name: Exercise 2
Project No: 2
Client: ABC
Location: Your Town
Pumping Test frame:
• Name: Hantush-Jacob Analysis
• Performed by: Your Name
• Date: fills in automatically
Units frame
•
•
•
•
•
Site Plan: ft
Dimensions: ft
Time: min
Discharge: US gal/min
Transmissivity: US gal/d-ft
Aquifer Thickness frame
• Thickness: 20
• Type: Leaky
• Bar. Eff.: leave blank
254
Chapter 7: Demonstration Exercises and Benchmark Tests
Your fields should now look similar to the figure shown below:
[3]
[4]
[5]
In the Wells tab, a pumping well has been created by default. Set the parameters
for that well as follows:
• Name: PW
• Type: Pumping Well
• X: 0
• Y: 0
Create another well by clicking the Click here to create a new well link under
the first well
Set the parameters for the new well as follows:
•
•
•
•
Name: OW1
Type: Observation Well
X: 80
Y: 0
Your Wells grid should now look similar to the following figure:
[6]
Click on the Discharge tab to enter discharge data for the pumping well
[7]
In the Discharge frame select the radio button beside “Constant”
[8]
Enter 70 in the field to the right.
[9]
Click the Water Levels tab to enter the water level data for the observation well.
In this example you will cut-and-paste data from a data file.
Exercise 2: Leaky Aquifer - Hantush - Jacob Analysis
255
[10] In the window in the top left corner highlight “OW1”
[11] Minimize AquiferTest, and browse to the folder “AquiferTest\ImportFiles\ and
select the file Exercise 2.xls.
[12] Double-click on this file, to open it in MS Excel
[13] Select the first two columns of data, and Copy this onto the Windows clipboard
[14] Minimize MS Excel and Maximize the AquiferTest window
[15] Activate the Water Levels tab
[16] Right-click on the first cell in the Time Water Level grid, and select Paste
Copy
Paste
[17] Enter 0 in the Static Water Level field.
[18] Click on the
(Refresh) button in the toolbar, to refresh the graph. The
calculated drawdown appears in the Drawdown column and a graph of the
drawdown appears to the right of the data.
[19] Click on the Analysis tab
[20] Check the box beside OW1 in the Data from window.
If you are not sure whether the aquifer is leaky or not, you can use the Diagnostic
Plots, and analyze the drawdown derivative data, to provide insight on the
pumping test activities. This is demonstrated below.
[21] Click on the Diagnostic Graph tab in the Analysis plot, and the following
256
Chapter 7: Demonstration Exercises and Benchmark Tests
window will appear. 
In this image, you can see the observed drawdown data, and the calculated
derivative data. The derivative data is distinguished by an X through the middle
of each data symbol, and is delineated in the image above.
To the right of the graph window, you will see 5 yellow diagnostic plot windows,
with a variety of type curves. The plots are named diagnostic, since they provide
an insight or “diagnosis” of the aquifer type and conditions. Each plot contains
theoretical drawdown curves for a variety of aquifer conditions, well effects, and
boundary influences, which include:
•
•
•
•
•
Confined
Leaky/Recharge Boundary
Barrier Boundary
Double Porosity or Unconfined
Well Effects (WellBore storage).
Each diagnostic graph contains 3 lines:
• Theis type curve (dashed black line)
• Theoretical drawdown curve under the expected conditions (solid black line)
• Drawdown derivative curve (solid green line).
These plots can be displayed on a log-log or semi-log scale, by selecting the
appropriate radio button above the diagnostic graphs. For this example, the
aquifer type is not immediately evident upon inspection of only the drawdown
Exercise 2: Leaky Aquifer - Hantush - Jacob Analysis
257
data. However, if you look at the derivative data, you can see the characteristic
“saddle”, typical of a leaky aquifer (outlined in the image above). Alternately, you
can use the semi-log diagnostic graph to interpret the aquifer conditions.
[22] Lin-Log radio button above the yellow diagnostic graphs. The following window
will appear.
In the Semi-Log plot, you can compare the observed drawdown curve to the diagnostic
plots. In this example, it is evident that the observed drawdown curve (outlined in the
image above) is very similar to that expected in a Leaky aquifer (refer to the theoretical
drawdown curve in the second diagnostic graph, circled above). For more details on the
diagnostic graphs, see Chapter 4: Diagnostic Plots.
Now that you are confident that the aquifer is leaky, you can select the appropriate
solution method, and calculate the aquifer parameters.
[23] Click on the Analysis Graph tab
[24] Select “Hantush” from the Analysis methods frame of the Analysis navigator
258
Chapter 7: Demonstration Exercises and Benchmark Tests
panel
[25] In the Analysis Name field enter “Hantush-Jacob”
[26] Click on the
(Fit) icon, to fit the data to the type curve. The analysis
graph should appear similar to below:
[27] If you are not satisfied with the fit, use Parameter Controls to adjust the curve
To view the Dimensionless (Type Curve) view, expand the Display frame of the
Analysis Navigator panel and check the box beside Dimensionless. This option
is not demonstrated in this Exercise.
