Qualiflow AFC-202 Mass Flow Controller Manual

Qualiflow AFC-202 Mass Flow Controller Manual
AFC 202
AFC 202 User’s Manual
1
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QUALIFLOW Montpellier (headquaters)
350, rue A. Nobel
BP7- 34935 MONTPELLIER
CEDEX 9
France
tel: +33 4 67 99 47 47
fax: +33 4 67 99 47 48
QUALIFLOW Inc,
24 Goose Lane
TOLLAND CT-06084
CALIFORNIA - USA
tel: +1 860.871.92.33
fax: +1 860.871.92.33
QUALIFLOW Technology Center
909 Boggs Terrace
Fremont, CA-94539
CALIFORNIA - USA
tel: +1 510 440 93 74
fax: +1 510 440 93 75
QUALIFLOW NRT Korea
10 Block-17 Lot, Namdong Ind.
CLX. #623-16n Namchon-Dong, Namdong-Ku
KOREA
tel: +82 (0)2 3401 6491
fax: +82 (0)2 3401 6493
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Reference D-10-032
Document Name
File Name
Author
Visa
Date
Olivier Léonel 07/02/01
Author
Olivier Léonel
Date
07/02/01
Identification
Revision
00
User's Manual AFC 202
AFC202 Manual.doc
Control
Verified
Visa
Date
Pierre Navratil
07/02/01
History
Description
Initial Version
Date
07/02/01
Approved
Visa
Date
Pascal Rudent
07/02/01
Revision
00
Status
Issued
2000 QUALIFLOW Montpellier, France. This document contains information proprietary to
QUALIFLOW and shall not be used for engineering, design, procurement or manufacture in
whole or in part without consent of QUALIFLOW.
AFC 202 User’s Manual
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SECTION 1 - INTRODUCTION............................................................................................................ 5
1.0 AFC 202: MASS FLOW CONTROLLER ................................................................... 5
1.1 AFC 202 : "USER's MANUAL" .................................................................................. 5
1.2 SPECIFICATIONS....................................................................................................... 5
1.3 CALIBRATION FEATURES ...................................................................................... 6
1.3.0 STANDARD CONDITIONS.................................................................................... 6
1.3.1 MANUFACTURING ENVIRONMENT ................................................................. 6
1.3.2 QUALITY CONTROL ............................................................................................. 6
SECTION 2 - INSTALLATION............................................................................................................. 7
2.0 INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................ 7
2.1 UNPACKING ............................................................................................................... 7
2.2 MECHANICAL INSTALLATION.............................................................................. 7
2.2.0 GENERAL ................................................................................................................ 7
2.2.1 INSTALLATION...................................................................................................... 8
2.3 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION ................................................................................ 9
2.3.0 GENERAL ................................................................................................................ 9
2.3.1 CONNECTIONS....................................................................................................... 9
2.4 CHECKS BEFORE STARTING UP ............................................................................ 10
SECTION 3 – ADJUSTEMENT .......................................................................................................... 11
3.0 REQUIRED FACILITIES .......................................................................................... 11
3.1.
POTENTIOMETERS ADJUSTMENT................................................................... 11
3.2 VALVE ADJUSTMENT............................................................................................ 13
4.2.0. NORMALLY OPEN VALVE ............................................................................... 13
4.2.1. NORMALLY CLOSE VALVE ............................................................................. 13
3.3 CHANGE OF CALIBRATION.................................................................................. 14
3.3.0. NORMALLY OPEN VALVE ............................................................................... 14
3.3.1. NORMALLY CLOSE VALVE ............................................................................. 14
3.4 DYNAMIC RESPONSE ADJUSTMENT ................................................................ 14
SECTION 4 – MAINTENANCE.......................................................................................................... 15
4.0 GENERAL.................................................................................................................. 15
4.1.
DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY PROCEDURES .......................................... 15
4.1.0 DISASSEMBLY PROCEDURE ............................................................................ 15
4.1.1 ASSEMBLY PROCEDURE................................................................................... 16
4.2. SENSOR CLEANING AND REPLACEMENT .......................................................... 18
4.2. VALVE CLEANING AND REPLACEMENT ............................................................ 18
SECTION 5 - TROUBLESHOOTING ................................................................................................. 19
5.0
5.1
INITIAL CHECK. ...................................................................................................... 19
SYMPTOMS............................................................................................................... 19
SECTION 6 - WARRANTY AND SERVICES ................................................................................... 20
6.0
6.1
PRODUCT WARRANTY.......................................................................................... 20
SERVICES.................................................................................................................. 21
APPENDIX A
APPENDIX B
APPENDIX C
APPENDIX D
PART NUMBER DESCRIPTION........................................................................... 22
GAS PROCESS NUMBER...................................................................................... 23
EXPLODED VIEW OF THE AFC 202................................................................... 24
GENERAL MFC PRINCIPLES .............................................................................. 26
MEASUREMENT PRINCIPLES .................................................................................... 26
SENSORS PRINCIPLES................................................................................................. 27
BYPASS PRINCIPLES : ................................................................................................. 29
CONTROL PRINCIPLES................................................................................................ 30
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SECTION 1 - INTRODUCTION
1.0
AFC 202: MASS FLOW CONTROLLER
This manual covers the massflow controller AFM 302 and also the massflow meter AFC 202.
QUALIFLOW Massflowmeters are rigid, accurate transducers which measure the massflow
rate of a gas, calibrated in standard ranges in sccm or slm.
They include of a thermal flow sensor, a bypass assembly which is a laminar flow device that
splits up the flow in order to achieve the required range and a p.c. board that contains the
amplifier and the literaliser.
These items are built together upon a stainless steel base block. All metal parts which are in
contact with the gas, are made of 316 type Stainless Steel, the seals are viton or neoprene
(depending on the type of gas).
The output of the flowmeter is a linear signal, 0 to 5 VDC, directly proportional to the
massflow rate.
Massflow controllers include the same units, but extended with a built-in, automatic control
valve. An electronic circuit, that amplifies the difference between the output signal of the
flowmeter and an external selected setpoint value, drives the valve in such a way that this
difference is reduced to zero.
Massflow controller AFC 202 can be delivered with a normally open or normally closed valve.
Fast and smooth control is secured by appropriate feed-back and speed-up arrangements.
Both units have the same, rigid small houslng, which is particularly suitable for compact,
rational built gas systems, the more so as they can be mounted in any position.
1.1
AFC 202 : "USER's MANUAL"
This manual includes the following sections :
Section 1. Introduction : contains specifications and calibration features.
Section 2. Installation : contains all the information necessary to unpack the AFC 202 without
causing contamination, install the AFC 202 and check the installation before starting up.
