Khepera IV User Manual - K

Khepera IV User Manual - K
KHEPERAIV
User manual
Revision 1.1
Revisions history
Rev.
1.0
1.1
Date
(EUR)
14.03.2014
30.01.2015
Description
Initial creation
Minor corrections
Documentation Authors
Julien Tharin, Frédéric Lambercy and Timothée Carron
K-Team S.A.
Z.I. Les Plans-Praz 28
CH-1337 Vallorbe
Switzerland
E-mail [email protected]
URL
www.k-team.com
Trademark Acknowledgements
IBM PC
Macintosh
SUN SparcStation
LabVIEW
Matlab
Khepera
: International Business Machines Corp.
: Apple Corp.
: SUN Microsystems Corp.
: National Instruments Corp.
: MathWorks Corp.
: K-Team and LAMI
Legal Notice



The content of this manual is subject to change without notice
All efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the content of this
manual. However, should any error be detected, please inform K-Team.
The above notwithstanding, K-Team can assume no responsibility for any
error in this manual.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1
INTRODUCTION ................................................................................ 1
1.1
1.2
1.3
2
UNPACKING AND INSPECTION .......................................................... 3
2.1
3
How to use this user manual ........................................................ 1
Safety precautions........................................................................ 2
Recycling ...................................................................................... 2
Package Content........................................................................... 3
THE ROBOT AND ITS ACCESSORIES ................................................... 4
3.1 Global View .................................................................................. 4
3.2 First start-up ................................................................................ 6
3.3 Shutdown / Reboot / Reset .......................................................... 8
3.4 The Khepera IV Robot .................................................................. 9
3.4.1 Caster wheels ............................................................................. 9
3.4.2 On/Off switch.............................................................................. 9
3.4.3 Status LED ................................................................................. 9
3.4.4 Mini-USB B connector (device) ...................................................... 9
3.4.5 USB A connector (host) ................................................................ 9
3.4.6 Power supply jack........................................................................ 9
3.4.7 Charging status LED .................................................................. 10
3.4.8 Reset button ............................................................................. 10
3.4.9 Infrared sensors ........................................................................ 10
3.4.10
Ultrasonic sensors .................................................................. 10
3.4.11
Camera................................................................................. 10
3.4.12
Bottom infrared sensors .......................................................... 10
3.4.13
Contacts for docking station ..................................................... 11
3.4.14
Wheels ................................................................................. 11
3.4.15
Sticker .................................................................................. 11
3.4.16
Bottom M3 Nuts ..................................................................... 11
3.4.17
KB-250 Extension connectors ................................................... 11
3.4.18
Top M3 Nuts .......................................................................... 11
3.4.19
Magnets ................................................................................ 11
3.4.20
RGB LED ............................................................................... 11
3.5 Other features ............................................................................ 12
4
IN DEPTH LOOK .............................................................................. 13
4.1 Infrared Sensors ........................................................................ 13
4.1.1 Ambient light measurement ........................................................ 14
4.1.2 Reflected light measurements (proximity) ..................................... 15
4.2 Ultrasonic sensors ...................................................................... 16
4.3 Battery ....................................................................................... 17
4.4 Contact pads .............................................................................. 19
4.4.1 Reed relay location .................................................................... 20
4.5 Camera ....................................................................................... 21
4.6 Microphones ............................................................................... 21
4.7 Loudspeaker ............................................................................... 22
4.8 Gumstix Overo FireSTORM COM .................................................. 22
4.9 Accelerometer ............................................................................ 23
4.10 Gyroscope .................................................................................. 24
4.11 USB Device (mini-USB B connector)............................................ 25
4.12 MicroSD ...................................................................................... 25
4.13 RGB LED ..................................................................................... 25
4.14 Motors ........................................................................................ 26
4.14.1
Speed control ........................................................................ 28
4.14.2
Speed profile control ............................................................... 29
4.14.3
Position control ...................................................................... 31
4.14.4
Open loop ............................................................................. 32
5
PROGRAMMING............................................................................... 33
5.1 Required hardware / software ................................................... 33
5.1.1 Required hardware .................................................................... 33
5.1.2 Required software ..................................................................... 33
5.2 Software .................................................................................... 34
5.2.1 Installation of light toolchain ....................................................... 35
5.2.2 Programming and light toolchain usage ........................................ 38
5.2.3 Debugging................................................................................ 41
5.3 Full toolchain and sources .......................................................... 45
5.3.1 Required software ..................................................................... 45
5.3.2 Installation ............................................................................... 46
5.3.3 Full toolchain usage ................................................................... 47
5.4 Microcontroller update ............................................................... 50
5.5 Packages installations ................................................................ 50
5.5.1 Existing packages ...................................................................... 50
5.5.2 Removing packages ................................................................... 50
5.5.3 Creating new package:............................................................... 51
6
COMMUNICATION PROTOCOL (WITH SERVER ONLY)....................... 52
7
EXTENSION CONNECTORS ............................................................... 60
7.1
7.2
J700 Pin-out ............................................................................... 61
J701 Pin-out ............................................................................... 61
8
MECHANICAL DRAWINGS ................................................................ 62
9
ANNEXES ........................................................................................ 64
9.1 Using Bluetooth .......................................................................... 64
9.1.1 To send a file to the robot (upload) .............................................. 66
9.1.2 To send a file to the computer (download) .................................... 66
9.2 Using WiFi .................................................................................. 67
9.2.1 IP without any encryption for security .......................................... 67
9.2.2 Fixed IP without any encryption for security .................................. 67
9.2.3 WEP encryption support ............................................................. 68
9.2.4 WEP, WPA and other encryptions: ................................................ 69
9.2.5 Transferring files using scp ......................................................... 70
9.2.6 Remote access .......................................................................... 70
9.2.7 NFS configuration ...................................................................... 71
9.3 Using the camera module ........................................................... 72
9.3.1 Taking images .......................................................................... 72
9.3.2 Video streaming ........................................................................ 72
9.3.3 Programming Image processing................................................... 72
9.3.4 Changing colors levels (whitebalance) .......................................... 73
9.4 Using microphones and speakers................................................ 75
9.5 Development with a virtual machine ........................................... 77
9.6 Using vi text file editor ............................................................... 79
10 WARRANTY ..................................................................................... 80
1
INTRODUCTION
Thank you for buying a Khepera IV robot! The Khepera IV is a high end
table-top robot that will initiate your experience to the extraordinary world
of mobile robotics. Thanks to its wealth of sensors, motors and its software
openness, you will be able to create complex behavior, making you an
expert of this promising technology.
1.1
How to use this user manual
This user manual introduces the Khepera IV robot and its various operating
modes.
If this user manual does not answer one of the problems you are confronted
with, please consult the K-Team web site (http://www.k-team.com) and
especially the Forum and the FAQs.
Three kinds of symbols are used in this document; in order to keep you and
your robot safe, please respect them:
Ignoring the mentioned warning could
malfunction or reduced performance.
lead
to
Ignoring the mentioned warning could lead
perpetual damage and would void the warranty.
to
Danger: risk of electric shock
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1.2
Safety precautions
Here are some recommendations on how to correctly use the robot:
1.3

Keep the robot away from wet area. Contact
with water could cause malfunction and/or
breakdown.

Store your robot in a stable position. This will
avoid the risk of falls, which could break it or cause
damage to a person.

Use only the official charger or the cable
which is delivered with the robot. Do not try to
use another charger; this can cause irreversible
damage to the battery and or the electronics.

Do not attach any connector while the robot is
powered. To avoid any damage, make all
connections when the robot power is off.

Never leave the robot powered when it is
unused. When you have finished working with
Khepera, turn it off. It will save the battery life.

Do not manually force any mechanical
movement. Avoid to force, by any mechanical
way, the movement of the wheels or any other
part.

Never open the case. Only qualified technicians
are allowed to do so.
Recycling
Think about the end of life of your robot! Parts of the robot can be recycled
and it is important to do so. It is for instance mandatory to keep batteries
out of the solid waste stream. When you throw away a battery, it eventually
ends up in a landfill or municipal incinerator. This battery, which contains
Lithium Polymer, can contribute to the toxicity levels of landfills or
incinerator ash. By recycling the batteries through recycling programs, you
can help to create a cleaner and safer environment for generations to come.
For those reasons, please take care to the recycling of your robot at the end
of its life cycle, for instance sending back the robot to the manufacturer or
to your local dealer.
Thank you for your contribution to a cleaner environment!
Made in
Switzerland
Khepera IV User Manual ver 1.1
Contains FCC ID :
U9R-W2CBW003
2
2
2.1
UNPACKING AND INSPECTION
Package Content
The Khepera IV package is done in a stack-like architecture. When you open
it, you’ll first see the robot:
Figure 2.1: First opening
Please remove the robot from the packaging by holding it with your fingers,
through the pre-cut holes in the foam. Then, remove the foam inserts. You
should be able to see the CDs with accessories below:
Figure 2.2 : CD
Figure 2.3 : Accessories
Your package should contain the following items:





