Napoleonic Battles User Manual

Napoleonic Battles User Manual
Napoleonic Battles
Introduction
Napoleonic Battles is a series of
games that cover the battles and
campaigns associated with
Napoleon. Each game can be
played alone versus the computer, or
against a human opponent using
Play-By-E-Mail and Network Play
(over a Local Area Network or the
Internet). Each game is turn-based
with each side moving and firing in
their designated phase. A series of
battles can be played in turn forming
a complete campaign of the war.
The documentation for Napoleonic Battles is divided up into several parts:
•
The Getting Started Help File covering the basics of play.
•
This User Manual covering the general game.
•
The Main Program Help File covering issues specific to the main game
engine.
•
The Scenario Editor Help File covering issues specific to the scenario
editor.
•
The Campaign Editor Help File covering issues specific to the
campaign editor.
A note on terminology: Throughout the game the words "French" and "Allied"
are used in reference to the two sides in each battle although that is not always
accurate. In many cases, the opposing side to the French consisted of a
single nation, such as the Austrians or Russians, while often the French
themselves were the Allied side based on the nations that were fighting with
them. However, since it is necessary however to have consistent terminology
for the purposes of explanation, the two words French and Allied are the
standard names used in the documentation.
This manual last updated: October 27, 2014
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Napoleonic Battles User Manual
Quick Overview
This section provides a quick
overview to playing the game and the
functions of the main program. For
more information, see the various
sections on the Phases, Menus,
Dialogs, and Other Features found in
the help Contents.
Sides
A Napoleonic Battle is played by two
sides, one French and one Allied. A
battle may be played by one person against the computer, or by two persons
using a variety of modes such as Two-Player Hot Seat, Play-By-E-Mail
(PBEM), or Network Play . See the Modes Menu in the Main Program Help
File for more information on these modes.
Hexes
Each battle is played on a map made up of hexagons (hexes). Each hex
measures 100 meters across. Elevations are given in either feet or meters,
depending on the game in the series being played. Each hex contains terrain
which affects movement and combat in that hex. See the Hex Info Area in the
Main Program Help File for more information on terrain and its effects.
Turns
Each battle is conducted in turns each of which typically represents 15 minutes
of real time, although this may vary by scenario and may be 10 minutes
depending on the game in the series being played. Each player has a number
of units under their control, some of which are on the map at the beginning of
the battle, while others arrive as Reinforcements. See the Units Menu in the
Main Program Help File for more information.
Units
Typically, each unit is a battalion of Infantry, a battalion of Cavalry, or a battery
of Artillery. Each Infantry and Cavalry unit has a strength value in increments
of single men, while each Artillery unit has a strength value in number of guns.
In addition there are specialized units such as Leaders and Supply Wagons.
Infantry and Artillery units are capable of firing on enemy units and each has a
range value indicating the number of hexes that unit may fire. See the Hex
Info Area in the Main Program Help File for more information on these values.
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Napoleonic Battles
Turns vs. Phases
Each battle can be fought in one of two modes. In the default Turn-based
mode, each player moves, fires, and melees using units under his control in his
turn. There are only a few restrictions on this:
• After firing, a unit cannot move for the remainder of the turn, but may
melee in that turn.
• After meleeing, a unit cannot move or fire for the remainder of the turn.
The purpose of these restrictions is to help ensure that the resulting battles are
fought in a manner similar to historical Napoleonic battles and with less
flexibility that would be found in more modern combat. As each player
performs actions in their turn, Defensive Fire is possible by the opposing side
under the control of the computer. In the Phase-based mode, invoked using
the Manual Defensive Fire Optional Rule, each turn is played as described in
the next section.
Phases
Under the Manual Defensive Fire Option, each turn of the battle is divided into
Phases. A Phase will be under the control of one side or the other. A
complete turn is made up of a total of 8 phases. For example, if the French
player is the first player in each turn, the phases will be:
• French Movement Phase
• Allied Defensive Phase
• French Offensive Fire Phase
• French Melee Phase
• Allied Movement Phase
• French Defensive Phase
• Allied Offensive Fire Phase
• Allied Melee Phase
At the beginning of each Phase (under Local Control) the Phase Dialog is
displayed (see the Main Program Help File ). In each phase only certain
actions are possible. Movement is restricted to the Movement Phase and firing
is restricted to the Fire Phases, Defensive and Offensive. The Melee Phase
allows hexes containing enemy units to be assaulted and possibly captured.
See Movement, Defensive Fire, Offensive Fire , Cavalry Charges, and
Meleeing for more information.
Selecting Units
Most actions require that units first be selected. Clicking on a hex on the map
with the left mouse button causes that hex to become the current Hot Spot.
The units in the current Hot Spot are displayed in the Hex Info area (see the
Main Program Help File ). These units may be selected by clicking on their
pictures in the Hex Info Area with the left mouse button. Alternatively, all units
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Napoleonic Battles User Manual
in a hex may be selected by double clicking on the hex with the left mouse
button. Once selected, units may be moved in the Movement Phase by right
clicking on the adjacent hex to move to. Selected units may fire in a Fire
Phase by right clicking on the target hex.
End Of Game
As each player finishes their turn or phase, they advance the battle to the next
turn or phase by using the Next Turn or Next Phase function of the
Turn/Phase Menu (see the Main Program Help File ). This continues until the
time limit specified in the scenario at which point the win, lose, or draw
outcome of the battle is determined. Winning and losing are determined by a
calculation based on the ownership of certain Objective hexes and the relative
losses of the two sides. See the Victory selection of the Info Menu (in the Main
Program Help File ) for more information on victory conditions.
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Napoleonic Battles
Unit Types
This section describes many of the
various unit types that are in the
game. Understanding the various
unit types, their abilities and their
restrictions, is key to successfully
mastering Napoleonic tactics.
Further detail on these unit types
can be found in the succeeding
sections of this manual.
Leaders
Leaders represent individuals that command the various forces. Leaders are
used to improve the effectiveness of the forces under their command and to
support other commanders subordinate to them. In general, the presence of
commanders improves the Morale of units and thus increases their fighting
abilities.
Infantry Units
Infantry units have a strength measured in number of men. They have a
Quality value which affects their effectiveness in combat. In general, they have
a weapon that allows them to fire at enemy units. They can also attack enemy
units in melee attacks.
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Cavalry Units
Cavalry units have a strength measured in number of men. Except for
Dragoons, they are always considered Mounted on their horses and have no
ability to fire at enemy units. However, they are armed with a weapon such as
a sword or lance and can effectively attack enemy units using melee attacks.
Artillery Units
Artillery units have a strength measured in number of guns. They can be
either Limbered or Unlimbered. When Limbered, they can move but cannot
fire. When Unlimbered, they can fire, but not move other than to change their
facing.
Skirmisher Units
Skirmisher units represent detachments of Light infantry from a main Infantry
unit. Skirmishers are often used to shield a main position against an enemy
attack or to hold obstructed terrain.
Squadron/Platoon Units
Squadron and Platoon units represent detachments from a main Cavalry unit.
They can be used for scouting or to block enemy movement.
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Napoleonic Battles
Supply Wagons
Supply Wagons are used to resupply Infantry units that become Low or Out of
Supply. For each unit of strength, they can resupply 10 men. They have no
ability to attack the enemy but they can be captured by the enemy.
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Unit Formations
This section describes the various
formations that units may have. Each
formation has a purpose and
strengths and weaknesses in the
game. Further detail on these
formations and rules that apply to
them can be found in subsequent
sections in this manual. In each
instance below, the icon and
description you see in the Unit
Picture when a unit is in the
corresponding formation is shown.
Line Formation
Line formation can be used by Infantry and Dragoon Cavalry units. It has
increased firepower over other formations and is less vulnerable to enemy fire.
It is a good defensive formation, but is vulnerable to enemy Cavalry charges.
Column Formation
Column formation can be used by Infantry units. It has increased mobility over
other formations, but has less firepower than Line formation. It is a good
offensive formation, but also is vulnerable to enemy Cavalry charges. Column
formation is also the only formation that Supply Wagons can have.
Square Formation
Square formation is used by Infantry to defend against enemy Cavalry
charges. It has very little mobility and reduced firepower. It is mainly a
defensive formation.
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Napoleonic Battles
Mounted Formation
Mounted formation is the standard formation for Cavalry. The formation has
good mobility and can be used to conduct Cavalry charges. Dragoon Cavalry
can dismount by selecting the "Change Column" from the Command menu or
selecting the "Change Line/Column" button from the toolbar. While dismounted
they can only be in Line formation.
Limbered Formation
Limbered formation is used by Artillery units and represents Artillery ready to
be moved. While this is the formation you must use to move Artillery, it cannot
fire in this formation.
Unlimbered Formation
Unlimbered formation is used by Artillery units and represents Artillery ready to
fire. While in this formation, Artillery units cannot move, but may only change
Facing.
Emplaced Formation
Emplaced formation is used by Artillery units and represents Artillery that is
unlimbered and dug into a fixed position. Emplaced units cannot limber but
can change facing.
Skirmish Formation
Skirmish formation is used exclusively by Skirmisher units. In this formation,
Skirmishers can move and fire in any direction.
Shortened Line Formation
Shortened Line formation is the name in this game given to Infantry and
Artillery units in Line formation that have sufficient strength to go into Extended
Line Formation.
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Napoleonic Battles User Manual
Extended Line Formation
Extended Line formation is used by large Infantry or Artillery units to extend
their formation over more than one hex. When a unit is in Extended Line
formation, it will consist of two counters in adjacent hexes.
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Napoleonic Battles
Special Units
In addition to the standard unit types
of Infantry, Artillery, and Cavalry,
there are special unit types that
apply. These special types have
special or restrictive rules that apply
to them that are described in detail in
subsequent sections of this manual.
Light Infantry
While a normal Infantry battalion only had a single company of Light Infantry,
certain Infantry battalions consisted entirely of Light Infantry. These battalions
can deploy entirely into Skirmisher units.
Guard Infantry
Guard units are usually the best units and generally have a higher Quality
rating than other units. Like Light Infantry, a Guard unit can deploy entirely into
Skirmisher units.
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Napoleonic Battles User Manual
Restricted Infantry
Restricted Infantry is the opposite of Light Infantry in that Restricted Infantry
cannot deploy any Skirmishers.
Militia Infantry
Militia Infantry represents untrained units raised from the local populace. They
have restricted abilities such as being unable to deploy Skirmishers or to go
into Square formation.
Heavy Cavalry
Heavy Cavalry units have increased ability in Melees.
Cossacks
Cossacks are a type of Cavalry found in Russian armies. These units have
special rules applied to them in the case of Cavalry Charges .