Section 3. Adjustment.
Section 4.Maintenance.
Section 5.Trouble-shooting.
1.2
SPECIFICATIONS
Spec.
AFC-202
Input
±15VDC +5%, 25mA
-15VDC ±5%,180mA
AFC 202 User’s Manual
Setpoint Signal
0.1 - 5 VDC
Output Signal
O - 5 VDC
Respons time (typ)
4s
5
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Repeatability
0,3% of Full Scale
Accuracy
± 1% of Full Scale
Gas T°. Range
5 - 40°C
T° coefficient
less than 0.1%/°C
Gas Pressure
10 at max.
Minimum differential
1.5 bar for 30 slm F.S.
gas pressure
2 bar for 50 slm F.S.
2.5 bar for 100 slm F.S.
3 bar for 200 slm F.S.
Pressure
0.1%/atm (typ)
Coefficient
-9
Leak Rate
<2.10 scc/sec.
Specifications values.
Note : AFC and AFM are delivered with viton seals except NH3 mass-flow which are
delivered with neoprene seals. Please contact your local representative for other kind of seal
material.
1.3
CALIBRATION FEATURES
The Mass Flow Controllers are calibrated close to customer’s process. Without customer’s
information, the MFCs are calibrated under standard conditions.
1.3.0 STANDARD CONDITIONS
Without special conditions specified by the customer, the MFC is calibrated under the
following standard conditions :
Pressure conditions :
Pressure Outlet : Atmospheric
Delta Pressure : between 500 mbars and 3 bars
Dynamic adjustment : no overshoot
The mounting position (horizontal, vertical inlet up or down) should be specified by the
customer to ensure the best accuracy .
1.3.1 MANUFACTURING ENVIRONMENT
The MFCs are assembled, calibrated, packaged and controlled in a class 100 cleanroom.
1.3.2 QUALITY CONTROL
Each MFC is controlled 24 hours after manufacturing on a different calibration bench. The
accuracy, the dynamic response, the stability to pressure variations are double checked.
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SECTION 2 - INSTALLATION
2.0
INTRODUCTION
This four part section contains all the information necessary to install the AFC 202.
•
2.1 - UNPACKING;
•
2.2 - MECHANICAL INSTALLATION;
•
2.3 - ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION;
•
2.4 - CHECK BEFORE START UP.
•
2.6 - COMMUNICATION MODES.
2.1
UNPACKING
The AFC 202 mass flow controller are manufactured under clean room conditions, and has
been packed accordingly upon receipt. The cardboard packing should be checked for
damage. If there is visible damage, please notify your local QUALIFLOW sales office at
once. In order to minimize contamination of clean rooms, the unit has been packed in two
separately sealed plastic bags. The outside bag should be removed in the entrance to the
clean room. The second bag should be removed when you install the unit.
2.2
MECHANICAL INSTALLATION
2.2.0 GENERAL
Most applications will require a positive shutoff valve in line with the mass flow controller.
Pressurized gas trapped between the two devices can cause surge effects, and
consideration must be given to the sitting of the shutoff valve (upstream or downstream) in
relation to the process sequencing. As far as the process parameters will allow this, it is
recommended that you install an in-line filter upstream to the controller in order to prevent
from contamination.
The AFC 202 can be mounted in any position. The atmosphere should be clean and dry. The
mounting should be free from shock or vibration. Mounting dimensions are shown in below.
Prior to installation, ensure that all the piping is thoroughly cleaned and dried. Do not remove
the protective end caps until you are ready to install the controller.
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20 pin card edge
AFC 202
182
20
B
A
24
30
30
45
4 holes M5
Dimensions (mm)
AFC 202
A
(mm)
B
(mm)
AFM 302
VCR 3/8" MM
SWAGELOCK 3/8”
VCR 3/8" MM
SWAGELOCK 3/8”
181.4
183.3 (incl. Nuts)
141.9
143.8 (inc. nuts)
123
123
83.5
83.5
2.2.1 INSTALLATION
WARNING: Toxic, corrosive or explosive gases must be handled with extreme care. After
installing the mass flow controller, the system should be thoroughly checked to ensure it is
leak-free. Purge the mass flow controller with a dry inert gas for one hour before using
corrosive gases.
IMPORTANT: When installing the mass flow controller, ensure that the arrow on the back of
the unit shows the same direction as the gas-flow.
2.2.1.1.
VCR COMPATIBLE COUPLINGS
The AFC 202 mass flow controller is normally supplied with 1/4" male VCR compatible
couplings on both sides. To install the AFC, follow the steps listed below.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Check the gland to gland space, including the gaskets.
Remove the plastic gland protector caps.
a) When using loose VCR "original" style gaskets, insert the gasket into the female
nut.
b) For VCR retainer gaskets, snap the gasket onto the male coupling. See figure
below.
Tighten the nuts finger tight.
Scribe both nut and body in order to mark the position of the nut.
While holding the body with a wrench, tighten the nut : 1/8 turn past finger tight for
316L stainless steel and nickel gaskets.
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VCR original style gasket
VCR retainer gasket
VCR compatible couplings
2.3
ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION
2.3.0 GENERAL
Within this section, you will find the following sub-sections:
• Connections.
• Pressure control.
• Ratio control.
2.3.1 CONNECTIONS
The AFC 202 includes a cardedge connector.
1
2
3
4
5
A
6
B
7
C
8
D
9
E
10
F
G
H
J
K
1 Case Ground
A Control Input 0.1 – 5 VDC (AFC 202 only)
2 Common
B Common valve ***
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3 Output O – 5 VDC
C Common
4 +15 VDC
D Valve test point; Soft start connection *
6 Zener Test Point
F –15 VDC
7
J Sensor Up-stream **
8
K Sensor Common **
9
L Sensor Downstream **
10
Extra Output
Notes: * 1. Soft start connection.
**2. Not available in earlier PC boards.
***3. Valve common is jumpered to C. Remove this jumper ( J 3 ) and use separate
common is advise every time it is possible.
4. Any DC voltmeter or recorder can be used to visualize the output signal. Input
impedance should be at least 5000 ohms.
5. The control lnput signal should be from any voltage source with maximum
impedance 2500 ohms.
2.4 CHECKS BEFORE STARTING UP
Before operating the mass flow controller the following checks should be completed :
1.
Check that tubing is leak proof.
2.
Check the process sequence and proper function of all other gas components
involved.
3.
Check the voltage of command signals and power supply to the mass flow controller.
4.
Check that the appropriate gas type is being supplied at the rated pressure.
5.
Allow the mass flow controller to warm up for 20 minutes, then check the zero level
output.
6.
Use dry inert gas for test runs.
7.
