Discovering Computers Fundamentals: Your

Discovering Computers Fundamentals: Your
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Discovering Computers
FUNDAMENTALS
Your Interactive Guide to the Digital World
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Discovering Computers
FUNDAMENTALS
Your Interactive Guide to the Digital World
Gary B. Shelly
Misty E. Vermaat
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Gary B. Shelly
Misty E. Vermaat
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v
Discovering Computers — Fundamentals
Your Interactive Guide to the Digital World
Table of Contents at a Glance
Chapter 1
Introduction to Computers . . . . . . . . . . . .1
Special Feature
Timeline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37
Chapter 7
Operating Systems and
Utility Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .269
Special Feature
Buyer’s Guide: How To Purchase
Computers and Mobile Devices . . . . . 301
Chapter 2
The Internet and World Wide Web . . . . .55
Special Feature
Making Use of the Web . . . . . . . . . . . . . .91
Chapter 3
Application Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .107
Chapter 8
Communications and Networks . . . . .313
Chapter 9
Database Management. . . . . . . . . . . . . .351
Special Feature
Digital Communications . . . . . . . . . . . .141
Chapter 4
The Components of the System Unit 155
Chapter 5
Input and Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .187
Special Feature
Digital Video Technology . . . . . . . . . . . 231
Chapter 6
Storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .237
Chapter 10
Computer Security and Safety,
Ethics, and Privacy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .381
Chapter 11
Information System Development
and Programming Languages . . . . . . .417
Chapter 12
Enterprise Computing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .463
Special Feature
Living Digitally . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .501
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vi
Discovering Computers — Fundamentals
Table of Contents
CHAPTER
1
Introduction to Computers
1
A WORLD OF COMPUTERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
WHAT IS A COMPUTER? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Data and Information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Information Processing Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
THE COMPONENTS OF A COMPUTER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Input Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Output Devices. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
System Unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Storage Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Communication Devices. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF USING COMPUTERS . . . . . . 7
Advantages of Using Computers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Disadvantages of Using Computers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
NETWORKS AND THE INTERNET. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
COMPUTER SOFTWARE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
System Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Application Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Installing and Running Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Software Development. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
CATEGORIES OF COMPUTERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
PERSONAL COMPUTERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Desktop Computers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
MOBILE COMPUTERS AND MOBILE DEVICES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Notebook Computers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Mobile Devices. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
GAME CONSOLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
SERVERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
MAINFRAMES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
SUPERCOMPUTERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
EMBEDDED COMPUTERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
EXAMPLES OF COMPUTER USAGE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Home User . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Small Office/Home Office User . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Mobile User . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Power User. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Enterprise User. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
COMPUTER APPLICATIONS IN SOCIETY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Education. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Finance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Government . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Health Care . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Science . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Publishing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Travel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Manufacturing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
CHAPTER SUMMARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
COMPANIES ON THE CUTTING EDGE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Apple . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Amazon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
TECHNOLOGY TRAILBLAZERS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Bill Gates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Tom Anderson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
STUDENT ASSIGNMENTS: Chapter Review • Key Terms •
Checkpoint • Problem Solving • Learn How To •
Learn It Online • Web Research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 – 36
Special Feature
Timeline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 – 54
CHAPTER
2
The Internet and World Wide Web
55
THE INTERNET . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Connecting to the Internet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Access Providers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
How Data and Information Travel the Internet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Internet Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
THE WORLD WIDE WEB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Browsing the Web . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Web Addresses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Navigating Web Pages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
Searching the Web . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
Types of Web Sites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
Evaluating a Web Site . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
Multimedia on the Web . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
Web Publishing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
E-Commerce. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
OTHER INTERNET SERVICES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
E-Mail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
Mailing Lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
Instant Messaging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
Chat Rooms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
VoIP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
FTP. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
Newsgroups and Message Boards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
NETIQUETTE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
CHAPTER SUMMARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
COMPANIES ON THE CUTTING EDGE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Google . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
eBay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
TECHNOLOGY TRAILBLAZERS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Tim Berners-Lee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Mark Zuckerberg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
STUDENT ASSIGNMENTS: Chapter Review • Key Terms •
Checkpoint • Problem Solving • Learn How To •
Learn It Online • Web Research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 – 90
Special Feature
Making Use of the Web . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 – 106
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Discovering Computers — Fundamentals
CHAPTER
3
Application Software
CHAPTER
107
APPLICATION SOFTWARE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
The Role of System Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
Working with Application Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
BUSINESS SOFTWARE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
Word Processing Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
Developing a Document. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
Spreadsheet Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
Database Software. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
Presentation Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
Note Taking Software. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
Business Software Suite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
Project Management Software. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
Personal Information Manager Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
Business Software for Phones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
Accounting Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
Document Management Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
Enterprise Computing Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
GRAPHICS AND MULTIMEDIA SOFTWARE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
Computer-Aided Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
Desktop Publishing Software (for the Professional) . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
Paint/Image Editing Software (for the Professional). . . . . . . . . . . . 121
Video and Audio Editing Software (for the Professional) . . . . . . . . 122
Multimedia Authoring Software. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
Web Page Authoring Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
SOFTWARE FOR HOME, PERSONAL, AND EDUCATIONAL USE . . . . . . 123
Personal Finance Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
Legal Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
Tax Preparation Software. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
Desktop Publishing Software (for Personal Use) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
Paint/Image Editing Software (for Personal Use) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
Clip Art/Image Gallery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
Video and Audio Editing Software (for Personal Use). . . . . . . . . . . 126
Home Design/Landscaping Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
Travel and Mapping Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
Reference and Educational Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
Entertainment Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
WEB APPLICATIONS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
APPLICATION SOFTWARE FOR COMMUNICATIONS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
LEARNING TOOLS FOR APPLICATION SOFTWARE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
Web-Based Training . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
CHAPTER SUMMARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
COMPANIES ON THE CUTTING EDGE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
Adobe Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
Microsoft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
TECHNOLOGY TRAILBLAZERS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
Dan Bricklin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
Masayoshi Son. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
STUDENT ASSIGNMENTS: Chapter Review • Key Terms •
Checkpoint • Problem Solving • Learn How To •
Learn It Online • Web Research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 – 140
Special Feature
vii
Contents
4
The Components of the System Unit
155
THE SYSTEM UNIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
The Motherboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
PROCESSOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159
The Control Unit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159
The Arithmetic Logic Unit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
Machine Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
The System Clock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
Comparison of Personal Computer Processors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
DATA REPRESENTATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
MEMORY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
Bytes and Addressable Memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
Memory Sizes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
Types of Memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
RAM. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
Cache. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
ROM. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
Flash Memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
CMOS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
Memory Access Times . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
EXPANSION SLOTS AND ADAPTER CARDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
Removable Flash Memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
PORTS AND CONNECTORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
USB Ports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
FireWire Ports. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
Other Ports. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
Port Replicators and Docking Stations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
BUSES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
BAYS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
POWER SUPPLY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
KEEPING YOUR COMPUTER OR MOBILE DEVICE CLEAN . . . . . . . . . . . 177
CHAPTER SUMMARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
COMPANIES ON THE CUTTING EDGE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
NVIDIA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
Intel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
TECHNOLOGY TRAILBLAZERS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
Jack Kilby . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
Gordon Moore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
STUDENT ASSIGNMENTS: Chapter Review • Key Terms •
Checkpoint • Problem Solving • Learn How To •
Learn It Online • Web Research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180 – 186
CHAPTER
5
Input and Output
187
WHAT IS INPUT? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188
KEYBOARD AND POINTING DEVICES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
The Keyboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
Mouse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
Trackball. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
Digital Communications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141 – 154
Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Licensed to: CengageBrain User
viii
Contents
Discovering Computers — Fundamentals
Touchpad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
Pointing Stick . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
TOUCH SCREENS AND TOUCH-SENSITIVE PADS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
Touch-Sensitive Pads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
PEN INPUT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .194
OTHER TYPES OF INPUT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
Other Input for Smart Phones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
Game Controllers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
Digital Cameras . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
Voice Input. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198
Video Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199
Scanners and Reading Devices. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
Biometric Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
Terminals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
WHAT IS OUTPUT? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206
DISPLAY DEVICES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
LCD Monitors and LCD Screens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
Plasma Monitors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210
CRT Monitors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210
PRINTERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
Producing Printed Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212
Nonimpact Printers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213
Ink-Jet Printers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213
Photo Printers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214
Laser Printers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214
Multifunction Peripherals. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
Thermal Printers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
Mobile Printers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216
Plotters and Large-Format Printers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216
Impact Printers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
OTHER OUTPUT DEVICES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
Speakers, Headphones, and Earbuds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
Data Projectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218
Interactive Whiteboards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218
PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219
INPUT AND OUTPUT DEVICES FOR PHYSICALLY
CHALLENGED USERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220
CHAPTER SUMMARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222
COMPANIES ON THE CUTTING EDGE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
Logitech . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
HP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
TECHNOLOGY TRAILBLAZERS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
Douglas Engelbart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
Ursula Burns. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
STUDENT ASSIGNMENTS: Chapter Review • Key Terms •
Checkpoint • Problem Solving • Learn How To •
Learn It Online • Web Research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224 – 230
Special Feature
Digital Video Technology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231 – 236
CHAPTER
6
Storage
237
STORAGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238
HARD DISKS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .240
Characteristics of a Hard Disk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242
RAID. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244
NAS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244
External and Removable Hard Disks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244
Miniature Hard Disks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245
Hard Disk Controllers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246
Maintaining Data Stored on a Hard Disk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246
FLASH MEMORY STORAGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247
Solid State Drives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247
Memory Cards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248
USB Flash Drives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250
ExpressCard Modules. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250
CLOUD STORAGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251
OPTICAL DISCS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252
CDs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254
DVDs and Blu-ray Discs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256
OTHER TYPES OF STORAGE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256
Tape . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257
Magnetic Stripe Cards and Smart Cards. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257
Microfilm and Microfiche . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258
Enterprise Storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258
PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259
CHAPTER SUMMARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260
COMPANIES ON THE CUTTING EDGE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261
Seagate Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261
SanDisk Corporation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261
TECHNOLOGY TRAILBLAZERS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261
Al Shugart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261
Mark Dean . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261
STUDENT ASSIGNMENTS: Chapter Review • Key Terms •
Checkpoint • Problem Solving • Learn How To •
Learn It Online • Web Research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262 – 268
CHAPTER
7
Operating Systems
and Utility Programs
269
SYSTEM SOFTWARE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270
OPERATING SYSTEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271
OPERATING SYSTEM FUNCTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272
Starting and Shutting Down a Computer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272
Providing a User Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272
Managing Programs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273
Managing Memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275
Coordinating Tasks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275
Configuring Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276
Establishing an Internet Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276
Monitoring Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277
Providing File Management and Other Utilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277
Updating Software Automatically . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277
Controlling a Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277
Administering Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278
TYPES OF OPERATING SYSTEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279
STAND-ALONE OPERATING SYSTEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280
Windows 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280
Mac OS X . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281
UNIX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281
Linux . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282
SERVER OPERATING SYSTEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282
EMBEDDED OPERATING SYSTEMS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283
Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Licensed to: CengageBrain User
Discovering Computers — Fundamentals
UTILITY PROGRAMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284
File Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285
Search Utility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285
Uninstaller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285
Image Viewer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285
Disk Cleanup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286
Disk Defragmenter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286
Backup and Restore Utilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286
Screen Saver. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287
Personal Firewall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287
Antivirus Programs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288
Spyware and Adware Removers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289
Internet Filters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289
File Compression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290
Media Player . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290
Disc Burning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291
Personal Computer Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291
CHAPTER SUMMARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292
COMPANIES ON THE CUTTING EDGE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293
Verisign . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293
Research in Motion (RIM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293
TECHNOLOGY TRAILBLAZERS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293
Steve Wozniak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293
Linus Torvalds. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293
STUDENT ASSIGNMENTS: Chapter Review • Key Terms •
Checkpoint • Problem Solving • Learn How To •
Learn It Online • Web Research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294 – 300
Special Feature
Buyer’s Guide: How To Purchase
Computers and Mobile Devices . . . . . . . 301 – 312
CHAPTER
8
Communications and Networks
COMMUNICATIONS OVER THE TELEPHONE NETWORK . . . . . . . . . . . . 331
Dial-Up Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331
Dedicated Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331
COMMUNICATIONS DEVICES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333
Dial-Up Modems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333
Digital Modems: ISDN, DSL, and Cable. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333
Wireless Modems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334
Network Cards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334
Wireless Access Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 335
Routers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 335
HOME NETWORKS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336
Wired Home Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336
Wireless Home Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336
COMMUNICATIONS CHANNEL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337
PHYSICAL TRANSMISSION MEDIA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 339
Twisted-Pair Cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 339
Coaxial Cable. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 339
Fiber-Optic Cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340
WIRELESS TRANSMISSION MEDIA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340
Infrared . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341
Broadcast Radio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341
Cellular Radio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341
Microwaves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341
Communications Satellite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341
CHAPTER SUMMARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342
COMPANIES ON THE CUTTING EDGE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343
Cisco Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343
Verizon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343
TECHNOLOGY TRAILBLAZERS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343
Robert Metcalfe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343
Patricia Russo. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343
STUDENT ASSIGNMENTS: Chapter Review • Key Terms •
Checkpoint • Problem Solving • Learn How To •
Learn It Online • Web Research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344 – 350
313
CHAPTER
COMMUNICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314
USES OF COMPUTER COMMUNICATIONS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315
Blogs, Chat Rooms, E-Mail, Fax, FTP, Instant Messaging,
Internet, Newsgroups, RSS, Video Conferencing, VolP,
Web, Web 2.0, Web Folders, and Wikis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316
Wireless Messaging Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317
Wireless Internet Access Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 318
Cybercafés . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319
Global Positioning Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320
Collaboration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321
Groupware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321
Voice Mail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322
Web Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322
NETWORKS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322
LANs, MANs, and WANs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323
Network Architectures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325
Network Topologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326
Intranets. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328
Network Communications Standards. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328
COMMUNICATIONS SOFTWARE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330
ix
Contents
9
Database Management
351
DATABASES, DATA, AND INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352
Data Integrity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353
Qualities of Valuable Information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354
THE HIERARCHY OF DATA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355
Characters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355
Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355
Records . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 356
Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 356
MAINTAINING DATA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357
Adding Records . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357
Modifying Records . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357
Deleting Records . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358
Validating Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359
FILE PROCESSING VERSUS DATABASES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 361
File Processing Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 361
The Database Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 361
Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Licensed to: CengageBrain User
x
Contents
Discovering Computers — Fundamentals
DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363
Data Dictionary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 364
File Retrieval and Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 364
Data Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367
Backup and Recovery. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367
RELATIONAL, OBJECT-ORIENTED, AND
MULTIDIMENSIONAL DATABASES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368
Relational Databases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368
Object-Oriented Databases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369
Multidimensional Databases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 370
WEB DATABASES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 370
DATABASE ADMINISTRATION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371
Database Design Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371
Role of the Database Anaylsts and
Administrators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371
Role of the Employee as a User . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372
CHAPTER SUMMARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372
COMPANIES ON THE CUTTING EDGE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373
Oracle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373
Sybase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373
TECHNOLOGY TRAILBLAZERS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373
E. F. Codd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373
Larry Ellison . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373
STUDENT ASSIGNMENTS: Chapter Review • Key Terms •
Checkpoint • Problem Solving • Learn How To •
Learn It Online • Web Research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 374 – 380
CHAPTER
10
Computer Security and Safety,
Ethics, and Privacy
HEALTH CONCERNS OF COMPUTER USE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 398
Computers and Health Risks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 398
Ergonomics and Workplace Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 399
Computer Addiction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 399
ETHICS AND SOCIETY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 399
Information Accuracy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 400
Intellectual Property Rights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401
Green Computing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401
INFORMATION PRIVACY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 402
Electronic Profiles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 403
Cookies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 403
Spyware and Adware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 404
Spam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 404
Phishing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 405
Social Engineering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 405
Privacy Laws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 406
Employee Monitoring. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 407
Content Filtering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 407
CHAPTER SUMMARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 408
COMPANIES ON THE CUTTING EDGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409
McAfee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409
Symantec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409
TECHNOLOGY TRAILBLAZERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409
Richard Stallman . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409
Gene Spafford . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409
STUDENT ASSIGNMENTS: Chapter Review • Key Terms •
Checkpoint • Problem Solving • Learn How To •
Learn It Online • Web Research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 410 – 416
CHAPTER
381
COMPUTER SECURITY RISKS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 382
INTERNET AND NETWORK ATTACKS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384
Computer Viruses, Worms, Trojan Horses , and Rootkits. . . . . . . . . 384
Safeguards against Computer Viruses and Other Malware . . . . . . 385
Botnets. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387
Denial of Service Attacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387
Back Doors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 388
Spoofing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 388
Safeguards against Botnets, DoS Attacks, Back Doors,
and Spoofing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 388
Firewalls. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 388
Intrusion Detection Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 389
UNAUTHORIZED ACCESS AND USE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 389
Safeguards against Unauthorized Access and Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . 389
Identifying and Authenticating Users . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 389
Digital Forensics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 392
HARDWARE THEFT AND VANDALISM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 393
Safeguards against Hardware Theft and Vandalism . . . . . . . . . . . . 393
SOFTWARE THEFT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 393
Safeguards against Software Theft. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 393
INFORMATION THEFT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 395
Safeguards against Information Theft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 395
Encryption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 395
SYSTEM FAILURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 396
Safeguards against System Failure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 396
BACKING UP — THE ULTIMATE SAFEGUARD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 396
WIRELESS SECURITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 397
11
Information System Development
and Programming Languages
417
SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 418
Who Participates in System Development? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 419
Project Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 420
Feasibility Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 421
Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 422
Data and Information Gathering Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 422
What Initiates System Development? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 423
Horizon Community College — A Case Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 424
Planning Phase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425
Planning at Horizon Community College . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425
Analysis Phase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425
Preliminary Investigation at Horizon Community College . . . . . . . 427
Detailed Analysis at Horizon Community College . . . . . . . . . . . . . 428
Design Phase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 428
Hardware Acquisition at Horizon Community College . . . . . . . . . . 430
Detailed Design at Horizon Community College . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 432
Implementation Phase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 432
Implementation at Horizon Community College . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 434
Operation, Support, and Security Phase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 434
Operation, Support, and Security at Horizon
Community College . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 435
PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES AND PROGRAM
DEVELOPMENT TOOLS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 435
Low-Level Languages. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 436
Procedural Languages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 438
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Discovering Computers — Fundamentals
Object-Oriented Programming Languages and Program
Development Tools. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 440
Other Programming Languages and Development Tools . . . . . . . . 443
Web Page Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 446
Multimedia Program Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 449
PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 450
What Initiates Program Development? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 451
Control Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 451
CHAPTER SUMMARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 454
COMPANIES ON THE CUTTING EDGE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 455
Computer Sciences Corporation (CSC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 455
Electronic Arts (EA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 455
TECHNOLOGY TRAILBLAZERS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 455
Ed Yourdon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 455
James Gosling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 455
STUDENT ASSIGNMENTS: Chapter Review • Key Terms •
Checkpoint • Problem Solving • Learn How To •
Learn It Online • Web Research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 456 – 462
CHAPTER
12
Enterprise Computing
463
WHAT IS ENTERPRISE COMPUTING? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 464
Types of Enterprises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 466
Organizational Structure of an Enterprise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 466
Levels of Users in the Enterprise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 467
How Managers Use Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 468
INFORMATION SYSTEMS IN THE ENTERPRISE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 468
Information Systems within Functional Units. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 468
General Purpose Information Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 473
Integrated Information Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 477
ENTERPRISE-WIDE TECHNOLOGIES AND METHODOLOGIES . . . . . . . 479
Portals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 479
Communications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 480
Data Warehouses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 480
Contents
Extranets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 481
Web Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 481
Workflow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 482
Virtual Private Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 482
VIRTUALIZATION AND CLOUD COMPUTING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 483
Virtualization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 483
Cloud and Grid Computing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 483
E-COMMERCE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 484
ENTERPRISE HARDWARE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 485
RAID. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 486
Network Attached Storage and Storage Area Networks . . . . . . . . 486
Enterprise Storage Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 487
Blade Servers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 489
HIGH AVAILABILITY SCALABILITY, AND INTEROPERABILITY. . . . . . . 489
High-Availability Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 489
Scalability. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 490
Interoperability. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 490
BACKUP PROCEDURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 490
Disaster Recovery Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 491
CHAPTER SUMMARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 492
COMPANIES ON THE CUTTING EDGE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 493
EMC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 493
IBM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 493
TECHNOLOGY TRAILBLAZERS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 493
Chad Hurley . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 493
Anita Borg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 493
STUDENT ASSIGNMENTS: Chapter Review • Key Terms •
Checkpoint • Problem Solving • Learn How To •
Learn It Online • Web Research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 494 – 500
Special Feature
Living Digitally . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 501 – 506
APPENDIX A: QUIZ YOURSELF ANSWERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . APP 1
GLOSSARY/INDEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IND 1
PHOTO CREDITS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IND 26
Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
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xi
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xii
Table of Boxed Elements
ETHICS & ISSUES
CHAPTER 1
1-1 What Should Be Done about Identity Theft?. . . . . . . 10
1-2 Should Recycling of Electronics Be Made Easier? . . . 14
CHAPTER 2
2-1 Should the Government Allow You to Sign up
for a Do-Not-Track List? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
2-2 Should You Trust a Wiki for Academic Research? . . . 68
2-3 Would Banning Anonymous Comments Reduce
Cyberbullying . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
CHAPTER 3
3-1 Are Word Processing Programs Making Students
Lazy? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
3-2 Should Online Mapping Services Make You
Feel More Secure or More Vulnerable? . . . . . . . . . 129
CHAPTER 4
4-1 How Much Technology Should Be Provided
to Students and Teachers? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
4-2 Is Government Search and Seizure of Computers
Ethical?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
CHAPTER 5
5-1 Are Employers Responsible for Computer-Related
Repetitive Strain Injuries?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
5-2 How Often Should You Be Monitored in Public
Locations? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
5-3 Should Web Sites Be Held Accountable
for Accessibility Levels for Physically
Challenged People? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220
6-1
6-2
6-3
6-4
CHAPTER 6
Should the Government Require Hard Disks to Be
Cleaned?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Is Data Stored in the Cloud Free from Prying
Eyes? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Should the World Become a Cashless Society? . . . .
Who Should Be Looking at Your Medical Records?
241
252
257
259
CHAPTER 7
7-1 Closed Source vs. Open Source Operating
Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282
7-2 Should the Government Tax Media
Downloads? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291
CHAPTER 8
8-1 Will Widespread Wireless Broadband Connections
Kill Print Media? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 318
8-2 Should You Worry about Cell Phone, Cellular
Antenna, and Wi-FI Device Radiation? . . . . . . . . . . 340
CHAPTER 9
9-1 Do Internet Databases Mean the End
of Privacy? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354
9-2 Should People Be Punished for Accidently
Accessing Stolen Data?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367
9-3 Who Should Be Held Accountable for
the Rash of Database Security Breaches? . . . . . . . . 370
CHAPTER 10
10-1 Should Online Auctions Be Liable for Pirated
Software Sales? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 394
10-2 Should Text Messages Sent by Employees
Be Private? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 407
CHAPTER 11
11-1 Do You Work Harder When Someone
Is Watching? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 422
11-2 Does E-Mail Make You Lie More? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 423
11-3 Who Should Be Held Accountable for
Macro Security Threats? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 445
11-4 Who Is Responsible for Bugs?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 450
CHAPTER 12
12-1 Should Employees Use Mobile Computers
and Devices at Work? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 467
12-2 Who Can You Trust When Making
Purchases Online? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 485
12-3 How Much Data Should Companies
Be Required to Keep? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 488
FAQs
CHAPTER 1
1-1 What U.S. Web sites are visted most frequently? . . . 11
1-2 Are PCs or Apple computers more popular? . . . . . . 15
1-3 How many households do not use the Internet
or related technologies? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
CHAPTER 2
2-1 How popular is broadband? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2-2 What types of Web sites do mobile Internet users
visit?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2-3 Which Web browser currently has the highest
market share? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2-4 How are social networking Web sites and Internet
video affecting Internet traffic? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2-5 Can my computer get a virus through e-mail? . . . . .
3-1
3-2
3-3
3-4
4-1
4-2
4-3
4-4
5-1
5-2
5-3
5-4
CHAPTER 3
How many viruses exist on the Internet? . . . . . . . .
How many people bank online? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
How popular is entertainment software? . . . . . . .
Does text messaging improve typing skills? . . . . . .
CHAPTER 4
Which PC vendors are the most popular
with consumers? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Can I add more RAM to my computer? . . . . . . . . .
How much music can I store on a portable
media player? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
How many PCs are in use worldwide? . . . . . . . . . .
CHAPTER 5
What can I do to reduce chances of experiencing
repetitive strain injuries? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Which companies sell the most portable media
players? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
What type of video content do users view on
display devices? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
How do I dispose of toner cartridges? . . . . . . . . . .
58
59
61
73
77
110
124
128
130
CHAPTER 9
9-1 Can a database eliminate redundant
data completely? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 362
9-2 Which database vendors have the largest
revenue market share? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363
9-3 Are my portable media player’s playlists stored
in a database? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369
CHAPTER 10
10-1 Can multimedia files be infected with a virus? . . . . 385
10-2 How can I tell if my computer is a zombie or
in a botnet? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387
10-3 How many people are victims of identity
theft each year? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 392
CHAPTER 11
11-1 How can systems analysts build relationships
with users? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11-2 How do companies find VARs? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11-3 Are financial Web sites vulnerable? . . . . . . . . . . . .
11-4 Why is it necessary for programmers to know SQL? .
11-5 What are the popular Web programming
languages? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
422
429
435
443
449
CHAPTER 12
12-1 When should I supply personal information
to a company? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 473
12-2 Why do enterprises use wikis? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 486
12-3 Can I use CDP at home? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 491
INNOVATIVE COMPUTING
161
166
167
175
CHAPTER 1
1-1 Wii a Welcome Medical Skill Builder . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
CHAPTER 2
2-1 View the Wonders of Space through the
WorldWide Telescope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
CHAPTER 3
3-1 Fireworks Software Creates a Real Blast . . . . . . . . 120
191
CHAPTER 4
4-1 Chip Implants Identify Animals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
194
CHAPTER 5
5-1 Get the Picture with Digital Frames . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
210
215
CHAPTER 6
6-1 To what degree are hard disk capacities
increasing? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
6-2 Can airport security screening equipment damage
or erase the data on my mobile media or hard
disk? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250
6-3 Can I clean a disc? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254
CHAPTER 7
7-1 What are the guidelines for selecting
a good password? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7-2 Which operating systems have the most
market share? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7-3 What steps should I take to prevent virus
infections on my computer? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7-4 Where does spam originate? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CHAPTER 8
8-1 How many households are using cell phones
as their primary telephone? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316
8-2 Which is better, DSL or cable Internet service? . . . 334
8-3 Is home broadband adoption increasing? . . . . . . . 339
CHAPTER 6
6-1 Digital Books Are a Good Read . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251
CHAPTER 7
7-1 Utility Programs Locate Deleted Files . . . . . . . . . . . 284
CHAPTER 8
8-1 Geocaching for Hidden Treasure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321
CHAPTER 9
9-1 America’s Favorite Pastime Adds Authentic Twist . . . 359
278
CHAPTER 10
10-1 Customers’ Behavior, Conversations Monitored . . . 402
279
CHAPTER 11
11-1 Online Calculators Answer Life’s Questions . . . . . . 439
288
289
CHAPTER 12
12-1 Unique Data Center Storage Solutions . . . . . . . . . 479
Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Licensed to: CengageBrain User
Discovering Computers — Fundamentals
LOOKING AHEAD
CHAPTER 1
1-1 Embedded Computers May Improve
Quality of Life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
CHAPTER 2
2-1 Web 3.0 to Reinvent the Virtual World . . . . . . . . . . . 61
CHAPTER 3
3-1 Sensors Help Drivers Find Their Way . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
CHAPTER 4
4-1 Bendable Notebook Computers Will Slip in Your
Pocket. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
Contents
xiii
CHAPTER 5
5-1 Tongue May Become Joystick to
Control Devices. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221
CHAPTER 10
10-1 Brain Waves, Behavior Tracked to Prevent
and Solve Crimes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 392
CHAPTER 6
6-1 Rosetta Project a Storage Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258
CHAPTER 11
11-1 Remote Solar System Objects Mapped
in Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 431
CHAPTER 7
7-1 Contact Lenses Monitor Glaucoma. . . . . . . . . . . . . 277
CHAPTER 8
8-1 Body Area Networks Sense Intentions . . . . . . . . . . 323
CHAPTER 12
12-1 Variable Winds Forecasted for
Cloud Computing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 484
CHAPTER 9
9-1 DNA Barcoding Identifies World’s Species . . . . . . . 365
Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Licensed to: CengageBrain
Editorial review User
has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
xiv
Preface
Discovering Computers — Fundamentals
Preface
The Shelly Cashman Series® offers the finest textbooks in computer
education. This book is our answer to the many requests we have
received from instructors and students for a textbook that provides a
succinct, yet thorough, introduction to computers.
In Discovering Computers — Fundamentals you will find an
educationally sound, highly visual, and easy-to-follow pedagogy
that presents a complete, yet to the point, treatment of introductory
computer subjects. With this edition we are introducing an interactive,
multi-media e-book and CourseMate Web site that include animated
figures, relevant video, and interactive activities in the e-book,
making the learning experience engaging and interesting. Students
will finish the course with a solid understanding of computers, how
to use computers, and how to access information on the Web.
Objectives of this Text, e-Book,
and CourseMate Web Site
Discovering Computers — Fundamentals: Your Interactive Guide
to the Digital World is intended for use as a stand-alone
solution or in combination with an applications, Internet,
or programming textbook in a full-semester introductory
computer course. No experience with computers is assumed.
