DMC-40x0 User Manual - Galil Motion Control

DMC-40x0 User Manual - Galil Motion Control
USER MANUAL
DMC-42x0
Manual Rev. 1.0
Galil Motion Control, Inc.
270 Technology Way
Rocklin, California
916.626.0101
[email protected]
galil.com
8/2015
Using This Manual
This user manual provides information for proper operation of the DMC-42x0 controller. A separate supplemental
manual, the Command Reference, contains a description of the commands available for use with this controller. It
is recommended that the user download the latest version of the Command Reference and User Manual from the
Galil Website.
http://www.galilmc.com/support/manuals.php
Your DMC-42x0 motion controller has been designed to work with both servo and stepper type motors.
Installation and system setup will vary depending upon whether the controller will be used with stepper motors or
servo motors. To make finding the appropriate instructions faster and easier, icons will be next to any information
that applies exclusively to one type of system. Otherwise, assume that the instructions apply to all types of
systems. The icon legend is shown below.
Attention: Pertains to servo motor use.
Attention: Pertains to stepper motor use.
4280
Attention: Pertains to controllers with more than 4 axes.
Please note that many examples are written for the DMC-4240 four-axes controller or the DMC-4280 eight axes
controller. Users of the DMC-4230 3-axis controller, DMC-4220 2-axes controller or DMC-4210 1-axis controller
should note that the DMC-4230 uses the axes denoted as ABC, the DMC-4220 uses the axes denoted as AB, and the
DMC-4210 uses the A-axis only.
Examples for the DMC-4280 denote the axes as A,B,C,D,E,F,G,H. Users of the DMC-4250 5-axes controller. DMC4260 6-axes controller or DMC-4270, 7-axes controller should note that the DMC-4250 denotes the axes as
A,B,C,D,E, the DMC-4260 denotes the axes as A,B,C,D,E,F and the DMC-4270 denotes the axes as A,B,C,D,E,F,G. The
axes A,B,C,D may be used interchangeably with X, Y, Z, W.
Machinery in motion can be dangerous!
WARNING
DMC-42x0
It is the responsibility of the user to design effective error handling and safety protection as
part of the machinery. Galil shall not be liable or responsible for any incidental or
consequential damages
Contents ▫ i
Contents
Contents
iii
Chapter 1 Overview
1
Introduction.................................................................................................................................. 1
Part Numbers
...................................................................................................................................................... 2
Electrical Specifications................................................................................................................. 2
Mechanical Specifications............................................................................................................. 3
Environmental Specifications........................................................................................................ 3
Equipment Maintenance............................................................................................................... 3
Overview of Motor Types.............................................................................................................. 3
Overview of External Amplifiers.................................................................................................... 4
Functional Elements..................................................................................................................... 5
Chapter 2 Getting Started
8
Layout........................................................................................................................................... 8
Dimensions................................................................................................................................... 9
Elements You Need....................................................................................................................... 10
Installing the DMC, Amplifiers, and Motors.................................................................................. 11
Chapter 3 Connecting Hardware
24
Overview....................................................................................................................................... 24
Overview of Optoisolated Inputs.................................................................................................. 24
Optoisolated Input Electrical Information..................................................................................... 27
TTL Inputs and Outputs................................................................................................................. 30
Analog Inputs................................................................................................................................ 32
Extended I/O................................................................................................................................. 33
External Amplifier Interface.......................................................................................................... 33
Chapter 4 Software Tools and Communication
41
Introduction.................................................................................................................................. 41
Controller Response to Commands............................................................................................... 41
Unsolicited Messages Generated by Controller............................................................................. 42
Serial Communication Ports.......................................................................................................... 42
Ethernet Configuration................................................................................................................. 44
Modbus........................................................................................................................................ 46
Data Record.................................................................................................................................. 49
GalilSuite (Windows and Linux)..................................................................................................... 53
Creating Custom Software Interfaces............................................................................................ 54
Chapter 5 Command Basics
56
Introduction.................................................................................................................................. 56
Command Syntax - ASCII............................................................................................................... 56
Controller Response to DATA........................................................................................................ 57
Interrogating the Controller.......................................................................................................... 58
Chapter 6 Programming Motion
60
Overview....................................................................................................................................... 60
Independent Axis Positioning........................................................................................................ 61
Independent Jogging..................................................................................................................... 63
Position Tracking........................................................................................................................... 64
Linear Interpolation Mode............................................................................................................ 68
Vector Mode: Linear and Circular Interpolation Motion................................................................71
Electronic Gearing......................................................................................................................... 78
Electronic Cam.............................................................................................................................. 81
PVT Mode..................................................................................................................................... 86
Contour Mode.............................................................................................................................. 89
Virtual Axis.................................................................................................................................... 93
DMC-42x0
Contents ▫ ii
Stepper Motor Operation............................................................................................................. 94
Stepper Position Maintenance Mode (SPM)................................................................................. 96
Dual Loop (Auxiliary Encoder)....................................................................................................... 99
Motion Smoothing ....................................................................................................................... 101
Homing......................................................................................................................................... 103
High Speed Position Capture (The Latch Function) .......................................................................105
Chapter 7 Application Programming
106
Overview....................................................................................................................................... 106
Program Format............................................................................................................................ 106
Executing Programs - Multitasking................................................................................................ 108
Debugging Programs..................................................................................................................... 109
Program Flow Commands............................................................................................................. 110
Mathematical and Functional Expressions.................................................................................... 125
Variables....................................................................................................................................... 128
Operands...................................................................................................................................... 129
Arrays............................................................................................................................................ 130
Input of Data (Numeric and String)............................................................................................... 133
Output of Data (Numeric and String)............................................................................................ 135
Hardware I/O................................................................................................................................ 139
Extended I/O of the DMC-42x0 Controller ................................................................................... 143
Example Applications.................................................................................................................... 145
Using the DMC Editor to Enter Programs...................................................................................... 149
Chapter 8 Hardware & Software Protection
151
Introduction.................................................................................................................................. 151
Hardware Protection..................................................................................................................... 151
Software Protection...................................................................................................................... 152
Chapter 9 Troubleshooting
156
Overview....................................................................................................................................... 156
Chapter 10 Theory of Operation
159
Overview....................................................................................................................................... 159
Operation of Closed-Loop Systems............................................................................................... 161
System Modeling.......................................................................................................................... 162
System Analysis............................................................................................................................. 166
System Design and Compensation................................................................................................ 168
Appendices
171
Electrical Specifications................................................................................................................. 171
Performance Specifications........................................................................................................... 173
Ordering Options.......................................................................................................................... 174
Accessories................................................................................................................................... 178
Input Current Limitations.............................................................................................................. 179
Serial Cable Connections............................................................................................................... 180
Opto-Isolated Outputs for ICM-2900/ICM-1900/AMP-19520/40..................................................182
Configuring the Amplifier Enable Circuit....................................................................................... 183
Signal Descriptions........................................................................................................................ 184
Connectors for DMC-42x0 Main Board......................................................................................... 185
A1. ICM-2900 Interconnect Module.............................................................................................. 192
A2. ICM-2908 Interconnect Module.............................................................................................. 197
A3. ICM-1900 Interconnect Module.............................................................................................. 198
A4. AMP-19520/40 ...................................................................................................................... 202
A5. CB-50-100 Adapter Board....................................................................................................... 203
A6. CB-50-80 Adapter Board......................................................................................................... 208
List of Other Publications.............................................................................................................. 212
Training Seminars.......................................................................................................................... 212
Contacting Us................................................................................................................................ 213
WARRANTY................................................................................................................................... 214
Integrated Components
215
Overview....................................................................................................................................... 215
DMC-42x0
Contents ▫ iii
Chapter 1 Overview
Introduction
The DMC-42x0 Series are Galil’s highest performance stand-alone controller. The controller series offers many
enhanced features including high speed communications, non-volatile program memory, faster encoder speeds,
and improved cabling for EMI reduction.
Each DMC-42x0 provides two communication channels: high speed RS-232 (2 channels up to 115K Baud) and 100
BaseT Ethernet. The controllers allow for high-speed servo control up to 22 million encoder counts/sec and step
motor control up to 6 million steps per second. Sample rates as low as 31.25 µsec per axis are available.
A Flash EEPROM provides non-volatile memory for storing application programs, parameters, arrays and firmware.
New firmware revisions are easily upgraded in the field.
The DMC-42x0 is available with up to eight axes in a single stand alone unit. The DMC-4210, 4020, 4030, 4040 are
one thru four axes controllers and the DMC-4250, 4060, 4070, 4080 are five thru eight axes controllers. All eight
axes have the ability to use Galil’s integrated amplifiers or drivers and connections for integrating external devices.
Designed to solve complex motion problems, the DMC-42x0 can be used for applications involving jogging, pointto-point positioning, vector positioning, electronic gearing, multiple move sequences, contouring and a PVT Mode.
The controller eliminates jerk by programmable acceleration and deceleration with profile smoothing. For smooth
following of complex contours, the DMC-42x0 provides continuous vector feed of an infinite number of linear and
arc segments. The controller also features electronic gearing with multiple master axes as well as gantry mode
operation.
For synchronization with outside events, the DMC-42x0 provides uncommitted I/O, including 8 optoisolated digital
inputs (16 inputs for DMC-4250 thru DMC-4280), 8 high power optically isolated outputs (16 outputs for DMC-4250
thru DMC-4280), and 8 analog inputs for interface to joysticks, sensors, and pressure transducers. The DMC-42x0
also has an additional 32 I/O at 3.3V logic. Further I/O is available if the auxiliary encoders are not being used (2
inputs / each axis). Dedicated optoisolated inputs are provided for forward and reverse limits, abort, home, and
definable input interrupts.
Commands are sent in ASCII. Additional software is available for automatic-tuning, trajectory viewing on a PC
screen, and program development using many environments such as Visual Basic, C, C++ etc. Drivers for Windows
XP, Vista and 7 (32 & 64 bit) as well as Linux are available.
Chapter 1 Overview ▫ 1
DMC-42x0 User Manual
Part Numbers
Figure 1.1: Layout of a complete DMC-42x0 part number
DMC, “DMC-42X0(Y)” Options
Option Type
Options
Brief Description
Documentation
X
1,2,3,4,5,6,7, and 8
Number of control axes
N/A
Y
-16bit
16-bit analog inputs
4-20mA
4-20mA analog inputs
DMC, “DMC-42x0(Y)” Controller Board Options
, starting on pg 170.
TRES
Encoder terminating resistors
SSI
SSI feedback
BiSS
BiSS feedback
Electrical Specifications
Chapter 1 Overview ▫ 2
Description
Specification
AC Input Voltage
100-240 VAC
AC Input Line Frequency
50-60 Hz
Power Dissipation
12 W
DMC-42x0 User Manual
Mechanical Specifications
Description
Specification
Weight
5.2 lb
Length
12.25 in.
Width
5.49 in.
Height
2.37 in.
Environmental Specifications
Description
Specification
Storage Temperature
-25° to +70 ° C
Operating Temperature
0° to +70 ° C
Operating Altitude
10,000 feet
Equipment Maintenance
The DMC-42x0 does not require maintenance.
Overview of Motor Types
The DMC-42x0 can provide the following types of motor control:
1.
Standard servo motors with ± 10 volt command signals
2.
Brushless servo motors with sinusoidal commutation
3.
Step motors with step and direction signals
4.
Other actuators such as hydraulics and ceramic motors - For more information, contact Galil.
The user can configure each axis for any combination of motor types, providing maximum flexibility.
Standard Servo Motor with ±10 Volt Command Signal
The DMC-42x0 achieves superior precision through use of a 16-Bit motor command output DAC and a sophisticated
PID filter that features velocity and acceleration feed-forward, an extra pole filter and integration limits.
The controller is configured by the factory for standard servo motor operation. In this configuration, the controller
provides an analog signal (±10 volts) to connect to a servo amplifier. This connection is described in Chapter 2.
Brushless Servo Motor with Sinusoidal Commutation
The DMC-42x0 can provide sinusoidal commutation for brushless motors (BLM). In this configuration, the
controller generates two sinusoidal signals for connection with amplifiers specifically designed for this purpose.
Chapter 1 Overview ▫ 3
DMC-42x0 User Manual
Note: The task of generating sinusoidal commutation may be accomplished in the brushless motor amplifier. If the
amplifier generates the sinusoidal commutation signals, only a single command signal is required and the controller
should be configured for a standard servo motor (described above).
Sinusoidal commutation in the controller can be used with linear and rotary BLMs. However, the motor velocity
should be limited such that a magnetic cycle lasts at least 6 milliseconds with a standard update rate of 1
millisecond. For faster motors, please contact the factory.
To simplify the wiring, the controller provides a one-time, automatic set-up procedure. When the controller has
been properly configured, the brushless motor parameters may be saved in non-volatile memory.
The DMC-42x0 can control BLMs equipped with Hall sensors as well as without Hall sensors. If Hall sensors are
available, once the controller has been setup, the brushless motor parameters may be saved in non-volatile
memory. In this case, the controller will automatically estimate the commutation phase upon reset.
This allows the motor to function immediately upon power up. The Hall effect sensors also provide a method for
setting the precise commutation phase. Chapter 2 describes the proper connection and procedure for using
sinusoidal commutation of brushless motors.
Stepper Motor with Step and Direction Signals
The DMC-42x0 can control stepper motors. In this mode, the controller provides two signals to connect
to the stepper motor: Step and Direction. For stepper motor operation, the controller does not require
an encoder and operates the stepper motor in an open loop fashion. Chapter 2 describes the proper
connection and procedure for using stepper motors.
If encoders are available on the stepper motor, Galil’s Stepper Position Maintenance Mode may be used
for automatic monitoring and correction of the stepper position. See Stepper Position Maintenance
Mode (SPM) in Chapter 6 for more information.
Overview of External Amplifiers
The amplifiers should be suitable for the motor and may be linear or pulse-width-modulated. An amplifier may
have current feedback, voltage feedback or velocity feedback.
Amplifiers in Current Mode
Amplifiers in current mode should accept an analog command signal in the ±10 volt range. The amplifier gain
should be set such that a +10V command will generate the maximum required current. For example, if the motor
peak current is 10A, the amplifier gain should be 1 A/V.
Amplifiers in Velocity Mode
For velocity mode amplifiers, a command signal of 10 volts should run the motor at the maximum required speed.
The velocity gain should be set such that an input signal of 10V runs the motor at the maximum required speed.
Stepper Motor Amplifiers
For step motors, the amplifiers should accept step and direction signals.
Chapter 1 Overview ▫ 4
DMC-42x0 User Manual
Functional Elements
The DMC-42x0 circuitry can be divided into the following functional groups as shown in Figure 1.2 and discussed
below.
WATCHDOG TIMER
ISOLATED LIMITS AND
HOME INPUTS
RISC BASED
MICROCOMPUTER
ETHERNET
RS-232 /
RS-422
32 Configurable I/O
8 PROGRAMMABLE,
OPTOISOLATED
INPUTS
+/- 10 VOLT OUTPUT FOR
SERVO MOTORS
PULSE/DIRECTION OUTPUT
FOR STEP MOTORS
HIGH SPEED ENCODER
COMPARE OUTPUT
I/O INTERFACE
8 UNCOMMITTED
ANALOG INPUTS
MAIN ENCODERS
AUXILIARY ENCODERS
HIGH-SPEED
MOTOR/ENCODER
INTERFACE
FOR
A,B,C,D
8 PROGRAMMABLE
HIGH POWER OPTOISOLATED
OUTPUTS
HIGH-SPEED LATCH FOR EACH AXIS
Figure 1.2: DMC-42x0 Functional Elements
Microcomputer Section
The main processing unit of the controller is a specialized Microcomputer with RAM and Flash EEPROM. The RAM
provides memory for variables, array elements, and application programs. The flash EEPROM provides non-volatile
storage of variables, programs, and arrays. The Flash also contains the firmware of the controller, which is field
upgradeable.
Motor Interface
Galil’s GL-1800 custom, sub-micron gate array performs quadrature decoding of each encoder at up to 22 MHz. For
standard servo operation, the controller generates a ±10 volt analog signal (16-bit DAC). For sinusoidal
commutation operation, the controller uses two DACs to generate two ±10 volt analog signals. For stepper motor
operation, the controller generates a step and direction signal.
Communication
The communication interface with the DMC-42x0 consists of high speed RS-232 and Ethernet. The Ethernet is
10/100Bt and the two RS-232 channels can generate up to 115K.
Chapter 1 Overview ▫ 5
DMC-42x0 User Manual
General I/O
The DMC-42x0 provides interface circuitry for 8 bi-directional, optoisolated inputs, 8 high power optoisolated
outputs and 8 analog inputs with 12-Bit ADC (16-Bit optional). The DMC-42x0 also has an additional 32 I/O (3.3V
logic) and unused auxiliary encoder inputs may also be used as additional inputs (2 inputs / each axis). The general
inputs as well as the index pulse can also be used as high speed latches for each axis. A high speed encoder
compare output is also provided.
4280
The DMC-4250 through DMC-4280 controller provides an additional 8 optoisolated inputs and 8 high
power optoisolated outputs.
System Elements
As shown in Figure 1.3, the DMC-42x0 is part of a motion control system which includes amplifiers, motors and
encoders. These elements are described below.
Power Supply
Computer
DMC-42x0 Controller
Encoder
Amplifier (Driver)
Motor
Figure 1.3: Elements of Servo systems
Motor
A motor converts current into torque which produces motion. Each axis of motion requires a motor sized properly
to move the load at the required speed and acceleration. (Galil’s MotorSizer Web tool can help you with motor
sizing: www.galilmc.com/support/motorsizer)
The motor may be a step or servo motor and can be brush-type or brushless, rotary or linear. For step motors, the
controller can be configured to control full-step, half-step, or microstep drives. An encoder is not required when
step motors are used.
Other motors and devices such as Ultrasonic Ceramic motors and voice coils can be controlled with the DMC-42x0.
Chapter 1 Overview ▫ 6
DMC-42x0 User Manual
Amplifier (Driver)
For each axis, the power amplifier converts a ±10 volt signal from the controller into current to drive the motor.
For stepper motors, the amplifier converts step and direction signals into current. The amplifier should be sized
properly to meet the power requirements of the motor. For brushless motors, an amplifier that provides electronic
commutation is required or the controller must be configured to provide sinusoidal commutation. The amplifiers
may be either pulse-width-modulated (PWM) or linear. They may also be configured for operation with or without
a tachometer. For current amplifiers, the amplifier gain should be set such that a 10 volt command generates the
maximum required current. For example, if the motor peak current is 10A, the amplifier gain should be 1 A/V. For
velocity mode amplifiers, 10 volts should run the motor at the maximum speed.
Galil offers amplifiers that are integrated into the same enclosure as the DMC-42x0. See the section in the
Appendices or http://galilmc.com/products/accelera/dmc42x0.html for more information.
Encoder
An encoder translates motion into electrical pulses which are fed back into the controller. The DMC-42x0 accepts
feedback from either a rotary or linear encoder. Typical encoders provide two channels in quadrature, known as
MA and MB. This type of encoder is known as a quadrature encoder. Quadrature encoders may be either singleended (MA+ and MB+) or differential (MA+, MA-, MB+, and MB-). The DMC-42x0 decodes either type into
quadrature states or four times the number of cycles. Encoders may also have a third channel (or index) for
synchronization.
The DMC-42x0 can be ordered with 120 Ω termination resistors installed on the encoder inputs. See the Ordering
Options in the Appendix for more information.
The DMC-42x0 can also interface to encoders with pulse and direction signals. Refer to the “CE” command in the
command reference for details.
There is no limit on encoder line density; however, the input frequency to the controller must not exceed 5,500,000
full encoder cycles/second (22,000,000 quadrature counts/sec). For example, if the encoder line density is 10,000
cycles per inch, the maximum speed is 300 inches/second. If higher encoder frequency is required, please consult
the factory.
The standard encoder voltage level is TTL (0-5v), however, voltage levels up to 12 Volts are acceptable. (If using
differential signals, 12 Volts can be input directly to the DMC-42x0. Single-ended 12 Volt signals require a bias
voltage input to the complementary inputs).
The DMC-42x0 can accept analog feedback (±10v) instead of an encoder for any axis. For more information see the
command AF in the command reference.
To interface with other types of position sensors such as absolute encoders, Galil can customize the controller and
command set. Please contact Galil to talk to one of our applications engineers about your particular system
requirements.
Watch Dog Timer
The DMC-42x0 provides an internal watch dog timer which checks for proper microprocessor operation. The timer
toggles the Amplifier Enable Output (AMPEN) which can be used to switch the amplifiers off in the event of a
serious DMC-42x0 failure. The AMPEN output is normally high. During power-up and if the microprocessor ceases
to function properly, the AMPEN output will go low. The error light will also turn on at this stage. A reset is
required to restore the DMC-42x0 to normal operation. Consult the factory for a Return Materials Authorization
(RMA) Number if your DMC-42x0 is damaged.
Chapter 1 Overview ▫ 7
DMC-42x0 User Manual
Chapter 2 Getting Started
Layout
DMC-42x0
Figure 2.1: Outline of the of the DMC-4280 1-8 axes model
Chapter 2 Getting Started ▫ 8
DMC-42x0 User Manual
Dimensions
DMC-4240
Figure 2.3: Dimensions (in inches) of the DMC-42x0 (Where x= 1-8 )
Chapter 2 Getting Started ▫ 9
DMC-42x0 User Manual
Elements You Need
For a complete system, Galil recommends the following elements:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
DMC-42x0, motion controller where the x designates number of axis, 1-8.
Interconnect.
a. (1) ICM-2900 and (1) CABLE-100 for a 1-4 axis DMC-42x0.
b. (2) ICM-2900s and (2) CABLE-100s for a 5-8 axis DMC-42x0.
c. An interconnect board provided by the user.
Motor Amplifiers.
Power Supply for Motor Amplifiers.
AC Power source for DMC-42x0 controller.
Brush or Brushless Servo motors with Optical Encoders or stepper motors.
a. Cables for connecting to the DMC-42x0.
PC (Personal Computer - RS232 or Ethernet for DMC-42x0)
GalilSuite or GalilSuite Lite (Free) software package.
GalilSuite is highly recommended for first time users of the DMC-42x0. It provides step-by-step instructions for
system connection, tuning, and analysis.
Figure 2.4: Recommended System Elements of DMC-42x0
Chapter 2 Getting Started ▫ 10
DMC-42x0 User Manual
Installing the DMC, Amplifiers, and Motors
Installation of a complete, operational motion control system consists of the following steps:
Step 1. Determine Overall System Configuration, pg 11
Step 2. Install Jumpers, pg 12
Step 3. Configure Dip Switches ,pg 12
Step 4. Install the Communications Software, pg 13
Step 5. Connect AC Power to the Controller, pg 13
Step 6. Establish Communications with Galil Software, pg 13
Step 7. Connecting Encoder Feedback, pg 13
Optional for steppers
Step 8. Setting Safety Features before Wiring Motors, pg 15
Servo motors only
Step 9. Wiring Motors to Galil's AMP-19540., pg 17
Galil amplifiers only
Step 9a. Commutation of 3-phased Brushless Motors, pg 18 Brushless motors only
Step 10. Connecting External Amplifiers and Motors, pg 21
External amplifiers only
Step 11. Tune the Servo System, pg 23
Servo motors only
Electronics are dangerous!
WARNING
Only a certified electrical technician, electrical engineer, or electrical professional should wire
the DMC product and related components. Galil shall not be liable or responsible for any
incidental or consequential damages.
All wiring procedures and suggestions mentioned in the following sections should be done
with the controller in a powered-off state. Failing to do so can cause harm to the user or to
the controller.
NOTE
The following instructions are given for Galil products only. If wiring an non-Galil device,
follow the instructions provided with that product. Galil shall not be liable or responsible for
any incidental or consequential damages that occur to a 3rd party device.
Step 1. Determine Overall System Configuration
Before setting up the motion control system, the user must determine the desired motor configuration. The DMC42x0 can control any combination of brushless motors, brushed motors, and stepper motors. Galil has amplifier
options that can drive motors directly but can also control external amplifiers using either a ±10V motor command
line or PWM/Step and direction lines. There are also several feedback options that the DMC can accept.
See Part Numbers , pg 2 for understanding your complete DMC unit and part number before continuing.
Chapter 2 Getting Started ▫ 11
DMC-42x0 User Manual
Step 2. Install Jumpers
Master Reset and Upgrade Jumpers
Jumpers labeled MRST and UPGD are the Master Reset and Upgrade jumpers, respectively.
JP1 on the main board contains two jumpers, MRST and UPGRD. The MRST jumper is the Master Reset jumper.
When MRST is connected, the controller will perform a master reset upon PC power up or upon the reset input
going low. The MRST can also be set with the DIP switches on the outside of the controller. Whenever the
controller has a master reset, all programs, arrays, variables, and motion control parameters stored in EEPROMwill
be ERASED.
The UPGD jumper enables the user to unconditionally update the controller’s firmware. This jumper should not be
used without first consulting Galil.
Step 3. Configure Dip Switches
Located on the outside of the controller box is a set of 8 DIP switches. Whent eh controller is powered on or reset,
the state of the DIP switches are read.
Switch 1 – Master Reset
When this switch is on, the controller will perform a master reset upon PC power up. Whenever the controller has
a master reset, all programs and motion control parameters stored in EEPROM will be ERASED. During normal
operation, this switch should be off.
Switches 2,3, and 4 are non-functional and reserved
Switches 5 and 6 Main Serial Port Baud Rate
If using the RS232 port for communication, the baud rate is set via switches 5 and 6. To set the baud rate, configure
switches 5 and 6as follows:
Switch 5 -19.2
Switch 6 – 38.4
BAUD RATE
ON
OFF
19200
OFF
ON
38400
ON
ON
115200
Switch 7 – Option
When OFF, the controller will use the auto-negotiate function to set the Ethernet connection speed. When the DIP
switch is ON, the controller defaults to 10BaseT.
Switch 8 – Motor Off
It is recommended to use the MO switch when connecting motors for the first time. With the MO switch ON, the
controller will boot-up in the “motor off” state. In this state the amplifier enable signals are toggled to
“inhibit/disable”. With this switch OFF
Chapter 2 Getting Started ▫ 12
DMC-42x0 User Manual
Step 4. Install the Communications Software
After applying power to the controller, a PC is used for programming. Galil's development software enables
communication between the controller and the host device. The most recent copy of Galil's development software
can be found here:
http://www.galilmc.com/support/software-downloads.php
Step 5. Connect AC Power to the Controller
WARNING
Dangerous voltages, current, temperatures and energy levels exist in this product and the
associated amplifiers and servo motor(s). Extreme caution should be exercised in the
application of this equipment. Only qualified individuals should attempt to install, set up
and operate this equipment. Never open the controller box when DC power is applied
Before applying power, connect the 100-pin cable between the DMC-42x0 and ICM-2900 interconnect module. The
DMC-42x0 requires a single AC supply voltage, single phase, 50 Hz or 60 Hz. From 90 VAC to 260 VAC.
The green power light indicator should go on when power is applied.
Step 6. Establish Communications with Galil Software
See Ethernet Configuration, pg 39 for details on using Ethernet with the DMC-42x0. To configure your NIC card
using Windows to connect to a DMC controller, see this two-minute video:
http://www.galilmc.com/learning/two-minute-display.php?video=connecting-to-ethernet-controller
For connecting using serial, see RS-232 Configuration, pg 37 for proper configuration of the Main DMC-42x0 serial
port.
See the GalilSuite manual for using the software to communicate:
http://www.galilmc.com/support/manuals/galilsuite/index.html
Step 7. Connecting Encoder Feedback
4280
DMC-42x0 controllers with more than 4 axes require a second ICM-2900 and 100-pin cable.
The motion control system typically consists of an ICM-2900 Interface Module, an amplifier for each axis of motion,
and a motor to transform the current from the amplifier into torque for motion.
If you are using an ICM-2900, connect it to the DMC-42x0 via the 100-pin high density cable. The ICM-2900
provides screw terminals for access to the connections described in the following discussion.
System connection procedures will depend on system components and motor types. Any combination of motor
types can be used with the DMC-42x0. If sinusoidal commutation is to be used, special attention must be paid to
the reconfiguration of axes.
The type of feedback the unit is capable of depends on the additional options ordered. Table 2.1 shows the
different Encoder feedback types available for the DMC-42x0 including additional options are required. Note that
each feedback type has a different configuration command. See the Command Reference for full details on how to
properly configure each axis.
Chapter 2 Getting Started ▫ 13
DMC-42x0 User Manual
Different feedback types can be used on the same controller. For instance, one axis could be using Standard
quadrature and the next could be using SSI. By default, all axis are configured for Standard quadrature.
Standard quadrature
Configuration
Command
CE
Standard on all units
Encoder
Step/Dir
CE
Standard on all units
Encoder
Analog1
AF
Standard on all units
(12-bit Standard. 16-bit optional)
Analog
SSI
SI
Requires the SSI Option, see page(172)
Encoder
BiSS
SS
Requires the BiSS Option, see page(172)
Encoder
None2
–
–
--
Feedback Type
Connection Location
Other
Contact Galil at 1.800.377.6329
Table 2.1: Configuration commands, ICM/Part numbers required for a given feedback type
1 All wiring/electrical information regarding using analog inputs can be found in the Analog Inputs, pg 33.
2 Although stepper systems do not require feedback, Galil supports a feedback sensor on each stepper axis. Servo motors require a
position sensor.
A note about using encoders and steppers:
When a stepper is used, the auxiliary encoder for the corresponding axis is unavailable for an external
connection. If an encoder is used for position feedback, connect the encoder to the main encoder input
corresponding to that axis. The commanded position of the stepper can be interrogated with TD and the
encoder position can be interrogated with TP.
The following steps provide a general guide for connecting encoders to the DMC unit:
Step A. Wire the encoder
The pinouts for the DMC-42x0 Main Board connectors can be found in the Appendix:
Connectors for DMC-42x0 Main Board
The pin-outs and electrical information for SSI and BiSS options can be found here:
DMC-42x0 (BiSS or SSI Option) Pinout, pg. 172.
The encoder pin-outs for Galil Interconnect Modules are listed below.
ICM-2900
A1. ICM-2900 Interconnect Module
ICM-1900
A3. ICM-1900 Interconnect Module
For AMP-19520/40 encoder connections, please refer to the amplifier's User Manual:
http://galilmc.com/download/manual/man_195x0.pdf
Step B. Issue the appropriate configuration commands
Find the appropriate configuration commands for your feedback type as shown in Table 2.1, pg 14.
Step C. Verify proper encoder operation
1.
2.
Ensure the motor is off my issuing an MO.
Check the current position by issuing TP, the value reported back is in the units of counts.
Chapter 2 Getting Started ▫ 14
DMC-42x0 User Manual
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Move the motor by hand and re-issue TP. The returned value should have been incremented or
decremented from the first TP. If there is no change, check the encoder wiring and settings and
retest starting at Step 1.
Using the encoder specification sheet, translate a physical distance of the motor into counts read
by the controller. For example, a 2000 line encoder means that the controller reads 2000*4=
8000 counts/revolution and a half turn of the motor would be 4000 counts.
Issue TP to determine the current motor position, record this value.
Move the motor by hand some measured physical distance.
Query TP again. Take the absolute difference from the current TP and the TP recorded from
Step 5.
Determine if the physical distance moved is equal to the expected amount of counts calculated in
Step 4, move on to Step 9. Otherwise, check the encoder wiring and settings and retest starting
at Step 1.
Perform Step 5-8 again, instead moving a physical distance in the opposite direction. If the
physical distance correctly translates to the expected amount of counts, the encoder is wired
correctly.
Step D. Reverse encoder direction, if necessary
Table 2.2 below provides instructions for how to reverse the direction of feedback by rewiring the encoder to the
DMC controller. The direction of standard, quadrature encoders can be be reversed using the CE command.
Reversing direction of the feedback may cause a servo motor to runaway, see Step 8. Setting
Safety Features before Wiring Motors, pg 15 regarding Runaway Motors.
NOTE
Feedback Type
Standard Quadrature
Directions
Differential
Swap channels A+ and A-
Single-ended
Swap channels A+ and B+
SSI or BiSS
Follow encoder manufacturer's instructions.
Analog feedback
Cannot change the direction of feedback without external hardware to invert
analog signal.1
Table 2.2: Directions for reversing feedback direction based upon feedback type
1
The polarity of the control loop may still be inverted by either re-wiring the motor or using the MT command, see Step 8.
Setting Safety Features before Wiring Motors, pg 15 regarding positive feedback loops.
Step 8. Setting Safety Features before Wiring Motors
This section applies to servo motors only.
Step A. Set Torque Limit
TL will limit the output voltage of the ±10V motor command line. This output voltage is either translated into
torque or velocity by the amplifier (Galil's internal amplifiers are in torque mode). This command should be used to
avoid excessive torque or speed when initially setting up a servo system. The user is responsible for determining
the relationship between the motor command line and the amplifier torque/velocity using the documentation of
the motor and/or amplifier.
See the TL setting in the Command Reference for more details.
See the AG command in the command reference for current gains of Galil's internal amplifiers. The amplifier gain
can also be used to change the ratio of outputting amps of the amplifier per commanded volts of the controller.
Chapter 2 Getting Started ▫ 15
DMC-42x0 User Manual
This is another way to limit the amount of current but can also maintain the resolution of the ±10V motor
command line.
Step B. Set the Error Limit
When ER (error limit) and OE (off-on-error) is set, the controller will automatically shut down the motors when
excess error (|TE| > ER) has occurred. This is an important safety feature during set up as wrong polarity can cause
the motor to run away, see Step C below for more information regarding runaway motors.
NOTE: Off-on-error (OE) requires the amplifier enable signal to be connected from the controller to the amplifier.
This is automatic when using Galil's internal amplifiers, see Step 10. Connecting External Amplifiers and Motors, pg
21 for external amplifiers
Step C. Understanding and Correcting for Runaway Motors
A runaway motor is a condition for which the motor is rotating uncontrollably near it's maximum speed in a single
direction. This is often caused by one of two conditions:
1.
The amplifier enable signal is the incorrect logic required by the amplifier
This is only applicable to external amplifiers only.
If the motor is in a MO state when the motor runs away, the MO command is toggling your amplifier
“on/enabled” and needs to be reconfigured. The motor is running away because the controller is registering
the axis is in an “inactive” and is not attempting to control it's movement. See Step 10. Connecting External
Amplifiers and Motors, pg 21 for configuring the amplifier enable signal.
2.
The motor and encoder are in opposite polarity causing a positive feedback loop
Reversed polarity is when a positive voltage on the motor command line results in negative movement of the
motor. This will result in a positive feedback loop and a runaway motor.
The following steps can be taken to detect reverse polarity, the A-axis is used as an example:
1.
After connecting your servo motor using either Step 9. Wiring Motors to Galil's AMP-19540., pg 17 or
Step 10. Connecting External Amplifiers and Motors, pg 21 issue the following commands:
MO A
KIA= 0
KPA= 0
KDA= 0
SH A
2.
Check your current position by issuing TP A.
3.
Set a small, positive voltage on your motor command line using the OF command; use a high enough
voltage to get the motor to move. This will cause a runaway-like condition so have an appropriate OE
set, see Step B. Example:
OFA= 0.5
4.
If the motor has not been disabled by OE, disable it by issuing MO A.
5.
Check the position again by using TP A.
6.
If TP has increased, than the motor command line and encoder are in correct polarity. If TP has
decreased than the motor command line is in opposite polarity with the encoder.
If the system has reverse polarity, take the following steps to correct for it:
Brushed Motor
Choose one of the following:
1.
Reverse the direction of the motor leads by swapping phase A and phase B
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DMC-42x0 User Manual
2.
Reverse the direction of the encoder, see Step 7. Connecting Encoder Feedback, pg 13
Brushless Motor
Choose one of the following:
1.
Reverse direction of the encoder, see Step 7. Connecting Encoder Feedback, pg 13
2.
Reverse direction of the motor by swapping any two motor phases (or two hall sensors if using a
trapezoidal amplifier). The motor will now have to be re-commutated by using either the Trapezoidal
or Sinusoidal method, see Step 9a. Commutation of 3-phased Brushless Motors, pg 18
Non-wiring Options
You can reverse the direction of the motor command line by using the MT command or reverse direction of the
feedback by using the CE command (standard quadrature and step/direction feedback only). It is not
recommended to correct for polarity using configuration commands as an unexpected condition may arise
where these settings are accidentally over-ridden causing a runaway.
See the Command Reference for more details.
Step D. Other Safety Features
This section only provides a brief list of safety features that the DMC can provide. Other features include
Encoder Failure Detection (OA, OT, OV) , Automatic Subroutines to create an automated response to events
such as limit switches toggling (#LIMSWI), command errors (#POSERR), and amplifier errors (TA,
#AMPERR), and more. For a full list of features and how to program each see Chapter 8 Hardware & Software
Protection, pg 147.
Step 9. Wiring Motors to Galil's AMP-19540.
Table 2.3 below provides a general overview of the connections required for most systems connecting to a Galil
amplifier and controller system. Following the table is a step-by-step guide on how to do so.
Motor Type
Required Connections
Brushless servo motor
• Power to controller and internal amplifier
• Motor power leads to internal amplifiers
• Encoder feedback
• Hall sensors (Not required for sinusoidal amplifiers)
Brushed servo motor
• Power to controller and internal amplifier
• Motor power leads to internal amplifiers
• Encoder feedback
Table 2.3: Synopsis of connections required to connect a motor to Galil's internal amplifiers
Step A. Connect the encoder feedback (optional for steppers)
See Step 7. Connecting Encoder Feedback, pg 13.
Step B. Connect the motor power leads and halls (if required) to the Galil amplifier
Table 2.4 lists each of Galil's internal amplifiers and where to find documentation for pin-outs of the
amplifier connections and electrical specifications. In addition it describes the commutation method
and whether halls are required.
Chapter 2 Getting Started ▫ 17
DMC-42x0 User Manual
Commutation
Halls Required
AMP-19540
Amplifier
Trapezoidal
Halls required for brushless motors
AMP-19520
Brushed
No
Table 2.4: Amplifier documentation location, commutation, and hall requirements for each internal amplifier.
Pin-outs for the hall signals is found under the ICM being used, refer to Step 7. Connecting Encoder
Feedback, pg. 13 for pinouts.
If wiring 3-phased, brushless motors:
NOTE
Skip to the additional instructions provided in Step 9a. Commutation of 3phased Brushless Motors, pg 18 to find proper commutation.
Step C. Issue the appropriate configuration commands
Table 2.5 provides a brief list of configuration commands that may need to be set depending on your motor
type and motor specifications.
Command
MT
Description
Configures an axis for use with either a stepper or servo motor
AG
Amplifier gain (A/V for servos or A/Phase for steppers)
BR
Will configure an internal servo amplifier for brushed mode
(Also used to ignore halls when the use of external amplifiers is required in lieu of an
internal)
AU
Configures the current loop update rate
(Can also be used to switch capable amplifiers between chopper and inverter mode)
TL, TK
LC
Limits motor command line output in Volts, thus limiting the current in the amplifier
Configures stepper motor current at holding or “rest” positions
Table 2.5: Sample of motor and amplifier configuration commands
Step D. If using a servo motor, continue to Step 11. Tune the Servo System, pg 23. If using a stepper, continue
on to Step E.
Step E. Enable and use your motor
A SH will enable the internal amplifier and a MO will disable the internal amplifier. Once enabled, you can send
DMC motion commands to move the motor, see Chapter 6 Programming Motion, pg 55 for details.
Step 9a. Commutation of 3-phased Brushless Motors
If a motor is not correctly commutated it will not function as expected. Commutation is the act of properly getting
each of the 3 internal phases of a servo motor to switch at the correct time to allow smooth, 360 degree rotation in
both directions. The two most common methods for doing so are trapezoidal commutation (use of Hall sensors)
and through position sensor algorithms (sinusoidal commutation, no Halls required).
The following sections provide a brief description and guide on how to perform either commutation method
including wiring and configuration commands. These sections are divided into Trapezoidal and Sinusoidal:
Trapezoidal Commutation
The AMP-19540 and AMP-19520 support Trapezoidal commutation.
Chapter 2 Getting Started ▫ 18
DMC-42x0 User Manual
Trapezoidal commutation is a time-tested way for determining the motor location within a magnetic cycle;
However, interpretation of hall sensor feedback varies between motor manufactures requiring the user to find the
correct wiring combination.
Before wiring the motor the user should determine which is easier: Wiring the hall sensors or wiring the motor
phases. This method will start with wiring both the halls and motor phases at random then trying each of the 6
wiring combinations of either the halls or the motor phases (not both). For each combination, the user will be
asked to check the open-loop velocity in both directions . Some of the wiring combinations will lead to no motion,
this is expected. The following directions are given using the A-axis as an example.
1. Wire the 3 motor phase wires and 3 hall sensors randomly. Do not connect the motor to any external
mechanics or load, a free spinning motor is required for testing. Take all safety precautions necessary as the
motor tests below will result in a runaway condition.
2. Set the PID’s and BR to zero and disable off-on-error (OE) to allow for full rotation of the motor in openloop. Issue the following commands from a Galil terminal program:
KPA=
KDA=
KIA=
BRA=
OE 0
SH A
0
0
0
0
3. Place a small offset voltage on the motor command line using the OF command (ex OFA= 0.5). The
smallest OF possible to see motion is recommended. If no motion presents itself, increase in small increments
until you see motion. If your OF is beyond what is expected to see motion, record “no motion” using one of
the tables below (Table 2.7 for swapping motor phases or Table 2.8 for swapping halls) and try the next wiring
combination.
Note: To stop the motor from spinning use either the MO A command or issue OFA= 0.
4. Once spinning, check the velocity of the motor with the TV A command. Record this value under “+
Velocity” in either Table 2.7 or Table 2.8.
5. Issue an equal but opposite OF. For example, if you previously issued OFA= 0.5 now issue OFA= -0.5.
Record this velocity under “- Velocity.”
6. Issue OFA= 0 or MO A to stop the motors. Power down the controller and amplifiers system and swap 2
wires of the hall sensors or motor power leads—whichever method is being used (Remember, chose one or
the other, not both!). Keep track of what cable combinations have been tested (labeling the phases maybe
useful) in the example table in Table 2.6, motor phases were recorded based upon their insulation color.
7. Repeat steps 2-6 for every possible wiring combination, there will be six and Table 2.7 or Table 2.8 below
should be completely filled out.
8. The correct wiring combination will be the one with the least difference in magnitude between the velocities
in the positive and negative direction. In the case where there are two combinations that meet this criteria,
choose the combination that has the higher velocities. In the example table shown in Table 2.6, Trial 1 would
be the correct choice.
Chapter 2 Getting Started ▫ 19
DMC-42x0 User Manual
Trial #
Phase A
Phase B
Phase C
+ Velocity
- Velocity
1
Red
White
Black
153700
-160000
2
Red
Black
White
No motion No motion
3
White
Black
Red
No motion No motion
4
White
Red
Black
-141000
5
Black
Red
White
No motion No motion
6
Black
White
Red
-70000
139000
92000
Table 2.6: Example table showing realistic test results using this commutation method
Trial #
Phase A
Phase B
Phase C
+ Velocity
- Velocity
1
2
3
4
5
6
Table 2.7: Table provided for use with swapping motor phases to achieve trapezoidal communication
Trial #
Hall A
Hall B
Hall C
+ Velocity
- Velocity
1
2
3
4
5
6
Table 2.8: Table provided for use with swapping hall leads to achieve trapezoidal communication
9. Check that the motor phases and encoder feedback are in proper polarity to avoid a runaway condition. Do
so by watching the different hall transitions by using the QH command and rotating the motor by hand in an MO
state. If the motor and encoder polarity are correct than TP A should report a smaller number when QH A
reports 1 than when QH A reports 3. If TP A is larger when QH A reports 1 than 3, then the motor is in a
positive feedback state and will runaway when sent movement commands; Reverse the encoder feedback as
described in Step 7. Connecting Encoder Feedback, pg 13.
10. Issue MO A and set OFA= 0. Set small, and appropriate values of KP A and KD A and verify the motor
holds position once a SH A is issued. The motor is now under closed loop control.
11. Double check commutation by issuing a small jog command (JGA=1000; BG A) and verify the motor
spins smoothly for more than 360 degrees. If the user monitors QH during the jog movement it should report a
number 1-6 transitioning through the following sequence: 1, 3, 2, 6, 4, 5 and repeating.
12. If no runaway occurs, the motor is ready to be tuned. Skip to Step 11. Tune the Servo System, pg 23.
Chapter 2 Getting Started ▫ 20
DMC-42x0 User Manual
Step 10. Connecting External Amplifiers and Motors
DMC-42x0 controllers with more than 4 axes require a second ICM-2900 and 100-pin cable.
4280
System connection procedures will depend on system components and motor types. Any combination of motor
types can be used with the DMC-42x0. For connecting There can also be a combination of axes running from Galil's
AMP-19540/19520 and external amplifiers or drivers.
Table 2.9 below shows a brief synopsis of the connections required, the full step-by-step guide is provided below.
Motor Type
Connection Requirements
Servo motors
• Power to controller and amplifier
• Amplifier enable
• Encoder feedback
• Motor command line
• See amplifier documentation for motor connections
Stepper motor
• Power to controller and amplifier
• Amplifier enable
• PWM/Step and direction line
• Encoder feedback (optional)
• See amplifier documentation for motor connections
(Brushed and Brushless)
Table 2.9: Synopsis of connections required to connect an external amplifier
Step A. Connect the motor to the amplifier
Initially do so with no connection to the controller. Consult the amplifier documentation for instructions
regarding proper connections. Connect and turn-on the amplifier power supply. If the amplifiers are
operating properly, the motor should stand still even when the amplifiers are powered up.
A Note Regarding Commutation
This section applies to 3-phase external amplifiers only.
External amplifiers often will perform either trapezoidal or sinusoidal commutation without the need
of a controller. In this case, be sure to use your amplifiers guide to achieve proper commutation.
Although very rare, if an external amplifier requires the controller to perform sinusoidal commutation,
an additional ±10 V motor command line may be required from the DMC. Contact Galil if your
external amplifier has this requirement.
Step B. Connect the amplifier enable signal
Before making any connections from the amplifier to the controller, verify that the ground level of the
amplifier is either floating or at the same potential as earth.
WARNING
When the amplifier ground is not isolated from the power line or when it has a different
potential than that of the computer ground, serious damage may result to the computer,
controller, and amplifier.
If you are not sure about the potential of the ground levels, connect the two ground signals (amplifier
ground and earth) by a 10 kresistor and measure the voltage across the resistor. Only if the voltage is
zero, connect the two ground signals directly.
Chapter 2 Getting Started ▫ 21
DMC-42x0 User Manual
The amplifier enable signal is defaulted to 5V, high amp enable. (the amplifier enable signal will be high
when the controller expects the amplifier to be enabled). It is recommended that if an amplifier requires a
different configuration, the controller should be be ordered with the desired configuration.
Pin-outs for the amplifier enable signal is found under the ICM being used:
ICM-2900: A1. ICM-2900 Interconnect Module
ICM-1900 :A3. ICM-1900 Interconnect Module
For full electrical specifications and wiring diagrams refer to:
External Amplifier Interface, pg 33
Once the amplifier enable signal is correctly wired , issuing a MO will disable the amplifier and an SH will
enable it.
Step C. Connect the Encoders (optional for stepper systems)
See Step 7. Connecting Encoder Feedback, pg 13.
Step D. Connect the Command Signals
The DMC-42x0 has two ways of controlling amplifiers:
1.
Using a motor command line (±10V analog output)
The motor and the amplifier may be configured in torque or velocity mode. In the torque mode, the
amplifier gain should be such that a 10V signal generates the maximum required current. In the
velocity mode, a command signal of 10V should run the motor at the maximum required speed.
2.
Using step (0-5V, PWM) and direction (0-5V toggling line), this is referred to as Step/Dir for short.
Pin-outs for the command signals are found under the ICM being used:
The full list of ICM pin-outs are provided in Step B, above.
For full electrical specifications refer to:
External Amplifier Interface, pg 33
To configure the command signal type and other configuration commands see Table 2.10 below for a brief
synopsis. For a full list of configuration commands see the Command Reference.
Step E. Issue the appropriate configuration Commands
Command
Description
MT
The motor type command configures what type of control method to use
TL
Servo only. Limits the motor command line's continuous output in Volts
TK
Servo only. Limits the motor command line's peak output in Volts
(switches axis between motor command or step/dir options)
Table 2.10: Brief listing of most commonly used configuration commands for the motor command and step/dir lines
Step F. If using a servo motor, continue to Step 11. Tune the Servo System, pg 23. If using a stepper motor, skip
to Step G.
Step G. Enable and use your motor
A SH will enable the external amplifier, once enabled, you can send DMC motion commands to move the
motor, see Chapter 6 Programming Motion, pg 55 for details.