Prior to using the mass flow controller for extremely corrosive gases, purge with a dry
inert gas for one hour.
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SECTION 3 – ADJUSTEMENT
3.0
REQUIRED FACILITIES
To do any adjustment, cleaning or replacement on massflow equipment, appropriate tools
and facilities must be present, as these are high accuracy transducers.
The facilities are:
1. An accurate reference massflow measuring system or a flow meter.(note the pressure
and temperature corrections). Normal rotameters are not accurate enough. The only
suffice when relative rough measurements or flow monitoring are necessary.
2. A clean room, clean tools.
3. A voltmeter (at least 1000 Ω/V).
4. Supply of gas, preferably N2 for safe working.
3.1. POTENTIOMETERS ADJUSTMENT
To gain access to the p.c. board, carefully remove the cover from the body. Every flowmeter
and –controller is calibrated at the factory for a particular gas and flow range, as indicated on
the top sticker, within ±1%. If any adjustment is necessary, a reference measuring system
with at least the same accuracy should be used.
1. To remove containment’s, the unit must be flushed and dried with nitrogen.
2. Apply power to the unit and monitor the output signal. Obey a warm-up time of about
20 minutes.
3. With no flow (caps on in- and outlet fittings) adjust the ZERO potentiometer R3 of the
unit to obtain a readout on the unit between 5 mV and 15 mV. For normally close
version, set zero to obtain a readout between 20mV and 40 mV to prevent heating up
of the magnet with zero setpoint.
Caution :
Be careful to avoid contact between the valve connector and the
sensor connector close to the zero potentiometer : This will destroy the transistor BC107B.
When this transistor is damaged the readout stay at the same value even with gas flow.
4. Apply gas to the inlet fitting and put the reference flowmeter in series. If your
reference flow meter is a flow controller you need to let the valve fully open : for that,
disconnect the valve wires of your reference flowmeter if it is a normally open valve or
connect pin C and D of your reference flowmeter if is a normally close valve.
5. Calculate Vref at full scale :
Vref =
Cref
Cunit
*
Funit
* 5.00
Fref
Where:
Cref is the conversion factor of the calibration gas.
Cunit is the conversion factor of the gas that the unit will control.
Funit is the full scale value of the unit.
Fref is the full scale value of the reference flow meter.
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Example 1 (complicated):
Unit to calibrate : 30 slm Oxygen
Reference flow meter : 50 slm Nitrogen / calibration gas : Nitrogen
Cref = 1
Cunit = 0.996
Funit = 30 slm
Fref = 50 slm
then Vref = 3.012 V
Example 2 ( simple) :
Unit to calibrate : 200 slm nitrogen
Reference flow meter : 200 slm Nitrogen / calibration gas : Nitrogen
Cref = 1
Cunit = 1
Funit = 200 slm
Fref = 200 slm
then Vref = 5.00 V
6. Full scale adjustment : Apply a 5.00 VDC setpoint to the unit ( i.e. ask to the unit to
regulate at 100% of the full scale). Then look at the readout given by the reference
flow and compare it to Vref. Previously calculated.
if the readout given by the reference flow = Vref the gain is well calibrated
if the readout given by the reference flow is slightly different from Vref (difference is less
than 3% of Vref) the full scale adjustment can be done electronically only with the the gain
potentiometer : Go to step 11.
if the readout given by the reference flow is very different from Vref (difference is more than
3% of Vref) the bypass need to be adjusted before any electronic adjustment : go to next
step.
7. Previously to adjust the bypass put the linear potentiometer and the gain
potentiometer to half of their stroke (both potentiometers are 15 turns models).
8. Adjust the bypass :
9. First remove the inlet fitting with a 1” wrench to access the bypass : (the bypass is a
preadjusted assembly which can be removed and reinstalled with the use of a
screwdriver. It consist of a stainless steel grid cylindrical net with a Kel-f plug inside.
By adjusting the position of the kel-f plug the grid allow less or more the flowing of the
gas).
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10. Adjust the bypass by pushing the Kel-f plug inside the bypass if the ref flow is lower
than the full scale of the unit. Or you need to pull the Kel-f plug inside the bypass if
the ref flow is higher than the full scale of the unit.
11. To push the bypass just push the plug slowly with a special tool and a hammer.
12. To pull the bypass dismount the bypass with a screw-driver and push the plug by the
backside.
13. Assemble again the bypass, the inlet fitting in the gas line and come back to step 7.
14. Turn the gain potentiometer until you get Vref on the readout of the reference flow
meter. If you can not get the Vref on the readout of the reference flow meter, than the
bypass need to be readjusted : come back to step 8.
15. Linearity adjustment : Apply a 2.50 VDC setpoint to the unit ( i.e. ask to the unit to
regulate at 50% of the full scale). Then look at the readout given by the reference flow
and compare it to half of Vref calculated at step 6.
16. The readout of the reference flow meter should be equal to half of Vref. If not, adjust
the LINEARITY potentiometer R29 to get half of Vref on the readout of the reference
flow meter.
17. Check again the ZERO as explained in step 3. the gain potentiometer as explained in
step 11 and the linearity potentiometer as explained in step 12. Check the 3
potentiometers neither of the 3 need to be adjusted.
3.2
VALVE ADJUSTMENT
4.2.0. NORMALLY OPEN VALVE
In this valve version, there is a screw and a locknut on the top of the magnet.
Adjustment:
1. Remove electrical connector.
2. Connect a reference flow meter before the unit.
3. Apply inlet gas pressure to : 1.5 bars for 30 slm, 2 bars for 50 slm, 2.5 bars for 100
slm and 3 bars for a 200 slm full scale.
4. Adjust screw until desired flow is reached. Lock with nut.
4.2.1. NORMALLY CLOSE VALVE
There is normally few external valve adjustment necessary on the normally close version
however :
1. Connect the unit to gas supply
2. Adjust setpoint to 5.00 V (100% full scale).
3. Apply inlet gas pressure to maximum working pressure required for application.
4. Check that the power supply of the valve when flow is stable is between 8 and 10 V.
If not :
1. Switch of the gas
2. Remove screws 41, magnet 25A.
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3. Adjust the spring 6 by turning ring 31 across the crown spring of the top ring 29.
4. Put magnet 25A, then screw the threaded rods 39 and nuts 41
5. Apply inlet gas pressure to maximum working pressure required for application.
6. Check that the power supply of the valve when flow is stable is between 8 and 10 V. If
not come back to step 5.
7. Connect a reference flow meter before the unit.
8. Remove electrical connector.
9. Check the valve closing is good : less than 2% of the flow ie less than 100 mV on the
readout of the reference flow meter. If not disassemble the valve and assemble it
again.