[28] The Results frame of the Analysis navigator displays the calculated values.
These values should be approximately:
• Transmissivity = 4.20E+3 US gal/d-ft
• Storativity = 9.97E-5
Exercise 2: Leaky Aquifer - Hantush - Jacob Analysis
259
• Hydraulic resistance = 2.85E+4
The following table illustrates a comparison of these values, to that in
AquiferTest 3.5, and with those published.
AquiferTest
4.X
AquiferTest
3.5
Published
(Dawson, 1991)
Transmissivity 
(US gal/d-ft)
4.20 E+3
6.1 E+3
4.11 E+3
Storativity
9.97 E-5
9.08 E-6
9.50 E-6
[29] To print your report, click on the Reports tab
[30] Expand the Navigator tree in the left portion of the Reports tab
[31] Check the box beside the “Hantush-Jacob” under Analysis Graphs
[32] Click on the
menu.
(Print) button in the tool bar, or select File/Print from the main
[33] Save your project by clicking on the
260
(Save) icon or selecting File/Save as
Chapter 7: Demonstration Exercises and Benchmark Tests
The next exercise will demonstrate analysis of recovery data from a pumping test, using
the Agarwal solution. You have the option to exit the program (make sure you save the
changes) or to continue on to the next exercise.
Exercise 2: Leaky Aquifer - Hantush - Jacob Analysis
261
7.3 Exercise 3: Recovery Data Analysis - Agarwal Solution
This exercise demonstrates analysis of recovery data, using the Agarwal solution, new
to AquiferTest. In addition, the Data Logger Wizard feature will be demonstrated. This
exercise assumes that you are familiar with the program interface; feel free to return to
Exercise 1 for the basics on navigating AquiferTest.
[1]
Start AquiferTest or, if you already have the program open, create a new project.
[2]
In the Pumping Test tab enter the following information:
Project Information frame
•
•
•
•
Project name: Exercise 3: Agarwal Recovery
Project No.: 3
Client: ABC
Location: Your Town
Pumping Test frame
• Name: Agarwal Recovery
• Performed by: Your Name
• Date: filled in automatically
Units frame
•
•
•
•
•
Site Plan: m
Dimensions: m
Time: s
Discharge: m3/s
Transmissivity: m2/s
Aquifer Properties frame
• Aquifer Thickness: 20 m
[3]
The new project will contain one pumping well, by default. Set the parameters for
this well as follows:
Well 1
•
•
•
•
Name: PW
Type: Pumping Well
X: 0
Y: 0
Next, create a new well. Click on the “Click here” link to add a new well to the
table. Define the parameters for this new well, as follows:
Well 2
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Chapter 7: Demonstration Exercises and Benchmark Tests
[4]
• Name: OW1
• Type: Observation well
• X:10
• Y: 0
Click on the Discharge tab
[5]
Select Constant discharge
[6]
Enter the value 0.0015 in the field beside
[7]
Click on the Water Levels tab
[8]
Highlight “OW1” in the wells list in the top left corner of the tab. For this well,
you will import the time-water level data from a data logger file.
[9]
Select File/Import/Data Logger file from the main menu
[10] Browse to the folder “AquiferTest\ImportFiles\ and select the Exercise3.asc file.
[11] Highlight the file and click Open. This will launch the 6-step data logger import
wizard.
[12] In the first step, select a set of settings saved in a previous import session. This is
a great time saver when importing many files with similar format. Since there are
no existing settings, you define the required settings manually.
The first window also allows you to select the row from which to start importing.
If you have headers in the first row you can start importing from row 2. There are
no headers in this file so you can leave everything as it is.
Click [Next].
[13] In Step 2, specify the delimiters. Un-check the box beside Tab and check the one
beside Space.
Exercise 3: Recovery Data Analysis - Agarwal Solution
263
Click [Next]
[14] In Step 3, specify the Date column and the format in which the date is entered.
Click on the first column to mark it as DATE and in the drop-down menu below
choose DD/MM/YY. Your screen should look similar to the one shown below.
Click Next
[15] In Step 4, specify the Time column. Click on the header above the second
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Chapter 7: Demonstration Exercises and Benchmark Tests
column.
Click [Next]
[16] In Step 5, specify the Water Level column. Click on the header above the third
column. Use the default units of m (meters).
In addition, use the default co-ordinate system of Top of Casing Datum.
Click [Next].
[17] In Step 6, there are options to specify the start time, and data filtering options. The
data loggers usually record measurements at pre-set time intervals and as such,
record many repetitive water level measurements. To import so much redundant
data slows down the processing speed. The data can be filtered by time or by
change in water level. 
Exercise 3: Recovery Data Analysis - Agarwal Solution
265
Select the radio button beside the By change in depth to WL and enter 0.01.
Click [Import]
[18] A dialog box will appear, indicating 233 data points have been imported.
Click OK
[19] Enter Static Water level as 2.0
[20] Click on the
(Refresh) button in the toolbar, to refresh the graph. The
calculated drawdown appears in the Drawdown column and a graph of the
drawdown appears to the right of the data.