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Napoleonic Battles
Lancers
Lancers are Cavalry equipped with Lances instead of Swords or other
weapons. They have special rules applied to them in Melees.
Horse Artillery
Horse Artillery refers to Artillery units which have sufficient horses to carry not
only the guns but the crews manning the guns. This is in contrast to Foot
Artillery, the normal Artillery type, where the crews must march on foot when
the unit moves. Horse Artillery units can fire after moving, unlike normal Foot
Artillery.
Pioneer Units
Pioneer units represent units capable of engineering functions. They can be
used to repair bridges (see Movement).
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Dragoons
Dragoons refers to a type of cavalry that can dismount during the battle. They
remain in Line formation while dismounted. Usually they have a Carbine
weapon type which allows them perform fire combat. While mounted they fire
with a diminished capability.
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The Basics
Movement
Movement involves moving units
under the control of the current player
as well as performing certain functions
such as changing facing and some
changes of formation (see the
Command Menu in the Main Program
Help File ). No combat occurs during
the Movement Phase. Each unit is
allocated a certain movement allowance at the beginning of the player turn.
Each unit may use some, all, or none of its movement allowance during that
turn. Unused movement allowance points are not accumulated. Note that
depending on the scenario, certain units may be Fixed which prevents them
from being moved.
How To Move
Units must be selected before they are moved. Once selected, units may be
moved to an adjacent hex by clicking on that hex with the right mouse button.
Alternatively, it is possible to move the selected units to a nonadjacent hex by
clicking the starting hex with the left mouse button, dragging the mouse to the
ending hex while holding the mouse button down, and then releasing the
mouse button. This will cause the computer to calculate a minimum-distance
path from the starting hex to the ending hex and automatically move the
selected units according to that path. Note that not all moves are possible
depending on the terrain and movement allowance of the selected units.
Movement costs vary depending on the terrain being moved into and any
hexsides being crossed. In general it is not possible to cross a Creek hexside
except at a Ford or Bridge.
Formation
Infantry units may move while either in Line, Column, or Square formation
although movement is more efficient in Column. The formation of Infantry,
Artillery, and Dragoon units may be changed using the Change Formation
function of the Command Menu. Artillery units must be Limbered in order to
move. Non-Horse Artillery cannot fire in the same turn that it unlimbers or
changes facing. Non-Dragoon Cavalry and Leaders are always Mounted.
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Napoleonic Battles User Manual
Obstructed Terrain and Hexsides
Any terrain other than Clear, Building, or Field is considered Obstructed.
Likewise, the hexsides Hedge, Stone Wall, Embankment, Stream, Gate, and
Fort are considered Obstructed hexsides. Infantry units in Line formation that
enter Obstructed terrain or cross an Obstructed hexside become Disordered.
Likewise, Cavalry units not using Road Movement that enter Obstructed terrain
or cross an Obstructed hexside become Disordered.
Disordered Movement
When a unit is Disordered, it has a reduced movement allowance. Normally
this will be ½ of the normal movement allowance, but the actual value is
determined by Parameter Data.
Road Movement
Depending on the scenario, there will be roads, paths, and main roads on the
battlefield. These facilitate movement under certain circumstances. In order to
take advantage of Road Movement, the unit moving must be in Column
formation (for Infantry), Limbered (for Artillery), mounted Cavalry, or Leaders.
In addition, no more than one non-Leader unit may move through the hex
containing the road, path, or main road at one time.
Abatis
A hex may contain Abatis. A unit moving into a hex
containing Abatis automatically becomes Disordered
unless it is using Road Movement. In addition, the unit
pays a movement penalty and may suffer a fire modifier
when fired upon depending on the value of the Parameter
Data.
Trenches
Trenches may be placed in a scenario using the Scenario Editor. A unit
moving into a Trench hex from a non-Trench hex automatically becomes
Disordered unless it is using Road Movement. A unit pays a movement cost to
enter a Trench hex, determined by Parameter Data. While in a Trench hex, a
unit receives a fire modifier when fired upon determined by Parameter Data.
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The Basics
Bridges
Normally movement into Water hexes is prohibited.
However, depending on the scenario, Bridges may be
present that allow Water hexes to be crossed. In order to
move onto a Bridge, the unit must be in Column formation
(Limbered for Artillery) and no more than one non-Leader
unit may attempt to enter or leave the Bridge hex at one
time.
For a unit to cross a bridge that has been damaged, the bridge must have a
minimum strength value. This minimum strength value depends on the type of
unit trying to cross according to the following:
•
For leaders and infantry units, the bridge must have a minimum strength
of 50.
•
For cavalry units, the bridge must have a minimum strength of 100.
•
For artillery and supply wagons, the bridge must have a minimum
strength of 150.
Has Boats
It is possible in some scenarios for units to be
flagged as Has Boats. When this occurs, the
movement value of the unit is followed with the
letter B. When a unit has boats, then it can
move into a water hex at a cost of 8 movement
points. Leaders without the Has Boats feature
can still move into water hexes if they move with
units that have boats and do not leave those
units while crossing the water hexes.
Column Movement
It is possible to move several units at a single time using Column Movement.
The units to be moved should all belong to the same organization and should
be lined up in one hex after another, or in the same hex as they would be when
first placed as reinforcements. You should double click on the head of the
column to select all units in that hex. Then either
•
Drag and release while holding down the left mouse button and the Alt
key, or
•
Right click in an adjacent hex, while holding down the Alt key.
This will move the first unit in the column towards the destination hex while
moving each unit in turn along the same path.
Note that Column Movement is applied to units based on their organization
and that the organization is determined by the top unit of those selected. For
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Napoleonic Battles User Manual
example, if the a unit from a particular Brigade is selected at the head of the
column, then Column Movement will move all other units of the Brigade in the
same hex or in hexes leading from that hex. Likewise, if a higher level leader
is the top unit selected, the Column Movement will move all units from the
leader's organization starting from the first hex. In this way it is possible to
easily bring larger organizations on the map as reinforcements and march
them into battle with a small effort.
Night Turns
Units which attempt to move in Line formation during Night turns automatically
become Disordered.
Fixed Units
•
•
Certain units may start a scenario as Fixed.
Fixed units may fire and may change formation,
may not move until they are Released. This can
occur in one of several ways:
• Units that are fired upon, or meleed
against, are automatically Released.
• Depending on the scenario, there may be
Releases of Fixed units built into the scenario which will release the units
at specified times.
Alternatively, there may be Releases in a scenario that are flagged as
causing the specified units to become Fixed.
If a Fixed unit is spotted by an enemy unit that is 9 hexes away or closer,
then it automatically becomes Released.
Skirmishers
Skirmisher units are small detachments you
deploy from larger Infantry units. Skirmisher
units have no facing and can move and fire in
any direction. In general, an Infantry unit can
deploy only a single Skirmisher unit,
representing the Light company of the battalion.
However, units designed as Light, Guard, or
Pioneer can deploy their entire unit into
Skirmisher units.
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The Basics
Skirmisher units can only be deployed or recalled
in the Movement Phase. An Infantry unit must be
designated as Can Deploy (or be a Light or Guard
unit) to be eligible to deploy a Skirmisher unit. To
deploy a Skirmisher unit, select the main Infantry
unit and select the Change Skirmisher/Squadron
command from the Command Menu. Before a
Skirmisher unit can be recalled, it must be stacked
in the same hex as its parent Infantry unit. To recall the Skirmisher unit, select
it and choose the Change Skirmisher/Squadron command from the Command
Menu.
Other restrictions apply to Skirmisher units and their deployment or recall:
• A Disordered or Routed unit cannot deploy or recall Skirmishers.
• Militia units cannot deploy Skirmishers.
• Units which are designated as being Restricted cannot deploy
Skirmishers.
• Non-Light units which are below the strength required to form a
Skirmisher unit with at least 25 men cannot deploy Skirmishers.
Bridge Repair
Pioneer units can be used to repair bridges.
When repairing a bridge, the Pioneer unit is
shown as Repairing. The Repairing state of a
Pioneer unit can be toggled using the Toggle
Bridge Repairing option of the Command Menu.
To perform repair functions, a Pioneer unit
cannot be Disordered or Routed. At the
beginning of each turn, a Pioneer unit restores 1
strength point to the bridge for each 25 men in the unit (A Pioneer unit with
less than 25 men cannot repair a bridge). A Pioneer unit cannot repair a
bridge so that its strength is above 200. A Pioneer unit that is repairing a
bridge cannot recover Fatigue.
To repair a bridge, the Pioneer unit must be facing so that
the Bridge hex is forward of the unit, either to the left or
right as indicated in this graphic. The Bridge hex being
repaired cannot be occupied by the enemy, but can be
occupied by friendly forces.
Threat Values
Any attempt to change formation, by any non-Artillery unit, may fail based on a
certain chance computed at the time the change is attempted. The probability
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Napoleonic Battles User Manual
depends on several factors, one of which is the Threat Value. The Threat
Value is a value determined by the presence of enemy forces. The Threat
Value is the sum of all individual Threat Values determined by enemy forces
within a certain range of the unit attempting the formation change. The Threat
Value exerted by an individual unit is base on the unit type as follows:
• The Threat Value exerted by an Infantry unit of strength S is (2 * S) / 100
at distance of 1 hex and S / 100 at a distance of 2 hexes.
• The Threat Value exerted by an Artillery unit of Strength S is 2 * S at
distances up to 2 hexes and S at distances up to 4 hexes.
• The Threat Value exerted by a Cavalry unit of strength S is (3 * S) / 100
at distances up to 2 hexes, (2 * S) / 100 at distances up to 4 hexes, and
S / 100 at distances up to 6 hexes.
Routed and Disordered units do not exert a Threat Value. Units only exert a
Threat Value in hexes they are Facing.
The total Threat Value on a given hex can be found by right-clicking in the Hex
Info Area. The Threat Value is the second value in the center of the Terrain
box (the first being the total stacking value in the hex). In the example
displayed here, the Threat Value in the current hex is 6.
When a non-Artillery unit attempts to change formation, then the Threat Value
in its hex is used to determine whether the change succeeds. If the change
fails, then the unit becomes Disordered, or if the unit is already Disordered, the
unit becomes Routed. Given a unit with Morale Value of M and a Threat Value
in its hex of T, then the probability that a formation change will succeed is
given by:
20 * M / (20 * M + T)
When this probability is not 100%, then its value is displayed in the Unit Box
area when you right click on the Unit Picture. In this example, the unit has a
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The Basics
probability of a successful formation change under the current conditions of
94%. See the section on Morale for a discussion of Morale Values.
Zone-of-Control
The two facing hexes in front of a unit as shown in the
illustration are called its Zone-of-Control. However, Leaders,
Skirmishers, Routed units, Limbered Artillery, Uncrewed
Artillery, and Supply Wagons do not have a Zone-of-Control.