10. If the magnet (step 6) or the whole valve (step12) have been dismounted leak test
must be performed.
3.3
CHANGE OF CALIBRATION
3.3.0. NORMALLY OPEN VALVE
Follow 4.3. “Valve adjustment”, then 4.2 “Potentiometers adjustment”
3.3.1. NORMALLY CLOSE VALVE
Follow 4.2 “Potentiometers adjustment”, then 4.3. “Valve adjustment”.
3.4
DYNAMIC RESPONSE ADJUSTMENT
Transient response is adjusted by C6, C3, R24, R11. However AFC 202 is working with high
flow and overshoot phenomenon can be critical. So it is not recommended to change the
factory adjustment. Contact you local supplier for special application.
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SECTION 4 – MAINTENANCE
4.0
GENERAL
No routine maintenance is required on the meters or controllers, other than occasional
cleaning and re-calibration :
After 3 or 4 years when the unit is run with a ultra-clean and non corrosive gas.
After 1 or 2 years when the unit is run with a low purity gas and/or a corrosive gas.
Cleaning can be performed by removing the unit from the system, cleaning inlet and outletfittings separately and pumping alternately reverse and forward for 5 minutes in each
direction with a solvent system (one micron maximum absolute filtration).
Next, the unit must be blown with N2 for 30 minutes minimum.
Reinstall cleaned fittings.
In extreme cases of contamination, it may be necessary to separately clean the sensor, the
bypass and the valve.
4.1. DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY PROCEDURES
If you disassemble the mass flow controller, it will need recalibration in order to reach the
specifications given in this manual. If the mass flow controller appears to have a fault, first
perform the checks in the troubleshooting section, as it may not be necessary to dismantle
the valve. Prior to disassembly, make sure the unit has been purged with a dry inert gas.
WARNING : if it becomes necessary to remove the controller from the system after exposure
to toxic, pyrophoric, flammable or corrosive gas, purge the controller thoroughly with a dry
inert gas such as nitrogen, before disconnecting the gas connections. Failure to purge the
controller could cause a fire or explosion resulting in death.
CAUTION : the electronic circuitry contains CMOS and NMOS components. These are easily
damaged by static electricity, and usual precautions should be taken when installing,
dismantling or adjusting the mass flow controller.
4.1.0 DISASSEMBLY PROCEDURE
0. Remove any mounting plate that may be under the mass-flow.
1. Unscrew in- and outlet-fittings 7 and 8 with a 1" wrench.
2. Unscrew 14 and remove the cover 19.
3. Remove the sensor-screws 15 with a 2.5mm hex screw driver, after having the lead wires
unsoldered from the p.c. board. Handle the sensor 2 with care.
4. Remove the screw 33 in the bottom of the valve.
5. Unsolder the magnet actuator wire from the pc board, then remove the 4 screws which
hold the magnet to valve body. Then carefully lift the magnet. Do not turn the mass-flow
controller now.
6. Carefully remove the top housing 24 with the bellows and plunger assembly from the
valve housing 23. Then carefully unscrew the lower bellow.
7. Remove the 4 screws 9 in the top of the top housing 24 which hold the top ring assy 29.
Then remove the bushing 32.
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Note: If o-rings are dirty, cut or cracked, they have to be exchanged with appropriate new,
clean ones.
4.1.1 ASSEMBLY PROCEDURE
First mount sensor, inlet and outlet fittings.
Caution : The sensor capillary sometimes extends beyond the seals o-rings. When
positioned on the base without verifying that capillary ends fit in the holes in the base, the
capillary can be bend or damaged. Therefore, center the sensor by means of the mounting
screws, hold it up and then fasten the screws.
Normally open valve
1. Check the quality of the contact between 3/8" ball and its seat on top housing 24. Both
parts should be polished without any scratch.
2. Place upper bellow 40 in top housing 24.
3. Select number of washers M3, crown spring 30 and ball, so that the end of the stem of
the upper bellow assy is 1 to 1.5 mm below top surface of the top housing (with ball on
the seat).
4. Select now place of the crown spring between the washers so that when the crown spring
is on its seat, the ball is lifted halfway the space adjusted in step 3 (0.5 to 0.75 mm).
Note : keep ball, washers and crown spring together with nut M3.
5. Now, lengthen carefully the upper bellow so that it just contact the crown spring.
6. Mounting assy in top housing.
7. Place spring 6 over the upper bellow. Add spring adjustment ring 31 and screw these
over half way the thread length.
8. Place the O-ring over the upper bellow and put in place in the top.
Caution :
The O-ring must be very clean ( clean with alcohol if necessary) without any
scratch. Same think for its chamber in the top housing. If not, very small leak may occur and
with time full the top housing with high pressure with consequence that the valve will stay
permanently in open position.
9. Place bushing 32, topring 29 and the 4 M3 screws 9, do not yet tighten.
10. Preparing lower bellow assy : Be assured there is no gap between bellow and and the
part screw at the bottom. Unscrew and counter sunk the bellow part as necessary.
11. Now, screw and tighten the lower bellow to the stem, coming out the top housing (remove
first the M3 nut putted during step 4).
12. Press on the stem, so to center the ball into the seat, then tighten the 4 screws 9. Tight
the screws togother in order to keep the inner assy in its centered position.
13. Adjust the lower bellow lenght at 47.5mm as when it will be mounted into the housing 23
it should not be compressed or extended.
14. Assemble top housing 24 to the housing 23 with O-ring 37 on bellow assy and O-rings 36
and 38 on top housing but without magnet in place for first leak test of the O-ring 26.
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15. Assemble top housing now with O-rings 36 and with magnet in place.
16. Adjust valve according the normally open valve adjustment procedure then test the valve.
17. Do final leak test
Normally close valve
1. Check the quality of the contact between 3/8" ball and its seat on top housing 24A. Both
parts should be polished without any scratch.
2. Place upper bellow 40 in top housing 24A and adjust bellow by pulling or pushing so that
the top of the upper bellow stem 40 is adjusted to the top of the housing 24A.
3. Remove upper bellow 40.
4. Place washers M3 27 over stem and place crown spring 30. Add washers that crown
spring 30 just touches the bottom of the bellow assy (+/- 0.5 mm). ( Normal value : 3
washers of 0.8 mm ).
5. Place the assy 40 (up side down) in top housing 24 and put on solid surface (seat up).
Now place ball over the stem from 40 with ball O-ring grove faced to the seat. Look for
contacting ball to seat. And measure the exposed end of M3 from the stem (length is A).
6. Disassemble again. Place now the ball 29 over the stem (same way as above) and screw
a M3 nut on the stem. Adjust nut to the same dimension as A.
