3-Space Sensor Embedded User`s Manual

3-Space Sensor Embedded User`s Manual
3-Space Sensor
3-Space Sensor
Embedded
Ultra-Miniature Attitude & Heading
Reference System
User's Manual
YEI Technology
630 Second Street
Portsmouth, Ohio 45662
www.YeiTechnology.com
www.3SpaceSensor.com
Patents Pending
©2007-2011 Yost Engineering, Inc.
Printed in USA
3-Space Sensor
Embedded
Ultra-Miniature Attitude & Heading
Reference System
User's Manual
YEI Technology
630 Second Street
Portsmouth, Ohio 45662
www.YeiTechnology.com
www.3SpaceSensor.com
Toll-Free: 888-395-9029
Phone: 740-355-9029
Patents Pending
©2007-2011 Yost Engineering, Inc.
Printed in USA
Table of Contents
1. Usage/Safety Considerations...........................................................................................................................................1
1.1 Usage Conditions.....................................................................................................................................................1
1.2 Technical Support and Repairs................................................................................................................................1
2. Overview of the YEI 3-Space Sensor..............................................................................................................................2
2.1 Introduction.............................................................................................................................................................2
2.2 Applications.............................................................................................................................................................2
2.3 Hardware Overview.................................................................................................................................................3
2.3.1 Pin Functions..................................................................................................................................................3
2.3.2 PCB Layout.....................................................................................................................................................4
2.4 Features....................................................................................................................................................................5
2.5 Block Diagram of Sensor Operation.......................................................................................................................6
2.6 Specifications..........................................................................................................................................................7
2.7 Electrical Characteristics.........................................................................................................................................8
2.7.1 Absolute Maximum Ratings*..........................................................................................................................8
2.7.2 DC Characteristics..........................................................................................................................................8
2.7.3 USB Characteristics........................................................................................................................................8
2.7.4 Asynchronous Serial Characteristics..............................................................................................................8
2.7.5 SPI Characteristics..........................................................................................................................................9
2.8 Axis Assignment....................................................................................................................................................10
3. Description of the 3-Space Sensor................................................................................................................................11
3.1 Orientation Estimation...........................................................................................................................................11
3.1.1 Component Sensors......................................................................................................................................11
3.1.2 Scale, Bias, and Cross-Axis Effect...............................................................................................................11
3.1.3 Additional Calibration..................................................................................................................................12
3.1.4 Reference Vectors.........................................................................................................................................12
3.1.5 Orientation Filtering ....................................................................................................................................12
3.1.6 Reference Orientation/Taring.......................................................................................................................13
3.1.7 Other Estimation Parameters........................................................................................................................13
3.2 Communication......................................................................................................................................................14
3.3 Input Device Emulation.........................................................................................................................................14
3.3.1 Axes and Buttons..........................................................................................................................................14
3.3.2 Joystick.........................................................................................................................................................14
3.3.3 Mouse...........................................................................................................................................................14
3.4 Sensor Settings......................................................................................................................................................15
3.4.1 Committing Settings.....................................................................................................................................15
3.4.2 Natural Axes.................................................................................................................................................15
3.4.3 Settings and Defaults....................................................................................................................................16
4. 3-Space Sensor Usage/Protocol....................................................................................................................................17
4.1 Usage Overview....................................................................................................................................................17
4.1.1 Protocol Overview........................................................................................................................................17
4.1.2 Computer Interfacing Overview...................................................................................................................17
4.1.3 Electronic Interfacing Overview...................................................................................................................17
4.1.3.1 USB Interfacing...................................................................................................................................18
4.1.3.2 Asynchronous Serial Interfacing..........................................................................................................18
4.1.3.3 SPI Interfacing.....................................................................................................................................20
4.1.3.4 Interrupt Generation.............................................................................................................................20
4.2 Protocol Packet Format(USB and Serial)..............................................................................................................21
4.2.1 Binary Packet Format...................................................................................................................................21
4.2.2 ASCII Text Packet Format...........................................................................................................................22
4.3 Protocol Packet Format(SPI).................................................................................................................................23
4.4 Command Overview..............................................................................................................................................24
4.3.1 Orientation Commands.................................................................................................................................24
4.3.2 Embedded Commands..................................................................................................................................25
4.3.3 Normalized Data Commands........................................................................................................................25
4.3.4 Other Data Commands..................................................................................................................................25
4.3.5 Corrected Data Commands...........................................................................................................................25
4.3.6 Raw Data Commands....................................................................................................................................26
4.3.7 Configuration Write Commands...................................................................................................................26
4.3.8 Configuration Read Commands....................................................................................................................29
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4.3.9 Calibration Commands.................................................................................................................................31
4.3.10 General Commands.....................................................................................................................................32
4.3.11 Wired HID Commands...............................................................................................................................32
4.3.12 General HID Commands.............................................................................................................................33
Appendix...........................................................................................................................................................................34
Hex / Decimal Conversion Chart.................................................................................................................................34
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User's Manual
1. Usage/Safety Considerations
1.1 Usage Conditions
•
Do not use the 3-Space Sensor in any system on which people's lives depend(life support, weapons, etc.)
•
Because of its reliance on a compass, the 3-Space Sensor will not work properly near the earth's north or south pole.
•
Because of its reliance on a compass and accelerometer, the 3-Space Sensor will not work properly in outer space or on planets with no
magnetic field.
•
Care should be taken when using the 3-Space Sensor in a car or other moving vehicle, as the disturbances caused by the vehicle's
acceleration may cause the sensor to give inaccurate readings.
•
Because of its reliance on a compass, care should be taken when using the 3-Space Sensor near ferrous metal structures, magnetic fields,
current carrying conductors, and should be kept about 6 inches away from any computer screens or towers.
•
The YEI 3-Space Embedded module contains components that are sensitive to electro- static-discharge. Care should be taken when
handling the module.
•
PCB layout can affect the performance of the 3-Space Embedded module. Placing magnetic components, ferrous metal containing
components, high-current conductors, and high-frequency digital signal lines should be avoided during PCB layout.
1.2 Technical Support and Repairs
YEI provides technical and user support via our toll-free number (888-395-9029) and via email
(sup[email protected]). Support is provided for the lifetime of the equipment. Requests for repairs should be
made through the Support department. For damage occurring outside of the warranty period or provisions, customers
will be provided with cost estimates prior to repairs being performed.
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2. Overview of the YEI 3-Space Sensor
2.1 Introduction
The YEI 3-Space SensorTM Embedded is an ultra-miniature, high-precision, high-reliability, low-cost SMT Attitude and
Heading Reference System (AHRS) which uses triaxial gyroscope, accelerometer, and compass sensors in conjunction
with advanced on-board filtering and processing algorithms to determine orientation relative to an absolute reference
orientation in real-time.
Orientation can be returned in absolute terms or relative to a designated reference orientation. The proprietary multireference vector mode increases accuracy and greatly reduces and compensates for sensor error. The YEI 3-Space
Sensor Embedded system also utilizes a dynamic sensor confidence algorithm that ensures optimal accuracy and
precision across a wide range of operating conditions.
The YEI 3-Space Sensor Embedded module features are accessible via a well-documented open communication
protocol that allows access to all available sensor data and configuration parameters. Versatile commands allow access
to raw sensor data, normalized sensor data, and filtered absolute and relative orientation outputs in multiple formats
including: quaternion, Euler angles (pitch/roll/yaw), rotation matrix, axis angle, two vector (forward/up).
The 3-Space Sensor Embedded module also offers a range of communication interface options which include SPI, USB
2.0, and asynchronous serial.
When used as a USB device, the Embedded 3-Space SensorTM provides mouse emulation and joystick emulation modes
that ease integration with existing applications.
2.2 Applications
• Robotics
• Motion capture
• Positioning and stabilization
• Vibration analysis
• Inertial augmented localization
• Personnel / pedestrian navigation and tracking
• Unmanned air/land/water vehicle navigation
• Education and performing arts
• Healthcare monitoring
• Gaming and motion control
• Accessibility interfaces
• Virtual reality and immersive simulation
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2.3 Hardware Overview
The YEI 3-Space Embedded is packaged as a 23mmx23mmx2.2mm castellated edge SMT module. Alternatively, the
module can be through-hole mounted by adding standard 0.1” header strips to the castellated edge pads.
2.3.1 Pin Functions
Pad Number
Signal Name
Description
1
SCK
SPI Serial Clock. Input to Module.
2
MISO / INT
SPI Master In Slave Out. Output from Module. Can be configured to act as filter update Interrupt.
3
MOSI
SPI Master Out Slave In. Input to Module.
4
/SS
SPI Slave Select. Active Low Input to Module.
5
TxD / INT
UART Asynchronous Transmit Data. Output from Module. Can be configured to act as filter update Interrupt.
6
RxD
UART Asynchronous Receive Data. Input to Module.
7
GND
Ground. Only one ground pad must be connected.
8
GND
Ground. Only one ground pad must be connected. Commonly connected to USB supply ground.
9
USBD-
USB Data Minus. Only requires connection during USB mode use.
10
USBD+
USB Data Plus. Only requires connection during USB mode use.
11
VUSB
+5v USB Power Supply Input . Only requires connection during USB mode use.
12
VIN
Voltage Input +3.3v ~ +6.0v. Only required when USB power is not being used.
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2.3.2 PCB Layout
PCB layout should follow follow the suggested SMT footprint below.
Additionally, since PCB layout can affect the performance of the 3-Space Embedded module observe the following
layout guidelines:
•
Do not place untented pads, vias, or holes beneath the restricted area in the diagram.
•
Do not place magnetic components such as speakers and motors in close proximity to the module since the
magnetic fields generated can adversely affect the performance of the compass module.
•
Do not place components containing ferrous metals in close proximity to the module since they may disturb
earth's magnetic fields and thus adversely affect the performance of the compass module.
•
Do not route high-current conductors or high-frequency digital signal lines in close proximity to the module
since they may generate magnetic fields that may adversely affect the performance of the compass module.
•
Do not reflow with the device on the bottom of a board. Since the module's components aren't glue-bonded to
the module they may become dis-lodged if reflowed in non-up-facing orientations.
