Electrical or electronic apparatus, in particular welding machine or

Electrical or electronic apparatus, in particular welding machine or
US 20130175248Al
(19) United States
(12) Patent Application Publication (10) Pub. No.: US 2013/0175248 A1
De Rosa
(54)
(43) Pub. Date:
ELECTRICAL OR ELECTRONIC
(52)
Jul. 11, 2013
US. Cl.
APPARATUS, IN PARTICULAR WELDING
CPC ............ .. H02H 1/0007 (2013.01); 323K 9/095
MACHINE OR BATTERY CHARGER
(2013.01)
USPC
(75) Inventor:
Guglielmo De Rosa, ConZa Della
Campania AV (IT)
(73)
.................................... .. 219/130.01; 307/326
(57)
Assignee? Awelco Inc- Production 5- P-A-
(21) Appl' N05
_
ABSTRACT
The present invention concerns an electrical or electronic
13/822’506
apparatus, in particular Welding machine or battery charger,
comprising processing and controlling electronic means (M1,
569133011
PCT/IT11/00316
VTl, RTl, CT1, R8, CT2, Z1, Z2, Z3, Z4, Z5, Z6, Z7, R4,
CT3, ST1, ~ST2, D12, Q1) from which it receives one or more
Mar. 12, 2013
quantities related to an apparatus operation, said processing
and controlling electronic means (M1, M2) being capable to
_
M2) connected to a sensing electronic means (S1, S1’, TRO,
(22) PCT Flled
(86) PCT NO‘:
§ 371 (c)(1),
(2), (4) Date:
detection signals of one or more electrical and/or physical
determine one or more conditions of apparatus operation on
(30)
FOI‘eigII Application Priority Data
the basis of said one or more detection signals, the apparatus
being capable to be poWer supplied through a plurality of
Sep. 13, 2010
(IT) ....................... .. RM2010A000475
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terminals (F, N, GND) by a mains Comprising a ground Con
.
ductor to Which a ground terminal (GND) of said plurality of
Pubhcatlon Classl?catlon
terminals (F, N, GND) is connectable, the apparatus being
characterised in that said sensing electronic means comprises
(51)
Int. Cl.
.
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323K 9/095
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.
.
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Jul. 11, 2013
US 2013/0175248 A1
ELECTRICAL OR ELECTRONIC
APPARATUS, IN PARTICULAR WELDING
MACHINE OR BATTERY CHARGER
[0001]
The present invention relates to an electrical or elec
tronic apparatus, in particular an electronic Welding machine,
With or Without the addition of molten metal, capable to
protect the operator from risks of accident due to the use of the
apparatus as Well as to deliver information through speech
messages concerning safety rules, technical rules for correct
management of the parameters of the apparatus and rules for
a good result in the apparatus operation, such as for instance
a good result in Welding. In particular, the Welding machine
according to the invention alloWs in a reliable, versatile, effec
tive, simple, and inexpensive Way that is handy for the opera
tor, to monitor the conditions of machine operation and to
assist the operator during Welding phases by delivering infor
mation through sounds and speech messages Which are
immediately receivable, interpretable and understandable.
The Welding machine according to the invention alloWs to
create the conditions for a Working environment in Which all
the possible situations Which may cause danger are pointed
out, giving to the operator suggestions for Working according
to procedures alloWing to clearly perceive and assess the risk
for the person and things that is associated With the operations
to perform.
[0002] In the folloWing, the invention is shoWn mainly
making reference to a Welding machine. HoWever, it must be
consider that almost all the innovative technical features
shoWn for the Welding machine are applicable to any electri
cal or electronic apparatus (eg a battery charger, a drill or a
laWn moWer), in particular to a household appliance (eg a
Washing machine), for monitoring the conditions of appara
tus or household appliance operation, still remaining Within
the scope of the present invention.
[0003] It is knoWn that various Welding processes currently
exist, such as: Welding With shielded electrode, called SMAW
(Shielded Metal Arc Welding) or also MMA (Manual Metal
Arc); arc Welding With metal protected by gas, called GMAW
(Gas Metal Arc Welding) or also, depending on the type of gas
that is used, MIG (Metal Inert Gas) or MAG (Metal Active
Gas); arc Welding With infusible tungsten electrode protected
[0007] HoWever, both skilled and not skilled Welding
operators neglect the study of the safety rules contained in the
instruction booklet. This entails that companies are obliged to
make training courses on the use of the Welding machines
stressing the safety rules. Also, the Welding machines, due to
their Wide diffusion, are used not only by speci?cally trained
operators but also by untrained operators. Lack of preparation
of the operators is even more pronounced in the hobby ?eld.
[0008] Moreover, some Works, such as that of making
Welding from a scaffolding, may be dangerous for the
“shock” effect that the user may experience. In fact, some
subjects may feel the electrical shock effect even for very loW
voltages in any case loWer than the dangerous ones of 50 volt
ac and 120 volt dc. In a Welding machine the probability of
getting in contact, for example, With the electrode is very
high, thus the effect although not dangerous occurs and may
cause a temporary slip that represents a real danger if the
operator is on a scaffolding above ground. The shock effect is
even more dangerous if the operator is under the in?uence of
alcohol.
[0009]
Finally, achievement of a good Welding depends on
a number of factors among Which the operator’ s preparation,
the Welding machine characteristics, materials to be added as
Well as adjustments of the parameters of the machine for the
type of material to be added.
[0010] In this context, the solution proposed according to
the present invention is introduced.
[0011] It is therefore an object of the present invention to
alloW in a reliable, versatile, effective, simple, and inexpen
sive Way that is handy for the operator, to monitor the condi
tions of operation of an electrical or electronic apparatus, in
particular a Welding machine or a battery charger, and to
assist the operator during the operation carried out by the
apparatus, for instance a Welding operation, by delivering
information Which are immediately receivable and under
standable.
[0012] It is speci?c subject matter of this invention an elec
trical or electronic apparatus, in particular Welding machine
or battery charger, comprising processing and controlling
electronic means connected to a sensing electronic means
from Which it receives one or more detection signals of one or
by inert gas, called TIG (Tungsten Inert Gas); and plasma
more electrical and/ or physical quantities related to an appa
Welding, the technique of Which, similar to the TIG one, is
also used for cutting metal.
[0004] For making the various Welding processes, a plural
ity of electrical and electronic Welding machines are knoWn,
means being capable to determine one or more conditions of
apparatus operation on the basis of said one or more detection
equipped With devices for detecting, controlling and manag
ing the parameters relevant to the various Welding processes.
through a plurality of terminals by a mains comprising a
ground conductor to Which a ground terminal of said plurality
ratus operation, said processing and controlling electronic
signals, the apparatus being capable to be poWer supplied
Such machines are normally provided With a user interface
of terminals is connectable, the apparatus being characterised
that may be of variable complexity: in most simple cases
in that said sensing electronic means comprises or consists of
a device for sensing a connection of the ground terminal to the
adjusting knobs and indications through led devices only may
be present, While more advanced systems may have graphical
displays also With touch screens.
ground conductor of the mains.
[0005] A ?rst possible problem resulting from the use of
Welding machines is due to the fact that the operators using
terminals may consist of, along With the ground terminal, a
phase terminal and of un neutral terminal, Whereby the appa
ratus is capable to be poWer supplied by a single-phase mains.
[0014] Still according to the invention, the device for sens
such machines outside their oWn place of Work, that is pro
tected from electrical risks, are exposed to the risks that the
hosting electrical system possibly has and Which are
unknoWn.
[0006]
The conventional Welding machines are alWays pro
[0013] AlWays according to the invention, said plurality of
ing a connection of the ground terminal to the ground con
ductor of the mains may comprise input interface means
connected to the ground terminal and to at least one other
vided With a paper booklet of instructions, in Which the
terminal of said plurality of terminals, said input interface
related safety rules and the precautions to be adopted during
means being further connected to measuring electronic
the use are also listed. Some of these rules and precautions are
means capable to measure at least one voltage coming from
extremely important for operator protection.
said input interface means, said measuring electronic means
Jul. 11, 2013
US 2013/0175248 A1
being in turn connected to output interface means capable to
provide said processing and controlling electronic means
With at least one signal of detection of said at least one voltage
coming from said input interface means, said processing and
controlling electronic means being capable to activate the
device for sensing a connection of the ground terminal to the
ground conductor of the mains through said input interface
means,
said input interface means being preferably connected to all
the terminals of saidplurality of terminals, more preferably so
as to be capable to select, through sWitching means controlled
by said processing and controlling electronic means, and to
send to said measuring electronic means a voltage betWeen a
terminal of said plurality of terminals different from the
ground terminal and the ground terminal,
said measuring electronic means preferably comprising rec
tifying means connected to voltage divider means in turn
connected to ampli?er means,
said input interface means being connected to said rectifying
means and
said ampli?er means being connected to said output interface
means,
said output interface means preferably comprising an
optoisolator.
[0015] Furthermore according to the invention, the device
for sensing a connection of the ground terminal to the ground
conductor of the mains may comprise a ground current sensor
capable to sense a current ?oWing along the ground terminal.