When a unit enters the Zone-of-Control of an enemy unit, it
cannot move anymore in that Movement Phase or Turn.
Under normal rules, a unit cannot retreat through an enemy Zone-of-Control.
Optional Line Movement Restriction
This is an Optional Rule that causes infantry units that move in Line or Square
formation to have a chance of becoming Disordered. The base probability for
this is determined by the Line Movement Disorder Parameter Data value for
the nation of the unit moving. This probability is modified by the following:
• If the unit is Quality A, then 10% is subtracted from the probability.
• If the unit is Quality B, then 5% is subtracted from the probability.
• If the unit is Quality D, then 10% is added to the probability.
• If the unit is Quality E, then 20% is added to the probability.
• If the unit is Quality F, then 30% is added to the probability.
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Cavalry Charges
Cavalry Charges are an effective way to
advance your cavalry prior to attacking with them
in melee. There are several restrictions on the
use of Cavalry Charges and the proper use of
Cavalry in this way depends on several factors.
See the section on Tactics to understand better
how to use this ability to best effect.
How To Conduct A Cavalry Charge
If you choose to charge with your Cavalry, then start by selecting the Cavalry
and any Leaders you wish to include in the charge. Using the Change to
Charging option of the Command Menu or the corresponding button in the
Toolbar . After that, move the units as you would normally, but within the
restrictions given below. Your goal is to bring the units adjacent to an enemy
position so that you have the ability to Melee against this position.
The following rules apply to the Cavalry Charge Phase.
• Only un-Disordered and un-Routed Mounted Cavalry units, and Leaders
in the same hex as such Cavalry, can perform a Cavalry Charge.
• Charging Cavalry and accompanying Leaders can move up to their full
movement allowance during a Cavalry Charge.
• Charging units must move in the direction of their facing and no changes
of facing are allowed during a Cavalry Charge.
• Units which cannot otherwise move, such as Fixed units, cannot charge.
• Cavalry which becomes Disordered during their movement can continue
charging.
• During a charge, Cavalry can possibly overrun enemy Skirmishers in
Clear and Field hexes (see details below). They can also overrun enemy
Leaders and Supply Wagons in hexes by themselves.
• At the end of the player’s turn, Cavalry units which moved using the
Cavalry Charge are automatically Disordered.
• Under the right conditions, Cavalry units which perform a charge are
given triple strength value, by defeault, when melee attacking in the
same turn (see Meleeing for details).
Cavalry Overruns
During a charge, Cavalry can possibly overrun Clear and Field hexes
containing only enemy Skirmishers or uncrewed Artillery. When this is
attempted, there is a chance that the enemy units will be eliminated. When the
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The Basics
attempt fails, the Cavalry units are prevented from further movement in that
turn (although they can melee attack in the same turn).
Cavalry will overrun defending Skirmishers whenever their strength is equal to
or greater than the strength of the Skirmishers.
An overrun cannot occur if there is an Obstructed hexside between the Cavalry
and the Skirmishers (see the Movement Phase for a discussion of Obstructed
terrain).
Enemy leaders in hexes by themselves are automatically overrun and
considered captured.
Enemy Supply Wagons by themselves are automatically overrun. They
become captured but lose half their strength.
Uncrewed Artillery
Unlimbered Artillery by itself is automatically
overrun and becomes Uncrewed. In this state,
the crew of the Artillery unit is considered to
have taken shelter, either under their guns or
with friendly forces. While the Artillery unit is
Uncrewed, it cannot be moved or fired. If at
some later time, Infantry on the same side as the
Artillery unit return to this hex, then the crew is
considered to have returned to their guns and the Artillery unit can be used
again.
Note that charging Cavalry has two options when encountering unlimbered
enemy Artillery by itself. It can choose to overrun the unit, thus rendering it
Uncrewed, or it can choose to stop and melee attack the Artillery unit in the
same turn. If it wins this melee, then the enemy Artillery unit is eliminated.
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Defensive Fire
Defensive Fire occurs either during
the Defensive Fire Phase or when
using Turns, under the control of the
computer. This fire gives the player a
chance to fire on the enemy before
being fired upon and being engaged in
melee. It therefore represents the
ability of the defender to have "first
fire". No movement is possible during a Fire phase. Defensive Fire is subject
to the normal restrictions of firing including facing. However, it is possible for
units with Low Ammo to fire Defensive Fire (see the Design Notes for why this
true in the Defensive Fire Phase and not the Offensive Fire Phase).
How To Fire
To fire on the enemy, first Select the firing units. As a convenience, you may
include Leaders in this selection although they have no effect on fire. Then
you right-click on the target hex while holding down the Ctrl (Control) key.
Alternatively, you may switch to Fire Mode by using a toolbar button, in which
case you simply right-click on the target hex. If there is more than one
possible target in the target hex, you will be prompted with the Target Dialog to
select your target.
Firing effectiveness depends on the Weapon Type of the firing unit, the range
from the firing unit to the target hex, the Fatigue of the firing unit, and the
Quality of the firing unit.
Facing Restrictions
A unit must be facing the target unit before it can
fire. A unit faces one of 6 hex vertices
represented by the facings "Up-Right", "Right",
"Down-Right", "Down-Left", "Left", and "Up-Left".
For each facing there are two frontal hexsides
which are adjacent to the hex vertex. The target
unit must be within the area determined by these
two hexsides. For example, for a unit facing
Right, the unshaded region in this picture
indicates those hexes the unit is facing.
Infantry in Square formation and Skirmisher units
can fire in any direction.
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The Basics
Formation Restrictions
Normally any unit in a hex can fire. However, based on the stacking order
within the hex, Infantry in Line formation can prevent the fire of units stacked
with it. When a unit occurs after a Line Infantry unit in a hex (that is, displayed
below or to the right of the Line Infantry unit in the Hex Info Area ), then it
cannot fire.
Range and Line of Sight Limitations
A target unit must be within range before it can be fired upon. If you right click
on a unit's picture in the Unit List display, it will show you the range of that unit.
In addition, unless the firing unit is capable of Indirect Fire (see below), the
target unit must be within the Line of Sight of the firing unit. The Visible
Hexes option of the Display menu can be used to determine the hexes that are
visible from the current Hot Spot.
Indirect Fire
When you right click on a unit in the HexInfo
Area, you may see the notation (I) following the
unit’s range. This indicates that the unit is
capable of Indirect Fire. A unit capable of
indirect fire can fire on any hex within its range
that it is facing regardless of line-of-sight
limitations. However, when an attempt is made
to fire on a hex using Indirect Fire, the target hex
may scatter as much as 2 hexes away from the intended location.
Firing Modifiers
The following modifiers are applied to the firing unit.
• A unit has 20% is added to its fire value if it has a Quality of A or higher,
and 20% is subtracted from its fire value if it has a Quality of E or lower.
• Disordered units fire at half effectiveness.
• Infantry in Square formation fires at 25% effectiveness.
•
Fire from Infantry in Column formation and mounted Dragoons is scaled
by the Column Fire Modifier Parameter Data value for that nationality.
• 2-Rank Infantry units in normal Line or Extended Line formation fire at
150% increased effectiveness.
• 2-Rank Infantry units in Shortened Line Formation fire at 75%
effectiveness.
• 3-Rank Infantry units in Shortened Line Formation fire at 75%
effectiveness.
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Napoleonic Battles User Manual
•
•
•
Skirmisher units fire at 75% effectiveness.
Artillery fire values are based on the number of guns times 50 in addition
to the normal fire value modifiers.
Fatigue modifiers apply as described in the section on Fatigue.
Target Fire Modifiers
The following modifiers are applied to the target of ranged fire.
•
Target units which have not moved during their turn get a defensive
benefit from certain hexsides. The actual benefit is determined by
Parameter Data and can be found by using the Parameter Data option of
the Help menu .
• Target units may get a defensive benefit from the terrain of the hex they
are in. The benefit is shown in the Terrain Info box of the Unit List.
However, only Skirmisher units get a defensive benefit from Building or
Rough terrain.
• The target unit receives a defensive benefit when it is at a higher
elevation than the firing unit. This benefit is normal for a single elevation
change and is doubled for any elevation change of 2 increments or more.
The actual value of this benefit can be found in the Parameter Data .
• An unit in Line formation that is fired upon by a firing unit that it is not
facing, is subject to an Enfilade fire modifier. The value of this modifier is
in the Parameter Data.
• Fire values against Supply Wagons are doubled.
• Artillery fire against Infantry in Column or Square formation is increased
by 50%. Infantry fire against Infantry in Column or Square formation is
increased by 25%.
• Fire against a Cavalry unit may be modified by the Cavalry Fire Modifer
Parameter Data value. The modifier is applied normally to fire at ranges
of 6 hexes or less. At ranges of 7 to 12 hexes, half of the modifier is
applied. The modifier is not applied at ranges of 13 hexes or more.
• Fire against Limbered Artillery is increased 50%.
• When the target unit is a Skirmisher unit and the total stacking in the hex
does not exceed 1/8 maximum stacking, then the fire value is 25% of
normal.
•
When the stacking in the target hex exceeds 1200 men or equivalent and
the Target Density Modifier Optional Rule is in effect, then the fire value
is modified by X/1200 where X represents the stacking value in the target
hex.
Skirmisher Modifier
Normally units in one hex block Line of Sight and thus it is not possible to fire
through one hex of units to reach another behind it. However, when a hex only
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The Basics
contains Skirmishers (or Leaders) then it is possible to fire through that hex
and hit another hex of units behind it. When this is done, 20% is subtracted
from the fire value representing the reduced visibility caused by the
Skirmishers and their fire.
Note that depending on the terrain elevations, it may be possible to fire over
other units regardless of whether they are Skirmishers or other units. This
occurs when the intermediate units are at a lower elevation than the Line of
Sight between the firing and target units. In this case, no modifier applies.
Fire Casualties
Fire casualties are calculated using the standard Combat Results based on the
effective fire value of the firing unit with a Low Combat Value of 4 and a High
Combat Value of 20.
Fire results against an artillery target are calculated using the Artillery Fire
Parameter Data value. This value is used to convert the nominal fire result in
terms of men into a fire result in terms of gun. For example, given an Artillery
Fire value of 50, if the fire result against a battery is 5 men, then 10% of the
time, this will be converted into a loss of 1 gun and 90% of the time, it will be
converted into a loss of 0 guns.
Example: Suppose an Infantry Unit of 340 men equipped with Muskets fires at
an enemy infantry unit 1 hex away. The standard range effectiveness of a
Musket at range 1 is 6. Thus the standard fire value for the unit would be 2040
(=340 x 6). The low end combat result would be 8.16 (= 4 * 2040 / 1000) and
the high end combat result would be 40.8 (= 20 * 2040 / 1000). The actual
combat result would be randomly determined between these two extremes.