•
Thoroughly test and characterize any PCB design that uses the module. Failure to test and characterize a
system using the TSS-EM module may result in unforeseen performance consequences due to layout.
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2.4 Features
The YEI 3-Space Sensor Embedded has many features that allow it to be a flexible all-in-one solution for your
orientation sensing needs. Below are some of the key features:
• Smallest and lightest high-performance AHRS available at 23mm x 23mm x 2mm and only 1.3 grams
• Fast sensor update and filter rate allow use in real-time applications, including stabilization, virtual reality, real-
time immersive simulation, and robotics
• Highly customizable orientation sensing with options such as tunable filtering, oversampling, and orientation
error correction
• Advanced integrated Kalman filtering allows sensor to automatically reduce the effects of sensor noise and sensor
error
• Robust open protocol allows commands to be sent in human readable form, or more quickly in machine readable
form
• Orientation output format available in absolute or relative terms in multiple formats ( quaternion, rotation matrix,
axis angle, two-vector )
• Absolute or custom reference axes
• Access to raw sensor data
• Flexible communication options: SPI, USB 2.0, or asynchronous serial
• USB communication through a virtual COM port
• When used as a USB device, USB joystick/mouse emulation modes ease integration with existing applications
• Castellated SMT edge pads provide secure SMT mounting and allow optional through-hole mounting
• Upgradeable firmware
• RGB status LED
• Programmable interrupt capability
• Development kit available
• RoHS Compliant
• +5v tolerant I/O signals
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User's Manual
2.5 Block Diagram of Sensor Operation
USB 2.0
Host System
Serial
Host System
SPI Master
Host System
Asynchronous
Serial Interface
SPI Slave
Interface
TSS Embedded
Processor
USB 2.0
Interface
USB Mouse &
Joystick
Emulation
Final
Orientation
Kalman
Filter
Non-volatile
Calibration &
Performance
Settings
Scale, Bias, Normalization, &
Error Compensation
3-Axis
Accelerometer
3-Axis
Rate Gyro
3-Axis
Compass
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Temperature
Sensor
User's Manual
2.6 Specifications
General
Part number
TSS-EM
Dimensions
23mm x 23mm x 2.2mm (0.9 x 0.9 x 0.086 in.)
Weight
1.3 grams ( 0.0458 oz )
Supply voltage
+3.3v ~ +6.0v
Power consumption
45mA @ 5v
Communication interfaces
USB 2.0, SPI, Asynchronous Serial
Filter update rate
Up to 200Hz with full functionality
Orientation output
absolute & relative quaternion, Euler angles, axis angle, rotation matrix, two vector
Other output
raw sensor data, corrected sensor data, normalized sensor data, temperature
SPI clock rate
6 MHz max
Serial baud rate
1,200~921,600 selectable, default: 115,200
Shock survivability
5000g
Temperature range
-40C ~ 85C ( -40F ~ 185F )
Processor
32-bit RISC running @ 60MHz
Sensor
Orientation range
360º about all axes
Orientation accuracy
±2º for dynamic conditions & all orientations
Orientation resolution
<0.08º
Orientation repeatability
0.085º for all orientations
Accelerometer scale
±2g / ±4g / ±8g selectable
Accelerometer resolution
14 bit
Accelerometer noise density
99µg/√ Hz
Accelerometer sensitivity
0.00024g/digit for ±2g range
0.00048g/digit for ±4g range
0.00096g/digit for ±8g range
Accelerometer temperature sensitivity
±0.008%/°C
Gyro scale
±250/±500/±2000 º/sec selectable
Gyro resolution
16 bit
Gyro noise density
0.03º/sec/√ Hz
Gyro bias stability @ 25°C
11º/hr average for all axes
Gyro sensitivity
0.00875º/sec/digit for ±250º/sec
0.01750º/sec/digit for ±500º/sec
0.070º/sec/digit for ±2000º/sec
Gyro non-linearity
0.2% full-scale
Gyro temperature sensitivity
±0.016%/°C
Compass scale
±1.3 Ga default. Up to ±8.1 Ga available
Compass resolution
12 bit
Compass sensitivity
5 mGa/digit
Compass non-linearity
0.1% full-scale
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2.7 Electrical Characteristics
2.7.1 Absolute Maximum Ratings*
Operating Temperature …........................................................ -40C ~ 85C ( -40F ~ 185F )
Storage Temperature …............................................................ -60C ~ 150C ( -76F ~ 302F )
Supply Voltage on VIN Pin with respect to Ground ................ -0.3v ~ 6.5v
Supply Voltage on VUSB Pin with respect to Ground ............. -0.3v ~ 6.5v
Voltage on I/O Pins with respect to Ground …......................... -0.3v ~ 5.5v
Current Sink/Source from I/O pins …....................................... -4mA ~ +4mA
* NOTICE: Stresses beyond those listed under “Absolute Maximum Ratings” may cause permanent damage to the
device. This is a stress rating only and functional operation of the device at these or other conditions beyond those
indicated in the operational sections of this specification is not implied. Exposure to absolute maximum rating
conditions for extended periods may adversely affect device reliability.
2.7.2 DC Characteristics
The following characteristics are applicable to the operating temperature range: TA = -40°C to 85°C
Symbol
Parameter
Min.
Typ.
Max.
Units
VIN
Operating Supply Voltage on VIN pin
3.2
3.3
6.0
V
VUSB
Operating Supply Voltage on VUSB pin
3.8
5.0
6.0
V
VIL
Input Low-level Voltage
-0.3
+0.8
V
VIH
Input High-level Voltage
2.0
5.5
V
VOL
Output Low-level Voltage
0.4
V
VOH
Output High-level Voltage
IOL
Output Low-level Current
-4
mA
IOH
Output High-level Current
4
mA
CIN
Input Capacitance
7
pF
IACT
Active Current Consumption
60
mA
2.6
V
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2.7.3 USB Characteristics
The on-chip USB interface complies with the Universal Serial Bus (USB) v2.0 standard. All AC parameters related to
these buffers can be found within the USB 2.0 electrical specifications.
2.7.4 Asynchronous Serial Characteristics
The on-chip Asynchronous Serial interface is compatible with UARTs available on most micro-controllers. The device
utilizes a minimum-wire configuration consisting of two communication wires: a TxD serial output and an RxD serial
input. The Serial interface drives the TxD line at 3v logic-levels and the RxD input is 2.0~5.5v tolerant. Also note that
since logic-level serial is voltage-based, the two connected systems must share a common ground reference.
For connection to alternate communication interfaces such as RS232, RS422, RS485, MIL-STD-188, EIA/TIA-562,
and SpaceWire, additional external interface drivers may be added.
The Asynchronous Serial uses 8N1 (8 data bits, no parity, 1 stop bit) format and supports the following standard baud
rates: 1200, 2400, 4800, 9600, 19200, 28800, 38400, 57600, 115200, 230400, 460800, 921600.
The factory default baud rate is 115200.
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2.7.5 SPI Characteristics
The Serial Peripheral Interface or SPI is a full-duplex synchronous serial communication standard that is commonly
supported on many micro-controllers and embedded systems.
The SPI interface is implemented as an SPI mode 0 slave device. This means that the SPI clock polarity is 0 (CPOL=0)
and the SPI clock phase is 0 (CPHA=0). Bytes are transferred one bit at a time with the MSB being transferred first.
The on-board SPI interface has been tested at speeds up to 6MHz. The diagram below illustrates a single complete SPI
byte transfer.
The diagram and parameter table below illustrates additional timing requirements and limits of the SPI interface:
Symbol
SPIHCLK
Parameter
Min.
SPI Clock Cycle Period / 2
Max.
80
SPISCK2MISO SPI SCK falling to MISO Delay
ns
26.5
SPIMOSI2SCK SPI MOSI Setup time before SPI SCK rises
SPISCK2MOSI SPI MOSI Hold time after SPI SCK rises
9
Units
ns
0
ns
1.5
ns
User's Manual
2.8 Axis Assignment
All YEI 3-Space Sensor product family members have re-mappable axis assignments and axis directions. This
flexibility allows axis assignment and axis direction to match the desired end-use requirements.
The natural axes of the 3-Space Sensor Embedded are as follows:
•
The positive X-axis points out of the side of the sensor with pins 1 through 6.
•
The positive Y-axis points out of the top of the sensor ( the component side of the board ).
•
The positive Z-axis points out of the back of the sensor ( the side with the LED, towards pins 6 and 7 ).
The natural axes are illustrated in the diagram below:
Bear in mind the difference between natural axes and the axes that are used in protocol data. While they are by default
the same, they can be remapped so that, for example, data axis Y could contain data from natural axis X. This allows
users to work with data in a reference frame they are familiar with.
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3. Description of the 3-Space Sensor
3.1 Orientation Estimation
The primary purpose of the 3-Space Sensor is to estimate orientation. In order to understand how to handle this
estimation and use it in a meaningful way, there are a few concepts about the sensor that should be understood. The
following sections describe these concepts.
3.1.1 Component Sensors
The 3-Space Sensor estimates orientation by combining the data it gets from three types of sensors: a gyroscope, an
accelerometer, and a compass. A few things you should know about each of these sensors:
•
Accelerometer: This sensor measures the acceleration due to gravity, as well as any other accelerations that
occur. Because of this, this sensor is at its best when the 3-Space Sensor is sitting still. Most jitter seen as the
orientation of the sensor changes is due to shaking causing perturbations in the accelerometer readings. To
account for this, by default, when the 3-Space Sensor is being moved, the gyroscope becomes more
trusted(becomes a greater part of the orientation estimate), and the accelerometer becomes less trusted.
•
Gyroscope: This sensor measures angular motion. It has no ability to give any absolute orientation
information like the accelerometer or compass, and so is most useful for correcting the orientation during
sensor motion. Its role during these times becomes vital, though, as the accelerometer readings can become
unreliable during motion.
•
Compass: This sensor measures magnetic direction. The readings from the compass and accelerometer are
used together to form the absolute component of orientation, which is used to correct any short term changes
the gyroscope makes. Its readings are much more stable than those of the accelerometer, but it can be
adversely affected by any ferrous metal or magnetic objects. When the accelerometer is less trusted, the
compass is treated in the same way so as to avoid updates to orientation based on partial absolute information.