Khepera IV robot
DVD with Khepera User Manual and software
USB to mini-USB cable
Camera Lens (may already be installed in the robot)
AC/DC Power supply (110/220VAC 50/60Hz) with plugs.
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3
3.1
THE ROBOT AND ITS ACCESSORIES
Global View
Figure 3.1 : Left view
Figure 3.2 : Rear view
Figure 3.3 : Right view
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Figure 3.4 : Bottom view
Figure 3.5 : Top view
Make an external inspection of the robot. Note the location of the
following parts:
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
Caster wheels
On/Off switch
Status LED
Mini-USB B connector (device mode, no charging)
USB A connector (host mode, 500mA)
Power supply jack (9V, 1.5A, 0.65mm center positive)
Charging status LED
Reset button
Infrared sensors (8x)
Ultrasonic sensors (5x)
Camera
Bottom IR sensors (4x,for fall avoidance and line following)
Contacts for docking station
Wheels
Sticker
Bottom M3 Nuts (4x)
KB-250 Extension connectors
Top M3 Nuts (4x)
Magnets (3x)
RGB LED (3x)
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3.2
First start-up
It is required, before to use the robot for the first time, to let
the battery charge completely. In order to do that, once the
robot out from its packaging, please assure it is off (switch on
the outside), plug the charger into the robot jack and then
into mains. Please consider a time of 5 hours for the initial
charge.
Carefully screw the camera lens in its place, at the front of the robot. Please
do this operation as soon the robot is removed from its packaging to avoid
any dust on the sensor. You may have to launch a test application to
correctly adjust the focus. Be sure to remove the cover of the lens in order
to use it. If the robot was delivered with the lens already installed, please
be sure that it’s clean. If not, please use a dry microfiber towel to clean it.
You can have console access through different ways: USB described below,
Bluetooth on chapter “9.1 Using Bluetooth” and WiFi on chapter “9.2 Using
WiFi”.
1)
Plug the USB cable to the computer, and the mini-USB side to the
robot (connector 4 of figure 3.2).
2)
Switch on the robot power. On Windows, you cannot open the serial
port before.
3)
Open the serial port corresponding serial port. For Windows, you can
use Teraterm (http://ttssh2.sourceforge.jp) with the parameters:
115200 baud, no parity and no flow control.
4)
On Linux, the FTDI driver is installed by default; use minicom (to
install it on Ubuntu: sudo apt-get install minicom). Open a
terminal console and type (example below based on Linux):
minicom -s
5)
Go the "Serial port setup" menu and configure as described in figure
3.4 .
+----------------------------------------------------------+
| A - Serial Device : /dev/ttyUBS0
|
| B - Lockfile Location : /var/lock
|
| C - Callin Program :
|
| D - Callout Program :
|
| E - Bps/Par/Bits : 115200 8N1
|
| F - Hardware Flow Control : No
|
| G - Software Flow Control : No
|
|
|
| Change which setting?
|
+----------------------------------------------------------+
Figure 3.4: Minicom serial parameters
6)
Save the settings with the command “Save setup as dfl” of the menu
[configuration].
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7)
Wait for the login (Figure 3.9).
8)
Enter the username root , for password push RETURN.
.-------.
|
|
.-.
|
|
|-----.-----.-----.| |
.----..-----.-----.
|
|
| __ | ---'| '--.| .-'|
|
|
|
|
| | |
|--- || --'| | | ' | | | |
'---'---'--'--'--. |-----''----''--' '-----'-'-'-'
-' |
'---'
The Angstrom Distribution khepera4 ttyS2
Angstrom 2010.7-test-20130613 khepera4 ttyS2
khepera4 login:
Figure 3.9: Robot prompt: login
9)
You are in the directory /home/root by default after login. You can
execute a program by preceding its name with ./ :
./khepera4_test
10)
In the beginning of the output there is the version of the
microcontroller software, then the menu. Push q and RETURN key to
quit.
11)
You can add a password to the login of your robot with the command:
passwd
You can upload or download a file with the robot at chapters 9.1.1
9.1.2.
and
Continue with chapter “5 PROGRAMMING” for starting programming.
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3.3 Shutdown / Reboot / Reset
Shutdown:
While logged into the console of the robot, it is better to do a proper
shutdown than just switching off the robot. This will ensure that the open
files are correctly closed and settings saved.
1. Run the following command in the console:
halt
2. Wait 15s (if you are logged through the USB cable, you wait until
System halted appears). Then you can switch off the robot.
Reboot:
If you want to reboot, you can use:
reboot
Reset :
The robot reset can be triggered by pressing the reset button (see
Figure 3.2).
You may need to use the reset while the software is blocked and you
cannot access anymore by another connection with ssh for killing the
annoying process or doing a soft reboot.
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3.4
3.4.1
The Khepera IV Robot
Caster wheels
There are two caster wheels below the robot. These two wheels enable the
robot to be very stable, even with high payload or with long cantilever
extension modules. In return, the robot is not able to go through door sills.
3.4.2
On/Off switch
This switch will have an action on the internal regulators of the robot and
not on the battery, meaning that you can charge it even if it is off. To turn
the robot on, put the switch on the inside. To turn it off, put the switch on
the outside.
3.4.3
Status LED
By default, this bicolor indication LED lets you know the state of the robot.
When you turn it on, the green LED will stay on and the red light will blink
until the system is ready. This LED is user-controllable.
3.4.4
Mini-USB B connector (device)
This connector lets you open a communication link between the robot and a
computer. It is not possible to charge the robot by this way.
3.4.5
USB A connector (host)
This is a USB host-capable connector. You can plug on it any USB device
you want, as long as it doesn’t draw more than 500mA of current. You can
for example connect a GPS module or a memory key.
This connector has its signals shared with the KB-250
Extension connectors, meaning that you cannot use USB on
Extensions at the same time as on this connector.
3.4.6
Power supply jack
This is the 0.65mm center positive jack used to charge the internal battery
of the robot. Use only the provided adapter. Input voltage is 9V. Current
drawn by the robot is 1A, so a 1.5+A adapter is needed.
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3.4.7
Charging status LED
This is a bicolor indication LED showing you the state of the charge. There
are two modes, depending if the robot is powered or not.
If the robot is off and the AC adapter is plugged, the red LED will be on as
long as the battery is charging. Once the charge terminated, the LED will
turn off.
If the robot is on and the AC adapter is plugged, the red LED will be on as
long as the battery is charging. Once the charge terminated, the red LED
will turn off and the green LED will turn on.
3.4.8
Reset button
This button serves to reset the whole robot, including the extension
modules.
3.4.9
Infrared sensors
There are 8 infrared sensors all around the robot in order to detect obstacles
or measure ambient light. With these sensors, the robot is able to see
obstacles from 2 to approx. 250mm, depending on the calibration, the
ambient conditions and the obstacle color. Each sensor is separated from its
neighbor by an angle of 45°.
3.4.10
Ultrasonic sensors
There are 5 ultrasonic sensors, 2 on both sides and 1 in the front of the
robot. With these sensors, the robot is able to see obstacles from approx.
250 to approx. 2500mm. Please notice that it is not possible to see nearer
obstacles due to the principle of operation of this kind of sensors. There is
an angle of 45° between two sensors.
3.4.11
Camera
In the front of the robot, there is a color camera with user-changeable lens.
It can be used to take pictures or movies that can be processed on board.
3.4.12
Bottom infrared sensors
Four infrared sensors are disposed on the bottom of the robot. They are
used to avoid the robot from falling down but can also be used to follow a
line.
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3.4.13
Contacts for docking station
The Khepera IV has some apparent contacts below its body meaning that
you could use a docking station to charge its battery or to communicate
with it. It’s also possible to imagine to develop an extension which would be
below the robot, for example a mechanical base with tracks. The signals
that are provided are: Battery out (controlled by a reed relay), 9V in, I2C.
3.4.14
Wheels
The robot is differential driven, with 2 wheels equipped with O-ring. The
wheels are driven by DC motors with encoder and gearbox.
3.4.15
Sticker
Here you’ll find the serial number of your robot.
3.4.16
Bottom M3 Nuts
There is the possibility to fix an extension to the robot from below.
3.4.17
KB-250 Extension connectors
These two connectors are used to connect extension modules to the robot.
The pin-out is accordingly to KB-250, with some minor improvements. You
can re-use the Khepera III or KoreBot extension modules (but not the Kh3
Gripper).
These connectors have their USB host signals shared with the
USB Host connectors, meaning that you cannot use USB on
Extensions at the same time as on the connector. USB device
is usable on both at the same time as the robot is equipped
with a hub.
3.4.18
Top M3 Nuts
There is the possibility to fix an extension to the robot from above.
3.4.19
Magnets
There are three magnets used mainly to attach the gripper, but they can be
used for any other module.
3.4.20
RGB LED
There are three RGB LED on the top of the robot, all are user-controllable.
They are primarily intended for robot pattern recognition with a color
camera mounted on the ceiling of your experiment room.
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3.5
Other features
Since the Khepera III, we added a lot of functionalities in this new robot:

No need for KoreBot : a powerful Linux embedded board is included
by default (Gumstix Overo FireSTORM COM)

No need for KoreConnect : use the USB device, WiFi or Bluetooth
connection instead

800MHz ARM Cortex-A8 Processor with C64x Fixed Point DSP core

512 MB RAM, 512 MB NAND Flash and additional 4GB for data

Embedded WiFi and Bluetooth with internal antennas

Powerful and long lasting
(3400mAh, 7.4V, 25.16Wh)

Two 100 to 10’000 Hz microphones

One 400 to 20’000 Hz 0.7W Loudspeaker

3-axis accelerometer

3-axis gyroscope.
internal
Lithium-Polymer
battery
Although the internal battery is not removable, it is possible to charge it
from 3 places:

From the jack

From the contacts situated below the robot

From the KB-250 extensions connectors.
The max payload of the robot is 2kg.
Operating temperature range of the robot is 0 to
55°C.
Battery charging temperature range is 0 to 30°C.
Never attempt to charge it by higher temperature.
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4
4.1
IN DEPTH LOOK
Infrared Sensors
Khepera IV has 8 infrared sensors placed all around the robot and 4 placed
on the bottom. The latter allow experiments like line following or fall
avoidance. They are positioned and numbered as shown in figure below:
Figure 9 : Infrared sensors viewed from bottom
These sensors embed an infrared light emitter and a receiver. For detailed
description, please refer to the manufacturer’s datasheet. The twelve
sensors are TCRT5000 reflective optical sensors from Vishay Telefunken.
Measuring range is from 2 to 250mm. Each sensor is separated from its
neighbor from an angle of 45°.
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This kind of sensors allows two measures:


4.1.1
The normal ambient light. This measure is made using only the
receiver part of the device, without emitting light with the emitter. A
new measurement is made every 5ms. The value returned at a given
time is the result of the last measurement made.
The light reflected by obstacles (=proximity). This measure is made
by emitting light using the emitter part of the device. The returned
value is the difference between the measurement made while
emitting light and the light measured without light emission (ambient
light). A new measurement is made every 5ms. The value returned at
a given time is the result of the last measurement made.
Ambient light measurement
Ambient light measurement is strongly influenced by the robot’s
environment. Depending on the light source type, color, and distance,
ambient light measurement profile might vary. It is not recommended to
use light source with large emission in the infrared range, as this could
confuse the IR sensors. Value range is 0 to 1023, 0 stands for no light and
1023 for full light.
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4.1.2
Reflected light measurements (proximity)
Sensors are mainly meant to detect obstacles around the Khepera.
Measurements for reflected light depend on objects reflectivity and on
ambient light conditions. Object colors, materials and surfaces do have an
influence on the sensor’s response. Moreover, as any sensor, IR sensors are
subject to environmental noise. For all these reasons, graphics below are
given for information only and should not be considered as references.
Value range is 0 to 1023, 0 stands for no obstacle, 1023 for very near
obstacle. Here’s an example of value with a white paper used as an
obstacle:
Figure 10 : IR value vs Distance
The IR value never falls to 0 as, even with no obstacle, the IR reflects on
the floor and adds a static value. As all the sensors are not exactly the
same, the solution is to perform a calibration of the IR with no obstacle in
front. With this calibration, the user will be able to improve detection of
obstacle at distance greater than 20cm.
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4.2
Ultrasonic sensors
Five sensors are placed around the robot and are positioned and numbered
as shown in figure below. These sensors are transceivers, meaning that they
can emit and receive the pulses.
The ultrasonic sensors are powered by a 85 Vpp source. The nominal
frequency of these transducers is 40kHz +/- 1kHz.
The returned value is the distance to the object in centimeters, with a
tolerance of +/-2cm. Measuring range is from 25 to 200cm. Every
transducer is separated from its neighbor from an angle of 45°.
Each sensor can be disabled in order to get higher refresh rate for a
particular one (or group). One sensor measure takes 20ms. All 5 sensors
need 100ms to be read.
For more details about the ultrasonic sensor, please have a look at the
400PT12B datasheet from Prowave.
Figure 11 : Ultrasonic sensors viewed from top
Danger: High voltage! There is about 85Vpp on the PCB in the
area of the ultrasonic sensors: never touch it!
Turn the ultrasonic sensors off while recording sound!
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4.3
Battery
The Khepera IV is equipped with an internal non-removeable LithiumPolymer battery. It is built in a 2S1P configuration, giving 7.4V nominal,
8.4V charging voltage and a capacity of 3400mAh.
Nominal voltage
Cut-off voltage
Charging voltage
Nominal capacity
Max discharge current
Charging current
Time for a complete charge
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
7.4V
6.0V
8.4V
3400mAh
3400mA (1C)
1100mA
about 4 to 5 hours
Using its embedded power, the robot is able to run completely
autonomously during more than 5 hours with motors at 100% and 7 hours
with motors off, running with a basic configuration. When additional
equipment is used, the autonomy is reduced as Khepera’s extensions like
the gripper rely on Khepera’s batteries as a power source.
There is no specific power management system on the Khepera. When the
battery voltage falls under 6V, the battery opens itself the circuit to avoid a
deep discharge of the cells. Users can implement their own software power
management system to handle extensions to shutdown properly before this
case happens.
The battery
 From
 From
 From
can be charged from 3 places:
the jack
the contacts situated below the robot
the KB-250 extensions connectors.
The battery is charged through an internal battery charge IC that needs 9V
of input voltage. During its constant current phase, the battery is charged
with a 1.1A current.
To charge from the jack, only use the provided AC adapter.
To charge via the contact pads situated below the robot, only use the 9Vin
and Ground pads. Please refer to the contact pads section for more
information.
To charge via the KB-250 extensions connectors, use only pin 44 of J701
and a ground pin. Max voltage is 9.5VDC.
Khepera IV User Manual ver 1.1
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The charge status is indicated on the charging status LED. During the
charge, the red LED turns on. The red LED will turn off when the charge is
complete.
The charge will not be enabled if the external supply is plugged when the
battery is above 7.95V. In this case, the red LED will never turn on, neither
the green LED.
If the robot is turned on, the dsPIC will check the end-of-charge status in
the Fuel Gauge. When this status is set (~5-10 second after the red LED
turns off), the charge status LED will turn green.
If the battery cuts off after a complete discharge, the user
needs to make a complete charge with the robot on (wait for
the charge status LED becoming green) to update correctly
the remaining capacity.
The Fuel Gauge (DS2781) returns different information available by the
application:
- Battery status register (see DS2781 datasheet for details)
- Absolute remaining capacity (unit 1.6mAh)
- Relative remaining capacity (0-100%)
- Battery current (updated every 3.5s). The resolution is 78.125[uA]. A
positive value means a charging current.
- Average current (updated every 28s)
- Temperature with a resolution of 0.125°C.
- Battery voltage with a resolution of 9.76mV
The battery current is measured through a 20[mΩ] resistor.
The battery temperature is accurate only when the charge is not active.
During the charge, internal component heat will perturb the measure. You
need to consider that the returned value is approximately 10°C higher
than the real battery temperature (especially when charging current is
1A).
As the charge is not automatically protected against temperature, you
have to verify it before starting a charge.
Battery charging temperature range is 0 to 30°C. Never
attempt to charge it by higher temperature. Do not try to
charge if room temperature is higher than 30°C.
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4.4
Contact pads
Eight contact pads are situated below the robot and can be used to connect
either
to
an
extension
module
or
to
a
docking
station.
Figure 12 : Contact pads viewed from bottom
Pos.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Table 1 :
Signal
9V out
9V in
I2C Serial clock
Ground
Ground
I2C Serial data
9V in
9V out
Pin-out of the contact pads
The internal battery can be used to power external devices. Signal is “9V
out”, present on pads number 1 and 8. As this is a power output, this signal
is controlled by a reed relay to avoid any short-circuit. In order to be able to
draw current from the battery, you first need to activate the relay with a
magnet. Please refer to the drawing for the exact location of the relay. Max
current is 1.5A but this value depends on operating current of the robot.
Voltage is accordingly to the battery state minus voltage drop of one
Schottky diode and the Rdson of two MOS-P transistors.
The internal battery can be charged from a docking station. Signal is “9V
in”, present on pads number 2 and 7.
Never apply more than 9.5VDC at these 2 contacts.
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Communication with the outside is done via I2C. Clock signal is on pad 3,
while data signal is on pad 6. Level is 0 to 3.3V. Use level adapter if
needed.
Ground signal is present on pins 4 and 5.
The signals are routed in a symmetrical way so that if the robot is in the
wrong direction on the docking, no damage occurs.
4.4.1
Reed relay location
Figure 13 : Reed relay location
Here above is represented the location of the reed relay. Unit is [mm]. The
coordinates are about the center of the relay. Please note that it is
mandatory to add an offset of 5mm (left or right) on the position of your
magnet. Some trials may have to be done on customer side.
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4.5
Camera
The Khepera IV is equipped with a front color camera, disposed below the
front ultrasonic sensor. The sensor is a MT9V034C12ST from Aptina. It’s a
1/3” WVGA CMOS sensor.
Active imager size
Active pixels
: 4.51x2.88mm
: 752x480
The default lens has a focal length of 2.1mm, with IR cut filter and fixed
focus. The mounting thread is M12x0.5. Diagonal field of view is 150°,
horizontal is 131° and vertical is 101°. See chapter 9.3 “Using the camera
module” for usage.
4.6
Microphones
The Khepera IV is equipped with two amplified Microphone PU0414HR5H-SB
from Knowles. They are directly connected to the Overo MIC input. The right
microphone is connected to the MIC MAIN input and the left on the MIC SUB
input. See chapter 9.4 “Using microphones and speakers” for usage.
Gain
Sensitivity (typ)
Directivity
Supply voltage
20dB
-22dbv/Pa
Omnidirectional
2.5V
Their positions on the Khepera are shown on the pictures below:
Figure 14 : Microphones positions
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4.7
Loudspeaker
A SMS-1308MS-2-R loudspeaker from PUI Audio is mounted on the Khepera
IV. This speaker is driven by a 1W low distortion power amplifier. The
speaker is connected on the HSOLF audio output of the OVERO. The OVERO
can also mute the amplifier with GPIO64 (0 = MUTE, 1 = ampli on).
Speaker Power
Impedance
Output SPL
Distortion (max)
Resonant frequency
Frequency range
0.7W (max 1W)
8 Ohm
88dBA
5%
850Hz ±20%
400 ~ 20’000Hz
See chapter 9.4 “Using microphones and speakers” for usage.
4.8
Gumstix Overo FireSTORM COM
The Khepera IV was designed to embed a Gumstix Overo processor board.
The computer-on module mounted by default in the Khepera IV is the
Gumstix Overo FireSTORM COM. This computer-on-module has an
additional DSP to perform special tasks, Bluetooth & WiFi capabilities (SMD
antenna mounted on the Khepera).
Architecture:
NAND Flash:
Processor:
DSP:
Wifi:
Bluetooth:
ARM Cortex-A8
512MB
Texas Instruments OMAP3730 @ 800MHz
C64x Fixed Point DSP 660,800 Mhz
802.11 b/g included
included
The Gumstix is provided with a Linux system already installed (Angström
distribution).
More information on the Overo can be found on the Gumstix website
(www.gumstix.com).
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4.9
Accelerometer
The accelerometer mounted on the Khepera IV is a LSM330DLC from ST.
This device includes in one package a 3D accelerometer and a 3D
gyroscope.
The device is exactly at the center of the robot (placed on the rotation
center). The device is located on the TOP of the main PCB.
The accelerometer is oriented with the pin 1 to the front right; this returns a
positive value for X axis when going forward. The Y axis is positive on the
left, and finally Z axis is negative with the gravity.
Figure 15 : Directions of detectable accelerations (TOP view)
The accelerometer returns 12-bit data (two’s complement) with a range of
+/-2g. This means a value of 1g will return a value of 16’384. The data rate
is configured to 100Hz, as the dsPIC of the Khepera refreshes 10 values at
a time, the user needs to read every 100ms (10Hz) to obtain fresh data.
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4.10 Gyroscope
The gyroscope of the Khepera IV is included in the same package as the
accelerometer.
The directions of detectable angular
accelerometer axis.
rates are defined around the
Figure 16 : Directions of detectable angular rates (TOP view)
The data format is on 12 bits too, the full range is configured at +/2’000dps (360dps = 5’898) and the data rate is configured at 95Hz.
The gyroscope data is read by packets of 10 values at a time, which means
the user can read new data every 105ms to obtain fresh value.
The output has to be multiplied by 0.066 to have [deg/s] units.
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4.11 USB Device (mini-USB B connector)
A mini-USB B connector provides access to a USB-to-serial adapter
(FT234XD from FTDI) to access directly to the ttyS2 of the Gumstix. Using a
terminal provides the access to the boot of the system.
When connecting a computer to this connector for the first time, your local
system will ask for driver. FT234XD driver can be found at
http://www.ftdichip.com/Products/ICs/FT234XD.html.
4.12 MicroSD
A 4GB MicroSD card is provided inside the Khepera IV. The robot will boot
on it and use this card. It already contains the OS, kernel and boot files.
See chapter “0
Uploading the kernel and the file system” to rebuild it if needed.
4.13 RGB LED
Three RGB LED (19-337/R6GHBHC-A01/2T from Everlight) are mounted on
the TOP of the main board. Each of these LED has a light guide on it.
The LED are driven by a dedicated LED driver (LTC3219 from Linear) which
provides a resolution of 6 Bits (0-63) for each color.
These LED can be used to locate the Khepera IV with a camera (at the
ceiling) and differentiate each robot (in swarm application). As the LED are
placed on a isosceles triangles, the direction of the robot can also be
detected.
The physical positions of these LED are shown in the Mechanicals Drawing
chapter.
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4.14 Motors
The Khepera IV has got 2 DC motors in order to drive its two wheels.
The motors have 1.96W nominal power. The integrated gearbox has a
reduction ratio of 19:1 and an efficiency of 78%. There is another gearbox
within the carter of the motor block, with a ratio of 2:1 and an efficiency of
85%. Total ratio is then 38:1 and efficiency is 66.3%, meaning that there is
1.3W of usable mechanical power by wheel.
Figure 17 : Motor block with wheel
The encoder has a 128-pulse by turn resolution. With the reduction ratio of
38:1 and an internal hardware 4x multiplier, we have 19’456 pulses by
wheel turn. As the diameter of the wheel is 42mm (perimeter is then
131.94mm), this gives 147.4 pulses by millimeter. Or 1 pulse is
0.006782mm (6.7818um).
Reminder: 1 revolution = 131.94mm = 19’456 pulses.
Both motors are controlled via Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) at 20kHz.
This technique switches the motor ON and OFF at a given frequency and
during a given time. By this way, the motor reacts to the average of the
power supply, which can be modified by changing the period the motor is
switched ON. This means that only the ratio between ON and OFF periods is
modified, as illustrated in the figure below:
Figure 18 : Duty cycle with PWM
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The dsPIC calculates the PWM to apply to each motor in speed control and
position control. The user can override the PID and apply directly a desired
PWM to the motor using the open loop command.
Default PID settings applied to the Khepera IV controller are:
Kp:
Ki:
Kp:
10
5
1
These values will be used by the PID speed controller. In position control,
the PID is the same as the position controller calculates a speed order then
calls the speed controller to reach this order.
User can modify these values to improve behaviour to his particular use.
When selecting a type of control, this mode will be applied to both motors.
It’s not possible to set the left motor in speed control and the right motor in
another mode.
To put the motor in idle mode (no more current drawn by the motors), use
the open loop control with parameters set to 0. In speed control, even with
a parameter of 0, the controller will struggle against any movement.
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4.14.1
Speed control
Both DC motors are controlled by a PID controller executed every 10ms in
an interrupt routine of the dsPIC. Every term of this controller
(Proportional, Integral, Derivative) is associated to a constant, setting the
weight of the corresponding term: Kp for the proportional, Ki for the
integral, Kd for the derivative.
The controller has as input the speed value of the wheels and controls the
motor to keep this wheel speed. The speed modification is made as quick as
possible, in an abrupt way. No limitation in acceleration is considered in this
mode.
The speed unit corresponds to the difference measured in position between
the two controllers’ routine (10ms). Here’s the formula to convert the speed
unit to metric unit.
Refresh time:
Wheel diameter:
Revolution resolution:
Speed mm / s  
v pulses
t Re fresh
10ms
42mm
19’456 [pulses]

Wheel  
Nb pulses

v pulses 42  

 0.678181  v pulses
0.01 19456
Formula to calculate real speed from the measured value
The minimum speed order to ensure a correct control is 5 (=3mm/s). Under
this value, the control is not very stable with default PID parameters. User
can modify the PID to try to improve the behavior for this kind of very low
speed.
The maximum speed order is approximately 1’200 (=813mm/s). It’s still
possible to move the robot faster if the control mode is set to open loop. In
this case, the maximum speed will vary with the battery voltage and the
payload.
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4.14.2
Speed profile control
This type of control uses the same PID as standard speed controller but
adds an acceleration ramp to travel from the actual speed to the new speed
order.
The ramp used in this mode can be configured with the speed profile
parameters. Three parameters define the ramp:
Acc_Inc:
value of increment to add or subtract every Acc_Div +1
control loop (value from 1 to 255).
Default = 3
Acc_Div:
defines the number of control loops where no increment
is added to the speed order. For example, a value of 0
means that at every control loop, the speed will be
increased by Acc_Inc. A value of 4, means that every 5
control loops (50ms) the speed will be modified.
(value from 0 to 255) Default = 0.
Min_Speed_Acc:
this parameter defines the minimum speed used by the
controller. This value avoids setting a speed too low
where the controller is not efficient. If the order value is
smaller than this parameter, the controller will
automatically limit the speed to Min_Speed_Acc. Do not
set values lower than 1.
Default = 20.
Here’s an example of speed profile with default parameters (Acc_Inc = 3,
Acc_Div = 0, Min_Speed = 20).
A speed profile order has been set to 100. After 300ms at constant speed, a
new speed order of 200 is set. The motor keeps this speed during 200ms,
and finally decreases until reaching 0.
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This curve corresponds to the order sent to the PID speed controller. The
real speed of the motor will depend on the payload and the PID reactivity.
A higher Acc_Div parameter will increase the time between two steps to
allow the PID to reach the speed order. A value of 0 means that the
effective motor speed will always be late on the order during the
acceleration.
This type of control must be preferred to the simple speed profile in order
to avoid high current peaks and preserve the mechanical parts. The user
needs to adapt the parameters Acc_Inc and Acc_Div to match the desired
behavior (high Acc_Inc for a reactive profile, high Acc_Div for a smooth
profile).
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4.14.3
Position control
In this mode, the robot will calculate a speed order (which will be processed
by the PID) to move the robot using an acceleration ramp, a constant
speed, and finally a deceleration ramp.
Speed profile using in position control
Position profile
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This example shows a travel of 475mm (70’000 pulses) using the default
parameters.
The position control mode uses the same parameter as the speed profile
control to calculate the acceleration ramp. The Min_Speed_Acc parameter is
used only at the start. When reaching the target position, the speed is
limited by Min_Speed_Dec parameter (default = 1).
In addition to these three parameters, the travel speed can be configured
through “Speed_Order” parameter (default = 400).
Finally, the “Pos_Margin” parameter defines the threshold when the position
controller stops completely the motor (set 0 to the speed controller). A low
margin will increase the precision, but will add an instability to the control.
It is not recommended to set this parameter below the default value (10).
To calculate the real distance travelled by the motor, use the formula
below:
Wheel diameter:
Revolution resolution:
Position mm  Ppulses 
42mm
19’456 [pulses]
Wheel  
Nb pulses
 Ppulses 
Ppulses
42  