Chapter 2 Getting Started ▫ 22
DMC-42x0 User Manual
Step 11. Tune the Servo System
Adjusting the tuning parameters is required when using servo motors. A given set of default PID's is provided, but
are not optimized and should not be used in practice.
For the theory of operation and a full explanation of all the PID and other filter parameters, see Chapter 10 Theory
of Operation, pg 155.
For additional tuning resources and step-by-step tuning guides, see the following:
Application Notes
Manual Tuning Methods: http://www.galil.com/download/application-note/note3413.pdf
Manual Tuning using the Velocity Zone method: http://www.galil.com/download/application-note/note5491.pdf
Autotuning Tools in Galil Suite: http://www.galil.com/download/manual/galilsuite/tuner.html
Chapter 2 Getting Started ▫ 23
DMC-42x0 User Manual
Chapter 3 Connecting Hardware
Overview
The DMC-42x0 provides optoisolated digital inputs for forward limit, reverse limit, home, and abort signals. The
controller also has 8 optoisolated, uncommitted inputs (for general use) as well as 8 high power optoisolated
outputs and 8 analog inputs configured for voltages between ±10 volts.
4280
Controllers with 5 or more axes have an additional 8 optoisolated inputs and an additional 8 high
power optoisolated outputs.
This chapter describes the inputs and outputs and their proper connection.
Overview of Optoisolated Inputs
Limit Switch Input
The forward limit switch (FLSx) inhibits motion in the forward direction immediately upon activation of the switch.
The reverse limit switch (RLSx) inhibits motion in the reverse direction immediately upon activation of the switch.
If a limit switch is activated during motion, the controller will make a decelerated stop using the deceleration rate
previously set with the SD command. The motor will remain on (in a servo state) after the limit switch has been
activated and will hold motor position. The controller can be configured to disable the axis upon the activation of a
limit switch, see the OE command in the command reference for further detail.
When a forward or reverse limit switch is activated, the current application program that is running in thread zero
will be interrupted and the controller will automatically jump to the #LIMSWI subroutine if one exists. This is a
subroutine which the user can include in any motion control program and is useful for executing specific
instructions upon activation of a limit switch. Automatic Subroutines for Monitoring Conditions are discussed in
Chapter 7 Application Programming.
After a limit switch has been activated, further motion in the direction of the limit switch will not be possible until
the logic state of the switch returns back to an inactive state. Any attempt at further motion before the logic state
has been reset will result in the following error: “22 - Begin not possible due to limit switch”
error.
The operands, _LFx and _LRx, contain the state of the forward and reverse limit switches, respectively (x
represents the axis, A, B, C, D etc.). The value of the operand is either a ‘0’ or ‘1’ corresponding to the logic state of
the limit switch. Using a terminal program, the state of a limit switch can be printed to the screen with the
command, MG_LFx or MG_LRx. This prints the value of the limit switch operands for the ‘x’ axis. The logic state
of the limit switches can also be interrogated with the TS command. For more details on TS see the Command
Reference.
Chapter 3 Connecting Hardware ▫ 24
DMC-42x0 User Manual
Home Switch Input
Homing inputs are designed to provide mechanical reference points for a motion control application. A transition
in the state of a Home input alerts the controller that a particular reference point has been reached by a moving
part in the motion control system. A reference point can be a point in space or an encoder index pulse.
The Home input detects any transition in the state of the switch and toggles between logic states 0 and 1 at every
transition. A transition in the logic state of the Home input will cause the controller to execute a homing routine
specified by the user.
There are three homing routines supported by the DMC-42x0: Find Edge (FE), Find Index (FI), and Standard Home
(HM).
The Find Edge routine is initiated by the command sequence: FE A, BG A. The Find Edge routine will cause the
motor to accelerate, and then slew at constant speed until a transition is detected in the logic state of the Home
input. The direction of the FE motion is dependent on the state of the home switch. High level causes forward
motion. The motor will then decelerate to a stop. The acceleration rate, deceleration rate and slew speed are
specified by the user, prior to the movement, using the commands AC, DC, and SP. When using the FE command,
it is recommended that a high deceleration value be used so the motor will decelerate rapidly after sensing the
Home switch.
The Find Index routine is initiated by the command sequence: FI A, BG A. Find Index will cause the motor to
accelerate to the user-defined slew speed (SP) at a rate specified by the user with the AC command and slew until
the controller senses a change in the index pulse signal from low to high. The motor then decelerates to a stop at
the rate previously specified by the user with the DC command and then moves back to the index pulse and speed
HV. Although Find Index is an option for homing, it is not dependent upon a transition in the logic state of the
Home input, but instead is dependent upon a transition in the level of the index pulse signal.
The Standard Homing routine is initiated by the sequence of commands HM A, BG A. Standard Homing is a
combination of Find Edge and Find Index homing. Initiating the standard homing routine will cause the motor to
slew until a transition is detected in the logic state of the Home input. The motor will accelerate at the rate
specified by the command, AC, up to the slew speed. After detecting the transition in the logic state on the Home
Input, the motor will decelerate to a stop at the rate specified by the command, DC. After the motor has
decelerated to a stop, it switches direction and approaches the transition point at the speed of HV counts/sec.
When the logic state changes again, the motor moves forward (in the direction of increasing encoder count) at the
same speed, until the controller senses the index pulse. After detection, it decelerates to a stop, moves back to the
index, and defines this position as 0. The logic state of the Home input can be interrogated with the command
MG_HMA. This command returns a 0 or 1 if the logic state is low or high, respectively. The state of the Home input
can also be interrogated indirectly with the TS command.
For examples and further information about Homing, see command HM, FI, FE of the Command Reference and
the section entitled Homing in the Programming Motion Section of this manual.
Abort Input
The function of the Abort input is to immediately stop the controller upon transition of the logic state.
NOTE: The response of the abort input is significantly different from the response of an activated limit switch.
When the abort input is activated, the controller stops generating motion commands immediately, whereas the
limit switch response causes the controller to make a decelerated stop.
NOTE: The effect of an Abort input is dependent on the state of the off-on-error function (OE Command) for each
axis. If the Off-On-Error function is enabled for any given axis, the motor for that axis will be turned off when the
abort signal is generated. This could cause the motor to ‘coast’ to a stop since it is no longer under servo control. If
the Off-On-Error function is disabled, the motor will decelerate to a stop as fast as mechanically possible and the
motor will remain in a servo state.
Chapter 3 Connecting Hardware ▫ 25
DMC-42x0 User Manual
All motion programs that are currently running are terminated when a transition in the Abort input is detected.
This can be configured with the CN command. For information see the Command Reference, OE and CN.
ELO (Electronic Lock-Out) Input
Used in conjunction with Galil amplifiers, this input allows the user the shutdown the amplifier at a hardware level.
For more detailed information on how specific Galil amplifiers behave when the ELO is triggered, see in the
Appendices. If using a 5-8 axis controller with two integrated amplifiers, the ELO input on the A-D connector should
be used. If an ELO is sensed both amplifiers will act on it, and shut down at a hardware level.
Reset Input/Reset Button
When the Reset line is triggered the controller will be reset. The reset line and reset button will not master reset
the controller unless the MRST jumper is installed during a controller reset.
Uncommitted Digital Inputs
The DMC-42x0 has 8 optoisolated inputs. These inputs can be read individually using the function @IN[x] where x
specifies the input number (1 thru 8). These inputs are uncommitted and can allow the user to create conditional
statements related to events external to the controller. For example, the user may wish to have the x-axis motor
move 1000 counts in the positive direction when the logic state of DI1 goes high.
The Digital inputs can be used as high speed position latch inputs, see High Speed Position Capture (The Latch
Function) for more information.
This can be accomplished by connecting a voltage in the range of +5V to +28V into INCOM of the input circuitry
from a separate power supply.
4280
Controllers with more than 4 axes have an additional 8 general optoisolated inputs (inputs 9-16). The
INCOM for these inputs is found on the I/O (E-H) D-Sub connector.
An additional 64 I/O are provided at 5V through the extended I/O. These are not optoisolated.
Chapter 3 Connecting Hardware ▫ 26
DMC-42x0 User Manual
Optoisolated Input Electrical Information
Electrical Specifications
INCOM/LSCOM Max Voltage
24 VDC
INCOM/LSCOM Min Voltage
0 VDC
Minimum current to turn on Inputs
1.2 mA
Minimum current to turn off Inputs once activated (hysteresis)
0.5 mA
1
11 mA
Internal resistance of inputs
2.2 kΩ
Maximum current per input
1
See the Input Current Limitations, pg 175 section for more details.
The DMC-42x0's optoisolated inputs are rated to operate with a supply voltage of 5–24 VDC. The optoisolated
inputs are powered in banks. For example, INCOM (Bank 0), located on the 44-pin I/O (A-D) D-sub connector,
provides power to DI[8:1] (digital inputs), the abort input (ABRT), reset (RST), and electric lock-out (ELO). Table 3.11
shows all the input banks power commons and their corresponding inputs for 1-4 axis controllers and Table 3.12
shows the input banks for 5-8 axis controllers.
Common Signal
INCOM (Bank 0)
LSCOM (Bank 0)
Common Signal Location
I/O (A-D) D-Sub Connector
I/O (A-D) D-Sub Connector
Powers Inputs Labeled
DI[8:1], ABRT, RST, ELO
FLSA, RLSA, HOMA
FLSB, RLSB, HOMB
FLSC, RLSC, HOMC
FLSD, RLSD, HOMD
Table 3.11: 1-4 axis controller INCOM and LSCOM banks and corresponding inputs powered
Common Signal
Common Signal Location
INCOM (Bank 0)
LSCOM (Bank 0)
I/O (A-D) D-Sub Connector
I/O (A-D) D-Sub Connector
INCOM (Bank 1)
LSCOM (Bank 1)
I/O (E-H) D-Sub Connector
I/O (E-H) D-Sub Connector
Powers Inputs
DI[8:1], ABRT, RST, ELO
FLSA, RLSA, HOMA
FLSB, RLSB, HOMB
FLSC, RLSC, HOMC
FLSD, RLSD, HOMD
DI[16:9]
FLSE, RLSE, HOME
FLSF, RLSF, HOMF
FLSG, RLSG, HOMG
FLSH, RLSH, HOMH
Table 3.12: 5-8 axis controller INCOM and LSCOM banks and corresponding inputs powered
The full pin-outs for each bank can be found in the Appendix. For ICM-2900 refer to the A1. ICM-2900 Interconnect
Module section on pg. 187. For the ICM-1900 the pin-out can be found in the A3. ICM-1900 Interconnect Module
section on, pg. 193.
Chapter 3 Connecting Hardware ▫ 27
DMC-42x0 User Manual
Wiring the Optoisolated Digital Inputs
To take full advantage of optoisolation, an isolated power supply should be used to provide the voltage at the input
common connection. Connecting the ground of the isolated power to the ground of the controller will bypass
optoisolation and is not recommended if true optoisolation is desired.
If there is not an isolated supply available, the 5 VDC, 12 VDC, and GND controller references may be used to power
INCOM/LSCOM. The current supplied by the controller references are limited, see +5, ±12V Power Output
Specifications, pg 168 in the Appendices for electrical specifications. Using the controller reference power
completely bypasses optoisolation and is not recommended for most applications.
Banks of inputs can be used as either active high or low. Connecting +Vs to INCOM/LSCOM will configure the inputs
for active low as current will flow through the diode when the inputs are pulled to the isolated ground. Connecting
the isolated ground to INCOM/LSCOM will configure the inputs for active high as current will flow through the
diode when the inputs are pulled up to +Vs.
Figure 3.1 - Figure 3.5 are the optoisolated wiring diagrams for powering INCOM/LSCOM (Bank 0) and
INCOM/LSCOM (Bank 1) and their corresponding inputs.
Figure 3.1: Digital Inputs 1-8 (DI[8:1])
Figure 3.2: Digital Inputs 9-16 (DI[16:9])
Chapter 3 Connecting Hardware ▫ 28
DMC-42x0 User Manual
Figure 3.3: Limit Switch Inputs for Axes A-D
Figure 3.4: Limit Switch Inputs for Axes E-H
Figure 3.5: ELO, Abort and Reset Inputs
Chapter 3 Connecting Hardware ▫ 29
DMC-42x0 User Manual
Wiring the Optoisolated Outputs
The output power supply will be connected to Output PWR (labeled OPWR) and the power supply return will be
connected to Output GND (labeled ORET). Note that the load is wired between DO and Output GND. The wiring
diagram for Bank 0 is shown in Figure 3.6 and Bank 1 in Figure 3.7. See the Opto-Isolated Outputs for ICM2900/ICM-1900/AMP-19520/40 section in the Appendix for details. Complete pinouts can be found in the
respective ICM sections in the appendix: A1. ICM-2900 Interconnect Module or A3. ICM-1900 Interconnect
Module.
Figure 3.6: 500mA Sourcing wiring diagrams for Bank 0, DO[8:1]
Figure 3.7: 500mA Sourcing wiring diagram for Bank 1, DO[16:9]
Chapter 3 Connecting Hardware ▫ 30
DMC-42x0 User Manual
TTL Inputs and Outputs
Main Encoder Inputs
The main encoder inputs can be configured for quadrature (default) or pulse and direction inputs. This
configuration is set through the CE command. The encoder connections are found on the HD D-sub Encoder
connectors and are labeled MA+, MA-, MB+, MB-. The '-' (negative) inputs are the differential inputs to the
encoder inputs; if the encoder is a single ended 5V encoder, then the negative input should be left floating. If the
encoder is a single ended and outputs a 0-12V signal then the negative input should be tied to the 5V line on the
DMC.
When the encoders are setup as step and direction inputs the MA channel will be the step or pulse input, and the
MB channel will be the direction input.
The encoder inputs can be ordered with 120 Ω termination resistors installed. See the TRES – Encoder Termination
Resistors option in the Appendix for more information.
Electrical Specifications
Maximum Voltage
12 VDC
Minimum Voltage
-12 VDC
Maximum Frequency (Quadrature)15 MHz
'+' inputs are internally pulled-up to 5V through a 4.7 kΩ resistor
'-' inputs are internally biased to ~1.3V
pulled up to 5V through a 7.1 kΩ resistor
pulled down to GND through a 2.5kΩ resistor
The Auxiliary Encoder Inputs
The auxiliary encoder inputs can be used for general use. For each axis, the controller has one auxiliary encoder
and each auxiliary encoder consists of two inputs, channel A and channel B. The auxiliary encoder inputs are
mapped to the inputs 81-96. The Aux encoder inputs are not available for any axis that is configured for step and
direction outputs (stepper).
Each input from the auxiliary encoder is a differential line receiver and can accept voltage levels between ± 12
volts. The inputs have been configured to accept TTL level signals. To connect TTL signals, simply connect the
signal to the + input and leave the - input disconnected. For other signal levels, the - input should be connected to
a voltage that is ½ of the full voltage range (for example, connect the - input to 6 volts if the signal is a 0 - 12 volt
logic).
Example:
A DMC-4210 has one auxiliary encoder. This encoder has two inputs (channel A and channel B). Channel A input is
mapped to input 81 and Channel B input is mapped to input 82. To use this input for 2 TTL signals, the first signal
will be connected to AA+ and the second to AB+. AA- and AB- will be left unconnected. To access this input, use
the function @IN[81] and @IN[82].
NOTE: The auxiliary encoder inputs are not available for any axis that is configured for stepper motor.
Chapter 3 Connecting Hardware ▫ 31
DMC-42x0 User Manual
Electrical Specifications
Maximum Voltage
12 VDC
Minimum Voltage
-12 VDC
'+' inputs are internally pulled-up to 5V through a 4.7kΩ resistor
'-' inputs are internally biased to ~1.3V
pulled up to 5V through a 7.1kΩ resistor
pulled down to GND through a 2.5kΩ resistor
Output Compare
The output compare signal is a TTL ouput signal and is available on the I/O (A-D) D-Sub connector labeled as CMP.
An additional output compare signal is available for 5-8 axes controllers on the I/O (E-H) D-sub connector.
Output compare is controlled by the position of any of the main encoder inputs on the controller. The output can
be programmed to produce either a brief, active low pulse (250 nsec) based on an incremental encoder value or to
activate once (“one shot”) when an axis position has been passed. When setup for a one shot, the output will stay
low until the OC command is called again. For further information, see the command OC in the Command
Reference.
NOTE
Output compare is not valid with sampled feedback types such as: SSI, BiSS, Sin/Cos, and Analog
Electrical Specifications
Output Voltage
0 – 5 VDC
Current Output
20 mA Sink/Source
Error Output
The controller provides a TTL signal, ERR, to indicate a controller error condition. When an error condition occurs,
the ERR signal will go low and the controller LED will go on. An error occurs because of one of the following
conditions:
1. At least one axis has a position error greater than the error limit. The error limit is set by using the
command ER.
2. The reset line on the controller is held low or is being affected by noise.
3. There is a failure on the controller and the processor is resetting itself.
4. There is a failure with the output IC which drives the error signal.
The ERR signal is found on the I/O (A-D) D-Sub connector.
4080
For controllers with 5-8 axes, the ERR signal is duplicated on the I/O (E-H) D-Sub connector.
For additional information see Error Light (Red LED) in Chapter 9 Troubleshooting.
Electrical Specifications
Output Voltage
0 – 5 VDC
Current Output
20 mA Sink/Source
Chapter 3 Connecting Hardware ▫ 32
DMC-42x0 User Manual
Analog Inputs
The DMC-42x0 has eight analog inputs configured for the range between -10V and 10V. The inputs are decoded by
a 12-bit A/D decoder giving a voltage resolution of approximately .005V. A 16-bit ADC is available as an option (Ex.
DMC-4220(-16bit)-C012-I000). The analog inputs are specified as AN[x] where x is a number 1 thru 8.
AQ settings
The analog inputs can be set to a range of ±10V, ±5V, 0-5V or 0-10V, this allows for increased resolution when the
full ±10V is not required. The inputs can also be set into a differential mode where analog inputs 2,4,6 and 8 can be
set to the negative differential inputs for analog inputs 1,3,5 and 7 respectively. See the AQ command in the
command reference for more information.
Electrical Specifications
Input Impedance (12 and 16 bit) –
Unipolar (0-5V, 0-10V)
42kΩ
Bipolar (±5V, ±10V)
31kΩ
Extended I/O
The DMC-42x0 controller offers 64 extended TTL I/O points which can be configured as inputs or outputs in 8 bit
increments. Configuration is accomplished with command CO – see Extended I/O of the DMC-42x0 Controller The
I/O points are accessed through the 80 pin SCSI connector labeled I/O. See the DMC-42x0 Extended I/O 80 Pin
High Density Connector section in the Appendix for a complete pin out of the Extended I/O.
.
Electrical Specifications
Inputs
Max Input Voltage
Guarantee High Voltage
Guarantee Low Voltage
5.25 VDC
2.0 VDC
0.8 VDC
Inputs are internally pulled up to 5V through a 4.7kΩresistor
Outputs
Sink/Source
20mA
External Amplifier Interface
External Stepper Control
The controller provides step and direction (STPn, DIRn) outputs for every axis available on the controller. These
outputs are typically used for interfacing to external stepper drivers, but they can be configured for a PWM output.
See the MT command for more details.
Chapter 3 Connecting Hardware ▫ 33
DMC-42x0 User Manual
PWM/Step and Sign/Direction Electrical Specifications
Output Voltage
0 – 5 VDC
Current Output
20 mA Sink/Source
External Servo Control
The DMC-42x0 command voltage ranges between ±10V and is output on the motor command line - MCMn (where
n is A-H). This signal, along with GND, provides the input to the motor amplifiers. The amplifiers must be sized to
drive the motors and load. For best performance, the amplifiers should be configured for a torque (current) mode
of operation with no additional compensation. The gain should be set such that a 10 volt input results in the
maximum required current.
Motor Command Line Electrical Specifications
Output Voltage
±10 VDC
Motor Command Output Impedance
500 Ω
Amplifier Enable
The DMC-42x0 has an amplifier enable signal - AENn (where n is A-H) which changes under the following
conditions:
•
The motor-off command MO is given or the watchdog timer activates.
•
The OE command (Enable Off-On-Error) is set and the position error exceeds the error limit (set by ER).
•
A limit switch is reached (see OE command in the Command Reference for more information).
The default configuration of the amplifier enable signal is 5V active high amp enable (HAEN) sinking. In other
words, the AEN signal will be high when the controller expects the amplifier to be enabled. The polarity and the
amplitude can be changed by configuring the Amplifier Enable Circuit on the ICM-2900 or ICM-1900.
If your amplifier requires a different configuration than the default 5V HAEN sinking it is highly recommended
that the DMC-42x0 is ordered with the desired configuration. Contact Galil for more information on ordering
different configurations.
Note: Many amplifiers designate the enable input as ‘inhibit’.
Configuring the Amplifier Enable Circuit
Configuring the Amplifier Enable for ICM-2900/ICM-1900
The ICM-1900 and ICM-2900 modules can be configured to provide an active low signal to enable external
amplifiers. These modules can also be configured for voltage levels other than TTL.
Chapter 3 Connecting Hardware ▫ 34
DMC-42x0 User Manual
-LAEN Option:
The standard configuration of the AEN signal is TTL active high. In other words, the AEN signal will be high when
the controller expects the amplifier to be enabled. The polarity can be changed when using a Galil Interconnect
Module. To change the polarity from active high (5 volts = enable, zero volts = disable) to active low (zero volts =
enable, 5 volts = disable), replace the socketed IC, 7407, with a 7406. These IC’s are labeled U6 on the ICM-1900
and U2 on the ICM-2900 and can be accessed by removing the cover. This option can be requested when ordering
the unit by specifying the -LAEN option.
-Changing the Amplifier Enable Voltage Level:
To change the voltage level of the AEN signal, note the state of the resistor pack, labeled RP1 on the ICM-1900 /
ICM-2900. When Pin 1 is on the 5V mark, the output voltage is 0-5V. To change to 12 volts, pull the resistor pack
and rotate it so that Pin 1 is on the 12 volt side. If you remove the resistor pack, the output signal is an open
collector, allowing the user to connect an external supply with voltages up to 24V.
Chapter 3 Connecting Hardware ▫ 35
DMC-42x0 User Manual
Chapter 4 Software Tools and
Communication
Introduction
The default configuration DMC-42x0, with the default CMB-41012 communication board, has two RS232 ports and
1 Ethernet port. An additional Ethernet port is available with the CMB-41022. The main RS-232 port is the data set
and can be configured through the jumpers on the top of the controller. The auxiliary RS-232 port is the data term
and can be configured with the software command CC. This configuration can be saved using the Burn (BN)
instruction. The Ethernet port is a 10/100BASE-T connection that auto-negotiates the speed and half or full duplex.
The GalilTools software package is available for PC computers running Microsoft Windows ® to communicate with
the DMC-42x0 controller. This software package has been developed to operate under Windows and Linux, and
include all the necessary drivers to communicate to the controller. In addition, GalilTools includes a software
development communication library which allows users to create their own application interfaces using
programming environments such as C, C++, Visual Basic, and LabVIEW.
The following sections in this chapter are a description of the communications protocol, and a brief introduction to
the software tools and communication techniques used by Galil. At the application level, GalilTools is the basic
programs that the majority of users will need to communicate with the controller, to perform basic setup, and to
develop application code (.dmc programs) that is downloaded to the controller. At the Galil API level, the GalilTools
Communication Library is available for users who wish to develop their own custom application programs to
communicate to the controller. Custom application programs can utilize API function calls directly to our DLL’s. At
the driver level, we provide fundamental hardware interface information for users who desire to create their own
drivers.
Controller Response to Commands
Most DMC-42x0 instructions are represented by two characters followed by the appropriate parameters. Each
instruction must be terminated by a carriage return. Multiple commands may be concatenated by inserting a
semicolon between each command.
Instructions are sent in ASCII, and the DMC-42x0 decodes each ASCII character (one byte) one at a time. It takes
approximately 40 μsec for the controller to decode each command.
After the instruction is decoded, the DMC-42x0 returns a response to the port from which the command was
generated. If the instruction was valid, the controller returns a colon (:) or the controller will respond with a
question mark (?) if the instruction was not valid. For example, the controller will respond to commands which are
sent via the main RS-232 port back through the RS-232 port, and to commands which are sent via the Ethernet port
back through the Ethernet port.
For instructions that return data, such as Tell Position (TP), the DMC-42x0 will return the data followed by a
carriage return, line feed and : .
Chapter 4 Software Tools and Communication ▫ 36
DMC-42x0 User Manual
It is good practice to check for : after each command is sent to prevent errors. An echo function is provided to
enable associating the DMC-42x0 response with the data sent. The echo is enabled by sending the command EO 1
to the controller.
Unsolicited Messages Generated by Controller
When the controller is executing a program, it may generate responses which will be sent via the main RS-232 port
or Ethernet port. This response could be generated as a result of messages using the MG command OR as a result
of a command error. These responses are known as unsolicited messages since they are not generated as the
direct response to a command.
Messages can be directed to a specific port using the specific Port arguments – see the MG and CF commands in
the Command Reference. If the port is not explicitly given or the default is not changed with the CF command,
unsolicited messages will be sent to the default port. The default port is the main serial port. When
communicating via an Ethernet connection, the unsolicited messages must be sent through a handle that is not the
main communication handle from the host. The GalilTools software automatically establishes this second
communication handle.
The controller has a special command, CW, which can affect the format of unsolicited messages. This command is
used by Galil Software to differentiate response from the command line and unsolicited messages. The command,
CW1 causes the controller to set the high bit of ASCII characters to 1 of all unsolicited characters. This may cause
characters to appear garbled to some terminals. This function can be disabled by issuing the command, CW2. For
more information, see the CW command in the Command Reference.
When handshaking is used (hardware and/or software handshaking) characters which are generated by the
controller are placed in a FIFO buffer before they are sent out of the controller. The size of the RS-232 buffer is 512
bytes. When this buffer becomes full, the controller must either stop executing commands or ignore additional
characters generated for output. The command CW,1 causes the controller to ignore all output from the controller
while the FIFO is full. The command, CW ,0 causes the controller to stop executing new commands until more
room is made available in the FIFO. This command can be very useful when hardware handshaking is being used
and the communication line between controller and terminal will be disconnected. In this case, characters will
continue to build up in the controller until the FIFO is full. For more information, see the CW command in the
Command Reference.
Serial Communication Ports
The RS-232 and RS-422 (optional) are located on the CMB (communication board) of the DMC-42x0. Note that the
auxiliary port is essentially the same as the main port except inputs and outputs are reversed.
RS-232 Configuration
The pin-outs for the RS-232 ports can be found in the Appendix in the RS-422-Main Port section, pg. 185.
Configure your PC for 8-bit data, one start-bit, one stop-bit, full duplex and no parity. The baud rate for the RS232
communication can be selected by setting the proper switch configuration on the front panel according to the table
below.
Chapter 4 Software Tools and Communication ▫ 37
DMC-42x0 User Manual
Baud Rate Selection
JP1 JUMPER SETTINGS
19.2
38.4
ON
OFF
OFF
OFF
ON
OFF
BAUD RATE
19200
38400
115200
Handshaking
The RS232 main port is set for hardware handshaking. Hardware Handshaking uses the RTS and CTS lines. The CTS
line will go high whenever the DMC-42x0 is not ready to receive additional characters. The RTS line will inhibit the
DMC-42x0 from sending additional characters. Note, the RTS line goes high for inhibit.
Auxiliary RS-232 Port Configuration
The main purpose of the auxiliary RS232 port is to connect to external devices that cannot use DMC code to
communicate. It is important to note that the Aux port is not an interpreted port and cannot receive DMC Galil
commands directly. Instead, use CI, #COMINT, and the P2 operands to handle received data on this port.
NOTE: If you are connecting the RS-232 auxiliary port to a terminal or any device which is a DATASET, it is necessary
to use a connector adapter, which changes a dataset to a dataterm. This cable is also known as a 'null' modem
cable.
CC Command
The CC, or Configure Communications command, configures the auxiliary ports properties including: Baud rate,
handshaking, enable/disabled port, and echo. See the CC command in the Command Reference for a full
description and command syntax.
If the CC command is configured for hardware handshaking it is required to use the RTS and CTS lines. The RTS line
will go high whenever the DMC is not ready to receive additional characters. The CTS line will inhibit the DMC from
sending additional characters. Note, the CTS line goes high for inhibit.
RS-422 Configuration
The DMC-42x0 can be ordered with the main and/or auxiliary port configured for RS-422 communication. RS-422
communication is a differentially driven serial communication protocol that should be used when long distance
serial communication is required in an application.
See RS-422-Main Port section, pg. 185 for pin-outs and details of the RS-422 options.
Chapter 4 Software Tools and Communication ▫ 38
DMC-42x0 User Manual
Ethernet Configuration
Communication Protocols
The Ethernet is a local area network through which information is transferred in units known as packets.
Communication protocols are necessary to dictate how these packets are sent and received. The DMC-42x0
supports two industry standard protocols, TCP/IP and UDP/IP. The controller will automatically respond in the
format in which it is contacted.
TCP/IP is a "connection" protocol. The master, or client, connects to the slave, or server, through a series of packet
handshakes in order to begin communicating. Each packet sent is acknowledged when received. If no
acknowledgment is received, the information is assumed lost and is resent.
Unlike TCP/IP, UDP/IP does not require a "connection". If information is lost, the controller does not return a colon
or question mark. Because UDP does not provide for lost information, the sender must re-send the packet.
It is recommended that the motion control network containing the controller and any other related devices be
placed on a “closed” network. If this recommendation is followed, UDP/IP communication to the controller may be
utilized instead of a TCP connection. With UDP there is less overhead, resulting in higher throughput. Also, there is
no need to reconnect to the controller with a UDP connection. Because handshaking is built into the Galil
communication protocol through the use of colon or question mark responses to commands sent to the controller,
the TCP handshaking is not required.
Packets must be limited to 512 data bytes (including UDP/TCP IP Header) or less. Larger packets could cause the
controller to lose communication.
NOTE: In order not to lose information in transit, the user must wait for the controller's response before sending
the next packet.
Addressing
There are three levels of addresses that define Ethernet devices. The first is the MAC or hardware address. This is
a unique and permanent 6 byte number. No other device will have the same MAC address. The DMC-42x0 MAC
address is set by the factory and the last two bytes of the address are the serial number of the board. To find the
Ethernet MAC address for a DMC-42x0 unit, use the TH command. A sample is shown here with a unit that has a
serial number of 3:
Sample MAC Ethernet Address: 00-50-4C-20-04-AF
The second level of addressing is the IP address. This is a 32-bit (or 4 byte) number that usually looks like this:
192.168.15.1. The IP address is constrained by each local network and must be assigned locally. Assigning an IP
address to the DMC-42x0 controller can be done in a number of ways.
The first method for setting the IP address is using a DHCP server. The DH command controls whether the DMC42x0 controller will get an IP address from the DHCP server. If the unit is set to DH1 (default) and there is a DHCP
server on the network, the controller will be dynamically assigned an IP address from the server. Setting the board
to DH0 will prevent the controller from being assigned an IP address from the server.
The second method to assign an IP address is to use the BOOT-P utility via the Ethernet connection. The BOOT-P
functionality is only enabled when DH is set to 0. Either a BOOT-P server on the internal network or the Galil
software may be used. When opening the Galil Software, it will respond with a list of all DMC-42x0’s and other
controllers on the network that do not currently have IP addresses. The user must select the board and the
software will assign the specified IP address to it. This address will be burned into the controller (BN) internally to
save the IP address to the non-volatile memory.
Chapter 4 Software Tools and Communication ▫ 39
DMC-42x0 User Manual
NOTE: if multiple boards are on the network – use the serial numbers to differentiate them.
CAUTION
Be sure that there is only one BOOT-P or DHCP server running. If your network has DHCP
or BOOT-P running, it may automatically assign an IP address to the DMC-42x0 controller
upon linking it to the network. In order to ensure that the IP address is correct, please
contact your system administrator before connecting the I/O board to the Ethernet
network.
The third method for setting an IP address is to send the IA command through the RS-232 port. (Note: The IA
command is only valid if DH0 is set). The IP address may be entered as a 4 byte number delimited by commas
(industry standard uses periods) or a signed 32 bit number (e.g. IA 124,51,29,31 or IA 2083724575). Type in BN to
save the IP address to the DMC-42x0 non-volatile memory.
NOTE: Galil strongly recommends that the IP address selected is not one that can be accessed across the Gateway.
The Gateway is an application that controls communication between an internal network and the outside world.
The third level of Ethernet addressing is the UDP or TCP port number. The Galil board does not require a specific
port number. The port number is established by the client or master each time it connects to the DMC-42x0 board.
Typical port numbers for applications are:
Port 23: Telnet
Port 502: Modbus
Communicating with Multiple Devices
The DMC-42x0 is capable of supporting multiple masters and slaves. The masters may be multiple PC's that send
commands to the controller. The slaves are typically peripheral I/O devices that receive commands from the
controller.
NOTE: The term "Master" is equivalent to the internet "client". The term "Slave" is equivalent to the internet
"server".
An Ethernet handle is a communication resource within a device. The DMC-42x0 can have a maximum of 8
Ethernet handles open at any time. When using TCP/IP, each master or slave uses an individual Ethernet handle. In
UDP/IP, one handle may be used for all the masters, but each slave uses one. (Pings and ARPs do not occupy
handles.) If all 8 handles are in use and a 9 th master tries to connect, it will be sent a "reset packet" that generates
the appropriate error in its windows application.
NOTE: There are a number of ways to reset the controller. Hardware reset (push reset button or power down
controller) and software resets (through Ethernet or RS232 by entering RS).
When the Galil controller acts as the master, the IH command is used to assign handles and connect to its slaves.
The IP address may be entered as a 4 byte number separated with commas (industry standard uses periods) or as a
signed 32 bit number. A port number may also be specified, but if it is not, it will default to 1000. The protocol
(TCP/IP or UDP/IP) to use must also be designated at this time. Otherwise, the controller will not connect to the
slave. (Ex. IHB=151,25,255,9<179>2 This will open handle #2 and connect to the IP address 151.25.255.9, port
179, using TCP/IP)
Which devices receive what information from the controller depends on a number of things. If a device queries the
controller, it will receive the response unless it explicitly tells the controller to send it to another device. If the
command that generates a response is part of a downloaded program, the response will route to whichever port is
specified as the default (unless explicitly told to go to another port with the CF command). To designate a specific
destination for the information, add {Eh} to the end of the command. (Ex. MG{EC}"Hello" will send the message
"Hello" to handle #3. TP,,?{EF} will send the z axis position to handle #6.)
Chapter 4 Software Tools and Communication ▫ 40
DMC-42x0 User Manual
Multicasting
A multicast may only be used in UDP/IP and is similar to a broadcast (where everyone on the network gets the
information) but specific to a group. In other words, all devices within a specified group will receive the
information that is sent in a multicast. There can be many multicast groups on a network and are differentiated by
their multicast IP address. To communicate with all the devices in a specific multicast group, the information can
be sent to the multicast IP address rather than to each individual device IP address. All Galil controllers belong to a
default multicast address of 239.255.19.56. The controller's multicast IP address can be changed by using the IA> u
command.
Using Third Party Software
Galil supports DHCP, ARP, BOOT-P, and Ping which are utilities for establishing Ethernet connections. DHCP is a
protocol used by networked devices (clients) to obtain the parameters necessary for operation in an Internet
Protocol network. ARP is an application that determines the Ethernet (hardware) address of a device at a specific
IP address. BOOT-P is an application that determines which devices on the network do not have an IP address and
assigns the IP address you have chosen to it. Ping is used to check the communication between the device at a
specific IP address and the host computer.
The DMC-42x0 can communicate with a host computer through any application that can send TCP/IP or UDP/IP
packets. A good example of this is Telnet, a utility that comes with most Windows systems.
Modbus
An additional protocol layer is available for speaking to I/O devices. Modbus is an RS-485 protocol that packages
information in binary packets that are sent as part of a TCP/IP packet. In this protocol, each slave has a 1 byte slave
address. The DMC-42x0 can use a specific slave address or default to the handle number. The port number for
Modbus is 502.
The Modbus protocol has a set of commands called function codes. The DMC-42x0 supports the 10 major function
codes:
Function Code
01
02
03
04
05
06
07
15
16
17
Definition
Read Coil Status (Read Bits)
Read Input Status (Read Bits)
Read Holding Registers (Read Words)
Read Input Registers (Read Words)
Force Single Coil (Write One Bit)
Preset Single Register (Write One Word)
Read Exception Status (Read Error Code)
Force Multiple Coils (Write Multiple Bits)
Preset Multiple Registers (Write Words)
Report Slave ID
The DMC-42x0 provides three levels of Modbus communication. The first level allows the user to create a raw
packet and receive raw data. It uses the MBh command with a function code of –1. The format of the command is
MBh = -1,len,array[] where len is the number of bytes
array[] is the array with the data
The second level incorporates the Modbus structure. This is necessary for sending configuration and special
commands to an I/O device. The formats vary depending on the function code that is called. For more information
refer to the Command Reference.
Chapter 4 Software Tools and Communication ▫ 41
DMC-42x0 User Manual
The third level of Modbus communication uses standard Galil commands. Once the slave has been configured, the
commands that may be used are @IN[], @AN[], SB, CB, OB, and AO. For example, AO 2020,8.2 would tell I/O
number 2020 to output 8.2 volts.
If a specific slave address is not necessary, the I/O number to be used can be calculated with the following:
I/O Number = (HandleNum*1000) + ((Module-1)*4) + (BitNum-1)
Where HandleNum is the handle number from 1 (A) to 8 (H). Module is the position of the module in the rack from
1 to 16. BitNum is the I/O point in the module from 1 to 4.
Modbus Examples
Example #1
DMC-4240 connected as a Modbus master to a RIO-47120 via Modbus. The DMC-4240 will set or clear all 16 of the
RIO’s digital outputs
1.
Begin by opening a connection to the RIO which in our example has IP address 192.168.1.120
(Issued to DMC-4240)
IHB=192,168,1,120<502>2
2.
Dimension an array to store the commanded values. Set array element 0 equal to 170 and array element 1
equal to 85. (array element 1 configures digital outputs 15-8 and array element 0 configures digital
outputs 7-0)
DM myarray[2]
myarray[0] = 170
myarray[1] = 85
3.
(which is 10101010 in binary)
(which is 01010101in binary)
a) Send the appropriate MB command. Use function code 15. Start at output 0 and set/clear all 16
outputs based on the data in myarray[]
MBB=,15,0,16,myarray[]
3.
b) Set the outputs using the SB command.
SB2001;SB2003;SB2005;SB2007;SB2008;SB2010;SB2012;SB2014;
Results:
Both steps 3a and 3b will result in outputs being activated as below. The only difference being that step 3a will set
and clear all 16 bits where as step 3b will only set the specified bits and will have no affect on the others.
Bit Number
Status
Bit Number
Status
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
Chapter 4 Software Tools and Communication ▫ 42
DMC-42x0 User Manual
Example #2
DMC-4240 connected as a Modbus master to a 3rd party PLC. The DMC-4240 will read the value of analog inputs 3
and 4 on the PLC located at addresses 40006 and 40008 respectively. The PLC stores values as 32-bit floating point
numbers which is common.
1.
Begin by opening a connection to the PLC which has an IP address of 192.168.1.10 in our example
IHB=192,168,1,10<502>2
2.
Dimension an array to store the results
DM myanalog[4]
3.
Send the appropriate MB command. Use function code 4 (as specified per the PLC). Start at address
40006. Retrieve 4 modbus registers (2 modbus registers per 1 analog input, as specified by the PLC)
MBB=,4,40006,4,myanalog[]
Results:
Array elements 0 and 1 will make up the 32 bit floating point value for analog input 3 on the PLC and array
elements 2 and 3 will combine for the value of analog input 4.
myanalog[0]=16412=0x401C
myanalog[1]=52429=0xCCCD
myanalog[2]=49347=0xC0C3
myanalog[3]=13107=0x3333
Analog input 3 = 0x401CCCCD = 2.45V
Analog input 4 = 0xC0C33333 = -6.1V
Example #3
DMC-4240 connected as a Modbus master to a hydraulic pump. The DMC-4240 will set the pump pressure by
writing to an analog output on the pump located at Modbus address 30000 and consisting of 2 Modbus registers
forming a 32 bit floating point value.
1.
Begin by opening a connection to the pump which has an IP address of 192.168.1.100 in our example
IHB=192,168,1,100<502>2
2.
Dimension and fill an array with values that will be written to the PLC
DM pump[2]
pump[0]=16531=0x4093
pump[1]=13107=0x3333
3.
Send the appropriate MB command. Use function code 16. Start at address 30000 and write to 2 registers
using the data in the array pump[]
MBB=,16,30000,2,pump[]
Results:
Analog output will be set to 0x40933333 which is 4.6V
Chapter 4 Software Tools and Communication ▫ 43
DMC-42x0 User Manual
Data Record
The DMC-42x0 can provide a binary block of status information with the use of the QR and DR commands. These
commands, along with the QZ command can be very useful for accessing complete controller status. The QR
command will return 4 bytes of header information and specific blocks of information as specified by the command
arguments:
QR ABCDEFGHST
Each argument corresponds to a block of information according to the Data Record Map below. If no argument is
given, the entire data record map will be returned. Note that the data record size will depend on the number of
axes.
Data Record Map Key
Acronym
Meaning
UB
Unsigned byte
UW
Unsigned word
SW
Signed word
SL
Single long record
UL
Unsigned long
ADDR
00
01
02
03
04-05
06
07
08
09
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26-27
28-29
TYPE
UB
UB
UB
UB
UW
UB
UB
UB
UB
UB
UB
UB
UB
UB
UB
UB
UB
UB
UB
UB
UB
UB
UB
UB
UB
SW
SW
ITEM
General Controller Information and Status
ADDR
TYPE ITEM
1st Byte of Header
2nd Byte of Header
3rd Byte of Header
4th Byte of Header
sample number
general input block 0 (inputs 1-8)
general input block 1 (inputs 9-16)
general input block 2 (inputs 17-24)
general input block 3 (inputs 25-32)
general input block 4 (inputs 33-40)
general input block 5 (inputs 41-48)
general input block 6 (inputs 49-56)
general input block 7 (inputs 57-64)
general input block 8 (inputs 65-72)
general input block 9 (inputs 73-80)
general output block 0 (outputs 1-8)
general output block 1 (outputs 9-16)
general output block 2 (outputs 17-24)
general output block 3 (outputs 25-32)
general output block 4 (outputs 33-40)
general output block 5 (outputs 41-48)
general output block 6 (outputs 49-56)
general output block 7 (outputs 57-64)
general output block 8 (outputs 65-72)
general output block 9 (outputs 73-80)
Reserved
Reserved
Chapter 4 Software Tools and Communication ▫ 44
30-31
32-33
34-35
36-37
38-39
40-41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52-55
56-59
60-61
62-63
64-65
66-69
70-71
72-73
74-75
76-79
80-81
SW
SW
SW
SW
SW
SW
UB
UB
UB
UB
UB
UB
UB
UB
UB
UB
UL
UL
UW
UW
UW
SL
UW
UW
UW
SL
UW
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Ethernet Handle A Status
Ethernet Handle B Status
Ethernet Handle C Status
Ethernet Handle D Status
Ethernet Handle E Status
Ethernet Handle F Status
Ethernet Handle G Status
Ethernet Handle H Status
error code
thread status – see bit field map below
Amplifier Status
Segment Count for Contour Mode
Buffer space remaining – Contour Mode
segment count of coordinated move for S plane
below
distance traveled in coordinated move for S plane
Buffer space remaining – S Plane
segment count of coordinated move for T plane
Coordinated move status for T plane – see bit field map
distance traveled in coordinated move for T plane
Buffer space remaining – T Plane
DMC-42x0 User Manual
Axis Information
ADDR
82-83
84
85
86-89
90-93
94-97
98-101
102-105
106-109
110-111
112
113
114-117
118-119
120
121
122-125
126-129
130-133
134-137
138-141
142-145
146-147
148
149
150-153
154-155
156
157
158-161
162-165
166-169
170-173
174-177
178-181
182-183
184
185
186-189
190-191
192
193
194-197
198-201
202-205
206-209
210-213
214-217
218-219
220
221
222-225
TYPE
UW
UB
UB
SL
SL
SL
SL
SL
SL
SW or UW 1
UB
UB
SL
UW
UB
UB
SL
SL
SL
SL
SL
SL
SW or UW 1
UB
UB
SL
UW
UB
UB
SL
SL
SL
SL
SL
SL
SW or UW 1
UB
UB
SL
UW
UB
UB
SL
SL
SL
SL
SL
SL
SW or UW 1
UB
UB
SL
1
ITEM
A axis status – see bit field map below
A axis switches – see bit field map below
A axis stop code
A axis reference position
A axis motor position
A axis position error
A axis auxiliary position
A axis velocity
A axis torque
A axis analog input
A Hall Input Status
Reserved
A User defined variable (ZA)
B axis status – see bit field map below
B axis switches – see bit field map below
B axis stop code
B axis reference position
B axis motor position
B axis position error
B axis auxiliary position
B axis velocity
B axis torque
B axis analog input
B Hall Input Status
Reserved
B User defined variable (ZB)
C axis status – see bit field map below
C axis switches – see bit field map below
C axis stop code
C axis reference position
C axis motor position
C axis position error
C axis auxiliary position
C axis velocity
C axis torque
C axis analog input
C Hall Input Status
Reserved
C User defined variable (ZC)
D axis status – see bit field map below
D axis switches – see bit field map below
D axis stop code
D axis reference position
D axis motor position
D axis position error
D axis auxiliary position
D axis velocity
D axis torque
D axis analog input
D Hall Input Status
Reserved
D User defined variable (ZD)
ADDR
226-227
228
229
230-233
234-237
238-241
242-245
246-249
250-253
254-255
256
257
258-261
262-263
264
265
266-269
270-273
274-277
278-281
282-285
286-289
290-291
292
293
294-297
298-299
300
301
302-305
306-309
310-313
314-317
318-321
322-325
326-327
328
329
330-333
334-335
336
337
338-341
342-345
346-349
350-353
354-357
358-361
362-363
364
365
366-369
TYPE
UW
UB
UB
SL
SL
SL
SL
SL
SL
SW or UW 1
UB
UB
SL
UW
UB
UB
SL
SL
SL
SL
SL
SL
SW or UW 1
UB
UB
SL
UW
UB
UB
SL
SL
SL
SL
SL
SL
SW or UW 1
UB
UB
SL
UW
UB
UB
SL
SL
SL
SL
SL
SL
SW or UW 1
UB
UB
SL
ITEM
E axis status – see bit field map below
E axis switches – see bit field map below
E axis stop code
E axis reference position
E axis motor position
E axis position error
E axis auxiliary position
E axis velocity
E axis torque
E axis analog input
E Hall Input Status
Reserved
E User defined variable (ZE)
F axis status – see bit field map below
F axis switches – see bit field map below
F axis stop code
F axis reference position
F axis motor position
F axis position error
F axis auxiliary position
F axis velocity
F axis torque
F axis analog input
F Hall Input Status
Reserved
F User defined variable (ZF)
G axis status – see bit field map below
G axis switches – see bit field map below
G axis stop code
G axis reference position
G axis motor position
G axis position error
G axis auxiliary position
G axis velocity
G axis torque
G axis analog input
G Hall Input Status
Reserved
G User defined variable (ZG)
H axis status – see bit field map below
H axis switches – see bit field map below
H axis stop code
H axis reference position
H axis motor position
H axis position error
H axis auxiliary position
H axis velocity
H axis torque
H axis analog input
H Hall Input Status
Reserved
H User defined variable (ZH)
Will be either a Signed Word or Unsigned Word depending upon AQ setting. See AQ in the Command Reference for more information.
Chapter 4 Software Tools and Communication ▫ 45
DMC-42x0 User Manual
Data Record Bit Field Maps
Header Information - Byte 0, 1 of Header:
BIT 15
BIT 14
BIT 13
BIT 12
BIT 11
1
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
BIT 7
BIT 6
BIT 5
BIT 4
BIT 3
BIT 10
BIT 9
BIT 8
I Block Present T Block Present S Block Present
in Data Record in Data Record in Data Record
BIT 2
BIT 1
BIT 0
H Block Present G Block Present F Block Present E Block Present D Block Present C Block Present B Block Present A Block Present
in Data Record in Data Record in Data Record in Data Record in Data Record in Data Record in Data Record in Data Record
Bytes 2, 3 of Header:
Bytes 2 and 3 make a word which represents the Number of bytes in the data record, including the header.
Byte 2 is the low byte and byte 3 is the high byte
NOTE: The header information of the data records is formatted in little endian (reversed network byte order).