7. Measure space B between crown spring and ball. Disassemble ball and nut M3.
8. Prepare a package of small washes M3 27 to a thickness B. (Normal value : 6 washers of
0.8 mm. May be necessary to put 5 0.8mm + 1 0.5mm or 5 0.8mm + 2 0.5mm).
9. Mounting assy in top housing.
10. Place spring 6 over the upper bellow. Add spring adjustment ring 31, screw these over
half way the thread length.
11. Place the O-ring 26 over the upper bellow and put in place in the top housing.
Caution :
The O-ring 26 must be very clean ( clean with alcohol if necessary) without any
scratch. Same think for its chamber in the top housing. If not, very small leak
may occur and with time full the top housing with high pressure with
consequence that the valve will stay permanently in open position.
12. Place package washers B, O ring 28 and the ball over the stem and place M 3 nut to
prevent dropping of the parts.
13. Place bushing 32, topring assy 29 and the 4 M3 screws 9, do not yet tight.
14. Preparing lower bellow assy: Be assured there is no gap between bellow and the part
screwed at the bottom. Unscrew and counter sunk the bellow part as necessary.
15. Now, screw and tighten the lower bellow to the stem, coming out the top housing (remove
first the M3 nut putted during step 12).
16. Adjust the lower bellow at 47.5mm as when it will be mounted into the housing 23 it
should not be compressed or extended.
AFC 202 User’s Manual
17
D-10-032 V00
17. Assemble top housing to the housing 23 with O-ring 27 on bellow assy and O-rings 36,
38 but without magnet in place for first leak test of O-ring 26. Do not forget the snap ring
on the top of the upper bellow stem 40.
18. Assemble top housing with magnet in place. Do not Install the O-rings 36 with inert gas.
19. Test valve.
20. Do final leak test.
Note : For leak testing of the AFC 202 normally close it is necessary to put power on it to
open the valve or pumping down from inlet and outlet side at the same time.
4.2. SENSOR CLEANING AND REPLACEMENT
If it is determined that the sensor is contaminated, flush with a solvent in hypodermic needle,
while running a small wire (0.15 mm diameter, available on request).
Do not immerse the entire sensor assembly in a solvent; the solvent will keep under the
cover and destroy or at least change the sensor characteristics. Slow dry with nitrogen.
If the sensor resistance has changed or even open circuit is measured, the assembly should
be replaced. The measured resistance between red and green (R1) and between red and
yellow (R2) must be between 160 and 190 Ω and ΩR = R2-R1 must be less than ±1 Ω.
Check also that there is no short-circuit between the tube and the red wire.
Examine the sensor seals, and replace when damaged.
4.2. VALVE CLEANING AND REPLACEMENT
After having disassembly the valve, the status of the shut-off ball and the seat in the top
housing can be examined. The shut-off ball can be cleaned with alcohol, freon or even a HF
solution (5% HF, 95% deionised water).
The conical seat and the ball can be treated with solvent and a felt tip. If appropriate
polishing equipment is available, the seat and shut-off ball can be polished.
After polishing, the parts must be cleaned.
If the critical parts are unfortunately corroded or attacked too much, replace.
Afterwards, follow assembling instruction and adjustment instruction.
AFC 202 User’s Manual
18
D-10-032 V00
SECTION 5 - TROUBLESHOOTING
5.0
INITIAL CHECK.
1.
Check the set-up and procedure against installation instructions. Permanent damage to the
unit may result if purging procedures are not followed, or if a line power is accidentally
applied to the signal leads.
Test line cord for compliance with pin assignment, and continuity from all wires to correct
pins. Use hipot tester to check for any pin-to –pin shorts ; during this test, flex the cable
coming out of the connector to find intermittent shorts.
Check insulation resistance from pins to base. All except pin 1 should exceed 50 MΩ at 50
VDC. Pin 1 to base should measure less than 1 Ω.
2.
3.
5.1
SYMPTOMS.
Symptom
No output
Possible Cause
Faulty meter
Remedy
Read output at pins 3 and 2 directly with
alternate meter.
Check pressure, valve positions line or
filter blockage.
Follow Sensor Cleaning Maintenance
Follow Valve Cleaning Maintenance
See below
Check input / output voltages (±15VDC,
+5VDC).
No actual Flow
Sensor clogged
Valve closed
Electronics failure
Faulty power supply
Symptom
Maximum signal (between
150% and 200% of full
scale
Possible Cause
Remedy
Check valve voltage as measured across
valve lead wires. Valve should close
when voltage rises to 14 Volt for normally
open and valve should open when
voltage rises to 14 volt for normally close.
a) Indication correct: flow is
high
Valve defective
b) Indication erroneous
Open resistance on sensor
element
Electronics failure
Replace sensor
Electronics not adjusted
Follow Potentiometers Adjustment
procedure
Follow General Maintenance or Valve
Cleaning/Replacement procedure
See below
Adjust valve (Valve Adjustment
procedure) or replace valve (Change of
Calibration procedure)
Signal offset at zero flow
Valve will not close
Contamination
Electronic failure
Mechanical damage from
overpressure or other cause
Valve will not open
AFC 202 User’s Manual
Operation on wrong gas(often
the case when tested with H2,
He or Ar).
Contamination
Electrically commanded
closed or potentiometer
19
See below
Test on proper gas
Follow General Maintenance or Valve
Cleaning/Replacement procedure Check
command signal (pins A and B) and pot.
D-10-032 V00
shorted.
Check for electronics failure
Clogged inlet fitting screen,
appearing as closed valve.
Clean filter screen.
Valve controls at higher
flow rates, but not at
minimum
Contamination
Erosion or corrosion, improper
adjustment or inadequate
drive
Follow General Maintenance or Valve
Cleaning/Replacement procedure
Follow Valve Cleaning/Replacement
procedure
Adjust valve (Valve Adjustment
procedure)
Symptom
Valve oscillate or hunts
Possible Cause
Jumpy pressure regulator
Improper system dynamics
due to excessive inlet
pressure.
Improper dynamics in
electronics.
Remedy
Replace
Reduce upstream pressure regulator
setting
General failure or
miscalibration
Power supply voltage not
nominal
Check +15 VDC, -15 VDC and +5.00
VDC
Flow indication saturated
(0.7 or +12 VDC)
regardless of flow
Bridge or sensor failure
See Dynamic Response Adjustment.
Valve drive open or
saturated
Check sensor resistance
Voltage Yellow to common (8 to 10 VDC)
Pin 6 to common should read
-6.2 ±.2 VDC.
Component Failure
Check R3, R9, other- components and
solder joints.
TS2 open or short, IC LM-324 Check TS2, LM-324 and other
failed.
components.
All circuit functional but out
of calibration
Contamination, or as a result
of cleaning or repairing.