The objectives of this offering are to:
• Provide a concise, yet comprehensive introduction to
computers
• Present the most-up-to-date technology in an everchanging discipline
• Give students an understanding of why computers are
essential components in business and society
• Teach the fundamentals of computers and computer
nomenclature, particularly with respect to personal computer
hardware and software, the Web, and enterprise computing
Hallmarks of Discovering
Computers — Fundamentals
To date, more than six million students have learned about
computers using a Discovering Computers textbook. With
the Web integration and interactivity, streaming up-to-date
audio and video, extraordinary step-by-step visual drawings
and photographs, unparalleled currency, and the Shelly
and Cashman touch, this offering will make your computer
concepts course exciting and dynamic. Hallmarks of Shelly
Cashman Series Discovering Computers include:
A Proven Pedagogy
Careful explanations of complex concepts, educationallysound elements, and reinforcement highlight this proven
method of presentation.
Essential Computer Concepts Coverage
This book offers the same breadth of topics as our well-known
Discovering Computers: Your Interactive Guide to the Digital World,
but the depth of coverage focuses on the basic knowledge
required to be computer literate in today’s digital world.
A Visually Appealing Book that
Maintains Student Interest
The latest technology, pictures, drawings, and text are
combined artfully to produce a visually appealing and easyto-understand book. Many of the figures include a step-bystep presentation (see page 111), which simplifies the more
complex computer concepts. Pictures and drawings reflect
the latest trends in computer technology.
Licensed to: CengageBrain User
Discovering Computers — Fundamentals
• Present the material in a visually appealing, interactive,
and exciting manner that motivates students to learn
• Present strategies for purchasing a desktop computer,
notebook computer, a Tablet PC, and personal mobile
devices
• Offer alternative learning techniques and reinforcement
via the Web
• Offer distance-education providers a textbook with a
meaningful and exercise-rich digital learning experience
Distinguishing Features
Discovering Computers — Fundamentals includes a variety of
compelling features, certain to engage and challenge students,
making learning with Discovering Computers — Fundamentals
an enriched experience. These compelling features include:
• Multi-media rich and interactive e-book and CourseMate
Web site that engage students in learning about computer
concepts.
Latest Technologies and Terms
Preface
xv
• Animations, relevant and timely video, interactive
in-chapter activities and Quiz Yourself reinforcement
exercises embedded in the e-book, combined with the
integration of interactive activities, videos, and end-ofchapter student assignments on the CourseMate Web
site offer students an exceptional learning solution.
• Digital Communications special feature provides
students with practical examples of collaborative and
productive uses of digital communications.
• Exploring Computer Careers and Green Computing
end-of-chapter student assignments challenge students
to apply the concepts learned in the chapter.
• CNET At the Movies videos highlight current technology events of interest to students, involving them in the
constant evolution of the computing world.
• Ethics and Issues, Looking Ahead, FAQ, Web Links,
Companies on the Cutting Edge, and Technology
Trailblazers include the most relevant and interesting
examples to students.
The technologies and terms your students see in this book
are those they will encounter when they start using computers. Only the latest application software packages are shown
throughout the book.
can be used in all facets of society; (5) introduce students
to doing research on the Web; and (6) offer instructors the
opportunity to organize and administer their traditional
campus-based or distance-education-based courses on the
Web using various learning management systems.
Web Integrated
Extensive End-of-Chapter Student Assignments
This book uses the Web as a major learning tool. The
purpose of integrating the Web into the book is to (1) offer
students additional information and currency on important
topics; (2) use its interactive capabilities to offer creative
reinforcement and online quizzes; (3) make available
alternative learning techniques with Web-based learning
games, practice tests, and interactive labs; (4) underscore
the relevance of the Web as a basic information tool that
A notable strength of Discovering Computers — Fundamentals
is the extensive student assignments and activities at the end
of each chapter. Well-structured student assignments can
make the difference between students merely participating
in a class and students retaining the information they learn.
The end-of-chapter student assignments include: Chapter
Review, Key Terms, Checkpoint, Problem Solving, Learn
How To, Learn It Online, and Web Research.
Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Licensed to: CengageBrain User
xvi
Preface
Discovering Computers — Fundamentals
Instructor Resources
The Instructor Resources include both teaching and testing
aids.
Instructor’s Manual Includes lecture notes summarizing the
chapter sections, figures and boxed elements found in every
chapter, teacher tips, classroom activities, lab activities, and
quick quizzes in Microsoft Word files.
Syllabus Easily customizable sample syllabi that cover
policies, assignments, exams, and other course information.
Instructor Resources and Course Presenter for
Discovering Computers
FUNDAMENTALS
Your Interactive Guide to the Digital World
Figure Files Illustrations for every
figure in the textbook in electronic
form. Figures are provided both
with and without callouts.
Solutions to Exercises Includes
solutions for all end-of-chapter
student assignments. Also includes
SHELLY | VERMAAT
Tip Sheets, which are suggested
starting points for the Problem Solving exercises.
PowerPoint Presentations — Course Presenter A oneclick-per-slide presentation system that provides PowerPoint
slides for every subject in each chapter. Several computerrelated video clips are available for optional presentation.
Course Presenter provides consistent coverage for multiple
lecturers.
Test Bank & Test Engine Test Banks include 112 questions
for every chapter, featuring objective-based and critical thinking question types, and including page number references and
figure references, when appropriate. Also included is the test
engine, ExamView, the ultimate tool for your objective-based
testing needs.
Printed Test Bank A Rich Text Format (.rtf) version of the
test bank you can print.
NEW! Computer
N
Concepts CourseMate
C
T new Computer Concepts
The
C
CourseMate for Discovering
C
Computers — Fundamentals is
tthe most expansive digital site
for any computer concepts text in the market today! The
content in the CourseMate solution is integrated into each
page of the text, giving students easy access to current information on important topics, reinforcement activities, and
alternative learning techniques. Integrating the Computer
Concepts CourseMate into the classroom keeps today’s
students engaged and involved in the learning experience.
The Computer Concepts CourseMate includes an
integrated, multi-media rich and interactive digital book,
and a variety of interactive Quizzes and Learning Games,
Exercises, Web Links, Videos, and other features that specifically reinforce and build on the concepts presented in
the chapter. These interactive activities are tracked within
the CourseMate EngagementTracker, making it easy to
assess students’ retention of concepts. This digital solution
encourages students to take learning into their own hands
and explore related content on their own to learn even more
about subjects in which they are especially interested.
All of these resources on the Computer Concepts
CourseMate for Discovering Computers — Fundamentals
enable students to get more comfortable using technology
and help prepare students to use the Internet as a tool to
enrich their lives.
Contact Us
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Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
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Licensed to: CengageBrain User
Discovering Computers — Fundamentals
xvii
Preface
Visual Walkthrough of the Book
Practical. Hands-on. Interactive.
A Proven Pedagogy for Today’s Students.
Chapter Six
Storage
Chapter Opener
Before reading the chapter, carefully read through the Objectives to
familiarize yourself with the material
in each chapter.
Obj ti
Objectives
After completing this chapter, you will be able to:
1 Describe the characteristics of an internal hard disk including
capacity, platters, read/write heads, cylinders, sectors and tracks,
and revolutions per minute
2 Discuss the purpose of network attached storage devices, external
and removable hard disks, and hard disk controllers
3 Describe the various types of flash memory storage: solid state
drives, memory cards, USB flash drives, and ExpressCard modules
4 Describe cloud storage and explain its advantages
238
5 Describe the characteristics of optical discs
Chapter 6
Storage
Storage
Chapter 6
239
6 Differentiate among various types of optical discs: CDs, archive
discs and Picture CDs, DVDs, and Blu-ray Discs
7 Identify the uses of tape, magnetic stripe cards, smart cards,
microfilm and microfiche, and enterprise storage
Storage
Storage holds data, instructions, and information for future use. For example, all types of users store
digital photos; appointments, schedules, and contact/address information; correspondence, such as
letters, e-mail messages; tax records; and Web pages. A home user also might store budgets, bank
statements, a household inventory, records of stock purchases, tax information, homework assignments, recipes, music, and videos. In addition or instead, a business user stores reports, financial
records, travel records, customer orders and invoices, vendor payments, payroll records, inventory
records, presentations, quotations, and contracts. Other users store diagrams, drawings, blueprints,
designs, marketing literature, corporate newsletters, and product catalogs. All computers also store
system and application software.
Storage requirements among users vary greatly. Home users typically have much smaller storage
requirements than enterprise users. For example, a home user may need 320 GB (billion bytes) of
storage, while enterprises may require 50 PB (quadrillion bytes) of storage.
A storage medium (media is the plural), also called secondary storage, is the physical material
on which a computer keeps data, instructions, and information. Examples of storage media are hard
disks, solid state drives, memory cards, USB flash drives, ExpressCard modules, optical discs, smart
cards, magnetic stripe cards, and microfilm. Cloud storage is another storage option, in which the
actual storage media used is transparent to the user. Figure 6-1 shows a variety of storage options.
memory cards
1111530459_CH06_1ST.indd 237
network attached
storage device
12/21/10 9:18:45 AM
internal hard disk
external
hard disks
solid state drive
miniature hard disk
Initial Chapter Figure
Carefully study the first figure in each
chapter because it provides an easyto-follow overview of the major purpose
of the chapter.
USB flash drive
magnetic stripe card
microfilm
smart card
optical disc
cloud storage
ExpressCard module
Figure 6-1
A variety of storage options.
14_C7815_CH06_p0237-0261.4c.indd 238-239
240
Chapter 6
Web Links
Obtain current information and
a different perspective about key
terms and concepts by visiting the
Web Links found in the margins
throughout the book.
Storage
Capacity is the number of bytes (characters) a storage medium can hold. Figure 6-2 identifies the
terms manufacturers use to define the capacity of storage media. For example, a reasonably priced
USB flash drive can store up to 4 GB of data (approximately four billion bytes) and a typical hard
disk has 320 GB (approximately 320 billion bytes) of storage capacity.
A storage device is the computer hardware that records and/or retrieves items to and from storage media. Writing is the process of transferring data, instructions, and information from memory
to a storage medium. Reading is the process of transferring these items from a storage medium
into memory. When storage devices write data on storage media, they are creating output. Similarly,
when storage devices read from storage media, they function as a source of input. Nevertheless,
they are categorized as storage devices, not as input or output devices.
The speed of storage devices is defined by access time. Access time measures the amount of time
it takes a storage device to locate an item on a storage medium. The access time of storage devices
is slow, compared with the access time of memory. Memory (chips) accesses items in billionths
of a second (nanoseconds). Storage devices, by contrast, access items in thousandths of a second
(milliseconds) or millionths of a second (microseconds).
Interactive e-Book
Activity Icon
Several elements in each chapter
are interactive learning activities
in the e-book and are identified
by this icon.
CourseMate Icon
Visit the Computer Concepts
CourseMate Web site for access
to many of the interactive chapter
elements.
12/30/10 1:34:36 PM
Storage Term
Approximate Number of Bytes
Exact Number of Bytes
1 thousand
210 or 1,024
Megabyte (MB)
1 million
220 or 1,048,576
Gigabyte (GB)
1 billion
230 or 1,073,741,824
Terabyte (TB)
1 trillion
240 or 1,099,511,627,776
Petabyte (PB)
1 quadrillion
250 or 1,125,899,906,842,624
Exabyte (EB)
1 quintillion
260 or 1,152,921,504,606,846,976
Zettabyte (ZB)
1 sextillion
270 or 1,180,591,620,717,411,303,424
Yottabyte (YB)
1 septillion
280 or 1,208,925,819,614,629,174,706,176
Chapter 6
243
While the computer is running, the platters in the hard disk rotate at a high rate of speed. This
spinning, which usually is 5,400 to 15,000 revolutions per minute (rpm), allows nearly instant access
to all tracks and sectors on the platters. The platters may continue to spin until power is removed
from the computer, or more commonly today, they stop spinning or slow down after a specified
time to save power. The spinning motion creates a cushion of air between the platter and its read/
write head. This cushion ensures that the read/write head floats above the platter instead of making
direct contact with the platter surface. The distance between the read/write head and the platter is
about two millionths of one inch.
Storage Terms
Kilobyte (KB)
Storage
How a Hard Disk Works
Step 2
A small motor spins the platters while
the computer is running.
Figure 6-2 The capacity of a storage medium is measured by the number of bytes it can hold.
Step 3
Hard Disks
Perpendicular
Recording
For more information, visit
the Computer Concepts
CourseMate Web site at
www.cengagebrain.com,
navigate to the Chapter 6
Web Link resource for
this book, and then click
Perpendicular Recording.
A hard disk is a storage device that contains one or more inflexible, circular platters that use magnetic
particles to store data, instructions, and information. The system unit on most desktop and notebook
computers contains at least one hard disk. The entire device is enclosed in an airtight, sealed case to
protect it from contamination. A hard disk that is mounted inside the system unit sometimes is called
a fixed disk because it is not portable (Figure 6-3). With respect to a storage medium, the term portable means you can remove the medium from one computer and carry it to another computer.
Current personal computer hard disks have storage capacities from 160 GB to 2 TB and more.
Home users store documents, spreadsheets, presentations, databases, e-mail messages, Web pages,
digital photos, music, videos, and software on hard disks. Businesses use hard disks to store correspondence, reports, financial records, e-mail messages, customer orders and invoices, payroll records,
inventory records, presentations, contracts, marketing literature, schedules, and Web sites.
Traditionally, hard disks stored data using longitudinal recording, which aligned the magnetic
particles horizontally around the surface of the disk. With perpendicular recording, by contrast,
hard disks align the magnetic particles vertically, or perpendicular to the disk’s surface, making much
greater storage capacities possible. Experts estimate that hard disks using perpendicular recording
provide storage capacities about 10 times greater than disks that use longitudinal recording.
Hard disks are read/write storage media. That is, you can read from and write on a hard disk any
number of times. Read Ethics & Issues 6-1 for a related discussion.
Step 1
The circuit board controls
the movement of the head
actuator and a small motor.
Step 4
The head actuator positions the read/write head arms over
the correct location on the platters to read or write data.
Figure 6-6
This figure shows how a hard disk works.
read/write
head reads top
of top platter
cylinder passes
through all
platters
14_C7815_CH06_p0237-0261.4c.indd 240
When software requests a
disk access, the read/write
heads determine the current
or new location of the data.
12/30/10 1:42:45 PM
side view
of a
platter
Step Figures
Each chapter includes numerous step figures
that present the more complex computer
concepts using a step-by-step pedagogy.
sides
track forms full
circle around disk
read/write
head reads bottom
of top platter
Figure 6-7 A cylinder is the vertical section of track through all platters on a hard disk.
1111530459_CH06_1ST.indd 243
Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
12/21/10 9:20:26 AM
Licensed to: CengageBrain User
xviii
Preface
Discovering Computers — Fundamentals
Storage
Chapter 6
241
hard disk
mounted inside
system unit
close-up of
hard disk
FAQs
FAQ (frequently asked questions)
boxes offer common questions
and answers about subjects
related to the topic at hand.
Figure 6-3
The hard disk in a desktop
computer is enclosed inside an airtight,
sealed case inside the system unit. (In this
and other hard disk photos in the book,
the top plate is removed from the hard
disk for illustration purposes.)
FAQ 6-1
Hard disk capacities have increased at an exponential
rate. Advancements in technology, such as perpendicular recording and enhanced read/write heads that
can read and write denser areas on the platter, have
resulted in a hard disk’s capability of storing increasing amounts of data and information in a fixed
amount of space. The chart to the right illustrates
that the maximum hard disk size is growing.
Ethics & Issues
Ethics & Issues boxes raise
controversial, computer-related
topics of the day, challenging
readers to consider closely general
concerns of computers in society.
258
Chapter 6
Capacity in Gigabytes
To what degree are hard disk capacities increasing?
80,000
70,000
60,000
50,000
40,000
30,000
20,000
10,000
0
For more information, visit the Computer Concepts
CourseMate Web site at www.cengagebrain.com,
navigate to the Chapter 6 FAQ resource for this
book, and then click Hard Disk Capacity.
2007
2010
2014
Source: Seagate
Ethics & Issues
For the complete text of
the Ethics & Issues boxes
found in this chapter, visit
the Computer Concepts
CourseMate Web site at
www.cengagebrain.com
and then navigate to the
Chapter 6 Ethics & Issues
resource for this book.
ETHICS & ISSUES 6-1
Should the Government Require Hard Disks to Be Cleaned?
An IT professional recently purchased a
hard disk on an auction Web site only to
find private banking records of several
million people. Fortunately, the purchaser
notified authorities, rather than use the
data for nefarious purposes. In other
incidents, taxpayer data and secret police
tactics appeared on hard disks purchased
on auction Web sites, donated to charitable
organizations, or recovered from discarded
computers. Most people do not realize that
deleting files from a computer does not
render the data permanently inaccessible.
Deleted files can be recovered easily by a
smart criminal or digital forensics examiner.
Experts recommend that special utility software, known as a wiping utility,
Storage
be used to clean the contents of a hard
disk before it leaves possession of the
owner. The government sets various disk
wiping standards. For example, one standard requires that the software wipe the
drive seven times, while a more stringent
standard requires fourteen. Experts also
recommend the use of full disk encryption, which is the process of encoding data
and information into an unreadable form.
Others recommend that any hard disk that
at any time contained sensitive information
be destroyed by a service company that
specializes in hard disk destruction. Some
companies now offer a service that allows
you to keep a hard disk if it fails while
covered by a warranty. Typically, companies
require that you return the damaged hard
disk when you receive the replacement.
Some people are not comfortable with this
service, for fear of confidential information
on the damaged hard disk falling into the
wrong hands.
Should the government require that hard
disks on sold, donated, or discarded computers be cleaned, encrypted, or destroyed?
Why or why not? Would you make an extra
effort to clean or encrypt the contents of
hard disks on sold, donated, or discarded
computers? Why or why not?
Microfilm and Microfiche
Figure 6-28
Images on microfilm can be read only
with a microfilm reader.
Media Life Expectancies*
(when using high-quality media)
Media Type
Magnetic disks
Optical discs
Solid state drives
Microfilm
Guaranteed Life
Expectancy
3 to 5 years
5 to 10 years
50 years
100 years
Potential Life
Expectancy
20 to 30 years
50 to 100 years
140 years
500 years
*according to manufacturers of the media
Figure 6-29
Microfilm and microfiche store microscopic
images of documents on roll or sheet film.
Microfilm is a 100- to 215-foot roll of film.
Microfiche is a small sheet of film, usually
about 4 3 6 inches. A computer output microfilm
recorder is the device that records the images on
the film. The stored images are so small that you
can read them only with a microfilm or microfiche reader (Figure 6-28).
Microfilm and microfiche use is widespread,
with many companies allowing you to search
through and view microfilm images online.
Libraries use these media to store back issues of
newspapers, magazines, and genealogy records.
Some large organizations use microfilm and
microfiche to archive inactive files. Some banks
use them to store transactions and canceled
checks. The U.S. Army uses them to store
personnel records.
The use of microfilm and microfiche provides
a number of advantages. They greatly reduce the
amount of paper firms must handle. They are
inexpensive and have the longest life of any
storage media (Figure 6-29). Read Looking
Ahead 6-1 for a look at long-term storage.
1111530459_CH06_1ST.indd 241
12/21/10 9:20:09 AM
Looking Ahead
The Looking Ahead boxes offer a
glimpse of the latest advances in
computer technology that will be
available, usually within five years.
Microfilm is the medium with the longest life.
LOOKING AHEAD 6-1
Rosetta Project a Storage Solution
The Rosetta Stone unlocked the secret of
understanding Egyptian hieroglyphics. Created
in 186 B.C., the carved stone contains translations
of one hieroglyphic passage into three languages.
Today, more than 2,500 human languages exist,
but 50 to 90 percent of them are expected to
become extinct by the end of this century. In an
effort to preserve these languages using longstora technology, thousands of people collaborated
term storage
on the Rosetta Project to create the Rosetta Disk.
Measuring only 3 inches wide, the nickel Rosetta
Disk contains 15,000 etched pages documenting more
than 1,000 known languages in the world. Each page is
.019 inches wide, approximately the width of 5 human
hairs. The pages are readable when the Disk is magnified
1,000 times. For protection, the Disk is housed in a 4-inch
spherical container.
Five prototype Disks were created. The original Disk
is attached to the European Space Agency’s Rosetta
Space Probe that was launched in 2004 and is expected
to land on a comet in 2014. The Probe will measure the
comet’s molecular composition and then orbit the sun
for millions of years.
For more information, visit the Computer Concepts
CourseMate Web site at www.cengagebrain.com,
navigate to the Chapter 6 Looking Ahead resource for
this book, and then click Long-Term Storage.
Chapter 6
251
Cloud Storage
Enterprise Storage
A large business, commonly referred to as an enterprise, has hundreds or thousands of employees in offices
across the country or around the world. Enterprises use computers and computer networks to manage and
store huge volumes of data and information about customers, suppliers, and employees.
To meet their large-scale needs, enterprises use special hardware geared for heavy use, maximum availability, and maximum efficiency. One or more servers on the network have the sole purpose of providing storage
to connected users. For high-speed storage access, entire networks are dedicated exclusively to connecting
devices that provide storage to other servers. In an enterprise, some storage systems can provide more than
185 TB of storage capacity. Optical disc servers hold hundreds of optical discs.
1111530459_CH06_1ST.indd 258
Storage
12/21/10 9:22:20 AM
Innovative Computing
Discover different and innovative
ways of using various technologies
and learn how computing is applied
creatively to solve problems.
Some users choose cloud storage instead of storing data locally on a
hard disk or other media. Cloud storage is an Internet service that
provides hard disk storage to computer users (Figure 6-17).
Types of services offered by cloud storage providers vary. Figure
6-18 identifies a variety of cloud storage providers. Read Innovative
Computing 6-1 to find out about another type of cloud storage.
Fee arrangements vary. For example, one cloud storage service
provides 25 GB of storage free to registered users; another charges
$5 per month for 150 GB of storage. For enterprises, cloud storage
services typically charge for storage on a per gigabyte basis, such as
15 cents per gigabyte.
Figure 6-17
INNOVATIVE COMPUTING 6-1
Digital Books Are a Good Read
It is time to dust
off your library
card, because
thousands of
libraries are stocking their digital
shelves with electronic books that
you can download
from anywhere youu have computer access
access.
Just locate a participating library’s Web site,
download the desired book files to your personal computer, and then transfer the files to
your portable media player or smart phone.
For patrons who do not want to download
files, some libraries are lending a Playaway,
which is a small device that stores 80 hours
of digitized audio books.
Another set of books is available for reading
at the British Library’s Online Gallery. Software
called Turning the Pages allows readers to
browse some of the rarest books in the world
and magnify details on the pages. The books
include the Gutenberg Bible, Lewis Carroll’s
original Alice in Wonderland, and The Diamond
Sutra, the oldest book in existence, printed in
China in 868 A.D.
An example of one Web site that provides cloud storage.
For more information, visit the Computer
Concepts CourseMate Web site at
www.cengagebrain.com, navigate to the
Chapter 6 Innovative Computing resource
for this book, and then click Online Libraries.
Cloud Storage Providers
Web Site Names
Type of Storage Provided
Box.net, IDrive, Windows
Live SkyDrive
Backup or additional storage for any type of file
Flickr, Picasa
Digital photos
YouTube
Digital videos
Facebook, MySpace
Digital photos, digital videos, messages, and personal
information
Social networking
Google Docs, Office Web Apps
Documents, spreadsheets, presentations
Productivity suite
Gmail, Windows Live
Hotmail, Yahoo! Mail
E-mail messages
Amazon EC2, Amazon S3,
Nirvanix
Enterprise-level storage
Figure 6-18
1111530459_CH06_1ST.indd 251
Other Services
Photo editing and photo management
Web services, data center services
Some of the more widely used cloud storage providers.
12/21/10 9:21:37 AM
Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Licensed to: CengageBrain User
Discovering Computers — Fundamentals
260
Quiz Yourself
Three Quiz Yourself boxes per chapter
help ensure retention by reinforcing
sections of the chapter material, rather
than waiting for the end of chapter
to test. Use Appendix A for a quick
check of the answers, and access
additional Quiz Yourself quizzes via
the Computer Concepts CourseMate
Web site for interactivity and easy use.
Chapter 6
xix
Preface
Storage
QUIZ YOURSELF 6-3
Instructions: Find the true statement below. Then, rewrite the remaining false statements so that they are true.
1. A CD-RW is a type of optical disc on which users can read but not write (record) or erase.
2. A DVD-RAM is a single-session disc that stores digital versions of film using a jpg file format.
3. DVDs have the same storage capacities as CDs.
4. Optical discs are written and read by mirrors.
5. Microfilm and microfiche have the shortest life of any media.
Quiz Yourself Online: To further check your knowledge of pages 252 through 259 visit the Computer
Concepts CourseMate Web site at www.cengagebrain.com, navigate to the Chapter 6 Quiz Yourself
resource for this book, and then click Objectives 5 – 7.
Chapter Summary
Storage holds data, instructions, and information, which includes pictures, music, and videos, for
future use. Users depend on storage devices to provide access to their storage media for years and
decades to come.
This chapter identified and discussed various storage media and storage devices. Storage media
covered included internal hard disks; external and removable hard disks; solid state drives; memory
cards; USB flash drives; ExpressCard modules; cloud storage; CDs, DVDs, and Blu-ray Discs; tape;
smart cards; and microfilm and microfiche.
Computer Usage @ Work
Learn about how computers are used
in 12 different professional industries,
including transportation, municipal
services, education, sports, and
construction.
Computer Usage @ Work
Meteorology
Storage
Chapter 6
261
Companies on the Cutting Edge
With the television tuned to the local weather station,
you anxiously are awaiting to see the projected path of a
hurricane in the tropics. Having experienced hurricanes in
the past, you rely heavily on the accuracy of weather forecasts so that you can adequately prepare if a storm travels through the area. Computers allow meteorologists to
better estimate the severity and path of storms, enabling
people to make potentially life-saving preparations.
The National Hurricane Center uses multiple computer
models to determine a storm’s path. These models consider factors such as the storm’s current strength, the
effects of nearby weather systems, the storm’s central
pressure, and whether the storm may travel over land.
These models also may consider previous storms that
traveled a similar path. Historical weather and storm
data are stored on large storage devices by the National
Weather Service. While these models are not 100 percent accurate, they do ensure that everyone who may be
affected by the storm has enough time to prepare.
Violent, rotating thunderstorms potentially can
spawn tornadoes, which sometimes cause catastrophic
damage. For this reason, it is important for everyone
to closely watch or listen to the weather during the
storm. Meteorologists can monitor weather systems
on multiple radars and send additional severe weather
warnings automatically to weather radios. Computer
technology enables these messages to be broadcast
1111530459_CH06_1ST.indd 260
automatically only to weather radios in areas that may
be affected.
In addition to computers helping us stay safe during
severe storms, they also assist with day-to-day weather
forecasting. Several years ago, meteorologists could
predict the weather for only a few days into the future.
Beyond that point, the forecast was very uncertain.
Meteorologists presently are able to predict the weather,
including temperature and chance of precipitation, one
week or more into the future with much greater accuracy because computers create models using historical
weather data and behavior to predict the future path of
various weather systems.
News and weather stations also post their weather
forecasts online. In fact, several Web sites have interactive radars that allow visitors to zoom in and view how
weather is affecting their immediate neighborhood.
The meteorology field has made significant advancements because of computer technologies. Weather
forecasts are more meaningful, which not only helps us
prepare on land but also helps to protect those traveling
by air or by sea.
For more information, visit the Computer Concepts
CourseMate Web site at www.cengagebrain.com,
navigate to the Chapter 6 Computer Usage @ Work
resource for this book, and then click Meteorology.
12/21/10 9:22:33 AM
SEAGATE TECHNOLOGY Storage Solutions Supplier
The average household with a broadband Internet
connection will need nearly 1 TB of storage for its personal media collections, and Seagate has the storage
solutions for practically every digital need. The company
offers more than 40 products for the personal computing,
consumer electronics, and enterprise computing fields.
Seagate has been at the forefront of the digital storage world since it developed the first 5.25-inch hard disk
for the personal computer in 1980. In 2008 it shipped
its one billionth hard disk, making the company’s
production for the past 30 years a total of 79 million
terabytes. Seagate expects to ship its two billionth hard
disk by 2013.
Seagate recently introduced the FreeAgent DockStar
network adapter. This device allows users to access
their digital media from anywhere in the world and
share these files with anyone. The FreeAgent DockStar
network adapter also enables users to link their digital
content to online social networks such as Facebook,
Twitter, and MySpace.
SANDISK CORPORATION Flash Memory Storage Supplier
The number of flash memory card formats is growing,
and only one company has the rights to design, develop,
manufacture, and market every one of them: SanDisk.
The company is the world’s largest supplier of flash
memory storage products and also has lines of portable
media players.
The company was founded in 1988, and one of its
earliest flash drives was used on a U.S. space shuttle
three years later. Today SanDisk is developing rewritable
3-D memory products that will store data vertically, and
company executives believe this technology will replace
flash products in the next decade.
SanDisk recently introduced the world’s fastest
32 GB SDHC card. The 32 GB SanDisk Extreme SDHC
card boasts read and write speeds of 30 megabytes per
second. The increased speeds enable photographers to
take pictures quickly without having to wait long for
the card to record the images. In addition, computer
users also are able to transfer data to and from the
card quickly.
For more information, visit the Computer Concepts CourseMate Web site at www.cengagebrain.com and then
navigate to the Chapter 6 Companies on the Cutting Edge resource for this book.
Technology Trailblazers
Companies on the Cutting Edge
and Technology Trailblazers
Everyone who interacts with computers should
be aware of the key computer-related companies
and of the more famous leaders of the computer
industry.
