GZ-1000 User Manual
Keyboard Technologies, Inc.
GZ-1000 Performance Keyboard
User Manual
First Edition - November 1988
By Paul J. White
This document covers GZ-1000 units with operating system firmware version
number 1.00.
CAUTION:
To prevent fire or shock hazard, do not expose this device to rain or moisture. Do
not remove cover. No user serviceable parts inside. Refer servicing and internal
adjustments to qualified service personnel.
WARNING:
This equipment generates and uses radio frequency energy and if not installed and
used in strict accordance with the instruction manual, may cause harmful
interference to radio communications.
Operation of this equipment in a residential area is likely to cause interference in
which case the user at his own expense will be required to take whatever measures
may be required to correct the interference.
Copyright © 1988 Keyboard Technologies, Inc.
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Chapter 1 – General Description ............................................................... 7
Keyboard............................................................................................. 7
Performance controls ........................................................................... 7
Control routing .................................................................................... 7
Global Setups....................................................................................... 8
Disk drive ............................................................................................ 8
Displays and Data Entry........................................................................ 8
Typical setup ....................................................................................... 8
Chapter 2 - Description of Controls ......................................................... 11
Mechanical adjustments ..................................................................... 11
Front panel controls and displays ........................................................ 11
Operator switches .............................................................................. 11
Operator LEDs................................................................................... 11
Global display ................................................................................... 11
Write switch, Write LED....................................................................... 12
Function display ................................................................................ 12
PAL switch, PAL LED ........................................................................... 12
Edit switch, Edit LED........................................................................... 12
Page 1 LED, Page 2 LED ...................................................................... 13
Data entry switches (NO, YES) ............................................................. 13
Rear panel ......................................................................................... 13
Power ON/OFF switch, AC power receptacle, Line voltage selector................ 13
Fuse holder ...................................................................................... 13
Front panel dimmer............................................................................ 13
MIDI inputs ...................................................................................... 13
MIDI outputs .................................................................................... 13
Footswitch inputs............................................................................... 13
Pedal inputs...................................................................................... 13
External disk drive connector ............................................................... 13
Editing parameters............................................................................. 15
Front panel data entry ........................................................................ 16
Modulation wheel data entry ................................................................ 16
Keyboard data entry........................................................................... 16
Status entry ..................................................................................... 17
Alphanumeric data entry ..................................................................... 17
Hexadecimal data entry ...................................................................... 18
Using functions .................................................................................. 18
Chapter 3 – Performance Mode Features................................................. 19
Wake-up............................................................................................ 19
Operator Switching ............................................................................ 19
Program Advance Library (PAL) .......................................................... 20
Changing Global Setups ...................................................................... 20
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MIDI Input Processing ....................................................................... 21
Chapter 4 - Global Setup Parameters (Edit Page 1) .................................. 23
Global transpose ................................................................................ 23
Global name ...................................................................................... 23
MIDI output enables .......................................................................... 24
Operator wake-up status .................................................................... 24
Key action thresholds ......................................................................... 25
Memory protect.................................................................................. 25
Operator MIDI transmit channel display .............................................. 26
Operator local mode switching ............................................................ 26
MIDI input routing modes................................................................... 26
MIDI input assignment mode .............................................................. 27
MIDI input filtering ............................................................................ 27
Operator Sustain-Hold option.............................................................. 28
Global MIDI controller enable ............................................................. 28
Chapter 5 - Operator Parameters (Edit Page 2) ....................................... 29
What is an operator? .......................................................................... 29
Selecting an operator ......................................................................... 29
Operator compare mode ..................................................................... 29
Operator name................................................................................... 30
Name Finder ...................................................................................... 30
Operator wake-up options .................................................................. 31
Synthesizer patch select ..................................................................... 31
MIDI control message ........................................................................ 31
User defined wake-up messages ......................................................... 31
MIDI transmit channel........................................................................ 32
Transmitter enables ........................................................................... 33
Keyboard limits.................................................................................. 33
Operator transpose ............................................................................ 34
Keyboard pitch enable ........................................................................ 34
Velocity scale & limits ........................................................................ 34
Velocity window................................................................................. 35
Pressure enables................................................................................ 35
Pressure scale and limits .................................................................... 36
Controller assignment ........................................................................ 36
Pedal polarity .................................................................................... 38
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Pedal routing ..................................................................................... 38
Wheel polarity ................................................................................... 39
Wheel routing .................................................................................... 39
Footswitch polarity ............................................................................ 39
Footswitch routing ............................................................................. 40
MIDI Input processing ....................................................................... 40
Chapter 6 - System Functions (Edit Page 0) ............................................ 41
Page 0 function 0 ............................................................................... 41
Global select function ......................................................................... 41
Momentary edit footswitch feature...................................................... 41
Transmit MIDI Tune command ............................................................ 42
PAL Editing ........................................................................................ 42
PAL looping ....................................................................................... 42
PAL Insert/Delete functions ............................................................... 43
Copying global setups......................................................................... 43
Swapping global setups ...................................................................... 44
Copying a single operator ................................................................... 44
Recall last edited global...................................................................... 44
Front Panel Switch Sensitivity............................................................. 45
Footswitch Polarity ............................................................................ 45
User defined Pressure/Velocity scales ................................................. 46
User Defined MIDI Messages .............................................................. 49
User defined MIDI control message..................................................... 51
MIDI to Disk Request message............................................................ 51
MIDI Transfer of global setups............................................................ 52
GZ-1000 MIDI Inputs ......................................................................... 52
MIDI Input channels and omni mode................................................... 52
MIDI input enables............................................................................. 52
MIDI input program change handling .................................................. 53
MIDI input system exclusive enable .................................................... 53
MIDI utility output enables ................................................................. 53
Disk Functions ................................................................................... 54
Protecting Disk Data........................................................................... 54
Disk Files........................................................................................... 54
Selecting Primary Disk Drive............................................................... 55
Save All (System Save)....................................................................... 55
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Random file name selection ................................................................ 56
Save miscellaneous files ..................................................................... 56
Record Incoming MIDI to Disk (MIDI-to-Disk) ..................................... 57
Load file ............................................................................................ 58
Erase file from disk ............................................................................ 60
Copy File ........................................................................................... 60
Formatting disks ................................................................................ 61
Keyboard lock .................................................................................... 61
Test mode ......................................................................................... 63
Power-up reset to default values......................................................... 64
Global setup request: ......................................................................... 69
Global setup data dump: ..................................................................... 69
8 bit Data Block request:..................................................................... 72
7 bit Data Block dump: ....................................................................... 73
User MIDI message requests:............................................................... 74
User MIDI message dump.................................................................... 74
System ID request:............................................................................ 74
“Press” Front Panel Switch ................................................................... 75
Universal device inquiry message (recognized) ........................................ 75
Universal device inquiry message response ............................................. 75
Appendix 3 - G2-1000 Error messages .................................................... 77
Disk error messages........................................................................... 77
Test mode error messages.................................................................. 78
Other error messages......................................................................... 78
Appendix 5 – Conversion Tables ............................................................. 83
Hexadecimal to Decimal conversion table ............................................ 83
Data Entry Character Codes ................................................................ 84
GZ-1000 Setup Sheets ........................................................................ 85
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GZ-1000 User Manual
Chapter 1 – General Description
The GZ-1000 is a versatile Performance Keyboard designed as a central MIDI
controller for a system of electronic musical instruments. It combines an adjustable
mechanical keyboard action with a powerful microcomputer for state of the art MIDI
control.
Keyboard
The keyboard has 88 wooden keys with weighted hammer action for a piano-like
feel. A single lever adjusts the overall mechanical response of the keyboard to suit
the user. Also, internal adjustments can be made at any KTI service center to
custom tailor the response of individual keys by setting the position of a sliding
weight on each key’s hammer.
The GZ-1000 has an extensive MIDI implementation and the keyboard can generate
Key-On and Key-Release Velocity with adjustable response curves (velocity scales)
and adjustable sensitivity. Global aftertouch (channel pressure) and polyphonic
pressure are also supported.
Performance controls
Performance controls include two modulation wheels on the left side of the keyboard,
which can be used for pitch bending, modulation or any other type of MIDI
continuous controller. One of these wheels has a return-to-center spring and is
normally used for pitch bending. Rear panel inputs are provided for up to four
continuously variable pedal controls and three momentary foot switches all of which
may be assigned to any MIDI controller number.
Control routing
The keyboard and all these controls are routed to eight independent MIDI operators - a unique concept in MIDI control. Each operator has a definable keyboard range,
transpose value, MIDI transmit channel, velocity scale, pressure scale, and controller
assignments. MIDI program changes may be transmitted by each operator at wakeup, along with a choice of 32 user definable MIDI messages. The output of each of
these operators may be directed to any combination of four MIDI transmitters which
in turn drive up to two MIDI outputs each, for a total of eight GZ-1000 MIDI outputs.
The operators may be switched on and off at any time from the front panel. This
allows very flexible control of the system in a performance situation.
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Global Setups
The GZ-1000 has the capacity to hold 100 global setups in memory. A global setup is
a group of setup parameters that defines the way the GZ-1000 will respond to inputs
from the keyboard, wheels and external controls, and how these inputs will control
the MIDI devices connected to it. A global setup consists of eight operators, and
parameters common to all operators. These other parameters include a sixteen
character setup name, a global transpose value, MIDI output enables, key action
thresholds, MIDI input mode, a master controller disable switch, and a sustain-hold
option. Each of the eight operators in a setup can control patch selection, keyboard
range, transpose, controller assignments, and many other parameters.
Disk drive
A floppy disk drive is built into the GZ-1000 for storing global setups and other GZ1000 data as well as synthesizer patches or any other information that can be
transmitted over MIDI in system exclusive format. Convenient 3.5 inch microfloppy
disks are used that can store up to 640k bytes of data - more than 20 groups of 100
global setups may be saved on a single disk.
Displays and Data Entry
Interaction between the user and the GZ-1000 is simplified through the use of an
80 character Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) that provides detailed displays for editing
parameters, and the keyboard itself which is used for data entry and cursor control.
Alternate methods of data entry are the modulation wheel and front panel switches.
Typical setup
A typical GZ-1000 system is depicted on the next page. Four synthesizer modules
are connected to four GZ-1000 MIDI outputs. Control of the four modules can be
divided in many different ways. Each synthesizer could be assigned to a different
range of the keyboard, or all four could play in parallel. With each module assigned
to a different operator, individual sounds can be added or removed while playing
by switching operators on and off.
This setup is just one of a practically infinite number of possible arrangements; the
GZ-1000 can handle just about any setup you can think of.
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Chapter 2 - Description of Controls
Mechanical adjustments
The lever at the right side of the GZ-1000 keyboard is used to set the physical
playing action. The lever is pushed towards the front panel for a light action, pulled
back for a heavier response, or set anywhere in between to suit the user’s
preference. Other internal adjustments that can be made by a qualified service
technician include a sliding weight on each key’s hammer, and variable action rail
pivot point. The combination of all these adjustments provide for a wide range of
keyboard feels.
Front panel controls and displays
The GZ-1000 has 13 pressure sensitive touch switches on its front panel. Switches
are activated by finger pressure in the ‘U’ shaped areas indicated, or in the triangle
areas of the data entry switches. The controls and displays are described here in
order from left to right:
Operator switches
The numbered switches are used to turn operators on or off in Performance mode,
and to select operators in Edit mode. These switches are also used to turn operator
compare mode on and off for any operator which has been edited.
Operator LEDs
There are two LEDs (Light Emitting Diodes) located by each operator switch; the
large rectangular LED is the operator ON/OFF indicator which is lighted when the
corresponding operator is “awake” and active. The triangular LED is the operator
edit/compare indicator. One of the eight edit/compare LEDs will light steadily if Page
2 Edit mode is selected for that operator. The edit/compare LEDs for any operators
that are in compare mode will blink on and off continuously. If more than one
operator is in compare mode, and one of them is also the selected operator in Edit
mode, the selected operator edit/compare LED will flash out of phase with the
others.
Global display
The large two digit numeric display is used to show the number of the currently
selected global setup. This display is also used to display certain types of system
errors. The decimal points in the global display will light when incoming MIDI data is
present at either of the two GZ-1000 MIDI inputs - the left hand decimal point
represents MIDI input number 1 and the right hand point shows MIDI input number
2 activity.
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Write switch, Write LED
The write switch is used to save the data in the current edit buffer to setup memory.
With a few exceptions, the write switch has no effect in page 0 Edit mode, but in
page 1 and in Performance mode, pressing “write” will save the entire edited global
setup including all eight operators. In operator Edit mode (page 2) pressing the
write switch will only save the selected operator edit buffer. In Performance mode, if
the current global setup has not been edited, pressing the write switch will cause the
GZ-1000 to “wake up” again and recall the programmed operator on/off status.
The LED over the write switch will blink momentarily when a global setup or operator
is saved.
Function display
In Performance mode this backlit 80 character LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) is used to
display the name of the selected global setup. Also, when an operator switch is
pressed, the name of the operator is momentarily displayed on the function display.
In Edit mode, the function display presents various parameters for editing and
interactive displays for performing functions. There are two areas of the display
which are used consistently in Edit mode - the current function number is always
shown in the upper left hand corner and the current edit page number (P0, P1 or P2)
is displayed in the upper right hand part of the display. Individual edit functions will
be described in later chapters.
PAL switch, PAL LED
The PAL switch turns the Program Advance Library mode on or off. The PAL is a list
of global setup numbers that can be programmed in any sequence. When PAL mode
is on, the two data entry switches on the front panel become PAL step switches and
will allow stepping through the PAL chain forwards or backwards, and the edit
footswitch becomes a PAL advance switch. When the PAL is advanced, the current
global setup changes immediately to the next setup in the list.
The PAL LED will light when PAL mode is on.
Edit switch, Edit LED
The edit switch is used to turn Edit mode on or off. Pressing the switch once will
turn Edit mode on. Pressing the switch again will turn Edit mode off. The edit switch
is also used during certain Page zero functions to cancel an operation in progress.
The Edit LED lights when Edit mode is selected.
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GZ-1000 User Manual
Page 1 LED, Page 2 LED
The page 1 LED will light when editing on page 1. The page 2 LED will light when
editing on page 2. Both the page 1 and page 2 LEDs will be off in Performance mode
and page 0 Edit mode.
