RAFA Solutions DAnS Data Analysis Software DAnS User Manual Contents Getting Started .................................................................................................................................................... 4 Data Analysis Window ....................................................................................................................................... 10 Creating Report ................................................................................................................................................. 18 Measurements .................................................................................................................................................. 20 General Measurements ..................................................................................................................................... 22 At X ............................................................................................................................................................ 22 Crossing ..................................................................................................................................................... 23 Delta X ....................................................................................................................................................... 24 Delta Y........................................................................................................................................................ 25 Maximum................................................................................................................................................... 25 Minimum ................................................................................................................................................... 26 X at Maximum............................................................................................................................................ 26 X at Minimum ............................................................................................................................................ 27 Peaks.......................................................................................................................................................... 28 Valleys........................................................................................................................................................ 28 Peaks and Valleys ....................................................................................................................................... 29 Crop ........................................................................................................................................................... 30 Statistics............................................................................................................................................................. 31 Mean ......................................................................................................................................................... 31 Root Mean Square ..................................................................................................................................... 31 Standard Deviation .................................................................................................................................... 32 Variance ..................................................................................................................................................... 33 Median....................................................................................................................................................... 34 Histogram .................................................................................................................................................. 34 Level Measurements ......................................................................................................................................... 35 Amplitude .................................................................................................................................................. 35 Peak to Peak .............................................................................................................................................. 36 High State Level ......................................................................................................................................... 36 Low State Level .......................................................................................................................................... 37 Average ...................................................................................................................................................... 38 Filters ................................................................................................................................................................. 38 1 © RAFA Solutions, 2014 DAnS User Manual Bessel Filter................................................................................................................................................ 39 Butterworth Filter ...................................................................................................................................... 39 Chebyshev Filter ........................................................................................................................................ 40 Inverse Chebyshev Filter ............................................................................................................................ 40 Elliptic Filter ............................................................................................................................................... 41 Equiripple Bandpass Filter ......................................................................................................................... 42 Equiripple Bandstop Filter ......................................................................................................................... 42 Equiripple Highpass Filter .......................................................................................................................... 43 Equiripple Lowpass Filter ........................................................................................................................... 43 Median Filter ............................................................................................................................................. 44 FIR Windowed Filter .................................................................................................................................. 44 Fitting................................................................................................................................................................. 45 Linear Fit .................................................................................................................................................... 45 Exponential Fit ........................................................................................................................................... 47 Power Fit.................................................................................................................................................... 49 Logarithmic Fit ........................................................................................................................................... 51 Gaussian Peak Fit ....................................................................................................................................... 52 Polynomial Fit ............................................................................................................................................ 55 Cubic Spline Fit .......................................................................................................................................... 57 Transforms......................................................................................................................................................... 58 Fast Fourier Transform .............................................................................................................................. 59 Fast Hilbert Transform ............................................................................................................................... 60 Inverse Fast Hilbert Transform .................................................................................................................. 61 Fast Hartley Transform .............................................................................................................................. 61 Inverse Fast Hartley Transform.................................................................................................................. 62 Walsh Hadamard Transform ...................................................................................................................... 63 Inverse Walsh Hadamard Transform ......................................................................................................... 64 Laplace Transform ..................................................................................................................................... 65 Mathematics...................................................................................................................................................... 66 Integral ...................................................................................................................................................... 66 Derivative................................................................................................................................................... 66 Spectral Analysis ................................................................................................................................................ 68 2 © RAFA Solutions, 2014 DAnS User Manual Auto Power Spectrum................................................................................................................................ 68 Power Spectrum ........................................................................................................................................ 69 Phase Spectrum ......................................................................................................................................... 70 Cross Power Spectrum............................................................................................................................... 70 Amplitude Spectrum .................................................................................................................................. 71 Time Domain Measurements ............................................................................................................................ 72 Period ........................................................................................................................................................ 72 Frequency .................................................................................................................................................. 73 Duty Cycle .................................................................................................................................................. 74 Positive Pulse Width .................................................................................................................................. 76 Negative Pulse Width ................................................................................................................................ 77 Rise Time ................................................................................................................................................... 78 Fall Time .................................................................................................................................................... 79 Slew Rate ................................................................................................................................................... 81 Delay .......................................................................................................................................................... 82 Release Notes .................................................................................................................................................... 84 Software License and Evaluation ....................................................................................................................... 85 License Agreement .................................................................................................................................... 87 3 © RAFA Solutions, 2014 DAnS User Manual “DAnS” Data Analysis Software is a graphical tool designed for viewing and analyzing logged data. Logged data is displayed in the form of waveforms on a graph. DanS works with most popular file formats such as Excel and TDMS. Software incorporates different types of analysis and measurements, as well as embedded calculator. Tool also allows to export logged or measured data to Excel or TDMS format files and create Report for the results in Excel, Word or PDF formats. Getting Started “DAnS” Software incorporates the following windows: File Selection Window File Selection Window is the first window which user sees after running the software. To open a file Press “OPEN FILE” button or Open a file from the menu bar: File>Open. Window menu bar has three sections: File, Help and Options. It is also possible to select one of the recently opened (up to 10) files from the menu bar: File>Recent Files. 