AL SHUGART Storage Expert
Al Shugart said that his real goal in life was to have
fun, and he spent his life doing the things that gave him
the most pleasure. The day after receiving his bachelor’s
degree in engineering physics in 1951, he landed a job
at IBM doing what he loved to do: fixing broken items
and developing new technology. He was promoted to
supervisor of the product development team that developed the first removable hard disk drive.
Shugart then left IBM, became vice president of
Memorex, and then started Shugart Associates and
began developing floppy disks. In 1979 he founded
Seagate Technology with a friend. As his company grew
to become the world’s largest hard disk manufacturer,
he had fun placing his dog, Ernest, on the ballot for a
Congressional seat.
Shugart served as president and CEO of Al Shugart
International, a venture capital firm in California, until
his death in 2006.
MARK DEAN IBM Inventor
Web 2.0 applications demand large, inexpensive
storage, and Mark Dean is hard at work helping to meet
this need. As vice president of IBM’s Almaden Research
Center lab in California, Dean is responsible for developing innovative products.
Dean joined IBM after graduating from Stanford
University with a degree in electrical engineering. He
led a team that developed the first CMOS microprocessor to operate at one gigahertz and has more than
40 patents or patents pending that are used in more
than 40 million personal computers manufactured each
year. Three of his patents are among the nine registered
for the architecture of the original personal computer.
Dean is the first African-American to be appointed
to IBM Fellow, the company’s highest level of technical
merit. He also was inducted in the National Inventors
Hall of Fame.
For more information, visit the Computer Concepts CourseMate Web site at www.cengagebrain.com and then
navigate to the Chapter 6 Technology Trailblazers resource for this book.
1111530459_CH06_1ST.indd 261
12/21/10 9:22:42 AM
Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Licensed to: CengageBrain User
xx
Preface
Discovering Computers — Fundamentals
Chapter 6
Storage
Storage
Chapter Review
Chapter 6
263
Chapter Review
The Chapter Review section reinforces the main concepts presented in this chapter.
To listen to an audio version of this Chapter Review, visit the Computer Concepts
CourseMate Web site at www.cengagebrain.com and then navigate to the Chapter 6
Chapter Review resource for this book.
5. What Are the Characteristics of Optical Discs? An optical disc is a type of storage media that consists of a flat, round,
portable disc made of metal, plastic, and lacquer. These discs usually are 4.75 inches in diameter and less than onetwentieth of an inch thick. Optical discs primarily store software, data, digital photos, movies, and music. Some are read
only, which means users cannot write (save) on them; others are read/write, which allows users to save on the disc just as
they save on a hard disk. Optical discs store items by using microscopic pits (indentations) and lands (flat areas). A highpowered laser light creates the pits, and a lower-powered laser light reads items by reflecting light through the bottom
of the disc. The reflected light is converted into a series of bits the computer can process.
1. What Are the Characteristics of an Internal Hard Disk? A hard disk is a storage device that contains one or more
inflexible, circular platters that use magnetic particles to store data, instructions, and information. The system unit in most
desktop and notebook computers contains at least one hard disk. Capacity is the number of bytes (characters) a storage
medium can hold. Hard disk capacity is determined from whether it uses longitudinal recording or perpendicular
recording, the number of platters it contains, and the composition of the magnetic coating on the platters. A platter is
made of aluminum, glass, or ceramic and is coated with a material that allows items to be recorded magnetically on its
surface. Each platter has two read/write heads, one for each side. The location of a read/write head often is referred to by
its cylinder, which is the vertical section of a track that passes through all platters. Magnetic disks store data and instructions in tracks and sectors. A track is a narrow recording band that forms a full circle on the surface of the disk. The disk’s
storage locations consist of pie-shaped sections, which break the tracks into small arcs called sectors. While the computer
is running, the platters rotate at 5,400 to 15,000 revolutions per minute (rpm), which allows nearly instant access to all
tracks and sectors on the platters.
6. What Are the Various Types of Optical Discs? A CD-ROM is an optical disc that users can read but not write (record)
or erase. A CD-R is a multisession disc on which users can write, but not erase. A CD-RW (compact disc-rewritable)
is erasable and can be written on multiple times. An archive disc is used to store photos from a photo sharing community in the jpg file format. A Picture CD stores digital versions of film using a jpg file format. A DVD-ROM is a highcapacity disc which users can read but not write on or erase. A Blu-ray Disc (BD) currently has storage capacities of 100
GB. The HD VMD (Versatile Multilayer Disc) is a high-density format with a capacity of 40 GB or more. A mini-DVD
that has grown in popularity is the UMD (Universal Media Disc), which works specifically with the PlayStation Portable
handheld game console. Similarly, the mini Blu-ray Disc is used primarily in digital video recorders. DVD-R, DVD+R,
BD-R formats can be written on once. DVD-RW, DVD+RW, and DVD+RAM are three competing high-capacity
rewritable DVD formats. BD-RE is a high-capacity rewritable DVD format.
2. What Is the Purpose of Network Attached Storage Devices, External and Removable Hard Disks, and Hard Disk
Controllers? A network attached storage (NAS) device is a server connected to a network with the sole purpose of
providing storage. Any user or device connected to the network can access files on the NAS device. These devices often
use a RAID (redundant array of independent disks) configuration. A group of two or more integrated hard disks is called
a RAID. An external hard disk is a separate freestanding hard disk that connects with a cable to a USB or FireWire
port on the system unit or communicates wirelessly. External hard disks have storage capacities up to 4 TB or more. A
removable hard disk can be inserted or removed from a drive. Removable hard disks have storage capacities up to 1 TB.
A disk controller consists of a special-purpose chip and electronic circuits that control the transfer of data, instructions,
and information from a disk to and from the system bus and other components in the computer. A hard disk controller
may be part of a hard disk on the motherboard, or it may be a separate adapter card inside the system unit. In addition to
USB and FireWire, which can function as hard disk interfaces, four other types of hard disk interfaces for use in personal
computers are SATA (Serial Advanced Technology Attachment), EIDE (Enhanced Integrated Drive Electronics), SCSI,
and SAS (serial-attached SCSI).
7. How Are Tape, Magnetic Stripe Cards, Smart Cards, Microfilm and Microfiche, and Enterprise Storage Used? Tape is
a magnetically coated ribbon of plastic capable of storing large amounts of data and information at a low cost. A tape
drive reads and writes data and information on tape. Business users utilize tape most often for long-term storage and
backup. A magnetic stripe card is a credit card, entertainment card, bank card, or other similar card with a stripe that
contains information identifying you and the card. A magnetic stripe card reader reads information stored on the stripe.
A smart card, which is similar in size to a credit or ATM card, stores data on a thin microprocessor embedded in the
card. Smart cards contain a processor and have input, process, output, and storage capabilities. Microfilm is a 100- to
215-foot roll of film. Microfiche is a small sheet of film, usually about 4 3 6 inches. Microfilm and microfiche greatly
reduce the amount of paper firms must handle, are inexpensive, and have the longest life of any storage media. Enterprises use special hardware to meet their large-scale needs, including servers, entire networks, and optical disc servers.
In an enterprise, some storage systems can provide more than 185 TB of storage capacity.
Visit the Computer Concepts CourseMate Web site at www.cengagebrain.com, navigate to the Chapter 6 Quiz Yourself resource
for this book, and then click Objectives 5 – 7.
Visit the Computer Concepts CourseMate Web site at www.cengagebrain.com, navigate to the Chapter 6 Quiz Yourself resource
for this book, and then click Objectives 1 – 2.
3. What Are the Various Types of Flash Memory Storage? Flash memory chips are a type of solid state media, which
means they consist entirely of electronic components and contain no moving parts. A solid state drive (SSD) is a storage
device that uses flash memory to store data, instructions, and information. Although SSDs currently have a higher failure
rate than hard disks and are more expensive, experts estimate that as the price of SSDs drops, increasingly more users will
purchase computers and devices that contain this media. A memory card is a removable flash memory device that you
insert and remove from a slot in a computer, mobile device, or card reader/writer. Common types of memory cards
include CompactFlash (CF), Secure Digital (SD), Secure Digital High Capacity (SDHC), microSD, microSDHC,
xD Picture Card, Memory Stick, and Memory Stick Micro (M2). A USB flash drive is a flash memory storage device
that plugs in a USB port on a computer or mobile device. An ExpressCard module is a removable device that fits in an
ExpressCard slot. ExpressCard modules add storage or other capabilities to a computer and commonly are used in notebook
computers.
STUDENT ASSIGNMENTS
262
STUDENT ASSIGNMENTS
Key Terms
4. What Is Cloud Storage, and What Are Its Advantages? Cloud storage is an Internet service that provides storage for
computer users. Types of services offered by cloud storage providers vary. Available for all sizes of users, with various
degrees of storage services available for home and business users, cloud storage fees vary, depending on the user’s storage
requirements. Advantages include accessing files on the Internet from any computer or device with Internet access; storing
large audio, video, and graphics files on the Internet instantaneously; allowing others to access their files on the Internet;
viewing time-critical data and images immediately; storing off-site backups of data; and providing data center functions.
Visit the Computer Concepts CourseMate Web site at www.cengagebrain.com, navigate to the Chapter 6 Quiz Yourself resource
for this book, and then click Objectives 3 – 4.
You should know each key term. The list below helps focus your study.
To see an example of and a definition for each term, and to access current and additional information from
the Web, visit the Computer Concepts CourseMate Web site at www.cengagebrain.com and then navigate
to the Chapter 6 Key Terms resource for this book.
access time (240)
archive disc (255)
backup (244)
BD-RE (256)
Blu-ray Disc (256)
burning (254)
capacity (240)
card reader/writer (249)
CD-R (254)
CD-ROM (254)
CD-ROM drive (254)
CD-RW (255)
CD-RW drive (255)
cloud storage (251)
CompactFlash (CF) (248)
disk controller (246)
DVD+RAM (256)
DVD-ROM (256)
DVD-ROM drive (256)
DVD+RW (256)
DVD-RW (256)
ExpressCard module (250)
external hard disk (244)
hard disk (240)
HD VMD (256)
LightScribe technology (253)
longitudinal recording (240)
magnetic stripe card (257)
memory card (248)
Memory Stick (248)
Memory Stick Micro (M2)
(248)
microfiche (258)
microfilm (258)
microSD (248)
microSDHC (248)
network attached storage
(244)
optical disc (252)
perpendicular recording
(240)
Picture CD (255)
pocket hard drive (245)
RAID (244)
reading (240)
removable hard disk (244)
ripping (255)
secondary storage (239)
1111530459_CH06EOC_1ST.indd 262-263
Secure Digital (SD) (248)
Secure Digital High Capacity
(SDHC) (248)
smart card (257)
solid state drive (SSD) (247)
solid state media (247)
storage device (240)
storage medium (239)
tape (257)
tape drive (257)
UMD (256)
USB flash drive (250)
writing (240)
xD Picture Card (248)
12/21/10 9:26:59 AM
Chapter Review
Use the Chapter Review before taking an
examination to ensure familiarity with the
computer concepts presented. This section
includes each objective, followed by a
one- or two-paragraph summary.
264
Chapter 6
Key Terms
Before taking a test, use the Key Terms
page as a checklist of terms to know.
Visit the Computer Concepts CourseMate
Web site for additional information on the
Key Terms.
Storage
Checkpoint
STUDENT ASSIGNMENTS
STUDENT ASSIGNMENTS
End-of-Chapter Student Assignments
The Checkpoint exercises test your knowledge of the chapter concepts. The page number containing the
answer appears in parentheses after each exercise.
To complete the Checkpoint exercises interactively, visit the Computer Concepts CourseMate Web site
at www.cengagebrain.com and then navigate to the Chapter 6 Checkpoint resource for this book.
Multiple Choice
Select the best answer.
1. _______ measures the amount of time it takes a storage
device to locate an item on a storage medium. (240)
a. Capacity
b. Access time
c. A storage medium d. Reading
2. A group of two or more integrated hard disks is called a
_______. (244)
a. backup
b. platter
c. RAID
d. portable hard disk
3. A _______ consists of a special-purpose chip and electronic
circuits that control the transfer of data, instructions, and
information from a disk to and from the system bus and
other components in the computer. (246)
a. pocket hard drive
b. removable hard disk
c. magnetic disk
d. disk controller
4. A _______ is a memory storage device that plugs in a
USB port on a computer or mobile device. (250)
a. smart card
b. USB flash drive
c. UMD
d. Memory Stick
Matching
5. Users subscribe to a cloud storage service to _______.
(252)
a. access files from any computer that has Internet access
b. allow others to access their files
c. store offsite backups of data
d. all of the above
6. _______ technology works with specially coated optical
discs to etch labels directly on the disc. (253)
a. LightScribe
b. SATA
c. LightSaber
d. SCSI
7. _______ storage requires sequential access. (257)
a. Hard disk
b. Tape
c. Memory card
d. DVD
8. A(n) _____ card is a credit card, entertainment card,
bank card, or other similar card, with a stripe that
contains information identifying you and the card. (257)
a. Secure Digital High Capacity
b. magnetic stripe
c. Secure Digital
d. microSDHC
Match the terms with their definitions.
_____ 1. backup (244)
_____ 2. external hard disk
(244)
_____ 3. solid state media
(247)
a. media which consist entirely of electronic components, such as integrated circuits, and
contain no moving parts
b. device that reads and writes data, instructions, and information stored on memory cards
c. portable, large-capacity magnetic medium that can store from 100 MB to 750 MB of data
d. duplicate of a file, program, or disk placed on a separate storage medium that you can use
in case the original is lost, damaged, or destroyed
_____ 4. solid state drive
(247)
e. a storage device that typically uses flash memory to store data, instructions, and information
_____ 5. card reader/
writer (249)
f. a separate freestanding hard disk that connects with a cable to a USB port or FireWire
port on the system unit or communicates wirelessly
Short Answer
Checkpoint
Use these multiple choice, true/false,
matching, and short answer exercises
to reinforce understanding of the topics
presented in the chapter.
Write a brief answer to each of the following questions.
1. What is longitudinal recording? __________ What is the benefit of perpendicular recording over longitudinal
recording? __________
2. What is network attached storage? __________ How much hard disk storage can home and small business users add to
their network with a NAS device? __________
3. How is a single-session disc different from a multisession disc? __________ What is a CD-RW? __________
4. Why do users use memory cards? __________ Name five types of memory cards and describe some of the characteristics
of each card. __________
5. What is one difference between microfilm and microfiche? __________ What are some uses of microfilm and
microfiche? __________
1111530459_CH06EOC_1ST.indd 264
12/21/10 9:26:30 AM
Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Licensed to: CengageBrain User
xxi
Preface
STUDENT ASSIGNMENTS
Discovering Computers — Fundamentals
Learn How To
Apply the concepts in the chapter to every day life with these
hands-on activities. Learn how the Learn How To activities fit into
your life with relevant scenarios, visual demonstrations, and practice
questions via the Computer Concepts CourseMate Web site.
Chapter
Ch
t 6
Storage
St
STUDENT ASSIGNMENTS
Learn How To
St
Storage
Learn How To 1: Maintain a Hard Disk
A computer’s hard disk is used for the majority of storage requirements. It is important, therefore, to ensure that each
hard disk on a computer is operating at peak efficiency, both to use the available storage space effectively and to make
disk operations as fast as possible.
Two tasks that maximize disk operations are removing unused or unnecessary files and folders by using the Disk
Cleanup utility program and consolidating files and folders into contiguous storage areas using the Disk Defragmenter
utility program. Defragmenting allows your system to access stored files and folders more efficiently.
A. Cleanup Disk
To clean up the disk by removing any programs and data that are not required for the computer, complete the following steps:
1. Click the Start button on the Windows taskbar and then click Computer
amount of space
Disk Cleanup dialog box
on the Start menu.
to be freed up
2. When the Computer window opens, right-click the hard disk icon for
drive C (or any other hard disk you want to select) and then click
Properties on the shortcut menu.
Files to
3. If necessary, click the General tab in the disk drive Properties
delete area
dialog box to display the General sheet.
4. Click the Disk Cleanup button in the General sheet to display the
Disk Cleanup Options dialog box.
5. The Disk Cleanup dialog box is displayed and contains a message that
indicates the amount of space that can be freed up is being calculated.
6. After the calculation is complete, the Disk Cleanup dialog box specifies
the amount of space that can be freed up and the files to delete, some of
which are selected automatically (Figure 6-31). Select those items from
which you wish to delete files.
OK button
7. Click the OK button in the Disk Cleanup dialog box.
8. A dialog box asks if you are sure you want to perform these actions. Click
the Delete Files button. The Disk Cleanup dialog box illustrates the progress
Figure 6-31
of the cleanup. When the cleanup is complete, the dialog box closes.
B. Defragment Disk
After removing all the unnecessary files from the hard disk, the next step in disk maintenance is to defragment all the files
on the disk. When a file is stored on disk, the data in the file sometimes is stored contiguously, and other times is stored in
a noncontiguous manner. The greater the amount of data on a disk, the more likely files will be stored noncontiguously.
When a file is stored in a noncontiguous manner, it can take significantly longer to find and retrieve data from the file. One
of the more useful utilities to speed up disk operations, therefore, is the defragmentation program, which combines all files
so that no files are stored in a noncontiguous manner. To use the defragmentation program, complete the following steps:
1. If necessary, click the Tools tab in the Properties dialog box for the hard disk to be defragmented.
2. Click the Defragment now button in the Tools sheet to open the Disk Defragmenter window (Figure 6-32).
This window displays the Disk Defragmenter schedule, when Disk Defragmenter was run last, and when Disk
Defragmenter is scheduled to run next.
3. Click the Defragment disk button. The defragmentation process begins. During the defragmentation process, the Stop
operation button replaces the Defragment disk button. The defragmentation process can consume more than one hour
in some cases, depending on the size of the hard disk and the amount of processing that must occur. You can cancel the
operation at any time by clicking the Stop operation button in the Disk Defragmenter window.
4. When the process is complete, the Defragment disk button will replace the Stop operation button.
5. Click the Close button to close the Disk Defragmenter window.
Proper disk maintenance is critically important so that disk operation is as efficient as possible.
267
Learn How To
The Learn How To activities step you through fundamental technology skills when using a
computer. The Learn How To exercises enable you to become more proficient with these skills.
Premium Activity: To relate this Learn How To activity to your everyday life, see a visual demonstration
of the activity, and complete a short assessment, visit the Computer Concepts CourseMate Web site
at www.cengagebrain.com and then navigate to the Chapter 6 Learn How To resource for this book.
Chapter
Ch t 6
Disk Defragmenter window
Exercises
STUDENT ASSIGNMENTS
266
2
66
Caution: The exercises for this chapter that require
actual disk maintenance are optional. If you are
performing these exercises on a computer that is not
your own, obtain explicit permission to complete these
exercises. Keep in mind that these exercises can require
significant computer time and the computer may be
unusable during this time.
1. Display the Properties dialog box for a hard disk
found on the computer. Display the General sheet.
What is the capacity of the hard disk? How much
space is used? How much free space is available?
Click the Disk Cleanup button. How much space can
be freed up if you use the Disk Cleanup program?
Click the OK button to clean up the disk. How long
did it take to perform the disk cleanup? Submit your
answers to your instructor.
Defragment disk button
Close button
Figure 6-32
2. Display the Properties dialog box for a hard disk found on the computer. Display the Tools sheet. Click the Defragment now button.
In the Disk Defragmenter window, click the Defragment disk button. How could you tell when the defragmentation process was
completed? How long did defragmentation require? Submit your answers to your instructor.
Learn It Online
The Learn It Online exercises are interactive Web exercises designed to reinforce and expand your
understanding of the chapter concepts. The descriptions below briefly summarize each exercise.
To complete the Learn It Online exercises, visit the Computer Concepts CourseMate Web site
at www.cengagebrain.com, navigate to the Chapter 6 resources for this book, click the link
for the exercise you want to complete, and then read the instructions.
1 At the Movies — Thumb-drive (USB Flash Drive) Encryption
Watch a movie to learn how people who store personal and confidential information on USB flash drives can use third-party
programs to password-protect the files so that others cannot access them and then answer questions about the movie.
2 Student Edition Labs — Maintaining a Hard Drive (Hard Disk) and Managing Files and Folders
Enhance your understanding and knowledge about maintaining a hard disk and managing files and folders by completing
the Maintaining a Hard Drive and Managing Files and Folders Labs.
3 Practice Test
Take a multiple choice test that checks your knowledge of the chapter concepts and review the resulting study guide.
4 Who Wants To Be a Computer Genius2?
Play the Shelly Cashman Series version of this popular game by answering questions to find out if you are a computer
genius. Panic buttons are available to provide assistance during game play.
5 Crossword Puzzle Challenge
Complete an interactive crossword puzzle to reinforce concepts presented in this chapter.
6 Windows Exercises
Step through the Windows 7 exercises to learn about the Recycle Bin,
working with files, the hard disk, and Disk Cleanup.
7 Exploring Computer Careers
Read about a career as a computer technician, search for related employment
advertisements, and then answer related questions.
8 Web Apps — TurboTax Online
Learn how to use TurboTax Online to create an account, start a new tax return
from scratch, review your tax return, and then print and file your tax return.
1111530459_CH06EOC_1ST.indd 266-267
12/21/10 9:27:07 AM
Learn It Online
The Learn It Online exercises, which
include At the Movies online CNET videos,
practice tests, interactive labs, learning
games, and Web-based activities, offer a
wealth of online reinforcement.
Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Licensed to: CengageBrain User
Discovering Computers — Fundamentals
Storage
Problem Solving
Chapter 6
265
The Problem Solving exercises extend your knowledge of the chapter concepts by seeking
solutions to practical computer problems that you may encounter at home, school, or work.
The Collaboration exercise should be completed with a team.
In the real world, practical problems often can be solved in multiple ways. Provide one solution to each of the following
problems using available resources, such as articles on the Web or in print, blogs, podcasts, videos, television, user guides,
other individuals, and electronics and computer stores. You may need to use multiple resources to obtain an answer. Present
your solutions in the form requested by your instructor (brief report, presentation, discussion, or other means).
@ Home
STUDENT ASSIGNMENTS
Preface
Problem Solving
and Collaboration
Tackle everyday computer problems and put
the information presented in each chapter to
practical use with the Problem Solving @ Home
and Problem Solving @ Work exercises. Work as
a team to solve the Collaboration exercise.
1. Old Movies During the past two decades, you have been recording home movies on VHS
tapes. It is becoming more difficult to locate blank VHS tapes, and you are worried that if your
current VCR breaks, it will be hard to find a store that sells them new. A friend suggests that
you copy these movies to an optical disc. What steps will you take to convert these movies?
2. Possible Head Crash When you turn on your computer, you hear a clicking sound coming
from inside the computer. Furthermore, you realize that Windows is not starting automatically.
You talk to a friend who said that your hard disk might have experienced a head crash. What
might have caused this?
3. Missing Cable You are attempting to install a new 1 TB hard disk in your computer. You
have found the empty bay for the new hard disk, but you cannot locate the cable that connects
it to the computer. What are your next steps?
4. Memory Card Problems For the past two years, you have been using the same Secure Digital (SD)
SD) memory card
to take pictures with your digital camera. When you insert the SD memory card in your computer’s card reader to
transfer the pictures, your computer does not display the contents of the card. When you put the card back into your
digital camera, you can see that the pictures still are stored on the card. What might be wrong?
@ Work
5. Disk Not Recognized The information technology manager at your company has purchased external hard disks for
employees to use to back up their files. When you connect the external hard disk to the USB port on your computer, the
computer displays a message stating that it cannot recognize the device. What might you do to correct this problem?
6. File Will Not Open Your computer is unable to open a file on an optical disc that you just inserted into the optical
disc drive. You have been able to access other files on the same disc, but one file in particular is not opening. What
might be causing this?
7. Backing Up Data It has been several years since your office computer was upgraded, and you just received an e-mail
message stating that you finally will receive a new computer next week. The e-mail message also stated that all employees
will be responsible for backing up their data. What files will you back up?
8. Optical Disc Problem Your colleague gives you an optical disc containing some video files. When you insert the disc
in your computer, the disc burning software asks if you would like to finalize the disc. How will you respond?
Collaboration
9. Computers in Meteorology Your environmental sciences instructor is teaching a lesson about how computers
ters have
advanced the meteorology field. Form a team of three people to prepare a brief report about how computers and
ns before
meteorology are connected. One team member should research how meteorologists predicted weather patterns
w computers
computer use became mainstream. Another team member should create a timeline illustrating when and how
were introduced to the meteorology field, and the third team member should research the types of computer hardware
and software required for a typical news station to forecast and present the weather.
1111530459_CH06EOC_1ST.indd 265
STUDENT ASSIGNMENTS
STUDENT ASSIGNMENTS
xxii
268
Chapter 6
Storage
Web Research
1
12/21/10 9:26:32 AM
2
The Web Research exercises broaden your understanding of chapter concepts by presenting
questions that require you to search the Web for answers.
Search Sleuth
Use one of the search engines listed in Figure 2-8 in Chapter 2 on page 65 or your own favorite search engine to
find the answers to the following questions. Copy and paste the Web address from the Web page where you found
the answer. Some questions may have more than one answer. If required, submit your answers to your instructor.
(1) What album did Hillsong United release in 2008 on a flash drive embedded in a rubber wristband? (2) What
country uses the MyKad smart card for national identification? (3) What product did HP develop in 2004 based
on the efforts of engineer Daryl Anderson? (4) What products are available for sale at the SanDisk Plaza? (5) For
what storage medium are phase change alloys used? (6) What company introduced using a hard disk for accounting
projects in 1956?
Green Computing
Data storage is doubling every 18 months according to some computer industry experts, and consumers and businesses
are turning to environmentally sound methods of backing up and storing files. Accessing hard disks consumes 80 percent
of a storage system’s electrical consumption, so companies have developed products that reduce a system’s energy usage.
Businesses invest in cooling systems that dissipate the heat generated when servers and storage hardware operate. Locate
Web sites that describe these products and how they operate efficiently to conserve energy. How much energy savings
do they claim to make in one year? To what extent are carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases reduced? How do
they maximize the use of power and cooling resources? Review your search results and then write a 50-word summary
of your findings.
3 Social Networking
Web Research
Each Web Research exercise requires follow-up research
on the Web and suggests writing a short article or presenting the findings of the research to the class.
Privacy on social networking Web sites such as MySpace and Facebook is an international concern,
and the Electronic Privacy Information Center (epic.org/privacy/socialnet) features news, policies,
and resources discussing safeguarding and controlling personal information. At least one-fourth of
hiring managers admit to researching job applicants’ “digital dirt” by searching social networks and
blogs, and some employers search social networking Web sites for profiles of current employees.
Visit the Reputation Defender (reputationdefender.com) and Defend My Name (defendmyname
.com) Web sites and read about the services offered. Then view the standards posted on the MySpace
and Facebook Web sites regarding privacy and allowable content. Summarize the information you
read and viewed.
4
Blogs
Exercise and nutrition advice is available from experts who post firsthand experiences in their blogs. These authorities
may be people who share a particular experience, such as losing weight or training for a marathon, or who have specialized training in the fitness field. For example, noted author Lou Schuler discusses nutrition, weight training, and
issues of particular interest to men (malepatternfitness.com). Other popular fitness blogs are featured by The Families
.com (fitness.families.com/blog) and Diet-Blog (diet-blog.com). Athlete Blog Central (yardbarker.com/athletes) lists
blogs that professional and amateur athletes and their fans write. Visit these sites and read the posts. Which stories
received more than 25 comments? Which food, exercises, and programs are featured?
5
Ethics in Action
The United States Federal Bureau of Investigation used a controversial program until January 2005 to monitor and
store the e-mail and Internet activity of suspected criminals. Originally called Carnivore, the surveillance program
was renamed DCS1000. The program was designed to track the activities of potential terrorists, spies, drug traffickers, and organized crime ring members. FBI agents needed to obtain a court order to monitor an individual, but
privacy advocates claim the software tracked people not covered under the court order. View online sites that provide
information about DCS1000 or Carnivore, including HowStuffWorks (howstuffworks.com/carnivore.htm). What
commercial software has replaced Carnivore? Write a report summarizing your findings, and include a table of links
to Web sites that provide additional details.
1111530459_CH06EOC_1ST.indd 268
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Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Licensed to: CengageBrain User
Discovering Computers — Fundamentals
Milestones in Computer History
Visit the Computer Concepts CourseMate Web site at www.cengagebrain.com
and then navigate to the Timeline Feature resource for this book.
1937 Dr. John V. Atanasoff and Clifford
Berry design and build the first electronic
digital computer. Their machine, the
Atanasoff-Berry-Computer, or ABC,
provides the foundation for advances in
electronic digital computers.
1947 William Shockley, John
Bardeen, and Walter Brattain invent
the transfer resistance device,
eventually called the transistor.
The transistor would revolutionize
computers, proving much more
reliable than vacuum tubes.
1945 John von Neumann poses in front of
the electronic computer built at the Institute
for Advanced Study. This computer and its
von Neumann architecture served as the
prototype for subsequent stored program
computers worldwide.
Special Feature
Digital
D
i
Video Technology
Everywh
Everywhere
you look, people are capturing moments they
want to remember. They shoot movies of their vacations,
birthday parties, activities, accomplishments, sporting
events, weddings,
w
and more. Because of the popularity of
digital video
v
cameras and mobile devices with built-in digital
cameras
cameras, increasingly more people desire to capture their
memori
memories digitally, instead of on film. As shown in Figure 1,
people have
h
the ability to modify and share the digital videos
they create.
cre
When you use special hardware and/or software,
you can copy, manipulate,, and distribute digital videos using
your personal
per
computer and the Internet. Amateurs can
achieve professional quality
ity results
re
by using more sophisticated ha
ware. This
T feature describes how to
hardware and software.
select a video camera, record
ord a video, transfer and manage
videos, edit
e a video, and distribute
distrib
a video.