Data entry switches (NO, YES)
These switches are used for incrementing or decrementing data values in Edit mode,
or moving through the PAL chain when PAL mode is on. They are also used to reply
to GZ-1000 inquiries in certain Edit mode functions where a “yes” or “no” response is
required. Pressing the red NO switch will subtract 1 from edit values selected with
the cursor. The green YES switch will add 1 to selected values. When either of these
switches is depressed for longer than one second, it will begin to repeat
automatically, allowing scanning through a range of values quickly.
Rear panel
The following items are located on the rear panel of the GZ-1000:
Power ON/OFF switch, AC power receptacle, Line voltage selector
Select correct operating line voltage - 115 or 230 volts at 50-60Hz.
Fuse holder
If the fuse is blown, replace with the same type to prevent damage to the GZ-1000.
Front panel dimmer
A screwdriver adjustment is provided to set the brightness of the lighting behind the
switches on the front panel. To avoid excessive heat buildup, don’t set the lamp
brightness any higher than necessary.
MIDI inputs
MIDI inputs 1 and 2 can be used for merging MIDI data or for system exclusive data
input.
MIDI outputs
The eight MIDI outputs are programmable as a part of each global setup.
Footswitch inputs
Footswitch inputs 1 - 3 and the edit switch input are designed for either normally
open or normally closed momentary contact switches.
Pedal inputs
The pedal inputs 1-4 are designed for a pedal with a 50K potentiometer, or a control
voltage of 0 to +2.5 volts.
External disk drive connector
This connector is provided for the optional KTI GZ-D disk drive. Do not connect any
other type of device to this port.
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Figure 1 – Keyboard data entry key assignments
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GZ-1000 User Manual
Editing parameters
The GZ-1000 has two basic modes of operation - Performance mode (or play mode)
and Edit mode. The edit switch on the front panel and the edit footswitch are used
to switch between these two modes. When the GZ-1000 is in Edit mode, the
keyboard takes on a new function as a data entry and display cursor control device.
The modulation wheel and front panel data entry switches may also be used for
entering parameters, but with a little practice the user should soon become
comfortable using the keyboard as a swift and convenient input device.
A flashing cursor appears on the function display in Edit mode to indicate the active
data entry field - the parameter which will be affected by the next data entry. The
first character of the selected field is also marked by an underline. The cursor may
be moved from one field to the next by pressing the appropriate cursor control keys
(see figure 1). The cursor home key will always move the cursor back to the
function select field in a single jump.
There are three basic groups of edit functions called pages. The function display
always shows the current page number in the upper right hand corner.
Page zero (P0) contains miscellaneous functions for manipulating and saving global
setups, and defining system level parameters common to all global setups.
Page one (P1) is used to edit global setup parameters (and some operator
parameters).
Page two (P2) is the operator edit page. There are actually eight page twos – one
for each operator. The operator selected in page two edit mode is always shown by
a number on the function display as well as by the operator edit/compare LEDs.
Each page has several functions that are identified by a number - this function
number is always displayed in the upper left corner of the function display. The
current function can be changed by placing the cursor on the function select field and
changing the value.
While in Edit mode, different edit pages can be accessed using the white keys one
octave up from the cursor control keys (see figure 1). When these page access keys
are used, the display jumps directly to the last function that was accessed on the
selected page. The global select key is a special key that will jump directly to Edit
page zero function 0 and place the cursor on the global setup selection field. After
pressing the global select key, pressing the page zero access key will return to the
function display on page zero that was last used prior to jumping to the global select
function. Note - if the global select key is pressed twice in succession, this will not
work.
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When the cursor has been positioned on a parameter field, the value displayed in
that field may be modified using any of three methods; with the data entry switches
on the front panel, the keyboard or the modulation wheel (the wheel that is not
spring loaded).
There are three basic types of data that can be edited; numbers, alphanumeric
characters, and status values that are either on or off.
Front panel data entry
The data entry switches on the front panel are used to increment or decrement
values, or to select on/off status. The “Yes” switch will increment the selected value
by one if it is a number or alphanumeric character, and set status values to “on”. The
“No” switch will decrement numbers and alphanumeric characters and set status
values to “off”.
Modulation wheel data entry
The modulation wheel is used to enter values by turning it until the desired value is
displayed. There are two modes of data entry when using the modulation wheel.
When the parameter being edited has a small range of values (less than 32), the
absolute position of the wheel sets the value. On parameters with a larger range, the
wheel behaves incrementally, adding to or subtracting from the displayed value by
an amount from 1 to 127 corresponding to the amount and direction of wheel
movement. Turning the wheel forward will add to the displayed value, and pulling it
back will subtract from it.
In some cases, it is necessary to enter values greater than 127. One way to do this
is by setting the wheel to its minimum position and then entering a large number
using the keyboard. The wheel can then be turned to add to the value, increasing it
beyond 127 - up to 255 maximum.
Keyboard data entry
Numeric values between 00 and 129 may be entered in one or two keystrokes using
the keyboard in the following manner (see figure 1): White keys starting with the C
one octave below middle C are numbered representing tens digits (B=0, C=10,
D=20, E=30, ... D=90). Pressing any of these ‘tens’ keys will reset the current value
selected by the cursor to a whole number multiple of ten. The white keys beginning
at the C one octave above middle C represent ‘ones’ increments to the selected value
(with a special case where the A above middle C represents a value of negative one).
Pressing any of these ‘ones’ keys will add its value to the currently selected value
highlighted by the cursor. Pressing either of the B ‘zero’ keys (B2 or B4) will reset
the selected numeric value to zero. The A key just below the ‘tens’ zero key
functions as a negative shift key. Any values entered while this key is depressed will
have a negative value.
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GZ-1000 User Manual
Example: To enter a value of 23, press the keys D2 (20) and E4 (+3) in that order.
Notice that each of the ‘ones’ keys will continue to add their respective values each
time they are pressed. This allows another method of entering numbers greater
than 129; just continue pressing one of these keys to reach the desired value.
The keys A4 (-1) and C4 (+1) have the same effect as the two data entry switches
on the front panel.
The mode of data entry may vary slightly depending on the type of data in the field.
Most numeric data entry is straightforward. Some displays fields have numbers that
may be positive or negative. In this case, an additional cursor field is provided to
change the sign of the displayed number without changing the magnitude of the
number itself. The negative shift key may also be used to enter negative numbers while it is being pressed, all other numeric entry will be negative. If the negative
shift key is used when the cursor field is expecting only positive values, either a
value of zero or the maximum will result. Or, if the range of values is 0 to 255, the
result will be (256 - V), where V is the entered value. For example, if entering a
controller number while editing a footswitch assignment; entering a value of 50 while
holding the negative shift key will result in the number 206 = (256 - 50).
Status entry
In cases where the value in the selected field is either ON or OFF, a negative
(decrement) value or a value of zero entered will set the status to OFF. Any positive
increment will set the value to ON. If the cursor field is on the sign of a number that
can be positive or negative, any non-zero entry will toggle the sign between plus and
minus.
Alphanumeric data entry
Alphanumeric data (alphabet symbols, punctuation, numbers, etc.) is entered
numerically also, with numbers representing characters. A table of characters
corresponding to number codes 0 through 95 is included in appendix of this manual.
In most displays where alphanumeric entry is required, a small ‘helper’ display is
also provided at the lower right of the LCD indicating the numeric equivalent of the
selected character. This will help the user to enter characters directly by number as
he becomes familiar with the codes. The modulation wheel also makes it easy to
quickly scroll through the character set.
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Hexadecimal data entry
Entering hexadecimal (hex) numbers for MIDI messages is a little more complicated.
The keyboard is a decimal data entry device, but hexadecimal is a base 16
numbering system. As we all know, the decimal numbering system uses the digits 0,
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9. Hex digits include 0 through 9, and then continue with
letters A, B, C, D, E, and F, representing the values ten through fifteen. For
example, the decimal number 36 (3x10 + 6x1) would be represented by 24 (hex)
(2x16 + 4x1). To enter a hex value of 24 into a MIDI message, use the keyboard to
enter 36 decimal by pressing the 30 key and then the +6 key. The display will show
24. The hex to decimal conversion table in the appendix can be used to make
conversions easier.
Using functions
Many functions require a command from the user in order to begin execution of a
process. Such functions have a “GO” display in the lower right corner of the display.
When viewing a Edit page function, no action will be taken until the cursor is moved
to the <GO> field and a non-zero data entry is made (pressing the YES switch for
instance). Some functions will finish and display a message that include, “PRESS
‘YES’ TO CONTINUE”. Again, any non-zero data entry will restore the proper Edit
page display
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GZ-1000 User Manual
Chapter 3 – Performance Mode Features
As the name implies, Performance mode is used for playing music. In this mode, the
keyboard, wheels, pedals and footswitches will generate MIDI commands as
programmed by the currently selected global setup. In Performance mode all the
switches on the front panel are active: The operator switches will turn operators on
and off, the write switch will save any edits to setup memory and also reset all
operators to their programmed wake-up status. The PAL switch turns PAL mode on
and off and the data entry switches will step through the PAL sequence (the data
entry switches have no effect unless PAL mode is on). And finally, the edit switch
will turn Edit mode on and Performance mode off. If any MIDI notes are still on
when Edit mode is turned on, all those notes will be turned off before going into Edit
mode.
The GZ-1000 will always “wake up” in Performance mode when first powered on
unless it is locked (see the description of Lock mode which appears later in this
manual).
Wake-up
The term wake-up is used to describe what happens to the GZ-1000 when a global
setup is changed, or when switching from Edit mode to Performance mode.
Depending on the way the global setup is programmed, a MIDI program change
command for each operator may be transmitted along with other user defined MIDI
messages. All assigned controllers transmit their current position at this time.
Operator Switching
A very useful feature of the GZ-1000 is the ability to turn operators on and off
without leaving Performance mode. This allows great flexibility and ease of changing
and mixing sounds without stopping to turn volume controls or change MIDI cables.
Whenever an operator is turned off, all of the MIDI notes that originated from within
that operator that are still on will be automatically turned off. Also when changing
globals using the PAL, or when switching from Performance mode to Edit mode, all
operators are turned off to prevent any MIDI notes from getting “stuck” on.
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Program Advance Library (PAL)
The Program Advance Library is a list of 100 global setup numbers programmed in
the GZ-1000. The user may edit this list and set the current PAL position (0-99)
within the list. In Performance mode, when PAL mode is on, the data entry switches
will increment of decrement the current PAL position, changing the global setup as it
steps forward or backward through the PAL list. Also, when PAL mode is on, the edit
footswitch becomes a PAL advance footswitch instead of switching theGZ-1000 into
Edit mode. If the PAL position is advanced repeatedly, it will stop when it reaches
the end (position 99). Any number of special loop markers may be inserted
anywhere in the PAL. When one of these markers is encountered while stepping
forward through the PAL, the PAL position will go back to the beginning of the list
(PAL position 0). When stepping backwards through the PAL, the current position
will stop and go down no further when a marker is found one position below the
current position.
The PAL is useful for live performances where a predetermined set of global setups
are to be used in a certain order – one global setup for each different song in a set,
for example. The player can change globals very quickly without ever going into Edit
mode. Also, having the ability to go backwards through the PAL (using the front
panel switches only), the player is not locked into an unchanging sequence of setups.
Changing Global Setups
The current global setup can be changed in several different ways. The normal
method is to go into Edit mode and change the global number on Page 0 or 1,
function 0. As described earlier, stepping through the PAL will also change the
current global setup. MIDI program change commands transmitted by an external
controller or sequencer and received by the GZ-1000 can also change the current
global if this option is enabled.
In a performance situation, it is sometimes necessary to change setups very quickly.
This can be done easily without lifting hands from the keyboard using a combination
of the edit footswitch and the keyboard for data entry. To do this, before going into
Performance mode, set the cursor on global select (function 0 in either page 0 or
page 1). In these two special cases, the GZ-1000 will go into Edit mode when the
footswitch is pressed down, and then return to Performance mode as soon as the
footswitch is released. While the edit footswitch is depressed, the keyboard is in
data entry mode and can be used to select a new global setup number. Releasing
the edit footswitch then will return the keyboard immediately to Performance mode
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GZ-1000 User Manual
When a setup is changed, by any means, if any edits have been made to the global
setup or any of its operators, the data in the current edit buffer (including any
operators that are in compare mode) will be written into the recall edit buffer. The
recall edit buffer is not modified if the current setup has NOT been edited. This
buffer can be recalled by using a special Page 0 function.
MIDI Input Processing
There are two MIDI inputs on the GZ-1000, input 1 and input 2. In Edit mode, either
input (but not both) may be used for transferring system exclusive data into the GZ1000; for receiving GZ-1000 format system exclusive data, using a Name-Finder to
load a synthesizer patch name, or for saving synthesizer system exclusive patch
dumps to the GZ-1000 disk.
In Performance mode, MIDI data from the two inputs can be merged and routed
through any operators that are not in local mode. The current global setup can
process the MIDI data in several ways. MIDI system exclusive messages are
ignored, and notes, controllers, pressure and sequencer control commands may be
selectively filtered. Program change commands can be handled in three ways – they
can pass through to the operators, change the current global setup number without
passing through, or be ignored completely.
In each non-local operator, note-on and note-off velocities are modified by the
selected operator velocity scale and limits, and keyboard range and velocity window
parameters also apply to incoming MIDI notes. The original channel number of all
incoming MIDI channel messages is stripped off and replaced with the operator
transmit channel if channelize mode is selected.
Two GZ-1000 input assignment modes are available. The first, called mode P, routes
all qualified incoming MIDI messages to all non-local operators. In this case,
“qualified” means that GZ-1000 MIDI input is ON and the input channel number
matches the incoming MIDI message (if omni mode is off). If omni mode is on,
messages on all MIDI channels will be accepted.
The other mode, mode M, also known as ‘guitar controller mode’, routes MIDI
messages on sequential MIDI channels to sequentially numbered operators – each
operator only listening to one MIDI channel. Operators must be in non-local mode to
process incoming MIDI, and the input should be in omni ON mode. Forexample,
messages coming in on MIDI channel 1 can go through operator 1, message on
channel 2 go through operator 2 and so on. If a MIDI input is not set for omni
mode, messages can only be accepted on that inputs MIDI channel and will go
through operator 1 only. In mode M, operator 1 only looks at MIDI messages on the
basic MIDI input channel, operator 2 looks at the basic channel +1, operator 3 looks
at basic channel +2, and so on, wrapping around to operator 1 again for channels
higher that 16.
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Chapter 4 - Global Setup Parameters (Edit Page 1)
The following is a description of parameters that may be defined by the user for each
global setup, and explanations of how these parameters work. Typical edit displays
are included to show the cursor fields for each display. Each possible cursor field is
indicated by bold lettering and an underline below the first character position.
