Quality Assurance Project Plan for Water Quality Monitoring of

Quality Assurance Project Plan for Water Quality Monitoring of
Quality Assurance Project Plan for
Water Quality Monitoring of Surface Waters Within the
Pyramid Lake Indian Reservation, Nevada
Prepared for:
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region IX
75 Hawthorne St.
San Francisco, CA 94105
Prepared by:
Pyramid Lake Paiute Tribe
P.O. Box 256
Nixon, NV 89424
Date:
January 20, 2011
________________________________________
Wayne Burke, PLPT Tribal Chairman
_______________
Date
________________________________________
John Mosley, Environmental Department Director
_______________
Date
________________________________________
Daniel Mosley, Pyramid Lake Fisheries Director
_______________
Date
________________________________________
Fannie Ely, Project Manager/QA Officer
_______________
Date
________________________________________
Donna Noel, QA Manger
_______________
Date
________________________________________
Tiffany Eastman, USEPA Project Officer
_______________
Date
________________________________________
Eugenia McNaughton, USEPA QA Manager
_______________
Date
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Contents
1.0
Project Management ............................................................................................................................... 7
1.1
Title and Approval Page- See page 1. .................................................................................................... 7
1.2
Table of Contents- See page 2. ............................................................................................................. 7
1.3
Document Distribution List .................................................................................................................. 7
1.4
Project Organization ........................................................................................................................... 8
1.5
Problem Definition/Background ........................................................................................................... 9
1.5.1
Background ............................................................................................................................... 9
1.5.2
Problem Definition ................................................................................................................... 10
1.6
Project/Task Description and Schedule ............................................................................................... 12
1.7
Quality Objectives and Criteria for Measurement Data ........................................................................ 13
1.7.1
Objectives and Project Decisions ............................................................................................... 13
1.7.2
Action Limits/Levels ................................................................................................................. 14
1.7.3
Measurement Performance Criteria/Acceptance Criteria ............................................................ 14
1.8
1.8.1
Field Sampling and Measurement Personnel .............................................................................. 17
1.8.2
Laboratory Personnel ............................................................................................................... 17
1.9
2.0
Special Training Requirements/Certification ....................................................................................... 17
Documents and Records .................................................................................................................... 17
1.9.1
QA Project Plan Distribution ..................................................................................................... 18
1.9.2
Field Documentation and Records ............................................................................................. 18
1.9.3
Laboratory Documentation and Records .................................................................................... 20
1.9.4
Technical Reviews and Evaluations ............................................................................................ 21
1.9.5
Quarterly and Annual Reports ................................................................................................... 21
Data Generation and Acquisition ............................................................................................................ 22
2.1
Sampling Design ............................................................................................................................... 22
2.1.1
Pyramid Lake ........................................................................................................................... 23
2.1.2
Truckee River ........................................................................................................................... 23
2.1.3
Non-Point Source ..................................................................................................................... 24
2.1.4
Streams ................................................................................................................................... 24
2.2
Sampling Methods ............................................................................................................................ 24
2.2.1
Surface Water Sampling ........................................................................................................... 24
2.2.2
Zooplankton Sampling .............................................................................................................. 25
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2.2.3
Field Health and Safety Procedures ........................................................................................... 25
2.2.4
Field Measurements................................................................................................................. 26
2.2.5
Field Variances......................................................................................................................... 26
2.2.6
Decontamination Procedures .................................................................................................... 26
2.2.7
Disposal of Residual Materials ................................................................................................... 27
2.2.8
Quality Assurance for Sampling ................................................................................................. 27
2.3
Sample Handling and Custody ............................................................................................................ 28
2.3.1
Sample Containers and Preservatives ........................................................................................ 28
2.3.2
Sample Packaging and Shipping................................................................................................. 28
2.3.3
Sample Custody ....................................................................................................................... 28
2.3.5
Sample Disposal ....................................................................................................................... 29
2.4
Analytical Methods ........................................................................................................................... 29
2.4.1
Field Measurements................................................................................................................. 29
2.4.2
Laboratory Analysis .................................................................................................................. 29
2.5
Quality Control Requirements ........................................................................................................... 30
2.5.1
Quality Control Requirements ................................................................................................... 30
2.5.2
Field Measurement Quality Control ........................................................................................... 31
2.5.3
Laboratory Analyses Quality Control .......................................................................................... 31
2.5.4
Background Samples ................................................................................................................ 33
2.6
Instrument/Equipment Testing, Inspection, and Maintenance ............................................................. 33
2.6.1
Field Measurement Instrument/Equipment ............................................................................... 33
2.6.2
Laboratory Analysis Instruments/Equipment .............................................................................. 33
2.7
Instrument/Equipment Calibration and Frequency .............................................................................. 33
2.7.1
Field Measurement Instrument/Equipment ............................................................................... 33
2.7.2
Laboratory Analysis Instruments/Equipment .............................................................................. 33
2.8
Inspection and Acceptance of Supplies and Consumables .................................................................... 34
2.8.1
Field Sampling Supplies and Consumables ................................................................................. 34
2.8.2
Field Measurement Supplies and Consumables .......................................................................... 34
2.8.3
Laboratory Analyses Supplies and Consumables ......................................................................... 34
2.9
Data Acquisition Requirements (Non-Direct Measurements)................................................................ 34
2.10 Data Management ............................................................................................................................ 34
3.0
Assessment and Oversight ..................................................................................................................... 35
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3.1
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Assessment/Oversight and Response Actions ..................................................................................... 35
3.1.1
Field Oversight ......................................................................................................................... 36
3.1.2
Laboratory Oversight ................................................................................................................ 37
3.2
Reports to Management ................................................................................................................... 37
3.3
Programmatic Evaluation .................................................................................................................. 37
4.0
Data Review and Usability...................................................................................................................... 38
4.1
4.1.1
Field Sampling and Measurement Data ...................................................................................... 38
4.1.2
Laboratory Data ....................................................................................................................... 38
4.2
Verification and Validation Methods .................................................................................................. 39
4.2.1
Field Sampling and Measurement Data ...................................................................................... 39
4.2.2
Laboratory Data ....................................................................................................................... 39
4.3
5.0
Data Review, Verification, and Validation Requirements ...................................................................... 38
Reconciliation with User Requirements .............................................................................................. 40
References ........................................................................................................................................... 40
Figures .......................................................................................................................................................... 42
Figure 1: Project Organizational Charts ....................................................................................................... 43
Figure 2: Lake Tahoe/Truckee River Watershed .......................................................................................... 44
Figure 3: Perennial, Intermittent, and Ephemeral Surface Waters within the PLIR. ......................................... 45
Figure 4: Lower Truckee River Water Quality Sampling Sites ........................................................................ 46
Figure 5: Truckee River Physical Habitat & Bioassessment Sampling Sites ..................................................... 47
Figure 6: Virginia Mountain Range Stream WQ Monitoring Sampling Sites .................................................... 48
Figure 7: Pah Rah Mountain Range Stream WQ Monitoring Sampling Sites ................................................... 49
Figure 8: Lake Mountain Range Stream WQ Monitoring Sampling Sites ........................................................ 50
Figure 9: Pyramid Lake WQ Monitoring Sampling Sites ................................................................................ 51
Figure 10: Sample Chain-of-Custody Form .................................................................................................. 52
Figure 11: Field Activities Review Checklist ................................................................................................. 53
Figure 12: Laboratory Data Review Checklist ............................................................................................... 54
Tables ........................................................................................................................................................... 56
Table 1: Pyramid Lake Analytical Parameters and Target Limits .................................................................... 57
Table 2: Truckee River Analytical Parameters and Target Limits .................................................................... 58
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Table 3: Quantitation Limits (Measurement Range) of Field Equipment ........................................................ 59
Table 4: Quality Control Requirements for Field Measurements Collected .................................................... 60
Table 5: Quality Control Requirements for Laboratory Analyses ................................................................... 62
Table 6: Summary of Water Samples and Analytical Methods ...................................................................... 63
Table 7: Sample Design and Rationale - Pyramid Lake .................................................................................. 64
Table 8: Sample Design and Rationale – Truckee River (monthly) ................................................................. 65
1
Table 9: Sample Design and Rationale – Truckee River (annual) .................................................................. 66
Table 10: Sample Design and Rationale – Non Point Source Sites.................................................................. 67
Table 11: Sample Design and Rationale - Mountain Streams ........................................................................ 68
Table 12: YSI 6920V2 Instrument Calibration, Maintenance, Testing, and Inspection ..................................... 69
Table 13: SBE 19plus SEACAT Profiler Calibration, Maintenance, Testing, and Inspection ............................... 70
Table 14: GPS Coordinates of Sampling Locations ........................................................................................ 71
Appendices ................................................................................................................................................... 72
Appendix A: Field Standing Operating Procedures ....................................................................................... 73
YSI Model 6920V2 Sonde and Data Logger .............................................................................................. 73
YSI 6920V2 Sonde Calibration Worksheet ................................................................................................ 80
Calibration and Field Measurement Procedures for the SBE 19plus SEACAT Profiler ................................... 81
Surface Water Sampling ........................................................................................................................ 85
Discrete Depth Water Sampling.............................................................................................................. 89
Secchi Disk Measurements..................................................................................................................... 93
Zooplankton Sampling ........................................................................................................................... 94
Chain of Custody Practices and Form Completion .................................................................................... 97
Chain of Custody and Test Request Form .............................................................................................. 100
Appendix B: Workplace Safety Program ................................................................................................... 101
Appendix C: Laboratory QA Manual ......................................................................................................... 134
Appendix D: Laboratory DQI Tables .......................................................................................................... 136
Table 1: Summary of Analytical Methods ............................................................................................. 136
Table 2: Summary of Contract Required Detection Limits, Holding Times, and Preservation ..................... 136
Data Calculation and Reporting Units.................................................................................................... 137
Table 3: Summary of the Standard Curve Calibration Evaluation ............................................................ 137
Table 4: Summary of Internal Quality Control Procedures for PLPT WQ Laboratory ................................. 138
Appendix E: Laboratory Standard Operating Procedures ............................................................................ 139
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Total Phosphorus Determination .......................................................................................................... 139
Orthophosphate (Dissolved Reactive Phosphorus) Analysis .................................................................... 144
Nitrite + Nitrate .................................................................................................................................. 148
Ammonia as Nitrogen Determination ................................................................................................... 155
Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN) Determination ......................................................................................... 159
Zooplankton Sample Analysis ............................................................................................................... 169
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1.0
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Project Management
This Quality Assurance (QA) Project Plan has been prepared for the monitoring of surface water by the
Pyramid Lake Paiute Tribe (PLPT) on the Pyramid Lake Indian Reservation (PLIR). The surface water
monitoring program is part of the PLPTs water quality management program developed under Section
106 of the Clean Water Act. This section of the QA Project Plan describes how the project will be
managed, organized and implemented.
1.1
Title and Approval Page- See page 1.
1.2
Table of Contents- See page 2.
1.3
Document Distribution List
Name/Title
Mailing Address
Phone/Email
Eugenia McNaughton
QA Program Manager
USEPA R-9, PMD-3
75 Hawthorne Street
San Francisco, CA 94105
415-972-3411
[email protected]
Tiffany Eastman
USEPA Project Officer
USEPA R-9, MTS-3
415-972-3404*
75 Hawthorne Street
[email protected]
San Francisco, CA 94105
*To contact this person you must dial 1-800-735-2922 for an operator to assist with your call.
John Mosley
Environmental Director
P.O. Box 256
Nixon, NV 89424
775-574-0101
[email protected]
Daniel Mosley
PL Fisheries Director
Star Route
Sutcliffe, NV
775-476-0500
[email protected]
Fannie Ely
Project Manager
P.O. Box 256
Nixon, NV 89424
775-574-0101
[email protected]
Donna Noel
QA Manager
P.O. Box 256
Nixon, NV 89424
775-574-0101
[email protected]
Beverly Harry
Environmental Manager
P.O. Box 256
Nixon, NV 89424
775-574-0101
[email protected]
Richard Frazier
Env. Database Specialist
P.O. Box 256
Nixon, NV 89424
775-574-0101
[email protected]
Chris Katopothis
Environmental Specialist
P.O. Box 256
Nixon, NV 89424
775-574-0101
[email protected]
Bonita Natonabah
Environmental Technician
P.O. Box 256
Nixon, NV 89424
775-574-0101
[email protected]
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Nancy Vucinich
Environmental Technician
Star Route
Sutcliffe, NV
775-476-0500
[email protected]
Sarah Mandell
Resource Technician
Star Route
Sutcliffe, NV
775-476-0500
[email protected]
1.4
Project Organization
The Pyramid Lake Paiute Tribe (PLPT) is the responsible agency for the surface water quality monitoring
program. The participating agency is the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 9 (USEPA). The
Pyramid Lake Paiute Tribe’s Water Quality Laboratory is the laboratory that will be performing the
chemical and microbiological analyses for the monitoring program following commonly used analytical
methods. The PLPT Water Quality Laboratory is located in Sutcliffe, Nevada. If, in the future, the PLPT
WQ Laboratory is no longer the laboratory and a new laboratory is selected, this Quality Assurance
Project Plan (QAPP) will be amended accordingly.
The roles and responsibilities are described below. All contact information can be found in the
Document Distribution List above. An organizational chart for the project, shown in Figure 1, illustrates
relationships and lines of communication among participants and data users.
Tiffany Eastman, US EPA Project Officer
Will provide overall grant oversight, and work with the Project Manager to ensure grant adherence,
reviewing and approving the work plan and reports for this project.
Eugenia McNaughton, US EPA QA Program Manager
The US EPA QA Program Manager is responsible for providing QAPP review and guidance for the PLPT
and final document approval.
Fannie Ely, Project Manager/QA Officer
The project manager/QA officer is the responsible official who will oversee the WQ monitoring program
and budget for this project. She will provide guidance, ensuring technical
quality/adherence/compliance, and overall development of the sampling design and protocols. She will
oversee training of personnel on QC requirements and procedures. She will be responsible for ensuring
that any amended versions of the QA Project Plan are distributed to the organizations and individuals on
the Distribution List. As QA Reviewer, she will provide review and guidance, reviewing QA/QC plans for
completeness and noting errors and inconsistencies. Since the PLPT is not large enough to support a fulltime QA Officer, she will function in the dual role as Project Manager and QA Reviewer. Fannie has a BS
degree in Geography, and experience conducting sampling and analysis of water samples for the PLPT
since 2004.
WQ Laboratory Manager
The Laboratory Manager is the responsible official who will serve as the primary contact and provide
oversight for all laboratory-related activities. The Laboratory Manager will coordinate annually with
Pyramid Lake Fisheries and PLPT Specialists/Technicians to review laboratory roles and responsibilities,
sampling and field measurement requirements, analytical requirements, sampling schedule, and
requirements for field and laboratory documentation to minimize potential problems that could occur
during the sampling season. The Laboratory Manager will provide oversight for water sample
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preparation and analytical activities within the WQ laboratory, and review analytical data to ensure it is
consistent with the QA/QC program defined in this QA Project Plan. The Laboratory Manager is
responsible for the QA/QC Quality Assurance/Quality Control (QA/QC) review of all data generated for
the samples collected.
This position is currently empty; please contact Project Manager/QA Officer with questions regarding
Laboratory Manager responsibilities.
Donna Noel, QA Manager
She will receive all data reports from the analytical laboratory and will be their main contact regarding
data quality/control issues and concerns. She will notify the Project and/or Laboratory Manager if there
is any knowledge that standard operating procedures are not being followed. Donna has a BS in
Bacteriology and Chemistry and a MS in Metallurgical Engineering. She has 10 years of laboratory
supervisor and QA/QC experience.
Field Samplers
Beverly Harry, Environmental Manager
Chris Katopothis, Environmental Specialist
Fannie Ely, Environmental Specialist
Bonita Natonabah, Environmental Technician
Sarah Mandell, Resource Technician
Nancy Vucinich, Environmental Technician
The individuals listed above have the primary responsibility for performing sample collection and field
measurement activities. They will enter data and conduct data/QC analysis. Each person has at least
three years experience in collecting water quality data.
1.5
Problem Definition/Background
1.5.1
Background
The Pyramid Lake Paiute Indian Reservation (PLIR) is located 35 miles northeast of Reno - Nevada, in
rural Washoe County, Nevada. The PLIR encompasses approximately 475,000 acres or 742 sq. miles,
about 25% is surface water. The PLIR land is held in trust by the United States government, less than 1%
remains in “fee” status. The PLPT is comprised of approximately 2,300 tribal members, 1,600 of whom
live on the Reservation. The PLPT is a federally recognized Tribe.
The Pyramid Lake Paiute Tribe has a 56% employment rate, the rest being unemployed, retired, or
ranchers. The majority of the reservation resident population is young, comprised of individuals under
age thirty-five (35) years. The median age is twenty-two (22) years. Much of the economy on the
Pyramid Lake Reservation is centered on fishing and recreational activities at Pyramid Lake. In addition
to permit fees for fishing, day use and overnight camping; the Tribe also receives lease revenue, and tax
revenue. Several tribal members belong to the Pyramid Lake Cattleman's Cooperative Association and
the Association utilizes the reservation under a range management plan to operate and manage
livestock owned by individual tribal members.
The Truckee River, which originates in the Truckee River Watershed (Figure 2), flows east for
approximately 125 miles from the spill-way at Lake Tahoe, through the cities of Reno and Sparks, to its
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terminus in Pyramid Lake. Pyramid Lake is 114,000 surface acres and classified as a mesotrophic,
monomictic terminal lake. Pyramid Lake and 31 miles of the lower Truckee River is located within the
exterior boundaries of the PLIR in Northwest Nevada.
Surface water resources within the Reservation include 31 miles of the lower Truckee River, all of
Pyramid Lake, 12 perennial streams, and many intermittent creeks, ephemeral washes, seeps, springs
and wetlands (Figure 3).
The Paiute people (Numa) of Pyramid Lake were traditionally fishermen, hunters, and gatherers. The
original name of the Pyramid Lake Paiute is “Cui-ui Dicutta,” meaning Cui-ui eater, which speaks of the
Tribe’s dependence upon Cui-ui for food. Quality of life for the Numa has decreased over the years due
to the affects of growth and urbanization. Upstream water diversions and subsequent low flows have
affected recovery efforts of two Pyramid Lake fish species important to the Tribe’s culture and
traditional way of life. The Lahontan Cutthroat Trout (LCT) and Cui-ui (chasmistes cujus) are listed as
threatened and endangered by the USFWS.
The Cui-ui (a lake sucker) is a long-lived fish, living up to 50 years. Historically, Cui-ui have been known to
spawn farther upstream but now spawn primarily in the Truckee River portion of the PLIR. The PLPT
maintains a Cui-ui hatchery in Sutcliffe, Nevada and the Cui-ui successfully spawn in the river when flows
are greater than 1000 cubic feet per second from March through June.
Blocked by dams and confined to the main stem of the lower Truckee River, the few LCT who manage to
migrate out of the lake have very limited spawning habitat and no fry-hatch success in the river.
Therefore, all Pyramid Lake LCT are maintained by three hatcheries and hand-spawned by fishery
technicians. Historically LCT migrated up the Truckee River in great numbers on their way to upper
Truckee River watershed tributaries. Today there is very little evidence of spawning LCT even in the best
of years in the lower Truckee River.
1.5.2
Problem Definition
The Truckee River and Pyramid Lake are important cultural resources to the PLPT. These two water
bodies are integral to the Tribe’s cultural and economic life, therefore any current or potential future
impairment to aquatic life needs to be identified.
The Cities of Reno/ Sparks, Nevada currently have a permit to discharge up to 40 million gallons per day
of tertiary-treated effluent into Steamboat Creek by Reno’s wastewater treatment plant, which then
flows into the Truckee River. The North Truckee Drain (from agricultural return flows) enters the
Truckee River just upstream of the confluence of the Steamboat Creek and the Truckee River. Urban
Storm runoff is another nonpoint source of pollution (NPS). These point & nonpoint sources of pollution
enter the Truckee River about 25 -30 miles upstream of the PLIR boundary, and all have negative
impacts on aquatic life, especially the threatened and endangered fish.
Washoe County is one of the fastest growing counties in the U.S., and the cities of Reno/ Sparks are
currently looking into increasing their discharge of effluent into the Truckee River. More Industrial
companies are building along the Truckee River corridor, adding the potential of NPS pollution.
Derby Dam is located about 10 miles upstream of the PLIR boundary. Built in 1906, it is operated by the
U.S. Bureau of Reclamation to divert Truckee River water out of basin to Churchill County for agricultural
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use. Diversions in drought years results in low flows, compounded by upstream point and nonpoint
sources of pollution, take their toll on aquatic life. Channelization and cutting down of mature
cottonwood trees along the lower Truckee River 1960’s by U.S. ACE, extending to the PLIR have
contributed to a degraded spawning habitat and living conditions for salmonids in the lower Truckee
River.
In 1994, the PLPT developed a Nonpoint Source Management plan identifying NPS concerns within the
PLIR. Most of these concerns have been mitigated by fencing the lower river from livestock, laser
leveling agricultural fields to reduce runoff, and by taking many homes off septic systems. The current
plan is under revision and should be completed in 2011.
The PLPT is concerned about the effects of current land use (e.g., septic systems, livestock, agriculture,
upstream urbanization and point/ nonpoint sources of pollution, etc.) may have on aquatic life in the
Truckee River and Pyramid Lake. To date, however, there has not been an adequate biological
assessment of the quality of the Reservation’s surface waters or evaluation of potential sources of
contamination.
Section 101(a) of the CWA states the “objective of the act is to restore and maintain the chemical,
physical, and biological integrity of the nation’s waters…” States and Tribes have a fairly good
understanding of the chemical and physical conditions, but have just recently began developing
bioassessment programs to assess biological conditions of their surface waters.
For this reason, the PLPT through the Pyramid Lake Fisheries WQ laboratory and Resource Management
program began conducting nutrient analysis of waters within the PLIR in 1985.
The PLPT’s goal is to ‘maintain’ the biological, chemical and physical integrity of surface waters and
riparian areas within the PLIR, with a long-term goal of improving WQ conditions for the benefit of
aquatic life, and especially endangered and threatened fish dependent upon Pyramid Lake and the
Lower Truckee River.
The purpose for this QAPP is to adopt standardized protocols for conducting long-term water quality
monitoring of surface waters within the PLIR. Data generated from this study will be used to assess
aquatic health/ conditions, and monitor/ evaluate trends. Data generated will also be used to establish
or determine if water quality standards are being achieved. Best management practices will be
incorporated to improve the biological integrity, riparian health, and water quality of a water body.
These decisions will be the role of the Project Manager who receives direction from the Environmental,
Pyramid Lake Fisheries, and Water Resources directors, managers, specialists and Tribal Council
representatives during monthly Tribal interdisciplinary team (TIDT) meetings.
Biological monitoring of surface waters will also be conducted under a separate QA Plan. Long-term
biological monitoring data will provide information to help the PLPT establish an Index of Biological
Integrity (IBI) and biocriteria standards, which can later be implemented into Tribal regulations and
ordinances for the Pyramid Lake Paiute Indian Reservation.
All water quality data including previously collected field and laboratory data is stored within the PLPT
Environmental Department. This data has been collected since 1985 and includes chemical, physical,
and biological data. Continuing surface water monitoring is needed to provide information of current
conditions, as well as to track changes in water quality over time.
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1.6
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Project/Task Description and Schedule
Water quality monitoring is conducted by Tribal Environmental Water Quality staff and Pyramid Lake
Fisheries staff.
There are five monthly sampling sites along the Truckee River and three non-point source sites that are
included in the Truckee River monthly monitoring events, Figure 4. There are eleven annual sampling
sites along the Truckee River. These sites correspond with the bioassessment monitoring activities
described in the Bioassessment Monitoring in Surface Waters of the Pyramid Lake Indian Reservation,
Nevada: Pyramid Lake Paiute Tribe Stream Bioassessment Procedure (QA EPA Office Document Control
Number: WATR0568QV3), Figure 5.
There are thirteen perennial stream sample sites, Figure 6 - Figure 8, and two monitoring stations for
Pyramid Lake, Figure 9.
Sampling locations are accessible either by boat, truck (2 or 4-wheel drive), or hiking. All sampling
locations have been previously recorded using global positioning system equipment. See Table 14 for
GPS coordinates for each sampling location. Other water bodies may be sampled when time permits.
Water samples will be taken immediately to the Tribe’s laboratory for preservation after collection.
Analysis will be conducted for the following parameters: total ammonia, nitrate + nitrite, total kjeldahl
nitrogen, total phosphate and orthophosphate. A YSI Model 6920V2 will be used to measure
temperature, pH, specific conductivity, total dissolved solids, and dissolved oxygen or a SEACAT Profiler
SBE 19plus, for lake sampling, will be used to measure the following in-situ parameters: temperature
(C°), pH, conductivity, dissolved oxygen (DO), and chlorophyll.
Monitoring of Truckee River/NPS will be conducted monthly. Monitoring of Pyramid Lake station 96 will
be conducted monthly and both Pyramid Lake monitoring stations 96 and 93 will be sampled quarterly
(February, May, August, and November). Annual monitoring of the physical habitat and bioassessment
sites along the Truckee River will be conducted in late August to early September; timing depends on
the flows of the river and corresponds with low flow. Monitoring of the mountain streams will be
conducted annually along with the physical habitat and bioassessment activities, this occurs in spring
(April/May) depending on water flows due to winter precipitation.
It is expected to take one day a month to monitor Pyramid Lake and the Truckee River each, one week
to complete the mountain stream sampling, and one week to complete the monitoring of the
bioassessment sample sites.
The monthly monitoring schedule for the Truckee River/NPS and Pyramid Lake is as follows:
First week:
Third week:
Fourth week:
Collect/preserve water samples.
Analyze water samples at WQ laboratory.
Evaluate WQ data, and then enter results into database.
Summarize & tabulate data, and include in monthly and Quarterly
Reports.
Submit monthly reports to Tribal Council and annual report to EPA.
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The annual monitoring schedule for the Mountain Streams is as follows:
First week:
Second week:
Fourth week:
Collect/ preserve water samples from mountain stream sites.
Analyze water samples at WQ laboratory.
Evaluate WQ data, and then enter results into database.
Summarize & tabulate data, and include in monthly and Quarterly
Reports.
Submit monthly reports to Tribal Council and annual report to EPA.
The annual monitoring schedule for the Truckee River Bioassessment is as follows:
First week:
Third week:
Fourth week:
1.7
Collect/ preserve water samples from BA sampling sites.
Analyze water samples at WQ laboratory.
Evaluate WQ data, and then enter results into database.
Summarize & tabulate data, and include in monthly and Quarterly
Reports.
Submit monthly reports to Tribal Council and annual report to EPA.
Quality Objectives and Criteria for Measurement Data
This section describes the objectives of the project (i.e., decision or study questions to be answered),
identifies the targeted action limits/levels, and defines the measurement performance or acceptance
criteria deemed necessary to meet these objectives.
1.7.1
Objectives and Project Decisions
The surface water monitoring program is designed to characterize the surface water resources of the
PLPT. The continued monitoring will provide valuable information about the current condition of the
waters within the PLIR. Ongoing monitoring will allow the PLPT to continue to track changes in water
quality over time and help to assess potential future environmental impacts to the PLIR surface waters.
The Pyramid Lake Paiute Tribal Council adopted numeric and narrative Water Quality Standards (WQS)
for Pyramid Lake and the Truckee River, and narrative standards for tributaries to those water bodies by
resolution on September 19, 2008. The PLPT received final approval on the Water Quality Control Plan
(WQCP) on December 19, 2008, from EPA. These water quality standards will be used to evaluate the
quality of water and serve as the Project Action Limits (PALs). Data collected will be compared to these
approved standards presented as PALs in Table 1 and Table 2. Data collected from the mountain
streams will be compared to the WQS for the Truckee River as a guideline.
Decisions to be made with the data include:
 If data for an analyte or field parameter (from an individual location or single sampling
event) are found to exceed the PLPT WQS, then the Tribal IDT will be notified.
 If data are found to exceed the PLPT WQS for three consecutive sampling events and/or
appear to be increasing with time, then the Tribal IDT and Tribal Council will be notified and
a plan for future investigations of potential sources will be discussed.
 If waters flowing onto the reservation are impaired the issue will be brought to the
attention of the Tribal IDT and Tribal Council for possible discussion with the US EPA Project
Officer.
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1.7.2
Page 14 of 170
Action Limits/Levels
Table 1 and Table 2 provide a listing of the parameters to be sampled and the associated PALs. The
information demonstrates that the analytical methods selected for this project are capable of providing
data with quantitation limits (QL) reported to concentrations lower than the PLPT WQS for the majority
of the parameters of interest, and therefore, the data generated will be able to support sound decisions
at the PALs. In addition, Table 1 and Table 2, provide a summary of the laboratory’s analytical detection
limits (DL), those minimum concentrations that can be detected above instrumental background or
baseline/signal noise, providing further assurance that the analytical methods are capable of meeting
the data needs of the project in terms of sensitivity.
Table 1 and Table 2 provide additional information related to the field measurements to be conducted.
The QLs listed, as well as the measurement ranges associated with each field parameter, based on
information provided in the respective equipment manufacturers identified in Table 3, are deemed
acceptable to meet the project objectives.
1.7.3
Measurement Performance Criteria/Acceptance Criteria
In order to support project decisions, data generated must be of known and acceptable quality. To
define acceptable data quality for this project data quality indicators (DQIs) were identified for each
analytical parameter, and decisions were made regarding how each DQI would be assessed. The DQIs
include: precision, accuracy/bias (as related to percent recovery and contamination),
representativeness, comparability, completeness and sensitivity.
The general approach to assessing each DQI is described below. Some DQIs will be assessed
quantitatively, while others will be assessed qualitatively. For quantitative assessments, example
calculations have been provided and the QA samples (to assess each DQI) have been identified.
The frequency of the QC samples and the measurement performance criteria for each QC sample for
each type of analysis are provided in Table 5. For quantitative assessment of laboratory methodology,
the laboratory’s Data Quality Indicator Tables (Appendix D), and analytical SOPs have been reviewed by
the Tribe’s project team, and the associated laboratory QC (types & frequencies of QC samples and QC
acceptance limits) have been determined to be adequate to meet the data quality needs of the project.
As such, the laboratory QC has been accepted as the project’s measurement performance criteria for
the analytical component, while project specific criteria have been defined to assess the field-sampling
component.
For field measurement, the associated acceptance criteria (types and frequencies of QC checks and
acceptance limits) for the project are summarized in Table 4.
General Approach:
Precision- Precision will be assessed quantitatively with duplicate samples and expressed as relative
percent difference (RPD) by the following equation:
RPD (%) = |X1 – X2| x 100
(X1 + X2)/2
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where,
RPD (%) = relative percent difference
X1= Original sample concentration
X2= Duplicate sample concentration
|X1 – X2| = Absolute value of X1 – X2
To assess precision associated with all steps of the project (from sample collection through analysis)
field duplicates will be collected and analyzed. Field duplicates will be collected at a frequency of 10% (1
duplicate/10 field samples) for each analytical parameter and 5% (1 duplicate each of 2 days/10 field
samples) for each field measurement parameter. To assess laboratory precision alone, laboratory
duplicates will be prepared and analyzed at a 5% frequency.
Accuracy/Bias- Accuracy/bias will be assessed as related to recovery, as well as in regards to potential
contamination sources. Both of these terms will be evaluated quantitatively.
Accuracy/bias related to recovery is an assessment of the laboratory analytical methods alone. For
laboratory control samples (LCS), it will be expressed as % Recovery from the expected concentration by
the following equation.
% Recovery = X x 100
T
where,
X = Measured concentration
T= Expected (True) concentration
or, for Matrix Spike (MS) samples, by the following equation:
% Recovery = (B-A) x 100
T
where,
B= Measured concentration of spiked sample
A= Measured concentration of unspiked sample
T= Expected (True) spiked concentration
The frequency of the LCS and/or MS samples associated with the analytical parameters will be one for
every 20 samples or 5%. No LCS or MS samples will be analyzed as part of the field measurements.
Accuracy/bias as related to contamination involves both a field sampling and laboratory component. To
assess all steps of the project (from sample collection through analysis), field blanks will be collected and
analyzed. Field blanks are planned to be collected at a frequency of 5% (or 1 blank/20 field samples) for
analysis. To assess potential laboratory contaminant sources alone, laboratory blanks will be prepared
and analyzed at one per batch or 5% frequency. No blanks will be analyzed as part of the field
measurements.
Another way to measure accuracy is through the use of performance evaluation samples. These are
samples containing analytes whose concentration is known to the tribe, but not to the laboratory.
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However, submission of performance evaluation samples to the laboratory is presently outside the
scope and budget of the tribe’s water monitoring program. It is also felt that, given the planned use of
the data by the tribe for its internal purposes, that performance evaluation samples are not warranted
at this time. If performance evaluation samples are deemed necessary in the future, the Tribe would
acquire the samples from commercial sources and would rely on the preparer of the samples to
establish acceptance criteria, whether that were EPA, the state, or a commercial supplier.
Representativeness - Representativeness, or the ability of a sample to represent the environmental
conditions at the time of collection, will be assessed both quantitatively and qualitatively.
To assess this term quantitatively, an overall evaluation will be made of how well the precision and
accuracy/bias assessments met their associated measurement performance criteria. An additional
assessment will involve ensuring that a temperature blank sample has accompanied each cooler of
samples that has a temperature requirement associated with its preservation (Table 6) and that the
temperature of these temperature blank samples are 4°C ± 2°C when received at the laboratory.
To assess this term qualitatively, no actual QC samples are involved. Instead, the evaluation will involve
verifying that documented sample collection and analytical methods (including sample handling and
chain-of-custody procedures, sample preservation, and sample holding time protocols) were followed.
The procedures identified throughout this QA Project Plan were chosen to optimize the potential for
obtaining samples that reflect the true state of the environment, within practical limits. In addition,
efforts were made to ensure samples would be collected so that the overall condition of all the Tribe’s
water can be assessed. Long-term monitoring will increase the representativeness of the project in that
it would enable an assessment of changes over time. Basically, the more sampling events, the more
statistically representative the collected data will be of the area.
Comparability- Comparability, or the degree to which data from different studies or methodologies
agree, will be assessed qualitatively.
Comparability expresses the confidence with which one data set can be compared to another. It
describes the ability and appropriateness of making collective decisions with two or more data sets.
Many variables may affect the descriptive value of the data. These include:
 Variables of interest in each data set
 Use of common units
 Similarity of methods and QA
 Time frames
 Season
 Weather
 Equipment
These variables are addressed by describing the project objectives and activities planned under the
project.
The analytical methods to be used by the PLPT WQ Laboratory will be EPA or Standard Methods, both
well- documented and published methods for surface water analyses. In addition, the analytical reports
will be in consistent units of measure, such as milligrams per liter (mg/l) or micrograms per liter (μg/l).
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Table 6 lists the analytical parameters to be sampled and the methods to be used for the analysis, as
well as the field measurements.
Completeness- Completeness, the amount of valid data obtained compared to the planned amount,
may be assessed quantitatively and/or qualitatively. To assess the term quantitatively, % Completeness
will be expressed by the following equation:
% Completeness = N x 100
T
where,
N= Number of usable results
T= Total targeted number of samples planned to be collected
All data collected in this project will be used to determine the quality of surface water within the PLIR.
Due to a variety of circumstances, sometimes not all samples scheduled to be collected can be collected
(e.g., a creek may be dry, etc.) or the data from the samples cannot be used (e.g., samples bottles are
broken in transit, sample holding times are grossly exceeded, etc.). For this surface water sampling
project, the overall completeness goal has been set at 90% for each analytical parameter and field
measurement type. If the completeness goal is not met, re-sampling and/or re-analyzing will be
conducted.
At this point in time, no sampling locations have been deemed more critical to the overall project goal
than any other. As such, there will be no qualitative assessment of completeness to ensure that samples
from critical locations have been collected and their associated data has been deemed usable to support
the project objectives.
Sensitivity- Sensitivity, or the ability of a method to detect and quantify an analytical parameter of
concern at the concentration level of interest, will be assessed semi-quantitatively. No actual QC
samples are involved. Instead, the laboratory to perform the analyses has provided their QLs and DLs
and demonstrated that these are lower than the respective WQS serving as the project action limits, for
the majority of the analytical parameter. For field measurements, the sensitivity is defined by the
instrument manufacturers.
1.8
Special Training Requirements/Certification
1.8.1
Field Sampling and Measurement Personnel
No special training of field personnel is required for this project. The PLPT field personnel conducting
the field activities are experienced staff members who have been supporting similar activities for many
years.
1.8.2
Laboratory Personnel
No special training of laboratory personnel is required for this project. Laboratory training ensures that
personnel performing designated tasks have participated in ongoing training associated with those
tasks.
1.9
Documents and Records
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1.9.1
Page 18 of 170
QA Project Plan Distribution
It is the responsibility of the PLPT Project Manager to prepare and maintain amended versions of the QA
Project Plan and to distribute the amended QA Project Plan to the individuals listed in Section 1.3.
1.9.2
Field Documentation and Records
In the field, records will be documented in several ways, including field logbooks, photographs, preprinted forms, corrective action reports, and field audit checklists and reports. Field activities must be
conducted according to the appropriate SOPs (Appendix A). It is the responsibility of the PLPT Project
Manager to maintain updated revisions of SOPs at all times and to distribute updated SOPs to the PLPT
field personnel, as appropriate. All documentation generated by the sampling program will be kept on
file in the office of the PLPT Environmental Department.
1.9.2.1
Field Notebooks
Bound field logbooks will be used to record field observations, sampling site conditions, and on-site field
measurements. These books will be kept in a permanent file in the office of the PLPT Environmental
Department. At a minimum, information to be recorded in the field logbooks at each sample
collection/measurement location includes:












Sample location and description,
Sampler’s names,
Date and time of sample collection,
Designation of sample as composite or grab,
Type of sampling equipment used,
Type of field measurement instruments used, along with equipment model and serial
number,
Field measurement instrument readings,
Field observations and details related to analysis or integrity of samples,
Preliminary sample descriptions,
Sample preservation,
Lot numbers of the sample containers, sample identification numbers and any explanatory
codes, and
Name of recipient laboratory(ies).
In addition to the sample information, the following specific information will also be recorded in the
field logbook for each day of sampling:





Team members and their responsibilities,
Time of arrival/entry on site and time of site departure,
Other personnel on site,
Deviations from the QAPP or SOPs required in the field, and
Summary of any meetings or discussions with tribal, contractor, or federal agency
personnel.
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Separate instrument/equipment notebooks or logbooks will be maintained for each piece of equipment
or instrument. These logbooks will be used to record field instrument calibration and maintenance
information. Each logbook will include the name, manufacturer, and serial number of the
instrument/equipment, as well as dates and details of all maintenance and calibration activities.
1.9.2.2
Photographs
Digital photographs will be taken at each sampling location and at other areas of interest near sampling
area for every sampling event, except monthly monitoring sites; these will be photographed at least
quarterly. The photographs will serve to verify information entered into the field logbook. Digital
photographs will be archived in a permanent digital file to be kept in the office of the PLPT
Environmental Program.
For each photograph taken, the following information will be written in the field logbook or recorded in
a separate field photography logbook:




1.9.2.3
Time, date, location, and weather conditions,
Description of the subject photographed,
Direction in which the picture was taken, and
Name and affiliation of the photographer.
Labels
All samples collected will be labeled in a clear and precise way for proper identification in the field and
for tracking in the laboratory. The samples will have identifiable and unique numbers. At a minimum,
the sample label will contain the following information







Sampling location or name,
Unique sample number,
Sample description (e.g., grab, composite),
Date and time of collection,
Initials/signature of sampler,
Analytical parameter(s), and
Method of preservation.
Each sample location will have a unique sample identification number. The unique sample ID will be two
to three letters to represent the site followed by the date without spaces or for lake samples the station
number and depth followed by the date. For example a sample taken at Pierson Dam on January 1, 2010
would be PD-01012010 and a sample taken at Station 96 at a depth of 10 m on January 01, 2010 would
be ST9610-01012010. The two to three letter codes for each sample site can be found in Tables 8 - Table
11.
1.9.2.4
Field Quality Control Sample Records
Field QC samples (duplicates and blanks) will be labeled as such in the field logbooks. They will be given
unique (fictitious) sample identification numbers and will be submitted “blind” to the laboratory (i.e.,
only the field logbook entry will document their identification and the laboratory will not know these are
QC samples). The frequency of QC sample collection will also be recorded in the field logbook.
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1.9.2.5
Page 20 of 170
Sample Chain-of-Custody Forms and Custody Seals
Chain-of-custody forms will be provided by the laboratory (Figure 10). The forms will be used to
document collection and shipment of samples for laboratory analysis. All samples will be accompanied
by a chain-of-custody form. The forms will be completed and sent with each shipment of samples to the
laboratory. If multiple coolers are sent to a laboratory on a single day, forms will be completed and sent
with the samples for each cooler. The original form will be included with the samples and sent to the
laboratory. Copies will be sent to the PLPT Project Manager.
The chain-of-custody form will identify the contents of each shipment and maintain the custodial
integrity of the samples. Generally, a sample is considered to be in someone’s custody if it is either in
someone’s physical possession, in someone’s view, locked up, or kept in a secured area that is restricted
to authorized personnel. Until the samples are shipped the custody of the samples will be the
responsibility of the field personnel, who will sign the chain-of-custody form in the “relinquished by” box
and note the date, time, and air bill number, if applicable.
Custody seals will not need to be used for this project, as the field personnel will transport the samples
directly to the PLPT WQ Laboratory immediately after sampling.
Procedures for completion and distribution of the chain-of-custody forms are included in Appendix A.
1.9.3
Laboratory Documentation and Records
The analytical laboratory will keep a sample receiving log and all completed chain-of-custody forms
submitted with the samples collected for this project. The analytical laboratory will also keep records of
all analyses performed, as well as associated QC information, including: laboratory blanks, matrix spikes,
laboratory control samples, and laboratory duplicates. Hard copy data of the analytical results will be
maintained for six years by the laboratory.
The data generated by the laboratory for each sampling event will be compiled into individual data
packages/reports. The data packages will include the following information:




Project narrative including a discussion of problems or unusual events (including but not
limited to the topics such as: receipt of samples in incorrect, broken, or leaking containers,
with improperly or incompletely filled out chair-of-custody forms; receipts and/or analysis
of samples after the holding times have expired; summary of QC results exceeding
acceptance criteria; etc.),
Sample results and associated QLs,
Copies of completed sample receiving logs and chain-of-custody forms, and
QC check sample records and acceptance criteria.
All data packages will be reviewed by the Laboratory Manager to ensure the accurate documentation of
any deviations from sample preparation, analysis, and/or QA/QC procedures; highlights of any
excursions from the QC acceptance limits; and pertinent sample data. Once finalized, the Laboratory
Manager will submit them to the PLPT Project Manager. Any problems identified by the Laboratory
Manager will be documented in the narrative of the Tribe’s report.
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Page 21 of 170
Technical Reviews and Evaluations
As part of the QA efforts for the project, on-going technical reviews will be conducted and documented.
These reviews are associated with both field activities and the data generated by the WQ Laboratory.
The PLPT Project Manager will observe selected sampling events to ensure that sample collection and
field measurements are going according to plan. The results of the observations will be documented in
a designated QA Audit Logbook. Once back in the office, the PLPT Project Manager will formalize the
audit in a Field Audit Report to be forwarded to the PLPT Environmental Department Director and PLPT
Field Personnel.
1.9.4.1
Corrective Action Reports (following Field Audits)
Corrective action reports will be prepared by the Field Personnel in response to findings identified by
the PLPT Project Manager during field visits and audits. The reports will focus on plans to resolve any
identified deficiencies and non-compliance issues that relate to on-going activities and problems of a
systematic nature, rather than on one time mistakes. Corrective Action reports do not have a specific
format, but will be handled as an internal memorandum.
1.9.4.2
Field Activities Review Checklist
At the end of each sampling event, a technical review will be conducted of field sampling and field
measurement documentation to ensure that all information is complete and any deviations from
planned methodologies are documented. This review is described in Section 3.1.1.3. The review, as well
as comments associated with potential impacts on field samples and field measurement integrity, will be
documented on a Field Activities Review Checklist (Figure 11).
1.9.4.3
Laboratory Data Review Checklist
Following receipt of the WQ laboratory’s data package for each sampling event, the PLPT Project
Manager will conduct a technical review of the data to ensure all information is complete, as well as to
determine if all planned methodologies were followed and QA/QC objectives were met. The results of
this review, as well as comments associated with potential impacts on data integrity to support project
decisions, will be documented on a Laboratory Data Review Checklist (Figure 12).
1.9.5
Quarterly and Annual Reports
The PLPT Project Manager is responsible for the preparation of quarterly reports and annual reports to
be submitted to the US EPA Grants Project Officer.
The quarterly report should include, at a minimum:





Table summarizing the results (including both laboratory data and field measurements),
Description of data submissions to WQX,
Final laboratory data package (including QC sample results),
Brief discussion of the field and laboratory activities as well as any deviations or
modifications to the plans,
Copies of Field Audit Reports and any associated Corrective Action Reports,
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



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Copies of Field Activities Review Checklists and Data Review Checklists,
Discussion of any problems noted with the data, either from laboratory or field
measurements,
Discussion of any data points showing exceedences of Action Levels, and
Recommendations/changes for the next sampling event.
The annual reports should include, at a minimum:











2.0
Description of the project,
Table summarizing the results (of all project data collected to date, including both
laboratory data and field measurements),
Description of data submissions to WQX,
Final laboratory data package for the fourth quarter (including QC sample results),
Discussion of the field and laboratory activities, as well as any deviations or modifications to
the plans,
Trends observed as a result of the year’s monitoring efforts,
Copies of Field Audit Reports and any associated Corrective Action Reports (for the fourth
quarter),
Copies of Field Activities Review Checklists and Data Review Checklists (for fourth quarter),
Evaluation of the data in meeting the project objectives, including data exceeding Action
Levels,
Recommendations to the Tribal Council regarding exceedences which are occurring on an
on-going basis, and
Recommendations/changes for future project activities (e.g., adding/deleting sampling
locations and/or analyses, modifications to SOPs, amendments to the QA Project Plans,
etc.).
Data Generation and Acquisition
This section of the QA Project Plan describes how the samples will be collected, shipped, and analyzed.
2.1
Sampling Design
In 1989 the PLPT approached the University of California, Davis - Limnological Research Group (Dr. John
E. Reuter and Dr. Charles R. Goldman) to help undertake the task of developing a reasonable and
scientifically sound set of water quality standards, which when implemented would help protect the
beneficial uses of Pyramid Lake and that portion of the Truckee River on Tribal land. This task included:
evaluation of historical data, detailed limnological monitoring, field and laboratory experiments,
limnological research, and modeling. Examples of topics investigated included, but were not limited to:
measurement and evaluation of physical and chemical parameters, evaluation of nutrient and
particulate matter, phytoplankton and zooplankton ecology, algal growth bioassays and nutrient
limitation, measurement of surficial sediment composition, paleolimnology, measurement of primary
productivity and algal biomass, internal and external loading of nutrients, development of nutrient
budgets for carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus, estimates of sedimentation rates, evaluating
susceptibility of Lake to anoxia, primary productivity and dissolved oxygen modeling, modeling of total
dissolved solids concentration, nonpoint source management and assessment, and Lake and watershed
management. The results of these studies have been published in a series of technical reports and peer
review scientific publications.
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The volumes entitled, Pyramid Lake, Nevada, Water Quality Study 1989-1993, Volume I - Limnological
Data, Volume II - Limnological Description, Volume III - Nutrient Budgets, and Volume IV - Modeling
Studies, have been widely distributed regionally and contain much of the information used for
developing the Pyramid Lake standards. The first WQ Monitoring QA Project Plan and sampling design
was developed as a result of this study.
The data collected will be used to: (1) assess water quality conditions; (2) determine whether water
quality standards are being achieved; (3) provide a basis for evaluating watershed management
strategies; and (4) improve the overall understanding processes which control water quality conditions.
Currently, the Tribe is conducting an extensive water quality and biological monitoring program through
combined efforts of the Pyramid Lake Fisheries and Environmental Departments. At the same time,
there is a large, regional effort to monitor the lower Truckee River lead by the State of Nevada and the
Truckee Meadows Water Reclamation Facility (Cities of Reno and Sparks) with contributions by the
University of Nevada – Reno, Desert Research Institute, and the US Geological Survey. All monitoring will
be re-assessed as part of the triennial review of water quality standards.
2.1.1
Pyramid Lake
A total of two sampling stations have been previously identified for on-going monitoring activities.
Sample locations, names, and rationale for selecting each sampling location are included in Table 7.
Samples to be collected are summarized in Table 1.
All lake sampling locations are accessible using a boat powered by twin 160hp engines. All sampling
locations were previously recorded using global positioning system (GPS) equipment.
Water quality monitoring for Pyramid Lake consists of monthly sampling at the deep index station (Way
Point 96) as well as quarterly synoptic sampling at the shallow index station (Way Point 93), which is in
the shallower south basin. Quarterly synoptic samplings will be conducted during winter mixing
(February), the spring phytoplankton bloom (April-May), summer (August), and in the fall (November);
the exact timing may vary from year to year.
Field measurements at both stations will include water column profiles using a SEACAT SBE19 plus which
will record: temperature (C°), pH, conductivity, dissolved oxygen (DO), and chlorophyll. A profile of light
intensity, Secchi depth, and zooplankton samples will also be taken.
Water samples will be collected from discrete depths for nutrient analyses. Nutrient analyses include:
ammonia, nitrate+nitrite, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, orthophosphate, and total phosphorous.
2.1.2
Truckee River
A total of five monthly sampling stations along the Truckee River have been previously identified for ongoing monitoring activities. Sample locations, names, and rationale for selecting each sampling location
are included in Table 8. In addition there are eleven annual sampling stations along the Truckee River
that have been identified. These sample locations, names, and rationale for selecting each sampling
location are included in Table 9. Samples to be collected are summarized in Table 2.
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All Truckee River sampling locations are accessible using a 4-wheel drive vehicle. All sampling locations
were previously recorded using global positioning system (GPS) equipment.
Water quality monitoring for the Truckee River consists of monthly sampling at the five identified
sample sites shown in Figure 4 and annual sampling of eleven sites identified in Figure 5.
Field measurements will be taken using an YSI Model 6920V2 instrument at all sites which measures:
temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and specific conductivity, and turbidity.
Water samples will be collected at each site and analyzed for nutrients. Nutrient analyses include:
ammonia, nitrate+nitrite, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, orthophosphate, and total phosphorus.
2.1.3
Non-Point Source
A total of four non-point source sampling sites have been previously identified for on-going monitoring
activities, all sites occur along the Truckee River. Sample locations, names, and rational for selecting
each location is included in 10. Samples to be collected are summarized in Table 2.
Non-point source monitoring consists of monthly sampling, in conjunction with the Truckee River
sampling events. These sites are shown in Figure 4.
Field measurements will be taken using an YSI Model 6920V2 instrument at all sites which measures:
temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and specific conductivity, and turbidity.
Water samples will be collected at each site and analyzed for nutrients. Nutrient analyses include:
ammonia, nitrate+nitrite, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, orthophosphate, and total phosphorus.
2.1.4
Streams
A total of thirteen perennial stream sampling sites have been previously identified for on-going
monitoring activities. Sample locations, names, and rational for selecting each location is included in
Table 11. Samples to be collected are summarized in Table 2. If time permits, other streams located
within the PLIR may also be sampled.
Stream monitoring consists of annual sampling, in conjunction with physical habitat surveys and
bioassessment sampling events. This usually occurs in spring (April/May) depending on the annual snow
pack and spring runoff rates. These sites are shown in Figure 6 - Figure 8.
Field measurements will be taken using an YSI Model 6920V2 instrument at all sites which measures:
temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and specific conductivity, and turbidity.
Water samples will be collected at each site and analyzed for nutrients. Nutrient analyses include:
ammonia, nitrate+nitrite, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, orthophosphate, and total phosphorous.
2.2
Sampling Methods
2.2.1
Surface Water Sampling
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All samples will be collected using the field SOPs included in Appendix A. If an SOP is updated or revised,
the updated or revised SOP will be used for the subsequent sampling event(s). Any revisions/updates to
SOPs will be documented in an amendment to the QA Project Plan.
Water samples will be collected 6 - 12 inches below the water’s surface, except Lake samples which will
be collected at discrete depths. At each sampling location or discrete depth at lake monitoring stations,
one-liter sample bottles will be filled for nutrient analysis. If a QC sample is to be collected at a given
location, all containers designated for a particular analysis for both the sample and QC sample will be
filled sequentially before containers for another analysis are filled.
All collected surface water samples will be placed in sample bottles/containers appropriate for nutrient
analysis. Preservatives will be added at the laboratory, if required. Once the samples are collected and
preserved, they will be stored at 4°C at the PLPT WQ Laboratory.
Care will be taken to not touch the lip of the sample bottle during the sample collection and
preservation, so as not to potentially contaminate the sample. Table 6 summarizes the sample
bottle/containers, volumes, and preservation requirements for each analysis and field measurement.
2.2.2
Zooplankton Sampling
All samples will be collected using the field SOPs included in Appendix A. If an SOP is updated or revised,
the updated or revised SOP will be used for the subsequent sampling event(s). Any revisions/updates to
SOPs will be documented in an amendment to the QA Project Plan.
Zooplankton samples will be collected at both the Pyramid Lake sampling stations at specified depths.
All collected zooplankton samples will be placed in appropriate sample bottles/containers. Preservatives
will be added at the laboratory. Once the samples are collected and preserved, they will be stored at
4°C at the PLPT WQ Laboratory.
Table 6 summarizes the sample bottle/containers and preservation requirements for zooplankton
samples.
2.2.3
Field Health and Safety Procedures
A brief tailgate safety meeting will be held the first day of each sampling event to discuss emergency
procedures (e.g., location of the nearest hospital or medical treatment facility), local contact
information (e.g., names and telephone numbers of local personnel, fire department, police
department), as well as to review the Tribe’s Workplace Safety Program, Appendix B.
All field sampling activities will be conducted with a buddy system (i.e., two field personnel will
constitute the sampling team. This will allow for the presence of a second person to provide assistance
and/or call in an emergency or accident for the other field person, if/when needed.
Level D personal protective equipment (PPE) will be used when needed when collecting the surface
water samples. At a minimum, safety glasses, plastic gloves, and sole-felt waders will be worn to avoid
slipping on rocks and algae. Also, due to weather conditions during the sampling events and the
possibility of health concerns (e.g., heat stress) from working in high temperatures, field personnel will
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be advised to drink plenty of water and wear clothing (e.g., hat, long-sleeved shirt) that will cover and
shade the body.
Potential routes of exposure related to field sampling and measurement activities are through the skin
(e.g., from direct contact from the surface water) and/or by ingestion (e.g., from not washing up prior to
eating). The use of Level D PPE, good hygiene, and following proper sampling procedures will minimize
these potential exposures.
2.2.4
Field Measurements
Surface water samples will be analyzed at each sample collection location, except for Pyramid Lake, for
the following field measurement parameters: pH, dissolved oxygen, conductivity, turbidity, and
temperature. At the Pyramid Lake monitoring stations the following field measurement parameters will
be analyzed: temperature (C°), pH, conductivity, dissolved oxygen (DO), and chlorophyll. Secchi disc
reading and zooplankton samples will also be collected.
The measurement procedures are described in the SOPs included in Appendix A. Field measurements
will be taken at each location prior to sample collection laboratory analysis. All field instruments will be
calibrated (according to the manufacturer’s instructions) at the beginning of each date of sampling and
checked at the end of each day. Field instrument calibration and sample measurement data will be
recorded in the field logbook.
2.2.5
Field Variances
As conditions in the field vary, it may become necessary to implement minor modifications to the
sampling procedures and protocols described in this QA Project Plan. If/when this is necessary; the field
personnel will notify the Project Manager of the situation to obtain a verbal approval prior to
implementing any changes. The approval will be recorded in the field logbook. Modifications will be
documented in the Quarterly Reports to the US EPA Grants Project Officer.
2.2.6
Decontamination Procedures
For the currently planned sample collection activities, samples will be collected directly into sample
bottles/containers provided from the laboratory. As such, no field decontamination of these bottles
(used as the sampling equipment) is necessary. The bottles will be provided and certified clean by the
PLPT WQ Laboratory.
In the case that there is a need to collect surface water samples by one of the alternative methods (as
discussed in the sampling SOP provided in Appendix A), decontamination of reusable sampling
equipment coming in direct contact with the samples will be necessary. Decontamination will occur
prior to each use of a piece of equipment and after use at each sampling location. Disposable
equipment (intended for one-time use) will not be decontaminated but will be packaged for appropriate
disposal. All reusable/non-disposable sampling devices will be decontaminated according to US EPA
Region 9 recommended procedures using the following washing fluids in sequence:



Non-phosphate detergent and tap water wash (using a brush, if necessary),
Tap-water rinse, and
Deionized/ distilled water rinse (twice).
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Equipment will be decontaminated in a pre-designated area on plastic sheeting. Cleaned small
equipment will be stored in plastic bags. Materials to be stored more than a few hours will also be
covered.
2.2.7
Disposal of Residual Materials
In the process of collecting water samples for this project, various types of potentially contaminated
wastes will be generated which may include the following:
 Used PPE,
 Disposable sampling bottles/containers or equipment,
 Decontamination fluids, and
 Excess water collected for sample container filling.
The USEPA's National Contingency Plan requires that management of the wastes generated during
sampling comply with all applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements to the extent practicable.
(Note: Although the National Contingency Plan does not strictly apply on tribal land, the PLPT feels that
its requirements are reasonable and has adopted its policies.) Residuals generated for this project will
be handled in a manner consistent with the Office of Emergency and Remedial Response (OERR)
Directive 9345.3-02 (May 1991), which provides the guidance for the management of wastes. In
addition, other legal and practical considerations that may affect the handling of the wastes will be
considered, as follows:
 Used personal protective equipment (PPE) and disposable containers/equipment will be
double bagged and placed in a municipal refuse dumpster. These wastes are not considered
hazardous and can be sent to a municipal landfill. Any used PPE and disposable containers
or equipment (even if it appears to be reusable) will be rendered inoperable before disposal
in the refuse dumpster.
 Decontamination fluids generated in the sampling event could consist of deionized water,
residual contaminants, and water with non-phosphate detergent. The volume and
concentration of the decontamination fluid will be sufficiently low to allow disposal at the
sampling area. The water (and water with detergent) will be poured onto the ground.
 Decontamination fluids generated in the sampling event could consist of deionized water,
residual contaminants, and water with non-phosphate detergent. The volume and
concentration of the decontamination fluid will be sufficiently low to allow disposal at the
sampling area. The water (and water with detergent) will be poured onto the ground.
 Excess water collected for sample container filling will be poured onto the ground.
2.2.8
Quality Assurance for Sampling
Documentation of deviations from this QA Project Plan or applicable SOPs is the responsibility of the
PLPT QA Officer. Deviations noted during the field audit will be documented in the QA Audit Logbook,
recorded in the Field Audit Reports, and discussed in the Quarterly Reports.
Additional deviations from the QA Project Plan and/or SOPs may be implemented as field variances or
modifications, as discussed in Section 2.2.4. These deviations will be communicated to the PLPT Project
Manager by field personnel for approval. The approval will be recorded in the field logbook, and the
modifications will be documented in the Quarterly Report.
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Sample Handling and Custody
This section will describe the sample handling and custody procedures from sample collection through
transport and laboratory analysis. It also includes procedures for the ultimate disposal of the samples.
2.3.1
Sample Containers and Preservatives
The PLPT Project Manager has worked directly with the PLPT Laboratory Manager to determine the
number of sample containers, and associated sizes/volumes and materials, needed for this monitoring
project. The containers will be provided pre-cleaned from the laboratory directly and require no washing
or rinsing by the field personnel prior to sample collection. Sample bottles will not be pre-preserved.
Preservatives (i.e., sulfuric acid for nutrient analysis) will be added at the laboratory if needed. Filtration
is required for some samples; these samples will be filtered before preservatives are added.
2.3.2
Sample Packaging and Shipping
Water samples collected in the field will be immediately placed in a cooler. Water samples will be
transported directly to the PLPT WQ Laboratory by the field team immediately following sample
collection.
Daily, the field personnel will notify the Laboratory Manager of their sample transport schedule. The
PLPT WQ Laboratory will be provided with the following information:
 Sampling department’s name,
 Name and location of the site or sampling area,
 Name of project,
 Total number(s) and matrix of samples transported to the laboratory,
 Filtering and preservation requirements,
 Date/time when samples will arrive at the laboratory,
 Irregularities or anticipated problems associated with the samples, and
 Whether additional samples will be transported.
2.3.3
Sample Custody
The WQ field personnel are responsible for custody of the samples until they are delivered to the
laboratory or picked up for transport. (Note: As few people as possible will handle the samples to
ensure sample custody.) Chain-of-custody forms must be completed in the field. Each time one person
relinquishes control of the samples to another person, both individuals must completed the appropriate
portions of the chain-of-custody form by filling in their signature as well as the appropriate date and
time of the custody transfer.
Once at the laboratory, the sample receipt coordinator will open the coolers and sign and date the
chain-of-custody form. The laboratory personnel are then responsible for the care and custody of
samples. The PLPT WQ Laboratory will track sample custody through their facility using separate
tracking forms. In some cases the sample receipt coordinator will be the field personnel. This will be
noted on the chain-of-custody forms and in field notebooks.
A sample is considered to be in one’s custody if:
 The sample is in the sampler’s physical possession,
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2.3.4
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The sample has been in the sampler’s physical possession and is within sight of the
samplers,
The sample is in a designated, secure area, and/or
The sample has been in the sampler’s physical possession and is locked up.
Surface Water Sample Filtration
Samples collected in the field and to be analyzed for ortho-phosphate, nitrate + nitrite, and ammonia
are to be filtered. Filtering of these samples will take place immediately after the samples arrive at the
laboratory. Filtering duties are the responsibility of the laboratory personnel after the samples are
received at the laboratory. In some instances the receiving laboratory personnel will be the field
personnel who collected the sample. This will be noted in laboratory notebooks and laboratory tracking
forms.
Filtration equipment includes vacuum pump, vacuum flasks, and 0.45 micron filters. Once the filtration
equipment is assembled the filters are pre-washed with about 150 ml of deionized water prior to
contact with the sample water. Once the samples are filtered they are ready for chemical preservation
if needed.
2.3.5
Sample Disposal
Following sample analysis, the laboratory will store the unused portions for 6 months. At that time, the
laboratory will properly dispose of all the samples. Sample disposal procedures at the PLPT WQ
Laboratory are described in the Laboratory QA Manual.
2.4
Analytical Methods
The field measurement and off-site laboratory analytical methods are listed in Table 6 and discussed
below.
2.4.1
Field Measurements
See section 2.2.3.
2.4.2
Laboratory Analysis
All samples will be analyzed at the PLPT WQ Laboratory. Analyses will be performed following either
EPA-approved methods or methods from Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and
Wastewater, 20th Edition, as summarized in Table 6. The Laboratory personnel must notify the Project
Manager and/or Laboratory Manager if there is any knowledge of the SOPs not being followed, see QA
Manual- Appendix C. Laboratory SOPs for all water quality analyses can be found in Appendix E.
Zooplankton samples will also be analyzed at the PLPT WQ Laboratory, the analysis method can also be
found in Appendix E.
The Project manager and/or the Laboratory Manager will summarize the data and associated QC results
in a data report, and provide this report to the QA Officer within 4 weeks of sample receipt. The content
of the data report is described in Section 1.9.3. The QA Officer will review the data reports and
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associated QC results to make decisions on data quality and usability in addressing the project
objectives.
2.5
Quality Control Requirements
This section identifies the QC checks that are in place for the sample collection, field measurement, and
laboratory analysis activities that will be used to access the quality of the data generated from this
project.
2.5.1
Quality Control Requirements
Field sampling QC consists of collecting field QC samples to help evaluate conditions resulting from field
activities. Field QC is intended to support a number of data quality goals:



Combined contamination from field sampling through sample receipt at the laboratory (to
assess potential contamination from field sampling equipment, ambient conditions, sample
containers, sample transport, and laboratory analysis) - assessed using field blanks;
Sample shipment/transport temperature (to ensure sample integrity and representativeness
that the sample arriving at the laboratory has not degraded during transport) - assessed
using temperature blanks; and
Combined sampling and analysis technique variability, as well as sample heterogeneity assessed using field duplicates.
For the current project, the types and frequencies of field QC samples to be collected for each field
measurement and onsite laboratory analysis are listed in Table 5. These include field blanks,
temperature blanks, and field duplicates.
Field Blanks - Field blanks will be collected to evaluate whether contaminants have been introduced into
the samples during the sample collection due to exposure from ambient conditions or from the sample
containers themselves. Field blank samples will be obtained by pouring deionized water into a sample
container at the sampling location. Field blanks will not be collected if equipment blanks have been
collected during the sampling event. If no equipment blanks are collected (and none are planned
because samples will be collected directly into sample containers), one field blank will be collected for
every 10 samples or a frequency of 10%.
Field blanks will be preserved, packaged, and sealed in the same manner described for the surface water
samples. A separate sample number and station number will be assigned to each blank. Field blanks will
be submitted blind to the laboratory for analysis of nutrients.
If target analytes are found in field blanks, sampling and handling procedures will be reevaluated and
corrective actions taken. These may consist of, but are not limited to, obtaining sampling containers
from new sources, training of personnel, discussions with the laboratory, invalidation of results, greater
attention to detail during the next sampling event, or other procedures felt appropriate.
Temperature Blanks - For each cooler of samples that is transported to the analytical laboratory, a 40-ml
VOA vial (prepared by the laboratory) will be included that is marked “temperature blank.” This blank
will be used by the laboratory’s sample custodian to check the temperature of samples upon receipt to
ensure that samples were maintained at the temperature appropriate for the particular analysis.
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For the current project, temperature blanks will be included in all coolers containing samples requiring
temperature preservation, as identified in Table 6.
Field Duplicate Samples - Field duplicate samples will be collected to evaluate the precision of sample
collection through analysis. Field duplicates will be collected at designated sample locations by
alternately filling two distinct sample containers for each analysis.
Field duplicate samples will be preserved, packaged, and sealed in the same manner described for the
surface water samples. A separate sample number and station number will be assigned to each
duplicate. The samples will be submitted as “blind” (i.e., not identified as field duplicates) samples to the
laboratory for analysis.
For the current project, field duplicates will be collected for each analytical parameter, and field
measurement parameter, at the frequencies shown in Table 5. The duplicate samples will be collected at
random locations for each sampling event. Criteria for field duplicates for the analytical and field
measurement parameters are provided in Table 5. If criteria are exceeded, field sampling and handling
procedures will be evaluated, and problems corrected through greater attention to detail, additional
training, revised sampling techniques, or other procedures that are deemed appropriate.
2.5.2
Field Measurement Quality Control
Quality control requirements for field measurements are provided in Tables 3 - 4.
2.5.3
Laboratory Analyses Quality Control
Laboratory QC is the responsibility of the personnel and QA/QC department of the PLPT WQ Laboratory.
The laboratory Quality Assurance Manual details the QA/QC procedures. The following elements are
part of the standard laboratory quality control practices:





Analysis of method blanks,
Analysis of laboratory control samples
Instrument calibration (including initial calibration, calibration blanks, and calibration
verification),
Analysis of matrix spikes, and
Analysis of duplicates.
The data quality objectives for the PLPT WQ Laboratory (including frequency, QC acceptance limits, and
corrective actions if the acceptance limits are exceeded) are detailed in its QA Manual (Appendix C) and
DQI Tables (Appendix D) in this QA Project Plan (Table 5). Any excursions from these objectives must be
documented by the laboratory and reported to the Project Manager.
The PLPT WQ Laboratory’s control limits and corrective action procedures have been reviewed, and
these will satisfactorily meet the project data quality needs. A summary of this information is included
in Table 5 and Appendix D. These include laboratory (or method) blanks, laboratory control samples,
matrix spikes, and laboratory duplicates.
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Method Blanks - A method blank is an analyte-free matrix, analyzed as a normal sample by the
laboratory using normal sample preparation and analytical procedures. A method blank is used for
monitoring and documenting background contamination in the analytical environment. Method blanks
will be analyzed at a frequency of one per sample batch (or group of up to 20 samples analyzed in
sequence using the same method).
Corrective actions associated with exceeding acceptable method blank concentrations (Appendix D)
include isolating the source of contamination and re-digesting and/or re-analyzing the associated
samples. Sample results will not be corrected for blank contamination, as this is not required by the
specific analytical methods. Corrective actions will be documented in the laboratory report’s narrative
statement.
Laboratory Control Samples - Laboratory control samples (LCS) are laboratory-generated samples used
to monitor the day-to-day performance (accuracy) of routine analytical methods. An LCS is an aliquot of
clean water spiked with the analytes of known concentrations corresponding to the analytical method.
LCS is used to verify that the laboratory can perform the analysis on a clean matrix within QC acceptance
limits. Results are expressed as percent recovery of the known amount of the spiked analytical
parameter.
One LCS is analyzed per sample batch. Acceptance criteria (control limits) for the LCS are defined by the
laboratory and summarized in Table 5 and Appendix D. In general, the LCS acceptance criteria recovery
range is 80 to 120 percent of the known amount of the spiked analytical parameter. Corrective action,
consisting of a rerunning of all samples in the affected batch, will be performed if LCS recoveries fall
outside of control limits. Such problems will be documented in the laboratory report’s narrative
statement.
Matrix Spikes - Matrix spikes (MS) are prepared by adding a known amount of the analyte of interest to
a sample. MS are used as a similar function as the LCS, except that the sample matrix is a real-time
sample rather than a clean matrix. Results are expressed as percent recovery of the known amount of
the spiked analytical parameter. Matrix spikes are used to verify that the laboratory can determine if
the matrix is causing either a positive or negative influence on sample results.
One matrix spike is analyzed per sample batch. Acceptance criteria are the MS are defined by the
laboratory and summarized in Table 5 and Appendix D. In general, the MS acceptance criteria recovery
range is of 75 to 125 percent of the known amount of the spiked analytical parameter. Generally, no
corrective action is taken for matrix spike results exceeding the control limits, as long as the LCS
recoveries are acceptable. However, the matrix effect will be noted in laboratory report’s narrative
statement and documented in the tribe’s reports for each sampling event.
Laboratory Duplicates - A laboratory duplicate is a laboratory-generated split sample used to document
the precision of the analytical method. Results are expressed as relative percent difference between
the laboratory duplicate pair.
One laboratory duplicate will be run for each laboratory batch or every 20 samples, whichever is more
frequent. Acceptance criteria (control limits) for laboratory duplicates are specified in the laboratory
QA Manual and SOPs and are summarized in Table 5 and Appendix D. If laboratory duplicates exceed
criteria, the corrective action will be to repeat the analyses. If results remain unacceptable, the batch
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will be rerun. The discrepancy will be noted in the laboratory report’s narrative statement and
documented in the reports for each sampling event.
2.5.4
Background Samples
Background samples are collected because there is a possibility that there are native or ambient levels
of one or more target analytes present, and because one objective of the sampling event is to
differentiate between on-site and off-site contributions to a parameter’s concentration. The background
location for this monitoring program will be the most upstream (and thus assumed to be least impacted)
sample collected. The analyses to be conducted on the background samples will be the same as that for
the other surface water samples.
2.6
Instrument/Equipment Testing, Inspection, and Maintenance
2.6.1
Field Measurement Instrument/Equipment
Sampling equipment under the care of the PLPT WQ Monitoring Program will be maintained according
to the manufacturer’s instructions. Maintenance logs of sampling equipment under the care of the
Environmental Department will be kept in the office of the Project Manger. Maintenance logs of
sampling equipment under the care of the PLF Resource Department will be kept in the administration
office of the PLF. Each piece of equipment will have its own maintenance log. The log will document any
maintenance and service of the equipment. A log entry will include the following information:






2.6.2
Name of person maintaining the instrument/equipment,
Date and description of the maintenance procedure,
Date and description of any instrument/equipment problem(s),
Date and description of action to correct problem(s),
List of follow-up activities after maintenance (i.e., system checks) and
Date the next maintenance will be needed.
Laboratory Analysis Instruments/Equipment
Inspection and maintenance of laboratory equipment is the responsibility of the PLPT WQ Laboratory
and is described in the QA Manual included as Appendix C.
2.7
Instrument/Equipment Calibration and Frequency
2.7.1 Field Measurement Instrument/Equipment
Calibration and maintenance of field equipment/instruments will be performed according to the
associated SOP (see Appendix A) and recorded in an instrument/equipment logbook. Each piece of
equipment/instrument will have its own logbook.
The project-specific criteria for calibration (frequency, acceptance criteria, and corrective actions
associated with exceeding the acceptance criteria) are provided in Tables 12 - 13.
2.7.2
Laboratory Analysis Instruments/Equipment
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Laboratory instruments will be calibrated according to the appropriate analytical methods. Calibration
acceptance criteria are found in the PLPT WQ QA Manual included as Appendix C.
2.8
Inspection and Acceptance of Supplies and Consumables
2.8.1
Field Sampling Supplies and Consumables
Sample containers and preservatives will be provided by the analytical laboratory. Containers will be
inspected for breakage and proper sealing of caps. Other equipment such as sample coolers and safety
equipment will be acquired by the Tribe. If reusable sampling equipment is acquired in the future,
materials/supplies necessary for equipment decontamination will be purchased by the tribe; however,
this is not necessary for the present study. Any equipment deemed to be in unacceptable condition will
be replaced.
2.8.2
Field Measurement Supplies and Consumables
Field measurement supplies, such as calibration solutions, will be acquired from standard sources, such
as the instrument manufacturer or reputable suppliers. Chemical supplies will be American Chemical
Society reagent grade or higher. The lot number and expiration date on standards and reagents will be
checked prior to use. Expired solutions will be discarded and replaced. The source, lot number, and
expiration dates of all standards and reagents will be recorded in the field log books.
2.8.3
Laboratory Analyses Supplies and Consumables
The laboratory’s requirements for supplies and consumables are described in its QA Manual which is
provided in Appendix C.
2.9
Data Acquisition Requirements (Non-Direct Measurements)
To supplement field measurements and laboratory analytical activities conducted under this project,
other potential “external” data sources will be researched. These sources include, but are not limited to,
the U.S. Geological Survey, the Desert Research Institute, the Washoe County Department of Water
Resources, the Cities of Reno/Sparks, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the Bureau of
Reclamation. The primary use of this external data will be to help focus the Tribe’s data collection
efforts (for example, the information may be used to identify new sites in the Truckee
River/Winnemucca Lake watersheds for future sampling).
If it appears that the “external” data might facilitate water body evaluation, the data will first be
reviewed to verify that they are of sufficient quality to meet the needs of the project by examining: (1)
the sample collection and location information; (2) the data to see whether they are consistent with
known tribally-collected data from the same general vicinity; and (3) the QA/QC information associated
with the data. If the data are of insufficient or unknown quality, limitations will be placed on its use in
supporting project decisions. In general, it is anticipated that decisions for the current project will be
based on data collected by the tribe following this current QA Project Plan.
2.10
Data Management
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All data recorded on physical forms/notebooks and data reports from the laboratory will be stored in
the PLPT Environmental Department. All electronic versions of data will be stored on the Environmental
Department Server which is accessible by all Environmental Department staff.
After field and laboratory activities are reviewed for the sampling event, the water quality data gathered
will be entered into spreadsheets. Spreadsheets have been created for each water body type and are
centrally stored on the Environmental Department server.
The Environmental Database Specialist uses the water quality data spreadsheets to enter the data into
the WQX Template for submission to the data warehouse. The WQX spreadsheets are stored on the
Environmental Department server and data is submitted quarterly to WQX. The following is the list of
water quality characteristics that are submitted to WQX:











Orthophosphate (mg/l)
Phosphate-phosphorus (Total Phosphorus) (mg/l)
Ammonia (mg/l)
Inorganic nitrogen (nitrate and nitrite as N) (mg/l)
Temperature, water (°C)
Specific conductance (mS/cm)
Total dissolved solids (g/l)
Salinity (ppt)
Dissolved oxygen (mg/l)
pH
Turbidity (NTU)
The data gathered is also used to determine whether a water body is meeting/not meeting the PLPT
Water Quality Standards. This information is entered throughout the year and reported annually. The
analysis methods are described in the PLPT Water Quality Control Plan. The analysis is done in a
spreadsheet format and a copy is stored on the Environmental Department Server.
All monitoring sites coordinates have been collected and entered in a spreadsheet that is stored on the
Environmental Department Server. The data submitted to WQX also includes site coordinates. The
Environmental Database Specialist can produce maps for monitoring purposes when needed.
3.0
Assessment and Oversight
This section describes how to check that all activities are completed correctly and according to
procedures outlined in this QA Project Plan.
3.1
Assessment/Oversight and Response Actions
During the course of the project, it is important to assess the project’s activities to ensure that the QA
Project Plan is being implemented as planned. This helps to ensure that everything is on track and serves
to minimize learning about critical deviations toward the end of the project when it may be too late to
remedy the situation. For the current project, the ongoing assessments will include:
Field Oversight -
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Readiness review of the field team prior to starting field efforts,
Field activity audits, and
Review of field sampling and measurement activities methodologies and documentation at
the end of each of event, and
Laboratory Oversight Evaluation of laboratory data generated for each sampling event.

Details regarding these assessments are included below.
3.1.1
3.1.1.1
Field Oversight
Readiness Reviews
Sampling personnel will be properly trained by qualified personnel before any sampling begins and will
be given a brief review of sampling procedures and equipment operation by the PLPT Project Manager
before each sampling event. Equipment maintenance records will be checked to ensure all field
instruments are in proper working order. Adequate supplies of all preservatives and bottles will be
obtained and stored appropriately before heading to the field. Sampling devices will be checked to
ensure that they have been properly cleaned (for devices which might be reused) or are available in
sufficient quantity (for devices which are disposable). Proper paperwork, logbooks, chain of custody
forms, etc. will be assembled by the sampling personnel. The Project Manger will review all field
equipment, instruments, containers, and paperwork to ensure that all is in readiness prior to the first
day of each sampling event. Any problems that are noted will be corrected before the sampling team is
permitted to depart the Tribe’s facilities.
3.1.1.2
Field Activity Audits
During at least two of the sampling events, the PLPT Project Manager will assess the sample collection
methodologies, field measurement procedures, and record keeping of the field team to ensure activities
are being conducted as planned (and as documented in this QA Project Plan). Any deviations that are
noted will be corrected immediately to ensure all subsequent samples and field measurements collected
are valid. (Note: If the deviations are associated with technical changes and/or improvements made to
the procedures, the QA Officer will verify that the changes have been documented by the Field Sampler
in the Field Log Books and addressed in an amendment to this QA Project Plan). The QA Officer may stop
any sampling activity that could potentially compromise data quality.
The PLPT QA Officer will document any noted issues or concerns in a QA Audit Logbook and discuss
these items informally and openly with the Field Personnel while on site. Once back in the office, the QA
Officer will formalize the audit findings (for each event) in a Field Audit report, which will be submitted
to the PLPT Environmental Program Director and the Field Sampler.
The Field Sampler will prepare a Corrective Action Report to address any audit findings discussed in the
Field Audit Report. The Corrective Action Report will be issued as an internal memorandum the PLPT
Environmental Program Director and Project Manager/QA Officer in response to problems noted during
on-site audits and will document steps taken to reduce future problems prior to the next sampling
event.
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Post Sampling Event Review
Following each sampling event, the Field Sampler will complete the Field Activities Review Checklist
(Figure 11). This review of field sampling and field measurement documentation will help ensure that all
information is complete and any deviations from planned methodologies are documented. This review
will be conducted in the office, not in the field. (Note: This function is typically performed by a third
party not directly involved in the activities. However, due to the small size of the staff, the field
technician will attempt to “wear a new hat” and self-evaluate his/her activities). The results of this
review, as well as comments associated with potential impacts on field samples and field measurement
integrity will be forwarded to the Project Manager to be used in preparing the reports for each event
and also to be used as a guide to identify areas requiring improvement prior to the next sampling event.
3.1.2
Laboratory Oversight
Following receipt of the laboratory’s data package for each sampling event, the QA Officer will review
the data package for completeness, as well as to ensure that all planned methodologies were followed
and that QA/QC objectives were met. The results of the review will be documented on the Laboratory
Data Review Checklist (Figure 12). (Note: The Project Manager/QA Officer has the authority to request
re-testing or other corrective measures if the laboratory has not met the project’s QA/QC objectives
and/or has not provided a complete data package.)
Due to the scope and objectives of the current project, the Tribe is not planning any laboratory audits at
this time. The laboratory’s QA Manual (Appendix C) describes the policies and procedures for
assessment and response in the laboratory.
3.2
Reports to Management
Once each quarter, the Project Manager will prepare and submit a report on that quarter’s monitoring
and data management activities. Contents of this report have been described previously in Section 1.9.5.
This report will be submitted to the PLPT - Environmental Director for approval. After approval, the
report will be submitted to the US EPA Grants Project Officer.
Once a year a report summarizing the year’s reports will be prepared which will show any data trends
that have occurred. The report will also discuss how any actions taken during the year may have
affected the trends. This report will also be submitted to the PLPT – Environmental Director for
approval. After approval, the report will be submitted to the US EPA Grants Project Officer.
Additional (less formal) internal reports are described in Sections 1.9.2 through 1.9.4.
3.3
Programmatic Evaluation
An annual review and update of the monitoring strategy has been identified as an important component
of implementing the strategy. An annual review and update of the monitoring strategy between the
PLPT Environmental Department staff and regional EPA staff will be conducted. This annual review will
address programmatic coordination and evaluate the effectiveness of the monitoring and assessment
program. Resource limitations, new and emerging issues and changing program objectives will be
evaluated and any data gaps or needs will be addressed.
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4.0
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Data Review and Usability
Prior to utilizing data to make project decisions, the quality of the data needs to be reviewed and
evaluated to determine whether the data satisfy the project’s objectives. This process involves
technical evaluation of the laboratory data, as well as review of the data in conjunction with the
information collected during the field sampling and field measurement activities. This later, more
qualitative review provides for a clearer understanding of the overall usability of the project’s data and
potential limitations on their use. This section describes the criteria and procedures for conducting these
reviews and interpreting the project’s data.
4.1
Data Review, Verification, and Validation Requirements
Setting data review, verification, and validation requirements ensures that project data are evaluated in
an objective and consistent manner. For the current project, such requirements have been defined for
information gathered and documented as part of field sampling and field measurement activities, as
well as for data generated by the PLPT WQ Laboratory.
4.1.1
Field Sampling and Measurement Data
Any information collected during sample collection and field measurements is considered “field data.”
This includes field sampling and measurement information documented in field logbooks (as listed in
Section 1.9.2.1), photographs, and chain of custody forms.
Once the Field Sampler returns to the office following a field event, he/she is responsible for conducting
a technical review of the field data to ensure that all information is complete and any deviations from
the planned methodologies are documented. (Note: This function is typically performed by a third party
not directly involved in the activities. However, due to the small size of the staff, the field technician will
attempt to self-evaluate his activities). For the purpose of this project, the review will be documented
using the Field Activities Review Checklist provided in Figure 11. This checklist comprehensively covers
the items to be reviewed and leaves room to capture any comments associated with potential impacts
on field samples and field measurement integrity based on the items listed.
4.1.2
Laboratory Data
The PLPT WQ Laboratory is responsible for its own internal data review and verification prior to
submitting the associated data results package to the Project Manager/QA Officer. The details of the
review (including checking calculations, reviewing for transcription errors, ensuring the data package is
complete, etc.) are discussed in the laboratory’s QA Manual included as Appendix C. Details of the
information that will be included in each data package are listed in Section 1.9.3 of this QA Project Plan.
Once the laboratory data is received by the Project Manager/QA Officer, each data package will be
further reviewed for validation. For the purpose of this project, data review and validation will be
conducted using the Data Review Checklist provided in Figure 12 in conjunction with the QC criteria (i.e.,
frequency, acceptance limits, and corrective actions) defined in Tables 5 and Appendix D. This review
will include evaluation of the field and laboratory duplicate results, field and laboratory blank data,
matrix spike recovery data, and laboratory control sample data pertinent to each analysis. The review
will also include ensuring data are reported in compliance with the project action limits and quantitation
limits defined in Tables 1 - 2 ; the sample preparation/analytical procedures were performed by the
WQ Monitoring of Surface Waters Within the PLIR
Page 39 of 170
methods listed in Table 6; sample container, preservation, and holding times met the requirements
listed in Table 6; the integrity of the sample (ensuring proper chain of custody and correct sample
storage temperatures) is documented from sample collection through shipment and ultimate analysis,
and the data packages. The Data Review Checklist comprehensively covers the review of all these items.
(Note: Calibration data will not be requested for the project at this time.)
The Project Manager/QA Officer will further evaluate each data package’s narrative report and summary
tables to see whether the laboratory “flagged” any sample results based on poor or questionable data
quality and to ensure that any exceedances of the laboratory’s QC criteria (as listed in Tables 5 and
Appendix D) are documented. If a problem was noted by the laboratory, the Project Manager/QA
Officer will evaluate whether the appropriate prescribed corrective action was taken by the laboratory,
the action successfully resolved the problem, and the process and its resolution were accurately
documented.
An effort will be made to identify whether any data quality problem is the result of laboratory issues
and/or if it may be traced to some field sampling activity. If the laboratory is determined to be
responsible, the Project Manager/QA Officer will request information from the laboratory documenting
that the problem has been resolved prior to submitting future samples. If some aspect of the field
operation (e.g., sample collection, sample containers and/or preservation, chain-of-custody, sample
shipment, paperwork, etc.) is identified as the possible problem, efforts will be made to retrain the
Tribe’s field staff to minimize the potential of the problem recurring. If the problem is believed to be
due to the sample matrix, the Project Manager/QA Officer will discuss the use of alternative analytical
methods with the laboratory; and, if an alternative method is available that might minimize the
problem, the QA Project Plan will be modified and/or amended accordingly.
If any of the QC criteria and/or the project requirements (as discussed above) is exceeded, the
associated data will be qualified as estimated and flagged with a “J”. If grossly exceeded, the associated
data will be rejected and the need for re-sampling will be considered. However, since there are no plans
to use the data for enforcement or other legal applications, it is generally felt that paying special
attention to some troublesome sample collection or analytical concern during the next sampling event
will be sufficient and re-sampling will not be necessary.
4.2
Verification and Validation Methods
Defining the data verification and validation methods help to ensure that project data are evaluated in
an objective and consistent manner. For the current project, such methods have been described for
information gathered and documented as part of the field sampling and field measurement activities, as
well as the data generated by the PLPT WQ laboratory.
4.2.1
Field Sampling and Measurement Data
The methods associated with verification and validation of the field sampling and measurement data are
included within the discussion provided in Section 4.1.1.
4.2.2
Laboratory Data
The methods associated with verification and validation of the laboratory data are included within the
discussion provided in Section 4.1.2.
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4.3
Page 40 of 170
Reconciliation with User Requirements
The purpose of the continued monitoring of surface waters within the PLIR is to protect the biological,
chemical, and physical integrity of the PLPT’s water resources. Data must fulfill the requirements of this
QA Project Plan to be useful for the overall project. Information needed to support decision making
under the surface water monitoring program is contained in this QA Project Plan, field documentation,
the laboratory “data package” report, the Field Activities Review Checklist, the Laboratory Data Review
Checklist, and the Field Audit Report and associated Corrective Action Report. This section describes the
steps to be taken to ensure data usability (after all the data have been assembled, reviewed, verified,
and validated) prior to summarizing the information in the Quarterly and Annual Reports.
Once all the data from the field and laboratory have been evaluated (as described in Sections 4.1 and
4.2), the Project Manager/QA Officer will make an overall assessment concerning the final usability of
the data (and any limitations on its use) in meeting the project’s needs. The initial steps of this
assessment will include, but not necessarily be limited to:






Discussions with the PLPT’s Field Samplers,
Review of deviations from the QA Project Plan or associated SOPs to determine whether
these deviations may have impacted data quality (and determining whether any impacts are
widespread or single incidents, related to a few random samples or a batch of samples,
and/or affecting a single or multiple analyses),
Evaluation of the field and laboratory results and QC information,
Review of any other external information which might influence the results, such as offreservation activities up stream, meteorological conditions (such as storm events preceding
sampling that might contribute to high turbidity readings), and data from other sources,
Evaluation of whether the completeness goals defined in this QA Project Plan have been
met,
Examination of any assumptions made when the study was planned, if those assumptions
were met, and, if not, how the project’s conclusions are affected.
After all this information has been reviewed, the Project Manager/QA Officer will incorporate his/her
perspective on the critical nature of any problems noted and, ultimately, identify data usability and/or
limitations in supporting project objectives and decision making. All usable data will then be compared
to the Project Action Limits (as listed in Table 1 and Table 2) to identify whether these limits have been
exceeded. Any result over these limits for two consecutive sampling events will be referred to the Tribal
Council for consideration of possible action.
In addition, the PLPT Project Manager/QA Officer will assess the effectiveness of the monitoring
program and data collection at the end of each calendar year. Sampling locations, frequency, list of
analytical parameters, field measurement protocols, choice of the analytical laboratory, etc. will be
modified as needed to reflect the changing needs and project objectives of the Pyramid Lake Paiute
Tribe. This QA Project Plan will be revised and/or amended accordingly.
5.0
References
Pyramid Lake Paiute Tribe, 2008. Pyramid Lake Paiute Tribe Water Quality Control Plan, Environmental
Department.
WQ Monitoring of Surface Waters Within the PLIR
Page 41 of 170
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1991. Office of Emergency and Remedial
Response (OERR) Directive 9345.302, May.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2000. Guidance for the Data Quality Objectives
Process, EPA QA/G-4, EPA/600/R-96/005, August.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2001. EPA Requirements for Quality Assurance
Project Plans, EPA QA/R-5, EPA/240/B-01/003, March.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2002, Guidance for Quality Assurance Project
Plans, EPA QA/G-5, EPA/240/R-02/009, December.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2002. Guidance on Choosing a Sampling Design for
Environmental Data Collection for Use in Developing a Quality Assurance Project Plan, QA/G-5sS,
EPA/240/R-02/005, December.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2002. Guidance on Environmental Data
Verification and Data Validation, EPA QA/G-8, EPA/240/R-02/004, November.
WQ Monitoring of Surface Waters Within the PLIR
Figures
Page 42 of 170
WQ Monitoring of Surface Waters Within the PLIR
Figure 1: Project Organizational Charts
Page 43 of 170
WQ Monitoring of Surface Waters Within the PLIR
Figure 2: Lake Tahoe/Truckee River Watershed
Page 44 of 170
WQ Monitoring of Surface Waters Within the PLIR
Figure 3: Perennial, Intermittent, and Ephemeral Surface Waters within the PLIR.
The red line designates the Reservation Boundary line.
Page 45 of 170
WQ Monitoring of Surface Waters Within the PLIR
Figure 4: Lower Truckee River Water Quality Sampling Sites
Page 46 of 170
WQ Monitoring of Surface Waters Within the PLIR
Figure 5: Truckee River Physical Habitat & Bioassessment Sampling Sites
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WQ Monitoring of Surface Waters Within the PLIR
Figure 6: Virginia Mountain Range Stream WQ Monitoring Sampling Sites
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WQ Monitoring of Surface Waters Within the PLIR
Figure 7: Pah Rah Mountain Range Stream WQ Monitoring Sampling Sites
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WQ Monitoring of Surface Waters Within the PLIR
Figure 8: Lake Mountain Range Stream WQ Monitoring Sampling Sites
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WQ Monitoring of Surface Waters Within the PLIR
Figure 9: Pyramid Lake WQ Monitoring Sampling Sites
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WQ Monitoring of Surface Waters Within the PLIR
Figure 10: Sample Chain-of-Custody Form
Page 52 of 170
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Figure 11: Field Activities Review Checklist
Page 53 of 170
WQ Monitoring of Surface Waters Within the PLIR
Figure 12: Laboratory Data Review Checklist
Page 54 of 170
WQ Monitoring of Surface Waters Within the PLIR
Figure 12:
Continued
Page 55 of 170
WQ Monitoring of Surface Waters Within the PLIR
Tables
Page 56 of 170
WQ Monitoring of Surface Waters Within the PLIR
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Table 1: Pyramid Lake Analytical Parameters and Target Limits
Analytical
Parameter/Field
Measurement
Project Action Limit1
Analytical Laboratory Limits (mg/L)
Quantitation Limits2
Detection Limits
≤ .015 mg/L
(0-20m depth)
0.015
0.010
NRL 3
0.020
0.010
NRL
0.020
0.010
Total Nitrogen
(as nitrogen)
≤ 0.900 mg/L
(0-20m depth)
≤ 1.000 mg/L
(full column)
N/A
N/A
Total Phosphate
≤ 0.120 mg/L
(0-20m depth)
≤ 0.140 mg/L
(full column)
0.020
0.010
Orthophosphate
≤ 0.095 (0-20m depth)
≤ 0.115 mg/L
(full column)
0.020
0.010
Field Measurements
Project Action Limit1
Measurement Range
Temperature
Single value: ≤ 20°C
-5 to +35°C
N/A
pH
Single Value: ≤9.7
0.0 – 14.0 pH units
N/A
Dissolved Oxygen
Single Value: ≥80% Saturation
5
A-Avg : ≥90% Saturation
(0-20m depth)
120% of surface saturation
in all natural waters, fresh
and salt
N/A
Specific Conductivity
NRL
0.0 to 7.0 S/m
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
0 – 5 µg/L
N/A
400 – 700 nm
N/A
Laboratory Analyses
Total Ammonia,
(as nitrogen)
Nitrate + Nitrite
(as nitrogen)
Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen
(as nitrogen)
5
Total Dissolved Solids
A-Avg .: ≤5,900 mg/L
Clarity4
A-Avg.: ≤0.45 m
(0-20m depth)
Depth Avg: ≤ 5 µg/L
(0-20 m, April – October)
Chlorophyll a
PAR
(Photosynthetic Active Radiation)
NRL
6
Detection Limits
Notes:
1
Listed are numeric WQS for Pyramid Lake as identified in Pyramid Lake Paiute Tribe, Water Quality Control Plan: 2001.
2
All “ANALYSES” values are in mg/l and based on information provided by PLPT Analytical Laboratory. All “FIELD MEASUREMENTS” values are in
the units noted and based on information provided in the manufacturers’ manuals for the equipment.
3
NRL- No regulatory limit. Laboratory Quantitation Limit is acceptable for this project.
4
Secchi Disk (Clarity) readings for Pyramid Lake are ‘estimated’ by sight.
5
A-Average = Annual Average
6
Values indicate the measurement ranges of field instruments and bracket the project action limits. The ranges are supported by calibration
procedures.
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Table 2: Truckee River Analytical Parameters and Target Limits
Analytical
Parameter/Field
Measurement
Analytical Laboratory Limits (mg/L)
Project Action Limit1
Quantitation Limits2
Detection Limits
≤ 2.8 mg/L (no aquatic life
&0-20m depth)
≤ 2.1 mg/L (w/ aquatic life
&0-20m depth)
0.015
0.010
Single Value: ≤ 2.04 mg/L
0.020
0.010
NRL
0.020
0.010
A-Average4: ≤ 0.0.75 mg/L
Single Value: ≤ 1.200 mg/L
N/A
N/A
Total Phosphate
NRL3
0.020
0.010
Orthophosphate
A-Average: ≤ 0.05 mg/L
Laboratory Analyses
Total Ammonia,
(as nitrogen)
Nitrate + Nitrite
(as nitrogen)
Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen
(as nitrogen)
Total Nitrogen
(as nitrogen)
1
0.020
0.010
5
Field Measurements
Project Action Limit
Temperature
Average Daily Temperature
Nov-Mar: ≤ 13°C
Apr-Jun: ≤ 14°C
Jul-Oct: ≤ 21°C
-5.0 – 45.0°C
N/A
pH
Single Value: 6.5 – 9.0
0.0 – 14.0 pH units
N/A
Dissolved Oxygen
Nov-Jun: ≥6.0 mg/L
Jul-Oct: ≥5.0 mg/L
0.0 – 50 mg/L
N/A
Specific Conductivity
NRL
0.0 - 100 mS/cm
N/A
Turbidity
Single Value: ≤ 10.0
0.0 – 1000 NTU
N/A
Total Dissolved Solids
Single Value: ≤ 310 mg/L
A-Average: ≤ 245 mg/L
N/A
N/A
Measurement Range
Detection Limits
Notes:
1
Listed are numeric WQS for Pyramid Lake as identified in Pyramid Lake Paiute Tribe, Water Quality
Control Plan: 2001.
2
All “ANALYSES” values are in mg/l and based on information provided by PLPT Analytical Laboratory.
All “FIELD MEASUREMENTS” values are in the units noted and based on information provided in the
manufacturers’ manuals for the equipment.
3
NRL- No regulatory limit. Laboratory Quantitation Limit is acceptable for this project.
4
A-Average = Annual Average
5
Values indicate the measurement ranges of field instruments and bracket the project action limits. The
ranges are supported by calibration procedures.
WQ Monitoring of Surface Waters Within the PLIR
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Table 3: Quantitation Limits (Measurement Range) of Field Equipment
Parameter
Method/Instrument
Measurement Range
YSI 6920V2 Multi-Probe Water Quality Instrument
Temperature
pH
Dissolved Oxygen
6560
Temperature/Conductivity Sensor
6561
pH Sensor
6150 ROX Optical Dissolved Oxygen Sensor
DO Sensor
-5.0 to 45.0°C
0.0 to 14.0 standard pH units
0.0 to 50 mg/L
Turbidity
6136
Turbidity Sensor
0.0 to 1000 Nephelometric Unit
(NTU)
Conductivity/ Specific
Conductance
6560
Temperature/ Conductivity Sensor
0.0 to 100 mS/cm
Temperature
SBE 19plus
-5 to +35°C
pH
SBE 18
pH Sensor
0.0 to 14.0 standard pH units
Dissolved Oxygen
SBE 43
Dissolved Oxygen Sensor
120% of surface saturation in all
natural waters, fresh and salt
Conductivity/ Specific
Conductance
SBE 19plus
0.0 - 7.0 Siemens/meter (S/m)
Chlorophyll a
SBE 19plus
0 to 5 µg/L
SBE 19plus SEACAT Profiler
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Table 4: Quality Control Requirements for Field Measurements Collected
with a YSI 6920V2 Environmental Monitoring System
Field Parameters: Temperature, pH, Dissolved Oxygen, Turbidity, Conductivity/Specific Conductance1
QC Sample:
Data Quality
2
Indicator (DQI)
Frequency/
Number
Method/SOP QC
Acceptance
3
Limits
Acceptance
Criteria/
Measurement
Performance
4
Criteria
Corrective Action
Temperature
rd
Field Duplicate
Precision
(S & A)
1/5 field samples
NA
±0.5°C
QC Check
5
Sample
Accuracy
NA
NA
NA
Collect & analyze 3
sample. Qualify data, if
still exceeding criteria.
None. Sensor not used
if didn’t meet
calibration criteria.
pH
rd
Field Duplicate
QC Check
6
Sample
Precision
(S & A)
1/5 field samples
NA
±0.3 pH units
Collect & analyze 3
sample. Qualify data, if
still exceeding criteria.
Accuracy
1/batch
(each day)
±0.5 units of true
value for both
calibration check
standards
±0.5 units of true
value
Qualify associated field
data.
Dissolved Oxygen
rd
Field Duplicate
QC Check
6
Sample
Precision
(S & A)
1/5 field samples
NA
±20% RPD
Collect & analyze 3
sample. Qualify data, if
still exceeding criteria.
Accuracy
1/batch
(each day)
±0.5 mg/L of true
value of full
saturation
standard
±0.5 mg/L of true
value
Qualify associated field
data.
Turbidity
rd
Field Duplicate
QC Check
6
Sample
Precision
(S & A)
Accuracy
1/5 field samples
NA
±20% RPD
Collect & analyze 3
sample. Qualify data, if
still exceeding criteria.
1/batch
(each day)
±20% or ±2 NTU
of 20 NTU
standard
(whichever is
greater) and ±1
NTU for 0 NTU
standard
±20% of true
value
Qualify associated field
data.
Conductivity/Specific Conductance
rd
Field Duplicate
QC Check
6
Sample
Precision
(S & A)
Accuracy
1/5 field samples
NA
±20% RPD
Collect & analyze 3
sample. Qualify data, if
still exceeding criteria.
1/batch
(each day)
±10% of true
value or ±0.2
mS/cm
(whichever is
greater) for
calibration check
standard
±10% of true
value
Qualify associated field
data.
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Notes:
1
Methods are provided in Appendix A.
2
Data Quality Indicators may be related to sampling (S) and/or analysis (A) activities.
3
For field duplicate samples, there are no method-specific QC acceptance limits (NA- Not applicable.)
4
The information in this column supports acceptance criteria/measurement performance criteria
introduced in Section 1.7.3. For this study, the field measurement’s QC acceptance limits (as determined
from a calibration check sample analyzed half-way through the field day) were reviewed and found
acceptable to meet the current data quality needs. As such, the field measurement’s QC acceptance
limits and the project’s measurement performance criteria are equivalent.
5
Accuracy is not ensured through the analysis of a QC check. If the temperature sensor meets the
annual calibration procedures and criteria presented in Table 12, the measurements are considered
accurate enough to meet the needs of the current project.
6
Accuracy is ensured through the calibration and calibration check process presented in Table 12. The
post calibration check sample(s) will be considered as QC check samples for the field measurements.
ALL SAMPLES ARE SURFACE WATER MATRIX. ALL SAMPLES ARE COLLECTED BY THE SAME PROCEDURE,
AS PRESENTED IN APPENDIX A. NO ADDITIONAL QC CHECKS ARE PLANNED BEYOND THOSE IDENTIFIED
ABOVE FOR ACCURACY AND PRECISION.
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Table 5: Quality Control Requirements for Laboratory Analyses
See Appendix D for Laboratory Data Quality Indicator Tables.
QC Sample:
Data Quality
1
Indicator (DQI)
Frequency/Number
Acceptance
Criteria/Measurement
2
Performance Criteria
Corrective Action
3
Field:
Field Duplicate
Precision
(S & A)
1/10 field samples
RPD</= 20% for
concentrations
>5 x QL
Qualify associated field data
and/or resample.
Field Blank
Accuracy/
Bias as
Contamination (S &
A)
1/20 field samples
Concentration < QL
Qualify associated field data
and/or resample.
Temperature
Blank
Representativeness
1/cooler of samples
4°C ± 2°C
Contact Tribe’s Project
Manager
35% of samples
# of Duplicates ≥ 35% of
Samples
Review with lab manager.
Reanalyze or justify in data
report.
Laboratory:
Duplicate
Samples
Precision
(A)
Duplicate
Sample
Variability
Precision
(A)
N/A
<20% of Duplicates exceeds
4
maximum variability
Review with lab manager.
Reanalyze or justify in data
report.
Matrix Spike
Accuracy/Bias as
Recovery
(S & A)
With each set of
samples analyzed
± 15% from expected value
Reprep and reanalyze. If
problem recurs, justify in
data report.
Notes:
1
Data quality indicators may be related to sampling (S) and/or analysis (A) activities.
2
The information in this column supports the acceptance criteria/measurement performance criteria
introduced in Section 1.7.3. For this study, the laboratory’s QC acceptance limits were reviewed and
found acceptable to meet the current data quality needs. As such, the laboratory’s QC acceptance limits
and the project’s measurement performance criteria are equivalent.
3
Tribe’s project manager will make decision on how to proceed on a case-by-case basis. At a minimum,
a note will be included with the data report from the laboratory.
4
Variability Limits
DL = Detection Limit
Calculation of Limits
Interval
RSD%
<2 · DL
100%
2-3 · DL
80%
3-4 · DL
60%
4-5 · DL
40%
>5 · DL
20%
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Table 6: Summary of Water Samples and Analytical Methods
Analytical
Parameter
Analytical Method
1
Number
Containers
(Number,
Size/Volume, type)
Preservation Requirements
2
(conducted in lab)
Maximum
Holding Times
Analyses
Total Phosphate
365.3, EPA
1 Liter
Polyethylene
Bottle
Do Not filter samples.
5
Add 2 ml H2SO4/L, Refrigerate
28 days
Ortho-Phosphate
365.3 EPA
1 Liter
Polyethylene
Bottle
Filter Samples.
5
Add 2 ml H2SO4/L, Refrigerate
28 days
Nitrate + Nitrite
4500-NO3 E
Standard Methods,
th
20 Edition
1 Liter
Polyethylene
Bottle
Ammonia-N
4500-NH3 F
Standard Methods,
th
20 Edition
1 Liter
Polyethylene
Bottle
Total Kjeldahl
Nitrogen
4500-Norg C
Standard Methods,
th
20 Edition
1 Liter
Polyethylene
Bottle
Add H2SO4 to pH 1.5 to 2.0 and
5
refrigerate
28 days
Dissolved Inorganic
Nitrogen
Calculation
3
NA
NA
NA
Total Nitrogen
Calculation
4
NA
NA
NA
Zooplankton
SOP: Zooplankton
Analysis
250 ml
Polyethylene
Bottle
Add 3-5 mL Lugols solution
28 days
Temperature, pH,
Dissolved Oxygen,
Specific Conductivity,
Turbidity
See SOP for YSI
6920V2 in Appendix
A
NA
NA
Immediate
Temperature, pH,
Dissolved Oxygen,
Conductivity
See SOP for SEACAT
SBE 19 plus in
Appendix A
NA
NA
Immediate
-
Filter samples.
- w/in 48 hrs of collection:
5
Refrigerate
- w/in 28 days of collection:
5
Add 2 mL H2SO4/L, Refrigerate
Filter samples.
- w/in 24 hrs of collection:
5
Refrigerate
- w/in 28 days of collection: Freeze
at -20°C or add H2SO4 to pH <2and
5
refrigerate
28 days
28 days
Field Measurements
1
th
SM = Standard Methods for the Examination of Water & Wastewater, 20 Editions; APHA, AWWA, WPCF, American Public
Health Association, Washington, DC.
2
H2SO4 = Sulfuric acid
3
Dissolved Inorganic Nitrogen (DIN): DIN = Total Ammonia + Nitrate + Nitrite
4
Total Nitrogen (TN): TN = Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen + Nitrate + Nitrite
5
Refrigerate = storage at 4°C ± 2°C, in the dark
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Table 7: Sample Design and Rationale - Pyramid Lake
Sampling Location/
ID Number3
Pyramid Lake/
WP961
Pyramid Lake/
WP932
Location
Rationale for Sampling Design
North (deep) Basin
Lake stratification, lake mixing (turnover), productivity, and ‘Control
Point’ for PLPT WQS.
South (shallow) Basin
Monitors water entering from the
Truckee River into the lake during
times of mixing.
Notes:
1
Pyramid Lake water samples at Station 96 will be collected monthly from discrete depths (10m, 20m,
30m, 45m, 60m, 75m, 90m) including a composite sample (surface + 2.5m + 5m depths) and a sample
5m from the bottom.
2
Pyramid Lake water samples at Station 93 will be collected quarterly from discrete depths (10m, 20m,
30m, and 45m) including a composite sample (surface + 2.5m + 5M) and a sample 5m off the bottom.
3
All samples will be analyzed for the analytical parameters and field measurements listed in Table 1.
WQ Monitoring of Surface Waters Within the PLIR
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Table 8: Sample Design and Rationale – Truckee River (monthly)
Sampling Location/
ID Number1
Location
Rationale for Sampling Design
Truckee River/
PD
Pierson Diversion
(most upstream site)
Monitors upstream water
entering the Pyramid Lake Indian
Reservation.
Truckee River/
WB
Wadsworth Bridge
Monitoring Control Point (#1) for
the PLPT WQS.
Truckee River/
DO
Dead Ox
Monitoring for TDS and nutrients
from groundwater return flow.
Truckee River/
NB
Nixon Bridge
Monitoring Control Point (#2) for
the PLPT WQS.
Truckee River/
MBD
Marble Bluff Dam
(most downstream site)
Site below Marble Bluff Dam just
upstream of Pyramid Lake.
Notes:
1
If the water source is less than 12” deep, samples will be collected at mid depth and noted in the field
logbook. All samples will be analyzed for the analytical parameters and field measurements listed in
Table 2.
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Table 9: Sample Design and Rationale – Truckee River (annual)1
Sampling Location/
ID Number1,2
Location
Rationale for Sampling Design
Truckee River/
I80
Interstate-80 Bridge
Water quality monitoring of
bioassessment sample sites.
Truckee River/
BB
Big Bend
Water quality monitoring of
bioassessment sample sites.
Truckee River/
WB
Wadsworth Bridge
Water quality monitoring of
bioassessment sample sites.
Truckee River/
FN
Fellnagle
Water quality monitoring of
bioassessment sample sites.
Truckee River/
SS
S Bar S Ranch
Water quality monitoring of
bioassessment sample sites.
Truckee River/
DO
Dead Ox
Water quality monitoring of
bioassessment sample sites.
Truckee River/
CYN
Canyon
Water quality monitoring of
bioassessment sample sites.
Truckee River/
NU
Nixon Upper
Water quality monitoring of
bioassessment sample sites.
Truckee River/
NB
Nixon Bridge
Water quality monitoring of
bioassessment sample sites.
Truckee River/
NL
Nixon Lower
Water quality monitoring of
bioassessment sample sites.
Truckee River/
MBD
Marble Bluff Dam
Water quality monitoring of
bioassessment sample sites.
Notes:
1
For further information on location rational refer to the Quality Assurance Project Plan for
Bioassessment Monitoring in Surface Waters of the Pyramid Lake Indian Reservation, Nevada: Pyramid
Lake Paiute Tribe Stream Bioassessment Procedure.
QA EPA Office Document Control Number: WATR469Q04VSF1
2
If the water source is less than 12” deep, samples will be collected at mid depth and noted in the field
logbook. All samples will be analyzed for the analytical parameters and field measurements listed in
Table 2.
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Table 10: Sample Design and Rationale – Non Point Source Sites
Sampling Location/
ID Number1
Location
Rationale for Sampling Design
Paiute Pit Outlet/
PP
Paiute Pit Gravel Operation
Wadsworth, NV
Monitors quality of water from
the “Pit Lake” (resulting from
gravel pit operations) before
entering the Truckee River.
Tile Drain Outlet/
TD
Agricultural field
Hill Ranch Road
Wadsworth, NV
Monitors quality of agricultural
return flows (irrigation season)
resulting from the tile drains,
before entering the Truckee
River.
Numana Wetlands Inlet/
NWI
Behind Numana Hatchery
HWY 447
Monitors wastewater from
Numana Fish Hatchery pools
entering into the Numana
Wetlands complex.
Numana Wetlands Outlet/ NWO
Behind Numana Hatchery
HWY 447
Monitors efficiency of Numana
Wetlands to reduce nutrient
discharge into the Truckee River.
Notes:
1
If the water source is less than 12” deep, samples will be collected at mid depth and noted in the field
logbook. All samples will be analyzed for the analytical parameters and field measurements listed in
Table 2.
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Table 11: Sample Design and Rationale - Mountain Streams
Sampling Location/
ID Number1
Location
Rationale for Sampling Design
Big Canyon Creek/
BC
Virginia Mountain Range (on
the PLIR boundary)
Monitors WQ entering PLIR from Big
Canyon Ranch operations.
Sharpe’s Canyon Creek/
SC
Virginia Mountain Range
(above Whittey’s ranch)
Monitors WQ where livestock are
‘permitted’ to graze.
Thunderbolt Canyon Creek/ TB
Virginia Mountain Range
(above Whittey’s ranch)
Monitors WQ where livestock are
‘permitted’ to graze.
Poison Canon Creek/
PC
Virginia Mountain Range
(above Whittey’s ranch)
Monitors WQ where livestock are
‘permitted’ to graze.
Hardscrabble Creek/
HS1
Virginia Mountain Range
(on ranch boundary)
Monitors WQ entering the PLIR from
Horgan Ranch operations.
Hardscrabble Creek/
HS2
Sutcliffe, NV
(near Pyramid Lake)
Monitors WQ entering Pyramid Lake
(town of Sutcliffe).
Rodero Creek/
ROC
Pah Rah Mountain Range
(near Block House)
Monitors WQ where livestock are
‘permitted’ to graze.
Tom Anderson Canyon/ TAC
Pah Rah Mountain Range
(near Popcorn Rock)
Monitors WQ where livestock are
‘permitted’ to graze.
Coal Canyon Creek/
CC
Pah Rah Mountain Range
(near TAC)
Monitors WQ where livestock are
‘permitted’ to graze.
Big Mouth Canyon Creek/
BMC
Pah Rah Mountain Range
(near Coal Canyon)
Monitors WQ where livestock are
‘permitted’ to graze.
Dove Creek/
DOV
Lake Mountain Range
(east of HWY 447)
Monitors WQ where livestock are
‘permitted’ to graze.
Nugent Hole Canyon/
NHC
Lake Mountain Range
(east of HWY 447)
Monitors WQ where livestock are
‘permitted’ to graze.
Nugent Canyon/
NUC
Lake Mountain Range
(east of HWY 447)
Monitors WQ where livestock are
‘permitted’ to graze.
Notes:
1
If the water source is less than 12” deep, samples will be collected at mid depth and noted in the field
logbook. All samples will be analyzed for the analytical parameters and field measurements listed in
Table 2.
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Table 12: YSI 6920V2 Instrument Calibration, Maintenance, Testing, and Inspection
Analytical
Parameter
Instrument
Calibration Activity
Temperature
6560
Conductivity/
Temperature
Sensor
NA1
pH
6561
pH Sensor
Initial: Two-point
calibration bracketing
expected filed sample
range (using 7.0 and either
4.0 or 10.0 pH buffer,
depending on field
conditions)
Maintenance &
Testing/
Inspection
Activity
See
manufacturer’s
manual
See
manufacturer’s
manual
Frequency
Acceptance Criteria
Corrective
Action
NA1
NA1
Remove from
use if not
working.
Initial:
Beginning of
each day
Initial: Two-point
calibration done
electronically
Initial:
Recalibrate
Post:
End of each
day
Post: ±0.5 pH units of
true value with both
7 pH and 10 pH
buffers
Initial:
Beginning of
each day
Initial: One point
calibration done
electronically
Post:
End of each
day
Post: ±0.5 mg/L of
true saturated value
Post:
Qualify data
Post: Two-point check with
7 pH and 10 pH buffers
Dissolved
Oxygen
6150
ROX Dissolved
Oxygen Optical
Sensor
Initial: One-point
calibration with saturated
air (need barometric
pressure)
See
manufacturer’s
manual
Post: Single-point check at
full saturation
Turbidity
6136
Turbidity
Sensor
Initial: Two-point
calibration using 0 NTU (or
deionized water) and 100
NTU standards to bracket
expected sample range
See
manufacturer’s
manual
Post: Two-point check with
high (100 NTU) and low (0
NTU) standards
Conductivity/
Specific
Conductance
6560
Conductivity/
Temperature
Sensor
Initial: one-point
calibration using 6.668
mS/cm standard
Post: One-point check with
6.668 mS/cm standard
1
See
manufacturer’s
manual
Initial:
Beginning of
each day
Initial: Two-point
calibration done
electronically
Post:
End of each
day
Post: Two point check
with high (100 NTU)
standard ±20% or ±2
NTU (whichever is
greater) of true value
and low (0 NTU)
standard ±1 NTU of
true value
Initial: one-point
calibration done
electronically
Initial:
Beginning of
each day
Post:
End of each
day
No calibration or maintenance of the temperature sensor is required.
Post: One-point check
with 6.668 standard
±10% of true value or
±0.2 mS/cm,
whichever is greater
Initial:
Recalibrate;
change
membrane
and
recalibrate
Post:
Qualify data
Initial:
See
manufacturer’
s manual
Post:
Qualify Data
Initial:
Recalibrate
Post:
Qualify data
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Table 13: SBE 19plus SEACAT Profiler Calibration, Maintenance, Testing, and Inspection
Analytical
Parameter
Temperature
Instrument
Temperature
Sensor
Calibration
Activity
Calibration done
by manufacturer.
Maintenance & Testing/
Inspection Activity
See manufacturer’s
manual.
Annual
Acceptance
Criteria
NA
Frequency
Corrective Action
Calibration done by
manufacturer.
pH
pH Sensor
Calibration done
by manufacturer.
See manufacturer’s
manual.
Annual
NA
Calibration done by
manufacturer.
Dissolved
Oxygen
DO Sensor
Calibration done
by manufacturer.
See manufacturer’s
manual.
Annual
NA
Calibration done by
manufacturer.
Conductivity
Conductivity
Sensor
Calibration done
by manufacturer.
See manufacturer’s
manual.
Annual
NA
Calibration done by
manufacturer.
PAR
Photosynthetic
Active
Radiation
Sensor
Chlorophyll
sensor
Calibration done
by manufacturer.
See manufacturer’s
manual.
Annual
NA
Calibration done by
manufacturer.
Calibration done
by manufacturer.
See manufacturer’s
manual.
Annual
NA
Calibration done by
manufacturer.
Chlorophyll
Manufacturer recommends that the 19plus be returned to Sea-Bird for calibration annually.
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Table 14: GPS Coordinates of Sampling Locations
Sample Site
Latitude
Pyramid Lake Stations
Station 96
39.06656
Station 93
39.98098
Truckee River Monthly Sites
Pierson Diversion
39.61307
Wadsworth Bridge
39.63193
Dead Ox
39.74020
Nixon Bridge
39.74581
Marble Bluff Dam
39-85306
Non Point Source Sites
Paiute Pit Outlet
39.65086
Tile Drain
39.66803
Numana Wetland Inlet
39.19777
Numana Wetland Outlet
39.72413
Truckee River Bioassessment Sites
I-80
39.61470
Big Bend
39.62097
Wadsworth Bridge
39.63193
Fellnagle
39.64301
S Bar S
39.69533
Dead Ox
39.74020
Canyon
39.77818
Nixon Upper
39.80341
Nixon Bridge
39.82915
Nixon Lower
39.83940
Marble Bluff Dam
39.85306
Stream Sites
Big Canyon
40.08621
Sharpe’s
40.07650
Thunderbolt
40.07068
Poison
40.06361
Hardscrabble (HS1)
39.94345
Hardscrabble (HS2)
39.95248
Rodero
39.87256
Tom Anderson
39.83879
Coal Canyon
39.80741
Big Mouth Canyon
39.77572
Dove Creek
40.08267
Nugent Hole
40.14713
Nugent Canyon
40.16030
Longitude
-119.5600
-119.4873
-119.3034
-119.2834
-119.3201
-119.3562
-119.3994
-119.2798
-119.2706
-119.3183
-119.3191
-119.2992
-119.2897
-119.2833
-119.2912
-119.2919
-119.3201
-119.3374
-119.3510
-119.3562
-119.3694
-119.3994
-119.7209
-119.7163
-119.7193
-119.7159
-119.6183
-119.6012
-119.4969
-119.4732
-119.4252
-119.4175
-119.4064
-119.4087
-119.4061
WQ Monitoring of Surface Waters Within the PLIR
Appendices
Page 72 of 170
WQ Monitoring of Surface Waters Within the PLIR
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Appendix A: Field Standing Operating Procedures
Standard Operating Procedure for:
Calibration and Field Measurement Procedures for the YSI Model 6920V2 Sonde and Data Logger
1.0
Introduction
The YSI 6920V2 sonde is a multi-parameter device used to measure and record water quality
measurements in surface waters for the following: temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, specific
conductivity, salinity, total dissolved solids and turbidity.
2.0
Purpose
The standard operating procedure (SOP) describes the method to calibrate and use the YSI 6920V2
sonde in the field.
3.0
Method
See the YSI 6-Series Multiparameter Water Quality Sondes User Manual for complete instructions for
maintenance, care, and use of the 6920V2 sonde and sensors.
4.0
Pre-Calibration Checks
4.1
On the day before a calibration and sampling event inspect the YSI 6920V2 Sonde.
4.1.1
4.1.2
Remove the calibration cup from the sonde.
Confirm that the sponge stored in the calibration cup has not dried out, keeping the sensors
moist.
Inspect the Turbidity Sensor to see if wiper needs to be changed. If it does, then follow the
directions found in the YSI User’s Manual to change the wiper and record in equipment log
book.
Inspect the Dissolved Oxygen sensor to see if wiper needs to be changes. If it does, then follow
the direction found in the YSI User Manual to replace the wiper and record in equipment log
book.
Inspect all other sensors and plugs to make sure they are all inserted properly.
Re-wet the sponge that is stored in the calibration cup and attach cup on sonde.
4.1.3
4.1.4
4.1.5
4.1.6
4.2
Also on the day before calibration, make sure that there are sufficient amounts of calibration
standards available at the Environmental Department building. If not then it is necessary to get
calibration standards from the PLPT WQ Laboratory and/or reorder.
5.0
Materials Needed for YSI 6920 Sonde Calibration




Equipment stand with clamp
Conductivity 6.668 calibration standard
pH 7 and 10 calibration standards
Turbidity 0 and 126 NTU calibration standards
WQ Monitoring of Surface Waters Within the PLIR