Digita recordings deliver
ver signifi
s
Digital
cant benefits over filmbased movie
m
th digital
dig
making. With
video cameras, recordings
reside on
o storage media such
uch as a hard disk, optical disc,
19
1
951
1
1951
1947
19
1
947
7
1946
19
1
946
946
6
xxiii
Special Features
Six special features following Chapters 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, and 12
encompass topics from the history of computers, to hot topics on
the Web 2.0, to a buyer’s guide, to the latest in new technology
and digital communications.
Special Feature
Timeline
Preface
1945
19
1
945
5
19
1
1943
943
943
3
or memory card. Unlike film, storage media can be reused,
which reduces costs, saves time, and provides immediate
results. Digital technology allows greater control over the
creative process, both while recording video and in the
editing process. You can check results immediately after
capturing a video to determine whether it meets your
expectations. If you are dissatisfied with a video, you can
erase it and recapture it, again and again. Today, many
mobile devices, such as smart phones and PDAs, allow you
to capture video.
As shown in Figure 1, digital video cameras, and mobile
devices function as input devices when they transmit video to
a personal computer. You can transmit video by connecting
the video camera or mobile device to your personal computer
using a USB or FireWire port, or by placing the storage
media used on the camera or mobile device in the computer.
Some cameras and devices also can transmit wirelessly to a
computer or to the media sharing Web sites.
Special Feature
1937
Making Use of the Web
digital video-enabled
smart phone
1943 During World War II, British scientist
Alan Turing designs the Colossus, an electronic
computer created for the military to break
German codes. The computer’s existence is
kept secret until the 1970s.
Living Digitally
INFORMATION LITERACY IS DEFINED as having the practical skills needed to
1951
1
951 The first commercially available
ava
electronic digital computer,
UNIVAC I
uter, the U
(UNIVersal Automatic Computer), is introduced
by Remington Rand. Public
awareness
of
ublicc aware
ubli
awar
e
computers increases when
UNIVAC correctly
hen the UN
predicts that Dwight D.. Eisenhower
Eisenho
Ei
Eisenh
Eisenhow
how
ow will win the
presidential election.
evaluate information critically from print and electronic resources and to use this
media sharing Web site
information accurately in daily life. Locating Web sites may be profitable for your
educational and professional careers, as the resources may help you research
class assignments and make your life more fulfilling and manageable.
Because the Web does not have an organizational structure to assist you in
locating reliable material, you may need additional resources to guide you
y in
describes specific
searching. To help you find useful Web sites, this Special Feature describ
information
about
a variety of Web pages, and it includes tables
es of Web addresses
personal
computer
Special Feature television
OUR DIGITAL LIVES are filled with a
so that you can get started. The material is organized in several
al areas of
o interest.
Web Exercises at the end of each area will reinforce the material
terial and help you
PSPgo
1111530459_SF01_REV.indd 37
12/21/10 9:33:06 AM
discover Web sites that may add a treasure trove of knowledge
ge to your life.
Digital Communications
D
variety of products. We listen on portable
media players to audio files we create
optical disc drive
Areas
3-D video display
Microsoft
osoft
os
oft Xbox 360
or download. We record and view video
Figure 1
Slingbox
g
interests. We play recorded files wherever
Weather, Sports, and News
Blogs
Learning
1111530459_SF05_REV.indd 231
transmission
of information
from one computer or mobile deviceTravel
to another (Figure 1). This feature covers Health
many forms
t
solo or with multiple friends across the
Sony PlayStation 3
energy monitoring, and leisure activities
Nintendo Wii
Finance
flat-screen
a
fl
at-screen
TV
Government
With the Internet, cell phone networks, and other wireless
n
networks
increasing in size and speed, digital communicattions have become more and more prevalent. The most
ccommon devices used to communicate digitally are desktop
ccomputers, notebook computers, smart phones, and other
mobile devices.
m
Successful use of digital communications involves selectiing both the proper communications device and the proper
mode of communication for a given situation. Each comm
puter or mobile device and communications method has
p
aadvantages and disadvantages that you should consider.
The following pages describe how people use different
ttypes of digital communications in their personal and business lives to enhance collaboration and increase productivn
iity. The final
final section of the feature includes an example of
how you might use digital communications.
h
Special Feature
our lives, technology is a pervasive part
TiVo
iPod/iPod touch
Literature and Arts
communications;
blogs and wikis; online social networks, chat rooms, and Web conferences; and content sharing.
c
head-mou
head
head-mounted
mounted
nted
display
throughout the house. Wherever we go in
Rock Band
12/21/10 9:36:16 AM
Environment
of
and picture/video messaging; digitalCareers
voice
o digital communications: e-mail; text messaging, instant messaging,
globe. Our home networks link security,
Buyer’s Guide:
How to Purchase Computers
and Mobile Devices
Nintendo DSi
Digital products
in our lives often
include features that
overlap in various
entertainment and
home automation
categories.
Research
DIGITAL COMMUNICATIONS, which factor largely in many people’s
D
personal
and business
lives,
include any
Online
Social Networks
and Media
Sharing
Science
avatar
and whenever we desire. We play games
e-mail message
of Interest
A variety of input, output, and storage
are used by home users to process
and edit
video.
Fun and devices
Entertainment
Shopping
anddigital
Auctions
content that matches our viewing
of our daily existence.
PDA
digital video camera
SPECIAL FEATURE
Special Feature
1946 Dr. John W. Mauchly and
J. Presper Eckert, Jr. complete work
on thee first large-scale electronic,
general-purpose
computer.
genera
al-purpose digital computer
The ENIAC (Electronic Numerical
Integrator And Computer) weighs
30 tons, contains 18,000 vacuum
tubes, occupies a 30 3 50
foot space, and consumes 160
kilowatts of power.
chumby
chum
humby
byy
video
camera
vide
deeo cca
amera
speakers
spe
peea
eaakers
AT SOME POINT, perhaps while you are taking this course, you may decide to buy
smart phone
a computer or mobile device (Figure 1). The decision is an important one and will
Studio Instruments
software
Audio
05_C7815_SF02_p0091-0106.4c.indd 91
require an investment of both time and money. Like many buyers, you may have
12/21/10 9:34:18 AM
little experience with
technology
and find yourself unsure of how to proceed.
digital
frames
Youy can
Dolby
logo
g
Recording
Nero optical disc
burning software
combination drive
Netflix
flix
Netfl
start by talking to your friends, coworkers, and instructors about their
computers and mobile devices. What type of computers and mobile devices did they
buy? Why? For what purposes do they use their computers and mobile devices?
Gaming
home automation
dashboard
Digital Home
SPECIAL FEATURE
Video
multi-room
multi
mult
lti-room
i room audio system
docking station
29_C7815_SF12_p0501-0506.4c.indd 501
12/30/10 1:53:26 PM
desktop computer
Figure 1
People use a variety of methods in their personal and business lives to engage in digital communications.
08_C7815_SF03_p0141-0154.4c.indd 141
12/21/10 9:35:18 AM
notebook computer
portable media
player
Figure 1
Computers and mobile
smart phone
digital camera
devices.
1111530459_SF07_REV2.indd 301
12/30/10 2:00:08 PM
Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Licensed to: CengageBrain User
xxiv
Preface
Discovering Computers — Fundamentals
Visual Walkthrough of the Computer Concepts CourseMate
for Discovering Computers — Fundamentals
Interactive. Current. Engaging.
Your Interactive Guide to the Digital World!
Introduce the most current technology
into the classroom with the Computer
Concepts CourseMate for Discovering
Computers — Fundamentals. An
integrated ebook and a wide range
of online learning games, quizzes,
practice tests, videos, and Web links
expand on the topics covered in the
text with hands-on reinforcement. The
Pointer Icon integrated into each page
of the text illustrates when to access
the CourseMate Web site and quickly
shows students the connection between
the text and the digital solution.
Who Wants to Be a
Computer Genius?2
The Who Wants to Be a
Computer Genius?2 learning game
allows students to quiz themselves on
chapter content within a dynamic and
entertaining game scenario. Question
results are provided instantly so that
students quickly see which concepts
they understand and which concepts
they need to study. Page remediation is
included with question results so students know exactly where in the text
to find the information they need.
EngagementTracker
k
EngagementTracker makes assessing
students easy by tracking student
progress on the interactive activities.
Clear and visual reports illustrate the
class progress as a whole.
Wheel of Terms
Wheel of Terms is an interactive study tool
for learning the Key Terms in each chapter.
This learning game presents students with
a short definition of one of the chapter’s
Key Terms and prompts them to type the
correct term as the answer.
Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Licensed to: CengageBrain User
Index
IND 1
Index
4GL: Fourth-generation language.
Nonprocedural language that
enables users and programmers
to access data in a database.
443, 456
802.11: Series of network standards developed by IEEE that
specifies how two wireless
devices communicate over the
air with each other. 329
802.11i: Network standard that
conforms to government’s
security standards and uses
more sophisticated encryption
techniques than WPA.
Sometimes called WPA2.
397, 410
802.16: Worldwide
Interoperability for Microwave
Access. Newer network standard developed by IEEE that
specifies how wireless devices
communicate over the air in a
wide area. 330. See also
WiMAX
A
abbreviations, chat, 79
AC adapter: External power supply, used by some external
peripherals, that converts AC
power into DC power that the
peripheral requires. 175
acceptable use policies (AUPs),
389, 410
Access control: Security measure
that defines who can access a
computer, when they can
access it, and what actions they
can take while accessing the
computer. 389–392, 410
access points, wireless, 304,
318–319, 335, 397, 410, 506
Access provider: Business that
provides individuals and companies access to the Internet
free or for a fee. 10, 58, 84
Access time: Measurement of the
amount of time it takes the
process to read data, instructions, and information from
memory. 168, 240
accessibility guidelines for physically challenged users, 220
accounting and finance as
functional unit, 469–470
Accounting software: Software
that helps companies record
and report their financial
transactions. 112, 119, 134
accuracy, information, 400
Acrobat Reader, 73
active, and background programs,
274
Active Energy Manager (AEM),
493
ActiveX controls, 447
Adapter card: Circuit board that
enhances functions of a component of a system unit and/or
provides connections to
peripherals. 157, 169. See also
Expansion card
adaptive cruise control, 20
adding records to database files, 357
Add-on: Program that extends
the capability of a browser;
often used to enhance multimedia. 73. See also Plug-in
Address book: List of names and
e-mail addresses, created and
stored by a user. 77
addresses
e-mail, 76–77
Internet, 60
searching for, 88–89
symbolic, 437
Web, 63
Administrator account:
Computer account held by
computer and network administrators that enables them to
access all files and programs on
the computer or network,
install programs, and specify
settings that affect all users on a
computer or network. 278, 294
Adobe CS5, 54
Adobe Flash, 73
Adobe Systems, 119, 133
ADSL (asymmetric digital subscriber line), 332
Advanced transfer cache: L2
cache built directly on the processor chip. 167
advocacy Web sites, 69
Adware: Program that displays an
online advertisement in a
banner or pop-up window on
Web pages, e-mail, or other
Internet services. 404, 411
Adware remover: Program that
detects and deletes adware from
a user’s computer. 289, 295
Air mouse: Newer type of
motion-sensing mouse that, in
addition to the typical buttons,
allows you to control objects,
media players, and slide shows
by moving the mouse in predetermined directions through
the air. 191, 224
airport security screening, and
damage to media, 250
Ajax: Asynchronous JavaScript
and XML; method of creating
interactive Web applications
designed to provide immediate
response to user requests.
448, 456
Alcatel-Lucent, 343
Allen, Paul, 29
All-in-one device: Output device
that looks like a printer or
copy machine but provides the
functionality of a printer, scanner, copy machine, and perhaps a fax machine. 215. See
also Multifunction peripheral
Alphabetic check: Validity check
that ensures users enter only
alphabetic data in a field.
360, 374
Amazon.com, 29, 43
Amazon’s Web services, 484
AMD processors, 54, 161
Americans with Disabilities Act
(ADA): Federal law that
requires any company with 15
or more employees to make
reasonable attempts to accommodate the needs of physically
challenged workers. 220
analog formats for video, 232
Analysis phase: Step in system
development that consists of
two major activities: (1) conduct a preliminary investigation, and (2) perform detailed
analysis. 425, 456
Animation: Appearance of
motion created by displaying a
series of still images in
sequence. 71, 84
ANSI network standards, 328
Anti-spam program: Program
that attempts to remove spam
before it reaches a user’s inbox.
289, 295, 405
antistatic wipes, 177
Antivirus program: Program
that protects a computer
against viruses by identifying
and removing any computer
viruses found in memory, on
storage media, or on incoming
files. 110, 288, 295, 386–387,
410
Apache Web server, 45
API: Application programming
interface; collection of tools
that programmers use to interact with an environment such
as a Web site or operating system. 448, 456
Apple Inc., 29
milestones in computer history,
40, 41, 43, 45, 48, 49, 50, 51,
53
vs. PCs, 15
Apple QuickTake digital camera,
43
Apple TV, 503
Apple’s GarageBand software, 504
applets, 447
Application generator: Program
that creates source code or
machine code from a specification of the required functionality. 444, 456
Application software: Program
designed to make users more
productive and/or assist them
with personal tasks. 12, 30,
108
categories of (fig.), 108
for communications (fig.), 130
popular business programs (fig.),
112
saving files in, 138
types, working with, 108–112
architectures, network, 325–326
Archive disc: CD that stores
photos from a photo sharing
community using the jpg file
format. 255
Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Licensed to: CengageBrain User
IND 2
Index
Arithmetic logic unit (ALU):
Component of a processor that
performs arithmetic, comparison, and other operations. 159,
160, 180
ARPANET network, 39, 56
Artificial intelligence (AI): The
application of human intelligence to computers. 476
arts Web sites, 106
ASCII coding scheme, 162
Ask.com, 300
ASP.NET, 441
assemblers, 437
Assembly language:
Programming language in
which a programmer writes
instructions using symbolic
instruction codes. 437
asterisk (*)
DBMS wildcard, 358
search wildcard, 67
astronomy, remote solar system
objects mapped in database, 431
at symbol (@) in e-mail addresses,
77
Atanasoff, Dr. John V., 37
Atanasoff-Berry Computer (ABC),
37
ATM: Asynchronous Transfer
Mode; service that carries voice,
data, video, and multimedia at
very high speeds. 332, 344
ATM cards, 391
ATMs (automated teller
machines), 204–205
ATOM: XML application that content aggregators use to distribute
content to subscribers. 447
attaching files to e-mail messages,
88
attacks, Internet and network,
384–389
Attribute: Each data element in
an object. 368, 375
Attribute Screening Technologies
(FAST), 392
auctions Web sites, 100
Audio: Music, speech, or any
other sound. 72, 84, 502
Audio editing software:
Application software that
allows a user to modify audio
clips, produce studio-quality
soundtracks, and add audio to
video clips. 120, 122, 123, 134
Audio input: Process of entering
any sound, such as speech,
music, and sound effects, into
the computer. 198
Audio output device:
Component of a computer that
produces music, speech, or
other sounds, such as beeps.
217, 225
Audit trail: Computer file that
records both successful and
unsuccessful access attempts.
389, 410
Automated teller machine
(ATM): Special-purpose terminal, connected to a host
computer through a network
that functions as a self-service
banking machine. 204
Automatic update: Operating
system feature that automatically provides updates to a
program. 277, 294
automobile
embedded computers in, 20
sensor-guided navigation, 127
Automobile X prize, 455
B
Back door: Program or set of
instructions in a program that
allow users to bypass security
controls when accessing a program, computer, or network.
388, 410
Back up: To make a copy of a file.
396
files on offsite Internet server,
414–415
background, and active programs,
274
Backside bus: Bus that connects
the processor to cache. 174, 181
Backup: Duplicate or copy of a
file, program, or disk placed on
a separate storage medium that
can be used if the original is
lost, damaged, or destroyed.
244, 367, 374, 396
procedures, 490–492
Backup utility: Utility program
that allows users to copy, or
back up, selected files or an
entire hard disk to another
storage medium, such as
another hard disk, optical disc,
USB flash drive, or tape.
286, 295
Backus, John, 38
Bandwidth: The amount of data,
instructions, and information
that can travel over a communications channel. 337
banking, online, 25, 124
Bar code: Identification code
consisting either of vertical
lines and spaces of different
widths or a two-dimensional
pattern of dots, squares, and
other images that represent a
manufacturer and an item. 201
Bar code reader: Optical reader
that uses laser beams to read
bar codes by using light patterns that pass through the bar
code lines. 189, 201, 224
barcode of life (DNA sequencing), 365
Bardeen, John, 37
Baseball Boss, 359
BASIC computer language, 39
batch processing, 473
batteries, UPS, 396
Bay: Opening inside the system
unit in which additional equipment can be installed. 175
BD-R, 253
BD-RE: High-capacity rewritable
DVD format. 256, 263
BD-ROM, 253
BehaviorIQ, 402
Benchmark test: Test that measures the performance of hardware or software. 430
bendable notebook computers, 173
Berners-Lee, Tim, 42, 61, 83
Berry, Clifford, 37
Bezos, Jeff, 29
Binary system: Number system
used by computers that has
just two unique digits, 0 and 1,
called bits. 162, 180
Bing Maps, 96
Bing Web site, 93
Biometric device: Device that
authenticates a person’s identity by translating a personal
characteristic, such as a finger
print, into a digital code that
then is compared with a digital
code stored in a computer verifying a physical or behavioral
characteristic. 188, 391, 410
Biometric payment: Payment
method where the customer’s
fingerprint is read by a fingerprint reader that is linked to a
payment method such as a
checking account or credit
card. 391
Biometrics: Technology of
authenticating a person’s identity by verifying a personal
characteristic. 202
Bit: The smallest unit of data a
computer can process. Bit is
short for binary digit. 162,
163, 180
BlackBerry, 283, 293
Blade server: Complete computer
server, such as a Web server or
network server, packed on a
single card. 489, 495
Blog: Informal Web site consisting of time-stamped articles,
or posts, in a diary or journal
format, usually listed in reverse
chronological order. 10, 49,
68, 84, 316
creating and using, 34
personal and business perspectives on, 148–149
blogging software, 130
Blogosphere: Worldwide collection of blogs. 68, 94
blogs Web sites, 94
Bluetooth: Network standard,
specifically a protocol, that
defines how two Bluetooth
devices use short-range radio
waves to transmit data. 172,
181, 329, 505
hot spots, 318
Blu-ray Disc: Newer, expensive
type of DVD with storage
capacities of 100 GB, and
expectations of exceeding 200
GB in the future. 51, 256, 263
Blu-ray Disc recorders, 232
body area networks (BANs), 323
Bookmark: Saved Web address
that you access by clicking its
name in a list. 63. See also
Favorite
books Web sites, 100
Booting: Process of starting or
restarting a computer. 272
Botnet: Group of compromised
computers connected to a network such as the Internet that is
used as part of a network that
attacks other networks, usually
for nefarious purposes. 387, 410
safeguards against, 388–389
brain wave forensics, 392
Brattain, Walter, 37
Bricklin, Dan, 40, 133
Brin, Sergey, 83
British Museum’s Online Gallery
Software, 251
Broadband: High-speed Internet
connection provided through
cable, DSL, fiber, radio signals,
or satellite. 57, 84, 305, 338, 506
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Index
Broadcast radio: Wireless
transmission medium that
distributes radio signals
through the air over long distances such as between cities,
regions, and countries and
short distances such as within
an office or home. 341, 345
Browser: Application software
that allows users to access and
view Web pages. 61, 84. See
also Web browser
Buffer: Segment of memory or
storage in which items are
placed while waiting to be
transferred from an input device
or to an output device. 275
Burning: Process of writing on
an optical disc. 254
files to optical disc, 298
music, video, 504
Burns, Ursula, 223
Bus: Electrical channel that
transfers electronic bits internally within the circuitry of a
computer, allowing the devices
both inside and attached to the
system unit to communicate
with each other. 174, 181
Bus network: Type of network
topology in which a single
central cable connects all computers and other devices. 327
Business intelligence (BI):
Several types of applications
and technologies for acquiring,
storing, analyzing, and providing access to information to
help users make more sound
business decisions. 468, 494
Business process automation
(BPA): Automation that provides easy exchange of information among business
applications, reduces the need
for human intervention in processes, and uses software to
automate processes wherever
possible. 468, 494
Business process management
(BPM): Set of activities that
enterprises perform to optimize
their business processes, such as
accounting and finance, hiring
employees, and purchasing
goods and services. 468, 494
Business software: Application
software that assists people in
becoming more effective and
efficient while performing
their daily business activities.
112, 134
types of, 108, 112–119
business software suite, 112
business/marketing Web sites, 68
business-to-business (B2B)
e-commerce, 74, 481
business-to-consumer (B2C)
e-commerce, 74
Button: Graphical element that is
activated to cause a specific
action to take place. 110, 134
buying guide
to desktop computers, 302–306
to digital cameras, 311–312
to notebook computers, 306–309
to portable media players,
310–311
to smart phones, 309–310
Byte: Eight bits that are grouped
together as a unit. A byte provides enough different combinations of 0s and 1s to
represent 256 individual characters. 162, 164, 180
C
C: Programming language developed in the early 1970s at Bell
Laboratories used for business
and scientific applications. 439
C#: Object-oriented programming
language based on C++ developed primarily by Anders
Hejlsberg at Microsoft. 441, 456
C++: Object-oriented programming language developed at
Bell Laboratories that is an
extension of the C programming language. 427, 441, 456
Cable Internet service: Highspeed Internet access provided
through the cable television
network via a cable modem.
57, 84, 334
Cable modem: Digital modem
that sends and receives digital
data over the cable television
(CATV) network. 59, 333, 345
cable television (CATV) network,
339
cable types, 339–340
cables
printer, 212
S-video, 233
Cache: Area of memory that stores
the contents of frequently used
data or instructions. 167
calculations by spreadsheets, 115
Calibri, Cambria fonts, 114
Camera phone: Phone that can
send picture messages. 17
camera pills, 26
cameras, digital. See Digital
camera
Capacity: Number of bytes a
storage medium can hold. 240,
241, 262
CAPTCHA: Completely
Automated Public Turing test
to tell Computers and Humans
Apart; program used by some
Web sites to provide further
protection for a user’s password
by verifying that user input is
not computer generated. 390
capturing video, 504
Card reader/writer: Device that
reads and writes data, instructions, and information stored
on PC Cards or flash memory
cards and transmits that data
to a computer or printer
through a connection to a
port. 5, 248, 249, 303
career Web sites, 105
Carnivore e-mail surveillance
program, 268
carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), 398
cartography Web sites, 96
Case control structure: Type of
selection control structure that
can yield one of three or more
possibilities. 452
Cathode-ray tube (CRT):
Large, sealed glass tube whose
front, the screen, is coated
with dots of red, green, and
blue phosphor material. 210
CD-R: Multisession optical disc
on which users can write, but
not erase, their own items such
as text, graphics, and audio.
254, 263
CD-ROM: Type of optical disc
that uses laser technology to
store data, instructions, and
information that users can read
but not write on or erase.
254, 263
CD-ROM drive: Drive that can
read CD-ROM discs and
sometimes audio CDs. 254
CD-RW: Erasable multisession
optical disc on which users can
write data, instructions, and
information multiple times. 255
CD-RW drive: Drive that can
read audio CDs, standard
CD-ROMs, CD-Rs, CD-RWs,
IND 3
and can write on, or record,
CD-RWs. 255, 263
cell phones
digital voice communications,
146–147
radiation from, 340
use as primary telephone, 316
cellular antenna radiation, 340
Cellular radio: Form of broadcast radio that is used widely
for mobile communications,
specifically wireless modems
and cellular telephones. 341
Cellular radio network: Highspeed Internet connection for
devices with built-in compatible technology or computers
with wireless modems. 58, 84,
345
Central processing unit (CPU):
Electronic component on a
computer’s motherboard that
interprets and carries out the
basic instructions that operate
the computer. 159, 180. See
also Processor
Certificate authority:
Authorized person or company
that issues and verifies digital
certificates. 395–396, 410
Change management: Skill
required for project leaders so
they can recognize when a
change in a project has
occurred, take actions to react
to the change, and plan for
opportunities because of the
change. 420
Character: A number, letter,
punctuation mark, or other
symbol that is represented by a
single byte in the ASCII and
EBCDIC coding schemes.
355, 374
charting with spreadsheets, 116
Chat: Real-time typed conversation that takes place on a computer. 79
Chat room: Location on an
Internet server that permits
users to chat with each other.
79, 130, 316
personal and business perspectives on, 150–151
Check digit: Validity check
consisting of a number(s) or
character(s) that is appended
to or inserted in a primary key
value. 360, 374
Chess Titans, 274
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IND 4
Index
Chief information officer
(CIO): IT executive position
that reports to the CEO. 467,
471, 473
Chief security officer: Employee
responsible for physical security of a company’s property
and people; in charge of security computing resources. 434
Chip: Small piece of semiconducting material, usually silicon, on which integrated
circuits are etched. 158, 179
Cisco Systems, 343
city guides Web sites, 96
Clark, Jim, 43
cleaning
computers, mobile devices, 177
hard disks, 241
optical discs, 254
Click: To move the mouse
pointer to a button or link on
the computer screen, and then
to press and release the left
mouse button. 64, 110, 134
click stream, 481
Click Wheel: Touch-sensitive
pad on a portable media player
that users can rotate to browse
through song, picture or movie
lists or press the buttons to
play or pause media, display a
menu, and other actions. 193
Clickjacking: Scam in which an
object that can be clicked on a
Web site, such as a button,
image, or link, contains a malicious program. 405
Clients: Other computers and
mobile devices on a network
that rely on a server for its
resources. 325
Client/server network: Network
in which one or more computers act as a server, and the
other computers on the network request services from the
server. 325
Clip art: Collection of drawings,
photos, and other images that
a user can insert in documents.
113
Clip art/image gallery: A collection of clip art and photos
included with application software. 123, 126, 135
Clock speed: Pace of the system
clock, measured by the number
of ticks per second. 161, 174
closed source operating systems, 282
Cloud computing: Internet
service that provides computing needs to computer users.
483–484, 494–495
Cloud storage: Internet service
that provides storage to computer users. 239, 251–252, 262,
396
CMOS: Technology used by
some RAM chips, flash memory chips, and other types of
memory chips that provides
high speeds and consumes little power by using battery
power to retain information
even when the power to a
computer is off. 168, 180, 261
Coaxial cable: A single copper
wire surrounded by at least
three layers: (1) an insulating
material, (2) a woven or
braided metal, and (3) a plastic
outer coating. 339, 345
COBOL: COmmon BusinessOriented Language.
Programming language
designed for business applications, which evolved out of a
joint effort between the United
States government, businesses,
and major universities in the
early 1960s. 38, 439, 440
Code snippets: Prewritten code
and templates associated with
common programming tasks.
442
codec, 233
Cold boot: Process of turning on
a computer that has been powered off completely. 272
Collaborate: Work online with
other users connected to a
server. 321, 344
Collaborative databases: Type of
Web database where users
store and share photos, videos,
recordings, and other personal
media with other registered
users. 370
Collaborative software: Software
that includes tools that enable
users to share documents via
online meetings and communicate with other connected
users. 321
color correction tools, 235
color laser printers, 214
Column: Term used by users of
relational databases for field.
368, 375
Command: Instruction on a
menu that causes a program to
perform a specific action. 110
Command-line interface: Type
of user interface in which a
user types commands or presses
special keys on the keyboard
(such as function keys or key
combinations) to enter data
and instructions. 273, 294
Communications: Process in
which two or more computers
or devices transfer data,
instructions, and information.
314, 344
application software for (fig.), 130
conducting effective interviews,
460–461
in the enterprise, 480
over telephone networks, 331–333
uses of, 315–322
using VoIP, 498–499
Communications channel:
Transmission media on which
data, instructions, or information travel. 314, 337–339, 344
Communications device: Any
type of hardware capable of
transmitting data, instructions,
and information between a
sending device and a receiving
device. 30, 333, 344
types of, 333–335
Communications satellite: Space
station that receives microwave
signals from an earth-based
station, amplifies (strengthens)
the signals, and broadcasts the
signals back over a wide area to
any number of earth-based
stations. 341, 345
Communications software:
Programs that (1) help users
establish a connection to
another computer or network;
(2) manage the transmission of
data, instructions, and information; and (3) provide an
interface for users to communicate with one another.
330–331, 344
Compac, Inc., 41
CompactFlash (CF): Type of
miniature mobile storage
medium that is a flash memory
card capable of storing
between 512 MB and 100 GB
of data. 248, 249, 262
company/industry information
Web sites, 105
Compiler: Separate program that
converts an entire source program into machine language
before executing it. 438
Completeness check: Validity
check that verifies that a
required field contains data.