Thread Status (1 Byte)
BIT 7
BIT 6
BIT 5
BIT 4
BIT 3
BIT 2
BIT 1
BIT 0
Thread 7
Running
Thread 6
Running
Thread 5
Running
Thread 4
Running
Thread 3
Running
Thread 2
Running
Thread 1
Running
Thread 0
Running
Coordinated Motion Status for S or T Plane (2 Byte)
BIT 15
BIT 14
BIT 13
BIT 12
BIT 11
BIT 10
BIT 9
BIT 8
Move in
Progress
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
BIT 7
BIT 6
BIT 5
BIT 4
BIT 3
BIT 2
BIT 1
BIT 0
N/A
N/A
N/A
BIT 10
BIT 9
BIT 8
N/A
N/A
Motion is
slewing
Motion is
Motion is
stopping due to
making final
ST or Limit
deceleration
Switch
Axis Status (1 Word)
BIT 15
Move in
Progress
BIT 7
Negative
Direction Move
BIT 14
BIT 13
BIT 12
BIT 11
2nd Phase of HM
Mode of
Mode of
Mode of
(FE) Find Edge Home (HM) in 1st Phase of HM complete or FI
Motion Coord.
Motion PA or PR Motion PA only in Progress
Progress
complete
command
Motion
issued
BIT 6
Mode of
Motion
Contour
BIT 5
Motion is
slewing
BIT 4
BIT 3
Motion is
Motion is
stopping due to
making final
ST of Limit
deceleration
Switch
BIT 2
BIT 1
BIT 0
Latch is armed
3rd Phase of
HM in Progress
Motor Off
BIT 2
BIT 1
BIT 0
Axis Switches (1 Byte)
BIT 7
BIT 6
BIT 5
State of Latch
Latch Occurred
Input
Chapter 4 Software Tools and Communication ▫ 46
N/A
BIT 4
N/A
BIT 3
State of
State of Reverse State of Home Stepper Mode
Forward Limit
Limit
Input
DMC-42x0 User Manual
Amplifier Status (4 Bytes)
BIT 31
BIT 30
N/A
N/A
BIT 29
N/A
BIT 28
N/A
BIT 27
N/A
BIT 26
BIT 25
BIT 24
N/A
ELO Active
(Axis E-H)
ELO Active
(Axis A-D)
BIT 23
BIT 22
BIT 21
BIT 20
BIT 19
BIT 18
BIT 17
BIT 16
Peak Current
H-axis
Peak Current
G-axis
Peak Current
F-axis
Peak Current
E-axis
Peak Current
D-axis
Peak Current
C-axis
Peak Current
B-axis
Peak current
A-axis
BIT 15
BIT 14
BIT 13
BIT 12
BIT 11
BIT 10
BIT 9
BIT 8
Hall Error
H-axis
Hall Error
G-axis
Hall Error
F-axis
Hall Error
E-axis
Hall Error
D-axis
Hall Error
C-axis
Hall Error
B-axis
Hall Error
A-axis
BIT 7
BIT 6
BIT 5
BIT 4
BIT 3
BIT 2
BIT 1
BIT 0
Under Voltage
Axis (E-H)
Over Temp.
Axis (E-H)
Over Voltage
Axis (E-H)
Over Current
Axis (E-H)
Under Voltage
Axis (A-D)
Over Temp.
Axis (A-D)
Over Voltage
Axis (A-D)
Over Current
Axis (A-D)
Notes Regarding Velocity and Torque Information
The velocity information that is returned in the data record is 64 times larger than the value returned when using
the command TV (Tell Velocity). See command reference for more information about TV.
The Torque information is represented as a number in the range of ±32767. Maximum negative torque is -32767.
Maximum positive torque is 32767. Zero torque is 0.
QZ Command
The QZ command can be very useful when using the QR command, since it provides information about the
controller and the data record. The QZ command returns the following 4 bytes of information.
BYTE #
0
1
2
3
INFORMATION
Number of axes present
number of bytes in general block of data record
number of bytes in coordinate plane block of data record
Number of Bytes in each axis block of data record
Chapter 4 Software Tools and Communication ▫ 47
DMC-42x0 User Manual
GalilSuite (Windows and Linux)
GalilSuite is Galil's latest set of development tools for the latest generation of Galil controllers. It is highly
recommended for all first-time purchases of Galil controllers as it provides easy set-up, tuning and analysis.
GalilSuite replaces GalilToolS with an improved user-interface, real-time scopes, advanced tuning methods, and
communications utilities.
Supported Controllers
•DMC42x0
•DMC41x3
•DMC30010
•DMC21x3/2
•RIO47xxx
•DMC18x6 - PCI Driver required, separate installer
•DMC18x0 - PCI Driver required, separate installer
•DMC18x2* - PCI Driver required, separate installer
Contact Galil for other hardware products
Supported Operating Systems**
•Microsoft Windows 8
•Microsoft Windows 7
•Microsoft Windows XP SP3
•Scope, Watch, and Viewer support require an Ethernet or PCI connection and controller firmware
supporting the DR command
* No Scope, Watch, or Viewer support.
** Contact Galil for other OS options.
The GalilSuitecontains the following tools:
Tool
Description
Launcher
Launcher Tool with the ability to create custom profiles to manage controller connections
Terminal
For sending and receiving Galil commands
Editor
To easily create and work on multiple Galil programs simultaneously
Viewer
To see a complete status of all controllers on a single screen
Scope
For viewing and manipulating data for multiple controllers real-time
Watch
For simplified debugging of any controller on the system and a display of I/O and motion status
Tuner
With up to four methods for automatic and manual PID tuning of servo systems
Configuration
For modifying controller settings, backup/restore and firmware download
The latest version of GalilSuite can be downloaded here:
http://www.galilmc.com/support/software-downloads.php
For information on using GalilSuite see the user manual:
http://www.galilmc.com/support/manuals.php
Chapter 4 Software Tools and Communication ▫ 48
DMC-42x0 User Manual
Creating Custom Software Interfaces
Galil provides programming tools so that users can develop their own custom software interfaces to a Galil
controller. For new applications, Galil recommends the GalilTools Communication Libraries.
HelloGalil – Quick Start to PC programming
For programmers developing Windows applications that communicate with a Galil controller, the HelloGalil library
of quick start projects immediately gets you communicating with the controller from the programming language of
your choice. In the "Hello World" tradition, each project contains the bare minimum code to demonstrate
communication to the controller and simply prints the controller's model and serial numbers to the screen Figure
4.1.
Figure 4.1: Sample program output
http://www.galilmc.com/support/hello_galil.html
Galil Communication Libraries
The Galil Communication Library (Galil class) provides methods for communication with a Galil motion controller
over Ethernet, RS-232 or PCI buses. It consists of a native C++ Library and a similar COM interface which extends
compatibility to Windows programming languages (e.g. VB, C#, etc).
A Galil object (usually referred to in sample code as "g") represents a single connection to a Galil controller.
For Ethernet controllers, which support more than one connection, multiple objects may be used to communicate
with the controller. An example of multiple objects is one Galil object containing a TCP handle to a DMC-42x0 for
commands and responses, and one Galil object containing a UDP handle for unsolicited messages from the
controller. If recordsStart() is used to begin the automatic data record function, the library will open an additional
UDP handle to the controller (transparent to the user).
The library is conceptually divided into six categories:
1.
Connecting and Disconnecting - functions to establish and discontinue communication with a controller.
2.
Basic Communication - The most heavily used functions for command-and-response and unsolicited
messages.
3.
Programs - Downloading and uploading embedded programs.
4.
Arrays - Downloading and uploading array data.
5.
Advanced - Lesser-used calls.
6.
Data Record - Access to the data record in both synchronous and asynchronous modes.
Chapter 4 Software Tools and Communication ▫ 49
DMC-42x0 User Manual
C++ Library (Windows and Linux)
Both Full and Lite versions of GalilTools ship with a native C++ communication library. The Linux version (libGalil.so)
is compatible with g++ and the Windows version (Galil1.dll) with Visual C++ 2008. Contact Galil if another version
of the C++ library is required. See the getting started guide and the hello.cpp example in /lib.
COM (Windows)
To further extend the language compatibility on Windows, a COM (Component Object Model) class built on top of
the C++ library is also provided with Windows releases. This COM wrapper can be used in any language and IDE
supporting COM (Visual Studio 2005, 2008, etc). The COM wrapper includes all of the functionality of the base C++
class. See the getting started guide and the hello.* examples in \lib for more info.
For more information on the GalilTools Communications Library, see the online user manual.
http://www.galilmc.com/support/manuals/galiltools/library.html
Chapter 4 Software Tools and Communication ▫ 50
DMC-42x0 User Manual
Chapter 5 Command Basics
Introduction
The DMC-42x0 provides over 100 commands for specifying motion and machine parameters. Commands are
included to initiate action, interrogate status and configure the digital filter. These commands are sent in ASCII.
The DMC-42x0 instruction set is BASIC-like and easy to use. Instructions consist of two uppercase letters that
correspond phonetically with the appropriate function. For example, the instruction BG begins motion, and ST
stops the motion.
Commands can be sent "live" over the communications port for immediate execution by the DMC-42x0, or an
entire group of commands can be downloaded into the DMC-42x0 memory for execution at a later time.
Combining commands into groups for later execution is referred to as Applications Programming and is discussed in
the following chapter.
This section describes the DMC-42x0 instruction set and syntax. A summary of commands as well as a complete
listing of all DMC-42x0 instructions is included in the Command Reference.
Command Syntax - ASCII
DMC-42x0 instructions are represented by two ASCII upper case characters followed by applicable arguments. A
space may be inserted between the instruction and arguments. A semicolon or <return> is used to terminate the
instruction for processing by the DMC-42x0 command interpreter.
NOTE: If you are using a Galil terminal program, commands will not be processed until an <return> command is
given. This allows the user to separate many commands on a single line and not begin execution until the user
gives the <return> command.
NOTE
For example, the command
PR 4000 <return>
All DMC commands are two-letters sent in upper case!
Position relative
Implicit Notation
PR is the two character instruction for position relative. 4000 is the argument which represents the required
position value in counts. The <return> terminates the instruction. The space between PR and 4000 is optional.
Chapter 5 Command Basics ▫ 51
DMC-42x0 User Manual
For specifying data for the A,B,C and D axes, commas are used to separate the axes. If no data is specified for an
axis, a comma is still needed as shown in the examples below. If no data is specified for an axis, the previous value
is maintained.
To view the current values for each command, type the command followed by a ? for each axis requested.
PR
PR
PR
PR
PR
PR
PR
PR
1000
,2000
,,3000
,,,4000
2000, 4000,6000, 8000
,8000,,9000
?,?,?,?
,?
Specify A only as 1000
Specify B only as 2000
Specify C only as 3000
Specify D only as 4000
Specify A,B,C and D
Specify B and D only
Request A,B,C,D values
Request B value only
Explicit Notation
The DMC-42x0 provides an alternative method for specifying data. Here data is specified individually using a single
axis specifier such as A, B, C or D. An equals sign is used to assign data to that axis. For example:
PRA=1000
ACB=200000
Specify a position relative movement for the A axis of 1000
Specify acceleration for the B axis as 200000
Instead of data, some commands request action to occur on an axis or group of axes. For example, ST AB stops
motion on both the A and B axes. Commas are not required in this case since the particular axis is specified by the
appropriate letter A, B, C or D. If no parameters follow the instruction, action will take place on all axes. Here are
some examples of syntax for requesting action:
BG
BG
BG
BG
BG
4080
A
B
ABCD
BD
Begin A only
Begin B only
Begin all axes
Begin B and D only
Begin all axes
For controllers with 5 or more axes, the axes are referred to as A,B,C,D,E,F,G,H. The specifiers X,Y,Z,W
and A,B,C,D may be used interchangeably.
BG ABCDEFGH
Begin all axes
BG D
Begin D only
Coordinated Motion with more than 1 axis
When requesting action for coordinated motion, the letter S or T is used to specify the coordinated motion. This
allows for coordinated motion to be setup for two separate coordinate systems. Refer to the CA command in the
Command Reference for more information on specifying a coordinate system. For example:
BG S
BG TD
Begin coordinated sequence, S
Begin coordinated sequence, T, and D axis
Controller Response to DATA
The DMC-42x0 returns a : for valid commands and a ? for invalid commands.
For example, if the command BG is sent in lower case, the DMC-42x0 will return a ?.
:bg
?
invalid command, lower case
DMC-42x0 returns a ?
When the controller receives an invalid command the user can request the error code. The error code will specify
the reason for the invalid command response. To request the error code type the command TC1. For example:
Chapter 5 Command Basics ▫ 52
DMC-42x0 User Manual
?TC1
1 Unrecognized command
Tell Code command
Returned response
There are many reasons for receiving an invalid command response. The most common reasons are: unrecognized
command (such as typographical entry or lower case), command given at improper time (such as during motion),
or a command out of range (such as exceeding maximum speed). A complete listing of all codes is listed in the TC
command in the Command Reference section.
Interrogating the Controller
Interrogation Commands
The DMC-42x0 has a set of commands that directly interrogate the controller. When the command is entered, the
requested data is returned in decimal format on the next line followed by a carriage return and line feed. The
format of the returned data can be changed using the Position Format (PF), Variable Format (VF) and Leading Zeros
(LZ) command. See Chapter 7 Application Programming and the Command Reference.
Summary of Interrogation Commands
RP
RL
^R^V
SC
TA
TB
TC
TD
TE
TI
TP
TR
TS
TT
TV
Report Command Position
Report Latch
Firmware Revision Information
Stop Code
Tell Amplifier Error
Tell Status
Tell Error Code
Tell Dual Encoder
Tell Error
Tell Input
Tell Position
Trace
Tell Switches
Tell Torque
Tell Velocity
For example, the following example illustrates how to display the current position of the X axis:
TP A
Tell position A
0
Controllers Response
TP AB
Tell position A and B
0,0
Controllers Response
Interrogating Current Commanded Values.
Most commands can be interrogated by using a question mark (?) as the axis specifier. Type the command
followed by a ? for each axis requested.
PR ?,?,?,?
Request A,B,C,D values
PR ,?
Request B value only
The controller can also be interrogated with operands.
Chapter 5 Command Basics ▫ 53
DMC-42x0 User Manual
Operands
Most DMC-42x0 commands have corresponding operands that can be used for interrogation. Operands must be
used inside of valid DMC expressions. For example, to display the value of an operand, the user could use the
command:
MG ‘operand’
where ‘operand’ is a valid DMC operand
All of the command operands begin with the underscore character (_). For example, the value of the current
position on the A axis can be assigned to the variable ‘V’ with the command:
V=_TPA
The Command Reference denotes all commands which have an equivalent operand as "Operand Usage". Also, see
description of operands in Chapter 7 Application Programming.
Command Summary
For a complete command summary, see Command Reference manual.
http://www.galilmc.com/support/manuals.php
Chapter 5 Command Basics ▫ 54
DMC-42x0 User Manual
Chapter 6 Programming Motion
Overview
The DMC-42x0 provides several modes of motion, including independent positioning and jogging, coordinated
motion, electronic cam motion, and electronic gearing. Each one of these modes is discussed in the following
sections.
The DMC-4210 are single axis controllers and use X-axis motion only. Likewise, the DMC-4220 use X and Y, the
DMC-4230 use X,Y, and Z, and the DMC-4240 use X,Y,Z, and W. The DMC-4250 use A,B,C,D, and E. The DMC-4260
use A,B,C,D,E, and F. The DMC-4270 use A,B,C,D,E,F, and G. The DMC-4280 use the axes A,B,C,D,E,F,G, and H.
The example applications described below will help guide you to the appropriate mode of motion.
4080
For controllers with 5 or more axes, the specifiers, ABCDEFGH, are used. XYZ and W may be interchanged
with ABCD.
EXAMPLE APPLICATION
Absolute or relative positioning where each
axis is independent and follows prescribed
velocity profile.
Velocity control where no final endpoint is
prescribed. Motion stops on Stop command.
Absolute positioning mode where absolute
position targets may be sent to the controller
while the axis is in motion.
Motion Path described as incremental position
points versus time.
Motion Path described as incremental
position, velocity and delta time
2 to 8 axis coordinated motion where path is
described by linear segments.
2-D motion path consisting of arc segments
and linear segments, such as engraving or
quilting.
Third axis must remain tangent to 2-D motion
path, such as knife cutting.
Electronic gearing where slave axes are scaled
to master axis which can move in both
directions.
Master/slave where slave axes must follow a
master such as conveyer speed.
Chapter 6 Programming Motion ▫ 55
MODE OF MOTION
Independent Axis Positioning
COMMANDS
PA, PR, SP, AC, DC
Independent Jogging
JG, AC, DC, ST
Position Tracking
PA, AC, DC, SP, PT
Contour Mode
CM, CD, DT
PVT Mode
PV, BT
Linear Interpolation Mode
LM,
VA,
VM,
VA,
LI, LE, VS,VR,
VD
VP, CR, VS,VR,
VD, VE
VM,
TN,
GA,
(if
VP, CR, VS,VA,VD,
VE
GD, _GP, GR, GM
gantry)
Vector Mode: Linear and Circular Interpolation
Motion
Coordinated motion with Tangent Motion:
Electronic Gearing
Electronic Gearingwith Ramped Gearing
GA, GD, _GP, GR
DMC-42x0 User Manual
Moving along arbitrary profiles or
mathematically prescribed profiles such as
sine or cosine trajectories.
Teaching or Record and Play Back
Backlash Correction
Following a trajectory based on a master
encoder position
Smooth motion while operating in
independent axis positioning
Smooth motion while operating in vector or
linear interpolation positioning
Smooth motion while operating with stepper
motors
Gantry - two axes are coupled by gantry
Contour Mode
CM, CD, DT
Contour Mode with Teach (Record and PlayBack)
Dual Loop (Auxiliary Encoder)
Electronic Cam
Independent Motion Smoothing
CM, CD, DT, RA, RD,
RC
DV
EA, EM, EP, ET, EB,
EG, EQ
IT
Motion Smoothing
IT
Using the KS Command (Step Motor Smoothing): KS
Example - Gantry Mode
GR, GM
Independent Axis Positioning
In this mode, motion between the specified axes is independent, and each axis follows its own profile. The user
specifies the desired absolute position (PA) or relative position (PR), slew speed (SP), acceleration ramp (AC), and
deceleration ramp (DC), for each axis. On begin (BG), the DMC-42x0 profiler generates the corresponding
trapezoidal or triangular velocity profile and position trajectory. The controller determines a new command
position along the trajectory every sample period until the specified profile is complete. Motion is complete when
the last position command is sent by the DMC-42x0 profiler. Note: The actual motor motion may not be complete
when the profile has been completed, however, the next motion command may be specified.
The Begin (BG) command can be issued for all axes either simultaneously or independently. XYZ or W axis
specifiers are required to select the axes for motion. When no axes are specified, this causes motion to begin on all
axes.
The speed (SP) and the acceleration (AC) can be changed at any time during motion, however, the deceleration
(DC) and position (PR or PA) cannot be changed until motion is complete. Remember, motion is complete when the
profiler is finished, not when the actual motor is in position. The Stop command (ST) can be issued at any time to
decelerate the motor to a stop before it reaches its final position.
An incremental position movement (IP) may be specified during motion as long as the additional move is in the
same direction. Here, the user specifies the desired position increment, n. The new target is equal to the old
target plus the increment, n. Upon receiving the IP command, a revised profile will be generated for motion
towards the new end position. The IP command does not require a begin. Note: If the motor is not moving, the IP
command is equivalent to the PR and BG command combination.
Command Summary - Independent Axis
COMMAND
PR x,y,z,w
PA x,y,z,w
SP x,y,z,w
AC x,y,z,w
DC x,y,z,w
BG XYZW
ST XYZW
IP x,y,z,w
IT x,y,z,w
AM XYZW
MC XYZW
Chapter 6 Programming Motion ▫ 56
DESCRIPTION
Specifies relative distance
Specifies absolute position
Specifies slew speed
Specifies acceleration rate
Specifies deceleration rate
Starts motion
Stops motion before end of move
Changes position target
Time constant for independent motion smoothing
Trippoint for profiler complete
Trippoint for “in position”
DMC-42x0 User Manual
The lower case specifiers (x,y,z,w) represent position values for each axis.
The DMC-42x0 also allows use of single axis specifiers such as PRY=2000
Operand Summary - Independent Axis
OPERAND
_ACx
_DCx
_SPx
_PAx
_PRx
DESCRIPTION
Return acceleration rate for the axis specified by ‘x’
Return deceleration rate for the axis specified by ‘x’
Returns the speed for the axis specified by ‘x’
Returns current destination if ‘x’ axis is moving, otherwise returns the current commanded
position if in a move.
Returns current incremental distance specified for the ‘x’ axis
Example - Absolute Position Movement
PA
AC
DC
SP
BG
10000,20000
1000000,1000000
1000000,1000000
50000,30000
XY
Specify absolute X,Y position
Acceleration for X,Y
Deceleration for X,Y
Speeds for X,Y
Begin motion
Example - Multiple Move Sequence
Required Motion Profiles:
X-Axis
Y-Axis
Z-Axis
500 counts
Position
20000 count/sec
Speed
500000 counts/sec2
Acceleration
1000 counts
Position
10000 count/sec
Speed
500000 counts/sec2
Acceleration
100 counts
Position
5000 counts/sec
Speed
500000 counts/sec
Acceleration
This example will specify a relative position movement on X, Y and Z axes. The movement on each axis will be
separated by 20 msec. Figure 6.1 shows the velocity profiles for the X,Y and Z axis.
#A
PR
SP
AC
DC
BG
WT
BG
WT
BG
EN
2000,500,100
20000,10000,5000
500000,500000,500000
500000,500000,500000
X
20
Y
20
Z
Chapter 6 Programming Motion ▫ 57
Begin Program
Specify relative position movement of 2000, 500 and 100 counts for X,Y and Z axes.
Specify speed of 20000, 10000, and 5000 counts / sec
Specify acceleration of 500000 counts / sec2 for all axes
Specify deceleration of 500000 counts / sec2 for all axes
Begin motion on the X axis
Wait 20 msec
Begin motion on the Y axis
Wait 20 msec
Begin motion on Z axis
End Program
DMC-42x0 User Manual
VELOCITY
(COUNTS/SEC)
X axis velocity profile
20000
Y axis velocity profile
15000
Z axis velocity profile
10000
5000
TIME (ms)
0
20
40
60
80
100
Figure 6.1: Velocity Profiles of XYZ
Notes on Figure 6.1: The X and Y axis have a ‘trapezoidal’ velocity profile, while the Z axis has a ‘triangular’ velocity
profile. The X and Y axes accelerate to the specified speed, move at this constant speed, and then decelerate such
that the final position agrees with the command position, PR. The Z axis accelerates, but before the specified
speed is achieved, must begin deceleration such that the axis will stop at the commanded position. All 3 axes have
the same acceleration and deceleration rate, hence, the slope of the rising and falling edges of all 3 velocity profiles
are the same.
Independent Jogging
The jog mode of motion is very flexible because speed, direction and acceleration can be changed during motion.
The user specifies the jog speed (JG), acceleration (AC), and the deceleration (DC) rate for each axis. The direction
of motion is specified by the sign of the JG parameters. When the begin command is given (BG), the motor
accelerates up to speed and continues to jog at that speed until a new speed or stop (ST) command is issued. If the
jog speed is changed during motion, the controller will make a accelerated (or decelerated) change to the new
speed.
An instant change to the motor position can be made with the use of the IP command. Upon receiving this
command, the controller commands the motor to a position which is equal to the specified increment plus the
current position. This command is useful when trying to synchronize the position of two motors while they are
moving.
Note that the controller operates as a closed-loop position controller while in the jog mode. The DMC-42x0
converts the velocity profile into a position trajectory and a new position target is generated every sample period.
This method of control results in precise speed regulation with phase lock accuracy.
Command Summary - Jogging
COMMAND
AC x,y,z,w
BG XYZW
DC x,y,z,w
IP x,y,z,w
IT x,y,z,w
JG ±x,y,z,w
ST XYZW
DESCRIPTION
Specifies acceleration rate
Begins motion
Specifies deceleration rate
Increments position instantly
Time constant for independent motion smoothing
Specifies jog speed and direction
Stops motion
Parameters can be set with individual axes specifiers such as JGY=2000 (set jog speed for Y axis to 2000).
Chapter 6 Programming Motion ▫ 58
DMC-42x0 User Manual
Operand Summary - Independent Axis
OPERAND
_ACx
_DCx
_SPx
_TVx
DESCRIPTION
Return acceleration rate for the axis specified by ‘x’
Return deceleration rate for the axis specified by ‘x’
Returns the jog speed for the axis specified by ‘x’
Returns the actual velocity of the axis specified by ‘x’ (averaged over 0.25 sec)
Example - Jog in X only
Jog X motor at 50000 count/s. After X motor is at its jog speed, begin jogging Z in reverse direction at 25000
count/s.
#A
AC
DC
JG
BG
AS
BG
EN
20000,,20000
20000,,20000
50000,,-25000
X
X
Z
Specify X,Z acceleration of 20000 counts / sec
Specify X,Z deceleration of 20000 counts / sec
Specify jog speed and direction for X and Z axis
Begin X motion
Wait until X is at speed
Begin Z motion
Example - Joystick Jogging
The jog speed can also be changed using an analog input such as a joystick. Assume that for a 10 Volt input the
speed must be 50000 counts/sec.
#JOY
JG0
BGX
#B
V1 [email protected][1]
VEL=V1*50000/10
JG VEL
JP #B
Label
Set in Jog Mode
Begin motion
Label for loop
Read analog input
Compute speed
Change JG speed
Loop
Position Tracking
The Galil controller may be placed in the position tracking mode to support changing the target of an absolute
position move on the fly. New targets may be given in the same direction or the opposite direction of the current
position target. The controller will then calculate a new trajectory based upon the new target and the acceleration,
deceleration, and speed parameters that have been set. The motion profile in this mode is trapezoidal. There is
not a set limit governing the rate at which the end point may be changed, however at the standard TM rate, the
controller updates the position information at the rate of 1msec. The controller generates a profiled point every
other sample, and linearly interpolates one sample between each profiled point. Some examples of applications
that may use this mode are satellite tracking, missile tracking, random pattern polishing of mirrors or lenses, or any
application that requires the ability to change the endpoint without completing the previous move.
The PA command is typically used to command an axis or multiple axes to a specific absolute position. For some
applications such as tracking an object, the controller must proceed towards a target and have the ability to change
the target during the move. In a tracking application, this could occur at any time during the move or at regularly
scheduled intervals. For example if a robot was designed to follow a moving object at a specified distance and the
path of the object wasn’t known the robot would be required to constantly monitor the motion of the object that it
was following. To remain within a specified distance it would also need to constantly update the position target it
is moving towards. Galil motion controllers support this type of motion with the position tracking mode. This
mode will allow scheduled or random updates to the current position target on the fly. Based on the new target
the controller will either continue in the direction it is heading, change the direction it is moving, or decelerate to a
stop.
Chapter 6 Programming Motion ▫ 59
DMC-42x0 User Manual
The position tracking mode shouldn’t be confused with the contour mode. The contour mode allows the user to
generate custom profiles by updating the reference position at a specific time rate. In this mode, the position can
be updated randomly or at a fixed time rate, but the velocity profile will always be trapezoidal with the parameters
specified by AC, DC, and SP. Updating the position target at a specific rate will not allow the user to create a
custom profile.
The following example will demonstrate the possible different motions that may be commanded by the controller
in the position tracking mode. In this example, there is a host program that will generate the absolute position
targets. The absolute target is determined based on the current information the host program has gathered on the
object that it is tracking. The position tracking mode does allow for all of the axes on the controller to be in this
mode, but for the sake of discussion, it is assumed that the robot is tracking only in the X dimension.
The controller must be placed in the position tracking mode to allow on the fly absolute position changes. This is
performed with the PT command. To place the X axis in this mode, the host would issue PT1 to the controller if
both X and Y axes were desired the command would be PT 1,1. The next step is to begin issuing PA command to
the controller. The BG command isn’t required in this mode, the SP, AC, and DC commands determine the shape of
the trapezoidal velocity profile that the controller will use.
Example - Motion 1:
The host program determines that the first target for the controller to move to is located at 5000 encoder counts.
The acceleration and deceleration should be set to 150,000 counts/sec2 and the velocity is set to 50,000
counts/sec. The command sequence to perform this is listed below.
#EX1
PT 1;'
AC 150000;'
DC 150000;'
SP 50000;'
PA 5000;'
EN
Place the X axis in Position tracking mode
Set the X axis acceleration to 150000 counts/sec2
Set the X axis deceleration to 150000 counts/sec2
Set the X axis speed to 50000 counts/sec
Command the X axis to absolute position 5000 encoder counts
The output from this code can be seen in Figure 6.2, a screen capture from the GalilTools scope.
Figure 6.2: Position vs Time (msec) - Motion 1
Example - Motion 2:
The previous step showed the plot if the motion continued all the way to 5000, however partway through the
motion, the object that was being tracked changed direction, so the host program determined that the actual
target position should be 2000 counts at that time. Figure 6.2 shows what the position profile would look like if the
move was allowed to complete to 5000 counts. The position was modified when the robot was at a position of
4200 counts (Figure 6.3). Note that the robot actually travels to a distance of almost 5000 counts before it turns
around. This is a function of the deceleration rate set by the DC command. When a direction change is
Chapter 6 Programming Motion ▫ 60
DMC-42x0 User Manual
commanded, the controller decelerates at the rate specified by the DC command. The controller then ramps the
velocity in up to the value set with SP in the opposite direction traveling to the new specified absolute position.
Figure 6.3 the velocity profile is triangular because the controller doesn’t have sufficient time to reach the set
speed of 50000 counts/sec before it is commanded to change direction.
The below code is used to simulate this scenario:
#EX2
PT 1;' Place the X axis in Position tracking mode
AC 150000;'
Set the X axis acceleration to 150000 counts/sec2
DC 150000;'
Set the X axis deceleration to 150000 counts/sec2
SP 50000;'
Set the X axis speed to 50000 counts/sec
PA 5000;'
Command the X axis to abs position 5000 encoder counts
MF 4200
PA 2000;'
Change end point position to position 2000
EN
Figure 6.3: Position and Velocity vs Time (msec) for Motion 2
Example - Motion 3:
In this motion, the host program commands the controller to begin motion towards position 5000, changes the
target to -2000, and then changes it again to 8000. Figure 6.4 shows the plot of position vs. time and velocity vs.
time. Below is the code that is used to simulate this scenario:
#EX3
PT 1;' Place the X axis in Position tracking mode
AC 150000;' Set the X axis acceleration to 150000 counts/sec2
DC 150000;' Set the X axis deceleration to 150000 counts/sec2
SP 50000;' Set the X axis speed to 50000 counts/sec
PA 5000;' Command the X axis to abs position 5000 encoder counts
WT 300
PA -2000;' Change end point position to -2000
WT 200
PA 8000;' Change end point position to 8000
EN
Figure 6.5 demonstrates the use of motion smoothing (IT) on the velocity profile in this mode. The jerk in the
system is also affected by the values set for AC and DC.
Chapter 6 Programming Motion ▫ 61
DMC-42x0 User Manual
Figure 6.4: Position and Velocity vs Time (msec) for Motion 3
Figure 6.5: Position and Velocity vs Time (msec) for Motion 3 with IT 0.1
Note the controller treats the point where the velocity passes through zero as the end of one move, and the
beginning of another move. IT is allowed, however it will introduce some time delay.
Trippoints
Most trippoints are valid for use while in the position tracking mode. There are a few exceptions to this; the AM
and MC commands may not be used while in this mode. It is recommended that MF, MR, or AP be used, as they
involve motion in a specified direction, or the passing of a specific absolute position.
Command Summary – Position Tracking Mode
COMMAND
AC n,n,n,n,n,n,n,n
AP n,n,n,n,n,n,n,n
DC n,n,n,n,n,n,n,n
MF n,n,n,n,n,n,n,n
MR n,n,n,n,n,n,n,n
PT n,n,n,n,n,n,n,n
PA n,n,n,n,n,n,n,n
SP n,n,n,n,n,n,n,n
Chapter 6 Programming Motion ▫ 62
DESCRIPTION
Acceleration settings for the specified axes
Trippoint that holds up program execution until an absolute position has been reached
Deceleration settings for the specified axes
Trippoint to hold up program execution until n number of counts have passed in the
forward direction. Only one axis at a time may be specified.
Trippoint to hold up program execution until n number of counts have passed in the
reverse direction. Only one axis at a time may be specified.
Command used to enter and exit the Trajectory Modification Mode
Command Used to specify the absolute position target
Speed settings for the specified axes
DMC-42x0 User Manual
Linear Interpolation Mode
The DMC-42x0 provides a linear interpolation mode for 2 or more axes. In linear interpolation mode, motion
between the axes is coordinated to maintain the prescribed vector speed, acceleration, and deceleration along the
specified path. The motion path is described in terms of incremental distances for each axis. An unlimited number
of incremental segments may be given in a continuous move sequence, making the linear interpolation mode ideal
for following a piece-wise linear path. There is no limit to the total move length.
The LM command selects the Linear Interpolation mode and axes for interpolation. For example, LM YZ selects
only the Y and Z axes for linear interpolation.
When using the linear interpolation mode, the LM command only needs to be specified once unless the axes for
linear interpolation change.
Specifying Linear Segments
The command LI x,y,z,w or LI a,b,c,d,e,f,g,h specifies the incremental move distance for each axis. This means
motion is prescribed with respect to the current axis position. Up to 511 incremental move segments may be given
prior to the Begin Sequence (BGS) command. Once motion has begun, additional LI segments may be sent to the
controller.
The clear sequence (CS) command can be used to remove LI segments stored in the buffer prior to the start of the
motion. To stop the motion, use the instructions STS or AB. The command, ST, causes a decelerated stop. The
command, AB, causes an instantaneous stop and aborts the program, and the command AB1 aborts the motion
only.
The Linear End (LE) command must be used to specify the end of a linear move sequence. This command tells the
controller to decelerate to a stop following the last LI command. If an LE command is not given, an Abort AB1 must
be used to abort the motion sequence.
It is the responsibility of the user to keep enough LI segments in the DMC-42x0 sequence buffer to ensure
continuous motion. If the controller receives no additional LI segments and no LE command, the controller will
stop motion instantly at the last vector. There will be no controlled deceleration. LM? or _LM returns the available
spaces for LI segments that can be sent to the buffer. 511 returned means the buffer is empty and 511 LI segments
can be sent. A zero means the buffer is full and no additional segments can be sent. As long as the buffer is not
full, additional LI segments can be sent at PC bus speeds.
The instruction _CS returns the segment counter. As the segments are processed, _CS increases, starting at zero.
This function allows the host computer to determine which segment is being processed.
Additional Commands
The commands VS n, VA n, and VD n are used to specify the vector speed, acceleration and deceleration. The DMC42x0 computes the vector speed based on the axes specified in the LM mode. For example, LM XYZ designates
linear interpolation for the X,Y and Z axes. The vector speed for this example would be computed using the
equation:
VS2=XS2+YS2+ZS2, where XS, YS and ZS are the speed of the X,Y and Z axes.
The controller always uses the axis specifications from LM, not LI, to compute the speed.
IT is used to set the S-curve smoothing constant for coordinated moves. The command AV n is the ‘After Vector’
trippoint, which halts program execution until the vector distance of n has been reached.
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An Example of Linear Interpolation Motion:
#LMOVE
DP 0,0
LMXY
LI 5000,0
LI 0,5000
LE
VS 4000
BGS
AV 4000
VS 1000
AV 5000
VS 4000
EN
label
Define position of X and Y axes to be 0
Define linear mode between X and Y axes.
Specify first linear segment
Specify second linear segment
End linear segments
Specify vector speed
Begin motion sequence
Set trippoint to wait until vector distance of 4000 is reached
Change vector speed
Set trippoint to wait until vector distance of 5000 is reached
Change vector speed
Program end
In this example, the XY system is required to perform a 90 turn. In order to slow the speed around the corner, we
use the AV 4000 trippoint, which slows the speed to 1000 count/s. Once the motors reach the corner, the speed is
increased back to 4000 counts / s.
Specifying Vector Speed for Each Segment
The instruction VS has an immediate effect and, therefore, must be given at the required time. In some
applications, such as CNC, it is necessary to attach various speeds to different motion segments. This can be done
by two functions: < n and > m
For example:LI x,y,z,w < n >m
The first command, < n, is equivalent to commanding VSn at the start of the given segment and will cause an
acceleration toward the new commanded speeds, subjects to the other constraints.
The second function, > m, requires the vector speed to reach the value m at the end of the segment. Note that the
function > m may start the deceleration within the given segment or during previous segments, as needed to meet
the final speed requirement, under the given values of VA and VD.
Note, however, that the controller works with one > m command at a time. As a consequence, one function may
be masked by another. For example, if the function >100000 is followed by >5000, and the distance for
deceleration is not sufficient, the second condition will not be met. The controller will attempt to lower the speed
to 5000, but will reach that at a different point.
As an example, consider the following program.
#ALT
DP 0,0
LMXY
LI 4000,0 <4000 >1000
LI 1000,1000 < 4000 >1000
LI 0,5000 < 4000 >1000
LE
BGS
EN
Label for alternative program
Define Position of X and Y axis to be 0
Define linear mode between X and Y axes.
Specify first linear segment with a vector speed of 4000 and end speed 1000
Specify second linear segment with a vector speed of 4000 and end speed 1000
Specify third linear segment with a vector speed of 4000 and end speed 1000
End linear segments
Begin motion sequence
Program end
Changing Feed Rate:
The command VR n allows the feed rate, VS, to be scaled between 0 and 10 with a resolution of .0001. This
command takes effect immediately and causes VS to be scaled. VR also applies when the vector speed is specified
with the ‘<’ operator. This is a useful feature for feed rate override. VR does not ratio the accelerations. For
example, VR .5 results in the specification VS 2000 to be divided in half.
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Command Summary - Linear Interpolation
COMMAND
LM xyzw
LM abcdefgh
LM?
LI x,y,z,w < n
LI a,b,c,d,e,f,g,h < n
VS n
VA n
VD n
VR n
BGS
CS
LE
LE?
AMS
AV n
IT
DESCRIPTION
Specify axes for linear interpolation
(same) controllers with 5 or more axes
Returns number of available spaces for linear segments in DMC-42x0 sequence buffer.
Zero means buffer full. 511 means buffer empty.
Specify incremental distances relative to current position, and assign vector speed n.
Specify vector speed
Specify vector acceleration
Specify vector deceleration
Specify the vector speed ratio
Begin Linear Sequence
Clear sequence
Linear End- Required at end of LI command sequence
Returns the length of the vector (resets after 2147483647)
Trippoint for After Sequence complete
Trippoint for After Relative Vector distance, n
S curve smoothing constant for vector moves
Operand Summary - Linear Interpolation
OPERAND
_AV
_CS
_LE
_LM
_VPm
DESCRIPTION
Return distance traveled
Segment counter - returns number of the segment in the sequence, starting at zero.
Returns length of vector (resets after 2147483647)
Returns number of available spaces for linear segments in DMC-42x0 sequence buffer.
Zero means buffer full. 511 means buffer empty.
Return the absolute coordinate of the last data point along the trajectory.
(m=X,Y,Z or W or A,B,C,D,E,F,G or H)
To illustrate the ability to interrogate the motion status, consider the first motion segment of our example,
#LMOVE, where the X axis moves toward the point X=5000. Suppose that when X=3000, the controller is
interrogated using the command ‘MG _AV’. The returned value will be 3000. The value of _CS, _VPX and _VPY will
be zero.
Now suppose that the interrogation is repeated at the second segment when Y=2000. The value of _AV at this
point is 7000, _CS equals 1, _VPX=5000 and _VPY=0.
Example - Linear Move
Make a coordinated linear move in the ZW plane. Move to coordinates 40000,30000 counts at a vector speed of
100000 counts/sec and vector acceleration of 1000000 counts/sec2.
LM ZW
LI,,40000,30000
LE
VS 100000
VA 1000000
VD 1000000
BGS
Specify axes for linear interpolation
Specify ZW distances
Specify end move
Specify vector speed
Specify vector acceleration
Specify vector deceleration
Begin sequence
Note that the above program specifies the vector speed, VS, and not the actual axis speeds VZ and VW. The axis
speeds are determined by the controller from:
VS  VZ 2  VW 2
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The result is shown in Figure 6.6: Linear Interpolation.
30000
27000
POSITION W
3000
0
0
4000
36000
40000
POSITION Z
FEEDRATE
0
0.1
0.5
0.6
TIME (sec)
VELOCITY
Z-AXIS
TIME (sec)
VELOCITY
W-AXIS
TIME (sec)
Figure 6.6: Linear Interpolation
Example - Multiple Moves
This example makes a coordinated linear move in the XY plane. The Arrays VX and VY are used to store 750
incremental distances which are filled by the program #LOAD.
#LOAD
DM VX [750],VY [750]
COUNT=0
N=0
#LOOP
VX [COUNT]=N
VY [COUNT]=N
N=N+10
COUNT=COUNT+1
JP #LOOP,COUNT<750
#A
LM XY
COUNT=0
#LOOP2;JP#LOOP2,_LM=0
JS#C,COUNT=500
LI VX[COUNT],VY[COUNT]
COUNT=COUNT+1
JP #LOOP2,COUNT<750
LE
AMS
MG “DONE”
EN
#C;BGS;EN
Load Program
Define Array
Initialize Counter
Initialize position increment
LOOP
Fill Array VX
Fill Array VY
Increment position
Increment counter
Loop if array not full
Label
Specify linear mode for XY
Initialize array counter
If sequence buffer full, wait
Begin motion on 500th segment
Specify linear segment
Increment array counter
Repeat until array done
End Linear Move
After Move sequence done
Send Message
End program
Begin Motion Subroutine
Vector Mode: Linear and Circular Interpolation Motion
The DMC-42x0 allows a long 2-D path consisting of linear and arc segments to be prescribed. Motion along the
path is continuous at the prescribed vector speed even at transitions between linear and circular segments. The
Chapter 6 Programming Motion ▫ 66
DMC-42x0 User Manual
DMC-42x0 performs all the complex computations of linear and circular interpolation, freeing the host PC from this
time intensive task.
The coordinated motion mode is similar to the linear interpolation mode. Any pair of two axes may be selected for
coordinated motion consisting of linear and circular segments. In addition, a third axis can be controlled such that
it remains tangent to the motion of the selected pair of axes. Note that only one pair of axes can be specified for
coordinated motion at any given time.
The command VM m,n,p where ‘m’ and ‘n’ are the coordinated pair and p is the tangent axis (Note: the commas
which separate m,n and p are not necessary). For example, VM XWZ selects the XW axes for coordinated motion
and the Z-axis as the tangent.
Specifying the Coordinate Plane
The DMC-42x0 allows for 2 separate sets of coordinate axes for linear interpolation mode or vector mode. These
two sets are identified by the letters S and T.
To specify vector commands the coordinate plane must first be identified. This is done by issuing the command
CAS to identify the S plane or CAT to identify the T plane. All vector commands will be applied to the active
coordinate system until changed with the CA command.
Specifying Vector Segments
The motion segments are described by two commands; VP for linear segments and CR for circular segments. Once
a set of linear segments and/or circular segments have been specified, the sequence is ended with the command
VE. This defines a sequence of commands for coordinated motion. Immediately prior to the execution of the first
coordinated movement, the controller defines the current position to be zero for all movements in a sequence.
Note: This ‘local’ definition of zero does not affect the absolute coordinate system or subsequent coordinated
motion sequences.
The command, VP x,y specifies the coordinates of the end points of the vector movement with respect to the
starting point. Non-sequential axis do not require comma delimitation. The command, CR r,q,d define a circular
arc with a radius r, starting angle of q, and a traversed angle d. The notation for q is that zero corresponds to the
positive horizontal direction, and for both q and d, the counter-clockwise (CCW) rotation is positive.
Up to 511 segments of CR or VP may be specified in a single sequence and must be ended with the command VE.
The motion can be initiated with a Begin Sequence (BGS) command. Once motion starts, additional segments may
be added.
The Clear Sequence (CS) command can be used to remove previous VP and CR commands which were stored in the
buffer prior to the start of the motion. To stop the motion, use the instructions STS or AB1. ST stops motion at the
specified deceleration. AB1 aborts the motion instantaneously.
The Vector End (VE) command must be used to specify the end of the coordinated motion. This command requires
the controller to decelerate to a stop following the last motion requirement. If a VE command is not given, an
Abort (AB1) must be used to abort the coordinated motion sequence.
It is the responsibility of the user to keep enough motion segments in the DMC-42x0 sequence buffer to ensure
continuous motion. If the controller receives no additional motion segments and no VE command, the controller
will stop motion instantly at the last vector. There will be no controlled deceleration. LM? or _LM returns the
available spaces for motion segments that can be sent to the buffer. 511 returned means the buffer is empty and
511 segments can be sent. A zero means the buffer is full and no additional segments can be sent. As long as the
buffer is not full, additional segments can be sent at PC bus speeds.
The operand _CS can be used to determine the value of the segment counter.
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Additional commands
The commands VS n, VA n and VD n are used for specifying the vector speed, acceleration, and deceleration.
IT is the s curve smoothing constant used with coordinated motion.
Specifying Vector Speed for Each Segment:
The vector speed may be specified by the immediate command VS. It can also be attached to a motion segment
with the instructions
VP x,y < n >m
CR r, ɵ,δ< n >m
The first command, <n, is equivalent to commanding VSn at the start of the given segment and will cause an
acceleration toward the new commanded speeds, subjects to the other constraints.
The second function, > m, requires the vector speed to reach the value m at the end of the segment. Note that the
function > m may start the deceleration within the given segment or during previous segments, as needed to meet
the final speed requirement, under the given values of VA and VD.
Note, however, that the controller works with one > m command at a time. As a consequence, one function may
be masked by another. For example, if the function >100000 is followed by >5000, and the distance for
deceleration is not sufficient, the second condition will not be met. The controller will attempt to lower the speed
to 5000, but will reach that at a different point.
Changing Feed Rate:
The command VR n allows the feed rate, VS, to be scaled between 0 and 10 with a resolution of .0001. This
command takes effect immediately and causes VS scaled. VR also applies when the vector speed is specified with
the ‘<’ operator. This is a useful feature for feed rate override. VR does not ratio the accelerations. For example,
VR 0.5 results in the specification VS 2000 to be divided by two.
Compensating for Differences in Encoder Resolution:
By default, the DMC-42x0 uses a scale factor of 1:1 for the encoder resolution when used in vector mode. If this is
not the case, the command, ES can be used to scale the encoder counts. The ES command accepts two arguments
which represent the number of counts for the two encoders used for vector motion. The smaller ratio of the two
numbers will be multiplied by the higher resolution encoder. For more information, see ES command in the
Command Reference.
Trippoints:
The AV n command is the After Vector trippoint, which waits for the vector relative distance of n to occur before
executing the next command in a program.
Tangent Motion:
Several applications, such as cutting, require a third axis (i.e. a knife blade), to remain tangent to the coordinated
motion path. To handle these applications, the DMC-42x0 allows one axis to be specified as the tangent axis. The
VM command provides parameter specifications for describing the coordinated axes and the tangent axis.
VM m,n,p
m,n specifies coordinated axes p specifies tangent axis such as X,Y,Z,W p=N
turns off tangent axis
Before the tangent mode can operate, it is necessary to assign an axis via the VM command and define its offset
and scale factor via the TN m,n command. m defines the scale factor in counts/degree and n defines the tangent
position that equals zero degrees in the coordinated motion plane. The operand _TN can be used to return the
initial position of the tangent axis.
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DMC-42x0 User Manual
Example:
Assume an XY table with the Z-axis controlling a knife. The Z-axis has a 2000 quad counts/rev encoder and has
been initialized after power-up to point the knife in the +Y direction. A 180° circular cut is desired, with a radius of
3000, center at the origin and a starting point at (3000,0). The motion is CCW, ending at (-3000,0). Note that the
0° position in the XY plane is in the +X direction. This corresponds to the position -500 in the Z-axis, and defines
the offset. The motion has two parts. First, X,Y and Z are driven to the starting point, and later, the cut is
performed. Assume that the knife is engaged with output bit 0.
#EXAMPLE
VM XYZ
TN 2000/360,-500
CR 3000,0,180
VE
CB0
PA 3000,0,_TN
BG XYZ
AM XYZ
SB0
WT50
BGS
AMS
CB0
MG “ALL DONE”
EN
Example program
XY coordinate with Z as tangent
2000/360 counts/degree, position -500 is 0 degrees in XY plane
3000 count radius, start at 0 and go to 180 CCW
End vector
Disengage knife
Move X and Y to starting position, move Z to initial tangent position
Start the move to get into position
When the move is complete
Engage knife
Wait 50 msec for the knife to engage
Do the circular cut
After the coordinated move is complete
Disengage knife
End program
Command Summary - Coordinated Motion Sequence
COMMAND
VM m,n
VP m,n
CR r,ɵ,δ<n>m
VS s,t
VA s,t
VD s,t
VR s,t
BGST
CSST
AV s,t
AMST
TN m,n
ES m,n
IT s,t
LM?