4 © RAFA Solutions, 2014 DAnS User Manual Help files can be opened from menu bar: Help>Open User Manual. You can also read about the Software: Help>About. 5 © RAFA Solutions, 2014 DAnS User Manual Section "Options" contains menu of the software languages. It is possible to select either English or Russian language. You can exit the Software by clicking “Close Window” button or from menu bar: File>Exit. Data Analysis Window After selecting the file from File Selection Window, the window for data analysis will be opened. 6 © RAFA Solutions, 2014 DAnS User Manual You can do measurements and create reports from this interface. See detailed description of the window in the “Data Analysis Window” section of the Help. Calculator Window Embedded calculator can be opened by clicking “Calculator” button on the Data Analysis Window. On the left part of the calculator window list with the plotted graphs from the file and saved measurements is presented. List includes multi- and single-point measurements. Double click the 7 © RAFA Solutions, 2014 DAnS User Manual item to add to the formula. You should add Measurement Name to the corresponding field if you want to save calculations done. Saved calculations will be added to the Measurement list as well. Measurement Settings Window Measurement Settings window is opened each time one of the measurement buttons is clicked. See detailed description of procedure for taking measurements in “Measurements” section of the Help. Settings and calculation methods for each measurement are described in appropriate sections of the Help. Report Settings Window Report Settings Window is used to set options for the report. 8 © RAFA Solutions, 2014 DAnS User Manual See detailed description of procedure for creating report in “Creating Report” section of the Help. Excel File Format All Excel files should be in the following format: Each Excel sheet appears as a separate tree item in the Add Graph Window and can combine data from multiple channels. Data of each channel is written in the sheets in a separate column with the first line as a header and the rest is the data itself. In Add Graph Window these channels appear as sub-items of the particular Excel sheet. 9 © RAFA Solutions, 2014 DAnS User Manual Data Analysis Window After selecting the file, the window for data analysis will be opened. You can do measurements and create reports for the data from this interface. Menu Bar On the top of the window menu bar is available. Menu bar has 5 main sections: 1. File There are five main options available in this menu, which mostly refer to file operations. a. Open file: Open a file from the menu bar: File>Open. b. Recent files: There is a possibility to select one of the recently opened files from the menu bar: File>Recent Files. c. Export Data: Exports plotted data to Excel or TDMS file. You should choose data from which graph you want to export - Main Graph or Measurements Graph. d. Export Image: There is possibility to export Graph Images (Main Graph or Measurement Graph) in BMP, JPEG or PNG formats. If no format is chosen for the file, BMP format image will be saved. Choose directory where you want to export image from the browsing window and type file name. e. Exit: Select this option if you want to close Data Analysis Window. 2. Graph In this palette options for Measurement Graph are combined. a. Show Measurement Graph: When Software is opened Measurement Graph is hidden. Select this option if you want to show it. b. Hide Measurement Graph: Select this option if you want to hide Measurement Graph. 3. Report In this menu options for Report are combined: a. Save Image for Report: Select this option if you want to save Graph Image for later use in report. You can choose to save image of Main Graph as well as the Measurement Graph. b. Report Settings: Select this option to apply settings for report. “Report Settings” window will be opened. 4. Help a. Open User Manual: This menu is for opening Help files for the Software. b. Show Context Help Window: Displays short descriptions of functions. Hovering on a particular object a small window with a short description of the object will appear. Clicking on More you can see a more detailed description of the object function. 10 © RAFA Solutions, 2014 DAnS User Manual c. About: Reflect information about Software version, activation and the Company. Plotting data First of all, you should select data for applying measurements. This can be done by clicking add button from the graphs palette of the Main Graph (top right corner). A separate interface will be opened for selecting channels from the file which you want to plot. 11 © RAFA Solutions, 2014 DAnS User Manual Channels appear in a tree, with their groups. A default channel for Time is added to the channels for the possibility to plot data versus Time. Double click the channel which you want to plot, a small window will be opened prompting to select an axis for the data. Applied X and Y axes’ names will appear in the corresponding fields in the right part of the window. Field for X axis has “Time” value by default, which means data versus Time will be plotted if no other X axis is selected. While working with big files, computer memory can get full, and it will not be possible to use the file. For big files channels should be read partially. It is possible to plot only selected number of points, with selected starting point (offset). If "All" option is selected for the "Count" parameter, whole channels selected for X and Y axes will be plotted. If you want to plot only part of the channels, mention number of points in the channels to plot selecting "other" option, and enter number of points. If for "Offset" parameter non-zero value is set, channels will be plotted starting from "Offset" numbered point. Maximum permitted size for channel reading from а file is 1 mln elements. If channel length is more than 1 mln, only first 1 mln elements will be read. Click “Add” button if you want to add selected plot to the graph, or “Cancel” to cancel the operation. The new Plot will be added to the graph with the name “Y vs X”, where Y is the name of the channel selected as Y axis, and X for X axis. Number of plotted waveforms is not limited. Plot Legends Plot legends are located on the right side of each graph. You can change properties of the selected plot by right clicking its legend. To select or deselect plot click appropriate plot legend. Shortcut menu for the legend includes the following items: 1. Hide/Show Select this option if you want to hide visible waveform, or to show invisible one. Plot legend for hidden waveform appears as grayed out. 12 © RAFA Solutions, 2014 DAnS User Manual 2. Color Select this option if you want to change the color of the selected waveform. Click the color box and select color from the color palette that appears. 3. Line Style Select this option if you want to change the line style of the waveform. Select the style you want from the series of styles. 4. Line Width Select this option to change the line width of the waveform. 5. Bar Plot Select this option if you want to fill the bar for the selected waveform. 6. Point Style Select this option to change the point style of the waveform. 7. Select/Deselect Select this option to make the waveform selected, or to deselect already selected waveform. Plot legend for the selected plot appears with red borders. 13 © RAFA Solutions, 2014 DAnS User Manual 8. Delete Plot Select this option if you want to delete plotted waveform. Graph Palette (Main Graph) You can apply general changes to the graph from the Graph Palette. There are five options available from this palette: 1. Cursor Select this option if you want to move cursors of the graph. 2. Zoom Select one of zoom options to apply to graph. 14 © RAFA Solutions, 2014 DAnS User Manual 3. Hand Tool Select this option to move the graph. 4. Clear Graph Select this option to clear all plotted data. 5. Add Graph Select this option to add new waveform to already plotted waveforms. Detailed operation of this option is described in “Plotting data” section of the current Help file. Main Graph has also an option to move cursors by giving X coordinates of the cursors. Enter first and second cursors' X coordinates in the X1 and X2 fields appropriately, above the Main Graph. 15 © RAFA Solutions, 2014 DAnS User Manual Graph Palette (Measurement Graph) Graph palette of Measurement Graph has five options. First four options - Cursor, Zoom, Hand Tool and Clear Graph are the same, as for the Main Graph. See detailed descriptions for these options in “Graph Palette (Main Graph)” section above. The fifth option in Graphs Palette is “Save Graph”. This option saves data of the selected plots. Names of the saved data appear in the Measurement list in the left part of the window. You can add them to Main Graph by double clicking. 16 © RAFA Solutions, 2014 DAnS User Manual Groups of Measurements On the top part of the window there is the list of Measurement Groups. Click one of the measurements to see its menu on the top left part of the window. By default “General Measurements” menu is opened. After The Menu of the selected type of measurements is opened the measurements can be done for the selected data. Measurement list All saved measurements appear in the Measurement list on the left bottom part of the window. You can select measurements from this list by clicking on the appropriate row of the list. Selected measurements can be deleted by clicking “Delete” button under the table. Closing Data Analysis Window Data Analysis Window can be closed by clicking “Close” button or from Menu Bar: File>Exit. After this action Main Window will be reopened, you can choose another TDMS file to work with, or close the Software. 17 © RAFA Solutions, 2014 DAnS User Manual Creating Report “DAnS” software allows creating Reports in Excel, Word or PDF formats. Report can be created by clicking “Report” button on the “Data Analysis Window”. Before creating the report appropriate settings should be set from the “Report Settings” window. The “Report Settings” window can be opened from the Report>Report Settings option in Menu bar. This window is also opened each time “Report” button is clicked on the “Data Analysis Window”. The following settings should be selected for the report: 1. Logo Logo appears on the top left corner of the Report. If no logo is chosen, it will not appear in the report. Note, only JPEG or PNG formatted images can be selected for the logo. 2. Report type This option defines file type for the Report. It is possible to choose Microsoft Excel, Microsoft Word and PDF formats. Note, in the computer you are using the following software should exist in order to generate report: - Microsoft Excel - Microsoft Word - Any PDF reader and PDF printer/converter. You can download free pdf converter from http://www.foxitsoftware.com/. 3. Page Orientation Defines orientation of the report page (Portrait or Landscape). Portrait page orientation is selected by default. 4. Saved Graph Images This table shows images of graphs which were saved previously from the “Data Analysis Window”. You can select graphs by double clicking on the graph name. Selected graphs will appear in the report file. All graphs are deselected by default. You can select/deselect all Graph Images by click appropriate button located under the Image table. 5. Remark If Remark is “On” Graph Image remarks will be included in the Report. 6. Measurement Data If Measurement Data is “On” all single-point measurements will be included in the Report. 18 © RAFA Solutions, 2014 DAnS User Manual 7. Report Title Report Title appears on the top of the Report page. The following settings can be chosen for the Report Title: Alignment, Font, Size, Style (Italic, Bold, Underline), Color. 8. Reported By Text inserted in the “Reported By” field appears on the bottom of the Report page. The following settings can be chosen for the text: Alignment, Font, Size, Style (Italic, Bold, Underline), Color. 19 © RAFA Solutions, 2014 DAnS User Manual Measurements Measurement types For easier use measurements are divided into groups, according to their types. There are nine groups of measurements: 1. General Measurements This group includes general measurements which can be done on any type of waveforms. Group includes measurements, such as Maximum of the waveform, Peaks of the waveform and so on. 2. Statistical Measurements Measurements in this group are for statistical analysis of the waveform. Examples for statistical measurements are calculation of root mean square, mean, variance, etc. 3. Level Measurements This group combines measurements which concern signal level calculations, such as amplitude calculation, high/low state level calculation, etc. 4. Time Domain Measurements Measurements in this group are for calculations which refer to time domain. Time domain measurements include transition, period, frequency calculation, etc. 5. Spectral Analysis Measurements in this group perform different spectral analysis. These measurements should be applied to the waveform in time domain. 6. Filters This group includes different types of filters. Filters can be applied to any type of signals in time domain. For correct results the selected waveform should be plotted vs Time. 7. Fitting This group combines different methods for fitting data to known curves. 8. Mathematics This group combines mathematical calculations, such as integral and derivative. 9. Transforms This group includes different transforms for the waveforms, such as Fast Fourier transform, WalshHadamard transform, Fast Hilbert transform, etc. All measurements in these groups are described in details in corresponding chapters of this document. 