360, 374
Composite key: Primary key that
consists of multiple fields. 356
compressing files, 138–139
Computer: Electronic device,
operating under the control of
instructions stored in its own
memory, that can accept data,
process the data according to
specified rules, produce results,
and store the results for future
use. 3, 30
advantages and disadvantages of
using, 7–8
agricultural uses of, 342
airport security screening, and
damage to media, 250
applications in society, 24–28
categories of, 14–16
cleaning, 177
construction industry usage, 132
educational usage of, 292
and entertainment industry, 82
examples of usage, 20–24
government search and seizure
of, 176
health concerns with, 398–399
health sciences’ use of, 372
and identify theft, 10
manufacturing usage of, 454
meteorology’s use of, 260
municipal services usage, 492
networks. see networks
organizing, managing files on,
378–379
overview, 2–4
PCs vs. Apple computers, 15
recycling, 14
space exploration and, 222
sports industry usage, 178
starting, shutting down, 272
system software’s role, 109–110
Computer addiction: Growing
health problem that occurs when
the computer consumes someone’s entire social life. 399, 411
computer communications, 314–322
Computer crime: Any illegal act
involving a computer. 382
Computer ethics: Moral guidelines that govern the use of
computers and information
systems. 399
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Index
Computer literacy: Having a
current knowledge and understanding of computers and
their uses. 3, 30, 91. See also
Digital literacy
Computer program: Series of
instructions that directs a computer to perform tasks. 435
Computer security plan:
Written summary of all the
safeguards that are in place to
protect an organization’s information assets. 434
Computer security risk: Any
event or action that could
cause a loss of or damage to
computer hardware, software,
data, information, or processing capability. 382
types of, 382–383
Computer vision syndrome:
Eyestrain due to prolonged
computer usage. 398, 410–411
Computer-aided design (CAD):
Software that aids in engineering, drafting, and design. 454,
471, 494
Computer-aided design (CAD)
software: Sophisticated type
of application software that
assists a professional user in
creating engineering, architectural, and scientific designs.
120, 121, 132, 134
Computer-aided engineering
(CAE): Use of computers to
test product designs. 471, 494
Computer-aided manufacturing
(CAM): Use of computers to
assist with manufacturing processes such as fabrication and
assembly. 27, 454, 471, 494
Computer-aided software
engineering (CASE):
Software tools designed to
support one or more activities
of system development, typically including diagrams to
support both process and
object modeling. 432
Computer-based training
(CBT): Type of education in
which students learn by using
and completing exercises with
instructional software. 127,
131, 449
Computer-integrated
manufacturing (CIM): Use of
computers to integrate the
many different operations of
the manufacturing process.
471, 494
conducting effective interviews,
460–461
configurations, suggested minimum, by user (fig.), 176
configuring devices, 276
connecting
to Internet, 57–58, 276
mouse to computer, 192
connections, Internet types and
speeds (fig.), 332
Connector: Device that joins a
cable to a port. 170–171, 181
Consistency check: Validity
check that tests the data in two
or more associated field to
ensure that the relationship is
logical and their data is in the
correct format. 360, 374
construction industry use of computers, 132
consumer-to-consumer (C2C)
e-commerce, 74–75
contact lenses, monitoring glaucoma, 277
Content aggregator: Business
that gathers and organizes Web
content and then distributes, or
feeds, the content to subscribers for free or a fee. 70, 84
Content filtering: Process of
restricting access to certain
material on the Web. 407, 411
Content management system
(CMS): An information system that is a combination of
databases, software, and procedures that organizes and allows
access to various forms of documents and other files, including images and multimedia
content. 478, 494
content sharing, personal and
business perspectives on,
152–153
Continuous backup: Backup
plan in which all data is backed
up whenever a change is made.
367, 374, 490
continuous backup protection
(CBP), 490
continuous data protection
(CDP), 490, 491, 495
contrast ratio, 209
Control structure: Used during
program design, a depiction of
the logical order of program
instructions. 451, 457
types of, 451–453
Control unit: Component of a
processor that directs and
coordinates most of the operations in the computer. 159, 180
Convergence: Term used to refer
to the trend of manufacturers
offering computers and devices
with technologies that overlap.
14
Cookie: Small text file that a
Web server stores on a computer. 403–404, 411
cooking Web sites, 102
copyleft, 409
Copyright: Exclusive rights given
to authors and artists to duplicate, publish, and sell their
materials. 401
corporate blogs, 94
Cowlishaw, Mike, 448
CPU (central processing unit):
Electronic component on a
computer’s motherboard that
interprets and carries out the
basic instructions that operate
the computer. 6. See also
Processor
Cracker: Someone who accesses a
computer or network illegal
with the intent of destroying
data, stealing information, or
other malicious action. 382
Create: To enter text or numbers,
insert images, and perform other
tasks with a document using an
input device such as a keyboard,
mouse, or digital pen. 114, 134
CRT monitor: Type of desktop
monitor that contains a cathode-ray tube. 210–211, 224
CT scans, 372
Custom software: Software that
performs functions specific to
a business or industry, developed by a user or at a user’s
request. 108, 427–428
Customer interaction
management (CIM):
Software that manages the
day-to-day interactions with
customers, such as telephone
calls, e-mail interactions, Web
interactions, and instant messaging sessions. 472–473, 494
Customer relationship
management (CRM): System
that manages information
about customers, interactions
with customers, past purchases,
and interest. 478, 494
IND 5
cyberbullying, 81
Cybercafé: Coffeehouse, restaurant, or other location that
provides personal computers
with Internet access to its customers. 319, 344
Cybercrime: Online or Internetbased illegal acts. 382
Cyberextortionist: Someone
who uses e-mail as a vehicle
for extortion. 382
Cyberterrorist: Someone who
uses the Internet or network to
destroy or damage computers
for political reasons. 383
cylinders (read/write heads),
242–243
D
Dance pad: Flat electronic device
divided into panels that users
press with their feet in
response to instructions from a
music video game. 196, 224
Data: Collection of unprocessed
items, which can include text,
numbers, images, audio, and
video. 4, 352, 374
accidental theft of, 367
hierarchy of, 355–356
and information gathering techniques, 422–423
integrity, 353
maintaining, 357–360
security, 367
validating, 359–360
Data center: Centralized location
for managing and housing
hardware and software. 479
Data dictionary: A DBMS element that contains data about
each file in a database and each
field in those files. 364, 374
data entry forms, 366
Data file: Collection of related
records stored on a storage
medium such as a hard disk or
optical disc. 356, 374
Data model: Rules and standards
that define how a database
organizes data. 368, 375
Data projector: Output device
that takes the text and images
displaying on a computer screen
and projects them on a larger
screen so that an audience can
see the image clearly. 218, 225
data recovery programs, 284
data redundancy, 361–362
data representation, 162–163
Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Licensed to: CengageBrain User
IND 6
Index
Data type: Specifies the kind of
data a field in a database can
contain and how the field can
be used. 356
Data warehouse: Huge database
that stores and manages the
data required to analyze historical and current transactions. 370, 375, 480–481, 494
Database: Collection of data
organized in a manner that
allows access, retrieval, and use
of that data. 116, 134, 352, 374
Internet, and privacy, 354
largest market share, 363
redundant data in, 361–362
relational, object-oriented,
multidimensional, 368–370
remote solar system objects
mapped in, 431
security breaches, 370
Web, 370–371
database administration, 371–372
Database administrator (DBA):
Person who creates and maintains the data dictionary, manages security of a database,
monitors the performance of a
database, and checks backup and
recovery procedures. 371, 375
Database analyst (DA): Person
who focuses on the meaning
and usage of data, including
proper placement of fields,
defining the relationships
among data, and identifying
users’ access privileges. 371, 375
Database approach: System used
to store and manage data in
which many programs and
users share the data in a database. 361–362, 374
Database management system
(DBMS): Program that allows
user to create a computerized
database; add, change, and
delete data in the database,
sort and retrieve data from the
database; and create forms and
reports from the data in the
database. 352, 374
components and workings of,
352–360
functions common to most,
364–367
popular (fig.), 363
Database software: Application
software used to create, access,
and manage a database; add,
change, and delete data in the
database; sort and retrieve data
from the database; and create
forms and reports using the
data in the database. 116, 134,
352, 374
features and uses of, 116–117
DCS1000, 268
Dean, Mark, 261
Decision support system (DSS):
Information system that helps
users analyze data and make
decisions. 475, 494
Decrypt: Process of deciphering
encrypted data into a readable
form. 395
Dedicated line: Type of alwayson connection that is established between two
communications devices
(unlike a dial-up line where
the connection is reestablished
each time it is used). 331, 344
dedicated servers, 325
Defragmenting: Reorganizing a
disk so that the files are stored
in contiguous sectors, thus
speeding up disk access and
the performance of the entire
computer. 266–267, 286
deleting
data with wiping utilities, 241
records from database files,
358–359
Dell hybrid computers, 52
Dell notebooks, 54
Delphi: Powerful visual programming tool that is ideal for
large-scale enterprise and Web
application development. 443
Denial of service attack: Assault
on a computer or network whose
purpose is to disrupt computer
access to an Internet service such
as the Web or e-mail. 387, 410.
See also DoS attack
Design phase: Phase of the system development cycle that
consists of two major activities:
(1) if necessary, acquire hardware and software and (2)
develop all of the details of the
new or modified information
system. 428, 456
Desktop: On-screen work area
that has a graphical user interface. 110, 134
Desktop computer: Computer
designed so the system unit,
input devices, output devices,
and any other devices fit entirely
on or under a desk or table. 16
buying guide, 302–306
Desktop publishing (DPT)
software: Application software
used by professional designers
to create sophisticated documents that can contain text,
graphics, and many colors.
120, 121, 134
Developer: Person who writes
and modifies computer programs. 13, 435. See also
Programmer
devices
configuring, 276
input. See input device
output. See output device
DeWolfe, Chris, 29
Dial-up access: Internet access
that takes place when the
modem in your computer connects to the Internet via a
standard telephone line that
transmits data and information
using an analog (continuous
wave pattern) signal. 58, 84
Dial-up line: Temporary connection that uses one or more
analog telephone lines for
communications. 305, 331, 344
Dial-up modem:
Communications device that
can convert digital signals to
analog signals and analog
signals to digital signals, so
that data can travel along
an analog telephone line.
333, 344
differential backup, 490
Digital: Representation of data
using only two discrete states:
on (1) and off (0). 162, 180
digital books, 251
Digital camera: Mobile device
that allows users to take pictures and stores the photographed images digitally,
instead of on traditional film.
18, 42, 197–198, 506
Apple QuickTake, 43
buying guide, 311–312
Kodak’s first, 42
and memory cards, 248
and printers, 212
transferring video to computer,
228–229
Digital certificate: A notice that
guarantees a user or a Web site
is legitimate. 395, 410
digital communications
forms of, 142–153
overview, 141
in personal life, 154
Digital Equipment Corporation
(DEC), 39
Digital forensics: The discovery,
collection, and analysis of evidence found on computers and
networks. 392
digital formats for video, 232
Digital literacy: Having a current knowledge and understanding of computers and
their uses. 3. See also
Computer literacy
Digital modem:
Communications device that
sends and receives data and
information to and from a
digital line. 333
Digital pen: Input device that
looks like a small ink pen but
uses pressure instead of ink.
194, 224, 307
Digital photo printer: Thermal
printer that uses heat to transfer colored dye to specially
coated paper. 215–216
Digital rights management:
Strategy designed to prevent
illegal distribution of movies,
music, and other digital content. 401
Digital signature: Encrypted
code that a person, Web site,
or organization attaches to an
electronic message to verify
the identity of the message
sender. 395, 396, 410
Digital video (DV) camera:
Video camera that records
video as digital signals instead
of as analog signals. 5, 47, 199,
228, 303
digital video recorders (DVRs), 503
digital video technology,
231–236
digital voice communications,
personal and business perspectives on, 146–147
Dijkstra, Dr. Edsger, 39
Direct conversion: Conversion
strategy where the user stops
using an old system and begins
using a new system on a certain date. 433
disabling cookies, 404
Disaster recovery plan: Written
plan describing the steps a
company would take to restore
computer operations in the
event of a disaster. Contains
four major components:
emergency plan, backup
Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
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plan, recovery plan, and test
plan. 491, 495
Disc burning software: Utility
program that writes text, graphics, audio, and video files to a
recordable or rewritable CD,
DVD, or Blu-ray Disc. 291, 295
Discovering Computers
Fundamentals 2011 Online
Companion, 34
Disk Cleanup, 266
Disk cleanup: Utility that
searches for and removes
unnecessary files. 286, 295
Disk controller: Special-purpose
chip and electronic circuits
that control the transfer of
data, instructions, and information between a disk and the
system bus and other components in a computer. 246, 262
Disk Defragmenter, 266
Disk defragmenter: Utility that
reorganizes the files and
unused space on a computer’s
hard disk so that the operating
system accesses data more
quickly and programs run
faster. 286, 295
Display device: Output device that
visually conveys text, graphics,
and video information. 207, 224
for notebook computers, 307
types of, 207–211
DisplayPort, 209
Distance learning: Delivery of
education at one location while
the learning takes place at
other locations. 131
distributing videos, 236
Distribution system: Provides
forecasting for inventory control,
manages and tracks shipping of
products, and provides information and analysis on inventory in
warehouses. 472, 494
DivX video format, 233–234
DNA barcoding, 365
Docking station: External device
that attaches to a mobile computer or device and provides
power connections to peripherals, along with memory
cards, optical disc drives, and
other devices. 173
Document management software: Application software
that provides a means for sharing, distributing, and searching
through documents by converting them into a format that
can be viewed by any user.
119, 134
Document management system: System for storage and
management of a company’s
documents, such as word processing documents, presentations, and spreadsheets. 321
Documentation: Collection and
summarization of data and
information. 422, 456
documents
creating, printing, 114, 212
turnaround, 200
Dolby, Ray, 502
Domain name: Text version of an
IP address. 60
do-not-track list, 65
DoS attack: Assault on a computer
or network whose purpose is to
disrupt computer access to an
Internet service such as the
Web or e-mail. 387. See also
Denial of service attack
safeguards against, 388–389
dot pitch, 209
Dot-matrix printer: Type of
impact printer that produces
printed images when tiny wire
pins on a print head mechanism strike an inked ribbon.
217, 225
do-until, do-while control structures, 453
Downloading: Process of a computer receiving information,
such as a Web page, from a
server on the Internet. 62
music, 72, 502
taxing, 291
Dreamweaver: Web page authoring program by Adobe Systems
that allows Web developers to
create, maintain, and manage
professional Web sites. 449, 456
Drive bay: Rectangular opening
inside the system unit that typically holds disk drives. 175, 175
Driver: Small program that tells
an operating system how to
communicate with a specific
device. 276, 294
driving directions, searching for,
88–89
DSL: Type of digital technology
that provides high-speed
Internet connections using
regular copper telephone lines.
57, 84, 332, 344
DSL modem: Modem that sends
digital data and information
from a computer to a DSL line
and receives digital data and
information from a DSL line.
333, 344–345
Dual-core processor: Processor
chip that contains two separate
processor cores. 159
DVD burners, 47
DVD kiosk: Self-service DVD
rental machine that connects
to a host computer through a
network. 205
DVD+R, 253
DVD+RAM: Rewritable DVD
format. 256, 263
DVD+RW: Rewritable DVD format. 256, 263
DVD-R, 253
DVD-RAM, 253
DVD-ROM: High-capacity optical disc on which users can
read, but not write or erase.
256, 263
DVD-ROM drive: Device
that can read a DVD-ROM.
Most DVD-ROM drives also
can read audio CDs,
CD-ROMs, CD-Rs, and
CD-RWs. 256
DVD-RW: Rewritable DVD format. 256
DVI (Digital Video Interface),
209
dye-sublimation printers,
215–216
Dynamic HTML (DHTML):
Newer type of HTML that
allows Web developers to
include more graphical interest
and interactivity in a Web
page. 448, 456
E
Earbuds: Audio output device
that rests inside the ear canal.
18, 218, 225, 245. See also
Earphones
Earphones: Audio output device
that rests inside the ear canal.
218. See also Earbuds
eBay, 44, 83, 394, 493
E-book: Electronic version of a
printed book, readable on
computers and other digital
devices. Also called a digital
book. 17
E-book reader: Short for electronic book reader; handheld
device that is used primarily
for reading e-books. 17
Eckert, J. Presper, Jr., 37
IND 7
E-commerce: Short for
electronic commerce; a business transaction that occurs
over an electronic network
such as the Internet. 45, 46, 74
and cookies, 403–404
examples of, 484–485
milestones in computer history,
45, 46
EDI (electronic data
interchange): Set of standards
that controls the transfer of
business data and information
among computers both
within and among enterprises.
480
Edit: To make changes to the
existing content of a document. 114, 134
videos, 234–235
education
computer applications in,
24–25
computer usage in, 292
e-learning systems, 131
government search and seizure
of, 176
learning Web sites, 102
technology in the classroom,
166
using wikis for research, 68
word processing programs and
student laziness, 113
Educational software:
Application software that
teaches a particular skill. 21,
123, 127, 135
EIDE hard disk interface, 246
educational Web sites, 69
E-learning: Short for electronic
learning; delivery of education via some electronic
method such as the Internet,
networks, or CDs/DVDs.
131, 292
electromagnetic radiation (EMR),
211
Electronic Arts (EA), 455
electronic books, 251
electronic keyboards, 198
Electronic magazine:
Publication available on the
Web. 428. See also E-zine
electronic profiles, 403
Electronic storefront: Online
business a customer visits that
contains product descriptions,
graphics, and a shopping cart.
74
electronics, recycling of, 14
Elk Cloner virus, 40
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IND 8
Index
Ellison, Larry, 373
e-mail, 130, 316
attaching file to message, 88
getting virus from, 77
how viruses spread, 385
and identify theft, 10
lying and, 423
personal and business perspectives on, 142–143
scanning attachments, 387
spam, 404–405
E-mail address: Combination of
a user name and a domain
name that identifies a user so
he or she can receive Internet
e-mail. 76–77
E-mail filtering: Service that
blocks e-mail messages from
designated sources. 405
e-mail message, 231
E-mail program: Software used
to create, send, receive, forward, store, print, and delete
e-mail messages. 75–76
Embedded computer: Specialpurpose computer that functions as a component in a
larger product. 15, 19–20, 24
Embedded Linux, 283
Embedded operating system:
The operating system that
resides on a ROM chip inside
most PDAs and small devices.
283, 294
EMC, 493
emergency plans, 491
Emoticons: Symbols used on the
Internet to express emotion. 81
Employee monitoring: The use
of computers to observe, record,
and review an employee’s use of
a computer, including communications such as e-mail messages, keyboard activity (used to
measure productivity), and Web
sites visited. 407, 422
Employee relationship management (ERM): Information
system that automates and
manages much of the communications between the employees and the business. 471, 494
employment
privacy of text messages, 407
repetitive strain injuries responsibilities, 192
Encryption: Process of converting
readable data into unreadable
characters to prevent unauthorized access. 278, 395, 410
Encryption algorithm: Set of
steps that can convert readable
plaintext into unreadable
ciphertext. 395
Encryption key: Set of characters
that the originator of the
encrypted data uses to encrypt
the plaintext and the recipient
of the data uses to decrypt the
ciphertext. 395
end-user license agreement
(EULA), 394
ENERGY STAR program:
Program developed by the
United States Department of
Energy (DOE) and the United
States Environmental
Protection Agency (EPA) to
help reduce the amount of
electricity used by computers
and related devices. 401
Engelbart, Douglas, 223
engineering as functional unit,
469, 471
enhanced keyboards, 190
ENIAC computer, 37
Enterprise computing: The use
of computers in networks, such
as LANs and WANs, or a
series of interconnected networks that encompass a variety
of different operating systems,
protocols, and network architectures. 23, 464, 494
enterprise hardware, 485–489
information systems in,
468–479
overview of, 464–468
software, 112, 119
technologies, methodologies,
479–483
Enterprise hardware: Devices
geared for heavy use, maximum availability, and maximum efficiency that large
organizations use to manage
and store information and
data. 485, 495
examples of solutions, 485–486
Enterprise information:
Information gathered in the
ongoing operations of an
enterprise-sized organization.
468
Enterprise resource planning
(ERP): Provides centralized,
integrated software to help
manage and coordinate the
ongoing activities of the
enterprise. 477–478, 494
Enterprise search: Technology
that allows users to perform
searches across many enterprise-wide information systems
and databases. 479
Enterprise storage system:
Strategy that focuses on the
availability, protection, organization, and backup of storage
in a company. 258–259,
487–488, 495
Enterprise user: Computer user
working for a business that has
hundreds or thousands of
employees or customers that
work in or do business with
offices across a region, the
country, or the world. 23–24
suggested input and output
devices (fig.), 219
suggested minimum configuration (fig.), 176
typical storage devices (fig.), 259
enterprises, types and structure,
466–467
entertainment
computers use of, 82
e-commerce examples, 484
Entertainment software:
Application software, such as
interactive games, videos, and
other programs designed to
support a hobby or provide
amusement and enjoyment.
128, 135
environment
computers impact on, 7
Web sites for, 97
EPA AirData Web site, 97
Epstein, Bob, 373
E-retail: Business transaction that
occurs when retailers use the
Web to sell their products and
services. 74–75, 484
Ergomonics: The science of incorporating comfort, efficiency, and
safety into the design of the
workplace. 190, 399
ERM (employee relationship
management) software, 471
eSATA (external SATA), 246
eSATA port: External SATA;
port that allows you to connect
a high-speed external SATA
(Serial Advanced Technology
Attachment) hard disk to a
computer. 172, 181
Ethernet: Network standard that
specifies no central computer or
device on the network should
control when data can be
transmitted. 40, 329, 334, 336
ethics
accessibility, and physically challenged users, 220–221
accidental theft of data, 367
cashless society, 257
computer, 399–402
cyberbullying and banning
anonymous comments, 81
government requiring hard disk
cleaning, 241
government search and seizure
of computers, 176
macro security responsibility, 445
medical records access, 259
monitoring customer behavior,
conversation, 402
monitoring of online behavior, 65
monitoring people in public
locations, 203
netiquette, 81
online auctions and pirated software sales, 394
reliability of wikis for research,
68
responsibility for bugs, 450
tax on media downloads, 291
technology in the classroom, 166
time for maintaining records, 488
trustworthiness of online
purchasing, 485
use of mobile devices at work,
467
word processing programs and
student laziness, 113
e-waste, 14
Execute: Process of a computer
carrying out the instructions in
a program. 12
executive information system
(EIS), 474–475
Expansion bus: Bus that allows
the processor to communicate
with peripherals. 174, 181
Expansion card: Circuit board
that enhances functions of a
component of a system unit
and/or provides connections to
peripherals. 169, 180. See also
Adapter card
Expansion slot: Socket on a
motherboard that can hold an
adapter card. 169, 180
Expert system: Information system that captures and stores
the knowledge of human
experts and then imitates
human reasoning and decision
making. 476, 494
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ExpressCard module:
Removable device that can be
used to add memory, communications, multimedia, and
security capabilities to mobile
computers. 170, 239, 250, 262
ExpressCard slot: Special type of
expansion slot in desktop computers, notebook computers,
and other mobile computers
that holds an ExpressCard
module. 170
Expression Web: Microsoft’s
Web page authoring program
that enables Web developers to
create professional, dynamic,
interactive Web sites. 449, 456
External hard disk: Separate
freestanding hard disk that
connects with a cable to a USB
port or FireWire port on the
system unit. 5, 238, 244–245,
262, 303
Extranet: Portion of a company’s
network that allows customers
or suppliers of a company to
access parts of an enterprise’s
intranet. 481, 494
E-zine: Publication available
on the Web. 428. See also
Electronic magazine
F
F#: Programming language
included with Visual Studio
2010 that combines the benefits of an object-oriented language with the benefits of a
functional language. 441
face recognition systems, 202,
203, 408
Facebook, 48, 69, 83
Failover: The process of one system automatically taking the
place of a failed system. 491
Fanning, Shawn, 46
fans, power supply, 175
FAQ: List that helps a user find
answers to commonly asked
questions. 11
Favorite: Saved Web address that
you access by clicking its name
in a list. 63. See also Bookmark
fax, 316
FBI’s National Crime Information
Center (NCIC), 25
Feasibility: Measure of how
suitable the development of a
system will be to the
organization. 421, 456
Feasibility study: Investigation
that determines the exact
nature of a problem or
improvement and decides
whether it is worth pursuing.
425, 456. See also Preliminary
investigation
FedEx, 28
Fiber to the Premises (FTTP):
Technology that uses fiberoptic cable to provide highspeed Internet access to home
and business users. 57, 84
Fiber-optic cable: Dozens or
hundreds of thin strands of
glass or plastic that use light to
transmit signals. 340, 345
Fibre Channel: Technology used
to connect to storage systems
at data rates up to 4 Gbps. 488
Field: A combination of one or
more related characters or
bytes, a field is the smallest
unit of data a user accesses.
355–356, 374
field cameras, 197
Field name: Name that uniquely
identifies each field in a database. 355–356
Field size: Defines the maximum
number of characters a field
can contain. 355–356
File: Named collection of stored
data, instructions, or information. 110–111
backing up, 286, 396–397
backing up on offsite Internet
server, 414–415
burning to optical disc, 298
e-mail attachments, 88
organizing, managing on computers, 378–379
recovering erased, 284
saving in application software, 138
zipping (compressing), 138–139
File compression utility: Utility
program that shrinks the size
of a file(s), so the file takes up
less storage space than the
original file. 290, 295
file formats
graphic Web, 71
PDF, 119
popular video (fig.), 233
File maintenance: Procedures
that keep data current.
357–360, 374
File manager: Utility that performs functions related to file
and disk management. 285, 295
File processing system: System
used to store and manage data
in which each department or
area within an organization
has its own set of files. 361,
374
file servers, 325
finance
accounting software, 119
computer applications in, 25
e-commerce examples, 484
as functional unit, 469–470
personal finance software, 123,
124
Web sites for, 98
Fingerprint reader: Biometric
device that captures curves and
indentations of a fingerprint
and compares them with those
of a stored image. 202, 303,
309, 391, 393
Firewall: Hardware and/or software that protects a network’s
resources from intrusion by
users on another network such
as the Internet. 287, 386–387,
388–389, 397, 410
FireWire hub: Device that plugs
in a FireWire port on the system unit and contains multiple
FireWire ports in which you
plug cables from FireWire
devices. 172
FireWire port: Port that can
connect multiple types of
devices that require faster data
transmission speeds. 172, 181
fireworks software, 120
Firmware: ROM chips that contain permanently written data,
instructions, or information,
recorded on the chips when
they were manufactured. 167
Fixed wireless: High-speed
Internet connection that uses a
dish-shaped antenna on a
house or business to communicate with a tower location via
radio signals. 57, 84
Flash: Web page authoring program that enables Web developers to combine interactive
content with text, graphics,
audio, and video. 449, 456
Flash memory: Type of nonvolatile memory that can be erased
electronically and rewritten.
167, 180
storage, 247–250
Flash Player, 73, 449
IND 9
Flatbed scanner: Type of
light-sensing input device that
scans a document and creates
a file of the document in
memory instead of a paper
copy. 200
Focus groups: Lengthy, structured, group meetings in
which users and IT professionals work together to design or
develop an application. 423.
See also Joint application
design (JAD)
Folder: Specific named location
on a storage medium that contains related documents. 285
Font: Name assigned to a specific
design of characters. 114
Font size: Size of the characters
in a particular font. 114
Font style: Font design, such as
bold, italic, and underline, that
can add emphasis to a font.
114
Form: Window on the screen that
provides areas for entering or
modifying data in a database.
366, 374
form generators, 444–445
Format: To change a document’s
appearance. 114, 134
optical disc (fig.), 253
video, 232
FORTRAN computer language,
38
frame rate correction, 234–235
Frankston, Bob, 40
Free Software Foundation, 409
FreeAgent DockStar network
adapter, 261
Freeware: Copyrighted software
provided at no cost to a user
by an individual or a company
that retains all rights to the
software. 109
Front side bus: Bus that is part
of the motherboard and connects the processor to main
memory. 174, 181. See also
System bus
Friendster, 230
Fry’s Electronics Web site, 100
FTP: Internet standard that permits file uploading and downloading with other computers
on the Internet. 80, 316
software, 130
FTTB (Fiber to the Building),
332
FTTH (Fiber to the Home), 332
Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
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IND 10
Index
FTTP (Fiber to the Premises):
Dedicated line that uses
fiber-optic cable to provide
extremely high-speed Internet
access to a user’s physical permanent location. 332, 344
full backup, 490
fun and entertainment Web sites,
92
functional units in organizations,
119, 468–477
functions of operating system,
270–279
G
Game console: Mobile computing device designed for singleplayer or multiplayer video
games. 15, 18, 505
Game controller: Input device
that directs movements and
actions of on-screen objects in
video games and computer
games. 189, 196, 197, 224
Gamepad: Pointing device that
controls the movement and
actions of players or objects in
video games or computer
games. 196, 224
gaming, living digitally (feature),
505
Gantt, Henry L., 420
Gantt charts, 420–421
GarageBand software, 504
Garbage in, garbage out
(GIGO): Computing phrase
that points out the accuracy of
a computer’s output depends
on the accuracy of the input.
353
Gates, Bill, 29, 40, 52
geocaching, 92, 321
ghosting, 287
GIF file format, 71
Gigabyte (GB): Approximately 1
billion bytes. 164
Gigahertz (GHz): One billion
ticks of the system clock per
second. 161
glaucoma, contact lenses monitoring, 277
Global Positioning System
(GPS): Navigation system that
consists of one or more earthbased receivers that accept and
analyze signals sent by satellites in order to determine the
receiver’s geographic location.
43, 320, 344, 505
GNU/Linux Project, 409
Google, 11, 45, 52, 479
and cloud computing, 484
company profile, 83
using search engine, 66
Google Android operating system,
283
Google Docs, 129, 292, 321
Google Earth, 129
Google Health, 104
Google Maps, 448
Google News, 101
Google Wave, 54
Gosling, James, 455
government
airport security screening, and
damage to media, 250
computer applications in, 25
do-not-track list, 65
requiring hard disk cleaning,
241
resources Web sites, 99
search and seizure of computers,
176
taxing media downloads, 291
W3C accessibility guidelines,
220
Graphic: Digital representation
of nontext information such as
a drawing, chart, or photo. 70,
71, 84
Graphical user interface (GUI):
Type of user interface that
allows a user to interact with
software using text, graphics,
and visual images, such as
icons. 11, 273, 294
Graphics card: Adapter card that
converts computer output into
a video signal that travels
through a cable to the monitor, which displays an image
on the screen. 169, 180. See
also Video card
Graphics tablet: Flat, rectangular, electronic, plastic board
that is used to create drawings
and sketches. 189, 194, 224
Green computing: Practices that
involve reducing the electricity consumed and environmental waste generated when
using a computer. 7, 23, 54,
140, 300, 343, 399–400,
401–402
Grid computing: Technology
that combines many servers
and/or personal computers on
a network to act as one large
computer. 484, 495
GrimE game engine, 82
Groupware: Software that helps
groups of people work
together on projects and share
information over a network.