[21] Move to the Analysis tab.
[22] Select OW1 from the Data from window
[23] In the Analysis Name field, type “Agarwal Recovery”
[24] The graph below shows the Drawdown and recovery data
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Chapter 7: Demonstration Exercises and Benchmark Tests
.
[25] Check the box beside the Recovery period only under the Data from window
[26] A following message will appear:
The recovery test requires that you define the time when the pumping stopped. To
do this, use the variable discharge rate option as described below.
[27] Return to the Discharge tab
[28] Select Variable in the Discharge frame
[29] For this pumping test, the pump was shut off after 30,000 s. In the first cells of the
Exercise 3: Recovery Data Analysis - Agarwal Solution
267
Time and Discharge columns type in 30000 and 0.0015 respectively.
[30] Return to the Analysis tab
[31] You can see that the graph has refreshed, displaying only the recovery portion of
the data.
[32] Change the Scale of the Time axis to “logarithm”
[33] Press the Fit button to perform autofit to the data.
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Chapter 7: Demonstration Exercises and Benchmark Tests
[34] The data and the curve fit quite well together, however if you wish you can use
the Parameter Controls to manually adjust the curve fit.
[35] The calculated parameter values should be similar to the following:
Transmissivity = 5.01 E-4 m2/s
Storativity = 1.17 E-5
The following table illustrates a comparison of these values (using the Agarwal
solution), to that obtained in AquiferTest 3.5 (using the Theis Recovery
solution).
AquiferTest 4.X
(Agarwal)
AquiferTest 3.5
(Theis Recovery)
Transmissivity (m2/s)
5.01 E-4
5.02 E-4
Storativity
1.17 E-5
N/A*
*One of the major advantages of the Agarwal solution, is that it provides a
calculation for the storativity parameter; this was not possible with the Theis
Recovery solution, in AquiferTest 3.5.
[36] Print the desired reports by selecting the Reports tab and checking the boxes
beside the reports you wish to print.
[37] Click on the
menu.
(Print) button in the tool bar, or select File/Print from the main
[38] Save your project by clicking on the
from the main menu.
(Save) icon or selecting File/Save as
This concludes the exercise. The next exercise will deal with multiple pumping wells.
You have the choice of exiting AquiferTest or proceeding to the next exercise.
Exercise 3: Recovery Data Analysis - Agarwal Solution
269
7.4 Exercise 4: Confined Aquifer, Multiple Pumping Wells
In this exercise you will learn how to use AquiferTest to not only determine aquifer
properties using discharge and drawdown data, but also how to use these values to
predict the effect that an additional pumping well will have on drawdown at the
observation well, and also, how to predict the drawdown in a well at any point in the
effective area of the pumping well(s).
This exercise is divided into 3 sections: To begin, you will create a Theis analysis to
determine the aquifer parameters. Then, you will examine the effect a second pumping
well will have on the drawdown at the observation well used in the first section. Finally,
you will predict the drawdown at a well at any point in the effective radius of the
pumping wells.
7.4.1 Determining Aquifer Parameters
[1]
Start AquiferTest or, if you already have it open, create a new project.
[2]
Complete the fields in the pumping test tab, as follows:
Project Information frame
•
•
•
•
Project Name: Exercise 4
Project No.: 4
Client: ABC
Location: Your Town
Pumping Test frame
• Pumping Test: Theis - Multiple Pumping Wells
• Performed by: Your Name
• Date: filled in automatically
Units frame
•
•
•
•
•
Site Plan: ft
Dimensions: ft
Time: min
Discharge: US gal/min
Transmissivity: ft2/d
Aquifer Properties frame
• Thickness: 40
• Aquifer Type: Unknown
[3]
In the Wells table, complete the following information for the first (pumping)
well:
Well 1
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Chapter 7: Demonstration Exercises and Benchmark Tests
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Name: Water Supply 1
Type: Pumping Well
X: 350
Y: 450
L: 50
r: 0.25
R: 0.3
Next, create two additional wells.
Click Click here to create a new well, to add a new pumping well
Well 2
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Name: Water Supply 2
Type: Not Used (this pumping well will be activated later in the exercise)
X: 350
Y: 100
L: 50
r: 0.25
R: 0.3
Click Click here to create a new well, to add a new observation well
Well 3
[4]
• Name: OW-1
• Type: Observation Well
• X: 350
• Y: 250
• L: 50
• r: 0.05
• R: 0.06
Click on the Discharge tab
[5]
Select Water Supply 1 from the well list
[6]
Select Variable in the Discharge frame
[7]
Enter following values in the Discharge Table:
Time
1440
Exercise 4: Confined Aquifer, Multiple Pumping Wells
Discharge
150
271
[8]
Click on the Water Levels tab.
[9]
Select OW1 from the well list. For this exercise, the data set will be imported
from an excel file.
[10] From the main menu, select File/Import/Water Level measurements.
[11] Browse to the folder “AquiferTest\ImportFiles\ and select the file Exercise4.xls.