3.1.2 Scale, Bias, and Cross-Axis Effect
The readings taken from each component sensor are not in a readily usable form. The compass and accelerometer
readings are not unit vectors, and the gyroscope readings aren't yet in radians per second. To convert them to these
forms, scale and bias must be taken into account. Scale is how much larger the range of data read from the component
sensor is than the range of data should be when it is converted. For example, if the compass were to give readings in the
range of -500 to 500 on the x axis, but we would like it to be in the range of -1 to 1, the scale would be 500. Bias is how
far the center of the data readings is from 0. If another compass read from -200 to 900 on the x axis, the bias would be
350, and the scale would be 550. The last parameter used in turning this component sensor data into usable data is
cross-axis effect. This is the tendency for a little bit of data on one axis of a sensor to get mixed up with the other two.
This is an effect experienced by the accelerometer and compass. There are 6 numbers for each of these, one to indicate
how much each axis is affected by each other axis. Values for these are generally in the range of 1 to 10%. These
parameters are applied in the following order:
1.
Bias is added to each axis
2.
The three axes are treated as a vector and multiplied by a matrix representing scale and cross-axis
parameters
Factory calibration provides default values for these parameters for the accelerometer and compass, and users should
probably never need to change these values. To determine these parameters for the gyroscope, you must calibrate it.
Read the Quick Start guide or the 3-Space Suite manual for more information on how to do this.
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3.1.3 Additional Calibration
The 3-Space Sensor provides multiple calibration modes that can improve performance at the cost of additional setup
and calibration routines. For more information on setting these additional modes, please refer to command 169.
•
Bias Mode: Applies default range scaling to raw data readings. Also applies a bias offset to raw data, the
values of which are taken from the provided calibration parameters command. (See section 4.3.7 for more
information)
•
Bias / Scale Mode: The default calibration mode. Applies default range scaling to raw data readings. Also
applies a bias offset to the raw data as well as an additional scale matrix. Uses matrix and vector from the
provided calibration parameters command.
•
Ortho-Calibration Mode: A more advanced calibration mode that requires initial setup steps (Please refer to
the 3-Space Suite Quick Start Guide for information on how to supply ortho-calibration data). Uses 24
orthogonal data points to provide accelerometer and compass correction factors for enhanced orientation
accuracy.
3.1.4 Reference Vectors
In order to get an absolute estimation of orientation from the accelerometer and compass, the sensor needs a reference
vector for each to compare to the data read from it. The most obvious choice for these are the standard direction of
gravity(down) and the standard direction of magnetic force(north), respectively. However, the sensor does provide
several different modes for determining which reference vector to use:
•
Single Manual: Uses 2 reference vectors it is given as the reference vectors for the accelerometer and
compass.
•
Single Auto: When the sensor powers on or is put into this mode, it calculates gravity and north and uses those
calculated vectors as the reference vectors.
•
Single Auto Continual: The same as Single Auto, but the calculation happens constantly. This can account
for some shifts in magnetic force due to nearby objects or change of location, and also can help to cope with
the instability of the accelerometer.
•
Multiple: Uses a set of reference vectors from which the best are picked each cycle to form a single, final
reference vector. This mode has the ability to compensate for certain errors in the orientation. In this mode the
sensor will have a slightly slower update rate, but will provide greater accuracy. For information on how to set
up this mode, see the Quick Start guide or the 3-Space Suite manual.
3.1.5 Orientation Filtering
The 3-Space Sensor provides several different modes for providing orientation estimation. Note also that IMU data
collection rate is bound to the update rate of the filter. For more information on setting these additional modes, please
refer to command 123.
•
Kalman Filter: The default filter mode. Normalized sensor data and reference vectors are fed into the Kalman
filter, which uses statistical techniques to optimally combine the data into a final orientation reading. Provides
the highest-accuracy orientation at the lowest performance.
•
Alternating Kalman Filter: Uses the same Kalman filter as before, but skips every other update step. Slightly
less accurate than the Kalman filter, but faster.
•
Complementary Filter: Fuses low-pass filtered accelerometer/compass data with high-pass filtered gyroscope
data to provide an orientation estimate. Less accurate than any Kalman filtering techniques, but provides
significantly higher performance.
•
IMU Mode: Performs no orientation filtering, but allows IMU data to be read at the maximum update rate of
800 Hz.
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3.1.6 Reference Orientation/Taring
Given the results of the Kalman filter, the sensor can make a good estimation of orientation, but it will likely be offset
from the actual orientation of the device by a constant angle until it has been given a reference orientation. This
reference orientation tells the sensor where you would like its zero orientation to be. The sensor will always consider
the zero orientation to be the orientation in which the plug is facing towards you and top(the side with buttons on it)
facing up. The sensor must be given a reference orientation that represents the orientation of the sensor when it is in the
position in which you consider the plug to be towards you and the buttons up. The act of giving it this reference
orientation to the sensor is called taring, just as some scales have a tare button which can be pressed to tell the scale that
nothing is on it and it should read zero. For instructions on doing this, refer to the Quick Start guide or 3-Space Suite
manual.
3.1.7 Other Estimation Parameters
The 3-Space Sensor offers a few other parameters to filter the orientation estimate. Please note that these only affect the
final orientation and not the readings of individual component sensors.
•
Oversampling: Oversampling causes the sensor to take extra readings from each of the component sensors and
average them before using them to estimate orientation. This can reduce noise, but also causes each cycle to
take longer proportional to how many extra samples are being taken.
•
Running Average: The final orientation estimate can be put through a running average, which will make the
estimate smoother at the cost of introducing a small delay between physical motion and the sensor's estimation
of that motion.
•
Rho Values: As mentioned earlier, by default the accelerometer and compass are trusted less than the gyros
when the sensor is in motion. Rho values are the mechanism that handles the concept of trust. They involve
parameters, one for the accelerometer and one for the compass, that indicate how much these component
sensors are to be trusted relative to the gyroscope. A lower value for the parameter means more trust. The
default mode for this is “confidence mode”, where the rho value chooses between a minimum and maximum
value based on how much the sensor is moving. The other option is to have a single, static rho value.
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3.2 Communication
Obtaining data about orientation from the sensor or giving values for any of its settings is done through the sensor's
communication protocol. The protocol can be used through either a USB connection, an asynchronous serial UART
connection, or an SPI connection. A complete description of how to use this protocol is given in section 4 of this
document. Also, you may instead use the 3-Space Suite, which provides a graphical method to communicate through
USB or serial port. To learn how to use this, read the 3-Space Suite manual.
3.3 Input Device Emulation
3.3.1 Axes and Buttons
The 3-Space Sensor has the ability to act as a joystick and/or mouse. Both of these are defined in the same way, as a
collection of axes and buttons. Axes are input elements that can take on a range of values, whereas buttons can only
either be on or off. On a joystick, the stick part would be represented as 2 axes, and all the physical buttons on it as
buttons. The 3-Space Sensor has no physical joystick and only 2 physical buttons, so there are a number of options to
use properties of the orientation data as axes and buttons. Each input device on the 3-Space Sensor has 2 axes and 8
buttons. For more information on setting these up, see the 3-Space Suite manual. All communication for these input
devices is done through the standard USB HID(Human Interface Device) protocol.
3.3.2 Joystick
As far as a modern operating system is concerned, a joystick is any random collection of axes and buttons that isn't a
mouse or keyboard. Joysticks are mostly used for games, but can also be used for simulation, robot controls, or other
applications. The 3-Space Sensor, as a joystick, should appear just like any other joystick to an operating system that
supports USB HID(which most do).
3.3.3 Mouse
When acting as a mouse, the 3-Space Sensor will take control of the system's mouse cursor, meaning if the mouse
portion is not properly calibrated, using it could easily leave you in a situation in which you are unable to control the
mouse cursor at all. In cases like this, unplugging the 3-Space Sensor will restore the mouse to normal operation, and
unless the mouse enabled setting was saved to the sensor's memory, plugging it back in should restore normal operation.
Using the default mouse settings, caution should be exercised in making sure the orientation estimate is properly
calibrated before turning on the mouse. For help with this, see the Quick Start guide.
The mouse defaults to being in Absolute mode, which means that the data it gives is meant to represent a specific
position on screen, rather than an offset from the last position. This can be changed to Relative mode, where the data
represents an offset. In this mode, the data which would have indicated the edges of the screen in Absolute mode will
now represent the mouse moving as quickly as it can in the direction of that edge of the screen. For more information,
see command 251 in section 4.3.7, or the 3-Space Suite manual.
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3.4 Sensor Settings
3.4.1 Committing Settings
Changes made to the 3-Space Sensor will not be saved unless they are committed. This allows you to make changes to
the sensor and easily revert it to its previous state by resetting the chip. For instructions on how to commit your
changes, see the Quick Start guide or 3-Space Suite manual. Any changes relating to the multiple reference vector mode
are an exception to this rule, as all these changes are saved immediately.
3.4.2 Natural Axes
All YEI 3-Space Sensor product family members have re-mappable axis assignments and axis directions. This
flexibility allows axis assignment and axis direction to match the desired end-use requirements.
The natural axes of the 3-Space Sensor Embedded are as follows:
•
The positive X-axis points out of the side of the sensor with pins 1 through 6.
•
The positive Y-axis points out of the top of the sensor ( the component side of the board ).
•
The positive Z-axis points out of the back of the sensor ( the side with the LED, towards pins 6 and 7 ).
Bear in mind the difference between natural axes and the axes that are used in protocol data. While they are by default
the same, they can be remapped so that, for example, data axis Y could contain data from natural axis X. This allows
users to work with data in a reference frame they are familiar with.
Upon restoration of factory settings, the axis are returned to the default configuration.
The natural axes are illustrated in section 2.8.