321, 344
H
Hacker: Someone who accesses a
computer or network illegally.
287, 382
Handheld computer: Computer
small enough to fit in one
hand. 17, 42. See also UltraMobile PC (UMPC)
Hard disk: Type of storage device
that contains one or more
inflexible, circular platters that
use magnetic particles to store
data, instructions, and information. 6, 240, 261
characteristics, types, configurations, 240–246
maintenance of, 266
purchasing external, 303
Hardware: Electric, electronic,
and mechanical components
contained in a computer. 4, 30
purchasing components,
303–304
setting up Wi-Fi home network,
337
hardware firewalls, 389
Hardware theft: The act of stealing computer equipment. 383,
393, 410
Hardware vandalism: The act of
defacing or destroying computer equipment. 393, 410
Hawthorne Effect, 422
Hayes modems, 41
HD VMD: Versatile Multilayer
Disc; high-density format that
potentially will contain up to
20 layers, each with a capacity
of 5 GB. 256, 263
HDMI port, 171, 209
head crashes, 244
head-mounted display (HMD),
503
Headphones: Audio output
device that covers or is placed
outside the ear. 218
Headset: Device that functions as
both headphones and a microphone. 218
health
body area networks (BANs), 323
computer-related risks, 7
concerns of computer use,
398–399
contact lenses monitor
glaucoma, 277
e-commerce examples, 484
electromagnetic radiation
(EMR) from CRT monitors,
211
Internet Addiction Disorder
(IAD), 230
radiation from cell phones, 340
repetitive strain injuries, 191
sciences’ use of computers, 372
Web sites for, 104
health care, computer applications
in, 25–26
Health Insurance Portability and
Accountability Act (HIPAA),
259
healthfinder.gov Web site, 104
Hejlsberg, Anders, 441
help, online, 131
Hewlett, William, 223
Hewlett-Packard LaserJet printer,
41
Hibernate: Operating system
function that saves any open
documents and programs to a
hard disk before removing
power from the computer. 272
hierarchy of data, 355–356
High-availability system: System
that continues running and
performing tasks for at least 99
percent of the time. 489–490
high-definition (HD) digital video
recorders (DVRs), 503
high-level programming languages, 436, 438–449
HIPAA (Health Insurance
Portability and Accountability
Act), 259
Hi-Speed USB: More advanced
and faster type of USB. 172
hits, 66
Hoff, Dr. Ted, 40
Hoffman, Mark, 373
Home design/landscaping
software: Application software
that assists users with the
design, remodeling, or
improvement of a home, deck,
or landscape. 123, 127, 135
Home network: Network consisting of multiple devices and
computers connected together
in a home. 336–337, 345
setting up, installing Wi-Fi,
348–349
setting up wireless, 336–337
Home page: First page that a
Web site displays. 62
Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
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Index
Home user: User who spends
time on a computer at home.
20–21
cable modem and, 59
suggested input and output
devices (fig.), 219
suggested minimum configuration (fig.), 176
typical storage devices (fig.), 259
home/personal/educational software, 108
Hopper, Dr. Grace, 38, 440
horizontal market software, 427
Hot spot: Wireless network that
provides Internet connections
to mobile computers and other
devices. 318–319, 344
Hot spots: Public locations, such
as airports, hotels, schools, and
coffee shops, that provide
Wi-Fi Internet connections to
users with mobile computers
or devices. 51, 58
hot-swapping, 490–491
households, living digitally (feature), 506
How To’s Web sites, 102
HowStuffWorks Web site, 102
HP (Hewlett-Packard), 223
HTML: Hypertext Markup
Language; special formatting
language that programmers
use to format documents for
display on the Web. 446, 456
HTTP (Hypertext Transfer
Protocol ), 63
hub, 172
Hubble Space Telescope, 71
Human Genome Project, 373
human resources as functional
unit, 469, 470–471
Human resources information
system (HRIS): Information
system that manages one or
more human resources
function(s). 470, 494
Hurley, Chad, 493
Hyperlink: Built-in connection
to another related Web page
or part of a Web page. 64. See
also Link
Hypertext Transfer Protocol
(http), 63
I
IBackup.com, 414–415
IBM, 261
company profile, 493
milestones in computer history,
38, 39, 40, 50
Icon: Small image displayed on a
computer screen that represents a program, a document,
or some other object. 11, 110
IDE (integrated development
environment): Includes program development tools for
building graphical user interfaces, an editor for entering
program code, a compiler and/
or interpreter, and a debugger.
440
identifying animals with embedded chips, 158
identity theft, 10, 392
IEEE network standards, 328
if-then-else control structure, 452
iLife software, 504
Image editing software:
Application software that provides the capabilities of paint
software and also includes the
capability to enhance and
modify existing images and
pictures. 121, 126, 134
Image viewer: Utility program
that allows users to display,
copy, and print the contents of
a graphics file. 285, 295
Impact printer: Type of printer
that forms characters and
graphics on a piece of paper by
striking a mechanism against
an inked ribbon that physically
contacts the paper. 217
Implementation phase: Phase of
system development during
which the new or modified
system is constructed, or built,
and then delivered to the
users. Four major activities
performed include: (1) develop
programs, (2) install and test
the new system, (3) train users,
and (4) convert to the new system. 432, 456
incremental backup, 490
Information: Processed data that
conveys meaning and is useful
to people. 4, 352, 374
accuracy of, 400
gathering techniques, 422–423
personal, supplying to companies, 473
qualities of valuable, 354
safeguarding personal, 402–407
information literacy, 91
Information privacy: Right of
individuals and companies to
deny or restrict the collection
and use of information about
them. 399–400, 402, 411
threats to, 402–407
Information processing cycle:
Series of input, process, output, and storage activities performed by a computer. 4
Information system: Hardware,
software, data, people, and
procedures that a computer
requires to generate information. 456, 468, 494
integrated, 477–478
types in the enterprise, 468–477
Information system (IS):
Collection of hardware, software, data, people, and procedures that work together to
produce quality information.
418
information technology (IT)
departments, 469, 473
Information theft: Computer
security risk that occurs when
someone steals personal or
confidential information. 383,
395, 410
informational Web sites, 68
infrared (IR) wireless transmission
media, 341
Ink-jet printer: Type of nonimpact printer that forms characters and graphics by spraying
tiny drops of liquid ink on a
piece of paper. 213, 216, 225
Input: Any data and instructions
entered into the memory of a
computer. 188
biometric, 202–203
scanning, reading devices,
200–202
voice, video, 198–199
Input device: Any hardware
component that allows users to
enter data and instructions
into a computer. 4, 30, 188
for physically challenged users,
220–221
and the processor, 159
types of, 188–194
Installing: Process of setting up
software to work with the
computer, printer, and other
hardware components. 12
and running programs, 12–13
Wi-Fi home network, 348–349
Instant message: Real-time
Internet communication where
you exchange messages with
other connected users. 17
IND 11
Instant messaging (IM):
Real-time Internet communications service that notifies a
user when one or more people
are online and then allows the
user to exchange messages or
files or join a private chat
room with those people. 78,
130, 316
personal and business perspectives on, 144–145
using, 78–79
wireless, 318
Instant Search box, 67
integrated circuits, 179
Intel
company profile, 179
milestones in computer history,
42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 50, 51,
53
processor, 161
Intellectual property rights:
Rights to which creators
are entitled for their work.
401
Interactive whiteboard: Touchsensitive device, resembling a
dry-erase board, that displays
the image on a connected
computer screen. 218, 225
internal hard disk, 238
International Space Station, 222
Internet: Worldwide collection
of networks that connects millions of businesses, government agencies, educational
institutions, and individuals. 8,
56, 316, 324. See also Net
addresses, 60
attacks, 384–389
connecting to, 57–58
connection types and speeds
(fig.), 332
filters, 289
number of households using in
U.S., 21
overview, 8–10, 56–60
various services, 75–81
Internet Addiction Disorder
(IAD), 230
Internet backbone: Major carriers of network traffic on the
Internet. 59
Internet Explorer, 44
Internet service provider. See ISP
(Internet service provider)
Internet-enabled: Technology
that allows mobile devices to
connect to the Internet wirelessly. 16
Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
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IND 12
Index
Interoperability: Sharing
information with other information systems within an
enterprise. 490
Interpreter: Program used to
convert a source program into
machine language and then
executes the machine language
instructions. 438
interviews, conducting effective,
460–461
Intranet: An internal network
that uses Internet technologies.
328
Intrusion detection software:
Program that automatically
analyzes all network traffic,
assesses system vulnerabilities,
identifies any unauthorized
intrusions, and notifies network administrators of suspicious behavior patterns or
system breaches. 389, 410
IP address: A number that
uniquely identifies each computer or device connected to
the Internet. 60
iPhone, 51, 112, 133, 283
iPod, 17, 72, 502, 505
IrDA: Network standard used to
transmit data wirelessly via
infrared (IR) light waves.
330, 341
IrDA port: Port that uses infrared light waves to transmit
signals between a wireless
device and a computer.
172, 181
iris recognition systems, 203
IRS Web site, 98
ISDN: Set of standards for digital
transmission of data over standard copper telephone lines.
332, 344
ISDN modem: Modem that
sends digital data and information from a computer to an
ISDN line and receives digital
data and information from an
ISDN line. 333, 344
ISP (Internet service provider):
Regional or national Internet
access provider. 58, 59, 84
IT consultant: Employee, typically hired based on computer
expertise, who provides computer services to his or her clients. 429
iTunes, 72, 369
iWeb, 504
J
JAD sessions, 423
Java: Object-oriented programming language developed by
Sun Microsystems. 44, 427,
440–441, 455, 456, 481
JavaScript: Interpreted language
that allows a programmer to
add dynamic content and
interactive elements to a
Web page. 427, 447
job search Web sites, 105
Jobs, Steven, 29, 40
Joint-application design (JAD):
Lengthy, structured, group
meetings in which users and
IT professionals work together
to design or develop an application. 423, 456. See also
Focus groups
Joystick: Pointing device used for
games or flight and driving
simulations that is a vertical
lever mounted on a base. 196,
221, 224, 303
K
Kerneny, Dr. John, 39
Keyboard: Input device that contains keys users press to enter
data and instructions into a
computer. 5, 188, 190, 224
for physically challenged users,
220
and pointing devices, 189–192
types, components of, 190–191
keypads, 191
Kilby, Jack, 38, 179
Kilobyte (KB or K): Exactly
1,024 bytes. 164
Kiosk: Free-standing computer
that usually includes a touch
screen. 193, 224
DVD, 205
Kodak digital cameras, 42
Kodak Picture CD, 255
L
L1 cache: A type of memory
cache that is built directly into
the processor chip, with a
capacity of 8 KB to 128 KB.
167
L2 cache: A type of memory
cache that is slightly slower
than L1 cache, but has a much
larger capacity, ranging from
64 KB to 16 MB. 167
labor, impact of computers on,
7
Laptop computer: Portable,
personal computer often
designed to fit on your lap. 16.
See also Notebook computer
Large Synoptic Survey Telescope
(LSST), 431
Large-format printer: Printer
that creates photo-realistic
quality color prints, used mainly
by graphic artists. 216, 225
Laser mouse: Type of optical
mouse that uses a laser sensor.
191
Laser printer: Type of high-speed,
high-quality nonimpact printer
that creates images using a laser
beam and powdered ink called
toner. 214, 215, 225
law enforcement, computer applications in, 25
laws, privacy (fig.), 406
Lazaridis, Mike, 293
LCD monitor: Desktop monitor
that uses a liquid crystal display
instead of a cathode-ray tube
to produce images on a screen,
resulting in a sharp, flicker-free
display. 208, 209, 224
LCD screens, 208
learning Web sites, 102
LED screens, 506
Legacy system: Information system that has existed within an
organization for an extended
length of time and is relied
upon heavily. 485
Legal software: Application software that assists in the preparation of legal documents and
provides legal information to
individuals, families, and small
businesses. 123, 125, 134
legislation, privacy, 406
Library of Congress Web site, 99
License agreement: An agreement issued by a software
manufacturer that gives the
user the right to use the software. 394
light emitting diode (LED), 506
Light gun: Game controller used
to shoot targets and moving
objects after you pull the trigger on the weapon. 196, 224
LightScript technology:
Technology that works with
specially coated optical discs to
etch labels directly on the disc
(as opposed to placing an
adhesive label on the disc). 253
Line printer: Type of high-speed
impact printer that prints an
entire line at a time. 217, 225
Link: Built-in connection to
another related Web page or
part of a Web page. 64, 84. See
also Hyperlink
on Web pages, 10
Linux: Popular, multitasking
UNIX-type operating system.
43, 48, 54, 282, 294
Liquid crystal display (LCD):
Type of display that uses a liquid compound to present
information on a display
device. 209, 224
literacy, computer and digital, 3
literature Web sites, 106
living digitally (feature), 501–506
Local area network (LAN):
Network that connects computers and devices in a limited
geographical area such as a
home, school computer laboratory, office building, or
closely positioned group of
buildings. 40, 323, 344
Log: Listing of activities that
change the contents of a database. 367, 374
Log on: To access a computer or
network as a user. 278
Logitech, 223
Longitudinal recording: Storage
technique in which magnetic
particles are aligned horizontally around the surface of the
disk. 240, 262
Lotus Development Corporation,
41
Louvre Museum Web site, 106
low-level languages, 436–437
LSI (large-scale integration) chip,
39
LucasArts, 82
Lucent Technologies, 343
M
Mac OS, 11
Mac OS X: Multitasking operating system that is the latest
version of the Macintosh operating system. 281, 294
machine cycle, 160
Machine language: The only language a computer directly recognizes, using a series of binary
digits or a combination of
numbers and letters that represent binary digits. 436–437
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Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
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Index
Macintosh computer, 40, 48, 51
Macintosh operating system:
Operating system for Apple’s
Macintosh computer. 281
Macro: Series of statements that
instructs an application how to
complete a task. 445, 456
macro viruses, 386
magnetic disks, 242–243
Magnetic stripe card: Credit
card, entertainment card, bank
card, or other similar card,
with a stripe that contains
information identifying you
and the card. 238, 257, 263
Magnetic stripe card reader:
Reading device that reads the
magnetic stripe on the back of
credit, entertainment, bank,
and other similar cards. 188,
201–202, 224
magstripe readers, 188, 204
Mailing list: Group of e-mail
names and addresses given a
single name. Also called an
e-mail list or a distribution list.
78
Mainframe: Large, expensive,
powerful computer that can
handle hundreds or thousands
of connected users simultaneously, storing tremendous
amounts of data, instructions,
and information. 15, 19, 30
Maintaining: Act of correcting
errors or adding enhancements
to an existing program. 450
maintenance
of computers, 177
of data, 357–360
of data stored on hard disk, 246
of hard disks, 266
of optical discs, 253–254
Malware: Short for malicious
software; programs that act
without a user’s knowledge and
deliberately alter a computer’s
operations. 10, 384, 410
safeguards against, 385–387
Management information
system (MIS): Information
system that generates accurate,
timely, and organized information, so managers and other
users can make decisions, solve
problems, supervise activities,
and track progress. 474–475,
494
Managers: Employees
responsible for coordinating
and controlling an organization’s
resources. 468, 494
managing
files on computers, 378–379
memory, 275
programs, 273–275
videos, 232–233
manufacturing
computer applications in, 27
as functional unit, 469, 471
mapping services, online, 129
mapping software, 123
Marini, Giacomo, 223
marketing as functional unit, 472
Marketing information system:
Information system that serves
as a central repository for the
tasks of the marketing functional unit. 472, 494
Mashup: Web application that
combines services from two or
more sources, creating a new
application. 322
massively multiplayer online
games (MMOGs), 505
Material Requirements
Planning (MRP): Approach
to information management in
a manufacturing environment
that uses software to help
monitor and control processes
related to production. 471, 494
Mauchly, Dr. John W., 37
MBDF virus, 409
McAfee, 409
McAfee antivirus programs, 386
Media player: Program that
allows you to view images and
animation, listen to audio, and
watch video files on your computer. 290, 295
Media sharing Web site:
Specific type of online social
network that enables members
to share media such as photos,
music, and videos. 69, 95, 231,
236, 371
media, transmission, 338
medicine
computer applications in, 25–26
medical history Web sites, 104
medical records access, 259
medical uses of Wii, 18
Megabyte (MB): Approximately
1 million bytes. 164
Memory: Electronic components
in a computer that store
instructions waiting to be executed and data needed by those
instructions. 6, 157, 163, 180
flash. See flash memory
managing, 275
and the processor, 159
purchasing for computers,
184–185
types of, 163–169
Memory cache: Cache that helps
speed the processes of a computer by storing frequently
used instructions and data. 167
Memory card: Removable flash
memory device, usually no
bigger than 1.5” in height or
width, that you insert and
remove from a slot in a computer, mobile device, or card
reader/writer. 5, 169–170, 212,
248, 262
Memory management:
Operating system activity that
optimizes the use of random
access memory (RAM). 275,
294
Memory module: Small circuit
board that houses RAM chips
and is held in a memory slot
on the motherboard. 166
Memory slots: Slots on the
motherboard that hold memory modules. 166
Memory Stick: Type of miniature
mobile storage medium that is
a flash memory card capable of
storing between 1 and 16 GB
of data. 248, 249, 262
Memory Stick Micro (M2):
Memory card capable of storing between 1 and 16 GB of
data. 248, 249, 262
Memory Stick PRO Duo, 249
Menu: Item on the computer
screen that contains a list of
commands from which a user
can make selections. 110
menu generators, 444–445
Message board: Popular Webbased type of discussion group
that does not require a newsreader. 81, 130
Metcalfe, Robert, 40, 343
meteorology’s use of computers,
260
Metropolitan area network
(MAN): High-speed network
that connects local area networks in a metropolitan area
such as a city or town and handles the bulk of communications activity across that
region. 324, 344
IND 13
MICR: Technology that reads
text printed with magnetized
ink. 188, 202, 224
MICR reader: Reading device
that converts MICR characters
into a form that a computer
can process. 202
Microblog: Blog that allows
users to publish short messages, usually between 100 and
200 characters, for others to
read. 10, 68
Microfiche: A small sheet of film,
usually about 4 inches by 6
inches in size, on which microscopic images of documents
are stored. 258, 263
Microfilm: A roll of film, usually
100 to 215 feet long, on which
microscopic images of documents are stored. 238, 258, 263
microphone, 5, 189, 303
Microprocessor: Term used by
some computer and chip manufacturers to refer to a processor chip for a personal
computer. 159
MicroSD: Type of miniature
mobile storage medium that is
a flash memory card capable of
storing between 1 and 2 GB of
data. 248, 249, 262
MicroSDHC: Memory card capable of storing between 4 and 16
GB of data. 248, 249, 262
Microsoft, 29, 40, 479
and cloud computing, 484
company profile, 133
Excel spreadsheet (fig.), 115, 129
LucidTouch sensor technology,
127
milestones in computer history,
40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47,
49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54
Microsoft Access, 364
Microsoft Office, programming
languages that work with, 442
Microsoft Outlook, sending
e-mail message, 76
Microsoft PowerPoint, 274
Microsoft Surface: Touch screen
with a 30-inch tabletop display
that allows one or more people
to interact with the screen
using their fingers or hands.
133, 193, 224
Microsoft Windows, 11
Microsoft’s WorldWide Telescope,
71
Microsoft’s Xbox, 18, 49, 505
Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
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IND 14
Index
Microwaves: Radio waves that
provide a high-speed signal
transmission. 341, 345
MIDI port: Special type of serial
port that connects the system
unit to a musical instrument,
such as an electronic keyboard.
172–173, 181
milliseconds, 240
MiMAX, 52, 318
miniature hard disk, 239, 245
mini-keyboard, 191
MITS, Inc., 40
Mobile computer: Personal
computer that a user can carry
from place to place. 16, 30
described, 15
keyboards for, 191
typical storage devices (fig.), 259
using at work, 467
Mobile device: Computing
device small enough for a user
to hold in his or her hand. 2,
15, 16, 30
cleaning, 177
connecting to Internet, 58
keyboards for, 191
text messaging, 317
using at work, 467
Mobile printer: Small, lightweight, battery-powered printer
used by a mobile user to print
from a notebook computer,
smart phone, or other mobile
device while traveling. 216, 225
mobile TV, 341
Mobile users: Users who work
on a computer while away
from a main office, home
office, or school. 22–23
hot spots, 318–319
suggested input and output
devices (fig.), 219
suggested minimum configuration (fig.), 176
modems, 5
digital, 333
Hayes, 41
purchasing, 303
wireless, 58, 334
modifying database file records,
357
Monitor: Display device that is
packaged as a separate peripheral. 5, 207, 224
ghosting, 287
purchasing, 303
types of, 207–211
monitoring
automobile time pressure, 20
computer performance, 277
customer behavior, conversations, 402
employees, 407, 422
home energy use, 416
online behavior, 65
people in public locations, 203
Moore, Gordon, 179
Moore’s Law, 179
Morris, Robert, 409
Morris Worm, 409
Motherboard: Main circuit
board of the system unit,
which has some electronic
components attached to it and
others built into it. 154
motion-sensing game controllers,
196
Mouse: Pointing device that fits
comfortably under the palm of
a user’s hand. 5, 188, 191, 192,
223, 224
Mozilla Firefox browser, 48
connections, 192
operations, 307
purchasing, 303
Moving Pictures Experts Group
(MPEG), 73
Mozilla Firefox 3, 52
Mozilla Firefox 4, 54
MP3: Format that reduces an
audio file to about one-tenth
of its original size, while
preserving much of the
original quality of the sound.
72, 502
MP4: Current version of a popular video compression standard. 73
MS-DOS, 40
MSN Money Web site, 98
Multi-core processor: Single
chip with two or more separate
processor cores. 159
Multidimensional database:
Database that stores data in
dimensions. 70, 370, 375
Multifunctional peripheral:
Output device that looks like a
copy machine but provides the
functionality of a printer, scanner, copy machine, and perhaps a fax machine. 215, 225.
See also All-in-one device
Multimedia: Any application that
combines text with graphics,
animation, audio, video, and/or
virtual reality. 70, 84
software types, 108, 120–122
virus infections, 385
Multimedia authoring software:
Software that allows users to
combine text, graphics, audio,
video, and animation in an
interactive application and that
often is used for computerbased training and Web-based
presentations. 120, 122, 134,
449
Multiprocessing: In reference to
operating systems, supports
two or more processors running programs at the same
time. 275, 294
Multiuser: In reference to operating systems, enables two or
more users to run programs
simultaneously. 275, 294
municipal services, computer
usage, 492
music
living digitally (feature), 502
purchasing, downloading using
iTunes, 72
storage on portable media
players, 167
Web sites for, 100
Music Bug virus, 288
MySpace, 29, 47, 69
MySpace Mobile, 293
N
Nanosecond: One billionth of a
second. 168, 240
Napster, 46
NAS (network attached storage),
244
NASA’s Web site, 103
NASCAR’s use of computers, 178
National Hurricane Center, 260
National Press Photographers
Association, 400
navigating Web pages, 64
Net: Short for Internet; worldwide collection of networks
that links millions of businesses, government agencies,
educational institutions, and
individuals. 56
.NET: Microsoft’s set of technologies that allows almost any
type of program to run on the
Internet or an internal business network, as well as standalone computers and mobile
devices. 441, 481
Netbook: Type of notebook computer that is smaller, lighter, and
often not as powerful as a traditional notebook computer. 16
Netflix, 52
Netiquette: Short for Internet
etiquette, the code of acceptable behaviors users should
follow while on the Internet.
81
Netscape, 43
netomania, 230
Netscape, 43
Network: Collection of computers and devices connected
together, often wirelessly, via
communications devices and
transmission media, allowing
computers to share resources.
8, 322, 344
architectures, topologies, standards, 325–330
attacks, 384–389
controlling, 277–278
home, 336–337
setting up, installing Wi-Fi
home, 348–349
types of, 323–324
virtual private network (VPN),
482
Network attached storage:
Server connected to a network
with the sole purpose of providing storage. 244, 262
Network attached storage
(NAS): Server that is placed
on a network with the sole
purpose of providing storage
to users and information systems attached to the network.
486–487, 495
Network card: Communications
device that enables a computer
or device that does not have
built-in networking capability
to access a network. 334, 335,
345
network port, 171
network servers, 325
Network standard: Guidelines
that specify the way computers
access the medium to which
they are attached, the type(s)
of medium used, the speeds
used on different types of networks, and the type(s) of physical cable and/or the wireless
technology used. 328
examples of, 329–330
Network topology: Layout of
computers and devices in a
communications network. 326
types of, 326–328
networks, 8
Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Licensed to: CengageBrain User
Index
New Scientist Web site, 103
news Web sites, 67–68, 101
Newsgroup: Online area in
which users have written discussions about a particular
subject. 80–81, 130, 316
newspapers Web sites, 101
Nintendo
Game Boy, 42
game consoles, 18
Wii, 50, 505
No Fly List, 408
Noise: Electrical disturbance that
can degrade communications.
339
Nonimpact printer: Type of
printer that forms characters
and graphics on a piece of
paper without actually striking
the paper. 213
types of, 213–216
Nonprocedural language: Type
of programming language in
which a programmer writes
English-like instructions or
interacts with a graphical environment to retrieve data from
files or a database. 443, 456
Nonvolatile memory: Type of
memory that does not lose its
contents when a computer’s
power is turned off. 164, 180
Norton SystemWorks, 291
Note taking software:
Application software that
enables users to enter typed
text, handwritten comments,
drawings, or sketches anywhere on a page. 118, 134
Notebook computer: Portable,
personal computer often
designed to fit on your lap. 16,
22, 54. See also Laptop
computer
bendable, 173
buying guide, 306–309
ports on, 170–171
and printers, 212
with Web cam, 199
Novell’s NetWare, 283
Numeric check: Validity check
that ensures users enter only
numeric data in a field. 360, 374
NVIDIA, 179
O
Object: Database item that contains data, as well as the
actions that read or process the
data. 369, 375
object linking and embedding
(OLE), 42
object query language (OOL), 369
Object-oriented database
(OODB): Database that stores
data in objects. 369, 375
Object-oriented programming
(OOP) language:
Programming language used
to implement an objectoriented design. 440, 456
OCR devices: Optical character
recognition devices that
include small optical scanners
for reading characters and
sophisticated software to analyze what is read. 200, 224
Office information system
(OIS): Information system
that enables employees to perform tasks using computers
and other electronic devices,
instead of manually. 473, 494
OLE (object linking and embedding), 42
Online: Describes the state of a
computer when it is connected
to a network. 8
online analytical processing
(OLAP), 475
Online auction: E-commerce
method that allows consumers
to bid on an item being sold
by someone else. 75, 83
Online banking: Online connection to a bank’s computer to
access account balances, pay
bills, and copy monthly transactions to a user’s computer.
25, 98, 124, 484
Online Help: Electronic equivalent of a user manual that usually is integrated in a program.
131, 135
Online investing: Use of a computer to buy and sell stocks
and bonds online, without
using a broker. 25
online mapping services, 129
online payment services, 75
Online service provider (OSP):
Company that provides internet access as well as many
members-only features. 58, 84
online shopping
and cookies, 404
trustworthiness of, 485
Online social network: Web site
that encourages members in its
online community to share
their interests, ideas, stories,
photos, music, and videos with
other registered users. 10,
48, 69, 84. See also Social
networking Web site
personal and business perspectives on, 150–151
Web sites for, 95
Online trading: Online connection that allows users to invest
in stocks, options, bonds, treasuries, certificates of deposit,
money markets, annuities,
mutual fund, and so on —
without using a broker. 484
online transaction processing
(OLTP), 473
on-screen keyboards, 191
OOL (object query language), 369
open source operating system, 282
Open source software: Software
provided for use, modification,
and redistribution. 45, 109, 282
Operating system (OS): Set of
programs that work together
to coordinate all the activities
among computer hardware
resources. 11, 30, 271
categories of (fig.), 279
closed source vs. open source,
282
embedded, 283
functions, 270–279
server, 277, 282
stand-alone, 280–282
types of, 279–283
Operation, support, and
security phase: Phase of
system development that consists of three major activities:
(1) perform maintenance
activities, (2) monitor system
performance, and (3) assess
system security. 434–435, 456
Optical character recognition
(OCR): Optical reader technology that involves reading
typewritten, computer-printed,
or hand-printed characters
from ordinary documents and
translating the images to a
form that a computer can process. 200, 224
Optical disc: Type of storage
medium that consists of a flat,
round, portable disc made of
metal, plastic, and lacquer that
is written on and read by a
laser. 6, 252, 263
burning files to, 298
IND 15
drives, 5, 231
purchasing, 303
Optical mark recognition
(OMR): Optical reader technology that reads hand-drawn
marks such as small circles or
rectangles. 189, 200, 224
Optical mouse: Mouse that uses
devices, such as optical sensors
or lasers, that emit and sense
light to detect the mouse’s
movement. 191, 224
Oracle, 373
organization of spreadsheets, 115
organization chart of enterprise
(fig.), 466
organizing files on computers,
378–379
Ousterhout, Dr. John, 448
Output: Data that has been processed into a useful form. 206
producing printed, 212
Output device: Any hardware
component that conveys information to one or more people.