Randomly based on the fractional part of the actual combat result, the combat
result is truncated up or down. This if the actual combat result was calculated
to be 23.4, then this would determine a combat loss of 23 men 60% of the time
and a loss of 24 men 40% of the time.
Pass Through Fire
Normally fire against a stack of units in a hex only affects a single target unit.
However, when Infantry in Line formation is fired upon by Artillery, all such
units in the target hex are affected by the fire. This represents the ability of
artillery fire to penetrate several lines of infantry. When the Column Pass
Through Fire Optional Rule is in effect, this rule also applies to Infantry in
Column formation.
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Napoleonic Battles User Manual
Bridge Damage
A Bridge that is not occupied can be fired upon by Artillery
and meleed against by Infantry and Cavalry. The purpose
of this is to provide a means for destroying bridges in the
game. The combat results from melees are only applied
to the Bridge and not the attacking forces. When the
strength of the Bridge is reduced below certain values,
then the Bridge cannot be crossed. See the section on
Movement for more information about crossing bridges
and bridge repair.
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The Basics
Offensive Fire
The purpose of the Offensive Fire is
to allow units to fire after movement.
All fire modifiers and restrictions
described in the section on Defensive
Fire apply to the Offensive Fire as
well.
Offensive Fire Modifiers and Effects
• Units which fire after movement do so at half effectiveness.
• Units which are Low On Ammo cannot fire using Offensive Fire.
Units which do not fire using Offensive Fire, receive a 20% bonus to the melee
strength if they attack in the same turn (see the Design Notes for an
explanation).
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Napoleonic Battles User Manual
Meleeing
After possible movement and firing,
the controlling player may initiate
melee attacks against enemy units in
adjacent hexes. In order for a unit to
be committed to a melee attack, they
must be facing the defending hex.
How To Melee
You commit your units to a Melee by attempting to move them into a hex
containing enemy units. You can take units from multiple locations and add
them to the same melee as long as they are all adjacent to the defending hex.
Once you have added all of your attacking units, you resolve the Melee using
the Resolve Melee command of the Melee Menu, or the corresponding toolbar
button.
Certain restrictions apply to units that are committed to a Melee attack. Fixed
and Routed units cannot Melee attack. Units must be Facing the hex they are
attacking. Infantry units cannot Melee attack mounted Cavalry, except in
Obstructed terrain. Artillery and Supply Wagons cannot Melee attack. A unit
cannot Melee attack a hex they could not legally move into (it is not possible to
Melee attack across a Creek hexside for example). Except for Cavalry, units
may only Melee attack once in each Melee Phase or Turn. The total number
and strength of the attacking units may not exceed the stacking limitations of
the defending hex.
Melee Modifiers
Melees are calculated using total number of men of the attacking side and the
total number of men of the defending. Modifiers may be applied to the
calculation of the defending men.
• Each defending Artillery gun has a melee strength per gun given by the
Artillery Melee value in the Parameter Data.
• Routed and Isolated units have their defending strength divided by 2.
However, units which are Routed and Isolated defend with a strength of
0.
• Supply Wagons defend against melee with a strength of 0.
Modifiers are applied to the melee strengths.
• If no attacking units have fired in that player’s turn, then 20% is added to
the attacking strength.
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The Basics
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
If there are defending units that have not fired in the current turn, but the
units are able to fire on the attacking units, then 20% is subtracted from
the attacking strength.
If the attacking units have a Leader with them, then 20% is added to the
attacking strength.
If the defending units have a Leader with them, then 20% is added to the
defending strength.
If the defending units are attacked (by a non-Leader) from a hexside they
are not facing, then 40% is added to the attacking strength.
The largest hexside modifier of all of the hexsides the attackers are
attacking through is applied to the attacking strength.
Melee attacks against higher elevations have a modifier equal to the
elevation change (in elevation increments) times the Elevation Modifier
(see the Parameter Dialog for this value).
Fatigue modifiers apply as described in the section on Fatigue.
If the unit of lowest Quality on a given side has Quality of A or more, then
that side receives a 20% bonus. If the unit of highest Quality on a given
side has Quality of E or less, then that side receives a 20% penalty.
When the defending units are in a Chateau hex, the attacking strength is
reduced by 50%.
Any attacking unit which is Disordered has its attacking strength reduced
to 1/3 of normal.
Any defending units which is Disordered has its defending strength
reduced to 2/3 of normal.
Non-British infantry units attacking in column get a 25% bonus to their
attacking strength.
When units are carrying weapons that have no bayonets, as indicated in
the Parameter Dialog for that weapon, then their melee strength is
reduced to 1/3 of normal.
Cavalry Charge Rules
Certain melees are considered to be Cavalry Charges. When this occurs, the
attacking strength of eligible Cavalry is increased by a factor which is by
default 3. The specific factor used is determined by Parameter Data. For a
Cavalry Charge to occur, the following rules must hold:
• The attacking Cavalry units must have moved using the Cavalry Charge
procedure.
• The melee attack must not be into Obstructed terrain or across
Obstructed hexsides.
• The defending units must not consist entirely of Infantry in Square
formation with Leaders and/or Cavalry. However, if only Skirmishers,
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Napoleonic Battles User Manual
•
•
Artillery, and Supply Wagons occupy the defending hex with Infantry in
Square, then the charge is negated.
The defending units must not consist entirely of Skirmishers and Leaders
in a Building hex.
In the case of Cossack Cavalry units, the defending units must contain at
least one Skirmisher unit, Routed unit, or Artillery unit.
Special Cavalry Rules
The following rules apply just to Cavalry engaged in melees. These rules are
in addition to the Cavalry Charge Rules.
• Cavalry cannot melee attack into Chateau hexes.
• When Cavalry equipped with Lances defends in melee, their strength is
reduced by 25%.
• When Dragoons attack, their strength is increased by 10%.
• When Heavy Cavalry or Cavalry equipped with Lances melee attacks,
their strength is increased by 25%.
Cavalry Melee Continuation
When Charging Cavalry units win a Melee, they have the
opportunity to continue moving and meleeing for a total of 3
additional hexes, by default. The maximum number of times
that Charging Cavalry can melee is determined by Parameter
Data. During this time they can move into empty hexes that
they are facing and they can melee additional enemy units,
including those that have already participated in a melee that
turn. Units that have received this bonus have the words "Can Continue"
shown in their unit box.
Melee Resolution
The final resolution of the melee is done using the standard Combat Results.
The adjusted defending strength is used to calculate attacker casualties using
a Low Combat Value of 40 and a High Combat Value of 160. The adjusted
attacking strength is used to calculate defender casualties using a Low
Combat Value of 20 and a High Combat Value of 100.
The default melee resolution is that the loser is the side with the greater
calculated casualties (defenders win ties). Note: these calculated casualties
may be different from the casualties reported to the player. This difference is
based on how the calculated casualties are apportioned to the units involved in
the melee. In general, the actual losses that the player sees as a result of the
melee will be related to the casualties calculated internal to the main program,
32
The Basics
but will not be exactly the same. So in some cases the player will see a
defender retreat when the attacker takes higher actual losses.
The retreat determination is then modified by several factors:
• Cavalry that is charging infantry in squares can only win the melee if they
do not suffer casualties.
• Defenders in a Chateaux hex are not subject to retreating from a melee.
• If the defenders in a melee do not lose the melee, then they cannot suffer
more casualties than the calculated number of attacking losses. This
rule is necessary because the calculated number of attacking losses can
exceed the strength of the attacking force.
• If the attacking force is eliminated by the melee, it cannot win the melee.
• Unless the Optional "No Retreat Overruns" rule is selected, then the
defenders are allowed to retreat into a hex containing only enemy
leaders, skirmishers, and/or supply wagons if that is the only hex
available for retreat. When this happens, the enemy units in that hex are
eliminated. The Optional "No Retreat Overruns" rule prevents enemy
skirmishers from being overrun, but allows overruns of enemy leaders
and supply wagons.
Melee fatigue losses are 50% more than normal and, in the case of the melee
loser, fatigue losses are double. The melee defender is subject to normal
Morale Checks based on their losses and must automatically take a Morale
Check at the end of the Phase or Turn if they lose the melee.
Example: Suppose an infantry unit of 450 men melee attacks an enemy
infantry unit of 230 men. Two combat results are determined. The attackers
would determine a low end casualty value of 9 (= 20 * 450 / 1000) and a high
end casualty value of 45 (= 100 * 450 / 1000). The casualty loss of the
defenders would be randomly determined between these two extremes.
Likewise, the defenders would determine a low end casualty value of 9.2 (= 40
* 230 / 1000) and a high end casualty value of 36.8 (= 160 * 230 / 1000). The
casualty loss of the attackers would be randomly determined between these
two extremes.
Special Skirmisher Resolution
When Skirmishers are defending in melee against non-Skirmisher attackers,
they take losses which are 1/5 of the normal value, but always retreat. If their
attackers also consist of Skirmishers, then the attackers take 1/5 normal
losses, but the retreat resolution is calculated normally. These special
Skirmisher rules only apply when there is no more than 1/8 of the maximum
stacking limit in the defending hex, or respectively in the total number of
attackers.
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Napoleonic Battles User Manual
Bridge Damage
A Bridge that is not occupied can be fired upon by Artillery
and meleed against by Infantry and Cavalry. The purpose
of this is to provide a means for destroying bridges in the
game. The combat results from melees are only applied
to the Bridge and not the attacking forces. When the
strength of the Bridge is reduced to 0, then the Bridge
cannot be crossed.
To melee a Bridge hex, first select it, then pull down the Melee menu
and select Begin Melee. Then select the attacking units and pull
down the Melee menu and select Add to Melee. Resolve the melee using
the normal procedure - either via the Melee menu or the Resolve Melee
button on the toolbar.
It is possible to repair Bridges in the game using Pioneers (see the Movement
section under Bridge Repair).
34
Main Features
Command
Command refers to the influence
leaders have over the state of the
forces under their command. Good
use of Command will result in units
being better able to move and fight,
while Command failures will result in
reduced capabilities.