+ 5.00 VDC not nominal
Unit controls but output
voltage does not agree with
Large input voltage offset in
potentiometer setting
Op Amp A.
C6 leaks
Adjust (see Adjustment procedure)
Check supply. Adjust if necessary.
Check and replace if necessary.
Replace.
SECTION 6 - WARRANTY AND SERVICES
6.0
PRODUCT WARRANTY
1. Qualiflow products are guaranteed against defects in materials and workmanship for
a period of one year from the date of shipment, if used in accordance with
specifications and not subject to physical damage, contamination, alteration or
retrofit.
2. Buyers undertake to check and inspect the goods and to notify Qualiflow of shipment
incidents by fax, phone or e-mail as soon as possible after receipting the goods.
3. During the warranty period, products must only be repaired by authorized Qualiflow
service centers; otherwise, the Qualiflow product warranty will be invalidated.
AFC 202 User’s Manual
20
D-10-032 V00
4. Repairs will be performed free of charge during the one-year warranty period. If MFCs
are out of warranty, Qualiflow will notify the owner of replacement or repair costs
before proceeding. Factory service and repairs are guaranteed 90 days. The warranty
excludes consumable materials and wear parts (in teflon, viton, etc.).
5. No MFC will be accepted for repair or warranty without a decontamination and purge
certificate.
6. Each MFC is individually checked (visual inspection of fittings, helium leak test and
flow calibration). Qualiflow shall not be responsible for any damage caused by gas
leakage or the use of a dangerous gas. Users are responsible for following the safety
rules applicable to each gas they use. Improper use of a Qualiflow MFC will void the
warranty, and MFCs that have been damaged as a result of improper use will not be
replaced by Qualiflow.
7. Specific warranty requirements are as follows :
a. Gas must be clean and particle-free, which means a filter must be fitted in the
gas line upstream of the MFC.
b. Gas must comply with the following pressure specifications:
i. Gas pressure must never exceed 10 bars.
ii. Differential pressure must be more than 500 mbar for full-scale flow
through the MFC valve.
iii. Differential pressure must be less than 3 bars for the MFC valve to
regulate without gas-flow oscillation.
iv. Pressure at the mass-flow inlet must be regulated by an accurate
pressure regulator to prevent gas-flow oscillation.
c. Electrical connection requirements are as follows:
i. The system must be wired carefully: non-observance of the pinout may
irreversibly damage the electronic board inside the MFC, in which case
the warranty will be invalidated.
ii. A stable power supply is required, with ripple below 5mV.
d. Gas connections: the VCR gland must be handled carefully. Qualiflow
guarantees that all glands have been individually inspected and are scratchfree.
e. Fitting procedure: the fitting procedure set out in the manual must be followed
meticulously. Specifically, the purge procedure is very important if corrosive
gases or toxic gases are used.
f. The mass-flow must not be dismounted: the MFC warranty will be invalidated
if the seal between the MFC block and cover is torn.
6.1
SERVICES
QUALIFLOW Products Engineers will help you to solve your problems regarding operation,
calibration, connection, gas flows, gas mixture, etc…
We deliver technical support or maintenance within 24 hours.
QUALIFLOW offers factory training on mass flow controllers.
Visit www.qualiflow.com and find your nearest repair and calibration center.
AFC 202 User’s Manual
21
D-10-032 V00
APPENDIX A PART NUMBER DESCRIPTION
[ t, t, t ] [ v ] [ s ] [ f, f ] [ r, r, r, r ] [ g, g, g ] [ m ] - [ o, o ]
[ t ]- Type
- [ 100 ] for AFM 10
- [ 260 ] for AFC 260 or AFM 360
- [ 261 ] for AFC 261 or AFM 361
- [ 202 ] for AFC 202 or AFM 302
- [ 500 ] for AFC 50 or AFM 55
- [ 700 ] for AFC 70
- [ 800 ] for AFC 80 or AFM 85
- [ 900 ] for AFC 90 or AFM 95
[ v ]- Valve Configuration
- [ N ] for No valve (only for AFM)
- [ O ] for Advanced Flow Controller Normally Open
- [ C ] for Advanced Flow Controller Normally Close
[ s ]- Seals
- [ V ] for Viton
- [ N ] for Neoprene
- [ K ] for Kalrez
- [ M ] for Metal
[ f, f ] Inlet and Outlet Fittings
- [ SB ] for B-SEAL - [ SC ] for C-SEAL
- [ SW ] for W-SEAL
- [ SZ ] for Z-SEAL
Or specify first Inlet, then Outlet.
- [ F ] for 1/4" VCR Female
- [ B ] for Swagelok 1/8"
- [ M ] for 1/4" VCR Male
- [ C ] for Swagelok 1/4"
- [ L ] for 1/4" VCR High Flow Male
- [ G ] for Swagelok 6mm
- [ N ] for 1/4" VCR High Flow Female
- [ H ] for Swagelok 3/8"
- [ D ] for 3/8" VCR Female
- [ K ] for 1/8" BSPP (AFM 10 only)
- [ E ] for 3/8" VCR Male
[ r, r, r, r ]- Flow rate
Specify C for sccm, L for slm.
Example :
- 200C for 200 sccm
- 030L for 30 slm
[ g, g, g ]- Gas Process
See chart on the left page
[ m ]- Mounting Position
- [ H ] for Horizontal
- [ U ] for Vertical Inlet Up
- [ D ] for Vertical Inlet Down
[ o, o ]- Options
AFC 260
AFC 261
AFC 202
AFC 50
AFC 70/80/90
AFM 360
AFM 361
AFM 302
AFM 55
AFM 10 AFM 85/95
- [ L ] for Low Delta Pressure
.
.
.
.
.
.
a
a
.
a
- [ S ] for Separated Electronics
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
.
a
- [ E ] for External Readout
.
a
.
a
.
a
.
a
.
a
- [ D ] for Digital Card
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
.
Standard
- If Digital [ N ] for DeviceNet
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
.
a
[ R ] for RS485 / MODBUS
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
.
a
[ x ] for nb of calibr. curves
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
.
a
- [ 61] for AFC 50 compatible AFC 261
.
.
.
.
.
.
a
a
.
.
- [ P ] for Special Pitch
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
.
a
- [ T ] for Low Temperature Sensitivity
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
a
- [ A ] for High Accuracy
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
a
.
- [ B ] for Brass body
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
a
.
- [ C ] for Signal 4 to 20 mA
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
a
.