5, 30, 206
display devices, 207–211
for physically challenged users,
220–221
printers, 211–217
and the processor, 159
suggested, by user (fig.), 219
Outsource: Having a source outside a company develop software for the company. Some
companies outsource just the
software development aspect
of their IT operation, while
others outsource more or all of
their IT operation. 428
P
P2P: Type of peer-to-peer network on which users access
each other’s hard disks and
exchange files directly over the
Internet. 326
Packaged software: Massproduced, copyrighted retail
software that meets the needs of
a wide variety of users, not just a
single user or company. 108, 427
Packard, David, 223
Page, Larry, 83
Paint software: Application software that allows users to draw
pictures, shapes, and other
graphical images with various
onscreen tools. 120, 121, 126,
134
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IND 16
Index
Palm OS, 283
PalmPilot, 44
Parallel conversion: Conversion
strategy where the old system
runs alongside the new system
for a specified time. 433
Password: Private combination of
characters associated with a
user name that allows access to
certain computer resources.
278, 390, 410
protection (table), 391
Payload: Destructive event or
prank a malicious-logic program is intended to deliver. 384
PayPal, 83, 493
PC card: Thin, credit-card-sized
removable flash memory
device that primarily is used
today to enable traditional
notebook computers and
Tablet PCs to access the
Internet wirelessly. 170
PC video camera: Type of digital
video camera that enables a
home or small business user to
capture video and still images,
send e-mail messages with
video attachments, add live
images to instant messages,
broadcast live images over the
Internet, and make video telephone. 199. See also Web cam
PCs vs. Apple computers, 15
PDA: Personal digital assistant;
lightweight mobile device that
provides personal information
management functions such as
a calendar, appointment book,
address book, calculator, and
notepad. 17
PDF: Portable Document
Format; a popular file format
used by document management software to save converted documents. 119
Peer-to-peer network: Simple,
inexpensive network that typically connects fewer than 10
computers. 325
Pen input: Input method in which
you touch a stylus or digital pen
on a flat surface to write, draw,
and make selections. 194, 224
Performance monitor:
Operating system program
that assesses and reports information about various computer resources and devices.
277, 294
periodicals Web sites, 103
Peripheral: Device that connects
to a system unit and is controlled by the processor in the
computer. 169, 180
multifunction, 215
Perl: Practical Extraction and
Report Language; scripting
language developed at NASA’s
Jet Propulsion Laboratory as a
procedural language similar to
C and C++. 448
Perpendicular recording:
Storage technique in which
magnetic particles are aligned
vertically, or perpendicular to
the disk’s surface, making
much greater storage capacities possible. 240, 262
Personal computer: Computer
that can perform all of its
input, processing, output, and
storage activities by itself and
contains a processor, memory,
one or more input and output
devices, and storage devices.
15, 30, 161
Personal Communications
Services (PCS), 341
Personal computer maintenance
utility: Utility program that
identifies and fixes operating
system problems, detects and
repairs disk problems, and
includes the capability of
improving a computer’s performance. 291, 295
Personal DTP software:
Application software that helps
home and small office/ home
office users create newsletters,
brochures, advertisements,
postcards, greeting cards, letterhead, business cards, banners, calendars, logos, and Web
pages 125, 134
Personal finance software:
Simplified accounting program
that helps home users or small
office/home office users manage finances. 123, 124, 134
Personal firewall: Utility program that detects and protects
a personal computer from
unauthorized intrusions. 287,
295, 389
Personal identification number
(PIN): Numeric password,
either assigned by a company
or selected by a user. 391
Personal information manager
(PIM): Application software
that includes features to help
users organize personal information. 118, 134
groupware for, 322
software, 112
personal information, supplying
to companies, 473
Personal paint/image editing
software: Application software
that provides an easy-to-use
interface, usually with more
simplified capabilities that
allows users to draw pictures,
shapes, and other images. 123,
126, 134
Personal photo editing
software: Application software
that allows users to edit digital
photos by removing red-eye,
erasing blemishes, restoring
aged photos, adding special
effects, enhancing image quality, or creating electronic
photo albums. 123, 126
personal Web sites, 70
PERT (Program Evaluations and
Review Technique) charts,
420–421
Phanfare, 95
Pharming: Scam, similar to
phishing, where a perpetrator
attempts to obtain your personal and financial information, except they do so via
spoofing. 405
Phased conversion: Conversion
strategy used by larger systems
with multiple sites where each
location converts at a separate
time. 433
Phases: Categories into which
system development activities
are grouped: (1) planning
phase, (2) analysis phase, (3)
design phase, (4) implementation phase, and (5) support
phase. 418, 456
Phishing: Scam in which a perpetrator sends an official looking
e-mail that attempts to obtain
your personal and financial
information. 290, 405, 411
Phishing filter: Program that
warns or blocks you from
potentially fraudulent or suspicious Web sites. 290, 295, 405
phone numbers, searching for,
88–89
phoneline network, 336
phones
business software for, 118–119
digital voice communications,
146–147
iPhone. See iPhone
smart. See smart phone
video telephone call, 199
photo editing software, 120, 121
Photo management software:
Application software that
allows users to view, organize,
sort, catalog, print, and share
digital photos. 123, 126
Photo printer: Type of nonimpact color printer that produces photo-lab-quality
pictures. 214, 225, 248
photos
digital frames for, 209
doctoring, 400–401
printing using PictBridge, 214
PHP: PHP: Hypertext
Preprocessor. Free, open
source scripting language. 448
physical transmission media,
339–340
physically challenged users, input
and output devices for,
220–221
PictBridge: Standard technology
that allows you to print photos
directly from a digital camera
by connecting a cable from the
digital camera to a USB port
on the printer. 214
Picture CD: CD that stores digital versions of film using a jpg
file format. 55, 263
Picture message: Photo or other
image, sometimes along with
sound and text, sent to or from
a smart phone or other mobile
device. 17, 317
Picture messaging: Wireless
messaging service that allows
users to send pictures and
sound files, as well as short text
messages to a phone, a computer, or other mobile device.
318, 344
pills, camera, 26
Pilot conversion: Conversion
strategy where only one location in a company uses a new
system — so that it can be
tested. 434
Piracy: Unauthorized and illegal
duplication of copyrighted
material. 393, 394, 401, 410
Pixel: The smallest element in an
electronic image. Short for
picture element. 198, 209
plagiarism and the Internet, 36
Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
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Index
planning
backups, 490–491
projects, 420–421
Planning phase: Step in system
development that begins when
a steering committee receives a
project request. 418, 425, 456
Plasma monitor: Display device
that uses gas plasma technology,
which sandwiches a layer of gas
between two glass plates. 210
platform functions, 272
platters, 242–243
Player: Software used by a person
to listen to an audio file on a
computer. 72
PlayStation 3, 505
PlayStation 3 (Sony), 18
Plotters: Sophisticated printers
that produce high-quality
drawings such as blueprints,
maps, and circuit diagrams
using a row of charged wires
(called styli) to draw an electrostatic pattern on specially
coated paper and then fuse
toner to the pattern. 216, 225
Plug and Play: Technology that
gives a computer the capability
to configure adapter cards and
other peripherals automatically
as a user installs them. 276
Plug-in: Program that extends
the capability of a browser;
often used to enhance multimedia. 73, 84. See also Add-on
Pocket hard drive: Term that
refers to smaller external hard
disks because they enable users
easily to transport photos and
other files from one computer
to another. 245
Podcast: Recorded audio, usually
an MP3 file, stored on a Web
site that can be downloaded to
a computer or a portable
media player such as an iPod.
10, 49, 51, 72
Pointer: Small symbol displayed
on a computer screen whose
location and shape changes as
a user moves a pointing device.
110, 189
Pointing device: Input device
that allows a user to control a
pointer on the screen. 189
types of, 189–192
Pointing stick: Pressure-sensitive
pointing device shaped like a
pencil eraser that is positions
between keys on a keyboard
and moved by pushing the
pointing stick with a finger. 192
Pop-up blocker: Filtering program that stops pop-up ads
from displaying on Web pages.
290, 295
Port: Point at which a peripheral
attaches to or communicates
with a system unit so it can
send data to or receive information from the computer. 170
Bluetooth, 172
and LCD monitors, 209
purchasing, 304
types of, 170–173
Port replicator: External device
that attaches to a mobile computer to provide connections
to peripherals through ports
built into the device. 173
Portable media player: Mobile
device on which you can store,
organize, and play digital
media. 17–18
buying guide, 310–311
earbuds, 218
and memory cards, 248
most popular, 194
storage of playlists, 369
Portal: Web site that offers a variety of Internet serves from a
single, convenient location. 67,
84, 479–480, 494
POS terminal: Terminal used by
retail stores to record purchases, process credit or debit
cards, and update inventory.
204
Possessed object: Any item that
a user must carry to gain
access to a computer or computer facility. 391, 410
postage Web sites, 99
Power supply: Component of the
system unit that converts wall
outlet AC power to the DC
power that is used by a computer. 157, 175
Power user: User who requires
the capabilities of a workstation or other powerful computer, typically working with
multimedia applications and
using industry-specific software. 23
suggested input and output
devices (fig.), 219
suggested minimum configuration (fig.), 176
typical storage devices (fig.),
259
PowerBuilder: Powerful program
development tool developed
by Sybase that is best suited
for Web-based, .NET, and
large-scale enterprise objectoriented applications. 443
powerline cable network, 336
Preliminary investigation:
Investigation that determines
the exact nature of a problem
or improvement and decides
whether it is worth pursuing.
425–427, 456. See also
Feasibility study
Presentation software:
Application software that
allows a user to create visual
aids for presentations to communicate ideas, messages, and
other information to a group.
117, 134
preventative maintenance of
computers, 177
preventing
repetitive strain injuries (RSIs),
191
virus infections, 288
Primary key: Field in a database
that uniquely identifies each
record in a file. 356
Principle of least privilege:
Policy adopted by some organizations, where users’ access
privileges are limited to the
lowest level necessary to perform required tasks. 367
Print: Placing the copy of a document on paper or some other
medium. 114
print media, and wireless broadband connections, 318
print servers, 325
Printer: Output device that produces text and graphics on a
physical medium such as paper
or transparency film. 5, 211,
225
purchasing, 304
types of, 211–217
printing word processing
documents, 114
privacy
computer issues, 7
information, 402–407
and Internet databases, 354
laws (fig.), 406
medical records access, 259
and online mapping services,
129
RFID tags, 416
of social networking, 268
IND 17
Procedural language: Type of
programming language in
which a programmer writes
instructions that tell the computer what to accomplish and
how to do it using a series of
English-like words to write
instructions. 438–439, 456.
See also Third-generation
language (3GL)
types of, 438–440
processes, data and information, 4
Processor: Electronic component
on a computer’s motherboard
that interprets and carries out
the basic instructions that
operate the computer. 6, 40,
42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 159, 179,
180. See also CPU (central
processing unit)
and buses, 174
comparisons of PC, 161
purchasing, 304
Product activation: Process that
attempts to prevent software
piracy by requiring users to
provide a software product’s
25-character identification
number in order to receive an
installation identification number. 394, 410
product development as functional unit, 471
Professional photo editing software: Type of image editing
software that allows photographers, videographers, engineers, scientists, and other
high-volume digital photo
users to edit and customize
digital photos. 120, 121, 134
profiles, electronic, 403
Program: Series of related
instructions that tells a computer what task(s) to perform
and how to perform them. 11,
30. See also Software
Program development: Series of
steps programmers use to
build computer programs. 450
overview of, 450–454
Program development life
cycle: Part of the implementation phase of the system development cycle that follows six
steps: (1) analyze the requirements, (2) design the solution,
(3) validate the design, (4)
implement the design, (5) test
the solution, and (6) document
the solution. 432, 450, 457
Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
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IND 18
Index
Program development tool:
Program that provides a userfriendly environment for
building programs. 436, 455
programming languages and,
436–449
Programmer: Person who writes
and modifies computer programs. 13, 435, 456. See also
Developer
Programming language: Set of
words, abbreviations, and symbols that enables a programmer to communicate
instructions to a computer.
435, 456
classic (fig.), 444
and programming development
tools, 435–449
Programming team: A group of
programmers that may develop
programs during the program
development cycle. 451
Progressive Casualty Insurance
Company, 300
Project leader: Member of a
project team who manages and
controls the budget and schedule of the project. 420
Project management: Process of
planning, scheduling, and then
controlling the activities during system development.
419–420, 456
Project management software:
Application software that
allows a user to plan, schedule,
track, and analyze the events,
resources, and costs of a project. 118, 134, 420
Project manager: Member of a
project team who controls the
activities during system development. 420
Project Natal, 54
Project request: Written, formal
request for a new or modified
system. 423–424, 456
Project team: Group of people
that consists of users, the systems analyst, and other IT
professionals. 420
proposals, soliciting and evaluating vendor, 429–430
protocols described, 328
Prototype: Working model of a
proposed system. 431
proxy servers, 389
public switched telephone network (PSTN), 331
Public-domain software: Free
software that has been donated
for public use and has no
copyright restrictions. 109
publishing
computer applications in, 27
Web, 74–75
purchasing
computer memory, 184–185
desktop computers, 302–306
hardware components, 303–304
notebook computers, 306–309
video cameras, 232
pyrotechnics software, 120
Q
Quad-core processor: Chip with
four separate processor cores.
159
Quarantine: Separate area of a
hard disk that holds the
infected file until a virus can
be removed. 386
Query: Request for specific data
from a database. 364
Query by example (QBE):
DBMS feature that has a
graphical user interface to
assist users with retrieving
data. 366, 374
Query language: Language used
with databases that consists of
simple, English-like statements
that allows users to specify the
data to display, print, or store.
364, 374
Queue: Lineup of multiple print
jobs within a buffer. 276
QuickTime file format, 73, 233,
236
R
RAD: Rapid application development; method of developing
software in which a programmer writes and implements a
program in segments instead of
waiting until an entire program
is completed. 440, 443, 456
radio, broadcast and cellular, 341
RAID: Redundant array of independent disks. A group of two
or more integrated disks that
acts like a single large hard
disk. 244, 262, 397, 493
RAID (redundant array of independent disks): Group of two
or more integrated hard disks
that acts like a single large
hard disk. 397, 486, 488, 495
RAM: Type of memory that can
be read from and written to
by the processor and other
devices. Programs and data are
loaded into RAM from storage
devices such as a hard disk and
remain in RAM as long as the
computer has continuous
power. 164–167, 180
and booting, 272
how program instructions transfer in, out, 165
purchasing, 304
types and configurations,
165–166
Range check: Validity check that
determines whether a number
is within a specified range.
360, 374
Reading: Process of transferring
data, instructions, and information from a storage medium
into memory. 240
Read-only memory (ROM):
Type of nonvolatile memory
that is used to store permanent
data and instructions. 167, 180
read/write heads, 242–243
read/write storage media,
240–241
Real time: Describes users and
the people with whom they are
conversing being online at the
same time. 78
Real time location system
(RTLS): Safeguard used by
some businesses to track and
identify the location of highrisk or high-value items. 393
RealPlayer, 73
recalculations by spreadsheets,
115
Receiving device: Device that
accepts the transmission of
data, instructions, or information. 314, 344
Record: Group of related fields
in a database. 356, 374
adding, changing, deleting,
357–359
recording, living digitally (feature), 504
recording videos, 232
recovering erased files, 284
recovery plans, 491
Recovery utility: DBMS feature
that uses logs and/or backups
to restore a database when it
becomes damaged or
destroyed. 367, 374
recycling
of electronics, 14, 402
toner cartridges, 215
Redundant components:
Components used so that a
functioning computer can take
over automatically the tasks of
a similar component that fails.
490
Reference software: Application
software that provides valuable
and thorough information for
all individuals. 21, 123, 127, 135
Relation: Term used by developers of relational databases for
file. 368, 375
Relational database: Database
that stores data in tables that
consist of rows and columns,
with each row having a primary key and each column
having a unique name.
368–369, 373, 375
Relationship: Link within data in
a database. 368, 375
Removable hard disk: Hard disk
that can be inserted and
removed from a drive.
244–245, 262
Repetition control structure:
Type of control structure that
enables a program to perform
one or more actions repeatedly
as long as a certain condition
is met. 453, 457
Repetitive strain injury (RSI):
Injury or disorder of the muscles, nerves, tendons, ligaments,
and joints. 191, 192, 398, 410
Report generator: DBMS feature that allows users to design
a report on the screen, retrieve
data into the report design,
and then display or print the
report. 366, 374
report writers, 444–445
reports generated by MIS, 474–475
request for information (RFI),
428–430
request for proposal (RFP),
428–430
request for quotation (RFQ),
428–430
Research In Motion (RIM), 293
research Web sites, 93
Resolution: The number of horizontal and vertical pixels in a
display device. 198, 224
of liquid crystal displays, 209
of nonimpact printers, 213
Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Licensed to: CengageBrain User
Index
Resources: Hardware, software,
data, and information shared
using a network. 8
Restore: To copy backed up files by
copying them to their original
location on the computer. 396
Restore utility: Program that
reverses the backup process
and returns backed up files to
their original form. 286, 295
Rexx: Restructured Extended
Executor. Procedural interpreted scripting language for
both professional programmers
and nontechnical users. 448
RFI (request for information),
428–430
RFID: Short for radio frequency
identification; standard, specifically a protocol, that defines
how a network uses radio signals to communicate with a tag
placed in or attached to an
object, an animal, or a person.
201, 330, 416
RFID reader: Reading device
that reads information on an
RFID tag via radio waves. 188,
201, 224
RFID tags, 48, 416
RFP (request for proposal),
428–430
RFQ (request for quotation),
428–430
Rhapsody media player, 290
RIAA (Recording Industry
Association of America), 47
Ring network: Type of network
topology in which a cable
forms a closed loop (ring) with
all computers and devices
arranged along the ring. 328
Ripping: Process of copying
audio and/or video data from a
purchased disc and saving it on
digital media. 255
Ritchie, Dennis, 439
Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and
Museum, 92
Rootkit: Program that hides in a
computer and allows someone
from a remote location to take
full control of the computer.
384, 410
Router: Communications device
that connects multiple computers or other routers
together and transmits data to
its correct destination on a
network. 335
Row: Term used by users of
relational databases for record.
368, 375
RSS 2.0: Really Simple
Syndication. Specification that
content aggregators use to distribute content to subscribers.
70, 447
RSS Aggregator software, 130
Ruby on Rails: Open source
framework that provides technologies for developing objectoriented, database-driven Web
sites. 448, 456
Run: Process of using software. 12
Russo, Patricia, 343
S
safeguards
against botnets, DoS attacks,
back doors, spoofing, 388–389
against computer-caused health
problems, 398–399
for data and personal information, 402–407
against hardware theft, vandalism, 393
against information theft, 395
against software theft, 393–394
against system failure, 396
against unauthorized access and
use, 389–392
against viruses, malware,
385–387
safety
computer issues, 7
and online mapping services,
129
Sales force automation (SFA):
Software that equips traveling
salespeople with the electronic
tools they need to be more
productive. 472, 494
Sarbanes-Oxley Act, 488
SAS: Serial-attached SCSI; newer
type of SCSI that transmits at
much faster speeds than parallel SCSI. 172
SAS (serial-attached SCSI), 246
SATA (Serial Advanced
Technology Attachment), 246
satellite broadband transmission,
338
Satellite Internet service:
Provides high-speed Internet
connections via satellite to a
satellite dish that communicates with a satellite modem.
58, 84
satellites, GPS, 320
Save: To transfer a document
from a computer’s memory to
a storage medium. 114
files in application software, 138
Scalability: Measure of how well
computer hardware, software,
or an information system can
grow to meeting increasing
performance demands. 490
Scanner: Light-sending input
device that reads printed text
and graphics and then translates the results into a form the
computer can process. 5, 189,
200, 224
purchasing, 304
types of, 200–202
schools
computer applications in education, 24–25
processing of new student data
into information, 352–353
technology provided to students,
teachers, 166
science
computer applications in, 26
Web sites for, 103
Scope: The goal, required activities, time estimates for each
activity, cost estimates for each
activity, order of activities, and
activities that can take place at
the same time during system
development. 420
Screen saver: Utility program
that causes a display device’s
screen to show a moving
image or blank screen if no
mouse activity occurs for a
specified time. 287, 295
Script kiddie: Someone who
accesses a computer or network illegal with the intent of
destroying data, stealing information, or other malicious
action but does not have the
technical skills and knowledge.
382
Scripting language: Interpreted
language that typically is easy
to learn and use. 447
Scripting New Web site, 380
scripts, 447
SCSI interfaces, 246
SCSI port: Special high-speed
parallel port to which peripherals, such as disk drives and
printers, can be attached. 172,
181
Seagate Technology, 261
IND 19
Search engine: Program that
finds Web sites, Web pages,
images, videos, news, and other
information related to a specific topic. 65, 84
asterisk (*) wildcard, 67
for research, 93
using, 66–67
Search text: Word or phrase
entered in a search engine’s
text box that describes the
item you want to find. 66, 84
search tools (fig.), 65
Search utility: Program that
attempts to locate a file on
your computer based on criteria you specify. 285, 295
searching
the Web, 65–75
Web for driving directions,
addresses, phone numbers,
88–89
Secondary storage: The physical
material on which a computer
keeps data, instructions, and
information. 239
Secure Digital (SD): Memory
card that is capable of storing
between 512 MB and 8 GB of
data. 248, 249, 262
Secure Digital High Capacity
(SDHC): Memory card that is
capable of storing between 4 and
32 GB of data. 248, 249, 262
Secure site: Web site that uses
encryption techniques to
secure its data. 395
security
administering, 278
of cloud storage, 252
computer security risks, 382–383
data, 367
database breaches, 370
hardware theft, vandalism,
393–394
information privacy, 402–407
information theft, 395–396
macro threats, responsibility for,
445
national and local, 408
phase of systems development,
434–435
preventing virus infections, 288
selecting good passwords, 278
system failure, 396–397
trustworthiness of online purchasing, 485
unauthorized access and use,
389–392
wireless, 397
Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
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IND 20
Index
Selection control structure:
Type of control structure that
tells the program which action
to take, based on a certain condition. 452, 457
selective backups, 397, 490
Semantic Web, 61
sending e-mail using Outlook, 76
Sending device: Device that initiates instructions to transmit
data, instructions, or information. 314, 344
Sequence control structure:
Type of control structure that
shows one or more actions following each other in order.
452, 457
serial port, 171
servlets, 447
Server: Computer that controls
access to the hardware, software, and other resources on a
network and provides a centralized storage area for programs, data, and information.
19, 30, 325
backing up files on offsite
Internet, 414–415
blade, 489
virtualization, 483
Server operating system:
Operating system that organizes and coordinates how
multiple users access and share
resources on a network.
277–278, 294
types of, 282–283
Service pack: Free downloadable
software updates provided by
the software manufacturer to
users who have registered and/
or activated their software. 277
service-oriented architecture
(SOA), 482
set-top boxes, 506
SharePoint Designer: Web page
authoring program that is part
of the Microsoft Office and
SharePoint families of products. 449, 456
Shareware: Copyrighted software
that is distributed at no cost
for a trial period. 109
Shopping cart: Element of an
electronic storefront that
allows a customer to collect
purchases. 75
sharing content, personal and
business perspectives on,
152–153
Shockley, William, 37
Shockwave Player, 73
shopping cart, 75
shopping Web sites, 100
Shugart, Alan, 39, 261
Signature capture pad: Pen
input device that captures
handwritten signatures with a
stylus or pen that is attached
to the device. 194, 224
signature verification systems, 203
Silverlight, 73
Simple Query Wizard, using, 365
Sleep mode: Operating system
function that saves any open
documents and programs to
RAM, turns off all unneeded
functions, and then places the
computer in a low-power state.
272
Slingbox, 503
Small- and medium-sized
business (SMB): Business that
is smaller in size than an enterprise and typically does not
have an international presence.
465
Small office/home office
(SOHO): Describes any company with fewer than 50
employees, as well as the selfemployed who work from
home. 22
peer-to-peer networks, 325
suggested input and output
devices (fig.), 219
suggested minimum configuration (fig.), 176
typical storage devices (fig.), 259
SMART Board, 218
Smart card: Card, similar in size
to a credit card or ATM card,
that stores data on a thin
microprocessor embedded in
the card. 257, 263
Smart phone: Internet-enabled
telephone that usually also
provides personal information
management functions. 17, 22,
52, 293
buying guide, 309–310
digital video-enabled, 231
and GPS, 320
input for, 194–195
and memory cards, 248
modem, 334
operating systems for, 283
and printers, 212
Smartlane, 402
SMS (short message service), 317
Social engineering: Gaining
unauthorized access or obtaining confidential information
by taking advantage of the
trusting human nature of some
victims and the naivety of others. 405, 411
Social networking Web site:
Web site that encourages
members in its online community to share their interests,
ideas, stories, photos, music,
and videos with other registered users. 10, 54, 69, 84. See
also Online social network
effect on Internet traffic, 73
privacy and, 268
Softbank, 133
Software: Series of related
instructions that tells a computer what task(s) to perform
and how to perform them. 11,
30. See also Program
communications, 330–331
development, 13
open source, 45
piracy, 393, 401
Software suite: Collection of
individual programs available
together as a unit. Business
software suites typically
include word processing,
spreadsheet, e-mail, and presentation graphics software.
118, 134
Software theft: Computer security risk that occurs when
someone (1) steals software
media, (2) intentionally erases
programs, (3) illegally copies a
program, or (4) illegally registers and/or activates a program. 383, 393, 410
safeguards against, 393–394
Solid state drive (SSD): Storage
device that typically uses flash
memory to store data, instructions, and information. 52,
239, 247
Solid state media: Term used to
refer to components that consist entirely of electronic components, such as integrated
circuits, and contain no moving parts. 247, 262
Sony game consoles, 18
Sony PlayStation 3, 50, 505
Sony PlayStation Portable (PSP),
48
Sony PSPgo, 53
Sound card: Adapter card that
enhances the sound generating
capabilities of a personal computer by allowing sound to be
input through a microphone
and output through external
speakers or headset. 157, 169,
180, 198
purchasing, 304
Source program: Program that
contains the language instructions, or code, to be converted
to machine language. 437
space exploration and computers,
222
Spafford, Gene, 409
Spam: Unsolicited e-mail message or newsgroups posting
sent to many recipients or
newsgroups at once. 289, 295,
404–405, 411
Speakers: Audio output devices
that generate sound. 5, 217, 225
purchasing, 304
Speech recognition: Computer’s
capability of distinguishing
spoken words. 198. See also
Voice recognition
speed of various Internet connections (fig.), 332
spelling checkers, 114
spim, spit, 49
Spoofing: Technique intruders
use to make their network or
Internet transmission appear
legitimate to a victim computer or network. 388, 410
safeguards against, 388–389
Spooling: Operating system process that sends documents to
be printed to a buffer instead
of sending them immediately
to the printer. The buffer then
holds the information waiting
to print while the printer
prints from the buffer at its
own rate of speed. 275–276
sports, computer use in, 178
sports Web sites, 101
Spreadsheet software: Application
software that allows a user to
organize data in rows and columns and to perform calculations on the data. 115, 134
features and uses of, 115–116
Spyware: Program placed on a
computer without the user’s
knowledge that secretly collects information about the
user. 49, 289, 385, 404, 411
Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
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Index
Spyware remover: Program that
detects and deletes spyware
and similar programs on a
user’s computer. 289, 295
SQL: Query language that allows
users to manage, update, and
retrieve data in a relational
DBMS. 364, 443, 456
Stallman, Richard, 409
Stand-alone operating system:
Complete operating system
that works on a desktop computer, notebook computer, or
mobile computing device and
that also works in conjunction
with a network operating system. 280
Standards: Sets of rules and procedures an organization
expects employees to accept
and follow. 419
Star network: Type of network
topology in which all computers and devices on the network
connect to a central device,
thus forming a star. 326–327
Start button, 110
starting Windows programs, 111
Steering committee: Decisionmaking body in a company.
420
stock market Web sites, 98
storage
cloud, 251–252
enterprise, 258–259, 487–488
flash memory storage, 246–250
hard disks, 240–246
magnetic strip cards, smart
cards, 257
microfilm, microfiche, 258
overview, 238–240
Rosetta Project, 258
tape, 257
terminology, 240
virtualization, 483
Storage area network (SAN):
High-speed network with the
sole purpose of providing storage to other servers to which it
is attached. 486–487, 495
Storage device: Hardware used
to record (write and/or read)
items to and from storage
media. 6, 30, 240
and the processor, 159
for users by category (fig.), 259
Storage media: The physical
material on which a computer
keeps data, instructions, and
information. 6, 30
Storage medium: The physical
material on which a computer
keeps data, instructions, and
information. 239
Stoustrup, Bjarne, 441
Streaming: Process of transferring data in a continuous and
even flow. 72
video, 503
Structured Query Language
(SQL): Query language used
with databases that allows
users to manage, update, and
retrieve data. 369, 375
studio cameras, 197
Stylus: Small metal or plastic
device that looks like a ballpoint pen, but uses pressure
instead of ink to write, draw,
or make selections. 189, 194,
195
for PDA, 17
Subject directory: Search tool
that classifies Web pages in an
organized set of categories and
subcategories. 65, 67
Subscribe: Process of a user adding his or her e-mail name and
address to a mailing list. 78
Sun Microsystems, 44, 373, 455,
479
Supercomputer: Fastest, most
powerful, and most expensive
computer, capable of processing more than 135 trillion
instructions in a single second.