20 © RAFA Solutions, 2014 DAnS User Manual Select data for measurements Measurements can be applied only on the waveforms which are plotted on the Main Graph. You should select the waveform you want to do measurements on from the list of waveforms plotted on the Main Graph by clicking on the plot legend or from Shortcut Menu by right clicking the plot legend and selecting “Select/Deselect” option. The selected plot legend is shown with red borders. By choosing “Select/Deselect” option second time or clicking on the selected plot it is possible to deselect it. There are measurements which should be done on a single waveform, such as “Peaks”, “Valleys” and so on (in this case single plot should be selected), and there are those, for which two waveforms should be selected, for example “Crossing”. If you choose incorrect number of plots, a message will appear in the Status bar with appropriate warning. No measurement will be done in this case. Selecting range for measurements Before doing any measurement, Measurement Settings window for the selected measurement is being opened. You can do the measurement on the Entire Waveform or on the Selected range. In the case of selected range, measurement is being done on the part of the waveform within two cursors on the Main Graph. Single-point and multipoint measurements Single-point measurement result is a single value number. Examples for this kind of measurements are: Maximum, Delta X, Amplitude, Time Domain Measurement done for single pulse, etc. 21 © RAFA Solutions, 2014 DAnS User Manual Results for single-point measurements are shown on the left side of the software window. Measurement result is shown in “Result” window. To save measurement result you should click the “Save” button under “Result” window. Saved results are appearing in the “Measurements List” on the left side of the software window. It is also possible to use saved results in the calculator. Multipoint measurement result is a waveform. Examples for multipoint measurements are: Peaks (if the selected waveform has multiple peaks), Peaks and Valleys, all fittings, all transforms and so on. Multipoint measurements are being plotted on the Measurement Graph. You can show or hide this graph from Menu Bar. If you have done multipoint measurement and have not enabled Measurement Graph, a warning will come. From Measurement graph you can save selected Measurements for later use. Saved Multipoint measurement will appear in the measurements list. You can plot saved measurement on the Main Graph by double clicking it from the measurements list for later operations. You will also be able to use saved multipoint measurements in calculator. General Measurements This group includes general measurements which can be done on any type of waveforms. Group includes measurements, such as Maximum of the waveform, Peaks of the waveform and so on. At X Description Returns the Y-axis value at a particular X-axis point of the waveform for the entire or selected range. Measurement Category General Measurement Settings X Value: Specifies the X value which corresponding Y value should be found. Apply measurement on: Specifies the range for the measurement. Two options exist for the measurement: Entire waveform Selected range of waveform If the first option is selected, measurement is applied to the entire waveform, regardless of what is viewed, or selected with graph cursors. If the second option is selected, measurement is applied only to the X range selected with the graph cursors. 22 © RAFA Solutions, 2014 DAnS User Manual Calculation For provided X value returns the corresponding Y value. Crossing Description Measures crossings of two waveforms for the entire or selected range. It is possible to find all or selected crossings. Measurement Category General Measurement Settings Method: Defines the method curves will be interpolated by. Nearest Linear Spline Cubic Hermite Lagrange Accuracy: Defines the accuracy of the measurement. The smaller this parameter the bigger accuracy of the measurement is. Accuracy is a positive parameter, it cannot equal to 0 as well. Calculate for: Specifies the crossings for which measurement should be done. Two options exist for the measurement: All Crossings Crossing Number If the first option is selected, all crossings of the waveforms are returned. If the second option is selected, selected crossing is returned. Apply measurement on: Specifies the range for the measurement. Two options exist for the measurement: Entire waveform Selected range of waveform 23 © RAFA Solutions, 2014 DAnS User Manual If the first option is selected, measurement is applied to the entire waveform, regardless of what is viewed, or selected with graph cursors. If the second option is selected, measurement is applied only to the X range selected with the graph cursors. Calculation Crossing is calculated by finding points with the save values for two waveforms. After crossing of two waveforms is found, corresponding Y axis value is returned. If selected two waveforms don’t have any crossings, “NaN” value is returned. Delta X Description Returns the delta X value of the waveform for the selected range. Measurement Category General Measurement Settings None Calculation Delta X is a difference between two X-axis points for the range of waveform selected with graph cursors. Example of delta X calculation is shown below. 24 © RAFA Solutions, 2014 DAnS User Manual Delta Y Description Returns the delta Y value of the waveform for the selected range. Measurement Category General Measurement Settings None Calculation Delta Y is a difference between two Y-axis points for the range of waveform selected with graph cursors. Example of delta Y calculation is shown below. Maximum Description Measures Maximum Value of the waveform for the entire or selected range. Measurement Category General Measurement Settings Apply measurement on: Specifies the range for the measurement. Two options exist for the measurement: 25 © RAFA Solutions, 2014 DAnS User Manual Entire waveform Selected range of waveform If the first option is selected, measurement is applied to the entire waveform, regardless of what is viewed, or selected with graph cursors. If the second option is selected, measurement is applied only to the X range selected with the graph cursors. Calculation Maximum value of the input sequence is returned. Minimum Description Measures Minimum Value of the waveform for the entire or selected range. Measurement Category General Measurement Settings Apply measurement on: Specifies the range for the measurement. Two options exist for the measurement: Entire waveform Selected range of waveform If the first option is selected, measurement is applied to the entire waveform, regardless of what is viewed, or selected with graph cursors. If the second option is selected, measurement is applied only to the X range selected with the graph cursors. Calculation Minimum value of the input sequence is returned. X at Maximum Description Returns the X coordinate of the Maximum value of the waveform for the entire or selected range. 26 © RAFA Solutions, 2014 DAnS User Manual Measurement Category General Measurement Settings Apply measurement on: Specifies the range for the measurement. Two options exist for the measurement: Entire waveform Selected range of waveform If the first option is selected, measurement is applied to the entire waveform, regardless of what is viewed, or selected with graph cursors. If the second option is selected, measurement is applied only to the X range selected with the graph cursors. Calculation Finds the maximum value and returns corresponding X coordinate. X at Minimum Description Returns the X coordinate of the Minimum value of the waveform for the entire or selected range. Measurement Category General Measurement Settings Apply measurement on: Specifies the range for the measurement. Two options exist for the measurement: Entire waveform Selected range of waveform If the first option is selected, measurement is applied to the entire waveform, regardless of what is viewed, or selected with graph cursors. If the second option is selected, measurement is applied only to the X range selected with the graph cursors. Calculation Finds the minimum value and returns corresponding X coordinate. 27 © RAFA Solutions, 2014 DAnS User Manual Peaks Description Returns Peaks of the waveform for the entire or selected range. Measurement Category General Measurement Settings Threshold: Ignores peaks which amplitudes are less than threshold. Width: Specifies the number of consecutive data points to use in the quadratic least squares fit. Width is coerced to a value greater than or equal to 3. The value should be no more than about 1/2 of the half-width of the peaks and can be much smaller (but > 2) for noise-free data. Width should be as small as possible but should be balanced against the possibility of false peak detection due to noise. Apply measurement on: Specifies the range for the measurement. Two options exist for the measurement: Entire waveform Selected range of waveform If the first option is selected, measurement is applied to the entire waveform, regardless of what is viewed, or selected with graph cursors. If the second option is selected, measurement is applied only to the X range selected with the graph cursors. Calculation Peaks are measured based on an algorithm that fits a quadratic polynomial to sequential groups of data points. The number of data points used in the fit is specified by width. For each peak, the quadratic fit is tested against the threshold. Peaks with heights lower than threshold are ignored. Valleys Description Returns Valleys of the waveform for the entire or selected range. 28 © RAFA Solutions, 2014 DAnS User Manual Measurement Category General Measurement Settings Threshold: Ignores valleys which amplitudes are greater than threshold. Width: Specifies the number of consecutive data points to use in the quadratic least squares fit. Width is coerced to a value greater than or equal to 3. The value should be no more than about 1/2 of the half-width of the valleys and can be much smaller (but > 2) for noise-free data. Width should be as small as possible but must be balanced against the possibility of false peak detection due to noise. Apply measurement on: Specifies the range for the measurement. Two options exist for the measurement: Entire waveform Selected range of waveform If the first option is selected, measurement is applied to the entire waveform, regardless of what is viewed, or selected with graph cursors. If the second option is selected, measurement is applied only to the X range selected with the graph cursors. Calculation Valleys are measured based on an algorithm that fits a quadratic polynomial to sequential groups of data points. The number of data points used in the fit is specified by width. For each valley, the quadratic fit is tested against the threshold. Valleys with troughs higher than threshold are ignored. Peaks and Valleys Description Returns Peaks and Valleys of the waveform for the entire or selected range. Measurement Category General Measurement Settings High Threshold: Ignores peaks which amplitudes are less than high threshold. Low Threshold: Ignores valleys which amplitudes are greater than low threshold. Width: Specifies the number of consecutive data points to use in the quadratic least squares fit. Width is coerced to a value greater than or equal to 3. The value should be no more than about 1/2 29 © RAFA Solutions, 2014 DAnS User Manual of the half-width of the peaks/valleys and can be much smaller (but > 2) for noise-free data. Width should be as small as possible but must be balanced against the possibility of false peak detection due to noise. Apply measurement on: Specifies the range for the measurement. Two options exist for the measurement: Entire waveform Selected range of waveform If the first option is selected, measurement is applied to the entire waveform, regardless of what is viewed, or selected with graph cursors. If the second option is selected, measurement is applied only to the X range selected with the graph cursors. Calculation Peaks and Valleys are measured based on an algorithm that fits a quadratic polynomial to sequential groups of data points. The number of data points used in the fit is specified by width. For each peak and valley, the quadratic fit is tested against the high and low thresholds. Peaks with heights lower than high threshold and valleys with troughs higher than low threshold are ignored. Crop Description Returns cropped part of the selected waveform. Measurement Category General Measurement Settings None Calculation Part of the selected waveform containing between two cursors is returned. 