19456 147.453
The position is stored in a signed 32 bits data, which means that the
maximum position order is +/- 231 pulses (=14’563m).
When performing straight travel (same distance on each wheel), the best
solution is to reset the position encoder before sending the target position
command.
4.14.4
Open loop
This control mode disables the PID controller and sets directly the PWM to
the two motors. This can be useful if the application wants to calculate its
own PID.
The range of this command is +/- 2’940 where 2’940 correspond to 100%
of PWM in forward direction and -2’940 in backward direction.
If the application wants to disable the motor (to decrease current
consumption), the best way is to use this mode and set the PWM to 0.
The motor will be in free wheel mode.
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5
PROGRAMMING
5.1
Required hardware / software
The required hardware and software to use the board and develop
programs are described below.
5.1.1
Required hardware

Computer with Bluetooth, WiFi, or USB port with Linux or Linux
emulation (with a virtual machine, you can also use the
toolchain.
See
chapter
9.5
"Development
with
a
virtual
machine”).

5.1.2
Khepera IV robot
Required software
Required free space:
 3 GB on /usr/local
(for light toolchain)
 50 MB on user account (~/)
Required files:
1)
2)
Linux OS (kernel 2.6.x) on the computer with the following
packages installed:
gcc
:
GNU C compiler
minicom
:
terminal emulation
lrzsz
:
communication package
From the DVD:
Cross-compiler light : khepera4-oetools-light-kb1.0.tar.bz2
Robot library sources : libkhepera_1.0.tar.bz2
Remarks:
you may find updated versions of this
software at:
http://ftp.k-team.com/KheperaIV/software/
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5.2
Software
The following sub-chapters explain the software installation and the
application development with the board.
Two development packages are available:

Light toolchain

Full toolchain and sources: for advanced
modifications; packages creation/addition
users;
kernel
In the subsequent paragraphs, only the light tool chain is explained. The full
toolchain is described in the following chapter “0
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Full toolchain usage”. With a virtual machine, you can also use the toolchain
from another operating system (see chapter 9.5 “Development with a
virtual machine”).
5.2.1
Installation of light toolchain
The installation of the software required to use the board and the
development tool is described in the next sub-chapters.
Below are listed the files needed to install the light toolchain. These
files are available on the DVD or from the Internet URL: http://ftp.kteam.com/KheperaIV/software/
From light_toolchain/ folder:

Light toolchain (cross-compiler only):
khepera4-oetools-light-kbX.Y.tar.bz2 *
From library/ folder:

Board library sources: libkhepera_X.Y.tar.bz2 *
* where X.Y is the release version (may change without notice)
5.2.1.1
Installation of the development directory
The development directory will be the base folder for your
development. It contains links and scripts to easily use the cross-compiler
to make your programs.
Create a new development folder ~/khepera4_development in your home
directory and enter into it. You can use the following commands, assuming
you are in a console.
mkdir ~/khepera4_development
cd ~/khepera4_development
5.2.1.2
Installation of the cross-compiler (light toolchain)
Extract
the cross compiler
/usr/local with the command:
khepera4-oetools-light-kbX.Y.tar.bz2
in
sudo tar -xjf khepera4-oetools-light-kbX.Y.tar.bz2 -C /usr/local
Remarks: You must be root or use sudo. You must put the tools there
because there are hardcoded links.
You can check if the installation is correct by running the cross-compiler.
Firstly make the environment variables available then check the version of
the cross-compiler:
cd ~/khepera4_development
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/usr/local/khepera4-oetools/tmp/sysroots/i686linux/usr/armv7a/bin/arm-angstrom-linux-gnueabi-gcc –version
=> The last command should return:
arm-angstrom-linux-gnueabi-gcc (GCC) 4.3.3
…
5.2.1.3
Installation of the robot library
The library is already installed on the robot. To install the library on your
development system, follow the following instructions:
Extract the library libkhepera_X.Y.tar.bz2 in your development folder:
tar -xjf libkhepera_X.Y.tar.bz2 -C ~/khepera4_development
You can recompile the whole library by running the following commands in
the libkhepera-X.Y folder:
cd ~/khepera4_development/libkhepera-X.Y
make clean
make
If you modified the library (any file in src/), you will have to transfer the file
build-khepera-2.6/lib/libkhepera.so.X.Y
to
your
robot,
overwriting
/usr/lib/libkhepera.so.X.Y.
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The board library contains these files and directories:
build-khepera-2.6/
compiled library and headers
doc/
documentation (API: start in
doc/html/index.html)
src/
source code of the library
src/tests
examples and tests source code
template/
template program
Makefile
Makefile for all
README.kteam
readme file
You can find an updated version of the library from the following FTP
site:
http://ftp.k-team.com/KheperaIV/software/library/
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5.2.2
Programming and light toolchain usage
5.2.2.1
Application development
A template program prog-template.c is available in the robot library in
the folder libkhepera-X.Y/template.
You can start your code into the template program and use the
following commands to build it. The command runs the Makefile script to
compile and build the executable program. Type in a console to build the
template program:
cd
~/khepera4_development/libkhepera-X.Y/template
make
=> The “template” file is the executable output file.
You can transfer the program to the robot by USB, Bluetooth or WiFi (see
chapters “3.2, 9.1 or 9.2.5”).
Then execute it on the robot by running:
./template
The Application Programming Interface documentation of the library is
available at:
~/khepera4_development/libkhepera-X.Y/doc/html/index.html
Remarks:
If you modify the program name, you will have to modify its
occurrences in the Makefile file.
You can find many examples of source code in:
~/khepera4_development/libkhepera-X.Y/src/tests
Try kh4_example.c or the big khepera4_test.c
They are compiled with the command below. To compile only the examples,
run:
make clean_tests
make tests
See next sub-chapter for using Eclipse guide for editing source code.
See chapter 5.2.3 for debugging your program.
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5.2.2.2
C/C++ Programming: using GUI source code editor Eclipse
You can use also Eclipse as source code editor. See instructions below how
to install and use it.
1. Install the Java Runtime Environment (JRE) if not already installed.
JRE file there:
http://java.com/en/download/index.jsp
2. Download the linux version of "Eclipse IDE for C/C++ Developers
(includes Incubating components)" from (for Ubuntu users, don't install
with apt-get because, the apt-get version is older):
http://www.eclipse.org/cdt/
3. Extract the Eclipse program file:
sudo tar -xzf eclipse-cpp-kepler-SR2-linux-gtk.tar.gz –C ~/
You can also create a link to the start file:
sudo ln -s ~/eclipse/eclipse /usr/bin/eclipse
4. You should have installed the latest version of the khepera toolchain
(light or full). You can check by opening a terminal and with the
command (one line):
/usr/local/khepera4-oetools/tmp/sysroots/i686linux/usr/armv7a/bin/arm-angstrom-linux-gnueabi-gdb --version
which should return:
GNU gdb (GDB) 7.1
5. Run eclipse and at the "Workspace launcher" window, choose where you
would like to put your project.
Go to file menu “File => C Project” or C++; for running a C++ on the
robot. For C++, you must install the standard C++ library with the
command: ipkg install libstdc++6_4.3.3-r22.1.6_armv7a.ipk on
the robot) and choose a Project Name (ex: test).
6. In the next window "C Project", press the "Advanced Settings" button
and on the “C/C++ Build => Settings”,
for c:
On 'Cross GCC C Compiler' change command gcc to
/usr/local/khepera4-oetools/tmp/sysroots/i686-linux/usr/
armv7a/bin/arm-angstrom-linux-gnueabi-gcc
or (depending if your project is C or C++)
for c++:
On ' Cross GCC C++ Compiler' change command g++ to
/usar/local/khepera4-oetools/tmp/sysroots/i686linux/usr/armv7a/bin arm-angstrom-linux-gnueabi-g++
7. On “Cross GCC Compiler” Includes => Include paths, add:
/usr/local/khepera4-oetools/tmp/sysroots/i686linux/usr/include
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8. On Miscellaneous, replace "Other flags" with -c -march=armv7-a mtune=cortex-a8 -Wa,-mcpu=cortex-a8
9. On the
Cross GCC Linker, change command gcc to /usr/local/
khepera4-oetools/tmp/sysroots/i686-linux/usr/armv7a/bin/armangstrom-linux-gnueabi-gcc
10. On “Cross GCC Linker => Libraries” at "Libraries (-l), add khepera with
the + button on the upper right.
11. At
"Libraries
search
path",
add
/usr/local/khepera4-oetools
tmp/sysroots/armv7a-angstrom-linux-gnueabi/lib
12. On
"Cross
GCC
Assembler",
in
Command
field,
modify
to
:
/usr/local/khepera4-oetools/tmp/sysroots/i686linux/usr/armv7a/bin/arm-angstrom-linux-gnueabi-as
13. Choose “C/C++” Build menu at the left. Choose Release under the
configuration list on the right. Repeat the steps above for this
configuration from 6.
14. Press “Finish” button.
15. Go to menu “File => New => Source file” choose test.c as filename
16. Close the Welcome window with its cross at the upper left.
17. Insert in the test.c file the following C source code:
#include <khepera/khepera.h>
int main(int argc, char *argv[]) {
int rc;
/* Set the libkhepera debug level - Highly recommended for
development. */
kb_set_debug_level(2);
printf("LibKhepera Template Program\r\n");
/* Init the khepera library */
if((rc = kb_init( argc , argv )) < 0 )
return 1;
/* ADD YOUR CODE HERE */
return 0;
}
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18. Then cross-compile the project with menu “Menu Project => Build-All”
=> The output file will be in the subdirectory Debug or Release of the
project.
19. Transfer the file "test" to your robot (see chapter 5.2.2.3).
20. And
execute
the
program
file
with
command:
./test
5.2.2.3
Transferring files
You can transfer files to and from the robot by different means. The
default one is USB (see chapter 3.2). You have also Bluetooth (chapter 9.1).
But WiFi is the fastest way (chapter 9.2.5).
5.2.3
Debugging
You can debug a program you made directly in the console on the robot or
remotely. You will find on the DVD or online the needed files:
http://ftp.k-team.com/KheperaIV/software/debug/
5.2.3.1

Debugging on the robot
If not installed on the robot (check with command: gdb --version) you
need to upload and install the following packages on the robot Install with
the command for each .ipk:
opkg install PACKAGE_NAME.IPK
libthread-db1_2.9-r37.4.6_armv7a.ipk
gdb_7.1-r8.4.6_armv7a.ipk

Then your program must be cross-compiled with the option –g. Edit your
Makefile and replace the flag -O2 by -g.