CAS or CAT
DESCRIPTION
Specifies the axes for the planar motion where m and n represent the planar axes and p
is the tangent axis.
Return coordinate of last point, where m=X,Y,Z or W.
Specifies arc segment where r is the radius,  is the starting angle and  is the travel
angle. Positive direction is CCW.
Specify vector speed or feed rate of sequence.
Specify vector acceleration along the sequence.
Specify vector deceleration along the sequence.
Specify vector speed ratio
Begin motion sequence, S or T
Clear sequence, S or T
Trippoint for After Relative Vector distance.
Holds execution of next command until Motion Sequence is complete.
Tangent scale and offset.
Ellipse scale factor.
S curve smoothing constant for coordinated moves
Return number of available spaces for linear and circular segments in DMC-42x0
sequence buffer. Zero means buffer is full. 511 means buffer is empty.
Specifies which coordinate system is to be active (S or T)
Operand Summary - Coordinated Motion Sequence
OPERAND
_VPM
_AV
_LM
_CS
_VE
Chapter 6 Programming Motion ▫ 69
DESCRIPTION
The absolute coordinate of the axes at the last intersection along the sequence.
Distance traveled.
Number of available spaces for linear and circular segments in DMC-42x0 sequence buffer.
Zero means buffer is full. 511 means buffer is empty.
Segment counter - Number of the segment in the sequence, starting at zero.
Vector length of coordinated move sequence.
DMC-42x0 User Manual
When AV is used as an operand, _AV returns the distance traveled along the sequence.
The operands _VPX and _VPY can be used to return the coordinates of the last point specified along the path.
Example:
Traverse the path shown in Figure 6.7. Feed rate is 20000 counts/sec. Plane of motion is XY
VM XY
VS 20000
VA 1000000
VD 1000000
VP -4000,0
CR 1500,270,-180
VP 0,3000
CR 1500,90,-180
VE
BGS
Specify motion plane
Specify vector speed
Specify vector acceleration
Specify vector deceleration
Segment AB
Segment BC
Segment CD
Segment DA
End of sequence
Begin Sequence
The resulting motion starts at the point A and moves toward points B, C, D, A. Suppose that we interrogate the
controller when the motion is halfway between the points A and B.
The value of _AV is 2000
The value of _CS is 0
_VPX and _VPY contain the absolute coordinate of the point A
Suppose that the interrogation is repeated at a point, halfway between the points C and D.
The value of _AV is 4000+1500 +2000=10,712
The value of _CS is 2
_VPX,_VPY contain the coordinates of the point C
C (-4000,3000)
D (0,3000)
R = 1500
B (-4000,0)
A (0,0)
Figure 6.7: The Required Path
Vector Mode - Mathematical Analysis
The terms of coordinated motion are best explained in terms of the vector motion. The vector velocity, Vs, which is
also known as the feed rate, is the vector sum of the velocities along the X and Y axes, Vx and Vy.
Vs  Vx 2  Vy 2
The vector distance is the integral of Vs, or the total distance traveled along the path. To illustrate this further,
suppose that a string was placed along the path in the X-Y plane. The length of that string represents the distance
traveled by the vector motion.
The vector velocity is specified independently of the path to allow continuous motion. The path is specified as a
collection of segments. For the purpose of specifying the path, define a special X-Y coordinate system whose origin
is the starting point of the sequence. Each linear segment is specified by the X-Y coordinate of the final point
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expressed in units of resolution, and each circular arc is defined by the arc radius, the starting angle, and the
angular width of the arc. The zero angle corresponds to the positive direction of the X-axis and the CCW direction
of rotation is positive. Angles are expressed in degrees, and the resolution is 1/256th of a degree. For example,
the path shown in Figure A.8 is specified by the instructions:
VP 0,10000
CR 10000, 180, -90
VP 20000, 20000
Y
20000
10000
C
D
10000
20000
B
A
X
Figure A.8: X-Y Motion Path
The first line describes the straight line vector segment between points A and B. The next segment is a circular arc,
which starts at an angle of 180° and traverses -90°. Finally, the third line describes the linear segment between
points C and D. Note that the total length of the motion consists of the segments:
A-B
Linear
10000 units
B-C
Circular
R  2
= 15708
360
C-D
Linear
10000
Total
35708 counts
In general, the length of each linear segment is
Lk
Xk 2  Yk 2

Where Xk and Yk are the changes in X and Y positions along the linear segment. The length of the circular arc is
L k  R k  k 2  360
The total travel distance is given by
n
D   Lk
k 1
The velocity profile may be specified independently in terms of the vector velocity and acceleration.
For example, the velocity profile corresponding to the path of Figure A.8 may be specified in terms of the vector
speed and acceleration.
VS 100000
VA 2000000
The resulting vector velocity is shown in Figure A.9.
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Velocity
10000
time (s)
Ta
0.05
Ts
0.357
Ta
0.407
Figure A.9: Vector Velocity Profile
The acceleration time, Ta, is given by
Ta 
VS
100000

 0. 05s
VA 2000000
The slew time, Ts, is given by
Ts 
D
35708
 Ta 
 0. 05  0. 307 s
VS
100000
The total motion time, Tt, is given by:
Chapter 6 Programming Motion ▫ 72
DMC-42x0 User Manual
Tt 
D
 T a  0. 407 s
VS
The velocities along the X and Y axes are such that the direction of motion follows the specified path, yet the vector
velocity fits the vector speed and acceleration requirements.
For example, the velocities along the X and Y axes for the path shown in Figure A.8 are given in Figure A.10.
Figure A.10 shows the vector velocity. It also indicates the position point along the path starting at A and ending at
D. Between the points A and B, the motion is along the Y axis. Therefore,
Vy = Vs
and
Vx = 0
Between the points B and C, the velocities vary gradually and finally, between the points C and D, the motion is in
the X direction.
B
C
(a)
A
D
(b)
(c)
time
Figure A.10: Vector Axes Velocities
Electronic Gearing
This mode allows up to 8 axes to be electronically geared to some master axes. The masters may rotate in both
directions and the geared axes will follow at the specified gear ratio. The gear ratio may be different for each axis
and changed during motion.
The command GAX yzw or GA ABCDEFGH specifies the master axes. GR x,y,z,w specifies the gear ratios for the
slaves where the ratio may be a number between ±127.9999 with a fractional resolution of .0001. There are two
modes: standard gearing and gantry mode. The gantry mode (enabled with the command GM) allows the gearing
to stay enabled even if a limit is hit or an ST command is issued. GR 0,0,0,0 turns off gearing in both modes.
The command GM x,y,z,w select the axes to be controlled under the gantry mode. The parameter 1 enables gantry
mode, and 0 disables it.
GR causes the specified axes to be geared to the actual position of the master. The master axis is commanded with
motion commands such as PR, PA or JG.
When the master axis is driven by the controller in the jog mode or an independent motion mode, it is possible to
define the master as the command position of that axis, rather than the actual position. The designation of the
commanded position master is by the letter, C. For example, GACX indicates that the gearing is the commanded
position of X.
An alternative gearing method is to synchronize the slave motor to the commanded vector motion of several axes
performed by GAS. For example, if the X and Y motor form a circular motion, the Z axis may move in proportion to
the vector move. Similarly, if X,Y and Z perform a linear interpolation move, W can be geared to the vector move.
Chapter 6 Programming Motion ▫ 73
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Electronic gearing allows the geared motor to perform a second independent or coordinated move in addition to
the gearing. For example, when a geared motor follows a master at a ratio of 1:1, it may be advanced an additional
distance with PR, or JG, commands, or VP, or LI.
Ramped Gearing
In some applications, especially when the master is traveling at high speeds, it is desirable to have the gear ratio
ramp gradually to minimize large changes in velocity on the slave axis when the gearing is engaged. For example if
the master axis is already traveling at 500,000 counts/sec and the slave will be geared at a ratio of 1:1 when the
gearing is engaged, the slave will instantly develop following error, and command maximum current to the motor.
This can be a large shock to the system. For many applications it is acceptable to slowly ramp the engagement of
gearing over a greater time frame. Galil allows the user to specify an interval of the master axis over which the
gearing will be engaged. For example, the same master X axis in this case travels at 500,000 counts/sec, and the
gear ratio is 1:1, but the gearing is slowly engaged over 30,000 counts of the master axis, greatly diminishing the
initial shock to the slave axis. Figure 6.12 below shows the velocity vs. time profile for instantaneous gearing.
Figure 6.14 shows the velocity vs. time profile for the gradual gearing engagement.
Figure 6.11: Velocity counts/sec vs. Time (msec) Instantaneous Gearing Engagement
Figure 6.12: Velocity (counts/sec) vs. Time (msec) Ramped Gearing
The slave axis for each figure is shown on the bottom portion of the figure; the master axis is shown on the top
portion. The shock to the slave axis will be significantly less in Figure 6.14 than in Figure 6.12. The ramped gearing
does have one consequence. There isn’t a true synchronization of the two axes, until the gearing ramp is complete.
The slave will lag behind the true ratio during the ramp period. If exact position synchronization is required from
the point gearing is initiated, then the position must be commanded in addition to the gearing. The controller
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keeps track of this position phase lag with the _GP operand. The following example will demonstrate how the
command is used.
Example – Electronic Gearing Over a Specified Interval
Objective Run two geared motors at speeds of 1.132 and -.045 times the speed of an external master. Because the
master is traveling at high speeds, it is desirable for the speeds to change slowly.
Solution: Use a DMC-4230 controller where the Z-axis is the master and X and Y are the geared axes. We will
implement the gearing change over 6000 counts (3 revolutions) of the master axis.
MO
GA
GD
GR
Z
Z, Z
6000,6000
1.132,-.045
Turn Z off, for external master
Specify Z as the master axis for both X and Y.
Specify ramped gearing over 6000 counts of the master axis.
Specify gear ratios
Question: What is the effect of the ramped gearing?
Answer: Below, in the example titled Electronic Gearing, gearing would take effect immediately. From the start of
gearing if the master traveled 6000 counts, the slaves would travel 6792 counts and 270 counts.
Using the ramped gearing, the slave will engage gearing gradually. Since the gearing is engaged over the interval of
6000 counts of the master, the slave will only travel ~3396 counts and ~135 counts respectively. The difference
between these two values is stored in the _GPn operand. If exact position synchronization is required, the IP
command is used to adjust for the difference.
Command Summary - Electronic Gearing
COMMAND
GA n
GD a,b,c,d,e,f,g,h
_GPn
GR
GM
MR
MF
a,b,c,d,e,f,g,h
a,b,c,d,e,f,g,h
x,y,z,w
x,y,z,w
DESCRIPTION
Specifies master axes for gearing where:
n = X,Y,Z or W or A,B,C,D,E,F,G,H for main encoder as master
n = CX,CY,CZ, CW or CA, CB,CC,CD,CE,CF,CG,CH for commanded position.
n = DX,DY,DZ or DW or DA, DB, DC, DD, DE, DF,DG,DH for auxiliary encoders
n = S or T for gearing to coordinated motion.
Sets the distance the master will travel for the gearing change to take full effect.
This operand keeps track of the difference between the theoretical distance traveled if
gearing changes took effect immediately, and the distance traveled since gearing
changes take effect over a specified interval.
Sets gear ratio for slave axes. 0 disables electronic gearing for specified axis.
X = 1 sets gantry mode, 0 disables gantry mode
Trippoint for reverse motion past specified value. Only one field may be used.
Trippoint for forward motion past specified value. Only one field may be used.
Example - Simple Master Slave
Master axis moves 10000 counts at slew speed of 100000 counts/sec. Y is defined as the master. X,Z,W are geared
to master at ratios of 5,-.5 and 10 respectively.
GA Y,,Y,Y
GR 5,,-.5,10
PR ,10000
SP ,100000
BGY
Chapter 6 Programming Motion ▫ 75
Specify master axes as Y
Set gear ratios
Specify Y position
Specify Y speed
Begin motion
DMC-42x0 User Manual
Example - Electronic Gearing
Objective: Run two geared motors at speeds of 1.132 and -0.045 times the speed of an external master. The
master is driven at speeds between 0 and 1800 RPM (2000 counts/rev encoder).
Solution: Use a DMC-4230 controller, where the Z-axis is the master and X and Y are the geared axes.
MO Z
GA Z, Z
GR 1.132,-.045
Turn Z off, for external master
Specify Z as the master axis for both X and Y.
Specify gear ratios
Now suppose the gear ratio of the X-axis is to change on-the-fly to 2. This can be achieved by commanding:
GR 2
Specify gear ratio for X axis to be 2
Example - Gantry Mode
In applications where both the master and the follower are controlled by the DMC-42x0 controller, it may be
desired to synchronize the follower with the commanded position of the master, rather than the actual position.
This eliminates the coupling between the axes which may lead to oscillations.
For example, assume that a gantry is driven by two axes, X,Y, on both sides. This requires the gantry mode for
strong coupling between the motors. The X-axis is the master and the Y-axis is the follower. To synchronize Y with
the commanded position of X, use the instructions:
GA, CX
GR,1
GM,1
PR 3000
BG X
Specify the commanded position of X as master for Y.
Set gear ratio for Y as 1:1
Set gantry mode
Command X motion
Start motion on X axis
You may also perform profiled position corrections in the electronic gearing mode. Suppose, for example, that you
need to advance the slave 10 counts. Simply command
IP ,10
Specify an incremental position movement of 10 on Y axis.
Under these conditions, this IP command is equivalent to:
PR,10
BGY
Specify position relative movement of 10 on Y axis
Begin motion on Y axis
Often the correction is quite large. Such requirements are common when synchronizing cutting knives or conveyor
belts.
Example - Synchronize two conveyor belts with trapezoidal velocity correction
GA,X
GR,2
PR,300
SP,5000
AC,100000
DC,100000
BGY
Define X as the master axis for Y.
Set gear ratio 2:1 for Y
Specify correction distance
Specify correction speed
Specify correction acceleration
Specify correction deceleration
Start correction
Electronic Cam
The electronic cam is a motion control mode which enables the periodic synchronization of several axes of motion.
Up to 7 axes can be slaved to one master axis. The master axis encoder must be input through a main encoder
port.
The electronic cam is a more general type of electronic gearing which allows a table-based relationship between
the axes. It allows synchronizing all the controller axes. For example, the DMC-4280 controllers may have one
master and up to seven slaves.
Chapter 6 Programming Motion ▫ 76
DMC-42x0 User Manual
To illustrate the procedure of setting the cam mode, consider the cam relationship for the slave axis Y, when the
master is X. Such a graphic relationship is shown in Figure 6.13.
Step 1. Selecting the master axis
The first step in the electronic cam mode is to select the master axis. This is done with the instruction
EAp where p = X,Y,Z,W,E,F,G,H
p is the selected master axis
For the given example, since the master is x, we specify EAX
Step 2. Specify the master cycle and the change in the slave axis (or axes).
In the electronic cam mode, the position of the master is always expressed modulo one cycle. In this example, the
position of x is always expressed in the range between 0 and 6000. Similarly, the slave position is also redefined
such that it starts at zero and ends at 1500. At the end of a cycle when the master is 6000 and the slave is 1500,
the positions of both x and y are redefined as zero. To specify the master cycle and the slave cycle change, we use
the instruction EM.
EM x,y,z,w
where x,y,z,w specify the cycle of the master and the total change of the slaves over one cycle.
The cycle of the master is limited to 8,388,607 whereas the slave change per cycle is limited to 2,147,483,647. If
the change is a negative number, the absolute value is specified. For the given example, the cycle of the master is
6000 counts and the change in the slave is 1500. Therefore, we use the instruction:
EM 6000,1500
Step 3. Specify the master interval and starting point.
Next we need to construct the ECAM table. The table is specified at uniform intervals of master positions. Up to
256 intervals are allowed. The size of the master interval and the starting point are specified by the instruction:
EP m,n
where m is the interval width in counts, and n is the starting point.
For the given example, we can specify the table by specifying the position at the master points of 0, 2000, 4000 and
6000. We can specify that by
EP 2000,0
Step 4. Specify the slave positions.
Next, we specify the slave positions with the instruction
ET[n]=x,y,z,w
where n indicates the order of the point.
The value, n, starts at zero and may go up to 256. The parameters x,y,z,w indicate the corresponding slave position.
For this example, the table may be specified by
ET[0]=,0
ET[1]=,3000
ET[2]=,2250
ET[3]=,1500
This specifies the ECAM table.
Chapter 6 Programming Motion ▫ 77
DMC-42x0 User Manual
Step 5. Enable the ECAM
To enable the ECAM mode, use the command
EB n
where n=1 enables ECAM mode and n=0 disables ECAM mode.
Step 6. Engage the slave motion
To engage the slave motion, use the instruction
EG x,y,z,w
where x,y,z,w are the master positions at which the corresponding slaves must be engaged.
If the value of any parameter is outside the range of one cycle, the cam engages immediately. When the cam is
engaged, the slave position is redefined, modulo one cycle.
Step 7. Disengage the slave motion
To disengage the cam, use the command
EQ x,y,z,w
where x,y,z,w are the master positions at which the corresponding slave axes are disengaged.
3000
2250
1500
0
2000
4000
6000
Master X
Figure 6.13: Electronic Cam Example
This disengages the slave axis at a specified master position. If the parameter is outside the master cycle, the
stopping is instantaneous.
Chapter 6 Programming Motion ▫ 78
DMC-42x0 User Manual
To illustrate the complete process, consider the cam relationship described by
the equation:
Y = 0.5 * X + 100 sin (0.18*X)
where X is the master, with a cycle of 2000 counts.
The cam table can be constructed manually, point by point, or automatically by a program. The following program
includes the set-up.
The instruction EAX defines X as the master axis. The cycle of the master is
2000. Over that cycle, Y varies by 1000. This leads to the instruction EM 2000,1000.
Suppose we want to define a table with 100 segments. This implies increments of 20 counts each. If the master
points are to start at zero, the required instruction is EP 20,0.
The following routine computes the table points. As the phase equals 0.18X and X varies in increments of 20, the
phase varies by increments of 3.6. The program then computes the values of Y according to the equation and
assigns the values to the table with the instruction ET[N] = ,Y.
INSTRUCTION
INTERPRETATION
#SETUP
EAX
EM 2000,1000
EP 20,0
N = 0
#LOOP
P = N3.6
S = @SIN [P]*100
Y = N*10+S
ET [N] =, Y
N = N+1
JP #LOOP, N<=100
EN
Label
Select X as master
Cam cycles
Master position increments
Index
Loop to construct table from equation
Note 3.6 = 0.18 * 20
Define sine position
Define slave position
Define table
Repeat the process
Now suppose that the slave axis is engaged with a start signal, input 1, but that both the engagement and
disengagement points must be done at the center of the cycle: X = 1000 and Y = 500. This implies that Y must be
driven to that point to avoid a jump.
This is done with the program:
INSTRUCTION
INTERPRETATION
#RUN
EB1
PA,500
SP,5000
BGY
AM
AI1
EG,1000
AI - 1
EQ,1000
EN
Label
Enable cam
starting position
Y speed
Move Y motor
After Y moved
Wait for start signal
Engage slave
Wait for stop signal
Disengage slave
End
Command Summary - Electronic CAM
Command
Description
EA p
Specifies master axes for electronic cam where:
p = X,Y,Z or W or A,B,C,D,E,F,G,H for main encoder as master or M or N a for virtual axis
master
Enables the ECAM
EB n
Chapter 6 Programming Motion ▫ 79
DMC-42x0 User Manual
EC n
EG x,y,z,w
EM x,y,z,w
EP m,n
EQ m,n
ET[n]
EW
EY
ECAM counter - sets the index into the ECAM table
Engages ECAM
Specifies the change in position for each axis of the CAM cycle
Defines CAM table entry size and offset
Disengages ECAM at specified position
Defines the ECAM table entries
Widen Segment (see Application Note #2444)
Set ECAM cycle count
Operand Summary - Electronic CAM
Command
Description
_EB
_EC
_EGx
_EM
_EP
_EQx
_EY
Contains State of ECAM
Contains current ECAM index
Contains ECAM status for each axis
Contains size of cycle for each axis
Contains value of the ECAM table interval
Contains ECAM status for each axis
Set ECAM cycle count
Example - Electronic CAM
The following example illustrates a cam program with a master axis, Z, and two slaves, X and Y.
INSTRUCTION
INTERPRETATION
#A;V1=0
PA 0,0;BGXY;AMXY
EA Z
EM 0,0,4000
EP400,0
ET[0]=0,0
ET[1]=40,20
ET[2]=120,60
ET[3]=240,120
ET[4]=280,140
ET[5]=280,140
ET[6]=280,140
ET[7]=240,120
ET[8]=120,60
ET[9]=40,20
ET[10]=0,0
EB 1
JGZ=4000
EG 0,0
BGZ
#LOOP;JP#LOOP,V1=0
EQ2000,2000
MF,, 2000
ST Z
EB 0
EN
Label; Initialize variable
Go to position 0,0 on X and Y axes
Z axis as the Master for ECAM
Change for Z is 4000, zero for X, Y
ECAM interval is 400 counts with zero start
When master is at 0 position; 1st point.
2nd point in the ECAM table
3rd point in the ECAM table
4th point in the ECAM table
5th point in the ECAM table
6th point in the ECAM table
7th point in the ECAM table
8th point in the ECAM table
9th point in the ECAM table
10th point in the ECAM table
Starting point for next cycle
Enable ECAM mode
Set Z to jog at 4000
Engage both X and Y when Master = 0
Begin jog on Z axis
Loop until the variable is set
Disengage X and Y when Master = 2000
Wait until the Master goes to 2000
Stop the Z axis motion
Exit the ECAM mode
End of the program
The above example shows how the ECAM program is structured and how the commands can be given to the
controller. Figure 6.14 shows the GalilTools scope capture of the ECAM profile. This shows how the motion will be
seen during the ECAM cycles. The first trace is for the A axis, the second trace shows the cycle on the B axis and
the third trace shows the cycle of the C axis.
Chapter 6 Programming Motion ▫ 80
DMC-42x0 User Manual
Figure 6.14: ECAM cycle with Z axis as master
Chapter 6 Programming Motion ▫ 81
DMC-42x0 User Manual
PVT Mode
The DMC-42x0 controllers now supports a mode of motion referred to as “PVT.” This mode allows arbitrary motion
profiles to be defined by position, velocity and time individually on all 8 axes. This motion is designed for systems
where the load must traverse a series of coordinates with no discontinuities in velocity. By specifying the target
position, velocity and time to achieve those parameters the user has control over the velocity profile. Taking
advantage of the built in buffering the user can create virtually any profile including those with infinite path
lengths.
Specifying PVT Segments
PVT segments must be entered one axis at a time using the PVn command. The PV command includes the target
distance to be moved and target velocity to be obtained over the specified timeframe. Positions are entered as
relative moves, similar to the standard PR command, in units of encoder counts and velocity is entered in
counts/second. The controller will interpolate the motion profile between subsequent PV commands using a 3rd
order polynomial equation. During a PV segment, jerk is held constant, and accelerations, velocities, and positions
will be calculated every other sample.
Motion will not begin until a BT command is issued, much like the standard BG command. This means that the user
can fill the PVT buffer for each axis prior to motion beginning. The BT command will ensure that all axes begin
motion simultaneously. It is not required for the “t” value for each axis to be the same, however if they are then
the axes will remain coordinated. Each axis has a 255 segment buffer. This buffer is a FIFO and the available space
can be queried with the operand _PVn. As the buffer empties the user can add more PVT segments.
Exiting PVT Mode
To exit PVT mode the user must send the segment command PVn=0,0,0. This will exit the mode once the segment
is reached in the buffer. To avoid an abrupt stop the user should slow the motion to a zero velocity prior to
executing this command. The controller will instantly command a zero velocity once a PVn=0,0,0 is executed. In
addition, a ST command will also exit PVT mode. Motion will come to a controlled stop using the DC value for
deceleration. The same controlled stop will occur if a limit switch is activated in the direction of motion. As a result,
the controller will be switched to a jog mode of motion.
Error Conditions and Stop Codes
If the buffer is allowed to empty while in PVT mode then the profiling will be aborted and the motor will come to a
controlled stop on that axis with a deceleration specified by the DC command. Also, PVT mode will be exited and
the stop code will be set to 32. During normal operation of PVT mode the stop code will be 30. If PVT mode is
exited normally (PVn=0,0,0), then the stop code will be set to 31.
Additional PVT Information
It is the users’ responsibility to enter PVT data that the system’s mechanics and power system can respond to in a
reasonable manner. Because this mode of motion is not constrained by the AC, DC or SP values, if a large velocity or
position is entered with a short period to achieve it, the acceleration can be very high, beyond the capabilities of
the system, resulting in excessive position error. The position and velocity at the end of the segment are
guaranteed to be accurate but it is important to remember that the required path to obtain the position and
velocity in the specified time may be different based on the PVT values. Mismatched values for PVT can result in
different interpolated profiles than expected but the final velocity and position will be accurate.
Chapter 6 Programming Motion ▫ 82
DMC-42x0 User Manual
The “t” value is entered in samples, which will depend on the TM setting. With the default TM of 1000, one sample
is 976us. This means that a “t” value of 1024 will yield one second of motion. The velocity value, “v” will always be
in units of counts per second, regardless of the TM setting. PVT mode is not available in the “-FAST” version of the
firmware. If this is required please consult Galil.
Command Summary – PVT
COMMAND
PVa = p,v,t
_PVa
BT
_BTa
DESCRIPTION
Specifies the segment of axis 'a' for a incremental PVT segment of 'p' counts, an end speed
of 'v' counts/sec in a total time of 't' samples.
Contains the number of PV segments available in the PV buffer for a specified axes.
Begin PVT mode
Contains the number PV segments that have executed
PVT Examples
Parabolic Velocity Profile
In this example we will assume that the user wants to start from zero velocity, accelerate to a maximum velocity of
1000 counts/second in 1 second and then back down to 0 counts/second within an additional second. The velocity
profile would be described by the following equation and shown in Figure 6.15.
v(t )  1000(t  1) 2  1000
Desired Velocity Profile
1200
Velocity(counts/second)
1000
800
600
Velocity
400
200
2
1.
75
1.5
1
1.
25
0.5
0.
75
0.
25
0
0
Time(Seconds)
Figure 6.15: Parabolic Velocity Profile
To accomplish this we need to calculate the desired velocities and change in positions. In this example we will
assume a delta time of ¼ of a second, which is 256 samples (1024 samples = 1 second with the default TM of 1000).
Velocity(counts/second)
Position(counts)
v (t )  1000(t  1)  1000
p (t )   (1000(t  1) 2  1000) dt
2
v (.25)  437.5
v (.5)  750
v (.75)  937.5
v (1)  1000
v (1.25)  937.5
v (1.5)  750
v (1.75)  437.5
v (2)  0
Chapter 6 Programming Motion ▫ 83
p(0 to .25) = 57
p(.25 to .5) = 151
p(.5 to .75) = 214
p(.75 to 1) = 245
p(1 to 1.25) = 245
p(1.25 to 1.5) = 214
p(1.5 to 1.75) = 151
p(1.75 to 2) =57
DMC-42x0 User Manual
The DMC program is shown below and the results can be seen in Figure 6.16.
INSTRUCTION
INTERPRETATION
#PVT
PVX =
PVX =
PVX =
PVX =
PVX =
PVX =
PVX =
PVX =
PVX =
BTX
EN
Label
Incremental move of 57 counts in 256 samples with a final velocity of 437 counts/sec
Incremental move of 151 counts in 256 samples with a final velocity of 750 counts/sec
Incremental move of 214 counts in 256 samples with a final velocity of 937 counts/sec
Incremental move of 245 counts in 256 samples with a final velocity of 1000 counts/sec
Incremental move of 245 counts in 256 samples with a final velocity of 937 counts/sec
Incremental move of 214 counts in 256 samples with a final velocity of 750 counts/sec
Incremental move of 151 counts in 256 samples with a final velocity of 437 counts/sec
Incremental move of 57 counts in 256 samples with a final velocity of 0 counts/sec
Termination of PVT buffer
Begin PVT
57,437,256
151,750,256
214,937,256
245,1000,256
245,937,256
214,750,256
151,437,256
57,0,256
0,0,0
1400
1000
1200
1000
800
800
600
600
400
400
200
Velocity
Position
200
18
00
20
00
80
0
10
00
12
00
14
00
16
00
60
0
40
0
0
20
0
0
0
Position(counts)
Velocity(counts/second)
Actual Velocity and Position vs Time
1200
Time(Samples)
Figure 6.16: Actual Velocity and Position vs Time of Parabolic Velocity Profile
Multi-Axis Coordinated Move
Many applications require moving two or more axes in a coordinated move yet still require smooth motion at the
same time. These applications are ideal candidates for PVT mode.
X Axis
500
1500
2500
3300
7300
Y Axis
500
5000
4000
4200
3300
Figure 6.17: Required X,Y points for both axes.
In this example we will have a 2 dimensional stage that needs to follow a specific profile. The application requires
that the certain points be met however the path between points is not important. Smooth motion between points
is critical.
The resultant DMC program is shown below. The position points are dictated by the application requirements and
the velocities and times were chosen to create smooth yet quick motion. For example, in the second segment the B
axis is slowed to 0 at the end of the move in anticipation of reversing direction during the next segment.
Chapter 6 Programming Motion ▫ 84
DMC-42x0 User Manual
NOTE:
INSTRUCTION
INTERPRETATION
#PVT
PVA =
PVB =
PVA =
PVB =
PVA =
PVB =
BTAB
PVA =
PVB =
PVA =
PVB =
PVA =
PVB =
EN
Label
1st point in Figure 6.17 - A axis
1st point in Figure 6.17 - B axis
2nd point in Figure 6.17 - A axis
2nd point in Figure 6.17 - B axis
3rd point in Figure 6.17 - A axis
3rd point in Figure 6.17 - B axis
Begin PVT mode for A and B axes
4th point in Figure 6.17 - A axis
4th point in Figure 6.17 - B axis
5th point in Figure 6.17 - A axis
5th point in Figure 6.17 - B axis
Termination of PVT buffer for A axis
Termination of PVT buffer for B axis
500,2000,500
500,5000,500
1000,4000,1200
4500,0,1200
1000,4000,750
-1000,1000,750
800,10000,250
200,1000,250
4000,0,1000
-900,0,1000
0,0,0
0,0,0
The BT command is issued prior to filling the PVT buffers and additional PV commands are added
during motion for demonstration purposes only. The BT command could have been issued at the end
of all the PVT points in this example.
The resultant X vs. Y position graph is shown in Figure 6.18, with the specified PVT points enlarged.
X vs Y Commanded Positions
6000
5000
Y Axis (Counts)
4000
3000
2000
1000
0
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
-1000
X Axis (Counts)
Figure 6.18: X vs Y Commanded Positions for Multi-Axis
Coordinated Move
Contour Mode
The DMC-42x0 also provides a contouring mode. This mode allows any arbitrary position curve to be prescribed for
1 to 8 axes. This is ideal for following computer generated paths such as parabolic, spherical or user-defined
profiles. The path is not limited to straight line and arc segments and the path length may be infinite.
Specifying Contour Segments
The Contour Mode is specified with the command, CM. For example, CMXZ specifies contouring on the X and Z
axes. Any axes that are not being used in the contouring mode may be operated in other modes.
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DMC-42x0 User Manual
A contour is described by position increments which are described with the command, CD x,y,z,w over a time
interval, DT n. The parameter, n, specifies the time interval. The time interval is defined as 2 n sample period (1 ms
for TM1000), where n is a number between 1 and 8. The controller performs linear interpolation between the
specified increments, where one point is generated for each sample. If the time interval changes for each segment,
use CD x,y,z,w=n where n is the new DT value.
Consider, for example, the trajectory shown in Figure 6.19. The position X may be described by the points:
Point 1
Point 2
Point 3
Point 4
X=0 at T=0ms
X=48 at T=4ms
X=288 at T=12ms
X=336 at T=28ms
The same trajectory may be represented by the increments
Increment 1
Increment 2
Increment 3
DX=48
DX=240
DX=48
Time=4
Time=8
Time=16
DT=2
DT=3
DT=4
When the controller receives the command to generate a trajectory along these points, it interpolates linearly
between the points. The resulting interpolated points include the position 12 at 1 msec, position 24 at 2 msec, etc.
The programmed commands to specify the above example are:
#A
CMX
CD 48=2
CD 240=3
CD 48=4
CD 0=0
#Wait;JP#Wait,_CM<>511
EN
Specifies X axis for contour mode
Specifies first position increment and time interval, 22 ms
Specifies second position increment and time interval, 23 ms
Specifies the third position increment and time interval, 24 ms
End Contour buffer
Wait until path is done
POSITION
(COUNTS)
336
288
240
192
96
48
TIME (ms)
0
4
SEGMENT 1
8
12
SEGMENT 2
16
20
24
28
SEGMENT 3
Figure 6.19: The Required Trajectory
Additional Information
_CM gives the amount of space available in the contour buffer (511 maximum). Zero parameters for DT followed
by zero parameters for CD will exit the contour mode.
If no new data record is found and the controller is still in the contour mode, the controller waits for new data. No
new motion commands are generated while waiting. If bad data is received, the controller responds with a ?.
Specifying a -1 for the DT or as the time interval in the CD command will pause the contour buffer.
Issuing the CM command will clear the contour buffer.
Chapter 6 Programming Motion ▫ 86
DMC-42x0 User Manual
Command Summary - Contour Mode
COMMAND
CM XYZW
CM ABCDEFGH
CD x,y,z,w
CD a,b,c,d,e,f,g,h
DT n
_CM
DESCRIPTION
Specifies which axes for contouring mode. Any non-contouring axes may be operated in
other modes.
Contour axes for DMC-4280
Specifies position increment over time interval. Range is ±32,000. CD 0,0,0.. .=0 ends the
contour buffer. This is much like the LE or VE commands.
Position increment data for DMC-4280
Specifies time interval 2n sample periods (1 ms for TM1000) for position increment, where n
is an integer between 1 and 8. Zero ends contour mode. If n does not change, it does not
need to be specified with each CD.
Amount of space left in contour buffer (511 maximum)
General Velocity Profiles
The Contour Mode is ideal for generating any arbitrary velocity profiles. The velocity profile can be specified as a
mathematical function or as a collection of points.
The design includes two parts: Generating an array with data points and running the program.
Generating an Array - An Example
Consider the velocity and position profiles shown in Figure 6.20. The objective is to rotate a motor a distance of
6000 counts in 120 ms. The velocity profile is sinusoidal to reduce the jerk and the system vibration. If we describe
the position displacement in terms of A counts in B milliseconds, we can describe the motion in the following
manner:


1  cos( 2


AT
B

A
2
)
sin( 2  B )
Note: ω is the angular velocity; X is the position; and T is the variable, time, in milliseconds.
In the given example, A=6000 and B=120, the position and velocity profiles are:
X = 50T - (6000/2π) sin (2πT/120)
Note that the velocity, ω, in count/ms, is
ω = 50 [1 - cos 2πT/120]
Figure 6.20: Velocity Profile with Sinusoidal Acceleration
The DMC-42x0 can compute trigonometric functions. However, the argument must be expressed in degrees. Using
our example, the equation for X is written as:
Chapter 6 Programming Motion ▫ 87
DMC-42x0 User Manual
X = 50T - 955 sin 3T
A complete program to generate the contour movement in this example is given below. To generate an array, we
compute the position value at intervals of 8 ms. This is stored at the array POS. Then, the difference between the
positions is computed and is stored in the array DIF. Finally the motors are run in the contour mode.
Contour Mode Example
INSTRUCTION
INTERPRETATION
#POINTS
DM POS[16]
DM DIF[15]
C=0
T=0
#A
V1=50*T
V2=3*T
V3=-955*@SIN[V2]+V1
[email protected][V3]
POS[C]=V4
T=T+8
C=C+1
JP #A,C<16
#B
C=0
#C
D=C+1
DIF[C]=POS[D]-POS[C]
C=C+1
JP #C,C<15
Program defines X points
Allocate memory
#RUN
CMX
DT3
C=0
#E
CD DIF[C]
C=C+1
JP #E,C<15
CD 0=0
#Wait;JP#Wait,_CM<>511
EN
Program to run motor
Contour Mode
8 millisecond intervals
Set initial conditions, C is index
T is time in ms
Argument in degrees
Compute position
Integer value of V3
Store in array POS
Program to find position differences
Compute the difference and store
Contour Distance is in DIF
End contour buffer
Wait until path is done
End the program
Teach (Record and Play-Back)
Several applications require teaching the machine a motion trajectory. Teaching can be accomplished using the
DMC-42x0 automatic array capture feature to capture position data. The captured data may then be played back in
the contour mode. The following array commands are used:
DM
RA
RD
RC
C[n]
C[]
_TPX
n,m
RC? or _RC
Chapter 6 Programming Motion ▫ 88
Dimension array
Specify array for automatic record (up to 4 for DMC-4240)
Specify data for capturing (such as _TPX or _TPZ)
Specify capture time interval where n is 2n sample periods (1 ms for TM1000), m is number
of records to be captured
Returns a 1 if recording
DMC-42x0 User Manual
Record and Playback Example:
#RECORD
DM XPOS[501]
RA XPOS[]
RD _TPX
MOX
RC2
#A;JP#A,_RC=1
#COMPUTE
DM DX[500]
C=0
#L
D=C+1
DELTA=XPOS[D]-XPOS[C]
DX[C]=DELTA
C=C+1
JP #L,C<500
#PLAYBCK
CMX
DT2
I=0
#B
CD DX[I]; I=I+1
JP #B,I<500
CD 0=0
#Wait;JP#Wait,_CM<>511
EN
Begin Program
Dimension array with 501 elements
Specify automatic record
Specify X position to be captured
Turn X motor off
Begin recording; 4 msec interval (at TM1000)
Continue until done recording
Compute DX
Dimension Array for DX
Initialize counter
Label
Compute the difference
Store difference in array
Increment index
Repeat until done
Begin Playback
Specify contour mode
Specify time increment
Initialize array counter
Loop counter
Specify contour data I=I+1 Increment array counter
Loop until done
End countour buffer
Wait until path is done
End program
For additional information about automatic array capture, see Chapter 7, Arrays.
359H
Virtual Axis
The DMC-42x0 controller has two additional virtual axes designated as the M and N axes. These axes have no
encoder and no DAC. However, they can be commanded by the commands:
AC, DC, JG, SP, PR, PA, BG, IT, GA, VM, VP, CR, ST, DP, RP
The main use of the virtual axes is to serve as a virtual master in ECAM modes, and to perform an unnecessary part
of a vector mode. These applications are illustrated by the following examples.
ECAM Master Example
Suppose that the motion of the XY axes is constrained along a path that can be described by an electronic cam
table. Further assume that the ecam master is not an external encoder but has to be a controlled variable.
This can be achieved by defining the N axis as the master with the command EAN and setting the modulo of the
master with a command such as EMN= 4000. Next, the table is constructed. To move the constrained axes, simply
command the N axis in the jog mode or with the PR and PA commands.
For example,
PAN = 2000
BGN
will cause the XY axes to move to the corresponding points on the motion cycle.
Sinusoidal Motion Example
The x axis must perform a sinusoidal motion of 10 cycles with an amplitude of 1000 counts and a frequency of 20
Hz.
Chapter 6 Programming Motion ▫ 89
DMC-42x0 User Manual
This can be performed by commanding the X and N axes to perform circular motion. Note that the value of VS
must be
VS=2π * R * F
where R is the radius, or amplitude and F is the frequency in Hz.
Set VA and VD to maximum values for the fastest acceleration.
INSTRUCTION
INTERPRETATION
VMXN
VA 68000000
VD 68000000
Select Axes
Maximum Acceleration
Maximum Deceleration
VS for 20 Hz
Ten Cycles
VS 125664
CR 1000, -90, 3600
VE
BGS
Stepper Motor Operation
When configured for stepper motor operation, several commands are interpreted differently than from servo
mode. The following describes operation with stepper motors.
Specifying Stepper Motor Operation
Stepper motor operation is specified by the command MT. The argument for MT is as follows:
2 specifies a stepper motor with active low step output pulses
-2 specifies a stepper motor with active high step output pulses
2.5 specifies a stepper motor with active low step output pulses and reversed direction
-2.5 specifies a stepper motor with active high step output pulse and reversed direction
Stepper Motor Smoothing
The command, KS, provides stepper motor smoothing. The effect of the smoothing can be thought of as a simple
Resistor-Capacitor (single pole) filter. The filter occurs after the motion profiler and has the effect of smoothing out
the spacing of pulses for a more smooth operation of the stepper motor. Use of KS is most applicable when
operating in full step or half step operation. KS will cause the step pulses to be delayed in accordance with the time
constant specified.
When operating with stepper motors, you will always have some amount of stepper motor smoothing, KS. Since
this filtering effect occurs after the profiler, the profiler may be ready for additional moves before all of the step
pulses have gone through the filter. It is important to consider this effect since steps may be lost if the controller is
commanded to generate an additional move before the previous move has been completed. See the discussion
below, Monitoring Generated Pulses vs. Commanded Pulses.
The general motion smoothing command, IT, can also be used. The purpose of the command, IT, is to smooth out
the motion profile and decrease ‘jerk’ due to acceleration.
Monitoring Generated Pulses vs. Commanded Pulses
For proper controller operation, it is necessary to make sure that the controller has completed generating all step
pulses before making additional moves. This is most particularly important if you are moving back and forth. For
example, when operating with servo motors, the trippoint AM (After Motion) is used to determine when the
motion profiler is complete and is prepared to execute a new motion command. However when operating in
stepper mode, the controller may still be generating step pulses when the motion profiler is complete. This is
caused by the stepper motor smoothing filter, KS. To understand this, consider the steps the controller executes to
generate step pulses:
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DMC-42x0 User Manual
First, the controller generates a motion profile in accordance with the motion commands.
Second, the profiler generates pulses as prescribed by the motion profile. The pulses that are generated by the
motion profiler can be monitored by the command, RP (Reference Position). RP gives the absolute value of the
position as determined by the motion profiler. The command, DP, can be used to set the value of the reference
position. For example, DP 0, defines the reference position of the X axis to be zero.
Third, the output of the motion profiler is filtered by the stepper smoothing filter. This filter adds a delay in the
output of the stepper motor pulses. The amount of delay depends on the parameter which is specified by the
command, KS. As mentioned earlier, there will always be some amount of stepper motor smoothing.
Fourth, the output of the stepper smoothing filter is buffered and is available for input to the stepper motor driver.
The pulses which are generated by the smoothing filter can be monitored by the command, TD (Tell Dual). TD gives
the absolute value of the position as determined by actual output of the buffer. The command, DP sets the value
of the step count register as well as the value of the reference position. For example, DP 0, defines the reference
position of the X axis to be zero.
Stepper Smoothing Filter
(Adds a Delay)
Motion Profiler
Reference Position (RP)
Output Buffer
Output
(To Stepper Driver)
Step Count Register (TD)
Motion Complete Trippoint
When used in stepper mode, the MC command will hold up execution of the proceeding commands until the
controller has generated the same number of steps out of the step count register as specified in the commanded
position. The MC trippoint (Motion Complete) is generally more useful than AM trippoint (After Motion) since the
step pulses can be delayed from the commanded position due to stepper motor smoothing.
Using an Encoder with Stepper Motors
An encoder may be used on a stepper motor to check the actual motor position with the commanded position. If
an encoder is used, it must be connected to the main encoder input. Note: The auxiliary encoder is not available
while operating with stepper motors. The position of the encoder can be interrogated by using the command, TP.
The position value can be defined by using the command, DE.
Note: Closed loop operation with a stepper motor is not possible.
Command Summary - Stepper Motor Operation
COMMAND
DE
DP
IT
KS
MT
RP
TD
TP
Chapter 6 Programming Motion ▫ 91
DESCRIPTION
Define Encoder Position (When using an encoder)
Define Reference Position and Step Count Register
Motion Profile Smoothing - Independent Time Constant
Stepper Motor Smoothing
Motor Type (2,-2,2.5 or -2.5 for stepper motors)
Report Commanded Position
Report number of step pulses generated by controller
Tell Position of Encoder
DMC-42x0 User Manual
Operand Summary - Stepper Motor Operation
OPERAND
_DEx
_DPx
_ITx
_KSx
_MTx
_RPx
_TDx
_TPx
DESCRIPTION
Contains the value of the step count register for the ‘x’ axis
Contains the value of the main encoder for the ‘x’ axis
Contains the value of the Independent Time constant for the ‘x’ axis
Contains the value of the Stepper Motor Smoothing Constant for the ‘x’ axis
Contains the motor type value for the ‘x’ axis
Contains the commanded position generated by the profiler for the ‘x’ axis
Contains the value of the step count register for the ‘x’ axis
Contains the value of the main encoder for the ‘x’ axis
Stepper Position Maintenance Mode (SPM)
The Galil controller can be set into the Stepper Position Maintenance (SPM) mode to handle the event of stepper
motor position error. The mode looks at position feedback from the main encoder and compares it to the
commanded step pulses. The position information is used to determine if there is any significant difference
between the commanded and the actual motor positions. If such error is detected, it is updated into a command
value for operator use. In addition, the SPM mode can be used as a method to correct for friction at the end of a
microstepping move. This capability provides closed-loop control at the application program level. SPM mode can
be used with Galil and non-Galil step drives.
SPM mode is configured, executed, and managed with seven commands. This mode also utilizes the #POSERR
automatic subroutine allowing for automatic user-defined handling of an error event.
Internal Controller Commands (user can query):
QS
Error Magnitude (pulses)
User Configurable Commands (user can query & change):
OE
YA
YB
YC
YR
YS
Profiler Off-On Error
Step Drive Resolution (pulses / full motor step)
Step Motor Resolution (full motor steps / revolution)
Encoder Resolution (counts / revolution)
Error Correction (pulses)
Stepper Position Maintenance enable, status
A pulse is defined by the resolution of the step drive being used. Therefore, one pulse could be a full step, a half
step or a microstep.
When a Galil controller is configured for step motor operation, the step pulse output by the controller is internally
fed back to the auxiliary encoder register. For SPM the feedback encoder on the stepper will connect to the main
encoder port. Enabling the SPM mode on a controller with YS=1 executes an internal monitoring of the auxiliary
and main encoder registers for that axis or axes. Position error is then tracked in step pulses between these two
registers (QS command).
QS  TD 
TP  YA  YB
YC
Where TD is the auxiliary encoder register(step pulses) and TP is the main encoder register(feedback encoder).
Additionally, YA defines the step drive resolution where YA = 1 for full stepping or YA = 2 for half stepping. The full
range of YA is up to YA = 9999 for microstepping drives.
Chapter 6 Programming Motion ▫ 92
DMC-42x0 User Manual
Error Limit
The value of QS is internally monitored to determine if it exceeds a preset limit of three full motor steps. Once the
value of QS exceeds this limit, the controller then performs the following actions:
1.
The motion is maintained or is stopped, depending on the setting of the OE command. If OE=0 the axis
stays in motion, if OE=1 the axis is stopped.
2.
YS is set to 2, which causes the automatic subroutine labeled #POSERR to be executed.
Correction
A correction move can be commanded by assigning the value of QS to the YR correction move command. The
correction move is issued only after the axis has been stopped. After an error correction move has completed and
QS is less than three full motor steps, the YS error status bit is automatically reset back to 1; indicating a cleared
error.
Example: SPM Mode Setup
The following code demonstrates what is necessary to set up SPM mode for a full step drive, a half step drive, and a
1/64th microstepping drive for an axis with a 1.8 o step motor and 4000 count/rev encoder. Note the necessary
difference is with the YA command.
Full-Stepping Drive, X axis:
#SETUP
OE1;
KS16;
MT-2;
YA1;
YB200;
YC4000;
SHX;
WT50;
YS1;
Set the profiler to stop axis upon error
Set step smoothing
Motor type set to stepper
Step resolution of the full-step drive
Motor resolution (full steps per revolution)
Encoder resolution (counts per revolution)
Enable axis
Allow slight settle time
Enable SPM mode
Half-Stepping Drive, X axis:
#SETUP
OE1;
KS16;
MT-2;
YA2;
YB200;
YC4000;
SHX;
WT50;
YS1;
Set the profiler to stop axis upon error
Set step smoothing
Motor type set to stepper
Step resolution of the half-step drive
Motor resolution (full steps per revolution)
Encoder resolution (counts per revolution)
Enable axis
Allow slight settle time
Enable SPM mode
1/64th Step Microstepping Drive, X axis:
#SETUP
OE1;
KS16;
MT-2;
YA64;
YB200;
YC4000;
SHX;
WT50;
YS1;
Chapter 6 Programming Motion ▫ 93
Set the profiler to stop axis upon error
Set step smoothing
Motor type set to stepper
Step resolution of the microstepping drive
Motor resolution (full steps per revolution)
Encoder resolution (counts per revolution)
Enable axis
Allow slight settle time
Enable SPM mode
DMC-42x0 User Manual
Example: Error Correction
The following code demonstrates what is necessary to set up SPM mode for the X axis, detect error, stop the motor,
correct the error, and return to the main code. The drive is a full step drive, with a 1.8 o step motor and 4000
count/rev encoder.