[0016] Always according to the invention, said sensing
[0020] a temperature sensor capable to sense a tempera
ture of one or more electronic components of the appa
ratus, preferably connected to said processing and con
trolling electronic means through a second transducer;
[0021]
a current sensor capable to sense an output cur
rent delivered by the apparatus, preferably a Welding arc
current When the apparatus is a Welding machine oper
ating according to an arc Welding process, the current
sensor preferably comprising a current shunt resistor,
more preferably connected to said processing and con
trolling electronic means through a third transducer;
[0022] a temperature sensor capable to detect a tempera
ture inside the apparatus;
[0023] a temperature sensor capable to detect a tempera
ture external to the apparatus;
[0024] a GPS or AGPS georeferenced position sensor
capable to detect a georeferenced position of the appa
ratus;
[0025] a humidity sensor capable to detect a humidity of
air external to the apparatus;
[0026] a radiofrequency identi?er or RFID sensor,
capable to detect and read RFID, active or passive, tran
sponders or tags; and
[0027] at least one photodiode, preferably infrared emit
ting photodiode, more preferably controlled by said pro
cessing and controlling electronic means, and at least
one phototransistor, preferably sensitive to infrared, for
detecting at least one infrared radiation received from
said at least one photodiode, said at least one photodiode
electronic means may further comprise a device for sensing a
and said at least one phototransistor being capable to
blood alcohol concentration, preferably comprising input
detect a ventilation made by at least one fan for cooling
the apparatus, preferably controlled by said processing
interface means, through Which said processing and control
ling electronic means being capable to activate the device for
sensing a blood alcohol concentration, connected to sensing
said one or more conditions of apparatus operation compris
means for sensing an alcohol vapour concentration, in turn
ing one or more conditions depending on one or more param
connected to output interface means capable to provide said
processing and controlling electronic means With at least one
mined through processing by said processing and controlling
detection signal, said sensing electronic means preferably
electronic means, selected from the group comprising:
and controlling electronic means;
eters, detected by said sensing electronic means and/or deter
further comprising a pressure sensor capable to provide said
processing and controlling electronic means With at least one
pressure detection signal on the basis of Which said process
ing and controlling electronic means is capable to determine
When said at least one detection signal coming from the
device for sensing a blood alcohol concentration is signi?
[0028]
[0029]
[003 0]
cant.
[0031] an output voltage of the apparatus, preferably a
Welding arc voltage When the apparatus is a Welding
machine operating according to an arc Welding process;
[0017]
Still according to the invention, said sensing elec
tronic means may further comprise sensing means for sensing
a height above ground at Which the apparatus is, said process
ing and controlling electronic means preferably activating the
device for sensing a blood alcohol concentration When the
height sensed by said sensing means for sensing a height
above ground is higher or not loWer than a threshold value.
[0018]
a voltage of mains;
a netWork impedance;
an output current delivered by the apparatus, pref
erably a Welding arc current When the apparatus is a
Welding machine operating according to an arc Welding
process;
[0032]
nents
[0033]
[0034]
[0035]
a temperature of one or more electronic compo
of the apparatus;
a temperature inside the apparatus;
a temperature external to the apparatus; and
a ventilation made by at the fan.
Furthermore according to the invention, said sens
[0036] AlWays according to the invention, the apparatus
ing electronic means may further comprise one or more elec
may be a Welding machine and said sensing electronic means
tronic components selected from the group comprising:
may further comprise:
[0019]
a voltage sensor connected to tWo poWer supply
input terminals of the apparatus, the sensor being pref
erably a ?rst transformer the primary of Which is con
nected to tWo input terminals of the apparatus in turn
connected to tWo lines of a mains, preferably a phase line
and a neutral line of a single-phase mains or tWo lines of
a three-phase mains, and the secondary of Which is con
nected to said processing and controlling electronic
means, preferably through a ?rst transducer;
[0037]
a pressure sensor capable to detect a pressure of a
gas used by the apparatus When it is a Welding machine
operating according to an arc Welding process With
metal protected by gas or GMAW (Gas Metal Arc Weld
ing), or When it is a Welding machine operating accord
ing to an arc Welding process With infusible tungsten
electrode protected by inert gas, or TIG (Tungsten Inert
Gas), or When it is a Welding machine operating accord
ing to a plasma Welding or cutting process;
Jul. 11, 2013
US 2013/0175248 A1
said one or more conditions of apparatus operation compris
processing and controlling electronic means is connected,
ing one or more conditions depending on one or more param
said one or more speech messages being in a language that is
eters, detected by said sensing electronic means and/or deter
preferably selectable, more preferably automatically settable
mined through processing by said processing and controlling
by said processing and controlling electronic means on the
basis of a position, still more preferably detected in georef
erenced manner, of the apparatus.
electronic means, selected from the group comprising:
[0038] a pressure of a gas used by the apparatus When it
is a Welding machine operating according to an arc
[0052] AlWays according to the invention, said processing
Welding process With metal protected by gas or GMAW
(Gas Metal Arc Welding), or When it is a Welding
machine operating according to an arc Welding process
With infusible tungsten electrode protected by inert gas,
and controlling electronic means may control a speech repro
or TIG (Tungsten Inert Gas), or When it is a Welding
machine operating according to a plasma Welding or
cutting process;
[0039] an average temperature of a Welding area;
[0040] an arc poWer When the apparatus is a Welding
machine operating according to an arc Welding process;
[0041] a regularity index of the Welding process accord
ing to Which the apparatus operates;
[0042] a type of material of an electrode When the appa
ratus is a Welding machine operating according to a
Welding process With shielded electrode, or SMAW
duction through said acoustic playing means of:
[0053] speech messages, in a language that is preferably
selectable, more preferably automatically settable by
said processing and controlling electronic means on the
basis of a position, still more preferably detected in
georeferenced manner, of the apparatus, and/ or
[0054] at least one portion of a user manual of the appa
ratus, in a language that is preferably selectable, more
preferably automatically settable by said processing and
controlling electronic means on the basis of a position,
still more preferably detected in georeferenced manner,
of the apparatus, and/or
[0055] information related to service and/or sale centres
present in an geographical area, in a language that is
a rapidity of consumption of an electrode When
preferably selectable, more preferably automatically
settable by said processing and controlling electronic
the Welding machine operates according to a Welding
means on the basis of a position, still more preferably
process With shielded electrode, or SMAW (Shielded
detected in georeferenced manner, of the apparatus, said
geographical area being preferably selectable, more
(Shielded Metal Arc Welding);
[0043]
Metal Arc Welding);
[0044] a type of material of a Wire When the apparatus is
a Welding machine operating according to an arc Weld
preferably automatically settable by said processing and
ing process With metal protected by gas or GMAW (Gas
Metal Arc Welding);
still more preferably detected in georeferenced manner,
of the apparatus.
[0056] Still according to the invention, said processing and
[0045]
a rapidity of consumption of a Wire When the
controlling electronic means on the basis of a position,
apparatus is a Welding machine operating according to
controlling electronic means may be connected to further
an arc Welding process With metal protected by gas or
interface means, preferably comprising a display, more pref
GMAW (Gas Metal Arc Welding);
erably a LCD and/or touch screen display, and a keypad, more
[0046]
[0047]
a type of a material to be Welded;
a heat capacity of a material to be Welded;
preferably incorporated into the display When it is touch
[0048]
a rapidity of consumption of a deposited material;
trolling electronic means is preferably capable to display one
or more information in a language, that is more preferably
and
[0049]
one or more consumables identi?ed through one
or more RFID, active or passive, tags.
[0050]
screen, on Which interface means said processing and con
Still according to the invention, said processing and
controlling electronic means may be further connected to
selectable, still more preferably automatically settable by
said processing and controlling electronic means on the basis
of a position, even more preferably detected in georeferenced
manner, of the apparatus.
acoustic playing means through Which said processing and
[0057]
controlling electronic means is capable to control a play of
one or more acoustic signalling, related to said one or more
tus may be a Welding machine and said processing and con
trolling electronic means may be capable to receive from said
conditions of apparatus operation, said one or more acoustic
interface means data related to one or more parameters
signalling being preferably depending on said one or more
detection signals, said one or more acoustic signalling more
preferably comprising emission of at least one ?rst sound
having an amplitude depending on a ?rst parameter of appa
ratus operation and a frequency depending on a second
Furthermore according to the invention, the appara
selected from the group comprising:
[0058] a type of material of an electrode When the appa
ratus is a Welding machine operating according to a
Welding process With shielded electrode, or SMAW
(Shielded Metal Arc Welding),
parameter of apparatus operation, said ?rst and second
parameters being still more preferably selectable by an opera
[0059] a type of material of a Wire When the apparatus is
a Welding machine operating according to an arc Weld
tor through interface means connected to said processing and
ing process With metal protected by gas or GMAW (Gas
Metal Arc Welding),
controlling electronic means, said one or more acoustic sig
nalling even more preferably comprising emission of at least
one second sound having an amplitude depending on a refer
[0060]
[0061]
a type of a material to be Welded,
a heat capacity of a material to be Welded,
ence value of said ?rst parameter of apparatus operation and
[0062]
a rapidity of consumption of a deposited material,
a frequency depending on a reference value of said second
[0063]
one or more consumables.
parameter of apparatus operation.