Transfer to the robot the compiled program and its source file. And run for
debugging it:
gdb YOUR_PROGRAM
The basic commands are:
r
: run
n
: next: one step in the program; enter in subroutines
s
: one step in the program
b line/function : break at line/function
delete break
: delete breakpoint number
until line
: continue until line
c
: continue
l
: list code
q
: quit gdb
h
: help; you can have all the commands here
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A common sequence of debugging can be:

to list the code with l

set a breakpoint at the beginning of main with b main

run the program with r

execute a step with n

display a variable with p VAR_NAME

execute next step with n

continue to the end with c

quit with q.
5.2.3.2
Remote debugging
If the debugger is not installed (you can check with the command
gdbserver --version), you need to upload and install the following
package on the robot with the command:
opkg install gdbserver_7.1-r8.0.6_armv7a.ipk
 Then run the gdbserver with your cross-compiled program and an unused
port number as argument (here 1234):
gdbserver --multi :1234 YOUR_PROGRAM
 Go to the folder where you cross-compiled your program
 You can use the debugger in command line or with ddd GUI:
Command line:
 Execute for running the debugger on the computer (one command line
only):
/usr/local/khepera4-oetools/tmp/sysroots/i686-linux/usr/
armv7a/bin/arm-angstrom-linux-gnueabi-gdb YOUR_PROGRAM
 In this debugger, set parameter and connect to the remote gdb with
these two commands:
set sysroot /usr/local/khepera4-oetools/tmp/sysroots/armv7aangstrom-linux-gnueabi
target extended-remote YOUR_KHEPERA4_IP_ADDRESS:1234
With GUI:
 On your computer, install ddd the debugger GUI with :
sudo apt-get install ddd
 Launch ddd with (one command line only):
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ddd --debugger /usr/local/khepera4-oetools/tmp/sysroots/i686linux/usr/armv7a/bin/arm-angstrom-linux-gnueabi-gdb
YOUR_PROGRAM
 In the window at the bottom where the (gdb) prompt is, run these two
commands:
set sysroot /usr/local/khepera4-oetools-/tmp/sysroots/armv7aangstrom-linux-gnueabi
target extended-remote YOUR_ KHEPERA4_IP_ADDRESS:1234
The sequence of debugging and also the commands are the same as
described above in chapter 5.2.3.1.
You can even send your program to the robot with the gdb commands:
remote put hostfile targetfile
set remote exec-file targetfile
where hostfile and targetfile is the same name of your new program
to be debugged.
For quitting the debugger and remote, execute commands monitor exit,
then disconnect and finally quit.
Tips for using the advantage of the GUI:
o
For setting a breakpoint, double-click on the line you want to put it,
just before the line number or right click at the same place or choose
“Set Breakpoint”.
o
With the floating menu, you have the different commands for
debugging.
o
You can add a watch on a variable by clicking with the right mouse
button on the variable and choose “Display VARIABLE_NAME”.
5.2.3.3
Remote debugging with Eclipse
You can also remotely debug your program with Eclipse (see chapter
5.2.2.2 for a proper installation). Follow instructions below:
 Install gdbserver on your robot as explained in chapter 5.2.3.2 above.
 On Eclipse menu 'Run' => Debug Configurations' ,
'C++ Remote Application'
=>
double click on
test Debug is created.
 In the 'Main' tab =>
“C/C++ application”, enter: Debug/test
 On “Connection”: press “New” button and choose “SSH”. In the next
window, in Host name insert the IP address of your robot and press
“Finish” button.
 On "Remote Absolute File Path for C/C++ Application" modify to
/home/root/test
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 In the Debugger tab, in 'Main' tab change 'GDB Debugger' to
/usr/local/khepera4-oetools/tmp/sysroots/i686linux/usr/armv7a/bin/arm-angstrom-linux-gnueabi-gdb
On 'Shared Libraries' tab add /usr/local/khepera4oetools/tmp/sysroots/armv7a-angstrom-linux-gnueabi/lib

Then press Debug, enter root as "User ID" and no password.

Debug step by step.
You can go again into the settings, and select "Release" configuration when
your program has been fully debugged.
You can run the program from the robot (with a remote terminal) or with
Eclipse GUI.
After having set the Debug configuration, the parameters are also available
for the run.
Just go to the Run menu and then choose “Run”.
In the lower part of the Eclipse window, you will see the output of your
program in the Console tab.
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5.3
Full toolchain and sources
The full toolchain is for advanced users who would like to modify the
kernel, rebuild the image system or develop new packages for the robot.
Remarks:
5.3.1
Prior knowledge of Linux, its kernel and Open Embedded tools
is highly recommended.
Required software
Required free space:

31 GB on /usr/local (45 GB including the packed tools)

50 MB on user account ( ~/ )
Required files:


Full toolchain : online at http://ftp.k-team.com/KheperaIV/software
Linux packages

g++
:
GNU C++ compiler

patch
:
patch software

help2man
:
manual converter

diffstat
:
reads the output of diff and displays a
histogram

texi2html
:
convert to html

makeinfo
:
produce doc (texinfo on Ubuntu)

ncurses-dev
:
library allowing the programmer to
write (libncurses5-dev on Ubuntu)

cvs
:
revision control system

gawk
:
programming
language
processing text-based data

python-dev
:
dynamic
language

python-pysqlite2

subversion
:
version control system

git
:
fast version control system

chrpath
:
allows you to change the rpath (where the
application looks for libraries) in an
application
Khepera IV User Manual ver 1.1
object-oriented
designed
for
programming
: Python sql interface
45
On Ubuntu Linux distribution, you can use the following command to
install all the above packages in one time:
sudo
apt-get install g++ patch help2man diffstat texi2html
texinfo libncurses5-dev cvs gawk python-dev pythonpysqlite2 subversion git-core chrpath
Included in the DVD-ROM of the package:
Cross-compiler and “Open Embedded” tools sources :

khepera-oetools-kbX.Y.tar.bz2 *

Board library sources
:

Script and files for uploading kernel
and file system
: flash, MLO, u-boot.img
libkhepera_X.Y.tar.bz2 *
* where X.Y is the release version (may change without notice)
5.3.2
Installation
Install the development directory as explained in chapter
“Installation of the development directory” if not already done.
5.2.1.1:
1) Extract the cross compiler sources khepera-oetools-kbX.Y.tar.bz2 in
/usr/local with the command:
sudo tar -xjf khepera-oetools-kbX.Y.tar.bz2 -C /usr/local
Remark:
you must put the tools there because there are
hardcoded links. You have to overwrite the light
tools if they were already installed.
2) You can check if the installation is correct by running the cross-compiler.
Firstly make the environment variables available then check the version
of the cross-compiler:
/usr/local/khepera4-oetools/tmp/sysroots/i686linux/usr/armv7a/bin/arm-angstrom-linux-gnueabi-gcc --version
=> The last command should return:
arm-angstrom-linux-gnueabi-gcc (GCC) 4.3.3
3) Install the board library as explained in chapter 5.2.1.3: “Installation of
the robot library”.
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5.3.3
Full toolchain usage
5.3.3.1
Rebuilding the whole system
To rebuild the toolchain system, the image file and the kernel, execute
the following instructions:
1. In a console, in the directory /usr/local/khepera-oetools, source the
following file to have access to the environment setup:
source extras/profile
2. With the following commands you can rebuild the whole system:
o
Cleaning :
bitbake -c clean khepera-image
o
Rebuild
bitbake khepera -image
:
=> The output files will be stored in:
/usr/local/khepera-oetools/tmp/deploy/glibc/images/overo
Three main files will then be built:
the kernel
: uImage-2.6.34-r97-overo.bin
its modules
: modules-2.6.34-r97-overo.tgz
the file system : Angstrom-khepera4-image-glibc-ipk-2010.7test-20130613-overo.rootfs.tar.bz2 *
* where 20130613 is the release version
Remarks:
You may find updated version of these software at:
http://ftp.k-team.com/KheperaIV/software/
With the chapter 5.3.3.3 “Uploading the kernel and the file system”, you
can upload these files to the robot.
You can find more information about bitbake, the tool for executing task
and managing metadata here:
http://docs.openembedded.org/bitbake/html
Information about the OEtools is available here:

Cross-compiler and tools (OpenEmbedded):
http://www.openembedded.org/wiki/Main_Page

Linux distribution of the robot: http://www.angstrom-distribution.org

Gumstix documentation: http://www.gumstix.org
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5.3.3.2
Kernel modification
You can modify the kernel here by accessing to its menu with these
commands:
cd /usr/local/khepera-oetools/tmp/work/overo-angstrom-linuxgnueabi/linux-omap3-2.6.34-r97/git/
and configure the kernel with:
make ARCH=arm menuconfig
copy ".config" file to /usr/local/khepera-oetools/user.collection/
packages/linux/linux-omap3-2.6.34/overo/defconfig
(defconfig is the new filename)
Then you rebuild it and the file system by executing these commands at the
root of the Khepera oetools:
cd /usr/local/khepera-oetools
source build/profile
bitbake -c clean virtual/kernel
bitbake virtual/kernel (may take up to 30 min depending of your
computer)
 The new kernel uImage file will be located at:
/usr/local/khepera-oetools/tmp/deploy/glibc/images/overo/ uImageovero.bin
Also build the filesystem image:
bitbake -c clean khepera4-image
bitbake
khepera4-image
 The new filesystem will be located at:
/usr/local/khepera-oetools/tmp/deploy/glibc/images/overo/
khepera4-image-overo.tar.bz2
You can now upload the files to the robot with chapter 5.3.3.3:
“Uploading the kernel and the file system”.
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5.3.3.3
Uploading the kernel and the file system
You may need to reinstall the OS file of your robot if you want to
upgrade or if something went wrong. It is done by modifying the kernel,
filesystem and other files on the micro-SD card inserted in the Gumstix.
All the data on the robot will be lost after running the
following instructions!
The below procedure should only be done by an advanced
user or technician. Please notice that opening the robot will
void the warranty.
Material needed:
 Computer with micro SD reader
 flash,
MLO
and
u-boot.img
script
from
DVD
(software/micro_SD/partition_copy/FAT32.tar.bz2) or K-Team's
ftp
1) There is already a micro-SD card in the robot. Carefully open the robot
by unscrewing the 4 screws number 16 of figure 3.4 and remove the
micro SD card.
If you want to restore everything, start for easy cloning 2) or 3) for each
partition. Otherwise continue from 4) and transfer only the new files you
want.
2) Clone: use HDDRawCopy1.10Portable.exe and the clone on DVD
software\micro_SD\partition_copy to put the clone on the micro SD.
Then got to 5).
3) At first you will need to make 2 partitions on your micro-SD card. Backup
all the data on your microSD card before.
Follow the chapters "Partitioning the Card", "Formatting the New
Partitions" and "Installing the Boot Files" the instructions there:
http://www.gumstix.org/create-a-bootable-microsd-card.html
4) You will take the uImage and Angstrom-khepera4-image-glibc-ipk2010.7-test-20130613-overo.rootfs.tar.bz2 *
* where 20130613 is the release version; may change without notice.
from K-Team ftp or from your full oetools directory (see chapter
5.3.3.2):
/usr/local/khepera-etools/tmp/deploy/glibc/images/overo/
5) Insert the micro-SD and carefully put the cover and screws back.
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5.4
Microcontroller update
You can reflash the micro-controller of the Khepera robot with a new
firmware.
Transfer the files kh4_bootloader and the kh4_firmware_B-04.hex that are
on the DVD in software/bootloader to your robot (see chapter “5.2.2.3
Transferring files”).
And run:
./kh4_bootloader –f kh4_firmware_B-04.hex
Remark: B-04 is the version of the firmware. It may change without notice.
5.5
Packages installations
With OpenEmbedded, you can easily cross-compile existing packages
or add your own ones. You can list installed packages on the board with the
command: opkg list_installed
5.5.1
Existing packages
Many packages are available for Open-Embedded. Here below are the
instructions to add an existing package:

Check if there is already a recipe package in /usr/local/kheperaetools/org.openembedded.dev/recipes

If it is present, you can compile it by running in the /usr/local/
khepera-oetools directory:
source extras/profile
bitbake PACKAGE_NAME

The package will be created in one of the folders into:
/usr/local/ khepera-oetools/tmp/deploy/glibc/ipk/

Transfer the package to the robot (with Minicom or SSH: see
chapters 9.1 and 9.2.5”).