#setup
OE 1;'
KS 16;'
MT -2,-2,-2,-2;'
YA 2;'
YB 200;'
YC 4000;'
SH A;'
WT 100;'
Set the profiler to stop axis upon error
Set step smoothing
Motor type set to stepper
Step resolution of the drive
Motor resolution (full steps per revolution)
Encoder resolution (counts per revolution)
Enable axis
Allow slight settle time
#motion;'
SP 512;'
PR 1000;'
BG A;'
EN;'
Perform motion
Set the speed
Prepare mode of motion
Begin motion
End of program subroutine
REM When error occurs, the axis will stop due to OE1. In
REM #POSERR, query the status YS and the error QS, correct,
REM and return to the main code.
#POSERR;'
WT 100;'
spsave=_SPA;'
JP #return,_YSA<>2;'
SP64;
MG "ERROR= ",_QSA
YRA=_QSA;'
MC A;
MG "CORRECTED, ERROR
WT 100;'
#return
SPA=spsave;'
RE 0;'
Chapter 6 Programming Motion ▫ 94
Automatic subroutine is called when _YS=2
Wait helps user see the correction
Save current speed setting
Return to thread zero if invalid error
Set slow speed setting for correction
Else, error is valid, use QS for correction
Wait for motion to complete
NOW= ",_QSX
Wait helps user see the correction
Return the speed to previous setting
Return from #POSERR
DMC-42x0 User Manual
Example: Friction Correction
The following example illustrates how the SPM mode can be useful in correcting for X axis friction after each move
when conducting a reciprocating motion. The drive is a 1/64th microstepping drive with a 1.8 o step motor and
4000 count/rev encoder.
#SETUP;
KS16;
MT-2,-2,-2,-2;
YA64;
YB200;
YC4000;
SHX;
WT50;
YS1;
#MOTION;
SP16384;
PR10000;
BGX;
MCX
JS#CORRECT;
#MOTION2
SP16384;
PR-10000;
BGX;
MCX
JS#CORRECT;
JP#MOTION
#CORRECT;
spx=_SPX
#LOOP;
SP2048;
WT100;
JP#END,@ABS[_QSX]<10;
YRX=_QSX;
MCX
WT100;
JP#LOOP;
#END;
SPX=spx
EN
Set the profiler to continue upon error
Set step smoothing
Motor type set to stepper
Step resolution of the microstepping drive
Motor resolution (full steps per revolution)
Encoder resolution (counts per revolution)
Enable axis
Allow slight settle time
Enable SPM mode
Perform motion
Set the speed
Prepare mode of motion
Begin motion
Move to correction
Set the speed
Prepare mode of motion
Begin motion
Move to correction
Correction code
Save speed value
Set a new slow correction speed
Stabilize
End correction if error is within defined tolerance
Correction move
Stabilize
Keep correcting until error is within tolerance
End #CORRECT subroutine, returning to code
Dual Loop (Auxiliary Encoder)
The DMC-42x0 provides an interface for a second encoder for each axis except for axes configured for stepper
motor operation and axis used in circular compare. When used, the second encoder is typically mounted on the
motor or the load, but may be mounted in any position. The most common use for the second encoder is backlash
compensation, described below.
The second encoder may be a standard quadrature type, or it may provide pulse and direction. The controller also
offers the provision for inverting the direction of the encoder rotation. The main and the auxiliary encoders are
configured with the CE command. The command form is CE x,y,z,w (or a,b,c,d,e,f,g,h for controllers with more than
4 axes) where the parameters x,y,z,w each equal the sum of two integers m and n. m configures the main encoder
and n configures the auxiliary encoder.
Chapter 6 Programming Motion ▫ 95
DMC-42x0 User Manual
Using the CE Command
m=
Main Encoder
n=
Second Encoder
0
1
2
3
Normal quadrature
Pulse & direction
Reverse quadrature
Reverse pulse & direction
0
4
8
12
Normal quadrature
Pulse & direction
Reversed quadrature
Reversed pulse & direction
For example, to configure the main encoder for reversed quadrature, m=2, and a second encoder of pulse and
direction, n=4, the total is 6, and the command for the X axis is:
CE 6
Additional Commands for the Auxiliary Encoder
The command, DE x,y,z,w, can be used to define the position of the auxiliary encoders. For example,
DE 0,500,-30,300
sets their initial values. The positions of the auxiliary encoders may be interrogated with the command, DE?. For
example:
DE ?,,?
returns the value of the X and Z auxiliary encoders.
The auxiliary encoder position may be assigned to variables with the instructions
V1= _DEX
The command, TD XYZW, returns the current position of the auxiliary encoder.
The command, DV 1,1,1,1, configures the auxiliary encoder to be used for backlash compensation.
Backlash Compensation
There are two methods for backlash compensation using the auxiliary encoders:
1.
Continuous dual loop
2.
Sampled dual loop
To illustrate the problem, consider a situation in which the coupling between the motor and the load has a
backlash. To compensate for the backlash, position encoders are mounted on both the motor and the load.
The continuous dual loop combines the two feedback signals to achieve stability. This method requires careful
system tuning, and depends on the magnitude of the backlash. However, once successful, this method
compensates for the backlash continuously.
The second method, the sampled dual loop, reads the load encoder only at the end point and performs a
correction. This method is independent of the size of the backlash. However, it is effective only in point-to-point
motion systems which require position accuracy only at the endpoint.
Continuous Dual Loop - Example
Connect the load encoder to the main encoder port and connect the motor encoder to the dual encoder port. The
dual loop method splits the filter function between the two encoders. It applies the KP (proportional) and KI
(integral) terms to the position error, based on the load encoder, and applies the KD (derivative) term to the motor
encoder. This method results in a stable system.
The dual loop method is activated with the instruction DV (Dual Velocity), where
DV
1,1,1,1
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DMC-42x0 User Manual
activates the dual loop for the four axes and
DV
0,0,0,0
disables the dual loop.
Note: that the dual loop compensation depends on the backlash magnitude, and in extreme cases will not stabilize
the loop. The proposed compensation procedure is to start with KP=0, KI=0 and to maximize the value of KD under
the condition DV1. Once KD is found, increase KP gradually to a maximum value, and finally, increase KI, if
necessary.
Sampled Dual Loop - Example
In this example, we consider a linear slide which is run by a rotary motor via a lead screw. Since the lead screw has
a backlash, it is necessary to use a linear encoder to monitor the position of the slide. For stability reasons, it is
best to use a rotary encoder on the motor.
Connect the rotary encoder to the X-axis and connect the linear encoder to the auxiliary encoder of X. Assume that
the required motion distance is one inch, and that this corresponds to 40,000 counts of the rotary encoder and
10,000 counts of the linear encoder.
The design approach is to drive the motor a distance, which corresponds to 40,000 rotary counts. Once the motion
is complete, the controller monitors the position of the linear encoder and performs position corrections.
This is done by the following program.
INSTRUCTION
INTERPRETATION
#DUALOOP
CE 0
DE0
PR 40000
BGX
#correct
AMX
V1=10000-_DEX
V2=-_TEX/4+V1
JP#END,@ABS[V2]<2
PR V2*4
BGX
JP#correct
#END
EN
Label
Configure encoder
Set initial value
Main move
Start motion
Correction loop
Wait for motion completion
Find linear encoder error
Compensate for motor error
Exit if error is small
Correction move
Start correction
Repeat
Motion Smoothing
The DMC-42x0 controller allows the smoothing of the velocity profile to reduce the mechanical vibration of the
system.
Trapezoidal velocity profiles have acceleration rates which change abruptly from zero to maximum value. The
discontinuous acceleration results in jerk which causes vibration. The smoothing of the acceleration profile leads
to a continuous acceleration profile and reduces the mechanical shock and vibration.
Using the IT Command:
When operating with servo motors, motion smoothing can be accomplished with the IT command.
This command filters the acceleration and deceleration functions to produce a smooth velocity
profile. The resulting velocity profile, has continuous acceleration and results in reduced mechanical
vibrations.
The smoothing function is specified by the following commands:
Chapter 6 Programming Motion ▫ 97
DMC-42x0 User Manual
IT x,y,z,w
Independent time constant
The command, IT, is used for smoothing independent moves of the type JG, PR, PA and to smooth vector moves of
the type VM and LM.
The smoothing parameters, x,y,z,w and n are numbers between 0 and 1 and determine the degree of filtering. The
maximum value of 1 implies no filtering, resulting in trapezoidal velocity profiles. Smaller values of the smoothing
parameters imply heavier filtering and smoother moves.
The following example illustrates the effect of smoothing. Figure 6.21 shows the trapezoidal velocity profile and
the modified acceleration and velocity.
Note that the smoothing process results in longer motion time.
Example - Smoothing
PR
AC
DC
SP
IT
BG
20000
100000
100000
5000
.5
X
Position
Acceleration
Deceleration
Speed
Filter for smoothing
Begin
No smoothing
ACCELERATION
VELOCITY
After profile
smoothing
ACCELERATION
VELOCITY
Figure 6.21: Trapezoidal velocity and smooth velocity profiles
Using the KS Command (Step Motor Smoothing):
When operating with step motors, motion smoothing can be accomplished with the command, KS.
The KS command smoothes the frequency of step motor pulses. Similar to the command IT, this
produces a smooth velocity profile.
The step motor smoothing is specified by the following command:
KS x,y,z,w
where x,y,z,w is an integer from 0.25 to 64 and represents the amount of smoothing
The smoothing parameters, x,y,z,w and n are numbers between 0.25 and 64 and determine the degree of filtering.
The minimum value of 0.25 implies the least filtering, resulting in trapezoidal velocity profiles. Larger values of the
smoothing parameters imply heavier filtering and smoother moves.
Note that KS is valid only for step motors.
Chapter 6 Programming Motion ▫ 98
DMC-42x0 User Manual
Homing
The Find Edge (FE) and Home (HM) instructions may be used to home the motor to a mechanical reference. This
reference is connected to the Home input line. The HM command initializes the motor to the encoder index pulse
in addition to the Home input. The configure command (CN) is used to define the polarity of the home input.
The Find Edge (FE) instruction is useful for initializing the motor to a home switch. The home switch is connected
to the Homing Input. When the Find Edge command and Begin is used, the motor will accelerate up to the slew
speed and slew until a transition is detected on the Homing line. The motor will then decelerate to a stop. A high
deceleration value must be input before the find edge command is issued for the motor to decelerate rapidly after
sensing the home switch. The Home (HM) command can be used to position the motor on the index pulse after
the home switch is detected. This allows for finer positioning on initialization. The HM command and BG
command causes the following sequence of events to occur.
Stage 1:
Upon begin, the motor accelerates to the slew speed specified by the JG or SP commands. The direction of its
motion is determined by the state of the homing input. If _HMX reads 1 initially, the motor will go in the reverse
direction first (direction of decreasing encoder counts). If _HMX reads 0 initially, the motor will go in the forward
direction first. CN is the command used to define the polarity of the home input. With CN,-1 (the default value) a
normally open switch will make _HMX read 1 initially, and a normally closed switch will make _HMX read zero.
Furthermore, with CN,1 a normally open switch will make _HMX read 0 initially, and a normally closed switch will
make _HMX read 1. Therefore, the CN command will need to be configured properly to ensure the correct
direction of motion in the home sequence.
Upon detecting the home switch changing state, the motor begins decelerating to a stop.
Note: The direction of motion for the FE command also follows these rules for the state of the home input.
Stage 2:
The motor then traverses at HV counts/sec in the opposite direction of Stage 1 until the home switch toggles again.
If Stage 3 is in the opposite direction of Stage 2, the motor will stop immediately at this point and change direction.
If Stage 2 is in the same direction as Stage 3, the motor will never stop, but will smoothly continue into Stage 3.
Stage 3:
The motor traverses forward at HV counts/sec until the encoder index pulse is detected. The motor then
decelerates to a stop and goes back to the index.
The DMC-42x0 defines the home position as the position at which the index was detected and sets the encoder
reading at this point to zero.
The 4 different motion possibilities for the home sequence are shown in the following table.
Direction of Motion
Switch Type
CN Setting
Initial _HMX state
Stage 1
Stage 2
Stage 3
Normally Open
CN,-1
1
Reverse
Forward
Forward
Normally Open
CN,1
0
Forward
Reverse
Forward
Normally Closed
CN,-1
0
Forward
Reverse
Forward
Normally Closed
CN,1
1
Reverse
Forward
Forward
Chapter 6 Programming Motion ▫ 99
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Example: Homing
Instruction
Interpretation
#HOME
CN,-1
Label
Configure the polarity of the home input
AC 1000000
Acceleration Rate
DC 1000000
Deceleration Rate
SP 5000
Speed for Home Search
HM
Home
BG
Begin Motion
AM
After Complete
MG “AT HOME”
Send Message
EN
End
Figure 6.22 shows the velocity profile from the homing sequence of the example program above. For this profile,
the switch is normally closed and CN,-1.
HOME
SWITCH
_HMX=0
_HMX=1
POSITION
VELOCITY
MOTION
BEGINS IN
FORWARD
DIRECTION
POSITION
VELOCITY
MOTION
CHANGES
DIRECTION
POSITION
VELOCITY
MOTION IN
FORWARD
DIRECTION
TOWARD
INDEX
POSITION
INDEX PULSES
POSITION
Figure 6.22: Homing Sequence for Normally Closed Switch and CN,-1
Example: Find Edge
#EDGE
AC 2000000
DC 2000000
SP 8000
FE
BG
AM
MG “FOUND HOME”
DP 0
EN
Chapter 6 Programming Motion ▫ 100
Label
Acceleration rate
Deceleration rate
Speed
Find edge command
Begin motion
After complete
Send message
Define position as 0
End
DMC-42x0 User Manual
Command Summary - Homing Operation
Command
Description
FE
FI
HM
SC
TS
Find Edge Routine. This routine monitors the Home Input
Find Index Routine - This routine monitors the Index Input
Home Routine - This routine combines FE and FI as Described Above
Stop Code
Tell Status of Switches and Inputs
XYZW
XYZW
XYZW
XYZW
XYZW
Operand Summary - Homing Operation
Operand
Description
_HMx
_SCx
_TSx
Contains the value of the state of the Home Input
Contains stop code
Contains status of switches and inputs
High Speed Position Capture (The Latch Function)
Often it is desirable to capture the position precisely for registration applications. Position capture can be
programmed to latch on either a corresponding input (see Table 6.13) or on the index pulse for that axis. The
position can be captured for either the main or auxiliary encoder within 25 microseconds of an high-to-low
transition.
Input 1
Input 2
Input 3
Input 4
A-axis latch
B-axis latch
C-axis latch
D-axis latch
Input 9
Input 10
Input 11
Input 12
E-axis latch
F-axis latch
G-axis latch
H-axis latch
Table 6.13: Inputs and corresponding axis latch
NOTE
Latching is not valid with sampled feedback types such as: SSI, BiSS, Sin/Cos, and Analog
To insure a position capture within 25 microseconds, the input signal must be a transition from high to low. Low to
high transitions may have greater delay.
The software commands, AL and RL, are used to arm the latch and report the latched position respectively. The
latch must be re-armed after each latching event. See the Command Reference for more details on these
commands.
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Chapter 7 Application Programming
Overview
The DMC-42x0 provides a powerful programming language that allows users to customize the controller for their
particular application. Programs can be downloaded into the DMC-42x0 memory freeing the host computer for
other tasks. However, the host computer can send commands to the controller at any time, even while a program
is being executed. Only ASCII commands can be used for application programming.
In addition to standard motion commands, the DMC-42x0 provides commands that allow the DMC-42x0 to make
its own decisions. These commands include conditional jumps, event triggers and subroutines. For example, the
command JP#LOOP, n<10 causes a jump to the label #LOOP if the variable n is less than 10.
For greater programming flexibility, the DMC-42x0 provides user-defined variables, arrays and arithmetic functions.
For example, with a cut-to-length operation, the length can be specified as a variable in a program which the
operator can change as necessary.
The following sections in this chapter discuss all aspects of creating applications programs. The program memory
size is 80 characters x 4000 lines.
Program Format
A DMC-42x0 program consists of DMC instructions combined to solve a machine control application. Action
instructions, such as starting and stopping motion, are combined with Program Flow instructions to form the
complete program. Program Flow instructions evaluate real-time conditions, such as elapsed time or motion
complete, and alter program flow accordingly.
Each DMC-42x0 instruction in a program must be separated by a delimiter. Valid delimiters are the semicolon (;) or
carriage return. The semicolon is used to separate multiple instructions on a single program line where the
maximum number of instructions on a line is limited by 80 characters. A carriage return enters the final command
on a program line.
Using Labels in Programs
All DMC-42x0 programs must begin with a label and end with an End (EN) statement. Labels start with the pound
(#) sign followed by a maximum of seven characters. The first character must be a letter; after that, numbers are
permitted. Spaces are not permitted in label.
The maximum number of labels which may be defined is 510.
Valid labels
#BEGIN
#SQUARE
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#X1
#BEGIN1
Invalid labels
#1Square
#123
A Simple Example Program:
#START
PR 10000,20000
BG XY
AM
WT 2000
JP #START
EN
Beginning of the Program
Specify relative distances on X and Y axes
Begin Motion
Wait for motion complete
Wait 2 sec
Jump to label START
End of Program
The above program moves X and Y 10000 and 20000 units. After the motion is complete, the motors rest for 2
seconds. The cycle repeats indefinitely until the stop command is issued.
Special Labels
The DMC-42x0 have some special labels, which are used to define input interrupt subroutines, limit switch
subroutines, error handling subroutines, and command error subroutines. See section on
705HAuto-Start Routine
#AMPERR
#AUTO
#AUTOERR
#CMDERR
#COMINT
#ININT
#LIMSWI
#MCTIME
#POSERR
#TCPERR
Label for Amplifier error routine
Label that will automatically run upon the controller exiting a reset (power-on)
Label that will automatically run if there is an EEPROM error out of reset
Label for incorrect command subroutine
Label for Communications Interrupt (See CC Command)
Label for Input Interrupt subroutine (See II Command)
Label for Limit Switch subroutine
Label for timeout on Motion Complete trippoint
Label for excess Position Error subroutine
Label for errors over a TCP connection (error code 123)
Commenting Programs
Using the command, NO or Apostrophe (‘)
The DMC-42x0 provides a command, NO, for commenting programs or single apostrophe. This command allows
the user to include up to 78 characters on a single line after the NO command and can be used to include
comments from the programmer as in the following example:
#PATH
‘ 2-D CIRCULAR PATH
VMXY
‘ VECTOR MOTION ON X AND Y
VS 10000
‘ VECTOR SPEED IS 10000
VP -4000,0
‘ BOTTOM LINE
CR 1500,270,-180
‘ HALF CIRCLE MOTION
VP 0,3000
‘ TOP LINE
CR 1500,90,-180
‘ HALF CIRCLE MOTION
VE
‘ END VECTOR SEQUENCE
BGS
‘ BEGIN SEQUENCE MOTION
EN
‘ END OF PROGRAM
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Note: The NO command is an actual controller command. Therefore, inclusion of the NO commands will require
process time by the controller.
Difference between NO and ' using the GalilTools software
The GalilTools software will treat an apostrophe (') commend different from an NO when the compression
algorithm is activated upon a program download (line > 80 characters or program memory > 4000 lines). In this
case the software will remove all (') comments as part of the compression and it will download all NO comments to
the controller.
Executing Programs - Multitasking
The DMC-42x0 can run up to 8 independent programs simultaneously. These programs are called threads and are
numbered 0 through 7, where 0 is the main thread. Multitasking is useful for executing independent operations
such as PLC functions that occur independently of motion.
The main thread differs from the others in the following ways:
1.
Only the main thread, thread 0, may use the input command, IN.
2.
When input interrupts are implemented for limit switches, position errors or command errors, the
subroutines are executed as thread 0.
To begin execution of the various programs, use the following instruction:
XQ #A, n
Where n indicates the thread number. To halt the execution of any thread, use the instruction
HX n
where n is the thread number.
Note that both the XQ and HX commands can be performed by an executing program.
The example below produces a waveform on Output 1 independent of a move.
#TASK1
AT0
CB1
#LOOP1
AT 10
SB1
AT -40
CB1
JP #LOOP1
#TASK2
XQ #TASK1,1
#LOOP2
PR 1000
BGX
AMX
WT 10
JP #LOOP2,@IN[2]=1
HX
Task1 label
Initialize reference time
Clear Output 1
Loop1 label
Wait 10 msec from reference time
Set Output 1
Wait 40 msec from reference time, then initialize reference
Clear Output 1
Repeat Loop1
Task2 label
Execute Task1
Loop2 label
Define relative distance
Begin motion
After motion done
Wait 10 msec
Repeat motion unless Input 2 is low
Halt all tasks
The program above is executed with the instruction XQ #TASK2,0 which designates TASK2 as the main thread (i.e.
Thread 0). #TASK1 is executed within TASK2.
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Debugging Programs
The DMC-42x0 provides commands and operands which are useful in debugging application programs. These
commands include interrogation commands to monitor program execution, determine the state of the controller
and the contents of the controllers program, array, and variable space. Operands also contain important status
information which can help to debug a program.
Trace Commands
The trace command causes the controller to send each line in a program to the host computer immediately prior to
execution. Tracing is enabled with the command, TR1. TR0 turns the trace function off. Note: When the trace
function is enabled, the line numbers as well as the command line will be displayed as each command line is
executed.
NOTE: When the trace function is enabled, the line numbers as well as the command line will be displayed as each
command line is executed.
Data which is output from the controller is stored in the output UART. The UART buffer can store up to 512
characters of information. In normal operation, the controller places output into the FIFO buffer. When the trace
mode is enabled, the controller will send information to the UART buffer at a very high rate. In general, the UART
will become full because the hardware handshake line will halt serial data until the correct data is read. When the
UART becomes full, program execution will be delayed until it is cleared. If the user wants to avoid this delay, the
command CW,1 can be given. This command causes the controller to throw away the data which can not be placed
into the FIFO. In this case, the controller does not delay program execution.
Error Code Command
When there is a program error, the DMC-42x0 halts the program execution at the point where the error occurs. To
display the last line number of program execution, issue the command, MG _ED.
The user can obtain information about the type of error condition that occurred by using the command, TC1. This
command reports back a number and a text message which describes the error condition. The command, TC0 or
TC, will return the error code without the text message. For more information about the command, TC, see the
Command Reference.
Stop Code Command
The status of motion for each axis can be determined by using the stop code command, SC. This can be useful
when motion on an axis has stopped unexpectedly. The command SC will return a number representing the
motion status. See the command reference for further information.
RAM Memory Interrogation Commands
For debugging the status of the program memory, array memory, or variable memory, the DMC-42x0 has several
useful commands. The command, DM ?, will return the number of array elements currently available. The
command, DA ?, will return the number of arrays which can be currently defined. For example, a standard DMC14010 will have a maximum of 24000 array elements in up to 30 arrays. If an array of 100 elements is defined, the
command DM ? will return the value 15900 and the command DA ? will return 29.
To list the contents of the variable space, use the interrogation command LV (List Variables). To list the contents of
array space, use the interrogation command, LA (List Arrays). To list the contents of the Program space, use the
interrogation command, LS (List). To list the application program labels only, use the interrogation command, LL
(List Labels).
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Operands
In general, all operands provide information which may be useful in debugging an application program. Below is a
list of operands which are particularly valuable for program debugging. To display the value of an operand, the
message command may be used. For example, since the operand, _ED contains the last line of program execution,
the command MG _ED will display this line number.
_ED contains the last line of program execution. Useful to determine where program stopped.
_DL contains the number of available labels.
_UL contains the number of available variables.
_DA contains the number of available arrays.
_DM contains the number of available array elements.
_AB contains the state of the Abort Input
_LFx contains the state of the forward limit switch for the ‘x’ axis
_LRx contains the state of the reverse limit switch for the ‘x’ axis
Debugging Example:
The following program has an error. It attempts to specify a relative movement while the X-axis is already in
motion. When the program is executed, the controller stops at line 003. The user can then query the controller
using the command, TC1. The controller responds with the corresponding explanation:
Download Code
#A
PR1000
BGX
PR5000
EN
From Terminal
:XQ #A
?003 PR5000
:TC1
?7 Command not valid
while running.
:XQ #A
Program Label
Position Relative 1000
Begin
Position Relative 5000
End
Execute #A
Error on Line 3
Tell Error Code
Command not valid while running
Change the BGX line to BGX;AMX and re-download the program.
Execute #A
Program Flow Commands
The DMC-42x0 provides instructions to control program flow. The controller program sequencer normally executes
program instructions sequentially. The program flow can be altered with the use of event triggers, trippoints, and
conditional jump statements.
Event Triggers & Trippoints
To function independently from the host computer, the DMC-42x0 can be programmed to make decisions based on
the occurrence of an event. Such events include waiting for motion to be complete, waiting for a specified amount
of time to elapse, or waiting for an input to change logic levels.
The DMC-42x0 provides several event triggers that cause the program sequencer to halt until the specified event
occurs. Normally, a program is automatically executed sequentially one line at a time. When an event trigger
instruction is decoded, however, the actual program sequence is halted. The program sequence does not continue
until the event trigger is “tripped”. For example, the motion complete trigger can be used to separate two move
sequences in a program. The commands for the second move sequence will not be executed until the motion is
complete on the first motion sequence. In this way, the controller can make decisions based on its own status or
external events without intervention from a host computer.
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DMC-42x0 Event Triggers
Command
AM X Y Z W or S
(A B C D E F G H)
AD X or Y or Z or W
(A or B or C or D or E or F or G or H)
AR X or Y or Z or W
(A or B or C or D or E or F or G or H)
AP X or Y or Z or W
(A or B or C or D or E or F or G or H)
MF X or Y or Z or W
(A or B or C or D or E or F or G or H)
MR X or Y or Z or W
(A or B or C or D or E or F or G or H)
MC X or Y or Z or W
(A or B or C or D or E or F or G or H)
AI ± n
AS X Y Z W S
(A B C D E F G H)
AT ±n,m
AV n
WT n,m
Function
Halts program execution until motion is complete on the
specified axes or motion sequence(s). AM with no parameter
tests for motion complete on all axes. This command is useful
for separating motion sequences in a program.
Halts program execution until position command has reached
the specified relative distance from the start of the move.
Only one axis may be specified at a time.
Halts program execution until after specified distance from
the last AR or AD command has elapsed. Only one axis may
be specified at a time.
Halts program execution until after absolute position occurs.
Only one axis may be specified at a time.
Halt program execution until after forward motion reached
absolute position. Only one axis may be specified. If position
is already past the point, then MF will trip immediately. Will
function on geared axis or aux. inputs.
Halt program execution until after reverse motion reached
absolute position. Only one axis may be specified. If position
is already past the point, then MR will trip immediately. Will
function on geared axis or aux. inputs.
Halt program execution until after the motion profile has
been completed and the encoder has entered or passed the
specified position. TW x,y,z,w sets timeout to declare an
error if not in position. If timeout occurs, then the trippoint
will clear and the stop code will be set to 99. An application
program will jump to label #MCTIME.
Halts program execution until after specified input is at
specified logic level. n specifies input line. Positive is high
logic level, negative is low level. n=1 through 8 for DMC4210, 4020, 4030, 4040. n=1 through 16 for DMC-4250,
4060, 4070, 4080
Also n= 17-48
Halts program execution until specified axis has reached its
slew speed.
For m=omitted or 0, halts program execution until n msec
from reference time. AT 0 sets reference. AT n waits n msec
from reference. AT -n waits n msec from reference and sets
new reference after elapsed time.
For m=1. Same functionality except that n is number of
samples rather than msec
Halts program execution until specified distance along a
coordinated path has occurred.
For m=omitted or 0, halts program execution until specified
time in msec has elapsed.
For m=1. Same functionality except that n is number of
samples rather than msec.
Event Trigger Examples:
Event Trigger - Multiple Move Sequence
The AM trippoint is used to separate the two PR moves. If AM is not used, the controller returns a ? for the second
PR command because a new PR cannot be given until motion is complete.
#TWOMOVE;'
PR 2000;'
BGX;'
AMX;'
PR 4000;'
BGX;'
EN;'
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Label
Position Command
Begin Motion
Wait for Motion Complete
Next Position Move
Begin 2nd move
End program
DMC-42x0 User Manual
Event Trigger - Set Output after Distance
Set output bit 1 after a distance of 1000 counts from the start of the move. The accuracy of the trippoint is the
speed multiplied by the sample period.
#SETBIT;'
SP 10000;'
PA 20000;'
BGX;'
AD 1000;'
SB1;'
EN;'
Label
Speed is 10000
Specify Absolute position
Begin motion
Wait until 1000 counts
Set output bit 1
End program
Event Trigger - Repetitive Position Trigger
To set the output bit every 10000 counts during a move, the AR trippoint is used as shown in the next example.
#TRIP;'
JG 50000;'
BGX;n=0;'
#REPEAT;'
AR 10000;'
TPX;'
SB1;'
WT50;'
CB1;'
n=n+1;'
JP #REPEAT,n<5;'
STX;'
EN;'
Label
Specify Jog Speed
Begin Motion
# Repeat Loop
Wait 10000 counts
Tell Position
Set output 1
Wait 50 msec
Clear output 1
Increment counter
Repeat 5 times
Stop
End
Event Trigger - Start Motion on Input
This example waits for input 1 to go low and then starts motion. Note: The AI command actually halts execution of
the program until the input occurs. If you do not want to halt the program sequences, you can use the Input
Interrupt function (II) or use a conditional jump on an input, such as JP#GO,@IN[1] = 1.
#INPUT;'
AI-1;'
PR 10000;'
BGX;'
EN;'
Program Label
Wait for input 1 low
Position command
Begin motion
End program
Event Trigger - Set output when At speed
#ATSPEED;'
JG 50000;'
AC 10000;'
BGX;'
ASX;'
SB1;'
EN;'
Program Label
Specify jog speed
Acceleration rate
Begin motion
Wait for at slew speed 50000
Set output 1
End program
Event Trigger - Change Speed along Vector Path
The following program changes the feed rate or vector speed at the specified distance along the vector. The vector
distance is measured from the start of the move or from the last AV command.
#VECTOR;'
VMXY;VS 5000;'
VP 10000,20000;'
VP 20000,30000;'
VE;'
BGS;'
AV 5000;'
VS 1000;'
EN;'
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Label
Coordinated path
Vector position
Vector position
End vector
Begin sequence
After vector distance
Reduce speed
End
DMC-42x0 User Manual
Event Trigger - Multiple Move with Wait
This example makes multiple relative distance moves by waiting for each to be complete before executing new
moves.
#MOVES;'
PR 12000;'
SP 20000;'
AC 100000;'
BGX;'
AD 10000;'
SP 5000;'
AMX;'
WT 200;'
PR -10000;'
SP 30000;'
AC 150000;'
BGX;'
EN;'
Label
Distance
Speed
Acceleration
Start Motion
Wait a distance of 10,000 counts
New Speed
Wait until motion is completed
Wait 200 ms
New Position
New Speed
New Acceleration
Start Motion
End
Define Output Waveform Using AT
The following program causes Output 1 to be high for 10 msec and low for 40 msec. The cycle repeats every 50
msec.
#OUTPUT;'
AT0;'
SB1;'
#LOOP;'
AT 10;'
CB1;'
AT -40;'
SB1;'
JP #LOOP;'
EN;'
Program label
Initialize time reference
Set Output 1
Loop
After 10 msec from reference,
Clear Output 1
Wait 40 msec from reference and reset reference
Set Output 1
Loop
End Program
Using AT/WT with non-default TM rates
By default both WT and AT are defined to hold up program execution for 'n' number of milliseconds (WT n or AT n).
The second field of both AT and WT can be used to have the program execution be held-up for 'n' number of
samples rather than milliseconds. For example WT 400 or WT 400,0 will hold up program execution for 400 msec
regardless of what is set for TM. By contrast WT 400,1 will hold up program execution for 400 samples. For the
default TM of 1000 the servo update rate is 976us per sample, so the difference between WT n,0 and WT n,1 is
minimal. The difference comes when the servo update rate is changed. With a low servo update rate, it is often
useful to be able to time loops based upon samples rather than msec, and this is where the “unscaled” WT and AT
are useful. For example:
#MAIN;'
TM 250;'
#MOVE;'
PRX=1000;'
BGX;'
MCX;'
WT 2,1;'
SB1;'
EN;'
Label
250us update rate
Label
Position Relative Move
Begin Motion
Wait for motion to complete
Wait 2 samples (500us)
Set bit 1
End Program
In the above example, without using an unscaled WT, the output would either need to be set directly after the
motion was complete, or 2 ms after the motion was complete. By using WT n,1 and a lower TM, greater delay
resolution was achieved.
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Conditional Jumps
The DMC-42x0 provides Conditional Jump (JP) and Conditional Jump to Subroutine (JS) instructions for branching
to a new program location based on a specified condition. The conditional jump determines if a condition is
satisfied and then branches to a new location or subroutine. Unlike event triggers, the conditional jump instruction
does not halt the program sequence. Conditional jumps are useful for testing events in real-time. They allow the
controller to make decisions without a host computer. For example, the DMC-42x0 can decide between two
motion profiles based on the state of an input line.
Command Format - JP and JS
FORMAT
DESCRIPTION
JS destination, logical condition
JP destination, logical condition
Jump to subroutine if logical condition is satisfied
Jump to location if logical condition is satisfied
The destination is a program line number or label where the program sequencer will jump if the specified condition
is satisfied. Note that the line number of the first line of program memory is 0. The comma designates “IF”. The
logical condition tests two operands with logical operators.
Logical operators:
OPERATOR
<
>
=
<=
>=
<>
DESCRIPTION
less than
greater than
equal to
less than or equal to
greater than or equal to
not equal
Conditional Statements
The conditional statement is satisfied if it evaluates to any value other than zero. The conditional statement can be
any valid DMC-42x0 numeric operand, including variables, array elements, numeric values, functions, keywords,
and arithmetic expressions. If no conditional statement is given, the jump will always occur.
Examples:
Number
Numeric Expression
Array Element
Variable
Internal Variable
I/O
v1=6
v1=v7*6
@ABS[v1]>10
v1<count[2]
v1<v2
_TPX=0
_TVX>500
v1>@AN[2]
@IN[1]=0
Multiple Conditional Statements
The DMC-42x0 will accept multiple conditions in a single jump statement. The conditional statements are
combined in pairs using the operands “&” and “|”. The “&” operand between any two conditions, requires that
both statements must be true for the combined statement to be true. The “|” operand between any two
conditions, requires that only one statement be true for the combined statement to be true.
Note: Each condition must be placed in parentheses for proper evaluation by the controller. In addition, the DMC42x0 executes operations from left to right. See Mathematical and Functional Expressions for more information.
For example, using variables named v1, v2, v3 and v4:
JP #TEST,((v1<v2)&(v3<v4))
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In this example, this statement will cause the program to jump to the label #TEST if v1 is less than v2 and v3 is less
than v4. To illustrate this further, consider this same example with an additional condition:
JP #TEST, ((v1<v2) & (v3<v4)) | (v5<v6)
This statement will cause the program to jump to the label #TEST under two conditions; 1. If v1 is less than v2 and
v3 is less than v4. OR 2. If v5 is less than v6.
Using the JP Command:
If the condition for the JP command is satisfied, the controller branches to the specified label or line number and
continues executing commands from this point. If the condition is not satisfied, the controller continues to execute
the next commands in sequence.
Conditional
Meaning
JP #Loop,count<10
JS #MOVE2,@IN[1]=1
Jump to #Loop if the variable, count, is less than 10
Jump to subroutine #MOVE2 if input 1 is logic level high. After the subroutine MOVE2 is executed, the
program sequencer returns to the main program location where the subroutine was called.
Jump to #BLUE if the absolute value of variable, v2, is greater than 2
Jump to #C if the value of v1 times v7 is less than or equal to the value of v8*v2
Jump to #A
JP #BLUE,@ABS[v2]>2
JP #C,v1*v7<=v8*v2
JP#A
Example Using JP command:
Move the X motor to absolute position 1000 counts and back to zero ten times. Wait 100 msec between moves.
#BEGIN
count=10
#LOOP
PA 1000
BGX
AMX
WT 100
PA 0
BGX
AMX
WT 100
count=count-1
JP #LOOP,count>0
EN
Begin Program
Initialize loop counter
Begin loop
Position absolute 1000
Begin move
Wait for motion complete
Wait 100 msec
Position absolute 0
Begin move
Wait for motion complete
Wait 100 msec
Decrement loop counter
Test for 10 times thru loop
End Program
Using If, Else, and Endif Commands
The DMC-42x0 provides a structured approach to conditional statements using IF, ELSE and ENDIF commands.
Using the IF and ENDIF Commands
An IF conditional statement is formed by the combination of an IF and ENDIF command. The IF command has as
it’s arguments one or more conditional statements. If the conditional statement(s) evaluates true, the command
interpreter will continue executing commands which follow the IF command. If the conditional statement
evaluates false, the controller will ignore commands until the associated ENDIF command is executed OR an ELSE
command occurs in the program (see discussion of ELSE command below).
Note: An ENDIF command must always be executed for every IF command that has been executed. It is
recommended that the user not include jump commands inside IF conditional statements since this causes redirection of command execution. In this case, the command interpreter may not execute an ENDIF command.
Using the ELSE Command
The ELSE command is an optional part of an IF conditional statement and allows for the execution of command
only when the argument of the IF command evaluates False. The ELSE command must occur after an IF command
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and has no arguments. If the argument of the IF command evaluates false, the controller will skip commands until
the ELSE command. If the argument for the IF command evaluates true, the controller will execute the commands
between the IF and ELSE command.
Nesting IF Conditional Statements
The DMC-42x0 allows for IF conditional statements to be included within other IF conditional statements. This
technique is known as ‘nesting’ and the DMC-42x0 allows up to 255 IF conditional statements to be nested. This is
a very powerful technique allowing the user to specify a variety of different cases for branching.
Command Format - IF, ELSE and ENDIF
Format:
Description
IF conditional statement(s)
Execute commands proceeding IF command (up to ELSE command) if
conditional statement(s) is true, otherwise continue executing at ENDIF
command or optional ELSE command.
Optional command. Allows for commands to be executed when argument of
IF command evaluates not true. Can only be used with IF command.
Command to end IF conditional statement. Program must have an ENDIF
command for every IF command.
ELSE
ENDIF
Example using IF, ELSE and ENDIF:
#TEST
II,,3
MG “WAITING FOR INPUT 1, INPUT 2”
#LOOP
JP #LOOP
EN
#ININT
IF (@IN[1]=0)
IF (@IN[2]=0)
MG “INPUT 1 AND INPUT 2 ARE ACTIVE”
ELSE
MG “ONLY INPUT 1 IS ACTIVE
ENDIF
ELSE
MG”ONLY INPUT 2 IS ACTIVE”
ENDIF
#WAIT
JP#WAIT,(@IN[1]=0) | (@IN[2]=0)
RI0
Begin Main Program “TEST”
Enable input interrupts on input 1 and input 2
Output message
Label to be used for endless loop
Endless loop
End of main program
Input Interrupt Subroutine
IF conditional statement based on input 1
2nd IF conditional statement executed if 1st IF conditional true
Message to be executed if 2nd IF conditional is true
ELSE command for 2nd IF conditional statement
Message to be executed if 2nd IF conditional is false
End of 2nd conditional statement
ELSE command for 1st IF conditional statement
Message to be executed if 1st IF conditional statement is false
End of 1st conditional statement
Label to be used for a loop
Loop until both input 1 and input 2 are not active
End Input Interrupt Routine without restoring trippoints
Subroutines
A subroutine is a group of instructions beginning with a label and ending with an end command (EN). Subroutines
are called from the main program with the jump subroutine instruction JS, followed by a label or line number, and
conditional statement. Up to 8 subroutines can be nested. After the subroutine is executed, the program
sequencer returns to the program location where the subroutine was called unless the subroutine stack is
manipulated as described in the following section.
Example:
An example of a subroutine to draw a square 500 counts per side is given below. The square is drawn at vector
position 1000,1000.
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#M
CB1
VP 1000,1000;LE;BGS
AMS
SB1
JS #Square;CB1
EN
#Square
v1=500;JS #L
v1=-v1;JS #L
EN
#L;PR v1,v1;BGX
AMX;BGY;AMY
EN
Begin Main Program
Clear Output Bit 1 (pick up pen)
Define vector position; move pen
Wait for after motion trippoint
Set Output Bit 1 (put down pen)
Jump to square subroutine
End Main Program
Square subroutine
Define length of side
Switch direction
End subroutine
Define X,Y; Begin X
After motion on X, Begin Y
End subroutine
Stack Manipulation
It is possible to manipulate the subroutine stack by using the ZS command. Every time a JS instruction, interrupt or
automatic routine (such as #POSERR or #LIMSWI) is executed, the subroutine stack is incremented by 1. Normally
the stack is restored with an EN instruction. Occasionally it is desirable not to return back to the program line
where the subroutine or interrupt was called. The ZS1 command clears 1 level of the stack. This allows the
program sequencer to continue to the next line. The ZS0 command resets the stack to its initial value. For
example, if a limit occurs and the #LIMSWI routine is executed, it is often desirable to restart the program sequence
instead of returning to the location where the limit occurred. To do this, give a ZS command at the end of the
#LIMSWI routine.
Auto-Start Routine
The DMC-42x0 has a special label for automatic program execution. A program which has been saved into the
controller’s non-volatile memory can be automatically executed upon power up or reset by beginning the program
with the label #AUTO. The program must be saved into non-volatile memory using the command, BP.
Automatic Subroutines for Monitoring Conditions
Often it is desirable to monitor certain conditions continuously without tying up the host or DMC-42x0 program
sequences. The controller can monitor several important conditions in the background. These conditions include
checking for the occurrence of a limit switch, a defined input, position error, or a command error. Automatic
monitoring is enabled by inserting a special, predefined label in the applications program. The pre-defined labels
are:
SUBROUTINE
#LIMSWI
#ININT
#POSERR
#MCTIME
#CMDERR
#AUTO
#AUTOERR
#AMPERR
Chapter 7 Application Programming ▫ 113
DESCRIPTION
Limit switch on any axis goes low
Input specified by II goes low
Position error exceeds limit specified by ER
Motion Complete timeout occurred. Timeout period set by TW command
Bad command given
Automatically executes on power up
Automatically executes when a checksum is encountered during #AUTO startup. Check error condition with _RS.
bit 0 for variable checksum error
bit 1 for parameter checksum error
bit 2 for program checksum error
bit 3 for master reset error (there should be no program )
Error from internal Galil amplifier
DMC-42x0 User Manual
For example, the #POSERR subroutine will automatically be executed when any axis exceeds its position error limit.
The commands in the #POSERR subroutine could decode which axis is in error and take the appropriate action. In
another example, the #ININT label could be used to designate an input interrupt subroutine. When the specified
input occurs, the program will be executed automatically.
NOTE: An application program must be running for #CMDERR to function.
Example - Limit Switch:
This program prints a message upon the occurrence of a limit switch. Note, for the #LIMSWI routine to function,
the DMC-42x0 must be executing an applications program from memory. This can be a very simple program that
does nothing but loop on a statement, such as #LOOP;JP #LOOP;EN. Motion commands, such as JG 5000 can still
be sent from the PC even while the “dummy” applications program is being executed.
#LOOP
JP #LOOP;EN
#LIMSWI
MG “LIMIT OCCURRED”
RE
:XQ #LOOP
:JG 5000
:BGX
Dummy Program
Jump to Loop
Limit Switch Label
Print Message
Return to main program
Download Program
Execute Dummy Program
Jog
Begin Motion
Now, when a forward limit switch occurs on the X axis, the #LIMSWI subroutine will be executed.
Notes regarding the #LIMSWI Routine:
1) The RE command is used to return from the #LIMSWI subroutine.
2) The #LIMSWI subroutine will be re-executed if the limit switch remains active.
The #LIMSWI routine is only executed when the motor is being commanded to move.
Example - Position Error
#LOOP
JP #LOOP;EN
#POSERR
v1=_TEX
MG “EXCESS POSITION ERROR”
MG “ERROR=”,v1=
RE
:XQ #LOOP
:JG 100000
:BGX
Dummy Program
Loop
Position Error Routine
Read Position Error
Print Message
Print Error
Return from Error
Download program
Execute Dummy Program
Jog at High Speed
Begin Motion
Example - Input Interrupt
#A
II1
JG 30000,,,60000
BGXW
#LOOP;JP#LOOP;EN
#ININT
STXW;AM
#TEST;JP #TEST, @IN[1]=0
JG 30000,,,6000
BGXW
RI0
Chapter 7 Application Programming ▫ 114
Label
Input Interrupt on 1
Jog
Begin Motion
Loop
Input Interrupt
Stop Motion
Test for Input 1 still low
Restore Velocities
Begin motion
Return from interrupt routine to Main Program and do not re-enable trippoints
DMC-42x0 User Manual
Example - Motion Complete Timeout
#BEGIN
TW 1000
PA 10000
BGX
MCX
EN
#MCTIME
MG “X fell short”
EN
Begin main program
Set the time out to 1000 ms
Position Absolute command
Begin motion
Motion Complete trippoint
End main program
Motion Complete Subroutine
Send out a message
End subroutine
This simple program will issue the message “X fell short” if the X axis does not reach the commanded position
within 1 second of the end of the profiled move.
Example - Command Error
#BEGIN
speed = 2000
JG speed;BGX;
#LOOP
JG speed;WT100
JP #LOOP
EN
#CMDERR
JP#DONE,_ED<>2
JP#DONE,_TC<>6
MG “SPEED TOO HIGH”
MG “TRY AGAIN”
ZS1
JP #BEGIN
#DONE
ZS0
EN
Begin main program
Set variable for speed
Begin motion
Update Jog speed based upon speed variable
End main program
Command error utility
Check if error on line 2
Check if out of range
Send message
Send message
Adjust stack
Return to main program
End program if other error
Zero stack
End program
The above program prompts the operator to enter a jog speed. If the operator enters a number out of range
(greater than 8 million), the #CMDERR routine will be executed prompting the operator to enter a new number.
In multitasking applications, there is an alternate method for handling command errors from different threads.
Using the XQ command along with the special operands described below allows the controller to either skip or
retry invalid commands.
OPERAND
_ED1
_ED2
_ED3
FUNCTION
Returns the number of the thread that generated an error
Retry failed command (operand contains the location of the failed command)
Skip failed command (operand contains the location of the command after the failed
command)
The operands are used with the XQ command in the following format:
XQ _ED2 (or _ED3),_ED1,1
Where the “,1” at the end of the command line indicates a restart; therefore, the existing program stack will not be
removed when the above format executes.
The following example shows an error correction routine which uses the operands.
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Example - Command Error w/Multitasking
#A
JP#A
EN
Begin thread 0 (continuous loop)
#B
N=-1
KP N
TY
EN
Begin thread 1
Create new variable
Set KP to value of N, an invalid value
Issue invalid command
End of thread 1
#CMDERR
IF _TC=6
N=1
XQ _ED2,_ED1,1
ENDIF
IF _TC=1
XQ _ED3,_ED1,1
ENDIF
EN
Begin command error subroutine
If error is out of range (KP -1)
Set N to a valid number
Retry KP N command
End of thread 0
If error is invalid command (TY)
Skip invalid command
End of command error routine
Example - Communication Interrupt
A DMC-4210 is used to move the A axis back and forth from 0 to 10000. This motion can be paused, resumed and
stopped via input from an auxiliary port terminal.
#BEGIN
CC 9600,0,1,0
CI 2
MG {P2}"Type 0 to stop motion"
MG {P2}"Type 1 to pause motion"
MG {P2}"Type 2 to resume motion"
rate=2000
SPA=rate
#LOOP
PAA=10000
BGA
AMA
PAA=0
BGA
AMA
JP #LOOP
EN
#COMINT
JP #STOP,P2CH="0"
JP #PAUSE,P2CH="1"
JP #RESUME,P2CH="2"
EN1,1
#STOP
STA;ZS;EN
#PAUSE
rate=_SPA
SPA=0
EN1,1
#RESUME
SPA=rate
EN1,1
Label for beginning of program
Setup communication configuration for auxiliary serial port
Setup communication interrupt for auxiliary serial port
Message out of auxiliary port
Message out of auxiliary port
Message out of auxiliary port
Variable to remember speed
Set speed of A axis motion
Label for Loop
Move to absolute position 10000
Begin Motion on A axis
Wait for motion to be complete
Move to absolute position 0
Begin Motion on A axis
Wait for motion to be complete
Continually loop to make back and forth motion
End main program
Interrupt Routine
Check for S (stop motion)
Check for P (pause motion)
Check for R (resume motion)
Do nothing
Routine for stopping motion
Stop motion on A axis; Zero program stack; End Program
Routine for pausing motion
Save current speed setting of A axis motion
Set speed of A axis to zero (allows for pause)
Re-enable trippoint and communication interrupt
Routine for resuming motion
Set speed on A axis to original speed
Re-enable trippoint and communication interrupt
For additional information, see section on Using Communication Interrupt.