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3.4.3 Settings and Defaults
Setting Name
Purpose
Default Value
Accelerometer Rho Value
Determine how trusted the accelerometer is
Confidence Mode, 5 to 100
Compass Rho Value
Determine how trusted the compass is
Confidence Mode, 5 to 100
Accelerometer Coefficients
Determines the scale, bias, and cross-axis parameters for the
accelerometer
Factory calibrated
Compass Coefficients
Determines the scale, bias, and cross-axis parameters for the compass
Factory calibrated
Gyroscope Coefficients
Determines the scale, bias and cross-axis parameters for the gyroscope
Factory calibrated
Accelerometer Enabled
Determines whether the compass is enabled or not
TRUE
Compass Enabled
Determines whether the accelerometer is enabled or not
TRUE
Gyroscope Enabled
Determines whether the gyroscope is enabled or not
TRUE
Filter Mode
Determines how orientation is filtered.
1 (Kalman)
Calibration Mode
Determines how raw sensor data is transformed into normalized data.
1 (Scale-Bias)
Axis Directions
Determines what natural axis direction each data axis faces
+X, +Y, +Z
Sample Rate
Determines how many samples the sensor takes per cycle
1 from each component sensor
Running Average Percentage
Determines how heavy of a running average to run on the final orientation 0(no running average)
Desired Update Rate
Determines how long each cycle should take(ideally)
0 microseconds
Reference Mode
Determines how the accelerometer and compass reference vectors are
determined
Single Auto
UART Baud Rate
Determines the speed of the Serial UART communication
115200
CPU Speed
Determines how fast the CPU will run
60 MHz
LED Color
Determines the RGB color of the LED
0,0,1(Blue)
Joystick Enabled
Determines whether the joystick is enabled or not
TRUE
Mouse Enabled
Determines whether the mouse is enabled or not
FALSE
Button Gyro Disable Length
Determines how many cycles the gyro is ignored after a button is pressed
5
Multi Reference Weight Power
Determines what power each multi reference vector weight is raised to
10
Multi Reference Cell Divisions
Determines how many cells the multi reference lookup table is divided
into per axis
4
Multi Reference Nearby Vectors Determines how many nearby vectors each multi reference lookup table
cell stores
8
Interrupt Generation Mode
Off, pin TXD
Determines how interrupts are generated
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4. 3-Space Sensor Usage/Protocol
4.1 Usage Overview
4.1.1 Protocol Overview
The 3-Space Sensor receives messages from the controlling system in the form of sequences of serial communication
bytes called packets. For ease of use and flexibility of operation, two methods of encoding commands are provided:
binary and text. Binary encoding is more compact, more efficient, and easier to access programmatically. ASCII text
encoding is more verbose and less efficient yet is easier to read and easier to access via a traditional terminal interface.
Both binary and ASCII text encoding methods share an identical command structure and support the entire 3-Space
command set. Only binary commands are available when using SPI.
The 3-Space Sensor buffers the incoming command stream and will only take an action once the entire packet has been
received and the checksum has been verified as correct(ASCII mode commands do not use checksums for convenience).
Incomplete packets and packets with incorrect checksums will be ignored. This allows the controlling system to send
command data at leisure without loss of functionality. The command buffer will, however, be cleared whenever the 3Space Sensor is either reset or powered off/on.
Specific details of the 3-Space Sensor protocol and its control commands are discussed in the following pages.
4.1.2 Computer Interfacing Overview
When interfacing with a computer, the 3-Space Sensor presents itself as a COM port, which provides an interface by
which the serial communication the protocol requires may happen. The name of this COM port is specific to the
operating system being used. It is possible to use multiple 3-Space Sensors on a single computer. Each will be assigned
its own COM port. The easiest way to find out which COM port belongs to a certain sensor is to take note of what
COM port appears when that sensor is plugged in(provided the drivers have been installed on that computer already.
Otherwise, find out what COM port appears once driver installation has finished.) For more information on how to
install the sensor software on a computer and begin using it, see the Quick Start guide.
4.1.3 Electronic Interfacing Overview
The 3-Space Sensor Embedded module offers three interfacing /communications options: USB 2.0, Asynchronous
Serial, and Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI). One or more of the interfaces may be connected and used together. When
using multiple interfaces, care should be taken to avoid the sending overlapping concurrent commands from multiple
interfaces. Overlapping concurrent commands from multiple interfaces could result in a command being dropped. Thus,
in situations where multiple overlapping concurrent commands cannot be avoided, a simple command verification,
timeout, and retry paradigm should be used. The sections below describe the necessary pin connections and typical
circuits used for using each of the respective interface options.
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4.1.3.1 USB Interfacing
The USB 2.0 interface of the 3-Space Sensor Embedded requires the connection of signals as follows:
Pin
Signal
Description
8
GND
USB Ground. Required connection during USB mode use.
9
USBD-
USB Data Minus. Required connection during USB mode use.
10
USBD+
USB Data Plus. Required connection during USB mode use.
11
VUSB
+5v USB Power Supply Input . Required connection during USB mode use.
Additionally, one of the following optional interrupt pins may be configured for use during USB mode:
Pin
Signal
Description
2
MISO / INT
Configurable as filter update interrupt when SPI interface is unused.
5
TxD / INT
Configurable as filter update interrupt when asynchronous serial interface is unused.
The following schematic diagram illustrates typical USB interface connections:
4.1.3.2 Asynchronous Serial Interfacing
The asynchronous serial interface of the 3-Space Sensor Embedded requires the connection of signals as follows:
Pin
Signal
Description
5
TxD
UART Asynchronous Transmit Data. Output from Module.
6
RxD
UART Asynchronous Receive Data. Input to Module.
7,8
GND
Ground. Only one ground pad must be connected.
12
VIN
Voltage Input +3.3v ~ +6.0v. Only required when USB power is not being used.
Additionally, the following optional interrupt pin may be configured for use during asynchronous serial mode:
Pin
2
Signal
Description
MISO / INT
Configurable as filter update interrupt when SPI interface is unused.
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The following schematic diagram illustrates typical logic-level asynchronous serial interface connections:
The following schematic diagram illustrates typical RS232-level asynchronous serial interface connections:
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4.1.3.3 SPI Interfacing
The Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI) of the 3-Space Sensor Embedded requires the connection of signals as follows:
Pin
Signal
Description
1
SCK
SPI Serial Clock. Input to Module.
2
MISO
SPI Master In Slave Out. Output from Module.
3
MOSI
SPI Master Out Slave In. Input to Module.
4
/SS
SPI Slave Select. Active Low Input to Module.
Additionally, the following optional interrupt pin may be configured for use during SPI mode:
Pin
5
Signal
Description
TxD / INT
Configurable as filter update interrupt when asynchronous serial interface is unused.
The following schematic diagram illustrates typical SPI interface connections:
4.1.3.4 Interrupt Generation
The Embedded 3-Space Sensor is capable of generating a signal on certain pins which can be used to trigger an interrupt
when new orientation data becomes available. This pin will be high by default. The signal can be set to act in pulse
mode, where the pin is set low for 5 microseconds and then pulled back to high, or it can be set to level mode, where the
pin is set low until the interrupt status is read(see command 18). By default, no pin is set to act as the interrupt
generation pin. Either the SPI MISO pin or the UART TXD pin may be set to act as the interrupt pin, meaning that
while interrupt generation is active, either the UART or SPI will be unusable. For more information on setting the
interrupt pin and mode, see command 16.
Pin
Signal
Description
2
MISO / INT
Configurable as filter update interrupt when SPI interface is unused.
5
TxD / INT
Configurable as filter update interrupt when asynchronous serial interface is unused.
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4.2 Protocol Packet Format(USB and Serial)
4.2.1 Binary Packet Format
The binary packet size can be three or more bytes long, depending upon the nature of the command being sent to the
controller. Each packet consists of an initial “start of packet” byte, followed by a “command value” specifier byte,
followed by zero or more “command data” bytes, and terminated by a packet “checksum value” byte.
Each binary packet is at least 3 bytes in length and is formatted as shown in figure 1
247(0xF7)
First Byte – Start of Packet
Command
Second Byte – Command Value
Selected from the command chart
Command Data
…
Command Data
}
Command Data
Zero or more bytes representing
parameters to the command being called.
See the command chart for details.
Last Byte – Packet Checksum
Sum of all other bytes except the first.
Checksum
Figure 1 - Typical Binary Command Packet Format
Binary Return Values:
When a 3 Space Sensor command is called in binary mode, any data it returns will also be in binary format. For
example, if a floating point number is returned, it will be returned as its 4 byte binary representation.
For information on the floating point format, go here: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Single_precision_floatingpoint_format
Also keep in mind that integer and floating point values coming from the sensor are stored in big-endian format.
The Checksum Value:
The checksum is computed as an arithmetic summation of all of the characters in the packet (except the checksum value
itself) modulus 256. This gives a resulting checksum in the range 0 to 255. The checksum for binary packets is
transmitted as a single 8-bit byte value.
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4.2.2 ASCII Text Packet Format
ASCII text command packets are similar to binary command packets, but are received as a single formatted line of text.
Each text line consists of the following: an ASCII colon character followed by an integral command id in decimal,
followed by a list of ASCII encoded floating-point command values, followed by a terminating newline character. The
command id and command values are given in decimal. The ASCII encoded command values must be separated by an
ASCII comma character or an ASCII space character. Thus, legal command characters are: the colon, the comma, the
period, the digits 0 through 9, the minus sign, the new-line, the space, and the backspace. When a command calls for an
integer or byte sized parameter, the floating point number given for that parameter will be interpreted as being the
appropriate data type. For simplicity, the ASCII encoded commands follow the same format as the binary encoded
commands, but ASCII text encodings of values are used rather than raw binary encodings.
Each ASCII packet is formatted as shown in figure 2.
: Command , Data1 , Data2 , ... , DataN \n
End of Packet – The
ASCII newline character
Command Data – Zero or more bytes
representing parameters to the command
being called. See the command chart for
details.
Command Value – Selected from the command chart, in decimal.
Start of ASCII Packet – Indicated by the colon character
Figure 2 - Typical ASCII Command Packet Format
Thus the ASCII packet consists of the the following characters:
: – the ASCII colon character signifies the start of an ASCII text packet.
, – the ASCII comma character acts as a value delimiter when multiple values are specified.
. – the ASCII period character is used in floating point numbers.
0~9 – the ASCII digits are used to in integer and floating point values.
- - the ASCII minus sign is used to indicate a negative number
\n – the ASCII newline character is used to signify the end of an ASCII command packet.
\b – the ASCII backspace character can be used to backup through the partially completed line to correct
errors.