[0064] AlWays according to the invention, the apparatus
[0051] Furthermore according to the invention, said one or
more acoustic signalling may comprise one or more speech
messages, preferably stored in memory means to Which said
may be a Welding machine comprising a ?rst diode bridge
poWer recti?er, that receives a poWer supply alternate current,
preferably through an EMI ?lter, more preferably a passive
Jul. 11, 2013
US 2013/0175248 A1
one, and that delivers the recti?ed current, preferably through
tronic means for supplying poWer, preferably at high fre
quency, more preferably With frequency ranging from 50 to
[0073] Moreover, some embodiments of the apparatus
according to the invention alloWs detection of a possible state
of alcohol intoxication of the operator and the consequent
inhibition of the process that is intended to carry out, eg the
Welding process, preferably, but non limitedly, in the case
100 KHZ, to a primary of a second transformer, a secondary of
Where a condition of use on a scaffolding is also detected. In
the second transformer being connected to, preferably
through a second diode bridge poWer recti?er diode bridge
eliminate all the dangers related to the use of the same appa
at least one voltage levelling capacitor, ad a DC/AC poWer
converter controlled by said processing and controlling elec
poWer recti?er and at least one current levelling inductor, to
tWo output terminals of the apparatus, the DC/AC poWer
converter being preferably of dual sWitch forWard type and
more preferably comprising tWo poWer semiconductor
devices, preferably tWo IGBTs, each comprising a gate pref
erably driven by a pulse Width modulation, or PWM (Pulse
Width Modulation), signal generator, controlled by said pro
cessing and controlling electronic means, said sensing elec
tronic means comprising one or more electronic components
selected from the group comprising:
[0065] un current sensor, preferably comprising a cur
rent shunt resistor, capable to detect a current of the
such Way, the apparatus according to the invention alloWs to
ratus When the operator has taken alcohol, dangers due to: an
underestimation of the danger With consequent increase of
the risk; an inferior capacity of concentration; an alteration of
the distance perception; an alteration of visual capacities;
and, in case of a Welding machine, a higher sensitivity to the
?ash blindness produced during the Welding process.
[0074]
Furthermore, in some embodiments of the apparatus
according to the invention, in particular of the Welding
machine, the apparatus constantly monitors the process that it
is intended to carry out, eg the Welding process, through the
characteristic parameters thereof, such as, for instance in case
primary of the second transformer, preferably connected
of a Welding machine, voltage, current, arc length, velocity,
gas amount, etc. Such parameters, if not directly measurable,
to said processing and controlling electronic means
through a third transducer; and
are estimated on the basis of the results of the real time
processing of one or more mathematical models. In such case,
[0066] a current sensor, preferably comprising a current
shunt resistor, capable to detect a current of the second
the operator is assisted also With speech messages Which may
suggest the correction of parameters for achieving a good
ary of the second transformer, preferably connected to
said processing and controlling electronic means
through a fourth transducer;
said one or more conditions of apparatus operation compris
ing one or more conditions depending on one or more param
eters, detected by said sensing electronic means and/or deter
mined through processing by said processing and controlling
electronic means, selected from the group comprising:
[0067] an input voltage of the DC/AC poWer converter;
[0068] a current of the primary of the second trans
former; and
[0069] a current of the secondary of the second trans
former.
[0070]
Still according to the invention, said processing and
controlling electronic means may be capable to inhibit said
apparatus operation upon occurrence of one or more opera
tion conditions recognised on the basis of said one or more
detection signals Which are received.
[0071] The present invention relates to an electrical or elec
tronic apparatus, in particular an electronic Welding machine
or a battery charger, capable to acquire data related to envi
ronmental conditions (status of the mains, temperature,
humidity, etc.) and to determine operation conditions of a
process carried out by the apparatus, eg a Welding process.
On the basis of this analysis, the apparatus suggests precau
tions to adopt so as to optimise safety conditions. In particu
lar, the apparatus may be a Welding machine dedicated to any
Welding process, in particular a SMAW (or MMA), GMAW
(or MIG or MAG), TIG or even plasma (including its appli
cation for cutting, besides Welding) process.
[0072] In particular cases, for example a mains voltage
beyond the operative limits or absence of a connection to a
ground line, the apparatus may preferably inhibit the process
that it is intended to perform, e. g. the Welding process, more
preferably giving communication thereof through both dis
result, eg a good Welding.
[0075] Assistance through speech messages is preferably
extended to play of the instruction manual, as Well as to all
those information dedicated to identify service centres and
consumable material supply centres, in the area Where the
apparatus has been sold and/or is used.
[0076] The present invention Will be noW described, by Way
of illustration and not by Way of limitation, according to its
preferred embodiments, by particularly referring to the Fig
ures of the enclosed draWings, in Which:
[0077] FIG. 1A shoWs a circuit diagram of the control elec
tronics of a ?rst embodiment of a Welding machine according
to the invention;
[0078] FIG. 1B shoWs a circuit diagram of the control elec
tronics of a second embodiment of a Welding machine
according to the invention;
[0079] FIG. 2 schematically shoWs a mathematical model
of the Welding process on the basis of Which the machine of
FIG. 1A is capable to calculate non directly measurable
parameters;
[0080] FIG. 3 schematically shoWs as the model of FIG. 2
interacts With acoustic playing means of the machine of FIG.
1A;
[0081]
FIG. 4 schematically shoWs an example geometrical
con?guration related to one of the Welding programs of the
machine of FIG. 1A;
[0082] FIG. 5 schematically shoWs a second example geo
metrical con?guration related to one of the Welding programs
of the machine of FIG. 1A;
[0083] FIG. 6 shoWs a circuit diagram of a component
shoWn in the circuit diagram of FIG. 1A; and
[0084] FIG. 7 shoWs a circuit diagram of a further compo
nent connected to the circuit diagram of FIG. 1A.
[0085] In FIGS. 1A, 1B, 6 and 7, references, also When
identical, to the electronic components (eg diodes, resistors,
play and speech message. In the case Where it is possible to
carry out operations capable to remove causes of inhibition,
transistors, and relays) do not indicate the same electronic
the apparatus preferably suggests the most adequate proce
[0086] In particular, symbols of the electronic components
and values of the respective electrical quantities given in
dure.
components, unless expressly stated to the contrary.
Jul. 11, 2013
US 2013/0175248 A1
FIGS. 6 and 7 are examples and they have not to be intended
as limiting the scope of protection of the present invention,
unless expressly stated to the contrary.
[0087] With reference to FIG. 1A, a circuit diagram may be
observed, immediately comprehensible to those skilled in the
art, of the control electronics of a ?rst embodiment of a
Welding machine according to the invention.
[0088] The electronics is poWer supplied by a single-phase
mains, to Which it connects through phase and neutral termi
nals F and N, While a third terminal GND is connected to the
ground of the mains; in particular, the three terminals F, N and
GND are part of an input interface consisting of an electrical
plug SP1.
[0089]
Mains current crosses an EMI ?lter (against electro
magnetic interferences) E1 and is recti?ed by a ?rst diode
bridge poWer recti?er P1, that receives the alternate current
from the ?lter E1 and deliver the same, recti?ed, to a capacitor
C1 smoothing it. Thus recti?ed and smoothed current is re
converted in a high frequency (preferably ranging from 50 to
100 KHZ) one by a DC/AC poWer converter B1 for poWer
supplying the primary of a transformer TR1, the secondary of
Which is connected to an output rectifying stage having tWo
output terminals, positive O1 and negative O2, Which deliver
arc voltage and current. In this regard, although in FIG. 1A is
shoWn a single-phase mains, other embodiments of the
machine according to the present invention may be poWer
supplied through three-phase mains by means of simple cir
cuit adaptations Within the reach of those skilled in the art.
[0090] EMI ?lter E1, that is preferably a passive ?lter,
limits electromagnetic disturbance produced by the machine
and led toWards the mains.
[0091] The DC/AC poWer converter B1 is preferably of the
dual sWitch forWard type and comprises tWo IGBTs 11 and
12, the gates of Which are driven by a pulse Width modulation,
or PWM (Pulse Width Modulation), signal generator F2 for
creating a pulse voltage on the primary of the transformer
TR1, that is unipolar also thanks to the presence of the tWo
blocking diodes D1 and D2.
[0092] The transformer TR1, besides to loWering the volt
[0097] through a ?rst transducerVT1, the secondary of a
transformer TRO the primary of Which is connected to
the phase and neutral terminals F and N, for sensing the
mains voltage;
[0098] through a second transducer CT1, a temperature
sensor RT1 for sensing the temperature of the poWer
electronic components of the DC/AC poWer converter
B1;
[0099]
through a third transducer CT2, a current shunt
resistor R8 for sensing the current delivered by the
bridge P1;
[0100] through a fourth transducer CT3, a shunt resistor
R4 for sensing the current delivered by the machine at
the output terminals O1 and O2, i.e. the arc current;
[0101] a GPS orAGPS georeferenced position sensor Z1
for detecting the georeferenced position of the machine;
[0102]
a pressure sensor Z2 for sensing the pressure of
the gas possibly used in the Welding or cutting process
(eg in GMAW, TIG or plasma Welding);
[0103] a humidity sensor Z3 for sensing the humidity of
the air external to the machine;
[0104]
a radiofrequency identi?er or RFID sensor Z4, for
detecting and reading RFID, active or passive, transpon
ders or tags;
[0105] a temperature sensor ST1, for sensing the tem
perature internal to the machine;
[0106] a temperature sensor ST2, for sensing the tem
perature external to the machine;
[0107] a device Z5 for detecting the blood alcohol con
centration of the operator, that Will be shoWn beloW With
reference to FIG. 7;
[0108] a pressure sensor Z6 for detecting the correct
performance of the test through the blood alcohol con
centration detecting device Z5;
[0109] a digital transducer Z7 for sensing the height,
based by Way of example, and not by Way of limitation,
on the MEMS pressure sensor LPS001 D available from
the ST Microelectronics company.
nected to the output terminals O1 and O2) from the “mains”
section.
[0110] The microprocessor M1 is further provided With a
?rst input/output interface INT1 through Which it is con
nected to the generator F2, for controlling its generation of the
PWM signals driving the gates of the tWo IGBTs I1 and I2; in
[0093]
particular, the microprocessor M1 transmits the control sig
age level doWn to the value needed for Welding, ensures a
galvanic insulation of the “Welding output” section (con
The output rectifying stage comprises a second
diode bridge poWer recti?er P2, that receives the current
delivered by the secondary of the transformer TR1, and an
inductor L2, connected betWeen the recti?er P2 and the posi
tive output terminal O1, so as to rectify and smooth the output
voltage of the transformer TR1.