Then install it:
opkg install PACKAGE_NAME.ipk
5.5.2
Removing packages
You can remove a package with the command:
opkg remove PACKAGE_NAME
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You may have to add the command parameter --force-depends if the
package depends on others.
5.5.3
Creating new package:
You can create new packages for the robot, following the instructions there:
http://docs.openembedded.org/usermanual/html/recipes_examples.html
And if you installed the full toolchain, an example is available into
/usr/local/khepera-oetools/user.collection/recipes/helloworld .
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6
COMMUNICATION PROTOCOL (with server
only)
This communication protocol allows complete control of the Khepera’s
functions through a Bluetooth serial line. This can be useful to remote
control the robot easily with an application such Matlab for example.
The required configuration is presented in section 9.1 (Bluetooth).By
default, the login appears on the Bluetooth port. To deactivate it, comment
the line 71 in the file /etc/init.d/bluetooth by adding a # in the
beggining. You can use vi as editor (see chapter 9.6).
# $RFCOMM_EXEC -r watch 0 1 /sbin/getty -w -L rfcomm0 115200 vt100 &
And add this line below:
$RFCOMM_EXEC -r listen 0 1 &
Then restart the Bluetooth services with the command:
/etc/init.d/bluetooth restart
On the robot, launch the server kh4server (you must run it after
having done the Bluetooth connection):
./kh4server
Currently there is a bug in the kernel in rfcomm. When the BT
connection is closed or lost the robot OS crashes.
The protocol is made of commands and responses, all in standard
ASCII codes. A command is sent from the host computer to the Khepera: it
is starting with an upper case alpha character and followed, if necessary,
with numerical parameters separated with comma and terminated by a line
feed. The response is sent by the robot to the host computer: it is starting
with the same character that was initiating the command but using lower
case, and followed, if necessary, with numerical parameters.
Notation:

stands for carriage return (Enter or Return key pressed)
\r
stands for ASCII character 0x0A (line feed)
\n
stands for ASCII character 0x0D (carriage return)
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A
Start Braitenberg mode
Format of the command:
A,mode
Format of the response:
a \r\n
Effect:
Start the Braitenberg mode with the Infrared sensor (mode
= 0. To stop the Baintenberg mode, send the A,2 command.
Example:
A,0
Syntax: A,0
B
Read firmware version
Format of the command:
B 
Format of the response:
b,version_Os \r\n
Effect:
Return the software version stored in the flash memory of the
microcontroller.
C
Unused
D
Set Speed
Format of the command:
D,speed_motor_left, speed_motor_right 
Format of the response:
d \r\n
Effect:
Set the speed of the both motors with PID (without profile). 0
will stop the engine. Max forward speed is 1200 and max
backward speed -1200. See chapter 4.14.1 ”Speed control”
for details.
Example:
D,200,-200
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E
Read Speed
Format of the command:
E 
Format of the response:
e, speed_motor_left, speed_motor_right \r\n
Effect:
F
Read the speed of the motors. See chapter 4.14.1 ”Speed
control” for details of the unit.
Set position
Format of the command:
F, motor_left, motor_right 
Format of the response:
f \r\n
Effect:
G
Set the position goal in encoder values. The controller will use
the PID and profile to reach the goal. See chapter 4.14.3
“Position controlSpeed control” for details of the unit.
Get US values
Format of the command:
G
Format of the response:
g,0,25,83,70,1000 \r\n
Effect:
H
Get the values of the Ultrasonic values. 1000, means nothing
detected in range, 0 means something under 25cm, between
25 and 250 means the distance of an object in [cm].
Configure PID
Format of the command:
H,P,I,D
Format of the response:
h \r\n
Effect:
Set the Proportional, Integral and Derivative of the PID
controller.
Example:
H,10,5,1
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I
Reset encoders
Format of the command:
I 
Format of the response:
i \r\n
Effect:
J
Reset the values of the motors encoders.
Configure the speed profile
Format of the command:
J,acc_inc,acc_div,min_speed_acc,min_speed_dec,max_speed 
Format of the response:
j \r\n
Effect:
K
Configure the speed profile. See chapter 4.14.2 ”Speed
profile control” for details.
Set the RGB leds
Format of the command:
K, lr,lg,lb,rr,rg,rb,br,bg,bb 
Format of the response:
k \r\n
Effect:
Set the 3 color leds. Values are in range [0-63]. First letter is
the position: l=left,r=right and b=back. Second letter is the
color: r= red, g=green, b=blue
Example:
K,63,0,0,0,63,0,0,0,63 
L
Set the speed in openloop mode
Format of the command:
L, left_motor,right_motor 
Format of the response:
l \r\n
Effect:
Set the speed of the motor in the open loop control mode.
Maximum is +/-2940 which corresponds to 100% of PWM.
Example:
L,500,-500 
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M
Reset the motors controllers
Format of the command:
M 
Format of the response:
m \r\n
Effect:
Reset the motors controllers.
Example:
M
N
Read proximity sensors
Format of the command:
N 
Format of the response:
n, Back_Left, Left, Front_Left, Front, Front_Right, Right,
Back_right, Back, Ground_Left, Ground_Front_Left,
Ground_Front_Right, Ground_Right \r\n
Effect:
Read the 10 bit (0 to 1024) proximity value of each infra-red
sensors.
Note: The smaller the value, the further the object is from it. A value of 900 (i.e.)
means that an obstacle is very close from the sensor. Incandescent IR sources (the
Sun,…) can perturb the sensors.
O
Read ambient light sensors
Format of the command:
O 
Format of the response:
o, Back_Left, Left, Front_Left, Front,
Back_right,
Back,
Ground_Left,
Ground_Front_Right, Ground_Right \r\n
Effect:
Front_Right, Right,
Ground_Front_Left,
Read the 10 bit (0 to 1024) brightness value of each infra-red
sensors.
Note: A value of 0 means that the sensors is saturated with IR light, and a big
value means that there’s no IR light source in front the sensor. IR light comes from
an incandescent light, like the Sun, a fire…
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P
Configure position margin
Format of the command:
P, margin 
Format of the response:
p \r\n
Effect:
the “margin” parameter defines the threshold when the
position controller stops completely the motor (set 0 to the
speed controller).
Example:
P, 10 
Q
Unused
R
Read encoders position
Format of the command:
R 
Format of the response:
r,left_motor, right_motor \r\n
Effect:
S
Read motor encoder position values. See chapter “Position
controlSpeed control” for details of the unit.
Gyroscope
Format of the command:
S 
Format of the response:
s,X1,X2,…,X10,Y1,Y2,Y3,…,Y10,Z1,Z2,Z3,…,Z10\r\n
Effect:
Read gyroscope values, new data coming first. See chapter
4.10 “GyroscopeSpeed control” for details of the unit.
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T
Accelerometer
Format of the command:
T 
Format of the response:
t,X1,X2,…,X10,Y1,Y2,Y3,…,Y10,Z1,Z2,Z3,…,Z10\r\n
Effect:
U
Read accelerometer values, new data coming first. See
chapter 4.9 “AccelerometerSpeed control” for details of the
unit.
Configure the ultrasonic sensors
Format of the command:
U,config 
Format of the response:
u \r\n
Effect:
Configure which US sensor is activated. Left=1, front left=2,
front=4, front right=8, right=16, all=31, none=0. They can
be combined by addition: for example, left+right => 17
Example:
U,31 
V
Get battery status
Format of the command:
V,argument 
Format of the response:
u \r\n
Effect:
Get the battery status where argument is:
0 : voltage in [mV]
1 : current in [mA]
2 : average current in [mA]
3 : absolute remaining capacity in [mAh]
4 : battery temperature in [C]
5 : relative remaining capacity in [%]
6 : whether the charger is plugged (1), or not (0)
7 : the status number of the battery controller DS2781
Example:
V,0 
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W
Unused
X
Binary read
Format of the command:
X 
Format of the response:
xBinary_data\r\n
Effect:
Read the sensors data in binary mode in 67 bytes:
1 byte ’x’ char, 24 bytes proximity sensor, 24 bytes
proximity ambient light sensor, 8 bytes motor speed, 8 bytes
motor position, 1 byte line feed (\n), 1 byte carriage return
(\r)
Y
Unused
Z
Microcontroller Reset
Format of the command:
Z 
Format of the response:
z\r\n
Effect:
This command allows resetting the robot microcontroller as it
was cycled On/Off
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7
EXTENSION CONNECTORS
The extension connectors of the Khepera IV are based on KB-250 and are
basically connected the same as for the KoreBot 2 board. KoreBot
extensions are compatible with Khepera IV, although the inverse is not
necessarily true.
Figure 19 : extension connectors
Signals types
NC
P
I
O
I/O
:
:
:
:
:
Not connected
Power
Input
Output
Input/Output
Please note that the three magnets have a total
force of adherence of about 2700g. Do not put your
watch too close of them.
Never plug a KoreBot (1, 2, LE) on these connectors.
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7.1
Pos.
1
3
5
7
9
11
13
15
17
19
21
23
25
27
29
31
33
35
37
39
41
43
45
47
49
J700 Pin-out
Type
P
P
NC
NC
O
NC
I
I/O
P
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
NC
P
I
P
P
Name
+3V3
Ground
Not Connected
Not Connected
COM1, TX (ttyS0)
Not Connected
Reset in, active low
USB device D+
USB device VBUS in
LCD bit 17
LCD bias
LCD LCLK
LCD bit 15
LCD bit 13
LCD bit 11
LCD bit 9
LCD bit 7
LCD bit 5
LCD bit 3
LCD bit 1
Not Connected
+5V
dsPIC MCLR, active low
Ground
Ground
Pos.
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32
34
36
38
40
42
44
46
48
50
Type
P
P
NC
NC
I
NC
O
I/O
I/O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
NC
P
NC
P
P
Name
+3V3
Ground
Not Connected
Not Connected
COM1, RX (ttyS0)
Not Connected
Reset out, active low
USB device DUSB device ID
LCD bit 16
LCD PCLK
LCD FCLK
LCD bit 14
LCD bit 12
LCD bit 10
LCD bit 8
LCD bit 6
LCD bit 4
LCD bit 2
LCD bit 0
Not Connected
+5V
Not Connected
Ground
Ground
Table 2 : J700 pin-out
7.2
Pos.
1
3
5
7
9
11
13
15
17
19
21
23
25
27
29
31
33
35
37
39
41
43
45
47
49
J701 Pin-out
Type
P
P
P
O
NC
NC
I
O
NC
NC
P
I/O
NC
I/O
O
NC
O
NC
NC
NC
I
P
NC
NC
P
Name
+3V3
+5V
Ground
COM3, TX (ttyS2)
Not Connected
Not Connected
Interrupt 2
I2C Serial clock
Not Connected
Not Connected
USH Host VBUS
USB Host D+
Not Connected
SPI MOSI
SPI Chip Select
Not Connected
PWM 1
Not Connected
Not Connected
Not Connected
dsPIC PGC
Battery out (after SW)
Not Connected
Not Connected
Ground
Pos.
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32
34
36
38
40
42
44
46
48
50
Type
P
P
P
NC
I
I
NC
I/O
NC
O
I/O
NC
I/O
O
NC
NC
O
NC
NC
NC
I
P
NC
NC
P
Name
+3V3
+5V
Ground
Not Connected
COM3, RX (ttyS2)
Interrupt 1
Not Connected
I2C Serial data
Not Connected
USB Host High cur. enable
USB Host DNot Connected
SPI MISO
SPI Clock
Not Connected
Not Connected
PWM 0
Not Connected
Not Connected
Not Connected
dsPIC PGD
Battery in (before charger)
Not Connected
Not Connected
Ground
Table 3 : J701 pin-out
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8
MECHANICAL DRAWINGS
Unit is [mm]
Figure 8.1 : Bottom view
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Figure 8.2 : Front view
Figure 8.3 : Top view
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9
ANNEXES
9.1
Using Bluetooth
The following explanation will be for the Bluetooth on Linux. For Windows
with Bluetooth, you can use Teraterm (http://ttssh2.sourceforge.jp) and
jump to 3)-5) then 8).
1) Install the Linux package lrzsz containing communications programs. If
your Linux distribution is Ubuntu:
sudo apt-get install lrzsz
2) On the Linux computer, run the emulation terminal Minicom:
sudo minicom
If Minicom is not installed you have to install this package. For Linux
Distribution “Ubuntu”, the command is:
sudo apt-get install minicom
Install blueman, a Bluetooth manager for Linux:
sudo apt-get install blueman
3) Switch the robot on.
4) Go to the Bluetooth configuration of your computer and search for a
new device (with blueman). The robot will appear as khepera4-ABCD,
where ABCD is the serial number. Pair the robot with the access key:
0000 (four zeros). With blueman, right click on the paired khepera4ABCD, choose "Connect to: Serial Port".
5) Run minicom with the command: sudo minicom -o
6) Set its parameters with the sub-menu “Serial port setup” of the menu
[configuration] (keys Ctrl-a + o) as described in Figure 9.1. Press
RETURN key to validate each time.
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+-------------------------------------------------------------+
| A Serial Device
: /dev/rfcomm0
|
| B - Lockfile Location
: /var/lock
|
| C Callin Program
:
|
| D - Callout Program
:
|
| E Bps/Par/Bits
: 115200 8N1
|
| F - Hardware Flow Control : No
|
| G - Software Flow Control : No
|
|
|
|
Change which setting?
|
+-------------------------------------------------------------+
Figure 9.1: Minicom serial parameters
7)
Save the settings with the command “Save setup as …” of the menu
[configuration] (cf Figure 9.2) and choose bluetooth. You will be able
to run again the program and load this configuration with:
sudo minicom –o bluetooth
+-----[configuration]------+
| Filenames and paths
|
| File transfer protocols |
| Serial port setup
|
| Modem and dialing
|
| Screen and keyboard
|
| Save setup as dfl
|
| Save setup as..
|
| Exit
|
+---------------------------+
Figure 9.2: Minicom configuration menu
8)
Push RETURN key and the prompt of the robot will be available
(Figure 9.3):
.-------.
|
|
.-.
|
|
|-----.-----.-----.| |
.----..-----.-----.
|
|
| __ | ---'| '--.| .-'|
|
|
|
|
| | |
|--- || --'| | | ' | | | |
'---'---'--'--'--. |-----''----''--' '-----'-'-'-'
-' |
'---'
The Angstrom Distribution khepera4 rfcomm0
Angstrom 2010.7-test-20130613 khepera4 rfcomm0
khepera4 login:
Figure 9.3: Robot prompt
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9)
Login to the robot with the following parameters:
Login
: root
Password
: (none, press “Return” key)
=> You are at the prompt of the robot’s Linux console.
9.1.1
To send a file to the robot (upload)