[12] Click [Open]
[13] Enter Static Water Level of 4.0
[14] Click on the
(Refresh) button in the toolbar, to refresh the graph. The
calculated drawdown appears in the Drawdown column and a graph of the
drawdown appears to the right of the data.
[15] Select the Analysis tab
[16] Select “OW-1” in the Data from window
[17] Click on the
(Automatic Fit) icon, to fit the data to the type curve.
The calculated parameter values should be:
• Transmissivity = 3.02 E3 ft2/d
• Storativity = 7.06E-4
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Chapter 7: Demonstration Exercises and Benchmark Tests
[18] Since the automatic fit uses all data points, often it does not provide the most
accurate results. For example you may wish to place more emphasis on the early
time data if you suspect the aquifer is leaky or some other boundary condition is
affecting the results.
In this case, there is a boundary condition affecting the water levels / drawdown
between 700 - 1000 feet south of Water Supply 1. You need to remove the data
points after time = 100 minutes.
There are several ways to do this, either by de-activating data points in the
analysis (they will remain visible but will not be considered in analysis) or by
applying a time limit to the data (data outside the time limit is removed from the
display).
You will examine both options. From the Main menu bar, select Analysis / Define
analysis time range, or select this option from the Analysis frame of the Project
Navigator panel
Exercise 4: Confined Aquifer, Multiple Pumping Wells
273
The following dialogue will be produced:
[19] Select “Before” and type in 101. This will include all the data-points before 101
minutes and will remove all the data-points after that period.
Click [OK].
[20] Click the Automatic Fit icon and see how the graph has changed. The points
after 100 minutes are no longer visible (change the axes’ Min and Max values if
necessary to see the effect).
[21] The parameters in the Results frame have changed to
• Transmissivity = 4.48E3
• Storativity = 4.27E-4
[22] Now restore the graph to normal: select Define analysis time range again and
selecting All.
Click [OK].
[23] Click on the
(Automatic Fit) icon, to fit the data to the type curve.
[24] You will now exclude the points. Click
274
(Exclude) icon above
Chapter 7: Demonstration Exercises and Benchmark Tests
the graph. The following dialogue will appear:
[25] Type in 101 in the “Start” field and 1440 in the “End” field.
Click [Add]
[26] Highlight the added time range.
Click [OK]
[27] Click on the
(Fit) icon, to fit the data to the type curve.
[28] The curve change is identical to the “Define analysis time range” option (as
evident from the calculated parameters in Results frame), however the points are
still visible on the analysis graph.
[29] The parameters in the Results frame should now be similar to the following:
• Transmissivity = 4.48E3
• Storativity = 4.27E-4
Exercise 4: Confined Aquifer, Multiple Pumping Wells
275
7.4.2 Determining the Effect of a Second Pumping Well
In this section, the second pumping well will be activated, and AquiferTest will
predict the drawdown that would occur as a result of two pumping wells running
simultaneously.
In the previous section, the aquifer parameters (Transmissivity and Storativity)
were calculated with the Theis method. In order to maintain these values, you
need to “lock” the parameters.
[30] Click on the Parameter Controls icon, or select View / Analysis Parameters
from the main menu.
[31] Click on the both “padlock” icons beside the parameters.
[32] Click on the [X] button to close the Parameters dialog
[33] Click on the Pumping Test tab
[34] In the Wells table, select WaterSupply2 from the well list
[35] To “turn on” the second pumping well, change the type from Not Used to
Pumping Well
[36] Click on the Discharge tab
[37] Select WaterSupply2 from the well list
[38] Select the Variable discharge option
[39] Enter the following values in the table:

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Chapter 7: Demonstration Exercises and Benchmark Tests
Time
720
1440
Discharge
150
0
These values indicate that the Water Supply 2 well was turned on at the same
time as the Water Supply 1, however, whereas Water Supply 1 pumped for
1440 minutes (24 hours) at a constant discharge of 150 US gal/min, Water
Supply 2 only ran at that rate for 720 minutes (12 hours) and was then shut off.
[40] Select the Analysis tab
[41] You will see that the theoretical drawdown curve no longer goes through the
observed points; instead the curve is below the data, indicating that the predicted
drawdown at OW1 has increased as a result of activating the second pumping
well.
AquiferTest calculates the theoretical drawdown curve, using the Transmissivity
(T) and Storativity (S) values calculated earlier in this exercise.
[42] The Theis analysis assumes a Constant discharge, however, AquiferTest allows
you to change the model assumptions in the tests, as you will do now.
Exercise 4: Confined Aquifer, Multiple Pumping Wells
277
[43] Expand the Assumptions frame of the Analysis Navigator
[44] In the drop-down menu beside “Discharge” change “Constant” to “Variable: ,
and click anywhere in the Assumptions panel to apply the changes.
[45] You will notice that now at 720 minutes the curve rises sharply which is
equivalent to a sudden decrease in drawdown. This coincides with WaterSupply2
being shut off after 720 minutes. As a result, the total discharge from the two
wells decreases to 150 gpm (from 300 gpm) and the resulting drawdown is less.
NOTE: You may need to modify the max value for the drawdown axis to see the
entire curve.