If a command is given in ASCII mode but does not have the right number of parameters, the entire command will be
ignored.
Sample ASCII commands:
:0\n
Read orientation as a quaternion
:106,2\n
Set oversample rate to 2
ASCII Return Values:
All values are returned in ASCII text format when an ASCII-format command is issued. To read the return data, simply
read data from the sensor until a Windows newline(a carriage return and a line feed) is encountered..
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4.3 Protocol Packet Format(SPI)
4.3.1 Command Packet Format
In order to initiate an SPI data transfer, the byte 0xF6 must be sent to signal the start of an incoming command packet.
Afterwards, the command byte should be sent as well as any required command parameter bytes. After the command
has been processed, the byte 0xFF must be sent repeatedly to read any bytes returned from the sensor. While the sensor
is not currently processing a command, any byte sent to it other than 0xF6 and 0xFF will cause the internal data buffer
to reset, thus clearing any response data prepared by the sensor. Once the sensor has responded with a 1 (indicating the
command has finished), the user must send repeated bytes of 0xFF until all command data is read. In other words, if a
command returns 12 bytes, 12 bytes of 0xFF must be sent after the 1 has been received. Additionally, there are several
internal states that the sensor maintains while processing SPI commands:
0x0 (IDLE) The sensor is waiting on a command. Any bytes sent to the sensor besides 0xF6 will have no
effect.
0x1 (READY) The sensor has processed a command and data is available to read. Any byte sent to the sensor
other than 0xFF will reset the internal data buffer.
0x2 (BUSY) The sensor is currently processing a command.
0x4 (ACCUMULATING) The sensor is accumulating command bytes, but has not received enough to run the
command. Anything sent to the sensor in this state will be interpreted as command
data.
The following diagram illustrates the process for sending command data and reading response data. Command
230(0xE6) is the id command, and returns 32 total bytes, where the first three bytes are “TSS”. First, 0xF6 is sent to the
sensor over SPI, which responds with a 0x0.The 0xE6 byte is sent to the sensor over SPI, which will receive a response
of 0x4. The byte 0xFF is sent to the sensor until it responds with a 1. Once it does, 32 bytes of 0xFF are sent to the
sensor until all data is retrieved. Only 3 of the data byte communications are illustrated here for brevity.
0xF6
0xE6
0xFF
0xFF
0xFF
0xFF
0xFF
0x00
0x04
...
0x01
'T'
'S'
'S'
Figure 3 – Sample SPI Communication
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4.4 Command Overview
There are over 90 different command messages that are grouped numerically by function. Unused command message
bytes are reserved for future expansion.
When looking at the following command message tables, note the following:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
The “Data Len” field indicates the number of additional data-bytes the command expects to follow the
command-byte itself. This number doesn't include the Start of Packet, Command, or Checksum bytes for USB
and serial packets. Thus, the total message size for USB and serial can be calculated by adding three bytes to
the “Data Len” listed in the table. The total message size for SPI is Data Len plus the one Command byte.
Likewise, the “Return Data Len” field indicates the number of data-bytes the command delivers back to the
sender once the command has finished executing.
Under “Return Data Details”, each command lists the sort of data which is being returned and next to this in
parenthesis the form this data takes. For example, a quaternion is represented by 4 floating point numbers, so a
command which returns a quaternion would list “Quaternion(float x4)” for its return data details.
Command length information only applies to binary commands, as ASCII commands can vary in length.
For quaternions, data is always returned in x, y, z, w order.
Euler angles are always returned in pitch, yaw, roll order.
When calling commands in ASCII mode, there is no fixed byte length for the parameter data or return data, as
the length depends on the ASCII encoding.
4.3.1 Orientation Commands
Command
0(0x00)
1(0x01)
2(0x02)
3(0x03)
4 (0x04
5(0x05)
6(0x06)
7(0x07)
8(0x08)
9(0x09)
10(0x0A)
11(0x0B)
12(0x0C)
Description
Read tared orientation as
quaternion
Read tared orientation as
euler angles
Long Description
Returns the filtered, tared orientation estimate in
quaternion form.
Returns the filtered, tared orientation estimate in
euler angle form
Read tared orientation as
rotation matrix
Read tared orientation as
axis angle
Returns the filtered, tared orientation estimate in
rotation matrix form
Returns the filtered, tared orientation estimate in
axis-angle form
Returns the filtered, tared orientation estimate in two
Read tared orientation as vector form, where the first vector refers to forward
and the second refers to down.
two vector.
Returns the difference between the measured
Read difference quaternion orientation from last frame and this frame.
Read untared orientation Returns the filtered, untared orientation estimate in
as quaternion
quaternion form.
Read untared orientation Returns the filtered, untared orientation estimate in
as euler angles
euler angle form
Read untared orientation Returns the filtered, untared orientation estimate in
as rotation matrix
rotation matrix form
Read untared orientation Returns the filtered, untared orientation estimate in
as axis angle
axis-angle form
Returns the filtered, untared orientation estimate in
Read untared orientation two vector form, where the first vector refers to north
as two vector.
and the second refers to gravity.
Returns the filtered, tared orientation estimate in two
vector form, where the first vector refers to forward
and the second refers to down. These vectors are
Read tared two vector in given in the sensor reference frame and not the
global reference frame.
sensor frame
Returns the filtered, tared orientation estimate in two
vector form, where the first vector refers to forward
and the second refers to down. These vectors are
Read untared two vector in given in the sensor reference frame and not the
sensor frame
global reference frame.
24
Return
Data Len Return Data Details
Data
Len Data Details
16
Quaternion (float x4)
0
12
Euler Angles (float x3)
0
36
Rotation Matrix (float x9)
0
16
Axis (float x3), Angle (float)
0
24
Forward Vector (float x3),
Down Vector (float x3)
0
16
Quaternion (float x4)
0
16
Quaternion (float x4)
0
16
Euler Angles (float x3)
0
36
Rotation Matrix (float x9)
0
16
Axis (float x3), Angle (float)
0
24
North Vector (float x3),
Gravity Vector (float x3)
0
24
Forward Vector (float x3),
Down Vector (float x3)
0
24
North Vector (float x3),
Gravity Vector (float x3)
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User's Manual
4.3.2 Embedded Commands
Command
Description
29(0x1D)
Set interrupt type
30(0x1E)
Read interrupt type
31(0x1F)
Read interrupt status
Long Description
Sets the interrupt mode of the sensor. First
parameter is mode, which can be 0 for off, 1 for
pulse mode, 2 for level, 3 for SPI pulse. Second
parameter is pin, which can be 0 for TXD or 1 for
MISO.
Read the interrupt mode of the sensor. First
parameter is mode, which will be 0 for off, 1 for pulse
mode, 2 for level, 3 for SPI pulse. Second parameter
is pin, which will be 0 for TXD or 1 for MISO.
Read the current interrupt status. This value will be 1
if the filter has updated since the last time the value
was read or 0 otherwise.
Return
Data Len Return Data Details
0
Data
Len Data Details
2
2
Mode (Byte), Pin (Byte)
0
1
Status (Byte)
0
Mode (Byte), Pin (Byte)
4.3.3 Normalized Data Commands
Command
32(0x20)
33(0x21)
34(0x22)
35(0x23)
Return
Long Description
Data Len
Returns the normalized gyro rate vector,
accelerometer vector, and compass vector. Note that
the gyro vector is in units of radians/sec, while the
accelerometer and compass are unit-length vectors
indicating the direction of gravity and north,
respectively. These two vectors do not have any
Read all normalized
magnitude data associated with them.
component sensor data
36
Returns the normalized gyro rate vector, which is in
Read normalized gyro rate units of radians/sec.
12
Returns the normalized accelerometer vector. Note
that this is a unit-vector indicating the direction of
Read normalized
gravity. This vector does not have any magnitude
accelerometer vector
data associated with it.
12
Returns the normalized compass vector. Note that
this is a unit-vector indicating the direction of gravity.
Read normalized compass This vector does not have any magnitude data
associated with it.
vector
12
Description
Return Data Details
Data
Len Data Details
Gyro Rate (Vector x3),
Gravity Direction (Vector
x3), North Direction (Vector
x3)
0
Gyro Rate (Vector x3)
0
Gravity Direction (Vector
x3)
0
North Direction (Vector x3)
0
4.3.4 Other Data Commands
Command
36(0x24)
Description
Read temperature C
Long Description
Returns the temperature of the sensor in Celsius.
37(0x25)
Read temperature F
38(0x26)
Read confidence factor
Returns the temperature of the sensor in Fahrenheit
Returns a value indicating how much the sensor is
being moved at the moment. This value will return 1 if
the sensor is completely stationary, and will return 0
if it is in motion. This command can also return
values in between indicating how much motion the
sensor is experiencing.
Return
Data Len Return Data Details
4
Temperature (float)
Data
Len Data Details
0
4
Temperature (float)
0
4
Confidence Factor (float)
0
4.3.5 Corrected Data Commands
Command
Description
39(0x27)
Read corrected
accelerometer
Long Description
Returns the acceleration vector in units of G. Note
that this acceleration will include the static
component of acceleration due to gravity.
40(0x28)
Read corrected compass
Returns the compass vector in units of gauss.
25
Return
Data Len Return Data Details
12
12
Acceleration Vector in units
of G (float x3)
Compass Vector in units of
gauss (float x3)
Data
Len Data Details
0
0
User's Manual
4.3.6 Raw Data Commands
Command
Description
64(0x40)
Read all raw component
sensor data
65(0x41)
Read raw gyroscope rate
66(0x42)
Read raw accelerometer
data
67(0x43)
Read raw compass data
Return
Data Len Return Data Details
Long Description
Returns the raw gyro rate vector, accelerometer
vector and compass vector as read directly from the
component sensors without any additional postprocessing. The range of values is dependent on the
currently selected range for each respective sensor.
Returns the raw gyro rate vector as read directly
from the gyroscope without any additional postprocessing.
Returns the raw acceleration vector as read directly
from the accelerometer without any additional postprocessing.
Returns the raw compass vector as read directly
from the compass without any additional postprocessing.