- [ M ] for Power Supply +24 VDC
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
a
a
AFC 202 User’s Manual
22
D-10-032 V00
APPENDIX B GAS PROCESS NUMBER
Symbol
Gas Name
Number
NH3
Ar
AsH3
BCl3
CO
CCl4
Cl2
B2H6
SiH2Cl2
CHF3
CCl2F2
CF4
GeH4
He
H2
HCl
C2F6
Kr
CH4
CH3SiCl3
N2
NO2
NF3
N2O
O2
O3
PH3
C3H8
SiH4
SiF4
Si2H6
SO2
SF6
TiCl4
C4F8
SiHCl3
Air
Ammonia
Argon
Arsine
Boron Trichloride
Carbon Monoxide
Carbon Tetrafluoride
Chlorine
Dibirane
Dichlorosilane
Fluoroform
Freon-12
Freon-14
Germane
Helium
Hydrogen
Hydrogen Chloride
Hexafluoroethane
Krypton
Methane
Methyltrichlorosilane
Nitrogen
Nitrogen Dioxide
Nitrogen Trifluoride
Nitrous Oxide
Oxygen
Ozone
Phosphine
Propane
Silane
Silicon Tetrafluoride
Disilane
Sulphur Dioxide
Sulphur Hexafluoride
Titanium Tetrachloride
Octafluorocyclodutane
Trichlorosilane
008
029
004
035
070
009
101
019
058
067
049
084
063
043
001
007
011
118
005
028
183
013
026
053
027
015
030
031
089
039
088
097
032
110
114
129
147
AFC 202 User’s Manual
23
Density
SEMI E520298
1.2929
0.7710
1.7842
3.481
5.26
1.2500
6.86
3.209
1.24
4.54
3.125
5.5
3.96
3.423
0.1788
0.0899
1.635
6.16
3.73
0.7166
6.670
1.2503
6.675
3.173
1.98
1.429
Sp. Heat
C
[ cal/g/°C ]
0.2401
0.519
0.1246
0.1178
0.130
0.495
0.141
0.116
0.495
0.141
0.173
0.149
0.167
0.138
1.242
3.400
0.1937
0.185
0.0596
0.528
0.164
0.2484
0.194
0.178
0.206
0.2183
1.000
0.68
1.453
0.666
0.40
1.000
0.309
0.83
0.44
0.43
0.506
0.34
0.41
0.58
1.454
1.016
0.981
0.24
1.45
0.722
0.250
1.000
0.41
0.434
0.206
0.996
1.523
1.98
1.438
4.68
0.2607
0.392
0.3188
0.168
0.688
0.35
0.596
0.35
2.91
6.5
8.465
0.149
0.1590
0.22
0.67
0.27
0.30
6.047
0.130
0.348
D-10-032 V00
APPENDIX C EXPLODED VIEW OF THE AFC 202
AFC 202 User’s Manual
24
D-10-032 V00
Item
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
7A
8
8A
9
10
10A
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
24 A
25
25A
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
36A
37
38
39
40
41
AFC 202 User’s Manual
qty
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
2
2
1
2
4
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
x
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
4
2
0
1
1
4
1
4
Description
High flow meter base
Sensor Assy
P.C. Assy
Plate print
Bypass assy
Spring
Intlet fitting 3/8" sw
Intlet fitting 3/8" VCR
Outlet fitting 3/8" sw
Outlet fitting 3/8" VCR
Screw M3x8 hex head
Fitting plate assy AFM 302 sw
Fitting plate assy AFM 302 VCR
O-ring 25x2 (Viton)
O-ring 910 (Viton)
Sensor seal (Viton)
Screws M3x16 pan head
Screws M3x10 Hex head
Screws M3x5 pan head
Screws M4x10 hex head
Screws M5x10 hex head
cover
Sticker name plate
Sticker gas range & S/N
Sticker pin assignment
Valve housing 1
Valve top housing Normaly.Open.
Valve top housing Normaly.Close.
Magnet actuator Normaly.Open.
Magnet actuator Normaly.Close.
O-ring 20x2 Viton
Adjustment washer M3
O-ring 3x1 viton
Assy top ring
Crown spring
Spring adjustment ring
Bushing 1
Screw M3x5 pan head
Oring 25x2 viton
screw M5x50 hex head
Oring 37x2 viton
Do not use on normaly close.
Oring 904 viton
Oring 16x2 viton
Threated rod M5x120
Assy inner valve 202
nut M5
25
PN
580812011.11
997200000
Q5180001.**.04.
580812062.11
280812030.00
800100204
2055880-02
2055880-01
500210005
800211203
808092028
580212030.11
580213020.11
580810230.11
580810180.11
580810180.21
500600001.NO
500600001.NC
808092043
808092040
580810200.11.assy
580810040.11
580810190.11
580810210.11
808092044
808092045
808092031
808122001
717Q001.**.02
580810240.00
D-10-032 V00
APPENDIX D GENERAL MFC PRINCIPLES
Mass Flow Controllers (MFCs) are used wherever accurate measurement and control of a
mass flow of gas is required independently of flow pressure change and temperature change
in a given range.
Mass Flow Meters (MFMs) are used wherever accurate measurement of gas is required
without control of the flow which is done by another device.
To help understand how an MFC works, it can be separated into 4 main components: a
bypass, a sensor, an electronic board and a regulating valve :
The bypass, the sensor, and one part of the electronic board are the measurement side of
the mass-flow controller and makes a Mass Flow Meter.
The regulating valve and the other part of the electronic board are the controlling side of the
mass-flow controller and exist only on a Mass-Flow Controller.
So every Mass-Flow Controller includes a Mass-Flow Meter.
MEASUREMENT PRINCIPLES
The flow is divided between a heated sensing tube (the sensor), where the mass flow is
actually measured, and a flow restriction or bypass, where the majority of flow passes.
The bypass is designed in a way that flow thru the sensor and thru the bypass is always
proportional to the flow range for which the mass-flow is build.
The sensor is designed to deliver an output voltage almost proportional to the gas flow
circulating thru it which is due to the bypass design proportional to the total flow circulating
thru the mass-flow meter or controller.
The electronics board amplifies and linearizes the sensor signal so the output of the
electronics board named “readout” gives a signal proportional to the total flow circulating thru
the mass-flow meter or controller. Most of the time this signal is a 0-5 V voltage signal. 0
means “no flow” and 5 V means Full scale of the mass-flow. The full scale is the maximum
flow for which the mass-flow is designed and calibrated to work with a good accuracy. It is
always written on the stickers which are on the top of the cover and the side of the massflow stainless steel base. Also written on the sticker is the gas for which the mass-flow is
calibrated to work with.
AFC 202 User’s Manual
26
D-10-032 V00
Why using a bypass ? Because the sensor element can only measure small flow (typically 5
sccm). So the bypass allow to measure greater amount of flow. On a 5 sccm full scale massflow, there is no bypass, all the gas flows thru the sensor. On a 100 sccm full scale massflow, the bypass is adjusted as when 100 sccm flow thru the mass-flow 5 sccm will flow thru
the sensor and 95 sccm will flow thru the bypass.