Global transpose
The pitch of all notes played on the keyboard may be transposed up or down in
semitone steps. The global transpose value applies to all operators except those with
keyboard pitch disabled. With both global and operator transpose equal to zero,
middle C on the GZ-1000 keyboard corresponds to MIDI note number 60 (3C hex).
Global transpose range is from -48 to +48.
Global name
Global setups may have a sixteen character name consisting of letters, numbers
and/or other ASCII characters. The global name, along with the global number, is
displayed on the lower line of the LCD in performance mode.
When editing alphanumeric data, a “helper” display appears in the lower right corner
of the LCD, with the numerical equivalent of the selected character, as shown below.
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MIDI output enables
The GZ-1000 has four MIDI transmitters which each drive two MIDI output jacks.
The two jacks connected to any transmitter may be enabled or disabled
independently, but when both are enabled, they will always transmit identical
information.
The MIDI output jacks are enabled at the global level independent of the transmitter
programming which is done at the operator level. Each output jack is labeled with a
letter (A, B, C or D) corresponding to its transmitter and a number, 1 or 2 for the
upper or lower jack. On the MIDI output enable function display, either “ON” or “—”
is displayed beneath each output name to show the output status. Turning off both
outputs for a particular transmitter will disable the transmitter completely, overriding
the operator transmitter enable status for that transmitter.
Operator wake-up status
When a global setup is first selected, it goes through a process called “wake-up”. At
this time, all operators transmit any program change commands and other MIDI
messages that may be programmed. These things will happen even if an operator is
programmed to wake-up in the OFF state. The times when a setup will wake up are;
when the global setup is changed by a received MIDI program change command,
when going from Edit mode to Performance mode, or when the write switch is
pressed while in Performance mode.
Each operator may be programmed to wake up ON or OFF. Not every global program
needs to use all eight operators, so the unused ones may be set to OFF. Operators
that wake-up OFF will not transmit any notes, pressure or controllers, but will
transmit any wake-up program changes or MIDI messages that are programmed.
This is done in order to transmit all setup information for the synthesizers only at
wake-up time, and not while turning operators on and o. individually. Sometimes a
global setup might have different sounds on each operator, but wake up with only
one of them on. The others sounds can then be added at any time in Performance
mode by turning on the other operators, and the synthesizer programs will be ready
to play immediately.
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Key action thresholds
In addition to the mechanical adjustments possible with the GZ-1000 keyboard, each
global setup can be programmed with a different keyboard velocity response and
physical note-on and note-off points. The GZ-1000 calculates velocity based on the
small time period in which a key passes between two programmable key action
threshold levels. These are the note-on and the note-off thresholds and they control
the physical level at which a key causes a note to turn on or off.
The feel of the keyboard can be programmed to be light or heavy depending on
where the note-on threshold is placed. A high number for the note-on threshold will
mean that a key must be pressed far down before the note will turn on. A lower
number will make the keys more sensitive.
Warning:
Do not set the note-on threshold too low, or the keys may start to play by
themselves under their own weight. An exclamation point (!) is displayed next to the
note-on threshold if it is in a range that might be too sensitive.
The difference between the two threshold values affects the keyboard feel also. The
two thresholds can be placed close together to get a “staccato” action, but when the
thresholds are programmed too close to each other, notes will play with nearly
maximum velocity no matter how hard they are played. This happens because the
time it takes for the key to pass through the closely spaced thresholds is extremely
short. By setting the two levels far apart, the dynamic range of velocity response is
improved.
The range of key action threshold values is from 0 to 99. The note-off threshold must
always be lower than the note-on threshold and is automatically limited to be in the
proper range.
Memory protect
Global setups may be protected by turning global memory protect ON. This will
prevent saving any edits, copying, or loading individual globals from disk to the
protected global location. It will not protect against loading all programs from disk,
however. Memory protect also prevents receiving GZ-1000 global setups via MIDI
system exclusive messages.
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Operator MIDI transmit channel display
This function display allows viewing and editing all eight operator MIDI transmit
channels together. If an operator is in compare mode, editing the MIDI channel is
not allowed.
Operator local mode switching
Local mode refers to the source of data that goes through an operator. An operator
with Local mode ON normally processes commands from the GZ-1000 keyboard,
wheels, pedals and footswitches. If Local mode is OFF, all of these local controls are
disabled and the operator then processes MIDI commands received at either or both
of the two GZ-1000 MIDI inputs. Local mode may be enabled individually for each
operator.
MIDI input routing modes
The GZ-1000 has two MIDI inputs. The MIDI commands and information that are
received at these inputs may merged, routed and processed through selected
operators and retransmitted over GZ-1000 outputs. This routing happens in three
stages:
The first stage is the system level (P0), where each MIDI input has its own enable
switch, input channel (basic channel), omni mode switch, program change options,
and system exclusive switch. These are system parameters and are not a part of the
global setup.
The second stage is the global setup level (P1), where operator Local mode, operator
input assignment mode and input filtering determine the destination of received MIDI
data.
The final stage is the operator level (P2), where channelization, and program change
filtering are decided. MIDI data that makes it through all three of these stages can
be transmitted through selected MIDI outputs.
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MIDI input assignment mode
There are two input modes available for assigning MIDI to operators. Both MIDI
inputs may be assigned to either mode. Mode “P” is similar to MIDI Poly mode, in
that information received on all MIDI channels can go to all non-Local operators if
omni mode (a system level parameter) is ON. If omni mode is OFF, MIDI data only
on the basic input channel will go to all non-local operators.
Mode “M” is similar to MIDI Mono mode. Incoming MIDI on the basic input channel
can only go to operator 1, MIDI on the basic channel + 1 only goes to operator 2,
and so on. If the basic channel is greater than 8, channels will “wrap around” and
start at 1 again after number 16. Mode “M” only works this way if omni mode is ON.
If omni mode is OFF, only MIDI commands on the basic input channel will pass
through and will go only through operator 1 and then only if operator 1 is not in
Local mode.
MIDI input filtering
Certain types of MIDI commands may be enabled or disabled at the global level in
order to prevent them from passing through an operator. There are separate enable
function displays for each of the two GZ-1000 MIDI inputs. The types of messages
that can be enabled are: Notes (on and off), Controllers (including pitch bend),
Pressure (poly and channel pressure), and the sequencer commands ‘start’, ‘stop’
and ‘continue’ (FA-FC). There are additional controls for filtering MIDI data at the
system level and at the operator level.
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Operator Sustain-Hold option
This is a special function that applies to global setups that use a footswitch or pedal
assigned to sustain (MIDI controller number 64 - also called damper pedal) in any
operator. When an operator is turned off by pressing its front panel switch, note-off
commands are always transmitted for every note that is still on in that operator.
If the sustain-hold option is OFF, a MIDI sustain-off command is also transmitted,
regardless of the current state of the switch that is assigned to controller 64. This is
intended to shut o. any sustaining notes on synthesizer modules controlled by that
operator.
Sometimes it is useful to let notes deliberately sustain when an operator is switched
off. In this case, the sustain-hold option may be turned ON, thereby suppressing the
transmission of sustain-off commands when an operator is turned off. To finally shut
off any sustaining notes, the operator must be turned back on and the sustain switch
released.
Global MIDI controller enable
When this switch is OFF, all local MIDI controller outputs for all operators are
disabled. This switch allows disabling controllers temporarily without reprogramming
each operator.
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GZ-1000 User Manual
Chapter 5 - Operator Parameters (Edit Page 2)
What is an operator?
A GZ-1000 MIDI operator is one of eight parallel data processing paths that takes
keyboard actions and controller movements and translates them into MIDI
commands that are transmitted over selected MIDI outputs. When an operator is
OFF, this path is inactive and will not generate any output.
The inputs to an operator include the keyboard, wheels and pedal inputs, the
footswitch inputs, and two MIDI inputs. The outputs are MIDI commands that are
routed to any combination of the four MIDI transmitters. A GZ-1000 global setup has
eight operators and all MIDI commands are merged correctly into the selected
transmitters. In Performance mode, operators may be turned on and off at any time
using the front panel switches.
Selecting an operator
There are two ways to select an operator to edit. One way is by selecting edit page 2
function 0, placing the display cursor on the operator number and changing its value.
The simplest way, is to just press one of the operator switches on the front panel
while in Edit mode (any page). This will select page 2 Edit mode for the selected
operator at the function that was previously selected the last time page 2 was
accessed.
Operator compare mode
When any number of operator parameters in the current global setup have been
edited, all the original operator parameters may be recalled to the operator edit
buffer by selecting compare mode. Compare mode will restore the entire operator to
its original condition (before editing), and will transmit the original program change
command if the program change value has been edited. An operator will switch
between compare mode and edited mode when the front panel operator switch is
pressed repeatedly. Compare mode is indicated by a flashing edit/compare LED. As
an operator switch is pressed repeatedly in Performance mode, it will rotate between
off, compare mode and edited mode.
Editing an operator in compare mode is not allowed, and the edit cursor will not
move from the function number field if compare mode is on.
Compare mode can be used to revert to the unedited version of an operator. Just
press the write switch while in operator edit compare mode and the compare version
of the operator will be written back into the edit buffer.
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Operator name
A ten-character operator name can be entered for each operator in a global setup.
This name is included on certain function displays, and is also displayed momentarily
when pressing and holding an operator switch in Performance mode. Operator
names could be the name of a synthesizer, a synth patch name, or anything else
that will fit in ten characters.
Name Finder
It is possible for the GZ-1000 to extract a patch name directly from certain types of
synthesizers to use as an operator name. This is done by requesting a system
exclusive MIDI patch dump and locating the patch name within the resulting received
MIDI data. The GZ-1000 does this automatically on command by using a special
“Name Finder” program. KTI can provide many different Name Finder programs that
are loaded from a GZ-1000 disk. Once a Name Finder has been loaded, it will stay in
memory until another Name Finder or a null file has been loaded.
On the operator program change/name function display, the symbol <NF> will
appear on the bottom line of the LCD if a valid Name Finder is loaded. If there is a
Name Finder in memory, when the cursor is moved between the program change
parameter and the first character of the operator name, the lower display line will
change, displaying the type of Name Finder that is in memory and a <GO> display.
Entering a +1 or YES at this point will start the process by transmitting a system
exclusive patch dump request and then waiting for a response from the synthesizer.
In order to work properly, the synthesizer must have a MIDI cable from its MIDI
output to one of the GZ-1000 MIDI inputs, which must be ON and must have System
Exclusive enabled (Page 0 parameters). If everything is set up correctly, the GZ1000 will receive the patch dump and then locate the patch name within the received
data and copy this name to the selected operator name field. A Name Finder can
only work with synthesizers that have named programs, of course.
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Operator wake-up options
There are three types of MIDI messages that can be transmitted by an operator at
the time the global setup wakes up. These are program select, MIDI control
message, and user wake-up message. All three may be enabled or disabled
independently and the order of their transmission can be changed by placing the
user wake-up message either before or after the other two which are transmitted
program select first.
Synthesizer patch select
Each operator may be programmed to transmit a MIDI program change (patch
select) command during wake-up. Any program number from 0 to 127 may be
selected. Program change can be disabled by selecting a value of -1 for the program
number.
MIDI control message
One long user defined MIDI control message is provided for the purpose of
transmitting commonly used controller messages to reset all controllers to their
standard default values at operator wake-up. This MIDI message, which is defined
at the system (P0) level, may be enabled or disabled for each operator in a global
setup. If enabled, the message will be transmitted immediately after the operator
synth patch select.
User defined wake-up messages
In addition to the MIDI control message, 32 short MIDI messages may be defined at
the system (P0) level. Any one of these messages can be transmitted by each
operator during wake-up, either before or after the synth patch select and MIDI
control message. Up to two parameters may be inserted into a user MIDI message
at the operator level. These parameters, which can range from 0 to127, are labeled
X and Y and correspond to the (X) and (Y) symbols displayed on the user MIDI
message edit function (see Page 0 descriptions).
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After moving the cursor past the Y parameter field, the before/after status will be
displayed on the bottom line and the transmission order of the MIDI messages can
be selected.
Some useful examples of possible user wake-up messages are:
Volume controller change - by using an operator parameter to select a volume level
in a volume controller MIDI message, the initial volume of a synthesizer may be set
at wake-up. However, if there is also a pedal or wheel assigned to volume, its
current position will override any wake-up volume message.
Bank select - some synthesizers or samplers have multiple banks of patches to select
from. By transmitting a special system exclusive bank select message before the
patch select, you can address more than 128 programs.
For more information on defining user MIDI messages, see chapter 6.
MIDI transmit channel
Each GZ-1000 operator has its own MIDI transmit channel number. The transmit
channel can be programmed to any number from 1 to 16 and becomes a part of all
MIDI channel mode messages that are transmitted by the operator.
Notice that there is a distinction between the MIDI channel and the physically
numbered MIDI output jacks on the GZ-1000. The MIDI channel number is part of
the MIDI data itself, while the transmitters and output jacks of the GZ-1000 are the
physical devices that route the data. It is entirely possible to transmit data on eight
different MIDI channels through a single MIDI output jack.
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Transmitter enables
You can select any combination of four MIDI transmitters (A, B, C and D) for each
operator. There are sixteen possible combinations including all OFF (in case the
operator is not being used). Many different operators may use the same transmitter
at the same time. The transmitter outputs are routed to a globally selected
combination of MIDI output jacks. It is important to remember that a single
transmitter can’t send different data out of its two MIDI jacks - it can put identical
data through both jacks, or it can have one jack turned off, while data goes out the
other, or both jacks can be turned off if they are not needed.
If the GZ-1000 is controlling two or more synthesizers through multiple operators it
is a good practice to connect them to separate MIDI transmitters if possible. This is
especially important if MIDI delays are a consideration. When a single output is used
to control two or more synths on different MIDI channels, all simultaneous note-ons
and note-offs must be transmitted serially, introducing a one millisecond delay for
every note-on or note-off message. By using separate transmitters, delays between
MIDI commands can be reduced to a few microseconds (about 100 times less delay).
Keyboard limits
Each operator may be programmed to use only a part of the GZ-1000 keyboard.
An operator will ignore any key pressed above the upper keyboard limit and below
the lower keyboard limit. By setting the keyboard limits properly for each operator,
the keyboard can be split or layered up to eight ways. The key limits are displayed
as key numbers from 1 to 88. Key number 52 corresponds to middle C.