Using this procedure, AquiferTest allows you to predict the effect of any number
of pumping wells on the drawdown at a well.
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Chapter 7: Demonstration Exercises and Benchmark Tests
7.4.3 Predicting Drawdown at Any Distance from the Pumping
well
In this section, an imaginary observation well will be added at the property
border, close to the pumping test site. The following procedure will allow you to
predict the drawdown at that well (or any well at a given set of coordinates).
[46] Return to the Pumping Test tab, and locate the Wells table.
Create a well with the following parameters:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Name: OW-2
Type: Observation Well
X: 700
Y: 850
L: 50
r: 0.25
R: 0.30
[47] Select the Water Levels tab
[48] Select OW-2 from the list of wells.
Enter the following “dummy” data points for this well.
Time
Water Level
1
1
200
1
400
1
600
1
800
1
1000
1
1200
1
1440
1
[49] Enter the Depth to static water level of 0.
Exercise 4: Confined Aquifer, Multiple Pumping Wells
279
NOTE: These values are dummy points. They are used to establish the time
period in which you are interested - the water level values are irrelevant since you
are going to PREDICT them. AquiferTest simply requires Water Level data to
accompany the Time intervals.
[50] Click on the
(Refresh) button in the toolbar, to refresh the graph.
[51] Return to the Analysis tab
[52] Check the box beside “OW-2”
[53] Click on the
(Automatic Fit) icon, to fit the data to the type curve.
The calculated values for the Transmissivity and Storativity for “OW-2” are
different from those for “OW-1”, since the automatic fit attempted to fit the curve
to the dummy values you entered for the drawdown. To calculate the predictive
drawdown curve, you must change the Transmissivity and Storativity values for
“OW-2” to match those of “OW-1”. You will assume that the aquifer parameters
at OW1 are the same as those at OW2.
Match your Results panel as shown below.
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Chapter 7: Demonstration Exercises and Benchmark Tests
.
[54] Click anywhere on the Results navigation panel to apply the changes. The
following graph is produced:
The upper curve is the predicted drawdown in the well at the new coordinates.
The actual data points for OW-2 have no bearing on the new drawdowns curve.
The curve is the predicted drawdown that would occur, if there were two pumping
wells, one running at 150 US gal/min for 24 hours, and another with the same
pumping rate, but for only 12 hours. You can see that the drawdown at OW-2 is
less than that observed at OW-1. This occurs because OW-2 is located further
away from the pumping wells, so the effect is not as pronounced.
[55] Print the desired reports by selecting the Reports tab and checking the boxes
Exercise 4: Confined Aquifer, Multiple Pumping Wells
281
beside the reports you wish to print.
[56] Click on the
menu.
(Print) button in the tool bar, or select File/Print from the main
[57] Save your project by clicking on the
from the main menu.
(Save) icon or selecting File/Save as
This concludes the exercise. The next exercise deals with using data corrections - a new
feature of AquiferTest. You have a choice of exiting the program, or to proceed to the
next exercise.
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Chapter 7: Demonstration Exercises and Benchmark Tests
7.5 Exercise 5: Adding Data Trend Correction
This exercise demonstrates the Data Trend Correction feature in AquiferTest. The
AquiferTest project for this exercise is already created; the exercise deals specifically
with the aspect of adding a data trend correction to the drawdown values. For more
information on the trend correction, please see Chapter 5: Data Pre-Processing.
[1]
Start AquiferTest, and select File / Open from the main menu, or click on the
(Open) button in the tool bar.
[2]
Browse to the folder AquiferTest\Examples, and select the project:
TrendEffects.hyt
[3]
Click [Open].
The pumping test consists of one fully penetrating pumping well, pumping at 0.001 m3/
s for 30,000 s. Drawdown is observed at an observation well located 10 meters away.
[4]
Select the Water Levels tab. Take a moment to review the time - drawdown data
for Well 2 that was observed for this pumping test.
[5]
Select the Analysis tab. Make note of the results obtained for Transmissivity and
Storativity, using Theis analysis.
You will now add the trend correction to the observed drawdown measurements.
[6]
Return to the Water Levels tab. Add a Data correction, by clicking on the
“down” arrow beside the Add data correction button, and selecting Trend
Correction.
Exercise 5: Adding Data Trend Correction
283
The Calculate Trend dialogue will appear
[7]
In the Observation well drop-down menu, select Well 2 (your observation well)
[8]
Follow the Click here link above the data table.
[9]
Browse to the folder AquiferTest\ImportFiles and locate the file Trenddata.xls.
This file contains daily measurements of time (s) vs. water level (m) data,
recorded by a logger, for 42 days.
[10] Click [Open]. You will see the data points displayed in the table and the
calculated trend line appear on a graph to the right of the table.
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Chapter 7: Demonstration Exercises and Benchmark Tests
Below the graph you will see the calculated Trend coefficient displayed. (If this is not
visible, click on the Click here to refresh the graph and update the results link
below the graph).