Example – Ethernet Communication Error
This simple program executes in the DMC-42x0 and indicates (via the serial port) when a communication handle
fails. By monitoring the serial port, the user can re-establish communication if needed.
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#LOOP
JP#LOOP
EN
#TCPERR
MG {P1}_IA4
Simple program loop
Ethernet communication error auto routine
Send message to serial port indicating which handle did not
receive proper acknowledgment.
RE
Example – Amplifier Error
The program below will execute upon the detection of an error from an internal Galil Amplifier. The bits in TA1 will
be set for all axes that have an invalid hall state even if BR1 is set for those axes, this is handled with the mask
variable shown in the code below.
#AMPERR
REM mask out axes that are in brushed mode for _TA1
mask=(_BRH*128)+(_BRG*64)+(_BRF*32)+(_BRE*16)+(_BRD*8)+(_BRC*4)+(_BRB*2)+_BRA
[email protected][mask]
mask=((_TA1&mask)&$0000FFFF)
LU0;’turn off auto update of LCD
REM amplifier error status on LCD
MG″A-ER TA0″{L1},_TA0{L2};WT2000
MG″A-ER TA1″{L1},mask{L2};WT2000
MG″A-ER TA2″{L1},_TA2{L2};WT2000
MG″A-ER TA3″{L1},_TA3{L2};WT2000
LU1;’turn on Automatic Axis Update of LCD
WT5000
REM the sum of the amperr bits should be 0 with no amplifier error
er=_TA0+mask+_TA2+_TA3
JP#AMPERR,er0
REM Notify user amperr has cleared
LU0
MG″AMPERR″{L1},″RESOLVED″{L2}
WT3000
LU1
RE
JS Subroutine Stack Variables (^a, ^b, ^c, ^d, ^e, ^f, ^g, ^h)
There are 8 variables that may be passed on the subroutine stack when using the JS command. Passing values on
the stack is advanced DMC programming, and is recommended for experienced DMC programmers familiar with
the concept of passing arguments by value and by reference.
Notes:
1.
Passing parameters has no type checking, so it is important to exercise good programming style when
passing parameters. See examples below for recommended syntax.
2.
Do not use spaces in expressions containing ^.
3.
Global variables MUST be assigned prior to any use in subroutines where variables are passed by
reference.
4.
Please refer to the JS command in the controller's command reference for further important information.
Example: A Simple Adding Function
#Add
JS#SUM(1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8)
MG_JS
EN
'
#SUM
EN,,(^a+^b+^c+^d+^e+^f+^g+^h)
;' call subroutine, pass values
;' print return value
;NO(^a,^b,^c,^d,^e,^f,^g,^h) syntax note for use
;' return sum
:Executed program from program1.dmc
36.0000
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Example: Variable, and an Important Note about Creating Global Variables
#Var
value=5
global=8
;'a value to be passed by reference
;'a global variable
JS#SUM(&value,1,2,3,4,5,6,7)
MG value
;'note first arg passed by reference
;'message out value after subroutine.
MG _JS
EN
;'message out returned value
'
#SUM
;NO(* ^a,^b,^c,^d,^e,^f,^g)
^a=^b+^c+^d+^e+^f+^g+^h+global
EN,,^a
'notes:
'do not use spaces when working with ^
'If using global variables, they MUST be created before the subroutine is run
Executed program from program2.dmc
36.0000
36.0000
Example: Working with Arrays
#Array
DM speeds[8]
DM other[256]
JS#zeroAry("speeds",0)
;'zero out all buckets in speeds[]
JS#zeroAry("other",0)
EN
;'zero out all buckers in other[]
'
#zeroAry
;NO(array ^a, ^b) zeros array starting at index ^b
^a[^b]=0
^b=^b+1
JP#zeroAry,(^b<^a[-1])
EN
;'[-1] returns the length of an array
Example: Abstracting Axes
#Axes
JS#runMove(0,10000,1000,100000,100000)
MG "Position:",_JS
EN
'
#runMove
~a=^a
;NO(axis ^a, PR ^b, SP ^c, AC ^d, DC ^e) Profile movement for axis
;'~a is global, so use carefully in subroutines
'try one variable axis a-h for each thread A-H
PR~a=^b
SP~a=^c
AC~a=^d
DC~a=^e
BG~a
MC~a
EN,,_TP~a
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Example: Local Scope
#Local
JS#POWER(2,2)
MG_JS
JS#POWER(2,16)
MG_JS
JS#POWER(2,-8)
MG_JS
'
#POWER
;NO(base ^a,exponent^b) Returns base^exponent power. ± integer only
^c=1
;'unpassed variable space (^c-^h) can be used as local scope variables
IF ^b=0
;'special case, exponent = 0
EN,,1
ENDIF
IF ^b<0
;'special case, exponent < 0, invert result
^d=1
^[email protected][^b]
ELSE
^d=0
ENDIF
#PWRHLPR
^c=^c*^a
^b=^b-1
JP#PWRHLPR,^b>0
IF ^d=1
;'if inversion required
^c=(1/^c)
ENDIF
EN,,^c
Executed program from program1.dmc
4.0000
65536.0000
0.0039
Example: Recursion
'although the stack depth is only 16, Galil DMC code does support recursion
JS#AxsInfo(0)
MG{Z2.0}"Recursed through ",_JS," stacks"
EN
'
#AxsInfo
;NO(axis ^a) List info for axes
~h=^a
^b=(^a+$41)*$1000000
;'convert to Galil String
MG^b{S1}, " Axis: "{N}
MG{F8.0}"Position: ",_TP~h," Error:",_TE~h," Torque:",_TT~h{F1.4}
IF ^a=7
;'recursion exit condition
EN,,1
ENDIF
JS#AxsInfo(^a + 1)
;'stack up recursion
EN,,_JS+1
;' as recursion closes, add up stack depths
Executed program from program1.dmc
A Axis: Position: 00029319 Error: 00001312 Torque: 9.9982
B Axis: Position: -00001612 Error: 00000936 Torque: 1.7253
C Axis: Position: 00001696 Error:-00001076 Torque:-1.9834
D Axis: Position: -00002020 Error: 00001156 Torque: 2.1309
E Axis: Position: 00000700 Error:-00001300 Torque:-2.3963
F Axis: Position: 00000156 Error:-00000792 Torque:-1.4599
G Axis: Position: -00002212 Error: 00001732 Torque: 3.1926
H Axis: Position: 00002665 Error:-00001721 Torque:-3.1723
Recursed through 8 stacks
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General Program Flow and Timing information
This section will discuss general programming flow and timing information for Galil programming.
REM vs. NO or ' comments
There are 2 ways to add comments to a .dmc program. REM statements or NO/ ' comments. The main difference
between the 2 is that REM statements are stripped from the program upon download to the controller and NO or '
comments are left in the program. In most instances the reason for using REM statements instead of NO or ' is to
save program memory. The other benefit to using REM commands comes when command execution of a loop,
thread or any section of code is critical. Although they do not take much time, NO and ' comments still take time to
process. So when command execution time is critical, REM statements should be used. The 2 examples below
demonstrate the difference in command execution of a loop containing comments.
The GalilTools software will treat an apostrophe (') comment different from an NO when the compression
algorithm is activated upon a program download (line > 80 characters or program memory > 4000 lines). In this
case the software will remove all (') comments as part of the compression and it will download all NO comments to
the controller.
Note:
Actual processing time will vary depending upon number of axes, communication activity, number
of threads currently executing etc.
#a
i=0;'initialize a counter
t= TIME;' set an initial time reference
#loop
NO this comment takes time to process
'this comment takes time to process
i=i+1;'this comment takes time to process
JP#loop,i<1000
MG TIME-t;'display number of samples from initial time reference
EN
When executed on a DMC-4220, the output from the above program returned a 116, which indicates that it took
116 samples (TM 1000) to process the commands from 't=TIME' to 'MG TIME-t'. This is about 114ms ±2ms.
Now when the comments inside of the #loop routine are changed into REM statements (a REM statement must
always start on a new line), the processing is greatly reduced.
When executed on the same DMC-4220, the output from the program shown below returned a 62, which indicates
that it took 62 samples to process the commands from 't=TIME' to 'MG TIME-t'. This is about 60ms ±2ms, and
about 50% faster than when the comments where downloaded to the controller.
#a
i=0;'initialize a counter
t= TIME;' set an initial time reference
#loop
REM this comment is removed upon download
REM this comment is removed upon download
i=i+1
REM this comment is removed upon download
JP#loop,i<1000
MG TIME-t;'display number of samples from
EN
and takes no time to process
and takes no time to process
and takes no time to process
initial time reference
WT vs AT and coding deterministic loops
The main difference between WT and AT is that WT will hold up execution of the next command for the specified
time from the execution of the WT command, AT will hold up execution of the next command for the specified time
from the last time reference set with the AT command.
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#A
AT0;'set initial AT time reference
WT 1000,1;'wait 1000 samples
t1=TIME
AT 4000,1;'wait 4000 samples from last time reference
t2=TIME-t1
REM in the above scenario, t2 will be ~3000 because AT 4000,1 will have
REM paused program execution from the time reference of AT0
REM since the WT 1000,1 took 1000 samples, there was only 3000 samples left
REM of the “4000” samples for AT 4000,1
MG t,t2;'this should output 1000,3000
EN;'End program
Where the functionality of the operation of the AT command is very useful is when it is required to have a
deterministic loop operating on the controller. These instances range from writing PLC-type scan threads to writing
custom control algorithms. The key to having a deterministic loop time is to have a trippoint that will wait a
specified time independent of the time it took to execute the loop code. In this definition, the AT command is a
perfect fit. The below code is an example of a PLC-type scan thread that runs at a 500ms loop rate. A typical
implementation would be to run this code in a separate thread (ex XQ#plcscan,2).
REM this code will set output 3 high if
REM inputs 1 and 2 are high, and input 3 is low
REM else output 3 will be low
REM if input 4 is low, output 1 will be high
REM and ouput 3 will be low regardless of the
REM states of inputs 1,2 or 3
#plcscan
AT0;'set initial time reference
#scan
REM mask inputs 1-4
ti=_TI0&$F
REM variables for bit 1 and bit 3
b1=0;b3=0
REM if input 4 is high set bit 1 and clear bit 3
REM ti&8 - gets 4th bit, if 4th bit is high result = 8
IF ti&8=8;b1=1;ELSE
REM ti&7 get lower 3 bits, if 011 then result = 3
IF ti&7=3;b3=1;ENDIF;ENDIF
REM set output bits 1 and 3 accordingly
REM set outputs at the end for a PLC scan
OB1,b1;OB3,b3
REM wait 500ms (for 500 samples use AT-500,1)
REM the '-' will reset the time reference
AT-500
JP#scan
Mathematical and Functional Expressions
Mathematical Operators
For manipulation of data, the DMC-42x0 provides the use of the following mathematical operators:
Operator
Function
+
*
/
%
&
|
()
Addition
Subtraction
Multiplication
Division
Modulus
Logical And (Bit-wise)
Logical Or (On some computers, a solid vertical line appears as a broken line)
Parenthesis
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Mathematical operations are executed from left to right. Calculations within parentheses have precedence.
Examples:
speed = 7.5*V1/2
count = count+2
result =_TPX-(@COS[45]*40)
temp = @IN[1]&@IN[2]
The variable, speed, is equal to 7.5 multiplied by V1 and divided by 2
The variable, count, is equal to the current value plus 2.
Puts the position of X - 28.28 in result. 40 * cosine of 45 is 28.28
temp is equal to 1 only if Input 1 and Input 2 are high
Mathematical Operation Precision and Range
The controller stores non-integers in a fixed point representation (not floating point). Numbers are stored as 4
bytes of integer and 2 bytes of fraction within the range of ± 2,147,483,647.9999. The smallest number
representable (and thus the precision) is 1/65536 or approximately 0.000015.
Example:
Using basic mathematics it is known that 1.4*(80,000) = 112,000. However, using a basic terminal, a DMC
controller would calculate the following:
:var= 1.4*80000;'
:MG var;'
111999.5117
:
Storing the result of 1.4*80000 in var
Prints variable "var" to screen
The reason for this error relies in the precision of the controller. 1.4 must be stored to the nearest multiple of
1/65536, which is 91750/65536 = 1.3999. Thus, (91750/65536)*80000 = 111999.5117 and reveals the source
of the error.
By ignoring decimals and multiplying by integers first (since they carry no error), and then adding the decimal
back in by dividing by a factor of 10 will allow the user to avoid any errors caused by the limitations of precision
of the controller. Continuing from the example above:
:var= 14*80000;'
:MG var;'
1120000.0000
:var= var/10;'
:MG var;'
112000.0000
:
Ignore decimals
Print result
Divide by 10 to add in decimal
Print correct result
Bit-Wise Operators
The mathematical operators & and | are bit-wise operators. The operator, &, is a Logical And. The operator, |, is a
Logical Or. These operators allow for bit-wise operations on any valid DMC-42x0 numeric operand, including
variables, array elements, numeric values, functions, keywords, and arithmetic expressions. The bit-wise operators
may also be used with strings. This is useful for separating characters from an input string. When using the input
command for string input, the input variable will hold up to 6 characters. These characters are combined into a
single value which is represented as 32 bits of integer and 16 bits of fraction. Each ASCII character is represented as
one byte (8 bits), therefore the input variable can hold up to six characters. The first character of the string will be
placed in the top byte of the variable and the last character will be placed in the lowest significant byte of the
fraction. The characters can be individually separated by using bit-wise operations as illustrated in the following
example:
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#TEST
IN “ENTER”,len{S6}
[email protected][len]
Flen=$10000*Flen
len1=(Flen&$00FF)
len2=(Flen&$FF00)/$100
len3=len&$000000FF
len4=(len&$0000FF00)/$100
len5=(len&$00FF0000)/$10000
len6=(len&$FF000000)/$1000000
MG len6 {S4}
MG len5 {S4}
MG len4 {S4}
MG len3 {S4}
MG len2 {S4}
MG len1 {S4}
EN
Begin main program
Input character string of up to 6 characters into variable ‘len’
Define variable ‘Flen’ as fractional part of variable ‘len’
Shift Flen by 32 bits (IE - convert fraction, Flen, to integer)
Mask top byte of Flen and set this value to variable ‘len1’
Let variable, ‘len2’ = top byte of Flen
Let variable, ‘len3’ = bottom byte of len
Let variable, ‘len4’ = second byte of len
Let variable, ‘len5’ = third byte of len
Let variable, ‘len6’ = fourth byte of len
Display ‘len6’ as string message of up to 4 chars
Display ‘len5’ as string message of up to 4 chars
Display ‘len4’ as string message of up to 4 chars
Display ‘len3’ as string message of up to 4 chars
Display ‘len2’ as string message of up to 4 chars
Display ‘len1’ as string message of up to 4 chars
This program will accept a string input of up to 6 characters, parse each character, and then display each character.
Notice also that the values used for masking are represented in hexadecimal (as denoted by the preceding ‘$’). For
more information, see section Sending Messages.
To illustrate further, if the user types in the string “TESTME” at the input prompt, the controller will respond with
the following:
T
E
S
T
M
E
Response from command MG len6 {S4}
Response from command MG len5 {S4}
Response from command MG len4 {S4}
Response from command MG len3 {S4}
Response from command MG len2 {S4}
Response from command MG len1 {S4}
Functions
FUNCTION
DESCRIPTION
@SIN[n]
@COS[n]
@TAN[n]
@ASIN*[n]
@ACOS*[n]
@ATAN*[n]
@COM[n]
@ABS[n]
@FRAC[n]
@INT[n]
@RND[n]
@SQR[n]
@IN[n]
@OUT[n]
@AN[n]
Sine of n (n in degrees, with range of -32768 to 32767 and 16-bit fractional resolution)
Cosine of n (n in degrees, with range of -32768 to 32767 and 16-bit fractional resolution)
Tangent of n (n in degrees, with range of -32768 to 32767 and 16-bit fractional resolution)
Arc Sine of n, between -90 and +90. Angle resolution in 1/64000 degrees.
Arc Cosine of n, between 0 and 180. Angle resolution in 1/64000 degrees.
Arc Tangent of n, between -90 and +90. Angle resolution in 1/64000 degrees
1’s Complement of n
Absolute value of n
Fraction portion of n
Integer portion of n
Round of n (Rounds up if the fractional part of n is .5 or greater)
Square root of n (Accuracy is ±.004)
Return digital input at general input n (where n starts at 1)
Return digital output at general output n (where n starts at 1)
Return analog input at general analog in n (where n starts at 1)
*Note that these functions are multi-valued. An application program may be used to find the correct band.
Functions may be combined with mathematical expressions. The order of execution of mathematical expressions is
from left to right and can be over-ridden by using parentheses.
Examples:
[email protected][V7]
v2=5*@SIN[pos]
[email protected][1]
v4=2*([email protected][5])
Chapter 7 Application Programming ▫ 123
The variable, v1, is equal to the absolute value of variable v7.
The variable, v2, is equal to five times the sine of the variable, pos.
The variable, v3, is equal to the digital value of input 1.
The variable, v4, is equal to the value of analog input 5 plus 5, then multiplied by 2.
DMC-42x0 User Manual
Variables
For applications that require a parameter that is variable, the DMC-42x0 provides 510 variables. These variables
can be numbers or strings. A program can be written in which certain parameters, such as position or speed, are
defined as variables. The variables can later be assigned by the operator or determined by program calculations.
For example, a cut-to-length application may require that a cut length be variable.
Example:
Assigns the value of 5000 to the variable posx
Assigns variable posx to PR command
Assigns variable rpmY multiplied by 70 to JG command.
posx=5000
PR posx
JG rpmY*70
Programmable Variables
The DMC-42x0 allows the user to create up to 510 variables. Each variable is defined by a name which can be up to
eight characters. The name must start with an alphabetic character; however, numbers are permitted in the rest of
the name. Spaces are not permitted. Variable names should not be the same as DMC-42x0 instructions. For
example, PR is not a good choice for a variable name.
Note: It is generally a good idea to use lower-case variable names so there is no confusion between Galil
commands and variable names.
Examples of valid and invalid variable names are:
Valid Variable Names
posx
pos1
speedZ
Invalid Variable Names
RealLongName
123
speed Z
; ‘Cannot have more than 8 characters
; ‘Cannot begin variable name with a number
; ‘Cannot have spaces in the name
Assigning Values to Variables:
Assigned values can be numbers, internal variables and keywords, functions, controller parameters and strings.
The range for numeric variable values is 4 bytes of integer (231) followed by two bytes of fraction
(±2,147,483,647.9999).
Numeric values can be assigned to programmable variables using the equal sign.
Any valid DMC-42x0 function can be used to assign a value to a variable. For example, [email protected][v2] or [email protected][1].
Arithmetic operations are also permitted.
To assign a string value, the string must be in quotations. String variables can contain up to six characters which
must be in quotation.
Examples:
posX=_TPX
speed=5.75
[email protected][2]
v2=v1+v3*v4
var=”CAT”
MG var{S3}
Assigns returned value from TPX command to variable posx.
Assigns value 5.75 to variable speed
Assigns logical value of input 2 to variable input
Assigns the value of v1 plus v3 times v4 to the variable v2.
Assign the string, CAT, to var
Displays the variable var – (CAT)
Assigning Variable Values to Controller Parameters
Variable values may be assigned to controller parameters such as SP or PR.
PR v1
Chapter 7 Application Programming ▫ 124
Assign v1 to PR command
DMC-42x0 User Manual
SP vS*2000
Assign vS*2000 to SP command
Displaying the value of variables at the terminal
Variables may be sent to the screen using the format, variable=. For example, v1= , returns the value of the
variable v1.
Example - Using Variables for Joystick
The example below reads the voltage of an X-Y joystick and assigns it to variables vX and vY to drive the motors at
proportional velocities, where:
10 Volts = 3000 rpm = 200000 c/sec
Speed/Analog input = 200000/10 = 20000
#JOYSTIK
JG 0,0
BGXY
AT0
#LOOP
[email protected][1]*20000
[email protected][2]*20000
JG vX,vY
AT-4
JP#LOOP
EN
Label
Set in Jog mode
Begin Motion
Set AT time reference
Loop
Read joystick X
Read joystick Y
Jog at variable vX,vY
Wait 4ms from last time reference, creates a deterministic loop time
Repeat
End
Operands
Operands allow motion or status parameters of the DMC-42x0 to be incorporated into programmable variables and
expressions. Most DMC commands have an equivalent operand - which are designated by adding an underscore
(_) prior to the DMC-42x0 command. The command reference indicates which commands have an associated
operand.
Status commands such as Tell Position return actual values, whereas action commands such as KP or SP return the
values in the DMC-42x0 registers. The axis designation is required following the command.
Examples of Internal Variables:
posX=_TPX
deriv=_KDZ*2
JP #LOOP,_TEX>5
JP #ERROR,_TC=1
Assigns value from Tell Position X to the variable posX.
Assigns value from KDZ multiplied by two to variable, deriv.
Jump to #LOOP if the position error of X is greater than 5
Jump to #ERROR if the error code equals 1.
Operands can be used in an expression and assigned to a programmable variable, but they cannot be assigned a
value. For example: _KDX=2 is invalid.
Special Operands (Keywords)
The DMC-42x0 provides a few additional operands which give access to internal variables that are not accessible by
standard DMC-42x0 commands.
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Keyword
Function
_BGn
_BN
_DA
_DL
_DM
_HMn
_LFn
_LRX
_UL
TIME
*Returns a 1 if motion on axis ‘n’ is complete, otherwise returns 0.
*Returns serial # of the board.
*Returns the number of arrays available
*Returns the number of available labels for programming
*Returns the available array memory
*Returns status of Home Switch (equals 0 or 1)
Returns status of Forward Limit switch input of axis ‘n’ (equals 0 or 1)
Returns status of Reverse Limit switch input of axis ‘n’ (equals 0 or 1)
*Returns the number of available variables
Free-Running Real Time Clock (off by 2.4% - Resets with power-on).
Note: TIME does not use an underscore character (_) as other keywords.
* - These keywords have corresponding commands while the keywords _LF, _LR, and TIME do not have any
associated commands. All keywords are listed in the Command Reference.
Examples of Keywords:
v1=_LFX
v3=TIME
v4=_HMW
Assign V1 the logical state of the Forward Limit Switch on the X-axis
Assign V3 the current value of the time clock
Assign V4 the logical state of the Home input on the W-axis
Arrays
For storing and collecting numerical data, the DMC-42x0 provides array space for 24000 elements. The arrays are
one dimensional and up to 30 different arrays may be defined. Each array element has a numeric range of 4 bytes
of integer (231) followed by two bytes of fraction (+/-2,147,483,647.9999).
Arrays can be used to capture real-time data, such as position, torque and analog input values. In the contouring
mode, arrays are convenient for holding the points of a position trajectory in a record and playback application.
Defining Arrays
An array is defined with the command DM. The user must specify a name and the number of entries to be held in
the array. An array name can contain up to eight characters, starting with an alphabetic character. The number of
entries in the defined array is enclosed in [ ].
Example:
DM posx[7]
DM speed[100]
DA posx[]
Defines an array names 'posx' with seven entries
Defines an array named speed with 100 entries
Frees array space
Assignment of Array Entries
Like variables, each array element can be assigned a value. Assigned values can be numbers or returned values
from instructions, functions and keywords.
Array elements are addressed starting at count 0. For example the first element in the 'posx' array (defined with
the DM command, DM posx[7]) would be specified as posx[0].
Values are assigned to array entries using the equal sign. Assignments are made one element at a time by
specifying the element number with the associated array name.
NOTE: Arrays must be defined using the command, DM, before assigning entry values.
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Examples:
DM speed[10]
speed[0]=7650.2
speed[0]=
posx[10]=_TPX
con[1][email protected][pos]*2
timer[0]=TIME
Dimension speed Array
Assigns the first element of the array, 'speed' the value 7650.2
Returns array element value
Assigns the 10th element of the array 'posx' the returned value from the tell position
command.
Assigns the second element of the array 'con' the cosine of the variable POS multiplied by 2.
Assigns the first element of the array timer the returned value of the TIME keyword.
Using a Variable to Address Array Elements
An array element number can also be a variable. This allows array entries to be assigned sequentially using a
counter.
Example:
#A
count=0;DM pos[10]
#LOOP
WT 10
pos[count]=_TPX
pos[count]=
count=count+1
JP #LOOP,count<10
EN
Begin Program
Initialize counter and define array
Begin loop
Wait 10 msec
Record position into array element
Report position
Increment counter
Loop until 10 elements have been stored
End Program
The above example records 10 position values at a rate of one value per 10 msec. The values are stored in an array
named 'pos'. The variable, 'count', is used to increment the array element counter. The above example can also be
executed with the automatic data capture feature described below.
Uploading and Downloading Arrays to On Board Memory
The GalilTools software is recommended for downloading and uploading array data from the controller. The
GalilTools Communication library also provides function calls for downloading and uploading array data from the
controller to/from a buffer or a file.
Arrays may also be uploaded and downloaded using the QU and QD commands.
QU array[],start,end,delim
QD array[],start,end
where array is an array name such as A[].
start is the first element of array (default=0)
end is the last element of array (default=last element)
delim specifies whether the array data is separated by a comma (delim=1) or a carriage return
(delim=0).
The file is terminated using <control>Z, <control>Q, <control>D or \.
Automatic Data Capture into Arrays
The DMC-42x0 provides a special feature for automatic capture of data such as position, position error, inputs or
torque. This is useful for teaching motion trajectories or observing system performance. Up to eight types of data
can be captured and stored in eight arrays. The capture rate or time interval may be specified. Recording can done
as a one time event or as a circular continuous recording.
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Command Summary - Automatic Data Capture
Command
RA n[ ],m[ ],o[ ],p[ ]
RD type1,type2,type3,type4
RC n,m
RC?
Description
Selects up to eight arrays for data capture. The arrays must be defined with the DM
command.
Selects the type of data to be recorded, where type1, type2, type3, and type 4 represent the
various types of data (see table below). The order of data type is important and corresponds
with the order of n,m,o,p arrays in the RA command.
The RC command begins data collection. Sets data capture time interval where n is an integer
between 1 and 8 and designates 2n msec between data. m is optional and specifies the
number of elements to be captured. If m is not defined, the number of elements defaults to
the smallest array defined by DM. When m is a negative number, the recording is done
continuously in a circular manner. _RD is the recording pointer and indicates the address of
the next array element. n=0 stops recording.
Returns a 0 or 1 where, 0 denotes not recording, 1 specifies recording in progress
Data Types for Recording:
Data type
TIME
_AFn
_DEX
_NOX
_OP
_RLX
_RPX
_SCX
_TEX
_TI
_TPX
_TSX
_TTX
Description
Controller time as reported by the TIME command
Analog input (n=X,Y,Z,W,E,F,G,H, for AN inputs 1-8)
2nd encoder position (dual encoder)
Status bits
Output
Latched position
Commanded position
Stop code
Position error
Inputs
Encoder position
Switches (only bit 0-4 valid)
Torque (reports digital value ±32544)
Note: X may be replaced by Y,Z or W for capturing data on other axes.
Operand Summary - Automatic Data Capture
_RC
_RD
Returns a 0 or 1 where, 0 denotes not recording, 1 specifies recording in progress
Returns address of next array element.
Example - Recording into An Array
During a position move, store the X and Y positions and position error every 2 msec.
#RECORD
DM XPOS[300],YPOS[300]
DM XERR[300],YERR[300]
RA XPOS[],XERR[],YPOS[],YERR[]
RD _TPX,_TEX,_TPY,_TEY
PR 10000,20000
RC1
BG XY
#A;JP #A,_RC=1
MG “DONE”
EN
#PLAY
N=0
JP# DONE,N>300
N=
X POS[N]=
Y POS[N]=
XERR[N]=
YERR[N]=
N=N+1
#DONE
EN
Chapter 7 Application Programming ▫ 128
Begin program
Define X,Y position arrays
Define X,Y error arrays
Select arrays for capture
Select data types
Specify move distance
Start recording now, at rate of 2 msec
Begin motion
Loop until done
Print message
End program
Play back
Initial Counter
Exit if done
Print Counter
Print X position
Print Y position
Print X error
Print Y error
Increment Counter
Done
End Program
DMC-42x0 User Manual
De-allocating Array Space
Array space may be de-allocated using the DA command followed by the array name. DA*[0] deallocates all the
arrays.
Input of Data (Numeric and String)
Sending Data from a Host
The DMC unit can accept ASCII strings from a host. This is the most common way to send data to the controller
such as setting variables to numbers or strings. Any variable can be stored in a string format up to 6 characters by
simply specifying defining that variable to the string value with quotes, for example:
varS = “STRING”
Will assign the variable 'varS' to a string value of “STRING”.
To assign a variable a numerical value, the direct number is used, for example:
varN = 123456
Will assign the variable 'varN' to a number of 123,456.
All variables on the DMC controller are stored with 4 bytes of integer and 2 bytes of fractional data.
Operator Data Entry Mode
The Operator Data Entry Mode provides for un-buffered data entry through the auxiliary RS-232 port. In this mode,
the DMC-42x0 provides a buffer for receiving characters. This mode may only be used when executing an
applications program.
The Operator Data Entry Mode may be specified for Port 2 only. This mode may be exited with the \ or <escape>
key.
NOTE: Operator Data Entry Mode cannot be used for high rate data transfer.
Set the third field of the CC command to one to set the Operator Data Entry Mode.
To capture and decode characters in the Operator Data Mode, the DMC-42x0 provides special the following
keywords:
Keyword
P2CH
P2ST
P2NM
P2CD
Function
Contains the last character received
Contains the received string
Contains the received number
Contains the status code:
-1 mode disabled
0 nothing received
1 received character, but not <enter>
2 received string, not a number
3 received number
NOTE: The value of P2CD returns to zero after the corresponding string or number is read.
These keywords may be used in an applications program to decode data and they may also be used in conditional
statements with logical operators.
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Example
Instruction
JP
JP
PR
JS
#LOOP,P2CD< >3
#P,P2CH="V"
P2NM
#XAXIS,P2ST="X"
Interpretation
Checks to see if status code is 3 (number received)
Checks if last character received was a V
Assigns received number to position
Checks to see if received string is X
Using Communication Interrupt
The DMC-42x0 provides a special interrupt for communication allowing the application program to be interrupted
by input from the user. The interrupt is enabled using the CI command. The syntax for the command is CI n:
n=0
n=1
n=2
n = -1
Don't interrupt Port 2
Interrupt on <enter> Port 2
Interrupt on any character Port 2
Clear any characters in buffer
The #COMINT label is used for the communication interrupt. For example, the DMC-42x0 can be configured to
interrupt on any character received on Port 2. The #COMINT subroutine is entered when a character is received
and the subroutine can decode the characters. At the end of the routine the EN command is used. EN,1 will reenable the interrupt and return to the line of the program where the interrupt was called, EN will just return to the
line of the program where it was called without re-enabling the interrupt. As with any automatic subroutine, a
program must be running in thread 0 at all times for it to be enabled.
Example
A DMC-42x0 is used to jog the A and B axis. This program automatically begins upon power-up and allows the user
to input values from the main serial port terminal. The speed of either axis may be changed during motion by
specifying the axis letter followed by the new speed value. An S stops motion on both axes.
Instruction
#AUTO
speedA=10000
speedB=10000
CI 2
JG speedA, speedB
BGXY
#PRINT
MG{P2}"TO CHANGE SPEEDS"
MG{P2}"TYPE A OR B"
MG{P2}"TYPE S TO STOP"
#JOGLOOP
JG speedA, speedB
JP #JOGLOOP
EN
#COMINT
JP #A,P2CH="A"
JP #B,P2CH="B"
JP #C,P2CH="S"
ZS1;CI2;JP#JOGLOOP
#A;JS#NUM
speedX=val
ZS1;CI2;JP#PRINT
#B;JS#NUM
speedY=val
ZS1;CI2;JP#PRINT
#C;ST;AMX;CI-1
MG{^8}, "THE END"
ZS;EN,1
#NUM
MG "ENTER",P2CH{S},"AXIS
SPEED" {N}
#NUMLOOP; CI-1
Chapter 7 Application Programming ▫ 130
Interpretation
Label for Auto Execute
Initial A speed
Initial B speed
Set Port 2 for Character Interrupt
Specify jog mode speed for A and B axis
Begin motion
Routine to print message to terminal
Print message
Loop to change Jog speeds
Set new jog speed
End of main program
Interrupt routine
Check for A
Check for B
Check for S
Jump if not X,Y,S
New X speed
Jump to Print
New Y speed
Jump to Print
Stop motion on S
End-Re-enable interrupt
Routine for entering new jog speed
Prompt for value
Check for enter
DMC-42x0 User Manual
#NMLP
JP #NMLP,P2CD<2
JP #ERROR,P2CD=2
val=P2NM
EN
#ERROR;CI-1
MG "INVALID-TRY AGAIN"
JP #NMLP
EN
Routine to check input from terminal
Jump to error if string
Read value
End subroutine
Error Routine
Error message
End
Inputting String Variables
String variables with up to six characters may be input using the specifier, {Sn} where n represents the number of
string characters to be input. If n is not specified, six characters will be accepted. For example, IN "Enter A,B or C",
V{S} specifies a string variable to be input.
The DMC-42x0, stores all variables as 6 bytes of information. When a variable is specified as a number, the value of
the variable is represented as 4 bytes of integer and 2 bytes of fraction. When a variable is specified as a string, the
variable can hold up to 6 characters (each ASCII character is 1 byte). When using the IN command for string input,
the first input character will be placed in the top byte of the variable and the last character will be placed in the
lowest significant byte of the fraction. The characters can be individually separated by using bit-wise operations,
see section Bit-wise Operators.
Output of Data (Numeric and String)
Numerical and string data can be output from the controller using several methods. The message command, MG,
can output string and numerical data. Also, the controller can be commanded to return the values of variables and
arrays, as well as other information using the interrogation commands (the interrogation commands are described
in chapter 5).
Sending Messages
Messages may be sent to the bus using the message command, MG. This command sends specified text and
numerical or string data from variables or arrays to the screen.
Text strings are specified in quotes and variable or array data is designated by the name of the variable or array.
For example:
MG "The Final Value is", result
In addition to variables, functions and commands, responses can be used in the message command. For example:
MG "Analog input is", @AN[1]
MG "The Position of A is", _TPA
Specifying the Port for Messages:
The port can be specified with the specifier, {P1} for the main serial port {P2} for auxiliary serial port, or {En} for the
Ethernet port.
MG {P2} "Hello World"
Sends message to Auxiliary Port
Formatting Messages
String variables can be formatted using the specifier, {Sn} where n is the number of characters, 1 thru 6. For
example:
MG STR {S3}
This statement returns 3 characters of the string variable named STR.
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Numeric data may be formatted using the {Fn.m} expression following the completed MG statement. {$n.m}
formats data in HEX instead of decimal. The actual numerical value will be formatted with n characters to the left of
the decimal and m characters to the right of the decimal. Leading zeros will be used to display specified format.
For example:
MG "The Final Value is", result {F5.2}
If the value of the variable result is equal to 4.1, this statement returns the following:
The Final Value is 00004.10
If the value of the variable result is equal to 999999.999, the above message statement returns the following:
The Final Value is 99999.99
The message command normally sends a carriage return and line feed following the statement. The carriage return
and the line feed may be suppressed by sending {N} at the end of the statement. This is useful when a text string
needs to surround a numeric value.
Example:
#A
JG 50000;BGA;ASA
MG "The Speed is", _TVA {F5.0} {N}
MG "counts/sec"
EN
When #A is executed, the above example will appear on the screen as:
The Speed is 50000 counts/sec
Using the MG Command to Configure Terminals
The MG command can be used to configure a terminal. Any ASCII character can be sent by using the format {^n}
where n is any integer between 1 and 255.
Example:
MG {^07} {^255}
sends the ASCII characters represented by 7 and 255 to the bus.
Summary of Message Functions
Function
Description
" "
{Fn.m}
Surrounds text string
Formats numeric values in decimal n digits to the left of the decimal point and
m digits to the right
Send message to Main Serial Port, Auxiliary Serial Port or Ethernet Port
Formats numeric values in hexadecimal
Sends ASCII character specified by integer n
Suppresses carriage return/line feed
Sends the first n characters of a string variable, where n is 1 thru 6.
{P1}, {P2} or {En}
{$n.m}
{^n}
{N}
{Sn}
Displaying Variables and Arrays
Variables and arrays may be sent to the screen using the format, variable= or array[x]=. For example, v1= returns
the value of v1.
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Example - Printing a Variable and an Array element
Instruction
Interpretation
Label
Define Array posA with 7 entries
Position Command
Begin
After Motion
Assign Variable v1
Assign the first entry
Print v1
#DISPLAY
DM posA[7]
PR 1000
BGX
AMX
v1=_TPA
posA[1]=_TPA
v1=
Interrogation Commands
The DMC-42x0 has a set of commands that directly interrogate the controller. When these command are entered, the
requested data is returned in decimal format on the next line followed by a carriage return and line feed. The format of
the returned data can be changed using the Position Format (PF), and Leading Zeros (LZ) command. For a complete
description of interrogation commands, see Chapter 5.
363H
Using the PF Command to Format Response from Interrogation Commands
The command, PF, can change format of the values returned by theses interrogation commands:
BL
DE
DP
EM
FL
IP
TP
?
?
?
?
?
?
LE
PA
PR
TN
VE
TE
?
?
?
?
?
The numeric values may be formatted in decimal or hexadecimal with a specified number of digits to the right and
left of the decimal point using the PF command.
Position Format is specified by:
PF m.n
where m is the number of digits to the left of the decimal point (0 thru 10) and n is the number of digits to the right
of the decimal point (0 thru 4) A negative sign for m specifies hexadecimal format.
Hex values are returned preceded by a $ and in 2's complement. Hex values should be input as signed 2's
complement, where negative numbers have a negative sign. The default format is PF 10.0.
If the number of decimal places specified by PF is less than the actual value, a nine appears in all the decimal
places.
Example
Instruction
Interpretation
:DP21
:TPA
0000000021
:PF4
:TPA
0021
:PF-4
:TPA
$0015
:PF2
:TPA
99
Define position
Tell position
Default format
Change format to 4 places
Tell position
New format
Change to hexadecimal format
Tell Position
Hexadecimal value
Format 2 places
Tell Position
Returns 99 if position greater than 99
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Adding Leading Zeros from Response to Interrogation Commands
The leading zeros on data returned as a response to interrogation commands can be added by the use of the
command, LZ. The LZ command is set to a default of 1.
LZ0
TP
-0000000009, 0000000005
LZ1
TP
-9, 5
Disables the LZ function
Tell Position Interrogation Command
Response (With Leading Zeros)
Enables the LZ function
Tell Position Interrogation Command
Response (Without Leading Zeros)
Local Formatting of Response of Interrogation Commands
The response of interrogation commands may be formatted locally. To format locally, use the command, {Fn.m} or
{$n.m} on the same line as the interrogation command. The symbol F specifies that the response should be
returned in decimal format and $ specifies hexadecimal. n is the number of digits to the left of the decimal, and m
is the number of digits to the right of the decimal.
TP {F2.2}
-05.00, 05.00, 00.00, 07.00
TP {$4.2}
FFFB.00,$0005.00,$0000.00,$0007.00
Tell Position in decimal format 2.2
Response from Interrogation Command
Tell Position in hexadecimal format 4.2
Response from Interrogation Command
Formatting Variables and Array Elements
The Variable Format (VF) command is used to format variables and array elements. The VF command is specified
by:
VF m.n
where m is the number of digits to the left of the decimal point (0 thru 10) and n is the number of digits to the right
of the decimal point (0 thru 4).
A negative sign for m specifies hexadecimal format. The default format for VF is VF 10.4
Hex values are returned preceded by a $ and in 2's complement.
Instruction
Interpretation
v1=10
v1=
Assign v1
Return v1
Response - Default format
Change format
Return v1
Response - New format
Specify hex format
Return v1
Response - Hex value
Change format
Return v1
Response - Overflow
:0000000010.0000
VF2.2
v1=
:10.00
VF-2.2
v1=
$0A.00
VF1
v1=
:9
Local Formatting of Variables
PF and VF commands are global format commands that affect the format of all relevant returned values and
variables. Variables may also be formatted locally. To format locally, use the command, {Fn.m} or {$n.m} following
the variable name and the ‘=’ symbol. F specifies decimal and $ specifies hexadecimal. n is the number of digits to
the left of the decimal, and m is the number of digits to the right of the decimal.
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Instruction
Interpretation
v1=10
v1=
Assign v1
Return v1
Default Format
Specify local format
New format
Specify hex format
Hex value
Assign string "ALPHA" to v1
Specify string format first 4 characters
:0000000010.0000
v1={F4.2}
:0010.00
v1={$4.2}
:$000A.00
v1="ALPHA"
v1={S4}
:ALPH
The local format is also used with the MG command.
Converting to User Units
Variables and arithmetic operations make it easy to input data in desired user units such as inches or RPM.
The DMC-42x0 position parameters such as PR, PA and VP have units of quadrature counts. Speed parameters such
as SP, JG and VS have units of counts/sec. Acceleration parameters such as AC, DC, VA and VD have units of
counts/sec2. The controller interprets time in milliseconds.
All input parameters must be converted into these units. For example, an operator can be prompted to input a
number in revolutions. A program could be used such that the input number is converted into counts by
multiplying it by the number of counts/revolution.
Instruction
Interpretation
#RUN
MG "ENTER # OF REVOLUTIONS";n1=-1
#rev;JP#rev,n1=-1
PR n1*2000
MG "ENTER SPEED IN RPM";s1=-1
#spd;JP#spd,s1=-1
SP s1*2000/60
MG "ENTER ACCEL IN RAD/SEC2";a1=-1
#acc;JP#acc,a1=-1
AC a1*2000/(2*3.14)
BG
EN
Label
Prompt for revs
Wait until user enters new value for n1
Convert to counts
Prompt for RPMs
Wait for user to enter new value for s1
Convert to counts/sec
Prompt for ACCEL
Wait for user to enter new value for a1
Convert to counts/sec2
Begin motion
End program
Hardware I/O
Digital Outputs
The DMC-42x0 has an 8-bit uncommitted output port and an additional 32 I/O which may be configured as inputs
or outputs with the CO command for controlling external events. The DMC-4250 through DMC-4280 has an
additional 8 outputs. Each bit on the output port may be set and cleared with the software instructions SB (Set Bit)
and CB (Clear Bit), or OB (define output bit).
Example- Set Bit and Clear Bit
Instruction
Interpretation
SB6
CB4
Sets bit 6 of output port
Clears bit 4 of output port
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Example- Output Bit
The Output Bit (OB) instruction is useful for setting or clearing outputs depending on the value of a variable, array,
input or expression. Any non-zero value results in a set bit.
Instruction
Interpretation
OB1, POS
OB 2, @IN [1]
OB 3, @IN [1]&@IN [2]
OB 4, COUNT [1]
Set Output 1 if the variable POS is non-zero. Clear Output 1 if POS equals 0.
Set Output 2 if Input 1 is high. If Input 1 is low, clear Output 2.
Set Output 3 only if Input 1 and Input 2 are high.
Set Output 4 if element 1 in the array COUNT is non-zero.
The output port can be set by specifying an 16-bit word using the instruction OP (Output Port). This instruction
allows a single command to define the state of the entire 16-bit output port, where bit 0 is output 1, bit1 is output2
and so on. A 1 designates that the output is on.
Example- Output Port
Instruction
Interpretation
OP6
Sets outputs 2 and 3 of output port to high. All other bits are 0. (21 + 22 = 6)
Clears all bits of output port to zero
Sets all bits of output port to one.
(20 + 21 + 22 + 23 + 24 + 25 + 26 + 27)
OP0
OP 255
The output port is useful for setting relays or controlling external switches and events during a motion sequence.
Example - Turn on output after move
Instruction
Interpretation
PR 2000
Position Command
BG
Begin
AM
After move
SB1
Set Output 1
WT 1000
Wait 1000 msec
CB1
Clear Output 1
EN
End
#OUTPUT
Label
Digital Inputs
The general digital inputs for are accessed by using the @IN[n] function or the TI command. The @IN[n] function
returns the logic level of the specified input, n, where n is a number 1 through 48.
Example - Using Inputs to control program flow
Instruction
Interpretation
JP
JP
AI
AI
Jump to A if input 1 is low
Jump to B if input 2 is high
Wait until input 7 is high
Wait until input 6 is low
#A,@IN[1]=0
#B,@IN[2]=1
7
-6
Example - Start Motion on Switch
Motor A must turn at 4000 counts/sec when the user flips a panel switch to on. When panel switch is turned to off
position, motor A must stop turning.
Solution: Connect panel switch to input 1 of DMC-42x0. High on input 1 means switch is in on position.
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Instruction
Interpretation
#S;JG 4000
AI 1;BGA
AI -1;STA
AMA;JP #S
EN
Set speed
Begin after input 1 goes high
Stop after input 1 goes low
After motion, repeat
The Auxiliary Encoder Inputs
The auxiliary encoder inputs can be used for general use. For each axis, the controller has one auxiliary encoder
and each auxiliary encoder consists of two inputs, channel A and channel B. The auxiliary encoder inputs are
mapped to the inputs 81-96.
Each input from the auxiliary encoder is a differential line receiver and can accept voltage levels between ± 12
volts. The inputs have been configured to accept TTL level signals. To connect TTL signals, simply connect the
signal to the + input and leave the - input disconnected. For other signal levels, the - input should be connected to
a voltage that is ½ of the full voltage range (for example, connect the - input to 5 volts if the signal is a 0 - 12 volt
logic).
Example:
A DMC-4210 has one auxiliary encoder. This encoder has two inputs (channel A and channel B). Channel A input is
mapped to input 81 and Channel B input is mapped to input 82. To use this input for 2 TTL signals, the first signal
will be connected to AA+ and the second to AB+. AA- and AB- will be left unconnected. To access this input, use
the function @IN[81] and @IN[82].
NOTE: The auxiliary encoder inputs are not available for any axis that is configured for stepper motor.
Input Interrupt Function
The DMC-42x0 provides an input interrupt function which causes the program to automatically execute the
instructions following the #ININT label. This function is enabled using the II m,n,o command. The m specifies the
beginning input and n specifies the final input in the range. The parameter o is an interrupt mask. If m and n are
unused, o contains a number with the mask. For example, II,,5 enables inputs 1 and 3.
A low input on any of the specified inputs will cause automatic execution of the #ININT subroutine. The Return
from Interrupt (RI) command is used to return from this subroutine to the place in the program where the interrupt
had occurred. If it is desired to return to somewhere else in the program after the execution of the #ININT
subroutine, the Zero Stack (ZS) command is used followed by unconditional jump statements.
IMPORTANT
Chapter 7 Application Programming ▫ 137
Use the RI command (not EN) to return from the #ININT subroutine.
DMC-42x0 User Manual
Example - Input Interrupt
Instruction
Interpretation
#A
II 1
JG 30000,-20000
BG AB
#B
TP AB
WT 1000
JP #B
EN
#ININT
MG "Interrupt has occurred"
ST AB
#LOOP;JP #LOOP,@IN[1]=0
JG 15000,10000
WT 300
BG AB
RI
Label #A
Enable input 1 for interrupt function
Set speeds on A and B axes
Begin motion on A and B axes
Label #B
Report A and B axes positions
Wait 1000 milliseconds
Jump to #B
End of program
Interrupt subroutine
Displays the message
Stops motion on A and B axes
Loop until Interrupt cleared
Specify new speeds
Wait 300 milliseconds
Begin motion on A and B axes
Return from Interrupt subroutine
Jumping back to main program with #ININT
To jump back to the main program using the JP command, the RI command must be issued in a subroutine and
then the ZS command must be issued prior to the JP command. See Application Note # 2418 for more information.
http://www.galilmc.com/support/appnotes/optima/note2418.pdf
Analog Inputs
The DMC-42x0 provides eight analog inputs. The value of these inputs in volts may be read using the @AN[n]
function where n is the analog input 1 through 8. The resolution of the Analog-to-Digital conversion is 12 bits (16bit ADC is available as an option). Analog inputs are useful for reading special sensors such as temperature, tension
or pressure.