30 © RAFA Solutions, 2014 DAnS User Manual Statistics Measurements in this group are for statistical analysis of the waveform. Examples for statistical measurements are calculation of root mean square, mean, variance, etc. Mean Description Returns the mean of the waveform for the entire or selected range. Measurement Category Statistics Measurement Settings Apply measurement on: Specifies the range for the measurement. Two options exist for the measurement: Entire waveform Selected range of waveform If the first option is selected, measurement is applied to the entire waveform, regardless of what is viewed, or selected with graph cursors. If the second option is selected, measurement is applied only to the X range selected with the graph cursors. Calculation Mean is calculated by the following equation: Root Mean Square Description Returns the root mean square of the waveform for the entire or selected range. Measurement Category Statistics 31 © RAFA Solutions, 2014 DAnS User Manual Measurement Settings Apply measurement on: Specifies the range for the measurement. Two options exist for the measurement: Entire waveform Selected range of waveform If the first option is selected, measurement is applied to the entire waveform, regardless of what is viewed, or selected with graph cursors. If the second option is selected, measurement is applied only to the X range selected with the graph cursors. Calculation Root mean square is calculated by the following equation: Standard Deviation Description Returns the standard deviation of the waveform for the entire or selected range. Measurement Category Statistics Measurement Settings Weighting: Specifies whether to calculate population or sample standard deviation: Sample – 0(default) Population - 1 Apply measurement on: Specifies the range for the measurement. Two options exist for the measurement: Entire waveform Selected range of waveform 32 © RAFA Solutions, 2014 DAnS User Manual If the first option is selected, measurement is applied to the entire waveform, regardless of what is viewed, or selected with graph cursors. If the second option is selected, measurement is applied only to the X range selected with the graph cursors. Calculation Standard deviation is calculated by the following equation: , where w is weighting and is «n-1» when weighting is set to sample and «n» when it is population. Variance Description Returns the variance of the waveform for the entire or selected range. Measurement Category Statistics Measurement Settings Weighting: Specifies whether to calculate population or sample standard deviation: Sample – 0(default) Population - 1 Apply measurement on: Specifies the range for the measurement. Two options exist for the measurement: Entire waveform Selected range of waveform If the first option is selected, measurement is applied to the entire waveform, regardless of what is viewed, or selected with graph cursors. If the second option is selected, measurement is applied only to the X range selected with the graph cursors. 33 © RAFA Solutions, 2014 DAnS User Manual Calculation Variance is calculated by the following equation, , where w is weighting and is «n-1» when weighting is set to sample and «n» when it is population. Median Description Returns the median of the waveform for the entire or selected range. Measurement Category Statistics Measurement Settings Apply measurement on: Specifies the range for the measurement. Two options exist for the measurement: Entire waveform Selected range of waveform If the first option is selected, measurement is applied to the entire waveform, regardless of what is viewed, or selected with graph cursors. If the second option is selected, measurement is applied only to the X range selected with the graph cursors. Calculation Median is the middle member’s value of the waveform arranged from low value to high value. If the number of values is odd then median is calculated as the mean of the two middle values. Histogram Description Returns the histogram of the waveform for the entire or selected range. 34 © RAFA Solutions, 2014 DAnS User Manual Measurement Category Statistics Measurement Settings Intervals: Specifies the number of the intervals of the histogram plot. Apply measurement on: Specifies the range for the measurement. Two options exist for the measurement: Entire waveform Selected range of waveform If the first option is selected, measurement is applied to the entire waveform, regardless of what is viewed, or selected with graph cursors. If the second option is selected, measurement is applied only to the X range selected with the graph cursors. Calculation Histogram of the waveform is calculated by counting the number of times the specified interval occurs in the waveform. Level Measurements This group combines measurements which concern signal level calculations, such as amplitude calculation, high/low state level calculation, etc. Amplitude Description Returns the amplitude of the waveform for the entire or selected range. Measurement Category Levels Measurement Settings Apply measurement on: Specifies the range for the measurement. Two options exist for the measurement: 35 © RAFA Solutions, 2014 DAnS User Manual Entire waveform Selected range of waveform If the first option is selected, measurement is applied to the entire waveform, regardless of what is viewed, or selected with graph cursors. If the second option is selected, measurement is applied only to the X range selected with the graph cursors. Calculation Amplitude is calculated as the difference between high state level and low state level. Peak to Peak Description Returns peak to peak value of the waveform for the entire or selected range. Measurement Category Levels Measurement Settings Apply measurement on: Specifies the range for the measurement. Two options exist for the measurement: Entire waveform Selected range of waveform If the first option is selected, measurement is applied to the entire waveform, regardless of what is viewed, or selected with graph cursors. If the second option is selected, measurement is applied only to the X range selected with the graph cursors. Calculation Peak to peak value is calculated as the difference between maximum and minimum values of the waveform. High State Level Description Returns the high state level of the waveform for the entire or selected range. 36 © RAFA Solutions, 2014 DAnS User Manual Measurement Category Levels Measurement Settings Apply measurement on: Specifies the range for the measurement. Two options exist for the measurement: Entire waveform Selected range of waveform If the first option is selected, measurement is applied to the entire waveform, regardless of what is viewed, or selected with graph cursors. If the second option is selected, measurement is applied only to the X range selected with the graph cursors. Calculation High state level returns the level at which a pulse or transition waveform is defined to be in its highest state. Low State Level Description Returns the low state level of the waveform for the entire or selected range. Measurement Category Levels Measurement Settings Apply measurement on: Specifies the range for the measurement. Two options exist for the measurement: Entire waveform Selected range of waveform If the first option is selected, measurement is applied to the entire waveform, regardless of what is viewed, or selected with graph cursors. If the second option is selected, measurement is applied only to the X range selected with the graph cursors. 37 © RAFA Solutions, 2014 DAnS User Manual Calculation Low state level returns the level at which a pulse or transition waveform is defined to be in its lowest state. Average Description Returns average value of the waveform for the entire or selected range. Measurement Category Levels Measurement Settings Apply measurement on: Specifies the range for the measurement. Two options exist for the measurement: Entire waveform Selected range of waveform If the first option is selected, measurement is applied to the entire waveform, regardless of what is viewed, or selected with graph cursors. If the second option is selected, measurement is applied only to the X range selected with the graph cursors. Calculation The average value of a waveform is calculated as follows: , where n is the number of elements in input sequence X. Filters This group includes different types of filters. Filters can be applied to any type of signals in time domain. For correct results the selected waveform should be plotted vs. Time. 38 © RAFA Solutions, 2014 DAnS User Manual Bessel Filter Description Uses Bessel filter to filter the waveform in the entire range. Measurement Category Filters Measurement Settings Filter type: Specifies the filter type to be applied: Highpass Lowpass Bandpass Bandstop Sampling frequency: Specifies the frequency in Hz at which the data will be sampled. The default value is 1.0 Hz. High cutoff frequency: Specifies the high cutoff frequency of the filter. The default value is 0.45 Hz. If the filter type is lowpass high cutoff frequency is ignored. Low cutoff frequency: Specifies the low cutoff frequency of the filter. The default value is 0.125 Hz. If the filter type is highpass the low cutoff frequency is ignored. Order: Specifies the order of the filter. The higher the filter order, the bigger the roll-off. Butterworth Filter Description Uses Butterworth filter to filter the waveform in the entire range. Measurement Category Filters Measurement Settings Filter type: Specifies the filter type to be applied: Highpass Lowpass Bandpass Bandstop 39 © RAFA Solutions, 2014 DAnS User Manual Sampling frequency: Specifies the frequency in Hz at which the data will be sampled. The default value is 1.0 Hz. High cutoff frequency: Specifies the high cutoff frequency of the filter. The default value is 0.45 Hz. If the filter type is lowpass high cutoff frequency is ignored. Low cutoff frequency: Specifies the low cutoff frequency of the filter. The default value is 0.125 Hz. If the filter type is highpass the low cutoff frequency is ignored. Order: Specifies the order of the filter. The higher the filter order, the bigger the roll-off. Chebyshev Filter Description Uses Chebyshev filter to filter the waveform in the entire range. Measurement Category Filters Measurement Settings Filter type: Specifies the filter type to be applied: Highpass Lowpass Bandpass Bandstop Sampling frequency: Specifies the frequency in Hz at which the data will be sampled. The default value is 1.0 Hz. High cutoff frequency: Specifies the high cutoff frequency of the filter. The default value is 0.45 Hz. If the filter type is lowpass high cutoff frequency is ignored. Low cutoff frequency: Specifies the low cutoff frequency of the filter. The default value is 0.125 Hz. If the filter type is highpass the low cutoff frequency is ignored. Ripple: Specifies the ripple in passband. Ripple should be expressed in decibels. Order: Specifies the order of the filter. The higher the filter order the bigger the roll-off. Inverse Chebyshev Filter Description Uses Inverse Chebyshev filter to filter the waveform in the entire range. 40 © RAFA Solutions, 2014 DAnS User Manual Measurement Category Filters Measurement Settings Filter type: Specifies the filter type to be applied: Highpass Lowpass Bandpass Bandstop Sampling frequency: Specifies the frequency in Hz at which the data will be sampled. The default value is 1.0 Hz. High cutoff frequency: Specifies the high cutoff frequency of the filter. The default value is 0.45 Hz. If the filter type is lowpass high cutoff frequency is ignored. Low cutoff frequency: Specifies the low cutoff frequency of the filter. The default value is 0.125 Hz. If the filter type is highpass the low cutoff frequency is ignored. Attenuation: Specifies the attenuation of the stopband in dB. The default value is 60.0 dB. Order: Specifies the order of the filter. The higher the filter order the bigger the roll-off. Elliptic Filter Description Uses Elliptic filter to filter the waveform in the entire range. Measurement Category Filters Measurement Settings Filter type: Specifies the filter type to be applied: Highpass Lowpass Bandpass Bandstop Sampling frequency: Specifies the frequency in Hz at which the data will be sampled. The default value is 1.0 Hz. High cutoff frequency: Specifies the high cutoff frequency of the filter. The default value is 0.45 Hz. If the filter type is lowpass high cutoff frequency is ignored. 41 © RAFA Solutions, 2014 DAnS User Manual Low cutoff frequency: Specifies the low cutoff frequency of the filter. The default value is 0.125 Hz. If the filter type is highpass the low cutoff frequency is ignored. Passband ripple: Specifies the ripple of the passband in dB. The default value is 1.0 dB. Stopband attenuation: Specifies the attenuation of the stopband in dB. The default value is 60.0 dB. Order: Specifies the order of the filter. The higher the filter order the bigger the roll-off. Equiripple Bandpass Filter Description Uses FIR equiripple bandpass filter to filter the waveform in the entire range. Measurement Category Filters Measurement Settings Sampling frequency: Specifies the frequency in Hz at which the data will be sampled. The default value is 1.0 Hz. No of Taps: Determines the total number of FIR coefficients. Higher stop frequency: Specifies the higher frequency of the stop band. The default value is 0.4 Hz. Lower stop frequency: Specifies the lower frequency of the stopband. The default value is 0.2 Hz. Higher pass frequency: Specifies the higher frequency of passband. The default value is 0.35 Hz. Lower pass frequency: Specifies the lower frequency of the passband. The default value is 0.25 Hz. Equiripple Bandstop Filter Description Uses FIR equiripple bandstop filter to filter the waveform in the entire range. Measurement Category Filters Measurement Settings Sampling frequency: Specifies the frequency in Hz at which the data will be sampled. The default value is 1.0 Hz. No of Taps: Determines the total number of FIR coefficients. 