[0094] The type of conversion adopted in the machine of
FIG. 1A is purely a not limiting example, i.e. it does not
characterise the present invention.
[0095]
The Welding machine is controlled by a micropro
cessor M1 (provided With a memory, not shoWn in FIG. 1A),
that is connected to the poWer electronics and to a plurality of
transducers and sensors from Which it receives a plurality of
nals to the generator F2, preferably on the basis of settings
manually made by an operator or automatically made by the
Welding program selected by the operator, on the basis of
Which the generator drives the tWo IGBTs I1 and I2. In par
ticular, the microprocessor M1 is capable to knoW the output
voltage at the terminals O1 and O2, i.e. the arc voltage, on the
basis of the control signals that the same microprocessor M1
transmits to the generator F2 and of the transformation ratio
of the transformer TR1. Through the collector COL1, the
microprocessor M1 could be further capable to further
receive from the generator F2 data related to the operation of
the latter.
detection of electrical quantities characteristic for the
[0111]
machine operation. In particular, the microprocessor M1 is
a second input/output interface INT2 through Which it is
provided With an interface collector COL1 that is connected
connected to:
[0112]
to:
[0096]
a device S1 for sensing the correct connection of
the protection ground conductor, i.e. of the third termi
nal GND, to the ground of the mains, that Will be shoWn
beloW With reference to FIG. 6;
Moreover, the microprocessor M1 is provided With
a fanV for cooling the machine, of Which it con
trols the operation;
[0113] an infrared emitter photodiode D12, of Which it
controls the emission, and an infrared-sensitive pho
totransistor Q1 for sensing the infrared radiation
Jul. 11, 2013
US 2013/0175248 A1
received from the photodiode D12. Still, the micropro
[0120]
cessor M1 is further connected to:
?es the mains ac voltage (coming from terminal F or P
[0114]
through a third input/output interface lNT3, a
graphical display DY1, preferably a LCD, onto Which,
depending on the operation state of the machine, infor
mation related to the parameters set by the user and/or
the values of some variables of interest are shoWn; and
[0115] through a fourth input/ output interface INT4, a
keypad K1 (possibly incorporated in a touch screen-type
display DY1), through Which an operator may select an
operation mode of the Welding machine.
[0116] Finally, through the ?rst input/output interface
lNT1, the microprocessor M1 is connected to, preferably
through a serial connection, a codec (audio encoder/decoder)
device M2 for managing sounds and speech messages, pro
When the relay K2 is activated, the diode D3 recti
depending on the state of the relay K1), making the only
positive half-Wave pass. The voltage divider formed by resis
tors R3, R5, R7, R10 and R12 greatly reduces, preferably by
about 400 times, the recti?ed voltage and applies it to the
input of the operational ampli?er U13A. Preferably, the val
ues of resistances chosen for the divider are very high for
making a very loW value of current circulate during measure
ment. The operational ampli?er U13A ampli?es the voltage
across the resistor R7 of the divider of voltage; the ampli?ed
voltage at the output of the operational ampli?er U13A sup
plies the internal LED of an optoisolator OP1. The optoiso
device M2) into audio signals Which are then ampli?ed by the
same codec device M2 for being played by a speaker G1
lator OP1 has the function of galvanically insulating the mea
suring circuit from the microprocessor M1. The output of the
optoisolator OP1 is connected to a resistor R69 in pull up
con?guration, and the signal present on the output terminal
GROUND (equal to the voltage betWeen the output of the
optoisolator OP1 and grounds) is sent to a digital input of the
microprocessor M1 that veri?es its state (high or loW): in case
of a state of high signal, no voltage is present betWeen the
selected supply terminal (i.e. the terminal F or P depending on
connected to the latter. Other embodiments of the machine
the stats of the relay K1) and the ground terminal GND; in
vided With a mass storage memory storing speech messages,
Which codec device M2 is capable to convert digital data
(processed starting from signals delivered by the micropro
cessor M1 or retrieved from the memory of the same codec
according to the invention may further have the microproces
sor M1 and the codec device M2 incorporated in a single
processing and controlling electronic unit (eg a micropro
cessor having adequate processing capacity).
[0117] FIG. 6 shoWs, by Way ofexample, and not by Way of
limitation, a circuit diagram, immediately comprehensible to
those skilled in the art, of an implementation of the device S1
for sensing the correct or incorrect connection of the protec
tion ground conductor Which carries out the detection through
a measurement of the voltage present betWeen the phase
terminal F and the ground terminal GND and the measure
ment of the voltage present betWeen the neutral terminal N
and ground terminal GND. With reference to FIG. 6, it may be
ob served that the device S1 is activated by the microprocessor
M1 through the tWo suitable input control terminals TEST
ENABLE and SELECT F-N and transmits the detection data
to the microprocessor M1 through the output terminal
GROUND; such terminals, i.e. TEST ENABLE, SELECT
F-N and GROUND, are connected to the microprocessor M1
through the interface collector COL1. More in particular, the
device S1 alloWs the microprocessor M1 to verify the pres
ence of voltage betWeen the phase terminal F (connected to
the input terminal F of FIG. 6) and the ground terminal GND
(connected to the input terminal GND of FIG. 6) and the
absence of voltage betWeen the neutral terminal N (connected
to the input terminal F of FIG. 6) and the ground terminal
GND.
[0118]
case of a state of loW signal, a voltage is present betWeen the
selected supply terminal and the ground terminal GND.
[0121] Preferably, the microprocessor M1 enables detec
tion of the correct or incorrect connection of the protection
ground conductor by carrying out the folloWing sequence of
steps:
[0122]
in a ?rst step, the microprocessor M1 activates the
relay K2, While the relay K1 is not activated (Whereby
the phase terminal is selected); consequently, the mesh
of the components D3, R3, R5, R7, R10 and R12 is
supplied With the voltage present betWeen the terminals
F and GND (i.e. With the voltage present betWeen the
phase terminal F and the ground terminal GND of the
plug SP1 of FIG. 1A), and the microprocessor M1 veri
?es the presence or the absence of such voltage on the
basis of the signal present on the output terminal
GROUND of the device S1;
[0123] in a second step, the microprocessor M1 deacti
vates the relay K2, so as to discharge the measuring
circuit doWnstream of the mesh comprising the resistive
voltage divider;
[0124]
in a third step, the microprocessor M1 simulta
neously activates the tWo relays K1 and K2, Whereby the
mesh of components D3, R3, R5, R7, R10 and R12 is
supplied With the voltage present betWeen the terminals
N and GND (i.e. With the voltage present betWeen the
neutral terminal N and the ground terminal GND of the
The device S1 of FIG. 6 comprises tWo relays: a
plug SP1 of FIG. 1A), and the microprocessor M1 veri
relay K1, that is a sWitching relay having the task of selecting
?es the presence or the absence of such voltage on the
the terminal (i.e. either phase or neutral one) of Which the
voltage With respect to ground is to be measured; and a relay
K2, having the task of enabling the detection by poWer sup
plying, through the mesh formed by the diode D3 and resis
tors R3, R5, R7, R10 and R12, a doWnstream measuring
circuit. When it is not activated, the sWitching relay K1 is in a
closed position corresponding to the selection of the phase
terminal, While When it is activated, it is in an open position
corresponding to the selection of the neutral terminal.
basis of the signal present on the output terminal
GROUND of the device S1;
[0125] in a fourth and ?nal step, the microprocessor M1
deactivates both the relays K1 and K2.
[0126] At the end of such sequence, the microprocessor M1
processes the detection data (i.e. the values of the signal at the
output terminal GROUND) and delivers the information
[0119]
Welding process, or the information about incorrect connec
Through the tWo input terminal signals TEST
ENABLE and SELECT P-N, the microprocessor M1 is
capable to activate, respectively, the tWo relays K2 and K1.
about correct connection of the protection ground conductor,
simultaneously enabling the Welding machine to carry out a
tion of the protection ground conductor, thus indicating the
state of danger of the mains, preferably providing for further
Jul. 11, 2013
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possible suggestions for solving the problem. In particular,
voltage at the output terminal ETILOMETRO OUT: the
the microprocessor M1 provide the operator With information
by displaying the same on the display DY1 and/or giving
microprocessor M1 recognises that the operator is sober
corresponding speech messages through the speaker G1.
stabilised value (i.e. 1,95 V); otherWise, if such maximum
value is higher, the microprocessor M1 recognises that the
Preferably, in the case Where an incorrect connection of the
When such maximum value remains equal to the constant
protection ground conductor is detected, the microprocessor
operator has taken alcohol and determines his/her blood alco
M1 disables the Welding process, not sending the necessary
control signals to the generator F2 so that the tWo positive and
negative output terminals O1 and O2 provides for Zero volt
hol concentration, that is proportional (according to speci?
age and current.
[0127] In this regard, the microprocessor M1 enables the
detection of the connection of ground at least upon turning the
Welding machine on; preferably, the microprocessor M1 may
also periodically repeat such detection, eg by activating the
relays K1 and K2 according to the sequence shoWn above
cations provided by the manufacturer of the sensor L1) to the
maximum value detected at the output terminal ETILO
METRO OUT. The microprocessor M1 provides for the out
come of the test through information displayed on the display
DY1 and/or by providing corresponding speech messages
through the speaker G1, preferably by indicating that it is
possible to proceed With the Welding process if the detected
blood alcohol concentration is loWer than a maximum thresh
upon expiry of a time interval and as soon as it detects,
old (e.g. 0,3 mg/l), and instead by indicating that it is not
through the shunt resistor R4, that no Welding process is in
possible to proceed if the detected blood alcohol concentra
tion is higher than the maximum threshold and simulta
progress (i.e. as soon as the output current is Zero).