Data
Len Data Details
36
Gyro Rate in counts per
degrees/sec (Vector x3),
Acceleration Vector in
counts per g (Vector x3),
Compass Vector in counts
per gauss (Vector x3)
0
12
Gyro Rate in counts per
degrees/sec (Vector x3)
0
12
Acceleration Vector in
counts per g (Vector x3)
0
12
Compass Vector in counts
per gauss (Vector x3)
0
4.3.7 Configuration Write Commands
Command
96(0x60)
Description
Tare with current
orientation
97(0x61)
Tare with quaternion
98(0x62)
Tare with rotation matrix
99(0x63)
Set static accelerometer
rho mode
100(0x64)
Set confidence
accelerometer rho mode
101(0x65)
Set static compass rho
mode
Return
Long Description
Data Len Return Data Details
Sets the tare orientation to be the same as the
current filtered orientation.
0
Sets the tare orientation to be the same as the
supplied orientation, which should be passed as a
0
quaternion.
Sets the tare orientation to be the same as the
supplied orientation, which should be passed as a
rotation matrix.
0
Determines how trusted the accelerometer
contribution is to the overall orientation estimation.
Higher values mean that the accelerometer is less
0
trusted.
Determines how trusted the accelerometer
contribution is to the overall orientation estimation.
Instead of using a single value, uses a minimum and
maximum value. Rho values will be changed within
this range depending on the confidence factor. This
can have the effect of smoothing out the
accelerometer when the sensor is in motion.
0
Determines how trusted the accelerometer
contribution is to the overall orientation estimation.
Higher values mean that the compass is less
0
trusted.
Determines how trusted the compass contribution is
to the overall orientation estimation. Instead of using
a single value, uses a minimum and maximum value.
Rho values will be changed within this range
depending on the confidence factor. This can have
the effect of reducing the compass's effect on the
overall orientation estimation and thus reducing
magnetically-induced interference.
Causes the processor to wait for the specified
number of microseconds at the end of each update
loop. Can be useful for bounding the overall update
rate of the sensor if necessary.
102(0x66)
Set confidence compass
rho mode
103(0x67)
Set desired update rate
104(0x68)
Uses the current tared orientation to set up the
reference vector for the nearest orthogonal
orientation. This is an advanced command that is
best used through 3-Space Sensor Suite calibration
Set multi reference vectors utilities. For more information, please refer to the 3with current orientation
Space Sensor Suite Quick Start Guide.
26
Data
Len Data Details
0
16
Quaternion (float x4)
36
Rotation Matrix (float x9)
4
Accelerometer rho value
(float)
8
Minimum accelerometer rho
value (float), Maximum
accelerometer rho value (float)
4
Compass rho value (float)
0
8
Minimum compass rho value
(float), Maximum compass
rho value (float)
0
4
Microsecond update rate
(unsigned integer)
0
0
User's Manual
Command
105(0x69)
106(0x6A)
107(0x6B)
108(0x6C)
109(0x6D)
110(0x6E)
Description
Return
Data Len Return Data Details
Long Description
Set the current reference vector mode. Parameter
can be 0 for single static mode, which uses a certain
reference vector for the compass and another certain
vector for the accelerometer at all times, 1 for single
auto mode, which uses (0, -1, 0) as the reference
vector for the accelerometer at all times and uses
the average angle between the accelerometer and
compass to calculate the compass reference vector
once upon initiation of this mode, 2 for single auto
continuous mode, which works similarly to single
auto mode, but calculates this continuously, or 3 for
multi-reference mode, which uses a collection of
reference vectors for the compass and
accelerometer both, and selects which ones to use
Set reference vector mode before each step of the filter.
Sets the number of times to sample each
component sensor for each iteration of the filter. This
can smooth out readings at the cost of performance.
If this value is set to 0 or 1, no oversampling occurs
—otherwise, the number of samples per iteration
depends on the specified parameter, up to a
maximum of 10. This setting can be saved to nonvolatile flash memory using the Commit Settings
Set oversample rate
command.
Enable or disable gyroscope readings as inputs to
the orientation estimation. Note that updated
gyroscope readings are still accessible via
commands. This setting can be saved to non-volatile
flash memory using the Commit Settings command.
Enable/disable gyroscope
Enable or disable accelerometer readings as inputs
to the orientation estimation. Note that updated
accelerometer readings are still accessible via
commands. This setting can be saved to non-volatile
flash memory using the Commit Settings command.
Enable/disable
accelerometer
Enable or disable compass readings as inputs to the
orientation estimation. Note that compass readings
are still accessible via commands. This setting can
be saved to non-volatile flash memory using the
Enable/disable compass Commit Settings command.
Reset multi-reference
Resets all reference vectors in the multi-reference
vectors to zero
table to zero. Intended for advanced users.
111(0x6F)
Set multi-reference table
resolution
112(0x70)
Set compass mulfireference vector
113(0x71)
Set compass multireference check vector
114(0x72)
Set accelerometer multireference vector
115(0x73)
Set accelerometer multireference check vector
Sets the number of cell dimensions and number of
nearby vectors per cell for the multi-reference lookup
table. First parameter indicates the number of cell
divisions—as an example, multi-reference mode, by
default, only handles orientations reachable by
successive rotations of ninety degrees about any of
the three axes, and hence, has a resolution of 4 (360
/ 4 == 90). Thus, a resolution of 8 would provide
rotations of forty-five degrees about any of the three
axes (360 / 8 == 45). The second parameter
indicates the number of adjacent vectors that will be
checked for each In addition, the number of
checked vectors can be adjusted as well. The
second parameters refers to the number of adjacent
reference vectors that are 'averaged' to produce the
final reference vector for the particular orientation, up
to a maximum of 32. Intended for advanced users.
Directly set the multi-reference compass vector at
the specified index. First parameter is index, second
parameter is compass vector. Intended for advanced
users.
Set the compass reading to be used as a check
vector to determine which cell index to draw the
reference vector from. First parameter is an index,
second parameter is the compass vector. Intended
for advanced users.
Directly set the multi-reference accelerometer vector
at the specified index. First parameter is index,
second parameter is compass vector. Intended for
advanced users.
Set the accelerometer reading to be used as a
check vector to determine which cell index to draw
the reference vector from. First parameter is an
index, second parameter is the accelerometer
vector. Intended for advanced users.
27
Data
Len Data Details
0
1
Mode (Byte), Pin (Byte)
0
1
Samples Per Iteration (Byte)
0
1
Mode (Byte)
0
1
Mode (Byte)
0
1
Mode (Byte)
0
0
0
2
Resolution (Byte), Number of
Check Vectors (Byte)
0
13
Index (Byte), Compass
Reference Vector (float x3)
0
13
Index (Byte), Compass
Check Vector (float x3)
0
13
Index (Byte), Accelerometer
Reference Vector (float x3)
0
13
Index (Byte), Accelerometer
Check Vector (float x3)
User's Manual
Command
Description
Return
Data Len Return Data Details
Long Description
Data
Len Data Details
Sets alternate directions for each of the natural axes
of the sensor. The only parameter is a bitfield
representing the possible combinations of axis
swapping. The lower 3 bits specify which axis each
of the natural axes will be read as:
000: XYZ (standard operation)
001: XZY
002: YXZ
003: YZX
004: ZXY
005: ZYX
(For example, using XZY means that whatever value
appears as Y on the natural axes will now be the Z
component of any new data and vice-versa.)
The 3 bits above those are used to indicate which
axes, if any, should be reversed. If it is cleared, the
axis will be pointing in the positive direction.
Otherwise, the axis will be pointed in the negative
direction.
(Note: These are applied to the axes after the
previous conversion takes place).
Bit 4: Positive/Negative Z (Third resulting component)
Bit 5: Positive/Negative Y (Second resulting
component)
Bit 6: Positive/Negative X (First resulting component)
116(0x74)
Set axis directions
0
1
Axis Direction Byte (byte)
0
4
0
12
0
12
0
0
0
1
Accelerometer range setting
(byte)
0
4
Weight power (float)
0
1
Mode (Byte)
Sets what percentage of running average to use on
the sensor's orientation. This is computed as
follows:
total_orient = total_orient * percent
total_orient = total_orient + current_orient * (1 –
percent)
current_orient = total_orient
117(0x75)
118(0x76)
119(0x77)
120(0x7c)
121(0x79)
122(0x7a)
123(0x7b)
If the percentage is 0, the running average will be
shut off completely. Maximum value is 97%. This
Set running average
setting can be saved to non-volatile flash memory
percent
using the Commit Settings command.
Set compass reference
Sets the static compass reference vector for Single
vector
Reference Mode.
Set accelerometer
Sets the static accelerometer reference vector for
reference vector
Single Reference Mode.
Resets Kalman filter's state and covariance
matrices.
Reset Kalman filter
Only parameter is the new accelerometer range,
which can be 0 for ±2g (Default range), which can be
1 for ±4g, or 2 for ±8g. Higher ranges can detect and
report larger accelerations, but are not as accurate
for smaller accelerations. This setting can be saved
to non-volatile flash memory using the Commit
Set accelerometer range Settings command.
Set weighting power for multi reference vector
weights. Multi reference vector weights are all raised
to the weight power before they are summed and
used in the calculation for the final reference vector.
Setting this value nearer to 0 will cause the reference
vectors to overlap more, and setting it nearer to
Set multi-reference weight infinity will cause the reference vectors to influence a
smaller set of orientations.
power
Used to disable the orientation filter or set the
orientation filter mode. Changing this parameter can
be useful for tuning filter-performance versus
orientation-update rates. Passing in a parameter of 0
places the sensor into IMU mode, a 1 places the
sensor into Kalman Filtered Mode (Default mode), a
2 places the sensor into Alternating Kalman Filter
Mode, and a 3 places the sensor into
Complementary Filter Mode More information can
be found in Section 3.1.5. This setting can be saved
to non-volatile flash memory using the Commit
Settings command.
Set filter mode
28
Running Average Percent
(float)
Compass Reference Vector
(float x3)
Accelerometer Reference
Vector (float x3)
User's Manual
Command
Description
Return
Data Len Return Data Details
Long Description
125(0x7d)
Used to further smooth out the orientation at the
cost of higher latency. Passing in a parameter of 0
places the sensor into a static running average
mode, a 1 places the sensor into a confidencebased running average mode, which changes the
running average factor based upon the confidence
factor, which is a measure of how 'in motion' the
sensor is. This setting can be saved to non-volatile
Set running average mode flash memory using the Commit Settings command.