In the Minicom console, hold the keys “Ctrl + a” and press “s” and
select “Z-Modem”.

Select the file you would like to upload to the robot (navigate with the
arrows keys, 2x “spacebar” to change directory and “spacebar” to select
the file).
Select [Okay] to send it.
For Windows, on Teraterm, go to File / Transfer / Z-Modem / Send and
choose the file to send.
9.1.2
To send a file to the computer (download)
In the Minicom console at the prompt of the robot, type the following
command, where FILENAME is the file you would like to send.
lsz FILENAME
=> The file FILENAME is sent to the last directory Minicom used (or if not
changed, where it started).
For Windows, on Teraterm, go to the menu File / Change directory and
change the directory to receive the file to.
Then go to File / Transfer / Z-Modem / Receive to receive the file.
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9.2
Using WiFi
There are different ways described below for configuring the WiFi
network, depending on the given security.
You can transfer file with the scp command (see chapter 9.2.5). You can
have remote access to the robot with chapter 9.2.6.
9.2.1

IP without any encryption for security
Modify the file /etc/network/interfaces with your wireless network
settings:
YOUR_SSID_OF_NETWORK
your wireless network name
wlan2
iwconfig)
interface number (get it with command
/************ /etc/network/interfaces file **********/
.
.
.
auto wlan2
iface wlan2 inet dhcp
wireless_mode managed
wireless_essid YOUR_SSID_OF_NETWORK
.
.
.
/**********************************************/

Restart the network with the following command:
/etc/init.d/networking restart

You can get the IP with the command : ifconfig
9.2.2

Fixed IP without any encryption for security
Modify the file /etc/network/interfaces with your wireless network
settings:
YOUR_SSID_OF_NETWORK
the SSID of your wireless network
YOUR_IP_ADDRESS
the IP address you would like for the
robot
YOUR_NETMASK
the netmask of your wireless network
YOUR_GATEWAY_IP
the gateway of your wireless network
wlan2
interface number (get it with command
iwconfig)
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/************ /etc/network/interfaces file **********/
.
.
.
auto wlan2
#iface wlan2 inet dhcp
iface wlan2 inet static
wireless_mode managed
wireless_essid YOUR_SSID_OF_NETWORK
address YOUR_IP_ADDRESS
netmask YOUR_NETMASK
gateway YOUR_GATEWAY_IP
.
.
.
/**********************************************/
The 3 last following steps are optional but will get you Internet connection:

delete the link /etc/resolv.conf : rm /etc/resolv.conf

insert the local domain name in /etc/resolv.conf
echo search YOUR_LOCAL_DOMAIN_NAME >>/etc/resolv.conf

and the dns server
echo nameserver YOUR_DNSSERVER_IPADDRESS >>/etc/resolv.conf

Restart the network with the following command:
/etc/init.d/networking restart
9.2.3

WEP encryption support
for configuring the WiFi connection, type:
iwconfig wlan2 essid YOUR_SSID_OF_NETWORK

if the network is secured, enter the key by typing :
iwconfig wlan2 key YOUR_KEY

then set an IP address to the robot:
ifconfig wlan2 YOUR_IP_ADDRESS

configure the gateway by entering the gateway IP:
route add default gw YOUR_GATEWAY_IP wlan2

insert the local domain name in /etc/resolv.conf
echo search YOUR_LOCAL_DOMAIN_NAME >>etc/resolv.conf

and the DNS server
echo nameserver YOUR_DNSSERVER_IPADDRESS >>/etc/resolv.conf
You can also create a file in /etc/network/if-pre-up.d named ‘wireless’
to have these settings saved.
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Put the following into it:
#!/bin/sh
ifconfig wlan2 up
iwconfig wlan2 essid YOUR_SSID_OF_NETWORK
iwconfig wlan2 key s:YOUR_KEY
ifconfig wlan2 YOUR_IP_ADDRESS
route add default gw YOUR_GATEWAY_IP wlan2
And the following in a file named /etc/resolv.conf:
search YOUR_LOCAL_DOMAIN_NAME
nameserver YOUR_DNS_SERVER_IP_ADDRESS
Restart the network with the following command:
/etc/init.d/networking restart
9.2.4

WEP, WPA and other encryptions:
Create a file named /etc/wpa_supplicant/wpa_supplicant.conf and
insert your selected wireless encryption:
WEP:
#Shared WEP key connection (no WPA):
network={
ssid="YOUR_SSID"
key_mgmt=NONE
wep_key0="YOUR_WEP_KEY"
auth_alg=SHARED
wep_tx_keyidx=0
priority=5
}
WPA-TKIP:
#/etc/wpa_supplicant/wpa_supplicant.conf
#with WPA-PSK TKIT:
network={
ssid="YOUR_SSID"
psk="YOUR_PASS_KEY"
key_mgmt=WPA-PSK
group=TKIP
pairwise=TKIP
proto=WPA
priority=5
}
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You can check the following link for other encryptions:
http://hostap.epitest.fi/wpa_supplicant/

run the daemon controlling the wireless connection with the following
command (one line):
wpa_supplicant -c /etc/wpa_supplicant/wpa_supplicant.conf –
i wlan2 -Dwext -B

In /etc/network/if-pre-up.d named ‘wireless’, add the following
commands:
#!/bin/sh
ifconfig wlan2 up
ifconfig wlan2 YOUR_IP_ADDRESS
route add default gw YOUR_GATEWAY wlan2
wpa_supplicant -c /etc/wpa_supplicant/wpa_supplicant.conf -i
wlan2 -Dwext -B

reboot the system or restart the network with the following command:
/etc/init.d/networking restart
9.2.5
Transferring files using scp

Establish a network connection between the computer and the robot,
either with WiFi.

Execute the following command:
scp FILE [email protected]_IP:/home/root
where FILE
KHEPERA4_IP
: is the file to transfer,
: is the robot IP address.
Press the Return key when a password is asked.
On Windows, you can use WinSCP (http://www.winscp.net).
9.2.6
Remote access
You can have remote access to the robot console while using WiFi

Establish a connection between the robot and the computer with one of
the connections WiFi method described in the chapters above.

In a console of the computer, launch the ssh command, where
KHEPERA4_IP_ADDRESS is the network address of your robot:
ssh [email protected]_IP_ADDRESS

Accept the host authenticity by answering yes in pushing Return key.
=> [email protected]:~# appears; you are logged in.
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9.2.7
NFS configuration
The first service to set up should be transparent file sharing using NFS.
Most Linux distributions include NFS support by default, and the robot system
is ready to be connected. The directory to be shared between the computer
and the board must be declared to the NFS service in the /etc/exports
configuration file. Please refer to NFS documentation (or man exports) for a
detailed syntax description. Basically, the following line should be added to
the file /etc/exports on the computer:
/mnt/nfsarm KHEPERA4_IP/255.255.255.0(rw,no_root_squash,sync)
And make this folder on the computer:
mkdir /mnt/nfsarm
The next step is to mount the shared directory to the robot file system.
Mounting a local hard drive partition or a network directory is exactly the
same from the user point of view, the mount commands should be on the
robot, where COMPUTER_IP, is the IP address of the computer which the
robot will be connected:
mkdir /mnt/nfs
mount -t nfs -o nolock COMPUTER_IP:/mnt/nfsarm /mnt/nfs
If the NFS service is not started on the PC, the mount command will issue the
following message:
mount: RPC: Unable to receive; errno = Connection refused
NFS: mount program did not respond!
mount: nfsmount failed: Bad file descriptor
The NFS service is usually started using a startup script for which location
and name depend on you distribution (for example /etc/init.d/nfs).
Documentation for the distribution should detail the method to start and stop
services.
Caution: For the NFS service to work properly, the portmap service should be
started as well and if a firewall is active on the host machine, it should be
configured to allow the NFS port access from the robot.
Once the directory is successfully mounted, it can be accessed from the board
exactly as if it was a local directory. Files on the PC can be read or written,
new files can be created, and programs can be executed, as long as they are
ARM executables. If required, the shared directory can be unmounted using
the command:
umount myMountPoint
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9.3
Using the camera module
The driver of the camera (mt9v032.so) is loaded by default on start-
up.
9.3.1
Taking images
With the v4l2grab program, you can take snapshots pictures with the
camera:
v4l2grab –o image.jpg –W 752 –H 480 –q 85
where:
image.jpg is the output image file in JPEG format
752 is the width of the image in pixel (max)
480 is the height of the image in pixel (max)
85 is the quality jpg compression in %
9.3.2
Video streaming
There is a mjpeg streamer with web server installed by default on the
robot.

Firstly, set a network connection as explained in chapters 9.2.

Then launch the mjpeg streamer with the following command on the
robot (in one line command only):
mjpg_streamer -i "input_uvc.so –yuv –f 15" –o
"output_http.so -w /usr/local/mjpg-streamer/www"

On a computer connected to the same network, you can have access
to the video streaming at http://KHEPERA4_IP:8080/?action=stream,
where KHEPERA4_IP is the robot network address.
You can stop with the CTRL-c keys.
You
can
configure
the
web
server
in
the
folder /usr/local/mjpgfile /usr/local/mjpg-
streamer/www. Some help is available in the
streamer/www/README.
9.3.3
Programming Image processing
In the chapter “5.2.2.1 Application development“, you will find how to
modify and compile the example source code. Select the following example
for the camera, function of camera_example():
~/khepera4_development/lib_khepera-1.0/khepera4_test.c
Driver source code:
you can access to the driver if you installed the full
toolchain. The driver bitbake recipe is located in:
/usr/local/khepera4-oetools/user.collection/recipes/mt9v032-module
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It is useful if you would like to change the autoexposure, hdr, autogain or
low_light parameters. You can test with the right combination of these
parameters in unloading the driver and reloading it with these parameters
in argument; example:
rmmod mt9v032
modprobe mt9v032 hdr=1
After compiling the module with bitbake, copy the file to the robot and
install it. You need to remove the kernel module before:
opkg remove --force-depends kernel-module-mt9v032
opkg install mt9v032-module_1.0-r97.6_overo.ipk
9.3.4
Changing colors levels (whitebalance)
You need the full toolchain (chapter 5.3) to change the colors levels.
For testing, modify on your computer in file:
/usr/local/khepera4-oetools/tmp/work/overo-angstrom-linux-gnueabi/
linux-omap3-2.6.34-r97/git/drivers/media/video/isp/isppreview.c
The structure ispprev_rgbtorgb contains the RGB blending, especially the
parameters RR, GG and BB with the matrix equation linking input to output
colors:
static struct ispprev_rgbtorgb
flr_rgb2rgb = {
{
// RGB-RGB Matrix gains
{RR, RG, RB },
{GR, GG, GB },
{BR, BG, BB}
},
// RGB Offset
{Rof, Gof, Bof}
};
 Rout   RR f