[0128] FIG. 7 shoWs, by Way ofexample, and not by Way of
limitation, a circuit diagram, immediately comprehensible to
neously disabling the Welding process.
those skilled in the art, of an implementation of the device Z5
[0131] The microprocessor M1 is capable to determine
When the operator is actually carrying out the test through the
for detecting the blood alcohol concentration of the operator,
pressure sensor Z6, located in correspondence of the funnel.
preferably based on the sensor device TGS822 available from
the FIGARO USA, Inc. company, indicated in FIG. 7 With the
In fact, by analysing the data coming from the sensor Z6, the
microprocessor M1 determines the maximum value of the
voltage at the output terminal ETILOMETRO OUT only
When it recognises that the operator is bloWing Within the
funnel.
reference L1. The device Z5 is activated by the microproces
sor M1 through the control input terminal ETIL-ENABLE
and transmits the detection data to the microprocessor M1
through the output terminal ETILOMETRO OUT; such ter
minals are connected to the microprocessor M1 through the
interface collector COL1.
[0129] The circuit of FIG. 7 is used by the microprocessor
M1 for reading variations of voltage across the resistor R1
connected betWeen pins 4-6 of the sensor L1 and the circuit
ground. This voltage, present at the output terminal ETILO
METRO OUT, When alcohol vapours are absent, is equal to
about 1,95 volt and increases proportionally to the concen
tration of alcohol vapours up to about 4,5 volt for the maxi
mum alcohol concentration. Since for carrying out precise
measurements it is necessary that the sensor L1 is stabilised at
the operating temperature, the sensor L1 internally has a
resistor alloWing its heating. Moreover, the voltage across the
resistor R1, once raised due to the presence of alcohol
vapours, rapidly decreases When the one Who undergoes the
test stop to bloW: the microprocessor M1 must, hence, detect
the maximum peak of the voltage present at the output termi
nal ETILOMETRO OUT.
[0130] The microprocessor M1 enables the detection of the
blood alcohol concentration of the operator through the con
trol input terminal ETIL-ENABLE, that activates the transis
tor Q3 and, through this, supplies the heating resistor of the
sensor L1. When the temperature of the sensor L1 reaches the
operating temperature, the voltage across the resistor R1
reaches a constant stabilised value (equal to 1,95 V). Once the
microprocessor M1 recognises the onset of the operation
conditions (i.e. the reaching of the operation temperature in
the sensor L1) through analysis of the data received from the
output terminal ETILOMETRO OUT, the microprocessor
M1 provides the operator With instructions about hoW to
undergo the blood alcohol concentration test; such instruc
tions may be provided by displaying the same on the display
DY1 and/or providing for corresponding speech messages
through the speaker G1. At this point, the operator must bloW
in a small funnel, coupled to the sensor of the device Z5, and
the microprocessor determines the maximum value of the
[0132]
The microprocessor M1 may identify the operator
through the sensor Z4 of RFID tags prior to the test, so as to
enable the Welding process only for those operators Who have
undergone the test.
[0133]
Preferably, the microprocessor M1 may condition
the need for preliminarily carrying out the detection of the
blood alcohol concentration to verifying Whether the machine
is used on a scaffolding. In such case, through the detection
provided by the digital transducer Z7, the microprocessor
may determine Which is the height above ground of the
machine, eg by disabling the Welding process if the operator
does not undergo the detection of the blood alcohol concen
tration and the outcome of the latter is negative.
[0134] Also for the detection of the blood alcohol concen
tration of the operator, the microprocessor M1 may enable
such detection of the ground connection at least upon turning
the Welding machine on; preferably, the microprocessor M1
may also periodically repeat such detection, e.g. upon expiry
of a time interval and as soon as it detects, through the shunt
resistor R4, that no Welding process is in progress (i.e. as soon
as the output current is Zero), thus avoiding that the operator
may drink during short breaks during the Welding process
Without detection by the machine.
[0135] The functions that the microprocessor M1 carries
out further comprise:
[0136] adjusting the current reference signal sent to the
generator F2;
[0137] converting the analog signals coming from the
transducers and sensors to Which it is connected;
[0138] processing such signals onthe basis of algorithms
(Welding programs) based on mathematical models, as
described beloW;
[0139] managing the user interface comprising display
DY1 and keypad K1;
[0140] generating speech messages supporting the user
during both the Welding process and the stand-by steps;
and
Jul. 11, 2013
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[0141] generating suitably modulated sounds capable to
convey information useful to the operator during the
Welding process.
against a possible obstacle present in front of the outlet
duct of the fan V and the microprocessor M1 interprets
possible absence (or Weakness) of the infrared signal
received by the phototransistor Q1 as a presence of an
[0142] In particular, on the basis of the signals received
from the various components to Which it is connected, the
microprocessor M1 is capable to detect in real time the opera
tion conditions of the Welding machine and to provide the
operator With information about such conditions.
[0151] identifying, through the detector Z4, one or more
consumables provided With TAG (eg an electrode for
SMAW Welding or a Wire coil for GMAW Welding) and
[0143] By Way of example, the microprocessor M1 is
capable of:
signalling and/ or informing the operator about inad
equacy of the consumable;
[0144] sensing, through the device S1, the actual connec
tion of the ground conductor and consequently inform
ing the operator on the presence or not of the ground
connection of the machine, signalling to the operator the
outcome of such detection, through display on the dis
play DY1 and/ or speech messages played by the speaker
G1, containing information related to the consequences
due to an inadequate connection of the ground conduc
tor;
[0145] detecting, through the device Z5 and the sensor
obstacle obstructing the ventilation How;
[0152]
selecting the language in Which display informa
tion on the display DY1 and/or providing speech mes
sages through the speaker G1, as Well as selecting infor
mation about the location of service and selling centres
(eg of accessories and consumables), on the basis of the
detection, through detector Z1, of the georeferenced
position of the machine.
[0153] Other embodiments of the Welding machine accord
ing to the invention may also have devices for sensing the
correct connection of the protection ground conductor differ
Z6, a state of alcohol intoxication of the operator, and
ent from the device S1 of FIGS. 1A and 6. Further embodi
consequently informing the operator about the outcome
of the test, through display on the display DY1 and/or
tion may be conditioned to the height above ground at
Which the operator is, as detected through the transducer
ments of the Welding machine according to the invention may
be also not provided With the device Z5 for detecting the
blood alcohol concentration of the operator, With the pressure
sensor Z6 for sensing the correct performance of the test
through the device Z5, and With the digital transducer Z7 for
Z7;
detecting the height.
speech messages played by the speaker G1; such detec
[0146] sensing, through the transformer TRO, the mains
voltage and signalling to the operator a possible incor
[0154] By Way of example, and not by Way of limitation,
FIG. 1B shoWs a circuit diagram, immediately comprehen
rect voltage, by possibly accompanying such signalling
taining information related to the consequences due to
sible to those skilled in the art, of the control electronics of a
second embodiment of a Welding machine according to the
invention that differs from the machine of FIG. 1A in that the
an inadequate mains voltage;
device for sensing the correct connection of the protection
With speech messages, played by the speaker G1, con
sensing, through the transformer TRO, the mains
ground conductor consists of a current sensor S1‘, connected
voltage and signalling to the operator a possible incor
to the microprocessor M1 through the interface collector
rect voltage, by possibly accompanying such signalling
COL1, that senses the current crossing the terminal GND
connected to the mains ground. In particular, the machine of
[0147]
With speech messages, played by the speaker G1, con
taining information related to the consequences due to
FIG. 1B further differs from that of FIG. 1A because it is not
an inadequate mains voltage;
provided With the device Z5 for detecting the blood alcohol
[0148] detecting an excessively high mains impedance
(eg due to inadequacy of the system or to use of a not
correctly siZed extension cord); in particular, this is
made by comparing the mains voltage, sensed through
the transformer TRO, in tWo different conditions of out
put current, in turn sensed through the shunt resistor R4,
respectively in an unloaded Way (i.e. output current
Zero) and for high values of output current (e.g. not loWer
than 50 Ampere, preferably not loWer than 80 Ampere,
more preferably not loWer than 100 Ampere); When
comparison shoWs a signi?cant decrease (e.g. not loWer
than 5% of the unloaded mains voltage) of the mains
voltage for high values of output current, the micropro
concentration of the operator, With the pressure sensor Z6 and
With the digital transducer Z7 for detecting the height.
[0155] For both the embodiments of the machine according
to the invention shoWn in FIGS. 1A and 1B, the microproces
sor M1 may further process the signals received from the
various components to Which it is connected and obtain the
information necessary for generating sounds and/or messages
through the codec device M2.
[0156]
In particular, the microprocessor M1 processes the
received signals on the basis of a mathematical model of the
Welding process through Which it is capable to calculate With
suf?cient approximation characteristic parameters not
directly measurable of the same process, such as, for instance
cessor M1 is capable to signal and/or inform the operator
in a MMA machine, dissipated poWer, temperature in the
about the high value of the mains impedance;
[0149] sensing, through the sensor ST2, the external
temperature and signalling and/or informing the opera
tor of possible necessity of preheating the piece to be
Welding area, electrode consumption. Moreover, the model
alloWs the microprocessor M1 to indirectly extrapolate fur
Welded;
[0150] detecting, through activation of the photodiode
D12 and the consequent detection by the phototransistor
Q1, the ef?ciency of the ventilation carried out by the V;
in fact, the photodiode D12 and the phototransistor Q1
alloW to detect Whether the How of the ventilation is
obstructed or not, since the photodiode D12 transmits
ther statistical data, such as, e.g., an indication of the regular
ity of the Welding process, a probability that slags have been
incorporated, a numerical indication about the Whole quality
ofthe process.