To set the limits, move the cursor one space away from the function number on the
keyboard limit function display. The next two keys that are pressed become the new
lower and upper limits to the keyboard range.
The keyboard limits also apply to any incoming MIDI note-on and note-off commands
in operators where Local mode is off.
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Operator transpose
The pitch of all notes in an operator may be transposed in pitch up or down in semitone steps as much as four octaves. The amount of transpose is shown as a decimal
value from -48 to +48. The operator transpose value is added to the global
transpose value to get the overall operator transpose.
Keyboard pitch enable
When keyboard pitch enable is ON, the keyboard plays notes normally. When
keyboard pitch is OFF, all keys within the operator’s programmed keyboard range
will play the same note value: middle C, plus or minus the operator transpose value
(not including global transpose). This feature can be used to mix a fixed pitch
sound, from a sampler for example, with another sound in order to simulate an
attack transient, or for triggering drum machine sounds with the keyboard.
Velocity scale & limits
Whenever a key on the GZ-1000 keyboard is pressed or released, an instantaneous
velocity value which corresponds to how hard the key was struck or how fast it was
released is generated by the keyboard electronics. This velocity value is a number
between 1 and 127, and each operator may deal with this key velocity in a different
way. Each active operator that recognizes the key will generate a MIDI note-on or
note-off command containing a note number and a velocity value. Transmitting the
velocity value generated by the hardware does not give a very good expressive
response, however. A more natural feel results when the velocity response is
mapped or scaled exponentially. The GZ-1000 has several different types of velocity
scales available including three which may be user defined. Each operator may have
a different scale assigned to modify the velocity coming from the keyboard. To
select a normal velocity scale, choose a scale number from 0 to 7.
An operator may have its selected velocity scale inverted. This allows a note to play
loudly when a key is pressed softly and vice versa. To select an inverted scale,
choose a scale number from 8 to 15.
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GZ-1000 User Manual
A typical use for inverted velocity scales is cross-fading sounds between two different
synthesizers. By inverting the velocity scale of one of two operators covering the
same keyboard range, controlling two different synthesizer sounds, you can crossfade between the two sounds by playing harder or softer. (This is assuming that
velocity is controlling loudness in both sounds).
In addition to selecting one of sixteen velocity scales (eight normal and eight
inverted), upper and lower velocity limits may be set. Normally, the limits are set to
1 and 127, covering the complete velocity range. Setting these limits to any other
values will modify the selected velocity scale, changing the maximum and minimum
output values. For a fixed velocity value on all notes played, set both the upper and
lower limits to the same desired value.
For more information on velocity scales, see chapter 6.
Velocity window
Another operator function concerning key velocity is the velocity window. This is a
range of velocity that can be programmed where only those notes played between
the window limits will be played. The velocity window only applies to key-on events.
(The velocity window limits are tested against scaled velocity).
Pressure enables
In addition to sensing the speed at which keys are pressed and released (velocity),
the GZ-1000 can also sense the continuous pressure on the keys. This pressure is
converted into a numerical value which can be used to control certain parameters on
some synthesizers. When so enabled, the GZ-1000 will continuously transmit
changes in pressure information over MIDI as long as any notes are on.
MIDI has two different methods of transmitting pressure (also known as aftertouch).
The most common way is global aftertouch, or channel pressure. The GZ-1000
generates channel pressure by continuously scanning each ‘on’ key in the keyboard
range of an operator and taking the highest measured pressure value as the channel
pressure for that operator. The other method is known as polyphonic pressure. In
this case each key transmits its own pressure value, which is linked to the key
number. The GZ-1000 can transmit either or both types of pressure as selected on
the pressure enable function display.
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Pressure scale and limits
Like velocity, the pressure response also usually needs to be scaled in order to be
musically useful. The same set of scales that are used for velocity are also available
for scaling pressure. Pressure scales also have programmable upper and lower limits
and may be inverted. Each operator may process pressure with a different scale, but
if polyphonic and channel pressure are both used in one operator, the pressure
scaling and limits are the same for both.
Controller assignment
Each operator allows assignment of the GZ-1000 wheel, pedal and footswitch
controls to any MIDI controller number or to one of a few special GZ-1000 functions.
This allows the possibility of, for example, one foot pedal changing eight different
synthesizer parameters at the same time. The control direction or polarity of each
control can also be programmed at the operator level. The two wheels, four foot
pedals and three footswitches can be assigned through the eight operators
generating as many as 72 different MIDI controller messages in one global setup.
Typical uses for these controls are pitch bend, modulation, volume, sustain, etc.
The MIDI specification allows only controllers numbers 0 through 127. The GZ1000 uses additional “controller assignments” 128 through 255 for assigning pedals,
wheels and switches to other functions that are not standard MIDI controller
messages (such as pitch bend or sequence start, which are separate types of MIDI
messages).
Table 1 shows the controller assignments that are available.
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Table 1 - Standard MIDI controller assignments
Note: Controllers 0 - 31 are MSB (most significant byte) control for listed
assignments, 32 - 63 are LSB (least significant byte) control for the same
assignments (add 32 to MSB controller to get LSB controller). Unlisted controllers in
the range of 0 to 127 are not currently defined by the MIDI specification.
Controller
1
2
4
5
6
7
8
10
11
16 – 19
80 – 83
91
92
93
94
95
98
99
100
101
Standard continuous controller destination
Modulation depth
Breath controller
Foot controller
Portamento time
Data entry
Main volume
Balance
Pan
Expression
General purpose 1 - 4
General purpose 5 - 8
External effects depth
Tremolo depth
Chorus depth
Celeste depth
Phaser depth
Non-registered parameter MSB
Non-registered parameter LSB
Registered parameter MSB
Registered parameter LSB
MIDI hex data
Bc 01 nn
Bc 02 nn
Bc 04 nn
Bc 05 nn
Bc 06 nn
Bc 07 nn
Bc 08 nn
Bc 0A nn
Bc 0B nn
Bc 10-13 nn
Bc 50-53 nn
Bc 5B nn
Bc 5C nn
Bc 5D nn
Bc 5E nn
Bc 5F nn
Bc 62 nn
Bc 63 nn
Bc 64 nn
Bc 65 nn
Controller
64
65
66
67
69
96
97
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
Standard switch controller destination
Damper pedal (sustain)
Portamento
Sostenuto
Soft pedal
Hold 2
Data increment
Data decrement
Reset all controllers
Local control switch
All notes off
Omni mode off / all notes off
Omni mode on / all notes off
Mono mode on / all notes off
Poly mode on / all notes off
Bc
Bc
Bc
Bc
Bc
Bc
Bc
Bc
Bc
Bc
Bc
Bc
Bc
Bc
GZ control
128
129
130
131
132
133
200 – 231
Special GZ controller assignment
Pitch bend -continuous
Sequence start -switch
Sequence continue -switch
Sequence stop -switch
Set MIDI message parameter (X) -cont.
Set MIDI message parameter (Y) -cont.
MIDI message number 0 - 31 -switch
Ec nn nn
FA
FB
FC
none
none
-user defined
GZ-1000 User Manual
40 nn
41 nn
42 nn
43 nn
45 nn
60 nn
61 nn
79 00
7A nn
7B 00
7C 00
7D 00
7E 00
7F 00
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Pedal polarity
The control direction or polarity of each pedal input may be programmed into each
operator. Polarity in this case does not refer to the actual electrical polarity of the
inputs, but to the way the inputs are treated in software. Pedals are normally
assumed to increase their resistance (or voltage) as they are moved forward. In
that case if “+” polarity is selected, the controller value will increase as the pedal is
moved forward. Pedals for the GZ-1000 can be passive types, using a 50k ohm
potentiometer, or a control voltage source with a 0 to +2.5 volt dc output range (the
tip connector of the 1/4 inch input jack is positive and the sleeve connector is
common).
The control direction of pedals may be programmed differently in each operator.
This allows a single pedal controlling volume, for example, to cross-fade between
two synthesizers, increasing the volume of one synthesizer as the pedal moves
forward at the same time it lowers the volume of the other.
Pedal routing
Continuous foot controls (pedals) may be routed to any of the 128 possible MIDI
controller numbers, to MIDI pitch bend, or to (X) or (Y) MIDI message parameters.
To select a standard MIDI controller number, just enter a controller number from 0
to 127. To select pitch bend, enter 128. To select a parameter (X or Y), enter 132 or
133. To de-select a foot pedal, so it will be inactive, enter a value of 255 (or 0
minus 1).
When any controller in any operator is assigned to control a parameter, the current
value of both X and Y will be displayed on the lower right part of the LCD when
Performance mode is active.
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Wheel polarity
The control direction of the wheels at the left of the keyboard may be programmed in
each operator, as with the pedal inputs.
Wheel routing
Wheel routing options are identical to pedal routing options. The standard default
value for wheel 1 is MIDI controller 1 (modulation) and the default for wheel 2 is GZ
control number 128 (MIDI pitch bend). Wheel 2 is the wheel with the return-tocenter action.
Footswitch polarity
Footswitch polarity is set at two different levels. The system level (P0 edit function
9) is used to set the basic switch response for normally-open or normally closed
switches. Footswitch polarity is also programmed in each individual operator.
The operator footswitch polarity function display shows the current status of each
footswitch based on the selected system and operator switch polarities.
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Footswitch routing
Footswitches can be assigned to most of the same controllers as the pedals and
wheels. A switch OFF transition transmits a controller value of 0, and a switch ON
transition produces a value of 127. Controllers 121 and 123 through 127 are
transmitted only after switch-on transitions. GZ-1000 control numbers 129, 130 and
131 can be used to transmit MIDI sequence start, continue and stop commands, and
GZ-1000 control numbers 200 through 231 correspond to GZ-1000 User defined
MIDI messages 0 through 31. These additional switch messages are only
transmitted at switch-on transitions.
If any continuous controllers are assigned to control X or Y parameters, any MIDI
messages assigned to footswitches are transmitted with these parameters set to the
current value for the controller as displayed on the LCD. Any X or Y parameter in a
footswitch controlled MIDI message that has no corresponding pedal or wheel
assigned to it will take on the value defined in the operator wake-up MIDI message
function display.
MIDI Input processing
Two options are available to handle MIDI inputs when an operator is not in Local
mode. The channelize option allows MIDI messages passing through a non-local
operator to keep their original channel number, or be “channelized” and take on the
operator transmit channel. The channelize option has no effect on MIDI commands
originating in local operators.
A program change enable option allows program changes to pass through an
operator if program changes are enabled THRU at the system level. This program
change enable is not related to the wake-up synth patch select.
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Chapter 6 - System Functions (Edit Page 0)
Page 0 function 0
Page 0 function 0 is used to select the current global setup or to switch to a different
edit page. Position the cursor on the page number (P0) in the upper right hand
corner, and enter a value of 1 or 2 to go to another edit page. When the edit page is
changed, control will go to the new page and the last function number previously
used on that page.
Global select function
This function is used to change the current global setup. When the cursor is
positioned on the global number in this display, any data entry will change the
currently selected global setup. Going into Performance mode, the GZ-1000 will
then wake up with the new setup.
If any edits have been made to the current setup without being saved (by pressing
the write switch) and the global setup number is changed, the edited setup will be
saved in the recall edit buffer before the new program wakes up. When this
happens, any setup already in the recall edit buffer will be lost. To recover an edited
setup that is saved in the recall edit bu. er, use Page 0 function 7 (recall last edited
global).
Momentary edit footswitch feature
When the cursor is on the global number select . eld of page 0 function 0 (or Page 1
function 0), the edit footswitch becomes a momentary action switch. On all other
edit functions the edit footswitch operates in parallel with the edit switch on the front
panel (pressing and releasing it once will turn Edit mode ON and pressing and
releasing it a second time will turn Edit mode OFF). But in this special case, the GZ1000 will go into Edit mode when the edit footswitch is depressed and go back to
Performance mode immediately upon releasing the footswitch. This allows fast
program changing using keyboard data entry while stepping on the edit footswitch.
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Transmit MIDI Tune command
This function can be used to transmit the MIDI “tune” command (F6 hex) over all
active GZ-1000 MIDI utility outputs. Place the cursor on <GO> and enter +1 or YES
to transmit.
Synthesizers with analog oscillators tend to drift out of tune and will respond to this
command by going through their auto-tune process to calibrate the oscillators.
PAL Editing
The Program Advance Library (PAL) has 100 memory locations that can each hold
the number of any one of the 100 global setups in GZ-1000 memory, or a special
loop marker that controls PAL step operation. The PAL is used to set up a sequence
of global setups for use in a performance situation.
Editing the PAL and setting the current PAL position can be accomplished using Page
0 function 2. The current PAL position is displayed at the lower left of the LCD along
with the global setup number and name at that PAL location. Editing the PAL
position will set the current PAL position that will be active the next time PAL is
activated in Performance mode. Placing the cursor at the global number field will
allow selecting the global at the current PAL position.
PAL looping
Entering a value of 100 or greater here will place a loop marker in the PAL, setting
the end of a particular segment of the PAL. When a loop marker is displayed, the
PAL position of the beginning of the loop is displayed at the lower right. The
beginning of a loop is either PAL position 0 or the position just after the preceding
loop marker in the PAL.
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PAL Insert/Delete functions
Globals or loop markers may be inserted into or deleted from any given PAL position
without disturbing the order of the rest of the list. On Page 0 function 3, moving the
cursor one space to the right allows selection of the INSERT or DELETE mode by
entering a value of +1 or zero.
In insert mode, the number of the program that is to be inserted is selected, and
then the PAL position where the insertion is to be made is selected. When the
selections have been made, move the cursor to <GO> and enter +1 or YES to
perform the insertion. The <GO> display changes to <OK> after the insertion has
been made. When a new global is inserted at a PAL position, the previous contents
of that location and all following locations are moved up by 1 space too make room
for the new entry. This means that the entry at PAL position 99 will be lost when an
insertion is made.
Delete mode allows editing the contents of PAL locations as well as selecting the
position to delete. The current global value is displayed at the left with the PAL
location and the <GO> display at the right. When the position that is to be deleted
has been selected, the cursor is moved to <GO> and +1 or YES is entered. All PAL
entries following the selected position are then moved down by one (leaving the last
entry at PAL 99 duplicated at PAL position 98).
Copying global setups
Any global setup may be copied to another global setup location. Page 0 function 4
allows selection of the current global and selection of a destination for the copy
command. To copy, move the cursor to <GO> and enter +1 or YES. If the
destination memory is protected, an error message will appear and the global setup
will not be copied.
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Swapping global setups
The current global setup may be exchanged with another global setup location.