Page 74 of 170
Sonde
Calibration cup (on bottom)
MDS 650 display
Connection cable
YSI Calibration Worksheet
6.0
Calibrations
6.1
6.10
Obtain an YSI 6920V2 Sonde Calibration Worksheet (See Worksheet Below). Record all
calibration data onto this worksheet.
Record the date of calibration.
Record the names of the calibration technician(s).
Indicate by circling ‘Y’ or ‘N’ if the dissolved oxygen sensor wiper has been changed, this
information can be found in the equipment log book.
Indicate by circling ‘Y’ or ‘N’ if the turbidity wiper has been changed, this information can be
found in the equipment log book.
Remove the calibration cup from the sonde and remove the small sponge that is stored in the
cup while sonde is not in use.
Visually inspect the sensors to ensure that they are free from any debris and electrodes are in
good condition as well as the turbidity and dissolved oxygen wipers.
Indicate by circling ‘Y’ or ‘N’ if the turbidity wiper is parked about 180° from the optics. This can
be done by visually inspecting the turbidity probe.
Indicate by circling Y’ or ‘N’ if the dissolved oxygen wiper is parked about 180° from the optics.
This can be done by visually inspecting the dissolved oxygen probe.
Check that the sonde is connected to the 650 MDS Display with the provided cable.
6.11
Dissolved Oxygen Calibration
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6
6.7
6.8
6.9
6.11.1 Dry the temperature sensor and the ROX membrane to remove any water droplets.
6.11.2 Place approximately 1 inch of tap water in the calibration cup. The calibration cup twists on/off
the bottom of the sonde.
6.11.3 Place the probe end of the sonde into the cup, making sure that the D.O. and temperature
probes are not immersed in the water.
6.11.4 Place the calibration cup onto the sonde and thread onto the sonde ½ thread. Place sonde in an
upside down position on a stand.
6.11.5 Wait approximately 15 minutes for the air in the calibration cup to become water saturated and
the temperature to equilibrate.
6.11.6 While waiting, call the Reno weather station at (775) 673-8107, and ask for the “corrected”
barometric pressure for the Nixon, Nevada area. Record this number in the first space in the
‘Barometric Calculation’ section.
6.11.7 Barometric Calculation:
6.11.7.1. Multiply the “corrected” barometric pressure by 25.4, and then subtract 98.5 (for
elevation correction). Record the value in the space provided.
6.11.7.2. Divide the value received in 6.11.7.1 by 760, and then multiply by 100. Record the
value in the space provided. This is the % DO Check Value.
6.11.8 Power the sonde by pressing the green power button, on the upper left hand corner of the 650
MDS display unit (connected to the sonde by a cable).
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6.11.9 Using the ‘down arrow’ cursor key, select “Sonde menu” from the 650 MDS display menu, then
press the enter key.
6.11.10 Using the cursor key, select “Calibrate” from the main menu, and then press ‘enter.’
6.11.11 Using the cursor key, select “Optic-T Dissolved Oxy” from the menu, and then press ‘enter.’
6.11.12 Select “ODOsat%” from the DO calibration menu, then press the enter key.
6.11.13 Using the cursor key, select “1 point” from the menu, and press ‘enter’.
6.11.14 Enter the value from step 6.11.7.1 into the 650 MDS using the numbers on the touch pad.
6.11.15 Press the ‘enter’ key. The sonde will enable all sensors. Wait for one minute while sensors
stabilize.
6.11.16 Record the OSO mg/L measurement in the ‘Before Calibration’ column.
6.11.17 Use the cursor key to select “Calibrate”, press ‘enter’.
6.11.18 The current values of all enabled sensors will appear on the screen, observe the reading under
‘DO %’. Record the reading in the ‘After Lab Calibration’ column.
6.11.19 Compare the reading to the % DO Check Value. Record a checkmark on the calibration
worksheet if the reading is equal to the % DO Check Value obtained in Step 6.11.7.2.
6.11.19.1. If it is not equal then repeat steps 6.11.1 - 6.11.19. If calibration value is still not
correct see user’s manual for troubleshooting.
6.11.20 Observe the reading under ‘ODO %’ and record the reading in the ‘After Lab Calibration’ column.
6.11.21 Record the Battery Voltage displayed on the 650 MDS.
6.11.22 Press the ‘enter’ key to continue calibration.
6.11.23 Press the ‘escape’ key twice on the touch pad to go back to the main menu.
6.11.24 Using the cursor key, select “Advanced”, press ‘enter’.
6.11.25 Using the cursor key select “Cal Constants”, press ‘enter’.
6.11.26 Record the “ODO gain” calibration constant on the Calibration Worksheet.
6.11.26.1. This number should be 0.85 - 1.15. If it is out of range see YSI Users manual for
more information
6.11.27 Press the “Esc” key twice to get back to the main menu. Using the cursor select “Calibrate”.
6.11.28 Discard water in calibration cup, and rinse probes twice with tap water.
6.12
Specific Conductivity Calibration
6.12.1 From the calibration menu, use ‘up arrow’ cursor key to select “Conductivity”, then press the
enter key.
6.12.2 Select “Sp Cond” from the “Cond calibration” menu, then press the enter key.
6.12.3 Fill the calibration cup with 2.5 cm (1 inch) of the 6.668 mS/cm conductivity standard.
6.12.4 Replace the calibration cup on the sonde, shake 4 seconds to rinse the probes, and then discard
the conductivity solution.
6.12.5 Fill the calibration cup with 200 ml of the 6.668 mS/cm conductivity standard, covering all
sensors. Replace the calibration cup gently moving the sonde up and down to remove any
bubbles from the conductivity cell. The probe must be completely immersed past its vent hole.
Place the sonde in an upside down position on a stand (see figure above).
6.12.6 Enter the standard calibration mS/cm value of “6.668” into the 650 MDS using the numbers on
the touch pad. Then press the enter key.
6.12.7 Wait one minute for the sonde to calibrate. The current values of all enabled sensors will appear
on the screen and will change in time as they stabilize.
6.12.8 Observe the readings under ‘mS/cm’. When they show no significant change for approximately
30 seconds, record the specific conductivity reading in the ‘Before Calibration’ column.
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6.12.9 Press the ‘enter’ key to calibrate and record the specific conductivity reading in the ‘After Lab
Calibration” column.
6.12.10 The 6920V2 sonde is now calibrated at 25 °C for Specific conductivity to be read in the 0 –100
mS/cm range.
6.12.11 Press the ‘enter’ key, to continue. Press the ‘Esc’ twice to go to the main menu.
6.12.12 Using the cursor key, select “Advanced”, press ‘enter’.
6.12.13 Using the cursor key select “Cal Constants”, press ‘enter’.
6.12.14 Record the “Cond” calibration constant on the Calibration Worksheet.
6.12.14.1. This number should be 5.0 +/- 0.45. If it is out of range see YSI Users manual for
more information
6.12.15 Press the “Esc” key twice to get back to the main menu. Using the cursor select “Calibrate”.
6.12.16 Discard conductivity solution, and rinse probes twice with tap water.
6.13
pH Calibration
6.13.1 From the calibration menu, use ‘up arrow’ cursor key to select “ISE1 pH”, then press the enter
key.
6.13.2 Select “2 point” from the “pH calibration” menu, then press the enter key.
6.13.3 Fill the calibration cup with 2.5 cm (1 inch) of the 7.0 pH standard.
6.13.4 Replace the calibration cup on the sonde, shake to rinse the probes, and then discard the
solution.
6.13.5 Fill the calibration cup with 100 ml of the 7.0 pH standard, enough to cover all sensors. Replace
calibration cup. Place the sonde in an upside down position on a stand (see figure above).
6.13.6 Enter the standard calibration pH value of “7.00” into the 650 MDS using the numbers on the
touch pad. Then press the enter key. Wait one minute for the sensors to stabilize.
6.13.7 Observe the readings under “pH”, and when they show no significant change for approximately
30 seconds, record the value in the ‘Before Calibration’ column.
6.13.8 Press the ‘enter’ key to calibrate, and record the calibrated value in the ‘After Lab Calibration’
column.
6.13.9 Record the pH MV reading on the 650 MDS in the ‘Diagnostic Check’ column.
6.13.10 Press the ‘enter’ key on the touch pad to continue with the 2-point pH calibration.
6.13.11 Discard ph calibration solution, and rinse probes twice with tap water.
6.13.12 Repeat steps 6.12.3 to 6.12.11 using the pH 10.0 standard.
6.13.13 The 6920V2 sonde is now calibrated for pH.
6.13.14 Check the pH MV slope.
6.13.14.1. The difference between the pH MV readings should be between 165-180. If the
difference is outside of these limits then the pH probe needs to be replaced.
6.13.15 Press ‘escape’ to get back to the calibration menu.
6.14
Turbidity Calibration
6.14.1 From the calibration menu, use ‘up arrow’ cursor key to select “Optic T- Turbidity”, then press
the enter key.
6.14.2 Select “2 point” from the turbidity calibration menu, then press the enter key.
6.14.3 Fill the calibration cup with 2.5 cm (1 inch) of the 0 NTU standard or deionized water.
6.14.4 Replace the calibration cup on the sonde, shake to rinse the probes, and then discard the
solution.
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6.14.5 Fill the calibration cup with 100 ml of the 0 NTU standard, enough to cover all sensors. Replace
calibration cup. Place the sonde in an upside down position on a stand (see figure above).
6.14.6 Enter the standard calibration value of “0.0” into the 650 MDS using the numbers on the touch
pad. Then press the enter key. Wait one minute for the sensors to stabilize.
6.14.7 Observe the readings under “NTU”, and when they show no significant change for
approximately 30 seconds, record the value in the ‘Before Calibration’ column.
6.14.8 Press the ‘enter’ key to calibrate, and record the calibrated value in the ‘After Lab Calibration’
column.
6.14.9 Press the ‘enter’ key on the touch pad to continue with the 2-point Turbidity calibration.
6.14.10 Discard 0 NTU calibration solution, and rinse probes twice with tap water.
6.14.11 Repeat steps 6.14.3 to 6.14.10 using the 126 NTU standard.
6.14.12 Press ‘escape’ to get back to the calibration menu.
6.15
Salinity Calibration
6.15.1 Salinity is determined automatically from the sonde conductivity and temperature readings. See
YSI “Environmental Monitoring Systems Operations Manual” Section 5.2 for a detailed
explanation.
6.16
Total Dissolved Solids Calibration
6.16.1 Total Dissolved Solids Calibration (grams/liter) is determined automatically from the sonde
conductivity, multiplied by a default constant of 0.65. See YSI “Environmental Monitoring
Systems Operations Manual” Section 5.3 for a detailed explanation.
6.17
6.18
6.19
Press the ‘escape’ key twice to disconnect the 650 MDS from the sonde and then press the
‘power’ key to turn off the equipment.
Moisten a 1.0 inch sponge is and insert into the bottom of the calibration/storage cup. The
sponge will keep the sensors moist.
Attach the calibration cup to the sonde, calibration cup will remain in place until sonde is used in
the field.
7.0
Procedure: In Field
7.1
7.2
Remove calibration cup, and replace with the sonde sensor ‘protector’ cap.
The entire sonde should be immersed in the water to be sampled. The sensors should be
cleaned and free of any debris.
Power on the sonde, using the cursor key highlight, “Sonde run” then press the ‘enter’ key to
enable the sensors. The 650 MDS will display all active parameters.
Observe the readings under Temperature (ºC), Dissolved Oxygen (DO mg/L), and Specific
Conductivity (mS/cm). When they show no significant change (approximately 60 seconds),
record the measurements in field notebook and/or pre-printed water quality monitoring
worksheet using a pencil.
Power off the sonde, remove sonde from water and replace the calibration cup. Be sure to
remove any debris from the sonde before replacing the calibration cup.
7.3
7.4
7.5
8.0
Post Field Calibrations
WQ Monitoring of Surface Waters Within the PLIR
8.1
Page 78 of 170
8.2
After field use rinse sonde, probes, ‘protector’ cap, and calibration cup with tap water to
remove any debris that may have become attached to equipment in the field.
Record post calibration QC check data on the calibration sheet in the ‘Post Calibration’ column.
8.3
Dissolved Oxygen Post Calibration QC Check
8.3.1
8.3.7
Place approximately 3 mm (1/8 inch) of tap water in the calibration cup. The calibration cup
twists on/off the bottom of the sonde.
Place the probe end of the sonde into the cup, making sure that the D.O. and temperature
probes are not immersed in the water.
Engage only 1 or 2 threads of the calibration cup to insure that the probe is vented to the
atmosphere. Place sonde in an upside down position on a stand.
Wait approximately 10 minutes for the air in the calibration cup to become water saturated and
the temperature to equilibrate.
Power on the sonde, using the cursor key highlight, “Sonde run” then press the ‘enter’ key to
enable the sensors. The 650 MDS will display all active parameters.
Observe the readings when they show no significant change (approximately 60 seconds), record
the % dissolved oxygen and mg/L measurements in the ‘Post Calibration’ column.
Remove calibration cup and rinse probes twice with tap water.
8.4
Specific Conductivity Post Calibration QC Check
8.4.1
8.4.2
8.4.5
Fill the calibration cup with 2.5 cm (1 inch) of the 6.668 mS/cm conductivity standard.
Replace the calibration cup on the sonde, shake 4 seconds to rinse the probes, and then discard
the solution.
Fill the calibration cup with 200 ml of the 6.668 mS/cm conductivity standard, covering all
sensors. Replace the calibration cup gently moving the sonde up and down to remove any
bubbles from the conductivity cell. The probe must be completely immersed past its vent hole.
Place the sonde in an upside down position on a stand (see figure above).
Observe the readings under ‘mS/cm’. When they show no significant change for approximately
30 seconds, record the reading in the ‘Post Calibration’ column.
Discard solution, and rinse probes twice with tap water.
8.5
pH Post Calibration QC Check
8.5.1
8.5.2
8.5.5
8.5.6
Fill the calibration cup with 2.5 cm (1 inch) of the pH 7.0 standard.
Replace the calibration cup on the sonde, shake 4 seconds to rinse the probes, and then discard
the solution.
Fill the calibration cup with 200 ml of the pH 7.0 standard, covering all sensors. Place the sonde
in an upside down position on a stand.
Observe the readings under ‘pH’. When they show no significant change for approximately 30
seconds, record the reading in the ‘Post Calibration’ column.
Discard solution, and rinse probes twice with tap water.
Repeat steps 8.5.1 - 8.5.5 with the ph 10.0 standard.
8.6
Turbidity Post Calibration QC Check
8.6.1
Fill the calibration cup with 2.5 cm (1 inch) of the 0 NTU standard.
8.3.2
8.3.3
8.3.4
8.3.5
8.3.6
8.4.3
8.4.4
8.5.3
8.5.4
WQ Monitoring of Surface Waters Within the PLIR
8.6.2
8.6.3
8.6.4
8.6.5
8.6.6
8.7
8.8
8.9
8.10
Page 79 of 170
Replace the calibration cup on the sonde, shake 4 seconds to rinse the probes, and then discard
the solution.
Fill the calibration cup with 200 ml of the 0 NTU standard, covering all sensors. Place the sonde
in an upside down position on a stand.
Observe the readings under ‘NTU’. When they show no significant change for approximately 30
seconds, record the reading in the ‘Post Calibration’ column.
Discard solution, and rinse probes twice with tap water.
Repeat steps 8.6.1 - 8.6.5 with the 100 NTU standard.
Press the ‘escape’ key to disconnect the 650 MDS from the sonde and then press the ‘power’
key to turn off the equipment.
Moisten a 1.0 inch sponge is and insert into the bottom of the calibration/storage cup. The
sponge will keep the sensors moist.
Attach the calibration cup to the sonde engaging all threads.
Complete the Post Calibration QC Check equations on the Calibration Worksheet. Store
Calibration Worksheets in binder for future reference.
9.0
Calibration Standards
9.1
Conductivity Standard: This is made at the PLPT WQ Laboratory. 74.557 grams of Potassium
Chloride (KCl) is dissolved in 700 mL of deionized water, and then diluted to one liter with
deionized water. This produces a 111.9 mS/cm solution. The 6.668 mS/cm standard is made by
taking 50 mL of the 111.9 mS/cm solution, and diluting to one liter with deionized water.
9.2
Turbidity and pH standards are purchased commercially. See YSI user’s manual for acceptable
standards.
10.0
Storage
10.1
After field use: Rinse the sensors with tap water, making sure there is no debris in the sensors.
Place 0.5 inch of tap water inside the calibration cup before placing on the sonde. No sensor
should be immersed in water. The calibration cup should be sealed to prevent evaporation. The
storage chamber should remain at 100% humidity. Store upside down and close to room
temperature the day prior to calibration.
10.2
For long-term storage (over 45 days): Store the pH sensor in ORP solution (provided with
instrument) to prevent the probe from drying out. After removing this sensor from sonde,
replace it with a plug (provided with the sonde). All other sensors can remain on the sonde. See
YSI “Environmental Monitoring Systems Operations Manual”
Section 2.10 for detailed
explanation of the care, maintenance, and storage of the 6920 sonde/ probes.
10.3
Winter (off season) Storage: Remove batteries from logging instruments. Power down
instruments by turning them off and removing batteries. Remove all organic material from
instrument. If multiprobe has pins, remove cables and attach dummy plugs. Fill storage cup full
of tap water and make sure all sensors are submerged.
11.0
References
WQ Monitoring of Surface Waters Within the PLIR
Page 80 of 170
YSI Incorporated 6-Series Multiparameter Water Quality Sondes User Manual; September 2009, Revision
F, Item #069300; YSI Inc.; 1700/1725 Brannum Lane; Yellow Springs, Ohio 45387.
YSI 6920V2 Sonde Calibration Worksheet
WQ Monitoring of Surface Waters Within the PLIR
Page 81 of 170
Standard Operating Procedure for:
Calibration and Field Measurement Procedures for the SBE 19plus SEACAT Profiler
1.0
Introduction
The SBE 19plus SEACAT Profiler is a multi-parameter device used to measure conductivity, temperature,
and pressure in marine or fresh-water environments at depths up to 7000 meters.
2.0
Purpose
This standard operating procedure (SOP) describes the method to calibrate and use the SBE 19plus
SEACAT Profiler.
3.0
Method
See the SBE 19plus SEACAT Profiler User’s Manual for complete instructions for maintenance, care, and
use.
4.0
Calibration
Sea-Bird sensors are calibrated by subjecting them to known physical conditions and measuring the
sensor responses. Coefficients are then computed, which may be used with appropriate algorithms to
obtain engineering units. The conductivity, temperature, and pressure sensors on the SBE 19plus are
supplied fully calibrated, with coefficients stored in EEPROM in the 19plus and printed on their
respective Calibration Certificates.
The manufacturer recommends that the SBE19plus be returned to Sea-Bird for calibration. The
equipment will be returned to the manufacturer yearly for calibration.
5.0
Equipment Needed
 SBE 19plus
 Boat with wench
 Lowrance LC X-18 C depth/fish finder
 Sinemaster 1G 2000p generator
 Connector bolt
 Zip ties
 1 liter of deionized water
 Logbook
 Pen/Pencil
6.0
Setup for Deployment
6.1
Install new batteries or ensure the existing batteries have enough capacity to cover the intended
deployment. (see Section 5: Routine Maintenance and Calibration)
Program the SBE 19plus for the intended deployment using SEATERM (see Section 3: Power and
Communications Test)
6.2
WQ Monitoring of Surface Waters Within the PLIR
6.2.1
6.2.2
6.2.3
6.2.4
6.2.5
6.2.6
6.2.7
6.2.8
6.2.9
7.0
Page 82 of 170
Set date and then time.
Initialize logging to overwrite previous data in memory. Ensure all data has been
uploaded to make the entire memory available for recording. If the data is not
uploaded, the new data will be stored after the last recorded sample.
Establish the setup and logging parameters.
6.2.3.1.
Set up with strain-gauge pressure sensor and 1 voltage sensor.
6.2.3.2.
Set up with a 60-second pump turn-on delay after pump enters water, to
ensure pump is primed before turning on.
6.2.3.3.
Set up to initiate logging with the magnetic switch.
Verify setup with status command.
Send power-off command.
Install a cable or dummy plug for each connector on the 19plus sensor end cap:
6.2.6.1.
Lightly lubricate the inside of the dummy plug/cable connector with silicone
grease (DC-4 or equivalent).
6.2.6.2.
Standard Connector- Install the plug/cable connector, aligning the raised
bump on the side of the plug/cable connector with the large pin (pin 1ground) on the 19plus. Remove any trapped air by burping or gently
squeezing the plug/connector near the top and moving your fingers toward
the end cap. OR MCBH Connector- Install the plug/cable connector, aligning
the pins.
6.2.6.3.
Verify that a cable or dummy plug is installed for each connector on the
system before deployment.
6.2.6.4.
Place the locking sleeve over the plug/cable connector. Tighten the locking
sleeve finger tight only. Do not over tighten the locking sleeve and do not
use a wrench or pliers.
Connect the other end of the cables installed in Section 6.2.6 to the appropriate sensors.
Verify that the hardware and external fittings are secure.
If applicable, remove the Tygon tubing that was looped end-to-end around the
conductivity cell for storage. Reconnect the system plumbing (see Users Manual Section
2: Description of SBE19plus).
Use in the Field
WQ Monitoring of Surface Waters Within the PLIR
Page 83 of 170
7.1
Using the Lowrance LC X-18 C depth/fish finder find the depth of the bottom of the lake. Record
this number in the field book. In order not to disturb the substrate, subtract 5m from the depth
of the bottom to find the depth at which the deepest WQ reading will be taken from. Record
this number in the field book.
7.2
7.3
Remove the Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) sensor cover.
Twist to remove the pH sensor protector. Remove the pH sensor storage bottle/storage
solution. Replace pH sensor cover.
Attach SBE 19plus cage to cable (see below).
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.7
7.8
7.9
Connect wench to the Sinemaster 1G 2000p generator, then start generator.
Immediately prior to deployment start logging by putting magnetic switch in ON position.
Put SBE 19plus in water, and allow to soak for at least the time required for pump turn-on (one
minute) before beginning downcast.
Press and hold the OUT button on the wench control (see above picture) to lower the SBE
19plus through the water column.
Using the Lowrance LC X-18 C depth/fish finder track the depth of the SBE 19plus, when the
instrument has reached the depth of 5 m from the bottom, release the OUT button.
WQ Monitoring of Surface Waters Within the PLIR
7.10
7.11
7.12
7.13
7.14
7.15
Page 84 of 170
Press and hold the IN button to raise the SBE 19plus. When the SBE 19plus has reached the
surface, lift the instrument back into the boat.
The cast is complete, stop instrument logging by putting magnetic switch in OFF position.
Disconnect the SBE 19plus cage from the cable and turn generator off.
Rinse the SBE 19plus with fresh water.
Replace PAR sensor cover.
Twist to remove pH sensor protector, replace pH storage bottle with solution, and replace pH
sensor protector.
8.0
Storage
8.1
8.2
Rinse the SBE 19plus with fresh water after use and prior to storage.
If the batteries are exhausted, new batteries must be installed before the data can be extracted.
Stored data will not be lost as a result of exhaustion or removal of batteries.
If immediate redeployment is not required, it is best to leave the 19plus with batteries in place
and in a quiescent state (QS), the batteries can be left in place without significant loss of
capacity.
8.3
9.0
Data Recovery
9.1
9.2
Upload data in memory, in format SBE Data Processing can use.
9.1.1 See Section 4 of User’s Manual for more information about uploading data.
Send power-off command.
10.0
References
SBE 19plus SEACAT Profiler User’s Manual. July 2007. Manual Version #016. Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc.
1808 136th Place NE Bellevue, WA 98005.
WQ Monitoring of Surface Waters Within the PLIR
Page 85 of 170
Standard Operating Procedure for:
Surface Water Sampling
1.0
Scope and Purpose
This SOP applies to the collection of surface water samples from the lower Truckee River, streams, and
non-point source sample sites within the Pyramid Lake Indian Reservation. It includes procedures for
collecting samples for delivery to the Pyramid Lake Paiute Tribe’s Water Quality Laboratory for analysis
of nutrients (i.e., species of nitrogen and phosphorus).
2.0
Sampling Preparation
Before the scheduled sampling event gather sampling equipment and notify laboratory of the sampling
event. The following is a list of sampling equipment needed.
Checklist:
Copy of SOP
Chain of Custody form in sealed plastic bag
Field notebook
Clip board
Pre-printed sampling sheet
Pencil
Ball point pen
Permanent marker
Pre-cleaned HDPE sample bottles - 1 Liter
500 mL HDPE waste bottle
Deionized water for field method blank
Ice chest
Blue ice (double bagged in ziplock bags)
Sampling pole














3.0
Sampling Procedures
3.1
Label Sample bottle with the following information.







3.2
Sampling location or name,
Unique sample number,
Sample description (e.g., grab, composite),
Data and time of collection,
Initials/signature of sampler,
Analytical parameter(s), and
Method of preservation.
Collection of water samples will be conducted prior to or upstream from any other sampling
activities that could disturb stream sediments and impact water quality. Try not to disturb the
WQ Monitoring of Surface Waters Within the PLIR
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
Page 86 of 170
water upstream of the sampling location. If this does happen, then allow sufficient time and
flow to pass for stream to clear itself before collecting a sample.
Collect representative samples from flowing water, as close to mid-stream as possible. For wider
streams, a sampling pole can be used to sampling pole can be used to sample approximately 5 10 feet from the shoreline by placing a bottle into the bottle holder of the pole.
Take care as not to touch the lip of the bottle opening or inside of bottle cap.
In deeper streams where the 1 Liter sample bottle can be fully submerged 12 inches below the
water surface.
3.5.1 Rinse Sample Bottle. Remove the sample bottle cap and submerge bottle below the
water surface with the opening facing upstream and tilted slightly up and fill ¼ full.
Shake and rinse all internal surfaces. Discard the rinse water downstream while pouring
out over the bottle cap. Shake water droplets out of the bottle and cap. Repeat this step
once more.
3.5.2 Collect Sample. Submerge the bottle 12 inches below the water surface with the
opening facing down, then tilt the bottle up until it is parallel to the flow and hold in
position until bottle is filled with water. When bottle is filled tilt bottle opening up and
remove from the water. Replace cap on the water bottle.
In shallow streams where the 1 Liter sample bottle cannot be fully submerged 12 inches below
the water surface. Use a smaller bottle, 500 mL, as a ‘collection vessel’, and then transfer water
into the 1 Liter sample bottle.
3.6.1 Rinse 500 mL Sample Bottle. Remove the sample bottle cap and submerge bottle below
the water surface with the opening facing upstream and tilted slightly up and fill ¼ full.
Shake and rinse all internal surfaces. Discard the rinse water downstream while pouring
out over the bottle cap. Shake water droplets out of the bottle and cap. Repeat once
more.
3.6.2 Rinse 1 Liter Sample Bottle. Submerge the 500 mL bottle below the water surface with
the opening facing down, then tilt the bottle up until it is parallel to the flow and hold in
position until bottle is filled with water. When bottle is filled tilt bottle opening up and
remove from the water. Pour half of the contents of the 500 mL bottle into the 1 Liter
bottle and rinse the all internal surfaces of the larger bottle. Discard the rinse water
downstream while pouring out over the bottle cap. Shake water droplets out of the
bottle and cap. Repeat with the remaining water in the smaller bottle.
3.6.3 Collect Sample. Submerge the 500 mL bottle mid-depth below the water surface with
the opening facing down, then tilt the bottle up until it is parallel to the flow and hold in
position until bottle is filled with water. When bottle is filled tilt bottle opening up and
remove from the water. Pour the contents of the 500 mL bottle into the 1 Liter bottle
and repeat until the larger bottle is filled. Replace cap on the 1 Liter bottle.
3.6.4 Decontaminate ‘collection vessel’ if it will be used again following the procedures
outlined below. If multiple clean bottles were brought to be used as ‘collection vessels’
then cleaning in the field will not be needed. Return the used bottles to the laboratory
to be cleaned.
QC Sample Collection. All QC samples collected shall be treated in the same manner as regular
samples, including labeling and storage.
3.7.1 Collect Field Duplicate Sample. To collect a field duplicate sample, use the same
procedure to collect a sample immediately after collecting the regular sample. Field
Duplicates should be collected at a rate of one per 10 samples.
3.7.2 Collect Field Blank Sample. Blank sample bottles are rinsed two times with deionized
water and then the sample bottle is filled with deionized water.
WQ Monitoring of Surface Waters Within the PLIR
Page 87 of 170
4.0
Post Sample Collection Activities
4.1
After sample collection store samples in the ice chest. Make sure that the sample lids are
tightened and blue ice is double bagged in plastic to decrease the probability of sample
contamination. Ensure the ice chest lid is closed to keep samples cool.
Record sampling information into field logbook. The listed information should be included.
 Sample location and description,
 Sampler’s names,
 Date and time of sample collection,
 Designation of sample as composite or grab,
 Type of sampling equipment used,
 Type of field measurement instruments used, along with equipment model and serial
number,
 Field measurement instrument readings,
 Field observations and details related to analysis or integrity of samples
 Preliminary sample descriptions
 Sample preservation,
 Lot numbers of the sample containers, sample identification numbers and any explanatory
codes, and
 Name of recipient laboratory.
Fill out Chain of Custody and Test Request Form.
Decontamination of ‘collection vessel’.
4.4.1 Decontamination will occur prior to each use of a piece of equipment and after use at
each sampling location. If the equipment will not be used more than once it can be
returned to the laboratory for cleaning.
4.4.1.1
Clean ‘collection vessel’ with non-phosphate detergent and tap water wash.
Rinse with tap water until all detergent is removed from equipment. Rinse
twice with deionized water.
4.4.1.2
Equipment will be decontaminated in a pre-designated area on plastic
sheeting. Cleaned small equipment will be stored in plastic bags.
4.4.1.3
‘Collection vessel’ can be used again if needed at another site.
4.2
4.3
4.4
5.0
Transport Samples to Laboratory
5.1
Transport samples and paperwork as soon as possible to the laboratory.
6.0
Health and Safety
6.1
Sampling team should consist of at least 2 people for safety reasons, especially if one is wading
in the water.
When wading in streams where water depths may be 1 meter deep or more, wear a life
preserver and/or remove hip boots or chest waders. Currents can force wading field workers
into deep water and water-filled boots can make swimming difficult.
When walking through densely vegetated areas along streams, be sure to look for and avoid
toxic plants like poison ivy. Be sure to wear appropriate insect repellent and protective clothing
for protection from mosquitoes, chiggers, and ticks. In addition, probe areas in your path with a
walking stick to warn and disperse poisonous snakes which may inhabit riparian areas.
6.2
6.3
WQ Monitoring of Surface Waters Within the PLIR
Page 88 of 170
6.4
Field staff should protect themselves from water borne illness by wearing disposable gloves, and
avoid touching eyes, nose and mouth. Be sure to clean up with bacteria disinfectant soap and
water after wading in streams. This is particularly important for streams that drain livestock
areas, sewage treatment plant effluents, and other obvious pollution sources. Under no
circumstances should you drink the water from any stream.
7.0
References
Draft Standard Operating Procedures For Surface Water Sample Collection. Lahontan Regional Water
Quality Control Board. July 2001.
Field Sampling Guidance Document #1225, Revision 1. US EPA Region 9 Laboratory. September 1999.
Standard Operating Procedure for: Water Sample Collection, Revision 2. Missouri State University and
Ozarks Environmental and Water Resources Institute. January 2007.
WQ Monitoring of Surface Waters Within the PLIR
Page 89 of 170
Standard Operating Procedure for:
Discrete Depth Water Sampling
1.0
Scope and Purpose
This SOP applies to the collection of surface water samples from Pyramid Lake. It includes procedures
for collecting samples for delivery to the Pyramid Lake Paiute Tribe’s Water Quality Laboratory for
analysis of nutrients (i.e., species of nitrogen and phosphorus).
2.0
Sampling Preparation
Before the scheduled sampling event gather sampling equipment and notify laboratory of the sampling
event. The following is a list of sampling equipment needed.
Checklist:
 Copy of SOP
 Chain of Custody form in sealed plastic bag
 Field notebook
 Pencil
 Ball point pen
 Permanent marker
 Pre-cleaned HDPE sample bottles - 1 Liter
 Van Dorn sampling device
 Weighted messenger
 Down rigger with cable
 Lowrance LC X-18 C depth/fish finder
 5-Gallon Bucket (designated for lake sampling)
 Deionized water for field method blank
 Ice chest
 Blue ice (double bagged in ziplock bags)
3.0
Sampling Procedures
3.1
Collection of water samples will be conducted monthly at Station 96 and quarterly at both
Station 96 and Station 93.
Label Sample bottle with the following information.
3.2