42 © RAFA Solutions, 2014 DAnS User Manual Higher stop frequency: Specifies the higher frequency of the stopband. The default value is 0.35 Hz. Lower stop frequency: Specifies the lower frequency of the stopband. The default value is 0.25 Hz. Higher pass frequency: Specifies the higher frequency of the passband. The default value is 0.4 Hz. Lower pass frequency: Specifies the lower frequency of the passband. The default value is 0.2 Hz. Equiripple Highpass Filter Description Uses FIR equi-ripple highpass filter to filter the waveform in the entire range. Measurement Category Filters Measurement Settings Sampling frequency: Specifies the frequency in Hz at which the data will be sampled. The default value is 1.0 Hz. No of Taps: Determines the total number of FIR coefficients. High frequency: Specifies the pass frequency of the filter. The default value is 0.3 Hz. Stop frequency: Specifies the stop frequency of the filter. The default value is 0.2 Hz. Equiripple Lowpass Filter Description Uses FIR equiripple lowpass filter to filter the waveform in the entire range. Measurement Category Filters Measurement Settings Sampling frequency: Specifies the frequency in Hz at which the data will be sampled. The default value is 1.0 Hz. No of Taps: Determines the total number of FIR coefficients. Pass frequency: Specifies the pass frequency of the filter. The default value is 0.2 Hz. Stop frequency: Specifies the stop frequency of the filter. The default value is 0.3 Hz. 43 © RAFA Solutions, 2014 DAnS User Manual Median Filter Description Uses Median filter to filter the waveform in the entire range. Measurement Category Filters Measurement Settings Left rank: Specifies the number of elements to be used to compute the filter to the left side. The default value is 2. Right rank: Specifies the number of elements to be used to compute the filter to the right side. The default value is -1. Calculation The Median Filter computes elements of the filtered signal using equation below. Y is the output sequence of the filtered signal. n is the number of elements in the input sequence X. Ji is a subset of the input X, centered about the ith element of X, and the indexed elements outside the X range equal zero. Ji can be described as: , where rl is the left rank and rr is the right rank. FIR Windowed Filter Description Uses FIR windowed filter to filter the waveform in the entire range. Measurement Category Filters Measurement Settings Window: Specifies the type of the smoothing window. 44 © RAFA Solutions, 2014 DAnS User Manual Window parameter: Specifies parameters for different windows. For the Kaiser window specifies the beta parameter. For the Gaussian window specifies standard deviation. For the Dolph-Chebyshev window specifies the ratio "s" of the main lobe to the side lobe. For other types of windows’ this setting is ignored. Filter type: Specifies the filter type to be applied: Highpass Lowpass Bandpass Bandstop No of Taps: Determines the total number of FIR coefficients. Sampling frequency: Specifies the frequency in Hz at which the data will be sampled. The default value is 1.0 Hz. High cutoff frequency: Specifies the high cutoff frequency of the filter. The default value is 0.45 Hz. If the filter type is lowpass high cutoff frequency is ignored. Low cutoff frequency: Specifies the low cutoff frequency of the filter. The default value is 0.125 Hz. If the filter type is highpass the low cutoff frequency is ignored. Order: Specifies the order of the filter. The higher the filter order, the bigger the roll-off. Fitting This group combines different methods for fitting data to known curves. Linear Fit Description Returns the linear fit of the waveform for the entire or selected range. Linear fit is measured using the Least Square, Least Absolute Residual, or Bisquare method. Slope and intercept are also calculated. Measurement Category Fitting 45 © RAFA Solutions, 2014 DAnS User Manual Measurement Settings Tolerance: Specifies when to stop the iterative adjustment of slope and intercept when you use the Least Absolute Residual or Bisquare method. For the Least Absolute Residual method, if the relative difference between residues in two successive iterations is less than tolerance, it returns the resulting residue. For the Bisquare method, if any relative difference between slope and intercept in two successive iterations is less than tolerance, it returns the resulting slope and intercept. If tolerance is less than or equal to 0, tolerance automatically sets to 0.0001. Method: Specifies the fitting method: Least Square Least Absolute Residual Bisquare Apply measurement on: Specifies the range for the measurement. Two options exist for the measurement: Entire waveform Selected range of waveform If the first option is selected, measurement is applied to the entire waveform, regardless of what is viewed, or selected with graph cursors. If the second option is selected, measurement is applied only to the X range selected with the graph cursors. Calculation Linear fit is calculated by the iterative general Least Square method and the Levenberg-Marquardt method to fit experimental data to a straight line of the general form described by the following equation: where x is the input sequence, a is slope, and b is intercept. It finds the values of a and b that best fit the observations (X,Y). 46 © RAFA Solutions, 2014 DAnS User Manual The Least Absolute Residual and Bisquare methods are robust fitting methods. Use these methods if outliers in the observations exist. In most cases, the Bisquare method is less sensitive to outliers than the Least Absolute Residual method. When you use the Least Absolute Residual method, it finds the slope and intercept of the linear model by minimizing residue according to the following equation: Exponential Fit Description Returns the exponential fit of the waveform for the entire or selected range. Exponential fit uses the Least Square, Least Absolute Residual, or Bisquare method. Amplitude and damping are also calculated. Measurement Category Fitting Measurement Settings Tolerance: Specifies when to stop the iterative adjustment of amplitude, damping and offset. For the Least Square and Least Absolute Residual methods, if the relative difference between residues in two successive iterations is less than tolerance, it returns the resulting residue. For the Bisquare method, if any relative difference between amplitude, damping, and offset in two successive iterations is less than tolerance, it returns the resulting amplitude, damping, and offset. If tolerance is less than or equal to 0, tolerance automatically sets to 0.0001. 47 © RAFA Solutions, 2014 DAnS User Manual Method: Specifies the fitting method: Least Square Least Absolute Residual Bisquare Apply measurement on: Specifies the range for the measurement. Two options exist for the measurement: Entire waveform Selected range of waveform If the first option is selected, measurement is applied to the entire waveform, regardless of what is viewed, or selected with graph cursors. If the second option is selected, measurement is applied only to the X range selected with the graph cursors. Calculation Exponential fit uses the iterative general Least Square method and the Levenberg-Marquardt method to fit data to an experimental curve of the general form described by the following equation: where x is the input sequence, a is amplitude, b is damping, and c is offset. It finds the values of a, b and c that best fit the observations (X,Y). The following equation specifically describes the exponential curve resulting from the exponential fit algorithm: When you use the Least Square method, it finds the amplitude, damping, and offset of the exponential model by minimizing the residue according to the following equation: 48 © RAFA Solutions, 2014 DAnS User Manual The Least Absolute Residual and Bisquare methods are robust fitting methods. Use these methods if outliers in the observations exist. In most cases, the Bisquare method is less sensitive to outliers than the Least Absolute Residual method. When you use the Least Absolute Residual method, it finds the amplitude, damping and offset of the exponential model by minimizing residue according to the following equation: Power Fit Description Returns the power fit of the waveform for the entire or selected range. Power fit uses the Least Square, Least Absolute Residual, or Bisquare method. Amplitude and power are also calculated. Measurement Category Fitting Measurement Settings Tolerance: Specifies when to stop the iterative adjustment of amplitude, power and offset. For the Least Square and Least Absolute Residual methods, if the relative difference between residues in two successive iterations is less than tolerance, it returns the resulting residue. For the Bisquare method, if any relative difference between amplitude, power, and offset in two successive iterations is less than tolerance, it returns the resulting amplitude, power, and offset. If tolerance is less than or equal to 0, tolerance automatically sets to 0.0001. Method: Specifies the fitting method: Least Square Least Absolute Residual Bisquare Apply measurement on: Specifies the range for the measurement. Two options exist for the measurement: Entire waveform Selected range of waveform If the first option is selected, measurement is applied to the entire waveform, regardless of what is viewed, or selected with graph cursors. 49 © RAFA Solutions, 2014 DAnS User Manual If the second option is selected, measurement is applied only to the X range selected with the graph cursors. Calculation Power fit uses the iterative general Least Square method and the Levenberg-Marquardt method to fit data to an experimental curve of the general form described by the following equation: where x is the input sequence, a is amplitude, b is power, and c is offset. It finds the values of a, b and c that best fit the observations (X,Y). The following equation specifically describes the power function resulting from the general power fit algorithm: When you use the Least Square method, it finds the amplitude, power, and offset of the power model by minimizing the residue according to the following equation: The Least Absolute Residual and Bisquare methods are robust fitting methods. Use these methods if outliers in the observations exist. In most cases, the Bisquare method is less sensitive to outliers than the Least Absolute Residual method. When you use the Least Absolute Residual method, it finds the amplitude, power and offset of the power model by minimizing residue according to the following equation: 50 © RAFA Solutions, 2014 DAnS User Manual Logarithmic Fit Description Returns the logarithmic fit of the waveform for the entire or selected range. Logarithmic fit uses the Least Square, Least Absolute Residual, or Bisquare method. Amplitude and scale are also calculated. Measurement Category Fitting Measurement Settings Base: Specifies the base of the logarithm. Tolerance: Specifies when to stop the iterative adjustment of amplitude and scale. For the Least Square and Least Absolute Residual methods, if the relative difference between residues in two successive iterations is less than tolerance, it returns the resulting residue. For the Bisquare method, if any relative difference between amplitude and scale in two successive iterations is less than tolerance, it returns the resulting amplitude and scale. If tolerance is less than or equal to 0, tolerance automatically sets to 0.0001. Method: Specifies the fitting method: Least Square Least Absolute Residual Bisquare Apply measurement on: Specifies the range for the measurement. Two options exist for the measurement: Entire waveform Selected range of waveform If the first option is selected, measurement is applied to the entire waveform, regardless of what is viewed, or selected with graph cursors. If the second option is selected, measurement is applied only to the X range selected with the graph cursors. Calculation Logarithmic fit uses the iterative general Least Square method and the Levenberg-Marquardt method to fit data to a logarithmic function of the general form described by the following equation: 51 © RAFA Solutions, 2014 DAnS User Manual where x is the input sequence, c is base, a is amplitude, and b is scale. It finds the values of a and b that best fit the observations (X,Y). The following equation describes the logarithm function resulting from the logarithm fit algorithm: When you use the Least Square method, it finds the amplitude and scale of the logarithmic model by minimizing the residue according to the following equation: The Least Absolute Residual and Bisquare methods are robust fitting methods. Use these methods if outliers in the observations exist. In most cases, the Bisquare method is less sensitive to outliers than the Least Absolute Residual method. When you use the Least Absolute Residual method, it finds the amplitude and scale of the logarithmic model by minimizing residue according to the following equation: Gaussian Peak Fit Description Returns the Gaussian peak fit of the waveform for the entire or selected range. Gaussian peak fit uses the Least Square, Least Absolute Residual, or Bisquare method. Amplitude, center, standard deviation and offset are also calculated. 