Each Leader is assigned a default
Command Rating ranging from A
(best) to F (worst). This rating can be
affected in a positive way by the
Leader’s commander (if he has one) provided the Leader is not Detached. At
the beginning of each player’s Movement Phase, a Command Test is
performed for all leaders currently on the map. The Command Test begins
with the highest commanding leaders on the map and proceeds downward
through the command hierarchy. Each Leader’s Command rating is translated
into a number by converting A to 6, B to 5, and so on down to F to 1. This
number if compared to a random die roll from 1 to 6. If the Leader’s number is
greater than or equal to the die roll, the Leader has passed the Command Test
for that turn. A Leader that has failed his Command Test will have his
Command rating displayed in Yellow in the Hex Info Area (see the Main
Program Help File ). A Leader which passes his Command Test will pass a +1
Command Bonus modifier down to the Command ratings of his subordinate
commanders (except to Detached Brigade Leaders). If a Leader receives a
Command Bonus from his superior and passes his Command Test, his
Command rating will be recorded as the higher number for that turn. For
example, a Division leader with a nominal Command rating of C which
receives a +1 Command Bonus from his superior and passes his Command
Test, will have a Command rating for that turn of B. In addition, a Leader
which passes his Command Test will pass a Command Bonus down to his
subordinates which is one more than the Command Bonus he received. A
Leader which fails his Command Test passes no Command Bonus to his
subordinates regardless of any Command Bonus he had received.
Here is an example. Suppose the command hierarchy at a battle consisted of
• Army commander: Napoleon. Command Rating of A (=6).
• Corps commander: Marshal Oudinot. Command Rating of C (=4).
• Division commander: Tharreau. Command Rating of D (=3).
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Napoleonic Battles User Manual
• Brigade commander: Conroux. Command Rating of E (=2).
The Command Test begins with Napoleon whose number for the Command
Test is 6. Thus under normal circumstances, Napoleon passes his Command
Test this turn. Napoleon passes a Command Bonus of 1 to Oudinot which
gives Oudinot a number of 5 (= 4 + 1) for his Command Test. Suppose that
the die roll is 4 and thus Oudinot passes his Command Test giving him a
Command Rating of B for this turn. Oudinot passes a Command Bonus of 2 to
Tharreau which gives Tharreau a number of 5 for this turn. If the die roll is 5 or
less, then Tharreau will pass his Command Test this turn and will pass a
Command Bonus of 3 to Conroux which gives Conroux a number of 5 (= 2 + 3)
for his Command Test. Suppose that the die roll is 6 and thus Conroux fails
his Command Test and keeps his nominal Command Rating of E for this turn.
Recovery From Disorder
After all Leaders have been through the Command Test, they are used to
determine if Disordered units become un-Disordered that turn. A Detached
unit is given a value of 1 for the Test for Disorder Recovery. A nonDetached unit whose Leader has passed his Command Test is given a value
of 1 plus the current numerical Command Rating of his commander. A nonDetached unit whose Leader has failed his Command Test is given a value of
1. If a random die roll is less than or equal to this value, then the unit
becomes un-Disordered.
Skirmisher Rule
In addition to the normal test, Disordered Skirmisher units of non-Light, nonGuard units are only eligible to recover from Disorder if they are within 5 hexes
of their parent unit.
Night Turns
During Night turns, all Leaders and units have a Command value one less than
normal. Thus, a Leader with a Command Rating of A would have a numerical
rating of 5 during Night turns and a Detached unit would have a value of 0 in
the Test for Disorder Recovery (and thus be unable to become un-Disordered).
36
Main Features
Morale
Morale refers to the mental state of
the fighting units and the effect
leaders have on restoring that state in
the forces under their command.
Units with good Morale and with
inspiring leaders will fight better than
units with low Morale or uninspiring
leaders. Often a smaller force can
overwhelm a larger one if it has
superior Morale.
Each unit is assigned a Quality value
ranging from A+++ (best) to F (worst). This Quality value is the basis for
determining the unit’s current Morale. Each Leader is assigned a Leadership
value ranging from A (best) to F (worst). This Leadership value determines the
extent the leader will be able to affect the Morale of the units under his
command.
When a unit suffers casualties due to combat, it may be subject to a Morale
Check. This determination is based on a random number R from 0 to 1, the
number of casualties taken L, and the strength of the unit S. A base strength B
is calculated as
B = S / 10
If the base strength is less than 25, it is made equal to 25 (affecting units
whose strength is less than 250 men). The Morale Check is then triggered
when
R < L / (L + B)
For example, when a unit with 500 men takes a 25 man loss, the probability
that it will take a Morale Check is 1/3, equal to 25 / (25 + 50).
In addition, units with Fatigue level 900 (Maximum Fatigue) that take a Fatigue
loss also are required to take a Morale Check.
A unit which takes a Morale Check will become Disordered if it passes the
Morale Check or Routed if it fails. The Quality value of the unit is used as the
base value for Morale by converting A+++ to 9, A++ to 8, A+ to 7, A to 6, B to
5, and so on to F to 1. Modifiers are applied to this base Morale to obtain the
final Morale value for the Morale Check.
• If the unit is stacked with a Leader, then 1 is added to the Morale.
• If the unit is Low On Ammo or Out Of Ammo, then 1 is subtracted from
the Morale.
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Napoleonic Battles User Manual
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•
•
If it is a Night turn, then 2 is subtracted from the Morale.
If the unit has Medium Fatigue, then 1 is subtracted from the Morale.
If the unit has High Fatigue, then 2 is subtracted from the Morale.
If the unit has been fired upon Enfilade, then 2 is subtracted from the
Morale.
If the unit is Disordered, then 1 is subtracted from the Morale.
Skirmishers have 1 subtracted from the Morale.
The resulting Morale value is compared with a random Die Roll from 1 to 6,
and if the Die Roll exceeds the Morale value, then the unit fails the Morale
Check. A unit that fails the Morale Check during Defensive Fire becomes
Disordered, while a unit that fails the Morale Check during any other situation
becomes Routed. If a Routed unit fails the Morale Check, it stays Routed, but
also loses a number of men based on the amount the Die Roll exceeds the
Morale, times 25 for Infantry and Cavalry, which is reported as lost stragglers.
Unlimbered Artillery is not subject to routing.
When a unit routs, all units in the same hex as the unit and all units in adjacent
hexes to the unit must also take a Morale Check. If any units in adjacent
hexes fail the Morale Check, then this process is carried over into hexes
adjacent to those hexes.
Recovery From Rout
At the beginning of a player’s turn, Rally Checks are performed on Routed
units to see if they Rally. Routed units which Rally become Disordered and
are eligible to become un-Disordered starting with the next turn. Again the
Quality of the unit is the base value for Morale for the Rally Check. These
Modifiers are applied to this value to result in the final Morale value.
• If the unit is stacked with a Leader of the same organization or a higher
organization as the unit and if the Leadership rating of the Leader is
higher than the Morale value, the Morale value is set equal to that rating.
If the Leadership rating is already equal to the Morale value, then 1 is
added to the Morale value.
• If it is a Night turn, then the Morale value of the unit is divided by 2 with
fractions rounded up (for example 5 becomes 3).
• If it is a Day turn, then the Morale value may be affected by Corps and
Army Leaders in adjacent hexes using the same process for Leaders in
the same hex.
A random Die Roll from 1 to 6 is compared with the resulting Morale value, and
if the Die Roll is less than the Morale value, the unit becomes un-Routed.
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Main Features
Skirmisher Rule
In addition to the normal test, Routed Skirmisher units of non-Light, non-Guard,
non-Independent units are only eligible to recover from Rout if they are within 5
hexes of their parent unit.
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Napoleonic Battles User Manual
Fatigue
Fatigue refers to the detrimental
effects combat has on the physical
condition of the fighting units.
Fatigue values range from 0 (none) to
900 (highest). Within this range, they
are further divided into Low Fatigue (0
to 299), Medium Fatigue (300 to 599),
and High Fatigue (600 or higher).
Leaders do not suffer from Fatigue.
Fatigue values represent the Combat
Fatigue of the unit and are not intended to represent the simple physical
fatigue of being winded (see the Design Notes for more discussion on this
distinction).
When units are fired upon, they may suffer a Fatigue loss as a result.
Furthermore, units participating in Melee also suffer Fatigue losses as a result
of combat. Units with a Fatigue level of 900 cannot have their Fatigue value
increased further, but whenever a Fatigue loss is suffered by such a unit, they
must take a Morale Check at the end of the Phase.
If a unit has Medium Fatigue, then
• 1 is subtracted from its Morale value during Morale Checks.
• 10% is subtracted from the melee strength when the unit participates in a
Melee attack.
• 10% is subtracted from its fire value when the unit fires.
If a unit has High Fatigue, then
• 2 is subtracted from its Morale value during Morale Checks.
• 20% is subtracted from the melee strength when the unit participates in a
Melee attack.
• 20% is subtracted from its fire value when the unit fires.
• If a unit has Maximum Fatigue, then
• 40% is subtracted from the melee strength when the unit participates in a
melee attack.
• 40% is subtracted from its fire value when the unit fires.
40
Main Features
Recovering Fatigue
A unit may be eligible to recover Fatigue at the beginning of a player’s Turn
provided it has not Moved, Fire, participated in Melee, or been Fired upon with
any effect from the time of the player’s previous Turn. For each such unit a
random value from 0 to twice the applicable recovery rate, determined by
Parameter Data associated with the current battle, is subtracted from the unit’s
Fatigue value. See the Parameter Data Dialog in the Main Program Help File
for the recovery rate values.
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Napoleonic Battles User Manual
Supply
Supply refers to the ammunition that
units have available to fire during the
battle. A unit may become Low On
Ammo or Out Of Ammo during the
battle reducing or eliminating their
ability to fire their weapons. Supply
Wagons are used to maintain supply
levels for the forces on the map. Each
unit of strength of a Supply Wagon
represents enough ammunition to
resupply 10 men.
Each time an Infantry unit fires, there
is a certain probability that this will result in a reduction in the unit’s ammunition
level (see the Design Notes for a discussion of why this can result in reduced
ammunition levels in the first turn). The ability for Artillery units to fire is based
on the Ammo Level for their side. If the Isolation Effects Optional Rule (see
the Main Program Help File ) is being used, then Artillery units can also
become Low or Out Of Ammo when Isolated.
The probability chance that a unit will suffer a loss of ammo while firing is
determined by Parameter Data. This probability is halved when the unit is
firing Defensive Fire under the control of the computer.
A unit that is Out Of Ammo cannot fire again until it is resupplied. A unit that is
Low On Ammo can only fire during the Defensive Phase (see the Design
Notes for why this is the case). Being Low or Out Of Ammo affects the Morale
of the unit.
Units can become resupplied at the beginning of the player’s Turn provided
they are not Routed and they can trace a path no longer than 5 hexes long
which does not go through enemy units or empty hexes in their Zone-OfControl to a friendly Supply Wagon. This resupply will reduce the Strength of
the Supply Wagon by 1 unit for every 10 men in the Unit. Supply Wagons that
are reduced to a Strength of 0 are automatically removed from the map.
Supply Sources
In a scenario, there may be one or more Supply Sources for a given side.