Sampling location or name,
Unique sample number,
Sample description (e.g., grab, composite),
Data and time of collection,
Initials/signature of sampler,
Analytical parameter(s), and
Method of preservation.
WQ Monitoring of Surface Waters Within the PLIR
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.8
3.9
Page 90 of 170
Using the Lowrance LC X-18 C depth/fish finder, determine the approximate depth of the water.
The “bottom” sample will be taken 5 m from the bottom of the lake, to avoid bottom
disturbance.
Attach the Van Dorn sampling device to the downrigger cable.
Set the sampling device so that the sampling end pieces are pulled away from the sampling tube
allowing the water to be sampled to pass through this tube (above left).
Using the downrigger (above right), lower the pre-set Van Dorn sampling device to the
predetermined depth, using the Lowrance LC X-18 C depth/fish finder to ensure the sampling
device is lowered to the correct depth.
3.6.1
Station 96 Sampling Depths:
 Composite (0 m, 2.5 m, 5 m)
 10 m
 20 m
 30 m
 45 m
 60 m
 75 m
 90 m
 Bottom ( 5 m from bottom)
3.6.2
Station 93 Sampling Depths:
 Composite (0 m, 2.5 m, and 5 m)
 10 m
 20 m
 30 m
 45 m
 60 m
 Bottom (5 m from bottom)
When the sampling device is at the required depth send down the messenger to close the
sampling device.
Retrieve the sampling device.
Discharge the first 10 to 20 mL to clear any potential contamination on the valve.
WQ Monitoring of Surface Waters Within the PLIR
3.10
3.11
Page 91 of 170
Rinse sample bottle. Remove cap of sample bottle, discharge 50 mL of the sample into the
sample bottle. Shake and rinse all internal surfaces. Discard the rinse water overboard while
pouring out over the inside of the bottle cap. Shake water droplets out of the bottle and cap.
Repeat this step once more.
Collect sample. Discharge 1 liter of the sample into the sample bottle. (below left) Once bottle is
full replace cap on sample bottle. Take care as not to touch the lip of the bottle opening or
inside of bottle cap while sampling.
3.12
Collecting the composite and field split sample.
3.12.1 Rinse the composite bucket with lake water twice before sampling.
3.12.2 Collect samples from the predetermined depths using the description in steps 3.4 – 3.8.
Discharge all three entire samples into a 5-gallon bucket. (above right)
3.12.3 Rinse sample bottle. Remove the sample bottle cap and submerge bottle below the
water surface with the opening tilted slightly up and fill 1/5 full. Shake and rinse all
internal surfaces. Discard the rinse water overboard while pouring out over the inside of
the bottle cap. Shake water droplets out of the bottle and cap. Repeat this step once
more.
3.12.4 Collect Composite Sample. Submerge the bottle below the water surface with the
opening facing sideways, then tilt the bottle up and hold in position until bottle is filled
with water. When bottle is filled tilt bottle opening up and remove from the water.
Replace cap on the water bottle.
3.12.5 Collect Field Split Sample. Follow the directions in step 3.12.4 to collect the field split
sample.
3.12.6 Discard the remaining water in the bucket overboard.
3.13
QC Sample Collection. All QC samples collected shall be treated in the same manner as regular
samples, including labeling and storage.
3.13.1 Collect Field Duplicate Sample. To collect a field duplicate sample, use the same
procedure to collect a sample immediately after collecting the regular sample. Field
Duplicates should be collected at a rate of one per 10 samples.
3.13.2 Collect Field Blank Sample. Blank sample bottles are rinsed two times with deionized
water and then the sample bottle is filled with deionized water.
WQ Monitoring of Surface Waters Within the PLIR
Page 92 of 170
4.0
Post Sample Collection Activities
4.1
4.3
After sample collection store samples in the ice chest. Make sure that the sample lids are
tightened and blue ice is double bagged in plastic to decrease the probability of sample
contamination. Ensure the ice chest lid is closed to keep samples cool.
Record sampling information into field logbook. The listed information should be included.
 Sample location and description,
 Sampler’s names,
 Date and time of sample collection,
 Designation of sample as composite or grab,
 Type of sampling equipment used,
 Type of field measurement instruments used, along with equipment model and serial
number,
 Field observations and details related to analysis or integrity of samples
 Preliminary sample descriptions
 Sample preservation,
 Lot numbers of the sample containers, sample identification numbers and any explanatory
codes, and
 Name of recipient laboratory.
Fill out Chain of Custody and Test Request Form.
5.0
Transport Samples to Laboratory
5.1
Transport samples and paperwork as soon as possible to the laboratory.
6.0
Health and Safety
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
When on the boat make sure there are an adequate number of life preservers.
Only properly trained individuals are to handle boat operations.
Floors on the boat may become slippery, use caution when moving on the boat.
Use caution when leaning overboard to set or retrieve sampling equipment.
7.0
References
4.2
Field Sampling Guidance Document #1225, Revision 1. US EPA Region 9 Laboratory. September 1999.
WQ Monitoring of Surface Waters Within the PLIR
Page 93 of 170
Standard Operating Procedure for:
Secchi Disk Measurements
1.0
Scope and Purpose
This SOP applies to the collection of water clarity measurements using a Secchi disk.
The Secchi disk is a round, flat disk painted with alternating black and white quadrants and is one of the
most widely used tools for water quality monitoring. A secchi disk reading can provide information
about water clarity from which characteristics such as turbidity and productivity can be inferred. Secchi
depth changes over the course of seasons within an individual lake with algal blooms, storm turbulence,
and seasonal plankton fluctuations. The more phytoplankton or suspended sediment in a lake, the lower
the Secchi disk reading will be.
2.0
Sampling Preparation
Before the scheduled sampling event gather the following sampling equipment
Checklist:
Copy of SOP
Field notebook
Pencil
Ball point pen
Secchi disk on a marked line; 0.5 m increments marked


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3.0
Sampling Procedures
3.1
Lower the disk into the water on the shaded side of the boat, while keeping a firm grip on the
line.
Keep lowering the disk until it is no longer visible; determine the depth of the Secchi disk using
the line marks and record in the field notebook.
Record sampling information into field logbook. The listed information should be included.
 Sample location and description
 Sampler’s names
 Date and time of sample collection
 Secchi disk depth readings
 Field observations and details related to analysis or integrity of samples
3.2
3.3
4.0
References
Lake Monitoring Field Manual. Meredith Becker Nevers and Richard L. Whitman: U.S. Geological Survey.
Lake Michigan Ecological Research Station 1100 N. Mineral Springs Rd. Porter, IN 46304.
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Standard Operating Procedure for:
Zooplankton Sampling
1.0
Scope and Purpose
This SOP applies to the collection of zooplankton samples from Pyramid Lake. It includes procedures for
collecting samples for delivery to the Pyramid Lake Paiute Tribe’s Water Quality Laboratory for analysis.
2.0
Sampling Preparation
Before the scheduled sampling event gather sampling equipment and notify laboratory of the sampling
event. The following is a list of sampling equipment needed.
Checklist:
 Copy of SOP
 Field notebook
 Pencil
 Ball point pen
 Permanent marker
 Pre-cleaned HDPE sample bottles – 500 mL
 Wisconsin sampler
 Down rigger with cable
 Lowrance LC X-18 C depth/fish finder
 Squirt bottle
 Ice chest
 Blue ice (double bagged in ziplock bags)
3.0
Sampling Procedures
3.1
Collection of zooplankton samples will be conducted monthly at Station 96 and quarterly at both
Station 96 and Station 93.
Label sample bottles with the following information.
3.2
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
3.3
Sampling location or name,
Unique sample number,
Sample description (e.g., grab, composite),
Data and time of collection,
Initials/signature of sampler, and
Method of preservation.
Collect 100 m composite sample.
3.3.1 Using the Lowrance LC X-18 C depth/fish finder, determine the approximate depth of
the water. The “bottom” sample will be taken 5 m from the bottom of the lake, to avoid
bottom disturbance.
3.3.2 Attach the Wisconsin sampling device (below left) to the downrigger cable (below right).
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3.3.3
3.3.4
3.3.5
3.3.6
3.3.7
3.3.8
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Clamp the tube on the bottom of the Wisconsin sampler to stop sample loss.
Using the downrigger (above right), lower the sampling device to the predetermined
“bottom” depth, using the Lowrance LC X-18 C depth/fish finder to ensure the sampling
device is lowered to the correct depth.
When the sampling device is at the required depth raise the sampling device to the
surface.
Retrieve the sampling device.
Remove sample bottle cap. Situate tube on the bottom of the sampling device in the
sample bottle and release the clamp, emptying the sample into the sample bottle. Using
the squirt bottle rinse the Wisconsin sampler cup sides to ensure entire sample
collected is transferred to the sample bottle. Replace sample bottle cap.
Store the sample bottle in the cooler for transport to the PLPT WQ Laboratory.
3.4
Collect 10 m composite sample.
3.4.1 Attach the Wisconsin sampling device (below left) to the downrigger cable (below right).
3.4.2 Clamp the tube on the bottom of the Wisconsin sampler to stop sample loss.
3.4.3 Using the downrigger (above right), lower the sampling device to 10 m, using the
Lowrance LC X-18 C depth/fish finder to ensure the sampling device is lowered to the
correct depth.
3.4.4 When the sampling device is at the required depth raise the sampling device to the
surface.
3.4.5 Retrieve the sampling device.
3.4.6 Remove sample bottle cap. Situate tube on the bottom of the sampling device in the
sample bottle and release the clamp, emptying the sample into the sample bottle. Using
the squirt bottle rinse the Wisconsin sampler cup sides to ensure entire sample
collected is transferred to the sample bottle. Replace sample bottle cap.
3.4.7 Repeat steps 3.4.2 – 3.4.6 two more times.
3.4.8 Store the sample bottle in the cooler for transport to the PLPT WQ Laboratory.
4.0
Post Sample Collection Activities
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4.3
After sample collection store samples in the ice chest. Make sure that the sample lids are
tightened and blue ice is double bagged in plastic to decrease the probability of sample
contamination. Ensure the ice chest lid is closed to keep samples cool.
Record sampling information into field logbook. The listed information should be included.
 Sample location and description,
 Sampler’s names,
 Date and time of sample collection,
 Designation of sample as composite or grab,
 Type of sampling equipment used,
 Type of field measurement instruments used, along with equipment model and serial
number,
 Field observations and details related to analysis or integrity of samples
 Preliminary sample descriptions
 Sample preservation,
 Lot numbers of the sample containers, sample identification numbers and any explanatory
codes, and
 Name of recipient laboratory.
Fill out Chain of Custody and Test Request Form.
5.0
Transport Samples to Laboratory
5.1
Transport samples and paperwork as soon as possible to the laboratory.
6.0
Health and Safety
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
When on the boat make sure there are an adequate number of life preservers.
Only properly trained individuals are to handle boat operations.
Floors on the boat may become slippery, use caution when moving on the boat.
Use caution when leaning overboard to set or retrieve sampling equipment.
7.0
References
4.2
Field Sampling Guidance Document #1225, Revision 1. US EPA Region 9 Laboratory. September 1999.
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Standard Operating Procedure for:
Chain of Custody Practices and Form Completion
1.0
Introduction/Purpose
The following procedures are to be used by all PLPT/PLF staff who are participating in water quality
sampling to ensure accountability for and documentation of sample integrity from the time all samples
are collected until receipt by the receiving laboratory. These procedures are intended to document
each stage of the sample’s life cycle (i.e., collection, transport, and delivery).
2.0
Definitions
Custody - Samples and data are considered to be in your custody when:
 They are in your physical possession;
 They are in your view, after being in your physical possession;
 They are in your physical possession and then locked up so that tampering cannot
occur;
 They are kept in a secured area with access restricted to authorized personnel only.
Sample - A portion of the environmental or source matrix that is collected and used to characterize that
matrix.
Sample Custodian - The person possessing custody of the sample.
Chain of Custody - A process whereby a sample is maintained under physical possession or control.
Chain of custody procedures are one piece of a large quality assurance program to assure data and
conclusions are defensible in a legal or regulatory situation.
Chain of Custody and Test Request Form - The laboratory provides the form used to record sample
collection information, test(s) requested, and sample custody.
Sample Set - Collection of samples collected during one sampling event.
3.0
Sample Collection
3.1
Sampling. Samples are routinely collected by PLPT/PLF employees using standard collection
procedures defined by specific Standard Operating Procedures.
Custody Assignment. The sampler shall ensure proper collection, preservation and labeling of
the sample. The sampler will also initiate the chain of custody documentation process, prepare
sample submission information, and store samples for transport to the laboratory. Since as few
people as possible should handle samples, the sampler is responsible for the initial custody of
the sample.
Sample Identification. To ensure samples are traceable, samples shall be clearly labeled
immediately upon collection. Labeling information may vary by SOPs, but labels must be written
legibly, using a ballpoint (indelible) pen, unique for the sample/case and firmly fixed to the
sample. The sample shall contain the unique sample number or identification, sample type,
name of sampler, preservation method, and data and time of collection.
3.2
3.3
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4.0
Sampling Documentation
4.1
Field Logbooks. In any sampling effort, there are field information and measurements that need
to be recorded. This information shall be retained in a sampler’s field log. Examples of
information entered include: purpose of sampling, type of sample, address, sample composition,
description of sampling point, sampling method, date and time of collection, sample
identification number, field data, and preservation method. This record may be considered
evidence and part of the larger aspect of data defensibility. Logbooks shall be kept in a safe
place.
Chain of Custody Records. Chain of custody shall be documented on the form Chain of Custody
and Test Request Form. Chain of custody forms shall be completed by the sampler at the time of
sample collection and shall be submitted with each sample set. The sampler shall print their
name, sign, and date the form. The completed form shall be signed by the sampler and dated
(chain of custody block) and placed in a waterproof carrier (e.g., zip-lock bag) if it is a water
sample. The form shall be packaged with the sample for transport to the laboratory. The original
COC form, all results, and documentation are maintained by PLPT WQ Laboratory in a case file.
4.2
5.0
Chain of Custody and Test Request Form
With each sample set submitted to the laboratory for analysis, the sampler shall include the Chain of
Custody and Test Request Form, see figure below, with the following information indicated on the form.