At the bottom of the dialog, there will be a label indicating if the trend is significant,
which is determined by t-test. In this example, the calculated trend coefficient is
-2.58 E-7 m/s (or -2.22 cm/day). The negative sign indicates that the water levels tend
to RISE by 2.22 cm/day. The trend is significant; as such, the drawdown values should
be corrected with the trend coefficient.
[11] Click [OK] to close the dialog.
[12] The correction data has been imported and the Time/Water Level table now has
two new columns - Trend correction, and Corrected drawdown used in
analysis.
Corrected drawdown is calculated using the trend coefficient. To obtain the
corrected drawdown, the Trend Correction value is added to the observed
drawdown. In this example, the Corrected Drawdown is slightly greater than the
observed drawdown.
[13] Switch to the Analysis tab.
[14] Click on the
(Automatic Fit) icon, to fit the data to the type curve.
Take note of the new aquifer parameter values. In this example, the values are
Exercise 5: Adding Data Trend Correction
285
unchanged, since the change in drawdown due to the trend is very slight.
[15] A Trend report may be printed from the Water Level branch of the navigator tree
in the Reports tab. This report will display the trend data with corresponding
graph, and the t-test statistics. An example is shown below.
This completes the exercise. You may now exit AquiferTest or proceed to the
barometric correction exercise.
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Chapter 7: Demonstration Exercises and Benchmark Tests
7.6 Exercise 6: Adding Barometric Correction
This exercise will demonstrate how to add a barometric correction to the observed
drawdown data. As with the previous exercise, the AquiferTest project has already
been created for you. The exercise assumes that you are familiar with the AquiferTest
interface. If not, please review Exercise 1.
[1]
Start AquiferTest, and select File / Open from the main menu, or click on the
(Open) button in the tool bar.
[2]
Browse to the folder AquiferTest\Examples, and select the project:
Barometric.hyt
[3]
Click [Open]
The pumping test consists of one fully penetrating pumping well, pumping at 0.001 m3/
s for 30.000 s. Drawdown is observed at an observation well located 10 meters away.
[4]
Once the project has loaded, go to the Analysis tab and take note of the
Transmissivity and Storativity values in the Results frame of the Analysis
Navigator panel
[5]
Return to the Pumping Test tab and click on the button beside the Bar. Eff. field
Button
Exercise 6: Adding Barometric Correction
287
The following dialog will appear
[6]
Click on the Click here link above the table and browse to the folder
AquiferTest\ImportFiles, and locate the file “press-vs-wl.txt” which contains the
pressure and water level data. This data was collected before the test.
[7]
Click [Open] to import the file
As the data loads into the table, the graph appears to the right of the table and
barometric efficiency (B.E.) is calculated and displayed below the graph. If this
does not occur, click the Click here link below the graph to refresh the display.
The calculated barometric efficiency is 0.60.
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Chapter 7: Demonstration Exercises and Benchmark Tests
[8]
Click [OK] to close this dialog, and notice that “0.60” now appears in the Bar.
Eff. field in the Aquifer Properties frame in the Pumping Test tab.
[9]
Return to the Water Levels tab. Add a Barometric correction to Well 2, by
clicking on the “down” arrow beside the Add data correction button, and
selecting Barometric Correction.
The following dialog will appear
[10] Click on the Click here link above the table and browse to the folder
AquiferTest\ImportFiles, and locate the file “time-vs-pressure.txt” which contains
the time vs pressure data. This data was collected during the test. The data will
load into the table, and plotted on the graph window on the right side of the
Exercise 6: Adding Barometric Correction
289
window, as shown below.
[11] Click [OK] to close the dialog, and apply the correction. Two new columns will
appear in the Water levels table - Barometric correction and Corrected
drawdown used in analysis. An example is shown below:
(For this example, the original water level is modified to show the trend and barometric
effect. The time was simply multiplied by 3.)
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Chapter 7: Demonstration Exercises and Benchmark Tests
[12] Now, return to the Analysis tab.
[13] Click on the
(Automatic Fit) icon, to fit the data to the type curve.
Take note of the new aquifer parameter values.
[14] A Barometric Analysis report may be printed from the Water Level branch of the
navigator tree in the Reports tab. This report will display the trend data with
corresponding graph, and the t-test statistics. An example is shown below
The next exercise will deal with the Hvorslev slug test analysis. You have the choice of
exiting AquiferTest or continuing on to the next exercise.
Exercise 6: Adding Barometric Correction
291
7.7 Exercise 7: Slug Test Analysis
This exercise is written with the assumption that you have gone through the first
exercise, and are familiar with the AquiferTest interface.
This exercise is based on the slug test data published in Fetter, Applied Hydrogeology,
3rd Edition, 1994, p. 250.
[1]
Start AquiferTest, or if you already have it open, create a new project by clicking
the
(New) icon in the toolbar or selecting File/New from the main menu.
[2]
Create a new slug test by selecting Test/Create a Slug Test from the main menu.