52 © RAFA Solutions, 2014 DAnS User Manual Measurement Category Fitting Measurement Settings Initial amplitude: Specifies initial guess of amplitude. Initial center: Specifies initial guess of center. Initial Standard deviation: Specifies initial guess of standard deviation. Initial offset: Specifies initial guess of the offset it returns. Tolerance: Specifies when to stop the iterative adjustment of amplitude, center, standard deviation, and offset. For the Least Square and Least Absolute Residual methods, if the relative difference between residues in two successive iterations is less than tolerance, it returns the resulting residue. For the Bisquare method, if any relative difference between amplitude, center, standard deviation, or offset in two successive iterations is less than tolerance, it returns the resulting amplitude, center, standard deviation, and offset. If tolerance is less than or equal to 0, tolerance automatically sets to 0.0001. Method: Specifies the fitting method: Least Square Least Absolute Residual Bisquare Apply measurement on: Specifies the range for the measurement. Two options exist for the measurement: Entire waveform Selected range of waveform If the first option is selected, measurement is applied to the entire waveform, regardless of what is viewed, or selected with graph cursors. If the second option is selected, measurement is applied only to the X range selected with the graph cursors. Calculation Gaussian peak fit uses the iterative general Least Square method and the Levenberg-Marquardt method to fit data to a Gaussian curve in a form described by the following equation: , where x is the input sequence, a is amplitude, 53 © RAFA Solutions, 2014 DAnS User Manual µ is center, is standard deviation, c is offset. It finds the values of amplitude, center, standard deviation and offset that best fit the observations (X,Y). The following equation specifically describes the Gaussian curve resulting from the Gaussian fit algorithm: When you use the Least Square method, it finds the amplitude, center, standard deviation and offset of the Gaussian model by minimizing the residue according to the following equation: The Least Absolute Residual and Bisquare methods are robust fitting methods. Use these methods if outliers in the observations exist. In most cases, the Bisquare method is less sensitive to outliers than the Least Absolute Residual method. When you use the Least Absolute Residual method, it finds the amplitude, center, standard deviation and offset of the Gaussian model by minimizing residue according to the following equation: 54 © RAFA Solutions, 2014 DAnS User Manual Polynomial Fit Description Returns the Polynomial fit of the waveform for the entire or selected range. Polynomial fit uses the Least Square, Least Absolute Residual, or Bisquare method. Polynomial Coefficients are also calculated. Measurement Category Fitting Measurement Settings Polynomial order: Specifies the order of the polynomial that fits to the data set. Polynomial order must be greater than or equal to 0. In real applications, polynomial order is less than 10. Polynomial order can’t be greater than 25. The default is 2. Algorithm: Specifies the algorithm uses to compute Best Polynomial Fit. Use SVD for Rank Deficient H if all other algorithms are unsuccessful. SVD Givens Givens2 Householder LU Decomposition Cholesky SVD for Rank Deficient H Tolerance: Specifies when to stop the iterative adjustment of Polynomial Coefficients when you use the Least Absolute Residual or Bisquare methods. For the Least Absolute Residual method, if the relative difference between residue in two successive iterations is less than tolerance, it returns the resulting Polynomial Coefficients. For the Bisquare method, if any relative difference between Polynomial Coefficients in two successive iterations is less than tolerance, it returns the resulting Polynomial Coefficients. If tolerance is less than or equal to 0, tolerance automatically sets to 0.0001. Method: Specifies the fitting method: Least Square Least Absolute Residual Bisquare Apply measurement on: Specifies the range for the measurement. Two options exist for the measurement: Entire waveform 55 © RAFA Solutions, 2014 DAnS User Manual Selected range of waveform If the first option is selected, measurement is applied to the entire waveform, regardless of what is viewed, or selected with graph cursors. If the second option is selected, measurement is applied only to the X range selected with the graph cursors. Calculation It fits data to a polynomial function of the general form described by the following equation: , where f represents the output sequence Best Polynomial Fit, x is the input sequence, "a" represents Polynomial Coefficients, and m represents polynomial order. It finds the value of a that best fits the observations (X, Y). The following equation specifically describes the polynomial curve resulting from the general polynomial fit algorithm: When you use the Least Square method, it finds the Polynomial Coefficient of polynomial model by minimizing the residue according to the following equation: The Least Absolute Residual and Bisquare methods are robust fitting methods. Use these methods if outliers in the observations exist. In most cases, the Bisquare method is less sensitive to outliers than the Least Absolute Residual method. 56 © RAFA Solutions, 2014 DAnS User Manual When you use the Least Absolute Residual method, it finds Polynomial Coefficient of polynomial model by minimizing residue according to the following equation: Cubic Spline Fit Description Uses cubic spline fitting to smooth the waveform for the entire or selected range. Measurement Category Fitting Measurement Settings Balance parameter: Specifies the balance between the smoothness of the cubic spline fit and the accuracy with which it fits the observations. Balance parameter must fall within the range [0, 1]. If balance parameter is 0, the cubic spline fit is equivalent to a linear fit. If balance parameter is 1, the cubic spline fit interpolates between the data points. If balance parameter is out of the range [0, 1], it calculates an appropriate value for balance parameter automatically. Method: Specifies the fitting method: Least Square Least Absolute Residual Bisquare Apply measurement on: Specifies the range for the measurement. Two options exist for the measurement: Entire waveform Selected range of waveform If the first option is selected, measurement is applied to the entire waveform, regardless of what is viewed, or selected with graph cursors. If the second option is selected, measurement is applied only to the X range selected with the graph cursors. Calculation Cubic fit fits the observations (X, Y) by minimizing the following function: 57 © RAFA Solutions, 2014 DAnS User Manual where p is the balance parameter. yi is the i-th element of Y. xi is the i-th element of X. f"(x) is the second-order derivative of the f(x) cubic spline function. (x) is the piecewise constant function Where is the i-th element of smoothness. If p = 0, the fitted model is equivalent to a linear model. If p = 1, the fitting is equivalent to cubic spline interpolation. p must fall in the range [0, 1] to make the fitted curve both close to the observations and smooth. The closer p is to 0, the smoother the fitted curve. The closer p is to 1, the closer the fitted curve is to the observations. Transforms This group includes different transforms for the waveforms, such as Fast Fourier transform, WalshHadamard transform, Fast Hilbert transform, etc. 58 © RAFA Solutions, 2014 DAnS User Manual Fast Fourier Transform Description Calculates Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) of the signal. FFT computes the discrete Fourier transform of the signal. FFT can be computed for the entire or selected range of the signal. Measurement Category Transforms Measurement Settings Shift: Specifies whether DC component is at the center of FFT {signal}. If Shift is ON, DC component will be at the center of FFT {signal}. FFT Size: Specifies the length of the FFT be performed. If FFT size is less than the number of elements in the signal, only first elements (with number equal to FFT size) are used to perform the FFT. If FFT size is greater than the number of elements in the signal, zeros are added to the end of the signal. Apply measurement on: Specifies the range for the measurement. Two options exist for the measurement: Entire waveform Selected range of waveform If the first option is selected, measurement is applied to the entire waveform, regardless of what is viewed, or selected with graph cursors. If the second option is selected, measurement is applied only to the X range selected with the graph cursors. Calculation FFT computes the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) of the signal with fast Fourier transform algorithm. Discrete Fourier transform is defined by the following equation: for n=0, 1, 2, …, N-1 , where x is the input signal (sequence), N is the number of elements in input sequence, and Y is the result of transform. Frequency spacing (resolution) between Y components is: , where is the sampling frequency. 59 © RAFA Solutions, 2014 DAnS User Manual Fast Hilbert Transform Description Calculates Fast Hilbert Transform of the signal. Fast Hilbert Transform can be computed for the entire or selected range of the signal. Measurement Category Transforms Measurement Settings Apply measurement on: Specifies the range for the measurement. Two options exist for the measurement: Entire waveform Selected range of waveform If the first option is selected, measurement is applied to the entire waveform, regardless of what is viewed, or selected with graph cursors. If the second option is selected, measurement is applied only to the X range selected with the graph cursors. Calculation The Hilbert transform of a function is given as: The Hilbert transform is a multiplier operator. The symbol of H is , where sgn is the signum function. Fourier transform of the Hilbert transform of a function x(t) is: where is a Fourier transform pair and Fast Hilbert transform performs the discrete implementation of the Hilbert transform with the aid of the fast Fourier transform routines based upon the 60 Fourier transform pair. © RAFA Solutions, 2014 DAnS User Manual Inverse Fast Hilbert Transform Description Calculates the inverse fast Hilbert Transform of the signal. Inverse Fast Hilbert Transform can be computed for the entire or selected range of the signal. Measurement Category Transforms Measurement Settings Apply measurement on: Specifies the range for the measurement. Two options exist for the measurement: Entire waveform Selected range of waveform If the first option is selected, measurement is applied to the entire waveform, regardless of what is viewed, or selected with graph cursors. If the second option is selected, measurement is applied only to the X range selected with the graph cursors. Calculation The inverse Hilbert transform of a function h(t) is given as: By using Hilbert transform inverse Hilbert transform can be computed by negating the forward Hilbert transform: Inverse Fast Hilbert transform performs the discrete implementation of the inverse Hilbert transform with the aid of the Hilbert transform. Fast Hartley Transform Description Calculates Fast Hartley Transform (FHT) of the signal. For proper calculation of fast Hartley transform number of elements in the input sequence should be a valid power of two. Fast Hartley transform can be computed for the entire or selected range of the signal. 61 © RAFA Solutions, 2014 DAnS User Manual Measurement Category Transforms Measurement Settings Apply measurement on: Specifies the range for the measurement. Two options exist for the measurement: Entire waveform Selected range of waveform If the first option is selected, measurement is applied to the entire waveform, regardless of what is viewed, or selected with graph cursors. If the second option is selected, measurement is applied only to the X range selected with the graph cursors. Calculation The Hartley transform of a function x(t) is given as: where . The Hartley transform maps real-valued sequences into real-valued frequency domain sequences. Fast Hartley transform is obtained through the discrete implementation of the Hartley integral: for k=1,2,…. n-1, where n is the number of X elements. Inverse Fast Hartley Transform Description Calculates Inverse Fast Hartley Transform (inverse FHT) of the signal. For proper calculation of inverse fast Hartley transform number of elements in the input sequence should be a valid power of two. Inverse fast Hartley transform can be computed for the entire or selected range of the signal. Measurement Category Transforms 62 © RAFA Solutions, 2014 DAnS User Manual Measurement Settings Apply measurement on: Specifies the range for the measurement. Two options exist for the measurement: Entire waveform Selected range of waveform If the first option is selected, measurement is applied to the entire waveform, regardless of what is viewed, or selected with graph cursors. If the second option is selected, measurement is applied only to the X range selected with the graph cursors. Calculation The inverse Hartley transform of a function x(t) is given as: where . The inverse Hartley transform maps real-valued frequency domain sequences into real-valued sequences. Inverse fast Hartley transform is obtained through the discrete implementation of the inverse Hartley integral: for k=1,2,…. n-1, where n is the number of X elements. Walsh Hadamard Transform Description Calculates the real Walsh Hadamard Transform of the signal. Walsh Hadamard transform can be computed for the entire or selected range of the signal. Measurement Category Transforms Measurement Settings Apply measurement on: Specifies the range for the measurement. 63 © RAFA Solutions, 2014 DAnS User Manual Two options exist for the measurement: Entire waveform Selected range of waveform If the first option is selected, measurement is applied to the entire waveform, regardless of what is viewed, or selected with graph cursors. If the second option is selected, measurement is applied only to the X range selected with the graph cursors. Calculation The Walsh Hadamard transform performs an orthogonal, symmetric, involutional, linear operation on 2^m real numbers. The Walsh Hadamard transform is based on an orthogonal system consisting of functions of only two elements -1 and 1. If WHn and WHn+1 denote the Walsh Hadamard matrices of dimension 2^n and 2^(n+1) respectively, then: where –WHn is meant in the element wise sense. Inverse Walsh Hadamard Transform Description Calculates the inverse of real Walsh Hadamard Transform of the signal. Inverse Walsh Hadamard transform can be computed for the entire or selected range of the signal. Measurement Category Transforms Measurement Settings Apply measurement on: Specifies the range for the measurement. Two options exist for the measurement: Entire waveform Selected range of waveform If the first option is selected, measurement is applied to the entire waveform, regardless of what is viewed, or selected with graph cursors. If the second option is selected, measurement is applied only to the X range selected with the graph cursors. 