Project area. If ‘Other’ then provide laboratory with information about the water
body, sample sites, and any field measurements collected.
Analyses requested.
Date sample collected.
Time sample collected.
Sample identification number/name.
Sample description.
Remarks.
Sampler’s name, signature and date.
Additional instructions for laboratory.
Changes in custody indicated by signatures.
6.0
Sample Packaging, Transport and Transfer of Custody
6.1
Sample packaging. The correct preparation and preservation of samples for transport are critical
to ensure sample integrity.
6.1.1 The sampler should contact the laboratory if unsure of any aspect of sample collection,
preservation, packaging, and transport.
6.1.2 Samples must be labeled, tightly sealed in the appropriate container.
6.1.3 The original Chain of Custody and Test Request form and any other documentation are
to be sealed tightly in a plastic zip-lock bag.
6.1.4 If not immediately delivered to the laboratory by the sampler, containers shall either be
locked with a personal padlock, or sealed with a custody seal, or stored in a secure area.
6.2
Sample Transport. Samples are to be delivered to the laboratory by the sampler. If for some
reason the sampler cannot transport the samples to the laboratory, the chain of custody must
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be documented on the Chain of Custody and Test Request Form and the new sample custodian
must transport the samples to the laboratory. Samples are to be delivered to the PLPT WQ
Laboratory as soon as possible after collection. The sample shall remain in the Sample
Custodian’s possession or sight at all times.
7.0
References
Chain of Custody Policy and Procedures. Guidance Memo No. 00-2016, Amendment #1. Commonwealth
of Virginia, Department of Environmental Quality. March 14, 2006.
Quality Assurance Project Plan Development Tool, Version 1.1. US EPA Region 1 and Region 9. December
2005.
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Chain of Custody and Test Request Form
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Appendix B: Workplace Safety Program
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Appendix C: Laboratory QA Manual
PYRAMID LAKE PAIUTE TRIBE
PYRAMID LAKE FISHERIES
QUALITY ASSURANCE PROJECT PLAN For
Water Quality Monitoring and Analysis
Received by EPA QA office March 10, 1999
Control# WATR233299VSF1
Currently under revision
The QA Plan for the PLPT Water Quality Laboratory is currently under revision. Data Quality Indicator
tables have been developed for the water quality parameters measured for this project. The
specifications in these DQI tables have been provided to the Water Quality laboratory for review and the
laboratory agrees to meet the criteria specified in the DQI tables. Until the PLPT Water Quality
Laboratory has updated its QA plan and analytical SOPs, the laboratory will consult the DQI tables
provided in Appendix E.
Water Quality Laboratory – Sutcliffe, NV
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
FACILITY DESCRIPTION ....................................................................................................................C-3
PERSONNEL ....................................................................................................................................C-3
LAB SAFETY .....................................................................................................................................C-3
QUALITY ASSURANCE / QUALITY CONTROL (QA/QC) OBJECTIVES .....................................................C-3
ACCURACY ......................................................................................................................................C-5
PRECISION ......................................................................................................................................C-5
SAMPLE COLLECTION, PRESERVATION, AND CUSTODY .....................................................................C-6
DATA HANDLING.............................................................................................................................C-6
APPENDIX A ....................................................................................................................................C-7
LAB SAFETY ...................................................................................................................................................... C-7
EDUCATION ....................................................................................................................................................... C-7
PERSONAL SAFETY .......................................................................................................................................... C-8
CHEMICAL STORAGE ...................................................................................................................................... C-9
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES ........................................................................................................................... C-9
APPENDIX B .................................................................................................................................. C-10
ACCURACY AND PRECISION EVALUATION ............................................................................................ C-10
WHY DO QA/QC ............................................................................................................................................... C-10
QA/QC PLAN FOR PYRAMID LAKE ............................................................................................................. C-10
BEGINNING A NEW ANALYSIS OR ANALYST .......................................................................................... C-13
EVALUATING DATA RUNS ........................................................................................................................... C-13
REPORTING DATA .......................................................................................................................................... C-16
RECORD KEEPING FOR QA/QC .................................................................................................................... C-18
APPENDIX C .................................................................................................................................. C-19
SAMPLE PREPARATION AND ANALYSIS
APPENDIX D .................................................................................................................................. C-20
INSTRUMENT SOP’S
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Appendix D: Laboratory DQI Tables
Table 1: Summary of Analytical Methods
Analytical Parameter
PLPT Analytical Method- based on
Total Phosphate
365.3 EPA
Orthophosphate
365.3 EPA
Nitrate+Nitrite
4500-NO3- E
Standard Methods, 20th Edition
4500-NH3 F
Standard Methods, 20th Edition
4500-Norg C
Standard Methods, 20th Edition
Ammonia-N
Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen
Table 2: Summary of Contract Required Detection Limits, Holding Times, and Preservation
Analytical
Parameter
Contract Required
Detection Limit
(CRDL)
Maximum Holding
Times
Preservation
Total Phosphorus
0.010 mg/L
28 days
Ortho-Phosphate
0.010 mg/L
28 days
Do Not filter samples.
Add 2 ml H2SO4/L, Refrigerate1
Or Freeze2
Filter Samples.
Freeze2
Nitrate+Nitrite
0.010 mg/L
28 days
Filter samples.
- w/in 48 hrs of collection:
Refrigerate1
- w/in 28 days of collection:
Add 2 mL H2SO4/L, Refrigerate1
Ammonia-N
0.010 mg/L
28 days
Filter samples.
- w/in 24 hrs of collection:
Refrigerate1
- w/in 28 days of collection: Freeze
at -20°C or add H2SO4 to pH <2 and
refrigerate1
Total Kjeldahl
Nitrogen
0.010 mg/L
28 days
Add H2SO4 to pH 1.5 to 2.0 and
refrigerate1
1
2
Refrigerate = storage at 4°C ± 2°C, in the dark
Freeze = storage at or below -10°C
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Data Calculation and Reporting Units
Calculate the sample results according to PLPT Laboratory SOPs.
Report sample results in concentration units of milligram per liter (mg/L). Report concentrations that
are less than 10 mg/L to 2 significant figures, and concentrations that are greater than or equal to 10
mg/L to 3 significant figures.
For rounding results, adhere to the following rules:
a)
If the number following those to be retained is less than 5, round down;
b)
If the number following those to be retained is greater than 5, round up; or
c)
If the number following the last digit to be retained is equal to 5, round down if the digit
is even, or round up if the digit is odd.
All records of analysis and calculations must be legible and sufficient to recalculate all sample
concentrations and QC results. Include an example calculation in the data package.
Table 3: Summary of the Standard Curve Calibration Evaluation
Calibration
Element
Standard Curve
Calibration
(blank + 3 points)
Frequency
Acceptance Criteria
Corrective Action
With each set of
samples analyzed
r ≥ 0.995
1. Terminate analysis
2. Recalibrate and verify
before sample analysis
Blank Verification
With each set of
samples analyzed
± 2 standard deviations
1. Terminate analysis
2. Recalibrate and verify
before sample analysis
Slope of Standard
Curve Verification
With each set of
samples analyzed
± 2 standard deviations
1. Terminate analysis
2. Recalibrate and verify
before sample analysis
Intercept of
Standard Curve
Verification
With each set of
samples analyzed
|intercept -blank| /slope >
Detection Limit
1. Terminate analysis
2. Recalibrate and verify
before sample analysis
Prepare a standard curve with each set of samples analyzed.
Dilute and reanalyze samples with concentrations exceeding the range of the calibration curve. Results
for such reanalyses should fall within the mid-range of the calibration curve. Report results and submit
documentation for both analyses.
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Table 4: Summary of Internal Quality Control Procedures for PLPT WQ Laboratory
QC Element
Frequency
Acceptance Criteria
Corrective Action
Duplicate
Samples
35% of samples
# of Duplicates ≥ 35%
of Samples
N/A
Duplicate
Sample
Variability
N/A
<20% of Duplicates
exceeds maximum
variability1
1. Flag associated data with an "*"
Matrix Spike
With each set of
samples
analyzed
± 15% from expected
value
1. Flag associated data with an "N"
1
Variability Limits
DL = Detection Limit
Calculation of Limits
Interval
RSD%
<2 · DL
100%
2-3 · DL
80%
3-4 · DL
60%
4-5 · DL
40
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Appendix E: Laboratory Standard Operating Procedures
Standard Operating Procedure for:
Total Phosphorus Determination
1.0
Scope and Application
1.1
This method covers the determination of specified forms of phosphorus in drinking, surface and
saline waters, domestic and industrial wastes.
1.2
The methods are based on reactions that are specific for the orthophosphate ion. Thus,
depending on the prescribed pretreatment of the sample, the various forms may be
determined.
1.3
The methods are usable in the 0.01 to 1.2 mg P/L range.
2.0
Summary of Method
2.1
Total Phosphorus (P) – all of the phosphorus present in the sample, regardless of form, as
measured by the persulfate digestion procedure.
2.2
Ammonium molybdate and potassium antimonyl tartrate react in acid medium with dilute
solutions of phosphorus to form an antimony-phospho-molybdate complex. This complex is
reduced to an intensely blue-colored complex by ascorbic acid. The color is proportional to the
phosphorus concentration.
2.3
Only orthophosphate forms a blue color in this test. Polyphosphates (and some organic
phosphorus compounds) may be converted to the orthophosphate form by sulfuric acid
hydrolysis. Organic phosphorus compounds may be converted to the orthophosphate form by
persulfate digestion.
3.0
Interferences
3.1
Arsenate is determined similarly to phosphorus and should be considered when present.
Concentrations as low as 0.1 mg As/L interfere with the phosphate determination. This
interference may be eliminated by reducing the arsenic acid to arsenious acid with sodium
bisulfite.
3.2
When high concentrations of iron are present low recovery of phosphorus will be obtained
because it will use some of the reducing agent. The bisulfite treatment will also eliminate the
interference.
4.0
Filtration
4.1
Do not filter samples.
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5.0
Preservation and Storage
5.1
Pour samples into clean 250 mL bottles labeled with the sample ID, sample date, preservation,
and analytical parameter.
5.2
If the analysis cannot be performed the day of collection, the sample should be preserved by the
addition of 2 mL concentrated H2SO4 (Sulfuric Acid) per liter and refrigerate at 4°C or freeze at or
below -10°C without any additions.
5.2.1
Example sample sizes and preservation:
200 mL sample use 0.4 mL conc. H2SO4
250 mL sample use 0.5 mL conc. H2SO4
6.0
Equipment
6.1
Spectrophotometer: Suitable for measurements at 900 nm with a light path of 1 cm or longer.
6.2
Acid-washed glassware: all glassware should be washed with 10% HCl and rinsed with deionized
water. This glassware should only be used for the determination of phosphorus and after
should be washed as stated above and kept covered until needed again. Commercial detergents
should never be used.
Occasionally all glassware should be washed with hot 1:1 HCl and rinsed with deionized water.
The acid-washed glassware should be filled with deionized water and treated with all the
reagents to remove the last traces of phosphorus that might be absorbed on the glassware.
A set of 125 mL Erlenmeyer flasks should be dedicated to the determination of phosphorus.
6.3
Glassware: Class A volumetric flasks and pipets as required.
6.4
Waterbath: Capable of reaching a temperature of 95°C.
6.5
Balance: Analytical, capable of accurately weighing to the nearest 0.001 g.
6.6
Eppendorf dispenser: Manual hand dispenser with 50 mL volume tips. For use when adding
reagents to samples. Use a different tip for each reagent added.
6.7
Hot plate: Use large hot plate within fume hood with safety shield.
7.0
Reagents
7.1
Ammonium molybdate-antimony potassium tartrate solution: Dissolve 8 g of ammonium
molybdate and 0.2 antimony potassium tartrate in 800 mL of deionized water and dilute to 1
liter.
7.2
Ascorbic acid solution: Dissolve 30 g of ascorbic acid in 400 mL of deionized water and dilute to
500 mL. Add 1 mL of acetone. This solution is stable for two weeks. Store this solution in the
refrigerator in an opaque container. Ascorbic acid needs to be at room temperature when it is
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added to samples. Prior to running a test, pour about 100 ml into a beaker, and store in a dark
place at room temperature.
7.3
Sulfuric acid, 11N: Slowly add 310 mL of concentrated H2SO4 to approximately 600 mL of
deionized water. Cool and dilute to 1000 mL.
7.4
Sodium bisulfite (NaHSO3) solution: 1N sulfuric acid (H2SO4) will be needed, make by adding 28
mL of concentrated sulfuric acid to about 600 mL of deionized water and dilute to 1 liter.
Dissolve 52 g of sodium bisulfite (NaHSO3) in the 1 liter of 1N H2SO4. Final volume will be slightly
more than 1 liter.
7.5
Ammonium persulfate.
7.6
Stock phosphorus solution: Dissolve 0.4393 g of pre-dried (dry for 1 hour at 105 C) Potassium
dihydrogen phosphate (KH2PO4) in deionized water and dilute to 1000 mL. 1.0 mL = 0.1 mg P
This solution will contain 100 mg/L P.
7.7
Standard phosphorus solution: Dilute 100 mL of stock phosphorus solution to 1000 mL with
deionized water. 1 mL = 0.01 mg P. This solution will contain 10 mg/L P.
Prepare an appropriate series of standards by diluting suitable volumes of standard or stock
solutions to 1000 mL with deionized water.
Stock solution and standards should not be stored for more than 6 months.
Example: Diluting 5 mL of standard solution to 1000 mL makes a standard of 0.05 mg/L P.
8.0
Procedure
Follow all the steps in this procedure for those samples that may have arsenate interference. For
samples that arsenate interference is not a factor, use the following procedure skipping steps 8.1.4 and
8.8 – 8.10.
8.1
Preparation
8.1.1
Retrieve the samples from refrigerator. The samples should be near room temperature
when beginning test.
8.1.2
Retrieve the dedicated set of glassware (125 mL Erlenmeyer flasks).
8.1.3
All 125 mL Erlenmeyer flasks dedicated for the phosphorus determination should be
labeled to avoid confusion between blanks, standards, spikes, and samples.
8.1.4
Prepare the waterbath. The water should be at least 1.5 – 2.0 inches deep. Add
deionized water to increase depth, if necessary. Plug in the waterbath to begin heating;
it will require at least 2 hours to reach the test temperature (95°C). This step is only for
the analysis of samples that may have arsenate interference.
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8.1.5
Start the hotplate just before beginning analysis to give it some time to warm up.
8.1.6
Retrieve all reagents needed. Make reagents before starting test if needed.
Prepare blanks, standards, spikes, and samples. Rinse the graduated cylinder or pipette used to
measure blanks, standards, spikes, and samples in between measurements with deionized
water.
8.2.1
Blanks: Measure 50 mL of deionized water and transfer to labeled flask. Blanks should
be run in duplicate.
8.2.2
Standards: Measure 50 mL of appropriate standard and transfer to labeled flasks.
Standards should be run in duplicate.
8.2.3
Samples: Mix the sample and then measure and transfer 50 mL to labeled flasks. At
least 30% of the water samples should be run in duplicate, the actual number will
depend on how many samples are in the batch.
An aliquot portion of the sample diluted to 50 mL can be used if the sample is suspected
to be higher than the prepared standards. Note any dilutions on laboratory bench sheet
and laboratory notebooks.
8.2.4
Spike: Using a pipette, measure 8 mL of the 1.0 mg/L standard solution into a 100 mL
volumetric flask, then dilute to 100 mL with one of the samples. Cap and mix
thoroughly. This results in a spike addition of 0.08 mg P.
Measure 50 mL of the spike solution and transfer to the labeled flask. Record which
sample was used for the spike solution on laboratory bench sheets and in laboratory
notebooks.
8.3
Add 1 mL of 11N sulfuric acid to each flask and mix.
8.4
Add 0.4 g of ammonium persulfate to each flask and mix.
8.5
Place all flasks on hotplate. Pull the vent hood down to about 4 inches above flasks. Turn on the
vent fan, and ceiling exhaust fan. Let the flasks boil until the volume in each is reduced to about
10 mL. This normally takes about 30 to 60 minutes.
8.6
Remove flasks from hotplate when final volume of about 10 mL is reached. Turn off hotplate
when all samples have been reduced in volume to the specified amount. Let samples cool.
8.7
Dilute volume of samples with deionized water using a graduated cylinder. Be sure to rinse
cylinder between measurements.
8.7.1
8.7.2
8.8
Samples with arsenate interference: Dilute to 40 mL.
Samples without arsenate interference: Dilute to 50 mL, and skip to step 8.11.
Add 5 mL of sodium bisulfite to each flask and mix.
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8.9
Place flasks in the waterbath, which should be at 95°C. Place circular weights around the necks
of the flasks to prevent them from tipping over. Flasks should not be stoppered while in the
waterbath. Cover the waterbath with the metal hood. Watch the waterbath temperature,
which will fall after the flasks are put in place. The flasks need to set in the waterbath for 20
minutes after the temperature reaches 95°C.
8.10
After 20 minutes, remove flasks from the waterbath and unplug the power cord. When the
samples have cooled, using a graduated cylinder dilute the volume to 50 mL with deionized
water. Rinse the graduated cylinder between measurements.
8.11
Add 4 mL of ammonium molybdate-antimony potassium tartrate to each flask and mix.
8.12
Add 2 mL of ascorbic acid to each flask and mix. Let set for 5 minutes.
8.13
After 5 minutes, measure the absorbance of the samples in the spectrophotometer with the
wavelength set at 900nm. The color of samples will remain stable for at least one hour. The 10
cm cell should be used, unless a reading cannot be obtained, in which case the 1 cm cell is used.
9.0
Calculation
9.1
Prepare a standard curve by plotting the absorbance values of standards versus the
corresponding phosphorus concentrations using Excel.
9.2
Obtain concentration value of sample directly from prepared standard curve. Report results as
P, mg/L.
10.0
References
11.0
U.S. EPA. “Methods for Chemical Analysis of Water and Wastes”. Method 365.3. EPA/600/479/020. US EPA, Office of Research and Development. Washington, DC 20460. March 1983.
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Standard Operating Procedure for:
Orthophosphate (Dissolved Reactive Phosphorus) Analysis
1.0
Scope and Application
1.1
This method covers the determination of specified forms of phosphorus in drinking, surface and
saline waters, domestic and industrial wastes.
1.2
The methods are based on reactions that are specific for the orthophosphate ion. Thus,
depending on the prescribed pretreatment of the sample, the various forms may be
determined.
1.3
The methods are usable in the 0.01 to 1.2 mg P/L range.
2.0
Summary of Method
2.1
Ammonium molybdate and potassium antimonyl tartrate react in acid medium with dilute
solutions of phosphorus to form an antimony-phospho-molybdate complex. This complex is
reduced to an intensely blue-colored complex by ascorbic acid. The color is proportional to the
phosphorus concentration.
3.0
Interferences
3.1
Arsenate is determined similarly to phosphorus and should be considered when present.
Concentrations as low as 0.1 mg As/L interfere with the phosphate determination. This
interference may be eliminated by reducing the arsenic acid to arsenious acid with sodium
bisulfite.
3.2
When high concentrations of iron are present low recovery of phosphorus will be obtained
because it will use some of the reducing agent. The bisulfite treatment will also eliminate the
interference.
4.0
Filtration
4.1
Filter samples immediately after collection, through a 0.45-µm membrane filter. Wash
membrane filters by running 150-mL of deionized water through them before contact with
sample water. A glass fiber filter may be used to pre-filter hard-to-filter-samples.
5.0
Preservation and Storage
5.1
Once filtered pour samples into clean 250 mL bottles labeled with the sample ID, sample date,
preservation, and analytical parameter.
5.2
If the analysis cannot be performed the day of collection, the sample should be preserved by
freezing at or below -10°C.
6.0
Equipment and Supplies
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6.1
Spectrophotometer: Suitable for measurements at 900 nm with a light path of 1 cm or longer.
6.2
Acid-washed glassware: all glassware should be washed with 10% HCl and rinsed with deionized
water. This glassware should only be used for the determination of phosphorus and after
should be washed as stated above and kept covered until needed again. Commercial detergents
should never be used.
Occasionally all glassware should be washed with hot 1:1 HCl and rinsed with deionized water.
The acid-washed glassware should be filled with deionized water and treated with all the
reagents to remove the last traces of phosphorus that might be absorbed on the glassware.
A set of 125 mL Erlenmeyer flasks should be dedicated to the determination of phosphorus.
6.3
Glassware: Class A volumetric flasks and pipets as required.
6.4
Waterbath: Capable of reaching a temperature of 95°C.
6.5
Balance: Analytical, capable of accurately weighing to the nearest 0.001 g.
6.6
Eppendorf dispenser: Manual hand dispenser with 50 mL volume tips. For use when adding
reagents to samples. Use a different tip for each reagent added.
7.0
Reagents
7.1
Ammonium molybdate-antimony potassium tartrate solution: Dissolve 8 g of ammonium
molybdate and 0.2 antimony potassium tartrate in 800 mL of deionized water and dilute to 1
liter.
7.2
Ascorbic acid solution: Dissolve 30 g of ascorbic acid in 400 mL of deionized water and dilute to
500 mL. Add 1 mL of acetone. This solution is stable for two weeks. Store this solution in the
refrigerator in an opaque container. Ascorbic acid needs to be at room temperature when it is
added to samples. Prior to running a test, pour about 100 ml into a beaker, and store in a dark
place at room temperature.
7.3
Sulfuric acid, 11N: Slowly add 310 mL of concentrated H2SO4 to approximately 600 mL of
deionized water. Cool and dilute to 1000 mL.
7.4
Sodium bisulfite (NaHSO3) solution: 1N sulfuric acid (H2SO4) will be needed, make by adding 28
mL of concentrated sulfuric acid to about 600 mL of deionized water and dilute to 1 liter.
Dissolve 52 g of sodium bisulfite (NaHSO3) in the 1 liter of 1N H2SO4. Final volume will be slightly
more than 1 liter.
7.5
Stock phosphorus solution: Dissolve 0.4393 g of pre-dried (dry for 1 hour at 105 C) Potassium
dihydrogen phosphate (KH2PO4) in deionized water and dilute to 1000 mL. 1.0 mL = 0.1 mg P
This solution will contain 100 mg/L P.
7.6
Standard phosphorus solution: Dilute 100 mL of stock phosphorus solution to 1000 mL with
deionized water. 1 mL = 0.01 mg P. This solution will contain 10 mg/L P.
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Prepare an appropriate series of standards by diluting suitable volumes of standard or stock
solutions to 1000 mL with deionized water.
Stock solution and standards should not be stored for more than 6 months.
Example: Diluting 5 mL of standard solution to 1000 mL makes a standard of 0.05 mg/L P.
8.0
Procedure
Follow all the steps in this procedure for those samples that may have arsenate interference. For
samples that arsenate interference is not a factor, use the following procedure skipping steps 8.1.4 and
8.3 – 8.5.
8.1
8.2
Preparation
8.1.1
Retrieve the samples from refrigerator. The samples should be near room temperature
when beginning test.
8.1.2
Retrieve the dedicated set of glassware (125 mL Erlenmeyer flasks).
8.1.3
All 125 mL Erlenmeyer flasks dedicated for the phosphorus determination should be
labeled to avoid confusion between blanks, standards, spikes, and samples.
8.1.4
Prepare the waterbath. The water should be at least 1.5 – 2.0 inches deep. Add
deionized water to increase depth, if necessary. Plug in the waterbath to begin heating;
it will require at least 2 hours to reach the test temperature (95°C). This step is only for
the analysis of samples that may have arsenate interference.
8.1.5
Retrieve all reagents needed. Make reagents before starting test if needed.
Prepare blanks, standards, spikes, and samples. Rinse the graduated cylinder or pipette used to
measure blanks, standards, spikes, and samples in between measurements with deionized
water.
8.2.1
Blanks: Measure 50 mL of deionized water and transfer to labeled flask. Blanks should
be run in duplicate.
8.2.2
Standards: Measure 50 mL of appropriate standard and transfer to labeled flasks.
Standards should be run in duplicate.
8.2.3
Samples: Mix the sample and then measure and transfer 50 mL to labeled flasks. At
least 30% of the water samples should be run in duplicate, the actual number will
depend on how many samples are in the batch.
An aliquot portion of the sample diluted to 50 mL can be used if the sample is suspected
to be higher than the prepared standards. Note any dilutions on laboratory bench sheet
and laboratory notebooks.
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8.2.4
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Spike: Using a pipette, measure 8 mL of the 1.0 mg/L standard solution into a 100 mL
volumetric flask, then dilute to 100 mL with one of the samples. Cap and mix
thoroughly. This results in a spike addition of 0.08 mg P.
Measure 50 mL of the spike solution and transfer to the labeled flask. Record which
sample was used for the spike solution on laboratory bench sheets and in laboratory
notebooks.
8.3
Add 5 mL of sodium bisulfite to each flask and mix.
8.4
Place flasks in the waterbath, which should be at 95°C. Place circular weights around the necks
of the flasks to prevent them from tipping over. Flasks should not be stoppered while in the
waterbath. Cover the waterbath with the metal hood. Watch the waterbath temperature,
which will gall after the flasks are put in place. The flasks need to set in the waterbath for 20
minutes after the temperature reaches 95°C.
8.5
After 20 minutes, remove flasks from the waterbath and unplug the power cord. When the
samples have cooled, using a graduated cylinder dilute the volume to 55 mL with deionized
water. Rinse the graduated cylinder between measurements.
8.6
Add 1 mL of 11N sulfuric acid to each flask and mix.
8.7
Add 4 mL of ammonium molybdate-antimony potassium tartrate to each flask and mix.
8.8
Add 2 mL of ascorbic acid to each flask and mix. Let set for 5 minutes.
8.9
After 5 minutes, measure the absorbance of the samples in the spectrophotometer with the
wavelength set at 900 nm. The color of samples will remain stable for at least one hour. The 10
cm cell should be used, unless a reading cannot be obtained, in which case the 1 cm cell is used.
9.0
Calculation
9.1
Prepare a standard curve by plotting the absorbance values of standards versus the
corresponding phosphorus concentrations using Excel.
9.2
Obtain concentration value of sample directly from prepared standard curve. Report results as
P, mg/L.
10.0
References
U.S. EPA. “Methods for Chemical Analysis of Water and Wastes”. Method 365.3. EPA/600/4-79/020. US
EPA, Office of Research and Development. Washington, DC 20460. March 1983.
Standard Operating Procedure for:
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Nitrite + Nitrate
1.0
Scope and Application
1.1
This method covers the determination of nitrite + nitrate in drinking, ground, surface and saline
waters, domestic and industrial wastes.
1.2
The applicable range is 0.01 – 1.0 mg NO3--N/L. Higher concentrations can be determined by
sample dilution.
2.0
Summary of Method
2.1
Nitrate (NO3-) is reduced almost quantitatively to nitrite (NO2-) in the presence of cadmium (Cd).
This method uses commercially available Cd granules treated with copper sulfate (CuSO4) and
packed in a glass column.
2.2
The NO2- produced thus is determined by diazotizing with sulfanilamide and coupling with N-(1naphthyl)-ethylenediamine dihydrochloride to form a highly colored azo dye that is measured
colorimetrically. A correction may be made for any NO2- present in the sample by analyzing
without the reduction step.
3.0
Interferences
3.1
Suspended matter in the column will restrict sample flow. Colorimetric samples require an
optically clear sample. Filter turbid samples through 0.45-µm-pore-diameter membrane filter.
Test filters for nitrate contamination.
3.2
Concentrations of iron, copper, or other metals above several milligrams per liter lower
reduction efficiency. Add EDTA to samples to eliminate this interference.
3.3
Oil and grease will coat the Cd surface. Remove by pre-extraction with an organic solvent (see
Section 5520, Standard Methods).
3.4
Residual chlorine can interfere by oxidizing the Cd column, reducing its efficiency. Check
samples for residual chlorine (see DPD method in Section 4500-Cl, Standard Methods). Remove
residual chlorine by adding sodium thiosulfate (Na2S2O3) solution (Section 4500-NH3.B.3d,
Standard Methods).
3.5
Sample color that absorbs at about 540 nm interferes.
4.0
Filtration
4.1
Filter samples immediately after collection, through a 0.45-µm membrane filter. Wash
membrane filters by running 150-mL of deionized water through them before contact with
sample water. A glass fiber filter may be used to pre-filter hard-to-filter-samples.
5.0
Preservation and Storage
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5.1
Once filtered pour samples into clean 250 mL polypropylene bottles labeled with the sample ID,
sample date, preservation, and analytical parameter.
5.2
Start NO3- determinations promptly after sampling. If storage is necessary, store for up to 48 h
at 4°C; for longer storage, preserve with 2 mL of concentrated H2SO4/L and store at 4°C. Note:
when sample is preserved with acid, NO3- and NO2- cannot be determined as individual species.
6.0
Equipment
6.1
Reduction columns (2): Purchased cadmium reduction columns.
6.2
Column stand.
6.3
Spectrophotometer: Suitable for use at 543 nm, providing a light path of 1 cm or longer.
6.4
Acid-washed glassware: all glassware should be washed with 10% HCl and rinsed with deionized
water. This glassware should only be used for the determination of nitrite + nitrate and after
should be washed as stated above and kept covered until needed again.
A set of 125 mL Erlenmeyer flasks should be dedicated to the determination of nitrite + nitrate.
6.5
Glassware: Class A volumetric flasks and pipettes as required.
6.6
Balance: Analytical, capable of accurately weighing to the nearest 0.001 g.
6.7
Adjustable volume pipettes: Manual hand dispenser with 5 mL volume tips. For use when
adding reagents to samples. Use a different adjustable volume pipette and tip for each reagent
added.
6.8
Bottle top dispenser: Dispenser with a 50 mL capacity. Used for adding Ammonium chlorideEDTA solution to samples.
7.0
Reagents
7.1
Nitrate-free water: Use deionized water of highest purity to prepare all solutions and dilutions.
The absorbance of a reagent blank prepared with this water should not exceed 0.10.
7.2
Cadmium granules: 20 to 100-mesh Cd granules. Before storage wash granules with 6N HCl
(note: limit the cadmium contact with acid to less than 15 minutes). Rinse with deionized water
and store in a glass jar containing enough dilute NH4Cl-EDTA to cover the granules.
Note: Occasionally it is necessary to re-sieve the Cd granules to remove the fines that can clog
the columns. Run the Cd through a #25 sieve and return the retained granules to the storage
bottle for use in testing. Store the fines in another bottle, under dilute Ammonium ChlorideEDTA solution and discard the fines with other hazardous waste.
7.3
Color reagent: To 800 mL deionized water add 100 mL 85% phosphoric acid and 10 g
sulfanilamide. After dissolving sulfanilamide completely, add 1 g N-(1-naphthyl)-
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ethylenediamine dihydrochloride. Mix to dissolve, then dilute to 1 L with deionized water.
Solution is stable for about 1 month when stored in a dark bottle in refrigerator.
7.4
Ammonium chloride-EDTA solution: Dissolve 26 g ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) and 3.4 g EDTA
(disodium ethylenediamine tetraacetate) in 1700 mL water. Adjust to pH 8.5 with concentrated
ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH) and dilute to 2L.
7.5
Dilute ammonium chloride-EDTA solution: Dilute 600 mL NH4Cl-EDTA solution to 1000 mL with
deionized water.
7.6
Hydrochloric acid, HCl, 6N: Fill a 100 mL graduated cylinder to the 40 mL mark with deionized
water. Then fill to the 90 mL mark with concentrated hydrochloric acid. Let the solution cool
then fill to 100 mL with deionized water. (HCl, 6N = 1:1 or 50% HCl)
7.7
Copper sulfate solution, 2%: Dissolve 20 g copper sulfate-pentahydrate (CuSO4.5H2O) in 500 mL
deionized water and dilute to 1 L.
7.8
Stock nitrate solution: Dry potassium nitrate (KNO3) in an oven at 105°C for 24 hours. Dissolve
7.218 g in deionized water and dilute to 1000 mL. Preserve with 2 mL trichloromethane (CHCl3)
per liter. This solution is stable for 6 months. 1 mL = 1.0 mg or 1000 mg/L NO3-N.
7.9
Stock nitrite solution: Dry potassium nitrite (KNO2) in an oven at 105°C for 24 hours. Dissolve
6.072 g KNO2 in 500 mL of deionized water and dilute to 1 L in a volumetric flask. Preserve with
2 mL of trichloromethane and keep under refrigeration. This solution is stable for 3 months
1 mL = 1.0 mg or 1000 mg/L NO2-N. This solution should then be diluted to 100 mg/L.
8.0
Procedure
8.1
Preparation
8.2
8.1.1
Retrieve the samples from refrigerator. The samples should be near room temperature
when beginning the test.
8.1.2
Retrieve all reagents needed. Prepare reagents before starting test if needed.
8.1.3
Retrieve the dedicated set of glassware (125 mL Erlenmeyer flasks).
8.1.4
All 125 mL Erlenmeyer flasks dedicated for the nitrate + nitrite determination should be
labeled to avoid confusion between blanks, standards, spikes, and samples.
Prepare cadmium
8.2.1
Pour enough cadmium granules to fill two reduction columns in a 400 mL beaker.
8.2.2
Wash cadmium granules with 6N (50%) HCl and rinse with deionized water. Note: limit
the cadmium contact with acid to less than 15 minutes. The color of the cadmium so
treated should be silver. Note: All acid that contacts cadmium should be discarded as
hazardous waste.
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8.3
8.4
Page 151 of 170
8.2.3
Pour enough 2% copper sulfate solution in beaker for 5 minutes or until blue color
partially fades. Pour out used solution and repeat with fresh copper sulfate solution
until a brown colloidal precipitate begins to develop.
8.2.4
Gently flush with deionized water to remove all precipitated copper. Flush 10 - 20 times,
until water comes out clear. If you don’t rinse the granules thoroughly, the reduction
columns will get plugged up and reduction efficiency will be reduced. The color of the
cadmium so treated should be black.
Prepare reduction columns.
8.3.1
Insert glass wool plug into bottom of reduction column.
8.3.2
Assemble reduction columns on stand. Until this analysis is familiar, it is recommended
to only use one column. Columns should be set at a sufficient height to easily place and
remove 250 mL beakers beneath them.
8.3.3
Fill columns with deionized water.
8.3.4
Add sufficient copper-cadmium (Cu-Cd) granules to produce a column 18.5 cm long.
Gently tap the columns so the granules settle, the “tightness” of packing should be the
same in each column. Maintain water level above Cu-Cd granules to prevent
entrapment of air.
8.3.5
Wash column with 200 mL dilute NH4Cl-EDTA solution.
8.3.6
Activate column by passing through it, at 7 to 10 mL/min, at least 100 mL of solution
composed of 25% 1.0 mg NO3—N/L standard and 75% NH4Cl-EDTA solution.
(15 mL : 45 mL)
8.3.7
Pour 50 mL dilute NH4Cl-EDTA into column and close stopcock.
Prepare standards to be used for standard curve. The standards should bracket the sample
concentrations. Use a minimum of three nitrate standards and one nitrite standard
(concentration should be the same as one of the nitrate standards), in addition to three reagent
blanks (deionized water) two for nitrate and one for nitrite.
8.4.1
Pour a small amount (3-5 mL) of the nitrite stock solution into a clean 50 mL beaker.
Using a volumetric pipette, transfer exactly 1 mL of the nitrite stock solution from the
beaker to a clean 100 mL volumetric flask. Dilute to 100 mL with deionized water. This
makes 10 mg/L-NO2 solution.
8.4.2
From the 10 mg/L nitrite solution, prepare a 1 mg/L nitrite solution. Using a volumetric
pipette, transfer 10 mL of the 10 mg/L nitrite solution to a clean 100 mL volumetric
flask. Dilute to 100 mL with deionized water. This makes a 1 mg/L-NO2 solution.
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8.4.3
From the 1 mg/L nitrite solution, prepare a 0.10 mg/L nitrite solution. Using a volumetric
pipette, transfer 10 mL of the 1 mg/L nitrite solution to a clean 100 mL volumetric flask.
Dilute to 100 mL with deionized water. This makes a 0.10 mg/L-NO2 solution.
8.4.4
Pour a small amount (3-5 mL) of the nitrate stock solution into a clean 50 mL beaker.
Using a volumetric pipette, transfer exactly 1 mL of stock solution from the beaker to a
clean 100 mL volumetric flask. Dilute to 100 mL with deionized water. This makes 10
mg/L-NO3 solution.
8.4.5
From the 10 mg/L nitrate solution, prepare a 1 mg/L nitrate solution. Using a volumetric
pipette, transfer 10 mL of the 10 mg/L nitrate solution to a clean 100 mL volumetric
flask. Dilute to 100 mL with deionized water. This makes a 1 mg/L-NO3 solution.
8.4.6
From the 1 mg/L nitrate solution, prepare the nitrate standards to be used for the test.
For example: Pipette 1, 5, 10, and 15 mL into clean 100 mL volumetric flasks. Dilute to
100 mL, cap and mix thoroughly. These flasks will contain 0.01, 0.05, 0.10 and 0.15