The following examples show programs which cause the motor to follow an analog signal. The first example is a
point-to-point move. The second example shows a continuous move.
Example - Position Follower (Point-to-Point)
Objective - The motor must follow an analog signal. When the analog signal varies by 10V, motor must move
10000 counts.
Method: Read the analog input and command A to move to that point.
Instruction
Interpretation
#POINTS
SP 7000
AC 80000;DC 80000
#LOOP
[email protected][1]*1000
PA VP
BGA
AMA
JP #LOOP
EN
Label
Speed
Acceleration
Read and analog input, compute position
Command position
Start motion
After completion
Repeat
End
Example - Position Follower (Continuous Move)
Method: Read the analog input, compute the commanded position and the position error. Command the motor to
run at a speed in proportions to the position error.
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Instruction
Interpretation
#CONT
AC 80000;DC 80000
JG 0
BGX
#LOOP
[email protected][1]*1000
ve=vp-_TPA
vel=ve*20
JG vel
JP #LOOP
EN
Label
Acceleration rate
Start job mode
Start motion
Compute desired position
Find position error
Compute velocity
Change velocity
Change velocity
End
Example – Low Pass Digital Filter for the Analog inputs
Because the analog inputs on the Galil controller can be used to close a position loop, they have a very high
bandwidth and will therefor read noise that comes in on the analog input. Often when an analog input is used in a
motion control system, but not for closed loop control, the higher bandwidth is not required. In this case a simple
digital filter may be applied to the analog input, and the output of the filter can be used for in the motion control
application. This example shows how to apply a simple single pole low-pass digital filter to an analog input. This
code is commonly run in a separate thread (XQ#filt,1 – example of executing in thread 1).
#filt
REM an1 = filtered output. Use this instead of @AN[1]
[email protected][1];'set initial value
REM k1+k2=1 this condition must be met
REM use division of m/2^n for elimination of round off
REM increase k1 = less filtering
REM increase k2 = more filtering
k1=32/64;k2=32/64
AT0;'set initial time reference
#loop
REM calculate filtered output and then way 2 samples from last
REM time reference (last AT-2,1 or AT0)
an1=(k1*@AN[1])+(k2*an1);AT-2,1
JP#loop
Extended I/O of the DMC-42x0 Controller
The DMC-42x0 controller offers 32 extended I/O points which can be configured as inputs or outputs in 8 bit
increments through software. The I/O points are accessed through 1 44 pin high density connector.
Configuring the I/O of the DMC-42x0
The 32 extended I/O points of the DMC-42x0 series controller can be configured in blocks of 8. The extended I/O is
denoted as blocks 2-5 or bits 17-48.
The command, CO, is used to configure the extended I/O as inputs or outputs. The CO command has one field:
CO n
where n is a decimal value which represents a binary number. Each bit of the binary number represents one block
of extended I/O. When set to 1, the corresponding block is configured as an output.
The least significant bit represents block 2 and the most significant bit represents block 5. The decimal value can
be calculated by the following formula. n = n2 + 2*n3 + 4*n4 + 5*n5 where nx represents the block. If the nx value
is a one, then the block of 8 I/O points is to be configured as an output. If the nx value is a zero, then the block of 8
I/O points will be configured as an input. For example, if block 4 and 5 is to be configured as an output, CO 12 is
issued.
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8-Bit I/O Block
Block
Binary Representation
Decimal Value for Block
17-24
2
2
1
25-32
33-40
41-48
3
4
5
21
22
23
2
4
8
0
The simplest method for determining n:
Step 1. Determine which 8-bit I/O blocks to be configured as outputs.
Step 2. From the table, determine the decimal value for each I/O block to be set as an output.
Step 3. Add up all of the values determined in step 2. This is the value to be used for n.
For example, if blocks 2 and 3 are to be outputs, then n is 3 and the command, CO3, should be issued.
NOTE: This calculation is identical to the formula: n = n2 + 2*n3 + 4*n4 + 5*n5 where nx represents the block.
Saving the State of the Outputs in Non-Volatile Memory
The configuration of the extended I/O and the state of the outputs can be stored in the non-volatile flash memory
with the BN command. If no value has been set, the default of CO 0 is used (all blocks are inputs).
Accessing Extended I/O
When configured as an output, each I/O point may be defined with the SBn and CBn commands (where n=1
through 8 and 17 through 48). Outputs may also be defined with the conditional command, OBn (where n=1
through 8 and 17 through 48).
For 5-8 axis controllers, each I/O point may be defined with the SBn and CBn commands (where n=1
through 48).
4080
The command, OP, may also be used to set output bits, specified as blocks of data. The OP command accepts 3
parameters. The first parameter sets the values of the main output port of the controller (Outputs 1-8, block 0).
The additional parameters set the value of the extended I/O as outlined:
OP m,a,b
where m is the decimal representation of the bits 1-8 (values from 0 to 255) and a,b,c,d represent the extended I/O
in consecutive groups of 16 bits (values from 0 to 65535). Arguments which are given for I/O points which are
configured as inputs will be ignored. The following table describes the arguments used to set the state of outputs.
Argument
Blocks
Bits
Description
m
a
b
0
2,3
4,5
1-8
17-32
33-48
General Outputs
Extended I/O
Extended I/O
For example, if block 8 is configured as an output, the following command may be issued:
OP 7,,7
This command will set bits 1,2,3 (block 0) and bits 33,34,35 (block 4) to 1. Bits 4 through 8 and bits 36 through 48
will be set to 0. All other bits are unaffected.
When accessing I/O blocks configured as inputs, use the TIn command. The argument 'n' refers to the block to be
read (n=0,2,3 or 4). The value returned will be a decimal representation of the corresponding bits.

Individual bits can be queried using the @IN[n] function (where n=1 through 8 or 17 through 48). If the following
command is issued;
Individual bits can be queried using the @IN[n] function (where n=1 through 48).
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MG @IN[17]
the controller will return the state of the least significant bit of block 2 (assuming block 2 is configured as an input).
Example Applications
Wire Cutter
An operator activates a start switch. This causes a motor to advance the wire a distance of 10”. When the motion
stops, the controller generates an output signal which activates the cutter. Allowing 100 ms for the cutting
completes the cycle.
Suppose that the motor drives the wire by a roller with a 2” diameter. Also assume that the encoder resolution is
1000 lines per revolution. Since the circumference of the roller equals 2π inches, and it corresponds to 4000
quadrature, one inch of travel equals:
4000/2π = 637 count/inch
This implies that a distance of 10 inches equals 6370 counts, and a slew speed of 5 inches per second, for example,
equals 3185 count/sec.
The input signal may be applied to I1, for example, and the output signal is chosen as output 1. The motor velocity
profile and the related input and output signals are shown in Figure 7.1.
The program starts at a state that we define as #A. Here the controller waits for the input pulse on I1. As soon as
the pulse is given, the controller starts the forward motion.
Upon completion of the forward move, the controller outputs a pulse for 20 ms and then waits an additional 80 ms
before returning to #A for a new cycle.
INSTRUCTION
FUNCTION
#A
AI1
PR 6370
SP 3185
BGX
AMX
SB1
WT 20
CB1
WT 80
JP #A
Label
Wait for input 1
Distance
Speed
Start Motion
After motion is complete
Set output bit 1
Wait 20 ms
Clear output bit 1
Wait 80 ms
Repeat the process
START PULSE I1
MOTOR VELOCITY
OUTPUT PULSE
output
TIME INTERVALS
move
wait
ready
move
Figure 7.1: Motor Velocity and the Associated Input/Output signals
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X-Y Table Controller
An X-Y-Z system must cut the pattern shown in Figure 7.2. The X-Y table moves the plate while the Z-axis raises and
lowers the cutting tool.
The solid curves in Figure 7.2 indicate sections where cutting takes place. Those must be performed at a feed rate
of 1 inch per second. The dashed line corresponds to non-cutting moves and should be performed at 5 inch per
second. The acceleration rate is 0.1 g.
The motion starts at point A, with the Z-axis raised. An X-Y motion to point B is followed by lowering the Z-axis and
performing a cut along the circle. Once the circular motion is completed, the Z-axis is raised and the motion
continues to point C, etc.
Assume that all of the 3 axes are driven by lead screws with 10 turns-per-inch pitch. Also assume encoder
resolution of 1000 lines per revolution. This results in the relationship:
1 inch = 40,000 counts
and the speeds of
1 in/sec = 40,000 count/sec
5 in/sec = 200,000 count/sec
an acceleration rate of 0.1g equals
0.1g = 38.6 in/s2 = 1,544,000 count/s2
Note that the circular path has a radius of 2” or 80000 counts, and the motion starts at the angle of 270° and
traverses 360° in the CW (negative direction). Such a path is specified with the instruction
CR 80000,270,-360
Further assume that the Z must move 2” at a linear speed of 2” per second. The required motion is performed by
the following instructions:
INSTRUCTION
FUNCTION
#A
VM XY
VP 160000,160000
VE
VS 200000
VA 1544000
BGS
AMS
PR,,-80000
SP,,80000
BGZ
AMZ
CR 80000,270,-360
VE
VS 40000
BGS
AMS
PR,,80000
BGZ
AMZ
PR -21600
SP 20000
BGX
AMX
PR,,-80000
BGZ
AMZ
CR 80000,270,-360
VE
Label
Circular interpolation for XY
Positions
End Vector Motion
Vector Speed
Vector Acceleration
Start Motion
When motion is complete
Move Z down
Z speed
Start Z motion
Wait for completion of Z motion
Circle
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Feed rate
Start circular move
Wait for completion
Move Z up
Start Z move
Wait for Z completion
Move X
Speed X
Start X
Wait for X completion
Lower Z
Z second circle move
DMC-42x0 User Manual
VS 40000
BGS
AMS
PR,,80000
BGZ
AMZ
VP -37600,-16000
VE
VS 200000
BGS
AMS
EN
Raise Z
Return XY to start
Figure 7.2: Motor Velocity and the Associated Input/Output signals
Speed Control by Joystick
The speed of a motor is controlled by a joystick. The joystick produces a signal in the range between -10V and
+10V. The objective is to drive the motor at a speed proportional to the input voltage.
Assume that a full voltage of 10 Volts must produce a motor speed of 3000 rpm with an encoder resolution of 1000
lines or 4000 count/rev. This speed equals:
3000 rpm = 50 rev/sec = 200000 count/sec
The program reads the input voltage periodically and assigns its value to the variable VIN. To get a speed of
200,000 ct/sec for 10 volts, we select the speed as:
Speed = 20000 x VIN
The corresponding velocity for the motor is assigned to the VEL variable.
Instruction
#A
JG0
BGX
#B
[email protected][1]
VEL=VIN*20000
JG VEL
JP #B
EN
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Position Control by Joystick
This system requires the position of the motor to be proportional to the joystick angle. Furthermore, the ratio
between the two positions must be programmable. For example, if the control ratio is 5:1, it implies that when the
joystick voltage is 5 Volts, corresponding to 1028 counts, the required motor position must be 5120 counts. The
variable V3 changes the position ratio.
INSTRUCTION
FUNCTION
#A
V3=5
DP0
JG0
BGX
#B
[email protected][1]
V2=V1*V3
V4=V2-_TPX-_TEX
V5=V4*20
JG V5
JP #B
EN
Label
Initial position ratio
Define the starting position
Set motor in jog mode as zero
Start
Read analog input
Compute the desired position
Find the following error
Compute a proportional speed
Change the speed
Repeat the process
End
Backlash Compensation by Sampled Dual-Loop
The continuous dual loop, enabled by the DV1 function is an effective way to compensate for backlash. In some
cases, however, when the backlash magnitude is large, it may be difficult to stabilize the system. In those cases, it
may be easier to use the sampled dual loop method described below.
This design example addresses the basic problems of backlash in motion control systems. The objective is to
control the position of a linear slide precisely. The slide is to be controlled by a rotary motor, which is coupled to
the slide by a lead screw. Such a lead screw has a backlash of 4 micron, and the required position accuracy is for
0.5 micron.
The basic dilemma is where to mount the sensor. If you use a rotary sensor, you get a 4 micron backlash error. On
the other hand, if you use a linear encoder, the backlash in the feedback loop will cause oscillations due to
instability.
An alternative approach is the dual-loop, where we use two sensors, rotary and linear. The rotary sensor assures
stability (because the position loop is closed before the backlash) whereas the linear sensor provides accurate load
position information. The operation principle is to drive the motor to a given rotary position near the final point.
Once there, the load position is read to find the position error and the controller commands the motor to move to
a new rotary position which eliminates the position error.
Since the required accuracy is 0.5 micron, the resolution of the linear sensor should preferably be twice finer. A
linear sensor with a resolution of 0.25 micron allows a position error of ±2 counts.
The dual-loop approach requires the resolution of the rotary sensor to be equal or better than that of the linear
system. Assuming that the pitch of the lead screw is 2.5mm (approximately 10 turns per inch), a rotary encoder of
2500 lines per turn or 10,000 count per revolution results in a rotary resolution of 0.25 micron. This results in
equal resolution on both linear and rotary sensors.
To illustrate the control method, assume that the rotary encoder is used as a feedback for the X-axis, and that the
linear sensor is read and stored in the variable LINPOS. Further assume that at the start, both the position of X and
the value of LINPOS are equal to zero. Now assume that the objective is to move the linear load to the position of
1000.
The first step is to command the X motor to move to the rotary position of 1000. Once it arrives we check the
position of the load. If, for example, the load position is 980 counts, it implies that a correction of 20 counts must
be made. However, when the X-axis is commanded to be at the position of 1000, suppose that the actual position
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is only 995, implying that X has a position error of 5 counts, which will be eliminated once the motor settles. This
implies that the correction needs to be only 15 counts, since 5 counts out of the 20 would be corrected by the Xaxis. Accordingly, the motion correction should be:
Correction = Load Position Error - Rotary Position Error
The correction can be performed a few times until the error drops below ±2 counts. Often, this is performed in one
correction cycle.
Example:
INSTRUCTION
FUNCTION
#A
DP0
LINPOS=0
PR 1000
BGX
#B
AMX
WT 50
LINPOS = _DEX
ERR=1000-LINPOS-_TEX
JP #C,@ABS[ERR]<2
PR ERR
BGX
JP #B
#C
EN
Label
Define starting positions as zero
Required distance
Start motion
Wait for completion
Wait 50 msec
Read linear position
Find the correction
Exit if error is small
Command correction
Repeat the process
Using the DMC Editor to Enter Programs
The GalilTools software package provides an editor and utilities that allow the upload and download of DMC
programs to the motion controller.
Application programs for the DMC-42x0 may also be created and edited locally using the DMC-42x0.
The DMC-42x0 provides a line Editor for entering and modifying programs. The Edit mode is entered with the ED
instruction. (Note: The ED command can only be given when the controller is in the non-edit mode, which is
signified by a colon prompt).
In the Edit Mode, each program line is automatically numbered sequentially starting with 000. If no parameter
follows the ED command, the editor prompter will default to the last line of the last program in memory. If desired,
the user can edit a specific line number or label by specifying a line number or label following ED.
ED
:ED 5
:ED #BEGIN
Puts Editor at end of last program
Puts Editor at line 5
Puts Editor at label #BEGIN
Line numbers appear as 000,001,002 and so on. Program commands are entered following the line numbers.
Multiple commands may be given on a single line as long as the total number of characters doesn’t exceed 80
characters per line.
While in the Edit Mode, the programmer has access to special instructions for saving, inserting and deleting
program lines. These special instructions are listed below:
Edit Mode Commands
<RETURN>
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Typing the return key causes the current line of entered instructions to be saved. The editor will automatically
advance to the next line. Thus, hitting a series of <RETURN> will cause the editor to advance a series of lines.
Note, changes on a program line will not be saved unless a <return> is given.
<cntrl>P
The <cntrl>P command moves the editor to the previous line.
<cntrl>I
The <cntrl>I command inserts a line above the current line. For example, if the editor is at line number 2 and
<cntrl>I is applied, a new line will be inserted between lines 1 and 2. This new line will be labeled line 2. The old
line number 2 is renumbered as line 3.
<cntrl>D
The <cntrl>D command deletes the line currently being edited. For example, if the editor is at line number 2 and
<cntrl>D is applied, line 2 will be deleted. The previous line number 3 is now renumbered as line number 2.
<cntrl>Q
The <cntrl>Q quits the editor mode. In response, the DMC-42x0 will return a colon.
After the Edit session is over, the user may list the entered program using the LS command. If no operand follows
the LS command, the entire program will be listed. The user can start listing at a specific line or label using the
operand n. A command and new line number or label following the start listing operand specifies the location at
which listing is to stop.
Example:
Instruction
:LS
:LS
:LS
:LS
:LS
5
5,9
#A,9
#A, #A +5
Chapter 7 Application Programming ▫ 146
Interpretation
List entire program
Begin listing at line 5
List lines 5 thru 9
List line label #A thru line 9
List line label #A and additional 5 lines
DMC-42x0 User Manual
Chapter 8 Hardware & Software Protection
Introduction
The DMC-42x0 provides several hardware and software features to check for error conditions and to inhibit the
motor on error. These features help protect the various system components from damage.
WARNING: Machinery in motion can be dangerous! It is the responsibility of the user to design effective error
handling and safety protection as part of the machine. Since the DMC-42x0 is an integral part of the machine, the
engineer should design his overall system with protection against a possible component failure on the DMC-42x0.
Galil shall not be liable or responsible for any incidental or consequential damages.
Hardware Protection
The DMC-42x0 includes hardware input and output protection lines for various error and mechanical limit
conditions. These include:
Output Protection Lines
Amp Enable
This signal goes low when the motor off command is given, when the position error exceeds the value specified by
the Error Limit (ER) command, or when off-on-error condition is enabled (OE1) and the abort command is given.
Each axis amplifier has separate amplifier enable lines. This signal also goes low when the watch-dog timer is
activated, or upon reset.
Note: The standard configuration of the AEN signal is high amplifier enable (HAEN). Both the polarity and the
amplitude can be changed. To make these changes, see section entitled Amplifier Circuit in Chapter 3.
364H
Error Output
The error output is a TTL signal which indicates an error condition in the controller. This signal is available on the
interconnect module as ERR. When the error signal is low, this indicates an error condition and the Error Light on
the controller will be illuminated. For details on the reasons why the error output would be active see Error Light
(Red LED) in Chapter 9.
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Input Protection Lines
General Abort
A low input stops commanded motion instantly without a controlled deceleration. For any axis in which the OffOn-Error function is enabled, the amplifiers will be disabled. This could cause the motor to ‘coast’ to a stop. If the
Off-On-Error function is not enabled, the motor will instantaneously stop and servo at the current position. The
Off-On-Error function is further discussed in this chapter.
The Abort input by default will also halt program execution; this can be changed by changing the 5 th field of the CN
command. See the CN command in the command reference for more information.
Selective Abort
The controller can be configured to provide an individual abort for each axis. Activation of the selective abort
signal will act the same as the Abort Input but only on the specific axis. To configure the controller for selective
abort, issue the command CN,,,1. This configures the inputs 5,6,7,8,13,14,15,16 to act as selective aborts for axes
A,B,C,D,E,F,G,H respectively.
ELO (Electronic Lock Out)
Used in conjunction with Galil amplifiers, this input allows the user the shutdown the amplifier at a hardware level.
For more detailed information on how specific Galil amplifiers behave when the ELO is triggered, see in the
Appendices.
Forward Limit Switch
Low input inhibits motion in forward direction. If the motor is moving in the forward direction when the limit
switch is activated, the motion will decelerate and stop. In addition, if the motor is moving in the forward
direction, the controller will automatically jump to the limit switch subroutine, #LIMSWI (if such a routine has been
written by the user). The CN command can be used to change the polarity of the limit switches. The OE command
can also be configured so that the axis will be disabled upon the activation of a limit switch.
Reverse Limit Switch
Low input inhibits motion in reverse direction. If the motor is moving in the reverse direction when the limit switch
is activated, the motion will decelerate and stop. In addition, if the motor is moving in the reverse direction, the
controller will automatically jump to the limit switch subroutine, #LIMSWI (if such a routine has been written by
the user). The CN command can be used to change the polarity of the limit switches. The OE command can also
be configured so that the axis will be disabled upon the activation of a limit switch.
Software Protection
The DMC-42x0 provides a programmable error limit as well as encoder failure detection. It is recommended that
both the position error and encoder failure detection be used when running servo motors with the DMC-42x0.
Along with position error and encoder failure detection, then DMC-42x0 has the ability to have programmable
software limit.
Position Error
The error limit can be set for any number between 0 and 2147483647 using the ER n command. The default value
for ER is 16384.
Example:
ER 200,300,400,500
ER,1,,10
Chapter 8 Hardware & Software Protection ▫ 148
Set X-axis error limit for 200, Y-axis error limit to 300, Z-axis error limit to 400 counts, W-axis
error limit to 500 counts
Set Y-axis error limit to 1 count, set W-axis error limit to 10 counts.
DMC-42x0 User Manual
The units of the error limit are quadrature counts. The error is the difference between the command position and
actual encoder position. If the absolute value of the error exceeds the value specified by ER, the controller will
generate several signals to warn the host system of the error condition. These signals include:
Signal or Function
State if Error Occurs
# POSERR
Error Light
OE Function
AEN Output Line
Jumps to automatic excess position error subroutine
Turns on
Shuts motor off if OE1 or OE3
Switches to Motor Off state
The Jump on Condition statement is useful for branching on a given error within a program. The position error of
X,Y,Z and W can be monitored during execution using the TE command.
Encoder Failure detection
The encoder failure detection on the controller operates based upon two factors that are user settable, a threshold
of motor command output (OV), a time above that threshold (OT) in which there is no more than 4 counts of
change on the encoder input for that axis. The encoder failure detection is activated with the OA command. When
an encoder failure is detected and OA is set to 1 for that axis, the same conditions will occur as a position error.
Conditions for proper operation of Encoder Failure detection
• The axis must have a non-zero KI setting order to detect an encoder failure when the axis is not profiling.
• The IL command must be set to a value greater than the OV setting
• The TL command must be set to a value greater than the OV setting
Example:
The A axis is setup with the following settings for encoder failure detection:
OA
OT
OV
OE
ER
1
500
3
1
1000
The A axis is commanded to move 300 counts, but the B channel on the encoder has failed and no longer operates.
Because the ER setting is greater than the commanded move, the error will not be detected by using the OE and ER
commands, but this condition will be detected as a encoder failure. When the axis is commanded to move a 300
counts, the position error will cause the motor command voltage to be increased to a value that will be greater
than the OV value, 3 volts in this case. Once the motor command output is greater than the OV threshold for more
than than the 500ms defined by the OT command AND there has been less than 4 counts of change on the
encoder, then the controller will turn off that axis due to an encoder failure. The motor will have moved some
distance during this operation, but it will be shut down before a full runaway condition occurs.
Using Encoder Failure to detect a hard stop or stalled motor
The encoder failure detection can also be used to detect when an axis is up against a hard stop. In this scenario the
motor command will be commanded above the OV threshold, but because the motor is not moving the controller will
detect this scenario as an encoder failure.
Programmable Position Limits
The DMC-42x0 provides programmable forward and reverse position limits. These are set by the BL and FL
software commands. Once a position limit is specified, the DMC-42x0 will not accept position commands beyond
the limit. Motion beyond the limit is also prevented.
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Example:
DP0,0,0
BL -2000,-4000,-8000
FL 2000,4000,8000
JG 2000,2000,2000
BG XYZ
Define Position
Set Reverse position limit
Set Forward position limit
Jog
Begin
(motion stops at forward limits)
Off-On-Error
The DMC-42x0 controller has a built in function which can turn off the motors under certain error conditions. This
function is known as ‘Off-On-Error”. To activate the OE function for each axis, specify 1, 2 or 3 for that axis. To
disable this function, specify 0 for the axes. When this function is enabled, the specified motor will be disabled
under the following 3 conditions:
1.
2.
3.
4.
The position error for the specified axis exceeds the limit set with the command, ER
A hardware limit is reached
The abort command is given
The abort input is activated with a low signal.
Note: If the motors are disabled while they are moving, they may ‘coast’ to a stop because they are no longer
under servo control.
To re-enable the system, use the Reset (RS) or Servo Here (SH) command.
Examples:
OE 1,1,1,1
OE 0,1,0,1
OE 2,3
Enable off-on-error for X,Y,Z and W
Enable off-on-error for Y and W axes and disable off-on-error for W and Z axes
Enable off-on-error for limit switch for the X axis, and position error (or abort input) and limit switch for the Y axis
Automatic Error Routine
The #POSERR label causes the statements following to be automatically executed if error on any axis exceeds the
error limit specified by ER, a encoder failure is detected, or the abort input is triggered. The error routine must be
closed with the RE command. The RE command returns from the error subroutine to the main program.
NOTE: The Error Subroutine will be entered again unless the error condition is cleared.
Example:
#A;JP #A;EN
#POSERR
MG “error”
SB 1
STX
AMX
SHX
RE
“Dummy” program
Start error routine on error
Send message
Fire relay
Stop motor
After motor stops
Servo motor here to clear error
Return to main program
Limit Switch Routine
The DMC-42x0 provides forward and reverse limit switches which inhibit motion in the respective direction. There
is also a special label for automatic execution of a limit switch subroutine. The #LIMSWI label specifies the start of
the limit switch subroutine. This label causes the statements following to be automatically executed if any limit
switch is activated and that axis motor is moving in that direction. The RE command ends the subroutine.
The state of the forward and reverse limit switches may also be tested during the jump-on-condition statement.
The _LR condition specifies the reverse limit and _LF specifies the forward limit. X,Y,Z, or W following LR or LF
specifies the axis. The CN command can be used to configure the polarity of the limit switches.
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Limit Switch Example:
#A;JP #A;EN
#LIMSWI
V1=_LFX
V2=_LRX
JP#LF,V1=0
JP#LR,V2=0
JP#END
#LF
MG “FORWARD LIMIT”
STX;AMX
PR-1000;BGX;AMX
JP#END
#LR
MG “REVERSE LIMIT”
STX;AMX
PR1000;BGX;AMX
#END
RE
Chapter 8 Hardware & Software Protection ▫ 151
Dummy Program
Limit Switch Utility
Check if forward limit
Check if reverse limit
Jump to #LF if forward
Jump to #LR if reverse
Jump to end
#LF
Send message
Stop motion
Move in reverse
End
#LR
Send message
Stop motion
Move forward
End
Return to main program
DMC-42x0 User Manual
Chapter 9 Troubleshooting
Overview
The following discussion may help you get your system to work.
Potential problems have been divided into groups as follows:
1. Installation
2. Stability and Compensation
3. Operation
4. Error Light (Red LED)
The various symptoms along with the cause and the remedy are described in the following tables.
Installation
SYMPTOM
DIAGNOSIS
Motor runs away with no
connections from controller to
amplifier input.
Adjusting offset causes the
motor to change speed.
Motor is enabled even when
MO command is given
The SH command disables the
motor
Unable to read main or
auxiliary encoder input.
The encoder does not work
when swapped with another
encoder input.
Unable to read main or
auxiliary encoder input.
Encoder Position Drifts
Chapter 9 Troubleshooting ▫ 152
The encoder works correctly
when swapped with another
encoder input.
Swapping cables fixes the
problem
CAUSE
REMEDY
1. Amplifier has an internal
offset.
1. Adjust amplifier offset. Amplifier
offset may also be compensated by use
of the offset configuration on the
controller (see the OF command).
2. Replace amplifier.
Refer to Chapter 3 or contact Galil.
2. Damaged amplifier.
1. The amplifier requires
the a different Amplifier
Enable setting on the
Interconnect Module
1. Wrong encoder
connections.
2. Encoder is damaged
3. Encoder configuration
incorrect.
1. Wrong encoder
connections.
2. Encoder configuration
incorrect.
3. Encoder input or
controller is damaged
1. Poor Connections /
intermittent cable
1. Check encoder wiring. For single
ended encoders (CHA and CHB only) do
not make any connections to the CHAand CHB- inputs.
2. Replace encoder
3. Check CE command
1. Check encoder wiring. For single
ended encoders (MA+ and MB+ only) do
not make any connections to the MAand MB- inputs.
2. Check CE command
3. Contact Galil
Review all connections and connector
contacts.
DMC-42x0 User Manual
Encoder Position Drifts
Significant noise can be seen
on MA+ and / or MB+ encoder
signals
1. Noise
Shield encoder cables
Avoid placing power cables near
encoder cables
Avoid Ground Loops
Use differential encoders
Use ±12V encoders
Stability
SYMPTOM
Servo motor runs away when
the loop is closed.
DIAGNOSIS
Reversed Motor Type corrects
situation (MT -1)
Motor oscillates.
CAUSE
1.
Wrong feedback
polarity.
2.
Too high gain or too
little damping.
REMEDY
Reverse Motor or Encoder Wiring
(remember to set Motor Type back to
default value: MT 1)
Decrease KI and KP. Increase KD.
Operation
SYMPTOM
Controller rejects commands.
Motor Doesn’t Move
DIAGNOSIS
Response of controller from
1.
TC1 diagnoses error.
Response of controller from TC1 2.
diagnoses error.
CAUSE
REMEDY
Anything
Correct problem reported by TC1
Anything
Correct problem reported by SC
Error Light (Red LED)
The red error LED has multiple meanings for Galil controllers. Here is a list of reasons the error light will come on
and possible solutions:
Under Voltage
If the controller is not receiving enough voltage to power up.
Under Current
If the power supply does not have enough current, the red LED will cycle on and off along with the green power
LED.
Position Error
If any axis that is set up as a servo (MT command) has a position error value (TE) that exceeds the error limit (ER) the error light will come on to signify there is an axis that has exceeded the position error limit. Use a DP*=0 to set
all encoder positions to zero or a SH (Servo Here) command to eliminate position error.
Invalid Firmware
If the controller is interrupted during a firmware update or an incorrect version of firmware is installed - the error
light will come on. The prompt will show up as a greater than sign “>” instead of the standard colon “:” prompt.
Use GalilTools software to install the correct version of firmware to fix this problem.
Self Test
During the first few seconds of power up, it is normal for the red LED to turn on while it is performing a self test. If
the self test detects a problem such as corrupted memory or damaged hardware - the error light will stay on to
signal a problem with the board. To fix this problem, a Master Reset may be required. The Master Reset will set
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DMC-42x0 User Manual
the controller back to factory default conditions so it is recommended that all motor and I/O cables be removed for
safety while performing the Master Reset. Cables can be plugged back in after the correct settings have been
loaded back to the controller (when necessary). To perform a Master Reset - find the jumper location labeled MR
or MRST on the controller and put a jumper across the two pins. Power up with the jumper installed. The Self-Test
will take slightly longer - up to 5seconds. After the error light shuts off, it is safe to power down and remove the
Master Reset jumper. If performing a Master Reset does not get rid of the error light, the controller may need to
be sent back to the factory to be repaired. Contact Galil for more information.
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Chapter 10 Theory of Operation
Overview
The following discussion covers the operation of motion control systems. A typical motion control system consists
of the elements shown in Figure 10.1.
COMPUTER
CONTROLLER
DRIVER
ENCODER
MOTOR
Figure 10.1: Elements of Servo Systems
The operation of such a system can be divided into three levels, as illustrated in Figure 10.2. The levels are:
1.
Closing the Loop
2.
Motion Profiling
3.
Motion Programming
The first level, the closing of the loop, assures that the motor follows the commanded position. This is done by
closing the position loop using a sensor. The operation at the basic level of closing the loop involves the subjects of
modeling, analysis, and design. These subjects will be covered in the following discussions.
The motion profiling is the generation of the desired position function. This function, R(t), describes where the
motor should be at every sampling period. Note that the profiling and the closing of the loop are independent
functions. The profiling function determines where the motor should be and the closing of the loop forces the
motor to follow the commanded position
The highest level of control is the motion program. This can be stored in the host computer or in the controller.
This program describes the tasks in terms of the motors that need to be controlled, the distances and the speed.
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LEVEL
3
MOTION
PROGRAMMING
2
MOTION
PROFILING
1
CLOSED-LOOP
CONTROL
Figure 10.2: Levels of Control Funtions
The three levels of control may be viewed as different levels of management. The top manager, the motion
program, may specify the following instruction, for example.
PR
SP
AC
BG
AD
BG
EN
6000,4000
20000,20000
200000,00000
X
2000
Y
This program corresponds to the velocity profiles shown in Figure 10.3. Note that the profiled positions show
where the motors must be at any instant of time.
Finally, it remains up to the servo system to verify that the motor follows the profiled position by closing the servo
loop.
The following section explains the operation of the servo system. First, it is explained qualitatively, and then the
explanation is repeated using analytical tools for those who are more theoretically inclined.
X VELOCITY
Y VELOCITY
X POSITION
Y POSITION
TIME
Figure 10.3: Velocity and Position Profiles
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Operation of Closed-Loop Systems
To understand the operation of a servo system, we may compare it to a familiar closed-loop operation, adjusting
the water temperature in the shower. One control objective is to keep the temperature at a comfortable level, say
90 degrees F. To achieve that, our skin serves as a temperature sensor and reports to the brain (controller). The
brain compares the actual temperature, which is called the feedback signal, with the desired level of 90 degrees F.
The difference between the two levels is called the error signal. If the feedback temperature is too low, the error is
positive, and it triggers an action which raises the water temperature until the temperature error is reduced
sufficiently.
The closing of the servo loop is very similar. Suppose that we want the motor position to be at 90 degrees. The
motor position is measured by a position sensor, often an encoder, and the position feedback is sent to the
controller. Like the brain, the controller determines the position error, which is the difference between the
commanded position of 90 degrees and the position feedback. The controller then outputs a signal that is
proportional to the position error. This signal produces a proportional current in the motor, which causes a motion
until the error is reduced. Once the error becomes small, the resulting current will be too small to overcome the
friction, causing the motor to stop.
The analogy between adjusting the water temperature and closing the position loop carries further. We have all
learned the hard way, that the hot water faucet should be turned at the “right” rate. If you turn it too slowly, the
temperature response will be slow, causing discomfort. Such a slow reaction is called over-damped response.
The results may be worse if we turn the faucet too fast. The overreaction results in temperature oscillations.
When the response of the system oscillates, we say that the system is unstable. Clearly, unstable responses are bad
when we want a constant level.
What causes the oscillations? The basic cause for the instability is a combination of delayed reaction and high gain.
In the case of the temperature control, the delay is due to the water flowing in the pipes. When the human
reaction is too strong, the response becomes unstable.
Servo systems also become unstable if their gain is too high. The delay in servo systems is between the application
of the current and its effect on the position. Note that the current must be applied long enough to cause a
significant effect on the velocity, and the velocity change must last long enough to cause a position change. This
delay, when coupled with high gain, causes instability.
This motion controller includes a special filter which is designed to help the stability and accuracy. Typically, such a
filter produces, in addition to the proportional gain, damping and integrator. The combination of the three
functions is referred to as a PID filter.
The filter parameters are represented by the three constants KP, KI and KD, which correspond to the proportional,
integral and derivative term respectively.
The damping element of the filter acts as a predictor, thereby reducing the delay associated with the motor
response.
The integrator function, represented by the parameter KI, improves the system accuracy. With the KI parameter,
the motor does not stop until it reaches the desired position exactly, regardless of the level of friction or opposing
torque.
The integrator also reduces the system stability. Therefore, it can be used only when the loop is stable and has a
high gain.
The output of the filter is applied to a digital-to-analog converter (DAC). The resulting output signal in the range
between +10 and -10 Volts is then applied to the amplifier and the motor.
The motor position, whether rotary or linear is measured by a sensor. The resulting signal, called position
feedback, is returned to the controller for closing the loop.
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DMC-42x0 User Manual
The following section describes the operation in a detailed mathematical form, including modeling, analysis and
design.
System Modeling
The elements of a servo system include the motor, driver, encoder and the controller. These elements are shown in
Figure 10.4. The mathematical model of the various components is given below.
CONTROLLER
R
X

DIGITAL
FILTER
Y
ZOH
DAC
V
AMP
C
E
MOTOR
P
ENCODER
Figure 10.4: Functional Elements of a Motion Control System
Motor-Amplifier
The motor amplifier may be configured in three modes:
1.
Voltage Drive
2.
Current Drive
3.
Velocity Loop
The operation and modeling in the three modes is as follows:
Voltage Drive
The amplifier is a voltage source with a gain of Kv [V/V]. The transfer function relating the input voltage, V, to the
motor position, P, is
P V  KV
 K S ST
t
m

 1 STe  1
where
Tm  RJ K t2 [s]
and
Te  L R
[s]
and the motor parameters and units are
Kt
R
J
L
Torque constant [Nm/A]
Armature Resistance Ω
Combined inertia of motor and load [kg.m2]
Armature Inductance [H]
When the motor parameters are given in English units, it is necessary to convert the quantities to MKS units. For
example, consider a motor with the parameters:
Kt = 14.16 oz - in/A = 0.1 Nm/A
R=2Ω
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DMC-42x0 User Manual
J = 0.0283 oz-in-s2 = 2 * 10-4 kg . m2
L = 0.004H
Then the corresponding time constants are
Tm = 0.04 sec
and
Te = 0.002 sec
Assuming that the amplifier gain is Kv = 4, the resulting transfer function is
P/V = 40/[s(0.04s+1)(0.002s+1)]
Current Drive
The current drive generates a current I, which is proportional to the input voltage, V, with a gain of K a. The
resulting transfer function in this case is
P/V = Ka Kt / Js2
where Kt and J are as defined previously. For example, a current amplifier with K a = 2 A/V with the motor
described by the previous example will have the transfer function:
P/V = 1000/s2 [rad/V]
If the motor is a DC brushless motor, it is driven by an amplifier that performs the commutation. The combined
transfer function of motor amplifier combination is the same as that of a similar brush motor, as described by the
previous equations.
Velocity Loop
The motor driver system may include a velocity loop where the motor velocity is sensed by a tachometer and is fed
back to the amplifier. Such a system is illustrated in Figure 10.5. Note that the transfer function between the input
voltage V and the velocity ω is:
ω /V = [Ka Kt/Js]/[1+Ka Kt Kg /Js] = 1/[Kg(sT1+1)]
where the velocity time constant, T1, equals
T1 = J/Ka Kt Kg
This leads to the transfer function
P/V = 1/[Kg s(sT1+1)]
V

Ka
Kt/Js
Kg
Figure 10.5: Elements of velocity loops
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The resulting functions derived above are illustrated by the block diagram of Figure 10.6.
VOLTAGE SOURCE
E
V
1/Ke
(STm+1)(STe+1)
Kv
W
1
S
P
CURRENT SOURCE
I
V
Kt
JS
Ka
W
1
S
P
VELOCITY LOOP
V
1
Kg(ST1+1)
W
1
S
P
Figure 10.6: Mathematical model of the motor and amplifier in three operational modes
Encoder
The encoder generates N pulses per revolution. It outputs two signals, Channel A and B, which are in quadrature.
Due to the quadrature relationship between the encoder channels, the position resolution is increased to 4N
quadrature counts/rev.
The model of the encoder can be represented by a gain of
Kf = 4N/2π
[count/rad]
For example, a 1000 lines/rev encoder is modeled as
Kf = 638
DAC
The DAC or D-to-A converter converts a 16-bit number to an analog voltage. The input range of the numbers is
65536 and the output voltage range is ±10V or 20V. Therefore, the effective gain of the DAC is
K= 20/65536 = 0.0003 [V/count]
Digital Filter
The digital filter has three element in series: PID, low-pass and a notch filter. The transfer function of the filter. The
transfer function of the filter elements are:
PID
D(z) =
Chapter 10 Theory of Operation ▫ 160
K ( Z  A) CZ

Z
Z 1
DMC-42x0 User Manual
Low-pass
L(z) =
1 B
ZB
Notch
N(z) =
( Z  z )( Z  z )
( Z  p )( Z  p )
The filter parameters, K, A, C and B are selected by the instructions KP, KD, KI and PL, respectively. The relationship
between the filter coefficients and the instructions are:
K = (KP + KD)
A = KD/(KP + KD)
C = KI
B = PL
The PID and low-pass elements are equivalent to the continuous transfer function G(s).
G(s) = (P + sD + I/s) ∙ a / (s + a)
where,
P = KP
D = T∙KD
I = KI/T
a=
1 1
1n 
T B
where T is the sampling period, and B is the pole setting
For example, if the filter parameters of the DMC-42x0 are
KP = 16
KD = 144
KI = 2
PL = 0.75
T = 0.001 s
the digital filter coefficients are
K = 160
A = 0.9
C=2
a = 250 rad/s
and the equivalent continuous filter, G(s), is
G(s) = [16 + 0.144s + 2000/s] ∙ 250/ (s+250)
The notch filter has two complex zeros, z and , and two complex poles, p and .
The effect of the notch filter is to cancel the resonance affect by placing the complex zeros on top of the resonance
poles. The notch poles, P and p, are programmable and are selected to have sufficient damping. It is best to select
the notch parameters by the frequency terms. The poles and zeros have a frequency in Hz, selected by the
command NF. The real part of the poles is set by NB and the real part of the zeros is set by NZ.
The most simple procedure for setting the notch filter, identify the resonance frequency and set NF to the same
value. Set NB to about one half of NF and set NZ to a low value between zero and 5.
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ZOH
The ZOH, or zero-order-hold, represents the effect of the sampling process, where the motor command is updated
once per sampling period. The effect of the ZOH can be modeled by the transfer function
H(s) = 1/(1+sT/2)
If the sampling period is T = 0.001, for example, H(s) becomes:
H(s) = 2000/(s+2000)
However, in most applications, H(s) may be approximated as one.
This completes the modeling of the system elements. Next, we discuss the system analysis.
System Analysis
To analyze the system, we start with a block diagram model of the system elements. The analysis procedure is
illustrated in terms of the following example.
Consider a position control system with the DMC-42x0 controller and the following parameters:
Kt = 0.1
Nm/A
J = 2 * 10-4
kg.m2
R=2
Ka = 4
KP = 12.5
KD = 245
KI = 0
N = 500
T=1
Ω
Amp/Volt
Counts/rev
ms
Torque constant
System moment of inertia
Motor resistance
Current amplifier gain
Digital filter gain
Digital filter zero
No integrator
Encoder line density
Sample period
The transfer function of the system elements are:
Motor
M(s) = P/I = Kt/Js2 = 500/s2 [rad/A]
Amp
Ka = 4 [Amp/V]
DAC
Kd = 0.0003 [V/count]
Encoder
Kf = 4N/2π = 318 [count/rad]
ZOH
2000/(s+2000)
Digital Filter
KP = 12.5, KD = 245, T = 0.001
Therefore,
D(z) = 1030 (z-0.95)/Z
Accordingly, the coefficients of the continuous filter are:
P = 50
D = 0.98
The filter equation may be written in the continuous equivalent form:
Chapter 10 Theory of Operation ▫ 162
DMC-42x0 User Manual
G(s) = 50 + 0.98s = .098 (s+51)
The system elements are shown in Figure 10.7.
V

FILTER
ZOH
DAC
AMP
MOTOR
50+0.980s
2000
S+2000
0.0003
4
500
S2
ENCODER
318
Figure 10.7: Mathematical model of the control system
The open loop transfer function, A(s), is the product of all the elements in the loop.
A(s) = 390,000 (s+51)/[s2(s+2000)]
To analyze the system stability, determine the crossover frequency, ωc at which A(j ωc) equals one. This can be
done by the Bode plot of A(j ωc), as shown in Figure 10.8.
Magnitude
4
1
50
200
2000
W (rad/s)
0.1
Figure 10.8: Bode plot of the open loop transfer function
For the given example, the crossover frequency was computed numerically resulting in 200 rad/s.
Next, we determine the phase of A(s) at the crossover frequency.
A(j200) = 390,000 (j200+51)/[(j200)2 . (j200 + 2000)]
α = Arg[A(j200)] = tan-1(200/51)-180° -tan-1(200/2000)
α = 76° - 180° - 6° = -110°
Finally, the phase margin, PM, equals
PM = 180° + α = 70°
As long as PM is positive, the system is stable. However, for a well damped system, PM should be between 30° and
45°. The phase margin of 70° given above indicated over-damped response.
Next, we discuss the design of control systems.
Chapter 10 Theory of Operation ▫ 163
DMC-42x0 User Manual
System Design and Compensation
The closed-loop control system can be stabilized by a digital filter, which is pre-programmed in the DMC-42x0
controller. The filter parameters can be selected by the user for the best compensation. The following discussion
presents an analytical design method.
The Analytical Method
The analytical design method is aimed at closing the loop at a crossover frequency, ωc, with a phase margin PM.
The system parameters are assumed known. The design procedure is best illustrated by a design example.
Consider a system with the following parameters:
Kt
Nm/A
J = 2 * 10-4
kg.m2
R=2
Ka = 2
N = 1000
Ω
Amp/Volt
Counts/rev
Torque constant
System moment of inertia
Motor resistance
Current amplifier gain
Encoder line density
The DAC of the DMC-42x0 outputs ±10V for a 16-bit command of ±32768 counts.
The design objective is to select the filter parameters in order to close a position loop with a crossover frequency of
ωc = 500 rad/s and a phase margin of 45 degrees.
The first step is to develop a mathematical model of the system, as discussed in the previous system.
Motor
M(s) = P/I = Kt/Js2 = 1000/s2
Amp
DAC
Encoder
ZOH
Ka = 2
[Amp/V]
Kd = 10/32768 = .0003
Kf = 4N/2π = 636
H(s) = 2000/(s+2000)
Compensation Filter
G(s) = P + sD
The next step is to combine all the system elements, with the exception of G(s), into one function, L(s).
L(s) = M(s) Ka Kd Kf H(s) =3.17∙106/[s2(s+2000)]
Then the open loop transfer function, A(s), is
A(s) = L(s) G(s)
Now, determine the magnitude and phase of L(s) at the frequency ωc = 500.
L(j500) = 3.17∙106/[(j500)2 (j500+2000)]
This function has a magnitude of
|L(j500)| = 0.00625
and a phase
Chapter 10 Theory of Operation ▫ 164
DMC-42x0 User Manual
Arg[L(j500)] = -180° - tan-1(500/2000) = -194°
G(s) is selected so that A(s) has a crossover frequency of 500 rad/s and a phase margin of 45°. This requires that
|A(j500)| = 1
Arg [A(j500)] = -135°
However, since
A(s) = L(s) G(s)
then it follows that G(s) must have magnitude of
|G(j500)| = |A(j500)/L(j500)| = 160
and a phase
arg [G(j500)] = arg [A(j500)] - arg [L(j500)] = -135° + 194°= 59°
In other words, we need to select a filter function G(s) of the form
G(s) = P + sD
so that at the frequency ωc =500, the function would have a magnitude of 160 and a phase lead of 59 degrees.
These requirements may be expressed as:
|G(j500)| = |P + (j500D)| = 160
and
arg [G(j500)] = tan-1[500D/P] = 59°
The solution of these equations leads to:
P = 160 cos 59° = 82.4
500D = 160 sin 59° = 137
Therefore,
D = 0.274
and
G = 82.4 + 0.2744s
The function G is equivalent to a digital filter of the form:
D(z) = KP + KD(1-z-1)
where
P = KP
D = KD∙ T
and
KD = D/T
Assuming a sampling period of T=1ms, the parameters of the digital filter are:
KP = 82.4
KD = 247.4
The DMC-42x0 can be programmed with the instruction:
KP 82.4
KD 68.6
Chapter 10 Theory of Operation ▫ 165
DMC-42x0 User Manual
In a similar manner, other filters can be programmed. The procedure is simplified by the following table, which
summarizes the relationship between the various filters.
Equivalent Filter Form - DMC-42x0
Digital
D(z) =[K(z-A/z) + Cz/(z-1)]∙(1-B)/(Z-B)
KP, KD, KI, PL K = (KP + KD)
A = KD/(KP+KD)
C = KI
B = PL
Digital
D(z) = [KP + KD(1-z-1) + KI/2(1-z-1)] ∙(1-PL)/(Z-PL)
Continuous
G(s) = (P + Ds + I/s)∙a/(s+a)
PID, T
P = KP
D = T * KD
I = KI / T
a = 1/T ln(1/PL)
Chapter 10 Theory of Operation ▫ 166
DMC-42x0 User Manual
Appendices
Electrical Specifications
NOTE
Electrical specifications are only valid once controller is out of reset.
Servo Control
Motor command line
Main and auxiliary encoder inputs
±10 V analog signal
Resolution: 16-bit DAC or 0.0003 volts
3 mA maximum.
Output impedance – 500 Ω
TTL compatible, but can accept up to ±12 volts
Quadrature phase on CHA, CHB
Single-ended or differential
Maximum A, B edge rate: 22 MHz
Minimum IDX pulse width: 45 nsec
Stepper Control
STPn (Step)
DIRn (Direction)
TTL (0-5 volts) level at 50% duty cycle.