[0157] With reference to the schematic representation of
FIG. 2, model 10 has as input data the electrical and physical
quantities related to the arc Welding process, i.e.:
[0158] arc current (i.e. the output current delivered by the
terminals O1 and O2);
Jul. 11, 2013
US 2013/0175248 A1
[0159] arc voltage Va (i.e. the output voltage present at
the terminals O1 and O2); and
[0160] temperature external to the machine.
[0161] Further input data may be external humidity and
pressure of the gas possibly used.
regularity index of the Welding process, the thermal gradient
[0162]
Numerous characteristic parameters related to the
alloW the operator to select tWo among all the characteristic
particular Welding process in progress may represent input
data for the mathematical model, in particular:
[0163] the speci?c heat capacity of the material to be
Welded, preferably expressed With a simple numerical
classi?cation (e.g.: “l” for very high heat capacity, such
parameters of the Welding process (including those Which are
measured and calculated) for synthesising, on the basis of
as for instance in case of light sheet metal; “2” for high
heat capacity, such as for instance in case of heavy sheet
metals; “3” for medium heat capacity, such as for
instance in case of light massive objects; and “4” for loW
heat capacity, such as for instance in case of heavy
massive objects);
[0164] the type of the possible electrode (for SMAW
Welding) or of the possible Wire (for GMAW Welding),
preferably categorised on the basis of cross-section and
alloy;
[0165]
some of these amounts may be displayed on the display DY1.
[0180]
The machine according to the invention may also
them, a sound (that is played by the speaker G1) the amplitude
and frequency of Which depends each on one of the tWo
selected parameters, Whereby perception of the sound alloWs
monitoring by the operator of the tWo selected parameters.
[0181] By Way of example, as shoWn by the schematic
representation of FIG. 3, if it is desired to monitor the arc
current and voltage, the program carried out by the micropro
cessor M1 determines a valueVl proportional to the delivered
current and a value V2 proportional to the arc voltage and the
codec device M2 a sound is synthesise through the codec
device M2 Which has an amplitude depending on V1 and a
frequency depending on V2, that is then played by the speaker
G1 . Preferably, the relationship betWeenVl and the amplitude
the type of material to be Welded, preferably cat
egorised;
[0166]
estimated inside the machine. On the basis of the choices of
the operator made during customisation of the user interface,
the type of the same process (SMAW, GMAW,
GTAW, etc.);
[0167] the position of pieces (horiZontal, vertical, upside
doWn);
[0168] siZe of the elements (classi?ed in four categories:
“1” for light sheet metal, “2” for heavy light sheet, “3”
for light massive objects, “4” for heavy massive objects).
variation and the relationship betWeen V2 and the frequency
variation of the sound synthesised is not necessarily linear, in
order to improve intelligibility and pleasantness of the pro
duced sound.
[0182] The machine according to the invention may also
provide for the option of superimposing to the thus synthe
sised sound that is a function of the real time values of the tWo
that is intended to be carried out. For this reason, a particular
selected parameters, also a sound of reference corresponding
to the sound that Would be produced if the same Welding
process Would be carried out With the optimal values of the
tWo selected parameters. In such a Way, the operator has the
opportunity to have a direct and immediate “feedback” from
Welding program containing both the thermal model and the
characteristic parameters is associated With each type. The
the Welding process so as to optimise it.
[0169]
All these parameters, as Well as the same thermal
model, are characteristics of the particular Welding process
program hence constitutes the single record of a database in
Which stored numerous operative types are stored, of Which
FIGS. 4 and 5 represent their examples.
[0170] In the single record are hence stored the folloWing
further information:
[0171] thermal mode;
[0172]
[0173]
siZe and material of the electrode or Wire;
arc current;
[0174]
arc voltage;
[0175] geometrical siZe of chamfer (if needed);
the Welding machine for adjusting the performance modes of
[0183] As already said, the interface operates through tWo
distinct operative modes selectable by the operator, ie the
previously described speech synthesis and delivering speech
messages. In the latter case, the sound interface is capable to
communicate a series of helping messages to the operator,
ensuring information useful to the correct advance of the
process. The functions of speech synthesis and the one of
generation of speech messages are managed by the micropro
cessor M1 With the aid of the codec device M2 shoWn in FIG.
1.
[0184]
Messages are preferably classi?ed according to
[0176] material to be Welded;
[0177] The operator, before proceeding, may select in the
database the information corresponding to the program that it
is going to execute. The machine automatically sets the Weld
three importance levels as requested for the operator: from a
(minimum) level 1 to a (maximum) level 3. The operator may
ing parameters, Which may hoWever be manually modi?ed by
or less “invasive” behaviour With regard to the operative
environment: by selecting the level 1 all the messages are
the operator by acting on the display DY1 and/or on the
keypad K1.
[0178] It is useful to still point out that the thermal model is
part of the information associated With each speci?c program.
[0179] On the basis of the selected program, the micropro
cessor M1 processes the model With data acquired by the
sensors and transducers and those of the parameters associ
ated by calculating in real time the temperature distributions
in proximity With the region subjected to the process, hence
further data such as poWer dissipated by the arc, the optimal
arc current, the optimal arc voltage Va, the average tempera
ture of the Welding area, rapidity of consumption of the elec
trode or Wire or deposited material, advance velocity of the
Welding bead, ef?ciency of the gas (for machines using it), a
select the desired level so that the sound interface has a more
transmitted, by selecting the level 2 only important and emer
gency messages are transmitted, by selecting the level 3 only
emergency messages are transmitted. Obviously, both or
either one of the tWo operative modes of the sound interface
may be disabled by the operator through the keypad K1.
[0185] Along With on the basis of the importance level,
speech messages are preferably classi?ed according to ?ve
categories: informing messages, functional messages, train
ing messages, real time operative messages, and attention
messages.
[0186] Informing messages are messages related to the
knoWledge of the machine, to the use instructions, to the
service centres available in the territory (to their location and
Jul. 11, 2013
US 2013/0175248 A1
logue that may be also “browsed” by the operator through the
display DY1 and keypad K1, through Which the operator may
reaching of a critical temperature inside the
machine, and, if importance level 1 is enabled, the time
needed for restoring depending on external temperature
pass from one page to the other suitably guided by the soft
and ventilation is communicated as Well, as it Will be
contacts). These messages are contained in an electronic cata
Ware executed by the microprocessor Ml; preferably, pages
are organised according to a logic tree structured so as to
facilitate retrieval of information, e. g. in a similar Way as
pages of a Web site connected to each other by hyperlinks.
[0187] Functional messages are messages informing the
operator about the status of the environmental conditions in
Which the machine is to operate or is operating, such as, for
instance, mains voltage, temperature internal to the machine,
temperature of the electronic components of the electronics
of the machine, external temperature, and humidity.
[0188] Training messages alloW the operator to folloW step
by-step a series of instructions for training purposes for
executing the Welding process according to optimal criteria.
Training is scheduled on a diversi?ed series of types of Weld
ing processes Which may change depending on the material
and form of the objects to be Welded.
[0189] Real time operative messages provide the operator
With operative information during the Welding process, such
as, for instance:
[0190]
inadequacy of the connection of ground and/or
reaching of a minimum value of the mains voltage and/
or reaching of a maximum value of the mains voltage (if
importance level 1 is enabled, signalling is accompanied
[0201]
described beloW;
[0202] necessity of pre-heating the piece to be Welded, if
external temperature is beloW a predetermined mini
mum threshold, preferably equal to 40 C. (in fact, in limit
cases the temperature gradient may cause damages to
the pieces to be Welded);
[0203] in case of TIG or plasma Welding, reaching of
values higher than respective maximum thresholds of
compressor pressure and of air humidity, for Which fault
probability of the Welding machine increases.
[0204] If the operator selects the operation mode of the
speech messages, it is preferably automatically set the impor
tance level 3, in Which only such attention messages, being
connected to events requiring absolute attention from the
operator, are played.
[0205] The machine preferably manages internal over-tem
perature situations as folloWs.
[0206] The internal temperature of the machine is sensed
by the sensor ST1 in a critical point of the same machine, With
Which tWo attention temperature thresholds are associated: a
Warning threshold T8 and a maximum threshold TM, With
Tg<TM, preferably
by information of consequences that the use of the
machine in these conditions may imply);
[0191]
[0192]
the condition of sobriety or not of the operator;
the height above ground at Which the machine is
(if importance level 1 is enabled, signalling is accompa
nied by information related to safety rules Which must be
met by the operator);
[0193] excessively high mains impedance (if importance
level 1 is enabled, speech signalling is also accompanied
by the suggestion about Which electrode or Wire can be
possibly used With the available mains impedance; in
fact, the value of the mains impedance conditions the
maximum value of current that may be delivered and
hence the type of the possible electrode or Wire to use);
[0194] the expediency of modifying the Welding param
eters;
[0195] the expediency of changing the possible electrode
or Wire;
[0196]
the temperature inside the machine;
[0197] pressure and humidity, Which are tWo parameters
Which in the TIG or plasma (for both Welding and cut
ting) Welding machines are essential for quality of the
Welding process (in this case the speech messages may
also guide the operator to the correct value of pressure to
use);
[0207] If the temperature sensed by the sensor ST1 exceeds
the Warning threshold Tg a Warning is emitted to the operator
to Whom it is suggested to end the Welding process as soon as
possible for alloWing a correct cooling of the Welding
machine and in order to alloW Welding to be suspended
according to the most suitable modes.