64 © RAFA Solutions, 2014 DAnS User Manual Calculation The inverse Walsh Hadamard transform is calculated according to the following formula: , where n is the length of the signal X, WHI{X} is the inverse Walsh Hadamard transform and WH{X} is the Walsh Hadamard transform of the signal X. Laplace Transform Description Calculates Laplace Transform of the signal. Laplace Transform can be computed for the entire or selected range of the signal. Measurement Category Transforms Measurement Settings End: Specifies instant in time of the last sample. The entire sample interval is between 0 and the specified End. Apply measurement on: Specifies the range for the measurement. Two options exist for the measurement: Entire waveform Selected range of waveform If the first option is selected, measurement is applied to the entire waveform, regardless of what is viewed, or selected with graph cursors. If the second option is selected, measurement is applied only to the X range selected with the graph cursors. Calculation The real Laplace transform of a real signal x(s) is given as: for S>=0 and S real. x(t) is defined for all t>=0. 65 © RAFA Solutions, 2014 DAnS User Manual Mathematics This group combines mathematical calculations, such as integral and derivative. Integral Description Returns the integral of the waveform for entire or selected range. The calculation of waveforms with non-monotonic X axis can return incorrect results. Measurement Category Mathematics Measurement Settings Apply measurement on: Specifies the range for the measurement. Two options exist for the measurement: Entire waveform Selected range of waveform If the first option is selected, measurement is applied to the entire waveform, regardless of what is viewed, or selected with graph cursors. If the second option is selected, measurement is applied only to the X range selected with the graph cursors. Calculation Integral of the curve in the selected range is the sum of the areas of rectangles, which are formed by pairs of two neighboring x coordinates and y value corresponding to the righteous x coordinate of that pair. Derivative Description Returns the derivative of the waveform for entire or selected range. Measurement Category Mathematics 66 © RAFA Solutions, 2014 DAnS User Manual Measurement Settings Method: Specifies the method of the calculation: 2nd order 4th order Forward Backward dt: Specifies the time interval of the waveform. Commonly dt is 1/dfs, where dfs is the sampling frequency. Apply measurement on: Specifies the range for the measurement. Two options exist for the measurement: Entire waveform Selected range of waveform If the first option is selected, measurement is applied to the entire waveform, regardless of what is viewed, or selected with graph cursors. If the second option is selected, measurement is applied only to the X range selected with the graph cursors. Calculation The formula of the derivatives for four different ways of calculations is shown below: 2nd order 4th order Forward 67 © RAFA Solutions, 2014 DAnS User Manual Backward Spectral Analysis Measurements in this group perform different spectral analysis. These measurements should be applied to the waveform in time domain. Auto Power Spectrum Description Returns the auto power spectrum of the waveform for the entire or selected range. Measurement Category Spectral Analysis Measurement Settings dt: Specifies the time interval of the waveform. Commonly dt is frequency. , where is the sampling Apply measurement on: Specifies the range for the measurement. Two options exist for the measurement: Entire waveform Selected range of waveform If the first option is selected, measurement is applied to the entire waveform, regardless of what is viewed, or selected with graph cursors. If the second option is selected, measurement is applied only to the X range selected with the graph cursors. Calculation Calculates the auto spectrum of the waveform using the fast Fourier transformation of the signal and complex conjugate of FFT using formula: 68 © RAFA Solutions, 2014 DAnS User Manual , where n is the number of points in the signal, FFT is the fast Fourier transformation and «*» indicates the complex conjugate. Power Spectrum Description Returns the power spectrum of the waveform for the entire or selected range. Measurement Category Spectral Analysis Measurement Settings dt: Specifies the time interval of the waveform. Commonly dt is frequency. , where is the sampling Apply measurement on: Specifies the range for the measurement. Two options exist for the measurement: Entire waveform Selected range of waveform If the first option is selected, measurement is applied to the entire waveform, regardless of what is viewed, or selected with graph cursors. If the second option is selected, measurement is applied only to the X range selected with the graph cursors. Calculation Calculates the spectrum of the waveform using the fast Fourier transformation of the input signal with following formula: , where n is the number of points in the input signal, and F(X) is the Fourier transform of the X function. 69 © RAFA Solutions, 2014 DAnS User Manual Phase Spectrum Description Returns the phase spectrum of the waveform for the entire or selected range. Measurement Category Spectral Analysis Measurement Settings dt: Specifies the time interval of the waveform. Commonly dt is frequency. , where is the sampling Unwrap phase: Enables the option of phase unwrapping. The default value is ON. Apply measurement on: Specifies the range for the measurement. Two options exist for the measurement: Entire waveform Selected range of waveform If the first option is selected, measurement is applied to the entire waveform, regardless of what is viewed, or selected with graph cursors. If the second option is selected, measurement is applied only to the X range selected with the graph cursors. Calculation Phase spectrum is calculated by taking the exponential part of the calculated one sided spectrum. Cross Power Spectrum Description Returns the power spectrum of the two crossed waveforms for entire or selected range. Measurement Category Spectral Analysis Measurement Settings dt: Specifies the time interval of the waveform. Commonly dt is frequency. 70 , where is the sampling © RAFA Solutions, 2014 DAnS User Manual Apply measurement on: Specifies the range for the measurement. Two options exist for the measurement: Entire waveform Selected range of waveform If the first option is selected, measurement is applied to the entire waveform, regardless of what is viewed, or selected with graph cursors. If the second option is selected, measurement is applied only to the X range selected with the graph cursors. Calculation Calculates the spectrum of the waveform generated by crossing two input signals. The spectrum is calculated by the following formula: , where N is the number of points in the input signal. If the input signals are of different lengths then the program will fill the shorter data with zeroes to make the two signals the same length. In that case N is the number of points after the shorter signal has been filled with zeroes. Amplitude Spectrum Description Returns the magnitude of the power spectrum of the waveform for the entire or selected range. Measurement Category Spectral Analysis Measurement Settings dt: Specifies the time interval of the waveform. Commonly dt is frequency. , where is the sampling Unwrap phase: Enables the option of phase unwrapping. The default value is ON. Apply measurement on: Specifies the range for the measurement. Two options exist for the measurement: Entire waveform Selected range of waveform 71 © RAFA Solutions, 2014 DAnS User Manual If the first option is selected, measurement is applied to the entire waveform, regardless of what is viewed, or selected with graph cursors. If the second option is selected, measurement is applied only to the X range selected with the graph cursors. Calculation Magnitude of the power spectrum is calculated by taking the real part of the power spectrum. Time Domain Measurements Measurements in this group are for calculations which refer to time domain. Time domain measurements include transition, period, frequency calculation, etc. For correct results, these measurements should be applied on the waveform for which Time is selected as X axis. Period Description Measures Period of the periodic waveform between adjacent reference level crossings in the same direction in the entire or selected range. Period can be measured for all or selected pulses. Measurement Category Time Domain Measurement Settings Calculate for: Specifies pulses for which measurement should be done. Two options exist for the measurement: All Pulses Pulse Number If the first option is selected, period is calculated for all pulses. If the second option is selected, period is calculated for the selected pulse. Reference Level (%): Specifies the middle reference level of the waveform in percent, required to determine period. Percentage is defined relative to the topline levels. Apply measurement on: Specifies the range for the measurement. Two options exist for the measurement: 72 © RAFA Solutions, 2014 DAnS User Manual Entire waveform Selected range of waveform If the first option is selected, measurement is applied to the entire waveform, regardless of what is viewed, or selected with graph cursors. If the second option is selected, measurement is applied only to the X range selected with the graph cursors. Calculation Period is calculated by finding two consecutive edges of the waveform with the same polarity. Period is the difference in time between reference crossings of the two adjacent edges. Example of the period calculation is shown with 50% reference level. Frequency Description Measures Frequency of the periodic waveform between adjacent reference level crossings in the same direction in the entire or selected range. Frequency can be measured for all or selected pulses. Measurement Category Time Domain Measurement Settings Calculate for: Specifies pulses for which measurement should be done. Two options exist for the measurement: All Pulses Pulse Number If the first option is selected, frequency is calculated for all pulses. If the second option is selected, frequency is calculated for the selected pulse. 73 © RAFA Solutions, 2014 DAnS User Manual Reference Level (%): Specifies the middle reference level of the waveform in percent, required to determine frequency. Percentage is defined relative to the topline levels. Apply measurement on: Specifies the range for the measurement. Two options exist for the measurement: Entire waveform Selected range of waveform If the first option is selected, measurement is applied to the entire waveform, regardless of what is viewed, or selected with graph cursors. If the second option is selected, measurement is applied only to the X range selected with the graph cursors. Calculation Frequency is calculated as the reciprocal of the period. Period is calculated by finding two consecutive edges of the waveform with the same polarity. Period is the difference in time between reference crossings of the two adjacent edges. Example of frequency calculation is shown with 50% reference level. Duty Cycle Description Measures Duty Cycle of the periodic waveform in the entire or selected range. Duty Cycle can be measured for all or selected pulses. Measurement Category Time Domain 74 © RAFA Solutions, 2014 DAnS User Manual Measurement Settings Calculate for: Specifies pulses for which measurement should be done. Two options exist for the measurement: All Pulses Pulse Number If the first option is selected, duty cycle is calculated for all pulses. If the second option is selected, duty cycle is calculated for the selected pulse. Reference Level (%): Specifies the middle reference level of the waveform in percent, required to determine duty cycle. Percentage is defined relative to the topline levels. Apply measurement on: Specifies the range for the measurement. Two options exist for the measurement: Entire waveform Selected range of waveform If the first option is selected, measurement is applied to the entire waveform, regardless of what is viewed, or selected with graph cursors. If the second option is selected, measurement is applied only to the X range selected with the graph cursors. Calculation Duty cycle is calculated as the ration of the positive pulse width to the period of the waveform. Period is calculated by finding two consecutive edges of the waveform with the same polarity. Period is the difference in time between reference crossings of the two adjacent edges. Positive pulse width is calculated as the difference in time between reference level crossing of a rising edge and reference level crossing of the next falling edge of the waveform. Example of the duty cycle calculation is shown with 50% reference level. 