 
 Gout    GR f
 B   BR
 out   f
C code
RG f
GG f
BG f
RB f
GB f
BB f
  Rin   Rof f
   
   Gin    Gof f
  B   Bof
f
  in  





Equation
These parameters are integer values. They are coded in fixed-point numbers:
S12Q8 for the 9 gains and S10Q0 for the 3 offsets.
For converting the gains for the array, multiply by 256 and round the value.
For the offsets, just round the value:
Example:
RRf = 0.8 GGf = 1.0 BBf = 1.5 Roff = 10.5
=>
RR = 205 GG = 256 BB = 384 Rof = 11
By default, all the parameters are zeros except RR= 256, GG = 314 and BB =
498, which is for an incandescent light source.
Then recompile the kernel:
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

Install
the
needed
program
sudo apt-get install boot-mkimage
uboot-mkimage
with
:
go to folder
/usr/local/khepera4-oetools/tmp/work/overo-angstromlinux-gnueabi/linux-omap3-2.6.34-r97/git/

add cross-compiler to path:
set PATH=$PATH :/usr/local/khepera4oetools/tmp/sysroots/i686-linux/usr/armv7a/bin

compile the kernel with the commands:
make clean
make -j8 ARCH=arm CROSS_COMPILE=arm-angstrom-linux-gnueabiuImage

in
/usr/local/khepera4-oetools/tmp/work/overo-angstrom-linuxgnueabi/linux-omap3-2.6.34-r97/git/arch/arm/boot/ you will have
the kernel file uImage . Use this file for the point 2) of chapter 0.
For future recompilations of the kernel and creations of the filesystem:
When you have found the right parameters, insert them in the existing patch
file:
/usr/local/khepera4-oetools/user.collection/recipes/linux/linuxomap3-2.6.34/overo/isppreview.patch
and rebuild the kernel and filesystem as explained in chapter 5.3.3.1.
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9.4
Using microphones and speakers
Playing:
You must switch ON the speakers with the commands:
echo 64 >/sys/class/gpio/export
echo out >/sys/class/gpio/gpio64/direction
echo 1 >/sys/class/gpio/gpio64/value
You can play PCM WAV files with aplay and the syntax:
aplay FILE.wav
and MPEG audio files with madplay and the syntax:
madplay FILENAME –o cdda:- | aplay –f cdr
You can then switch the speakers OFF with:
echo 0 >/sys/class/gpio/gpio64/value
echo 64 >/sys/class/gpio/unexport
Recording:
You can record PCM WAV with arecord and the syntax:
arecord –f cd FILENAME.wav
The –f cd parameter sets the recording in stereo mode in CD quality. See
with the command arecord –h for all the parameters and help.
Controlling volume:
You can modify the playback volume by launching the volume mixer with
the command:
alsamixer
You change channel with the keyboard left and right arrows and volume
with the up/down arrows. The channels are for speakers of the robot:
"Dac2 Analog" for standard control
"Dac2 Digital Coarse" for rough control
"Dac2 Fine Coarse" for fine control
You can change left and right with while a channel above is selected with:
Q and Z for left
W and X for both
E and C for right
And mute:
left with < key
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right with > key
Pushing h will get you more help.
For modifying the record volume, push the Tab key while in alsamixer.
You change channel with the keyboard left and right arrows and volume
with the up/down arrows. The channels are for the robot:
"Analog Left Main Mic" for mute settings of right micro*
"Analog Right Sub Mic" for mute settings of left micro*
*Micros left and right are inverted.
By default the record channels are muted. While a channel is selected,
pushing spacebar will toggle it.
You can change left and right while the "Analog" is selected with:
Q and Z for left
W and X for both
E and C for right
Programming playback and record:
In the chapter "5.2.2.1 Application development", you will find how to
modify and compile the examples source code. Select the following example
for the sound, function of test_sound():
~/khepera4_development/lib_khepera-1.0/khepera4_test.c
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9.5
Development with a virtual machine
You can install the development tools on a virtual machine if you don't
have access to a Linux machine.
You can even find a virtual machine image already configured with the
development tools on the DVD or there:
http://ftp.k-team.com/KheperaIV/software/virtual_machine/
-
for the light tools (~2.8 GB):
Ubuntu_LTS_Khepera4_light_tools.ova
 Download and install VirtualBox, version 4.3.8 or newer for your
computer from:
https://www.virtualbox.org/wiki/Downloads
If you choose a more recent version, you will have to reinstall the Guest
Additions after having imported the image; see VirtualBox user manual
(also, if you update Ubuntu, you will have to reinstall the Guest
Additions).
 Download and install also the VirtualBox 4.3.8 Oracle VM VirtualBox
Extension Pack from the webpage above.
 Import on of the image file above with "File" menu, "Import Appliance"
in the VirtualBox Manager.
This will take some time and hard disk space (~8 GB for the light
tools).

Create the directory C:\virtual_machine_shared on your computer. This
will be the shared directory for transferring data between the virtual
machine and your host computer. It corresponds to the directory
/media/sf_virtual_machine_shared of the virtual machine.

Start the virtual machine with your imported image:
Its login is:
username: user
password: root2014
 The development tools are already installed. The development folder
khepera4_development is in /home/user/khepera4_ development
 Eclipse development program is already installed and configured. You
can start to use it as described in chapter 5.2.2.2 from point 15.
 You may need to update the toolchain. Remove the older one and follow
instructions in chapter 5.2.1 or 5.3.2 depending if this is the light or full
toolchain.
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Stopping the virtual machine:
When going to the menu "Machine" and "Close, you will have 3 choices:
 "Save the machine state": saves the current state, which will be
reloaded next time you restart it.
 “Send the shutdown signal", or press the shutdown button into the
machine: power off the machine and save only the work done.
 "Power off the machine": WARNING: it doesn't save anything; any
work done will be discarded!
Serial port sharing:
You may configure your virtual machine to share the serial port to connect
to the robot (for using Bluetooth …).
 Power off your virtual machine.
 Select your machine image and press "Settings" button.
 Go to "Serial Ports" settings;
 On the tab "Port 1", enable the checkbox "Enable Serial Port" and
choose:
Port Number:
COM1 ( => this will be the Linux serial port
/dev/ttyS0)
Port Mode:
Host Device
Port/File Path:
COM1 if you have a standard serial port and using
COM1. Or adapt to your computer serial port or
Bluetooth emulated serial port.
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9.6
Using vi text file editor
You can use the installed vi text file editor to modify files directly on the
robot.
Launch it with: vi FILENAME
where FILENAME is the filename with path you would like to edit.
Here below are some of the basic commands:
i
enters in write mode for adding text. You will see
the I indicating this mode at the last line of the
console: I /tmp/essai 1/1 100%
a
enters in write mode for adding text. You will see
the I indicating this mode at the last line of the
console: I /tmp/essai 1/1 100%
ESC
to go back in command mode, push ESC key
x
delete character on cursor
dd
delete current line
arrow keys
move around text
ESC : set number to display line number
ESC : w q !
to save and quit
ESC : q !
to quit without saving
You will find more commands here:
http://www.tutorialspoint.com/unix/unix-vi-editor.htm
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10 WARRANTY
K-TEAM warrants that the Product is free from defects in materials and
workmanship and in conformity with the respective specifications of the
product for the minimum legal duration, respectively two years from the
date of delivery.
Upon discovery of a defect in materials, workmanship or failure to meet
the specifications in the Product during the aforementioned period,
Customer must request help on K-TEAM Internet forum on www.kteam.com/forum/ by detailing:
 The type of Product used (package, version).
 The expansion modules.
 The programming environment of the Product (standard,
version, OS).
 The standard use of Product before the appearance of the
problem.
 The description of the problem.
If no answers have been received within two working days, Customer
can contact K-TEAM support by phone or by electronic mail with the full
reference of its order and Product serial number.
K-TEAM shall then, at K-TEAM's sole discretion, either repair such
Product or replace it with the equivalent product without charging any
technical labour fee and repair parts cost to Customer, on the condition that
Customer brings such Product to K-TEAM within the period mentioned
before. In case of repair or replacement, K-TEAM may own all the parts
removed from the defective Product. K-TEAM may use new and/or
reconditioned parts made by various manufacturers in performing warranty
repairs and replacement of the Product. Even if K-TEAM repairs or replaces
the Product, its original warranty term is not extended.
This limited warranty is invalid if the factory-applied serial number has
been altered or removed from the Product.
This limited warranty covers only the hardware and software
components contained in the Product. It does not cover technical assistance
for hardware or software usage and it does not cover any software products
contained in the Product. K-TEAM excludes all warranties expressed or
implied in respect of any additional software provided with Product and any
such software is provided "AS IS" unless expressly provided for in any
enclosed software limited warranty. Please refer to the End User License
Agreements included with the Product for your rights with regard to the
licensor or supplier of the software parts of the Product and the parties'
respective obligations with respect to the software.
This limited warranty is non-transferable.
It is likely that the contents of Customer's flash memory will be lost or
reformatted in the course of the service and K-TEAM will not be responsible
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for any damage to or loss of any programs, data or other information stored
on any media or any part of the Product serviced hereunder or damage or
loss arising from the Product not being available for use before, during or
after the period of service provided or any indirect or consequential
damages resulting therefore.
IF DURING THE REPAIR OF THE PRODUCT THE CONTENTS OF THE
FLASH MEMORY ARE ALTERED, DELETED, OR IN ANY WAY MODIFIED, KTEAM IS NOT RESPONSIBLE WHATEVER. CUSTOMER'S PRODUCT WILL BE
RETURNED TO CUSTOMER CONFIGURED AS ORIGINALLY PURCHASED
(SUBJECT TO AVAILABILITY OF SOFTWARE).
Be sure to remove all third parties' hardware, software, features, parts,
options, alterations, and attachments not warranted by K-TEAM prior to
Product service. K-TEAM is not responsible for any loss or damage to these
items.
This warranty is limited as set out herein and does not cover, any
consumable items (such as batteries) supplied with the Product; any
accessory products which is not contained in the Product; cosmetic
damages; damage or loss to any software programs, data, or removable
storage media; or damage due to (1) acts of God, accident, misuse, abuse,
negligence, commercial use or modifications of the Product; (2) improper
operation or maintenance of the Product; (3) connection to improper
voltage supply; or (4) attempted repair by any party other than a K-TEAM
authorized robot service facility.
This limited warranty does not apply when the malfunction results from
the use of the Product in conjunction with any accessories, products or
ancillary or peripheral equipment, or where it is determined by K-Team that
there is no fault with the Product itself.
K-TEAM EXPRESSLY DISCLAIMS ALL OTHER WARRANTIES THAN
STATED HEREINBEFORE, EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING WITHOUT
LIMITATION IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS
FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE TO THE FULLEST EXTENT PERMITTED BY
LAW.
Limitation of Liability: IN NO EVENT SHALL EITHER PARTY BE LIABLE
TO THE OTHER FOR ANY INDIRECT, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL OR
CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES RESULTING FROM PERFORMANCE OR FAILURE
TO PERFORM UNDER THE CONTRACT, OR FROM THE FURNISHING,
PERFORMANCE OR USE OF ANY GOODS OR SERVICE SOLD OR PROVIDED
PURSUANT HERETO, WHETHER DUE TO A BREACH OF CONTRACT, BREACH
OF WARRANTY, NEGLIGENCE, OR OTHERWISE. SAVE THAT NOTHING
HEREIN SHALL LIMIT EITHER PARTY'S LIABILITY FOR DEATH OR PERSONAL
INJURY ARISING FROM ITS NEGLIGENCE, NEITHER PARTY SHALL HAVE ANY
LIABILITY TO THE OTHER FOR INDIRECT OR PUNITIVE DAMAGES OR FOR
ANY CLAIM BY ANY THIRD PARTY EXCEPT AS EXPRESSLY PROVIDED
HEREIN.
Khepera IV User Manual ver 1.1
81
K-Team S.A.
Z.I. Les Plans-Praz 28
1337 Vallorbe
Switzerland
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