[0208] In the case Where the Welding process continuous
and the temperature sensed by the sensor ST1 exceeds the
maximum threshold TM, a Warning sound is emitted and
Within a short time interval, for instance equal to 30 seconds,
the microprocessor M1 deactivates the generator F2 inter
rupting the delivery of current and voltage at the output ter
minals O1 and O2.
[0209] In case of stop due to over-temperature, the cooling
fan V remains active until the temperature sensed by the
sensor ST1 loWers beloW a minimum temperature threshold
Tm, preferably equal to
[0210] Obviously, the above may be immediately applied
also to the case Wherein the machine is provided With more
than one internal temperature sensor: in this case, it is su?i
cient that only one of them senses an over-temperature for
activating the procedure just shoWn, the machine preferably
[0198] ef?ciency of ventilation;
remaining stopped until all the sensors sense a temperature
[0199] suggested consumables and/or settings of the cor
rect Welding parameters; for instance, in case of Wire
Welding, if the coil is provided With identi?cation TAG,
this is read by the detector Z4 and the machine proceeds
to modify current, voltage, velocity of the Wire and
loWer than the minimum temperature threshold.
[0211] With regard to the calculation of the time necessary
pulses. lt informs the operator about the gas to use and
the best Way to obtain a good Welding.
[0200] Attention messages are messages Which are gener
ated upon occurrence of exception events or emergencies and
Which require absolute attention, such as:
for restoring a correct temperature Within the machine as a
function of the external temperature and ventilation, the
microprocessor M1 operates as folloWs.
[0212] As it is knoWn, the temperature T decreases from the
value TM, even in conditions of forced ventilation, according
to the relationship:
Jul. 11, 2013
US 2013/0175248 A1
Where:
of the apparatus or household appliance, on the ef?ciency of
[0213]
Ta is room temperature, and
[0214]
h is a time constant depending on numerous factors
variable most of all as functions of the operative conditions,
such as for instance the ef?ciency of forced ventilation.
[0215] The time constant h cannot be precisely known, ma
it can be temporarily set during manufacturing Within the
range from 100 to 800, for instance 400. On the basis of this
temporary value, through relationship [1] the microprocessor
a cooling ventilation, as Well as providing use instructions
and information on service and selling centres, further select
ing the language on the basis of the georeferenced position of
the apparatus or household appliance.
[0219]
Moreover, the device for detecting the blood alcohol
concentration of the operator, along With the pressure sensor
for detecting the correct execution of the test through the
device for detecting the blood alcohol concentration, and
M1 is capable to estimate the time necessary to temperature T
possibly together the transducer for detecting height, may be
for loWering doWn to the minimum threshold Tm. Also, by
periodically sampling the temperature T after the stop of
delivery of current and voltage by the machine, the micropro
ticular a Welding machine, also independently from the pres
cessor M1 is capable to determine With greater precision the
value of the time constant h in those determined operative
conditions, Whereby the estimation of the time for restoring
can be progressively more accurate, giving in short times
(about 1 minute) the correct estimation.
[0216] Also in this case, the procedure for estimating the
time for restoring may be immediately adapted to the case
Where the machine is provided With more than one internal
temperature sensor: the longest estimated time for restoring is
the one that is communicated as the time remaining to the end
of the machine stop. Of course the value of the time constant
also inserted in an electrical or electronic apparatus, in par
ence of one or more of the other devices and detecting sensors
illustrated above, in particular independently from the pres
ence of the device for detecting the correct connection of the
protection ground conductor to the mains ground.
[0220] The preferred embodiments have been above
described and some modi?cations of this invention have been
suggested, but it shouldbe understoodthat those skilled in the
art can make variations and changes, Without so departing
from the related scope of protection, as de?ned by the folloW
ing claims.
1-15. (canceled)
h is alWays updated With the last estimated value upon occur
1 6. Electrical or electronic apparatus, in particular Welding
machine or battery charger, comprising processing and con
rence of a stop for over-temperature.
trolling electronic means connected to a sensing electronic
[0217]
means from Which it receives one or more detection signals of
one or more electrical and/or physical quantities related to an
The preferred embodiments of the machine accord
ing to the invention are further capable to suggest the most
suitable procedures for executing operations capable to
apparatus operation, said processing and controlling elec
remove other causes of inhibition of the Welding process. By
Way of example, and not by Way of limitation, in a MMA
machine the current absorbed from the mains is a function of
the electrode diameter and of the current setting: e.g., an
tronic means being capable to determine one or more condi
tions of apparatus operation on the basis of said one or more
detection signals, the apparatus being capable to be poWer
supplied through a plurality of terminals by a mains compris
electrode of 3,25 m of diameter needs a current absorbed
ing a ground conductor to Which a ground terminal of said
from the mains of about 15 Amperes. If the electrical system
id undersized or used by interposing an extension cord With
plurality of terminals is connectable, Wherein said sensing
unsuitable cable, besides the fact that the voltage supplying
a connection of the ground terminal to the ground conductor
of the mains.
17. The apparatus according to claim 16, Wherein said
the machine is reduced and hence the same Welding is not
electronic means comprises or consists of a device for sensing
permitted, the electrical system can also be damaged. The
preferred embodiments of the machine according to the
plurality of terminals consists of, along With the ground ter
invention, constantly monitoring the mains impedance (as
minal, a phase terminal and of un neutral terminal, Whereby
the apparatus is capable to be poWer supplied by a single
seen above, by comparing the mains voltage, sensed through
the transformer TRO, in tWo different conditions of output
current, in turn sensed through the shunt resistor R4), are
capable to recognise the occurrence of a situation of exces
phase mains.
18. The apparatus according to claim 16, Wherein the
device for sensing a connection of the ground terminal to the
sively high mains impedance and the consequent risk of dam
ground conductor of the mains comprises input interface
aging the electrical system, and they Warn the operator on
hoW to eliminate the risk, eg by limiting the maximum
diameter that may be used for that electrical system.
[0218] It is further immediate to apply the control electron
ics of the Welding machine according to the invention to any
electrical or electronic apparatus (e. g. a battery charger, a drill
or a laWn moWer), in particular to a household appliance (eg
a Washing machine), for monitoring the conditions of opera
tion of the apparatus or household appliance and providing
means connected to the ground terminal and to at least one
users With information through synthesised speech and/or
other terminal of said plurality of terminals, said input inter
face means being further connected to measuring electronic
means capable to measure at least one voltage coming from
said input interface means, said measuring electronic means
being in turn connected to output interface means capable to
provide said processing and controlling electronic means
With at least one signal of detection of said at least one voltage
coming from said input interface means, said processing and
controlling electronic means being capable to activate the
sounds messages as shoWn for the Welding machine accord
device for sensing a connection of the ground terminal to the
ing to the invention. By Way of example, but not by Way of
limitation, the electronics could monitor and provide for
information (and/or disable the apparatus operation) on con
ditions of inef?cient ground, on the state of sobriety of the
ground conductor of the mains through said input interface
operator, on the mains voltage, on an excessively high mains
impedance (eg due to inadequacy of the system or to the use
of an undersized extension cord), on the internal temperature
means,
19. The apparatus according to claim 16, Wherein the
device for sensing a connection of the ground terminal to the
ground conductor of the mains comprises a ground current
sensor capable to sense a current ?oWing along the ground
terminal.
Jul. 11, 2013
US 2013/0175248 A1
20. The apparatus according to claim 16, wherein said
sensing electronic means further comprises a device for sens
ing a blood alcohol concentration comprising input interface
means through Which said processing and controlling elec
tronic means is capable to activate the device for sensing a
blood alcohol concentration, said input interface means being
connected to sensing means for sensing an alcohol vapour
concentration Which is in turn connected to output interface
means capable to provide said processing and controlling
electronic means With at least one detection signal.
21. The apparatus according to claim 20, Wherein said
sensing electronic means further comprises sensing means
for sensing a height above ground at Which the apparatus is,
said processing and controlling electronic means .
22. The apparatus according to claim 16, Wherein said
sensing electronic means further comprises one or more elec
tronic components selected from the group comprising:
a voltage sensor connected to tWo poWer supply input
terminals of the apparatus;
a ?rst transformer the primary of Which is connected to tWo
input terminals of the apparatus in turn connected to tWo
lines of a mains and the secondary of Which is connected
to said processing and controlling electronic means
through a ?rst transducer, Whereby the ?rst transformer
is capable to operate as a voltage sensor;
a voltage of mains;
a netWork impedance;
an output current delivered by the apparatus;
an output Welding arc current delivered by the apparatus
When the apparatus is a Welding machine operating
according to an arc Welding process;
an output voltage of the apparatus;
an output Welding arc voltage of the apparatus When the
apparatus is a Welding machine operating according to
an arc Welding process;
a temperature of one or more electronic components of the
apparatus;
a temperature inside the apparatus;
a temperature external to the apparatus; and
a ventilation made by the fan.