These are used for the optional Isolation rules (see below) to determine if units
of that side are Isolated. Supply Sources are only valid if they are not
occupied by enemy units, but if those enemy units are eliminated or displaced,
42
Main Features
then the Supply Source becomes valid again. Supply Sources cannot be
destroyed and are never used up.
Isolation
Isolation is an Optional Rule that can be used to simulate the effects of units
being surrounded and cut off. Under this rule, if a unit cannot trace a line of
hexes free of enemy units or their Zone-of-Controls to either the edge of the
map or a friendly Supply Source, then they are considered Isolated. When a
unit is Isolated, the following effects apply:
• Isolated units to have their strength divided by 2 when defending in a
melee.
• Isolated leaders receive no benefit from their commanders during
command checks.
• When an Isolated Artillery unit fires, it may become Low or Out-OfAmmo. The Artillery unit will become resupplied when it becomes nonIsolated, unless the Artillery supply level for its side is zero.
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Combat Results
A common combat results
calculation is used for both fire and
melee results. The combat results
calculation is based on four
parameters: a combat value, a
modifier, a Low Combat Value
(LCV) and a High Combat Value
(HCV). For fire combat, the combat
value is the adjusted fire value of
the firing units. For melee combat,
the combat value is the adjusted
strength of the opposing side. The
given modifiers are applied to the given combat value to arrive at the effective
combat value. The Low Combat Value and High Combat Value are the
extreme possible casualties resulting from a base-line combat value of 1000.
The effective combat value is used to scale these accordingly resulting in low
and high possible casualties. Finally a random value is selected between the
low and high casualty values to arrive at the final combat result.
For example, given a combat value of 400, a modifier of 25%, a Low Combat
Value of 5 and a High Combat Value of 25, the effective combat value would
be 500 (= 400 + 25%). This would be ½ of the base-line combat value of
1000. Thus the low casualty value would be 2.5 (= 5 / 2) and the high casualty
value would be 12.5 (= 25 / 2). The resulting casualty value would be
randomly generated between 2.5 and 12.5 for this combat. Finally, based on
the fractional part of the casualty value, it is randomly rounded up or down.
For example, if the casualty value was calculated to be 3.7, then 30% of the
time this is rounded down to 3 and 70% of the time is rounded up to 4.
Artillery losses resulting from enemy artillery and infantry fire is calculated on
the basis of 1 gun equal to the Artillery Fire Parameter Data value. Combat
losses less than this value result in a probability of a 1 gun loss proportional to
the value. Thus a combat loss of 5 men applied to an artillery unit would result
in a probability of 5/50 = 10% that a one gun loss would occur, assuming an
Artillery Fire value of 50.
Fatigue results are calculated as random values between the casualty value
and 3 times the casualty value.
When Morale Checks are applicable, they are determined based on a
probability using the given loss as:
loss / (loss + base)
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Main Features
where base = strength-of-unit / 10 but limited to be no lower than 25.
Thus a unit of 250 men that takes a loss of 25 men has a 50% chance of
requiring a morale check and a unit of 1000 men that takes a loss of 25 men
has an 20% chance of requiring a morale check.
When the optional rule Alternative Calculation of combat results is chosen for
fire or melee results (see the Main Program Help File ), then the resulting
casualty value is based on the average of two default casualty calculations.
This produces values which are more likely to be in the midrange of the
casualty interval rather than uniformly distributed.
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Weather and Conditions
There are two ways that weather and ground conditions are implemented in
the game. The first way is through the use of ground Conditions. There are
three ground Conditions: Normal, Snow, and Frozen. Under Frozen
conditions, streams and rivers are frozen and can be crossed as though they
were clear terrain. Ground Conditions are established by the scenario
designer on a per-scenario basis and do not change throughout the playing of
a scenario.
Weather can vary though a scenario and change at certain times specified in
the Parameter Data. Each Weather state has a descriptive name associated
with it such as Mud, Soft, Foggy, etc. Each Weather state has several
parameters associated with it that affects the normal parameter data such as:
•
Visibility – the maximum visibility associated with the weather, where 0
signifies no change.
•
Movement – a percentage value that modifies the normal movement
costs.
•
Attacker Modifier – a percentage modifier, usually negative, that
modifies the normal value of attackers in melees.
•
Artillery Modifier – a percentage modifier that affects non-indirect
Artillery fire at ranges of at least 5 hexes.
•
Fire Modifier – a percentage modifier that affects non-Artillery fire.
A Weather state can have a flag associated with it signifying that Cavalry
Charges are not possible under this weather condition.
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Additional Features
The Campaign Game
The Campaign Game links together individual battles and their outcomes to
form a complete campaign. To being or continue a campaign game, run the
Campaign Front End from the program group of the game.
A campaign consists of a series of Situations. Each Situation presents both
sides in the campaign with a list of possible Choices. Based on the selections
made among these choices, a particular Battle will be fought by the two sides.
Depending on the Outcome of the battle, the campaign will branch to another
Situation in the campaign, or possibly to the campaign Conclusion.
The Campaign Front End begins by asking you if you want to start a new
campaign or continue an existing one. Of course, the first time you run the
Front End, you’ll select that you want to start a new campaign. Depending on
the game, here may be one or more campaign games included. In addition,
you can create new campaigns by using the Campaign Editor.
When you start a new campaign, you will be asked to specify a filename for the
campaign. Note that campaigns are stored in files with the extension cpf.
You should use a name that is descriptive of the campaign so that you can
have several campaigns going at one time and keep track of them.
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Napoleonic Battles User Manual
When you start a new campaign, you will be prompted by the Situation Dialog
to pick the side you want to play and other settings. There are three possible
Modes you can select. If you select A/I (Conservative) then you will play
against the computer and the computer will be making optimal choices during
the campaign. If you select A/I (Reckless), you will also be playing against the
computer, but in this case, the computer will be making random choices during
the campaign. Often this results in more interesting results, although not
necessarily the most competitive play. If you select Play-By-E-Mail, then you
can play the campaign against a human opponent using e-mail to send the
turns back and forth. During the campaign, you normally will be transferred to
the Main Program to fight battles. The victory outcome of these battles will
determine the next situation you encounter in the campaign. If you select Use
Expected Values, then instead of fighting each battle using the Main Program,
an average victory outcome will be used to immediately branch to the next
situation in the campaign. You will use this option, when you want to very
quickly jump from situation to situation in the campaign without having to fight
each battle in detail. Finally, you can select from a list of situations in the
campaign. Normally you will select the first situation, as this is the starting
point for the campaign, but you also have the option of selecting an
intermediate one if you wish to start the campaign somewhere in the middle.
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Additional Features
Each campaign begins with an overview. This overview will describe the
campaign setting and displays a map of the area over which the campaign will
be fought. When a campaign game is played by two human players, both
players get to see this screen.
At the beginning of each Situation, a screen is displayed identifying the
Situation, showing the various forces involved, and describing the Situation.
Both sides of the campaign get to see this screen.
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The Decision screen is where you make your choice about how to conduct the
campaign. You will be given a list of choices at the top of the screen. As you
click on each choice, a description of that choice is displayed and the map is
updated to illustrate that choice. You should keep in mind that in general, no
situation has a "best" choice. The best choice will be determined by the
corresponding choice made by your opponent, something you won’t know until
both sides have decided. So you should weigh the possible outcomes you feel
are associated with each choice, and decide which one you wish to pursue in
that situation. Note that each side in the campaign sees a different screen at
this point. Each side only sees the choices for their side and will be unaware
of the choice made by the other side.
Once both sides have made their choices, the resulting battle is determined
and each side will get a message describing the battle. When Use Expected
Values is selected, this message will have a Cancel button in addition to an OK
button. If you select the OK button, then the Expected Value of the battle will
be used to determine the campaign branching. If you select the Cancel button,
then the game will transition to the Main Program so that the current battle can
be fought in detail.
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Additional Features
In general, each battle outcome will cause the campaign to branch to the next
Situation in the campaign. However, depending on the outcome and the
Situation, the campaign will eventually branch to a terminating situation. Here,
the overall outcome of the campaign is determined and described.
When you play a campaign using Play-By-E-Mail, then you will receive
messages at various times indicating that the campaign file is ready to be emailed to your opponent. You should mail your opponent the cpf file
containing the campaign at this point. Note that this single file contains all
information associated with your game and that no other files need be
included.
Summary of Campaign Play Modes
There are a wide variety of ways that campaigns can be played. For the
briefest possible campaign, play against the computer (A/I play mode) and
select "Use Expected Values". In this way, a complete campaign can be
completed in a manner of minutes. For a longer game and more detail, select
"Use Expected Values", but then select a battle to fight in detail by selecting
Cancel when the encounter message is displayed. The time required to finish
the battle can by varied by choosing Manual or Automatic play mode within the
battle itself. In this way, a complete campaign can be completed in an hour or
so. Then, for a longer campaign, skip the "Use Expected Values" option and
play each battle in detail and in Manual mode. This type of campaign will
require a couple of hours to complete. Next, you can play a campaign using
Play-By-E-Mail. Note that you can choose the "Use Expected Values" option
when playing under PBEM if you just want to see how your campaign choices
play out against a real opponent. This approach would require a day or more
to complete a campaign. Again, you can choose the "Use Expected Values"
option, but then Cancel this option at the time of a battle to play out the battle
in detail. In this way, a PBEM campaign would be about the same length of
time as a normal PBEM battle if you selected a single campaign battle to play
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Napoleonic Battles User Manual
in detail. Finally, to get the longest possible campaign, you would skip the
"Use Expected Values" option which could result in a campaign lasting a very
long time. In summary, a campaign can be played in a manner of minutes,
days, or even years in the extreme cases.
Network Play
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Additional Features
Network Play
This section describes the details associated with multi-player Network Play.
Microsoft’s Direct Play is used for this purpose. The TCP/IP protocol is used to
connect the computers being used. If you are using a firewall to connect to the
Internet, you must configure it before you can connect using Direct Play.
Information on how to do this can be found in this Microsoft technical article:
DirectX: Ports Required to Play on a Network.
The Player Dialog is displayed so that each player can specify their name and
to specify if they want to be on the same side as the Host player or the
opposing side.
The Caller will be prompted to enter the IP Address of the Host computer. The
Host player must determine their IP Address and communicate this to the other
players.
One way for the Host player to determine their IP Address is to perform the
following steps:
•
Click on Start, then Run, and enter cmd.
•
In the window that opens, enter ipconfig.
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Napoleonic Battles User Manual
Once a connection has been established, the Comm Dialog will appear and
allow both players to communicate with each other. You can type messages in
the area at the bottom of the Comm Dialog and press Return to send them. All
messages are displayed in the top area of the Comm Dialog prefaced by the
name of the player sending the message. In Multi-Player Network Play
games, you can limit the sending of the message to players of your side, by
selecting the option at the bottom of the Comm Dialog.