Only parameter is the new gyroscope range, which
can be 0 for ±250 DPS, 1 for ±500 DPS, or 2 for
±2000 DPS (Default range). Higher ranges can
detect and report larger angular rates, but are not as
accurate for smaller angular rates. This setting can
be saved to non-volatile flash memory using the
Set gyroscope range
Commit Settings command.
126(0x7e)
Only parameter is the new compass range, which
can be 0 for ±0.88G, 1 for ±1.3G (Default range), 2
for ±1.9G, 3 for ±2.5G, 4 for ±4.0G, 5 for ±4.7G, 6 for
±5.6G, or 7 for ±8.1G. Higher ranges can detect and
report larger magnetic field strengths but are not as
accurate for smaller magnetic field strengths. This
setting can be saved to non-volatile flash memory
using the Commit Settings command.
124(0x7c)
Set compass range
Data
Len Data Details
0
1
Mode (Byte)
0
1
Gyroscope range setting
(Byte)
0
1
Compass range setting (Byte)
4.3.8 Configuration Read Commands
Command
128(0x80)
129(0x81)
130(0x82)
131(0x83)
132(0x84)
133(0x85)
134(0x86)
135(0x87)
136(0x88)
137(0x89)
138(0x8a)
139(0x8b)
140(0x8c)
141(0x8d)
142(0x8e)
Description
Read tare orientation as
quaternion
Read tare orientation as
rotation matrix
Return
Data Len Return Data Details
Long Description
Returns the current tare orientation as a quaternion.
Returns the current tare orientation as a rotation
matrix.
Returns the current accelerometer rho mode as well
as the value. If this mode is set to 0 (static), this will
return the rho mode, the static rho value, and then a
dummy value of 0. If this mode is set to 1, this will
Read accelerometer rho
return the rho mode, and the minimum and
value
maximum rho values.
Returns the current compass rho mode as well as
the value. If this mode is set to 0 (static), this will
return the rho mode, the static rho value, and then a
dummy value of 0. If this mode is set to 1, this will
return the rho mode, and the minimum and
Read compass rho value maximum rho values.
Reads the amount of time taken by the last filter
Read current update rate update step.
Reads the current compass reference vector. Note
Read compass reference that this is not valid if the sensor is in Multi
Reference Vector mode.
vector
Reads the current compass reference vector. Note
Read accelerometer
that this is not valid if the sensor is in Multi
reference vector
Reference Vector mode.
Reads the current reference vector mode. Return
value can be 0 for single static, 1 for single auto, 2
Read reference vector
mode
for single auto continuous or 3 for multi.
Reads the multi-reference mode compass reference
Read compass multivector at the specified index. Intended for advanced
reference vector
users.
Reads the multi-reference mode compass reference
Read compass multicheck vector at the specified index. Intended for
reference check vector
advanced users.
Reads the multi-reference mode accelerometer
Read accelerometer multi- reference vector at the specified index. Intended for
reference vector
advanced users.
Reads the multi-reference mode accelerometer
Read accelerometer multi- reference check vector at the specified index.
reference check vector
Intended for advanced users.
Returns a value indicating whether the gyroscope
Read gyroscope enabled contribution is currently part of the orientation
estimate: 0 for off, 1 for on.
state
Returns a value indicating whether the accelerometer
Read accelerometer
contribution is currently part of the orientation
enabled state
estimate: 0 for off, 1 for on.
Returns a value indicating whether the compass
contribution is currently part of the orientation
Read compass enabled
estimate: 0 for off, 1 for on.
state
29
Data
Len Data Details
16
Quaternion (float x4)
0
36
Rotation Matrix (float x9)
0
9
Accelerometer rho mode
(byte), Accelerometer rho
values (float x2)
0
4
Compass rho mode (byte),
Compass rho values (float
x2)
Last update time in
microseconds (int)
12
Compass reference vector
(float x3)
0
12
Accelerometer reference
vector (float x4)
0
1
Mode (byte)
9
0
0
12
Compass multi-reference
reference vector (float x3)
Compass multi-reference
reference check vector
(float x3)
Accelerometer multireference reference vector
(float x3)
Accelerometer multireference reference check
vector (float x3)
1
Gyroscope enabled value
(byte)
0
1
Accelerometer enabled
value (byte)
0
1
Compass enabled value
(byte)
0
12
12
12
1
Index (byte)
1
Index (byte)
1
Index (byte)
1
Index (byte)
User's Manual
Command
Description
143(0x8f)
Read axis-direction byte
144(0x90)
Read oversample rate
145(0x91)
Read running average
percent
146(0x92)
147(0x93)
148(0x94)
149(0x95)
150(0x96)
151(0x97)
152(0x98)
Read desired update rate
Read Kalman filter
covariance matrix
Return
Long Description
Data Len
Returns a value indicating the current axis direction
setup. For more information on the meaning of this
value, please refer to the Set Axis Direction
command (116).
1
Returns a value indicating how many times each
component sensor is sampled before being stored
as raw data. A value of 1 indicates that no
oversampling is taking place, while a value that is
higher indicates the number of samples per
component sensor per filter update step.
1
Returns a value indicating how heavily the orientation
estimate is based upon the estimate from the
previous frame. For more information on the meaning
of this value, please refer to the Set Running Average
Percent command (117).
4
Returns the current desired update rate. Note that
this value does not indicate the actual update rate,
but instead indicates the value that should be spent
'idling' in the main loop. Thus, without having set a
specified desired update rate, this value should read
4
0.
Return the current Kalman filter covariance matrix.
Return the current accelerometer measurement
range, which can be a 0 for ±2g, 1 for ±4g or a 2 for
Read accelerometer range ±8g.
Read multi-reference mode Read weighting power for multi-reference vector
power weight
weights. Intended for advanced users.
Read multi-reference
resolution
Read number of multireference cells
153(0x99)
Read filter mode
Read running average
mode
154(0x9a)
Read gyroscope range
155(0x9b)
Read compass range
Reads number of cell divisions and number of nearby
vectors per cell for the multi-reference vector lookup
table. For more information on these values, please
refer to the Set Multi-Reference Resolution
command (111). Intended for advanced users.
Reads the total number of multi-reference cells.
Intended for advanced users.
Returns the current filter mode, which can be 0 for
IMU mode, 1 for Kalman, 2 for Alternating Kalman or
3 for Complementary. For more information, please
refer to the Set Filter Mode command (123).
Reads the selected mode for the running average,
which can be 0 for normal or 1 for confidence.
Reads the current gyroscope measurement range,
which can be 0 for ±250 DPS, 1 for ±500 DPS or 2
for ±2000 DPS.
Reads the current compass measurement range,
which can be 0 for ±0.88G, 1 for ±1.3G, 2 for ±1.9G,
3 for ±2.5G, 4 for ±4.0G, 5 for ±4.7G, 6 for ±5.6G or
7 for ±8.1G.
30
Return Data Details
Data
Len Data Details
Axis direction value (byte)
0
Oversample rate (byte)
0
Running average percent
(float)
0
Desired update rate in
microseconds (int)
0
36
Covariance matrix (float x9)
0
1
Accelerometer range
setting (byte)
0
4
Weight (float)
0
2
Number of cell divisions
(byte), number of nearby
vectors (byte)
0
4
Number of cells (int)
0
1
0
1
Filter mode (byte)
Running average mode
(byte)
1
Gyroscope range setting
(byte)
0
1
Compass range setting
(byte)
0
0
User's Manual
4.3.9 Calibration Commands
Command
160(0xa0)
161(0xa1)
162(0xa2)
163(0xa3)
164(0xa4)
Return
Data
Long Description
Data Len Return Data Details
Len Data Details
Sets the current compass calibration parameters to
the specified values. These consist of a bias which
is added to the raw data vector and a matrix by
which the value is multiplied. This setting can be
Set compass calibration saved to non-volatile flash memory using the Commit
Bias (float x3), Matrix (float
Settings command.
coefficients
0
48 x9)
Sets the current accelerometer calibration
parameters to the specified values. These consist of
a bias which is added to the raw data vector and a
matrix by which the value is multiplied. This setting
can be saved to non-volatile flash memory using the
Set accelerometer
Bias (float x3), Matrix (float
Commit Settings command.
calibration coefficients
0
48 x9)
Read compass calibration
Bias (float x3), Matrix (float
coefficients
x9)
Return the current compass calibration parameters.
48
Read accelerometer
Return the current accelerometer calibration
Bias (float x3), Matrix (float
48
calibration coefficients
parameters.
x9)
Read gyroscope
Bias (float x3), Matrix (float
Return the current gyroscope calibration parameters.
48
calibration coefficients
x9)
Description
170(0xaa)
Performs auto-gyroscope calibration. Sensor should
remain still while samples are taken. The gyroscope
Begin gyroscope autobias will be automatically placed into the bias part of
calibration
the gyroscope calibration coefficient list.
Sets the current gyroscope calibration parameters to
the specified values. These consist of a bias which
is added to the raw data vector and a matrix by
which the value is multiplied. This setting can be
Set gyroscope calibration saved to non-volatile flash memory using the Commit
Settings command.
coefficients
Sets the current calibration mode, which can be 0 for
Bias, 1 for Scale-Bias and 2 for Ortho-Calibration.
For more information, refer to section 3.1.3
Additional Calibration. This setting can be saved to
non-volatile flash memory using the Commit Settings
command.
Set calibration mode
Reads the current calibration mode, which can be 0
for Bias, 1 for Scale-Bias or 2 for Ortho-Calibration.
For more information, refer to section 3.1.3
Additional Calibration.
Read calibration mode
171(0xab)
Set ortho-calibration data
point from current
orientation
Set the ortho-calibration compass and
accelerometer vectors corresponding to this
orthogonal orientation. Intended for advanced users.
Set ortho-calibration data
point from vector
Directly set a vector corresponding to this orthogonal
orientation. First parameter is type, where 0 is for
compass and 1 is for accelerometer. Second
parameter is index, which indicates the orthogonal
orientation. Intended for advanced users.