23. The apparatus according to claim 16, Wherein the appa
ratus is a Welding machine and in that said sensing electronic
means further comprises:
a pressure sensor capable to detect a pressure of a gas used
by the apparatus When it is a Welding machine operating
according to an arc Welding process With metal pro
tected by gas or GMAW (Gas Metal Arc Welding), or
When it is a Welding machine operating according to an
arc Welding process With infusible tungsten electrode
protected by inert gas, or TIG (Tungsten Inert Gas), or
When it is a Welding machine operating according to a
plasma Welding or cutting process;
a temperature sensor capable to sense a temperature of one
or more electronic components of the apparatus, con
said one or more conditions of apparatus operation compris
nected to said processing and controlling electronic
ing one or more conditions depending on one or more param
means through a second transducer;
a current sensor capable to sense an output current deliv
ered by the apparatus;
eters, detected by said sensing electronic means and/or deter
mined through processing by said processing and controlling
electronic means, selected from the group comprising:
a current sensor capable to sense an output Welding arc
a pressure of a gas used by the apparatus When it is a
current delivered by the apparatus When the apparatus is
Welding machine operating according to an arc Welding
process With metal protected by gas or GMAW (Gas
a Welding machine operating according to an arc Weld
ing process;
a current shunt resistor, capable to sense an output current
delivered by the apparatus, that is connected to said
processing and controlling electronic means through a
third transducer;
a temperature sensor capable to detect a temperature inside
the apparatus;
a temperature sensor capable to detect a temperature exter
nal to the apparatus;
a GPS or AGPS georeferenced position sensor capable to
detect a georeferenced position of the apparatus;
a humidity sensor capable to detect a humidity of air exter
nal to the apparatus;
a radiofrequency identi?er or RFID sensor, capable to
detect and read RFID, active or passive, transponders or
Metal Arc Welding), or When it is a Welding machine
operating according to an arc Welding process With
infusible tungsten electrode protected by inert gas, or
TIG (Tungsten Inert Gas), or When it is a Welding
machine operating according to a plasma Welding or
cutting process;
an average temperature of a Welding area;
an arc poWer When the apparatus is a Welding machine
operating according to an arc Welding process;
a regularity index of the Welding process according to
Which the apparatus operates;
a type of material of an electrode When the apparatus is a
Welding machine operating according to a Welding pro
cess With shielded electrode, or SMAW (Shielded Metal
Arc Welding);
tags; and
at least one photodiode controlled by said processing and
a rapidity of consumption of an electrode When the Welding
machine operates according to a Welding process With
shielded electrode, or SMAW (Shielded Metal Arc
controlling electronic means, and at least one pho
totransistor for detecting at least one radiation received
from said at least one photodiode, said at least one pho
todiode and said at least one phototransistor being
capable to detect a ventilation made by at least one fan
a type of material of a Wire When the apparatus is a Welding
machine operating according to an arc Welding process
for cooling the apparatus controlled by said processing
a rapidity of consumption of a Wire When the apparatus is a
and controlling electronic means;
said one or more conditions of apparatus operation compris
ing one or more conditions depending on one or more param
eters, detected by said sensing electronic means and/or deter
Welding);
With metal protected by gas or GMAW (Gas Metal Arc
Welding);
Welding machine operating according to an arc Welding
process With metal protected by gas or GMAW (Gas
Metal Arc Welding);
mined through processing by said processing and controlling
a type of a material to be Welded;
a heat capacity of a material to be Welded;
electronic means, selected from the group comprising:
a rapidity of consumption of a deposited material; and
Jul. 11, 2013
US 2013/0175248 A1
one or more consumables identi?ed through one or more
said processing and controlling electronic means for supply
RFID, active or passive, tags.
24. The apparatus according to claim 16, Wherein said
ing poWer to a primary of a second transformer, a secondary
processing and controlling electronic means are further con
of the second transformer being connected, through a second
diode bridge poWer recti?er diode bridge poWer recti?er and
nected to acoustic playing means through Which said process
ing and controlling electronic means is capable to control a
at least one current levelling inductor, to tWo output terminals
play of one or more acoustic signalling, related to said one or
one or more electronic components selected from the group
more conditions of apparatus operation.
25. The apparatus according to claim 24, Wherein said one
comprising:
or more acoustic signalling comprise one or more speech
messages, stored in memory means to Which said processing
and controlling electronic means is connected.
of the apparatus, said sensing electronic means comprising
a current sensor capable to detect a current of the primary
of the second transformer;
a current shunt resistor capable to detect a current of the
processing and controlling electronic means controls a
primary of the second transformer connected to said
processing and controlling electronic means through a
third transducer, Whereby the current shunt resistor
speech reproduction through said acoustic playing means of:
speech messages, and/or
a current sensor capable to detect a current of the secondary
26. The apparatus according to claim 24, Wherein said
speech messages in a language that is selectable and auto
operates as a current sensor;
of the second transformer; and
matically settable by said processing and controlling
a current shunt resistor capable to detect a current of the
electronic means on the basis of a position of the appa
ratus detected in georeferenced manner, and/ or
at least one portion of a user manual of the apparatus,
and/or
at least one portion of a user manual of the apparatus in a
secondary of the second transformer connected to said
processing and controlling electronic means through a
fourth transducer, Whereby the current shunt resistor
said one or more conditions of apparatus operation compris
language that is selectable and automatically settable by
ing one or more conditions depending on one or more param
operates as a current sensor;
said processing and controlling electronic means on the
eters, detected by said sensing electronic means and/or deter
basis of a position of the apparatus detected in georef
mined through processing by said processing and controlling
erenced manner, and/or
information related to service and/ or sale centres present in
an geographical area, and/or
information related to service and/ or sale centres present in
an geographical area selectable and automatically set
table by said processing and controlling electronic
electronic means, selected from the group comprising:
an input voltage of the DC/AC poWer converter;
a current of the primary of the second transformer; and
a current of the secondary of the second transformer.
30. The apparatus according to claim 16, Wherein said
processing and controlling electronic means is capable to
means on the basis of a position of the apparatus detected
in georeferenced manner, Which information is in a lan
inhibit said apparatus operation upon occurrence of one or
more operation conditions recognised on the basis of said one
guage that is selectable and automatically settable by
or more detection signals Which are received.
said processing and controlling electronic means on the
31. The apparatus according to claim 18, Wherein said
basis of the detected position of the apparatus.
27. The apparatus according to claim 16, Wherein said
processing and controlling electronic means is connected to
input interface means is connected to all the terminals of said
plurality of terminals so as to be capable to select, through
further interface means comprising a display and a keypad on
ling electronic means, and to send to said measuring elec
Which interface means said processing and controlling elec
tronic means a voltage betWeen a terminal of said plurality of
sWitching means controlled by said processing and control
tronic means is capable to display one or more information.
terminals different from the ground terminal and the ground
28. The apparatus according to claim 27, Wherein the appa
ratus is a Welding machine and in that said processing and
controlling electronic means is capable to receive from said
terminal.
interface means data related to one or more parameters
selected from the group comprising:
a type of material of an electrode When the apparatus is a
Welding machine operating according to a Welding pro
cess With shielded electrode, or SMAW (Shielded Metal
Arc Welding),
a type of material of a Wire When the apparatus is a Welding
machine operating according to an arc Welding process
With metal protected by gas or GMAW (Gas Metal Arc
Welding),
a type of a material to be Welded,
a heat capacity of a material to be Welded,
a rapidity of consumption of a deposited material,
one or more consumables.
29. The apparatus according to claim 16, Wherein the appa
32. The apparatus according to claim 18, Wherein said
measuring electronic means comprises rectifying means con
nected to voltage divider means in turn connected to ampli?er
means, said input interface means being connected to said
rectifying means and said ampli?er means being connected to
said output interface means.
33. The apparatus according to claim 18, Wherein said
output interface means comprises an optoisolator.
34. The apparatus according to claim 20, Wherein said
sensing electronic means further comprises a pressure sensor
capable to provide said processing and controlling electronic
means With at least one pressure detection signal on the basis
of Which said processing and controlling electronic means is
capable to determine When said at least one detection signal
coming from the device for sensing a blood alcohol concen
tration is signi?cant.
35. The apparatus according to claim 21, Wherein said
diode bridge poWer recti?er, that receives a poWer supply
alternate current, through an EMI ?lter, and that delivers the
processing and controlling electronic means activates the
device for sensing a blood alcohol concentration When the
height sensed by said sensing means for sensing a height
recti?ed current to a DC/AC poWer converter controlled by
above ground is higher or not loWer than a threshold value.
ratus is a Welding machine and in that it comprises a ?rst
US 2013/0175248 A1
Jul. 11, 2013
14
36. The apparatus according to claim 24, wherein said one
or more acoustic signalling depend on said one or more detec
tion signals.
37. The apparatus according to claim 36, Wherein said one
or more acoustic signalling comprise emission of at least one
?rst sound having an amplitude depending on a ?rst param
eter of apparatus operation and a frequency depending on a
second parameter of apparatus operation.
38. The apparatus according to claim 37, Wherein said ?rst
and second parameters are selectable by an operator through
interface means connected to said processing and controlling
electronic means.
39. The apparatus according to claim 37, Wherein said one
or more acoustic signalling comprise emission of at least one
second sound having an amplitude depending on a reference
value of said ?rst parameter of apparatus operation and a
frequency depending on a reference value of said second
parameter of apparatus operation.
40. The apparatus according to claim 25, Wherein said one
or more speech messages are in a language that is selectable,
and automatically settable by said processing and controlling
electronic means on the basis of a position of the apparatus
detected in georeferenced manner.
41. The apparatus according to claim 29, Wherein the
DC/AC poWer converter is of dual sWitch forWard type and
comprises tWo poWer semiconductor devices, each compris
ing a gate driven by a pulse Width modulation, or PWM (Pulse
Width Modulation), signal generator, controlled by said pro
cessing and controlling electronic means.
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