6,000,000 pulses/sec maximum frequency
TTL (0-5 volts)
Input / Output
Opto-isolated Inputs: DI[16:1]*, Limit
switches, home, abort, reset
2.2 kΩ in series with opto-isolator
Active high or low requires at least 1mA to activate.
Once activated, the input requires the current to go below 0.5mA.
All Limit Switch and Home inputs use one common voltage (LSCOM)
which can accept up to 24 volts.
Voltages above 24 volts require an additional resistor.
≥ 1 mA = ON; ≤ 0.5 mA = OFF
*[8:1] for 1-4 axes models, [16:1] for 5-8 axes models
Appendices ▫ 167
DMC-42x0 User Manual
Analog Inputs: AI[8:1]
±10 volts
Optoisolated Digital Outputs: DO[16:1]*
12-Bit Analog-to-Digital converter
16-bit optional
500mA Sourcing
*[8:1] for 1-4 axes models, [16:1] for 5-8 axes models
Extended I/O: IO[80:17]
Configurable 0-5V TTL as Inputs or Outputs
Configured by the CO command in banks of 8
Auxiliary Inputs as Uncommitted Inputs: The auxiliary pins can be used as uncommitted inputs and are
DI[96:81]*
assigned to the following bits:
Axis A: DI81, DI82
Axis B: DI83, DI84
Axis C: DI85, DI86
Axis D: DI87, DI88
Axis E: DI89, DI90
Axis F: DI91, DI92
Axis G: DI93, DI94
Axis H: DI95, DI96
These inputs have the same specifications as listed above for encoder
inputs.
*The number of auxiliary inputs is dependent on the number of axes ordered
Power Requirements
20-80 VDC
12-16 W at 25° C
+5, ±12V Power Output Specifications
Output Voltage
+5V
Tolerance
±5%
Max Current Output
1.1A
+12V
±5%
±5%
40mA
-12V
Appendices ▫ 168
40mA
DMC-42x0 User Manual
Performance Specifications
Minimum Servo Loop Update Time/Memory:
Normal
Minimum Servo Loop Update Time
DMC-4210
DMC-4220
DMC-4230
DMC-4240
DMC-4250
DMC-4260
DMC-4270
DMC-4280
Position Accuracy
Velocity Accuracy
Long Term
Short Term
Position Range
Velocity Range
Velocity Resolution
Motor Command Resolution
Variable Range
Variable Resolution
Number of Variables
Array Size
Program Size
Command Processing
62.5 µsec
62.5 µsec
125 µsec
125 µsec
156.25 µsec
156.25 µsec
187.5 µsec
187.5 µsec
±1 quadrature count
Phase-locked, better than 0.005%
System dependent
±2147483647 counts per move
Up to 22,000,000 counts/sec servo;
6,000,000 pulses/sec-stepper
2 counts/sec
16 bit or 0.0003 V
±2 billion
1 x 10-4
510
24000 elements, 30 arrays
4000 lines x 80 characters
~40 µsec per command
Environmental
Operating Temperature
Humidity
Appendices ▫ 169
0-70 deg C
20-95% RH, non-condensing
DMC-42x0 User Manual
Ordering Options
Overview
The DMC-42x0 can be ordered in many different internal boards, the DMC, ICM, and CMB are required, and the
AMP/SMD are optional. These individual boards have their own set of options that can modify them. This section
provides information regarding the different options available for these different boards. For information on
pricing and how to order a controller with these options, see our DMC-42x0 part number generator on our website.
http://www.galilmc.com/products/dmc-42x0-part-number.php
DMC, “DMC-42x0(Y)” Controller Board Options
The following options are the “Y” configuration options that can be added to the DMC-42x0 part number. Multiple
Y-options can be ordered per board.
-16 bit – 16 bit Analog Inputs
The -16 bit option provides 16 bit analog inputs on the DMC-42x0 motion controller. The standard resolution of
the analog inputs is 12 bits.
Part number ordering example:
DMC-4210(-16bit)-C012-I000
4-20mA – 4-20mA analog inputs
The 4-20mA option converts all 8 analog inputs into 4-20mA analog inputs. This is accomplished by installing 475W
precision resistors between the analog inputs and ground. When using this option the analog inputs should be
configured for 0-10V analog inputs using the AQ command (AQ n,4). The equation for calculating the current is:
Ima = 2.105 V
Where Ima = current in mA
V = Voltage reading from DMC-42x0
Part number ordering example:
DMC-4210(4-20mA)-C012-I000
ETL – ETL Certified DMC-42x0
The DMC-42x0 can be ordered in a configuration that is ETL listed. ETL Mark is shown in Figure A.1.
Figure A.1: ETL Mark with (ETL) Option
Part number ordering example:
Appendices ▫ 170
DMC-4210(ETL)-C012-I000
DMC-42x0 User Manual
RS-422-Main Port
Standard connector and cable when DMC-42x0 is ordered with RS-422 Option.
Pin #
Signal
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
RTSTXDRXDCTSGND
RTS+
TXD+
RXD+
CTS+
RS-422-Auxiliary Port
Standard connector and cable when DMC-42x0 is ordered with RS-422 Option.
Pin #
Signal
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
CTSRXDTXDRTSGND
CTS+
RXD+
TXD+
RTS+
RS-232/422 Configuration Jumpers
Location
Label
Function (If jumpered)
JP2 (-C012, default)
JP3 (-C022)
ARXD
Connects a 120 Ω Termination resistor between the differential “Receive”
inputs on the Aux Serial port. Pins 2 and 7 on RS-422 Auxiliary Port.
Connects a 120 Ω Termination resistor between the differential “Clear To
Send” inputs on the Aux Serial port. Pins 1 and 6 on RS-422 Auxiliary Port.
Connects a 120 Ω Termination resistor between the differential “Receive”
inputs on the Main Serial port. Pins 3 and 8 on RS-422 Main Port.
Connects a 120 Ω Termination resistor between the differential “Clear To
Send” inputs on the Main Serial port. Pins 4 and 9 on RS-422 Main Port.
Do not use with RS-422 option.
ACTS
JP2 (-C012, default)
JP2 (-C022)
MRXD
MCTS
JP2 (-CO12, default)
JP3 (-C022)
APWR
Note: The ARXD, ACTS, MRXD and MCTS should be installed for single-drop RS-422. For
multi-drop, the jumpers should be installed on the last device.
Appendices ▫ 171
DMC-42x0 User Manual
SSI and BiSS – SSI and BiSS Absolute encoder Option
The BiSS and SSI options configures the DMC-42x0 for BiSS or SSI absolute encoder inputs. See the SS and SI
commands in the DMC-42x0 Command Reference. Pin-out information is shown below for the DMC-42x0 with the
CB-50-80, and the regular 80 Pin High Density cable.
DMC-42x0 (BiSS or SSI Option) Pinout
SSI Signal
DMC-42x0 80-Pin SCSI
DMC-42x0 with CB-50-80
D0-
44
J6-4
-D0+
42
J6-2
D1-
48
J6-8
D1+
46
J6-6
D2-
52
J6-12
D2+
50
J6-10
D3-
56
J6-16
D3+
54
J6-14
D4-
4
J8-4
D4+
2
J8-2
D5-
8
J8-8
D5+
6
J8-6
D6-
12
J8-12
D6+
10
J8-10
D7-
16
J8-16
D7+
14
J8-14
C0-
71
J6-31
C0+
69
J6-29
C1-
67
J6-29
C1+
65
J6-25
C2-
63
J6-23
C2+
61
J6-21
C3-
59
J6-19
C3+
57
J6-17
C4-
31
J8-31
C4+
29
J8-29
C5-
27
J8-27
C5+
25
J8-25
C6-
23
J8-23
C6+
21
J8-21
C7-
19
J8-19
C7+
17
J8-17
VCC (+5V)
40,80
J6-49, J8-49
GND
18,20,22,24,26,28,30,58,60,62,64,66,68,7
J6-10>50 (EVEN), J8-10>50 (EVEN)
Note: This option is not valid with the ICM-42100 (-I100). Consult Galil if the Sinusoidal encoder and SSI encoder
interfaces are required on the same set of 4 axes.
Part number ordering example:
Appendices ▫ 172
DMC-4210(SSI)
DMC-42x0 User Manual
TRES – Encoder Termination Resistors
The TRES option provides termination resistors on all of the main and auxiliary encoder inputs on the DMC-42x0
motion controller. The termination resistors are 120 Ω, and are placed between the positive and negative
differential inputs on the Main A, B, Index channels as well as the Auxiliary A and B channels as in Figure A.2.
Note: Single ended encoders will not operate correctly with the termination resistors installed. If a combination of
differential encoder inputs with termination resistors and single ended encoders is required on the same
interconnect module, contact Galil directly.
Figure A.2: Encoder Inputs with -TRES option
Part number ordering example:
Appendices ▫ 173
DMC-4210(TRES)
DMC-42x0 User Manual
Accessories
Appendices ▫ 174
CABLE-100-1M
100-pin high density cable, 1 meter
CABLE-100-4M
100-pin high density cable, 4 meter
CABLE-80-1M
80-pin high density cable, 1 meter
CABLE-80-4M
80-pin high density cable, 4 meter
CABLE-36-1M
36-pin high density cable, 1 meter
CABLE-36-4M
36-pin high density cable, 4 meter
CB-50-100
50-pin to 100-pin converter board, includes two 50-pin ribbon cables
CB-50-80
50-pin to 80-pin converter board, includes two 50-pin ribbon cables
ICM-1900
Interconnect module
-LAEN
Option for ICM-1900, Provides Active Low Amplifier Enable Signal
-OPTO
Option for ICM-1900, Provides Opto0isolation for digital outputs
-OPTOHC
Option for ICM-1900, Provides High Current Opto-isolation for digital
outputs
AMP-19x0
Interconnect module with 1 - 4 brushless/brush PWM motor amplifiers
where x specifies the either 2 or 4 amplifiers.
-OPTO
Option for AMP-19x0, Provides Opto0isolation for digital outputs
-OPTOHC
Option for AMP-19x0, Provides High Current Opto-isolation for digital
outputs
ICM-2900
Interconnect module with detachable screw terminal
-LAEN
Option for ICM-2900, Provides Active Low Amplifier Enable Signal
-FL
Option for ICM-2900 where the ICM-2900 includes flanges for rack
mounting
-OPTO
Option for AMP-19x0, provides Opto-isolation for digital outputs
-OPTOHC
Option for AMP-19x0, provides High Current Opto-isolation for digital
outputs
DMC-42x0 User Manual
Input Current Limitations
The current for an optoisolated input shall not exceed 11mA. Some applications may require the use of an external
resistor (R) to limit the amount of current for an input. These external resistors can be placed in series between the
inputs and their power supply (Vs). To determine if an additional resistor (R) is required, follow Equation A1 below
for guidance.
1 mA<
Vs
< 11 mA
R+ 2200 Ω
Equation A1: Current limitation
requirements for each input.
Appendices ▫ 175
DMC-42x0 User Manual
Serial Cable Connections
The DMC-42x0 requires the transmit, receive, and ground for slow communication rates. (i.e. 9600 baud) For faster
rates the handshake lines are required. The connection tables below contain the handshake lines.
Standard RS-232 Specifications
25 pin Serial Connector (Male, D-type)
This table describes the pinout for standard serial ports found on most computers.
Pin #
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
Appendices ▫ 176
Function
NC
TXD
RXD
RTS
CTS
DSR
GND
DCD
NC
NC
NC
NC
NC
NC
NC
NC
NC
NC
NC
DTR
NC
RI
NC
NC
NC
DMC-42x0 User Manual
9 Pin Serial Connector (Male, D-type)
Standard serial port connections found on most computers.
Pin #
Function
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
DCD
RXD
TXD
RTS
GND
DSR
RTS
CTS
RI
DMC-42x0 Serial Cable Specifications
Cable to Connect Computer 25 pin to Main Serial Port
25 Pin (Male - computer)
5 CTS
3 RXD
2 TXD
4 RTS
7 GND
9 Pin (female - controller)
8 RTS
2 TXD
3 RXD
7 CTS
5 GND
Cable to Connect Computer 9 pin to Main Serial Port Cable (9 pin)
9 Pin (FEMALE - Computer)
2 RXD
3 TXD
5 GND
7 RTS
8 CTS
9 Pin (FEMALE - Controller)
2 TXD
3 RXD
5 GND
7 CTS
8 RTS
Cable to Connect Computer 25 pin to Auxiliary Serial Port Cable (9 pin)
25 Pin (Male - terminal)
4 RTS
2 TXD
3 RXD
5 CTS
7 GND
Computer +5V
9 Pin (male - controller)
8 CTS
2 RXD
3 TXD
7 RTS
5 GND
9 (Jumper APWR if required)
Cable to Connect Computer 9 pin to Auxiliary Serial Port Cable (9 pin)
9 Pin (FEMALE - terminal)
4 RTS
3 TXD
2 RXD
1 CTS
5 GND
Controller +5V
Appendices ▫ 177
9 Pin (MALE - Controller)
8 CTS
2 RXD
3 TXD
7 RTS
5 GND
9 (Jumper APWR if required)
DMC-42x0 User Manual
Opto-Isolated Outputs for ICM-2900/ICM-1900/AMP-19520/40
The ICM/AMP 1900 and ICM-2900 modules from Galil have an option for opto-isolated outputs.
Standard Opto-Isolation and High Current Opto-isolation:
The Opto-isolation option on the ICM-1900 has 2 forms: -opto (standard) and -optohc (high current). The standard
version provides outputs with 4ma drive current / output with approximately 2 usec response time. The high
current version provides 25ma drive current / output with approximately 400 usec response time.
The ISO OUT POWER (OUT POWER ON ICM-2900) and ISO POWER GND (OUT GND ON ICM-2900) signals should be
connected to an isolated power supply. This power supply should be used only to power the outputs in order to
obtain isolation from the controller. The signal "OUT[x]" is one of the isolated digital outputs where X stands for the
digital output terminals.
The default configuration is for active high outputs. If active low outputs are desired, reverse RP3 in it's socket. This
will tie RP3 to GND instead of VCC, inverting the sense of the outputs.
NOTE: If power is applied to the outputs with an isolated power supply but power is not applied to the controller,
the outputs will float high (unable to sink current). This may present a problem when using active high logic and
care should be taken. Using active low logic should avoid any problems associated with the outputs floating high.
Appendices ▫ 178
DMC-42x0 User Manual
Signal Descriptions
Outputs
Motor Command
Amplifier Enable
PWM / Step
PWM / Step
Sign / Direction
Error
Output 1-Output 8
Output 9-Output 16
(DMC-4250 thru 4080)
± 10 Volt range signal for driving amplifier. In servo mode, motor
command output is updated at the controller sample rate. In the motor
off mode, this output is held at the OF command level.
Signal to disable and enable an amplifier. Amp Enable goes low on Abort
and OE1.
PWM/STEP OUT is used for directly driving power bridges for DC servo
motors or for driving step motor amplifiers. For servo motors: If you are
using a conventional amplifier that accepts a ±10 Volt analog signal, this
pin is not used and should be left open. The PWM output is available in
two formats: Inverter and Sign Magnitude. In the Inverter mode, the
PWM (64kHz) signal is .2% duty cycle for full negative voltage, 50% for 0
Voltage and 99.8% for full positive voltage (64kHz Switching Frequency).
In the Sign Magnitude Mode (MT1.5), the PWM (128 kHz) signal is 0% for
0 Voltage, 99.6% for full voltage and the sign of the Motor Command is
available at the sign output (128kHz Switching Frequency).
For stepper motors: The STEP OUT pin produces a series of pulses for
input to a step motor driver. The pulses may either be low or high. The
pulse width is 50%.
Used with PWM signal to give the sign of the motor command for servo
amplifiers or direction for step motors.
The signal goes low when the position error on any axis exceeds the value
specified by the error limit command, ER.
The high power optically isolated outputs are uncommitted and may be
designated by the user to toggle relays and trigger external events. The
output lines are toggled by Set Bit, SB, and Clear Bit, CB, instructions. The
OP instruction is used to define the state of all the bits of the Output port.
Inputs
Encoder, MA+, MB+
Position feedback from incremental encoder with two channels in
quadrature, CHA and CHB. The encoder may be analog or TTL. Any
resolution encoder may be used as long as the maximum frequency does
not exceed 22,000,000 quadrature states/sec. The controller performs
quadrature decoding of the encoder signals resulting in a resolution of
quadrature counts (4 x encoder cycles). Note: Encoders that produce
outputs in the format of pulses and direction may also be used by
inputting the pulses into CHA and direction into Channel B and using the
CE command to configure this mode.
Encoder Index, MI+
Once-Per-Revolution encoder pulse. Used in Homing sequence or Find
Index command to define home on an encoder index.
Encoder, MA-, MB-, MIDifferential inputs from encoder. May be input along with CHA, CHB for
noise immunity of encoder signals. The CHA- and CHB- inputs are
optional.
Auxiliary Encoder, AA+, AB+, Aux Inputs for additional encoder. Used when an encoder on both the motor
A-, Aux Band the load is required. Not available on axes configured for step motors.
Abort
A low input stops commanded motion instantly without a controlled
deceleration. Also aborts motion program.
Reset
A low input resets the state of the processor to its power-on condition.
The previously saved state of the controller, along with parameter values,
and saved sequences are restored.
Electronic Lock Out
Input that when triggered will shut down the amplifiers at a hardware
level. Useful for safety applications where amplifiers must be shut down
at a hardware level.
Appendices ▫ 179
DMC-42x0 User Manual
Forward Limit Switch
Reverse Limit Switch
Home Switch
Input 1 - Input 8 isolated
Input 9 - Input 16 isolated
Latch
When active, inhibits motion in forward direction. Also causes execution
of limit switch subroutine, #LIMSWI. The polarity of the limit switch may
be set with the CN command.
When active, inhibits motion in reverse direction. Also causes execution
of limit switch subroutine, #LIMSWI. The polarity of the limit switch may
be set with the CN command.
Input for Homing (HM) and Find Edge (FE) instructions. Upon BG following
HM or FE, the motor accelerates to slew speed. A transition on this input
will cause the motor to decelerate to a stop. The polarity of the Home
Switch may be set with the CN command.
Uncommitted inputs. May be defined by the user to trigger events.
Inputs are checked with the Conditional Jump instruction and After Input
instruction or Input Interrupt. Input 1 is latch X, Input 2 is latch Y, Input 3 is
latch Z and Input 4 is latch W if the high speed position latch function is
enabled.
High speed position latch to capture axis position on occurrence of latch
signal. AL command arms latch. Input 1 is latch X, Input 2 is latch Y, Input
3 is latch Z and Input 4 is latch W. Input 9 is latch E, input 10 is latch F,
input 11 is latch G, input 12 is latch H.
Connectors for DMC-42x0 Main Board
DMC-42x0 Axes A-D 100 pin High Density Connector
Pin
Signal
Pin
Signal
1
Analog Ground
51
NC
2
GND
52
GND
3
+5V
53
+5V
4
Error Output
54
Limit Common
5
Reset
55
Home W
6
Encoder-Compare Output
56
Reverse Limit W
7
GND
57
Forward Limit W
8
GND
58
Home Z
9
Motor Command W
59
Reverse Limit Z
10
Sign W/ Dir W
60
Forward Limit Z
11
PWM W / Step W
61
Home Y
12
Motor Command Z
62
Reverse Limit Y
13
Sign Z/ Dir Z
63
Forward Limit Y
14
PWM Z / Step Z
64
Home X
15
Motor Command Y
65
Reverse Limit X
16
Sign Y/ Dir Y
66
Forward Limit X
17
PWM Y / Step Y
67
GND
18
Motor Command X
68
+5V
19
Sign X/ Dir X
69
Input Common
20
PWM X/ Step X
70
Latch X / Digital Input 1
Appendices ▫ 180
DMC-42x0 User Manual
21
Amp Enable W
71
Latch Y / Digital Input 2
22
Amp Enable Z
72
Latch Z / Digital Input 3
23
Amp Enable Y
73
Latch W/ Digital Input 4
24
Amp Enable X
74
Digital Input 5
25
A+ X
75
Digital Input 6
26
A- X
76
Digital Input 7
27
B+ X
77
Digital Input 8
28
B- X
78
Abort
29
I+ X
79
Output 1
30
I- X
80
Output 2
31
A+ Y
81
Output 3
32
A- Y
82
Output 4
33
B+ Y
83
Output 5
34
B- Y
84
Output 6
35
I+ Y
85
Output 7
36
I- Y
86
Output 8
37
A+ Z
87
+5V
38
A- Z
88
GND
39
B+ Z
89
GND
40
B- Z
90
GND
41
I+ Z
91
Analog In 1
42
I- Z
92
Analog In 2
43
A+ W
93
Analog In 3
44
A- W
94
Analog In 4
45
B+ W
95
Analog In 5
46
B- W
96
Analog In 6
47
I+ W
97
Analog In 7
48
I- W
98
Analog In 8
49
+12V
99
-12V
50
+12V
100
-12V
DMC-42x0 Axes E-H 100 pin High Density Connector
Pin
Signal
Pin
Signal
1
NC
51
NC
2
GND
52
GND
3
+5V
53
+5V
4
Error Output
54
Limit Common
5
Reset
55
Home H
Appendices ▫ 181
DMC-42x0 User Manual
6
Encoder-Compare Output
56
Reverse Limit H
7
GND
57
Forward Limit H
8
GND
58
Home G
9
Motor Command H
59
Reverse Limit G
10
Sign H/ Dir H
60
Forward Limit G
11
PWM H / Step H
61
Home F
12
Motor Command G
62
Reverse Limit F
13
Sign G/ Dir G
63
Forward Limit F
14
PWM G / Step G
64
Home E
15
Motor Command F
65
Reverse Limit E
16
Sign F/ Dir F
66
Forward Limit E
17
PWM E / Step E
67
GND
18
Motor Command E
68
+5V
19
Sign E/ Dir E
69
Input Common
20
PWM E/ Step E
70
Latch E/ Digital Input 9
21
Amp Enable H
71
Latch F / Digital Input 10
22
Amp Enable G
72
Latch G / Digital Input 11
23
Amp Enable F
73
Latch H/ Digital Input 12
24
Amp Enable E
74
Digital Input 13
25
A+ E
75
Digital Input 14
26
A- E
76
Digital Input 15
27
B+ E
77
Digital Input 16
28
B- E
78
Abort
29
I+ E
79
Output 9
30
I- E
80
Output 10
31
A+ F
81
Output 11
32
A- F
82
Output 12
33
B+ F
83
Output 13
34
B- F
84
Output 14
35
I+ F
85
Output 15
36
I- F
86
Output 16
37
A+ G
87
+5V
38
A- G
88
GND
39
B+ G
89
GND
40
B- G
90
GND
41
I+ G
91
NC
42
I- G
92
NC
43
A+ H
93
NC
44
A- H
94
NC
Appendices ▫ 182
DMC-42x0 User Manual
45
B+ H
95
NC
46
B- H
96
NC
47
I+ H
97
NC
48
I- H
98
NC
49
+12V
99
-12V
50
+12V
100
-12V
DMC-42x0 Auxiliary Encoder 36 Pin High Density Connector
Pin
Signal
Pin
Signal
1
+5V
19
+5V
2
GND
20
GND
3
+AAX
21
+AAE
4
-AAX
22
-AAE
5
+ABX
23
+ABE
6
-ABX
24
-ABE
7
+AAY
25
+AAF
8
-AAY
26
-AAF
9
+ABY
27
+ABF
10
-ABY
28
-ABF
11
+AAZ
29
+AAG
12
-AAZ
30
-AAG
13
+ABZ
31
+ABG
14
-ABZ
32
-ABG
15
+AAW
33
+AAH
16
-AAW
34
-AAH
17
+ABW
35
+ABH
18
-ABW
36
-ABH
DMC-42x0 Extended I/O 80 Pin High Density Connector
Pin
Signal
Block
Bit @IN[n], @OUT[n]
Bit No.
1
I/O
8
72
7
2
I/O
9
73
0
3
I/O
8
71
6
4
I/O
9
74
1
5
I/O
8
70
5
6
I/O
9
75
2
7
I/O
8
69
4
Appendices ▫ 183
DMC-42x0 User Manual
8
I/O
9
76
3
9
I/O
8
68
3
10
I/O
9
77
4
11
I/O
8
67
2
12
I/O
9
78
5
13
I/O
8
66
1
14
I/O
9
79
6
15
I/O
8
65
0
16
I/O
9
80
7
17
I/O
7
64
7
18
GND
-
-
GND
19
I/O
7
63
6
20
GND
-
-
GND
21
I/O
7
62
5
22
GND
-
-
GND
23
I/O
7
61
4
24
GND
-
-
GND
25
I/O
7
60
3
26
GND
-
-
GND
27
I/O
7
59
2
28
GND
-
-
GND
29
I/O
7
58
1
30
GND
-
-
GND
31
I/O
7
57
0
32
I/O
6
56
7
33
I/O
6
55
6
34
I/O
6
54
5
35
I/O
6
53
4
36
I/O
6
52
3
37
I/O
6
51
2
38
I/O
6
50
1
39
I/O
6
49
0
40
+5V
-
-
+5V
41
I/O
4
40
7
42
I/O
5
41
0
43
I/O
4
39
6
44
I/O
5
42
1
45
I/O
4
38
5
46
I/O
5
43
2
Appendices ▫ 184
DMC-42x0 User Manual
47
I/O
4
37
4
48
I/O
5
44
3
49
I/O
4
36
3
50
I/O
5
45
4
51
I/O
4
35
2
52
I/O
5
46
5
53
I/O
4
34
1
54
I/O
5
47
6
55
I/O
4
33
0
56
I/O
5
48
7
57
I/O
3
32
7
58
GND
-
-
GND
59
I/O
3
31
6
60
GND
-
-
GND
61
I/O
3
30
5
62
GND
-
-
GND
63
I/O
3
29
4
64
GND
-
-
GND
65
I/O
3
28
3
66
GND
-
-
GND
67
I/O
3
27
2
68
GND
-
-
GND
69
I/O
3
26
1
70
GND
-
-
GND
71
I/O
3
25
0
72
I/O
2
24
7
73
I/O
2
23
6
74
I/O
2
22
5
75
I/O
2
21
4
76
I/O
2
20
3
77
I/O
2
19
2
78
I/O
2
18
1
79
I/O
2
17
0
80
+5V
-
-
+5V
RS-422-Main Port
Standard connector and cable when DMC-42x0 is ordered with RS-422 Option.
Appendices ▫ 185
Pin #
Signal
1
RTS-
DMC-42x0 User Manual
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
TXDRXDCTSGND
RTS+
TXD+
RXD+
CTS+
RS-422-Auxiliary Port
Standard connector and cable when DMC-42x0 is ordered with RS-422 Option.
Pin #
Signal
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
CTSRXDTXDRTSGND
CTS+
RXD+
TXD+
RTS+
Ethernet
The Ethernet connection is Auto MDIX, 100bT/10bT.
Pin
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Signal
TXP
TXN
RXP
NC
NC
RXN
NC
NC
On the each Ethernet port there are two LEDs that indicate the status of the port's Ethernet connection.
Green Link LED (LNK):
The green LED indicates there is a valid Ethernet connection. This
LED will show that the physical Ethernet layer (the cable) is connected. This LED
will also blink to show both transmit and receive activity across the
connection.
Orange LED (SPD) :
Appendices ▫ 186
The orange LED indicates the speed of the Ethernet connection. It will be
illuminated for a 100bT connection, and will be off for a 10bT connection.
DMC-42x0 User Manual
A1. ICM-2900 Interconnect Module
Description
The ICM-2900 interconnect module provides easy connections between the Optima series controllers and other
system elements, such as amplifiers, encoders, and external switches. The ICM- 2900 accepts the 100-pin main
cable and provides terminal blocks for connections. Each terminal is labeled for quick connection of system
elements. The ICM-2900 provides access to the signals for up to 4 axes (Two required for 5 or more axes).
Mechanical Specifications
Description
Specification
Weight
2.3 lb
Length
12.25 in.
Width
2.61 in.
Height
2.37 in.
Environmental Specifications
Description
Specification
Storage Temperature
-25° to +70 ° C
Operating Temperature
0° to +70 ° C
Operating Altitude
10,000 feet
Equipment Maintenance
The DMC-42x0 does not require maintenance.
Pinout
Block (4 PIN)
Label
I/O
Description
1
MOCMDZ
O
Z axis motor command to amp input (w / respect to ground)
1
SIGNZ
O
Z axis sign output for input to stepper motor amp
1
PWMZ
O
Z axis pulse output for input to stepper motor amp
1
GND
O
Signal Ground
2
MOCMDW
O
W axis motor command to amp input (w / respect to ground)
2
SIGNW
O
W axis sign output for input to stepper motor amp
2
PWMW
O
W axis pulse output for input to stepper motor amp
2
GND
O
Signal Ground
3
MOCMDX
O
X axis motor command to amp input (w / respect to ground)
3
SIGNX
O
X axis sign output for input to stepper motor amp
3
PWMX
O
X axis pulse output for input to stepper motor amp
Appendices ▫ 187
DMC-42x0 User Manual
3
GND
O
Signal Ground
4
MOCMDY
O
Y axis motor command to amp input (w / respect to ground)
4
SIGNY
O
Y axis sign output for input to stepper motor amp
4
PWMY
O
Y axis pulse output for input to stepper motor amp
4
GND
O
Signal Ground
5
OUT PWR
I
Isolated Power In for Opto-Isolation Option
5
ERROR
O
Error output
5
CMP
O
Circular Compare Output
5
OUT GND
O
Isolated Ground for Opto-Isolation Option
6
AMPENW
O
W axis amplifier enable
6
AMPENZ
O
Z axis amplifier enable
6
AMPENY
O
Y axis amplifier enable
6
AMPENX
O
X axis amplifier enable
7
OUT5
O
General Output 5
7
OUT6
O
General Output 6
7
OUT7
O
General Output 7
7
OUT8
O
General Output 8
8
OUT1
O
General Output 1
8
OUT2
O
General Output 2
8
OUT3
O
General Output 3
8
OUT4
O
General Output 4
9
+5V
O
+ 5 volts
9
HOMEZ
I
Z axis home input
9
RLSZ
I
Z axis reverse limit switch input
9
FLSZ
I
Z axis forward limit switch input
10
LSCOM
I
Limit Switch Common Input
10
HOMEW
I
W axis home input
10
RLSW
I
W axis reverse limit switch input
10
FLSW
I
W axis forward limit switch input
11
HOMEX
I
X axis home input
11
RLSX
I
X axis reverse limit switch input
11
FLSX
I
X axis forward limit switch input
11
GND
O
Signal Ground
12
HOMEY
I
Y axis home input
12
RLSY
I
Y axis reverse limit switch input
12
FLSY
I
Y axis forward limit switch input
12
GND
O
Signal Ground
13
IN5
I
Input 5
13
IN6
I
Input 6
13
IN7
I
Input 7
13
IN8
I
Input 8
14
XLATCH
I
Input 1 (Used for X axis latch input)
14
YLATCH
I
Input 2 (Used for Y axis latch input)
Appendices ▫ 188
DMC-42x0 User Manual
14
ZLATCH
I
Input 3 (Used for Z axis latch input)
14
WLATCH
I
Input 4 (Used for W axis latch input)
15
+5V
O
+ 5 volts
15
+12V
O
+12 volts
15
-12V
O
-12 volts
15
ANA GND
O
Isolated Analog Ground for Use with Analog Inputs
16
INCOM
I
Input Common For General Use Inputs
16
ABORT
I
Abort Input
16
RESET
I
Reset Input
16
GND
O
Signal Ground
17
ANALOG5
I
Analog Input 5
17
ANALOG6
I
Analog Input 6
17
ANALOG7
I
Analog Input 7
17
ANALOG8
I
Analog Input 8
18
ANALOG1
I
Analog Input 1
18
ANALOG2
I
Analog Input 2
18
ANALOG3
I
Analog Input 3
18
ANALOG4
I
Analog Input 4
19
+5V
O
+ 5 volts
19
+INX
I
X Main encoder Index +
19
-INX
I
X Main encoder Index -
19
GND
O
Signal Ground
20
+MAX
I
X Main encoder A+
20
-MAX
I
X Main encoder A-
20
+MBX
I
X Main encoder B+
20
-MBX
I
X Main encoder B-
21
+5V
O
+ 5 volts
21
+INY
I
Y Main encoder Index +
21
-INY
I
Y Main encoder Index -
21
GND
O
Signal Ground
22
+MAY
I
Y Main encoder A+
22
-MAY
I
Y Main encoder A-
22
+MBY
I
Y Main encoder B+
22
-MBY
I
Y Main encoder B-
23
+5V
O
+ 5 volts
23
+INZ
I
Z Main encoder Index +
23
-INZ
I
Z Main encoder Index -
23
GND
O
Signal Ground
24
+MAZ
I
Z Main encoder A+
24
-MAZ
I
Z Main encoder A-
24
+MBZ
I
Z Main encoder B+
24
-MBZ
I
Z Main encoder B-
25
+5V
O
+ 5 volts
Appendices ▫ 189
DMC-42x0 User Manual
25
+INW
I
W Main encoder Index +
25
-INW
I
W Main encoder Index -
25
GND
O
Signal Ground
26
+MAW
I
W Main encoder A+
26
-MAW
I
W Main encoder A-
26
+MBW
I
W Main encoder B+
26
-MBW
I
W Main encoder B
ICM-2900 Drawing
Appendices ▫ 190
DMC-42x0 User Manual
ICM-2900 PCB Layout
Appendices ▫ 191
DMC-42x0 User Manual
A2. ICM-2908 Interconnect Module
Description
The ICM-2908 interconnect module provides easy connections between the auxiliary encoder connections of the
DMC-42x0 series controller and other system elements. The ICM-2908 accepts the 36 pin high density cable
(CABLE-36) from the controller and provides terminal blocks for easy access. Each terminal is labeled for quick
connection. One ICM-1908 provides access to all of the auxiliary encoders on a DMC-42x0 (up to 8 axes). ICM-2908
Drawing
For more information please refer to the following Application Note:
http://www.galil.com/download/application-note/note1428.pdf
ICM-2908 Drawing
Appendices ▫ 192
DMC-42x0 User Manual
A3. ICM-1900 Interconnect Module
Description
The ICM-1900 interconnect module provides easy connections between the DMC-42x0 series controllers and other
system elements, such as amplifiers, encoders, and external switches. The ICM- 1900 accepts the 100-pin main
cable and 25-pin auxiliary cable and breaks them into screw-type terminals. Each screw terminal is labeled for quick
connection of system elements. An ICM-1900 is required for each set of 4 axes. (Two required for DMC-4250 thru
DMC-4280).
The ICM-1900 is contained in a metal enclosure. A version of the ICM-1900 is also available with servo amplifiers
(see AMP-19x0).
Features
•
Separate DMC-42x0 cables into individual screw-type terminals
•
Clearly identifies all terminals
•
Provides jumper for connecting limit and input supplies to 5 V supply from PC
•
Available with on-board servo drives (see AMP-19X0)
•
Can be configured for AEN high or low
NOTE: The part number for the 100-pin connector is #2-178238-9 from AMP
Pinout
Terminal
Label
I/O
Description
1
+AAX
I
X Auxiliary encoder A+
2
-AAX
I
X Auxiliary encoder A-
3
+ABX
I
X Auxiliary encoder B+
4
-ABX
I
X Auxiliary encoder B-
5
+AAY
I
Y Auxiliary encoder A+
6
-AAY
I
Y Auxiliary encoder A-
7
+ABY
I
Y Auxiliary encoder B+
8
-ABY
I
Y Auxiliary encoder B-
9
+AAZ
I
Z Auxiliary encoder A+
10
-AAZ
I
Z Auxiliary encoder A-
11
+ABZ
I
Z Auxiliary encoder B+
12
-ABZ
I
Z Auxiliary encoder B-
13
+AAW
I
W Auxiliary encoder A+
14
-AAW
I
W Auxiliary encoder A-
Appendices ▫ 193
DMC-42x0 User Manual
15
+ABW
I
W Auxiliary encoder B+
16
-ABW
I
W Auxiliary encoder B-
17
GND
Signal Ground
18
+VCC
+ 5 volts
19
ISO OUT
POWER
O
Isolated Output Power(for use with the opto-isolated output option)
20
ERROR
O
Error signal
21
RESET
I
Reset
22
CMP
O
Circular Compare output
23
MOCMDW
O
W axis motor command to amp input (w / respect to ground)
24
SIGNW
O
W axis sign output for input to stepper motor amp
25
PWMW
O
W axis pulse output for input to stepper motor amp
26
MOCMDZ
O
Z axis motor command to amp input (w / respect to ground)
27
SIGNZ
O
Z axis sign output for input to stepper motor amp
28
PWMZ
O
Z axis pulse output for input to stepper motor amp
29
MOCMDY
O
Y axis motor command to amp input (w / respect to ground)
30
SIGNY
O
Y axis sign output for input to stepper motor amp
31
PWMY
O
Y axis pulse output for input to stepper motor amp
32
MOCMDX
O
X axis motor command to amp input (w / respect to ground)
33
SIGNX
O
X axis sign output for input to stepper motor amp
34
PWMX
O
X axis pulse output for input to stepper motor amp
35
ISO OUT GND
O
Isolated Output Ground
36
+VCC
O
+ 5 volts
37
AMPENW
O
W axis amplifier enable
38
AMPENZ
O
Z axis amplifier enable
39
AMPENY
O
Y axis amplifier enable
40
AMPENX
O
X axis amplifier enable
41
LSCOM
I
Limit Switch Common
42
HOMEW
I
W axis home input
43
RLSW
I
W axis reverse limit switch input
44
FLSW
I
W axis forward limit switch input
45
HOMEZ
I
Z axis home input
46
RLSZ
I
Z axis reverse limit switch input
47
FLSZ
I
Z axis forward limit switch input
48
HOMEY
I
Y axis home input
49
RLSY
I
Y axis reverse limit switch input
50
FLSY
I
Y axis forward limit switch input
51
HOMEX
I
X axis home input
52
RLSX
I
X axis reverse limit switch input
53
FLSX
I
X axis forward limit switch input
54
+VCC
55
GND
56
INCOM
Appendices ▫ 194
+ 5 volts
Signal Ground
I
Input common (Common for general inputs and Abort input)
DMC-42x0 User Manual
57
XLATCH
I
Input 1 (Used for X axis latch input)
58
YLATCH
I
Input 2 (Used for Y axis latch input)
59
ZLATCH
I
Input 3 (Used for Z axis latch input)
60
WLATCH
I
Input 4 (Used for W axis latch input)
61
IN5
I
Input 5
62
IN6
I
Input 6
63
IN7
I
Input 7
64
IN8
I
Input 8
65
ABORT
I
Abort Input
66
OUT1
O
Output 1
67
OUT2
O
Output 2
68
OUT3
O
Output 3
69
OUT4
O
Output 4
70
OUT5
O
Output 5
71
OUT6
O
Output 6
72
OUT7
O
Output 7
73
OUT8
O
Output 8
74
GND
75
AN1
I
Analog Input 1
76
AN2
I
Analog Input 2
77
AN3
I
Analog Input 3
78
AN4
I
Analog Input 4
79
AN5
I
Analog Input 5
80
AN6
I
Analog Input 6
81
AN7
I
Analog Input 7
82
AN8
I
Analog Input 8
83
+MAX
I
X Main encoder A+
84
-MAX
I
X Main encoder A-
85
+MBX
I
X Main encoder B+
86
-MBX
I
X Main encoder B-
87
+INX
I
X Main encoder Index +
88
-INX
I
X Main encoder Index -
89
ANA GND
Analog Ground
90
+VCC
+ 5 volts
91
+MAY
I
Y Main encoder A+
92
-MAY
I
Y Main encoder A-
93
+MBY
I
Y Main encoder B+
94
-MBY
I
Y Main encoder B-
95
+INY
I
Y Main encoder Index +
96
-INY
I
Y Main encoder Index -
97
+MAZ
I
Z Main encoder A+
98
-MAZ
I
Z Main encoder A-
99
+MBZ
I
Z Main encoder B+
Appendices ▫ 195
Signal Ground
DMC-42x0 User Manual
100
-MBZ
I
Z Main encoder B-
101
+INZ
I
Z Main encoder Index +
102
-INZ
I
Z Main encoder Index -
103
GND
Signal Ground
104
+VCC
+ 5 volts
105
+MAW
I
106
-MAW
I
W Main encoder A-
107
+MBW
I
W Main encoder B+
108
-MBW
I
W Main encoder B-
109
+INW
I
W Main encoder Index +
110
-INW
I
W Main encoder Index -
111
+12V
+12 volts
112
-12V
-12 volts
W Main encoder A+
ICM-1900 Drawing
Appendices ▫ 196
DMC-42x0 User Manual
A4. AMP-19520/40
Description
The AMP-19540 (four-axis) and AMP-19520 (two-axis) are multi-axis brush/brushless amplifiers that are capable of
handling 500 watts of continuous power per axis. Each amplifier is rated for 7 Amps continuous, 10 Amps peak and
accepts 18-80 VDC for input power. Each AMP-195x0 includes a breakout for all controller I/O, including encoders,
Hall-effect switches, digital inputs, digital outputs, and analog inputs.
The AMP-19520/19540Brushless drive module can be connected to any of the following Galil controllers via the
100-pin high density connector:
Accelera Series: DMC-42x0, DMC-18x6
Please refer to the AMP-19520/19540 User Manual for more information:
http://galilmc.com/download/manual/man_195x0.pdf
Appendices ▫ 197
DMC-42x0 User Manual
A5. CB-50-100 Adapter Board
Description
The CB-50-100 adapter board can be used to convert the CABLE-100 to (2) 50 Pin Ribbon Cables. The 50 Pin Ribbon
Cables provide a versatile method of accessing the controller signals without the use of a Galil Interconnect
Module.
Connectors
Appendices ▫ 198
JC8 50 PIN IDC
J9 100 PIN HIGH DENSITY CONNECTOR
1
1
2
2
3
3
4
4
5
5
6
6
7
7
8
8
9
9
10
10
11
11
12
12
13
13
14
14
15
15
16
16
17
17
18
18
19
19
20
20
21
21
22
22
23
23
24
24
25
25
26
26
27
27
28
28
DMC-42x0 User Manual
Appendices ▫ 199
29
29
30
30
31
31
32
32
33
33
34
34
35
35
36
36
37
37
38
38
39
39
40
40
41
41
42
42
43
43
44
44
45
45
46
46
47
47
48
48
49
49
50
50
JC6 50 PIN IDC
J9 100 PIN HIGH DENSITY CONNECTOR
1
51
2
52
3
53
4
54
5
55
6
56
7
57
8
58
9
59
10
60
11
61
12
62
13
63
14
64
DMC-42x0 User Manual
Appendices ▫ 200
15
65
16
66
17
67
18
68
19
69
20
70
21
71
22
72
23
73
24
74
25
75
26
76
27
77
28
78
29
79
30
80
31
81
32
82
33
83
34
84
35
85
36
86
37
87
38
88
39
89
40
90
41
91
42
92
43
93
44
94
45
95
46
96
47
97
48
98
49
99
50
100
DMC-42x0 User Manual
CB-50-100 Drawings
Appendices ▫ 201
DMC-42x0 User Manual
Appendices ▫ 202
DMC-42x0 User Manual
Appendices ▫ 203
DMC-42x0 User Manual
Appendices ▫ 204
DMC-42x0 User Manual
Appendices ▫ 205
DMC-42x0 User Manual
Appendices ▫ 206
DMC-42x0 User Manual
Appendices ▫ 207
DMC-42x0 User Manual
A6. CB-50-80 Adapter Board
Description
The CB-50-80 adapter board can be used to convert the CABLE-80 to (2) 50 Pin Ribbon Cables. The 50 Pin Ribbon
Cables provide a versatile method of accessing the extended I/O signals.
Connectors
JC8 and JC6: 50 Pin Male IDC
J9: 80 Pin High Density Connector, AMP PART #3-178238-0
Appendices ▫ 208
JC8 Pin
J9 Pin
JC8 Pin
J9 Pin
1
1
26
GND
2
2
27
27
3
3
28
GND
4
4
29
29
5
5
30
GND
6
6
31
31
7
7
32
GND
8
8
33
32
9
9
34
GND
10
10
35
33
11
11
36
GND
12
12
37
34
13
13
38
GND
14
14
39
35
15
15
40
GND
16
16
41
36
17
17
42
GND
18
GND
43
37
19
19
44
GND
20
GND
45
38
21
21
46
GND
22
GND
47
39
23
23
48
GND
24
GND
49
+5V
25
25
50
GND
DMC-42x0 User Manual
Appendices ▫ 209
JC6 Pin
J9 Pin
JC6 Pin
J9 Pin
1
41
26
GND
2
42
27
67
3
43
28
GND
4
44
29
69
5
45
30
GND
6
46
31
71
7
47
32
GND
8
48
33
72
9
49
34
GND
10
50
35
73
11
51
36
GND
12
52
37
74
13
53
38
GND
14
54
39
75
15
55
40
GND
16
56
41
76
17
57
42
GND
18
GND
43
77
19
59
44
GND
20
GND
45
78
21
61
46
GND
22
GND
47
79
23
63
48
GND
24
GND
49
+5V
25
65
50
GND
DMC-42x0 User Manual
CB-50-80 Drawing
Appendices ▫ 210
DMC-42x0 User Manual
Appendices ▫ 211
DMC-42x0 User Manual
List of Other Publications
"Step by Step Design of Motion Control Systems"
by Dr. Jacob Tal
"Motion Control Applications"
by Dr. Jacob Tal
"Motion Control by Microprocessors"
by Dr. Jacob Tal
Training Seminars
Galil, a leader in motion control with over 500,000 controllers working worldwide, has a proud reputation for
anticipating and setting the trends in motion control. Galil understands your need to keep abreast with these
trends in order to remain resourceful and competitive. Through a series of seminars and workshops held over the
past 20 years, Galil has actively shared their market insights in a no-nonsense way for a world of engineers on the
move. In fact, over 10,000 engineers have attended Galil seminars. The tradition continues with three different
seminars, each designed for your particular skill set-from beginner to the most advanced.
MOTION CONTROL MADE EASY
WHO SHOULD ATTEND
Those who need a basic introduction or refresher on how to successfully implement servo motion control systems.
TIME: 4 hours (8:30 am-12:30 pm)
ADVANCED MOTION CONTROL
WHO SHOULD ATTEND
Those who consider themselves a "servo specialist" and require an in-depth knowledge of motion control systems
to ensure outstanding controller performance. Also, prior completion of “Motion Control Made Easy" or equivalent
is required. Analysis and design tools as well as several design examples will be provided.
TIME: 8 hours (8:00 am-5:00 pm)
PRODUCT WORKSHOP
WHO SHOULD ATTEND
Current users of Galil motion controllers. Conducted at Galil’s headquarters in Rocklin, CA, students will gain
detailed understanding about connecting systems elements, system tuning and motion programming. This is a
“hands-on” seminar and students can test their application on actual hardware and review it with Galil specialists.
Attendees must have a current application and recently purchased a Galil controller to attend this course.
TIME: Two days (8:30-4:30pm)
Appendices ▫ 212
DMC-42x0 User Manual
Contacting Us
Galil Motion Control
270 Technology Way
Rocklin, CA 95765
Phone: 916-626-0101
Fax: 916-626-0102
E-Mail Address: [email protected]
Web: 370Hhttp://www.galilmc.com/
Appendices ▫ 213
DMC-42x0 User Manual
WARRANTY
All controllers manufactured by Galil Motion Control are warranted against defects in materials and workmanship
for a period of 18 months after shipment. Motors, and Power supplies are warranted for 1 year. Extended
warranties are available.
In the event of any defects in materials or workmanship, Galil Motion Control will, at its sole option, repair or
replace the defective product covered by this warranty without charge. To obtain warranty service, the defective
product must be returned within 30 days of the expiration of the applicable warranty period to Galil Motion
Control, properly packaged and with transportation and insurance prepaid. We will reship at our expense only to
destinations in the United States and for products within warranty.
Call Galil to receive a Return Materials Authorization (RMA) number prior to returning product to Galil.
Any defect in materials or workmanship determined by Galil Motion Control to be attributable to customer
alteration, modification, negligence or misuse is not covered by this warranty.
EXCEPT AS SET FORTH ABOVE, GALIL MOTION CONTROL WILL MAKE NO WARRANTIES EITHER EXPRESSED OR
IMPLIED, WITH RESPECT TO SUCH PRODUCTS, AND SHALL NOT BE LIABLE OR RESPONSIBLE FOR ANY INCIDENTAL
OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES.
COPYRIGHT (3-97)
The software code contained in this Galil product is protected by copyright and must not be reproduced or
disassembled in any form without prior written consent of Galil Motion Control, Inc.
Appendices ▫ 214
DMC-42x0 User Manual
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