SENSORS PRINCIPLES
Basically, the sensor uses the thermal properties of a gas to directly measure the mass flow
rate. The sensor uses the basic principle that each gas molecule has a specific ability to pick
up heat. This property, called the "specific heat" (Cp), directly relates to the mass and
physical structure of the molecule and can be determined experimentally. The specific heat is
well known for many gases and is generally insensitive to changes in temperature or
pressure.
By adding heat to a gas and monitoring the change in temperature, the mass flow rate can
be determined. To illustrate this concept, take the case of cool gas flowing through a heated
tube. Mathematically, the heat loss can be described by the First Law of Thermodynamics,
q = F. Cp ∆T
Where
q is the heat lost to the gas flow,
F is the mass flow,
Cp is the specific heat for a constant pressure,
∆T is the net change in gas temperature as it traverses the tube.
It is important to realize that both the specific heat and the flow rate determine the amplitude
of the heat flux. As the mass and physical structure of molecules vary widely from gas to gas,
so does the specific heat Cp. For the same molar flow rate, the heat flux can differ
significantly for different gases. If this heat flux is monitored, the amplitude can be converted
into an electrical signal. Given that the specific heat is known for the gas, then the mass flow
rate can be determined directly from the electrical signal.
Now the MFC sensor includes capillary tube wound with two heated resistance and
thermometers, measuring the change in temperature distribution created by the gas flowing
inside this tube :
heating current
Sensor schematic
For zero flow, the upstream and downstream temperature will be equal. The windings are
heated electrically to 80°C above the ambient temperature. When the gas is flowing, the
upstream region cools down whereas the downstream region heats up causing a
temperature gradient along, the length of the tube(see the sensor temperature profile figure).
AFC 202 User’s Manual
27
D-10-032 V00
2 Winded Resistances
HEATING
Sensor tube : Flow in
TEMPERATURE
NO FLOW
WITH
FLOW
Sensor tube : Flow in
R-δR
R+δR
δR = 1 Ω/sccm
2 Winded Resistances
Sensor temperature profile
Sensor m easurm ent
The coils of the heating resistances are made with a thermal sensitive wire so that the
temperature differences due to the flow are directly converted into resistances change.
Those resistance change are convert in voltage by a simple wheatston bridge.
working
zone
. 1
Cp
F
ρ
ρ .Cp .F
N
5 sccm
Gaz Flow
sensor response
For flow under 5 sccm the measurement is proportional to the flow with a coefficient which
depends on :
ρ : Volumic mass of the gas
Cp : specific heat for a constant pressure,
AFC 202 User’s Manual
28
D-10-032 V00
N : “spin factor” Constant which depend of the molecular structure of the gas and
compensates for the temperature dependence of Cp.
Value of N :
Monoatomic gas 1.04
Diatomic gas 1.00
Triatomic gas .94
Polyatomic gas .88
For flow higher then 5 sccm the sensor is first non linear then the measurement starts to
decrease with flow because the gas flow is too fast and cool the 2 winded resistances
instead of cooling the first one and heating the second one. This is the reason why bypass is
necessary for higher full scale than 5 sccm.
Also the fact that the coefficients N and Cp are different from one gas to another explains
why mass-flow can NOT be changed from one gas to another without using a special
coefficient to converter the measurement or recalibrate the mass-flow.
Because of sensor saturation, if flow is ten time the full scale, output will be almost “no flow”!
This will never happen on a mass-flow controller as the valve of the mass-flow will act as a
restriction and will not allow the gas to flow ten times the full scale. But it can easily
happened on a mass-flow meter, as, if there is no restriction on the gas line nothing in the
mass-flow meter will limit the gas flow.
BYPASS PRINCIPLES :
Acting as a restrictive element, the bypass is composed of a series of capillary tubes or
washers held in a special bypass ring. The ring fits around the body and may hold up to 24
tubes. The number of tubes and their diameter depend on the customer’s specifications of
gas type and flow range. For high flow rates the bypass tubes are replaced by a screen
bypass.
Bypass tubes
Bypass ring
Bypass tubes
Bypass tubes
Bypass washers (equivalent to several thin tubes)
AFC 202 User’s Manual
29
D-10-032 V00
The bypass principles are based on the laminar flow theory : When flow is laminar, the flow is
proportional to the differential pressure between inlet and outlet of the tube :
π..R 4
Fm = ρ..
.(Pup − Pdown )
8.η..l
ρ : Volumic mass of the gas
η : Viscosity of the gas
l : length of the tube
R : radius of the tube
So when a sensor tube (radius Rs, length ls) and a bypass tube are in parallel (radius Rb,
length lb), the flow in the sensor tube is proportional to the flow in the bypass :
Fs = Rs4.ls .Fb
Rb .lb
4
However this is true only if the flow is laminar so if the tube are small enough. This is way
bypass are made by several thin tube instead of only one tube.
It is important to notice that a mass-flow meter or controller measure the flow thru the sensor
which is not the total flow but only one part of the flow split by the bypass according to last
equation. In this equation radius of the sensor tube and bypass tube is at power 4.
Consequently any deposition in one of the tube changing the diameter will change the
accuracy of the measurement. Also because of the need to have a laminar flow, bypass tube
and sensor tube may have clogging. This why mass-flow meter and controller must be used
with clean, filtered gases.
CONTROL PRINCIPLES
The electronic compares the amplified mass flow rate value (measured by the sensor) to the
desired set point. This comparison generates an error signal that "feeds" the regulating valve.
The difference is used to drive the control valve. The control valve will proportionally open or
close until the output is equal to the setpoint.
Note that valve can be normally open or normally close. This is the position that will have the
valve when the mass-flow is not connected on power supply.
The valve can be actuated by a magnetic solenoid. Then it can be normally open or normally
close and response time of the valve itself is almost instantaneous. In practise response time
of the mass-flow controller is limited by the response time of the sensor. As sensor is based
on thermal exchange it takes 1 to 5 s for the sensor to measure a gas change. Several
techniques allows to increase this response time and allow to get on the best mass-flow
response time bellow 5s.
The valve can be also made by a heating wire which heat a small tube then dilation will move
a ball at the end of the tube. This kind of valve can be only normally open and is quite slow.
Mass-flow controller using such valve will have response time around 5 to 6 s for flow bellow
5 slm and up to 10 s for flow up to 5 slm !! However this technology is simple and reliable
and can be recommend for many low cost application when response time is not critical.
AFC 202 User’s Manual
30
D-10-032 V00
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