Page 0 function 5 is used to select the current global and a secondary global for the
swap command. To swap, move the cursor to <GO> and enter +1 or YES. If either
of the globals are protected, an error message will appear and the setups will not be
exchanged.
Copying a single operator
A single operator in the current global setup may be copied to another operator
position in the same setup, or to any other unprotected setup in memory. The
source and destination operators are selected using normal data entry or by pressing
one of the operator switches on the front panel.
Recall last edited global
This function is used to retrieve the last global setup that was edited without being
saved. When a global setup has been edited in any way, it is automatically written
into a recall edit buffer if the current global is changed before the edited global has
been written into permanent memory. To write the contents of this recall edit buffer
to the current global location, move the cursor to <GO> and enter +1 or YES. This
will erase the global setup at the current location, replacing it with the contents of
the recall edit buffer.
This feature can be useful for creating a new global setup by editing an existing
global without changing the original. This is done in the following manner: Select
the global to be edited and make the desired edits. Don’t press the write switch yet!
Select an unused location to store the new (edited) global. Change the current
global to this new location (the edited version is automatically stored in the recall
edit buffer). Use the “recall last edited global” function to write the program in the
recall edit buffer into the new location.
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Front Panel Switch Sensitivity
The response of the pressure sensitive front panel switches may be set according to
user preference. The range of sensitivity is from 0 to 99 with low numbers being the
most sensitive. The value entered becomes effective immediately.
Note: Due to variations in batches of the pressure sensitive material used in the
switches, in some units the lower sensitivity levels will be so sensitive that switches
may start triggering without even being pressed, causing the keyboard to go crazy.
If this happens and the switch sensitivity cannot be reset to a less sensitive value,
switch the unit off and back on again. If the value still cannot be edited, the powerup reset sequence will have to be used (hold the edit switch while turning the power
on). This will set the sensitivity value to 25 as well as resetting global number 0 and
all system parameters to default values.
Footswitch Polarity
The polarity of the four footswitch inputs (including the edit footswitch) may be
programmed at the system level for normally open or normally closed switch types.
Footswitches used for the GZ-1000 should be of the momentary contact type.
Normally open switches should be programmed for (+) polarity and normally closed
switches should be (-). Footswitches 1 - 3 can additionally be programmed for
polarity at the operator level. The following chart shows the resulting behavior of
different combinations of system and operator polarities.
System Polarity
+
+
-
GZ-1000 User Manual
Operator polarity
+
+
-
Switch Closed:
ON
OFF
OFF
ON
Switch Open:
OFF
ON
ON
OFF
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User defined Pressure/Velocity scales
The GZ-1000 has five different pre-defined velocity/pressure scale curves. There are
also three scales which may be customized by the user. Page 0 function 10 is used
to edit these three custom scales.
But, first a little background on scales. A scale is a “mapping” function with an input
range of 0 to 127 (velocity or pressure generated by the GZ-1000 hardware) and
128 possible output values (from 0 to 127). A simple example is the linear scale
where the output of the function exactly equals the input (OUT = IN).
One of the GZ-1000’s built-in scales (EXPO 1) is an exponential scale which follows
the formula OUT = e (IN/26.2). This type of scale, when used for shaping velocity,
gives a more useable response than a linear scale due to the non-linear nature of the
interaction of fingers and keys.
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Scales used for shaping the pressure response of the GZ-1000 typically will have a
large “dead area” in the lower end of the scale (see "LO LEVEL" scale) where the
pressure stays at zero level until the key is pressed harder than normal, when the
pressure then rises steeply to maximum value at maximum key pressure.
Some synthesizers use internal pressure scaling and don’t need any additional
shaping. In this case the linear scale can be used for the pressure scale.
Custom user designed scales can be minor variations on these types of scales, or can
be wildly different. The only limitation on user defined scales is that the output value
for zero input should also be zero, and the minimum and maximum output values
are 0 and 127.
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Editing scales from the front panel is fairly simple. One of the three user defined
scales is selected by placing the cursor on the scale selection number which may be
1, 2 or 3. The next ten cursor positions are used for editing the name of the selected
scale.
Eight numbers are displayed on the lower line of the LCD representing scale output
values at eight evenly spaced points in the range of 128 possible input values. The
scale output values displayed correspond to the inputs: 15, 31, 47, 63, 79,95, 111,
and 127 (from left to right). The values for these eight points may be edited by
placing the cursor on the appropriate field and entering the new value. When the
cursor is moved to <GO>, and +1 or YES is entered, the process is completed by
interpolating all data points between those displayed in straight lines between the
nine selected points (including the zero point, which is not displayed).
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If <GO> is not executed, the intermediate scale values will not be changed from
their previous values, which may be unknown.
For more precise editing of scales, a computer may be used to generate a scale
graphically or mathematically and then dump the scale into the GZ-1000 via a MIDI
system exclusive message. (See the appendix for GZ-1000 MIDI system exclusive
data formats).
One note about scales used to contour velocity: A MIDI note-on command with a
velocity value of zero is a special case which synthesizers treat as a note-off
command. For this reason, the GZ-1000 will automatically replace any scale output
value of zero with a 1 when the scale is used for velocity.
User Defined MIDI Messages
There are 32 user definable MIDI messages that can be created at the system level.
These messages are used by global setups for transmission at wake-up time, or as
footswitch commands. Each message has a ten character name, and can have up to
14 MIDI data bytes and flag bytes.
Warning: Properly defining MIDI messages requires a thorough understanding of the
MIDI specification and hexadecimal (hex) notation. Hexadecimal notation is used in
displaying MIDI messages on the GZ-1000 because most MIDI documentation uses
hex or binary notation, and it makes identification of MIDI channels within status
bytes as simple as looking at the least significant digit. Hex to decimal conversion
tables and a brief description of the MIDI specification are included in the appendix
of this manual.
The GZ-1000 doesn’t allow transmission of certain MIDI bytes which are reserved for
use as special flags. These special bytes are FF (MIDI System Reset), FE (MIDI
Active Sensing), and FD. All other bytes are OK to use. The only other restriction on
MIDI messages is that the first byte of a message must be a status byte (80H or
greater). The three special flag bytes are used as follows.
FF is entered when a parameter is to be inserted in the message at the operator
level. An entry of FF is displayed as (X) or (Y). If there is more than one parameter
flag in a user defined MIDI message, the (X) and (Y) parameter markers will
alternate.
The first occurrence of FF is always an (X). When the message is transmitted by an
operator, the FF(s) are replaced by values defined within that operator.
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The FE marker is used to indicate the end of a message. This is not the same as a
MIDI system exclusive EOX byte (F7). Entering an FE will blank the edit display to
the right of the last byte in the message and the cursor will go no further to the
right. An end of message marker is not required if the MIDI message uses all 14
available bytes.
The FD byte is used to channelize the following byte (to insert the MIDI transmit
channel of the operator that uses the message). Entering FD will place an arrow on
the display pointing to the right (->). The next byte in the message will then be
displayed with a lower case “c” in the least significant digit position. This indicates
that the low order four bits of this byte will be ignored and replaced with (operator
channel -1).
To edit one of the 32 user defined MIDI messages, select the message number by
placing the display cursor one space to the right of the function number on Page 0
function 11. After the message number the cursor will go through the ten characters
in the message name. The actual message is displayed on the lower line of the LCD.
Only ten bytes are displayed, but as the cursor reaches the right side of the display,
the message display will scroll to the left, revealing the rest of the message as
scrolling continues. The MIDI message bytes are always displayed in hexadecimal,
but must be edited in decimal using the keyboard or the mod wheel to select the
approximate range for the desired value, and using the +1 and -1 keys to set the
value precisely.
Here are a few examples of MIDI messages that can be defined in the GZ-1000:
Controller changes:
(->) Bc 07 7F
Set volume to 7F (maximum volume) - channelized to
operator MIDI transmit channel.
B3 07 7F
Set volume to 7F on MIDI channel 4.
(->) Bc 07 (X)
Set volume on operator MIDI channel to a level to be
determined by the operator parameter.
(->) Ec 00 40
Set pitch bend to center on operator MIDI channel.
B0 07 (X) 01 (Y)
MIDI channel 1; set main volume to value to be set by . rst
operator parameter, set modulation to value set by second
parameter. (Note use of running status to conserve status
bytes.)
C0 01 C6 14
Send program change 1 on MIDI Channel 1, send program
change 14 on MIDI channel 7.
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User defined MIDI control message
A single message used to reset commonly used MIDI controllers to default values
may be defined. This is the message that is transmitted when the MIDI CONTROL
MESSAGE option (Page 2 function 2) is ON. The format of the message follows the
same rules described for the 32 user defined MIDI messages described above, with
the exception that this message can be up to 90 bytes long. A typical MIDI control
message used to reset controller positions might look something like this:
(->) Bc 01 00 07 7F (->) Ec 00 40
This message sets modulation (controller 1) to zero, sets volume (07) to 7F (using
running status), and sets pitch bend to center. Only one message is required for any
number of MIDI channels if the channelize option is used to insert the operator MIDI
channel into all channel status bytes. Parameters should not be included in the MIDI
control message, as they will always be set to zero upon transmission of the
message.
MIDI to Disk Request message
A system exclusive Data Request (DRQ) message may be transmitted when using
the “MIDI to Disk” function (Page 0 function 23). This is a MIDI message similar to
the user defined MIDI messages just described. The DRQ message may be up to 100
bytes long. One other difference between the DRQ message and other GZ-1000 MIDI
messages is in the handling of channelize and parameter bytes. Since there is no
operator and thus no MIDI transmit channel associated with “MIDI to Disk”, when a
channelization byte is encountered in a DRQ message, the lower four bits of the
parameter defined on the MIDI-to-Disk edit page is substituted for any
channelization data field. The same parameter is substituted for any (X) parameters
in the DRQ message. (Y) parameters in a DRQ message are replaced by a value of
zero.
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MIDI Transfer of global setups
Global setups may be transferred over MIDI to another GZ-1000 or to a computer.
These system exclusive transfers or data dumps are initiated from the GZ-1000 front
panel, or by means of a dump request message generated by the computer that will
receive the data. See the appendix for a complete list of the different types of
system exclusive data dumps that the GZ-1000 supports. From the page 0 function
14 display, the user may select any single individual global setup, or ALL. Selecting
ALL will transfer all 100 global setups, the PAL, 32 user MIDI messages, three user
scales, and the MIDI control message. All other types of data dumps may only be
initiated by receipt of a GZ-1000 system exclusive dump request message.
GZ-1000 MIDI Inputs
The GZ-1000 has two MIDI inputs (input 1 and input 2) that may be used in a
variety of different ways. They may be used to accept GZ-1000 system exclusive
data and program changes or for recording incoming MIDI data directly to disk.
They may also be used in Performance mode to accept (and merge) MIDI commands
from an external MIDI controller or sequencer. Such MIDI commands can then be
processed by the operators in the current global setup and retransmitted through the
GZ-1000 MIDI outputs.
MIDI Input channels and omni mode
The basic MIDI channel and omni mode for each input may be selected on Page 0
function 15. When an input is in omni mode (or “omni on” mode) it will accept MIDI
commands on all sixteen MIDI channels. When omni mode is OFF, the input will only
accept channel messages on the GZ-1000 basic MIDI channel.
MIDI input enables
An overriding MIDI input enable is located on edit Page 0 function 16 for each input.
If this option is ON, the specified input will operate normally. If it is OFF, the input
will ignore ALL incoming data.
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MIDI input program change handling
On the system level, incoming MIDI program (patch) select messages can be
handled in one of three ways for each of the two inputs. They can be ignored
entirely (OFF), they can be used to change the current GZ-1000 global setup (ON),
or they can be passed on to any operators that are not in local mode (THRU). The
operator program change enable option on Page 2 function 25 applies in the latter
case. In any given non-local operator if the program change enable is ON, patch
changes coming from a GZ-1000 MIDI input in THRU mode will be retransmitted
through that operator.
MIDI input system exclusive enable
Only one of the two MIDI inputs may have system exclusive enabled at any one
time. An input that has system exclusive enabled must also have its MIDI input
enabled on Page 0 function 16 in order to receive data. System exclusive must be
enabled in order to properly use the Name Finder and MIDI-to-Disk functions, and to
receive GZ-1000 system exclusive data transfers. If neither input is to be used for
receiving system exclusive data, both may be turned off.
MIDI utility output enables
Edit mode functions that send MIDI data use all four MIDI transmitters. Individual
outputs may be selected for these utility functions by enabling only those outputs
needed.
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Disk Functions
The GZ-1000 has the capability of storing several different types of data on 3.5 inch
double-sided microfloppy disks (Maxell MF2-DD, Sony MFD-2DD or equivalent).
Each disk is formatted by the GZ-1000 to hold up to 640K bytes of data. Standard
disks are used but the GZ-1000 has its own special disk format which is not
compatible with disks formatted on other computers.
The disk drive is located on the right side panel of the GZ-1000. A 25 pin connector
for an optional GZ-D external disk drive is located on the rear panel. Insert disks
into the drive with the label side up, metal shutter end first.
Cautions
Floppy disks are very delicate devices. Even though they are protected by a sliding
metal shutter, they can be damaged by exposure to dust, liquid, heat and magnetic
fields. Always treat disks with care and avoid these hazards. Before shutting off
power to the GZ-1000, disks should be ejected from the disk drive mechanism by
pressing the button on the face of the drive. An indicator light on the face of the
drive shows that the disk is in use. Always wait for this light to go out before turning
the power off or ejecting the disk.
Protecting Disk Data
Data on a disk may be protected from accidental erasure or modification by sliding
the write-protect tab into the protect position (the little window is open in the protect
position). Write-protect must be disabled in order to save files on the disk.
Disk Files
When the GZ-1000 saves some data on a disk, it puts it in an area on the disk called
a file. There are several types of files for the different kinds of data that can be
saved by the GZ-1000. Every file on a disk has a file name of up to sixteen
characters. All files of the same type on any particular disk must have unique file
names. Files on the same disk may have identical names only if they are different
file types.
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Selecting Primary Disk Drive
The GZ-1000 may use one or two disk drives for saving and loading data. The basic
GZ-1000 comes with one internal disk drive (Drive A). An optional external disk
drive (Drive B) may also be used. One of these drives must be selected as the
primary disk drive. If there are two disk drives, the other one becomes the
secondary drive.
If you only have the internal disk drive, drive A should always be selected. With two
disk drives, you can switch between them to have more data available without
ejecting disks, and you can also copy files from the primary drive to the secondary
drive.