15, 19, 30, 50
Surfing the Web: Activity of using
links to explore the Web. 64
Surge protector: Device that
uses special electrical components to smooth out minor
noise, provide a stable current
flow, and keep an overvoltage
from reaching the computer
and other electronic equipment. 396, 410
S-video, 233
Sybase, 373
Symantec, 409
Symbian OS, 283
symbolic addresses, 437
System: Set of components that
interact to achieve a common
goal. 418, 456
System bus: Bus that is part of
the motherboard and connects
the processor to main memory.
174, 181. See also Front side
bus
System clock: Small quartz
crystal circuit that is used by
the processor to control the
timing of all computer
operations. 160, 161
System developer: Person
responsible for designing and
developing an information system. 420. See also Systems
analyst
System development: Set of
activities used to build an
information system, including
planning, analysis, design,
implementation, and support.
418, 456
conducting effective interviews,
460–461
overview, 418–435
System development life cycle
(SDLC): Collection of phases
in system development. 418
System failure: Prolonged malfunction of a computer. 382,
396, 410
System proposal: Document that
assesses the feasibility of each
alternative solution and then
recommends the most feasible
solution for a project. 427
System software: Programs that
control or maintain the operations of a computer and its
devices. 11, 30, 109, 270, 294
System unit: Case that contains
the electronic components of a
computer that are used to process data. 5, 6, 30, 156, 180
components of, 156–158
ports on, 170
Systems analyst: Person responsible for designing and developing an information system.
419–420. See also System
developer
building relationships with
users, 422
Systers mailing list, 493
T
T1 line: The most popular
T-carrier line. 332
Tabbed browsing: Web browser
feature where the top of the
browser displays a tab (similar
to a file folder tab) for each
Web page you open. 64
Table: Term used by users of
relational databases for file.
368, 375
IND 21
Tablet PC: Special type of
notebook computer that you
can interact with by touching
the screen with your finger or
a digital pen. 16, 22, 47, 156,
308, 309
Tape: Magnetically coated ribbon
of plastic capable of storing
large amounts of data and information at a low cost. 257, 263
Tape drive: Device used to read
and write data and information
on tape. 257, 263
tasks, coordinating, 275–276
Tax preparation software:
Application software that is
used to guide individuals, families, or small businesses
through the process of filing
federal taxes. 123, 125, 134
taxes Web sites, 98
taxing media downloads, 291
T-carrier line: Any of several
types of long-distance digital
telephone lines that carry multiple signals over a single communications line. 332, 344
Tcl: Tool Command Language;
interpreted scripting language maintained by Sun
Microsystems Laboratories.
448
TCP/IP: Short for Transmission
Control Protocol/Internet
Protocol; network standard,
specifically a protocol, that
defines how messages (data)
are routed from one end of a
network to the other, ensuring
the data arrives correctly. 329
Telecommuting: Work arrangement in which employees work
away from a company’s standard workplace and often
communicate with the office
through the computer. 24
Telemedicine: Form of longdistance health care where
health-care professionals in
separate locations conduct live
conferences on the computer.
26, 46
Telesurgery: Surgery in which a
surgeon performs an operation
on a patient who is not located
in the same physical room as
the surgeon. 26
telesurgery, 26
television, 231
tendonitis, 398
Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
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IND 22
Index
Terabyte (TB): Approximately
one trillion bytes. 164
Terminal: Computer, usually with
limited processing power, that
enables users to send data to
and/or receive information
from a host computer. 204–205
Text message: Short note, typically fewer than 300 characters,
sent to or from a smart phone
or other mobile device. 17
personal and business perspectives on, 144–145
privacy of employee, 407
and typing skills, 130
Text messaging: Service that
allows users to send and
receive short text messages,
typically fewer than 300 characters, on a phone or other
mobile device. 317, 344
Thermal printer: Type of nonimpact printer that generates
images by pushing electrically
heated pins against heatsensitive paper. 215–216, 225
Third-generation language
(3GL): Type of programming
language in which a programmer writes instructions that tell
the computer what to accomplish and how to do it using a
series of English-like words to
write instructions. 438, 456.
See also Procedural language
thrashing, 275
Thumbnail: Small version of a
larger graphic. 71
Title bar: Horizontal space,
located at the top of a window,
that contains the window’s
name. 110
Token ring: Network standard in
which computers and devices
on the network share or pass a
special signal, called a token, in
a unidirectional manner and in
a preset order. 329
Toner: Type of powdered ink
that is used by some laser
printers and copy machines to
produce output. 214
recycling cartridges, 215
tongue-controlled joysticks, 221
ToolBook, 449
Top-level domain (TLD):
Identifies the type of organization associated with the
domain. 60
Torvalds, Linus, 43, 293
Touch screen: Touch-sensitive
display device with which users
interact by touching areas of
the screen. 188, 193, 224
Touchpad: Small, flat, rectangular
pointing device that is sensitive
to pressure and motion. 192
Touch-sensitive pad: Input device
that enables users to scroll
through and play music, view
pictures, watch videos or movies, adjust volume, and/or customize settings. 188, 193, 224
Trackball: Stationary pointing
device with a ball on its top or
side. 192
Training: Showing users exactly
how they will use new hardware and software in a system.
433
Transaction processing system
(TPS): Information system
that captures and processes
data from day-to-day business
activities. 473–474, 494
transferring videos to computers,
228–229, 232–233
transistor, 37
Transmission media: Materials
or substances capable of carrying one or more signals in a
communications channel. 338,
345
physical, 339–340
wireless, 340–341
transportation
computer applications in, 28
computer usage in, 492
Transportation Security
Administration screening, 250
travel
computer applications in, 27, 28
e-commerce examples, 484
Web sites for, 96, 482
Travel and mapping software:
Application software that
enables users to view maps,
determine route directions,
and locate points of interest.
123, 127, 135
Trojan horse: Malicious-logic
program named after the
Greek myth that hides within
or looks like a legitimate program. 288, 384, 410
TrueType fonts, 42
Trusted source: Company or
person a user believes will not
send a virus-infected file
knowingly. 385, 410
Tuple: Term used by developers
of relational databases for
record. 368, 375
Turnaround document:
Document that a user returns
to the company that has created and sent it. 200
Turning, Alan, 37
Twisted-pair cable: Transmission
media that consists of one or
more twisted-pair wires bundled together. 339, 345
U
Ultra-Mobile PC (UMPC):
Computer small enough to fit
in one hand. 17. See also
Handheld computer
Ultra-wideband (UWB):
Network standard that specifies how two UWB devices use
short-range radio waves to
communicate at high speeds
with each other. 330
UMD: Universal Media Disc;
mini-DVD used specifically
with the PlayStation Portable
handheld game console. 256
Unauthorized access: Use of a
computer or network without
permission. 383, 389–392,
410
Unauthorized use: Use of a
computer or its data for unapproved or possibly illegal
activities. 383, 389–392, 410
Uncompress: To restore a compressed, or zipped, file to its
original form. 290
Uninstaller: Utility program that
removes a program, as well as
any associated entries in the
system files. 285
Uninterruptible power supply
(UPS): Device that contains
surge protection circuits and
one or more batteries that can
provide power during a temporary or permanent loss of
power. 396, 410
UNIVAC computer, 37
UNIX: Multitasking operating
system that now is available
for most computers of all sizes.
281, 294
Unsubscribe: Process of a user
removing his or her e-mail
name and address from a
mailing list. 78
updates, automatic, 277
updating Windows, 298–299
Uploading: Process of transferring documents, graphics,
and other objects from a
computer to a server on the
Internet. 80
URL: Uniform Resource
Locator; unique address for
a Web page. 63. See also
Web address
U.S. Department of Homeland
Security, 25, 392, 408
U.S. Government Web sites, 99
U.S. Robotics, 44
USAJOBS Web site, 105
USB flash drive: Flash memory
storage device that plugs in a
USB port on a computer or
portable device. 5, 6, 48, 170,
239, 250, 262
USB hub: Device that plugs in a
USB port on the system unit
and contains multiple USB
ports in which cables from
USB devices can be plugged.
172, 304
USB port: Port that can connect
up to 127 different peripherals
with a single connector type.
171, 181
User: Anyone who communicates
with a computer or utilizes
the information it generates.
7, 30
employee as, 372
Internet, 9–10
levels in the enterprise, 467–468
log on, 278
system analysts building relationships with, 422
User ID: Unique combination of
characters, such as letters of
the alphabet and/or numbers,
that identifies a specific user.
278. See also User name
User interface: The portion of
software that defines how a
user interacts with a computer,
including how the user enters
data and instructions and how
information is displayed on the
screen. 272, 294
User name: Unique combination
of characters, such as letters of
the alphabet and/or numbers,
that identifies a specific user.
34–35, 77, 278, 390, 410. See
also User ID
Users: Anyone for whom the
system is being built. 419
Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
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Index
Utility: Type of system software
that allows a user to perform
maintenance-type tasks, usually related to managing a
computer, its devices, or its
programs. 284, 294
Utility program: Type of system
software that allows a user to
perform maintenance-type
tasks usually related to managing a computer, its devices, or
its programs. 12, 30, 284, 294
overview of, 110
types of, 284–291
UWB (ultra-wideband):
Network standard that specifies how two UWB devices use
short-range radio waves to
communicate at high speeds
with each other. 330
V
validating
baseball memorabilia, 359
data, 359–360
Validation: Process of comparing
data with a set of rules or values to find out if the data is
correct. 359–360, 374
Value-added network (VAN):
Third-party business that provides networking services such
as secure data and information
transfer, storage, e-mail, and
management reports. 322
Value-added reseller (VAR):
Company that purchases products from manufacturers and
then resells these products to
the public — offering additional
services with the product. 429
VBScript: Visual Basic, Scripting
Edition; subset of the Visual
Basic language that allows programmers to add intelligence
and interactivity to Web pages.
448
vendors, soliciting proposals from,
429–430
VeriSign, 293
Verizon, 343
Versatile Multilayer Disc (HD
VMD), 256
vertical market software, 427
Video: Images displayed in
motion. 73, 84
content viewed on display
devices, 210
creating, uploading to YouTube,
228–229
digital technology, 231–236
living digitally (feature), 503
uploading to YouTube, 236
Video blog: A blog that contains
video clips. 51, 68
Video card: Adapter card that
converts computer output into
a video signal that travels
through a cable to the monitor, which displays an image
on the screen. 157, 169, 180,
304. See also Graphics card
Video conference: Meeting
between two or more geographically separated people
who use a network or the
Internet to transmit audio and
video data. 199, 224, 316
software, 130
Video editing software:
Application software that
allows a user to modify a segment of video, called a clip.
120, 122, 134, 504
Video input: Process of capturing full-motion images and
storing them on a computer’s
storage medium. 199, 224
Video message: Short video clip,
usually about 30 seconds, sent
to or from a smart phone or
other mobile device. 17, 130,
317
Video messaging: Wireless messaging service that allows users
to send short video clips. 318,
344
Video phone: Phone that can
send video messages. 17
Video telephone call: Telephone
call made using a PC video
camera that allows both parties
to see each other as they communicate over the Internet. 199
Virtual memory: A portion of a
storage medium, usually the
hard disk, that the operating
system allocates to function as
additional RAM. 275, 294
Virtual private network (VPN):
Network that provides a
mobile user with a secure connection to a company network
server, as if the user has a private line. 482–483, 494
Virtual reality (VR): Computers
used to simulate a real or
imagined environment that
appears as a three dimensional
(3-D) space. 73, 84
virtualization, 54, 483–485
Virus: Potentially damaging computer program that affects, or
infects, a computer negatively
by altering the way the computer works without the user’s
knowledge or permission. 49,
288, 384, 410
Elk Cloner, 40
e-mail, 77
safeguards against, 385–387
spreading through e-mail, 385
Virus definition: Known specific
pattern of virus code. 386. See
also Virus signature
Virus hoax: E-mail message that
warns users of a nonexistent
virus or other malware. 387, 410
Virus signature: Known specific
pattern of virus code. 386. See
also Virus definition
VisiCalc, 40
Visual Basic, 442
Visual C#, 442–443
Visual C++, 442–443
Visual programming
environment (VPE):
Graphical interface in a visual
programming language that
allows programmers to drag
and drop objects to develop
programs. 443
Visual programming language:
Programming language that
provides a visual or graphical
interface for creating source
code. 443
Visual Studio: Suite of program
development tools from
Microsoft that assists programmers in building programs for
Windows, Windows Mobile,
or operating systems that
support Microsoft’s .NET
framework. 49, 441–442,
456
Visual voice mail: Voice mail
feature that allows users to
view message details such as
the length of calls and, in some
cases, read message contents
instead of listening to them.
322
Vlog: Short for video blog. 51,
68
Vlogosphere: All vlogs worldwide. 68
Voice input: Process of entering
data by speaking into a microphone. 198, 218
IND 23
Voice mail: Service that functions
much like an answering
machine, allowing a user to
leave a voice message for one
or more people. 322, 344
Voice output: Audio output that
occurs when a user hears a
person’s voice or when a computer talks to the user through
the speakers on the computer.
218
Voice recognition: Computer’s
capability of distinguishing
spoken words. 198, 225. See
also Speech recognition
voice verification systems, 203
VoIP: Voice over IP, or Internet
Protocol; technology that
allows users to speak to other
users over the Internet (instead
of the public switched telephone netowrk). 51, 56, 80,
198, 316, 480
Volatile memory: Type of memory that loses its contents
when a computer’s power is
turned off. 164, 180
von Neumann, John, 37
VPN tunnel, 482
VR. See virtual reality
W
War driving: Intrusion technique
in which an individual
attempts to detect wireless
networks via their notebook
computer or mobile device
while driving a vehicle through
areas they suspect have a wireless network. 397
Warm boot: Process of using the
operating system to restart a
computer. 272
warranties, extended, 306
weather, and computer usage,
260
Weather Channel Web site, 101
weather Web sites, 101
Web: Worldwide collection of
electronic documents called
Web pages, the Web is one of
the more popular services on
the Internet. 10, 30, 316.
See also World Wide Web
(WWW)
browsing, 61–62
making use of, 91
multimedia on, 70
searching the, 65–67
surfing the, 64
Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Licensed to: CengageBrain User
IND 24
Index
Web 2.0: Term used to refer to
Web sites that provide a means
for users to share personal
information, allow users to
modify Web site content, and
have application software built
into the site for visitors to use.
10, 50, 61, 261, 316
Web 3.0, 61
Web address: Unique address for
a Web page. 63, 84. See also
URL (Uniform Resource
Locator)
Web app: Web site that allows
users to access and interact
with software from any computer or device that is connected to the Internet. 69,
84, 128, 135. See also Web
application
Web application: Web site that
allows users to access and
interact with software from
any computer or device that is
connected to the Internet.
10, 69, 84, 108, 135. See also
Web app
mashup, 322
popular (fig.), 129
Web browser: Application
software that allows users to
access and view Web pages.
61, 84. See also Browser
displaying home page, 62
most popular, 61
Web browser software, 130
Web cam: Type of digital video
camera that enables a home or
small business user to capture
video and still images, send
e-mail messages with video
attachments, add live images to
instant messages, broadcast
live images over the Internet,
and make video telephone
calls. 5, 189, 199, 224. See also
PC video camera
purchasing, 304
Web sites for, 92
Web conference: Online meeting
that takes place on the Web. 321
personal and business perspectives on, 150–151
Web databases, 370–371
Web developer: Employee who
analyzes, designs, implements,
and supports Web applications;
works with HTML, Ajax,
JavaScript, and multimedia.
446, 456
Web filtering software: Program
that restricts access to certain
material on the Web. 290, 295,
407
Web page: Electronic document
on the Web, which can contain
text, graphics, audio, and video
and often has built-in connections to other documents,
graphics, Web pages, or Web
sites. 10, 61, 84
bookmarks, favorites, 63
development programs,
446–449
navigating, 64
secure, 395
Web page authoring software:
Software used to create Web
pages that include graphical
images, video, audio, animation, and other special effects
with interactive content. 74,
120, 122, 134, 449, 456
Web publishing: Development
and maintenance of Web
pages. 74
Web server: Computer that
delivers requested Web pages
to a computer. 61, 325
Web services: Set of software
technologies that allows businesses to create products and
B2B (business-to-business)
interactions over the Internet.
322, 344, 481–482, 494
Web site: Collection of related
Web pages and associated
items, such as documents and
pictures, stored on a Web
server. 10, 61
accessibility levels for physically
challenged users, 220
and cookies, 403–404
evaluating, 70
most popular, 11, 59
scalability, 490
secure, 395
types of, 67–70, 91–106
vulnerability of financial, 435
Web-based training (WBT):
Computer-based training that
uses Internet technology and
consists of application software
on the Web. 131, 135, 449
webcast, 232
Webopedia Web site, 93
Wheel: Steering-wheel-type
input device that is used to
simulate driving a vehicle. 196,
224, 303
Wide area network (WAN):
Network that covers a large
geographic area (such as a city,
country, or the world) using a
communications channel that
combines many types of media
such as telephone lines, cables,
and radio waves. 324, 344
Widescreen: Term used to refer
to LCD monitors that are
wider than they are tall. 208
Wi-Fi: Term for any network
based on the 802.11 series of
standards. 57, 84, 329, 340
Wi-Fi Protected Access:
Security standard that
improves on older security
standards by authenticating
network users and providing
more advanced encryption
techniques. 397, 410
Wii (Nintendo), 18, 50, 505
Wii Remote: Motion-sensing
input device that uses
Bluetooth wireless technology
to communicate with the Wii
game console. 197, 224
Wiki: Collaborative Web site that
allows users to create, add to,
modify, or delete the Web site
content via their Web browser.
68, 84, 316
personal and business perspectives on, 148–149
reliability for research, 68
Wikipedia, 46
WiMAX: Worldwide
Interoperability for Microwave
Access; newer network standard developed by IEEE that
specifies how wireless devices
communicate over the air in a
wide area. 318, 330. See also
802.16
Window: Rectangular area of a
computer screen that displays
data or information. 110, 134
Windows
connecting to network using,
276
keeping up to date, 298–299
OS with most market share, 279
starting, interacting with program, 111
Windows 7: Microsoft’s fastest,
most efficient operating system
to date, offering quicker program start up, built-in diagnostics, automatic recovery,
improved security, enhanced
searching and organizing
capabilities, and an easy-to-use
interface. 280
sample expert system in, 476
Windows Aero: Windows interface used by computers with
more than 1 GB of RAM. 273
Windows Disk Defragmenter, 286
Windows Embedded CE, 283
Windows Live Movie Maker, 274
Windows Media Player, 72, 73,
274, 369
Windows Mobile operating system, 283
Windows Photo Viewer, 285
Windows ReadyBoost: Windows
feature that can increase the
size of memory by allocating
available storage space on
removable flash memory
devices as additional memory
cache. 275
Winer, Dave, 380
wiping utilities, 241
wireless
access points, 397
home network, setting up,
336–337
instant messaging (IM), 318
messaging services, 317
in notebook computers, 308
security, 397
transmission media, 340–341
Wireless access point: Central
communications device that
allows computers and devices
to transfer data wirelessly
among themselves or to transfer data wirelessly to a wired
network. 318–319, 335, 345,
397, 410, 506
Wireless Application Protocol
(WAP): Network standard,
specifically a protocol, that
specifies how some wireless
mobile devices such as smart
phones can display the content
of Internet services such as the
Web, e-mail, and chat rooms.
330
wireless broadband, and decline of
print media, 318
wireless chumby, 506
Wireless Internet access point:
Location where people can
connect wirelessly to the
Internet using notebook computers, smart phones, handheld
game consoles, or other
devices. 318, 344
Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Licensed to: CengageBrain User
Index
Wireless Internet service
provider: Type of Internet
service provider that provides
wireless Internet access to
computers and mobile devices,
such as smart phones and
PDAs, with built-in wireless
capability or to computers
with wireless modems or wireless access devices. 58, 84
Wireless LAN (WLAN): Local
area network that uses no
physical wires. 323, 344
Wireless modem: Modem that
allows access to the Web wirelessly from a notebook computer, PDA, smart phone, or
other mobile device. 334, 345
WML: Wireless markup language; subset of XML that
allows Web developers to
design pages specifically for
microbrowsers. 447, 456
Word processing software: One
of the more widely used types
of application software; allows
a user to create and manipulate
documents containing mostly
text and sometimes graphics.
Sometimes called a word processor. 39, 113, 134
overview of, 113–114
wordwrap feature, 113
Workflow: Defined process that
identifies the specific set of
steps involved in completing a
particular project or business
process. 482
Workflow application: Program
that assists in the management
and tracking of all the activities in a business process from
start to finish. 482, 494
workgroup computing, 321
Worksheet: Rows and columns
used to organize data in a
spreadsheet. 115
World Wide Web (WWW):
Worldwide collection of electronic documents called Web
pages, the Web is one of the
more popular services on the
Internet. 10, 42, 61. See also
Web
World Wide Web Consortium
(W3C), 42, 57, 220
Worm: Program that copies itself
repeatedly, using up system
resources and possibly shutting
down the system. 288, 384,
409, 410
Writing: Process of transferring
data, instructions, and information from memory to a
storage medium. 240
X
Xbox (Microsoft), 18, 49, 505
xD Picture Card: Type of miniature mobile storage media that
is a flash memory card capable
of storing between 256 MB and
2 GB of data. 248, 249, 262
Xerox, 223
Xerox PARC, 40
XHTML: Extensible HTML;
markup language that enables
Web sites to be displayed more
easily on microbrowsers in
smart phones and other personal mobile devices. 446, 456
XML: Extensible Markup
Language; format for sharing
data that allows Web developers
IND 25
to create customized tags,
as well as use predefined tags.
446, 456
Y
Y2K compliance, 45
Yahoo!, 11, 43
Yellow Pages Local Directory, 88
Your Life, Calculated Web site, 439
Yourdon, Ed, 455
YouTube, 49, 51, 69, 73, 83, 95,
234, 493, 504
making videos and uploading to,
228–229
Z
Zappacosta, Pierluigi, 223
Zipped files: Type of compressed
files that usually have a .zip
extension. 138–139, 290
zipping (compressing) files,
138–139
Zombie: Compromised computer
whose owner is unaware the
computer is being controlled
remotely by an outsider. 387
ZoneAlarm (CheckPoint), 287
Zuckerberg, Mark, 83
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Credits
Credits
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Inc; 5-37 Courtesy of Hewlett-Packard Company; 5-38 Courtesy of Hewlett-Packard Company; 5-42 Courtesy of Hewlett-Packard Company;
5-43 Courtesy of Oki Data Amercas, Inc; 5-44 Courtesy of Creative Technology Ltd; 5-45 © Purestock/Getty Images; PRNewsFoto/SANYO;
5-46 Copyright 2001–2007 SMART Technologies Inc. All rights reserved; 5-47 © Kin Images/Getty Images; © Dwayne Newton/PhotoEdit;
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NaturalPoint, Inc; 5-49 Courtesy of Enabling Technologies; © Don Farrall/Getty Images; Computer Usage @ Work Courtesy of NASA;
Trailblazer 1 AP Photo/Michael Schmelling; Trailblazer 2 © Norm Betts/Bloomberg via Getty Images; Looking Ahead 5-1 AP Photo/Georgia
Tech, Gary W. Meek; Innovative Computing 6-1 Courtesy of EDGE Tech Corp;
Special Feature 5: Figure 1 © Balázs Öcsi/iStockphoto; Courtesy of JVC U.S.A; PRNewsFoto/VIZIO; Courtesy of Sony Electronics Inc;
© Alex Slobodkin/iStockphoto; Courtesy of Microsoft Corporation; © Silvrshootr/iStockphoto; Figure 2 Courtesy of Sony Electronics Inc;
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screenshot photo © Pete Saloutos/GettyImages; Figure 5 Courtesy of Microsoft Corporation; Figure 7 Courtesy of Pinnacle Systems Inc;
Figure 8 Courtesy of Pinnacle Systems Inc; Figure 9 Courtesy of Pinnacle Systems Inc.
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of Iomega; 6-10 Courtesy of Hitachi Global Storage; 6-11 © Lit Liu/iStockphoto; 6-12 Courtesy of Toshiba America Electronic Components;
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Caliper Corporation; 6-26 Courtesy of Sony Electronics Inc; 6-27 © Derek Mitchell/Alamy; 6-28 Copyright © Bill Aron/Photo Edit; 6-30
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Sullivan; Trailblazer 2 Courtesy of IBM Research; Innovative Computing 6-1 Courtesy of Findaway World (www.playaway.com); Looking
Ahead 6-1 The Long Now Foundation; Web Research © Robert Sullivan/Getty Images.
Chapter 7: Opener © Stuart O’Sullivan/Getty Images; Collage: Courtesy of Microsoft Corporation; © Jason Brindel Commercial/Alamy;
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of Dell Inc; Courtesy of Hewlett-Packard Company; 7-5 Courtesy of Hewlett-Packard Company; Courtesy of Western Digital Corporation;
Courtesy of Printronix; 7-7 Courtesy of Microsoft Corporation; 7-10 AP Photo/Peter Zschunke; 7-11 Courtesy of KDE e.V; 7-13 Courtesy of
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International, Inc; 7-23 Courtesy of Nero AG; 7-24 Courtesy of Symantec Corp; Computer Usage @ Work © Keith Morris/Alamy; Trailblazer
1 Photo © Tony Avelar/Bloomberg via Getty Images; Trailblazer 2 © Kim Kulish/CORBIS; Innovative Computing 7-1 © Ingram Publishing/
Superstock Limited/Alamy; Looking Ahead 7-1 Tingrui Pan/UC Davis photo; Web Research © Jurgen Reisch/Getty Images.
Special Feature 7: Figure 1 © Heidi Kristensen/iStockphoto; Courtesy of Dell, Inc; © Tony Tremblay/iStockphoto; Courtesy of Apple;
Courtesy of FUJIFILM USA; AP Photo/Paul Sakuma; Courtesy of Apple; Courtesy of Dell, Inc; p302 Courtesy of Hewlett-Packard
Company; Figure 2 Courtesy of SanDisk Corporation; Courtesy of Avid Technology; Courtesy of Seagate Technology LLC; Courtesy of
Microsoft Corporation; Courtesy of Hewlett-Packard Company; Courtesy of Logitech; Courtesy of Microsoft Corporation; Courtesy of
Logitech; Courtesy of US Robotics; ©Alex Slobodkin/iStockphoto; Courtesy of Microsoft Corporation; Courtesy of Sony Electronics Inc;
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Technology Corporation; Courtesy of UMAX; Courtesy of Creative Technology Ltd; Courtesy of Logitech; Courtesy of SanDisk Corporation;
Courtesy of Belkin International Inc; Courtesy of Advanced Micro Devices, Inc; Courtesy of Logitech; © Norman Chan/iStockphoto; p 306
Courtesy of Dell, Inc; Courtesy of Hewlett-Packard Company; Courtesy of Hewlett-Packard Company; Figure 5 PRNewsFoto/Mindjet LLC;
Figure 6 Courtesy of Fujitsu Technology Solutions; Figure 7 © MadTatyana/Shutterstock.com; Figure 8 Courtesy of Motion Computing;
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Courtesy of Microsoft Corporation; Figure10 Courtesy of Apple; p 311Courtesy of FUJIFILM USA; Figure 11 Courtesy of SanDisk
Corporation; © Muhammad Khairul Syahir Bin Abd Haki/iStockphoto; © SasPartout/Shutterstock.com
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NAVIGON; © 2009 Jupiter Images Corporation; © 2009 Jupiter Images Corporation; © Mark Evans/iStockphoto; ©Simon Vine/Alamy;
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Intel Corporation; Courtesy of SMC Networks; © Justin Sullivan/Getty Images; © James Leynse/Corbis; 8-5 Courtesy of Garmin Ltd;
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com; © terekhov igor/Shutterstock.com; Courtesy of Hewlett-Packard Company; 8-8 Courtesy of Toyota U.S.A; 8-9 Courtesy of HewlettPackard Company; 8-10 Courtesy of Hewlett-Packard Company; Courtesy of Fujitsu Technology Solutions; 8-11 Courtesy of HewlettPackard Company; Courtesy of Western Digital; Courtesy of Seagate Technology LLC; 8-12 Courtesy of Hewlett-Packard Company;
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IBM Corporation; 8-23 Courtesy of Hewlett-Packard Company; 8-24 Courtesy of Hewlett-Packard Company; © Vladislav Ageshin/iStockphoto; Computer Usage @ Work © eliandric/iStockphoto; Trailblazer 1 © Kim Kulish/Corbis; Trailblazer 2 © Wolfgang Von Brauchitsch/
Bloomberg News via Getty Images; Innovative Computing 8-1 AP Photo/The Charlotte Observer, Jeff Willhelm; Looking Ahead 8-1 “A wireless body area network of intelligent motion sensors for computer assisted physical rehabilitation” Emil Jovanov, Aleksandar Milenkovic, Chris
Otto, and Piet C de Groen, J Neuroengineering Rehabil. 2005; 2: 6. Published online 2005 March 1. doi: 10.1186/1743-0003-2-6.PMCID:
PMC552302 reproduced under Creative Commons License 2.0; Web Research © Konstantin Inozemtsev/iStockphoto.
Chapter 9: Opener © Trevor Smith/Alamy; 9-1 Step 1 Courtesy of FujiFilm USA; © Alex Mares-Manton/Getty Images; Step 2 Courtesy
of Seagate Technology LLC; Step 3 Courtesy of Hewlett-Packard Company; Steps 5 & 6 © Alex Mares-Manton/Getty Images; Courtesy of
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© zhang bo/iStockphoto; 9-9 © Davis Barber/PhotoEdit; © Davis Barber/PhotoEdit; 9-21 © Bernhard Classen/Alamy; Trailblazer 1 Courtesy
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Chapter 12: Opener © Flying Colours Ltd/Getty Images; Collage: © Joris van Caspel/iStockphoto; Courtesy of Hewlett-Packard Company;
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Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
IND 30
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Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
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