If you are the first Caller of the opposing side, you will be prompted to specify
an Encryption Key to be used to encrypt the battle file on the Host computer.
This encryption will prevent your opponent from trying to access the battle file
in your absence. Be sure to remember your Encryption Key and specify it
exactly the next time you open an existing battle or else a read error will occur.
If you trust your opponent, it is OK to leave the Encryption Key blank.
Multi-Player
In general, both sides of a Network game can have more than one person
assigned to them. The Host player and the first player to connect playing the
opposing side, will be the Commander for their respective sides. By default,
the Commanders control all units for their side. Additional players on each
side can be assigned commands by the Commander. Each player can only
move and fire units under their command. The Multi-Player Dialog described
in the Main Program Help File describes the actions used to assign commands
to players and to manage Multi-Player features.
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Additional Features
Play By E-Mail
This section describes the details associated with Play-By-E-Mail (PBEM).
PBEM is initiated either from the Campaign front-end or through the Play-By-EMail option of the Modes Menu (see the Main Program Help File ).
When a game is started under the
PBEM option, the player starting the
battle will be prompted with the New
Scenario Dialog (see the Main
Program Help File ) to select the side
they wish to play, the Fog of War
option, any change to the Advantage value, and Optional Rules. When control
of the game passes to the opposing player, the main program will save the
PBEM game in a file with extension bte and notify the player that the file can
now be E-mailed to their opponent. The player should send the bte file either
Zipped up or as an attachment in an E-mail.
When the other player receives the E-mail, it is essential that they copy the
bte file into the appropriate game folder. By default, this game folder is
"C:\Program Files\HPS Simulations\name" where "name" is the name of the
game, but this can be changed during installation. Once the bte is copied, the
player can start PBEM mode either from the File Selection Dialog (see the
Main Program Help File ), or through the PBEM option of the Modes Menu
(see the Main Program Help File ).
When the player opens the PBEM file,
they will be prompted to view the
battle replay. If they notice that the
replay is not for the opposing side,
they have opened their own PBEM file
in error and should immediately select
Cancel. Otherwise, they can select Yes or No to either view the replay or
advance directly to their turn.
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Napoleonic Battles User Manual
During the battle replay, combat results are reported in a dialog. Select OK to
close the dialog and continue normally. If you select Cancel, the replay will
continue but no subsequent combat results will be reported. Pressing the
Escape (Esc) key will terminate the replay.
When a PBEM battle is saved with the PBEM Encryption Option enabled (see
the Settings Menu in the Main Program Help File ) or if the file has already
been encrypted by the opposing player, then the player will be prompted for an
Encryption Key. On subsequent turns, the identical key must be entered by
the player in order to read the file. Note that a PBEM battle can be encrypted
even after play has begun, but once encrypted, it cannot be converted back
into an un-encrypted form.
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Additional Features
Design Notes
This section provides explanation for
certain game features.
Why can’t you use the Undo
Movement function of the
Command Menu when Fog of War
is in effect? If this were allowed,
you would be able to send out units
on multiple "scouting" missions with
the option of returning them to their
starting location and thereby
determining unfair information on the
location of enemy units. You might
say that the Undo should only be
disabled if the units being moved run into unknown enemy units, but even
knowing that there are no enemy units in a certain direction is unfair
information if the moving player is allowed to undo the move.
Why does it take so long for units to recover from Fatigue? In the game,
Fatigue is used to represent combat fatigue, not the physical state of being
winded. As such, the physical effects of combat fatigue are felt long term and
do not wear off through simple rest. In many Napoleonic War battles, the end
of the battle was determined by fatigue and not by losses. In larger battles,
commanders had to be careful to rotate their fighting units and not commit any
one force too long to battle. Having higher Fatigue recovery rates would
permit the unrealistic ability for commanders to rest units for short periods of
time and then recommit them to battle, something that was not common
historically.
Why aren’t the Optional Rules called Advanced Rules? The primary
reason for having Optional Rules is twofold. First, Optional Rules are intended
to provide some variety to game play. As such, they are intended to put a new
twist on familiar situations and keep the game interesting. Second, Optional
Rules are intended to provide an outlet for disagreements over how certain
issues are to be approached. That is, rather than debate an issue to death, an
Optional Rule is often provided so that differing viewpoints are supported in the
game, even if they are not agreed to by 100% of the user population. Given
this intention, Optional Rules should never be confused with Advanced Rules
which are intended to provide more realism or detail but at a sacrifice of
playability or simplicity. An Optional Rule could conceivably reduce realism or
detail as long as it provided some interesting variety into the game or provided
a useful simplification that improved playability under certain circumstances.
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Why isn’t the Victory Points for Leader Casualties Optional Rule a default
rule? Wouldn’t killing Napoleon be a significant event for the Allied
player? Every rule must be evaluated for what it motivates players to do. In
this case, awarding points for leader casualties motivates the player to hide his
leaders away from the battle to avoid losing Victory Points. For example, the
player would never risk a good leader like Ney in the front line for fear of losing
Victory Points and would keep him carefully hidden away in some safe place.
Conversely, players would be motivated to focus their fire primarily on hexes
containing leaders in hopes of picking up Victory Points. Having this rule as a
default rule would skew the battles away from the historical outcomes in a way
that would detract from the games as learning tools. Given the tactical nature
of the battles, losing Ney for example is felt even in the absence of this rule
since his replacement, and all replacements in the line of command, will
generally be of lesser quality than the original leader and thus this will have a
detrimental effect on the French Army.
I just had my entire army rout away! The default routing logic is bogus!
The routing logic causes the rout of a single unit to sometimes spread to
adjacent units and so forth in a way that can have a major effect on a force.
Establishing the correct balance in this logic is a matter of interpretation. If you
have a large rout occur, check the following factors that affect morale. Did
your units have High Fatigue? Were they Low or Out of Ammo? Were they of
mediocre quality? Was it a Night turn? Experience has shown that game
players conduct their attacks with far greater aggressiveness than was ever
shown on the actual battlefield. Historically, leaders were very cautious in the
commitment of their troops and were careful not to keep units in battle for too
long for fear they would not hold. If you have just had D quality units, low on
ammo, with Fatigue level 900, rout during a Night turn, don’t think that this was
an unrealistic event.
Why have the Isolation Optional Rule which causes Isolated units to
defend in melee at 1/2 strength? This rule is intended to have two effects.
Commanders were always very cautious of their flanks. They often withdrew
from a position before they had been overwhelmed simply because their flanks
were threatened. This rule is intended to motivate the player to think in these
terms. Secondly, units that had been surrounded would often surrender and
not fight to the death. The 1/2 modifier to defending strength is intended to
reflect the tendency of the Isolated units to surrender when pressed.
Why isn’t the Partial Retreats Optional Rule a default rule? Retreats from
a hex by units that have just lost a melee are necessarily very chaotic events.
Certainly with a breakdown in command and morale, it would not be possible
to find some optimal displacement of units that would just fit in the retreating
hex. A good analogy would be a burning building where quite often a large
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Additional Features
number of people perish even though there are exits readily available. The
dynamics of this situation is known as "choking" and results in greatly reduced
flow through openings. Based on this, there is justification for concluding that
obstructions to their retreat would often result in the surrender of the defeated
troops rather than some optimal reduction.
I had a unit lose ammunition on the first turn of the game. That’s
ridiculous! Having a full complement of ammunition was never guaranteed in
any battle. While most often, a unit had enough ammunition to ensure the
ability to fight for some time, breakdowns in command and organization often
resulted in ammunition problems. Adding an ammunition level to each unit in
the game would simply increase the micromanagement necessary to play the
game without adding any benefit and would in fact detract from the game by
including information that could hardly be known by higher level commanders.
I don’t understand the Low Ammo rules. Why can units with Low Ammo
fire using Defensive Fire and not using Offensive Fire? Do they have
bullets or don’t they? The distinction here is based on the fact that units low
on ammunition will start to save their shots and not use them unless absolutely
necessary. Since Defensive Fire is the point at which defending units get to
fire on their attacker, this would be a good example of when units would use
their precious ammunition. Not allowing fire for Offensive Fire is the point at
which the lack of ammunition is applied and thereby motivates the player to not
use these units for attack. The end result in the game is a good one causing a
reduction in aggressive ability by units low on ammo but retaining the ability for
units low on ammo to deliver a good blast when threatened.
Can you explain why units that have not fired using Offensive Fire
receive a 10% melee modifier in when attacking? Given the slow reload
rate of Napoleonic weapons, leaders often found that when units were allowed
to fire during an advance, they were reluctant to continue advancing with their
weapons unloaded. This often resulted in the order to units that they not fire
during a charge but rather advance without stopping. The additional vigor with
which the advancing units conduct their attack is the basis for the modifier.
I melee attacked an unsupported Artillery battery and was defeated. This
can’t be right. Melees have two possible outcomes. In the first, the attacker
"wins" the melee and displaces the defending units from the hex. The second
outcome results in the defenders retaining the defending hex. A failure of the
attacking units to take the defending hex should not be interpreted so much as
a "victory" for the defending units, but rather simply a failure of the attacking
units to conduct a successful melee. In the case of a melee attack against
Artillery, a failure to take the defending hex means that the attackers had so
much trouble conducting the charge or were so ineffective in their charge, that
the defending hex could not be considered taken. If you wish, you can
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Napoleonic Battles User Manual
consider the melee in this case to be ongoing, although this is not part of the
game engine. The bottom line is that no melee can be guaranteed to be an
automatic "victory" unless the defending hex is free of fighting units.
How come PBEM Encryption is just an option? Doesn’t everyone want to
prevent PBEM cheating? There’s one very important thing that you should
realize about PBEM cheating: it cannot be prevented. While encryption of the
PBEM file and the use of PBEM passwords does deter the "casual cheater", it
does not and cannot prevent all cheating. Why? The problem with attempting
to encrypt the PBEM file is that the code required to encrypt and decrypt the
file plus, most importantly, the encryption key is located in a very handy place
to the would-be cheater: the main program. A hacker of modest abilities would
be able to determine everything they needed to know by inspecting the main
program object code and very quickly come up with a program to encrypt and
decrypt PBEM files. Would the person you’re playing go to that much trouble?
Does the person you’re playing know someone who would? And finally, don’t
think that there is any way to prevent someone from replaying the PBEM battle
until they know far more than they should about your position and have found
the optimal fire and combat outcome as well. Write something to the registry?
Hide a "secret" file on their hard drive? Come on, those are so obvious that
even someone with only a small amount of motivation would be able to
circumvent them. So think about cheating as a layered problem:
• Is the person you’re playing with familiar to you and someone you trust?