165(0xa5)
166(0xa6)
169(0xa9)
172(0xac)
173(0xad)
174(0xae)
175(0xaf)
Return the vector corresponding to the orthogonal
orientation given by index. First parameter is type,
where 0 is for compass and 1 is for accelerometer.
Read ortho-calibration data Second parameter is index, which indicates the
point
orthogonal orientation. Intended for advanced users.
Stores accelerometer and compass data in the
ortho-lookup table for use in the orientation fusion
algorithm. For best results, each of the 24
orientations should be filled in with component
sensor data. Note also that ortho-calibration data will
not be used unless the calibration mode is set to
Ortho-Calibration. For more information, refer to
Section 3.1.3 Additional Calibration. Intended for
Perform ortho-calibration advanced users.
Clear out all ortho-lookup table data. Intended for
Clear ortho-calibration data advanced users.
31
0
0
0
48
Bias (float x3), Matrix (float
x9)
0
1
Mode (Byte)
1
Mode (byte)
0
0
0
12
0
Accelerometer or compass
vector (float x3)
14
Type (Byte), Index (Byte),
Accelerometer or Compass
Vector (float x3)
2
Type (Byte), Index (Byte)
0
0
0
0
User's Manual
4.3.10 General Commands
Command
Description
196(0xc4)
Set LED Mode
200(0xc8)
223(0xdf)
Read LED Mode
Read firmware version
string
224(0xe0)
Restore factory settings
225(0xe1)
226(0xe2)
Commit settings
Software reset
227(0xe3)
228(0xe4)
Enable watchdog timer
Disable watchdog timer
Return
Long Description
Data Len Return Data Details
Allows finer-grained control over the sensor LED.
Accepts a single parameter that can be 0 for
standard, which displays all standard LED status
indicators or 1 for static, which displays only the
LED color as specified by command 238.
1
LED mode (byte)
Returns the current sensor LED mode, which can be
0 for standard or 1 for static.
0
Returns a string indicating the current firmware
version.
12
Firmware version (string)
Return all non-volatile flash settings to their original,
0
default settings.
Commits all current sensor settings to non-volatile
flash memory, which will persist after the sensor is
powered off. For more information on which
parameters can be stored in this manner, refer to
Section 3.4 Sensor Settings.
0
Resets the sensor.
0
Enables the onboard watchdog timer with the
specified timeout rate. If a frame takes more than
this amount of time, the sensor will automatically
reset.
0
Disables the watchdog timer.
0
Enter bootloader mode
Read hardware version
string
Places the sensor into a special mode that allows
firmware upgrades. This will case normal operation
until the firmware update mode is instructed to return
the sensor to normal operation. For more information
on upgrading firmware, refer to the 3-Space Sensor
Suite Quick Start Guide.
Returns a string indicating the current hardware
version.
229(0xe5)
230(0xe6)
231(0xe7)
Set UART baud rate
232(0xe8)
Read UART baud rate
233(0xe9)
Set USB Mode
234(0xea)
Get USB Mode
235(0xeb)
236(0xec)
Set clock speed
Get clock speed
237(0xed)
Get serial number
238(0xee)
239(0xef)
Set LED color
Get LED color
Sets the baud rate of the physical UART. This
setting does not need to be committed, but will not
take effect until the sensor is reset. Valid baud rates
are 1200, 2400, 4800, 9600, 19200, 28800, 38400,
57600, 115200 (default), 230400, 460800 and
921600. Note that this is only applicable for sensor
types that have UART interfaces.
Returns the baud rate of the physical UART. Note
that this is only applicable for sensor types that have
UART interfaces.
Sets the communication mode for USB. Accepts
one value that can be 0 for CDC (default) or 1 for
FTDI.
Returns the current USB communication mode.
Sets the current processor clock speed. Possible
values are 15Mhz, 30 Mhz or 60 Mhz (default). This
setting does not need to be committed, but does not
take effect until the sensor is reset.
Returns the current processor clock speed.
Returns the serial number, which will match the
value etched onto the physical sensor.
Sets the color of the LED on the sensor to the
specified RGB color. This setting can be committed
to non-volatile flash memory by calling the Commit
Wireless Settings command.
Returns the color of the LED on the sensor.
0
32
0
1
LED mode (byte)
0
0
0
0
4
0
Timeout rate in microseconds
(int)
0
Hardware version (string)
0
4
Data
Len Data Details
0
4
Baud rate (int)
0
Baud rate (int)
0
1
USB communication mode
(byte)
1
USB communication mode
(byte)
0
0
4
4
0
Clock speed in Hz (int)
Clock speed in Hz (int)
4
Serial number (int)
0
12
12
0
RGB Color (float x3)
RGB Color (float x3)
4.3.11 Wired HID Commands
Command
Description
240(0xf0)
Enable/disable joystick
241(0xf1)
Enable/disable mouse
242(0xf2)
Read joystick enabled
243(0xf3)
Read mouse enabled
Return
Long Description
Data Len
Enable or disable streaming of joystick HID data for
this sensor.
0
Enable or disable streaming of mouse HID data for
this sensor.
0
Read whether the sensor is currently streaming
joystick HID data.
1
Read whether the sensor is currently streaming
1
mouse HID data.
32
Return Data Details
Data
Len Data Details
1
Joystick enabled state (byte)
1
Mouse enabled state (byte)
Joystick enabled state
(byte)
0
Mouse enabled state (byte)
0
User's Manual
4.3.12 General HID Commands
Command
244(0xf4)
Long Description
Set control mode
Sets the operation mode for one of the controls. The
first parameter is the control class,which can be 0
for Joystick Axis, 1 for Joystick Button, 2 for Mouse
Axis or 3 for Mouse Button. There are two axes and
eight buttons on the joystick and mouse. The
second parameter, the control index, selects which
one of these axes or buttons you would like to
modify. The third parameter, the handler index,
specifies which handler you want to take care of this
control. These can be the following:
Turn off this control: 255
Axes:
Global Axis: 0
Screen Point: 1
Buttons:
Hardware Button: 0
Orientation Button: 1
Shake Button: 2
245(0xf5)
Set control data
246(0xf6)
Read control mode
247(0xf7)
Read control data
249(0xf9)
Set button gyro disable
length
Get button gyro disable
lentgh
250(0xfa)
Read button state
251(0xfb)
Set mouse
absolute/relative mode
248(0xf8)
252(0xfc)
Read mouse
absolute/relative mode
253(0xfd)
Set joystick and mouse
present/removed
254(0xfe)
Return
Data Len Return Data Details
Description
Get joystick and mouse
present/removed
Sets parameters for the specified control's operation
mode. The control classes and indices are the same
as described in command 244. Each mode can have
up to 10 data points associated with it. How many
should be set and what they should be set to is
entirely based on which mode is being used.
Reads the handler index of this control's mode. The
control classes and indices are the same as
described in command 244.
Reads the value of a certain parameter of the
specified control's operation mode. The control
classes and indices are the same as described in
command 244.
Determines how long, in frames, the gyros should be
disabled after one of the physical buttons on the
sensor is pressed. A setting of 0 means they won't
be disabled at all. This setting helps to alleviate gyro
disturbances cause by the buttons causing small
shockwaves in the sensor.
Returns the current button gyro disable length.
Reads the current state of the sensor's physical
buttons. This value returns a byte, where each bit
represents the state of the sensor's physical
buttons.
Puts the mode in absolute or relative mode. This
change will not take effect immediately and the
sensor must be reset before the mouse will enter
this mode. The only parameter can be 0 for absolute
(default) or 1 for relative
Return the current mouse absolute/relative mode.
Note that if the sensor has not been reset since it
has been put in this mode, the mouse will not reflect
this change yet, even though the command will.
Sets whether the joystick and mouse are present or
removed. The first parameter is for the joystick, and
can be 0 for removed or 1 for present. The second
parameter is for the mouse. If removed, they will not
show up as devices on the target system at all. For
these changes to take effect, the sensor driver may
need to be reinstalled.
Returns whether the joystick and mouse are present
or removed.
33
0
0
1
4
Handler index (byte)
Data point (float)
0
Data
Len Data Details
3
Control class (byte), control
index (byte), handler index
(byte)
7
Control class (byte), control
index (byte), data point index
(byte), data point (float)
2
Control class (byte), control
index (byte)
3
Control class (byte), control
index (byte), data point index
(byte)
1
Number of frames (byte)
1
Number of frames (byte)
0
1
Button state (byte)
0
0
1
1
Absolute or relative mode
(byte)
0
2
0
2
Joystick present/removed
(byte), Mouse
present/removed (byte)
Absolute or relative mode
(byte)
0
Joystick present/removed
(byte), Mouse
present/removed (byte)
User's Manual
Appendix
Hex / Decimal Conversion Chart
First Hexadecimal Digit
Second Hexadecimal digit
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
A
B
C
D
E
F
0
000
001
002
003
004
005
006
007
008
009
010
011
012
013
014
015
1
016
017
018
019
020
021
022
023
024
025
026
027
028
029
030
031
2
032
033
034
035
036
037
038
039
040
041
042
043
044
045
046
047
3
048
049
050
051
052
053
054
055
056
057
058
059
060
061
062
063
4
064
065
066
067
068
069
070
071
072
073
074
075
076
077
078
079
5
080
081
082
083
084
085
086
087
088
089
090
091
092
093
094
095
6
096
097
098
099
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
7
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
8
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
9
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
A
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
B
176
177
178
179
180
181
182
183
184
185
186
187
188
189
190
191
C
192
193
194
195
196
197
198
199
200
201
202
203
204
205
206
207
D
208
209
210
211
212
213
214
215
216
217
218
219
220
221
222
223
E
224
225
226
227
228
229
230
231
232
233
234
235
236
237
238
239
F
240
241
242
243
244
245
246
247
248
249
250
251
252
253
254
255
34
Notes:
Serial Number: _____________________________________
YEI Technology
630 Second Street
Portsmouth, Ohio 45662
Toll-Free: 888-395-9029
Phone: 740-355-9029
www.YeiTechnology.com
www.3SpaceSensor.com
Patents Pending
©2007-2011 Yost Engineering, Inc.
Printed in USA
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