Edit page 0 function 20 is where the primary disk drive is selected. This function
display also has a utility called GET DISK INFO. Move the cursor to <GO> and enter
+1 or YES. The GZ-1000 will then scan the disk in the selected drive and display the
number of files on the disk and the amount of unused disk space available.
Save All (System Save)
The save all function will save the current GZ-1000 system settings to disk including
all 100 global setups as well as the PAL, all user defined MIDI messages, all user
velocity scales, and the user defined MIDI control message. Moving the cursor one
position away from the function field will select the <GO> cursor field. Moving it
further will select the characters in the disk file name, which may be edited before
saving the file. Once a file name has been selected, move the cursor back to <GO>
and enter +1 or YES. The GZ-1000 will then allocate space on the disk and then
save the file. When finished, a message indicating the result will be displayed. Press
any data entry or cursor key to return to the normal edit display.
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When allocating space for a new disk file, if the GZ-1000 finds a file of the same type
and name as the new file on the disk, a warning message will be displayed. Entering
+1 or YES at this point will erase the existing disk file before attempting to save the
new file. To halt the process and leave the existing file intact, enter (negative 1) or
NO. The cursor will then automatically advance to the first character of the file name
so that it may be changed before saving the file.
Random file name selection
Since it is somewhat time consuming to enter disk file names, a special function has
been included for all functions in which a disk file name can be edited. By entering a
space character (0) for the first character in a file name, a semi-random file name
will automatically be generated in the form “NO NAME XX123” where “XX” is a
random sequence of alphabet characters and “123” is a two or three digit random
number. Since a space in the first character position will erase any existing file
name in the display and replace it with a random one, normal file names cannot have
a space as the first name character. All other combinations of alphanumeric
characters are legal.
Note: When entering a file name for saving a Name Finder or data request message,
a “ * ” (10) entered in the first character position will automatically replace the file
name that is displayed with the name of the Name Finder or the name of the DRQ
message.
Save miscellaneous files
Certain types of system data may be saved in separate disk files. The types of files
supported are: Name Finder, user scales, user MIDI messages, MIDI control
message, and data request message. The first cursor position after the function
number is used to select the file type that will be saved. Use the mod wheel or
incremental data entry to scan the available file types. The next cursor position is
<GO>, followed by the file name data entry fields.
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Record Incoming MIDI to Disk (MIDI-to-Disk)
A special feature of the GZ-1000 is the ability to record MIDI data directly from one
of the two GZ-1000 MIDI inputs directly to a disk file. This is especially useful for
saving synthesizer patches (voices, programs, sounds, etc.) to go with a particular
GZ-1000 global setup. Any synthesizer that can dump and receive patches via a
system exclusive MIDI message can save its patches on a GZ-1000 disk, and they
can be transferred back to the synthesizer later.
In general there are two ways to get a synthesizer to transmit a patch over MIDI.
The first way is by pressing the proper button or sequence of buttons on the
synthesizer’s front panel. The second way is with a specific MIDI system exclusive
data request (DRQ) message transmitted from the GZ-1000 to the synthesizer.
Many synthesizer manufacturers will print their system exclusive dump request
format in the synthesizer owner’s manual. If this is the case, you can use this
information to create a DRQ message (see Page 0 function 13) so you can initiate a
patch dump from the GZ-1000.
To start the MIDI-to-Disk process, you must first do the following things:
1. Check the MIDI cable connections and make sure the correct MIDI input is
enabled, and check the utility MIDI output enables if you are using a DRQ
message.
2. Enter the name of the disk file that will receive the data.
3. Enter the amount of data to be received. If there is enough empty space on
the disk, just enter the maximum size of 255K if you don’t know how many
bytes the patch dump will contain. The file size is automatically corrected to
the actual number of bytes received after the dump is complete.
4. Enter a parameter for DRQ message if required. Sometimes a single patch
number may be inserted into the DRQ message.
5. GO!
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The GZ-1000 will start by scanning the disk directory and allocating space for the
amount of data you indicated. If there is room on the disk, it will then transmit the
DRQ message (if one exists) and display “WAITING FOR MIDI DATA”. At this point
you can press the buttons required to start a patch dump on the synthesizer if not
using a DRQ message.
The lower part of the LCD will display an arrow scanning quickly from left to right.
You should see the arrow slow down or jump around randomly as MIDI data starts to
come in. When the synthesizer is finished sending data, press the EDIT button (on
the GZ-1000) to terminate the operation. If the operation was successful, the disk
directory will be updated and a status message will be displayed including a
hexadecimal number showing the exact number of bytes received.
If no data was received, or if the amount of MIDI data exceeded the allocated space,
an error message will be displayed and the operation will be cancelled without saving
the file. If MIDI data stops coming in and you do not press the EDIT button, the
operation will end automatically after 30 seconds. The long time limit allows the
possibility of dumping several different patches if the synthesizer front panel controls
are used for initiating patch dumps.
Load file
Page 0 function 24 is used for loading all types of disk files. When the cursor is
moved from the function field, the primary disk drive is scanned and the first 64
entries in the directory are loaded into memory. Each file in the directory is assigned
a file number based on its position on the disk. The cursor will be on this file number
on the top line of the display. A particular file is chosen using data entry to change
the file number. The file name and . le type that go with the selected file number
will be displayed on the bottom display line. To load the entire selected file, move
the cursor to <GO> and enter +1 or YES.
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GZ-1000 User Manual
Some file types (GZ SYSTEM, MIDI MESSAGES, USER SCALES) may be loaded
entirely or in sections. The following table lists the possible options:
File type
Load options
SYSTEM
ALL (entire file)
Any global in file to any un-protected global location
PAL
All user scales
All user MIDI messages
MIDI control message
MIDI MESSAGES
ALL
Any message in file to any message location
USER SCALES
ALL
Any scale in file to any user scale location
Move the cursor beyond <GO> and use data entry to select the source and
destination locations for the data. For example, when loading from a MIDI message
file, selecting ‘03 TO 12’ on the top line of the display will load MIDI message
number 3 from disk and place it in memory at MIDI message location 12. User
scales and global setups may similarly be individually loaded into different
destinations from their original source locations.
When loading a MIDI file (a file that was created using the MIDI to Disk function),
the MIDI data will be transmitted over all active MIDI utility outputs as it is read
from the disk. A delay of 20 milliseconds is automatically inserted after each MIDI
EOX (F7) byte in the file. This is required by some synthesizers to allow time to
store individual patches properly without losing any MIDI data.
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Erase file from disk
Files may be erased from a disk to make room for other data. On page 0 function 25,
the file numbers, names and file types are displayed in the same manner as the disk
load function display. After selecting the file to erase, move the cursor to <GO> and
enter +1 or YES. The file will then be erased from the disk.
When a file is erased, it is also erased from the disk directory, and that directory
location becomes free for use the next time a file is saved. When a file is saved, it
always uses the first available directory location. For this reason, the order of files
on a disk is not always the order in which they were saved.
Copy File
When two disk drives are available, a disk file may be copied from one drive to the
other. Select the file name on the primary disk drive to be copied to the secondary
disk drive, move the cursor to <GO> and enter +1 or YES. The two disk drives will
alternately go on and off, switching back and forth as blocks of data are copied. Do
not eject either disk while a copy operation is in progress. To cancel a copy
command, press the EDIT switch on the front panel until the CANCEL message
appears on the display. Transfer time is approximately 1K bytes of data every 2
seconds.
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GZ-1000 User Manual
Formatting disks
Before a blank disk can be used by the GZ-1000, it must be formatted. Formatting
creates empty spaces on the disk and sets up a directory that tells the disk controller
where to put files. Formatting a disk takes about 1 minute and 40 seconds. During
the formatting process, blank sectors are written onto the disk and then read back.
If an error occurs while trying to read a sector, it is marked bad and the formatting
process will continue. At the end of the formatting process, if any errors have
occurred, a message will appear, showing the number of bad sectors. In an
emergency, it may be OK to use a disk with bad sectors, but if there are more than a
few faulty sectors, the disk should be discarded. If a bad sector is found in the area
of the disk used for the directory, an error message will be displayed and formatting
will stop immediately.
Warning! - Formatting a disk with data on it will erase the entire disk!
The verification code is a way to prevent accidental erasure of disks. Just move the
cursor to the verification field and enter an “R” (50). The cursor can then advance to
the <GO> field and the disk can be formatted.
Keyboard lock
A special feature of the GZ-1000 is the ability to “lock” the keyboard to prevent
unauthorized use. When the keyboard lock is turned ON (Page 0 function 28), the
unit will continue to operate normally until the power is turned off. Then the next
time the power is switched on, the GZ-1000 will not go into Performance mode until
the correct six digit code word is entered using standard data entry methods. After
the last correct code letter is entered, the cursor is moved one more time to unlock
the keyboard. Lock mode is then automatically turned OFF when the GZ-1000 goes
into Performance mode.
Warning! - Do not turn the keyboard lock ON unless you know the secret code that
will unlock it again!
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61
If you don’t know or aren’t sure what the secret code word is, DO NOT TURN LOCK
MODE ON! Instead, go to Page 0 function 28 and move the cursor past the ON/OFF
select field. A data entry field will appear. Enter the secret code here, using the
normal methods of alphanumeric data entry.
If you have entered the code correctly, a special edit page will appear that will allow
you to change the secret code word. To change the code, enter the new code word
in the space indicated. Code words can be shorter than six characters, to make
them easier to remember. Just fill any unused spaces with the asterisk character “*”
(character code 10). Any asterisks in the code will match any character that is
entered for that character position. When the new code word has been selected,
write it down someplace safe and then press the write switch. A reminder message
will appear. Press the write switch a second time to return to normal Edit mode.
If you don’t plan to use the lock feature and want to be safe in case lock mode is
turned on accidentally, just set the code to “******”. Then if the GZ-1000 powers
up in lock mode, any cursor movement will immediately unlock it.
Each GZ-1000 is shipped from the factory with the code word set to “SECRET”. The
code will also reset to “SECRET” if the GZ-1000 internal memory is corrupted or if
the backup battery fails. Removing memory chip U124 (inside the GZ-1000)
momentarily will also cause the code to reset, although this should only be
attempted by an authorized service center technician.
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GZ-1000 User Manual
Test mode
Several test functions are included to aid service centers in calibration and testing
the GZ-1000. To enter test mode, move the cursor to <GO> and enter +1 or YES.
Different tests are selected by pressing the appropriate operator switch.
Test 1: Keyboard test. Displays note number, note-on velocity and note-off velocity
of the last key event. If operator 1 of the current global has channel pressure
enabled, peak pressure will be displayed along with a bar graph of the current
pressure value.
Test 2: Pedal and wheel calibration. Each pedal input’s current value is displayed (0
to 127) as are the two wheels. Pitch bend is also displayed on the top line
graphically. Press PAL to un-center the pitch bender (removing the software offset
that was calculated at power-up). Press WRITE to recalculate the pitch bender
center offset.
Test 3: Front panel switch test.
Test 4: LCD test / All LEDs ON. LCD runs through three phases repeatedly, while all
LEDs are turned on. LCD goes through all segments off, all segments on, and
descriptive message.
Test 5: Rotating LEDs. Each LED is turned on, one at a time.
Test 6: RAM test. Memory is tested continuously. Any failures will be displayed on
the bottom line of display.
Test 7: EPROM test. EPROM integrity is tested by comparing calculated checksum
with value stored on EPROM. Result is GOOD or BAD.
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Power-up reset to default values
A special function is available to initialize all system parameters and global setup 0 to
default values. To activate the power-up reset, switch off the GZ-1000 power
switch, press the edit switch on the front panel firmly, and then switch the power
back on. After a moment, the LCD display will read “KEYSCANNER NOT
RESPONDING”. This is normal and the GZ-1000 will go into Performance mode when
the edit switch is released. At this time, global setup 0 will have been erased,
replaced by a simple default setup. Many system parameters will also have been
reset to default values as shown below:
Current global setup = 0
Current edit page = 0
All edit pages: Function number = 0, cursor position = home
Primary disk drive = A
Name Finder = OFF
Both MIDI inputs: ON, OMNI mode ON, input channel 1, program change = OFF
MIDI input 1: System exclusive = ON
All MIDI utility outputs = ON
All footswitch polarity = (+)
Front panel switch sensitivity = 25
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GZ-1000 User Manual
Appendix 1 - What is MIDI?
The initials "MIDI" stand for Musical Instrument Digital Interface. This is a system
originally introduced around 1983 designed to control electronic musical instruments.
Almost all synthesizers built since then are equipped with MIDI.
There are many synthesizers with a built-in keyboard that can both send and receive
MIDI commands. Some MIDI devices like the G2-1000 only transmit MIDI
commands and don't make any sound on their own. Many synthesizers, such as rack
mounted expanders or sound modules, have no keyboard and must rely on MIDI for
control.
MIDI is the system used to connect these various devices together with MIDI cables.
A simple example of a MIDI setup is where the keyboard on one synthesizer is used
to play notes on another. The audio outputs of the two synthesizers can be mixed
together to give a rich, layered sound.
MIDI consists of a physical specification that defines special hardware to transmit
and receive digital commands serially over a simple cable, and a logical definition of
commands which is generally agreed upon by all manufacturers of synthesizers and
other MIDI equipment. The heart of the physical interface is a special integrated
circuit called a Universal Asynchronous Receiver / Transmitter (UART) which is
connected to the microprocessor that controls the other functions of the instrument.
The UART can take eight-bit binary words or bytes from the microprocessor and send
them out over the MIDI cable serially (one bit at a time).
The receiving UART in the instrument on the other end of the MIDI cable then
accepts those bits and reconstructs them into eight-bit words for its own microprocessor to use.
MIDI commands are made up of status and data bytes. Some MIDI commands are a
single status byte, but most consist of a status byte and one or two data bytes.
Status bytes can include a channel number ranging from 1 to 16. This channel
number can be used to specify a single instrument in a system where many devices
are "listening" to the same controller.
MIDI connections are made through five pin MIDI connectors on the instruments,
with special MIDI cables that can be up to about 50 feet in length. MIDI connectors
are usually labeled in one of the three following ways; MIDI out, MIDI in or MIDI thru
(through). MIDI is a unidirectional system, that is, information can only be
transmitted in one direction over a single MIDI cable; a MIDI output may connect to
one and only one MIDI input. In order for a MIDI controller to control more than one
other instrument at a time, MIDI thru connectors are often provided. MIDI thru is a
MIDI output that duplicates the data from a device's MIDI input. So, to control two
or more synthesizers from a keyboard with only one MIDI output, a MIDI cable is run
from MIDI out on the controller to MIDI in on the first synthesizer. Then another
MIDI cable is run from the MIDI thru on the first synthesizer to the MIDI input on the
second synthesizer, and so on.