75 © RAFA Solutions, 2014 DAnS User Manual Positive Pulse Width Description Measures duration of the positive pulse of the waveform for the entire or selected range. Pulse width is the time difference between reference level crossings of the two adjacent edges of the pulse. Pulse width can be measured for all or selected pulses. Measurement Category Time Domain Measurement Settings Calculate for: Specifies pulses for which measurement should be done. Two options exist for the measurement: All Pulses Pulse Number If the first option is selected, width is calculated for all pulses. If the second option is selected, width is calculated for the selected pulse. Reference Level (%): Specifies the middle reference level of the waveform in percent, required to determine pulse width. Percentage is defined relative to the topline levels. Apply measurement on: Specifies the range for the measurement. Two options exist for the measurement: Entire waveform Selected range of waveform If the first option is selected, measurement is applied to the entire waveform, regardless of what is viewed, or selected with graph cursors. If the second option is selected, measurement is applied only to the X range selected with the graph cursors. Calculation Pulse width for the positive pulse is calculated as the difference in time between reference level crossing of a rising edge and reference level crossing of the next falling edge of the waveform. Pulse width is calculated by finding two consecutive edges of the waveform. Example of the positive pulse width calculation is shown with 50% reference level. 76 © RAFA Solutions, 2014 DAnS User Manual Negative Pulse Width Description Measures duration of the negative pulse of the waveform for the entire or selected range. Pulse width is the time difference between reference level crossings of the two adjacent edges of the pulse. Pulse width can be measured for all or selected pulses. Measurement Category Time Domain Measurement Settings Calculate for: Specifies pulses for which measurement should be done. Two options exist for the measurement: All Pulses Pulse Number If the first option is selected, width is calculated for all pulses. If the second option is selected, width is calculated for the selected pulse. Reference Level (%): Specifies the middle reference level of the waveform in percent, required to determine pulse width. Percentage is defined relative to the topline levels. Apply measurement on: Specifies the range for the measurement. Two options exist for the measurement: Entire waveform Selected range of waveform If the first option is selected, measurement is applied to the entire waveform, regardless of what is viewed, or selected with graph cursors. If the second option is selected, measurement is applied only to the X range selected with the graph cursors. 77 © RAFA Solutions, 2014 DAnS User Manual Calculation Pulse width for the negative pulse is calculated as the difference in time between reference level crossing of a rising edge and reference level crossing of the next falling edge of the waveform. Pulse width is calculated by finding two consecutive edges of the waveform. Example of the negative pulse width calculation is shown with 50% reference level. Rise Time Description Measures Rise time of the waveform between selected high and low reference levels for the entire or selected range. Rise time can be measured for all or selected pulses. Measurement Category Time Domain Measurement Settings Calculate for: Specifies pulses for which measurement should be done. Two options exist for the measurement: All Pulses Pulse Number If the first option is selected, rise time is calculated for all pulses. If the second option is selected, rise time is calculated for the selected pulse. High Reference Level (%): Specifies the high reference level of the waveform in percent, required to determine transition interval. Percentage is defined relative to the topline levels. High reference level crossing defines the end of a rising transition interval. Low Reference Level (%): Specifies the low reference level of the waveform in percent, required to determine transition interval. Percentage is defined relative to the baseline levels. Low reference level crossing defines the start of a rising transition interval. Apply measurement on: Specifies the range for the measurement. 78 © RAFA Solutions, 2014 DAnS User Manual Two options exist for the measurement: Entire waveform Selected range of waveform If the first option is selected, measurement is applied to the entire waveform, regardless of what is viewed, or selected with graph cursors. If the second option is selected, measurement is applied only to the X range selected with the graph cursors. Calculation Rise time is calculated by finding crossing with the high and low reference levels of the waveform. Rise time is the time duration from when the waveform crosses the low reference level until it crosses the high reference level. Example of rise time calculation is shown with 10% and 90% low and high reference levels respectively. Fall Time Description Measures Fall time of the waveform between selected high and low reference levels for the entire or selected range. Fall time can be measured for all or selected pulses. Measurement Category Time Domain Measurement Settings Calculate for: Specifies pulses for which measurement should be done. Two options exist for the measurement: All Pulses Pulse Number 79 © RAFA Solutions, 2014 DAnS User Manual If the first option is selected, fall time is calculated for all pulses. If the second option is selected, fall time is calculated for the selected pulse. High Reference Level (%): Specifies the high reference level of the waveform in percent, required to determine transition interval. Percentage is defined relative to the topline levels. High reference level crossing defines the start of a falling transition interval. Low Reference Level (%): Specifies the low reference level of the waveform in percent, required to determine transition interval. Percentage is defined relative to the baseline levels. Low reference level crossing defines the end of a falling transition interval. Apply measurement on: Specifies the range for the measurement. Two options exist for the measurement: Entire waveform Selected range of waveform If the first option is selected, measurement is applied to the entire waveform, regardless of what is viewed, or selected with graph cursors. If the second option is selected, measurement is applied only to the X range selected with the graph cursors. Calculation Fall time is calculated by finding crossing with the high and low reference levels of the waveform. Fall time is the time duration from when the waveform crosses the high reference level until it crosses the low reference level. Example of fall time calculation is shown with 10% and 90% low and high reference levels respectively. 80 © RAFA Solutions, 2014 DAnS User Manual Slew Rate Description Measures Slew Rate of the specified edge of the waveform between selected high and low reference levels for the entire or selected range. Slew Rate can be measured for all or selected pulses. Measurement Category Time Domain Measurement Settings Calculate for: Specifies pulses for which measurement should be done. Two options exist for the measurement: All Pulses Pulse Number If the first option is selected, slew rate is calculated for the specified edges of all pulses. If the second option is selected, slew rate is calculated for the edge of the selected pulse. Edge: Specifies the direction of the transition for which slew rate measurement should be done. Two options exist for the measurement: Rising Falling If the first option is selected, slew rate is calculated for rising edges. If the second options is selected, slew rate is calculated for the falling edges. High Reference Level (%): Specifies the high reference level of the waveform in percent, required to determine transition interval. Percentage is defined relative to the topline levels. High reference level crossing defines the end of a rising transition interval and the start of a falling transition interval. Low Reference Level (%): Specifies the low reference level of the waveform in percent, required to determine transition interval. Percentage is defined relative to the baseline levels. Low reference level crossing defines the start of a rising transition interval and the end of a falling transition interval. Apply measurement on: Specifies the range for the measurement. Two options exist for the measurement: Entire waveform Selected range of waveform If the first option is selected, measurement is applied to the entire waveform, regardless of what is viewed, or selected with graph cursors. 81 © RAFA Solutions, 2014 DAnS User Manual If the second option is selected, measurement is applied only to the X range selected with the graph cursors. Calculation Slew rate is calculated as the difference between the high and low reference levels of the waveform divided by the transition time of the edge. Transitions are defined by finding crossing with the high and low reference levels of the waveform. Example of slew rate calculation is shown for rising edge with 10% and 90% low and high reference levels respectively. Delay Description Measures Delay between the specified edges of two waveforms for the entire or selected range. Delay is the time difference between reference level crossings of the two consecutive edges of the two waveforms with the same polarity. Delay can be measured for all or selected pulses. Measurement Category Time Domain Measurement Settings Calculate for: Specifies pulses for which measurement should be done. Two options exist for the measurement: All Pulses Pulse Number 82 © RAFA Solutions, 2014 DAnS User Manual If the first option is selected, delay is calculated for all pulses of two waveforms. If the second option is selected, delay is calculated for the selected pulses of two waveforms. Edge: Specifies the direction of the edges for which delay measurement should be done. Two options exist for the measurement: Rising Falling If the first option is selected, delay is calculated between rising edges of two waveforms. If the second option is selected, delay is calculated between falling edges of two waveforms. Reference Level (%): Specifies the middle reference level of the waveform in percent, required to determine delay. Percentage is defined relative to the topline levels. Apply measurement on: Specifies the range for the measurement. Two options exist for the measurement: Entire waveform Selected range of waveform If the first option is selected, measurement is applied to the entire waveform, regardless of what is viewed, or selected with graph cursors. If the second option is selected, measurement is applied only to the X range selected with the graph cursors. Calculation Delay is calculated as the difference in time between reference level crossing of a specified polarity edge of the first waveform and reference level crossing of the same polarity edge of the second waveform. Delay is calculated by finding two consecutive edges of the same polarity for two waveforms. Example of the delay calculation is shown for the rising edges with 50% reference level. 83 © RAFA Solutions, 2014 DAnS User Manual Release Notes 1. Excel File Format In the new version the program supports also files in Excel format. 2. Updated Menu Bar 2.1. Options - Open and Recent Files New options Open and Recent Files are added to the menu bar in Data Analysis Window. A file can be opened from the Data Analysis Window in the following way: File>Open. Recent Files: the program allows to open one of the recent files. 2.2. Options - Show Context Help Window The new option Show Context Help Window is added to the menu bar in Data Analysis Window. It displays short description of object functions. 84 © RAFA Solutions, 2014 DAnS User Manual Software License and Evaluation You can use the software without activation for 15 days for evaluation purposes. In this case you will see notification of days left each time you start the software. To activate software you should click the “Activate” button. The following window will be opened. 85 © RAFA Solutions, 2014 DAnS User Manual Enter the Serial Number, which you were provided. If entered serial number is correct, the following window will be opened for final activation. Shown code should be sent to the provided email address to get activation code. If entered activation code is correct, the following window will appear. 86 © RAFA Solutions, 2014 DAnS User Manual License Agreement END-USER LICENSE AGREEMENT THIS END-USER LICENSE AGREEMENT ("AGREEMENT") IS A LEGAL AGREEMENT BETWEEN YOU AND THE LICENSOR. YOU AGREE TO BE BOUND BY THE TERMS OF THIS AGREEMENT BY INSTALLING, COPYING, OR OTHERWISE USING THE PRODUCT AS SET FORTH IN THIS AGREEMENT. IF YOU DO NOT AGREE WITH THE TERMS OF THIS AGREEMENT, YOU SHOULD NOT INSTALL OR USE THE PRODUCT. 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The limited warranty covers the software for 90 days after acquiring by you. If you receive supplements, updates, or replacement software during warranty period, they will be covered for the remainder of the warranty. 11. Exclusions from Warranty. This warranty does not cover problems caused by your acts (or failures to act), the acts of others, or events beyond the reasonable control of the Licensor. 88 © RAFA Solutions, 2014 DAnS User Manual 12. Remedy for Breach of Warranty. Licensor will, at its election, either (i) repair or replace the Software at no charge, within the warranty term, or (ii) accept return of the product(s) for a refund of the amount paid, if any. The developer, Licensor or installer may also repair or replace supplements, updates and replacement software or provide a refund of the amount you paid for them, if any. These are your only remedies for breach of the limited warranty. 13. No other Warranties. 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