[3]
Complete the fields for the Slug Test as follows:
Project Information frame
•
•
•
•
Project Name: Exercise 7
Project No.: 7
Client: ABC
Location: Your Town
Slug Test frame
• Name: Hvorslev and Bouwer Rice Analysis
• Performed by: Your Name
• Date: filled in automatically
Units frame
•
•
•
•
Site Plan: ft
Dimensions: ft
Time: s
Transmissivity: ft2/d
Remaining units are not used, and can be left as is.
[4]
In the Wells table a well has been created automatically. By default, the type is set
to Not Used. Change the type to Test Well by activating the Type cell of the well
and then clicking again to produce a drop-down menu (DO NOT double-click).
[5]
Enter the following information for the well:
• Name: TW
• R: 0.083
• L: 10
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Chapter 7: Demonstration Exercises and Benchmark Tests
• r: 0.083
[6]
Click on the Water Levels tab to enter the water level data for the test well
[7]
In this exercise you will enter the data manually. Type in the following
information using Tab key or arrow keys to move from cell to cell.
[8]
Time
Water Level
0
14.87
1
14.59
2
14.37
3
14.2
4
14.11
5
14.05
6
14.03
7
14.01
8
14.0
9
13.99
For the Static Water Level enter 13.99
[9]
For the Depth at t=0 enter 14.87
[10] Click on the
(Refresh) button in the toolbar, to refresh the graph. The
calculated drawdown appears in the Drawdown column and a graph of the
Exercise 7: Slug Test Analysis
293
drawdown appears to the right of the data, as shown below.
[11] Click on the Analysis tab
[12] In the Analysis Name type in “Hvorslev”. Notice that this name now appears in
the Analyses frame of the Project Navigator panel
[13] From the Analysis method frame of the Analysis Navigator panel choose
“Hvorslev”
[14] Set the Max and Min values on both axes so that the graph fits comfortably on
the page.
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Chapter 7: Demonstration Exercises and Benchmark Tests
[15] Click on the
(Automatic Fit) icon, to fit the data to the type curve.
[16] If you are not satisfied with the fit of the line, use Parameter Controls to adjust
it.
[17] Once you are finished, the results in the Results frame of the Analysis Navigator
panel should display the calculated conductivity value:
K = 8.10 E+1 ft/d (81 ft /day)
The following table illustrates a comparison of the conductivity value, to that
obtained in AquiferTest 3.5, and with the published reference.
AquiferTest
4.X
Conductivity (ft/d)
8.37 E+1
AquiferTest
3.5
8.39 E+1
Published
(Fetter, 1994)
7.9 E+1
[18] For this slug test data, you can also perform the Bouwer & Rice analysis.
[19] Create a new analysis by selecting Analysis/Create a new analysis from the
main menu:
[20] In the Analysis Name field, type Bouwer & Rice. Notice this name now appears
in the Analyses frame of the Project Navigator panel
[21] Select Bouwer & Rice from the Analysis Method of the Analysis Navigator
Exercise 7: Slug Test Analysis
295
panel
[22] A warning message will appear, indicating “Missing Parameter, Aquifer
Thickness”:
[23] Return to the Slug Test tab and locate the Thickness field in the Aquifer
Properties frame
[24] Enter a value of 10.0
[25] Return to the Analysis tab
[26] Select “Bouwer & Rice” in the Analysis frame of the Project Navigator panel
[27] Click on the
(Automatic Fit) icon, to fit the data to the type curve.
[28] If you are not satisfied with the fit of the line, use Parameter Controls to adjust
it.
[29] Once you are finished, the Results frame of the Analysis Navigator panel will
display the conductivity value:
K = 6.47 E+1 ft/d (64.7 ft/day)
The following table illustrates a comparison of the conductivity value, to that
obtained in AquiferTest 3.5
AquiferTest
4.X
Conductivity (ft/d)
6.47E+1
AquiferTest
3.5
6.23 E+1
[30] To print your reports go to the Reports tab
[31] Expand the navigator tree, and select the box beside “Bouwer & Rice” under
Analysis Graphs
296
Chapter 7: Demonstration Exercises and Benchmark Tests
[32] Check the boxes beside any other reports you wish to print
[33] Click on the
menu.
(Print) button in the tool bar, or select File/Print from the main
[34] Save your project by clicking on the
from the main menu.
(Save) icon or selecting File/Save as
This concludes the practice exercises.