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65
In theory it is possible to chain together an infinite number of instruments this way,
but in reality with each MIDI thru there is a slight degradation of the MIDI,
Eventually when too many devices are connected together, the last ones in the chain
will start to have errors in the data received, operating erratically, possibly not
playing notes when they should, or having notes get stuck on. It should be practical
to connect about four MIDI devices in series without any problem. Since the G2-1000
has eight MIDI outputs, it is possible to control 32 synthesizers or more, if four are
linked to each output.
All MIDI inputs are electrically isolated from the circuitry in the instrument to
eliminate the chance of hum or noise being induced through ground loops formed
through MIDI connections. The device used to pass a signal while remaining
electrically isolated is called an opto-isolator. The quality of this device is what
determines the amount of signal degradation that takes place in chaining MIDI
devices together. Some manufacturers use better quality (higher speed) optoisolators than others. If a synthesizer uses a high speed opto-isolator, the MIDI thru
signal will be degraded less and allow more devices to be connected in a chain.
A list of MIDI commands and messages is included on page 65. There are some
commands which indicate an event such as turning a note on or off, or changing a
program, or changing a switch type controller. There are also "continuous" control
commands which are usually sent several times a second, or as often as the values
change, to approximate continuous control. Such controllers include pitch bend,
channel aftertouch, and polyphonic pressure which includes a note number along
with each pressure value.
The MIDI specification states that a status byte needs to be transmitted only if the
current status has changed or is unknown. This process of using running status
allows transmitting long groups of controller messages or note-on messages without
sending a status byte for each one. The following is an example of a group of noteons, first with a status byte for each message, and then using running status.
90 3C 7F 90 3D 65 90 36 7F
(normal)
90 3C 7F 3D 65 36 7F
(running status)
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GZ-1000 User Manual
Summary of MIDI commands
Status
(Hex)
8c
9c
Ac
Bc
Bc
Cc
Dc
Ec
F0
F1
F2
F3
F4
F5
F6
F7
F8
F9
FA
FB
FC
FD
FE
FF
Data byte 1
Data byte 2
Description
Note number
Note number
Note number
Controller number
Message number
Program number
Pressure
LSB
?
N
LSB
Song number
?
?
-
Velocity
Velocity
Pressure
Value
N
MSB
Note off
Note on
Polyphonic pressure
Controllers 0 – 120
Channel mode message
Program change
Channel pressure
Pitch bend
System exclusive status
MIDI time code quarter frame
Song position pointer
Song select
Undefined
Undefined
Tune request
EOX (End system exclusive)
Timing clock
Undefined
Sequence start
Sequence continue
Sequence stop
Undefined
Active sensing
System reset
MSB
-
-
Notes: c = MIDI channel – 1
N = defined by message type
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Appendix 2 - G2-1000 MIDI system exclusive format
Notes: Byte descriptions are in hexadecimal, byte counts are in decimal. Binary
numbers are eight digits followed by the letter B. The basic structure of all system
exclusive messages generated by and recognized by the GZ-1000 is as follows:
FO 00 00 24 01 <data> F7
Where:
FO
00 00 24
01
<data>
F7
=
=
=
=
=
system exclusive status byte
KTI Manufacturer ID (three byte code)
GZ-1000 Device ID
any number of data bytes specific to type of message
EOX (End of system exclusive message)
Some data formats use split byte transmission to put eight bit data into two seven
bit MIDI data bytes (bit 7 = 0). The method used by the G2-1000 to split bytes is as
follows; the least significant four bits of the original eight bit data are transmitted
first as one byte with bits 4 - 7 set to zero. The original high order four bits are
shifted right by one bit position and bits 0-2 and bit 7 are zeroed before transmission
of this second byte. In other words, to transmit a byte represented by GHIJKLMN it is
transformed into two bytes - 0000KLMN followed by 0GHIJ000.
For example, to transmit the byte F3 (11110011B), the first byte would be sent as
03 and the second byte would be transmitted as 78 (00000011B followed by
01111000B). When a split byte is received, the first byte is saved, the second byte is
shifted one position left and then OR'ed with the saved byte to reconstruct the
original data.
Using the front panel controls, the GZ-1000 user can initiate data dumps of
individual global setups or a bulk dump including all globals, PAL, user scales, MIDI
control message and user MIDI messages. The other types of dumps can only be
initiated externally using a dump request message.
A complete description of currently implemented system exclusive messages follows.
Global setup request:
FO 00 00 24 01 00 nn F7
Global setup data dump:
FO 00 00 24 01 01 nn <576 split data bytes> <checksum> F7
nn = global setup number
<checksum> = Exclusive OR of device ID through last data byte
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After recombining split data bytes, there are 288 8-bit bytes arranged in the
following way. The first 24 bytes are global parameters:
Byte
Byte
Byte
Byte
Byte
Byte
Byte
Byte
Byte
Byte
Byte
Byte
Byte
Byte
Byte
Byte
Byte
Byte
Byte
Byte
Byte
Byte
Byte
Byte
0=
1=
2=
3=
4=
5=
6=
7=
8=
9=
10 =
11 =
12 =
13 =
14 =
15 =
16 =
17 =
18 =
19 =
20 =
21 =
22 =
23 =
Where:
70
<P01>< Program name ASCII character 1 >
<C01>< Program name ASCII character 2 >
<P02>< Program name ASCII character 3 >
<C02>< Program name ASCII character 4 >
<P03>< Program name ASCII character 5 >
<C03>< Program name ASCII character 6 >
<P04>< Program name ASCII character 7 >
<C04>< Program name ASCII character 8 >
<P05>< Program name ASCII character 9 >
<C05>< Program name ASCII character 10 >
<P06>< Program name ASCII character 11 >
<C06>< Program name ASCII character 12 >
<P07>< Program name ASCII character 13 >
<C07>< Program name ASCII character 14 >
<P08>< Program name ASCII character 15 >
<C08>< Program name ASCII character 16 >
< Global transpose -48 to +48 >
< Key Action Threshold 1 >
< Key Action Threshold 2 >
<WU8> <WU7> <WU6> <WU5> <WU4> <WU3> <WU2> <WU1>
<M4B> <M4A> <M3B> <M3A> <M2B> <M2A> <M1B> <M1A>
<LM8> <LM7> <LM6> <LM5> <LM4> <LM3> <LM2> <LM1>
<F2P> <F2B> <F20 <P2N> <F1P> <F1B> <F1C> <F1N>
<PRO> <SUS> <CTL> <IM2> <IM1> <X><X><X>
<COx> =
<POx> =
<WUx>=
<MxB> =
<MxA> =
<LMx> =
<F2P> =
<F2B> =
<F2C> =
<F2N> =
<F1P> =
<F1B> =
<F1C> =
<F1N> =
<PRO> =
<SUS> =
<CTL> =
<IM2> =
<IM1> =
<X> =
Channel pressure enable for operator x.
Polyphonic pressure enable for operator x.
Wake-up ON status for operator x.
MIDI output enable for output xB.
MIDI output enable for output xA.
Local mode on flag for operator x.
MIDI input 2 pressure disable
MIDI input 2 FA - FC disable
MIDI input 2 controller disable
MIDI input 2 notes disable
MIDI input 1 pressure disable
MIDI input 1 FA - FC disable
MIDI input 1 controller disable
MIDI input 1 notes disable
Global setup protect flag
Sustain-hold option on flag
Controllers on flag
MIDI Input 2 mode (0=P, 1=M)
MIDI Input 1 mode (0=P, 1=M)
unused bit
GZ-1000 User Manual
Next are eight groups of 29 bytes for each of the eight operators, in sequential order
starting with
operator 1:
Byte n + 0 = <UW6> < Operator name ASCII character 1 >
Byte n + 1 = <UW5> < Operator name ASCII character 2 >
Byte n + 2 = <UW4> < Operator name ASCII character 3 >
Byte n + 3 = <UW3> < Operator name ASCII character 4 >
Byte n + 4 = <UW2> < Operator name ASCII character 5 >
Byte n + 5 = <UW1> < Operator name ASCII character 6 >
Byte n + 6 = <UW0> < Operator name ASCII character 7 >
Byte n + 7 = <PRV > < Operator name ASCII character 8 >
Byte n + 8 = <LW6> < Operator name ASCII character 9 >
Byte n + 9 = <LW5> < Operator name ASCII character 10>
Byte n + 10 = <LW4> <F3P> <F2P> <F1P> <UED> <UEC> <UEB> <UEA>
Byte n + 11 = <LW3> < Keyboard range upper limit >
Byte n + 12 = <LW2> < Keyboard range lower limit >
Byte n + 13 = <LW1> <PS2> <PS1> <PSO> <MIDI xmit channel-1 >
Byte n + 14 = <LWO> < Pressure scale upper limit >
Byte n + 15 = <VRS> < Pressure scale lower limit >
Byte n + 16 = <VS2> < Velocity scale upper limit >
Byte n + 17 = <VS1> < Velocity scale lower limit >
Byte n + 18 = <VSO> < Operator pitch transpose >
Byte n + 19 = <PCD> < Wake-up Synth program number >
Byte n + 20 = < Footswitch 1 destination >
Byte n + 21 = < Footswitch 2 destination >
Byte n + 22 = < Footswitch 3 destination >
Byte n + 23 = < Footpedal 1 destination >
Byte n + 24 = < Footpedal 2 destination >
Byte n + 25 = < Footpedal 3 destination >
Byte n + 26 = < Footpedal 4 destination >
Byte n + 27 = < Wheel 1 destination >
Byte n + 28 = < Wheel 2 destination >
Where: n =
<UW6-UWO> =
<PRV> =
<LW6-LW0> =
< PxP > =
<UED> =
<UEC>=
<UEB> =
<UEA> =
<PS2-PS0> =
<VRS> =
<VS2-VS0> =
<PCD> =
24 + (29 * (operator number - 1))
Upper velocity window limit (bit 7 = 0)
Pressure scale reverse flag
Lower velocity window limit (bit 7 = 0)
Polarity of footswitch x.
UART D enable
UART C enable
UART B enable
UART A enable
Pressure scale select (0 - 7)
Velocity scale reverse flag
Velocity scale select (0 - 7)
Wake-up program change disable
And last are 8 groups of 4 bytes of additional operator parameters:
Byte m + 0 = <KPD> < X > <IW1> <IW2> <IP4> <IP3> <IP2> <IP1>
Byte m + 1 = <CHZ> <PCT> <UMD> < User MIDI message number >
Byte m + 2 = < AFT > < User MIDI message parameter 2 >
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71
Byte m + 3 = <MCM> < User MIDI message parameter 1 >
Where: m = 256 + (4 * (operator number - 1))
<X>=
Unused bit
<KPD> =
Keyboard Pitch Disable
<IW1> =
Invert Wheel 1 flag
<IW2> =
Invert Wheel 2 flag
<IP4> =
Invert Pedal 4 flag
<IP3> =
Invert Pedal 3 flag
<IP2>=
Invert Pedal 2 flag
<IP1> =
Invert Pedal 1 flag
<CHZ> =
Channelize incoming MIDI (flag)
<PCT> =
Allow incoming MIDI Program changes through (flag)
<UMD> =
Wake-up User MIDI message disable flag
<AFT> =
Wake-up message transmitted after/(before)
synth program change. (1 = after)
<MCM> =
Transmit MIDI control message after prog. Change
8 bit Data Block request:
FO 00 00 24 01 02 ss F7
8 bit Data Block dump:
FO 00 00 24 01 03 ss <tt split data bytes> <checksum> F7
ss = Block number (see table 1)
tt = number of data bytes (see table 1 for value and multiply by 2)
<checksum> = XOR of device ID through last data byte
Table 1:
Block
number
(hex)
00
Data length
before splitting
Description of data
3 bytes
01
02
03
04
05
06
07
08
09
0A
0B
0C
0D
256 bytes
24 bytes
256 bytes
256 bytes
256 bytes
256 bytes
256 bytes
256 bytes
256 bytes
256 bytes
110 bytes
100 bytes
80 bytes
PAL info: First two bytes are 16 bit PAL position
address (msb first), third byte is PAL mode (0 = off,
1 = on).
Name Finder program
Global parameter edit buffer
Operator 1 edit buffer
Operator 2 edit buffer
Operator 3 edit buffer
Operator 4 edit buffer
Operator 5 edit buffer
Operator 6 edit buffer
Operator 7 edit buffer
Operator 8 edit buffer
System data request MIDI message
System MIDI Control message
Display Flash buffer - non-zero entries correspond to
flashing display positions
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GZ-1000 User Manual
0E
5 bytes
0F
6 bytes
10
24 bytes
11
256 bytes
12
256 bytes
LED buffers:
Operator LEDs
Edit LEDs
Misc. LEDs and switch column enables
7 segment LED msb
7 segment LED lsb
MIDI input parameters:
Input 1 channel/Omni
Input 2 channel/Omni
( bit 7 = omni, bits 0-3 = channel)
Input 1 enable/program change enable
Input 2 enable/program change enable
( bit 7 = on, bits 0-1: 0=off, 1=on, 2=thru )
System Exclusive enable
( 0=off, 1=input 1, 2=input 2 )
Utility MIDI output enables
Disk file information
Erased flag (always 0)
File type (2 - 8)
System type - 3 bytes: always = 1,0,0
File size in bytes (3 bytes)
File Name (16 ASCII bytes)
Software file part 1
Byte 0,1 = Checksum of bytes 2-511 (2 bytes)
Byte 2 = Edit page location (0 - 2)
Byte 3 = Normal program entry point
Byte 5 = Display update entry point
Software file part 2
7 bit Data Block request:
FO 00 00 24 01 04 ss F7
7 bit Data Block dump:
FO 00 00 24 01 05 ss <uu data bytes> <checksum> F7
ss =
uu =
<checksum> =
Table 2:
Block
Data
number length
(hex)
00
100
bytes
01
8 bytes
02
8 bytes
03
8 bytes
04
128
bytes
Block number (see table 2)
number of data bytes (see table 2 for value)
XOR of device ID through last data byte
Description of data
PAL
User
User
User
User
GZ-1000 User Manual
scale
scale
scale
scale
1 name
2 name
3 name
1
73
05
07
08
128
bytes
128
bytes
80 bytes
7 bytes
09
1 byte
0A
1 byte
06
User scale 2
User scale 3
Display buffer
Edit pointers:
page 0 function number
page 0 cursor position
page 1 function number
page 1 cursor position
page 2 function number
page 2 cursor position
page 2 operator number (0 - 7)
New Global program -- any change to this number will cause
the current global setup to change immediately
Display update flag -- non-zero entry will cause LCD refresh.