Don’t bother with encryption, it just gets in the way.
• Are you wanting to use passwords just so you don’t inadvertently open
the file during your opponent’s turn? Sure, use encryption for this.
• Are you playing a good natured competition with someone who is
probably not sufficiently motivated to hack the encrypted file? Encryption
will work here too.
• Are you playing someone you don’t trust and need some way to stop
them from any form of PBEM cheating? Don’t bother. You’ll drive
yourself nuts trying to figure out if they’ve somehow hacked the
encryption to get a win.
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Additional Features
Tactics
This section contains information
that the player may find helpful in
playing the game. The key issue is
to understand the particular tactics
associated with the Napoleonic
wars. During this time period, the
linear tactics that had evolved
during the 18th century were further
refined through the use of artillery
and cavalry. This results in a
special situation of having three
very unique arms: infantry, artillery,
and cavalry, each with strengths and weaknesses. Understanding how to
employ each of these to their maximum effect is the key to being a good
Napoleonic commander.
•
•
•
•
Line formation is most effective defensively while Column formation is
best for attacks. In Line formation, your infantry will have its greatest
firepower. You should use firepower to cause Disorder and casualties in
attacking forces so as to reduce their ability to attack you. In Column
formation, your infantry is easier to control and will suffer less Disorder.
This formation will enable you to close with the enemy and melee against
them effectively.
Use your Skirmishers in most situations. Remember to deploy
Skirmishers from units with this capability. In addition, you may want to
deploy Light Infantry completely in Skirmishers, particularly in non-Clear
terrain. On the offense, Skirmishers can be used to shield your attacking
forces from enemy fire and attacks. On defense, Skirmishers can be
used to cause casualties in attacking forces and slow their advance.
Particularly in non-Clear terrain such as Buildings and Chateaus,
Skirmishers are useful for holding terrain effectively.
Watch for enemy Cavalry attacks and be ready to change into Square
formation if you see this. Square formation is the only effective defense
against Cavalry attacks. However, you can’t wait until it is obvious that a
Cavalry attack is about to occur, as your ability to change into Square
formation is not guaranteed. Depending on the condition of your forces
and the location of the enemy, you may have difficulty successfully
changing into Square formation when you need to. You may want to
change into Square formation as a precaution when you feel that enemy
Cavalry charges are likely.
Use your Artillery at close range to cause enemy casualties, especially
against enemy Infantry in Square formation. This is the counterpoint to
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Napoleonic Battles User Manual
•
•
the previous tactic. Since Infantry weapons are short range, you may
find it possible to advance your Artillery and fire upon the enemy forces
with good effect. Use Skirmishers to protect your Artillery in this
situation. However, in this situation, be very wary of enemy Cavalry
attacks as both Skirmishers and Artillery are particularly vulnerable to
them.
Avoid attacking first with your Cavalry. Given the benefits that Cavalry
has when charging, it is tempting to use them early in the battle. Don’t
do this as you will find that this will not have the best effect against the
enemy and you will cause excessive casualties in your Cavalry. If you
are new to Napoleonic tactics, it is tempting to think of your Cavalry as a
type of tank unit which can be used to punch holes in the enemy line.
However, you will find that Cavalry is really only effective against an
enemy force that has first been worn down by fighting. Once the enemy
has been sufficiently weakened, then you will find that a good Cavalry
charge will have the desired effect. Attempting Cavalry charges against
a strong enemy that is in Square formation will most likely be ineffective.
Maintain an effective reserve. You will need a good reserve late in the
battle to either provide the "knock-out punch" against the enemy, or to
save your own army from destruction. In general, you should employ
your lessor forces to wear down the enemy and bring them to the
breaking point. Then, and only then, should you employ your best forces
from your reserve and attempt to break the enemy line.
You may wish to read about the Battle of Waterloo and find examples of each of
these tactics, or a failure to adhere to them, in that single battle.
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Extending Play
So, you’ve mastered the game mechanics and your
army has won the Battle of Waterloo against our
computer opponent. Congratulations! Achieving this
level of skill is quite an accomplishment. However,
many players of the HPS family of wargames will
argue that the greatest enjoyment and challenge is
found through the games’ Play-by-Email (PBEM)
and Internet Play options, which enable you to play
against other human opponents. In fact, PBEM and
Internet Play have become such a popular way of
playing HPS games that the World-Wide Web now
boasts several clubs devoted to the specific historical
periods covered by our games. The Napoleonic Wargame Club
(http://www.wargame.ch/wc/nwc/Napann1.htm) for example, has an active
membership of several hundred wargamers and supports play for all of HPS’
Napoleonic titles including Napoleon in Russia, Campaign Eckmuhl, and
Campaign Wagram.
In addition to providing hundreds of potential opponents, The Napoleonic
Wargame Club (NWC) also seeks to bestow a more historical flavor to
wargaming by encouraging role-playing among its members. As a member of
the NWC, you can join one of several Napoleonic armies (French, Anglo-Allied,
Prussian, Russian, and Austrian) and have your character achieve higher
ranks as you gain experience and victories against club opponents. The NWC
is more than just a points ladder, though. It offers players an imaginative way
to learn and participate in the Napoleonic era beyond simple game play. Club
newsletters and discussion boards also offer great tips on game strategies and
tactics. Although the NWC is not the only means of becoming a great captain
and acquiring the secrets of the arts of war, your own genius will almost
certainly be enlightened and improved by availing yourself of the benefits of
joining the ranks of the NWC. Besides, IT’S FREE.
Related Links:
The Colonial Campaigns Club - http://www.wargame.ch/1776/index.html
The American Civil Wargames Club http://www.wargame.ch/wc/acw/ACWmainpage.htm
The Modern Battles Club - http://www.pbem-war-gamer.com/MBC/
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Credits
Developer: John Tiller
Artist: Joseph, The Genius, Amoral
Uniform Research: Mark Adams
Background Music: Thomas Hook
Campaign Maps: Mike Avanzini
Reenactment Photos: Brigade
Napoleon from the Summer 1998
reenactment at Baltimore, Maryland.
Bonaparte's Peninsular War
Project Coordinator: Rich Hamilton
Scenario Design: Richard White and Andrew Bamford
Maps: Richard White
Orders of Battle: Andrew Bamford
Graphics Team: Mark Adams (Coordinator) and Joe Amoral
Playtesters: Andy Moss, Jim Owczarski, Jim Hall, Mike Cox, Joao Lima,
Doug Fuller
Campaign Bautzen
Project Coordinator: Bill Peters
Scenario Design: Bill Peters and Richard White
Graphics Team: Mark Adams, Joe "Amazing" Amoral
64
Additional Features
Historical Consultants: Andrew Bamford, Warren Bajan, Set Karlsson,
Lars Rössle, Oliver Schmidt and Rich White
Scenario Maps: Bill Peters and Richard White (Company Level format
for 1813 scenarios)
Planning Maps: Bill Peters
Playtesters: Warren Bajan, Dean Beecham, Ed Blackburn, Bill Cann,
Pierre Desruisseaux, Garret Fitzgerald, Michael Fredel, Tim Goodwin,
Tom and Set Karlsson, Francisco "Paco" Palomo
Campaign 1814
Project Coordinator: Bill Peters
Campaign Maps: Mike Avanzini
Scenario Design: Bill Peters, Warren Bajan and Richard White
Graphics Team: Mark Adams (Coordinator) and Joe "Amazing" Amoral
Historical Consultants: Warren Bajan, David Guegan and Enrico
Acerbi
Maps: Bill Peters, Rich White, David Guegan
Playtesters: Warren Bajan, Ed Blackburn, Bill Cann, Doug Fuller, Art
Hall, Mark Jones, Andrew Moss, Mark Nelms, Francisco "Paco" Palomo,
Bill Peterson, Jim Pfluecke, Marco Rietveld, Bill Reaves, Christophe
Sarazin, Rich White
Campaign Leipzig
Project Coordinator: Bill Peters
Scenario Design: Bill Peters, Warren Bajan and Richard White
Graphics Team: Mark Adams (Coordinator) and Joe "Amazing" Amoral
65
Napoleonic Battles User Manual
Historical Consultants: Warren Bajan, Francisco "Paco" Palomo, Anton
Kosyanenko, Dierk Walther
Scenario Maps: Bill Peters and Rich White (Company Level format)
Campaign Maps: Mike Avanzini
Playtesters: Warren Bajan, Dean Beecham, Ed Blackburn, Andy Burke,
Bill Cann, Pierre Desruisseaux, Garret Fitzgerald, Tim Goodwin, Scott
Ludwig, Jeff Mathes, Andrew Moss, Tomasz Nowacki, Francisco "Paco"
Palomo, John Corbin
Campaign Austerlitz
Scenario Design: Bill Peters
Map Design: Bill Peters, David Guegan, Andy Barnes
Historical Review: Francisco "Paco" Palomo, Bob Segal
Playtesters: Dean Beecham, Doug Fuller, Colin Gaskell, Marek Hlávka,
Atle Jenssen, Tomasz Nowacki, Francisco "Paco" Palomo, Bill Peterson,
Jim Pfluecke, Marco Rietveld, John Sheffield
Campaign Jena-Auerstedt
Scenario Design: Bill Peters
Playtesters: Atle Jenssen, Francisco "Paco" Palomo, Gary McClellan,
John Corbin, Jeff Bardon, Ken Jones, Bill Peterson, Tomasz Nowacki,
Dean Beecham.
Reviewers: Bob Segal, Rich Hamilton, Dierk Walter.
Campaign Waterloo
Scenario Design: Charlie Cutshall and Rich Hamilton
Additional Research and Historical Overview: D.S. Walter
66
Additional Features
Cover Painting: Adrian George
Playtesters: D.S. Walter, Steve Cutshall, Ernie Sands, Claes Melbro,
James Brammer, Hans Boersma, Garry Cope, Phil Natta
Campaign Wagram
Scenario Design: Bill Peters
Playtesters: Al Amos, Jeff Bardon, Charlie Cutshall, Ken Jones, Gary
McClellan, Francisco "Paco" Palomo.
Background painting on CD cover courtesy of Romain Baulesch
<[email protected]>.
Napoleon’s Russian Campaign
Scenario Design: Charlie Cutshall
Playtesters: Steve Cutshall, J. D. Causse, and Duncan Mckinnon
Campaign Eckmuhl
Scenario Design: Bill Peters
Playtesters: Al Amos, Mark Adams, Jim Dobbins, Francisco "Paco"
Palomo, Dave Earls, Brett Trevalyan, Dermot Quigley, Mike Gjerde, Ray
Panfil, Sam Orlando, Ken Miller, Jim Woods, Mark Trowbridge.
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