If you have any unresolved questions about AquiferTest, please feel free to contact us
for further information:
Schlumberger Water Services
460 Phillip Street - Suite 101
Waterloo, Ontario, CANADA, N2L 5J2
Phone: +1 (519) 746-1798
Fax: +1 (519) 885-5262
General Inquiries: [email protected]
Web: www.swstechnology.com, www.water.slb.com
Exercise 7: Slug Test Analysis
297
7.8 Additional AquiferTest Examples
Once you have completed the exercises, feel free to explore the sample projects that
have been included in the Examples folder. These examples encompass a wide variety
of aquifer conditions, and appropriate solutions. The following examples are available:
• Agarwal-recovery.HYT: Confined Aquifer, Agarwal recover
• Confined.HYT: Confined Aquifer, Theis Analysis
• Leaky.HYT: Leaky Aquifer, Hantush - Jacob
• Fractured.HYT: Fractured Aquifer, Warren Root Double Porosity
• MultiplePumpingWells.HYT: Confined Aquifer, Multiple Wells
• SpecificCapacity.HYT: Discharge vs. Drawdown, Single Well analysis
• WellBoreStorage.HYT: Well Bore Storage, Papadopulos - Cooper
• PartialPenetration.HYT: Partially Penetrating Wells, Neuman
• Unconfined.HYT: Unconfined Aquifer, Theis with Jacob correction
• SlugTest1.HYT: Bouwer & Rice, Hvorslev
• SlugTest2.HYT: Bouwer & Rice, Hvorslev
• StepTest.HYT: Variable Rate Pumping Test, Theis
• CooperJacob.HYT: Confined Aquifer, Theis Analysis, but using a
straight-line method (similar to a Cooper Jacob analysis)
• Moench Fracture Skin.HYT: Fracture flow, fully penetrating wells
• Hantush Bierschenk.HYT: Hantush Bierschenk Well Loss solution
• Hantush Storage.HYT: Leaky Aquifer, Hantush with storage method
298
Chapter 7: Demonstration Exercises and Benchmark Tests
Index
D
data
copy 98
delete 99
paste 99
time-limited analysis 106
Data Filtering 65
data logger
Diver datalogger 92
importing data 91
Level Logger settings 92
load import settings 92
setting the reference datum 32, 95
supported formats 91
data menu
data logger file 91
import 89
Data Trend Analysis and Correction 215
Delete a Graph Template 100
Delete Analysis 100
Delete Pumping Test 99
Delete Slug Test 99
Deleting Trend Corrections 228
demonstration exercises
see exercises
discharge rates 26
drawdown vs. time curve
general information 152
with discharge 153
A
Agarwal recovery analysis
theory 186
analysis menu 105
create analysis 105
Analysis parameter controls
lock feature 130
Analysis Plots and Options 125
Analysis Statistics 107
automatic curve fit 2, 127
B
bail test
theory 199, 204
Barometric Efficiency (BE)
Calculating from Observed Data 223
Barometric Trends
Theory 221
Barrier Boundary 138
Boulton 168
Boundary Effects 135
Bouwer-Rice analysis
theory 199
C
confined aquifer
radial flow 143
Contouring
Color map properties 239
Example 240
Grid Density 236
Properties 238
Selecting Data Series 236
Cooper-Bredehoeft-Papadopulos analysis
theory 207
Cooper-Jacob
Distance-Drawdown Method 150
Time-Distance-Drawdown Method 151
Time-Drawdown Method 149
Cooper-Jacob Method 148
coordinate system
setting the reference datum 32, 95
Correct Observed Drawdown Data for Barometric
Effects 225
create
analysis 34, 105
pumping test 103
slug test 40, 103
create analysis 105
Create Analysis Considering Well Effects 105
Create Analysis for Specific Capacity 105
curve fitting
automatic 2, 127
manual 2, 129
Index
E
edit menu 98
copy 98
paste 99
Entering Data Manually 26
Export
Drawdown Contours 237
Gridded Drawdown Data 237
Site Map 237
Wells 237
Export drawdown contours 234
Export well locations 234
F
file menu 86
fracture flow analysis
theory 176
Fracture Flow, Double Porosity 171
G
general overview
menu bar 86
navigator panel 13, 18
tool bar 17
window layout 12
getting started
installing AquiferTest 9
system requirements 8
299
H
S
Hantush - Storage in Aquitard 160
Hantush-Bierschenk well loss
theory 192
Hantush-Jacob analysis
theory 157
hardware requirements 8
help menu
about 117
contents 116
Hvorslev analysis
theory 204
save graph settings 72
Scatter Plot 102
slug test
create 40, 103
create analysis 44
theory 199, 204
software requirements 8
specific capacity
theory 190
steptest analysis
time-discharge data format 133
superposition
multiple pumping wells 134
variable discharge rates 132
system requirements 8
I
Import Data
Text and Excel Import Format 90
import data
ASCII text 89
data logger file 91
Import Map Image... 88
import wells
ASCII text 22
installation 8
T
test menu 103
create pumping test 103
create slug test 103
Theis Recovery Test (confined) 145
Theis with Jacob Correction 163
theory of superposition 132
Tools Menu 108
Trend Analysis
Theory 216
t-Test (Student-test) 217
L
load import settings
data logger 92
M
manual curve fit 2, 129
Map properties 234
Mapping and Contouring Options 231
Maps
Load Image 232
Modifying Trend Corrections 228
Moench Fracture Flow 176
multiple pumping wells 134
N
Neuman 165
U
units
project 21, 41
Using Effective Well Radius 185
V
variable pumping rate data 133
Vertical Anisotropy 140
view menu 101
W
well
P
Partially Penetrating Wells 140
program options 108
project
units 21, 41
pumping test
create 103
importing wells 22
well performance analysis
specific capacity 191
R
radial flow
confined aquifer 143
Recharge Boundary 137
reference datum
setting the reference datum 32, 95
references 10, 212
300
Index
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