User MIDI message requests:
F0 00 00 24 01 06 vv F7
vv = User message number desired (0 – 31)
User MIDI message dump
F0 00 00 24 01 07 vv < 48 split data bytes > < checksum > F7
vv = User message number
<checksum> = XOR of device ID through last data byte
After split data bytes are reconstructed into 24 bytes, the first ten are the
message name (ASCII). The next byte greater than 7F is the first byte of the actual
message. A value of FE will mark the end of the message. Bytes after the end are
ignored. Names longer or shorter thatn ten characters may be used, but the editing
page of the GZ-1000 will assume a length of ten. The first byte with a value greater
than 7F is assumed to be the start of the message.
System ID request:
F0 00 00 24 01 09 < 40 data bytes > < checksum > F7
<checksum> = XOR of device ID through last data byte
The 40 data bytes are ASCII in a form similar to the following:
“GZ-1000 FIRMWARE VERSION 1.00 © 1988”
Any unused trailing characters are filled with blanks to make the data count
equal to 40.
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GZ-1000 User Manual
“Press” Front Panel Switch
F0 00 00 24 01 0A <s1> <s2> <s3> F7
Simulate button pushing by remote control: Place a 1 in bit position(s)
indicated to “press” button. All three bytes must be transmitted – unused bits are
set to zero.
Where:
s1 = operator buttons
s2 = operator buttons
s3 = buttons
msb
lsb
0 0 0 0 4 3 2 1
0 8 7 6 5 0 0 0
0 0 0 WR NO YES PAL ED
Universal device inquiry message (recognized)
F0 7E <ch> 06 01 F7
<ch> = “Channel” number – ignored by GZ-1000
Universal device inquiry message response
F0 7E <ch> 06 02 00 00 24 01 00 01 00 <rev id> F7
Where:
<ch> = Channel number – always equal to zero.
<rev id> = 4 byte revision identification message (ASCII)
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GZ-1000 MIDI Implementation Chart
Function…
Transmitted
Basic Channel
1-16
Default Channel
1-16
Mode Default
Messages Altered
Note Number
True Voice
Note ON Velocity
Note OFF Velocity
Aftertouch
Keys Chans.
Pitch Bender
Control Change
Recognized
1-16
1-16
Mode 3
1-4
1-127
X
X
1-127
O
O
O
O
O
0-127
X
X
X
X
X
X
Remarks
Assignments are
held in memory
until changed
Pedals, wheels and
footswitches are
assignable to any
controller
Prog Change
O
O
True #
0-127
0-99
System Exclusive
O
O
System : Song Pos
O
X
Common : Song Sel
O
X
: Tune
O
X
System : Clock
X
X
Real Time : Commands
X
X
Aux : Local ON/OFF
O
X
Mes- : All Notes Off
O
X
sages : Active Sense
X
X
: Reset
X
X
Notes: Channel messages and system messages FA, FB and FC may be re-directed
from either MIDI input to any output.
Mode 1: OMNI ON, POLY
Mode 3: OMNI OFF, POLY
76
Mode 2: OMNI ON, MONO
Mode 3: OMNI OFF, MONO
O : Yes
X : No
GZ-1000 User Manual
Appendix 3 - G2-1000 Error messages
LED display error messages
These messages are displayed on the two digit LED global display.
E1
E2
E3
E4
Hardware error - LCD module not responding.
Hardware error - Keyscanner not responding (normally flashes briefly during powerup).
System exclusive checksum error - Appears momentarily if a GZ-1000 system
exclusive message is received incorrectly.
Battery checkword error - displayed at power up if memory integrity test fails.
Other types of error messages are displayed on the LCD display:
Disk error messages
BAD DATA ON DISK
This message is displayed when a cyclic redundancy check (CRC) error happens while
reading data from the disk.
DISK DRIVE NOT READY
This message is displayed when a disk is ejected from the drive unexpectedly.
DISK IS FULL
The selected file cannot be saved because there is not sufficient space available on the
disk.
DISK IS NOT GZ FORMAT
Disk is unformatted or formatted incorrectly for the GZ-1000.
DISK IS WRITE-PROTECTED
File cannot be saved or disk cannot be formatted because the write protect tab on the
disk is set.
FILE NOT FOUND
Selected file can't be found - disk may have been changed without reloading directory.
FILE OVERLOAD - TOO MUCH DATA
When recording MIDI data directly to disk, file size was exceeded (too much MIDI data
was received). File is not saved.
FILE REQUIRES TOO MANY SEGMENTS
Disk files may be segmented on the disk into as many as 12 sections. It is possible for
a disk to be fragmented from having small files erased at random in such a way that a
large file would require more segments than are allowed.
FORMAT COMPLETE - n BAD SECTORS
A number (n) of bad sectors were encountered during formatting. These sectors will
not be used for saving data, so the disk may still be used.
INTERNAL LOGIC ERROR
Directory entry is in error. If this error happens, try to note the exact circumstances
leading to the error and report to KTI.
GZ-1000 User Manual
77
LOST DATA
Possible wrong sector length on non-GZ-1000 format disk, or processor overload
during MIDI to disk operation.
MIDI INPUT SYSTEM EXCLUSIVE NOT ENABLED
MIDI to disk - at least one MIDI input must be enabled and also have system exclusive
enabled.
MIDI RECEIVE CANCELLED
MIDI to disk - disk error occurred while attempting to write data to disk.
NO DATA RECEIVED
MIDI to disk operation cancelled or timed out without receiving any MIDI Data.
NO DISK IN DRIVE
Disk is not properly inserted in correct drive.
NOT A GZ-DISK !
Disk is formatted and has correct sector size, but the identification field on the disk
failed to match the GZ-1000 test pattern.
ROTATION SPEED
Hardware error - disk drive motor not rotating at correct speed.
RECORD NOT FOUND
Disk sector address could not be found due to bad data on disk.
TOO MANY FILES ON DISK
248 is the maximum number of files that will fit on one disk due to the fixed size of
the directory.
UNABLE TO FORMAT DISK
Disk could not be formatted due to a bad sector in the directory area.
UNABLE TO UPDATE DIRECTORY
Disk error occurred while attempting to update disk directory after writing file.
UNKNOWN FILE TYPE
File has illegal file type - cannot be loaded.
Test mode error messages
EPROM CHECKSUM TEST xxxx BAD
If the EPROM checksum calculated does not match the checksum stored in the EPROM,
the calculated hexadecimal value will be displayed.
ERROR IN
U124 [U125]
During RAM test, any errors will be displayed showing the part number of the memory
chip where the error occurred.
Other error messages
CANCELLED
Operation was cancelled with EDIT switch.
UNABLE TO WRITE GLOBAL - DESTINATION MEMORY IS PROTECTED
Memory protect must be off in order to write, copy to or swap with a global location,
load a single global setup from disk to memory, or accept a MIDI system exclusive
global data dump.
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Appendix 4 - Glossary
Action adjust lever: Lever at the right side of the GZ-1000 keyboard that is used
to adjust the tension on the keys to set the playing action.
Aftertouch: Parameter that varies with pressure on the keyboard.
ASCII: American Standard Code for Information Interchange.
Binary: Base 2 numbering system.
Bit: Binary digit
Buffer: Computer memory location reserved for a specific use.
Byte: Eight bit binary data value.
Channel, basic: MIDI channel that a GZ-1000 input listens to.
Channel, MIDI: number from 1 to 16 that is part of MIDI channel messages specifies the message destination.
Channel pressure: Pressure value taken from the highest pressure on any key
within an operator's keyboard range.
Channel, transmit: MIDI channel used by messages originating in a GZ-1000
operator.
Channelize: Add specified MIDI channel to status byte.
Compare mode: See edit compare mode.
Controller: MIDI messages that change continuous or switch parameters.
Data entry: Process of changing values of numbers, characters or status
parameters.
Data entry switches: Switches on the GZ-1000 front panel used to enter values of
-1 (NO) or +1 (YES). Holding one of these switches for longer than one second will
allow automatic repetition.
Data request message (DRQ): User defined system exclusive message used for
requesting patch dump when using the MIDI to Disk function.
Default settings; Parameter settings that the GZ-1000 will reset to when powered
up while EDIT switch is depressed.
Disk, microfloppy: Magnetic data storage medium in a hard, flat plastic shell. GZ1000 uses double-sided, double density 3.5 inch disks such as Maxell MF 2-DD, Sony
MFD-2DD or equivalent.
Disk drive: The physical mechanism that is used to read from and write to
microfloppy disks. Drive A is built into the right end panel of the GZ-1000. Drive B is
the optional GZ-D external disk drive.
Edit buffer: When a global setup is first selected, a copy of the global is put into a
part of memory called the edit buffer. Any parameter edits are made to the data in
this buffer. When the write switch is pressed, the edit buffer is copied back into the
current global setup location.
Edit compare mode: Allows individual edited operators to be swapped out of the
edit buffer and replaced with their original settings.
Edit mode: This mode must be selected to edit GZ-1000 parameters and access
utility functions. The edit switch or edit footswitch is used to turn Edit mode on and
off.
Edit recall buffer: The edit buffer is copied into a second buffer called the edit
recall buffer when a new global setup is selected (if the edit buffer had been modified
in any way). A function is provided for retrieving the contents of the recall edit
buffer.
File, disk: Section of disk containing a group of data.
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79
Footswitch: Momentary foot control which is either normally ON or normally OFF.
Global: See global setup.
Global setup: Keyboard configuration consisting of eight operators and other
parameter settings. The GZ-1000 can store 100 global setups in its internal memory.
Hexadecimal: Base 16 numbering system used to represent MIDI data.
Interface: Connection between two devices
'K': 1024. (1Kbyte = 1024 bytes)
Key action threshold: Programmable point at which keys turn on or off.
LCD: Liquid Crystal Display - the large 40 character by 2 line display on the front
panel of the G2-1000
LED: Light Emitting Diode
Load (from disk): Copy data on disk into the GZ-1000's memory.
Local mode: Operator mode where MIDI inputs are ignored and local controls
(wheels, foot controls, keyboard) are active.
'M' mode: GZ-1000 input mode where only one channel is routed to each operator.
MIDI: Musical Instrument Digital Interface
MIDI control message: User defined reset message that can be transmitted at
wake-up.
MIDI message: One of 32 user defined messages that can be transmitted at wakeup, or under footswitch control, with up to two parameters defined at the operator
level.
Modulation wheel: Variable control located at the left of the G2-1000 keyboard
Name Finder: Device specific program to extract patch names from a synthesizer
and use for operator name.
Operator: An operator is a set of parameters that act on input information from the
keyboard, footpedals, footswitches, modulation wheels and MIDI inputs to generate
MIDI output commands.
'P' mode: GZ-1000 input mode where only all MIDI channels are routed to each
operator.
PAL: Program Advance Library - List of global setups that can be stepped through.
Page: Group of related edit displays.
Patch select: See program change.
Pedal: Foot controller with continuous response.
Pitch bend wheel: Spring loaded wheel normally assigned to MIDI pitch bend.
Polyphonic pressure: Pressure generated by individual keys - transmitted with
corresponding note number.
Pressure: Downward force on keyboard.
Pressure scale: Function which translates raw keyboard pressure value into
transmitted MIDI pressure.
Program change: MIDI message to change synthesizer patch or program.
Sampler: Musical instrument that generates sound by playing digital sound samples.
Save (to disk): Copy data from the GZ-1000's memory to a disk file.
Sound module: Sound generation device without a built-in keyboard.
Sustain: MIDI switch controller (see also Damper pedal)
Synthesizer: Musical instrument that generates sound by processing various
waveforms through envelopes and filters.
Tone module: See sound module.
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GZ-1000 User Manual
Transmitter (MIDI): On the GZ-1000, a transmitter converts data from parallel to
serial and drives either or both of two MIDI outputs.
Utility outputs: G2-1000 MIDI outputs that are active in Edit mode.
Velocity scale: Function which translates raw keyboard note velocity to transmitted
MIDI velocity.
Velocity window: Upper and lower velocity limits that note-ons must fall between
to be transmitted by an operator.
Wake-up: Process that the GZ-1000 goes through when switching into Performance
mode.
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Appendix 5 – Conversion Tables
Hexadecimal to Decimal conversion table
Hex
00
01
02
03
04
05
06
07
08
09
0A
0B
0C
0D
0E
0F
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
1A
1B
1C
1D
1E
1F
Dec
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
Hex
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
2A
2B
2C
2D
2E
2F
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
3A
3B
3C
3D
3E
3F
Dec
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
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GZ-1000 User Manual
Hex
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
4A
4B
4C
4D
4E
4F
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
5A
5B
5C
5D
5E
5F
Dec
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
Hex
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
6A
6B
6C
6D
6E
6F
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
7A
7B
7C
7D
7E
7F
Dec
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
Hex
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
8A
8B
8C
8D
8E
8F
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
9A
9B
9C
9D
9E
9F
Dec
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
Hex
A0
A1
A2
A3
A4
A5
A6
A7
A8
A9
AA
AB
AC
AD
AE
AF
B0
B1
B2
B3
B4
B5
B6
B7
B8
B9
BA
BB
BC
BD
BE
BF
Dec
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
180
181
182
183
184
185
186
187
188
189
190
191
Hex
C0
C1
C2
C3
C4
C5
C6
C7
C8
C9
CA
CB
CC
CD
CE
CF
D0
D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
D7
D8
D9
DA
DB
DC
DD
DE
DF
Dec
192
193
194
195
196
197
198
199
200
201
202
203
204
205
206
207
208
209
210
211
212
213
214
215
216
217
218
219
220
221
222
223
Hex
E0
E1
E2
E3
E4
E5
E6
E7
E8
E9
EA
EB
EC
ED
EE
EF
F0
F1
F2
F3
F4
F5
F6
F7
F8
F9
FA
FB
FC
FD
FE
FF
83
Dec
224
225
226
227
228
229
230
231
232
233
234
235
236
237
238
239
240
241
242
243
244
245
246
247
248
249
250
251
252
253
254
255
Data Entry Character Codes
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GZ-1000 Setup Sheets
GZ-1000 User Manual
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GZ-1000 User Manual
87
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GZ-1000 User Manual
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GZ-1000 User Manual
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