mg/L-NO3, respectively.
8.5
Sample pH adjustment- Adjust pH to between 7 and 9, as necessary, using a pH meter and dilute
HCl or NaOH. This insures a pH of 8.5 after adding ammonium chloride- EDTA solution.
8.6
Prepare blanks, standards, spikes, and samples for addition of reagents. Rinse the graduated
cylinder or pipette used to measure blanks, standards, spikes, and samples in between
measurements with deionized water.
8.6.1
Blanks: Measure 15 mL of deionized water and transfer to labeled flask. Blanks should
be run in duplicate. Prepare one nitrite blank.
8.6.2
Standards: Measure 15 mL of appropriate standard and transfer to labeled flasks.
Standards should be run in duplicate.
8.6.3
Samples: Mix the sample and then measure and transfer 15 mL to labeled flasks. At
least 30% of the water samples should be run in duplicate, the actual number will
depend on how many samples are in the batch.
An aliquot portion of the sample diluted to 15 mL can be used if the sample is suspected
to be higher than the prepared standards. Note any dilutions on laboratory bench sheet
and laboratory notebooks.
8.6.4
Spike: Prepare a 0.05 mg/L spike. Rinse a 100 mL volumetric flask with a small amount
of the sample to be used. Pipette 5 mL from the 1 mg/L nitrate solution into the 100 mL
flask, and dilute to 100 mL with the sample. Cap and mix thoroughly. This results in a
spike addition of 0.05 mg/L nitrate.
Measure 15 mL of the spike solution and transfer to the labeled flasks. Record on
laboratory bench sheets and in laboratory notebooks the sample used for the spike
solution.
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8.7
Measure 45 mL of ammonium chloride-EDTA into each flask and mix. Use the bottle top
dispenser to add ammonium chloride-EDTA.
8.8
Rinse reduction columns. Open the stopcock and drain down to where the column constricts,
just above the cadmium granules. Do not expose the cadmium granules. Fill columns with dilute
ammonium chloride-EDTA, and rinse once again. The columns are now ready to run samples.
8.9
Check the reduction efficiency of the cadmium column.
8.9.1
Using the procedure outlined in Step 8.10, run the nitrate reagent blanks through the
columns first. Then follow instructions in Step 8.11 for both the nitrate and nitrite
blanks.
8.9.2
Run the 0.10 mg/L nitrate standards through the columns, following the procedure in
Step 8.10. Then follow instruction in Step 8.11 for both for both the nitrate and nitrite
0.10 mg/L standards.
8.9.3
Check the absorbance values of both the nitrite and nitrate reagent blanks against the
acceptable values in the QA/QC binder. If they are within the “control limits” (and
preferably within the “warning limits”), proceed to the next step. If they are not within
the limits, empty the cadmium granules from the columns and prepare cadmium again
according to section 8.2.
8.9.4
Compare the absorbance values of the 0.10 mg/L nitrate standard to the 0.10 mg/L
nitrite standard. If the reduction efficiency is greater than 75%, proceed to the next
step. If the reduction efficiency is less than 75%, empty the cadmium granules from the
columns and prepare the cadmium again according to section 8.2.
Reduction efficiency % = (NO3 absorbance / NO2 absorbance) X 100
8.10
Run samples.
8.10.1 Pour the entire contents of a sample flask into a column and collect at a rate of 7 to 10
mL/minute.
8.10.2 Drain 25 mL into a waste beaker, and stop. Discard contents of beaker.
8.10.3 Place the sample flask under the stopcock, and open. Drain down to just above the
cadmium granules, and stop.
8.10.4 There is no need to wash columns between samples, but if columns are not to be reused
for several hours or longer, pour 50 mL dilute NH4Cl-EDTA solution on to the top and let
it pass through the system. Store Cu-Cd column in this solution and never let it dry.
8.10.5 Repeat steps 8.10.1 – 8.10.3 for all the samples, except the nitrite standard and nitrite
blank, which should not be run through the column. Immediately begin step 8.11.
8.11
Prepare samples to read in the spectrophotometer.
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8.11.1 After each sample has been run through a column, a 30 mL sample needs to be
measured from each flask. Mix the sample by swirling the flask, pour 30 mL of sample
into a graduated cylinder, discard whatever is left in the flask, then pour the contents of
the cylinder back into the flask.
8.11.2 As soon as possible, and not more than 15 minutes after reduction, add 1.2 mL color
reagent to 30 mL sample and mix.
8.12
Between 10 minutes and 2 hours afterward, measure absorbance using the spectrophotometer
with the wavelength set at 543 nm.
8.12.1 If all samples are <0.20 mg/L, use the 10 cm cell. If all samples are >0.20 mg/L, use the 1
cm cell. If both cells need to be used, you will need to read at least one blank and three
standards in each cell, and calculate separate standard curves.
8.13
Clean up. The cadmium granules can be re-used. Rinse the columns with dilute ammonium
chloride-EDTA and drain to a level between the lower mark and he top of the cadmium granules.
Then rinse the cadmium into a beaker with deionized water. Rinse the granules with 1:1
hydrochloric acid, and store in dilute ammonium chloride-EDTA.
9.0
Calculations
9.1
Prepare a standard curve by plotting absorbance readings of standards against nitrate
concentrations of standards. Compute sample concentration by comparing sample absorbance
with the standard curve.
9.2
Obtain concentration of value of sample directly from prepared standard curve. Report results
as NO3--N + NO2--N, mg/L.
10.0
References
APHA, AWWA, WEF. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 20th
Edition (4500-NO3 E. Cadmium Reduction Method). American Public Health Association,
Washington DC. 1998.
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Standard Operating Procedure for:
Ammonia as Nitrogen Determination
1.0
Scope and Application
1.1
This method covers the determination of ammonia in drinking, ground, surface and saline
waters, domestic and industrial wastes.
1.2
The applicable range is 0.01 – 0.60 mg NH3-N/L. Higher concentrations can be determined by
sample dilution.
2.0
Summary of Method
2.1
An intensely blue compound, indophenol, is formed by the reaction of ammonia, hypochlorite,
and phenol catalyzed by sodium nitroprusside.
3.0
Interferences
3.1
Complexing magnesium and calcium with citrate eliminates interference produced by
precipitation of these ions at high pH. There is no interference from other trivalent forms of
nitrogen.
3.2
Remove interfering turbidity by distillation or filtration.
3.3
If hydrogen sulfide is present, remove by acidifying samples to pH 3 with dilute HCl and aerating
vigorously until sulfide odor no longer can be detected.
4.0
Filtration
4.1
Filter samples immediately after collection, through a 0.45-µm membrane filter. Wash
membrane filters by running 150-mL of ammonia-free water through them before contact with
sample water. A glass fiber filter may be used to pre-filter hard-to-filter-samples.
5.0
Preservation and Storage
5.1
Once filtered pour samples into clean 250 mL polypropylene bottles labeled with the sample ID,
sample date, preservation, and analytical parameter.
5.2
Most reliable results are obtained on fresh samples. If samples are to be analyzed within 24
hours of collection, refrigerate unacidified at 4°C. For preservation for up to 28 days, freeze at
-20°C unacidified, or preserve samples by acidifying to pH <2 and storing at 4°C. If acid
preservation is used, neutralize samples with NaOH or KOH immediately before making the
determination.
6.0
Equipment
6.1
Spectrophotometer: Suitable for measurements at 640 nm with a light path of 1 cm or greater.
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Acid-washed glassware: all glassware should be washed with 10% HCl and rinsed with ammoniafree water. This glassware should only be used for the determination of ammonia as nitrogen
and after should be washed as stated above and kept covered until needed again.
A set of 125 mL Erlenmeyer flasks should be dedicated to the determination of ammonia as
nitrogen.
6.3
Glassware: Class A volumetric flasks and pipettes as required.
6.4
Balance: Analytical, capable of accurately weighing to the nearest 0.001 g.
6.5
Eppendorf dispenser: Manual hand dispenser with 50 mL volume tips. For use when adding
reagents to samples. Use a different tip for each reagent added.
7.0
Reagents
7.1
Phenol solution: Dissolve 10 g of reagent-grade phenol in 100 ml of 95% denatured ethanol.
Prepare weekly. Caution: Wear gloves and eye protection when handling phenol; use good
ventilation to minimize all personnel exposure to this toxic volatile substance.
7.2
Sodium nitroprusside, 0.5% w/v: Dissolve 0.5 g sodium nitroprusside in ammonia-free water,
and dilute to 100 ml. Store in amber bottle for up to 1 month.
7.3
Alkaline citrate solution: Dissolve 200 g of trisodium citrate and 10 g of sodium hydroxide in
deionized water. Dilute to 1000 mL.
7.4
Sodium hypochlorite: Commercial solution, about 5%. This solution slowly decomposes once
the seal on the bottle cap is broken. Replace about every 2 months.
7.5
Oxidizing solution: Make a 4:1 ratio of alkaline solution to sodium hypochlorite. Make fresh
daily. For 25 samples, add 30 mL sodium hypochlorite to 120 mL alkaline solution.
7.6
Stock ammonium solution: Dissolve 3.819 g anhydrous NH4Cl (dried at 100°C) in water and
dilute to 1000 mL. Salts to be used should be dried at 100°C for 24 hours before being weighed.
Shelf life = Six months. 1.00 mL = 1.00 mg N = 1.22 mg NH3.
7.7
Standard ammonium solution: Use stock ammonium solution and deionized water to prepare a
calibration curve in a range appropriate for the concentrations of the samples. Prepare daily.
7.8
5% HCl: Dilute 50 mL of 1:1 HCl with ammonia-free water to 500 mL (1:1 HCl is equal volumes
of HCl and water). Fill cylinder with 300 mL of ammonia-free water before adding acid.
7.9
Ammonia-free water: Prepare ammonia-free deionized water by passing distilled water (or
previously deionized water) through the ion-exchange columns. Check ammonia-free water for
the possibility of a high blank value. It is very hard to store ammonia-free water in the
laboratory without contamination from gaseous ammonia. Use fresh (made within a few hours)
ammonia-free water for testing procedures.
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8.0
Procedure
8.1
Preparation
8.2
8.3
Page 157 of 170
8.1.1
Retrieve the samples from refrigerator. The samples should be near room temperature
when beginning the test.
8.1.2
Retrieve ammonia stock solution from refrigerator. Allow time to reach room
temperature.
8.1.3
Retrieve all reagents needed. Prepare reagents before starting test if needed.
8.1.4
Retrieve the dedicated set of glassware (125 mL Erlenmeyer flasks). Rinse all glassware
used for the test with 5% HCl and three times with ammonia-free water.
8.1.5
All 125 mL Erlenmeyer flasks dedicated for the ammonia determination should be
labeled to avoid confusion between blanks, standards, spikes, and samples.
Prepare standards to be used for standard curve. The standards should bracket the sample
concentrations. Use a minimum of three standards in addition to a reagent blank (ammoniafree water).
8.2.1
Pour a small amount (3 - 5 mL) of the ammonia stock solution into a clean 50 mL beaker.
Using a volumetric pipette, transfer exactly 1 mL of stock solution from the beaker to a
clean 100 mL volumetric flask. Dilute to 100 mL with ammonia-free water. Place a cap
on the flask and mix thoroughly by inverting at least 5 times. This solution is 10 mg/L
ammonia.
8.2.2
Using the 10 mg/L ammonia solution, transfer exactly 10 mL to a clean 100 mL
volumetric flask. Dilute to 100 mL with ammonia-free water. Place a cap on the flask
and mix thoroughly by inverting at least 5 times. This solution is 1 mg/L ammonia.
8.2.3
Using the 1 mg/L ammonia solution, prepare the standards to be used for the test.
For example: Pipette exactly 1, 3, 8 and 10 mL into separate clean 100 mL volumetric
flasks. Dilute to 100 mL, cap and mix thoroughly. These flasks will contain 0.01, 0.03,
0.08 and 0.10 mg/L ammonia, respectively.
Prepare blanks, standards, spikes, and samples for addition of reagents. Rinse the graduated
cylinder or pipette used to measure blanks, standards, spikes, and samples in between
measurements with deionized water.
8.3.1
Blanks: Measure 50 mL of deionized water and transfer to labeled flask. Blanks should
be run in duplicate.
8.3.2
Standards: Measure 50 mL of appropriate standard and transfer to labeled flasks.
Standards should be run in duplicate.
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8.3.3
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Samples: Mix the sample and then measure and transfer 50 mL to labeled flasks. At
least 30% of the water samples should be run in duplicate, the actual number will
depend on how many samples are in the batch.
An aliquot portion of the sample diluted to 50 mL can be used if the sample is suspected
to be higher than the prepared standards. Note any dilutions on laboratory bench sheet
and laboratory notebooks.
8.3.4
Spike: Prepare a 0.05 mg/L spike. Rinse a 100 mL volumetric flask with a small amount
of the sample to be used. Pipette 5 mL from the 1 mg/L ammonia solution into the 100
mL flask, and dilute to 100 mL with the sample. Cap and mix thoroughly. This results in
a spike addition of 0.05 mg/L ammonia.
Measure 50 mL of the spike solution and transfer to the labeled flasks. Record on
laboratory bench sheets and in laboratory notebooks the sample used for the spike
solution.
8.4
Add 2 mL of phenol solution to each flask and mix.
8.5
Add 2 mL of sodium nitroprusside solution and mix.
8.6
Add 5 mL of oxidizing solution and mix.
8.7
Replace flask stoppers. Let color develop at room temperature (22 to 27°C) in subdued light (for
best results keep samples in the dark by covering with an opaque cover) for at least 1 hour.
Color is stable for 24 hours.
8.8
Measure absorbance of the samples in the spectrophotometer with the wavelength set at 640
nm.
9.0
Calculations
9.1
Prepare a standard curve by plotting absorbance readings of standards against ammonia
concentrations of standards. Compute sample concentration by comparing sample absorbance
with the standard curve.
9.2
Obtain concentration of value of sample directly from prepared standard curve. Report results
as NH3-N, mg/L.
10.0
References
APHA, AWWA, WEF. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 20th Edition
(4500-NH3 F. Phenate Method). American Public Health Association, Washington DC. 1998.
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Standard Operating Procedure for:
Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN) Determination
1.0
Scope and Application
1.1
This method determines nitrogen in the trinegative state. The method fails to account for
nitrogen in the form of azide, azine, azo, hydrazone, nitrate, nitrite, nitrile, nitro, nitroso, oxime,
and semi-carbazone. “Kjeldahl nitrogen” is the sum of organic nitrogen and ammonia nitrogen.
1.2
The applicable range is 0.2 to 2 mg TKN-N/L.
2.0
Summary of Method
2.1
In the presence of H2SO4, potassium sulfate (K2SO4) , and cupric sulfate (CuSO4) catalyst, amino
nitrogen of many organic materials is converted to ammonium. Free ammonia also is converted
to ammonium. After addition of base, the ammonia is distilled from an alkaline medium and
absorbed in boric or sulfuric acid. The ammonia then may be determined colorimetrically.
3.0
Interferences
3.1
Nitrate: During Kjeldahl digestion, nitrate in excess of 10 mg/L can oxidize a portion of the
ammonia released from the digested organic nitrogen, producing N2O and resulting in a
negative interference. When sufficient organic matter in a low state of oxidation is present,
nitrate can be reduced to ammonia, resulting in a positive interference in conjunction with the
kjeldahl methods described herein.
3.2
Inorganic salts and solids: The acid and salt content of the kjeldahl digestion reagent is intended
to produce a digestion temperature of about 380°. If the sample contains a very large quantity
of salt or inorganic solids that dissolve during digestion, the temperature may rise above 400°C,
at which point pyrolytic loss of nitrogen begins to occur. To prevent an excessive digestion
temperature, add more H2SO4 to maintain the acid-salt balance. Not all salts cause precisely the
same temperature rise, but adding 4mL H2SO4/g salt in the sample gives reasonable results. Add
the extra acid and the digestion reagent to both sample and reagent blank. Too much acid will
lower the digestion temperature below 380°C and result in incomplete digestion and recovery. If
necessary, add sodium hydroxide-sodium thiosulfate before the final distillation step to
neutralize the excess acid.
Large amounts of salt or solids also may cause bumping during distillation. If this occurs, add
more dilution water after digestion.
3.3
Organic matter: During kjeldahl digestion, H2SO4 oxidizes organic matter to CO2 and H2O. If a
large amount of organic matter is present, a large amount of acid will be consumed, the ratio of
salt to acid will increase, and the digestion temperature will increase. If enough organic matter
is present, the temperature will rise above 400°C, resulting in pyrolytic loss of nitrogen. To
prevent this, add to the digestion flask 10 mL concentrated H2SO4/3 g COD. Alternately, add 50
mL more digestion reagent/g COD. Additional sodium hydroxide-sodium thiosulfate reagent may
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be necessary to keep the distillation pH high. Because reagents may contain traces of ammonia,
treat the reagent blank identically with the samples.
4.0
Filtration
4.1
Do not filter samples.
5.0
Preservation and Storage
5.1
Pour samples into clean 250 mL polypropylene bottles labeled with the sample ID, sample date,
preservation, and analytical parameter.
5.2
Most reliable results are obtained on fresh samples. If immediate analysis is not possible,
preserve samples for kjeldahl digestion by acidifying to pH 1.5 to 2.0 with concentrated H2SO4
and storing at 4°C.
6.0
Equipment
6.1
Digestion apparatus: Labconco 25-place rapid digestor with Kjeldahl flasks with a capacity of 300
mL.
6.2
Distillation apparatus: Buchi 315 distillation unit.
6.3
Spectrophotometer: Suitable for measurements at 640 nm with a light path of 1 cm or greater.
6.4
Acid-washed glassware: all glassware should be washed with 10% HCl and rinsed with deionized
water. This glassware should only be used for the determination of ammonia as nitrogen and
after should be washed as stated above and kept covered until needed again.
A set of 125 mL Erlenmeyer flasks should be dedicated to the determination of TKN as nitrogen.
6.5
Glassware: Class A volumetric flasks and pipets as required.
6.6
Balance: Analytical, capable of accurately weighing to the nearest 0.001 g.
6.7
Eppendorf dispenser: Manual hand dispenser with 50 mL volume tips. For use when adding
reagents to samples. Use a different tip for each reagent added.
7.0
Reagents
7.1
Ammonia-free water: Prepare all reagents and dilutions in ammonia-free water. Cap storage
container tightly, and do not store for more than one day. Prepare ammonia-free water by
passing distilled water through and ion-exchange columns. Check ammonia-free water for the
possibility of a high blank value. It is very hard to store ammonia-free water in the laboratory
without contamination from gaseous ammonia. Use fresh ammonia-free water for testing
procedures.
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7.2
TKN digestion reagent: Dissolve 134 g K2SO4 in 650 mL ammonia-free water. Slowly add 200 mL
of concentrated sulfuric acid. Dilute to 1 liter with ammonia-free water (this produces a salt to
acid ration of 0.67:1). Store above 20°C to prevent re-crystallization of K2SO4 – if crystals form,
dissolve as much as possible before using.
7.3
Copper sulfate catalyst: Dissolve 25.115 g anhydrous copper sulfate in ammonia free water and
dilute to 1 liter.
7.4
Na2B4O7 · 10H2O: Dissolve 66 g of Na2B4O7 · 10 H2O in 3 liters of ammonia-free water.
7.5
Sodium hydroxide solution: Dissolve 500 g of NaOH flakes or pellets in water and dilute to 1
liter. Heat is generated in this reaction. Fill the flask with about 700 mL and add the NaOH
slowly. Put the beaker in a waterbath on the stir plate to help keep it cool.
7.6
Phenol solution: Dissolve 10 g of reagent-grade phenol in 100 ml of 95% denatured ethanol.
Prepare weekly. Caution: Wear gloves and eye protection when handling phenol; use good
ventilation to minimize all personnel exposure to this toxic volatile substance.
7.7
Sodium nitroprusside, 0.5% w/v: Dissolve 0.5 g sodium nitroprusside in ammonia-free water,
and dilute to 100 ml. Store in amber bottle for up to 1 month.
7.8
Alkaline citrate solution: Dissolve 200 g of trisodium citrate and 10 g of sodium hydroxide in
deionized water. Dilute to 1000 mL.
7.9
Sodium hypochlorite: Commercial solution, about 5%. This solution slowly decomposes once
the seal on the bottle cap is broken. Replace about every 2 months.
7.10
Oxidizing solution: Make a 4:1 ratio of alkaline solution to sodium hypochlorite. Make fresh
daily. For 25 samples, add 30 mL sodium hypochlorite to 120 mL alkaline solution.
7.11
Stock ammonium solution: Dissolve 3.819 g anhydrous NH4Cl (dried at 100°C) in water and
dilute to 1000 mL. Salts to be used should be dried at 100°C for 24 hours before being weighed.
Shelf life = Six months. 1.00 mL = 1.00 mg N = 1.22 mg NH3.
7.12
Standard ammonium solution: Use stock ammonium solution and deionized water to prepare a
calibration curve in a range appropriate for the concentrations of the samples.
7.13
5% HCl: Dilute 50 mL of 1:1 HCl with ammonia-free water to 500 mL (1:1 HCl is equal volumes
of HCl and water). Fill cylinder with 300 mL of ammonia-free water before adding acid.
8.0
Procedure
8.1
Preparation
8.1.1
Retrieve the samples from refrigerator. The samples should be near room temperature
when beginning the test.
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8.2
8.3
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8.1.2
Retrieve ammonia stock solution from refrigerator. Allow time to reach room
temperature.
8.1.3
Retrieve all reagents needed. Prepare reagents before starting test if needed.
8.1.4
Retrieve the dedicated set of glassware (125 mL Erlenmeyer flasks). Rinse all glassware
used for the test with 5% HCl and three times with ammonia-free water.
8.1.5
All 125 mL Erlenmeyer flasks dedicated for the ammonia determination should be
labeled to avoid confusion between blanks, standards, spikes, and samples.
8.1.6
Check the steam generator water supply. The square jug on top of the distiller should
be filled with ammonia-free water and Na2B4O7·10H2O of solution. The purpose of the
Na2B4O7·10H2O is to raise the conductance of the generator water so it will boil. Add to
the square jug in a ratio of 40 mL Na2B4O7·10H2O solution for every one liter of
ammonia-free water. The jug should be filled with 10-15 liters to run 25 samples.
8.1.7
Fill smaller reservoir on the lower right side of the distiller with sodium hydroxide
solution.
8.1.8
Turn on the block rapid digestor. Set temperature to 360°C.
Prepare standards to be used for standard curve. The standards should bracket the sample
concentrations. Use a minimum of three standards in addition to a reagent blank (ammoniafree water). Standards should be 0.2, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mg/L ammonia.
8.2.1
Pour a small amount (3-5 mL) of the ammonia stock solution into a clean 50 mL beaker.
Using a volumetric pipet, transfer exactly 1 mL of stock solution from the beaker to a
clean 100 mL volumetric flask. Dilute to 100 mL with ammonia-free water. Place a cap
on the flask and mix thoroughly by inverting at least 5 times. The solution is now 10 mg
NH3-N/L.
8.2.2
Using the 10 mg/L ammonia solution, prepare the standards to be used for the test.
Pipet exactly 2, 5, 10, and 15 mL into separate clean 100 mL volumetric flasks. Dilute to
100 mL, cap and mix thoroughly. These flasks will contain 0.2, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mg NH3N/L, respectively.
Prepare a reagent blank, spike and glycine pTSA standard.
8.3.1
Blank: Fill a 100 mL volumetric flask with ammonia-free water.
8.3.2
Spike: Prepare a 0.5 mg/L spike. Rinse a 100 mL volumetric flask with a small amount of
the sample to be used for the spike. Pipet 5 mL from the 10 mg/L ammonia solution into
the 100 mL flask, and dilute to 100 mL with the sample. Cap and mix thoroughly. This
results in a spike addition of 0.5 mg/L ammonia. Record which sample was used for the
spike solution on laboratory bench sheets and in laboratory notebooks.
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8.3.3
8.4
Page 163 of 170
Glycine pTSA standard: Pipet 10 mL of glycine pTSA into a 100 mL volumetric flask and
dilute to 100 mL with ammonia-free water. Cap and mix thoroughly. Final ammonia
concentration of this standard is 0.8 mg/L.
Measure standards and samples into digestion tubes. Tubes should be pre-rinsed with
ammonia-free water and allowed to drain beforehand. Rinse the graduated cylinder or pipette
used to measure blanks, standards, spikes, and samples in between measurements with
ammonia-free water.
The metal frame that holds the digestion tubes is labeled A - F along one side and 1 - 5 along
another, so that any position in the block can be referenced, for example A1, C2, or D5. Arrange
standards in the order in which they will be placed into the metal frame. Start with the blanks in
cells A1 and A2, the 0.5 standard in cell A3 and A4, and progress through the standards in an
orderly fashion. Write down what sample each frame position contains on the backside of the
laboratory bench sheet.
8.4.1
Blanks: Measure 50 mL of the reagent blank and transfer to a digestion tube and place
in metal frame. Blanks should be run in duplicate.
8.4.2
Standards: Measure 50 mL of each standard and transfer to digestion tubes. Standards
should be run in duplicate, except for the glycine pTSA standard.
8.4.3
Samples: Mix the sample and then measure and transfer 50 mL to digestion tubes. At
least 30% of the water samples should be run in duplicate, the actual number will
depend on how many samples are in the batch.
An aliquot portion of the sample diluted to 50 mL can be used if the sample is suspected
to be higher than the prepared standards. Note any dilutions on laboratory bench sheet
and laboratory notebooks.
8.4.4
Spike: Measure 50 mL of the spike solution and transfer to the labeled flasks. Record
which sample was used for the spike solution on laboratory bench sheets and in
laboratory notebooks.
8.5
Add digestion reagents to each of the tubes. An Eppendorf dispenser can be used to
measure and dispense reagents. When dispensing reagent the “first shot” should be
wasted to ensure that each shot afterward is the proper volume.
8.5.1
Add 2 mL of copper sulfate catalyst to each tube.
8.5.2
Add 15 mL of TKN digestion reagent to each tube.
8.6
Add a “pinch” of Teflon boiling chips to each tube (4-8 chips). Inspect tubes to make sure they
all have sample, reagent and boiling chips added.
8.7
Digest samples in digestion apparatus. If samples dry out before digestion is complete during
steps below, nitrogen will be lost (this requires some idea beforehand of how much nitrogen
may be in the sample). Samples with high organic content may have to be diluted prior to
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digestion; or additional sulfuric acid can be added to the tube. If extra acid is used, the amount
of NaOH reagent added during Step 8.10.2 must be adjusted, because the NaOH reagent to total
sulfuric acid ration must be 5:1. For example, 15 mL of TKN digestion reagent contains 3 mL of
sulfuric acid, so 15 mL of NaOH is added in Step 8.10.2. Also, if an additional 1 mL of sulfuric
acid is added to samples, it must also be added to all standards, blanks, spikes, etc. For each 1
mL of additional sulfuric acid added now, 5 mL of additional NaOH reagent must be added in
Step 8.10.2, prior to distillation.
8.8
8.7.1
Place the metal side plates on the metal frame, and shake the frame (side to side) to
that the contents of each tube become mixed.
8.7.2
Turn on the vent fans in the fume hood.
8.7.3
Place the tubes in the heating block. The metal frame sites on top of the hearing block.
Record the time on the laboratory bench sheet.
8.7.4
The tubes need to heat until fumes are visible. This normally takes about one hour.
First, the water heats, and steam will be visible. After the water steams off, acid will
remain. The acid will then begin to fume (note: acid fumes are whiter than the steam).
8.7.5
Once observing acid fumes record the time on the laboratory bench sheet. The samples
need to digest for an additional 30 minutes after acid fumes are observed.
8.7.6
After 30 minutes, remove the metal frame from the heater block, remove the metal side
plates, and set the frame down in another part of the vent hood to cool. Do not breathe
the fumes. The heating block now can be turned off.
8.7.7
Let the tubes cool for 7 minutes. Then begin adding ammonia-free water according to
the directions in section 8.8.1. If the cooling time is too short, samples will splatter
when water is added. If cooling time is too long, samples will solidify when water is
added.
Prepare samples to run through the distillation unit.
8.8.1
8.9
After the 7 minute cooling period, add about 30 mL of ammonia-free water to each tube
and mix. Some samples may solidify if so follow the steps below.
8.8.1.1.
If the precipitate in the tube is soluble (dissolves when you add water), the
sample is ready to be distilled.
8.8.1.2.
If the precipitate is not soluble, put the tube back in the heating block, which
should still be quite hot. Let it heat to boiling, and mix until the precipitate is
dissolved. Let cool until no steam is visible. It is then ready for distillation.
Prepare distillation unit and the 250 mL Erlenmeyer receiving flasks.
8.9.1
Rinse the 250 mL Erlenmeyer receiving flasks to be used for samples; once with 5% HCl,
then twice with ammonia-free water.
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8.9.2
Add 5 mL of 0.04N sulfuric acid to each flask and put in rubber stoppers.
8.9.3
Loosen the lid on the square jug on top of the distillation unit. Hook up the jug to the
steam generator, and open the valve on the jug. The clamp on the hose should be
adjusted to minimize overflow from the steam generator, and to keep the distillate
temperature <29°C.
8.9.4
Close the glass valve located at the bottom of the opening on the left side of the unit.
This will fill the generator. Fill once, drain and then refill.
8.9.5
Turn the cooling water on. The valve is located on the wall behind and to the left of the
distillation unit. There are two black-handled valves; the cooling water is the one on the
right.
8.9.6
Turn the distillation unit on. This is the red power switch on the upper left corner of the
front panel. The air pump inside will begin to hum. If the power fails to come on, check
the fuse directly below the power switch. Replace if necessary. Instruction manual,
spare parts, and fuses are located in the drawer below the distillation unit.
8.9.7
Put about 15 mL of ammonia-free water in a tube and place the tube in the tube holder
on the distillation unit. Twisting the tube slightly against the rubber stopper ensures a
good seal. Place a 500 mL beaker under the white plastic tube to the right of the
digestion tube holder, on top of the large rubber stopper (the rubber stopper acts as a
spacer to make moving the beaker and flasks easier).
8.9.8
Add 15 mL of NaOH to the digestion tube. A chart on the wall near the generator
describes how the valve system works. To add 15 mL, operate the hydroxide valve (top
valve) while observing the level of liquid in the tube against the orange tape on the plate
behind the tube; each mark on the tape equals 5 mL.
8.9.9
Turn the steam on by opening the middle valve, and close the drain by closing the
bottom valve. Allow to boil until there is about 100 mL of liquid in the 500 mL beaker.
Then turn the steam off by closing the middle valve. After the distillation unit sucks the
sample out of the tube, open the drain (bottom valve).
8.9.10 Repeat steps 8.9.7 – 8.9.9 two more times. The steam generator is now ready to run
samples.
8.9.10.1. If necessary adjust the flow on the steam generator supply line such that the
steam generator is kept just full, not too much overflow, and the receiving
solution temperature remains 29°C.
8.10
Run all samples through the distillation unit.
8.10.1
Select a tube to run through the unit. Unstopper the corresponding 250 mL
Erlenmeyer flaks and place it on top of the large rubber stopper, so that the white
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plastic tube is submerged in the acid. Then put the digestion tube in the digestion
tube holder, a slight twist will help ensure a good seal.
8.10.2
Add 15 mL of NaOH (three marks on the tape behind the tube: see chart for proper
valve operation). Don’t forget to add an additional 5 mL of NaOH for each additional 1
mL of sulfuric acid that might have been added during Step 8.7.
8.10.3
Turn steam on and immediately close drain.
8.10.4
When the Erlenmeyer flask has been filled to the 75 mL mark, remove the large
rubber stopper and the flask. Immediately replace it with the 500 mL beaker. Keep
the steam on.
Note: The distiller temperature should remain <29°C. If it is too hot, tighten the clamp on the
tube from the square jug on top of the unit.
8.10.5
8.10.6
8.10.7
Pour the contents of the Erlenmeyer flask into a 100 mL graduated cylinder. Fill to
100 mL with ammonia-free water, then pour back into the flask and mix (the flask now
contains 100 mL of sample).
Now measure out 50 mL of sample back into the graduated cylinder. Discard what is
left in the flask. Then pour the contents of the graduated cylinder back into the flask
and stopper. Set aside.
When the 500 mL beaker has filled to about 75 mL, turn the steam off. This will cause
the remaining contents in the digestion tube to be sucked up into the distillation unit.
Note: If the condenser tube is below the distillate level when the steam is turned off, the
distillate will be sucked up into the condenser. Lower the beaker and open the drain
valve to drain it back out.
8.10.8
When the contents of the distillation tube have all been sucked up into the distillation
unit, open the drain.
8.10.9
Using thick black rubber gloves unseat the digestion tube. Set it down beside the
holder, so that the long white tube is still in it.
8.10.10
8.10.11
Open the steam valve for 2 or 3 seconds. This drains the steam generator.
Using the glove remove the digestion tube. Rinse it out twice (inside and out) with
tepid tapwater, then once with the water in the 500 mL beaker and then a final rinse
with ammonia-free water.
8.10.12
Repeat steps 8.10.1 – 8.10.11 until all samples have been run.
8.10.13
Clean the steam generator by repeating steps 8.10.7 – 8.10.10.
8.10.14
Turn the power switch off. Open the glass valve to drain the steam generator. Close
the cooling water valve. Close the square jug valve and disconnect the hose. Turn the
jug around on top of the unit so that the valve is over the sink.
WQ Monitoring of Surface Waters Within the PLIR
8.10.15
8.11
Page 167 of 170
Partially fill a digestion tube with ammonia-free water and place it in the holder, so
that the end of the tube is submerged. Also partially fill the 500 mL beaker with
water, and place it on the large rubber stopper so that the white tube is submerged.
Make sure the NaOH valve and steam valve are closed, and the drain valve is open.
Prepare samples to read in spectrophotometer.
8.11.1 Add 2 mL of phenol solution to each flask and mix.
8.11.2 Add 2 mL of sodium nitroprusside solution and mix.
8.11.3 Add 5 mL of oxidizing solution and mix.
8.11.4 Replace flask stoppers. Let color develop at room temperature (22 to 27°C) in subdued
light for at least 1 hour. Color is stable for 24 hours.
8.11.5 Measure absorbance of the samples in the spectrophotometer with the wavelength set
at 640 nm.
9.0
Additional Information
9.1
The boiling point of fuming sulfuric acid is 330°C. The K2SO4 increases the boiling point, thereby
reducing digestion time.
9.2
Acid is consumed during the digestion process. If the sulfate: acid ratio exceeds 0.8 mg/L, the
mixture will solidify upon cooling. Place the tube back in the digester until the solid is dissolved.
If all acid is consumed (i.e., the sample dries during digestion), ammonia will be lost and the
sample must be run again.
9.3
If the sulfate: acid ratio exceeds 1.3 mg/L, the digestion temperature will exceed 400°C and
ammonia may be lost by volatilization.
9.4
The catalyst speeds the reaction between sulfuric acid and the sample. When copper sulfate
(CuSO4) is used instead of HgO there is no need to add sodium thiosulfate to the NaOH reagent.
9.5
During digestion, the sample will turn black and large amounts of sulfur dioxide fumes will be
produced (be careful not to breathe these fumes; they are extremely irritating); then the sample
will turn “clear”. Ideally, digestion should continue for an additional length of time equal to the
length of time that the sample took to reach the clearing phase.
10.0
Calculations
10.1
Prepare a standard curve by plotting absorbance readings of standards against ammonia
concentrations of standards. Compute sample concentration by comparing sample absorbance
with the standard curve.
10.2
Obtain concentration of value of sample directly from prepared standard curve. Report results
as TKN-N, mg/L.
WQ Monitoring of Surface Waters Within the PLIR
11.0
Page 168 of 170
References
APHA, AWWA, WEF. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 20th Edition
(4500-Norg C. Semi-Micro-Kjeldahl Method). American Public Health Association, Washington DC. 1998.
WQ Monitoring of Surface Waters Within the PLIR
Page 169 of 170
Standard Operating Procedure for:
Zooplankton Sample Analysis
8.0
Scope and Purpose
8.1
This SOP applies to the analysis of zooplankton samples collected from Pyramid Lake.
9.0
Sample Preservation and Storage
9.1
Add 3-5 mL of Lugols solution to preserve the sample.
9.2
Store sample in refrigerator until analysis.
10.0
Equipment
10.1
Bottom of Zooplakton net- collection chamber only.
10.2
600 mL beaker.
10.3
1 – 2 mL Hensen-Stempel pipette.
10.4
Sedgewick-Rafter cell.
10.5
Clear glass slides.
10.6
Lab counter with 9 counting keys, pre-labeled counter with expected species.
10.7
Squirt bottle filled with deionized water.
10.8
Microscope.
10.9
Identification key.
11.0
Procedure
11.1
Take samples out of refrigerator.
11.2
Pour sample into zooplankton collection chamber, with 240 µm mesh size. Take care to keep
bottom clamp closed on the collection chamber so none of the zooplankton sample is escapes.
11.3
Using the squirt bottle rinse the zooplankton collection chamber to rinse preservative from the
sample.
11.4
Unclamp the bottom of the zooplankton collection chamber and rinse the zooplankton sample
into a 600 mL beaker. Dilute to 300 mL with deionized water.
WQ Monitoring of Surface Waters Within the PLIR
Page 170 of 170
11.5
Stir sample to mix evenly and use the Hensen-Stempel pipette to extract a 1 mL portion of the
sample.
11.6
Place the extracted portion of the sample onto a Sedgewick-Rafter cell and cover with a clear
glass slide.
11.7
Place slide on microscope.
11.8
Identify specimens on the slide using the identification key, as zooplankton are identified use
the lab counter labeled with expected species to count each zooplankton.
11.9
Count using a grid pattern (left to right, back and forth) until all zooplankton on slide are
identified and counted.
11.10 Do 5 repetitions for each sample (steps 4.5 – 4.9).
11.11 Record the final counts on a zooplankton bench sheet.
11.12 Enter final counts into the excel spreadsheet on the PLF server, the path is: My
Computer/Resource/Water Quality/PLWQ/Zooplankton Calculation
Sheets/PLFZoopCalcForm.xls.
11.13 The form will automatically do the calculations. Enter all information including dates, sample
station, etc. Print a copy when done to file.
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